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Sample records for mineral processing industries

  1. Natural radionuclide concentrations in processed materials from Thai mineral industries.

    PubMed

    Chanyotha, S; Kranrod, C; Chankow, N; Kritsananuwat, R; Sriploy, P; Pangza, K

    2012-11-01

    The naturally occurring radioactive materials (NORMs) distributed in products, by-products and waste produced from Thai mineral industries were investigated. Samples were analysed for radioactivity concentrations of two principal NORM isotopes: (226)Ra and (228)Ra. The enrichment of NORM was found to occur during the treatment process of some minerals. The highest activity of (226)Ra (7 × 10(7) Bq kg(-1)) was in the scale from tantalum processing. The radium concentration in the discarded by-product material from metal ore dressing was also enriched by 3-10 times. Phosphogypsum, a waste produced from the production of phosphate fertilisers, contained 700 times the level of (226)Ra concentration found in phosphate ore. Hence, these residues were also sources of exposure to workers and the public, which needed to be controlled.

  2. Life-Cycle environmental impact assessment of mineral industries

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Hisan Farjana, Shahjadi; Huda, Nazmul; Parvez Mahmud, M. A.

    2018-05-01

    Mining is the extraction and processing of valuable ferro and non-ferro metals and minerals to be further used in manufacturing industries. Valuable metals and minerals are extracted from the geological deposits and ores deep in the surface through complex manufacturing technologies. The extraction and processing of mining industries involve particle emission to air or water, toxicity to the environment, contamination of water resources, ozone layer depletion and most importantly decay of human health. Despite all these negative impacts towards sustainability, mining industries are working throughout the world to facilitate the employment sector, economy and technological growth. The five most important miners in the world are South Africa, Russia, Australia, Ukraine, Guinea. The mining industries contributes to their GDP significantly. However, the most important issue is making the mining world sustainable thus reducing the emissions. To address the environmental impacts caused by the mining sectors, this paper is going to analyse the environmental impacts caused by the 5 major minerals extraction processes, which are bauxite, ilmenite, iron ore, rutile and uranium by using the life-cycle impact assessment technologies. The analysis is done here using SimaPro software version 8.4 using ReCipe, CML and Australian indicator method.

  3. Industrial minerals of the Midcontinent: Proceedings of the Midcontinent industrial minerals workshop

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Bush, Alfred Lerner; Hayes, Timothy Scott; Bush, Alfred Lerner; Hayes, Timothy Scott

    1995-01-01

    The Midcontinent Industrial Minerals Workshop, in St. Louis, Missouri, September 16-17, 1991, was the fourth U.S. Geological Survey-sponsored meeting on the essential role of industrial rocks and minerals in the Nation's social and economic framework. The meeting was organized, supported, and the agenda was determined by a group from the USGS, the U.S. Bureau of Mines, and the State geological surveys of Arkansas, Illinois, Kansas, Kentucky, Missouri, Nebraska, and Oklahoma, with early assistance in planning from the Iowa and Tennessee surveys. As the major industrial rocks and minerals used in the nine-State area of the Midcontinent are construction materials, the Workshop focused on sand and gravel and limestone-dolomite resources and the extraction industry for those materials. Because active audience participation was considered vital, representatives from industry, universities, geological surveys, planning groups, regulatory agencies, and State legislatures were invited. The audience consisted of 87 attendees out of 120 invited participants (no legislators attended).

  4. Effects of Chinese mineral strategies on the U.S. minerals industry

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    McCartan, L.; Menzie, W.D.; Morse, D.E.; Papp, J.F.; Plunkert, P.A.; Tse, P.-K.

    2006-01-01

    For more than two decades now, China has been undergoing rapid economic growth and industrialization. The industrialization and urbanization of the once rural, farming nation is leading to increased consumption of mineral commodities to build infrastructure and to make into consumer goods. This increased consumption has led to higher mineral prices, lower stocks and, in some cases, temporary shortages of minerals. Chinese mineral producers and manufacturers are responding by building capacity, restructuring and modernizing industrial sectors and establishing international network that compete with those of the United States and other nations.

  5. Homogeneous sonophotolysis of food processing industry wastewater: Study of synergistic effects, mineralization and toxicity removal.

    PubMed

    Durán, A; Monteagudo, J M; Sanmartín, I; Gómez, P

    2013-03-01

    The mineralization of industrial wastewater coming from food industry using an emerging homogeneous sonophotolytic oxidation process was evaluated as an alternative to or a rapid pretreatment step for conventional anaerobic digestion with the aim of considerably reducing the total treatment time. At the selected operation conditions ([H(2)O(2)]=11,750ppm, pH=8, amplitude=50%, pulse length (cycles)=1), 60% of TOC is removed after 60min and 98% after 180min when treating an industrial effluent with 2114ppm of total organic carbon (TOC). This process removed completely the toxicity generated during storing or due to intermediate compounds. An important synergistic effect between sonolysis and photolysis (H(2)O(2)/UV) was observed. Thus the sonophotolysis (ultrasound/H(2)O(2)/UV) technique significantly increases TOC removal when compared with each individual process. Finally, a preliminary economical analysis confirms that the sono-photolysis with H(2)O(2) and pretreated water is a profitable system when compared with the same process without using ultrasound waves and with no pretreatment. Copyright © 2012 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  6. GHGRP Minerals Sector Industrial Profile

    EPA Pesticide Factsheets

    EPA's Greenhouse Gas Reporting Program periodically produces detailed profiles of the various industries that report under the program. The profiles available for download below contain detailed analyses for the Minerals industry.

  7. Clean Air Act Standards and Guidelines for Mineral Processing

    EPA Pesticide Factsheets

    This page contains the stationary sources of air pollution for the mineral processing industries, and their corresponding air pollution regulations. To learn more about the regulations for each industry, just click on the links below.

  8. Minerals yearbook: Mineral industries of Europe and central Eurasia. Volume 3. 1992 international review

    SciTech Connect

    Not Available

    1992-01-01

    Volume III, Minerals Yearbook -- International Review contains the latest available mineral data on more than 175 foreign countries and discusses the importance of minerals to the economies of these nations. Since the 1989 International Review, the volume has been presented as six reports. The report presents the Mineral Industries of Europe and Central Eurasia. The report incorporates location maps, industry structure tables, and an outlook section previously incorporated in the authors' Minerals Perspectives Series quinquennial regional books, which are being discontinued. This section of the Minerals Yearbook reviews the minerals industries of 45 countries: the 12 nations of themore » European Community (EC); 6 of the 7 nations of the European Free Trade Association (EFTA); Malta; the 11 Eastern European economies in transition (Albania, Bosnia and Hercegovina, Bulgaria, Croatia, Czechoslovakia, Hungary, Macedonia, Poland, Romania, Serbia and Montenegro, and Slovenia); and the countries of Central Eurasia (Armenia, Azerbaijan, Belarus, Estonia, Georgia, Kazakhstan, Kyrgystan, Latvia, Lithuania, Moldova, Russia, Tajikistan, Turkmenistan, Ukraine, and Uzbekistan).« less

  9. From Projectile Points to Microprocessors - The Influence of Some Industrial Minerals

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Driscoll, Rhonda

    2007-01-01

    In the language of economic geology, Earth materials are classified as metallic ores, fuel minerals, gemstones, and industrial minerals. Most people know that metallic ores yield shiny, conductive, ductile elements such as copper, iron, or gold. Most understand that energy-producing coals constitute a fuel mineral. Likewise, dazzling rubies and rare sapphires are universally recognized as gemstones. The fourth group, industrial minerals, is largely unknown to the general public, even though industrial minerals are as essential to daily life as metals and fuel minerals. This report examines the occurrence and practical uses of nine important industrial minerals - constituting just a few of the more than 50 industrial minerals that shape human culture.

  10. Worldwide Directory of Mineral Industries Education and Research.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Wohlbier, Herbert; And Others

    Presented is background knowlege of the institutions of the world involved in mineral industry education and research, including detailed information on the professional staff, research activities, and capabilities of the various mineral industry departments of these institutions. Also included is information on special interest within a…

  11. Garnet--An Essential Industrial Mineral and January's Birthstone

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Evans, James G.; Moyle, Phillip R.; Frank, David G.; Olson, Donald W.

    2006-01-01

    Garnet is one of the most common minerals in the world. Occurring in almost any color, it is most widely known for its beauty as a gem stone. Because of its hardness and other properties, garnet is also an essential industrial mineral used in abrasive products, non-slip surfaces, and filtration. To help manage our Nation's resources of such essential minerals, the U.S. Geological Survey (USGS) provides crucial data and scientific information to industry, policymakers, and the public.

  12. Development of industrial minerals in Colorado

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Arbogast, Belinda F.; Knepper, Daniel H.; Langer, William H.; Cappa, James A.; Keller, John W.; Widmann, Beth L.; Ellefsen, Karl J.; Klein, Terry L.; Lucius, Jeffrey E.; Dersch, John S.

    2011-01-01

    Technology and engineering have helped make mining safer and cleaner for both humans and the environment. Inevitably, mineral development entails costs as well as benefits. Developing a mine is an environmental, engineering, and planning challenge that must conform to many Federal, State, and local regulations. Community collaboration, creative design, and best management practices of sustainability and biodiversity can be positive indicators for the mining industry. A better understanding of aesthetics, culture, economics, geology, climate, vegetation and wildlife, topography, historical significance, and regional land planning is important in resolving land-use issues and managing mineral resources wisely. Ultimately, the consuming public makes choices about product use (including water, food, highways, housing, and thousands of other items) that influence operations of the mineral industry. Land planners, resource managers, earth scientists, designers, and public groups have a responsibility to consider sound scientific information, society's needs, and community appeals in making smart decisions concerning resource use and how complex landscapes should change. An effort to provide comprehensive geosciences data for land management agencies in central Colorado was undertaken in 2003 by scientists of the U.S. Geological Survey and the Colorado Geological Survey. This effort, the Central Colorado Assessment Project, addressed a variety of land-use issues: an understanding of the availability of industrial and metallic rocks and minerals, the geochemical and environmental effects of historic mining activity on surface water and groundwater, and the geologic controls on the availability and quality of groundwater. The USDA Forest Service and other land management agencies have the opportunity to contribute to the sustainable management of natural aggregate and other mineral resources through the identification and selective development of mineral resources and the

  13. An overview of the status of industrial minerals in the United States

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Barsotti, Aldo F.

    1999-01-01

    The production and consumption of industrial minerals in the United States traditionally have played important roles in mining and in the supply of the bulk of basic raw materials to the economy. This diverse group of minerals extracted and consumed by a variety of industries accounts, on a weight and volume basis, for most mineral-based products consumed in our economy. Industrial minerals form the bulk of the basic raw-materials feedstock for most of the construction, agricultural, and inorganic-chemical-manufacturing sectors, and a good portion of the transportation, manufacturing, organic chemical, and service sectors of the U.S. economy. In this presentation, I discuss current estimates of the amount and value of industrial minerals mined compared with all mining in 1997. I then present a summary of 1997 production of industrial minerals by several end-use industries. This is followed by a historical perspective of the consumption of industrial minerals as a subset of all basic materials, with special emphasis on the aggregates industry. The presentation concludes with a look at the geographic distribution of industrial operations in the United States and some thoughts about the future.

  14. Minerals Yearbook, volume I, Metals and Minerals

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    ,

    2018-01-01

    The U.S. Geological Survey (USGS) Minerals Yearbook discusses the performance of the worldwide minerals and materials industries and provides background information to assist in interpreting that performance. Content of the individual Minerals Yearbook volumes follows:Volume I, Metals and Minerals, contains chapters about virtually all metallic and industrial mineral commodities important to the U.S. economy. Chapters on survey methods, summary statistics for domestic nonfuel minerals, and trends in mining and quarrying in the metals and industrial mineral industries in the United States are also included.Volume II, Area Reports: Domestic, contains a chapter on the mineral industry of each of the 50 States and Puerto Rico and the Administered Islands. This volume also has chapters on survey methods and summary statistics of domestic nonfuel minerals.Volume III, Area Reports: International, is published as four separate reports. These regional reports contain the latest available minerals data on more than 180 foreign countries and discuss the importance of minerals to the economies of these nations and the United States. Each report begins with an overview of the region’s mineral industries during the year. It continues with individual country chapters that examine the mining, refining, processing, and use of minerals in each country of the region and how each country’s mineral industry relates to U.S. industry. Most chapters include production tables and industry structure tables, information about Government policies and programs that affect the country’s mineral industry, and an outlook section.The USGS continually strives to improve the value of its publications to users. Constructive comments and suggestions by readers of the Minerals Yearbook are welcomed.

  15. The contributions of human factors and ergonomics to a sustainable minerals industry.

    PubMed

    Horberry, Tim; Burgess-Limerick, Robin; Fuller, Ruth

    2013-01-01

    This article describes examples of the application of human factors research and development work to a sustainable minerals industry. It begins by outlining human-related aspects of the minerals industry and the key human factors work previously undertaken in this domain. The focus then switches to sustainability in the minerals industry. Sustainability principles are introduced and illustrations provided of how human factors research and development work fits within such a framework. Three case studies of human factors in the minerals industry research are presented and the sustainability implications in each case study are highlighted. Finally, future trends related to human factors work in a sustainable minerals industry are addressed, in particular the opportunities and possible adverse consequences that increasing deployment of mining automation might bring. Minerals industries are a major global activity with significant sustainability implications. Aspects of sustainability in mining are examined using three case studies. These illustrate the contribution of human factors/ergonomics in reducing risks; developing emergency response management systems; and the value of participatory ergonomics in improving the design of mining equipment.

  16. The review of recent carbonate minerals processing technology

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Solihin

    2018-02-01

    Carbonate is one of the groups of minerals that can be found in relatively large amount in the earth crust. The common carbonate minerals are calcium carbonate (calcite, aragonite, depending on its crystal structure), magnesium carbonate (magnesite), calcium-magnesium carbonate (dolomite), and barium carbonate (barite). A large amount of calcite can be found in many places in Indonesia such as Padalarang, Sukabumi, and Tasikmalaya (West Java Provence). Dolomite can be found in a large amount in Gresik, Lamongan, and Tuban (East Java Provence). Magnesite is quite rare in Indonesia, and up to the recent years it can only be found in Padamarang Island (South East Sulawesi Provence). The carbonate has been being exploited through open pit mining activity. Traditionally, calcite can be ground to produce material for brick production, be carved to produce craft product, or be roasted to produce lime for many applications such as raw materials for cement, flux for metal smelting, etc. Meanwhile, dolomite has traditionally been used as a raw material to make brick for local buildings and to make fertilizer for coconut oil plant. Carbonate minerals actually consist of important elements needed by modern application. Calcium is one of the elements needed in artificial bone formation, slow release fertilizer synthesis, dielectric material production, etc. Magnesium is an important material in automotive industry to produce the alloy for vehicle main parts. It is also used as alloying element in the production of special steel for special purpose. Magnesium oxide can be used to produce slow release fertilizer, catalyst and any other modern applications. The aim of this review article is to present in brief the recent technology in processing carbonate minerals. This review covers both the technology that has been industrially proven and the technology that is still in research and development stage. One of the industrially proven technologies to process carbonate mineral is

  17. Neo-Industrial and Sustainable Development of Russia as Mineral Resources Exploiting Country

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Prokudina, Marina; Zhironkina, Olga; Kalinina, Oksana; Gasanov, Magerram; Agafonov, Felix

    2017-11-01

    In the Russian economy, the world leadership in the extraction of different mineral resources is combined with the potential for their processing and a significant scientific sector. Innovative development of raw materials extraction is impossible without the parallel technological modernization of the high-tech sector. In general, the complex of these processes is a neo-industrialization of the economy. Neo-industrially oriented transformation of the economy reflects complex changes in its structure, the transformation of established stable relationships between various elements of the system of social production that determine macroeconomic proportions. Neo-industrial transformations come along with the modification of economic relations associated with investments, innovations, labor and income distribution, with the process of locating productive forces and regulating the economy by the government. Neo-industrialization of economy is not only significant changes in its technological and reproductive structure (the development of high-tech industries, the integration of science and industry), but, above all, the implementation of a system structural policy of innovative development of raw material industry and the recovery of manufacturing industries on a new technological basis.

  18. Modeling particulate matter emissions during mineral loading process under weak wind simulation.

    PubMed

    Zhang, Xiaochun; Chen, Weiping; Ma, Chun; Zhan, Shuifen

    2013-04-01

    The quantification of particulate matter emissions from mineral handling is an important problem for the quantification of global emissions on industrial sites. Mineral particulate matter emissions could adversely impact environmental quality in mining regions, transport regions, and even on a global scale. Mineral loading is an important process contributing to mineral particulate matter emissions, especially under weak wind conditions. Mathematical models are effective ways to evaluate particulate matter emissions during the mineral loading process. The currently used empirical models based on the form of a power function do not predict particulate matter emissions accurately under weak wind conditions. At low particulate matter emissions, the models overestimated, and at high particulate matter emissions, the models underestimated emission factors. We conducted wind tunnel experiments to evaluate the particulate matter emission factors for the mineral loading process. A new approach based on the mathematical form of a logistical function was developed and tested. It provided a realistic depiction of the particulate matter emissions during the mineral loading process, accounting for fractions of fine mineral particles, dropping height, and wind velocity. Copyright © 2013 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  19. Limestone - A Crucial and Versatile Industrial Mineral Commodity

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Bliss, James D.; Hayes, Timothy S.; Orris, Greta J.

    2008-01-01

    Limestone, as used by the minerals industry, is any rock composed mostly of calcium carbonate (CaCO3). Although limestone is common in many parts of the United States, it is critically absent from some. Limestone is used to produce Portland cement, as aggregate in concrete and asphalt, and in an enormous array of other products, making it a truly versatile commodity. Portland cement is essential to the building industry, but despite our Nation's abundance of limestone, there have been cement shortages in recent years. These have been caused in part by a need to find new areas suitable for quarrying operations. To help manage our Nation's resources of such essential mineral commodities, the U.S. Geological Survey (USGS) provides crucial data and scientific information to industry, policymakers, and the public.

  20. Progress in bioleaching: part B: applications of microbial processes by the minerals industries.

    PubMed

    Brierley, Corale L; Brierley, James A

    2013-09-01

    This review presents developments and applications in bioleaching and mineral biooxidation since publication of a previous mini review in 2003 (Olson et al. Appl Microbiol Biotechnol 63:249-257, 2003). There have been discoveries of newly identified acidophilic microorganisms that have unique characteristics for effective bioleaching of sulfidic ores and concentrates. Progress has been made in understanding and developing bioleaching of copper from primary copper sulfide minerals, chalcopyrite, covellite, and enargite. These developments point to low oxidation-reduction potential in concert with thermophilic bacteria and archaea as a potential key to the leaching of these minerals. On the commercial front, heap bioleaching of nickel has been commissioned, and the mineral biooxidation pretreatment of sulfidic-refractory gold concentrates is increasingly used on a global scale to enhance precious metal recovery. New and larger stirred-tank reactors have been constructed since the 2003 review article. One biooxidation-heap process for pretreatment of sulfidic-refractory gold ores was also commercialized. A novel reductive approach to bioleaching nickel laterite minerals has been proposed.

  1. Thermomagnetic identification of manganese and iron minerals present in soils and industrial dusts

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Wawer, Małgorzata; Rachwał, Marzena; Jabłońska, Mariola; Krzykawski, Tomasz; Magiera, Tadeusz

    2017-04-01

    Many industries (e.g. metallurgy, power, cement, and coking plants) constitute a sources of industrial dusts containing technogenic magnetic particles (TMP). TMP are mostly iron oxides with ferrimagnetic or antiferromagnetic properties, therefore their presence in dusts, soils and sediments can be easily detected by magnetic susceptibility measurements. TMP, thanks their specific mineral and magnetic properties, and well developed specific surface area, are characterized by a chemical affinity for some elements like heavy metals. The main objective of this study was identification of manganese and iron (hydro)oxides occurring in industrial dusts and soils being under their deposition for long time period. In principle, Mn and Fe (hydro)oxides present in these samples originate from high-temperature technological processes. Soils samples (collected from different soil horizons) taken from surroundings of power station, iron/steel and non-ferrous plants as well as metallurgical dusts and fly ashes from power stations were subjected to investigation. During the studies temperature dependent magnetic susceptibility measurements and X-ray powder diffraction analyses were applied. Thermomagnetic analyses (K-T) revealed differences between samples from particular industries, however an inflexion at 450-500°C of all curves was observed indicating a probable occurrence of maghemite- or titanomagnetite-like phases. The curves of TMP emitted by power plants have inflection at 580 °C indicating that magnetite was the main magnetic phase. In case of TMP originated from non-ferrous metal smelting additional curve deflection at 130 and 210 °C occurred relating to intermediate titanomagnetite or iron sulfides. X-ray diffraction proved the occurrence of magnetite and maghemite in almost all samples, especially connected with power industry and iron/steel metallurgy. Mineral analysis revealed that kind of industrial process influenced on the dominating mineral forms found in

  2. The geologic relationships of industrial mineral deposits and asbestos in the western united states

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    VanGosen, B.S.

    2009-01-01

    In recent years, U.S. regulatory agencies have placed emphasis on identifying and regulating asbestos dust exposures in the mining environment, with a particular focus upon industrial mineral deposits in which asbestos occurs as an accessory mineral. Because asbestos minerals form in specific geologic environments, only certain predictable types of industrial mineral deposits can potentially host asbestos mineralization. By applying a basic knowledge of asbestos geology, the costly and time consuming efforts of asbestos monitoring and analyses can be directed towards those mineral deposit types most likely to contain asbestos mineralogy, while saving efforts on the mineral deposits that are unlikely to contain asbestos. While the vast majority of industrial mineral deposits in the Western United States are asbestos-free, there are several types that can, in some instances, host asbestos mineralization, or be closely associated with it. These industrial mineral deposits include a few types of aggregate, dimension, and decorative stone, and some deposits of chromite-nickel, magnesite, nepheline syenite, olivine, rare earth elements, talc, vermiculite, and wollastonite.

  3. Tin-tungsten mineralizing processes in tungsten vein deposits: Panasqueira, Portugal

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Lecumberri-Sanchez, P.; Pinto, F.; Vieira, R.; Wälle, M.; Heinrich, C. A.

    2015-12-01

    Tungsten has a high heat resistance, density and hardness, which makes it widely applied in industry (e.g. steel, tungsten carbides). Tungsten deposits are typically magmatic-hydrothermal systems. Despite the economic significance of tungsten, there are no modern quantitative analytical studies of the fluids responsible for the formation of its highest-grade deposit type (tungsten vein deposits). Panasqueira (Portugal) is a tungsten vein deposit, one of the leading tungsten producers in Europe and one of the best geologically characterized tungsten vein deposits. In this study, compositions of the mineralizing fluids at Panasqueira have been determined through combination of detailed petrography, microthermometric measurements and LA-ICPMS analyses, and geochemical modeling has been used to determine the processes that lead to tungsten mineralization. We characterized the fluids related to the various mineralizing stages in the system: the oxide stage (tin and tungsten mineralization), the sulfide stage (chalcopyrite and sphalerite mineralization) and the carbonate stage. Thus, our results provide information on the properties of fluids related with specific paragenetic stages. Furthermore we used those fluid compositions in combination with host rock mineralogy and chemistry to evaluate which are the controlling factors in the mineralizing process. This study provides the first quantitative analytical data on fluid composition for tungsten vein deposits and evaluates the controlling mineralization processes helping to determine the mechanisms of formation of the Panasqueira tin-tungsten deposit and providing additional geochemical constraints on the local distribution of mineralization.

  4. Mineral Carbonation Potential of CO2 from Natural and Industrial-based Alkalinity Sources

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Wilcox, J.; Kirchofer, A.

    2014-12-01

    Mineral carbonation is a Carbon Capture and Storage (CSS) technology where gaseous CO2 is reacted with alkaline materials (such as silicate minerals and alkaline industrial wastes) and converted into stable and environmentally benign carbonate minerals (Metz et al., 2005). Here, we present a holistic, transparent life cycle assessment model of aqueous mineral carbonation built using a hybrid process model and economic input-output life cycle assessment approach. We compared the energy efficiency and the net CO2 storage potential of various mineral carbonation processes based on different feedstock material and process schemes on a consistent basis by determining the energy and material balance of each implementation (Kirchofer et al., 2011). In particular, we evaluated the net CO2 storage potential of aqueous mineral carbonation for serpentine, olivine, cement kiln dust, fly ash, and steel slag across a range of reaction conditions and process parameters. A preliminary systematic investigation of the tradeoffs inherent in mineral carbonation processes was conducted and guidelines for the optimization of the life-cycle energy efficiency are provided. The life-cycle assessment of aqueous mineral carbonation suggests that a variety of alkalinity sources and process configurations are capable of net CO2 reductions. The maximum carbonation efficiency, defined as mass percent of CO2 mitigated per CO2 input, was 83% for CKD at ambient temperature and pressure conditions. In order of decreasing efficiency, the maximum carbonation efficiencies for the other alkalinity sources investigated were: olivine, 66%; SS, 64%; FA, 36%; and serpentine, 13%. For natural alkalinity sources, availability is estimated based on U.S. production rates of a) lime (18 Mt/yr) or b) sand and gravel (760 Mt/yr) (USGS, 2011). The low estimate assumes the maximum sequestration efficiency of the alkalinity source obtained in the current work and the high estimate assumes a sequestration efficiency

  5. [Physical work capacity in coal miners and industrial workers].

    PubMed

    Benavides, R

    1992-10-01

    The aerobic work capacity of 220 coal miners aged 22 to 63 years with a high physical work load and 78 industrial workers aged 19 to 58 years with a relatively light work load was measured to observe if there was a relationship between the work load of these subjects and their aerobic work capacity. All the subjects were subjected to a medical examination, spirometry, chest x Rays and anthropometric measurements. Aerobic work capacity was indirectly estimated extrapolating pulse rates obtained al submaximal work loads in a bicycle ergometer to the calculated maximal cardiac frequency for age. Aerobic work capacity was not different between coal miners and industrial workers, either measured as absolute values (2.43 +/- 0.41 and 2.5 +/- 0.49 l/min respectively) or as relative values (43.2 +/- 6.9 and 43.4 +/- 8.2 ml/kg lean body mass respectively). These values decreased with age in the same proportion in both groups (0.24 l/min per decade). Lean body mass was significantly higher in industrial workers and decreased significantly with age only in coal miners. Considering published energy requirements for mine labors, none of the studied miners should work as digger and a high proportion of the other workers would be exposed to hazardous work loads to their health. The fact that over 50% of these subjects can efficiently fulfill their jobs may indicate that they have a high anaerobic work capacity. This hypothesis needs confirmation with future studies.

  6. Recent trends in the nonfuel minerals industry of Iran

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Hastorun, Sinan; Renaud, Karine M.; Lederer, Graham W.

    2016-07-11

    The U.S. Geological Survey estimated that Iran held globally significant reserves of feldspar (2d largest in the world), barite (5th largest), gypsum (5th largest), fluorspar (8th largest), and iron ore (10th largest). The Government of Iran claimed to also have significant reserves of chromium, copper, gold, manganese, phosphate rock, and zinc. In 2014, Iran was the second-leading producer of gypsum and the sixth-leading producer of barite, with 6.1 percent and 3.6 percent of world output, respectively. Iran was also the world’s 7th-leading producer of cement, feldspar, and fluorspar; 8th-leading producer of bentonite; 9th-leading producer of molybdenum; 11th-leading producer of iron ore; and 14th-leading producer of crude steel. The Government of Iran plans to quadruple the output of aluminum, copper cathode, direct-reduced iron, and iron ore pellets; triple that of crude steel and gold; and double that of cement, pig iron, and zinc by 2025. It also plans to double the contribution of mining and to quadruple that of mineral processing to the national economy in the next decade. In order to achieve these major goals, the construction and expansion of several mines and mineral facilities are planned or under development. Whether Iran’s annual mineral production increases as rapidly as envisioned by the Government will depend largely on the amount of foreign investment into the minerals industry; integration of modern technology into mineral facilities; and availability of energy to aluminum, copper, and steel plants at competitive prices to international investors.

  7. Phosphates (V) recovery from phosphorus mineral fertilizers industry wastewater by continuous struvite reaction crystallization process.

    PubMed

    Hutnik, Nina; Kozik, Anna; Mazienczuk, Agata; Piotrowski, Krzysztof; Wierzbowska, Boguslawa; Matynia, Andrzej

    2013-07-01

    Continuous DT MSMPR (Draft Tube Mixed Suspension Mixed Product Removal) crystallizer was provided with typical wastewater from phosphorus mineral fertilizers industry (pH < 4, 0.445 mass % of PO4(3-), inorganic impurities presence), dissolved substrates (magnesium and ammonium chlorides) and solution alkalising the environment of struvite MgNH4PO4·6H2O reaction crystallization process. Research ran in constant temperature 298 K assuming stoichiometric proportions of substrates or 20% excess of magnesium ions. Influence of pH (8.5-10) and mean residence time (900-3600 s) on product size distribution, its chemical composition, crystals shape, size-homogeneity and process kinetics was identified. Crystals of mean size ca. 25-37 μm and homogeneity CV 70-83% were produced. The largest crystals, of acceptable homogeneity, were produced using 20% excess of magnesium ions, pH 9 and mean residence time 3600 s. Under these conditions nucleation rate did not exceed 9 × 10(7) 1/(s m(3)) according to SIG (Size Independent Growth) MSMPR kinetic model. Linear crystal growth rate was 4.27 × 10(-9) m/s. Excess of magnesium ions influenced struvite reaction crystallization process yield advantageously. Concentration of phosphate(V) ions decreased from 0.445 to 9.2 × 10(-4) mass %. This can be regarded as a very good process result. In product crystals, besides main component - struvite, all impurities from wastewater were detected analytically. Copyright © 2013 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  8. Mineral Processing Sector

    EPA Pesticide Factsheets

    Find environmental regulatory and compliance information for the nonmetallic mineral processing sector (NAICS 327), including NESHAPs for asbestos and hazardous waste, and wastewater permit information.

  9. Mineral resource of the month: industrial sand and gravel

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Dolley, Thomas

    2007-01-01

    With many diverse uses, industrial sand and gravel, also known as silica sand, is one of the most important nonmetallic minerals in the world. Industrial sand and gravel is a mining industry term used for sands that have a very high percentage of silicon dioxide, or greater than 95 percent quartz. Deposits of industrial sand and gravel can be found virtually everywhere on Earth, but are less widespread than deposits of common construction sand and gravel. Industrial sand and gravel is distinctive in grain size, hardness, inertness and resistance to high temperature and chemical action. Beverage containers, fiberglass insulation, fiber-optic cables and light bulbs are just some of today’s many products produced from industrial sand and gravel.

  10. Atmospheric carbon mineralization in an industrial-scale chrysotile mining waste pile.

    PubMed

    Nowamooz, Ali; Dupuis, J Christian; Beaudoin, Georges; Molson, John; Lemieux, Jean-Michel; Horswill, Micha; Fortier, Richard; Larachi, Faïçal; Maldague, Xavier; Constantin, Marc; Duchesne, Josee; Therrien, René

    2018-06-12

    Magnesium rich minerals that are abundant in ultramafic mining waste have the potential to be used as a safe and permanent sequestration solution for carbon dioxide (CO2). Our understanding of thermo-hydro-chemical regimes that govern this reaction at an industrial scale, however, has remained an important challenge to its widespread implementation. Through a year-long monitoring experiment performed at a 110Mt chrysotile waste pile, we have documented the existence of two distinct thermo-hydro-chemical regimes that control the ingress of CO2 and the subsequent mineral carbonation of the waste. The experimental results are supported by coupled free-air/porous media numerical flow and transport model that provides insights into optimization strategies to increase the efficiency of mineral sequestration at an industrial-scale. Although functioning passively under less than optimal conditions compared to lab-scale experiments, the 110Mt Thetford Mines pile is nevertheless estimated to be sequestering up to 100 tonnes of CO2 per year, with a potential total carbon capture capacity under optimal conditions of 3 Mt. Yearly, over 100 Mt of ultramafic mine waste suitable for mineral carbonation are generated by the global mining industry. Our results show that this waste material could become a safe and permanent carbon sink for diffuse sources of CO2.

  11. Minerals Yearbook, volume II, Area Reports—Domestic

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    ,

    2018-01-01

    The U.S. Geological Survey (USGS) Minerals Yearbook discusses the performance of the worldwide minerals and materials industries and provides background information to assist in interpreting that performance. Content of the individual Minerals Yearbook volumes follows:Volume I, Metals and Minerals, contains chapters about virtually all metallic and industrial mineral commodities important to the U.S. economy. Chapters on survey methods, summary statistics for domestic nonfuel minerals, and trends in mining and quarrying in the metals and industrial mineral industries in the United States are also included.Volume II, Area Reports: Domestic, contains a chapter on the mineral industry of each of the 50 States and Puerto Rico and the Administered Islands. This volume also has chapters on survey methods and summary statistics of domestic nonfuel minerals.Volume III, Area Reports: International, is published as four separate reports. These regional reports contain the latest available minerals data on more than 180 foreign countries and discuss the importance of minerals to the economies of these nations and the United States. Each report begins with an overview of the region’s mineral industries during the year. It continues with individual country chapters that examine the mining, refining, processing, and use of minerals in each country of the region and how each country’s mineral industry relates to U.S. industry. Most chapters include production tables and industry structure tables, information about Government policies and programs that affect the country’s mineral industry, and an outlook section.The USGS continually strives to improve the value of its publications to users. Constructive comments and suggestions by readers of the Minerals Yearbook are welcomed.

  12. Minerals Yearbook, volume III, Area Reports—International

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    ,

    2018-01-01

    The U.S. Geological Survey (USGS) Minerals Yearbook discusses the performance of the worldwide minerals and materials industries and provides background information to assist in interpreting that performance. Content of the individual Minerals Yearbook volumes follows:Volume I, Metals and Minerals, contains chapters about virtually all metallic and industrial mineral commodities important to the U.S. economy. Chapters on survey methods, summary statistics for domestic nonfuel minerals, and trends in mining and quarrying in the metals and industrial mineral industries in the United States are also included.Volume II, Area Reports: Domestic, contains a chapter on the mineral industry of each of the 50 States and Puerto Rico and the Administered Islands. This volume also has chapters on survey methods and summary statistics of domestic nonfuel minerals.Volume III, Area Reports: International, is published as four separate reports. These regional reports contain the latest available minerals data on more than 180 foreign countries and discuss the importance of minerals to the economies of these nations and the United States. Each report begins with an overview of the region’s mineral industries during the year. It continues with individual country chapters that examine the mining, refining, processing, and use of minerals in each country of the region and how each country’s mineral industry relates to U.S. industry. Most chapters include production tables and industry structure tables, information about Government policies and programs that affect the country’s mineral industry, and an outlook section.The USGS continually strives to improve the value of its publications to users. Constructive comments and suggestions by readers of the Minerals Yearbook are welcomed.

  13. Ensuring the Environmental and Industrial Safety in Solid Mineral Deposit Surface Mining

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Trubetskoy, Kliment; Rylnikova, Marina; Esina, Ekaterina

    2017-11-01

    The growing environmental pressure of mineral deposit surface mining and severization of industrial safety requirements dictate the necessity of refining the regulatory framework governing safe and efficient development of underground resources. The applicable regulatory documentation governing the procedure of ore open-pit wall and bench stability design for the stage of pit reaching its final boundary was issued several decades ago. Over recent decades, mining and geomechanical conditions have changed significantly in surface mining operations, numerous new software packages and computer developments have appeared, opportunities of experimental methods of source data collection and processing, grounding of the permissible parameters of open pit walls have changed dramatically, and, thus, methods of risk assessment have been perfected [10-13]. IPKON RAS, with the support of the Federal Service for Environmental Supervision, assumed the role of the initiator of the project for the development of Federal norms and regulations of industrial safety "Rules for ensuring the stability of walls and benches of open pits, open-cast mines and spoil banks", which contribute to the improvement of economic efficiency and safety of mineral deposit surface mining and enhancement of the competitiveness of Russian mines at the international level that is very important in the current situation.

  14. Process for the physical segregation of minerals

    DOEpatents

    Yingling, Jon C.; Ganguli, Rajive

    2004-01-06

    With highly heterogeneous groups or streams of minerals, physical segregation using online quality measurements is an economically important first stage of the mineral beneficiation process. Segregation enables high quality fractions of the stream to bypass processing, such as cleaning operations, thereby reducing the associated costs and avoiding the yield losses inherent in any downstream separation process. The present invention includes various methods for reliably segregating a mineral stream into at least one fraction meeting desired quality specifications while at the same time maximizing yield of that fraction.

  15. A Mineral Processing Field Course

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Carmody, Maurice

    2014-01-01

    This article describes a field course in Cornwall looking at mineral processing with the focus on the chemistry involved. The course was split into two parts. The first looked at tin mining based around Penzance. This involved visiting mines, hunting for mineral samples, carrying out a stream survey and visiting the Camborne School of Mines…

  16. Delivering a National Process Design Unit with Industry Support

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Ibana, Don

    Supported by the Minerals Council of Australia (MCA) through the Minerals Tertiary Education Council (MTEC), three Australian universities-Curtin University, Murdoch University and the University of Queensland-have formed the Metallurgical Education Partnership (MEP) to jointly develop and deliver an engineering design capstone unit-Metallurgical Process and Plant Design-in their respective undergraduate programs in extractive metallurgy, in order to enhance the students' educational experience. A unique feature of the program is the close interaction of the students in all three universities and a significant involvement of industry professionals. Now in its sixth year, it is clear that this unit is achieving its objectives.

  17. The mineral industry of Ethiopia: present conditions and future prospects

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Assefa, Getaneh

    Despite a record of mineral activity that dates back to Biblical times and the occurrence of a wide variety of minerals, as well as continuing efforts to discover major ore deposits, Ethiopia's mineral resources ahve remained of minor importance in the world economy. Mineral production in the last 20 years, for example, forms less than 1% of the estimated GDP. Well known minerals andmineral products available in the country in commercial quantities are: gold, platinum, manganese ore, natural agas, clays and clay products, feldspars, gypsum and anhydrite, slat, lime, limestone, cement, sand, structural and crushed stones, marble, mineral water and pumice. There are also vast reserves of water and geothermal power. Recently discovered deposits (over the last 20 years), with major reserves that may attain an important role in mineral production in the future, include potash salts, copper ore and diatomites. Minerals which are known to occur in Ethiopia, but of which supplies are deficient, or which have not yet been proved to exist in economic quantities are: nickel, iron, chromium, mineral fuels (oil, coal and uranium), sulphur, asbesttos, mica, talc, barytes, fluorites, borates, soda-ash, phosphates, wolframite, abrasives (garnet), molybdenite and vanadium. Within the last few years there has been an increasing appreciation of the economic significance of a mineral industry and a definite attempt to foster it. Mineral ownership is vested in the state are cotnrolled by the MInistry of Mines, Energy and Water Resources. The law relating to foreign investment in mines is liberal. The plans for the future have to provide for detailed and intensive exploration of the country's mineral resources, manufacture and fabrication.

  18. CO2 mitigation potential of mineral carbonation with industrial alkalinity sources in the United States.

    PubMed

    Kirchofer, Abby; Becker, Austin; Brandt, Adam; Wilcox, Jennifer

    2013-07-02

    The availability of industrial alkalinity sources is investigated to determine their potential for the simultaneous capture and sequestration of CO2 from point-source emissions in the United States. Industrial alkalinity sources investigated include fly ash, cement kiln dust, and iron and steel slag. Their feasibility for mineral carbonation is determined by their relative abundance for CO2 reactivity and their proximity to point-source CO2 emissions. In addition, the available aggregate markets are investigated as possible sinks for mineral carbonation products. We show that in the U.S., industrial alkaline byproducts have the potential to mitigate approximately 7.6 Mt CO2/yr, of which 7.0 Mt CO2/yr are CO2 captured through mineral carbonation and 0.6 Mt CO2/yr are CO2 emissions avoided through reuse as synthetic aggregate (replacing sand and gravel). The emission reductions represent a small share (i.e., 0.1%) of total U.S. CO2 emissions; however, industrial byproducts may represent comparatively low-cost methods for the advancement of mineral carbonation technologies, which may be extended to more abundant yet expensive natural alkalinity sources.

  19. Treatment of industrial wastewater effluents using hydrodynamic cavitation and the advanced Fenton process.

    PubMed

    Chakinala, Anand G; Gogate, Parag R; Burgess, Arthur E; Bremner, David H

    2008-01-01

    For the first time, hydrodynamic cavitation induced by a liquid whistle reactor (LWR) has been used in conjunction with the advanced Fenton process (AFP) for the treatment of real industrial wastewater. Semi-batch experiments in the LWR were designed to investigate the performance of the process for two different industrial wastewater samples. The effect of various operating parameters such as pressure, H2O2 concentration and the initial concentration of industrial wastewater samples on the extent of mineralization as measured by total organic carbon (TOC) content have been studied with the aim of maximizing the extent of degradation. It has been observed that higher pressures, sequential addition of hydrogen peroxide at higher loadings and lower concentration of the effluent are more favourable for a rapid TOC mineralization. In general, the novel combination of hydrodynamic cavitation with AFP results in about 60-80% removal of TOC under optimized conditions depending on the type of industrial effluent samples. The combination described herein is most useful for treatment of bio-refractory materials where the diminution in toxicity can be achieved up to a certain level and then conventional biological oxidation can be employed for final treatment. The present work is the first to report the use of a hydrodynamic cavitation technique for real industrial wastewater treatment.

  20. A Crosswalk of Mineral Commodity End Uses and North American Industry Classification System (NAICS) codes

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Barry, James J.; Matos, Grecia R.; Menzie, W. David

    2015-09-14

    The links between the end uses of mineral commodities and the NAICS codes provide an instrument for analyzing the use of mineral commodities in the economy. The crosswalk is also a guide, highlighting those industrial sectors in the economy that rely heavily on mineral commodities. The distribution of mineral commodities across the economy is dynamic and does differ from year to year. This report reflects a snapshot of the state of the economy and mineral commodities in 2010.

  1. Emission inventory of primary air pollutants in 2010 from industrial processes in Turkey.

    PubMed

    Alyuz, Ummugulsum; Alp, Kadir

    2014-08-01

    The broad objective of this study was to develop CO2, PM, SOx, CO, NOx, VOC, NH3 and N2O emission inventory of organic and inorganic chemicals, mineral products, metallurgical, petroleum refining, wood products, food industries of Turkey for 2010 for both co]ntrolled and uncontrolled conditions. In this study, industries were investigated in 7 main categories and 53 sub-sectors and a representative number of pollutants per sub-sector were considered. Each industry was evaluated in terms of emitted emissions only from industrial processes, and fuel combustion activities were excluded (except cement industry). The study employed an approach designed in four stages; identification of key categories; activity data & emission factor search; emission factor analyzing; calculation of emissions. Emission factor analyzing required aggregate and firm analysis of sectors and sub-sectors and deeper insights into underlying specific production methods used in the industry to decide on the most representative emission factor. Industry specific abatement technologies were considered by using open-source documents and industry specific reports. Regarding results of this study, mineral industry and iron & steel industry were determined as important contributors of industrial emissions in Turkey in 2010. Respectively, organic chemicals, petroleum refining, and pulp & paper industries had serious contributions to Turkey's air pollutant emission inventory from industrial processes. The results showed that calculated CO2 emissions for year 2010 was 55,124,263 t, also other emissions were 48,853 t PM, 24,533 t SOx, 79,943 t NOx, 31,908 t VOC, 454 t NH3 and 2264 t N2O under controlled conditions. Copyright © 2014 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  2. A novel mineral flotation process using Thiobacillus ferrooxidans.

    PubMed

    Nagaoka, T; Ohmura, N; Saiki, H

    1999-08-01

    Oxidative leaching of metals by Thiobacillus ferrooxidans has proven useful in mineral processing. Here, we report on a new use for T. ferrooxidans, in which bacterial adhesion is used to remove pyrite from mixtures of sulfide minerals during flotation. Under control conditions, the floatabilities of five sulfide minerals tested (pyrite, chalcocite, molybdenite, millerite, and galena) ranged from 90 to 99%. Upon addition of T. ferrooxidans, the floatability of pyrite was significantly suppressed to less than 20%. In contrast, addition of the bacterium had little effect on the floatabilities of the other minerals, even when they were present in relatively large quantities: their floatabilities remained in the range of 81 to 98%. T. ferrooxidans thus appears to selectively suppress pyrite floatability. As a consequence, 77 to 95% of pyrite was removed from mineral mixtures while 72 to 100% of nonpyrite sulfide minerals was recovered. The suppression of pyrite floatability was caused by bacterial adhesion to pyrite surfaces. When normalized to the mineral surface area, the number of cells adhering to pyrite was significantly larger than the number adhering to other minerals. These results suggest that flotation with T. ferrooxidans may provide a novel approach to mineral processing in which the biological functions involved in cell adhesion play a key role in the separation of minerals.

  3. Conflict minerals from the Democratic Republic of the Congo: global tantalum processing plants, a critical part of the tantalum supply chain

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Papp, John F.

    2014-01-01

    Post-beneficiation processing plants (generally called smelters and refineries) for 3TG mineral ores and concentrates were identified by company and industry association representatives as being the link in the 3TG mineral supply chain through which these minerals can be traced to their source of origin (mine). The determination of the source of origin is critical to the development of a complete and transparent conflict-free mineral supply chain. Tungsten processing plants were the subject of the first fact sheet in this series published by USGS NMIC in August 2014. Background information about historical conditions and multinational stakeholders’ voluntary due diligence guidance for minerals from conflict-affected and high-risk areas is presented in the tungsten fact sheet. This fact sheet, the second in a series about 3TG minerals, focuses on the tantalum supply chain by listing selected processors that produced tantalum materials commercially worldwide during 2013–14. It does not provide any information regarding the sources of material processed in these facilities.

  4. Minerals Yearbook, volume III, Area Reports—International—Asia and the Pacific

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Geological Survey, U.S.

    2018-01-01

    The U.S. Geological Survey (USGS) Minerals Yearbook discusses the performance of the worldwide minerals and materials industries and provides background information to assist in interpreting that performance. Content of the individual Minerals Yearbook volumes follows:Volume I, Metals and Minerals, contains chapters about virtually all metallic and industrial mineral commodities important to the U.S. economy. Chapters on survey methods, summary statistics for domestic nonfuel minerals, and trends in mining and quarrying in the metals and industrial mineral industries in the United States are also included.Volume II, Area Reports: Domestic, contains a chapter on the mineral industry of each of the 50 States and Puerto Rico and the Administered Islands. This volume also has chapters on survey methods and summary statistics of domestic nonfuel minerals.Volume III, Area Reports: International, is published as four separate reports. These regional reports contain the latest available minerals data on more than 180 foreign countries and discuss the importance of minerals to the economies of these nations and the United States. Each report begins with an overview of the region’s mineral industries during the year. It continues with individual country chapters that examine the mining, refining, processing, and use of minerals in each country of the region and how each country’s mineral industry relates to U.S. industry. Most chapters include production tables and industry structure tables, information about Government policies and programs that affect the country’s mineral industry, and an outlook section.The USGS continually strives to improve the value of its publications to users. Constructive comments and suggestions by readers of the Minerals Yearbook are welcomed.

  5. Minerals Yearbook, volume III, Area Reports—International—Latin America and Canada

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    ,

    2018-01-01

    The U.S. Geological Survey (USGS) Minerals Yearbook discusses the performance of the worldwide minerals and materials industries and provides background information to assist in interpreting that performance. Content of the individual Minerals Yearbook volumes follows:Volume I, Metals and Minerals, contains chapters about virtually all metallic and industrial mineral commodities important to the U.S. economy. Chapters on survey methods, summary statistics for domestic nonfuel minerals, and trends in mining and quarrying in the metals and industrial mineral industries in the United States are also included.Volume II, Area Reports: Domestic, contains a chapter on the mineral industry of each of the 50 States and Puerto Rico and the Administered Islands. This volume also has chapters on survey methods and summary statistics of domestic nonfuel minerals.Volume III, Area Reports: International, is published as four separate reports. These regional reports contain the latest available minerals data on more than 180 foreign countries and discuss the importance of minerals to the economies of these nations and the United States. Each report begins with an overview of the region’s mineral industries during the year. It continues with individual country chapters that examine the mining, refining, processing, and use of minerals in each country of the region and how each country’s mineral industry relates to U.S. industry. Most chapters include production tables and industry structure tables, information about Government policies and programs that affect the country’s mineral industry, and an outlook section.The USGS continually strives to improve the value of its publications to users. Constructive comments and suggestions by readers of the Minerals Yearbook are welcomed.

  6. Minerals Yearbook, volume III, Area Reports—International—Europe and Central Eurasia

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Geological Survey, U.S.

    2018-01-01

    The U.S. Geological Survey (USGS) Minerals Yearbook discusses the performance of the worldwide minerals and materials industries and provides background information to assist in interpreting that performance. Content of the individual Minerals Yearbook volumes follows:Volume I, Metals and Minerals, contains chapters about virtually all metallic and industrial mineral commodities important to the U.S. economy. Chapters on survey methods, summary statistics for domestic nonfuel minerals, and trends in mining and quarrying in the metals and industrial mineral industries in the United States are also included.Volume II, Area Reports: Domestic, contains a chapter on the mineral industry of each of the 50 States and Puerto Rico and the Administered Islands. This volume also has chapters on survey methods and summary statistics of domestic nonfuel minerals.Volume III, Area Reports: International, is published as four separate reports. These regional reports contain the latest available minerals data on more than 180 foreign countries and discuss the importance of minerals to the economies of these nations and the United States. Each report begins with an overview of the region’s mineral industries during the year. It continues with individual country chapters that examine the mining, refining, processing, and use of minerals in each country of the region and how each country’s mineral industry relates to U.S. industry. Most chapters include production tables and industry structure tables, information about Government policies and programs that affect the country’s mineral industry, and an outlook section.The USGS continually strives to improve the value of its publications to users. Constructive comments and suggestions by readers of the Minerals Yearbook are welcomed.

  7. A Novel Mineral Flotation Process Using Thiobacillus ferrooxidans

    PubMed Central

    Nagaoka, Toru; Ohmura, Naoya; Saiki, Hiroshi

    1999-01-01

    Oxidative leaching of metals by Thiobacillus ferrooxidans has proven useful in mineral processing. Here, we report on a new use for T. ferrooxidans, in which bacterial adhesion is used to remove pyrite from mixtures of sulfide minerals during flotation. Under control conditions, the floatabilities of five sulfide minerals tested (pyrite, chalcocite, molybdenite, millerite, and galena) ranged from 90 to 99%. Upon addition of T. ferrooxidans, the floatability of pyrite was significantly suppressed to less than 20%. In contrast, addition of the bacterium had little effect on the floatabilities of the other minerals, even when they were present in relatively large quantities: their floatabilities remained in the range of 81 to 98%. T. ferrooxidans thus appears to selectively suppress pyrite floatability. As a consequence, 77 to 95% of pyrite was removed from mineral mixtures while 72 to 100% of nonpyrite sulfide minerals was recovered. The suppression of pyrite floatability was caused by bacterial adhesion to pyrite surfaces. When normalized to the mineral surface area, the number of cells adhering to pyrite was significantly larger than the number adhering to other minerals. These results suggest that flotation with T. ferrooxidans may provide a novel approach to mineral processing in which the biological functions involved in cell adhesion play a key role in the separation of minerals. PMID:10427053

  8. Conflict minerals from the Democratic Republic of the Congo—Tin processing plants, a critical part of the tin supply chain

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Anderson, Charles

    2015-03-24

    Post-beneficiation processing plants (generally called smelters and refineries) for 3TG mineral ores and concentrates were identified by company and industry association representatives as being a link in the 3TG mineral supply chain through which these minerals can be traced to their source of origin (mine). The determination of the source of origin is critical to the development of a complete and transparent conflict-free mineral supply chain. Tungsten processing plants were the subject of the first fact sheet in this series published by the USGS NMIC in August 2014. Background information about historical conditions and multinational stakeholders’ voluntary due diligence guidance for minerals from conflict-affected and high-risk areas was presented in the tungsten fact sheet. Tantalum processing plants were the subject of the second fact sheet in this series published by the USGS NMIC in December 2014. This fact sheet, the third in the series about 3TG minerals, focuses on the tin supply chain by listing selected processors that produced tin materials commercially worldwide during 2013–14. It does not provide any information regarding the sources of the material processed in these facilities.

  9. Minerals Yearbook, volume III, Area Reports—International—Africa and the Middle East

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    ,

    2018-01-01

    The U.S. Geological Survey (USGS) Minerals Yearbook discusses the performance of the worldwide minerals and materials industries and provides background information to assist in interpreting that performance. Content of the individual Minerals Yearbook volumes follows:Volume I, Metals and Minerals, contains chapters about virtually all metallic and industrial mineral commodities important to the U.S. economy. Chapters on survey methods, summary statistics for domestic nonfuel minerals, and trends in mining and quarrying in the metals and industrial mineral industries in the United States are also included.Volume II, Area Reports: Domestic, contains a chapter on the mineral industry of each of the 50 States and Puerto Rico and the Administered Islands. This volume also has chapters on survey methods and summary statistics of domestic nonfuel minerals.Volume III, Area Reports: International, is published as four separate reports. These regional reports contain the latest available minerals data on more than 180 foreign countries and discuss the importance of minerals to the economies of these nations and the United States. Each report begins with an overview of the region’s mineral industries during the year. It continues with individual country chapters that examine the mining, refining, processing, and use of minerals in each country of the region and how each country’s mineral industry relates to U.S. industry. Most chapters include production tables and industry structure tables, information about Government policies and programs that affect the country’s mineral industry, and an outlook section.The USGS continually strives to improve the value of its publications to users. Constructive comments and suggestions by readers of the Minerals Yearbook are welcomed.

  10. Advances in chemical and physical properties of electric arc furnace carbon steel slag by hot stage processing and mineral mixing.

    PubMed

    Liapis, Ioannis; Papayianni, Ioanna

    2015-01-01

    Slags are recognised as a highly efficient, cost effective tool in the metal processing industry, by minimising heat losses, reducing metal oxidation through contact with air, removing metal impurities and protecting refractories and graphite electrodes. When compared to natural aggregates for use in the construction industry, slags have higher specific weight that acts as an economic deterrent. A method of altering the specific weight of EAFC slag by hot stage processing and mineral mixing, during steel production is presented in this article. The method has minimal interference with the production process of steel, even by limited additions of appropriate minerals at high temperatures. Five minerals are examined, namely perlite, ladle furnace slag, bauxite, diatomite and olivine. Measurements of specific weight are accompanied by X-ray diffraction (XRD) and fluorescence (XRF) analysis and scanning electron microscopy spectral images. It is also shown how altering the chemical composition is expected to affect the furnace refractory lining. Additionally, the process has been repeated for the most suitable mix in gas furnace and physical properties (FI, SI, LA, PSV, AAV, volume stability) examined. Alteration of the specific weight can result in tailoring slag properties for specific applications in the construction sector. Copyright © 2014 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  11. Investigating Changes in Iron Solubility and Isotopic Composition of Mineral Dust and Industrial Ash during Simulated Atmospheric Processing

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Maters, E. C.; Flament, P.; de Jong, J.; Mattielli, N. D. C.; Deboudt, K.

    2017-12-01

    Iron (Fe) is a key element in ocean biogeochemistry and hence the carbon cycle. Its low concentration in seawater limits primary production in >30% of the surface ocean, and thus strong interest lies in constraining Fe inputs to the ocean on different spatial and temporal scales. During Earth's past, large fluctuations in atmospheric deposition fluxes of continental particles including mineral dust and volcanic ash to the ocean may have played a role in climate change events. At present, anthropogenic particles from metal working, biomass burning, and fossil fuel combustion are increasingly recognised to deliver Fe to the ocean as well. To assess the relative importance of these particulate Fe sources, knowledge of their deposition flux (overall dominated by natural dusts) and their Fe solubility (a proxy for Fe bioavailability, and typically higher in anthropogenic materials) is needed, although large uncertainties remain in these parameters. A potential tool for tracing atmospheric inputs to the ocean is the Fe isotope composition (δ56Fe), previously reported to be distinct for natural versus anthropogenic particles. However, it remains unknown if and how the δ56Fe is influenced by various physicochemical processes (e.g. acidification, photochemistry) shown to enhance Fe solubility in airborne particles. Iron isotopic fractionation has been observed during ligand-controlled and photo-reductive dissolution of goethite at low pH,[1] and similar effects may apply to more complex materials during atmospheric transport. Specifically, isotopic enrichment in partially dissolved particles may result from initial preferential release of 54Fe over 56Fe from the solid surface. To test these hypotheses, we subjected natural and anthropogenic specimens, including mineral dust from the Sahara desert and industrial ash from an Fe-Mn alloy factory, to simulated atmospheric processing in pH 2 solution in the presence/absence of oxalic acid and solar radiation. The Fe solubility

  12. Foundations for Excellence in the Chemical Process Industries. Voluntary Industry Standards for Chemical Process Industries Technical Workers.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Hofstader, Robert; Chapman, Kenneth

    This document discusses the Voluntary Industry Standards for Chemical Process Industries Technical Workers Project and issues of relevance to the education and employment of chemical laboratory technicians (CLTs) and process technicians (PTs). Section 1 consists of the following background information: overview of the chemical process industries,…

  13. Rock geochemistry related to mineralization processes in geothermal areas

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Kausar, A. Al; Indarto, S.; Setiawan, I.

    2018-02-01

    Abundant geothermal systems in Indonesia suggest high heat and mass transfer associated with recent or paleovolcanic arcs. In the active geothermal system, the upflow of mixed fluid between late stage hydrothermal and meteoric water might contain mass of minerals associated with epithermal mineralisation process as exemplified at Lihir gold mine in Papua New Guinea. In Indonesia, there is a lack of study related to the precious metals occurrence within active geothermal area. Therefore, in this paper, we investigate the possibility of mineralization process in active geothermal area of Guci, Central Java by using geochemical analysis. There are a lot of conducted geochemical analysis of water, soil and gas by mapping the temperature, pH, Hg and CO2 distribution, and estimating subsurface temperature based on geothermometry approach. Then we also apply rock geochemistry to find minerals that indicate the presence of mineralization. The result from selected geothermal area shows the presence of pyrite and chalcopyrite minerals on the laharic breccias at Kali Putih, Sudikampir. Mineralization is formed within host rock and the veins are associated with gold polymetallic mineralization.

  14. The Nonfuel Minerals Industry: Regulatory Impacts.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Hershaft, Alex; Lacy, William

    1980-01-01

    Presented is an assessment of the effects of environmental and health and safety regulations on costs, competitiveness, and viability relative to the nation's metal mining and processing industry. (RE)

  15. Maps showing industrial mineral resources of the Joplin 1 degree by 2 degrees Quadrangle, Kansas and Missouri

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Grisafe, David A.; Rueff, Ardel W.

    1991-01-01

    This map is part of a folio of maps of the Joplin 1° X 2° quadrangle, Kansas and Missouri prepared under the Conterminuous United States Mineral Assessment Program (CUSMAP). Other publications in this folio to date include U.S. Geological Survey Miscellaneous Field Studies Map MF-2125-A (Erickson and others, 1990). Additional maps showing various geologic aspects of the Joplin quadrangle will be published as U.S. Geological Survey Miscellaneous Field Studies Maps bearing this same serial number with different letter suffixes (MF-2125-C, -D, and so on). The industrial mineral resources of the Joplin 1° X 2° quadrangle are crushed stone, dimension stone, clay and shale, construction sand and gravel (including chat, or chert-rich tailings from metal mines), and asphaltic sandstone. At present only crushed stone, clay and shale, and construction sand and gravel are of economic importance; the remainder are considered hypothetical resources. The value of industrial mineral production during 1987, the most recent year of complete data as supplied by the U.S. Bureau of Mines, was nearly $25,600,000. In terms of finished products such as cement and brick, the value is several times that amount. Figure 1 shows the annual value of industrial mineral production within the quadrangle from 1960 through 1987.

  16. Promising Technologies of Mining and Processing of Solid Minerals

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Shabaev, Sergey; Ivanov, Seregey; Vakhianov, Evgeniy

    2017-11-01

    The continuing growth in mineral extraction entails an increase in industrial waste, which in turn has a negative impact on the environment. Rubber-tired vehicles, in which the tires wear colossally, is mainly used as a transport for loading, unloading, transportation and other types of work in the extraction of solid minerals. The used tires are not disposed in any way, but are stored in special areas where harmful toxic substances are emitted under the influence of ultraviolet rays. Therefore, a decision was made to find a method for utilization and rational use of industrial waste in the road construction sector. The operating temperature of composite rubber-bituminous binders based on rubber crumb from the used automobile tires is estimated in this paper, which is necessary for assigning technological parameters of production and laying of asphalt-concrete mixtures produced on their basis. It is established that composite rubber-bituminous binders based on rubber chips from the used automobile tires, produced according to the two-stage technology, have the same viscosity as the original petroleum bitumen, at a temperature increased by 20°C.

  17. A case in support of implementing innovative bio-processes in the metal mining industry.

    PubMed

    Sánchez-Andrea, Irene; Stams, Alfons J M; Weijma, Jan; Gonzalez Contreras, Paula; Dijkman, Henk; Rozendal, Rene A; Johnson, D Barrie

    2016-06-01

    The metal mining industry faces many large challenges in future years, among which is the increasing need to process low-grade ores as accessible higher grade ores become depleted. This is against a backdrop of increasing global demands for base and precious metals, and rare earth elements. Typically about 99% of solid material hauled to, and ground at, the land surface currently ends up as waste (rock dumps and mineral tailings). Exposure of these to air and water frequently leads to the formation of acidic, metal-contaminated run-off waters, referred to as acid mine drainage, which constitutes a severe threat to the environment. Formation of acid drainage is a natural phenomenon involving various species of lithotrophic (literally 'rock-eating') bacteria and archaea, which oxidize reduced forms of iron and/or sulfur. However, other microorganisms that reduce inorganic sulfur compounds can essentially reverse this process. These microorganisms can be applied on industrial scale to precipitate metals from industrial mineral leachates and acid mine drainage streams, resulting in a net improvement in metal recovery, while minimizing the amounts of leachable metals to the tailings storage dams. Here, we advocate that more extensive exploitation of microorganisms in metal mining operations could be an important way to green up the industry, reducing environmental risks and improving the efficiency and the economy of metal recovery. © FEMS 2016. All rights reserved. For permissions, please e-mail: journals.permissions@oup.com.

  18. Mineral-organic interfacial processes: potential roles in the origins of life.

    PubMed

    Cleaves, H James; Michalkova Scott, Andrea; Hill, Frances C; Leszczynski, Jerzy; Sahai, Nita; Hazen, Robert

    2012-08-21

    Life is believed to have originated on Earth ∼4.4-3.5 Ga ago, via processes in which organic compounds supplied by the environment self-organized, in some geochemical environmental niches, into systems capable of replication with hereditary mutation. This process is generally supposed to have occurred in an aqueous environment and, likely, in the presence of minerals. Mineral surfaces present rich opportunities for heterogeneous catalysis and concentration which may have significantly altered and directed the process of prebiotic organic complexification leading to life. We review here general concepts in prebiotic mineral-organic interfacial processes, as well as recent advances in the study of mineral surface-organic interactions of potential relevance to understanding the origin of life.

  19. Quantitative elemental analysis of an industrial mineral talc, using accelerator-based analytical technique

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Olabanji, S. O.; Ige, A. O.; Mazzoli, C.; Ceccato, D.; Ajayi, E. O. B.; De Poli, M.; Moschini, G.

    2005-10-01

    Accelerator-based technique of PIXE was employed for the determination of the elemental concentration of an industrial mineral, talc. Talc is a very versatile mineral in industries with several applications. Due to this, there is a need to know its constituents to ensure that the workers are not exposed to health risks. Besides, microscopic tests on some talc samples in Nigeria confirm that they fall within the BP British Pharmacopoeia standard for tablet formation. However, for these samples to become a local source of raw material for pharmaceutical grade talc, the precise elemental compositions should be established which is the focus of this work. Proton beam produced by the 2.5 MV AN 2000 Van de Graaff accelerator at INFN, LNL, Legnaro, Padova, Italy was used for the PIXE measurements. The results which show the concentration of different elements in the talc samples, their health implications and metabolic roles are presented and discussed.

  20. Industrial wastewater treatment with a bioelectrochemical process: assessment of depuration efficiency and energy production.

    PubMed

    Molognoni, Daniele; Chiarolla, Stefania; Cecconet, Daniele; Callegari, Arianna; Capodaglio, Andrea G

    2018-01-01

    Development of renewable energy sources, efficient industrial processes, energy/chemicals recovery from wastes are research issues that are quite contemporary. Bioelectrochemical processes represent an eco-innovative technology for energy and resources recovery from both domestic and industrial wastewaters. The current study was conducted to: (i) assess bioelectrochemical treatability of industrial (dairy) wastewater by microbial fuel cells (MFCs); (ii) determine the effects of the applied organic loading rate (OLR) on MFC performance; (iii) identify factors responsible for reactor energy recovery losses (i.e. overpotentials). For this purpose, an MFC was built and continuously operated for 72 days, during which the anodic chamber was fed with dairy wastewater and the cathodic chamber with an aerated mineral solution. The study demonstrated that industrial effluents from agrifood facilities can be treated by bioelectrochemical systems (BESs) with >85% (average) organic matter removal, recovering power at an observed maximum density of 27 W m -3 . Outcomes were better than in previous (shorter) analogous experiences, and demonstrate that this type of process could be successfully used for dairy wastewater with several advantages.

  1. Iowa State Mining and Mineral Resources Research Institute

    SciTech Connect

    Not Available

    1990-08-01

    This final report describes the activities of the Iowa State Mining and Mineral Resources Research Institute (ISMMRRI) at Iowa State University for the period July 1, 1989, to June 30, 1990. Activities include research in mining- and mineral-related areas, education and training of scientists and engineers in these fields, administration of the Institute, and cooperative interactions with industry, government agencies, and other research centers. During this period, ISMMRRI has supported research efforts to: (1) Investigate methods of leaching zinc from sphalerite-containing ores. (2) Study the geochemistry and geology of an Archean gold deposit and of a gold-telluride deposit. (3) Enchancemore » how-quality aggregates for use in construction. (4) Pre-clean coal by triboelectric charging in a fluidized-bed. (5) Characterize the crystal/grain alignment during processing of yttrium-barium-copper-perovskite (1-2-3) superconductors. (5) Study the fluid inclusion properties of a fluorite district. (6) Study the impacts of surface mining on community planning. (7) Assess the hydrophobicity of coal and pyrite for beneficiation. (8) Investigate the use of photoacoustic absorption spectroscopy for monitoring unburnt carbon in the exhaust gas from coal-fired boilers. The education and training program continued within the interdepartmental graduate minor in mineral resources includes courses in such areas as mining methods, mineral processing, industrial minerals, extractive metallurgy, coal science and technology, and reclamation of mined land. In addition, ISMMRRI hosted the 3rd International Conference on Processing and Utilization of High-Sulfur Coals in Ames, Iowa. The Institute continues to interact with industry in order to foster increased cooperation between academia and the mining and mineral community.« less

  2. The advances of Chinese non-ferrous metal mineral industry and its environmental management

    SciTech Connect

    Miao Zewei; Gao Lin; Zhou Xiaoyuan

    1998-12-31

    With the steady growth of Chinese economy, the nonferrous metal industry of China was also developed quickly. The gross output of ten main nonferrous metals 4.25 million tons in 1995 so that China ranks the fourth in the world. However, a series of environmental problems also occurred, which relate to characteristics of mineral resources, techniques for mining, dressing, smelting and processing, equipment and their management level. The major pollutants include sulphur dioxide, industrial powder-dust and smoke-dust, water containing heavy metal ions as well as solid wastes. Air, water body, soil, vegetation and people`s health were polluted and damaged to differentmore » extent due to the above pollutants. For the purpose of environmental management and pollution control, some measures must be taken: (1) to strengthen environmental planning, accelerate and perfect environmental laws and related regulations as well as spread the consciousness of environmental protection energetically; (2) to extend cleaner production and adopt advanced technologies so as to reduce environmental pollution; (3) to turn the concept of the end-of-pipe management to the whole-process control; (4) to recovery or reuse the wastes fully. In addition, general situation and policies on reclamation of mining land as well as theory, methods and techniques of restoration of waste land were also stated in the paper.« less

  3. Industrial process surveillance system

    DOEpatents

    Gross, Kenneth C.; Wegerich, Stephan W.; Singer, Ralph M.; Mott, Jack E.

    1998-01-01

    A system and method for monitoring an industrial process and/or industrial data source. The system includes generating time varying data from industrial data sources, processing the data to obtain time correlation of the data, determining the range of data, determining learned states of normal operation and using these states to generate expected values, comparing the expected values to current actual values to identify a current state of the process closest to a learned, normal state; generating a set of modeled data, and processing the modeled data to identify a data pattern and generating an alarm upon detecting a deviation from normalcy.

  4. Industrial Process Surveillance System

    DOEpatents

    Gross, Kenneth C.; Wegerich, Stephan W; Singer, Ralph M.; Mott, Jack E.

    2001-01-30

    A system and method for monitoring an industrial process and/or industrial data source. The system includes generating time varying data from industrial data sources, processing the data to obtain time correlation of the data, determining the range of data, determining learned states of normal operation and using these states to generate expected values, comparing the expected values to current actual values to identify a current state of the process closest to a learned, normal state; generating a set of modeled data, and processing the modeled data to identify a data pattern and generating an alarm upon detecting a deviation from normalcy.

  5. Industrial minerals and rocks: Present trends in exploration, exploitation and use

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Lüttig, Gred W.

    Today the industrial minerals and rocks are the most important mineral resource group as far as quantity goes and after the energy carriers the most significant as far as value goes. Their value is rising constantly and in their use there are possibilities for projects with low investment costs and quick cash flow. This is important for the developing countries in particular. Since it is partly a matter of near surface bulk raw materials; their use involves local conflicts with other utilization claims. It is necessary for the geoscience to work out suggestions for solutions to these conflicts, to simultaneously mobilize research and training capacities and in face of the present desperate situation to improve them so that a better contribution than is presently being made can be made by this professional field for the public welfare.

  6. Innovation processes in technologies for the processing of refractory mineral raw materials

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Chanturiya, V. A.

    2008-12-01

    Analysis of the grade of mineral resources of Russia and other countries shows that end products that are competitive in terms of both technological and environmental criteria in the world market can only be obtained by the development and implementation of progressive technologies based on the up-to-date achievements of fundamental sciences. The essence of modern innovation processes in technologies developed in Russia for the complex and comprehensive processing of refractory raw materials with a complex composition is ascertained. These processes include (i) radiometric methods of concentration of valuable components, (ii) high-energy methods of disintegration of highly dispersed mineral components, and (iii) electrochemical methods of water conditioning to obtain target products for solving specific technological problems.

  7. Industrial process surveillance system

    DOEpatents

    Gross, K.C.; Wegerich, S.W.; Singer, R.M.; Mott, J.E.

    1998-06-09

    A system and method are disclosed for monitoring an industrial process and/or industrial data source. The system includes generating time varying data from industrial data sources, processing the data to obtain time correlation of the data, determining the range of data, determining learned states of normal operation and using these states to generate expected values, comparing the expected values to current actual values to identify a current state of the process closest to a learned, normal state; generating a set of modeled data, and processing the modeled data to identify a data pattern and generating an alarm upon detecting a deviation from normalcy. 96 figs.

  8. A comparative analysis of selected wastewater pretreatment processes in food industry

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Jaszczyszyn, Katarzyna; Góra, Wojciech; Dymaczewski, Zbysław; Borowiak, Robert

    2018-02-01

    The article presents a comparative analysis of the classical coagulation with the iron sulphate and adsorption on bentonite for the pretreatment of wastewater in the food industry. As a result of the studies, chemical oxygen demand (COD) and total nitrogen (TN) reduction were found to be comparable in both technologies, and a 29% higher total phosphorus removal efficiency by the coagulation was observed. After the coagulation and adsorption processes, a significant difference between mineral and organic fraction in the sludge was found (49% and 51% for bentonite and 28% and 72% for iron sulphate, respectively).

  9. Numerical modeling of mineral dissolution - precipitation kinetics integrating interfacial processes

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Azaroual, M. M.

    2016-12-01

    The mechanisms of mineral dissolution/precipitation are complex and interdependent. Within a same rock, the geochemical modelling may have to manage kinetic reactions with high ratios between the most reactive minerals (i.e., carbonates, sulfate salts, etc.) and less reactive minerals (i.e., silica, alumino-silicates, etc.). These ratios (higher than 10+6) induce numerical instabilities for calculating mass and energy transfers between minerals and aqueous phases at the appropriate scales of time and space. The current scientific debate includes: i) changes (or not) of the mineral reactive surface with the progress of the dissolution/precipitation reactions; ii) energy jumps (discontinuity) in the thermodynamic affinity function of some dissolution/precipitation reactions and iii) integration of processes at the "mineral - aqueous solution" interfaces for alumino-silicates, silica and carbonates. In recent works dealing with the specific case of amorphous silica, measurements were performed on nano-metric cross-sections indicating the presence of surface layer between the bulk solution and the mineral. This thin layer is composed by amorphous silica and hydrated silica "permeable" to the transfer of water and ionic chemical constituents. The boundary/interface between the initial mineral and the silica layer is characterized by a high concentration jump of chemical products at the nanoscale and some specific interfacial dissolution/precipitation processes.In this study, the results of numerical simulations dealing with different mechanisms of silicate and carbonate dissolution/precipitation reactions and integrating interfacial processes will be discussed. The application of this approach to silica precipitation is based on laboratory experiments and it highlights the significant role of the "titration" surface induced by surface complexation reactions in the determination of the kinetics of precipitation.

  10. U.S. Geological Survey mineral databases; MRDS and MAS/MILS

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    McFaul, E.J.; Mason, G.T.; Ferguson, W.B.; Lipin, B.R.

    2000-01-01

    These two CD-ROM's contain the latest version of the Mineral Resources Data System (MRDS) database and the Minerals Availability System/Minerals Industry Location System (MAS/MILS) database for coverage of North America and the world outside North America. The records in the MRDS database each contain almost 200 data fields describing metallic and nonmetallic mineral resources, deposits, and commodities. The records in the MAS/MILS database each contain almost 100 data fields describing mines and mineral processing plans.

  11. 15 years of monitoring occupational exposure to respirable dust and quartz within the European industrial minerals sector.

    PubMed

    Zilaout, Hicham; Vlaanderen, Jelle; Houba, Remko; Kromhout, Hans

    2017-07-01

    In 2000, a prospective Dust Monitoring Program (DMP) was started in which measurements of worker's exposure to respirable dust and quartz are collected in member companies from the European Industrial Minerals Association (IMA-Europe). After 15 years, the resulting IMA-DMP database allows a detailed overview of exposure levels of respirable dust and quartz over time within this industrial sector. Our aim is to describe the IMA-DMP and the current state of the corresponding database which due to continuation of the IMA-DMP is still growing. The future use of the database will also be highlighted including its utility for the industrial minerals producing sector. Exposure data are being obtained following a common protocol including a standardized sampling strategy, standardized sampling and analytical methods and a data management system. Following strict quality control procedures, exposure data are consequently added to a central database. The data comprises personal exposure measurements including auxiliary information on work and other conditions during sampling. Currently, the IMA-DMP database consists of almost 28,000 personal measurements which have been performed from 2000 until 2015 representing 29 half-yearly sampling campaigns. The exposure data have been collected from 160 different worksites owned by 35 industrial mineral companies and comes from 23 European countries and approximately 5000 workers. The IMA-DMP database provides the European minerals sector with reliable data regarding worker personal exposures to respirable dust and quartz. The database can be used as a powerful tool to address outstanding scientific issues on long-term exposure trends and exposure variability, and importantly, as a surveillance tool to evaluate exposure control measures. The database will be valuable for future epidemiological studies on respiratory health effects and will allow for estimation of quantitative exposure response relationships. Copyright © 2017 The

  12. Conflict minerals from the Democratic Republic of the Congo: global tungsten processing plants, a critical part of the tungsten supply chain

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Bermúdez-Lugo, Omayra

    2014-01-01

    The U.S. Geological Survey (USGS) analyzes supply chains to identify and define major components of mineral and material flows from ore extraction, through intermediate forms, to a final product. Two major reasons necessitate these analyses: (1) to identify risks associated with the supply of critical and strategic minerals to the United States and (2) to provide greater supply chain transparency so that policymakers have the information necessary to ensure domestic legislation compliance. This fact sheet focuses on the latter. The USGS National Minerals Information Center has been asked by governmental and non-governmental organizations to provide information on tin, tantalum, tungsten, and gold (collectively known as “3TG minerals”) processing facilities worldwide in response to U.S. legislation aimed at removing the link between the trade in these minerals and civil unrest in the Democratic Republic of the Congo. Post beneficiation processing plants (smelters and refineries) of 3TG mineral ores and concentrates were identified by company and industry association representatives as being the link in the 3TG mineral supply chain through which these minerals can be traced to their source of origin (mine); determining the point of origin is critical to establishing a transparent conflict mineral supply chain. This fact sheet, the first in a series of 3TG mineral fact sheets, focuses on the tungsten supply chain by listing plants that consume tungsten concentrates to produce ammonium paratungstate and ferrotungsten worldwide.

  13. Wollastonite : a versatile industrial mineral

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    ,

    2001-01-01

    Wollastonite is a chemically simple mineral named in honor of English mineralogist and chemist Sir W.H. Wollaston (1766–1828). It is composed of calcium (Ca) and silicon and oxygen (SiO2, silica) with the chemical formula CaSiO3. Although much wollastonite is relatively pure CaSiO3, it can contain some iron, magnesium, manganese, aluminum, potassium, sodium, or strontium substituting for calcium in the mineral structure. Pure wollastonite is bright white; the type and amount of impurities can produce gray, cream, brown, palegreen, or red colors.

  14. The ultimate mineral processing challenge: Recovery of rare earths, phosphorus and uranium from Florida phosphatic clay

    DOE PAGES

    Zhang, Patrick; Liang, Haijun; Jin, Zhen; ...

    2017-11-01

    We report phosphate beneficiation in Florida generates more than one tonne of phosphatic clay, or slime, per tonne of phosphate rock produced. Since the start of the practice of large-scale washing and desliming for phosphate beneficiation, more than 2 Gt of slime has accumulated, containing approximately 600 Mt of phosphate rock, 600 kt of rare earth elements (REEs) and 80 million kilograms of uranium. The recovery of these valuable elements from the phosphatic clay is one of the most challenging endeavors in mineral processing, because the clay is extremely dilute, with an average solids concentration of 3 percent, and finemore » in size, with more than 50 percent having particle size smaller than 2 μm, and it contains nearly 50 percent clay minerals as well as large amounts of magnesium, iron and aluminum. With industry support and under funding from the Critical Materials Institute, the Florida Industrial and Phosphate Research Institute in conjunction with the Oak Ridge National Laboratory undertook the task to recover phosphorus, rare earths and uranium from Florida phosphatic clay. This paper presents the results from the preliminary testing of two approaches. The first approach involves three-stage cycloning using cyclones with diameters of 12.4 cm (5 in.), 5.08 cm (2 in.) and 2.54 cm (1 in.), respectively, to remove clay minerals followed by flotation and leaching. The second approach is a two-step leaching process. In the first step, selective leaching was conducted to remove magnesium, thus allowing the production of phosphoric acid suitable for the manufacture of diammonium phosphate (DAP) in the second leaching step. The results showed that multistage cycloning with small cyclones is necessary to remove clay minerals. Finally, selective leaching at about pH 3.2 using sulfuric acid was found to be effective for removing more than 80 percent of magnesium from the feed with minimal loss of phosphorus.« less

  15. The ultimate mineral processing challenge: Recovery of rare earths, phosphorus and uranium from Florida phosphatic clay

    SciTech Connect

    Zhang, Patrick; Liang, Haijun; Jin, Zhen

    We report phosphate beneficiation in Florida generates more than one tonne of phosphatic clay, or slime, per tonne of phosphate rock produced. Since the start of the practice of large-scale washing and desliming for phosphate beneficiation, more than 2 Gt of slime has accumulated, containing approximately 600 Mt of phosphate rock, 600 kt of rare earth elements (REEs) and 80 million kilograms of uranium. The recovery of these valuable elements from the phosphatic clay is one of the most challenging endeavors in mineral processing, because the clay is extremely dilute, with an average solids concentration of 3 percent, and finemore » in size, with more than 50 percent having particle size smaller than 2 μm, and it contains nearly 50 percent clay minerals as well as large amounts of magnesium, iron and aluminum. With industry support and under funding from the Critical Materials Institute, the Florida Industrial and Phosphate Research Institute in conjunction with the Oak Ridge National Laboratory undertook the task to recover phosphorus, rare earths and uranium from Florida phosphatic clay. This paper presents the results from the preliminary testing of two approaches. The first approach involves three-stage cycloning using cyclones with diameters of 12.4 cm (5 in.), 5.08 cm (2 in.) and 2.54 cm (1 in.), respectively, to remove clay minerals followed by flotation and leaching. The second approach is a two-step leaching process. In the first step, selective leaching was conducted to remove magnesium, thus allowing the production of phosphoric acid suitable for the manufacture of diammonium phosphate (DAP) in the second leaching step. The results showed that multistage cycloning with small cyclones is necessary to remove clay minerals. Finally, selective leaching at about pH 3.2 using sulfuric acid was found to be effective for removing more than 80 percent of magnesium from the feed with minimal loss of phosphorus.« less

  16. The mineral economy of Brazil--Economia mineral do Brasil

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Gurmendi, Alfredo C.; Barboza, Frederico Lopes; Thorman, Charles H.

    1999-01-01

    This study depicts the Brazilian government structure, mineral legislation and investment policy, taxation, foreign investment policies, environmental laws and regulations, and conditions in which the mineral industry operates. The report underlines Brazil's large and diversified mineral endowment. A total of 37 mineral commodities, or groups of closely related commodities, is discussed. An overview of the geologic setting of the major mineral deposits is presented. This report is presented in English and Portuguese in pdf format.

  17. Mineral commodity summaries 2017

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Ober, Joyce A.

    2017-01-31

    This report is the earliest Government publication to furnish estimates covering 2016 nonfuel mineral industry data. Data sheets contain information on the domestic industry structure, Government programs, tariffs, and 5-year salient statistics for more than 90 individual minerals and materials.

  18. Detection of fire protection and mineral glasses in industrial recycling using Raman mapping spectroscopy

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    De Biasio, Martin; Arnold, Thomas; McGunnigle, Gerald; Kraft, Martin; Leitner, Raimund; Balthasar, Dirk; Rehrmann, Volker

    2011-06-01

    Recycling of glass requires the removal of specialist glasses, such as fireproof and mineral glasses, and glass ceramics, which are regarded as contaminants. The sorting must take place before melting for efficient glass recycling. Here, we demonstrate the feasibility of a real-time Raman mapping system for detecting and discriminating a range of industrially relevant glass contaminants in recovered glass streams. The components used are suitable for industrial conditions and the chemometric model is robust against imaging geometry and excitation intensity. The proposed approach is a novel alternative to established glass sorting sensors.

  19. Native Language Processing using Exegy Text Miner

    SciTech Connect

    Compton, J

    2007-10-18

    Lawrence Livermore National Laboratory's New Architectures Testbed recently evaluated Exegy's Text Miner appliance to assess its applicability to high-performance, automated native language analysis. The evaluation was performed with support from the Computing Applications and Research Department in close collaboration with Global Security programs, and institutional activities in native language analysis. The Exegy Text Miner is a special-purpose device for detecting and flagging user-supplied patterns of characters, whether in streaming text or in collections of documents at very high rates. Patterns may consist of simple lists of words or complex expressions with sub-patterns linked by logical operators. These searches are accomplishedmore » through a combination of specialized hardware (i.e., one or more field-programmable gates arrays in addition to general-purpose processors) and proprietary software that exploits these individual components in an optimal manner (through parallelism and pipelining). For this application the Text Miner has performed accurately and reproducibly at high speeds approaching those documented by Exegy in its technical specifications. The Exegy Text Miner is primarily intended for the single-byte ASCII characters used in English, but at a technical level its capabilities are language-neutral and can be applied to multi-byte character sets such as those found in Arabic and Chinese. The system is used for searching databases or tracking streaming text with respect to one or more lexicons. In a real operational environment it is likely that data would need to be processed separately for each lexicon or search technique. However, the searches would be so fast that multiple passes should not be considered as a limitation a priori. Indeed, it is conceivable that large databases could be searched as often as necessary if new queries were deemed worthwhile. This project is concerned with evaluating the Exegy Text Miner installed in the New

  20. 77 FR 37704 - Agency Information Collection Activities: Comment Request for the Industrial Minerals Surveys (40...

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2012-06-22

    ... DEPARTMENT OF THE INTERIOR Geological Survey [USGS-GX12LR000F60100] Agency Information Collection Activities: Comment Request for the Industrial Minerals Surveys (40 Forms) AGENCY: U.S. Geological Survey... your comments to Shari Baloch, Information Collection Clearance Officer, U.S. Geological Survey, 12201...

  1. Coupling process study of lipid production and mercury bioremediation by biomimetic mineralized microalgae.

    PubMed

    Peng, Yang; Deng, Aosong; Gong, Xun; Li, Xiaomin; Zhang, Yang

    2017-11-01

    Considering the high concentration of mercury in industrial wastewater, such as coal-fired power plants and gold mining wastewater, this research study investigated the coupling process of lipid production and mercury bioremediation using microalgae cells. Chlorella vulgaris modified by biomimetic mineralization. The cultivation was divided in two stages: a natural cultivation for 7days and 5days of Hg 2+ addition (10-100μg/L) for cultivation at different pH values (4-7) after inoculation. Next, the harvested cells were eluted, and lipid was extracted. The fluorescein diacetate (FDA) dye tests demonstrated that the mineralized layer enhanced the biological activity of microalgae cells in Hg 2+ contaminated media. Hg distribution tests showed that the Hg removal capacity of modified cells was increased from 62.85% to 94.74%, and 88.72% of eluted Hg 2+ concentration was observed in modified cells compared to 48.42% of raw cells, implying that more mercury was transferred from lipid and residuals into elutable forms. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  2. LEACHING OF METALS FROM MINERAL PROCESSING WASTE

    EPA Science Inventory

    The purpose of this project is to test the leaching of Mineral processing Waste (MPW) contaminated with heavy metals using scientifically defendable leaching tests other than TCLP. Past experience and literature have shown that TCLP underestiates the levels of metals such as oxoa...

  3. LEACHING OF METALS FROM MINERAL PROCESSING WASTE

    EPA Science Inventory

    The purpose of this project is to test the leaching of Mineral Processing Waste (MPW) contaminated with heavy metals using scientifically defendable leaching tests other than TCLP. Past experience and literature have shown that TCLP underestimates the levels of metals such as oxo...

  4. Basalt fiber insulating material with a mineral binding agent for industrial use

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Drozdyuk, T.; Aizenshtadt, A.; Tutygin, A.; Frolova, M.

    2016-04-01

    The paper considers a possibility of using mining industry waste as a binding agent for heat insulating material on the basis of basalt fiber. The main objective of the research is to produce a heat-insulating material to be applied in machine building in high-temperature environments. After synthetic binder having been replaced by a mineral one, an environmentally sound thermal insulating material having desirable heat-protecting ability and not failing when exposed to high temperatures was obtained.

  5. Characterization of Calcite Mineral Precipitation Process by EICP in Porous Media

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Kim, D.; Mahabadi, N.; Hall, C.; Jang, J.; van Paassen, L. A.

    2017-12-01

    One of the most prevalent ground improvement techniques is injection of synthetic materials, such as cement grout or silicates into the pore space to create cementing bonds between soil particles. Besides these traditional ground improvement methods, several biological processes have been developed to improve soil properties. Enzyme induced carbonate precipitation (EICP) is a biological process in which urea hydrolyzes into ammonia and inorganic carbon, and promotes carbonate mineral precipitation. Different morphologies and patterns of calcite mineral precipitation, such as particle surface coating, pore filling, and soil particles bonding, have been observed in the previous studies. Most of the researches have detected precipitated minerals after the completion of the treatment using SEM (Scanning Electron Microscope) imaging and XRD (X-ray Diffractometer) structural analysis. In this research, an EICP reaction medium is injected into a microfluidic chip to observe the entire process of carbonate precipitation through several cycles of EICP treatment in the porous medium. Once the process of mineral precipitation is completed, water is injected into the microfluidic chip with different flow rates to evaluate the stability of carbonates during fluid flow injection.

  6. Process for removal of mineral particulates from coal-derived liquids

    DOEpatents

    McDowell, William J.

    1980-01-01

    Suspended mineral solids are separated from a coal-derived liquid containing the solids by a process comprising the steps of: (a) contacting said coal-derived liquid containing solids with a molten additive having a melting point of 100.degree.-500.degree. C. in an amount of up to 50 wt. % with respect to said coal-derived liquid containing solids, said solids present in an amount effective to increase the particle size of said mineral solids and comprising material or mixtures of material selected from the group of alkali metal hydroxides and inorganic salts having antimony, tin, lithium, sodium, potassium, magnesium, calcium, beryllium, aluminum, zinc, molybdenum, cobalt, nickel, ruthenium, rhodium or iron cations and chloride, iodide, bromide, sulfate, phosphate, borate, carbonate, sulfite, or silicate anions; and (b) maintaining said coal-derived liquid in contact with said molten additive for sufficient time to permit said mineral matter to agglomerate, thereby increasing the mean particle size of said mineral solids; and (c) recovering a coal-derived liquid product having reduced mineral solids content. The process can be carried out with less than 5 wt. % additive and in the absence of hydrogen pressure.

  7. Towards zero waste production in the minerals and metals sector

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Rankin, William J.

    The production of mineral and metal commodities results in large quantities of wastes (solid, liquid and gaseous) at each stage of value-adding — from mining to manufacturing. Waste production (both consumer and non-consumer) is a major contributor to environmental degradation. Approaches to waste management in the minerals industry are largely `after the event'. These have moved progressively from foul-and-flee to dilute-and-disperse to end end-of-pipe treatments. There is now a need to move to approaches which aim to reduce or eliminate waste production at source. Modern waste management strategies include the application of cleaner production principles, the use of wastes as raw materials, the reengineering of process flowsheets to minimise waste production, and use of industrial symbioses through industrial ecology to convert wastes into useful by-products. This paper examines how these can be adopted by the minerals industry, with some recent examples. The financial, technical, systemic and regulatory drivers and barriers are also examined.

  8. Antibiotics mineralization by electrochemical and UV-based hybrid processes: evaluation of the synergistic effect.

    PubMed

    Wohlmuth da Silva, Salatiel; Arenhart Heberle, Alan Nelson; Pereira Santos, Alexia; Siqueira Rodrigues, Marco Antônio; Pérez-Herranz, Valentín; Moura Bernardes, Andréa

    2018-05-29

    Antibiotics are not efficiently removed in conventional wastewater treatments. In fact, different advanced oxidation process (AOPs), including ozone, peroxide, UV radiation, among others, are being investigated in the elimination of microcontaminants. Most of AOPs proved to be efficient on the degradation of antibiotics, but the mineralization is on the one hand not evaluated or on the other hand not high. At this work, the UV-based hybrid process, namely Photo-assisted electrochemical oxidation (PEO), was applied, aiming the mineralization of microcontaminants such as the antibiotics Amoxicillin (AMX), Norfloxacin (NOR) and Azithromycin (AZI). The influence of the individual contributions of electrochemical oxidation (EO) and the UV-base processes on the hybrid process (PEO) was analysed. Results showed that AMX and NOR presented higher mineralization rate under direct photolysis than AZI due to the high absorption of UV radiation. For the EO processes, a low mineralization was found for all antibiotics, what was associated to a mass-transport limitation related to the low concentration of contaminants (200 µg/L). Besides that, an increase in mineralization was found, when heterogeneous photocatalysis and EO are compared, due to the influence of UV radiation, which overcomes the mass-transport limitations. Although the UV-based processes control the reaction pathway that leads to mineralization, the best results to mineralize the antibiotics were achieved by PEO hybrid process. This can be explained by the synergistic effect of the processes that constitute them. A higher mineralization was achieved, which is an important and useful finding to avoid the discharge of microcontaminants in the environment.

  9. 77 FR 6580 - Agency Information Collection Activities: Comment Request for the Industrial Minerals Surveys (40...

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2012-02-08

    ... DEPARTMENT OF THE INTERIOR U.S. Geological Survey [USGS-GX12LR000F60100] Agency Information Collection Activities: Comment Request for the Industrial Minerals Surveys (40 Forms) AGENCY: U.S. Geological... (1028-0062). SUMMARY: We (the U.S. Geological Survey) will ask the Office of Management and Budget (OMB...

  10. Sociocultural and institutional drivers and constraints to mineral supply; the meaning of scarcity in the 21st century: drivers and constraints to the supply of minerals using regional, national and global perspectives

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Brown, William M.

    2002-01-01

    The sociocultural dimensions of mineral supply at the outset of the 21st century are making the supply process increasingly complex. The dimensions encompass legal, financial, environmental, cultural, and global implications of mining, and are driving unprecedented change in the way minerals supply will be accomplished in the future. Minerals scarcity on a global scale is subordinate to other societal issues about mineral resources and reserves estimated to meet society's demands for decades to centuries in the future. This report reviews historical and present-day sociocultural drivers of change, and reactions of the minerals industry to these drivers. It is reflective primarily of conditions in the United States, but also uses examples from other countries. It expresses viewpoints on sociocultural drivers as seen by constituents of the minerals industry and several other communities of interest including Aboriginal peoples, non-government organizations; labor; mining-dependent communities; mining-affected communities; researchers; and government (federal, state/provincial, and local). It provides overviews of the demand for minerals in the United States, and the status of land available for mining. The report uses a case study of a metals mining project in Wisconsin to illustrate specific sociocultural drivers and constraints to minerals supply, and how these influence the minerals industry. Over the past 150 years, a progression of sociocultural movements under the headings of conservationism, environmentalism, and sustainable development have nurtured societal values that have come to influence the mineral supply process in important ways. These movements reflect a continuing tension between the demand for minerals and other resources, and the simultaneous demand for aesthetic, spiritual, ecological, cultural, and other attributes of the land. The tension is an important element in current international debates about the meaning and future of sustainable

  11. Biorefinery integration of microalgae production into cassava processing industry: Potential and perspectives.

    PubMed

    de Carvalho, Júlio Cesar; Borghetti, Ivo Alberto; Cartas, Liliana Carrilo; Woiciechowski, Adenise Lorenci; Soccol, Vanete Thomaz; Soccol, Carlos Ricardo

    2018-01-01

    Cassava, the 5th most important staple crop, generates at least 600L of wastewater per ton of processed root. This residue, cassava processing wastewater (CPW) has a high chemical oxygen demand, that can reach 56 g/L, and has also high concentrations of several mineral nutrients. The cultivation of microalgae such as Chlorella, Spirulina and wild strains was evaluated in the last years in raw, minimally processed and partially digested CPW. Concentrations of 2-4 g/L of these microalgae, comparable to those obtained in synthetic media, could be reached. The BOD of the residue was reduced by up to 92%. This process can be integrated into cassava processing industries, if challenges such as the toxicity of the concentrated residue, bacterial contamination, and the isolation of robust strains are addressed. Because CPW carries about 11% of the crop energy, integrating biogas production and microalgal cultivation into the cassava processing chain is promising. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  12. Coastal deposits of heavy mineral sands; Global significance and US resources

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Van Gosen, Bradley S.; Bleiwas, Donald I.; Bedinger, George M.; Ellefsen, Karl J.; Shah, Anjana K.

    2016-01-01

    Ancient and modern coastal deposits of heavy mineral sands (HMS) are the principal source of several heavy industrial minerals, with mining and processing operations on every continent except Antarctica. For example, HMS deposits are the main source of titanium feedstock for the titanium dioxide (TiO2) pigments industry, obtained from the minerals ilmenite (Fe2+TiO3), rutile (TiO2) and leucoxene (an alteration product of ilmenite). HMS deposits are also the principal source of zircon (ZrSiO4), from which zirconium dioxide (ZrO2) is obtained for uses mostly in refractory products. Sometimes monazite [(Ce,La,Nd,Th)PO4] is recovered as a byproduct mineral, sought for its rare earth elements and thorium (Ault and others, 2016; Sengupta and Van Gosen, 2016; Van Gosen and Tulsidas, 2016). 

  13. Mineral resources accounting: A technique formonitoring the Philippine mining industry for sustainable development

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Santos, Teodoro M.; Zaratan, May L.

    Mining which extracts exhaustible mineral resources has been condemned by certain sectors as promoting social inequity and underdevelopment. This is so because once a tonne of copper, say, is mined it is forever lost to the future generation. Such perception translates into policies that are usually disadvantageous or even hostile to the industry. Despite this adverse criticism, recent developments in natural resources accounting indicate that mining can truly contribute to the sustainable economic development of a society. True worth of mining in economic development can be assessed and monitored on a continuing basis through an appropriate system of natural accounts (SNA). If the industry is found deficient, such SNA can also point out how the industry can be made to constribute to sustainable growth. The prevailing SNA is criticized as having failed to capture the adverse effects on the welfare of society of producing a nonrenewable resource such as minerals. For instance, the production of copper for a particular year registers an increase in gross national product equivalent to its monetary value. However, the concomitant depletion of the country's natural wealth due to such production is nowhere recorded in the SNA. This faulty accounting gives rise to policies that result in nonsustainable economic growth. In order to address the preceding problem, this paper presents an accounting formula applicable to any nonrenewable resource whereby revenue is decomposed into income and capital components. To achieve sustainable economic growth, it states that the capital component must be invested to generate future incomes. However, investments need not be confined to the same sector. Application of the accounting scheme to the Philippine copper and gold sectors during the 1980-1990 period leads to the following conclusions: (a) by and large, gold and copper mining operations have indeed contributed positively to national income, contrary to allegations of certain

  14. EDITORIAL: Industrial Process Tomography

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Anton Johansen, Geir; Wang, Mi

    2008-09-01

    There has been tremendous development within measurement science and technology over the past couple of decades. New sensor technologies and compact versatile signal recovery electronics are continuously expanding the limits of what can be measured and the accuracy with which this can be done. Miniaturization of sensors and the use of nanotechnology push these limits further. Also, thanks to powerful and cost-effective computer systems, sophisticated measurement and reconstruction algorithms previously only accessible in advanced laboratories are now available for in situ online measurement systems. The process industries increasingly require more process-related information, motivated by key issues such as improved process control, process utilization and process yields, ultimately driven by cost-effectiveness, quality assurance, environmental and safety demands. Industrial process tomography methods have taken advantage of the general progress in measurement science, and aim at providing more information, both quantitatively and qualitatively, on multiphase systems and their dynamics. The typical approach for such systems has been to carry out one local or bulk measurement and assume that this is representative of the whole system. In some cases, this is sufficient. However, there are many complex systems where the component distribution varies continuously and often unpredictably in space and time. The foundation of industrial tomography is to conduct several measurements around the periphery of a multiphase process, and use these measurements to unravel the cross-sectional distribution of the process components in time and space. This information is used in the design and optimization of industrial processes and process equipment, and also to improve the accuracy of multiphase system measurements in general. In this issue we are proud to present a selection of the 145 papers presented at the 5th World Congress on Industrial Process Tomography in Bergen

  15. Industrial processes influenced by gravity

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Ostrach, Simon

    1988-01-01

    In considering new directions for low gravity research with particular regard to broadening the number and types of industrial involvements, it is noted that transport phenomena play a vital role in diverse processes in the chemical, pharmaceutical, food, and biotech industries. Relatively little attention has been given to the role of gravity in such processes. Accordingly, numerous industrial processes and phenomena are identified which involve gravity and/or surface tension forces. Phase separations and mixing are examples that will be significantly different in low gravity conditions. A basis is presented for expanding the scope of the low gravity research program and the potential benefits of such research is indicated.

  16. Mineral scale management Part III, Nonprocess elements in the paper industry

    Treesearch

    Alan W. Rudie; Peter W. Hart

    2006-01-01

    Efforts to comply with effluent standards have led to a situation where mills have little leeway in managing trace metals without developing mineral scale deposits. In most cases, the trace metals can be managed with minor process changes and siitable levels of process control. The principal tools available to the mill are pH and good washing in the first chorine...

  17. Bibliography of articles and reports on mineral-separation techniques, processes, and applications

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Harmon, R. S.

    1971-01-01

    A bibliography of published articles and reports on mineral-separation techniques, processes, and applications is presented along with an author and subject index. This information is intended for use in the mineral-separation facility of the Lunar Receiving Laboratory at the NASA Manned Spacecraft Center and as an aid and reference to persons involved or interested in mineral separation.

  18. Selected Geochemical Data for Modeling Near-Surface Processes in Mineral Systems

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Giles, Stuart A.; Granitto, Matthew; Eppinger, Robert G.

    2009-01-01

    The database herein was initiated, designed, and populated to collect and integrate geochemical, geologic, and mineral deposit data in an organized manner to facilitate geoenvironmental mineral deposit modeling. The Microsoft Access database contains data on a variety of mineral deposit types that have variable environmental effects when exposed at the ground surface by mining or natural processes. The data tables describe quantitative and qualitative geochemical analyses determined by 134 analytical laboratory and field methods for over 11,000 heavy-mineral concentrate, rock, sediment, soil, vegetation, and water samples. The database also provides geographic information on geology, climate, ecoregion, and site contamination levels for over 3,000 field sites in North America.

  19. Carbon dioxide mineralization process design and evaluation: concepts, case studies, and considerations.

    PubMed

    Yuen, Yeo Tze; Sharratt, Paul N; Jie, Bu

    2016-11-01

    Numerous carbon dioxide mineralization (CM) processes have been proposed to overcome the slow rate of natural weathering of silicate minerals. Ten of these proposals are mentioned in this article. The proposals are described in terms of the four major areas relating to CM process design: pre-treatment, purification, carbonation, and reagent recycling operations. Any known specifics based on probable or representative operating and reaction conditions are listed, and basic analysis of the strengths and shortcomings associated with the individual process designs are given in this article. The processes typically employ physical or chemical pseudo-catalytic methods to enhance the rate of carbon dioxide mineralization; however, both methods have its own associated advantages and problems. To examine the feasibility of a CM process, three key aspects should be included in the evaluation criteria: energy use, operational considerations as well as product value and economics. Recommendations regarding the optimal level of emphasis and implementation of measures to control these aspects are given, and these will depend very much on the desired process objectives. Ultimately, a mix-and-match approach to process design might be required to provide viable and economic proposals for CM processes.

  20. Atmospheric Processing and Iron Mobilization of Ilmenite: Iron-Containing Ternary Oxide in Mineral Dust Aerosol.

    PubMed

    Hettiarachchi, Eshani; Hurab, Omar; Rubasinghege, Gayan

    2018-02-08

    Over the last several decades, iron has been identified as a limiting nutrient in about half of the world's oceans. Its most significant source is identified as deposited iron-containing mineral dust that has been processed during atmospheric transportation. The current work focuses on chemical and photochemical processing of iron-containing mineral dust particles in the presence of nitric acid, and an organic pollutant dimethyl sulfide under atmospherically relevant conditions. More importantly, ilmenite (FeTiO 3 ) is evaluated as a proxy for the iron-containing mineral dust. The presence of titanium in its lattice structure provides higher complexity to mimic mineral dust, yet it is simple enough to study reaction pathways and mechanisms. Here, spectroscopic methods are combined with dissolution measurements to investigate atmospheric processing of iron in mineral dust, with specific focus on particle mineralogy, particle size, and their environmental conditions (i.e., pH and solar flux). Our results indicate that the presence of titanium elemental composition enhances iron dissolution from mineral dust, at least by 2-fold comparison with its nontitanium-containing counterparts. The extent of iron dissolution and speciation is further influenced by the above factors. Thus, our work highlights these important, yet unconsidered, factors in the atmospheric processing of iron-containing mineral dust aerosol.

  1. Microbially mediated carbon mineralization: Geoengineering a carbon-neutral mine

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Power, I. M.; McCutcheon, J.; Harrison, A. L.; Wilson, S. A.; Dipple, G. M.; Southam, G.

    2013-12-01

    Ultramafic and mafic mine tailings are a potentially valuable feedstock for carbon mineralization, affording the mining industry an opportunity to completely offset their carbon emissions. Passive carbon mineralization has previously been documented at the abandoned Clinton Creek asbestos mine, and the active Diavik diamond mine and Mount Keith nickel mine, yet the majority of tailings remain unreacted. Examples of microbe-carbonate interactions at each mine suggest that biological pathways could be harnessed to promote carbon mineralization. In suitable environmental conditions, microbes can mediate geochemical processes to accelerate mineral dissolution, increase the supply of carbon dioxide (CO2), and induce carbonate precipitation, all of which may accelerate carbon mineralization. Tailings mineralogy and the availability of a CO2 point source are key considerations in designing tailings storage facilities (TSF) for optimizing carbon mineralization. We evaluate the efficacy of acceleration strategies including bioleaching, biologically induced carbonate precipitation, and heterotrophic oxidation of waste organics, as well as abiotic strategies including enhancing passive carbonation through modifying tailings management practices and use of CO2 point sources (Fig. 1). With the aim of developing carbon-neutral mines, implementation of carbon mineralization strategies into TSF design will be driven by economic incentives and public pressure for environmental sustainability in the mining industry. Figure 1. Schematic illustrating geoengineered scenarios for carbon mineralization of ultramafic mine tailings. Scenarios A and B are based on non-point and point sources of CO2, respectively.

  2. Managing the potential risks of using bacteria-laden water in mineral processing to protect freshwater.

    PubMed

    Liu, Wenying; Moran, Chris J; Vink, Sue

    2013-06-18

    The minerals industry is being driven to access multiple water sources and increase water reuse to minimize freshwater withdrawal. Bacteria-laden water, such as treated effluent, has been increasingly used as an alternative to freshwater for mineral processing, in particular flotation, where conditions are favorable for bacterial growth. However, the risk posed by bacteria to flotation efficiency is poorly understood. This could be a barrier to the ongoing use of this water source. This study tested the potential of a previously published risk-based approach as a management tool to both assist mine sites in quantifying the risk from bacteria, and finding system-wide cost-effective solutions for risk mitigation. The result shows that the solution of adjusting the flotation chemical regime could only partly control the risk. The second solution of using tailings as an absorbent was shown to be effective in the laboratory in reducing bacterial concentration and thus removing the threat to flotation recovery. The best solution is likely to combine internal and external approaches, that is, inside and outside processing plants. Findings in this study contribute possible methods applicable to managing the risk from water-borne bacteria to plant operations that choose to use bacteria-containing water, when attempting to minimize freshwater use, and avoiding the undesirable consequences of increasing its use.

  3. Recent trends in Cuba’s mining and petroleum industries

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Wacaster, Susan; Baker, Michael S.; Soto-Viruet, Yadira; Textoris, Steven D.

    2015-03-31

    In response to recent diplomatic developments between Cuba and the United States, the National Minerals Information Center compiled available information on the mineral industries of Cuba. This fact sheet highlights a new map and table that identify mines, mineral processing facilities, and petroleum facilities as well as information on location, operational status, and ownership. It also addresses the current status of known mineral industry projects, historical developments, and trends of the Cuban economy with an emphasis on mineral industries, and the supply and demand for Cuba’s mineral resources.In 2013, Cuba was estimated to be among the world’s top ten producers of cobalt and nickel, which are the country’s leading exports. Cuba’s current crude oil and associated natural gas production from onshore and shallow water coastal reservoirs is approximately 50,000 barrels per day of liquids and about 20,000 barrels per day oil equivalent of natural gas. In 2013, the value of mining and quarrying activities accounted for 0.6 percent of Cuba’s gross domestic product (GDP), compared with 1.4 percent in 2000. The value of production from Cuba’s industrial manufacturing sector increased by 88 percent between 1993 and 2013, whereas the sector’s share in the GDP decreased by about 3 percent during the same time period reflecting economic growth in other sectors of the economy.

  4. Occupational literacy as a variable construct in the mineral extraction/energy and service industries

    SciTech Connect

    Spencer, S.J.

    1987-01-01

    This study of workplace literacy practices of 81 employees in the mineral extraction/energy and tourist-related industries in a southwestern Wyoming county utilized the Diehl-Mikulecky Job Literacy Survey. The purpose of the study was to determine if Diehl's (1980) findings regarding occupational literacy would generalize to mineral extraction/energy and service occupations. A literacy profile which included three components was developed. These components were attitudinal/behavioral dispositions, literacy demands of the job, and the literacy competency of workers. The results of the study indicated that almost all workers report some reading and writing done in the workplace, with a mean work reading timemore » for the sample of 91 minutes per day. Job literacy demands were found to be related to the level of occupational success but generally only those workers in the lowest quartile of success factors had significantly lower literacy demands. Job reading competency correlated with general reading competency, attitude towards the job, and job reading interest/comfort.« less

  5. Development of Ceramic Coating on Metal Substrate using Industrial Waste and Ore Minerals

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Bhuyan, S. K.; Thiyagarajan, T. K.; Mishra, S. C.

    2017-02-01

    The technological advancement in modern era has a boon for enlightening human life; but also is a bane to produce a huge amount of (industrial) wastes, which is of great concern for utilization and not to create environmental threats viz. polution etc. In the present piece of research work, attempts have been made to utilize fly ash (wastes of thermal power plants) and along with alumina bearing ore i.e. bauxite, for developing plasma spray ceramic coatings on metals. Fly ash and with 10 and 20% bauxite addition is used to deposit plasma spray coatings on a metal substrate. The surface morphology of the coatings deposited at different power levels of plasma spraying investigated through SEM and EDS analysis. The coating thickness is measured. The porosity levels of the coatings are evaluated. The coating hardness isalso measured. This piece of research work will be beneficial for future development and use of industrial waste and ore minerals for high-valued applications.

  6. A novel aerobic sulfate reduction process in landfill mineralized refuse.

    PubMed

    Liu, Weijia; Long, Yuyang; Fang, Yuan; Ying, Luyao; Shen, Dongsheng

    2018-05-08

    It is thought that mineralized refuse could be excavated from almost-full landfill sites to provide space for the increasing burden of municipal solid waste. When excavating, however, the H 2 S emissions from the mineralized waste need to be considered carefully. In an attempt to understand how H 2 S emissions might change during this excavation process, we carried out a series of tests, including exposing anaerobic mineralized refuse to oxygen, isolating and determining possible functional bacteria, and characterizing the electron donors and/or acceptors. The results showed that H 2 S would be released when landfill mineralized refuse was exposed to oxygen (O 2 ), and could reach concentrations of 6 mg m -3 , which was 3 times the concentrations of H 2 S released from anaerobic mineralized refuse. Sulfur-metabolized microorganisms accounted for only 0.5% of the microbial functional bacteria (MFB) derived from the mineralized refuse when exposed to O 2 for 60 days, and SRB were not present. The MFB maintained H 2 S production by aerobic sulfate reduction using SO 4 2- and S 2 O 3 2- as electron acceptors, and sulfate-reducing rates of 16% and 55%, respectively, were achieved. Lactate and S 2 O 3 2- were the preferred electron donor and acceptor, respectively. By enhancing the carbon source and electron transfer, MFB may undergo strong aerobic sulfate reduction even at low abundances of sulfur-metabolized microorganisms. Copyright © 2018 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  7. Fostering Minerals Workforce Skills of Tomorrow through Education and Training Partnerships

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Lind, Gavin

    The Minerals Council of Australia (MCA), through its Minerals Tertiary Education Council (MTEC), builds capacity in higher education in the core disciplines of mining engineering, metallurgy and minerals geoscience. Over the past fourteen years, this all-of-industry approach in securing the long-term supply of these critical skills (which remain a chronic skills shortage for the Australian minerals industry) through nationally collaborative programs across sixteen Australian universities delivers spectacular and sustainable results for the industry. These unique, world-first programs are built on a healthy platform of dedicated industry funding and in-kind support and forms part of the MCA's broader uninterrupted, sustainable education and training pathway to increase workforce participation, workforce diversity and workforce skills, regardless of the business cycle in the industry. This paper will highlight the origins, iterations and current successful programs of MTEC, including its future vision, and presents a mechanism for industry and academia to collaborate to address future professional skills needs in the minerals industry globally.

  8. Extraterrestrial materials processing and construction. [space industrialization

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Criswell, D. R.; Waldron, R. D.; Mckenzie, J. D.

    1980-01-01

    Three different chemical processing schemes were identified for separating lunar soils into the major oxides and elements. Feedstock production for space industry; an HF acid leach process; electrorefining processes for lunar free metal and metal derived from chemical processing of lunar soils; production and use of silanes and spectrally selective materials; glass, ceramics, and electrochemistry workshops; and an econometric model of bootstrapping space industry are discussed.

  9. A case–control study of mesothelioma in Minnesota iron ore (taconite) miners

    PubMed Central

    Lambert, Christine S; Alexander, Bruce H; Ramachandran, Gurumurthy; MacLehose, Richard F; Nelson, Heather H; Ryan, Andrew D; Mandel, Jeffrey H

    2018-01-01

    Objectives An excess of mesothelioma has been observed in iron ore miners in Northeastern Minnesota. Mining and processing of taconite iron ore generate exposures that include elongate mineral particles (EMPs) of amphibole and non-amphibole origin. We conducted a nested case–control study of mesothelioma in a cohort of 68 737 iron ore miners (haematite and taconite ore miners) to evaluate the association between mesothelioma, employment and EMP exposures from taconite mining. Methods Mesothelioma cases (N=80) were identified through the Minnesota Cancer Surveillance System (MCSS) and death certificates. Four controls of similar age were selected for each case with 315 controls ultimately eligible for inclusion. Mesothelioma risk was evaluated by estimating rate ratios and 95% CIs with conditional logistic regression in relation to duration of taconite industry employment and cumulative EMP exposure [(EMP/cc)×years], defined by the National Institute for Occupational Safety and Health (NIOSH) 7400 method. Models were adjusted for employment in haematite mining and potential exposure to commercial asbestos products used in the industry. Results All mesothelioma cases were male and 57 of the cases had work experience in the taconite industry. Mesothelioma was associated with the number of years employed in the taconite industry (RR=1.03, 95% CI 1.00 to 1.06) and cumulative EMP exposure (RR=1.10, 95% CI 0.97 to –1.24). No association was observed with employment in haematite mining. Conclusions These results support an association between mesothelioma and employment duration and possibly EMP exposure in taconite mining and processing. The type of EMP was not determined. The potential role of commercial asbestos cannot be entirely ruled out. PMID:26655961

  10. Mineral Commodity Summaries 2008

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    ,

    2008-01-01

    Each chapter of the 2008 edition of the U.S. Geological Survey (USGS) Mineral Commodity Summaries (MCS) includes information on events, trends, and issues for each mineral commodity as well as discussions and tabular presentations on domestic industry structure, Government programs, tariffs, 5-year salient statistics, and world production and resources. The MCS is the earliest comprehensive source of 2007 mineral production data for the world. More than 90 individual minerals and materials are covered by two-page synopses. National reserves and reserve base information for most mineral commodities found in this report, including those for the United States, are derived from a variety of sources. The ideal source of such information would be comprehensive evaluations that apply the same criteria to deposits in different geographic areas and report the results by country. In the absence of such evaluations, national reserves and reserve base estimates compiled by countries for selected mineral commodities are a primary source of national reserves and reserve base information. Lacking national assessment information by governments, sources such as academic articles, company reports, common business practice, presentations by company representatives, and trade journal articles, or a combination of these, serve as the basis for national reserves and reserve base information reported in the mineral commodity sections of this publication. A national estimate may be assembled from the following: historically reported reserves and reserve base information carried for years without alteration because no new information is available; historically reported reserves and reserve base reduced by the amount of historical production; and company reported reserves. International minerals availability studies conducted by the U.S. Bureau of Mines, before 1996, and estimates of identified resources by an international collaborative effort (the International Strategic Minerals

  11. System for monitoring an industrial or biological process

    DOEpatents

    Gross, Kenneth C.; Wegerich, Stephan W.; Vilim, Rick B.; White, Andrew M.

    1998-01-01

    A method and apparatus for monitoring and responding to conditions of an industrial process. Industrial process signals, such as repetitive manufacturing, testing and operational machine signals, are generated by a system. Sensor signals characteristic of the process are generated over a time length and compared to reference signals over the time length. The industrial signals are adjusted over the time length relative to the reference signals, the phase shift of the industrial signals is optimized to the reference signals and the resulting signals output for analysis by systems such as SPRT.

  12. System for monitoring an industrial or biological process

    DOEpatents

    Gross, K.C.; Wegerich, S.W.; Vilim, R.B.; White, A.M.

    1998-06-30

    A method and apparatus are disclosed for monitoring and responding to conditions of an industrial process. Industrial process signals, such as repetitive manufacturing, testing and operational machine signals, are generated by a system. Sensor signals characteristic of the process are generated over a time length and compared to reference signals over the time length. The industrial signals are adjusted over the time length relative to the reference signals, the phase shift of the industrial signals is optimized to the reference signals and the resulting signals output for analysis by systems such as SPRT. 49 figs.

  13. Major issues in miner health.

    PubMed Central

    Joyce, S

    1998-01-01

    As recently as the last few decades, thousands of miners died in explosions, roof collapses, fires, and floods each year, and lung disease caused by inhaling mineral dusts was ubiquitous. Miners worked virtually unprotected, and were often treated as expendable bodies fulfilling critical roles in this important industry, which in the United States comprises about 5% of the gross domestic product. PMID:9799195

  14. Optical luminescence studies of the ethyl xanthate adsorption layer on the surface of sphalerite minerals.

    PubMed

    Todoran, R; Todoran, D; Szakács, Zs

    2016-01-05

    In this work we propose optical luminescence measurements as a method to evaluate the kinetics of adsorption processes. Measurement of the intensity of the integral optical radiation obtained from the mineral-xanthate interface layer, stimulated with a monochromatic pulsating optical signal, as a function of time were made. The luminescence radiation was obtained from the thin interface layer formed at the separation surface between the sphalerite natural mineral and potassium ethyl xanthate solution, for different solution concentrations and pH-es at the constant industry standard temperature. This method enabled us to determine the time to achieve dynamic equilibrium in the formation of the interface layer of approximately 20min, gaining information on the adsorption kinetics in the case of xanthate on mineral surface and leading to the optimization of the industrial froth flotation process. Copyright © 2015 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  15. Multi Blending Technology (MBT): mineral processing method for increasing added value of marginal reserve

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Agustinus, E. T. S.

    2018-02-01

    Indonesia's position on the path of ring of fire makes it rich in mineral resources. Nevertheless, in the past, the exploitation of Indonesian mineral resources was uncontrolled resulting in environmental degradation and marginal reserves. Exploitation of excessive mineral resources is very detrimental to the state. Reflecting on the occasion, the management and utilization of Indonesia's mineral resources need to be good in mining practice. The problem is how to utilize the mineral reserve resources effectively and efficiently. Utilization of marginal reserves requires new technologies and processing methods because the old processing methods are inadequate. This paper gives a result of Multi Blending Technology (MBT) Method. The underlying concept is not to do the extraction or refinement but processing through the formulation of raw materials by adding an additive and produce a new material called functional materials. Application of this method becomes important to be summarized into a scientific paper in a book form, so that the information can spread across multiple print media and become focused on and optimized. This book is expected to be used as a reference for stakeholder providing added value to environmentally marginal reserves in Indonesia. The conclusions are that Multi Blending Technology (MBT) Method can be used as a strategy to increase added values effectively and efficiently to marginal reserve minerals and that Multi Blending Technology (MBT) method has been applied to forsterite, Atapulgite Synthesis, Zeoceramic, GEM, MPMO, SMAC and Geomaterial.

  16. Expert systems in the process industries

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Stanley, G. M.

    1992-01-01

    This paper gives an overview of industrial applications of real-time knowledge based expert systems (KBES's) in the process industries. After a brief overview of the features of a KBES useful in process applications, the general roles of KBES's are covered. A particular focus is diagnostic applications, one of the major applications areas. Many applications are seen as an expansion of supervisory control. The lessons learned from numerous online applications are summarized.

  17. A century of miners' compensation in South Africa.

    PubMed

    Ehrlich, Rodney

    2012-06-01

    The year 2011 marked the centenary of compensation legislation for miners' lung disease in South Africa. This commentary aims to demonstrate that the current compensation system does not serve its intended beneficiaries, particularly the large population of former gold miners affected by high rates of silicosis and tuberculosis. The system has a complex legislative history, reflecting contending political, and economic forces, and characterized by racial discrimination. The financial basis of the system is currently in crisis owing to historical underfunding and failure to take into account the mounting burden of disease among black former miners. The real value of compensation awards fell sharply between 1973 and 1993, only partly recovering in recent years. Barriers to claiming benefits, particularly by black former miners who know little about the process, have been extensively documented. Integration of miners' compensation into general workers' compensation has been mooted since the 1980s but has stalled, owing to the high cost of closing the gap between the mostly inferior financial benefits under the mining legislation and those available under workers' compensation legislation. A recent constitutional court decision has opened the way for unprecedented civil litigation against the gold mining industry for silicosis, adding to the pressure for reform. A number of changes are called for: harmonization of financial benefits with retention of certain of the special arrangements for miner claims, a regional cross-border system of medical examination points for former miners, education of miners about the system, and some degree of privatization of claims processing. Copyright © 2012 Wiley Periodicals, Inc.

  18. Mineral resources and consumption in the twenty-first century

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Menzie, W. David; Singer, Donald A.; DeYoung,, John H.; Simpson, R.D.; Toman, M.A.; Ayres, R.U.

    2005-01-01

    Modern societies are highly dependent upon energy and mineral resources to produce and deliver the material goods and even the services of everyday life. Although societies' dependence upon fossil fuels is evident and understood by much of the population, few people are as well informed about their dependence upon a wide variety of nonfuel minerals. This ignorance may result from two interrelated conditions. First, in contrast to fossil fuels, few people directly use nonfuel minerals in recognizable forms because most use is as part of manufactured products. Second, the value of raw ($38 billion) and even processed ($397 billion) nonfuel minerals in the United States in 2002 was small relative to the value the industries that consume these materials contribute to the economy ($1,700 billion). That is, although nonfuel mineral inputs are indispensable to construction and to the manufacture of durable and even nondurable goods (USGS 2003), their value is modest compared with the value of the final products.

  19. The Global Flows of Metals and Minerals

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Rogich, Donald G.; Matos, Grecia R.

    2008-01-01

    This paper provides a preliminary review of the trends in worldwide metals and industrial minerals production and consumption based on newly developed global metals and minerals Material Flow Accounts (MFA). The MFA developed encompass data on extraction and consumption for 25 metal and mineral commodities, on a country-by-country and year-by-year basis, for the period 1970 to 2004. The data-base, jointly developed by the authors, resides with the U.S. Geological Survey (USGS) as individual commodity Excel workbooks and within a Filemaker data management system for use in analysis. Numerous national MFA have been developed to provide information on the industrial metabolism of individual countries. These MFA include material flows associated with the four commodity categories of goods that are inputs to a country's economy, agriculture, forestry, metals and minerals, and nonrenewable organic material. In some cases, the material flows associated with the creation and maintenance of the built infrastructure (such as houses, buildings, roads, airports, dams, and so forth) were also examined. The creation of global metals and industrial minerals flows is viewed as a first step in the creation of comprehensive global MFA documenting the historical and current flows of all of the four categories of physical goods that support world economies. Metals and minerals represent a major category of nonrenewable resources that humans extract from and return to the natural ecosystem. As human populations and economies have increased, metals and industrial minerals use has increased concomitantly. This dramatic growth in metals and minerals use has serious implications for both the availability of future resources and the health of the environment, which is affected by the outputs associated with their use. This paper provides an overview of a number of the trends observed by examining the database and suggests areas for future study.

  20. A case-control study of mesothelioma in Minnesota iron ore (taconite) miners.

    PubMed

    Lambert, Christine S; Alexander, Bruce H; Ramachandran, Gurumurthy; MacLehose, Richard F; Nelson, Heather H; Ryan, Andrew D; Mandel, Jeffrey H

    2016-02-01

    An excess of mesothelioma has been observed in iron ore miners in Northeastern Minnesota. Mining and processing of taconite iron ore generate exposures that include elongate mineral particles (EMPs) of amphibole and non-amphibole origin. We conducted a nested case-control study of mesothelioma in a cohort of 68,737 iron ore miners (haematite and taconite ore miners) to evaluate the association between mesothelioma, employment and EMP exposures from taconite mining. Mesothelioma cases (N=80) were identified through the Minnesota Cancer Surveillance System (MCSS) and death certificates. Four controls of similar age were selected for each case with 315 controls ultimately eligible for inclusion. Mesothelioma risk was evaluated by estimating rate ratios and 95% CIs with conditional logistic regression in relation to duration of taconite industry employment and cumulative EMP exposure [(EMP/cc)×years], defined by the National Institute for Occupational Safety and Health (NIOSH) 7400 method. Models were adjusted for employment in haematite mining and potential exposure to commercial asbestos products used in the industry. All mesothelioma cases were male and 57 of the cases had work experience in the taconite industry. Mesothelioma was associated with the number of years employed in the taconite industry (RR=1.03, 95% CI 1.00 to 1.06) and cumulative EMP exposure (RR=1.10, 95% CI 0.97 to -1.24). No association was observed with employment in haematite mining. These results support an association between mesothelioma and employment duration and possibly EMP exposure in taconite mining and processing. The type of EMP was not determined. The potential role of commercial asbestos cannot be entirely ruled out. Published by the BMJ Publishing Group Limited. For permission to use (where not already granted under a licence) please go to http://www.bmj.com/company/products-services/rights-and-licensing/

  1. EDITORIAL: Sixth World Congress on Industrial Process Tomography (WCIPT6) Sixth World Congress on Industrial Process Tomography (WCIPT6)

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Takei, Masahiro; Xu, Lijun

    2011-10-01

    We are pleased to publish this special feature on the Sixth World Congress on Industrial Process Tomography (WCIPT6) in Measurement Science and Technology. The international congress was successfully held in the campus of Beihang University, Beijing, China, from 6-9 September 2010. It was jointly organized by International Society for Industrial Process Tomography (ISIPT), North China Electric Power University (NCEPU) and Beihang University (BUAA). Process tomography is a tangible tool to visualize and determine the material distribution inside a process non-intrusively in real time. The internal features that can be monitored by process tomography are frequently encountered and required in the design of processes and industrial plants in the fields of chemical, oil, power and metallurgical engineering as well as many other activities such as food, material handling and combustion systems. One of the key characteristics of process tomography is to provide a direct impression and instant and clear understanding of a complex phenomenon. From the viewpoint of practical applications, industries all over the world are currently facing a number of daunting challenges including many wide-range and complex technical problems. The innovative technology of process tomography consistently contributes to providing better and better solutions to the problems as 'seeing is believing'. As a regular event, WCIPT is playing a more and more important role in addressing the challenges to overcome these problems. We are glad to see that this special feature provides a great opportunity for world-wide top-level researchers to discuss and make further developments in process tomography and its applications. The 20 articles included in this issue cover a wide range of relevant topics including sensors and sensing mechanisms, data acquisition systems and instrumentation, electrical, optical, acoustic and hybrid systems, image reconstruction and system evaluation, data and sensor fusion

  2. Earth Observation in Environmental and Societal Impacts of Mineral Resources Exploitation

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Chevrel, Stephane

    Several national and international initiatives, both from the private or the institutional sectors, arised to address the sustainable development of the extractive industry and the reduction of its environmental footprint. Meanwhile, the extractive industry is facing increasing environmental and societal pressures, being regulatory or not, during all phases of a project, from exploration to exploitation and closure. The social acceptability of a project is among the major key issues to be dealt with. The EO-MINERS project (Earth Observation for Monitoring and Observing Environmental and Societal Impacts of Mineral Resources Exploration and Exploitation) is a newly EU funded Research and Technological Development project started in February 2010. EO-MINERS scientific and technical objectives are to: i) assess policy requirements at macro (public) and micro (mining companies) levels and define environmental, socio-economic, societal and sustainable development criteria and indicators to be possibly dealt using EO (Earth Observation); ii) use existing EO knowledge and carry out new developments on demonstration sites to further demonstrate the capabilities of integrated EO-based methods and tools in monitoring, managing and contributing reducing the environmental and societal footprints of the extractive industry during all phases of a mining project, from the exploration to the exploitation and closure stages; iii) contribute making reliable and objective information about affected ecosystems, populations and societies, to serve as a basis for a sound "trialogue" between industrialists, governmental organisations and stakeholders. EO-MINERS also is designed to embed the outcomes of the project firmly in the GEO process through a review the existing GEO Tasks covering the 9 societal benefit and 5 transverse areas defined by GEO work plan 2007-2009. This analysis will be used to identify synergies and gaps between EO-MINERS and GEO, with the aim of mapping mining and

  3. Sustainable Development Strategy for Russian Mineral Resources Extracting Economy

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Dotsenko, Elena; Ezdina, Natalya; Prilepskaya, Angelina; Pivnyk, Kirill

    2017-11-01

    The immaturity of strategic and conceptual documents in the sphere of sustainable development of the Russian economy had a negative impact on long-term strategic forecasting of its neo-industrialization. At the present stage, the problems of overcoming the mineral and raw material dependence, the negative structural shift of the Russian economy, the acceleration of the rates of economic growth, the reduction of technological gap from the developed countries become strategically in demand. The modern structure of the Russian economy, developed within the framework of the proposed market model, does not generate a sustainable type of development. It became obvious that in conditions of the market processes' entropy, without neo-industrial changes, the reconstruction of industry on a new convergence-technological basis and without increasing the share of high technology production the instability of macroeconomic system, the risks of environmental and economic security of Russia are growing. Therefore, today we need a transition from forming one industry development strategy to the national one that will take into account both the social and economic and environmental challenges facing Russia as a mineral resources extracting country.

  4. Strategic Minerals: U.S. Alternatives

    DTIC Science & Technology

    1990-02-01

    Titanium -Bearing Slag, and Vanadium 267 U2. Mobilization Plans: Excerpt of a 1987 Letter, Deputy Sec- retary of Defense William H. Taft IV to Speaker of...Program Minerals Availability Appraisals for Asbestos, Co- balt, Fluorspar, Mercury, Molybdenum, Lead, Zinc, Titanium , and Tungsten Mineral Industry...intermediate products necessary for the production of aluminum and titanium . In trade Australia’s mineral exports account for over one-third of its

  5. Interface design in the process industries

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Beaverstock, M. C.; Stassen, H. G.; Williamson, R. A.

    1977-01-01

    Every operator runs his plant in accord with his own mental model of the process. In this sense, one characteristic of an ideal man-machine interface is that it be in harmony with that model. With this theme in mind, the paper first reviews the functions of the process operator and compares them with human operators involved in control situations previously studied outside the industrial environment (pilots, air traffic controllers, helmsmen, etc.). A brief history of the operator interface in the process industry and the traditional methodology employed in its design is then presented. Finally, a much more fundamental approach utilizing a model definition of the human operator's behavior is presented.

  6. What are we missing? Scope 3 greenhouse gas emissions accounting in the metals and minerals industry

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Greene, Suzanne E.

    2018-05-01

    Metal and mineral companies have significant greenhouse gas emissions in their upstream and downstream value chains due to outsourced extraction, beneficiation and transportation activities, depending on a firm's business model. While many companies move towards more transparent reporting of corporate greenhouse gas emissions, value chain emissions remain difficult to capture, particularly in the global supply chain. Incomplete reports make it difficult for companies to track emissions reductions goals or implement sustainable supply chain improvements, especially for commodity products that form the base of many other sector's value chains. Using voluntarily-reported CDP data, this paper sheds light on hotspots in value chain emissions for individual metal and mineral companies, and for the sector as a whole. The state of value chain emissions reporting for the industry is discussed in general, with a focus on where emissions could potentially be underestimated and how estimates could be improved.

  7. 1996 annual report on Alaska's mineral resources

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Schneider, Jill L.

    1997-01-01

    This is the fifteenth annual report that has been prepared in response to the Alaska National Interest Lands Conservation Act. Current Alaskan mineral projects and events that occurred during 1995 are summarized. For the purpose of this document, the term 'minerals' encompasses both energy resources (oil and gas, coal and peat, uranium, and geothermal) and nonfuel-mineral resources (metallic and industrial minerals).

  8. Laser cladding of tungsten carbides (Spherotene ®) hardfacing alloys for the mining and mineral industry

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Amado, J. M.; Tobar, M. J.; Alvarez, J. C.; Lamas, J.; Yáñez, A.

    2009-03-01

    The abrasive nature of the mechanical processes involved in mining and mineral industry often causes significant wear to the associated equipment and derives non-negligible economic costs. One of the possible strategies to improve the wear resistance of the various components is the deposition of hardfacing layers on the bulk parts. The use of high power lasers for hardfacing (laser cladding) has attracted a great attention in the last decade as an alternative to other more standard methods (arc welding, oxy-fuel gas welding, thermal spraying). In laser cladding the hardfacing material is used in powder form. For high hardness applications Ni-, Co- or Fe-based alloys containing hard phase carbides at different ratios are commonly used. Tungsten carbides (WC) can provide coating hardness well above 1000 HV (Vickers). In this respect, commercially available WC powders normally contain spherical micro-particles consisting of crushed WC agglomerates. Some years ago, Spherotene ® powders consisting of spherical-fused monocrystaline WC particles, being extremely hard, between 1800 and 3000 HV, were patented. Very recently, mixtures of Ni-based alloy with Spherotene powders optimized for laser processing were presented (Technolase ®). These mixtures have been used in our study. Laser cladding tests with these powders were performed on low carbon steel (C25) substrates, and results in terms of microstructure and hardness will be discussed.

  9. Spatial variation in microbial processes controlling carbon mineralization within soils and sediments

    SciTech Connect

    Fendorf, Scott; Kleber, Markus; Nico, Peter

    Soils have a defining role in global carbon cycling, having one of the largest dynamic stocks of C on earth—3300 Pg of C are stored in soils, which is three-times the amount stored in the atmosphere and more than the terrestrial land plants. An important control on soil organic matter (SOM) quantities is the mineralization rate. It is well recognized that the rate and extent of SOM mineralization is affected by climatic factors and mineral-organic matter associations. What remained elusive is to what extent constraints on microbial metabolism induced by the respiratory pathway, and specifically the electron acceptor in respiration,more » control overall rates of carbon mineralization in soils. Therefore, physical factors limiting oxygen diffusion such as soil texture and aggregate size (soil structure) may therefore be central controls on C mineralization rates. The goal of our research was therefore to determine if variations in microbial metabolic rates induced by anaerobic microsites in soils are a major control on SOM mineralization rates and thus storage. We performed a combination of laboratory experiments and field investigations will be performed to fulfill our research objectives. We used laboratory studies to examine fundamental factors of respiratory constraints (i.e., electron acceptor) on organic matter mineralization rates. We ground our laboratory studies with both manipulation of field samples and in-field measurements. Selection of the field sites is guided by variation in soil texture and structure while having (other environmental/soil factors constant. Our laboratory studies defined redox gradients and variations in microbial metabolism operating at the aggregate-scale (cm-scale) within soils using a novel constructed diffusion reactor. We further examined micro-scale variation in terminal electron accepting processes and resulting C mineralization rates within re-packed soils. A major outcome of our research is the ability to quantitatively

  10. The industrial processing of unidirectional fiber prepregs

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Laird, B.

    1981-01-01

    Progress made in the industrial processing of preimpregnated composites with unidirectional fibers is discussed, with particular emphasis on applications within the aerospace industry. Selection of industrial materials is considered. Attention is given to the conditions justifying the use of composites and the properties required of industrial prepregs. The hardening cycle is examined for the cases of nonmodified and polymer modified resins, with attention given to the stabilization of flow, the necessary changes of state, viscosity control, and the elimination of porosity. The tooling necessary for the fabrication of a laminated plate is illustrated, and the influence of fabrication and prepreg properties on the mechanical characteristics of a laminate are indicated. Finally, the types of prepregs available and the processing procedures necessary for them are summarized.

  11. Nonfuel mineral resources in the United States-Mexico border region; a progress report on information available from the Center for Inter-American Mineral Resource Investigations (CIMRI)

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Orris, G.J.; Page, N.J.; Staude, J.G.; Bolm, K.S.; Carbonaro, M.M.; Gray, Floyd; Long, K.R.

    1993-01-01

    The exploitation of minerals has played a significant role in population growth and development of the U.S.Mexico border region. Recent proposed changes in regulations related to mining in the United States and changes in mining and investment regulations in Mexico have led to increased mineral exploration and development in Mexico, especially in the border region. As a preliminary step in the study of the mineral industry of this area, the Center for Inter-American Mineral Resource Investigations (CIMRI) of the U.S. Geological Survey has compiled mine and occurrence data for nonfuel minerals in the border region. Analysis of this information indicates that a wide variety of metallic and industrial mineral commodities are present which can be used in agriculture, infrastructure, environmental improvement, and other industries. Therefore, mining will continue to play a significant role in the economy of this region.

  12. Processing maize flour and corn meal food products

    PubMed Central

    Gwirtz, Jeffrey A; Garcia-Casal, Maria Nieves

    2014-01-01

    Corn is the cereal with the highest production worldwide and is used for human consumption, livestock feed, and fuel. Various food technologies are currently used for processing industrially produced maize flours and corn meals in different parts of the world to obtain precooked refined maize flour, dehydrated nixtamalized flour, fermented maize flours, and other maize products. These products have different intrinsic vitamin and mineral contents, and their processing follows different pathways from raw grain to the consumer final product, which entail changes in nutrient composition. Dry maize mechanical processing creates whole or fractionated products, separated by anatomical features such as bran, germ, and endosperm. Wet maize processing separates by chemical compound classification such as starch and protein. Various industrial processes, including whole grain, dry milling fractionation, and nixtamalization, are described. Vitamin and mineral losses during processing are identified and the nutritional impacts outlined. Also discussed are the vitamin and mineral contents of corn. PMID:24329576

  13. [Analysis of changes in minerals contents during cider fermentation process by inductively coupled plasma mass spectrometry].

    PubMed

    Ye, Meng-qi; Yue, Tian-li; Gao, Zhen-peng; Yuan, Ya-hong; Nie, Gang

    2015-01-01

    The changes in mineral elements during cider fermentation process were determined using ICP-MS. The results showed that the main minerals in the fermentation liquor included K, Na, Ca, Mg, Fe, Mn, Zn, Cu, Sr and B. The content of K was the highest in both the apple juice and the cider, being 1 853. 83 and 1 654. 38 mg . L-1 respectively. The content of minerals was in dynamic changes along with the fermentation process. As a whole, during 72-120 h and 144-216 h, most of the minerals contents underwent great fluctuation. Especially when fermented for 192 h, the content of most of the minerals reached peak value or valley value. The content of Fe and Zn achieved their peak value, while the content of K, Na, Ca, Mg, Mn and B achieved valley value. But during the following 24 h, the content of minerals underwent a sharp reversal. After fermentation, the content of K, Mg, Cu, Zn and B decreased significantly, while the content of Na, Ca, Mn, Fe and Sr did not change significantly. The correlational analysis was conducted to evaluate the correlation between the mineral elements, and the result showed that the correlation between Ca and Mn was the most significant, with the correlation index reaching 0. 924. The information of this study will supply sufficient data for the fermentation process control and quality improvement of cider.

  14. Industrial diamond

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Olson, D.W.

    2004-01-01

    Part of the 2003 industrial minerals review. Supply and demand data for industrial diamond are provided. Topics discussed are consumption, prices, imports and exports, government stockpiles, and the outlook for 2004.

  15. Characterization of Biogenic Gas and Mineral Formation Process by Denitrification in Porous Media

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Hall, C. A.; Kim, D.; Mahabadi, N.; van Paassen, L. A.

    2017-12-01

    Biologically mediated processes have been regarded and developed as an alternative approach to traditional ground improvement techniques. Denitrification has been investigated as a potential ground improvement process towards liquefaction hazard mitigation. During denitrification, microorganisms reduce nitrate to dinitrogen gas and facilitate calcium carbonate precipitation as a by-product under adequate environmental conditions. The formation of dinitrogen gas desaturates soils and allows for potential pore pressure dampening during earthquake events. While, precipitation of calcium carbonate can improve the mechanical properties by filling the voids and cementing soil particles. As a result of small changes in gas and mineral phases, the mechanical properties of soils can be significantly affected. Prior research has primarily focused on quantitative analysis of overall residual calcium carbonate mineral and biogenic gas products in lab-scale porous media. However, the distribution of these products at the pore-scale has not been well-investigated. In this research, denitrification is activated in a microfluidic chip simulating a homogenous pore structure. The denitrification process is monitored by sequential image capture, where gas and mineral phase changes are evaluated by image processing. Analysis of these images correspond with previous findings, which demonstrate that biogenic gas behaviour at the pore scale is affected by the balance between reaction, diffusion, and convection rates.

  16. Mineral Oils: Untreated and Mildly Treated

    Cancer.gov

    Learn about mineral oils, which can raise the risk of nonmelanoma skin cancer, particularly of the scrotum. Workers in a variety of manufacturing industries are most commonly exposed to mineral oils, as are workers in engine repair, copper mining, and commercial printing.

  17. Raising Environmental Awareness among Miners in Iran

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Mozaffari, Ezatollah

    2013-01-01

    Generation of waste is inevitable but controllable in minerals industry. The aim of this research is to find ways for raising environmental awareness among miners. Miners' attitude towards environmental mining has been investigated. A survey has been done collecting mine managers' point of view coupled with current trend on mine waste management…

  18. Industrial uses of radiation processing in Belgium

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Lacroix, J. P.

    Since 1979, the Irradiation Department of IRE, in conjunction with universities and the industrial sector, has set up an extensive programme of research, development and promotion of the radiation process applied to cross-linking and polymerization of plastics, to waste treatment and to food preservation. Starting from scratch, it is thanks to our research in this last-mentioned field that we have been able to develop and to increase the application of the irradiation process within the food industry. At present, two irradiation facilities of a total design capacity of 2.5 10 6 Ci irradiate 24 hours per day mostly for the agro-industry.

  19. Global nonfuel mineral exploration trends 2001-2015

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Karl, Nick; Wilburn, David R.

    2017-01-01

    The mission of the U.S. Geological Survey (USGS) National Minerals Information Center (NMIC) is to collect, analyze and disseminate information on the domestic and international supply of and demand for minerals and mineral materials essential to the U.S. economy and national security. Understanding mineral exploration activities and trends assists government policy makers, minerals industry decision makers and research entities in identifying where future sources of mineral supply are likely to be discovered, the amount and type of these resources and factors that may affect exploration and development.

  20. Efficiency analysis of wood processing industry in China during 2006-2015

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Zhang, Kun; Yuan, Baolong; Li, Yanxuan

    2018-03-01

    The wood processing industry is an important industry which affects the national economy and social development. The data envelopment analysis model (DEA) is a quantitative evaluation method for studying industrial efficiency. In this paper, the wood processing industry of 8 provinces in southern China is taken as the study object, and the efficiency of each province in 2006 to 2015 was measured and calculated with the DEA method, and the efficiency changes, technological changes and Malmquist index were analyzed dynamically. The empirical results show that there is a widening gap in the efficiency of wood processing industry of the 8 provinces, and the technological progress has shown a lag in the promotion of wood processing industry. According to the research conclusion, along with the situation of domestic and foreign wood processing industry development, the government must introduce relevant policies to strengthen the construction of the wood processing industry technology innovation policy system and the industrial coordinated development system.

  1. Understanding processes affecting mineral deposits in humid environments

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Seal, Robert R.; Ayuso, Robert A.

    2011-01-01

    Recent interdisciplinary studies by the U.S. Geological Survey have resulted in substantial progress toward understanding the influence that climate and hydrology have on the geochemical signatures of mineral deposits and the resulting mine wastes in the eastern United States. Specific areas of focus include the release, transport, and fate of acid, metals, and associated elements from inactive mines in temperate coastal areas and of metals from unmined mineral deposits in tropical to subtropical areas; the influence of climate, geology, and hydrology on remediation options for abandoned mines; and the application of radiogenic isotopes to uniquely apportion source contributions that distinguish natural from mining sources and extent of metal transport. The environmental effects of abandoned mines and unmined mineral deposits result from a complex interaction of a variety of chemical and physical factors. These include the geology of the mineral deposit, the hydrologic setting of the mineral deposit and associated mine wastes, the chemistry of waters interacting with the deposit and associated waste material, the engineering of a mine as it relates to the reactivity of mine wastes, and climate, which affects such factors as temperature and the amounts of precipitation and evapotranspiration; these factors, in turn, influence the environmental behavior of mineral deposits. The role of climate is becoming increasingly important in environmental investigations of mineral deposits because of the growing concerns about climate change.

  2. INCORPORATING INDUSTRIAL ECOLOGY INTO HIERARCHICAL CHEMICAL PROCESS DESIGN

    EPA Science Inventory

    Incorporating Industrial Ecology into Hierarchical Chemical Process Design: Determining Targets for the Exchange of Waste

    The exchange of waste to be used as a recycled feed has long been encouraged by practitioners of industrial ecology. Industrial ecology is a field t...

  3. Mineral resources of Novokuznetsk administrative district of Kemerovo region (metallic and non-metallic minerals)

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Gutak, Ja M.

    2017-09-01

    The article summarizes data on metallic and non-metallic minerals of Novokuznetsk district of Kemerovo region. Consistently reviewed are iron deposits (Tersinskaya group of deposits), gold deposits (placer accumulations and vein gold deposits), mineral water deposits (Tersinskoe deposit), deposit of refractory clay (Barkinskoe) and wide spread mineral deposits such as brick clay, keramzite materials, sand and gravel, building stones, ornamental stones, facing stones, peat, materials for lime production. It is indicated that resource base of metallic and nonmetallic minerals is inferior to that of mineral coal. At the same time it can be of considerable interest to small and medium-size businesses as objects with quick return of investment (facing and ornamental stones). For a number of wide spread mineral resources (brick clay, keramzite materials, sand and gravel) it is an important component of local industry.

  4. Production process stability - core assumption of INDUSTRY 4.0 concept

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Chromjakova, F.; Bobak, R.; Hrusecka, D.

    2017-06-01

    Today’s industrial enterprises are confronted by implementation of INDUSTRY 4.0 concept with basic problem - stabilised manufacturing and supporting processes. Through this phenomenon of stabilisation, they will achieve positive digital management of both processes and continuously throughput. There is required structural stability of horizontal (business) and vertical (digitized) manufacturing processes, supported through digitalised technologies of INDUSTRY 4.0 concept. Results presented in this paper based on the research results and survey realised in more industrial companies. Following will described basic model for structural process stabilisation in manufacturing environment.

  5. Agronomic and environmental consequences of using liquid mineral concentrates on arable farms.

    PubMed

    Schils, René L M; Postma, Romke; van Rotterdam, Debby; Zwart, Kor B

    2015-12-01

    In regions with intensive livestock systems, the processing of manure into liquid mineral concentrates is seen as an option to increase the nutrient use efficiency of manures. The agricultural sector anticipates that these products may in future be regarded as regular mineral fertilisers. We assessed the agronomic suitability and impact on greenhouse gas (GHG) and ammonia emissions of using liquid mineral concentrates on arable farms. The phosphate requirements on arable farms were largely met by raw pig slurry, given its large regional availability. After the initial nutrient input by means of pig slurry, the nitrogen/phosphate ratio of the remaining nutrient crop requirements determined the additional amount of liquid mineral concentrates that can be used. For sandy soils, liquid mineral concentrates could supply 50% of the nitrogen requirement, whereas for clay soils the concentrates did not meet the required nitrogen/phosphate ratio. The total GHG emissions per kg of plant available nitrogen ranged from -65 to 33 kg CO2 -equivalents. It increased in the order digestates < mineral fertiliser < raw slurries. Liquid mineral concentrates had limited added value for arable farms. For an increased suitability it is necessary that liquid mineral concentrates do not contain phosphate and that the nitrogen availability is increased. In the manure-processing chain, anaerobic digestion had a dominant and beneficial effect on GHG emissions. © 2015 Society of Chemical Industry.

  6. Surveillance of industrial processes with correlated parameters

    DOEpatents

    White, Andrew M.; Gross, Kenny C.; Kubic, William L.; Wigeland, Roald A.

    1996-01-01

    A system and method for surveillance of an industrial process. The system and method includes a plurality of sensors monitoring industrial process parameters, devices to convert the sensed data to computer compatible information and a computer which executes computer software directed to analyzing the sensor data to discern statistically reliable alarm conditions. The computer software is executed to remove serial correlation information and then calculate Mahalanobis distribution data to carry out a probability ratio test to determine alarm conditions.

  7. Hen uterine gene expression profiling during eggshell formation reveals putative proteins involved in the supply of minerals or in the shell mineralization process

    PubMed Central

    2014-01-01

    Background The chicken eggshell is a natural mechanical barrier to protect egg components from physical damage and microbial penetration. Its integrity and strength is critical for the development of the embryo or to ensure for consumers a table egg free of pathogens. This study compared global gene expression in laying hen uterus in the presence or absence of shell calcification in order to characterize gene products involved in the supply of minerals and / or the shell biomineralization process. Results Microarrays were used to identify a repertoire of 302 over-expressed genes during shell calcification. GO terms enrichment was performed to provide a global interpretation of the functions of the over-expressed genes, and revealed that the most over-represented proteins are related to reproductive functions. Our analysis identified 16 gene products encoding proteins involved in mineral supply, and allowed updating of the general model describing uterine ion transporters during eggshell calcification. A list of 57 proteins potentially secreted into the uterine fluid to be active in the mineralization process was also established. They were classified according to their potential functions (biomineralization, proteoglycans, molecular chaperone, antimicrobials and proteases/antiproteases). Conclusions Our study provides detailed descriptions of genes and corresponding proteins over-expressed when the shell is mineralizing. Some of these proteins involved in the supply of minerals and influencing the shell fabric to protect the egg contents are potentially useful biological markers for the genetic improvement of eggshell quality. PMID:24649854

  8. AuScope research infrastructure - supporting Australian mineral discovery

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    McInnes, B.; Rawling, T.

    2016-12-01

    Earth and geospatial scientists are heavy users of data products. When industry geologists access spatial data from the field and the exploration office they require data products that are discoverable, searchable, interoperable and attributed with robust metadata. Over the last decade AuScope has utilised NCRIS funding to provide a variety of data products including geophysical data (reflection and passive seismic, magnetotellurics and gravity), GIS layers from state and national geological survey organisations, hyperspectral core logging (National Virtual Core Library) and time-series geospatial data from GNSS and VLBI instruments - all delivered using AuScope GRID technologies based on the Spatial Information Services Stack (SiSS). Perhaps one of the best examples of collaboration to deliver data products to industry users is the National Mineral Library. Working with researchers at Curtin Universities John de Laeter Centre and ANDS, AuScope has also supported the development of a Laboratory Information Management System (LIMS). The project has produced an entirely new workflow, based around a TESCAN TIMA field emission scanning electron microscope, that allows metadata to be collected and recorded from the sample collection and preparation right through to data delivery and publication. This process has facilitated the scanning of a large stockpile of mineral samples from across Western Australia that will produce a state-wide Mineral Library, allowing mineral explorers to better understand the composition of critical rock outcrop samples from all over the state. This new NCRIS supported initiative provides a dataset that underpins both academic and applied research programs and is important for the economic future of Australia. Mining companies do a lot of heavy mineral analysis in research and development but, because there isn't a baseline for mineralogy across each state, it is difficult to have full confidence in the heavy mineral data. This creates an

  9. Biodegradation of CuTETA, an effluent by-product in mineral processing.

    PubMed

    Cushing, Alexander M L; Kelebek, Sadan; Yue, Siqing; Ramsay, Juliana A

    2018-04-13

    Polyamines such as triethylenetetramine (TETA) and other amine chelators are used in mineral processing applications. Formation of heavy metal complexes of these reagents as a by-product in effluent water is a recent environmental concern. In this study, Paecilomyces sp. was enriched from soil on TETA as the sole source of carbon and nitrogen and was found to degrade > 96 and 90% CuTETA complexes at initial concentrations of 0.32 and 0.79 mM respectively, following 96-h incubation. After destabilization, most of the copper (> 78%) was complexed extracellularly and the rest was associated with the cell. Mass spectroscopy results provided confirmation that copper re-complexed with small, extracellular, and organic molecules. There are no reports in the literature that Paecilomyces or any other organism can grow on TETA or CuTETA. This study is the first to show that biological destabilization of CuTETA complexes in mineral processing effluents is feasible.

  10. Clays and other minerals in prebiotic processes

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Paecht-Horowitz, M.

    1984-01-01

    Clays and other minerals have been investigated in context with prebiotic processes, mainly in polymerization of amino acids. It was found that peptides adsorbed on the clay, prior to polymerization, influence the reaction. The ratio between the amount of the peptides adsorbed and that of the clay is important for the yield as well as for the degrees of polymerization obtained. Adsorption prior to reaction produces a certain order in the aggregates of the clay particles which might induce better reaction results. Excess of added peptides disturbs this order and causes lesser degrees of polymerization. In addition to adsorption, clays are also able to occlude between their layers substances out of the environment, up to very high concentrations.

  11. Predicting the mineral composition of dust aerosols - Part 1: Representing key processes

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Perlwitz, J. P.; Pérez García-Pando, C.; Miller, R. L.

    2015-02-01

    Soil dust aerosols created by wind erosion are typically assigned globally uniform physical and chemical properties within Earth system models, despite known regional variations in the mineral content of the parent soil. Mineral composition of the aerosol particles is important to their interaction with climate, including shortwave absorption and radiative forcing, nucleation of cloud droplets and ice crystals, coating by heterogeneous uptake of sulfates and nitrates, and atmospheric processing of iron into bioavailable forms that increase the productivity of marine phytoplankton. Here, aerosol mineral composition is derived by extending a method that provides the composition of a wet-sieved soil. The extension accounts for measurements showing significant differences between the mineral fractions of the wet-sieved soil and the resulting aerosol concentration. For example, some phyllosilicate aerosols are more prevalent at silt sizes, even though they are nearly absent in a soil whose aggregates are dispersed by wet sieving during analysis. We reconstruct the undispersed size distribution of the original soil that is subject to wind erosion. An empirical constraint upon the relative emission of clay and silt is applied that further differentiates the soil and aerosol mineral composition. In addition, a method is proposed for mixing minerals with small impurities composed of iron oxides. These mixtures are important for transporting iron far from the dust source, because pure iron oxides are more dense and vulnerable to gravitational removal than most minerals comprising dust aerosols. A limited comparison to measurements from North Africa shows that the extension brings the model into better agreement, consistent with a more extensive comparison to global observations as well as measurements of elemental composition downwind of the Sahara, as described in companion articles.

  12. Solar energy for industrial process heat

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Barbieri, R. H.; Pivirotto, D. L.

    1979-01-01

    Findings of study of potential use for solar energy utilization by California dairy industry, prove that applicable solar energy system furnish much of heat needed for milk processing with large savings in expenditures for oil and gas and ensurance of adequate readily available sources of process heat.

  13. Surveillance of industrial processes with correlated parameters

    DOEpatents

    White, A.M.; Gross, K.C.; Kubic, W.L.; Wigeland, R.A.

    1996-12-17

    A system and method for surveillance of an industrial process are disclosed. The system and method includes a plurality of sensors monitoring industrial process parameters, devices to convert the sensed data to computer compatible information and a computer which executes computer software directed to analyzing the sensor data to discern statistically reliable alarm conditions. The computer software is executed to remove serial correlation information and then calculate Mahalanobis distribution data to carry out a probability ratio test to determine alarm conditions. 10 figs.

  14. Energy Implications of Materials Processing

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Hayes, Earl T.

    1976-01-01

    Processing of materials could become energy-limited rather than resource-limited. Methods to extract metals, industrial minerals, and energy materials and convert them to useful states requires more than one-fifth of the United States energy budget. Energy accounting by industries must include a total systems analysis of costs to insure net energy…

  15. Mineralization/Anti-Mineralization Networks in the Skin and Vascular Connective Tissues

    PubMed Central

    Li, Qiaoli; Uitto, Jouni

    2014-01-01

    Ectopic mineralization has been linked to several common clinical conditions with considerable morbidity and mortality. The mineralization processes, both metastatic and dystrophic, affect the skin and vascular connective tissues. There are several contributing metabolic and environmental factors that make uncovering of the precise pathomechanisms of these acquired disorders exceedingly difficult. Several relatively rare heritable disorders share phenotypic manifestations similar to those in common conditions, and, consequently, they serve as genetically controlled model systems to study the details of the mineralization process in peripheral tissues. This overview will highlight diseases with mineral deposition in the skin and vascular connective tissues, as exemplified by familial tumoral calcinosis, pseudoxanthoma elasticum, generalized arterial calcification of infancy, and arterial calcification due to CD73 deficiency. These diseases, and their corresponding mouse models, provide insight into the pathomechanisms of soft tissue mineralization and point to the existence of intricate mineralization/anti-mineralization networks in these tissues. This information is critical for understanding the pathomechanistic details of different mineralization disorders, and it has provided the perspective to develop pharmacological approaches to counteract the consequences of ectopic mineralization. PMID:23665350

  16. Environmental sustainability of the solar photo-Fenton process for wastewater treatment and pharmaceuticals mineralization at semi-industrial scale.

    PubMed

    Foteinis, Spyros; Monteagudo, Jose Maria; Durán, Antonio; Chatzisymeon, Efthalia

    2018-01-15

    The environmental sustainability of a semi-industrial solar photo-Fenton reactor, treating real effluents emanating from a pharmaceutical laboratory, is assessed herein. The life cycle assessment/analysis (LCA) methodology was employed and real life cycle inventory (LCI) data was collected from a ferrioxalate-assisted homogeneous solar photo-Fenton wastewater treatment plant (WWTP), at Ciudad Real, Spain. Electricity was provided by photovoltaic (PV) panels in tandem with a battery bank, making the plant autonomous from the local grid. The effective treatment of 1m 3 of secondary-treated pharmaceutical wastewater, containing antipyrine, was used as a functional unit. The main environmental hotspot was identified to be the chemical reagents used to enhance treatment efficiency, mainly hydrogen peroxide (H 2 O 2 ) and to a smaller degree oxalic acid. On the other hand, land use, PV panels, battery units, compound parabolic collectors (CPC), tanks, pipes and pumps, as materials, had a low contribution, ranging from as little as 0.06% up to about 2% on the total CO 2eq emissions. Overall, the solar photo-Fenton process was found to be a sustainable technology for treating wastewater containing micropollutants at semi-industrial level, since the total environmental footprint was found to be 2.71kgCO 2 m -3 or 272mPtm -3 , using IPCC 2013 and ReCiPe impact assessment methods, respectively. A sensitivity analysis revealed that if the excess of solar power is fed back into the grid then the total environmental footprint is reduced. Depending on the amount of solar power fed back into the grid the process could have a near zero total environmental footprint. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  17. A Statistical Review of Alternative Zinc and Copper Extraction from Mineral Fertilizers and Industrial By-Products.

    PubMed

    Cenciani de Souza, Camila Prado; Aparecida de Abreu, Cleide; Coscione, Aline Renée; Alberto de Andrade, Cristiano; Teixeira, Luiz Antonio Junqueira; Consolini, Flavia

    2018-01-01

    Rapid, accurate, and low-cost alternative analytical methods for micronutrient quantification in fertilizers are fundamental in QC. The purpose of this study was to evaluate whether zinc (Zn) and copper (Cu) content in mineral fertilizers and industrial by-products determined by the alternative methods USEPA 3051a, 10% HCl, and 10% H2SO4 are statistically equivalent to the standard method, consisting of hot-plate digestion using concentrated HCl. The commercially marketed Zn and Cu sources in Brazil consisted of oxides, carbonate, and sulfate fertilizers and by-products consisting of galvanizing ash, galvanizing sludge, brass ash, and brass or scrap slag. The contents of sources ranged from 15 to 82% and 10 to 45%, respectively, for Zn and Cu. The Zn and Cu contents refer to the variation of the elements found in the different sources evaluated with the concentrated HCl method as shown in Table 1. A protocol based on the following criteria was used for the statistical analysis assessment of the methods: F-test modified by Graybill, t-test for the mean error, and linear correlation coefficient analysis. In terms of equivalents, 10% HCl extraction was equivalent to the standard method for Zn, and the results of the USEPA 3051a and 10% HCl methods indicated that these methods were equivalents for Cu. Therefore, these methods can be considered viable alternatives to the standard method of determination for Cu and Zn in mineral fertilizers and industrial by-products in future research for their complete validation.

  18. Society of the plastic industry process emission initiatives

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Mcdermott, Joseph

    1994-01-01

    At first view, plastics process emissions research may not seem to have much bearing on outgassing considerations relative to advanced composite materials; however, several parallel issues and cross currents are of mutual interest. The following topics are discussed: relevance of plastics industry research to aerospace composites; impact of clean air act amendment requirements; scope of the Society of the Plastics Industry, Inc. activities in thermoplastic process emissions and reinforced plastics/composites process emissions; and utility of SPI research for advanced polymer composites audiences.

  19. Mineral Surface Chemistry and Nanoparticle-aggregation Control Membrane Self-Assembly

    PubMed Central

    Sahai, Nita; Kaddour, Hussein; Dalai, Punam; Wang, Ziqiu; Bass, Garrett; Gao, Min

    2017-01-01

    The self-assembly of lipid bilayer membranes to enclose functional biomolecules, thus defining a “protocell,” was a seminal moment in the emergence of life on Earth and likely occurred at the micro-environment of the mineral-water interface. Mineral-lipid interactions are also relevant in biomedical, industrial and technological processes. Yet, no structure-activity relationships (SARs) have been identified to predict lipid self-assembly at mineral surfaces. Here we examined the influence of minerals on the self-assembly and survival of vesicles composed of single chain amphiphiles as model protocell membranes. The apparent critical vesicle concentration (CVC) increased in the presence of positively-charged nanoparticulate minerals at high loadings (mg/mL) suggesting unfavorable membrane self-assembly in such situations. Above the CVC, initial vesicle formation rates were faster in the presence of minerals. Rates were correlated with the mineral’s isoelectric point (IEP) and reactive surface area. The IEP depends on the crystal structure, chemical composition and surface hydration. Thus, membrane self-assembly showed rational dependence on fundamental mineral properties. Once formed, membrane permeability (integrity) was unaffected by minerals. Suggesting that, protocells could have survived on rock surfaces. These SARs may help predict the formation and survival of protocell membranes on early Earth and other rocky planets, and amphiphile-mineral interactions in diverse other phenomena. PMID:28266537

  20. Mineral Surface Chemistry and Nanoparticle-aggregation Control Membrane Self-Assembly

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Sahai, Nita; Kaddour, Hussein; Dalai, Punam; Wang, Ziqiu; Bass, Garrett; Gao, Min

    2017-03-01

    The self-assembly of lipid bilayer membranes to enclose functional biomolecules, thus defining a “protocell,” was a seminal moment in the emergence of life on Earth and likely occurred at the micro-environment of the mineral-water interface. Mineral-lipid interactions are also relevant in biomedical, industrial and technological processes. Yet, no structure-activity relationships (SARs) have been identified to predict lipid self-assembly at mineral surfaces. Here we examined the influence of minerals on the self-assembly and survival of vesicles composed of single chain amphiphiles as model protocell membranes. The apparent critical vesicle concentration (CVC) increased in the presence of positively-charged nanoparticulate minerals at high loadings (mg/mL) suggesting unfavorable membrane self-assembly in such situations. Above the CVC, initial vesicle formation rates were faster in the presence of minerals. Rates were correlated with the mineral’s isoelectric point (IEP) and reactive surface area. The IEP depends on the crystal structure, chemical composition and surface hydration. Thus, membrane self-assembly showed rational dependence on fundamental mineral properties. Once formed, membrane permeability (integrity) was unaffected by minerals. Suggesting that, protocells could have survived on rock surfaces. These SARs may help predict the formation and survival of protocell membranes on early Earth and other rocky planets, and amphiphile-mineral interactions in diverse other phenomena.

  1. Course Development: Industrial or Social Process.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Kaufman, David

    The development of course materials at the Open Learning Institute, British Columbia, Canada, is examined from two perspectives: as an industrial process and as a social process. The public institute provides distance education through paced home-study courses. The course team model used at the Institute is a system approach. Course development…

  2. Optimizing the availability of a buffered industrial process

    DOEpatents

    Martz, Jr., Harry F.; Hamada, Michael S.; Koehler, Arthur J.; Berg, Eric C.

    2004-08-24

    A computer-implemented process determines optimum configuration parameters for a buffered industrial process. A population size is initialized by randomly selecting a first set of design and operation values associated with subsystems and buffers of the buffered industrial process to form a set of operating parameters for each member of the population. An availability discrete event simulation (ADES) is performed on each member of the population to determine the product-based availability of each member. A new population is formed having members with a second set of design and operation values related to the first set of design and operation values through a genetic algorithm and the product-based availability determined by the ADES. Subsequent population members are then determined by iterating the genetic algorithm with product-based availability determined by ADES to form improved design and operation values from which the configuration parameters are selected for the buffered industrial process.

  3. Predicting the Mineral Composition of Dust Aerosols. Part 1; Representing Key Processes

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Perlwitz, J. P.; Garcia-Pando, C. Perez; Miller, R. L.

    2015-01-01

    Soil dust aerosols created by wind erosion are typically assigned globally uniform physical and chemical properties within Earth system models, despite known regional variations in the mineral content of the parent soil. Mineral composition of the aerosol particles is important to their interaction with climate, including shortwave absorption and radiative forcing, nucleation of cloud droplets and ice crystals, heterogeneous formation of sulfates and nitrates, and atmospheric processing of iron into bioavailable forms that increase the productivity of marine phytoplankton. Here, aerosol mineral composition is derived by extending a method that provides the composition of a wet-sieved soil. The extension accounts for measurements showing significant differences between the mineral fractions of the wetsieved soil and the emitted aerosol concentration. For example, some phyllosilicate aerosols are more prevalent at silt sizes, even though they are nearly absent at these diameters in a soil whose aggregates are dispersed by wet sieving. We calculate the emitted mass of each mineral with respect to size by accounting for the disintegration of soil aggregates during wet sieving. These aggregates are emitted during mobilization and fragmentation of the original undispersed soil that is subject to wind erosion. The emitted aggregates are carried far downwind from their parent soil. The soil mineral fractions used to calculate the aggregates also include larger particles that are suspended only in the vicinity of the source. We calculate the emitted size distribution of these particles using a normalized distribution derived from aerosol measurements. In addition, a method is proposed for mixing minerals with small impurities composed of iron oxides. These mixtures are important for transporting iron far from the dust source, because pure iron oxides are more dense and vulnerable to gravitational removal than most minerals comprising dust aerosols. A limited comparison to

  4. Predicting the mineral composition of dust aerosols - Part 1: Representing key processes

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Perlwitz, J. P.; Pérez García-Pando, C.; Miller, R. L.

    2015-10-01

    Soil dust aerosols created by wind erosion are typically assigned globally uniform physical and chemical properties within Earth system models, despite known regional variations in the mineral content of the parent soil. Mineral composition of the aerosol particles is important to their interaction with climate, including shortwave absorption and radiative forcing, nucleation of cloud droplets and ice crystals, heterogeneous formation of sulfates and nitrates, and atmospheric processing of iron into bioavailable forms that increase the productivity of marine phytoplankton. Here, aerosol mineral composition is derived by extending a method that provides the composition of a wet-sieved soil. The extension accounts for measurements showing significant differences between the mineral fractions of the wet-sieved soil and the emitted aerosol concentration. For example, some phyllosilicate aerosols are more prevalent at silt sizes, even though they are nearly absent at these diameters in a soil whose aggregates are dispersed by wet sieving. We calculate the emitted mass of each mineral with respect to size by accounting for the disintegration of soil aggregates during wet sieving. These aggregates are emitted during mobilization and fragmentation of the original undispersed soil that is subject to wind erosion. The emitted aggregates are carried far downwind from their parent soil. The soil mineral fractions used to calculate the aggregates also include larger particles that are suspended only in the vicinity of the source. We calculate the emitted size distribution of these particles using a normalized distribution derived from aerosol measurements. In addition, a method is proposed for mixing minerals with small impurities composed of iron oxides. These mixtures are important for transporting iron far from the dust source, because pure iron oxides are more dense and vulnerable to gravitational removal than most minerals comprising dust aerosols. A limited comparison to

  5. INDUSTRIAL PROCESS PROFILES FOR ENVIRONMENTAL USE: CHAPTER 30. THE ELECTRONIC COMPONENT MANUFACTURING INDUSTRY

    EPA Science Inventory

    This report is one of a series constituting the catalog of Industrial Process Profiles for Environmental Use. Each industry sector is addressed as a separate chapter of the study. The catalog was developed for the purpose of compiling relevant information concerning air, water, a...

  6. Lindane degradation by electrooxidation process: Effect of electrode materials on oxidation and mineralization kinetics.

    PubMed

    Dominguez, Carmen M; Oturan, Nihal; Romero, Arturo; Santos, Aurora; Oturan, Mehmet A

    2018-05-15

    This study focuses on the effect of electrode materials on abatement of lindane (an organochlorine pesticide) by electrooxidation process. Comparative performances of different anodic (platinum (Pt), dimensionally stable anode (DSA) and boron-doped diamond (BDD)) and cathodic (carbon sponge (CS), carbon felt (CF) and stainless steel (SS)) materials on lindane electrooxidation and mineralization were investigated. Special attention was paid to determine the role of chlorine active species during the electrooxidation process. The results showed that better performances were obtained when using a BDD anode and CF cathode cell. The influence of the current density was assessed to optimize the oxidation of lindane and the mineralization of its aqueous solution. A quick (10 min) and complete oxidation of 10 mg L -1 lindane solution and relatively high mineralization degree (80% TOC removal) at 4 h electrolysis were achieved at 8.33 mA cm -2 current density. Lindane was quickly oxidized by in-situ generated hydroxyl radicals, (M( • OH)), formed from oxidation of water on the anode (M) surface following pseudo first-order reaction kinetics. Formation of chlorinated and hydroxylated intermediates and carboxylic acids during the treatment were identified and a plausible mineralization pathway of lindane by hydroxyl radicals was proposed. Copyright © 2018 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  7. Leaching Behavior Of Mineral Processing Waste: Comparison Of Batch And Column Investigations

    EPA Science Inventory

    In this study, a comparison of laboratory batch and column experiments on metal release profile from a mineral processing waste (MPW) is presented. Batch (equilibrium) and column (dynamic) leaching tests were conducted on ground MPW at different liquid–solid ratios (LS) to determ...

  8. Industrial diamond

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Olson, D.W.

    2000-01-01

    Part of the 1999 Industrial Minerals Review. A review of the state of the global industrial diamond industry in 1999 is presented. World consumption of industrial diamond has increased annually in recent years, with an estimated 500 million carats valued between $650 million and $800 million consumed in 1999. In 1999, the U.S. was the world's largest market for industrial diamond and was also one of the world's main producers; the others were Ireland, Russia, and South Africa. Uses of industrial diamonds are discussed, and prices of natural and synthetic industrial diamond are reported.

  9. The life cycle of a mineral deposit: a teacher's guide for hands-on mineral education activities

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Frank, Dave; Galloway, John; Assmus, Ken

    2005-01-01

    This teacher's guide defines what a mineral deposit is and how a mineral deposit is identified and measured, how the mineral resources are extracted, and how the mining site is reclaimed; how minerals and mineral resources are processed; and how we use mineral resources in our every day lives. Included are 10 activitybased learning exercises that educate students on basic geologic concepts; the processes of finding, identifying, and extracting the resources from a mineral deposit; and the uses of minerals. The guide is intended for K through 12 Earth science teachers and students and is designed to meet the National Science Content Standards as defined by the National Research Council (1996). To assist in the understanding of some of the geology and mineral terms, see the Glossary (appendix 1) and Minerals and Their Uses (appendix 2). The process of finding or exploring for a mineral deposit, extracting or mining the resource, recovering the resource, also known as beneficiation, and reclaiming the land mined can be described as the “life cycle” of a mineral deposit. The complete process is time consuming and expensive, requiring the use of modern technology and equipment, and may take many years to complete. Sometimes one entity or company completes the entire process from discovery to reclamation, but often it requires multiple groups with specialized experience working together. Mineral deposits are the source of many important commodities, such as copper and gold, used by our society, but it is important to realize that mineral deposits are a nonrenewable resource. Once mined, they are exhausted, and another source must be found. New mineral deposits are being continuously created by the Earth but may take millions of years to form. Mineral deposits differ from renewable resources, such as agricultural and timber products, which may be replenished within a few months to several years.

  10. Reagan issues mineral policy

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    The National Materials and Minerals Program plan and report that President Reagan sent to Congress on April 5 aims to ‘decrease America's minerals vulnerability’ while reducing future dependence on potentially unstable foreign sources of minerals. These goals would be accomplished by taking inventory of federal lands to determine mineral potential; by meeting the stockpile goals set by the Strategic and Critical Material Stockpiling Act; and by establishing a business and political climate that would encourage private-sector research and development on minerals.Now that the Administration has issued its plan, the Subcommittee on Mines and Mining of the House Committee on Interior and Insular Affairs will consider the National Minerals Security Act (NMSA), which was introduced 1 year ago by subcommittee chairman Jim Santini (D-Nev.) [Eos, May 19, 1981, p. 497]. The bill calls for establishing a three-member White-House-level council to coordinate the development of a national minerals policy; amending tax laws to assist the mining industry to make capital investments to locate and produce strategic materials; and creating a revolving fund for the sale and purchase of strategic minerals. In addition, the NMSA bill would allow the secretary of the interior to make previously withdrawn public lands available for mineral development. The subcommittee will hold a hearing on the Administration's plan on May 11. Interior Secretary James Watt has been invited to testify.

  11. Race for resources: continuing struggles over minerals and fuels

    SciTech Connect

    Tanzer, M.

    1980-01-01

    Analyzing the mineral crisis within the historical context of the workings of the international capitalist system is necessary since capitalism spawned the industrial revolution, which in turn led to the vast expansion of mineral use. The analysis begins with the multinational companies that dominate the international mineral industry because they are generally the leading forces in the struggle for control of mineral resources and profits. The focus is twofold: (1) on those minerals that are important as economic inputs and in money value, including the metals copper, bauxite, nickel, and iron ore; and (2) to a lesser extent, on themore » fuels. The emphasis is on the current picture and likely changes in the future. Case studies illustrate some of the major forces at work. Crucial problem areas of the future will include the roles of technology, the Third World, and socialist countries. 26 references, 24 tables.« less

  12. Industrial application of semantic process mining

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Espen Ingvaldsen, Jon; Atle Gulla, Jon

    2012-05-01

    Process mining relates to the extraction of non-trivial and useful information from information system event logs. It is a new research discipline that has evolved significantly since the early work on idealistic process logs. Over the last years, process mining prototypes have incorporated elements from semantics and data mining and targeted visualisation techniques that are more user-friendly to business experts and process owners. In this article, we present a framework for evaluating different aspects of enterprise process flows and address practical challenges of state-of-the-art industrial process mining. We also explore the inherent strengths of the technology for more efficient process optimisation.

  13. Mineral Property Management - Division of Mining, Land, and Water

    Science.gov Websites

    Mineral Property Management This section in the division maintains the records for mineral property rights established under state laws and regulations. The timely maintenance of property right records is fundamental to the mineral industry operating. Property right records must be current and up-to-date for title

  14. Microbially mediated mineral carbonation

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Power, I. M.; Wilson, S. A.; Dipple, G. M.; Southam, G.

    2010-12-01

    Mineral carbonation involves silicate dissolution and carbonate precipitation, which are both natural processes that microorganisms are able to mediate in near surface environments (Ferris et al., 1994; Eq. 1). (Ca,Mg)SiO3 + 2H2CO3 + H2O → (Ca,Mg)CO3 + H2O + H4SiO4 + O2 (1) Cyanobacteria are photoautotrophs with cell surface characteristics and metabolic processes involving inorganic carbon that can induce carbonate precipitation. This occurs partly by concentrating cations within their net-negative cell envelope and through the alkalinization of their microenvironment (Thompson & Ferris, 1990). Regions with mafic and ultramafic bedrock, such as near Atlin, British Columbia, Canada, represent the best potential sources of feedstocks for mineral carbonation. The hydromagnesite playas near Atlin are a natural biogeochemical model for the carbonation of magnesium silicate minerals (Power et al., 2009). Field-based studies at Atlin and corroborating laboratory experiments demonstrate the ability of a microbial consortium dominated by filamentous cyanobacteria to induce the precipitation of carbonate minerals. Phototrophic microbes, such as cyanobacteria, have been proposed as a means for producing biodiesel and other value added products because of their efficiency as solar collectors and low requirement for valuable, cultivable land in comparison to crops (Dismukes et al., 2008). Carbonate precipitation and biomass production could be facilitated using specifically designed ponds to collect waters rich in dissolved cations (e.g., Mg2+ and Ca2+), which would allow for evapoconcentration and provide an appropriate environment for growth of cyanobacteria. Microbially mediated carbonate precipitation does not require large quantities of energy or chemicals needed for industrial systems that have been proposed for rapid carbon capture and storage via mineral carbonation (e.g., Lackner et al., 1995). Therefore, this biogeochemical approach may represent a readily

  15. Multifaceted role of clay minerals in pharmaceuticals

    PubMed Central

    Khurana, Inderpreet Singh; Kaur, Satvinder; Kaur, Harpreet; Khurana, Rajneet Kaur

    2015-01-01

    The desirable physical and physiochemical properties of clay minerals have led them to play a substantial role in pharmaceutical formulations. Clay minerals like kaolin, smectite and palygorskite-sepiolite are among the world's most valuable industrial minerals and of considerable importance. The elemental features of clay minerals which caused them to be used in pharmaceutical formulations are high specific area, sorption capacity, favorable rheological properties, chemical inertness, swelling capacity, reactivity to acids and inconsiderable toxicity. Of course, these are highly cost effectual. This special report on clay minerals provides a bird's eye view of the chemical composition and structure of these minerals and their influence on the release properties of active medicinal agents. Endeavor has been made to rope in myriad applications depicting the wide acceptability of these clay minerals. PMID:28031881

  16. Electron beam irradiation processing for industrial and medical applications

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Ozer, Zehra Nur

    2017-09-01

    In recent years, electron beam processing has been widely used for medical and industrial applications. Electron beam accelerators are reliable and durable equipments that can produce ionizing radiation when it is needed for a particular commercial use. On the industrial scale, accelerators are used to generate electrons in between 0.1-100 MeV energy range. These accelerators are used mainly in plastics, automotive, wire and electric cables, semiconductors, health care, aerospace and environmental industries, as well as numerous researches. This study presents the current applications of electron beam processing in medicine and industry. Also planned study of a design for such a system in the energy range of 200-300 keV is introduced.

  17. Mineral commodity summaries 2013

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    ,

    2013-01-01

    Each chapter of the 2013 edition of the U.S. Geological Survey (USGS) Mineral Commodity Summaries (MCS) includes information on events, trends, and issues for each mineral commodity as well as discussions and tabular presentations on domestic industry structure, Government programs, tariffs, 5-year salient statistics, and world production and resources. The MCS is the earliest comprehensive source of 2012 mineral production data for the world. More than 90 individual minerals and materials are covered by two-page synopses. For mineral commodities for which there is a Government stockpile, detailed information concerning the stockpile status is included in the two-page synopsis. Abbreviations and units of measure, and definitions of selected terms used in the report, are in Appendix A and Appendix B, respectively. “Appendix C—Reserves and Resources” includes “Part A—Resource/Reserve Classification for Minerals” and “Part B—Sources of Reserves Data.” A directory of USGS minerals information country specialists and their responsibilities is Appendix D. The USGS continually strives to improve the value of its publications to users. Constructive comments and suggestions by readers of the MCS 2013 are welcomed.

  18. Mineral commodity summaries 2014

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    ,

    2014-01-01

    Each chapter of the 2014 edition of the U.S. Geological Survey (USGS) Mineral Commodity Summaries (MCS) includes information on events, trends, and issues for each mineral commodity as well as discussions and tabular presentations on domestic industry structure, Government programs, tariffs, 5-year salient statistics, and world production and resources. The MCS is the earliest comprehensive source of 2013 mineral production data for the world. More than 90 individual minerals and materials are covered by two-page synopses. For mineral commodities for which there is a Government stockpile, detailed information concerning the stockpile status is included in the two-page synopsis. Abbreviations and units of measure, and definitions of selected terms used in the report, are in Appendix A and Appendix B, respectively. “Appendix C—Reserves and Resources” includes “Part A—Resource/Reserve Classification for Minerals” and “Part B—Sources of Reserves Data.” A directory of USGS minerals information country specialists and their responsibilities is Appendix D. The USGS continually strives to improve the value of its publications to users. Constructive comments and suggestions by readers of the MCS 2014 are welcomed.

  19. Review of selected global mineral industries in 2011 and an outlook to 2017

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Menzie, W. David; Soto-Viruet, Yadira; Bermúdez-Lugo, Omayra; Mobbs, Philip M.; Perez, Alberto Alexander; Taib, Mowafa; Wacaster, Susan; ,

    2013-01-01

    This report reviews the world production of selected mineral commodities in 2011 and includes output projections (based on planned capacity expansions) through 2017. It also includes brief discussions of several issues that are of importance to the mineral sector, including the world economy, the availability of strategic minerals, significant company mergers and acquisitions in 2011, exploration investment made during the year, and the moves towards resource nationalization and expropriation of mineral assets by national Governments.

  20. Thermal storage technologies for solar industrial process heat applications

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Gordon, L. H.

    1979-01-01

    The state-of-the-art of thermal storage subsystems for the intermediate and high temperature (100 C to 600 C) solar industrial process heat generation is presented. Primary emphasis is focused on buffering and diurnal storage as well as total energy transport. In addition, advanced thermal storage concepts which appear promising for future solar industrial process heat applications are discussed.

  1. Computer integrated manufacturing/processing in the HPI. [Hydrocarbon Processing Industry

    SciTech Connect

    Yoshimura, J.S.

    1993-05-01

    Hydrocarbon Processing and Systemhouse Inc., developed a comprehensive survey on the status of computer integrated manufacturing/processing (CIM/CIP) targeted specifically to the unique requirements of the hydrocarbon processing industry. These types of surveys and other benchmarking techniques can be invaluable in assisting companies to maximize business benefits from technology investments. The survey was organized into 5 major areas: CIM/CIP planning, management perspective, functional applications, integration and technology infrastructure and trends. The CIM/CIP planning area dealt with the use and type of planning methods to plan, justify implement information technology projects. The management perspective section addressed management priorities, expenditure levels and implementationmore » barriers. The functional application area covered virtually all functional areas of organization and focused on the specific solutions and benefits in each of the functional areas. The integration section addressed the needs and integration status of the organization's functional areas. Finally, the technology infrastructure and trends section dealt with specific technologies in use as well as trends over the next three years. In February 1993, summary areas from preliminary results were presented at the 2nd International Conference on Productivity and Quality in the Hydrocarbon Processing Industry.« less

  2. Vision Systems Illuminate Industrial Processes

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    2013-01-01

    When NASA designs a spacecraft to undertake a new mission, innovation does not stop after the design phase. In many cases, these spacecraft are firsts of their kind, requiring not only remarkable imagination and expertise in their conception but new technologies and methods for their manufacture. In the realm of manufacturing, NASA has from necessity worked on the cutting-edge, seeking new techniques and materials for creating unprecedented structures, as well as capabilities for reducing the cost and increasing the efficiency of existing manufacturing technologies. From friction stir welding enhancements (Spinoff 2009) to thermoset composites (Spinoff 2011), NASA s innovations in manufacturing have often transferred to the public in ways that enable the expansion of the Nation s industrial productivity. NASA has long pursued ways of improving upon and ensuring quality results from manufacturing processes ranging from arc welding to thermal coating applications. But many of these processes generate blinding light (hence the need for special eyewear during welding) that obscures the process while it is happening, making it difficult to monitor and evaluate. In the 1980s, NASA partnered with a company to develop technology to address this issue. Today, that collaboration has spawned multiple commercial products that not only support effective manufacturing for private industry but also may support NASA in the use of an exciting, rapidly growing field of manufacturing ideal for long-duration space missions.

  3. Food matrix and cooking process affect mineral bioaccessibility of enteral nutrition formulas.

    PubMed

    Galán, María Gimena; Drago, Silvina Rosa

    2014-02-01

    When enteral formulas (EF) are administered orally as a supplement to the normal diet, they are often mixed with conventional foods or included in recipes in order to seek new flavors and textures and avoid monotony. The aims of this work were to study the bioaccessibility of Fe, Zn and Ca from commercial EF and the impact upon their incorporation into sweet preparations. Twenty commercial EF, before and after inclusion in sweet food (rice pudding, RP; banana smoothie, BS; tea, T; chocolate dessert, CD) were evaluated regarding Fe, Zn and Ca dialyzability (%DFe , %DZn , %DCa ) as an estimator of mineral bioaccessibility. Fe, Zn and Ca dialyzability from EF was variable and generally low. Heating during EF-sweet food preparation (T and CD) lowered values to 44.1 %DFe , possibly due to degradation of vitamin C, and 52.7 %DZn and 25.3 %DCa , due to the interaction with food components. EF and EF-sweet foods did not represent a good supply of Fe, Zn and Ca as recommended. This study demonstrated how the bioaccessibility of these minerals is affected by the food matrix in which EF is included as well as heating during food preparation. © 2013 Society of Chemical Industry.

  4. Towards sustainable processing of columbite group minerals: elucidating the relation between dielectric properties and physico-chemical transformations in the mineral phase.

    PubMed

    Sanchez-Segado, Sergio; Monti, Tamara; Katrib, Juliano; Kingman, Samuel; Dodds, Chris; Jha, Animesh

    2017-12-21

    Current methodologies for the extraction of tantalum and niobium pose a serious threat to human beings and the environment due to the use of hydrofluoric acid (HF). Niobium and tantalum metal powders and pentoxides are widely used for energy efficient devices and components. However, the current processing methods for niobium and tantalum metals and oxides are energy inefficient. This dichotomy between materials use for energy applications and their inefficient processing is the main motivation for exploring a new methodology for the extraction of these two oxides, investigating the microwave absorption properties of the reaction products formed during the alkali roasting of niobium-tantalum bearing minerals with sodium bicarbonate. The experimental findings from dielectric measurement at elevated temperatures demonstrate an exponential increase in the values of the dielectric properties as a result of the formation of NaNbO 3 -NaTaO 3 solid solutions at temperatures above 700 °C. The investigation of the evolution of the dielectric properties during the roasting reaction is a key feature in underpinning the mechanism for designing a new microwave assisted high-temperature process for the selective separation of niobium and tantalum oxides from the remainder mineral crystalline lattice.

  5. Predicting the mineral composition of dust aerosols – Part 1: Representing key processes

    DOE PAGES

    Perlwitz, J. P.; Perez Garcia-Pando, C.; Miller, R. L.

    2015-10-21

    Soil dust aerosols created by wind erosion are typically assigned globally uniform physical and chemical properties within Earth system models, despite known regional variations in the mineral content of the parent soil. Mineral composition of the aerosol particles is important to their interaction with climate, including shortwave absorption and radiative forcing, nucleation of cloud droplets and ice crystals, heterogeneous formation of sulfates and nitrates, and atmospheric processing of iron into bioavailable forms that increase the productivity of marine phytoplankton. Here, aerosol mineral composition is derived by extending a method that provides the composition of a wet-sieved soil. The extension accountsmore » for measurements showing significant differences between the mineral fractions of the wet-sieved soil and the emitted aerosol concentration. For example, some phyllosilicate aerosols are more prevalent at silt sizes, even though they are nearly absent at these diameters in a soil whose aggregates are dispersed by wet sieving. We calculate the emitted mass of each mineral with respect to size by accounting for the disintegration of soil aggregates during wet sieving. These aggregates are emitted during mobilization and fragmentation of the original undispersed soil that is subject to wind erosion. The emitted aggregates are carried far downwind from their parent soil. The soil mineral fractions used to calculate the aggregates also include larger particles that are suspended only in the vicinity of the source. We calculate the emitted size distribution of these particles using a normalized distribution derived from aerosol measurements. In addition, a method is proposed for mixing minerals with small impurities composed of iron oxides. These mixtures are important for transporting iron far from the dust source, because pure iron oxides are more dense and vulnerable to gravitational removal than most minerals comprising dust aerosols. Finally, a

  6. Magnetic susceptibilities of minerals

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Rosenblum, Sam; Brownfield, I.K.

    2000-01-01

    Magnetic separation of minerals is a topic that is seldom reported in the literature for two reasons. First, separation data generally are byproducts of other projects; and second, this study requires a large amount of patience and is unusually tedious. Indeed, we suspect that most minerals probably are never investigated for this property. These data are timesaving for mineralogists who concentrate mono-mineralic fractions for chemical analysis, age dating, and for other purposes. The data can certainly be used in the ore-beneficiation industries. In some instances, magnetic-susceptibility data may help in mineral identification, where other information is insufficient. In past studies of magnetic separation of minerals, (Gaudin and Spedden, 1943; Tille and Kirkpatrick, 1956; Rosenblum, 1958; Rubinstein and others, 1958; Flinter, 1959; Hess, 1959; Baker, 1962; Meric and Peyre, 1963; Rojas and others, 1965; and Duchesne, 1966), the emphasis has been on the ferromagnetic and paramagnetic ranges of extraction. For readers interested in the history of magnetic separation of minerals, Krumbein and Pettijohn (1938, p. 344-346) indicated nine references back to 1848. The primary purpose of this paper is to report the magnetic-susceptibility data on as many minerals as possible, similar to tables of hardness, specific gravity, refractive indices, and other basic physical properties of minerals. A secondary purpose is to demonstrate that the total and best extraction ranges are influenced by the chemistry of the minerals. The following notes are offered to help avoid problems in separating a desired mineral concentrate from mixtures of mineral grains.

  7. Conceptual design of industrial process displays.

    PubMed

    Pedersen, C R; Lind, M

    1999-11-01

    Today, process displays used in industry are often designed on the basis of piping and instrumentation diagrams without any method of ensuring that the needs of the operators are fulfilled. Therefore, a method for a systematic approach to the design of process displays is needed. This paper discusses aspects of process display design taking into account both the designer's and the operator's points of view. Three aspects are emphasized: the operator tasks, the display content and the display form. The distinction between these three aspects is the basis for proposing an outline for a display design method that matches the industrial practice of modular plant design and satisfies the needs of reusability of display design solutions. The main considerations in display design in the industry are to specify the operator's activities in detail, to extract the information the operators need from the plant design specification and documentation, and finally to present this information. The form of the display is selected from existing standardized display elements such as trend curves, mimic diagrams, ecological interfaces, etc. Further knowledge is required to invent new display elements. That is, knowledge about basic visual means of presenting information and how humans perceive and interpret these means and combinations. This knowledge is required in the systematic selection of graphical items for a given display content. The industrial part of the method is first illustrated in the paper by a simple example from a plant with batch processes. Later the method is applied to develop a supervisory display for a condenser system in a nuclear power plant. The differences between the continuous plant domain of power production and the batch processes from the example are analysed and broad categories of display types are proposed. The problems involved in specification and invention of a supervisory display are analysed and conclusions from these problems are made. It is

  8. U.S. Fruit and Vegetable Processing Industries.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Buckley, Katharine C.; And Others

    Because of shifts in consumer tastes and preferences, demographics, technology, government regulation, and the expanding interdependence of world markets, the United States fruit and vegetable processing industries must operate in a constantly changing and uncertain economic environment. U.S. per capita use of processed fruits and vegetables is…

  9. Developing and Managing University-Industry Research Collaborations through a Process Methodology/Industrial Sector Approach

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Philbin, Simon P.

    2010-01-01

    A management framework has been successfully utilized at Imperial College London in the United Kingdom to improve the process for developing and managing university-industry research collaborations. The framework has been part of a systematic approach to increase the level of research contracts from industrial sources, to strengthen the…

  10. Gamma radiation-induced thermoluminescence emission of minerals adhered to Mexican sesame seeds

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Rodríguez-Lazcano, Y.; Correcher, V.; Garcia-Guinea, J.; Cruz-Zaragoza, E.

    2013-02-01

    The thermoluminescence (TL) emission of minerals isolated from Mexican sesame seeds appear as a good tool to discern between irradiated and non-irradiated samples. According to the X-ray diffraction (XRD) and environmental scanning electron microscope (ESEM) data, the adhered dust in both samples is mainly composed of different amounts of quartz and feldspars. These mineral phases exhibit (i) enough sensitivity to ionizing radiation inducing good TL intensity, (ii) high stability of the TL signal during the storage of the material, i.e. low fading, and (iii) are thermally and chemically stable. Blind tests were performed under laboratory conditions, but simulating industrial preservation processes, allow us to distinguish between 1 kGy gamma-irradiated and non-irradiated samples even 15 months after irradiation processing followed the EN 1788 European Standard protocol in sesame samples.

  11. Alaska Mineral Industry Reports | Alaska Division of Geological &

    Science.gov Websites

    Publications Geologic Materials Center General Information Inventory Monthly Report Hours and Location Policy Surveys has published an annual summary of mineral activity each winter followed by an annual report of conveyor in the foreground. Photo provided by Fairbanks Gold Mining Co. SR 72 Report Athey, J.E., and

  12. Comprehensive assessment of exposures to elongate mineral particles in the taconite mining industry.

    PubMed

    Hwang, Jooyeon; Ramachandran, Gurumurthy; Raynor, Peter C; Alexander, Bruce H; Mandel, Jeffrey H

    2013-10-01

    Since the 1970s, concerns have been raised about elevated rates of mesothelioma in the vicinity of the taconite mines in the Mesabi Iron Range. However, insufficient quantitative exposure data have hampered investigations of the relationship between cumulative exposures to elongate mineral particles (EMP) in taconite dust and adverse health effects. Specifically, no research on exposure to taconite dust, which includes EMP, has been conducted since 1990. This article describes a comprehensive assessment of present-day exposures to total and amphibole EMP in the taconite mining industry. Similar exposure groups (SEGs) were established to assess present-day exposure levels and buttress the sparse historical data. Personal samples were collected to assess the present-day levels of worker exposures to EMP at six mines in the Mesabi Iron Range. The samples were analyzed using National Institute for Occupational Safety and Health (NIOSH) methods 7400 and 7402. For many SEGs in several mines, the exposure levels of total EMP were higher than the NIOSH Recommended Exposure Limit (REL). However, the total EMP classification includes not only the asbestiform EMP and their non-asbestiform mineral analogs but also other minerals because the NIOSH 7400 cannot differentiate between these. The concentrations of amphibole EMP were well controlled across all mines and were much lower than the concentrations of total EMP, indicating that amphibole EMP are not major components of taconite EMP. The levels are also well below the NIOSH REL of 0.1 EMP cc(-1). Two different approaches were used to evaluate the variability of exposure between SEGs, between workers, and within workers. The related constructs of contrast and homogeneity were calculated to characterize the SEGs. Contrast, which is a ratio of between-SEG variability to the sum of between-SEG and between-worker variability, provides an overall measure of whether there are distinctions between the SEGs. Homogeneity, which is

  13. Digital Image Processing in Private Industry.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Moore, Connie

    1986-01-01

    Examines various types of private industry optical disk installations in terms of business requirements for digital image systems in five areas: records management; transaction processing; engineering/manufacturing; information distribution; and office automation. Approaches for implementing image systems are addressed as well as key success…

  14. Advanced Manufacturing Systems in Food Processing and Packaging Industry

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Shafie Sani, Mohd; Aziz, Faieza Abdul

    2013-06-01

    In this paper, several advanced manufacturing systems in food processing and packaging industry are reviewed, including: biodegradable smart packaging and Nano composites, advanced automation control system consists of fieldbus technology, distributed control system and food safety inspection features. The main purpose of current technology in food processing and packaging industry is discussed due to major concern on efficiency of the plant process, productivity, quality, as well as safety. These application were chosen because they are robust, flexible, reconfigurable, preserve the quality of the food, and efficient.

  15. Advances toward industrialization of novel molten salt electrochemical processes.

    PubMed

    Ito, Yasuhiko; Nishikiori, Tokujiro; Tsujimura, Hiroyuki

    2016-08-15

    We have invented various novel molten salt electrochemical processes, that can be put to practical use in the fields of energy and materials. These processes are promising from both technological and commercial viewpoints, and they are currently under development for industrial application. To showcase current developments in work toward industrialization, we focus here on three of these processes: (1) electrolytic synthesis of ammonia from water and nitrogen under atmospheric pressure, (2) electrochemical formation of carbon film, and (3) plasma-induced discharge electrolysis to produce nanoparticles.

  16. Micron to Mine: Synchrotron Science for Mineral Exploration, Production, and Remediation

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Banerjee, N.; Van Loon, L.; Flynn, T.

    2017-12-01

    Synchrotron science for mineral exploration, production, and remediation studies is a powerful tool that provides industry with relevant micron to macro geochemical information. Synchrotron micro X-ray fluorescence (SR-µXRF) offers a direct, high-resolution, rapid, and cost-effective chemical analysis while preserving the context of the sample by mapping ore minerals with ppm detection limits. Speciation of trace and deleterious elements can then be probed using X-ray absorption near-edge structure (XANES) spectroscopy. Large-scale (tens of cm) µXRF mapping and XANES analysis of samples collected at various mine locations have been undertaken to address questions regarding mineralization history to develop novel trace element exploration vectors. This information provides integral insights into trace element associations with ore minerals, local redox conditions responsible for mineralization, and mineralizing mechanisms. Gold is commonly intimately associated with sulfide mineralization (e.g., pyrite, arsenopyrite, etc.) and is present both as inclusions and filling fractures in sulfide grains. Gold may also occur as nanoparticles and/or in the sulfide mineral crystal lattice, known as "invisible gold". Understanding the nature and distribution of invisible gold in ore is integral to processing efficiency. The high flux and energy of a synchrotron light source allows for the detection of invisible gold by µXRF, and can probe its nature (metallic Au0 vs. lattice bound Au1+) using XANES spectroscopy. The long-term containment and management of arsenic is necessary to protect the health of both humans and the environment. Understanding the relationship of arsenic mineralization to gold deposits can lead to more sophisticated planning for mineral processing and the eventual storage of gangue materials. µXANES spectroscopy is an excellent tool for determining arsenic speciation within the context of the sample. Mineral phases such as arsenopyrite, scorodite, and

  17. Industrial Materials Processing Laser Markets

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Followwill, Dorman

    1989-03-01

    The way I would like to handle this morning is first, to give you an overview before I put anything up in terms of slides. An overview of the study that we produced a couple of months ago. It is entitled "Industrial Materials Processing Laser Markets", and if you want information on that particular study, then you can speak with me at the coffee break.

  18. A Weighty Subject: Exploration for Heavy Minerals Across the State of Mississippi

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Gifford, J.; Woolsey, A. I.; Yarbrough, L. D.; Platt, B. F.; Widanagamage, I. H.; Easson, G. L.

    2017-12-01

    Preliminary analysis has shown that an array of industrial minerals is known to occur in offshore deposits on the Gulf Coast as well as on-shore deposits in the Upper Cretaceous and Paleogene-Neogene clastic units, such as the Meridian Sand Member of the Eocene Tallahatta Formation in northeastern Mississippi. Furthermore, economic deposits occur within Holocene sediments along the Pearl and Pascagoula Rivers as well as along the modern Gulf of Mexico shoreline. These industrial minerals include suites of heavy minerals (specific gravity ≥2.97) that contain oxides of titanium (ilmenite, rutile, and leucoxene), oxides of zirconium (zircon), and the complex rare-earth-bearing phosphates (monazite and xenotime). These oxides are essential constituents of a wide-range of industrial materials critical to common technologies and the bulk of these mineral commodities are presently dependent on foreign supply. Current offshore deposits have been shown to be economic but are likely no longer accessible given their location within the Gulf Islands National Seashore. This comprehensive study is developing a heavy mineral occurrence dataset for the state of Mississippi including detailed analyses of the industrial mineral resources available within the state. More than 100 samples have been collected across the state from active and non-operating sand pit mining locations. The heavy mineral fraction of each sample was separated using lithium heteropolytungstates (LST) and gravity-based separation techniques. A grain mount for each sample was prepared with the heavy mineral fraction and the percentage values for each heavy mineral species were obtained from 200 grain counts per sample grain mount. Typical heavy mineral fraction for the sample set was approximately 0.9 % with an array from 0.0% to some samples ranging to a greater concentration of 7.5%. The resulting dataset will be further analyzed for geospatial similarities in trends and occurrences. Additional data

  19. Predicting the Mineral Composition of Dust Aerosols. Part 2; Model Evaluation and Identification of Key Processes with Observations

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Perlwitz, J. P.; Garcia-Pando, C. Perez; Miller, R. L.

    2015-01-01

    A global compilation of nearly sixty measurement studies is used to evaluate two methods of simulating the mineral composition of dust aerosols in an Earth system model. Both methods are based upon a Mean Mineralogical Table (MMT) that relates the soil mineral fractions to a global atlas of arid soil type. The Soil Mineral Fraction (SMF) method assumes that the aerosol mineral fractions match the fractions of the soil. The MMT is based upon soil measurements after wet sieving, a process that destroys aggregates of soil particles that would have been emitted from the original, undisturbed soil. The second method approximately reconstructs the emitted aggregates. This model is referred to as the Aerosol Mineral Fraction (AMF) method because the mineral fractions of the aerosols differ from those of the wet-sieved parent soil, partly due to reaggregation. The AMF method remedies some of the deficiencies of the SMF method in comparison to observations. Only the AMF method exhibits phyllosilicate mass at silt sizes, where they are abundant according to observations. In addition, the AMF quartz fraction of silt particles is in better agreement with measured values, in contrast to the overestimated SMF fraction. Measurements at distinct clay and silt particle sizes are shown to be more useful for evaluation of the models, in contrast to the sum over all particles sizes that is susceptible to compensating errors, as illustrated by the SMF experiment. Model errors suggest that allocation of the emitted silt fraction of each mineral into the corresponding transported size categories is an important remaining source of uncertainty. Evaluation of both models and the MMT is hindered by the limited number of size-resolved measurements of mineral content that sparsely sample aerosols from the major dust sources. The importance of climate processes dependent upon aerosol mineral composition shows the need for global and routine mineral measurements.

  20. Mineral facilities of Europe

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Almanzar, Francisco; Baker, Michael S.; Elias, Nurudeen; Guzman, Eric

    2010-01-01

    This map displays over 1,700 records of mineral facilities within the countries of Europe and western Eurasia. Each record represents one commodity and one facility type at a single geographic location. Facility types include mines, oil and gas fields, and plants, such as refineries, smelters, and mills. Common commodities of interest include aluminum, cement, coal, copper, gold, iron and steel, lead, nickel, petroleum, salt, silver, and zinc. Records include attributes, such as commodity, country, location, company name, facility type and capacity (if applicable), and latitude and longitude geographical coordinates (in both degrees-minutes-seconds and decimal degrees). The data shown on this map and in table 1 were compiled from multiple sources, including (1) the most recently available data from the U.S. Geological Survey (USGS) Minerals Yearbook (Europe and Central Eurasia volume), (2) mineral statistics and information from the USGS Minerals Information Web site (http://minerals.usgs.gov/minerals/pubs/country/europe.html), and (3) data collected by the USGS minerals information country specialists from sources, such as statistical publications of individual countries, annual reports and press releases of operating companies, and trade journals. Data reflect the most recently published table of industry structure for each country at the time of this publication. Additional information is available from the country specialists listed in table 2.

  1. The Effect of Mineral Powders Derived From Industrial Wastes on Selected Mechanical Properties of Concrete

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Galińska, Anna; Czarnecki, Sławomir

    2017-10-01

    In recent years, concrete has been the most popular construction material. The main component of the concrete is cement. However, its production and transport causes significant emissions of CO2. Reports in the literature show that many laboratories are attempting to modify the composition of the concrete using various additives. These attempts are primarily designed to eliminate parts of cement. The greater part of the cement will be replaced with the selected additive, the more significant is the economic and ecological effect. Most attempts are related to the replacement of the selected additive in an amount of from 10 to 30% by weight of cement. Mineral powders, which are waste material producing crushed aggregate, are increasingly used for this purpose. Management of the waste carries significant cost related to their storage and disposal. With this in mind, the aim of this study was to evaluate the effect of mineral powders derived from industrial wastes on selected mechanical properties of concrete. In particular, the aim was to determine the effect of quartz and quartz-feldspar powders. For this purpose, 40, 50, 60% by weight of the cement was replaced by the selected powders. The results obtained were analysed and compared with previous attempts to replace the selected additive in an amount of from 10 to 30% by weight of cement.

  2. Compilation of geospatial data for the mineral industries and related infrastructure of Latin America and the Caribbean

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Baker, Michael S.; Buteyn, Spencer D.; Freeman, Philip A.; Trippi, Michael H.; Trimmer III, Loyd M.

    2017-07-31

    This report describes the U.S. Geological Survey’s (USGS) ongoing commitment to its mission of understanding the nature and distribution of global mineral commodity supply chains by updating and publishing the georeferenced locations of mineral commodity production and processing facilities, mineral exploration and development sites, and mineral commodity exporting ports in Latin America and the Caribbean. The report includes an overview of data sources and an explanation of the geospatial PDF map format.The geodatabase and geospatial data layers described in this report create a new geographic information product in the form of a geospatial portable document format (PDF) map. The geodatabase contains additional data layers from USGS, foreign governmental, and open-source sources as follows: (1) coal occurrence areas, (2) electric power generating facilities, (3) electric power transmission lines, (4) hydrocarbon resource cumulative production data, (5) liquefied natural gas terminals, (6) oil and gas concession leasing areas, (7) oil and gas field center points, (8) oil and gas pipelines, (9) USGS petroleum provinces, (10) railroads, (11) recoverable proven plus probable hydrocarbon resources, (12) major cities, (13) major rivers, and (14) undiscovered porphyry copper tracts.

  3. Using emulsion inversion in industrial processes.

    PubMed

    Salager, Jean-Louis; Forgiarini, Ana; Márquez, Laura; Peña, Alejandro; Pizzino, Aldo; Rodriguez, María P; Rondón-González, Marianna

    2004-05-20

    Emulsion inversion is a complex phenomenon, often perceived as an instability that is essentially uncontrollable, although many industrial processes make use of it. A research effort that started 2 decades ago has provided the two-dimensional and three-dimensional description, the categorization and the theoretical interpretation of the different kinds of emulsion inversion. A clear-cut phenomenological approach is currently available for understanding its characteristics, the factors that influence it and control it, the importance of fine-tuning the emulsification protocol, and the crucial occurrence of organized structures such as liquid crystals or multiple emulsions. The current know-how is used to analyze some industrial processes involving emulsion inversion, e.g. the attainment of a fine nutrient or cosmetic emulsion by temperature or formulation-induced transitional inversion, the preparation of a silicone oil emulsion by catastrophic phase inversion, the manufacture of a viscous polymer latex by combined inversion and the spontaneous but enigmatic inversion of emulsions used in metal working operations such as lathing or lamination.

  4. A compilation of rate parameters of water-mineral interaction kinetics for application to geochemical modeling

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Palandri, James L.; Kharaka, Yousif K.

    2004-01-01

    Geochemical reaction path modeling is useful for rapidly assessing the extent of water-aqueous-gas interactions both in natural systems and in industrial processes. Modeling of some systems, such as those at low temperature with relatively high hydrologic flow rates, or those perturbed by the subsurface injection of industrial waste such as CO2 or H2S, must account for the relatively slow kinetics of mineral-gas-water interactions. We have therefore compiled parameters conforming to a general Arrhenius-type rate equation, for over 70 minerals, including phases from all the major classes of silicates, most carbonates, and many other non-silicates. The compiled dissolution rate constants range from -0.21 log moles m-2 s-1 for halite, to -17.44 log moles m-2 s-1 for kyanite, for conditions far from equilibrium, at 25 ?C, and pH near neutral. These data have been added to a computer code that simulates an infinitely well-stirred batch reactor, allowing computation of mass transfer as a function of time. Actual equilibration rates are expected to be much slower than those predicted by the selected computer code, primarily because actual geochemical processes commonly involve flow through porous or fractured media, wherein the development of concentration gradients in the aqueous phase near mineral surfaces, which results in decreased absolute chemical affinity and slower reaction rates. Further differences between observed and computed reaction rates may occur because of variables beyond the scope of most geochemical simulators, such as variation in grain size, aquifer heterogeneity, preferred fluid flow paths, primary and secondary mineral coatings, and secondary minerals that may lead to decreased porosity and clogged pore throats.

  5. Process-based modeling of silicate mineral weathering responses to increasing atmospheric CO2 and climate change

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Banwart, Steven A.; Berg, Astrid; Beerling, David J.

    2009-12-01

    A mathematical model describes silicate mineral weathering processes in modern soils located in the boreal coniferous region of northern Europe. The process model results demonstrate a stabilizing biological feedback mechanism between atmospheric CO2 levels and silicate weathering rates as is generally postulated for atmospheric evolution. The process model feedback response agrees within a factor of 2 of that calculated by a weathering feedback function of the type generally employed in global geochemical carbon cycle models of the Earth's Phanerozoic CO2 history. Sensitivity analysis of parameter values in the process model provides insight into the key mechanisms that influence the strength of the biological feedback to weathering. First, the process model accounts for the alkalinity released by weathering, whereby its acceleration stabilizes pH at values that are higher than expected. Although the process model yields faster weathering with increasing temperature, because of activation energy effects on mineral dissolution kinetics at warmer temperature, the mineral dissolution rate laws utilized in the process model also result in lower dissolution rates at higher pH values. Hence, as dissolution rates increase under warmer conditions, more alkalinity is released by the weathering reaction, helping maintain higher pH values thus stabilizing the weathering rate. Second, the process model yields a relatively low sensitivity of soil pH to increasing plant productivity. This is due to more rapid decomposition of dissolved organic carbon (DOC) under warmer conditions. Because DOC fluxes strongly influence the soil water proton balance and pH, this increased decomposition rate dampens the feedback between productivity and weathering. The process model is most sensitive to parameters reflecting soil structure; depth, porosity, and water content. This suggests that the role of biota to influence these characteristics of the weathering profile is as important, if not

  6. Removal of metals from industrial wastewater and urban runoff by mineral and bio-based sorbents.

    PubMed

    Gogoi, Harshita; Leiviskä, Tiina; Heiderscheidt, Elisangela; Postila, Heini; Tanskanen, Juha

    2018-03-01

    The study was performed to evaluate chemically modified biosorbents, hydrochloric acid treated peat (HCl-P) and citric acid treated sawdust (Citric acid-SD) for their metal removal capacity from dilute industrial wastewater and urban runoff and compare their efficiency with that of commercially available mineral sorbents (AQM PalPower M10 and AQM PalPower T5M5 magnetite). Batch and column experiments were conducted using real water samples to assess the sorbents' metal sorption capacity. AQM PalPower M10 (consisting mainly of magnesium, iron and silicon oxides) exhibited excellent Zn removal from both industrial wastewater and spiked runoff water samples even at low dosages (0.1 g/L and 0.05 g/L, respectively). The high degree of Zn removal was associated with the release of hydroxyl ions from the sorbent and subsequent precipitation of zinc hydroxide. The biosorbents removed Ni and Cr better than AQM PalPower M10 from industrial wastewater and performed well in removing Cr and Cu from spiked runoff water, although at higher dosages (0.3-0.75 g/L). The main mechanism of sorption by biosorbents was ion exchange. The sorbents required a short contact time to reach equilibrium (15-30 min) in both tested water samples. AQM PalPower T5M5 magnetite was the worst performing sorbent, leaching Zn into both industrial and runoff water and Ni into runoff water. Column tests revealed that both HCl-P and AQM PalPower M10 were able to remove metals, although some leaching was witnessed, especially As from AQM PalPower M10. The low hydraulic conductivity observed for HCl-P may restrict the possibilities of using such small particle size peat material in a filter-type passive system. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  7. Formation Processes and Impacts of Reactive and Nonreactive Minerals in Permeable Reactive Barriers

    EPA Science Inventory

    Mineral precipitates in zero-valent iron PRBs can be classified by formation processes into three groups: 1) those that result from changes in chemical conditions (i.e., changes in pH, e.g., calcite); 2) those that are a consequence of microbial activity (i.e., sulfate reduction,...

  8. REACTIVE MINERALS IN AQUIFERS: FORMATION PROCESSES AND QUANTITATIVE ANALYSIS

    EPA Science Inventory

    The presentation will focus on the occurrence, form, and characterization of reactive iron minerals in aquifers and soils. The potential for abiotic reductive transformations of contaminants at the mineral-water interface will be discussed along with available tools for site min...

  9. Thermal storage for industrial process and reject heat

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Duscha, R. A.; Masica, W. J.

    1978-01-01

    Industrial production uses about 40 percent of the total energy consumed in the United States. The major share of this is derived from fossil fuel. Potential savings of scarce fuel is possible through the use of thermal energy storage (TES) of reject or process heat for subsequent use. Three especially significant industries where high temperature TES appears attractive - paper and pulp, iron and steel, and cement are discussed. Potential annual fuel savings, with large scale implementation of near-term TES systems for these three industries, is nearly 9,000,000 bbl of oil.

  10. Determinants of job stress in chemical process industry: A factor analysis approach.

    PubMed

    Menon, Balagopal G; Praveensal, C J; Madhu, G

    2015-01-01

    Job stress is one of the active research domains in industrial safety research. The job stress can result in accidents and health related issues in workers in chemical process industries. Hence it is important to measure the level of job stress in workers so as to mitigate the same to avoid the worker's safety related problems in the industries. The objective of this study is to determine the job stress factors in the chemical process industry in Kerala state, India. This study also aims to propose a comprehensive model and an instrument framework for measuring job stress levels in the chemical process industries in Kerala, India. The data is collected through a questionnaire survey conducted in chemical process industries in Kerala. The collected data out of 1197 surveys is subjected to principal component and confirmatory factor analysis to develop the job stress factor structure. The factor analysis revealed 8 factors that influence the job stress in process industries. It is also found that the job stress in employees is most influenced by role ambiguity and the least by work environment. The study has developed an instrument framework towards measuring job stress utilizing exploratory factor analysis and structural equation modeling.

  11. Mineral deposit densities for estimating mineral resources

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Singer, Donald A.

    2008-01-01

    Estimates of numbers of mineral deposits are fundamental to assessing undiscovered mineral resources. Just as frequencies of grades and tonnages of well-explored deposits can be used to represent the grades and tonnages of undiscovered deposits, the density of deposits (deposits/area) in well-explored control areas can serve to represent the number of deposits. Empirical evidence presented here indicates that the processes affecting the number and quantity of resources in geological settings are very general across many types of mineral deposits. For podiform chromite, porphyry copper, and volcanogenic massive sulfide deposit types, the size of tract that geologically could contain the deposits is an excellent predictor of the total number of deposits. The number of mineral deposits is also proportional to the type’s size. The total amount of mineralized rock is also proportional to size of the permissive area and the median deposit type’s size. Regressions using these variables provide a means to estimate the density of deposits and the total amount of mineralization. These powerful estimators are based on analysis of ten different types of mineral deposits (Climax Mo, Cuban Mn, Cyprus massive sulfide, Franciscan Mn, kuroko massive sulfide, low-sulfide quartz-Au vein, placer Au, podiform Cr, porphyry Cu, and W vein) from 108 permissive control tracts around the world therefore generalizing across deposit types. Despite the diverse and complex geological settings of deposit types studied here, the relationships observed indicate universal controls on the accumulation and preservation of mineral resources that operate across all scales. The strength of the relationships (R 2=0.91 for density and 0.95 for mineralized rock) argues for their broad use. Deposit densities can now be used to provide a guideline for expert judgment or used directly for estimating the number of most kinds of mineral deposits.

  12. Mineral supply for sustainable development requires resource governance

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Ali, Saleem H.; Giurco, Damien; Arndt, Nicholas; Nickless, Edmund; Brown, Graham; Demetriades, Alecos; Durrheim, Ray; Enriquez, Maria Amélia; Kinnaird, Judith; Littleboy, Anna; Meinert, Lawrence D.; Oberhänsli, Roland; Salem, Janet; Schodde, Richard; Schneider, Gabi; Vidal, Olivier; Yakovleva, Natalia

    2017-01-01

    Successful delivery of the United Nations sustainable development goals and implementation of the Paris Agreement requires technologies that utilize a wide range of minerals in vast quantities. Metal recycling and technological change will contribute to sustaining supply, but mining must continue and grow for the foreseeable future to ensure that such minerals remain available to industry. New links are needed between existing institutional frameworks to oversee responsible sourcing of minerals, trajectories for mineral exploration, environmental practices, and consumer awareness of the effects of consumption. Here we present, through analysis of a comprehensive set of data and demand forecasts, an interdisciplinary perspective on how best to ensure ecologically viable continuity of global mineral supply over the coming decades.

  13. Mineral supply for sustainable development requires resource governance.

    PubMed

    Ali, Saleem H; Giurco, Damien; Arndt, Nicholas; Nickless, Edmund; Brown, Graham; Demetriades, Alecos; Durrheim, Ray; Enriquez, Maria Amélia; Kinnaird, Judith; Littleboy, Anna; Meinert, Lawrence D; Oberhänsli, Roland; Salem, Janet; Schodde, Richard; Schneider, Gabi; Vidal, Olivier; Yakovleva, Natalia

    2017-03-15

    Successful delivery of the United Nations sustainable development goals and implementation of the Paris Agreement requires technologies that utilize a wide range of minerals in vast quantities. Metal recycling and technological change will contribute to sustaining supply, but mining must continue and grow for the foreseeable future to ensure that such minerals remain available to industry. New links are needed between existing institutional frameworks to oversee responsible sourcing of minerals, trajectories for mineral exploration, environmental practices, and consumer awareness of the effects of consumption. Here we present, through analysis of a comprehensive set of data and demand forecasts, an interdisciplinary perspective on how best to ensure ecologically viable continuity of global mineral supply over the coming decades.

  14. Mineral supply for sustainable development requires resource governance

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Ali, Saleem H.; Giurco, Damien; Arndt, Nicholas; Nickless, Edmund; Brown, Graham; Demetriades, Alecos; Durrheim, Ray; Enriquez, Maria Amélia; Kinnaird, Judith; Littleboy, Anna; Meinert, Lawrence D.; Oberhänsli, Roland; Salem, Janet; Schodde, Richard; Schneider, Gabi; Vidal, Olivier; Yakovleva, Natalia

    2017-03-01

    Successful delivery of the United Nations sustainable development goals and implementation of the Paris Agreement requires technologies that utilize a wide range of minerals in vast quantities. Metal recycling and technological change will contribute to sustaining supply, but mining must continue and grow for the foreseeable future to ensure that such minerals remain available to industry. New links are needed between existing institutional frameworks to oversee responsible sourcing of minerals, trajectories for mineral exploration, environmental practices, and consumer awareness of the effects of consumption. Here we present, through analysis of a comprehensive set of data and demand forecasts, an interdisciplinary perspective on how best to ensure ecologically viable continuity of global mineral supply over the coming decades.

  15. Gravity-dependent transport in industrial processes

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Ostrach, Simon; Kamotani, Yasuhiro

    1994-01-01

    Gravity-dependent transport phenomena in various industrial processes are investigated in order to address a broader range of microgravity phenomena and to develop new applications of microgravity. A number of important topics are identified and analyzed in detail. The present article describes results on coating flow, zeolite growth, and rotating electrochemical system.

  16. Fiber size and number in workers exposed to processed chrysotile asbestos, chrysotile miners, and the general population

    SciTech Connect

    Churg, A.; Wiggs, B.

    1986-01-01

    We analyzed chrysotile and chrysotile-associated amphibole (largely tremolite) asbestos fibers in 21 workers exposed to various types of processed (milled) chrysotile ore, 20 long-term chrysotile miners, and 20 members of the general population (controls). Significantly greater amounts of both chrysotile and tremolite were found in processed-ore workers and miners than in controls. On average, the mean fiber lengths and aspect ratios for the mining and processed-ore-exposed workers were similar and were significantly greater than the values seen in the controls; within the processed-ore group, there was a marked variation in these parameters, and some workers appeared to be exposed tomore » fairly long, thin fibers. It was found empirically that the fiber size data, and to a lesser extent the concentration data, could be used to classify workers accurately into those with processed-ore exposure and controls. We conclude that fiber sizes in the lungs of processed-ore-exposed workers are similar to those of chrysotile miners and are considerably longer than those found in the general population; some processed-ore workers have longer fibers which might be responsible for higher disease incidences in certain working groups; tremolite accompanies chrysotile in a variable proportion of workers exposed to processed chrysotile products and might be important in the genesis of mesothelioma in such workers; and mineralogic analysis will usually detect exposure even when chrysotile has largely disappeared from lung tissue.« less

  17. [Food processing industry--the salt shock to the consumers].

    PubMed

    Doko Jelinić, Jagoda; Nola, Iskra Alexandra; Andabaka, Damir

    2010-05-01

    Industrial food production and processing is necessarily connected with the use of salt. Salt or sodium chloride is used as a preservative, spice, agent for color maintenance, texture, and to regulate fermentation by stopping the growth of bacteria, yeast and mold. Besides kitchen salt, other types of salt that also contain sodium are used in various technological processes in food preparing industry. Most of the "hidden" salt, 70%-75%, can be brought to the body by using industrial food, which, unfortunately, has been increasingly used due to the modern way of life. Bread and bakery products, meat products, various sauces, dried fish, various types of cheese, fast food, conserved vegetables, ready-made soups and food additives are the most common industrial foods rich in sodium. Many actions have been taken all over the world to restrict salt consumption. The World Health Organization recommends the upper limit of salt input of 5 g per day. These actions appeal to food industry to reduce the proportion of salt in their products. Besides lower salt addition during manufacture, food industry can use salt substitutes, in particular potassium chloride (KCl), in combination with additives that can mask the absence of salt, and flavor intensifiers that also enhance the product salinity. However, food industry is still quite resistant to reducing salt in their products for fear from losing profits.

  18. Improvement in gold grade from iron-oxide mineral using reduction roasting and magnetic separation

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Kim, Hyun-soo; On, Hyun-sung; Lim, Dae-hack; Myung, Eun-ji; Park, Cheon-young

    2017-04-01

    Microwave has a wide range of applications in mineral technology, metallurgy, etc. It is an established fact that microwave energy has potential for the speedy and efficient heating of minerals and in a commercial context may provide savings in both time and energy. Microwave heating is being developed as a potential thermal pre-treatment process, because of its unique advantages over the differences of ore minerals in absorbing microwaves. The aim of this study was to investigate the improvement in Au grade from iron-oxide mineral using reduction roasting and magnetic separation. The characteristics of iron-oxide mineral were analyzed using chemical, XRD and reflected light microscopy. The reduction roasting using microwave and magnetic separation experiments were examined under various conditions (reducing agent and chemical additive). The results of XRD and reflected light microscopy showed that the iron-oxide mineral mainly composed of illite, quartz and hematite. The iron-oxide mineral had an Au, Ag, Fe contents of 6.4, 35.1 and 155,441.1 mg/kg, respectively. The results demonstrated that the improvement in Au by reduction roasting using microwave (frequency of 2.45GHz, intensity of 5kW) and magnetic separation (magnetic field intensity of 9,000 Gauss) were effective processes. The Au content in iron-oxide mineral from 6.4 mg/kg to 14.2 mg/kg was achieved within microwave exposure time of 10min (reducing agent(PAC) ratio = 50 : 50, 5% of chemical additive(Soda ash)). Acknowledgment : This subject is supported by Korea Ministry of Environment as "Advanced Technology Program for Environmental Industry"

  19. Skills Conversion Project: Chapter 18, Mineral Extraction. Final Report.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    National Society of Professional Engineers, Washington, DC.

    As part of a federal study conducted for the U.S. Department of Labor, the employment potential for displaced aerospace and defense professionals in the area of mineral extraction was examined. Mining and metallurgical engineering, the classical technical disciplines employed in the mineral extraction industry, are supplied from schools…

  20. Soil Organic Carbon and Its interaction with Minerals in Two Hillslopes with Different Climates and Erosion Processes

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Wang, X.; Yoo, K.; Wackett, A. A.; Gutknecht, J.; Amundson, R.; Heimsath, A. M.

    2017-12-01

    Climate and topography have been widely recognized as important factors regulating soil organic carbon (SOC) dynamics but their interactive effects on SOC storage and its pools remain poorly constrained. Here we aimed to evaluate SOC storages and carbon-mineral interactions along two hillslope transects with moderately different climates (MAP: 549 mm vs. 816 mm) in Southeastern Australia. We sampled soil along the convex (eroding)-to-convergent (depositional) continuum at each hillslope transect and conducted size and density fractionation of these samples. In responses to the difference in climate factor, SOC inventories of eroding soils were twice as large at the wetter site compared with the drier site but showed little difference between two sites in depositional soils. These trends in SOC inventories were primarily controlled by SOC concentrations and secondarily by soil thicknesses. Similar patterns were observed for mineral associated organic carbon (MOC), and the abundances of MOC were controlled by the two independently operating processes affecting MOC concentration and fine-heavy fraction minerals. The contents and species of secondary clay and iron oxide minerals, abundances of particulate organic carbon, and bioturbation affected MOC concentrations. In contrast, the abundances of fine-heavy fraction minerals were impacted by erosion mechanisms that uniquely responded to regional- and micro- climate conditions. Consequently, topographic influences on SOC inventories and carbon-mineral interactions were more strongly pronounced in the drier climate where vegetation and erosion mechanisms were sensitive to microclimate. Our results highlight the significance of understanding topography and erosional processes in capturing climatic effects on soil carbon dynamics.

  1. Chemometric analysis of minerals in gluten-free products.

    PubMed

    Gliszczyńska-Świgło, Anna; Klimczak, Inga; Rybicka, Iga

    2018-06-01

    Numerous studies indicate mineral deficiencies in people on a gluten-free (GF) diet. These deficiencies may indicate that GF products are a less valuable source of minerals than gluten-containing products. In the study, the nutritional quality of 50 GF products is discussed taking into account the nutritional requirements for minerals expressed as percentage of recommended daily allowance (%RDA) or percentage of adequate intake (%AI) for a model celiac patient. Elements analyzed were calcium, potassium, magnesium, sodium, copper, iron, manganese, and zinc. Analysis of %RDA or %AI was performed using principal component analysis (PCA) and hierarchical cluster analysis (HCA). Using PCA, the differentiation between products based on rice, corn, potato, GF wheat starch and based on buckwheat, chickpea, millet, oats, amaranth, teff, quinoa, chestnut, and acorn was possible. In the HCA, four clusters were created. The main criterion determining the adherence of the sample to the cluster was the content of all minerals included to HCA (K, Mg, Cu, Fe, Mn); however, only the Mn content differentiated four formed groups. GF products made of buckwheat, chickpea, millet, oats, amaranth, teff, quinoa, chestnut, and acorn are better source of minerals than based on other GF raw materials, what was confirmed by PCA and HCA. © 2017 Society of Chemical Industry. © 2017 Society of Chemical Industry.

  2. Electron-processing technology: A promising application for the viscose industry

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Stepanik, T. M.; Rajagopal, S.; Ewing, D.; Whitehouse, R.

    1998-06-01

    In marketing its IMPELA ® line of high power, high-throughput industrial accelerators, Atomic Energy of Canada Limited (AECL) is working with viscose (rayon) companies world-wide to integrate electron-processing technology as part of the viscose manufacturing process. The viscose industry converts cellulose wood pulp into products such as staple fiber, filament, cord, film, packaging, and non-edible sausage casings. This multibillion dollar industry is currently suffering from high production costs, and is facing increasingly stringent environmental regulations. The use of electron-treated pulp can significantly lower production costs and can provide equally significant environmental benefits. This paper describes our current understanding of the benefits of using electron-treated pulp in this process, and AECL's efforts in developing this technology.

  3. Destabilization of emulsions by natural minerals.

    PubMed

    Yuan, Songhu; Tong, Man; Wu, Gaoming

    2011-09-15

    This study developed a novel method to destabilize emulsions and recycle oils, particularly for emulsified wastewater treatment. Natural minerals were used as demulsifying agents, two kinds of emulsions collected from medical and steel industry were treated. The addition of natural minerals, including artificial zeolite, natural zeolite, diatomite, bentonite and natural soil, could effectively destabilize both emulsions at pH 1 and 60 °C. Over 90% of chemical oxygen demand (COD) can be removed after treatment. Medical emulsion can be even destabilized by artificial zeolite at ambient temperature. The mechanism for emulsion destabilization by minerals was suggested as the decreased electrostatic repulsion at low pH, the enhanced gathering of oil microdroplets at elevated temperature, and the further decreased surface potential by the addition of minerals. Both flocculation and coalescence were enhanced by the addition of minerals at low pH and elevated temperature. Copyright © 2011 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  4. Carbon Isotope Systematics in Mineral-Catalyzed Hydrothermal Organic Synthesis Processes at High Temperature and Pressures

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Fu, Qi; Socki, R. A.; Niles, Paul B.

    2011-01-01

    Observation of methane in the Martian atmosphere has been reported by different detection techniques. Reduction of CO2 and/or CO during serpentization by mineral surface catalyzed Fischer-Tropsch Type (FTT) synthesis may be one possible process responsible for methane generation on Mars. With the evidence a recent study has discovered for serpentinization in deeply buried carbon rich sediments, and more showing extensive water-rock interaction in Martian history, it seems likely that abiotic methane generation via serpentinization reactions may have been common on Mars. Experiments involving mineral-catalyzed hydrothermal organic synthesis processes were conducted at 750 C and 5.5 Kbars. Alkanes, alcohols and carboxylic acids were identified as organic compounds. No "isotopic reversal" of delta C-13 values was observed for alkanes or carboxylic acids, suggesting a different reaction pathway than polymerization. Alcohols were proposed as intermediaries formed on mineral surfaces at experimental conditions. Carbon isotope data were used in this study to unravel the reaction pathways of abiotic formation of organic compounds in hydrothermal systems at high temperatures and pressures. They are instrumental in constraining the origin and evolution history of organic compounds on Mars and other planets.

  5. Titanium mineral resources in heavy-mineral sands in the Atlantic coastal plain of the southeastern United States

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Van Gosen, Bradley S.; Ellefsen, Karl J.

    2018-04-16

    This study examined titanium distribution in the Atlantic Coastal Plain of the southeastern United States; the titanium is found in heavy-mineral sands that include the minerals ilmenite (Fe2+TiO3), rutile (TiO2), or leucoxene (an alteration product of ilmenite). Deposits of heavy-mineral sands in ancient and modern coastal plains are a significant feedstock source for the titanium dioxide pigments industry. Currently, two heavy-mineral sands mining and processing operations are active in the southeast United States producing concentrates of ilmenite-leucoxene, rutile, and zircon. The results of this study indicate the potential for similar deposits in many areas of the Atlantic Coastal Plain.This study used the titanium analyses of 3,457 stream sediment samples that were analyzed as part of the U.S. Geological Survey’s National Geochemical Survey program. This data set was analyzed by an integrated spatial modeling technique known as Bayesian hierarchical modeling to map the regional-scale, spatial distribution of titanium concentrations. In particular, clusters of anomalous concentrations of titanium occur: (1) along the Fall Zone, from Virginia to Alabama, where metamorphic and igneous rocks of the Piedmont region contact younger sediments of the Coastal Plain; (2) a paleovalley near the South Carolina and North Carolina border; (3) the upper and middle Atlantic Coastal Plain of North Carolina; (4) the majority of the Atlantic Coastal Plain of Virginia; and (5) barrier islands and stretches of the modern shoreline from South Carolina to northeast Florida. The areas mapped by this study could help mining companies delimit areas for exploration.

  6. Mineral Facilities of Latin America and Canada

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Bernstein, Rachel; Eros, Mike; Quintana-Velazquez, Meliany

    2006-01-01

    This data set consists of records for over 900 mineral facilities in Latin America and Canada. The mineral facilities include mines, plants, smelters, or refineries of aluminum, cement, coal, copper, diamond, gold, iron and steel, nickel, platinum-group metals, salt, and silver, among others. Records include attributes such as commodity, country, location, company name, facility type and capacity if applicable, and generalized coordinates. The data were compiled from multiple sources, including the 2003 and 2004 USGS Minerals Yearbooks (Latin America and Candada volume), data to be published in the 2005 Minerals Yearbook Latin America and Canada Volume, minerals statistics and information from the USGS minerals information Web site (minerals.usgs.gov/minerals), and data collected by USGS minerals information country specialists. Data reflect the most recent published table of industry structure for each country. Other sources include statistical publications of individual countries, annual reports and press releases of operating companies,and trade journals. Due to the sensitivity of some energy commodity data, the quality of these data should be evaluated on a country-by-country basis. Additional information and explanation is available from the country specialists.

  7. Design of exploration and minerals-data-collection programs in developing areas

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Attanasi, E.D.

    1981-01-01

    This paper considers the practical problem of applying economic analysis to designing minerals exploration and data collection strategies for developing countries. Formal decision rules for the design of government exploration and minerals-data-collection programs are derived by using a minerals-industry planning model that has been extended to include an exploration function. Rules derived are applicable to centrally planned minerals industries as well as market-oriented minerals sectors. They pertain to the spatial allocation of exploration effort and to the allocation of activities between government and private concerns for market-oriented economies. Programs characterized by uniform expenditures, uniform information coverage across regions, or uniform-density grid drilling progrmas are shown to be inferior to the strategy derived. Moreover, for market-oriented economies, the economically optimal mix in exploration activities between private and government data collection would require that only private firms assess local sites and that government agencies carry out regional surveys. ?? 1981.

  8. Historical files from Federal government mineral exploration-assistance programs, 1950 to 1974

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Frank, David G.

    2010-01-01

    Congress enacted the Defense Production Act in 1950 to provide funding and support for the exploration and development of critical mineral resources. From 1950 to 1974, three Department of the Interior agencies carried out this mission. Contracts with mine owners provided financial assistance for mineral exploration on a joint-participation basis. These contracts are documented in more than 5,000 'dockets' now archived online by the U.S. Geological Survey. This archive provides access to unique and difficult to recreate information, such as drill logs, assay results, and underground geologic maps, that is invaluable to land and resource management organizations and the minerals industry. An effort to preserve the data began in 2009, and the entire collection of dockets was electronically scanned. The scanning process used optical character recognition (OCR) when possible, and files were converted into Portable Document Format (.pdf) files, which require Adobe Reader or similar software for viewing. In 2010, the scans were placed online (http://minerals.usgs.gov/dockets/) and are available to download free of charge.

  9. Industrial processing versus home processing of tomato sauce: Effects on phenolics, flavonoids and in vitro bioaccessibility of antioxidants.

    PubMed

    Tomas, Merve; Beekwilder, Jules; Hall, Robert D; Sagdic, Osman; Boyacioglu, Dilek; Capanoglu, Esra

    2017-04-01

    The effect of industrial and home processing, in vitro gastrointestinal digestion, individual phenolic content, and antioxidant capacity of tomato into tomato sauce were investigated. Industrial processing of tomato fruit into sauce had an overall positive effect on the total antioxidant capacity (∼1.2-fold higher) compared to tomato fruit whereas home processing of tomato fruit into sauce led to a decrease in these values. Untargeted LC-QTOF-MS analysis revealed 31 compounds in tomato that changed upon processing, of which 18 could be putatively identified. Naringenin chalcone is only detectable in the fruit, while naringenin is strongly increased in the sauces. Rutin content increased by 36% in the industrial processed sauce whereas decreased by 26% in the home processed sauce when compared to fruit. According to the results of an in vitro gastrointestinal digestion model, industrial processing may lead to enhanced bioaccessibility of antioxidants. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  10. USGS Mineral Resources Program: A National Perspective

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Kropschot, S.J.

    1998-01-01

    Minerals are chemical compounds abundant in the rocks, soil, and water around us and they have a profound impact on the lives of all beings. Naturally occurring minerals define the landscape in which we live. They affect our ecosystems, influence the availability of nutrients that support biota, impact the distribution of vegetation, and may also contribute to contamination of the environment. Minerals are used in fertilizers for farming, in concrete and building materials for construction, in aggregate for roads, in steel for cars and all manner of transportation, and in materials crucial to the communications industry.

  11. Application of electrochemical advanced oxidation processes to the mineralization of the herbicide diuron.

    PubMed

    Pipi, Angelo R F; Sirés, Ignasi; De Andrade, Adalgisa R; Brillas, Enric

    2014-08-01

    Here, solutions with 0.185mM of the herbicide diuron of pH 3.0 have been treated by electrochemical advanced oxidation processes (EAOPs) like electrochemical oxidation with electrogenerated H2O2 (EO-H2O2), electro-Fenton (EF) and UVA photoelectro-Fenton (PEF) or solar PEF (SPEF). Trials were performed in stirred tank reactors of 100mL and in a recirculation flow plant of 2.5L using a filter-press reactor with a Pt or boron-doped diamond (BDD) anode and an air-diffusion cathode for H2O2 electrogeneration. Oxidant hydroxyl radicals were formed from water oxidation at the anode and/or in the bulk from Fenton's reaction between added Fe(2+) and generated H2O2. In both systems, the relative oxidation ability of the EAOPs increased in the sequence EO-H2O2processes were more powerful due to the photolysis of intermediates by UV radiation. In the stirred tank reactor, the PEF treatment with BDD was the most potent method, yielding 93% mineralization after 360 min at 100 mA cm(-2). In the flow plant, the SPEF process attained a maximum mineralization of 70% at 100 mA cm(-2). Lower current densities slightly reduced the mineralization degree in SPEF, enhancing the current efficiency and dropping the energy consumption. The diuron decay always obeyed a pseudo-first-order kinetics, with a much greater apparent rate constant in EF and SPEF compared to EO-H2O2. Oxalic and oxamic acids were detected as final carboxylic acids. Ammonium and chloride ions were also released, the latter ion being partially converted into chlorate and perchlorate ions at the BDD surface. Copyright © 2014 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  12. EFFECT OF LIQUID TO SOLID RATIO ON LEACHING OF METALS FROM MINERAL PROCESSING WASTE

    EPA Science Inventory

    Various anthropogenic activities generate hazardous solid wastes that are affluent in heavy metals, which can cause significant damage to the environment an human health. A mineral processing waste was used to study the effect of liquid to solid ratio (L/S) on the leaching behav...

  13. Expert system for testing industrial processes and determining sensor status

    DOEpatents

    Gross, Kenneth C.; Singer, Ralph M.

    1998-01-01

    A method and system for monitoring both an industrial process and a sensor. The method and system include determining a minimum number of sensor pairs needed to test the industrial process as well as the sensor for evaluating the state of operation of both. The technique further includes generating a first and second signal characteristic of an industrial process variable. After obtaining two signals associated with one physical variable, a difference function is obtained by determining the arithmetic difference between the pair of signals over time. A frequency domain transformation is made of the difference function to obtain Fourier modes describing a composite function. A residual function is obtained by subtracting the composite function from the difference function and the residual function (free of nonwhite noise) is analyzed by a statistical probability ratio test.

  14. The use of by-products from metallurgical and mineral industries as filler in cement-based materials.

    PubMed

    Moosberg, Helena; Lagerblad, Björn; Forssberg, Eric

    2003-02-01

    This investigation has been made in order to make it possible to increase the use of by-products in cement-based materials. Use of by-products requires a screening procedure that will reliably determine their impact on concrete. A test procedure was developed. The most important properties were considered to be strength development, shrinkage, expansion and workability. The methods used were calorimetry, flow table tests, F-shape measurements, measurements of compressive and flexural strength and shrinkage/expansion measurements. Scanning electron microscopy was used to verify some results. Twelve by-products were collected from Swedish metallurgical and mineral industries and classified according to the test procedure. The investigation showed that the test procedure clearly screened out the materials that can be used in the production of concrete from the unsuitable ones.

  15. Industrial application of thermal image processing and thermal control

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Kong, Lingxue

    2001-09-01

    Industrial application of infrared thermography is virtually boundless as it can be used in any situations where there are temperature differences. This technology has particularly been widely used in automotive industry for process evaluation and system design. In this work, thermal image processing technique will be introduced to quantitatively calculate the heat stored in a warm/hot object and consequently, a thermal control system will be proposed to accurately and actively manage the thermal distribution within the object in accordance with the heat calculated from the thermal images.

  16. Safety Considerations in the Chemical Process Industries

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Englund, Stanley M.

    There is an increased emphasis on chemical process safety as a result of highly publicized accidents. Public awareness of these accidents has provided a driving force for industry to improve its safety record. There has been an increasing amount of government regulation.

  17. Reported industrial minerals occurrences and permissive areas for other occurrences in the Islamic Republic of Mauritania, (phase V, deliverable 89): Chapter R in Second projet de renforcement institutionnel du secteur minier de la République Islamique de Mauritanie (PRISM-II)

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Langer, William H.

    2015-01-01

    Previous PRISM reports discuss a variety of industrial minerals. Gypsum, phosphate, salt, stone, sulfur, and ilmenite command the majority of the attention in the earlier geologic reports. (Ilmenite is evaluated in a separate U.S. Geological Survey report in the current study). Asbestos, arsenic, barite, fluorite, and kaolin are listed in indices (occurrence datasets) as potential mineral resources (Marsh and Anderson, 2015), but previous reports do not elaborate on their development potential. Beryl, described herein with the discussions of pegmatites, is also listed in indices of potential mineral resources, but has not been described in terms of its industrial mineral potential. Short discussions on the potential for cement (carbonate rocks), glass sand, peat, and sillimanite resources are included in this report.

  18. Physico-chemical treatment of liquid waste on an industrial plant for electrocoagulation.

    PubMed

    Mlakar, Matej; Levstek, Marjetka; Stražar, Marjeta

    2017-10-01

    Wastewater from washing, oil separators, the metal processing and detergent industries, was tested and treated for treatment of different types of liquid waste at industrial level at Domžale-Kamnik Wastewater Treatment Plant (WWTP). The effect of implementing the electrocoagulation (EC) and flotation processes, respectively, is analysed and includes the duration of the EC implementation, voltage, number of electrodes, and chemical addition, as well as the pH effect and conductivity. The tests were performed not only on various types of liquid waste, but also on different mixtures of liquid waste. Laboratory analysis of the samples before and after EC have shown an effective reduction not only in organic loads in accordance with the COD (chemical oxygen demand) parameter, but also in mineral oil content, toxic metal concentration, and surfactants. The COD in liquid waste from the detergent industry was reduced by 73% and the content of surfactants by 64%. In liquid waste from the metal processing industry, the COD decreased by up to 95%, while the content of toxic metals decreased from 59 to 99%. Similar phenomena were shown in liquid waste from oil separators, where the COD was reduced to 33% and the concentration of mineral oils by 99%. Some of the liquid wastes were mixed together in the ratio 1:1, thus allowing testing of the operation of EC technology in heterogeneous liquid waste, where the final result proved to be effective cleaning as well. After treatment in the process of EC, the limit values of the treated water proved appropriate for discharge into the sewerage system.

  19. The Use of Combustion Reactions for Processing Mineral Raw Materials: Metallothermy and Self-propagating High-temperature Synthesis (Review)

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Urakaev, Farit Kh.; Akmalaev, Kenzhebek A.; Orynbekov, Eljan S.; Balgysheva, Beykut D.; Zharlykasimova, Dinar N.

    2016-02-01

    The use of metallothermy (MT) and self-propagating high-temperature synthesis (SHS) is considered for processing different geological and technogenic materials. Traditional MT and SHS processes for production of various metals and nonmetal materials are widely known. Another rapidly developing direction is that connected with the use of ores, concentrates, minerals, and technogenic waste products as one of the components of a thermite mixture, both for the treatment of mineral raw by means of MT or SHS resulting in semi-products and for technological, analytical, and ecological purposes.

  20. Effects of industrial processing on folate content in green vegetables.

    PubMed

    Delchier, Nicolas; Ringling, Christiane; Le Grandois, Julie; Aoudé-Werner, Dalal; Galland, Rachel; Georgé, Stéphane; Rychlik, Michael; Renard, Catherine M G C

    2013-08-15

    Folates are described to be sensitive to different physical parameters such as heat, light, pH and leaching. Most studies on folates degradation during processing or cooking treatments were carried out on model solutions or vegetables only with thermal treatments. Our aim was to identify which steps were involved in folates loss in industrial processing chains, and which mechanisms were underlying these losses. For this, the folates contents were monitored along an industrial canning chain of green beans and along an industrial freezing chain of spinach. Folates contents decreased significantly by 25% during the washing step for spinach in the freezing process, and by 30% in the green beans canning process after sterilisation, with 20% of the initial amount being transferred into the covering liquid. The main mechanism involved in folate loss during both canning green beans and freezing spinach was leaching. Limiting the contact between vegetables and water or using steaming seems to be an adequate measure to limit folates losses during processing. Copyright © 2013 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  1. Bioleaching of serpentine group mineral by fungus Talaromyces flavus: application for mineral carbonation

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Li, Z.; Lianwen, L.; Zhao, L.; Teng, H.

    2011-12-01

    Many studies of serpentine group mineral dissolution for mineral carbonation have been published in recent years. However, most of them focus mainly on either physical and chemical processes or on bacterial function, rather than fungal involvement in the bioleaching of serpentine group mineral. Due to the excessive costs of the magnesium dissolution process, finding a lower energy consumption method will be meaningful. A fungal strain Talaromyces flavus was isolated from serpentinic rock of Donghai (China). No study of its bioleaching ability is currently available. It is thus of great significance to explore the impact of T. flavus on the dissolution of serpentine group mineral. Serpentine rock-inhabiting fungi belonging to Acremonium, Alternaria, Aspergillus, Botryotinia, Cladosporium, Clavicipitaceae, Cosmospora, Fusarium, Monascus, Paecilomyces, Penicillium, Talaromyces, Trichoderma were isolated. These strains were chosen on the basis of resistance to magnesium and nickel characterized in terms of minimum inhibiting concentration (MIC). Specifically, the strain Talaromyces flavus has a high tolerance to both magnesium (1 mol/L) and nickel (10 mM/L), and we examine its bioleaching ability on serpentine group mineral. Contact and separation experiments (cut-off 8 000-14 000 Da), as well as three control experiments, were set up for 30 days. At least three repeated tests were performed for each individual experiment. The results of our experiments demonstrate that the bioleaching ability of T. flavus towards serpentine group mineral is evident. 39.39 wt% of magnesium was extracted from lizardite during the bioleaching period in the contact experiment, which showed a dissolution rate at about a constant 0.126 mM/d before reaching equilibrium in 13 days. The amount of solubilized Mg from chrysotile and antigorite were respectively 37.79 wt% and 29.78 wt% in the contact experiment. These results make clear the influence of mineral structure on mineral bioleaching

  2. A process for reducing rocks and concentrating heavy minerals

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Strong, Thomas R.; Driscoll, Rhonda L.

    2016-03-30

    Once the rock is reduced to grains, it is necessary to separate the grains into paramagnetic and nonparamagnetic and heavy and light mineral fractions. In separating grains by property, those minerals chemically suited for radiometric dating are abundantly concentrated. Grams of mineralogical material can then be analyzed and characterized by multiple methods including trace element chemistry, laser ablation, and in particular, ion geochronology.

  3. Clay Minerals

    SciTech Connect

    Mueller, Karl T.; Sanders, Rebecca L.; Washton, Nancy M.

    2014-03-14

    Clay minerals are important components of the environment and are involved or implicated in processes such as the uptake of pollutants and the release of nutrients and as potential platforms for a number of chemical reactions. Owing to their small particle sizes (typically, on the order of microns or smaller) and mixing with a variety of other minerals and soil components, advanced characterization methods are needed to study their structures, dynamics, and reactivities. In this article, we describe the use of solid-state NMR methods to characterize the structures and chemistries of clay minerals. Early one-pulse magic-angle spinning (MAS) NMR studiesmore » of 27Al and 29Si have now been enhanced and extended with new studies utilizing advanced methodologies (such as Multiple Quantum MAS) as well as studies of less-sensitive nuclei. In additional work, the issue of reactivity of clay minerals has been addressed, including studies of reactive surface area in the environment. Utilizations of NMR-sensitive nuclides within the clay minerals themselves, and in molecules that react with specific sites on the clay mineral surfaces, have aided in understanding the reactivity of these complex aluminosilicate systems.« less

  4. Mineral Properties and Dietary Value of Raw and Processed Stinging Nettle (Urtica dioica L.).

    PubMed

    Rutto, Laban K; Xu, Yixiang; Ramirez, Elizabeth; Brandt, Michael

    2013-01-01

    Stinging nettle (Urtica dioica L.) has a long history of usage and is currently receiving attention as a source of fiber and alternative medicine. In many cultures, nettle is also eaten as a leafy vegetable. In this study, we focused on nettle yield (edible portion) and processing effects on nutritive and dietary properties. Actively growing shoots were harvested from field plots and leaves separated from stems. Leaf portions (200 g) were washed and processed by blanching (1 min at 96-98°C) or cooking (7 min at 98-99°C) with or without salt (5 g·L(-1)). Samples were cooled immediately after cooking and kept in frozen storage before analysis. Proximate composition, mineral, amino acid, and vitamin contents were determined, and nutritive value was estimated based on 100 g serving portions in a 2000 calorie diet. Results show that processed nettle can supply 90%-100% of vitamin A (including vitamin A as β-carotene) and is a good source of dietary calcium, iron, and protein. We recommend fresh or processed nettle as a high-protein, low-calorie source of essential nutrients, minerals, and vitamins particularly in vegetarian, diabetic, or other specialized diets.

  5. Mineral Properties and Dietary Value of Raw and Processed Stinging Nettle (Urtica dioica L.)

    PubMed Central

    Xu, Yixiang; Ramirez, Elizabeth

    2013-01-01

    Stinging nettle (Urtica dioica L.) has a long history of usage and is currently receiving attention as a source of fiber and alternative medicine. In many cultures, nettle is also eaten as a leafy vegetable. In this study, we focused on nettle yield (edible portion) and processing effects on nutritive and dietary properties. Actively growing shoots were harvested from field plots and leaves separated from stems. Leaf portions (200 g) were washed and processed by blanching (1 min at 96–98°C) or cooking (7 min at 98-99°C) with or without salt (5 g·L−1). Samples were cooled immediately after cooking and kept in frozen storage before analysis. Proximate composition, mineral, amino acid, and vitamin contents were determined, and nutritive value was estimated based on 100 g serving portions in a 2000 calorie diet. Results show that processed nettle can supply 90%–100% of vitamin A (including vitamin A as β-carotene) and is a good source of dietary calcium, iron, and protein. We recommend fresh or processed nettle as a high-protein, low-calorie source of essential nutrients, minerals, and vitamins particularly in vegetarian, diabetic, or other specialized diets. PMID:26904610

  6. Emerging Food Processing Technologies and Factors Impacting their Industrial Adoption.

    PubMed

    Priyadarshini, Anushree; Rajauria, Gaurav; O'Donnell, Colm P; Tiwari, Brijesh K

    2018-06-04

    Innovative food processing technologies have been widely investigated in food processing research in recent years. These technologies offer key advantages for advancing the preservation and quality of conventional foods, for combatting the growing challenges posed by globalization, increased competitive pressures and diverse consumer demands. However, there is a need to increase the level of adoption of novel technologies to ensure the potential benefits of these technologies are exploited more by the food industry. This review outlines emerging thermal and non-thermal food processing technologies with regard to their mechanisms, applications and commercial aspects. The level of adoption of novel food processing technologies by the food industry is outlined and the factors that impact their industrial adoption are discussed. At an industry level, the technological capabilities of individual companies, their size, market share as well as their absorptive capacity impact adoption of a novel technology. Characteristics of the technology itself such as costs involved in its development and commercialization, associated risks and relative advantage, its level of complexity and compatibility influence the technology's adoption. The review concludes that a deep understanding of the development and application of a technology along with the factors influencing its acceptance are critical for its commercial adoption.

  7. Mineral resource of the month: fluorspar

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    ,

    2010-01-01

    The article features the industrial mineral fluorspar, used in the manufacture of fluorochemicals, aluminum and steel. It defines fluorspar as crude or beneficiated material, mined or milled for the non-metallic mineral fluorite or calcium fluoride. Applications of acid-grade fluorspar in the U.S. are presented, including production of hydrofluoric acid for chemical production of refrigerants such as chlorofluorocarbons or CFCs. World demand for fluorspar decreased with the CFC ban in the 1990s, but recovered with the use of hydrofluorocarbons or HFCs.

  8. Demandite, lunar materials and space industrialization

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Criswell, D. R.

    1977-01-01

    Terrestrial industry consumes a wide range of elements in producing the outputs which support and make industrial societies possible. 'Demandite' is a conceptual or synthetic molecule which is composed of the weight fractions of the major elements consumed by industry. Demandite needed for mature industrial activities in space will differ from the terrestrial composition because solar energy must replace hydrocarbon-energy, lunar and asteroidal bulk compositions are different from mineral deposits on the earth, and the major bulk processing in space will be the creation of radiation shielding for human habitats to provide real estate in space complete with water, atmosphere and life-stock elements. Demandite cost may be dominated by earth to deep space transport cost of minor elemental constituents depleted in the lunar soils unless careful attention is given to substitution of materials, searches of the moon (polar regions) and asteroids for the depleted elements, and continuing lowering of earth to deep space transport costs.

  9. Expert system for testing industrial processes and determining sensor status

    DOEpatents

    Gross, K.C.; Singer, R.M.

    1998-06-02

    A method and system are disclosed for monitoring both an industrial process and a sensor. The method and system include determining a minimum number of sensor pairs needed to test the industrial process as well as the sensor for evaluating the state of operation of both. The technique further includes generating a first and second signal characteristic of an industrial process variable. After obtaining two signals associated with one physical variable, a difference function is obtained by determining the arithmetic difference between the pair of signals over time. A frequency domain transformation is made of the difference function to obtain Fourier modes describing a composite function. A residual function is obtained by subtracting the composite function from the difference function and the residual function (free of nonwhite noise) is analyzed by a statistical probability ratio test. 24 figs.

  10. Predicting the mineral composition of dust aerosols – Part 2: Model evaluation and identification of key processes with observations

    DOE PAGES

    Perlwitz, J. P.; Perez Garcia-Pando, C.; Miller, R. L.

    2015-10-21

    A global compilation of nearly sixty measurement studies is used to evaluate two methods of simulating the mineral composition of dust aerosols in an Earth system model. Both methods are based upon a Mean Mineralogical Table (MMT) that relates the soil mineral fractions to a global atlas of arid soil type. The Soil Mineral Fraction (SMF) method assumes that the aerosol mineral fractions match the fractions of the soil. The MMT is based upon soil measurements after wet sieving, a process that destroys aggregates of soil particles that would have been emitted from the original, undisturbed soil. The second methodmore » approximately reconstructs the emitted aggregates. This model is referred to as the Aerosol Mineral Fraction (AMF) method because the mineral fractions of the aerosols differ from those of the wet-sieved parent soil, partly due to reaggregation. The AMF method remedies some of the deficiencies of the SMF method in comparison to observations. Only the AMF method exhibits phyllosilicate mass at silt sizes, where they are abundant according to observations. In addition, the AMF quartz fraction of silt particles is in better agreement with measured values, in contrast to the overestimated SMF fraction. Measurements at distinct clay and silt particle sizes are shown to be more useful for evaluation of the models, in contrast to the sum over all particles sizes that is susceptible to compensating errors, as illustrated by the SMF experiment. Model errors suggest that allocation of the emitted silt fraction of each mineral into the corresponding transported size categories is an important remaining source of uncertainty. Evaluation of both models and the MMT is hindered by the limited number of size-resolved measurements of mineral content that sparsely sample aerosols from the major dust sources. In conclusion, the importance of climate processes dependent upon aerosol mineral composition shows the need for global and routine mineral measurements.« less

  11. Radiological protection in North American naturally occurring radioactive material industries.

    PubMed

    Chambers, D B

    2015-06-01

    All soils and rocks contain naturally occurring radioactive material (NORM). Many ores and raw materials contain relatively high levels of natural radionuclides, and processing such materials can further increase the concentrations of natural radionuclides, sometimes referred to as 'technologically enhanced naturally occurring radioactive material' (TENORM). Examples of NORM minerals include uranium ores, monazite (a source of rare earth minerals), and phosphate rock used to produce phosphate fertiliser. Such activities have the potential to result in above background radiation exposure to workers and the public. The objective of this paper is to review the sources and exposure from NORM in North American industries, and provide a perspective on the potential radiological hazards to workers and the environment. Proper consideration of NORM issues is important and needs to be integrated in the assessment of these projects. Concerns over radioactivity and radiation amongst non-governmental organisations and the local public have resulted in the cancellation of NORM mining and mineral extraction projects, as well as inhibition of the safe use of by-product materials from various NORM industries. This paper also briefly comments on the current regulatory framework for NORM (TENORM) in Canada and the USA, as well as the potential implications of the recent activities of the International Commission on Radiological Protection for NORM industries. © The International Society for Prosthetics and Orthotics Reprints and permissions: sagepub.co.uk/journalsPermissions.nav.

  12. Practical Use of Operation Data in the Process Industry

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Kano, Manabu

    This paper aims to reveal real problems in the process industry and introduce recent development to solve such problems from the viewpoint of effective use of operation data. Two topics are discussed: virtual sensor and process control. First, in order to clarify the present state and problems, a part of our recent questionnaire survey of process control is quoted. It is emphasized that maintenance is a key issue not only for soft-sensors but also for controllers. Then, new techniques are explained. The first one is correlation-based just-in-time modeling (CoJIT), which can realize higher prediction performance than conventional methods and simplify model maintenance. The second is extended fictitious reference iterative tuning (E-FRIT), which can realize data-driven PID control parameter tuning without process modeling. The great usefulness of these techniques are demonstrated through their industrial applications.

  13. Diffusion-Welded Microchannel Heat Exchanger for Industrial Processes

    SciTech Connect

    Piyush Sabharwall; Denis E. Clark; Michael V. Glazoff

    The goal of next generation reactors is to increase energy ef?ciency in the production of electricity and provide high-temperature heat for industrial processes. The ef?cient transfer of energy for industrial applications depends on the ability to incorporate effective heat exchangers between the nuclear heat transport system and the industrial process. The need for ef?ciency, compactness, and safety challenge the boundaries of existing heat exchanger technology. Various studies have been performed in attempts to update the secondary heat exchanger that is downstream of the primary heat exchanger, mostly because its performance is strongly tied to the ability to employ more ef?cientmore » industrial processes. Modern compact heat exchangers can provide high compactness, a measure of the ratio of surface area-to-volume of a heat exchange. The microchannel heat exchanger studied here is a plate-type, robust heat exchanger that combines compactness, low pressure drop, high effectiveness, and the ability to operate with a very large pressure differential between hot and cold sides. The plates are etched and thereafter joined by diffusion welding, resulting in extremely strong all-metal heat exchanger cores. After bonding, any number of core blocks can be welded together to provide the required ?ow capacity. This study explores the microchannel heat exchanger and draws conclusions about diffusion welding/bonding for joining heat exchanger plates, with both experimental and computational modeling, along with existing challenges and gaps. Also, presented is a thermal design method for determining overall design speci?cations for a microchannel printed circuit heat exchanger for both supercritical (24 MPa) and subcritical (17 MPa) Rankine power cycles.« less

  14. Lactic acid bacterial extract as a biogenic mineral growth modifier

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Borah, Ballav M.; Singh, Atul K.; Ramesh, Aiyagari; Das, Gopal

    2009-04-01

    The formation of minerals and mechanisms by which bacteria could control their formation in natural habitats is now of current interest for material scientists to have an insight of the mechanism of in vivo mineralization, as well as to seek industrial and technological applications. Crystalline uniform structures of calcium and barium minerals formed micron-sized building blocks when synthesized in the presence of an organic matrix consisting of secreted protein extracts from three different lactic acid bacteria (LAB) viz.: Lactobacillus plantarum MTCC 1325, Lactobacillus acidophilus NRRL B4495 and Pediococcus acidilactici CFR K7. LABs are not known to form organic matrix in biological materialization processes. The influence of these bacterial extracts on the crystallization behavior was investigated in details to test the basic coordination behavior of the acidic protein. In this report, varied architecture of the mineral crystals obtained in presence of high molecular weight protein extracts of three different LAB strains has been discussed. The role of native form of high molecular weight bacterial protein extracts in the generation of nucleation centers for crystal growth was clearly established. A model for the formation of organic matrix-cation complex and the subsequent events leading to crystal growth is proposed.

  15. Cloud Computing Boosts Business Intelligence of Telecommunication Industry

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Xu, Meng; Gao, Dan; Deng, Chao; Luo, Zhiguo; Sun, Shaoling

    Business Intelligence becomes an attracting topic in today's data intensive applications, especially in telecommunication industry. Meanwhile, Cloud Computing providing IT supporting Infrastructure with excellent scalability, large scale storage, and high performance becomes an effective way to implement parallel data processing and data mining algorithms. BC-PDM (Big Cloud based Parallel Data Miner) is a new MapReduce based parallel data mining platform developed by CMRI (China Mobile Research Institute) to fit the urgent requirements of business intelligence in telecommunication industry. In this paper, the architecture, functionality and performance of BC-PDM are presented, together with the experimental evaluation and case studies of its applications. The evaluation result demonstrates both the usability and the cost-effectiveness of Cloud Computing based Business Intelligence system in applications of telecommunication industry.

  16. Sustainable mineral resources management: from regional mineral resources exploration to spatial contamination risk assessment of mining

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Jordan, Gyozo

    2009-07-01

    Wide-spread environmental contamination associated with historic mining in Europe has triggered social responses to improve related environmental legislation, the environmental assessment and management methods for the mining industry. Mining has some unique features such as natural background contamination associated with mineral deposits, industrial activities and contamination in the three-dimensional subsurface space, problem of long-term remediation after mine closure, problem of secondary contaminated areas around mine sites, land use conflicts and abandoned mines. These problems require special tools to address the complexity of the environmental problems of mining-related contamination. The objective of this paper is to show how regional mineral resources mapping has developed into the spatial contamination risk assessment of mining and how geological knowledge can be transferred to environmental assessment of mines. The paper provides a state-of-the-art review of the spatial mine inventory, hazard, impact and risk assessment and ranking methods developed by national and international efforts in Europe. It is concluded that geological knowledge on mineral resources exploration is essential and should be used for the environmental contamination assessment of mines. Also, sufficient methodological experience, knowledge and documented results are available, but harmonisation of these methods is still required for the efficient spatial environmental assessment of mine contamination.

  17. Recycling of solid waste rich in organic nitrogen from leather industry: mineral nutrition of rice plants.

    PubMed

    Nogueira, Francisco G E; Castro, Isabela A; Bastos, Ana R R; Souza, Guilherme A; de Carvalho, Janice G; Oliveira, Luiz C A

    2011-02-28

    The leather industry produces a large quantity of solid waste (wet blue leather), which contains a high amount of chromium. After its removal from wet blue leather, a solid collagenic material is recovered, containing high nitrogen levels, which can be used as a nitrogen source in agriculture. In order to take more advantage of the collagen, it was enriched with mineral P and K in order to produce NPK formulations. The objective was also to evaluate the efficiency of such formulations as a nutrient supply for rice plants in an Oxisoil, under greenhouse conditions. The application of PK enriched-collagen formulations resulted in N contents in the vegetative parts and grains of rice plants which were equivalent or superior to those obtained with urea and commercial NPK formulations. Copyright © 2010 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  18. IMPROVING INDUSTRIAL WASTEWATER TREATMENT PROCESS RELIABILITY TO ENHANCE SUSTAINABLE DEVELOPMENT

    EPA Science Inventory

    Sustainable development includes the recovery of resources from industrial manufacturing processes. One valuable resource that can often be purified and reused is process wastewater. Typically, pollutants are removed from process wastewater using physical, chemical, and biologica...

  19. Measuring, managing and maximizing performance of mineral processing plants

    SciTech Connect

    Bascur, O.A.; Kennedy, J.P.

    1995-12-31

    The implementation of continuous quality improvement is the confluence of Total Quality Management, People Empowerment, Performance Indicators and Information Engineering. The supporting information technologies allow a mineral processor to narrow the gap between management business objectives and the process control level. One of the most important contributors is the user friendliness and flexibility of the personal computer in a client/server environment. This synergistic combination when used for real time performance monitoring translates into production cost savings, improved communications and enhanced decision support. Other savings come from reduced time to collect data and perform tedious calculations, act quickly with fresh newmore » data, generate and validate data to be used by others. This paper presents an integrated view of plant management. The selection of the proper tools for continuous quality improvement are described. The process of selecting critical performance monitoring indices for improved plant performance are discussed. The importance of a well balanced technological improvement, personnel empowerment, total quality management and organizational assets are stressed.« less

  20. Necessity for Industry-Academic Economic Geology Collaborations for Energy Critical Minerals Research and Development

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Hitzman, M.

    2012-12-01

    Economic geology is a highly interdisciplinary field utilizing a diverse set of petrologic, geochemical, geophysical, and tectonic data for improved scientific understanding of element migration and concentration in the crust (ore formation). A number of elements that were once laboratory curiosities now figure prominently in new energy technologies (e.g. wind turbines, solar energy collectors). If widely deployed, such technologies have the capacity to transform the way we produce, transmit, store, and conserve energy. To meet domestic and worldwide renewable energy needs these systems must be scaled from laboratory, to demonstration, to widespread deployment. Such technologies are materials intensive. If widely deployed, the elements required by these technologies will be needed in significant quantities and shortage of these "energy critical elements" could significantly inhibit the adoption of otherwise game changing energy technologies. It is imperative to better understand the geology, metallurgy, and mining engineering of critical mineral deposits if we are to sustainably develop these new technologies. There is currently no consensus among federal and state agencies, the national and international mining industry, the public, and the U.S. academic community regarding the importance of economic geology to secure sufficient energy critical elements to undertake large-scale renewable energy development. Available federal funding for critical elements focuses on downstream areas such as metallurgy, substitutions, and recycling rather than primary deposits. Undertaking the required research to discover and mine critical element deposits in an environmentally friendly manner will require significant partnering with industry due to the current lack of federal research support.

  1. Does the pelleting process affect the nutritive value of a pre-starter diet for suckling piglets? Ex vivo studies on mineral absorption.

    PubMed

    Delgado-Andrade, Cristina; Rufián-Henares, José A; Nieto, Rosa; Aguilera, José F; Navarro, M Pilar; Seiquer, Isabel

    2010-04-15

    The effects of pelleting on the extent of the Maillard reaction (MR) and on calcium, magnesium and zinc solubility and absorption were analysed in a conventional pre-starter diet for suckling piglets. Development was tested measuring colour, absorbance (280/420 nm), fluorescence, residual free lysine, furosine, hydroxymethylfurfural (HMF) and furfural contents before and after pelleting. Fluorescence, absorbance and mineral solubility were also measured after in vitro digestion of diets. The effects on mineral absorption were tested using Caco-2 cells. MR indexes confirmed the development of the reaction during the pelleting of this particular diet compared with the meal diet. The CIE-Lab colour parameters showed a decrease in luminosity (L*) and progress of the colour to the red zone (a*) in the pelleted diet. A 36% decrease in free lysine content was observed. Significant correlations were observed between fluorescence intensity and furosine levels, HMF and furfural. The pelleting process did not modify calcium and magnesium solubility after in vitro digestion, but soluble zinc increased. The efficiency of calcium and zinc transport across Caco-2 cell monolayers was greater in the pelleted diet. Evidence of MR development is shown, resulting in various nutritional consequences. Optimisation of pelleting could result in a better formulation of diets for feedstuffs. (c) 2010 Society of Chemical Industry.

  2. Mineral facilities of Africa and the Middle East

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Eros, J.M.; Candelario-Quintana, Luissette

    2006-01-01

    This map displays over 1,500 mineral facilities in Africa and the Middle East. The mineral facilities include mines, plants, mills, or refineries of aluminum, cement, coal, copper, diamond, gold, iron and steel, nickel, platinum-group metals, salt, and silver, among others. The data used in this poster were compiled from multiple sources, including the 2004 USGS Minerals Yearbook (Africa and Middle East volume), Minerals Statistics and Information from the USGS Web site (http://minerals.usgs.gov/minerals/), and data collected by USGS minerals information country specialists. Data reflect the most recent published table of industry structure for each country. Other sources include statistical publications of individual countries, annual reports and press releases of operating companies, and trade journals. Due to the sensitivity of some energy commodity data, the quality of these data should be evaluated on a country-by-country basis. Additional information and explanation is available from the country specialists. See Table 1 for general information about each mineral facility site including country, location and facility name, facility type, latitude, longitude, mineral commodity, mining method, main operating company, status, capacity, and units.

  3. Mineral status in canine medial coronoid process disease: a cohort study using analysis of hair by mass spectrometry.

    PubMed

    Davies, M; West, J; Williams, C; Gardner, D S

    2017-05-06

    In several species, developmental skeletal diseases involving abnormal endochondral ossification have been associated with imbalanced mineral intake. Hair analysis reflects long-term mineral status. To determine the mineral content of hair from dogs with or without medial coronoid process disease (MCPD). Dogs with MCPD have a different profile of minerals known to influence metalloenzymes involved in endochondral ossification. After cleansing, chelation and acid digestion of hair samples (n=79 in total: control dogs, n=70 v MCPD, n=9), mineral profile (7 major and 25 trace elements) was determined by inductively coupled plasma-mass spectrometry. Dogs were of similar age (control, 4.05 [1.85-7.70] v MCPD, 4.30 [3.25-6.53] median (IQR) years; P=0.78) and gender (control, n=43/27 v MCPD, n=4/5 males/females). 28/70 (40 per cent) of control and 8/9 (88 per cent) of MCPD dogs were neutered, respectively. Hair from dogs with MCPD contained significantly lower amounts (µg/g/DM) of copper, sulphur and zinc (all at P<0.001). Age, sex and neutered status had no effect on hair mineral status. Based on hair analysis, a role for mineral imbalance including copper, sulphur and zinc in the aetiopathogenesis of canine MCPD is suggested. Hair mineral analysis may prove useful as a biomarker for susceptible puppies. British Veterinary Association.

  4. Optical-electronic system for express analysis of mineral raw materials dressability by color sorting method

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Alekhin, Artem A.; Gorbunova, Elena V.; Chertov, Aleksandr N.; Petuhova, Darya B.

    2013-04-01

    Due to the depletion of solid minerals ore reserves and the involvement in the production of the poor and refractory ores a process of continuous appreciation of minerals is going. In present time at the market of enrichment equipment are well represented optical sorters of various firms. All these sorters are essentially different from each other by parameters of productivity, classes of particles sizes for processed raw, nuances of decision algorithm, as well as by color model (RGB, YUV, HSB, etc.) chosen to describe the color of separating mineral samples. At the same time there is no dressability estimation method for mineral raw materials without direct semi-industrial test on the existing type of optical sorter, as well as there is no equipment realizing mentioned dressability estimation method. It should also be note the lack of criteria for choosing of one or another manufacturer (or type) of optical sorter. A direct consequence of this situation is the "opacity" of the color sorting method and the rejection of its potential customers. The proposed solution of mentioned problems is to develop the dressability estimation method, and to create an optical-electronic system for express analysis of mineral raw materials dressability by color sorting method. This paper has the description of structure organization and operating principles of experimental model optical-electronic system for express analysis of mineral raw material. Also in this work are represented comparison results of the proposed optical-electronic system and the real color sorter.

  5. Industrial process system assessment: bridging process engineering and life cycle assessment through multiscale modeling.

    EPA Science Inventory

    The Industrial Process System Assessment (IPSA) methodology is a multiple step allocation approach for connecting information from the production line level up to the facility level and vice versa using a multiscale model of process systems. The allocation procedure assigns inpu...

  6. Cobalt mineral exploration and supply from 1995 through 2013

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Wilburn, David R.

    2011-01-01

    The global mining industry has invested a large amount of capital in mineral exploration and development over the past 15 years in an effort to ensure that sufficient resources are available to meet future increases in demand for minerals. Exploration data have been used to identify specific sites where this investment has led to a significant contribution in global mineral supply of cobalt or where a significant increase in cobalt production capacity is anticipated in the next 5 years. This report provides an overview of the cobalt industry, factors affecting mineral supply, and circumstances surrounding the development, or lack thereof, of key mineral properties with the potential to affect mineral supply. Of the 48 sites with an effective production capacity of at least 1,000 metric tons per year of cobalt considered for this study, 3 producing sites underwent significant expansion during the study period, 10 exploration sites commenced production from 1995 through 2008, and 16 sites were expected to begin production by 2013 if planned development schedules are met. Cobalt supply is influenced by economic, environmental, political, and technological factors affecting exploration for and production of copper, nickel, and other metals as well as factors affecting the cobalt industry. Cobalt-rich nickel laterite deposits were discovered and developed in Australia and the South Pacific and improvements in laterite processing technology took place during the 1990s and early in the first decade of the 21st century when mining of copper-cobalt deposits in Congo (Kinshasa) was restricted because of regional conflict and lack of investment in that country's mining sector. There was also increased exploration for and greater importance placed on cobalt as a byproduct of nickel mining in Australia and Canada. The emergence of China as a major refined cobalt producer and consumer since 2007 has changed the pattern of demand for cobalt, particularly from Africa and

  7. Energy determination in industrial X-ray processing facilities

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Cleland, M. R.; Gregoire, O.; Stichelbaut, F.; Gomola, I.; Galloway, R. A.; Schlecht, J.

    2005-12-01

    In industrial irradiation facilities, the determination of maximum photon or electron energy is important for regulated processes, such as food irradiation, and for assurance of treatment reproducibility. With electron beam irradiators, this has been done by measuring the depth-dose distribution in a homogeneous material. For X-ray irradiators, an analogous method has not yet been recommended. This paper describes a procedure suitable for typical industrial irradiation processes, which is based on common practice in the field of therapeutic X-ray treatment. It utilizes a measurement of the slope of the exponential attenuation curve of X-rays in a thick stack of polyethylene plates. Monte Carlo simulations and experimental tests have been performed to verify the suitability and accuracy of the method between 3 MeV and 8 MeV.

  8. Market development directory for solar industrial process heat systems

    SciTech Connect

    None

    The purpose of this directory is to provide a basis for market development activities through a location listing of key trade associations, trade periodicals, and key firms for three target groups. Potential industrial users and potential IPH system designers were identified as the prime targets for market development activities. The bulk of the directory is a listing of these two groups. The third group, solar IPH equipment manufacturers, was included to provide an information source for potential industrial users and potential IPH system designers. Trade associates and their publications are listed for selected four-digit Standard Industrial Code (SIC) industries. Sincemore » industries requiring relatively lower temperature process heat probably will comprise most of the near-term market for solar IPH systems, the 80 SIC's included in this chapter have process temperature requirements less than 350/sup 0/F. Some key statistics and a location list of the largest plants (according to number of employees) in each state are included for 15 of the 80 SIC's. Architectural/engineering and consulting firms are listed which are known to have solar experience. Professional associated and periodicals to which information on solar IPH sytstems may be directed also are included. Solar equipment manufacturers and their associations are listed. The listing is based on the SERI Solar Energy Information Data Base (SEIDB).« less

  9. Recovery Processes of Organic Acids from Fermentation Broths in the Biomass-Based Industry.

    PubMed

    Li, Qian-Zhu; Jiang, Xing-Lin; Feng, Xin-Jun; Wang, Ji-Ming; Sun, Chao; Zhang, Hai-Bo; Xian, Mo; Liu, Hui-Zhou

    2016-01-01

    The new movement towards green chemistry and renewable feedstocks makes microbial production of chemicals more competitive. Among the numerous chemicals, organic acids are more attractive targets for process development efforts in the renewable-based biorefinery industry. However, most of the production costs in microbial processes are higher than that in chemical processes, among which over 60% are generated by separation processes. Therefore, the research of separation and purification processes is important for a promising biorefinery industry. This review highlights the progress of recovery processes in the separation and purification of organic acids, including their advantages and disadvantages, current situation, and future prospects in terms of recovery yields and industrial application.

  10. The role of airborne mineral dusts in human disease

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Morman, Suzette A.; Plumlee, Geoffrey S.

    2013-01-01

    Exposure to fine particulate matter (PM) is generally acknowledged to increase risk for human morbidity and mortality. However, particulate matter (PM) research has generally examined anthropogenic (industry and combustion by-products) sources with few studies considering contributions from geogenic PM (produced from the Earth by natural processes, e.g., volcanic ash, windborne ash from wildfires, and mineral dusts) or geoanthropogenic PM (produced from natural sources by processes that are modified or enhanced by human activities, e.g., dusts from lakebeds dried by human removal of water, dusts produced from areas that have undergone desertification as a result of human practices). Globally, public health concerns are mounting, related to potential increases in dust emission from climate related changes such as desertification and the associated long range as well as local health effects. Recent epidemiological studies have identified associations between far-traveled dusts from primary sources and increased morbidity and mortality in Europe and Asia. This paper provides an outline of public health research and history as it relates to naturally occurring inorganic mineral dusts. We summarize results of current public health research and describe some of the many challenges related to understanding health effects from exposures to dust aerosols.

  11. A review of the surface features and properties, surfactant adsorption and floatability of four key minerals of diasporic bauxite resources.

    PubMed

    Zhang, Ningning; Nguyen, Anh V; Zhou, Changchun

    2018-04-01

    Diasporic bauxite represents one of the major aluminum resources. Its upgrading for further processing involves a separation of diaspore (the valuable mineral) from aluminosilicates (the gangue minerals) such as kaolinite, illite, and pyrophyllite. Flotation is one of the most effective ways to realize the upgrading. Since flotation is a physicochemical process based on the difference in the surface hydrophobicity of different components, determining the adsorption characteristics of various flotation surfactants on the mineral surfaces is critical. The surfactant adsorption properties of the minerals, in turn, are controlled by the surface chemistry of the minerals, while the latter is related to the mineral crystal structures. In this paper, we first discuss the crystal structures of the four key minerals of diaspore, kaolinite, illite, and pyrophyllite as well as the broken bonds on their exposed surfaces after grinding. Next, we summarize the surface chemistry properties such as surface wettability and surface electrical properties of the four minerals, and the differences in these properties are explained from the perspective of mineral crystal structures. Then we review the adsorption mechanism and adsorption characteristics of surfactants such as collectors (cationic, anionic, and mixed surfactants), depressants (inorganic and organic), dispersants, and flocculants on these mineral surfaces. The separation of diaspore and aluminosilicates by direct flotation and reverse flotation are reviewed, and the collecting properties of different types of collectors are compared. Furthermore, the abnormal behavior of the cationic flotation of kaolinite is also explained in this section. This review provides a strong theoretical support for the optimization of the upgrading of diaspore bauxite ore by flotation and the early industrialization of the reverse flotation process. Copyright © 2018 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  12. Formation of secondary minerals in a lysimeter approach - A mineral-microbe interaction

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Schäffner, F.; Merten, D.; De Giudici, G.; Beyer, A.; Akob, D. M.; Ricci, P. C.; Küsel, K.; Büchel, G.

    2012-04-01

    Heavy metal contamination of large areas due to uranium mining operations poses a serious long-term environmental problem. In the Ronneburg district (eastern Thuringia, Germany), leaching of low grade uranium bearing ores (uranium content < 300 g/t) occurred from 1972 to 1990 using acid mine drainage (AMD; pH 2.7-2.8) and diluted sulphuric acid (10 g/l). Secondary mineral phases like birnessite, todorokite and goethite occur within a natural attenuation process associated with enrichment of heavy metals, especially Cd, Ni, Co, Cu and Zn due to a residual contamination even after remediation efforts. To reveal the processes of secondary mineral precipitation in the field a laboratory lysimeter approach was set up under in situ-like conditions. Homogenized soil from the field site and pure quartz sand were used as substrates. In general, in situ measurements of redox potentials in the substrates showed highly oxidizing conditions (200-750 mV). Water was supplied to the lysimeter from below via a mariottés bottle containing contaminated groundwater from the field. Evaporation processes were allowed, providing a continuous flow of water. This led to precipitation of epsomite and probably aplowite on the top layer of substrate, similar to what is observed in field investigations. After 4 weeks, the first iron and manganese bearing secondary minerals became visible. Soil water samples were used to monitor the behaviour of metals within the lysimeter. Saturation indices (SI) for different secondary minerals were calculated with PHREEQC. The SI of goethite showed oversaturation with respect to the soil solution. SEM-EDX analyses and IR spectroscopy confirmed the formation of goethite. Geochemical data revealed that goethite formation was mainly dominated by Eh/pH processes and that heavy metals, e.g. Zn and U, could be enriched in this phase. Although Eh/pH data does not support formation of manganese minerals, Mn(II)-oxidizing bacteria (MOB) could be isolated from field

  13. Active Learning Techniques Applied to an Interdisciplinary Mineral Resources Course.

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Aird, H. M.

    2015-12-01

    An interdisciplinary active learning course was introduced at the University of Puget Sound entitled 'Mineral Resources and the Environment'. Various formative assessment and active learning techniques that have been effective in other courses were adapted and implemented to improve student learning, increase retention and broaden knowledge and understanding of course material. This was an elective course targeted towards upper-level undergraduate geology and environmental majors. The course provided an introduction to the mineral resources industry, discussing geological, environmental, societal and economic aspects, legislation and the processes involved in exploration, extraction, processing, reclamation/remediation and recycling of products. Lectures and associated weekly labs were linked in subject matter; relevant readings from the recent scientific literature were assigned and discussed in the second lecture of the week. Peer-based learning was facilitated through weekly reading assignments with peer-led discussions and through group research projects, in addition to in-class exercises such as debates. Writing and research skills were developed through student groups designing, carrying out and reporting on their own semester-long research projects around the lasting effects of the historical Ruston Smelter on the biology and water systems of Tacoma. The writing of their mini grant proposals and final project reports was carried out in stages to allow for feedback before the deadline. Speakers from industry were invited to share their specialist knowledge as guest lecturers, and students were encouraged to interact with them, with a view to employment opportunities. Formative assessment techniques included jigsaw exercises, gallery walks, placemat surveys, think pair share and take-home point summaries. Summative assessment included discussion leadership, exams, homeworks, group projects, in-class exercises, field trips, and pre-discussion reading exercises

  14. ARSENIC LEACHING FROM IRON RICH MINERAL PROCESSING WASTE: INFLUENCE OF PH AND REDOX POTENTIAL

    EPA Science Inventory

    This paper presents the effect of pH and redox potential on the potential mobility of arsenic (As) from a contaminated mineral processing waste. The selected waste contained about 0.47 g kg-1 of As and 66.2 g kg-1 of iron (Fe). The characteristic of the wast...

  15. Identification of provenance rocks based on EPMA analyses of heavy minerals

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Shimizu, M.; Sano, N.; Ueki, T.; Yonaga, Y.; Yasue, K. I.; Masakazu, N.

    2017-12-01

    Information on mountain building is significant in the field of geological disposal of high-level radioactive waste, because this affects long-term stability in groundwater flow system. Provenance analysis is one of effective approaches for understanding building process of mountains. Chemical compositions of heavy minerals, as well as their chronological data, can be an index for identification of provenance rocks. The accurate identification requires the measurement of as many grains as possible. In order to achieve an efficient provenance analysis, we developed a method for quick identification of heavy minerals using an Electron Probe Micro Analyzer (EPMA). In this method, heavy mineral grains extracted from a sample were aligned on a glass slide and mounted in a resin. Concentration of 28 elements was measured for 300-500 grains per sample using EPMA. To measure as many grains as possible, we prioritized swiftness of measurement over precision, configuring measurement time of about 3.5 minutes for each grain. Identification of heavy minerals was based on their chemical composition. We developed a Microsoft® Excel® spread sheet input criteria of mineral identification using a typical range of chemical compositions for each mineral. The grains of <80 wt.% or >110 wt.% total were rejected. The criteria of mineral identification were revised through the comparison between mineral identification by optical microscopy and chemical compositions of grains classified as "unknown minerals". Provenance rocks can be identified based on abundance ratio of identified minerals. If no significant difference of the abundance ratio was found among source rocks, chemical composition of specific minerals was used as another index. This method was applied to the sediments of some regions in Japan where provenance rocks had lithological variations but similar formation ages. Consequently, the provenance rocks were identified based on chemical compositions of heavy minerals

  16. Peroxone mineralization of chemical oxygen demand for direct potable water reuse: Kinetics and process control.

    PubMed

    Wu, Tingting; Englehardt, James D

    2015-04-15

    Mineralization of organics in secondary effluent by the peroxone process was studied at a direct potable water reuse research treatment system serving an occupied four-bedroom, four bath university residence hall apartment. Organic concentrations were measured as chemical oxygen demand (COD) and kinetic runs were monitored at varying O3/H2O2 dosages and ratios. COD degradation could be accurately described as the parallel pseudo-1st order decay of rapidly and slowly-oxidizable fractions, and effluent COD was reduced to below the detection limit (<0.7 mg/L). At dosages ≥4.6 mg L(-1) h(-1), an O3/H2O2 mass ratio of 3.4-3.8, and initial COD <20 mg/L, a simple first order decay was indicated for both single-passed treated wastewater and recycled mineral water, and a relationship is proposed and demonstrated to estimate the pseudo-first order rate constant for design purposes. At this O3/H2O2 mass ratio, ORP and dissolved ozone were found to be useful process control indicators for monitoring COD mineralization in secondary effluent. Moreover, an average second order rate constant for OH oxidation of secondary effluent organics (measured as MCOD) was found to be 1.24 × 10(7) ± 0.64 × 10(7) M(-1) S(-1). The electric energy demand of the peroxone process is estimated at 1.73-2.49 kW h electric energy for removal of one log COD in 1 m(3) secondary effluent, comparable to the energy required for desalination of medium strength seawater. Advantages/disadvantages of the two processes for municipal wastewater reuse are discussed. Copyright © 2015 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  17. Applications of sonochemistry in Russian food processing industry.

    PubMed

    Krasulya, Olga; Shestakov, Sergey; Bogush, Vladimir; Potoroko, Irina; Cherepanov, Pavel; Krasulya, Boris

    2014-11-01

    In food industry, conventional methodologies such as grinding, mixing, and heat treatment are used for food processing and preservation. These processes have been well studied for many centuries and used in the conversion of raw food materials to consumable food products. This report is dedicated to the application of a cost-efficient method of energy transfer caused by acoustic cavitation effects in food processing, overall, having significant impacts on the development of relatively new area of food processing such as food sonochemistry. Copyright © 2014 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  18. [Development and innovation of traditional Chinese medicine processing discipline and Chinese herbal pieces industry].

    PubMed

    Xiao, Yong-Qing; Li, Li; Liu, Ying; Ma, Yin-Lian; Yu, Ding-Rong

    2016-01-01

    To elucidate the key issues in the development and innovation of traditional Chinese medicine processing discipline and Chinese herbal pieces industry Chinese herbal pieces industry. According to the author's accumulated experience over years and demand of the development of the Chinese herbal pieces industry, the key issues in the development and innovation on the Chinese herbal pieces industry were summarized. According to the author, the traditional Chinese medicine processing discipline shall focus on a application basis research. The development of this discipline should be closely related to the development of Chinese herbal pieces. The traditional Chinese medicine processing discipline can be improved and its results can be transformed only if this discipline were correlated with the Chinese herbal pieces industry, matched with the development of the Chinese herbal pieces industry, and solved the problems in the development on the Chinese herbal pieces industry. The development of traditional Chinese medicine processing discipline and the Chinese herbal pieces industry also requires scientific researchers to make constant innovations, realize the specialty of the researches, and innovate based on inheritance. Copyright© by the Chinese Pharmaceutical Association.

  19. Comparison of alkaline industrial wastes for aqueous mineral carbon sequestration through a parallel reactivity study.

    PubMed

    Noack, Clinton W; Dzombak, David A; Nakles, David V; Hawthorne, Steven B; Heebink, Loreal V; Dando, Neal; Gershenzon, Michael; Ghosh, Rajat S

    2014-10-01

    Thirty-one alkaline industrial wastes from a wide range of industrial processes were acquired and screened for application in an aqueous carbon sequestration process. The wastes were evaluated for their potential to leach polyvalent cations and base species. Following mixing with a simple sodium bicarbonate solution, chemistries of the aqueous and solid phases were analyzed. Experimental results indicated that the most reactive materials were capable of sequestering between 77% and 93% of the available carbon under experimental conditions in four hours. These materials - cement kiln dust, spray dryer absorber ash, and circulating dry scrubber ash - are thus good candidates for detailed, process-oriented studies. Chemical equilibrium modeling indicated that amorphous calcium carbonate is likely responsible for the observed sequestration. High variability and low reactive fractions render many other materials less attractive for further pursuit without considering preprocessing or activation techniques. Copyright © 2014 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  20. Human placenta processed for encapsulation contains modest concentrations of 14 trace minerals and elements.

    PubMed

    Young, Sharon M; Gryder, Laura K; David, Winnie B; Teng, Yuanxin; Gerstenberger, Shawn; Benyshek, Daniel C

    2016-08-01

    Maternal placentophagy has recently emerged as a rare but increasingly popular practice among women in industrialized countries who often ingest the placenta as a processed, encapsulated supplement, seeking its many purported postpartum health benefits. Little scientific research, however, has evaluated these claims, and concentrations of trace micronutrients/elements in encapsulated placenta have never been examined. Because the placenta retains beneficial micronutrients and potentially harmful toxic elements at parturition, we hypothesized that dehydrated placenta would contain detectable concentrations of these elements. To address this hypothesis, we analyzed 28 placenta samples processed for encapsulation to evaluate the concentration of 14 trace minerals/elements using inductively coupled plasma mass spectrometry. Analysis revealed detectable concentrations of arsenic, cadmium, cobalt, copper, iron, lead, manganese, mercury, molybdenum, rubidium, selenium, strontium, uranium, and zinc. Based on one recommended daily intake of placenta capsules (3300 mg/d), a daily dose of placenta supplements contains approximately 0.018 ± 0.004 mg copper, 2.19 ± 0.533 mg iron, 0.005 ± 0.000 mg selenium, and 0.180 ± 0.018 mg zinc. Based on the recommended dietary allowance (RDA) for lactating women, the recommended daily intake of placenta capsules would provide, on average, 24% RDA for iron, 7.1% RDA for selenium, 1.5% RDA for zinc, and 1.4% RDA for copper. The mean concentrations of potentially harmful elements (arsenic, cadmium, lead, mercury, uranium) were well below established toxicity thresholds. These results indicate that the recommended daily intake of encapsulated placenta may provide only a modest source of some trace micronutrients and a minimal source of toxic elements. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  1. FORMATION PROCESSES AND CONSEQUENCES OF REACTIVE AND NON-REACTIVE MINERAL PRECIPITATES IN PERMEABLE REACTIVE BARRIERS

    EPA Science Inventory

    Mineral precipitates in zero-valent iron PRBs can be classified by formation processes into three groups: 1) those that result from changes in chemical conditions (i.e., change in pH, e.g., calcite); 2) those that are a consequence of microbial activity (i.e., sulfate reduction, ...

  2. Process industries - graphic arts, paint, plastics, and textiles: all cousins under the skin

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Simon, Frederick T.

    2002-06-01

    The origin and selection of colors in the process industries is different depending upon how the creative process is applied and what are the capabilities of the manufacturing process. The fashion industry (clothing) with its supplier of textiles is the leader of color innovation. Color may be introduced into textile products at several stages in the manufacturing process from fiber through yarn and finally into fabric. The paint industry is divided into two major applications: automotive and trades sales. Automotive colors are selected by stylists who are in the employ of the automobile manufacturers. Trade sales paint on the other hand can be decided by paint manufactureres or by invididuals who patronize custom mixing facilities. Plastics colors are for the most part decided by the industrial designers who include color as part of the design. Graphic Arts (painting) is a burgeoning industry that uses color in image reproduction and package design. Except for text, printed material in color today has become the norm rather than an exception.

  3. Predictive maintenance of critical equipment in industrial processes

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Hashemian, Hashem M.

    This dissertation is an account of present and past research and development (R&D) efforts conducted by the author to develop and implement new technology for predictive maintenance and equipment condition monitoring in industrial processes. In particular, this dissertation presents the design of an integrated condition-monitoring system that incorporates the results of three current R&D projects with a combined funding of $2.8 million awarded to the author by the U.S. Department of Energy (DOE). This system will improve the state of the art in equipment condition monitoring and has applications in numerous industries including chemical and petrochemical plants, aviation and aerospace, electric power production and distribution, and a variety of manufacturing processes. The work that is presented in this dissertation is unique in that it introduces a new class of condition-monitoring methods that depend predominantly on the normal output of existing process sensors. It also describes current R&D efforts to develop data acquisition systems and data analysis algorithms and software packages that use the output of these sensors to determine the condition and health of industrial processes and their equipment. For example, the output of a pressure sensor in an operating plant can be used not only to indicate the pressure, but also to verify the calibration and response time of the sensor itself and identify anomalies in the process such as blockages, voids, and leaks that can interfere with accurate measurement of process parameters or disturb the plant's operation, safety, or reliability. Today, process data are typically collected at a rate of one sample per second (1 Hz) or slower. If this sampling rate is increased to 100 samples per second or higher, much more information can be extracted from the normal output of a process sensor and then used for condition monitoring, equipment performance measurements, and predictive maintenance. A fast analog-to-digital (A

  4. Acoustic barriers obtained from industrial wastes.

    PubMed

    Garcia-Valles, M; Avila, G; Martinez, S; Terradas, R; Nogués, J M

    2008-07-01

    Acoustic pollution is an environmental problem that is becoming increasingly more important in our society. Likewise, the accumulation of generated waste and the need for waste management are also becoming more and more pressing. In this study we describe a new material--called PROUSO--obtained from industrial wastes. PROUSO has a variety of commercial and engineering, as well as building, applications. The main raw materials used for this environmentally friendly material come from slag from the aluminium recycling process, dust from the marble industry, foundry sands, and recycled expanded polystyrene from recycled packaging. Some natural materials, such as plastic clays, are also used. To obtain PROUSO we used a conventional ceramic process, forming new mineral phases and incorporating polluted elements into the structure. Its physical properties make PROUSO an excellent acoustic and thermal insulation material. It absorbs 95% of the sound in the frequency band of the 500 Hz. Its compressive strength makes it ideal for use in ceramic wall building.

  5. Effect of tax laws on mineral exploration in Canada

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    DeYoung, J.H.

    1977-01-01

    Changes since 1972 in Canadian federal and provincial tax laws have eliminated many of the prior tax incentives offered to the mining industry. These changes provide an opportunity to study the effect of tax laws on a country's mineral resource development by comparing trends in mineral exploration in various provinces with adjoining regions, and by comparing these results with firm behaviour that would be expected from microeconomic analysis. Mineral producers have sought higher, more stable returns, resulting in shifts of exploration into political regions with more favourable and less changeable tax policies. Future supplies of mineral raw materials from a political region are dependent on current exploration effort, which is in turn influenced by the region's tax laws. ?? 1977.

  6. Selected US building industry processes and characteristics. A Project SAGE report

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Barbieri, R. H.; Schoen, R.

    1978-01-01

    Selected multifamily processes were examined using a primarily graphic approach to clarify some of the operational modes into which Project SAGE (solar-assisted gas energy) must fit, both as a product and a process in the U.S. building industry. What SAGE must have or do in order to fit the building industry in the short term, that is, the multifamily submarket as it is presently configured, is delineated.

  7. Mineralization enhancement of a recalcitrant pharmaceutical pollutant in water by advanced oxidation hybrid processes.

    PubMed

    Méndez-Arriaga, F; Torres-Palma, R A; Pétrier, C; Esplugas, S; Gimenez, J; Pulgarin, C

    2009-09-01

    Degradation of the biorecalcitrant pharmaceutical micropollutant ibuprofen (IBP) was carried out by means of several advanced oxidation hybrid configurations. TiO(2) photocatalysis, photo-Fenton and sonolysis - all of them under solar simulated illumination - were tested in the hybrid systems: sonophoto-Fenton (FS), sonophotocatalysis (TS) and TiO(2)/Fe(2+)/sonolysis (TFS). In the case of the sonophoto-Fenton process, the IBP degradation (95%) and mineralization (60%) were attained with photo-Fenton (FH). The presence of ultrasonic irradiation slightly improves the iron catalytic activity. On the other hand, total removal of IBP and elimination of more than 50% of dissolved organic carbon (DOC) were observed by photocatalysis with TiO(2) in the presence of ultrasound irradiation (TS). In contrast only 26% of mineralization was observed by photocatalysis with H(2)O(2) (TH) in the absence of ultrasound irradiation. Additional results showed that, in the TFS system, 92% of DOC removal and complete degradation of IBP were obtained within 240 min of treatment. The advanced oxidation hybrid systems seems to be a promising alternative for full elimination/mineralization for the recalcitrant micro-contaminant IBP.

  8. A world of minerals in your mobile device

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Jenness, Jane E.; Ober, Joyce A.; Wilkins, Aleeza M.; Gambogi, Joseph

    2016-09-15

    Mobile phones and other high-technology communications devices could not exist without mineral commodities. More than one-half of all components in a mobile device—including its electronics, display, battery, speakers, and more—are made from mined and semiprocessed materials (mineral commodities). Some mineral commodities can be recovered as byproducts during the production and processing of other commodities. As an example, bauxite is mined for its aluminum content, but gallium is recovered during the aluminum production process. The images show the ore minerals (sources) of some mineral commodities that are used to make components of a mobile device. On the reverse side, the map and table depict the major source countries producing these mineral commodities along with how these commodities are used in mobile devices. For more information on minerals, visit http://minerals.usgs.gov.

  9. Increased Lung Cancer Mortality in Taconite Mining: The Potential for Disease from Elongate Mineral Particle Exposure.

    PubMed

    Mandel, Jeffrey H; Ramachandran, Gurumurthy; Alexander, Bruce H

    2016-02-15

    Taconite mining involves potential exposure to non-asbestiform amphibole mineral fiber. More recent studies have demonstrated increased mortality from respiratory cancers and heart disease among workers in the taconite industry. This finding is not consistent with recent exposure assessment findings, nor is the toxicology of this mineral suggestive of neoplastic disease. The understanding of respiratory disease in taconite mining is hampered by the lack of exposure data to asbestiform mineral fibers that occurred in the 1950s and 1960s. Other industries with similar mineral exposure have not demonstrated definitive associations with respiratory cancer, although non-malignant respiratory disease is a consistent finding in epidemiological studies.

  10. Glycine Polymerization on Oxide Minerals.

    PubMed

    Kitadai, Norio; Oonishi, Hiroyuki; Umemoto, Koichiro; Usui, Tomohiro; Fukushi, Keisuke; Nakashima, Satoru

    2017-06-01

    It has long been suggested that mineral surfaces played an important role in peptide bond formation on the primitive Earth. However, it remains unclear which mineral species was key to the prebiotic processes. This is because great discrepancies exist among the reported catalytic efficiencies of minerals for amino acid polymerizations, owing to mutually different experimental conditions. This study examined polymerization of glycine (Gly) on nine oxide minerals (amorphous silica, quartz, α-alumina and γ-alumina, anatase, rutile, hematite, magnetite, and forsterite) using identical preparation, heating, and analytical procedures. Results showed that a rutile surface is the most effective site for Gly polymerization in terms of both amounts and lengths of Gly polymers synthesized. The catalytic efficiency decreased as rutile > anatase > γ-alumina > forsterite > α- alumina > magnetite > hematite > quartz > amorphous silica. Based on reported molecular-level information for adsorption of Gly on these minerals, polymerization activation was inferred to have arisen from deprotonation of the NH 3 + group of adsorbed Gly to the nucleophilic NH 2 group, and from withdrawal of electron density from the carboxyl carbon to the surface metal ions. The orientation of adsorbed Gly on minerals is also a factor influencing the Gly reactivity. The examination of Gly-mineral interactions under identical experimental conditions has enabled the direct comparison of various minerals' catalytic efficiencies and has made discussion of polymerization mechanisms and their relative influences possible Further systematic investigations using the approach reported herein (which are expected to be fruitful) combined with future microscopic surface analyses will elucidate the role of minerals in the process of abiotic peptide bond formation.

  11. Yeast population dynamics of industrial fuel-ethanol fermentation process assessed by PCR-fingerprinting.

    PubMed

    da Silva-Filho, Eurípedes Alves; Brito dos Santos, Scheila Karina; Resende, Alecsandra do Monte; de Morais, José Otamar Falcão; de Morais, Marcos Antonio; Ardaillon Simões, Diogo

    2005-07-01

    Yeast population used in industrial production of fuel-ethanol may vary according to the plant process condition and to the environmental stresses imposed to yeast cells. Therefore, yeast strains isolated from a particular industrial process may be adapted to such conditions and should be used as starter strain instead of less adapted commercial strains. This work reports the use of PCR-fingerprinting method based on microsatellite primer (GTG)5 to characterize the yeast population dynamics along the fermentation period in six distilleries. The results show that indigenous fermenting strains present in the crude substrate can be more adapted to the industrial process than commercial strains. We also identified new strains that dominate the yeast population and were more present either in molasses or sugar cane fermenting distilleries. Those strains were proposed to be used as starters in those industrial processes. This is the first report on the use of molecular markers to discriminate Saccharomyces cerevisiae strains from fuel-ethanol producing process.

  12. Remote detection of carbon monoxide by FTIR for simulating field detection in industrial process

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Gao, Qiankun; Liu, Wenqing; Zhang, Yujun; Gao, Mingguang; Xu, Liang; Li, Xiangxian; Jin, Ling

    2016-10-01

    In order to monitor carbon monoxide in industrial production, we developed a passive gas radiation measurement system based on Fourier transform infrared spectroscopy and carried out infrared radiation measurement experiment of carbon monoxide detection in simulated industrial production environment by this system. The principle, condition, device and data processing method of the experiment are introduced in this paper. In order to solve the problem of light path jitter in the actual industrial field, we simulated the noise in the industrial environment. We combine the advantages of MATHEMATICA software in the aspects of graph processing and symbolic computation to data processing to improve the signal noise ratio and noise suppression. Based on the HITRAN database, the nonlinear least square fitting method was used to calculate the concentration of the CO spectra before and after the data processing. By comparing the calculated concentration, the data processed by MATHEMATICA is reliable and necessary in the industrial production environment.

  13. Fast engineering optimization: A novel highly effective control parameterization approach for industrial dynamic processes.

    PubMed

    Liu, Ping; Li, Guodong; Liu, Xinggao

    2015-09-01

    Control vector parameterization (CVP) is an important approach of the engineering optimization for the industrial dynamic processes. However, its major defect, the low optimization efficiency caused by calculating the relevant differential equations in the generated nonlinear programming (NLP) problem repeatedly, limits its wide application in the engineering optimization for the industrial dynamic processes. A novel highly effective control parameterization approach, fast-CVP, is first proposed to improve the optimization efficiency for industrial dynamic processes, where the costate gradient formulae is employed and a fast approximate scheme is presented to solve the differential equations in dynamic process simulation. Three well-known engineering optimization benchmark problems of the industrial dynamic processes are demonstrated as illustration. The research results show that the proposed fast approach achieves a fine performance that at least 90% of the computation time can be saved in contrast to the traditional CVP method, which reveals the effectiveness of the proposed fast engineering optimization approach for the industrial dynamic processes. Copyright © 2015 ISA. Published by Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  14. Dielectric non destructive testing for rock characterization in natural stone industry and cultural heritage

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    López-Buendía, Angel M.; García-Baños, Beatriz; Mar Urquiola, M.; Gutiérrez, José D.; Catalá-Civera, José M.

    2016-04-01

    Dielectric constant measurement has been used in rocks characterization, mainly for exploration objective in geophysics, particularly related to ground penetration radar characterization in ranges of 10 MHz to 1 GHz. However, few data have been collected for loss factor. Complex permittivity (dielectric constant and loss factor) characterization in rock provide information about mineralogical composition as well as other petrophysic parameters related to the quality, such as fabric parameters, mineralogical distribution, humidity. A study was performed in the frequency of 2,45GHz by using a portable kit for dielectric device based on an open coaxial probe. In situ measurements were made of natural stone marble and granite on selected industrial slabs and building stone. A mapping of their complex permittivity was performed and evaluated, and variations in composition and textures were identified, showing the variability with the mineral composition, metal ore minerals content and fabric. Dielectric constant was a parameter more sensible to rock forming minerals composition, particularly in granites for QAPF-composition (quartz-alkali feldspar-plagioclases-feldspathoids) and in marbles for calcite-dolomite-silicates. Loss factor shown a high sensibility to fabric and minerals of alteration. Results showed that the dielectric properties can be used as a powerful tool for petrographic characterization of building stones in two areas of application: a) in cultural heritage diagnosis to estimate the quality and alteration of the stone, an b) in industrial application for quality control and industrial microwave processing.

  15. Industrial garnet

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Olson, D.W.

    2006-01-01

    In 2005, US production of crude garnet concentrate for industrial use was 28.4 kt valued at $3.05 million. Refined garnet material sold or used was 30.4 kt valued at $10 million. For the year, the US was one of the world's leading consumers of industrial garnet. Domestic values for crude concentrates for different applications ranged from about $53 to $120/t. In the short term, excess production capacity, combined with suppliers that vary in quality, grain size and mineral type, will keep prices down.

  16. Electrochemical destruction of trans-cinnamic acid by advanced oxidation processes: kinetics, mineralization, and degradation route.

    PubMed

    Flores, Nelly; Thiam, Abdoulaye; Rodríguez, Rosa María; Centellas, Francesc; Cabot, Pere Lluís; Garrido, José Antonio; Brillas, Enric; Sirés, Ignasi

    2017-03-01

    Acidic solutions of trans-cinnamic acid at pH 3.0 have been comparatively treated by anodic oxidation with electrogenerated H 2 O 2 (AO-H 2 O 2 ), electro-Fenton (EF), and photoelectro-Fenton (PEF). The electrolytic experiments were carried out with a boron-doped diamond (BDD)/air-diffusion cell. The substrate was very slowly abated by AO-H 2 O 2 because of its low reaction rate with oxidizing • OH produced from water discharge at the BDD anode. In contrast, its removal was very rapid and at similar rate by EF and PEF due to the additional oxidation by • OH in the bulk, formed from Fenton's reaction between cathodically generated H 2 O 2 and added Fe 2+ . The AO-H 2 O 2 treatment yielded the lowest mineralization. The EF process led to persistent final products like Fe(III) complexes, which were quickly photolyzed upon UVA irradiation in PEF to give an almost total mineralization with 98 % total organic carbon removal. The effect of current density and substrate concentration on all the mineralization processes was examined. Gas chromatography-mass spectrometry (GC-MS) analysis of electrolyzed solutions allowed identifying five primary aromatics and one heteroaromatic molecule, whereas final carboxylic acids like fumaric, acetic, and oxalic were quantified by ion exclusion high-performance liquid chromatography (HPLC). From all the products detected, a degradation route for trans-cinnamic acid is proposed.

  17. The utilization of waste by-products for removing silicate from mineral processing wastewater via chemical precipitation.

    PubMed

    Kang, Jianhua; Sun, Wei; Hu, Yuehua; Gao, Zhiyong; Liu, Runqing; Zhang, Qingpeng; Liu, Hang; Meng, Xiangsong

    2017-11-15

    This study investigates an environmentally friendly technology that utilizes waste by-products (waste acid and waste alkali liquids) to treat mineral processing wastewater. Chemical precipitation is used to remove silicate from scheelite (CaWO 4 ) cleaning flotation wastewater and the waste by-products are used as a substitute for calcium chloride (CaCl 2 ). A series of laboratory experiments is conducted to explain the removal of silicate and the characterization and formation mechanism of calcium silicate. The results show that silicate removal reaches 90% when the Ca:Si molar ratio exceeds 1.0. The X-ray diffraction (XRD) results confirm the characterization and formation of calcium silicate. The pH is the key factor for silicate removal, and the formation of polysilicic acid with a reduction of pH can effectively improve the silicate removal and reduce the usage of calcium. The economic analysis shows that the treatment costs with waste acid (0.63 $/m 3 ) and waste alkali (1.54 $/m 3 ) are lower than that of calcium chloride (2.38 $/m 3 ). The efficient removal of silicate is confirmed by industrial testing at a plant. The results show that silicate removal reaches 85% in the recycled water from tailings dam. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  18. Decolorization and mineralization of Allura Red AC aqueous solutions by electrochemical advanced oxidation processes.

    PubMed

    Thiam, Abdoulaye; Sirés, Ignasi; Garrido, José A; Rodríguez, Rosa M; Brillas, Enric

    2015-06-15

    The decolorization and mineralization of solutions containing 230 mg L(-1) of the food azo dye Allura Red AC at pH 3.0 have been studied upon treatment by electrochemical oxidation with electrogenerated H2O2 (EO-H2O2), electro-Fenton (EF) and photoelectro-Fenton (PEF). Experiments were performed with a stirred tank reactor containing a boron-doped diamond (BDD) or Pt anode and an air-diffusion cathode to generate H2O2. The main oxidants were hydroxyl radicals formed at the anode surface from water oxidation and in the bulk from Fenton's reaction between H2O2 and added Fe(2+). The oxidation ability increased in the sequence EO-H2O2 < EF < PEF and faster degradation was always obtained using BDD. PEF process with BDD yielded almost total mineralization following similar trends in SO4(2-), ClO4(-) and NO3(-) media, whereas in Cl(-) medium, mineralization was inhibited by the formation of recalcitrant chloroderivatives. GC-MS analysis confirmed the cleavage of the −N=N− bond with formation of two main aromatics in SO4(2-) medium and three chloroaromatics in Cl(-) solutions. The effective oxidation of final oxalic and oxamic acids by BDD along with the photolysis of Fe(III)-oxalate species by UVA light accounted for the superiority of PEF with BDD. NH4(+), NO3(-) and SO4(2-) ions were released during the mineralization. Copyright © 2015 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  19. Mineral resource of the month: Vermiculite

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Tanner, Arnold O.

    2014-01-01

    Vermiculite comprises a group of hydrated, laminar magnesium-aluminum-iron silicate minerals resembling mica. They are secondary minerals, typically altered biotite, iron-rich phlogopite or other micas or clay-like minerals that are themselves sometimes alteration products of amphibole, chlorite, olivine and pyroxene. Vermiculite deposits are associated with volcanic ultramafic rocks rich in magnesium silicate minerals, and flakes of the mineral range in color from black to shades of brown and yellow. The crystal structure of vermiculite contains water molecules, a property that is critical to its processing for common uses.

  20. Final Rule for Industrial Process Cooling Towers: Fact Sheet

    EPA Pesticide Factsheets

    Fact sheet concerning a final rule to reduce air toxics emissions from industrial process cooling towers. Air toxics are those pollutants known or suspected of causing cancer or other serious health effects.

  1. Cogeneration technology alternatives study. Volume 2: Industrial process characteristics

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    1980-01-01

    Information and data for 26 industrial processes are presented. The following information is given for each process: (1) a description of the process including the annual energy consumption and product production and plant capacity; (2) the energy requirements of the process for each unit of production and the detailed data concerning electrical energy requirements and also hot water, steam, and direct fired thermal requirements; (3) anticipated trends affecting energy requirements with new process or production technologies; and (4) representative plant data including capacity and projected requirements through the year 2000.

  2. Gravity-Dependent Transport in Industrial Processes

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Ostrach, Simon; Kamotani, Yasuhiro

    1996-01-01

    Gravity dependent transport phenomena in various industrial processes are investigated in order to indicate new directions for micro-gravity research that enhance the commercial success of the space program. The present article describes the commercialization possibilities of such topics associated with physicochemical transport phenomena. The topics are: coating flow, rotating electrochemical system, and convection in low Plandtl number fluids. The present study is directed to understand these phenomena, and to develop a knowledge base for their applications with emphasis to a micro-gravity environment.

  3. Alteration of municipal and industrial slags under atmospheric conditions

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Rafał Kowalski, Piotr; Michalik, Marek

    2014-05-01

    The Waste Management System in Poland is being consequently built since 1998. After important changes in legislation, local governments have taken over the duty of waste collection. New points of selective collection of wastes have been opened and new sorting and composting plants were built. The last stage of introducing the Waste Management System is construction of waste incineration power plants. From nine installations which were planned, six are now under construction and they will start operating within the next two years. It is assumed that the consumption of raw wastes for these installations will reach 974 thousand tons per year. These investments will result in increased slags and ashes production. Now in Poland several local waste incinerators are operating and predominant amount of produced incineration residues is landfilled. These materials are exposed to atmospheric conditions in time of short term storage (just after incineration) and afterwards for a longer period of time on the landfill site. During the storage of slags low temperature mineral transformations and chemical changes may occur and also some components can be washed out. These materials are stored wet because of the technological processes. The aim of this study is to investigate the influence of storage in atmospheric conditions on slags from incineration of industrial and municipal wastes. The experiment started in January 2013. During this period slag samples from incineration of industrial and municipal wastes were exposed to atmospheric conditions. Samples were collected after 6 and 12 months. Within this time the pH value was measured monthly, and during the experimental period remained constant on the level of 9.5. After 6 months of exposure only slight changes in mineral compositions were observed in slags. The results of XRD analysis of municipal slags showed increase in content of carbonate minerals in comparison to the raw slag samples. In industrial slags, a decrease in

  4. Mineral resource of the month: platinum group metals

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Loferski, Patricia J.

    2010-01-01

    The article focuses on platinum group metals (PGMs) and their properties. According to the author, PGMs, which include iridium, osmium, palladium, platinum, rhodium, and ruthenium, are among the rarest mineral commodities in the Earth's crust. PGMs are primarily used as catalytic converters that clean harmful exhaust from vehicle engines. They are also used in the chemical industry as catalysts in the production of nitric acid and in the petroleum refining industry.

  5. Lung cancer in a nonsmoking underground uranium miner.

    PubMed Central

    Mulloy, K B; James, D S; Mohs, K; Kornfeld, M

    2001-01-01

    Working in mines is associated with acute and chronic occupational disorders. Most of the uranium mining in the United States took place in the Four Corners region of the Southwest (Arizona, Colorado, New Mexico, and Utah) and on Native American lands. Although the uranium industry collapsed in the late 1980s, the industry employed several thousand individuals who continue to be at increased risk for developing lung cancers. We present the case of a 72-year-old Navajo male who worked for 17 years as an underground uranium miner and who developed lung cancer 22 years after leaving the industry. His total occupational exposure to radon progeny was estimated at 506 working level months. The miner was a life-long nonsmoker and had no other significant occupational or environmental exposures. On the chest X-ray taken at admission into the hospital, a right lower lung zone infiltrate was detected. The patient was treated for community-acquired pneumonia and developed respiratory failure requiring mechanical ventilation. Respiratory failure worsened and the patient died 19 days after presenting. On autopsy, a 2.5 cm squamous cell carcinoma of the right lung arising from the lower lobe bronchus, a right broncho-esophageal fistula, and a right lower lung abscess were found. Malignant respiratory disease in uranium miners may be from several occupational exposures; for example, radon decay products, silica, and possibly diesel exhaust are respiratory carcinogens that were commonly encountered. In response to a growing number of affected uranium miners, the Radiation Exposure Compensation Act (RECA) was passed by the U.S. Congress in 1990 to make partial restitution to individuals harmed by radiation exposure resulting from underground uranium mining and above-ground nuclear tests in Nevada. PMID:11333194

  6. A Largely Unsatisfied Need: Continuing Professional Development for Process and Process Plant Industries. A Summary. FEU/PICKUP Project Report.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Geldhart, D.; Brown, A. S.

    This summary report outlines the aims of a project that focused on provision of short courses for technical professionals in the chemical and allied process industry and the process plant industry. Continuing education needs of both companies and individuals, as well as corporate policies and attitudes toward continuing education and constraints…

  7. Preliminary Mineral Resource Assessment of Selected Mineral Deposit Types in Afghanistan

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Ludington, Steve; Orris, Greta J.; Bolm, Karen S.; Peters, Stephen G.; ,

    2007-01-01

    this information remains in the libraries of the Afghanistan Ministry of Mines and Industry (MMI) and the Afghanistan Geological Survey (AGS), but much of these data and materials were shipped to the Soviet Union, Eastern European countries, or elsewhere. These materials have been acquired within Afghanistan and outside the country and compiled to form the foundation for this Preliminary Assessment of Non Fuel Mineral Resources.

  8. Short Range-Ordered Minerals: Insight into Aqueous Alteration Processes on Mars

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Ming, Douglas W.; Morris, R. V.; Golden, D. C.

    2011-01-01

    involved. The style of aqueous alteration (hydrolytic vs. acid sulfate) impacts which phases will form (e.g., oxides, oxysulfates, and oxyhydroxides). Knowledge on the formation processes of SRO phases in basaltic materials on Earth has allowed significant enhancement in our understanding of the aqueous processes at work on Mars. The 2011 Mars Science Laboratory (MSL) will provide an instrument suite that should improve our understanding of the mineralogical and chemical compositions of SRO phases. CheMin is an X-ray diffraction instrument that may provide broad X-ray diffraction peaks for SRO phases; e.g., broad peaks around 0.33 and 0.23 nm for allophane. Sample Analysis at Mars (SAM) heats samples and detects evolved gases of volatile-bearing phases including SRO phases (i.e., carbonates, sulfates, hydrated minerals). The Alpha Particle X-ray Spectrometer (APXS) and ChemCam element analyzers will provide chemical characterization of samples. The identification of SRO phases in surface materials on MSL will be challenging due to their nanocrystalline properties; their detection and identification will require utilizing the MSL instrument suite in concert. Ultimately, sample return missions will be required to definitively identify and fully characterize SRO minerals with state-of-the-art laboratory instrumentation back on Earth.

  9. Rates of CO2 Mineralization in Geological Carbon Storage.

    PubMed

    Zhang, Shuo; DePaolo, Donald J

    2017-09-19

    Geologic carbon storage (GCS) involves capture and purification of CO 2 at industrial emission sources, compression into a supercritical state, and subsequent injection into geologic formations. This process reverses the flow of carbon to the atmosphere with the intention of returning the carbon to long-term geologic storage. Models suggest that most of the injected CO 2 will be "trapped" in the subsurface by physical means, but the most risk-free and permanent form of carbon storage is as carbonate minerals (Ca,Mg,Fe)CO 3 . The transformation of CO 2 to carbonate minerals requires supply of the necessary divalent cations by dissolution of silicate minerals. Available data suggest that rates of transformation are highly uncertain and difficult to predict by standard approaches. Here we show that the chemical kinetic observations and experimental results, when they can be reduced to a single cation-release time scale that describes the fractional rate at which cations are released to solution by mineral dissolution, show sufficiently systematic behavior as a function of pH, fluid flow rate, and time that the rates of mineralization can be estimated with reasonable certainty. The rate of mineralization depends on both the abundance (determined by the reservoir rock mineralogy) and the rate at which cations are released from silicate minerals by dissolution into pore fluid that has been acidified with dissolved CO 2 . Laboratory-measured rates and field observations give values spanning 8 to 10 orders of magnitude, but when they are evaluated in the context of a reservoir-scale reactive transport simulation, this range becomes much smaller. The reservoir scale simulations provide limits on the applicable conditions under which silicate mineral dissolution and subsequent carbonate mineral precipitation are likely to occur (pH 4.5 to 6, fluid flow velocity less than 5 m/year, and 50-100 years or more after the start of injection). These constraints lead to estimates of

  10. Mineral facilities of Northern and Central Eurasia

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Baker, Michael S.; Elias, Nurudeen; Guzman, Eric; Soto-Viruet, Yadira

    2010-01-01

    This map displays almost 900 records of mineral facilities within the countries that formerly constituted the Union of Soviet Socialist Republics (USSR). Each record represents one commodity and one facility type at a single geographic location. Facility types include mines, oil and gas fields, and plants, such as refineries, smelters, and mills. Common commodities of interest include aluminum, cement, coal, copper, gold, iron and steel, lead, nickel, petroleum, salt, silver, and zinc. Records include attributes, such as commodity, country, location, company name, facility type and capacity (if applicable), and latitude and longitude geographical coordinates (in both degrees-minutes-seconds and decimal degrees). The data shown on this map and in table 1 were compiled from multiple sources, including (1) the most recently available data from the U.S. Geological Survey (USGS) Minerals Yearbook (Europe and Central Eurasia volume), (2) mineral statistics and information from the USGS Minerals Information Web site (http://minerals.usgs.gov/minerals/pubs/country/europe.html), and (3) data collected by the USGS minerals information country specialists from sources, such as statistical publications of individual countries, annual reports and press releases of operating companies, and trade journals. Data reflect the most recent published table of industry structure for each country at the time of this publication. Additional information is available from the country specialists listed in table 2

  11. A review of mineral carbonation technologies to sequester CO2.

    PubMed

    Sanna, A; Uibu, M; Caramanna, G; Kuusik, R; Maroto-Valer, M M

    2014-12-07

    Carbon dioxide (CO2) capture and sequestration includes a portfolio of technologies that can potentially sequester billions of tonnes of CO2 per year. Mineral carbonation (MC) is emerging as a potential CCS technology solution to sequester CO2 from smaller/medium emitters, where geological sequestration is not a viable option. In MC processes, CO2 is chemically reacted with calcium- and/or magnesium-containing materials to form stable carbonates. This work investigates the current advancement in the proposed MC technologies and the role they can play in decreasing the overall cost of this CO2 sequestration route. In situ mineral carbonation is a very promising option in terms of resources available and enhanced security, but the technology is still in its infancy and transport and storage costs are still higher than geological storage in sedimentary basins ($17 instead of $8 per tCO2). Ex situ mineral carbonation has been demonstrated on pilot and demonstration scales. However, its application is currently limited by its high costs, which range from $50 to $300 per tCO2 sequestered. Energy use, the reaction rate and material handling are the key factors hindering the success of this technology. The value of the products seems central to render MC economically viable in the same way as conventional CCS seems profitable only when combined with EOR. Large scale projects such as the Skyonic process can help in reducing the knowledge gaps on MC fundamentals and provide accurate costing and data on processes integration and comparison. The literature to date indicates that in the coming decades MC can play an important role in decarbonising the power and industrial sector.

  12. Life in blue: copper resistance mechanisms of bacteria and archaea used in industrial biomining of minerals.

    PubMed

    Orell, Alvaro; Navarro, Claudio A; Arancibia, Rafaela; Mobarec, Juan C; Jerez, Carlos A

    2010-01-01

    Industrial biomining processes to extract copper, gold and other metals involve the use of extremophiles such as the acidophilic Acidithiobacillus ferrooxidans (Bacteria), and the thermoacidophilic Sulfolobus metallicus (Archaea). Together with other extremophiles these microorganisms subsist in habitats where they are exposed to copper concentrations higher than 100mM. Herein we review the current knowledge on the Cu-resistance mechanisms found in these microorganisms. Recent information suggests that biomining extremophiles respond to extremely high Cu concentrations by using simultaneously all or most of the following key elements: 1) a wide repertoire of Cu-resistance determinants; 2) duplication of some of these Cu-resistance determinants; 3) existence of novel Cu chaperones; 4) a polyP-based Cu-resistance system, and 5) an oxidative stress defense system. Further insight of the biomining community members and their individual response to copper is highly relevant, since this could provide key information to the mining industry. In turn, this information could be used to select the more fit members of the bioleaching community to attain more efficient industrial biomining processes. Copyright © 2010 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  13. Driver development of IFE power plant in Japan Collaborative process with industry and industrial applications

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Nakai, S.; Yamanaka, M.; Kitagawa, Y.; Fujita, K.; Heya, M.; Mima, K.; Izawa, Y.; Nakatsuka, M.; Murakami, M.; Ueda, K.; Sasaki, T.; Mori, Y.; Kanabe, T.; Hiruma, T.; Kan, H.; Kawashima, T.

    2006-06-01

    The typical specifications of the laser driver for a commercial IFE power plant are (1) total energy (MJ/pulse) with a tailored 20-40 ns pulse, (2) repetition operation (˜ 10 Hz), (3) efficiency (˜ 10%) with enough robustness and low cost. The key elements of the DPSSL driver technology are under development with HALNA. The HALNA 10 (High Average-power Laser for Nuclear-fusion Application) demonstrated 10 J × 10 Hz operation and the HALNA 100 (100 J × 10 Hz) is now under construction. By using the high average power and high intensity lasers, new industrial applications are being proceeded. The collaborative process for the development of high power laser with industry and for the industrial applications is effective and essential in the development of the laser driver for IFE power plant.

  14. Silicosis in barium miners.

    PubMed Central

    Seaton, A; Ruckley, V A; Addison, J; Brown, W R

    1986-01-01

    Four men who mined barytes in Scotland and who developed pneumoconiosis are described. Three developed progressive massive fibrosis, from which two died; and one developed a nodular simple pneumoconiosis after leaving the industry. The radiological and pathological features of the men's lungs were those of silicosis and high proportions of quartz were found in two of them post mortem. The quartz was inhaled from rocks associated with the barytes in the mines. The features of silicosis in barium miners are contrasted with the benign pneumoconiosis, baritosis, that occurs in workers exposed to crushed and ground insoluble barium salts. Diagnostic difficulties arise when silicosis develops in workers mining minerals known to cause a separate and benign pneumoconiosis. These difficulties are compounded when, as not infrequently happens, the silicotic lesions develop or progress after exposure to quartz has ceased. Images PMID:3787542

  15. Clay minerals: Properties and applications to dermocosmetic products and perspectives of natural raw materials for therapeutic purposes-A review.

    PubMed

    Moraes, Jemima Daniela Dias; Bertolino, Silvana Raquel Alina; Cuffini, Silvia Lucia; Ducart, Diego Fernando; Bretzke, Pedro Eriberto; Leonardi, Gislaine Ricci

    2017-12-20

    Clay minerals are layered materials with a number of peculiar properties, which find many relevant applications in various industries. Since they are easily found everywhere, they are particularly attractive due to their economic viability. In the cosmetic industry, clay minerals are often used as excipients to stabilize emulsions or suspensions and to modify the rheological behavior of these systems. They also play an important role as adsorbents or absorbents, not only in cosmetics but also in other industries, such as pharmaceuticals. This reviewer believes that since this manuscript is presented as covering topical applications that include pharmaceuticals, some types of clay minerals should be considered as a potential material to be used as drug delivery systems. We review several applications of clay minerals to dermocosmetic products, relating them to the underlying properties of these materials and exemplifying with a number of clay minerals available in the market. We also discuss the use of clay minerals in topically-applied products for therapeutic purposes, specially for skin treatment and protection. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  16. Iron Mineral Catalyzed C-H Activation As a Potential Pathway for Halogenation Processes

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Tubbesing, C.; Schoeler, H. F.; Benzing, K.; Krause, T.; Lippe, S.; Rudloff, M.

    2014-12-01

    Due to increasing drinking water demand of mankind and an expected climate change the impact of salt lakes and salt deserts will increase within the next decades. Furthermore, a rising sea level influences coastal areas like salt marshes and abets processes which will lead to elevated organohalogen formation. An additional increase of the global warming potential, of particle formation and stratospheric ozone depletion is expected. Understanding these multifaceted processes is essential for mankind to be prepared for these alterations of the atmosphere. For example, Keppler et al. (2000) described the production of volatile halogenated organic compounds via oxidation of organic matter driven by ferric iron. However, the formation of long-chained alkyl halides in salt lakes is yet undisclosed. Despite the relative "inertness" of alkanes a direct halogenation of these compounds might be envisaged. In 2005 Vaillancourt et al. discovered a nonheme iron enzyme which is able to halogenate organic compounds via generating the high valent ferryl cation as reaction center. Based on various publications about C-H activation (Bergman, 2007) we postulate a halogenation process in which an iron containing minerals catalyse the C-H bond cleavage of organic compounds in soils. The generated organic radicals are highly reactive towards halides connected to the iron complex. We suggest that next to diagenetically altered iron containing enzymes, minerals such as oxides, hydroxides and sulfides are involved in abiotic halogenation processes. We applied the amino acid methionine as organic model compound and soluble iron species as reactants. All samples were incubated in aqueous phases containing various NaCl concentrations. As a result various halogenated ethanes and ethenes were identified as reaction products. References Bergman, R. G. (2007) Nature, 446(7134) 391-393 Keppler, F., et al. (2000) Nature, 403(6767) 298-301 Vaillancourt, F. H., et al. (2005) Nature, 436(7054) 1191-1194

  17. The Genesis of tectonically and hydrothermally controlled industry mineral deposits: A geochemical and structural study

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Wölfler, Anke; Prochaska, Walter; Henjes-Kunst, Friedhelm; Fritz, Harald

    2010-05-01

    The study aims to investigate the role of hydrothermal fluids in the formation of talc and magnesite deposits. These deposits occur in manifold geological and tectonical settings such as stockworks and veins within ultramafite hostrocks and monomineralic lenses within marine platform sediments. Along shear zones talc mineralizations may occur as a result of tectonical and hydrothermal activity. To understand the role of the fluids for the genesis of the mineralization, deposits in different geological and tectonical settings are investigated: Talc mineralization within in magnesite in low-grade palaeozoic nappe complexes (Gemerska Poloma, Slovakia): The magnesite body lies within the Gemer unit of the Inner Carpathians consisting of Middle Triassic metacarbonates and Upper Triassic pelagic limestones and radiolarites. The talc mineralization is bound to crosscutting veins. Two metamorphic events can be distinguished, one during Variscan orogeny and one related to the Alpine orogeny leading to the formation of talc along faults in an Mg carbonate body (Radvanec et al, 2004).The origin of the fluids as well as the tectonic events leading to the mineralization is still widely unknown. Talc mineralization in shearzones within Palaeozoic meta sedimentary rocks (Sa Matta, Sardinia): Variscan granitoids intruded Palaeozoic meta sedimentary rocks and were overprinted be NE striking tectonic structures that host talc mineralizations. The origin of Mg and fluids leading to the mineralization is still not answered satisfactorily (Grillo and Prochaska, 2007) and thus a tectonic model for the genesis of the talc deposit is missing. Talc mineralization within UHP pre-Alpine continental crust (Val Chisone, Italy): The talc deposit forms part of the Dora-Maira Massif. Geologicaly the massif derived from a Variscan basement that includes post-Variscan intrusions. The talc mineralization occurs as a sheetlike, conformable body. A possible tectonic emplacement of talc along shear

  18. The regulation of crystalline silica: an industry perspective.

    PubMed

    Elzea, J M

    1997-01-01

    Silica is ubiquitous in the earth's crust. It occurs in trace to large quantities in rocks and soil. Because it is so common, the regulation of silica has affected a large number of industries, including the mining industry and any industry that uses quartz in the manufacture of a products. Mineral commodities that contain silica include diatomite, bentonite, kaolinite, talc, pyrophyllite, sand and gravel, perlite, pumice, dimension stone, and barite. Products that contain minerals, many of which are associated with silica, include paint, paper, rubber, plastic, pharmaceuticals, food, cement, plaster, cat litter, potting soil, plaster board, and miscellaneous construction materials. In collaboration with some agencies and academic centers, the silica industry is supporting research to lower health risks and to improve the methods of detecting this common material.

  19. The microbiology of biomining: development and optimization of mineral-oxidizing microbial consortia.

    PubMed

    Rawlings, Douglas E; Johnson, D Barrie

    2007-02-01

    Biomining, the use of micro-organisms to recover precious and base metals from mineral ores and concentrates, has developed into a successful and expanding area of biotechnology. While careful considerations are made in the design and engineering of biomining operations, microbiological aspects have been subjected to far less scrutiny and control. Biomining processes employ microbial consortia that are dominated by acidophilic, autotrophic iron- or sulfur-oxidizing prokaryotes. Mineral biooxidation takes place in highly aerated, continuous-flow, stirred-tank reactors or in irrigated dump or heap reactors, both of which provide an open, non-sterile environment. Continuous-flow, stirred tanks are characterized by homogeneous and constant growth conditions where the selection is for rapid growth, and consequently tank consortia tend to be dominated by two or three species of micro-organisms. In contrast, heap reactors provide highly heterogeneous growth environments that change with the age of the heap, and these tend to be colonized by a much greater variety of micro-organisms. Heap micro-organisms grow as biofilms that are not subject to washout and the major challenge is to provide sufficient biodiversity for optimum performance throughout the life of a heap. This review discusses theoretical and pragmatic aspects of assembling microbial consortia to process different mineral ores and concentrates, and the challenges for using constructed consortia in non-sterile industrial-scale operations.

  20. Dehydration-induced luminescence in clay minerals

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Coyne, L. M.; Lahav, N.; Lawless, J. G.

    1981-01-01

    Reports of triboluminescent phenomena in organic crystalline materials prompted a search for related processes in clay minerals. The reported extensive mechanical distortion produced on freezing and drying of montmorillonite was particularly interesting because of studies of condensation reactions in a wet/dry cycled reaction sequence. The discovery of an unusual luminescent process in several clay minerals is reported and its characteristics are described.

  1. Solid waste management practices in wet coffee processing industries of Gidabo watershed, Ethiopia.

    PubMed

    Ulsido, Mihret D; Li, Meng

    2016-07-01

    The financial and social contributions of coffee processing industries within most coffee export-based national economies like Ethiopia are generally high. The type and amount of waste produced and the waste management options adopted by these industries can have negative effects on the environment. This study investigated the solid waste management options adopted in wet coffee processing industries in the Gidabo watershed of Ethiopia. A field observation and assessment were made to identify whether the operational characteristics of the industries have any effect on the waste management options that were practiced. The investigation was conducted on 125 wet coffee processing industries about their solid waste handling techniques. Focus group discussion, structured questionnaires, key informant interview and transect walks are some of the tools employed during the investigation. Two major types of wastes, namely hull-bean-pulp blended solid waste and wastewater rich in dissolved and suspended solids were generated in the industries. Wet mills, on average, released 20.69% green coffee bean, 18.58% water and 60.74% pulp by weight. Even though these wastes are rich in organic matter and recyclables; the most favoured solid waste management options in the watershed were disposal (50.4%) and industrial or household composting (49.6%). Laxity and impulsive decision are the driving motives behind solid waste management in Gidabo watershed. Therefore, to reduce possible contamination of the environment, wastes generated during the processing of red coffee cherries, such as coffee wet mill solid wastes, should be handled properly and effectively through maximisation of their benefits with minimised losses. © The Author(s) 2016.

  2. Optimization of the mineralization of a mixture of phenolic pollutants under a ferrioxalate-induced solar photo-Fenton process.

    PubMed

    Monteagudo, J M; Durán, A; Aguirre, M; San Martín, I

    2011-01-15

    The mineralization of solutions containing a mixture of three phenolic compounds, gallic, p-coumaric and protocatechuic acids, in a ferrioxalate-induced solar photo-Fenton process was investigated. The reactions were carried out in a pilot plant consisting of a compound parabolic collector (CPC) solar reactor. An optimization study was performed combining a multivariate experimental design and neuronal networks that included the following variables: pH, temperature, solar power, air flow and initial concentrations of H(2)O(2), Fe(II) and oxalic acid. Under optimal conditions, total elimination of the original compounds and 94% TOC removal of the mixture were achieved in 5 and 194 min, respectively. pH and initial concentrations of H(2)O(2) and Fe(II) were the most significant factors affecting the mixture mineralization. The molar correlation between consumed hydrogen peroxide and removed TOC was always between 1 and 3. A detailed analysis of the reaction was presented. The values of the pseudo-first-order mineralization kinetic rate constant, k(TOC), increased as initial Fe(II) and H(2)O(2) concentrations and temperature increased. The optimum pH value also slightly increased with greater Fe(II) and hydrogen peroxide concentrations but decreased when temperature increased. OH and O(2)(-) radicals were the main oxidative intermediate species in the process, although singlet oxygen ((1)O(2)) also played a role in the mineralization reaction. Copyright © 2010 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  3. Microbial exudate promoted dissolution and transformation of chromium containing minerals

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Saad, E. M.; Sun, J.; Tang, Y.

    2015-12-01

    Because of its utility in many industrial processes, chromium has become the second most common metal contaminant in the United States. The two most common oxidation states of chromium in nature are Cr(III), which is highly immobile, and Cr(VI), which is highly mobile and toxic. In both natural and engineered environments, the most common remediation of Cr(VI) is through reduction, which results in chromium sequestration in the low solubility mixed Cr(III)-Fe(III) (oxy)hydroxide phases. Consequently, the stability of these minerals must be examined to assess the fate of chromium in the subsurface. We examined the dissolution of mixed Cr(III)-Fe(III) (oxy)hydroxides in the presence of common microbial exudates, including the siderophore desferrioxamine B (DFOB; a common organic ligand secreted by most microbes with high affinity for ferric iron and other trivalent metal ions) and oxalate (a common organic acid produced by microbes). The solids exhibited incongruent dissolution with preferential leaching of Fe from the solid phase. Over time, this leads to a more Cr rich mineral, which is known to be more soluble than the corresponding mixed mineral phase. We are currently investigating the structure of the reacted mineral phases and soluble Cr(III) species, as well as the potential oxidation and remobilization of the soluble Cr species. Results from this study will provide insights regarding the long term transport and fate of chromium in the natural environment in the presence of microbial activities.

  4. Mineralization of Carbon Dioxide: Literature Review

    SciTech Connect

    Romanov, V; Soong, Y; Carney, C

    2015-01-01

    CCS research has been focused on CO2 storage in geologic formations, with many potential risks. An alternative to conventional geologic storage is carbon mineralization, where CO2 is reacted with metal cations to form carbonate minerals. Mineralization methods can be broadly divided into two categories: in situ and ex situ. In situ mineralization, or mineral trapping, is a component of underground geologic sequestration, in which a portion of the injected CO2 reacts with alkaline rock present in the target formation to form solid carbonate species. In ex situ mineralization, the carbonation reaction occurs above ground, within a separate reactor or industrialmore » process. This literature review is meant to provide an update on the current status of research on CO2 mineralization. 2« less

  5. Public relations and the radiation processing industry

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Coates, T. Donna

    The world's uneasiness and mistrust regarding anything nuclear has heightened in recent years due to events such as Chernobyl and Three Mile Island. Opinion polls and attitude surveys document the public's growing concern about issues such as the depletion of the ozone layer, the resulting greenhouse effect and exposure of our planet to cosmic radiation. Ultimately, such research reveals an underlying fear regarding the unseen impacts of modern technology on the environment and on human health. These concerns have obvious implications for the radiation processing industry, whose technology is nuclear based and not easily understood by the public. We have already seen organized nuclear opponents mobilize public anxiety, fear and misunderstanding in order to oppose the installation of radiation processing facilities and applications such as food irradiation. These opponents will no doubt try to strengthen resistance to our technology in the future. Opponents will attempt to convince the public that the risks to public and personal health and safety outweigh the benefits of our technology. We in the industry must head off any tendency for the public to see us as the "enemy". Our challenge is to counter public uneasiness and misunderstanding by effectively communicating the human benefits of our technology. Clearly it is a challenge we cannot afford to ignore.

  6. Decision Support Model for Selection Technologies in Processing of Palm Oil Industrial Liquid Waste

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Ishak, Aulia; Ali, Amir Yazid bin

    2017-12-01

    The palm oil industry continues to grow from year to year. Processing of the palm oil industry into crude palm oil (CPO) and palm kernel oil (PKO). The ratio of the amount of oil produced by both products is 30% of the raw material. This means that 70% is palm oil waste. The amount of palm oil waste will increase in line with the development of the palm oil industry. The amount of waste generated by the palm oil industry if it is not handled properly and effectively will contribute significantly to environmental damage. Industrial activities ranging from raw materials to produce products will disrupt the lives of people around the factory. There are many alternative technologies available to process other industries, but problems that often occur are difficult to implement the most appropriate technology. The purpose of this research is to develop a database of waste processing technology, looking for qualitative and quantitative criteria to select technology and develop Decision Support System (DSS) that can help make decisions. The method used to achieve the objective of this research is to develop a questionnaire to identify waste processing technology and develop the questionnaire to find appropriate database technology. Methods of data analysis performed on the system by using Analytic Hierarchy Process (AHP) and to build the model by using the MySQL Software that can be used as a tool in the evaluation and selection of palm oil mill processing technology.

  7. Mortality patterns of rock and slag mineral wool production workers: an epidemiological and environmental study.

    PubMed Central

    Robinson, C F; Dement, J M; Ness, G O; Waxweiler, R J

    1982-01-01

    An epidemiological and environmental study of rock and slag mineral wool production workers was undertaken at a plant that has been in operation since the early 1900s. Size characteristics of fibres produced by each process at the plant and data from industrial hygiene surveys were used to evaluate current and past exposures. These data suggest that the average historical airborne fibre concentration probably did not exceed 2.5 fibres/cc before 1935 and 1.0 fibre/cc after 1935. A retrospective cohort mortality study was designed to assess mortality patterns. Detailed occupational histories were compiled on all plant employees. All jobs in the plant were assigned to one of eight potential exposure categories to assess the extent and severity of mineral wool exposure and the effect of other significant exposures on employee mortality. Findings included an increase in the number of deaths due to cancer of the digestive system and non-malignant respiratory disease among workers who had over 20 years' exposure to mineral wool or who had survived 20 years since their first exposure to mineral wool. These findings are not inconsistent with those of Enterline's (Symposium on Biological Effects of Mineral Fibres, Lyon, France, September 1979) in the Thermal Insulation Manufacturers' Association's mortality study of men employed in four mineral wool plants. PMID:6279138

  8. Final Regulatory Determination for Special Wastes From Mineral Processing (Mining Waste Exclusion) - Federal Register Notice, June 13, 1991

    EPA Pesticide Factsheets

    This action presents the Agency's final regulatory determination required by section 3001(b)(3)(C) of the Resource Conservation and Recovery Act (RCRA) for 20 special wastes from the processing of ores and minerals.

  9. Mineral formation and organo-mineral controls on the bioavailability of carbon at the terrestrial-aquatic interface

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Rod, K. A.; Smith, A. P.; Renslow, R.

    2016-12-01

    Recent evidence highlights the importance of organo-mineral interactions in regulating the source or sink capacity of soil. High surface area soils, such as allophane-rich or clay-rich soils, retain organic matter (OM) via sorption to mineral surfaces which can also contribute physical isolation in interlayer spaces. Despite the direct correlation between mineral surfaces and OM accumulation, the pedogenic processes controlling the abundance of reactive surface areas and their distribution in the mineral matrix remains unclear. As global soil temperatures rise, the dissolution of primary minerals and formation of new secondary minerals may be thermodynamically favored as part of soil weathering process. Newly formed minerals can supply surfaces for organo-metallic bonding and may, therefore, stabilize OM by surface bonding and physical exclusion. This is especially relevant in environments that intersect terrestrial and aquatic systems, such as the capillary fringe zone in riparian ecosystems. To test the mechanisms of mineral surface area protection of OM, we facilitated secondary precipitation of alumino-silicates in the presence of OM held at two different temperatures in natural Nisqually River sediments (Mt Rainier, WA). This was a three month reaction intended to simulate early pedogenesis. To tease out the influence of mineral surface area increase during pedogenesis, we incubated the sediments at two different soil moisture contents to induce biodegradation. We measured OM desorption, biodegradation, and the molecular composition of mineral-associated OM both prior to and following the temperature manipulation. To simulate the saturation of capillary fringe sediment and associated transport and reaction of OM, column experiments were conducted using the reacted sediments. More co-precipitation was observed in the 20°C solution compared to the 4°C reacted solution suggesting that warming trends alter mineral development and may remove more OM from solution

  10. 5 MV 30 mA industrial electron processing system

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Hoshi, Y.; Mizusawa, K.

    1991-05-01

    Industrial electron beam processing systems have been in use in various application fields such as: improving heat resistivity of wire insulation; controlling quality of automobile rubber tires and melt index characteristics of PE foams; and curing paintings or printing inks. Recently, there has come up a need for electron beam with an energy higher than 3 MV in order to disinfect salmonella in chicken meat, to kill bugs in fruits, and to sterilize medical disposables. To meet this need we developed a 5 MV 30 mA electron processing system with an X-ray conversion target. The machine was tested in NHV's plant in Kyoto at continuous operation of full voltage and full current. It proved to be very steady in operation with a high efficiency (as much as 72%). Also, the X-ray target was tested in a continuous run of 5 MV 30 mA (150 kW). It proved to be viable in industrial utilization. This paper introduces the process and the results of the development.

  11. Curbing variations in packaging process through Six Sigma way in a large-scale food-processing industry

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Desai, Darshak A.; Kotadiya, Parth; Makwana, Nikheel; Patel, Sonalinkumar

    2015-03-01

    Indian industries need overall operational excellence for sustainable profitability and growth in the present age of global competitiveness. Among different quality and productivity improvement techniques, Six Sigma has emerged as one of the most effective breakthrough improvement strategies. Though Indian industries are exploring this improvement methodology to their advantage and reaping the benefits, not much has been presented and published regarding experience of Six Sigma in the food-processing industries. This paper is an effort to exemplify the application of Six Sigma quality improvement drive to one of the large-scale food-processing sectors in India. The paper discusses the phase wiz implementation of define, measure, analyze, improve, and control (DMAIC) on one of the chronic problems, variations in the weight of milk powder pouch. The paper wraps up with the improvements achieved and projected bottom-line gain to the unit by application of Six Sigma methodology.

  12. Ostwald ripening of clays and metamorphic minerals

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Eberl, D.D.; Srodon, J.; Kralik, M.; Taylor, B.E.; Peterman, Z.E.

    1990-01-01

    Analyses of particle size distributions indicate that clay minerals and other diagenetic and metamorphic minerals commonly undergo recrystallization by Ostwald ripening. The shapes of their particle size distributions can yield the rate law for this process. One consequence of Ostwald ripening is that a record of the recrystallization process is preserved in the various particle sizes. Therefore, one can determine the detailed geologic history of clays and other recrystallized minerals by separating, from a single sample, the various particle sizes for independent chemical, structural, and isotopic analyses.

  13. Quality assessment of baby food made of different pre-processed organic raw materials under industrial processing conditions.

    PubMed

    Seidel, Kathrin; Kahl, Johannes; Paoletti, Flavio; Birlouez, Ines; Busscher, Nicolaas; Kretzschmar, Ursula; Särkkä-Tirkkonen, Marjo; Seljåsen, Randi; Sinesio, Fiorella; Torp, Torfinn; Baiamonte, Irene

    2015-02-01

    The market for processed food is rapidly growing. The industry needs methods for "processing with care" leading to high quality products in order to meet consumers' expectations. Processing influences the quality of the finished product through various factors. In carrot baby food, these are the raw material, the pre-processing and storage treatments as well as the processing conditions. In this study, a quality assessment was performed on baby food made from different pre-processed raw materials. The experiments were carried out under industrial conditions using fresh, frozen and stored organic carrots as raw material. Statistically significant differences were found for sensory attributes among the three autoclaved puree samples (e.g. overall odour F = 90.72, p < 0.001). Samples processed from frozen carrots show increased moisture content and decrease of several chemical constituents. Biocrystallization identified changes between replications of the cooking. Pre-treatment of raw material has a significant influence on the final quality of the baby food.

  14. Atmospheric transport of mineral dust from the Indo-Gangetic Plain: Temporal variability, acid processing, and iron solubility

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Srinivas, Bikkina; Sarin, M. M.; Rengarajan, R.

    2014-08-01

    transport of chemical constituents from the Indo-Gangetic Plain (IGP) to the Bay of Bengal is a conspicuous seasonal feature that occurs during the late NE-monsoon (December-March). With this perspective, aerosol composition and abundance of mineral dust have been studied during November 2009 to March 2010 from a sampling site (Kharagpur: 22.3°N, 87.3°E) in the IGP, representing the atmospheric outflow to the Bay of Bengal. The chemical composition of PM2.5 suggests the dominance of nss-SO42- (6.9-24.3 µg m-3); whereas the abundance of mineral dust varied from 3 to 18 µg m-3. The concentration of aerosol iron (FeTot) and its fractional solubility (Fews % = Fews/FeTot *100, where Fews is the water-soluble fraction of FeTot) varied from 60 to 1144 ng m-3 and from 6.7 to 26.5%, respectively. A striking similarity in the temporal variability of total inorganic acidity (TIA = NO3- + nss-SO42-) and Fews (%) provides evidence for acid processing of mineral dust (alluvium) during atmospheric transport from the IGP. The contribution of TIA to water-soluble inorganic species [(nss-SO42- + NO3-)/ΣWSIS], mass ratios of Ca/Al and Fe/Al, and abundance of dust (%) and Fews (%) in the IGP-outflow are similar to the aerosol composition over the Bay of Bengal. With the rapid increase in anthropogenic activities over south and south-east Asia, the enhanced fractional solubility of aerosol iron (attributed to acid processing of mineral dust) has implications to further increase in the air-sea deposition of Fe to the Ocean surface.

  15. Characterization of Rare Earth Element Minerals in Coal Utilization Byproducts

    SciTech Connect

    Montross, Scott N.; Verba, Circe A.; Collins, Keith

    The United States currently produces over 100 million tons of coal utilization byproducts (CUB) per year in the form of fly ash, bottom ash, slag, and flue gas (American Coal Ash Association (ACCA), 2015). But this “waste material” also contains potentially useful levels of rare earth elements (REE). Rare earth elements are crucial for many existing and emerging technologies, but the U.S. lacks a domestic, sustainable REE source. Our project explored the possibility of developing a supply of REEs for U.S. technologies by extracting REEs from CUBs. This work offers the potential to reduce our dependence on other countries formore » supply of these critical elements (NETL, REE 2016 Project Portfolio). Geologic and diagenetic history, industrial preparation methods, and the specific combustion process all play major roles in the composition of CUB. During combustion, inorganic mineral phases of coal particles are fluidized at temperatures higher than 1400oC, so inorganic mineral materials are oxidized, fused, disintegrated, or agglomerated into larger spherical and amorphous (non-crystalline) particles. The original mineralogy of the coal-containing rock and heating/cooling of the material significantly affects the composition and morphology of the particles in the combustion byproduct (Kutchko and Kim, 2006). Thus, different types of coal/refuse/ash must be characterized to better understand mineral evolution during the combustion process. Our research focused on developing a working model to address how REE minerals behave during the combustion process: this research should help determine the most effective engineering methods for extracting REEs from CUBs. We used multimodal imaging and image processing techniques to characterize six rock and ash samples from different coal power plants with respect to morphology, grain size, presence of mineral phases, and elemental composition. The results of these characterization activities provided thresholds for

  16. Post-processing procedure for industrial quantum key distribution systems

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Kiktenko, Evgeny; Trushechkin, Anton; Kurochkin, Yury; Fedorov, Aleksey

    2016-08-01

    We present algorithmic solutions aimed on post-processing procedure for industrial quantum key distribution systems with hardware sifting. The main steps of the procedure are error correction, parameter estimation, and privacy amplification. Authentication of classical public communication channel is also considered.

  17. Phytomining of Ni from mineralized or contaminated soils available to industry

    USDA-ARS?s Scientific Manuscript database

    A new technology is available to the Ni mining and remediation community to "phytomine" Ni from mineralized or contaminated soils using rare plants which hyperaccumulate Ni to over 1% of shoot dry matter. Research has identified useful plant species, and even bred improved cultivars of Alyssum mura...

  18. Evaluation of potential site for mineral processing plant

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Izwan Ishak, Muhamad Noor; Sipaun, Susan Maria; Mustapha, Ismail; Fahmi Engku Chik, Engku Mohd; Abdullah, Nurliyana; Affandi Mahmood, Airwan

    2018-01-01

    Nuclear moisture-density gauge is a type of instrument for measuring density and moisture of the material in a relatively thin zone beneath a surface of the material by using low activity of neutron and gamma radiation source. Density and moisture content data of the compacted layers are needed to determine the degree of compaction of soils, aggregate, concrete, asphalt or other materials used in civil engineering works. A gamma radiation source is mounted inside gauge housing with the source rod vertically extended to various depth positions. Direct transmission gamma radiation technique is used to obtain the count reading for the number of photons emitted before it is converted into density reading by microprocessor. This paper presents the inspection technique and results for the measurement of soil moisture and density carried out at potential site for mineral processing plant, Malaysian Nuclear Agency. Primarily, the experiment was conducted to ensure the compaction of ground is suitable for the plant construction. From the calculation, the percentages of soil wet density compaction (%WD Compact) are within acceptable limits with respect to the standard compacted wet soil density measured in the laboratory.

  19. Organo-mineral fertilisers from glass-matrix and organic biomasses: a new way to release nutrients. A novel approach to fertilisation based on plant demand.

    PubMed

    Trinchera, Alessandra; Allegra, Maria; Rea, Elvira; Roccuzzo, Giancarlo; Rinaldi, Simona; Sequi, Paolo; Intrigliolo, Francesco

    2011-10-01

    A glass-matrix fertiliser (GMF), a by-product from ceramic industries, releases nutrients only in the presence of complexing solutions, similar to those exuded by plant roots. This ensures a slow release of nutrients over time, limiting the risk of their loss in the environment. With the aim to improve fertiliser performance, GMF was mixed with vine vinasse (DVV), pastazzo (a by-product of the citrus processing industry, PAS) or green compost (COMP) and nutrient release was evaluated by citric and chloridric acid extraction, at different concentrations. Theoretical and actual nutrients release were compared to evaluate possible synergistic effects due to the organic component added to the mineral fertiliser: phosphorus (+7.1%), K (+4.8%), Fe (+8.5%) and Zn (+5.5%) were released more efficiently by 2% citric acid from GMF + DVV, while Ca availability was increased (+5.3%) by 2% citric acid from GMF + PAS mixture. Both DVV and COMP increased by 12-18% the Fe release from GFM matrix. Organic biomasses added to GMF increased the release of some macro and micronutrients through an 'activation effect', which suggests the employment of these organo-mineral fertilisers also in short-cycle crops production. Moreover, the re-use of some agro-industrial organic residues gives another 'adding value' to this novel organo-mineral fertilfertilisers. Copyright © 2011 Society of Chemical Industry.

  20. Direct Observation of Asphaltene Nanoparticles on Model Mineral Substrates.

    PubMed

    Raj, Gijo; Lesimple, Alain; Whelan, Jamie; Naumov, Panče

    2017-06-27

    The propensity for adherence to solid surfaces of asphaltenes, a complex solubility class of heteropolycyclic aromatic compounds from the heavy fraction of crude oil, has long been the root cause of scale deposition and remains an intractable problem in the petroleum industry. Although the adhesion is essential to understanding the process of asphaltene deposition, the relationship between the conformation of asphaltene molecules on mineral substrates and its impact on adhesion and mechanical properties of the deposits is not completely understood. To rationalize the primary processes in the process of organic scale deposition, here we use atomic force microscopy (AFM) to visualize the morphology of petroleum asphaltenes deposited on model mineral substrates. High imaging contrast was achieved by the differential adhesion of the tip between asphaltenes and the mineral substrate. While asphaltenes form smooth continuous films on all substrates at higher concentrations, they deposit as individual nanoparticles at lower concentrations. The size, shape, and spatial distribution of the nanoaggregates are strongly affected by the nature of the substrate; while uniformly distributed spherical particles are formed on highly polar and hydrophilic substrates (mica), irregular islands and thicker patches are observed with substrates of lower polarity (silica and calcite). Asphaltene nanoparticles flatten when adsorbed on highly oriented pyrolytic graphite due to π-π interactions with the polycyclic core. Force-distance profiles provide direct evidence of the conformational changes of asphaltene molecules on hydrophilic/hydrophobic substrates that result in dramatic changes in adhesion and mechanical properties of asphaltene deposits. Such an understanding of the nature of adhesion and mechanical properties tuned by surface properties, on the level of asphaltene nanoaggregates, would contribute to the design of efficient asphaltene inhibitors for preventing asphaltene

  1. Weaknesses in Applying a Process Approach in Industry Enterprises

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Kučerová, Marta; Mĺkva, Miroslava; Fidlerová, Helena

    2012-12-01

    The paper deals with a process approach as one of the main principles of the quality management. Quality management systems based on process approach currently represents one of a proofed ways how to manage an organization. The volume of sales, costs and profit levels are influenced by quality of processes and efficient process flow. As results of the research project showed, there are some weaknesses in applying of the process approach in the industrial routine and it has been often only a formal change of the functional management to process management in many organizations in Slovakia. For efficient process management it is essential that companies take attention to the way how to organize their processes and seek for their continuous improvement.

  2. Environmental impact assessment of european non-ferro mining industries through life-cycle assessment

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Hisan Farjana, Shahjadi; Huda, Nazmul; Parvez Mahmud, M. A.

    2018-05-01

    European mining industries are the vast industrial sector which contributes largely on their economy which constitutes of ferro and non-ferro metals and minerals industries. The non-ferro metals extraction and processing industries require focus of attention due to sustainability concerns as their manufacturing processes are highly energy intensive and impacts globally on environment. This paper analyses major environmental effects caused by European metal industries based on the life-cycle impact analysis technologies. This research work is the first work in considering the comparative environmental impact analysis of European non-ferro metal industries which will reveal their technological similarities and dissimilarities to assess their environmental loads. The life-cycle inventory datasets are collected from the EcoInvent database while the analysis is done using the CML baseline and ReCipe endpoint method using SimaPro software version 8.4. The CML and ReCipe method are chosen because they are specialized impact assessment methods for European continent. The impact categories outlined for discussion here are human health, global warming and ecotoxicity. The analysis results reveal that the gold industry is vulnerable for the environment due to waste emission and similar result retained by silver mines a little bit. But copper, lead, manganese and zinc mining processes and industries are environment friendly in terms of metal extraction technologies and waste emissions.

  3. Evolution of ribozymes in the presence of a mineral surface

    PubMed Central

    Stephenson, James D.; Popović, Milena; Bristow, Thomas F.

    2016-01-01

    Mineral surfaces are often proposed as the sites of critical processes in the emergence of life. Clay minerals in particular are thought to play significant roles in the origin of life including polymerizing, concentrating, organizing, and protecting biopolymers. In these scenarios, the impact of minerals on biopolymer folding is expected to influence evolutionary processes. These processes include both the initial emergence of functional structures in the presence of the mineral and the subsequent transition away from the mineral-associated niche. The initial evolution of function depends upon the number and distribution of sequences capable of functioning in the presence of the mineral, and the transition to new environments depends upon the overlap between sequences that evolve on the mineral surface and sequences that can perform the same functions in the mineral's absence. To examine these processes, we evolved self-cleaving ribozymes in vitro in the presence or absence of Na-saturated montmorillonite clay mineral particles. Starting from a shared population of random sequences, RNA populations were evolved in parallel, along separate evolutionary trajectories. Comparative sequence analysis and activity assays show that the impact of this clay mineral on functional structure selection was minimal; it neither prevented common structures from emerging, nor did it promote the emergence of new structures. This suggests that montmorillonite does not improve RNA's ability to evolve functional structures; however, it also suggests that RNAs that do evolve in contact with montmorillonite retain the same structures in mineral-free environments, potentially facilitating an evolutionary transition away from a mineral-associated niche. PMID:27793980

  4. Chemical Industry Analysis Brief

    EIA Publications

    2005-01-01

    The chemical industries are a cornerstone of the U.S. economy, converting raw materials such as oil, natural gas, air, water, metals, and minerals into thousands of various products. Chemicals are key materials for producing an extensive assortment of consumer goods.

  5. Identification of Uranium Minerals in Natural U-Bearing Rocks Using Infrared Reflectance Spectroscopy.

    PubMed

    Beiswenger, Toya N; Gallagher, Neal B; Myers, Tanya L; Szecsody, James E; Tonkyn, Russell G; Su, Yin-Fong; Sweet, Lucas E; Lewallen, Tricia A; Johnson, Timothy J

    2018-02-01

    The identification of minerals, including uranium-bearing species, is often a labor-intensive process using X-ray diffraction (XRD), fluorescence, or other solid-phase or wet chemical techniques. While handheld XRD and fluorescence instruments can aid in field applications, handheld infrared (IR) reflectance spectrometers can now also be used in industrial or field environments, with rapid, nondestructive identification possible via analysis of the solid's reflectance spectrum providing information not found in other techniques. In this paper, we report the use of laboratory methods that measure the IR hemispherical reflectance of solids using an integrating sphere and have applied it to the identification of mineral mixtures (i.e., rocks), with widely varying percentages of uranium mineral content. We then apply classical least squares (CLS) and multivariate curve resolution (MCR) methods to better discriminate the minerals (along with two pure uranium chemicals U 3 O 8 and UO 2 ) against many common natural and anthropogenic background materials (e.g., silica sand, asphalt, calcite, K-feldspar) with good success. Ground truth as to mineral content was attained primarily by XRD. Identification is facile and specific, both for samples that are pure or are partially composed of uranium (e.g., boltwoodite, tyuyamunite, etc.) or non-uranium minerals. The characteristic IR bands generate unique (or class-specific) bands, typically arising from similar chemical moieties or functional groups in the minerals: uranyls, phosphates, silicates, etc. In some cases, the chemical groups that provide spectral discrimination in the longwave IR reflectance by generating upward-going (reststrahlen) bands can provide discrimination in the midwave and shortwave IR via downward-going absorption features, i.e., weaker overtone or combination bands arising from the same chemical moieties.

  6. Opportunities for Automated Demand Response in California’s Dairy Processing Industry

    SciTech Connect

    Homan, Gregory K.; Aghajanzadeh, Arian; McKane, Aimee

    During periods of peak electrical demand on the energy grid or when there is a shortage of supply, the stability of the grid may be compromised or the cost of supplying electricity may rise dramatically, respectively. Demand response programs are designed to mitigate the severity of these problems and improve reliability by reducing the demand on the grid during such critical times. In 2010, the Demand Response Research Center convened a group of industry experts to suggest potential industries that would be good demand response program candidates for further review. The dairy industry was suggested due to the perception thatmore » the industry had suitable flexibility and automatic controls in place. The purpose of this report is to provide an initial description of the industry with regard to demand response potential, specifically automated demand response. This report qualitatively describes the potential for participation in demand response and automated demand response by dairy processing facilities in California, as well as barriers to widespread participation. The report first describes the magnitude, timing, location, purpose, and manner of energy use. Typical process equipment and controls are discussed, as well as common impediments to participation in demand response and automated demand response programs. Two case studies of demand response at dairy facilities in California and across the country are reviewed. Finally, recommendations are made for future research that can enhance the understanding of demand response potential in this industry.« less

  7. Mineral resource of the month: mercury

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    ,

    2012-01-01

    The article offers information on mercury, a mineral commodity used in industrial and small-scale gold mining applications. Mercury has been reported to be used for amalgamation with gold since the Roman times. Mercury from cinnabar from Almadén, Spain has been used by Romans and has been continued to be used through the Middle Ages and the Colonial era.

  8. Mineral resource of the month: kyanite

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Potter, Michael J.

    2007-01-01

    Kyanite and related minerals are used in making refractories, which are materials that can withstand high-temperature environments, generally in excess of 1,100 degrees Celsius. Refractories form an inner lining to furnaces, kilns and other containers with which molten metals and glass come into contact. Fifty to 70 percent of global refractory consumption is related to the steel industry.

  9. Cogeneration Technology Alternatives Study (CTAS). Volume 3: Industrial processes

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Palmer, W. B.; Gerlaugh, H. E.; Priestley, R. R.

    1980-01-01

    Cogenerating electric power and process heat in single energy conversion systems rather than separately in utility plants and in process boilers is examined in terms of cost savings. The use of various advanced energy conversion systems are examined and compared with each other and with current technology systems for their savings in fuel energy, costs, and emissions in individual plants and on a national level. About fifty industrial processes from the target energy consuming sectors were used as a basis for matching a similar number of energy conversion systems that are considered as candidate which can be made available by the 1985 to 2000 time period. The sectors considered included food, textiles, lumber, paper, chemicals, petroleum, glass, and primary metals. The energy conversion systems included steam and gas turbines, diesels, thermionics, stirling, closed cycle and steam injected gas turbines, and fuel cells. Fuels considered were coal, both coal and petroleum based residual and distillate liquid fuels, and low Btu gas obtained through the on site gasification of coal. An attempt was made to use consistent assumptions and a consistent set of ground rules specified by NASA for determining performance and cost. Data and narrative descriptions of the industrial processes are given.

  10. Effect of dietary phosphorus, phytase, and 25-hydroxycholecalciferol on broiler chicken bone mineralization, litter phosphorus, and processing yields.

    PubMed

    Angel, R; Saylor, W W; Mitchell, A D; Powers, W; Applegate, T J

    2006-07-01

    Three floor pen experiments (Exp) were conducted to evaluate low nonphytin P (NPP) concentrations and the NPP sparing effect of phytase (PHY) and 25-hydroxycholecalciferol (25D) on bone mineralization, bone breaking during commercial processing, litter P, and water-soluble P (WSP) concentrations. Tested treatments (TRT) were control, National Research Council NPP; University of Maryland (UMD) NPP; UMD + PHY, UMD NPP reduced by 0.064% NPP + 600 U of PHY/kg; UMD + PHY + 25D, UMD NPP reduced by 0.090% NPP + 600 U of PHY and 70 microg of 25D/kg; control + PHY mimicked the industry practice of diets by 0.1% when PHY is added; and negative control with 90% UMD NPP concentrations. UMD + PHY and control + PHY diets contained 600 U of PHY/kg, and UMD + PHY + 25D contained 600 U of PHY + 70 microg of 25D/kg. Performance results were presented separately. After each Exp, litter P and WSP were determined, and bone measurements were obtained on 8 or 10 broilers per pen. Tested TRT did not affect broiler BW. Femur ash weight of broilers fed the UMD and UMD + PHY + 25D was lower in all Exp compared with that of broilers fed the control diet. Femur ash was similar for control and UMD + PHY broilers, yet averaged over all Exp, UMD + PHY broilers consumed 39% less NPP and required less NPP per gram of femur ash than those on the control (4.87 and 7.77 g of NPP/g of ash, Exp 3). At the end of Exp 3, broilers were processed in a commercial facility. Despite reductions in NPP intake and bone mineralization, no differences were observed in measurements of economic importance (parts lost, carcass yield, and incidence of broken bones). The P excretion per bird was lowest for birds fed the UMD + PHY + 25D diet followed by those fed the UMD + PHY and negative control diets (10.44, 12.00, and 13.78 g of P/bird, respectively) and were highest for those fed the control diet (19.55 g of P/bird). These results suggest that feeding diets low in P together with PHY and 25D will not affect

  11. Physicochemical characterization of mineral deposits in human ligamenta flava.

    PubMed

    Orzechowska, Sylwia; Wróbel, Andrzej; Kozieł, Marcin; Łasocha, Wiesław; Rokita, Eugeniusz

    2018-05-01

    The aim of our study was the detailed characterization of calcium deposits in ligamenta flava. The use of microcomputed tomography allowed extending the routine medical investigations to characterize mineral grains in the microscopic scale. A possible connection between spinal stenosis and ligament mineralization was investigated. The studies were carried out on 24 surgically removed ligamentum flavum samples divided into control and stenosis groups. Physicochemical characterization of the inorganic material was performed using X-ray fluorescence, X-ray diffraction, and Fourier transform infrared spectroscopy. The minerals were present in 14 of 24 ligament samples, both in stenosis and control groups. The inorganic substance constitutes on average ~0.1% of the sample volume. The minerals are scattered in the soft tissue matrix without any regular pattern. It was confirmed that minerals possess an internal structure and consist of the organic material and small inorganic grains mixture. The physicochemical analyses show that the predominant crystalline phase was hydroxyapatite (HAP). In the stenosis group calcium pyrophosphate dehydrate (CPPD) was identified. Both structures were never present in a single sample. Two different crystal structures suggest two independent processes of mineralization. The formation of CPPD may be treated as a more intense process since CPPD minerals are characterized by bigger values of the structural parameters and higher density than HAP deposits. The formation of HAP minerals is a soft tissue degeneration process that begins, in some cases, at early age or may not occur at all. Various density and volume of mineral grains indicate that the mineralization process does not occur in a constant environment and proceeds with various speeds. The formation of minerals in ligamenta flava is not directly associated with diagnosed spinal canal stenosis.

  12. Optical properties of selected components of mineral dust aerosol processed with organic acids and humic material

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Alexander, Jennifer M.; Grassian, V. H.; Young, M. A.; Kleiber, P. D.

    2015-03-01

    Visible light scattering phase function and linear polarization profiles of mineral dust components processed with organic acids and humic material are measured, and results are compared to T-matrix simulations of the scattering properties. Processed samples include quartz mixed with humic material, and calcite reacted with acetic and oxalic acids. Clear differences in light scattering properties are observed for all three processed samples when compared to the unprocessed dust or organic salt products. Results for quartz processed with humic acid sodium salt (NaHA) indicate the presence of both internally mixed quartz-NaHA particles and externally mixed NaHA aerosol. Simulations of light scattering suggest that the processed quartz particles become more moderate in shape due to the formation of a coating of humic material over the mineral core. Experimental results for calcite reacted with acetic acid are consistent with an external mixture of calcite and the reaction product, calcium acetate. Modeling of the light scattering properties does not require any significant change to the calcite particle shape distribution although morphology changes cannot be ruled out by our data. It is expected that calcite reacted with oxalic acid will produce internally mixed particles of calcite and calcium oxalate due to the low solubility of the product salt. However, simulations of the scattering for the calcite-oxalic acid system result in rather poor fits to the data when compared to the other samples. The poor fit provides a less accurate picture of the impact of processing in the calcite-oxalic acid system.

  13. System for monitoring an industrial process and determining sensor status

    DOEpatents

    Gross, K.C.; Hoyer, K.K.; Humenik, K.E.

    1995-10-17

    A method and system for monitoring an industrial process and a sensor are disclosed. The method and system include generating a first and second signal characteristic of an industrial process variable. One of the signals can be an artificial signal generated by an auto regressive moving average technique. After obtaining two signals associated with one physical variable, a difference function is obtained by determining the arithmetic difference between the two pairs of signals over time. A frequency domain transformation is made of the difference function to obtain Fourier modes describing a composite function. A residual function is obtained by subtracting the composite function from the difference function and the residual function (free of nonwhite noise) is analyzed by a statistical probability ratio test. 17 figs.

  14. System for monitoring an industrial process and determining sensor status

    DOEpatents

    Gross, K.C.; Hoyer, K.K.; Humenik, K.E.

    1997-05-13

    A method and system are disclosed for monitoring an industrial process and a sensor. The method and system include generating a first and second signal characteristic of an industrial process variable. One of the signals can be an artificial signal generated by an auto regressive moving average technique. After obtaining two signals associated with one physical variable, a difference function is obtained by determining the arithmetic difference between the two pairs of signals over time. A frequency domain transformation is made of the difference function to obtain Fourier modes describing a composite function. A residual function is obtained by subtracting the composite function from the difference function and the residual function (free of nonwhite noise) is analyzed by a statistical probability ratio test. 17 figs.

  15. System for monitoring an industrial process and determining sensor status

    DOEpatents

    Gross, Kenneth C.; Hoyer, Kristin K.; Humenik, Keith E.

    1995-01-01

    A method and system for monitoring an industrial process and a sensor. The method and system include generating a first and second signal characteristic of an industrial process variable. One of the signals can be an artificial signal generated by an auto regressive moving average technique. After obtaining two signals associated with one physical variable, a difference function is obtained by determining the arithmetic difference between the two pairs of signals over time. A frequency domain transformation is made of the difference function to obtain Fourier modes describing a composite function. A residual function is obtained by subtracting the composite function from the difference function and the residual function (free of nonwhite noise) is analyzed by a statistical probability ratio test.

  16. System for monitoring an industrial process and determining sensor status

    DOEpatents

    Gross, Kenneth C.; Hoyer, Kristin K.; Humenik, Keith E.

    1997-01-01

    A method and system for monitoring an industrial process and a sensor. The method and system include generating a first and second signal characteristic of an industrial process variable. One of the signals can be an artificial signal generated by an auto regressive moving average technique. After obtaining two signals associated with one physical variable, a difference function is obtained by determining the arithmetic difference between the two pairs of signals over time. A frequency domain transformation is made of the difference function to obtain Fourier modes describing a composite function. A residual function is obtained by subtracting the composite function from the difference function and the residual function (free of nonwhite noise) is analyzed by a statistical probability ratio test.

  17. Titanium minerals of placer deposits as a source for new materials

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Kotova, Olga; Ponaryadov, Alexey

    2015-04-01

    obtained results of physical studies, mineral composition features, morphostructural characteristics and degree of alteration of titanium minerals from the placers specify a high potential of physical methods of processing (gravitational and magnetic separation, flotation) and possible application of combined methods of processing. Production of pigment titanium dioxide for further production of titanium white, paper, plastics etc is the usual application area of titanium concentrates. Titanium dioxide of high chemical purity is used to produce optically transparent glass, fiber optics, electronics (iPad), piezoceramics, in medical and food industry. We designed photocatalysts based on leucoxene from Pizhma placer. The results showed that the photocatalysts based on rutile, synthesized from leucoxene from Pizhma deposit, can be applied to decay phenols in water.

  18. Mechatronics in monitoring, simulation, and diagnostics of industrial and biological processes

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Golnik, Natalia; Dobosz, Marek; Jakubowska, Małgorzata; Kościelny, Jan M.; Kujawińska, Małgorzata; Pałko, Tadeusz; Putz, Barbara; Sitnik, Robert; Wnuk, Paweł; Woźniak, Adam

    2013-10-01

    The paper describes a number of research projects of the Faculty of Mechatronics of Warsaw University of Technology in order to illustrate the use of common mechatronics and optomechatronics approach in solving multidisciplinary technical problems. Projects on sensors development, measurement and industrial control systems, multimodal data capture and advance systems for monitoring and diagnostics of industrial processes are presented and discussed.

  19. Best practices in incident investigation in the chemical process industries with examples from the industry sector and specifically from Nova Chemicals.

    PubMed

    Morrison, Lisa M

    2004-07-26

    This paper will summarize best practices in incident investigation in the chemical process industries and will provide examples from both the industry sector and specifically from NOVA Chemicals. As a sponsor of the Center for Chemical Process Safety (CCPS), an industry technology alliance of the American Institute of Chemical Engineers, NOVA Chemicals participates in a number of working groups to help develop best practices and tools for the chemical process and associated industries in order to advance chemical process safety. A recent project was to develop an update on guidelines for investigating chemical process incidents. A successful incident investigation management system must ensure that all incidents and near misses are reported, that root causes are identified, that recommendations from incident investigations identify appropriate preventive measures, and that these recommendations are resolved in a timely manner. The key elements of an effective management system for incident investigation will be described. Accepted definitions of such terms as near miss, incident, and root cause will be reviewed. An explanation of the types of incident classification systems in use, along with expected levels of follow-up, will be provided. There are several incident investigation methodologies in use today by members of the CCPS; most of these methodologies incorporate the use of several tools. These tools include: timelines, sequence diagrams, causal factor identification, brainstorming, checklists, pre-defined trees, and team-defined logic trees. Developing appropriate recommendations and then ensuring their resolution is the key to prevention of similar events from recurring, along with the sharing of lessons learned from incidents. There are several sources of information on previous incidents and lessons learned available to companies. In addition, many companies in the chemical process industries use their own internal databases to track recommendations from

  20. A novel property of DNA - as a bioflotation reagent in mineral processing.

    PubMed

    Vasanthakumar, Balasubramanian; Ravishankar, Honnavar; Subramanian, Sankaran

    2012-01-01

    Environmental concerns regarding the use of certain chemicals in the froth flotation of minerals have led investigators to explore biological entities as potential substitutes for the reagents in vogue. Despite the fact that several microorganisms have been used for the separation of a variety of mineral systems, a detailed characterization of the biochemical molecules involved therein has not been reported so far. In this investigation, the selective flotation of sphalerite from a sphalerite-galena mineral mixture has been achieved using the cellular components of Bacillus species. The key constituent primarily responsible for the flotation of sphalerite has been identified as DNA, which functions as a bio-collector. Furthermore, using reconstitution studies, the obligatory need for the presence of non-DNA components as bio-depressants for galena has been demonstrated. A probable model involving these entities in the selective flotation of sphalerite from the mineral mixture has been discussed.

  1. The role of coal in industrialization: A case study of Nigeria

    SciTech Connect

    Akarakiri, J.B.

    1989-01-01

    Coal is a mineral matter found in layers or beds in sedimentary rocks. It is a very highly variable substance. In addition to the variations from lignite to bituminous and anthracite, there are vast differences in its heating value, amount of volatiles, sulfur, moisture and so on. The chemical and physical properties of coal make it an important industrial raw material. There is proven 639 million tonnes of coal reserves in Nigeria. This paper examines the potential and current role of coal in the industrialization of Nigeria. Industries are now dependent on fuel oil as a source of fuel becausemore » of its economic and technological advantages over coal. Coal is a source of industrial energy for the future after the known oil reserves might have been exhausted. In the short term, coal can be used as a material for chemicals, iron and steel production as well as a substitute for wood energy in the process of industrialization.« less

  2. Novel application of DEM to modelling comminution processes

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Delaney, Gary W.; Cleary, Paul W.; Sinnott, Matt D.; Morrison, Rob D.

    2010-06-01

    Comminution processes in which grains are broken down into smaller and smaller sizes represent a critical component in many industries including mineral processing, cement production, food processing and pharmaceuticals. We present a novel DEM implementation capable of realistically modelling such comminution processes. This extends on a previous implementation of DEM particle breakage that utilized spherical particles. Our new extension uses super-quadric particles, where daughter fragments with realistic size and shape distributions are packed inside a bounding parent super-quadric. We demonstrate the flexibility of our approach in different particle breakage scenarios and examine the effect of the chosen minimum resolved particle size. This incorporation of the effect of particle shape in the breakage process allows for more realistic DEM simulations to be performed, that can provide additional fundamental insights into comminution processes and into the behaviour of individual pieces of industrial machinery.

  3. Seasat data applications in ocean industries

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Montgomery, D. R.

    1985-01-01

    It is pointed out that the world population expansion and resulting shortages of food, minerals, and fuel have focused additional attention on the world's oceans. In this context, aspects of weather prediction and the monitoring/prediction of long-range climatic anomalies become more important. In spite of technological advances, the commercial ocean industry and the naval forces suffer now from inadequate data and forecast products related to the oceans. The Seasat Program and the planned Navy-Remote Oceanographic Satellite System (N-ROSS) represent major contributions to improved observational coverage and the processing needed to achieve better forecasts. The Seasat Program was initiated to evaluate the effectiveness of the remote sensing of oceanographic phenomena from a satellite platform. Possible oceanographic satellite applications are presented in a table, and the impact of Seasat data on industry sectors is discussed. Attention is given to offshore oil development, deep-ocean mining, fishing, and marine transportation.

  4. Sequestering CO(2) by mineral carbonation: stability against acid rain exposure.

    PubMed

    Allen, Daniel J; Brent, Geoff F

    2010-04-01

    Mineral carbonation is a potentially attractive alternative to storage of compressed CO(2) in underground repositories, known as geosequestration. Processes for the conversion of basic ores, such as magnesium silicates, to carbonates have been proposed by various researchers, with storage of the carbonate as backfill in the original mine representing a solid carbon sink. The stability of such carbon sinks against acid rain and other sources of strong acids is examined here. It is acknowledged that in the presence of strong acid, carbonates will dissolve and release carbon dioxide. A sensitivity analysis covering annual average rainfall and pH that may be encountered in industrialized areas of the United States, China, Europe, and Australia was conducted to determine maximum CO(2) rerelease rates from mineral carbonation carbon sinks. This analysis is based on a worst-case premise that is equivalent to assuming infinitely rapid kinetics of dissolution of the carbonate. The analysis shows that under any likely conditions of pH and rainfall, leakage rates of stored CO(2) are negligible. This is illustrated in a hypothetical case study under Australian conditions. It is thus proposed that sequestration by mineral carbonation can be considered to be permanent on practical human time scales. Other possible sources of acid have also been considered.

  5. Microorganisms meet solid minerals: interactions and biotechnological applications.

    PubMed

    Ng, Daphne H P; Kumar, Amit; Cao, Bin

    2016-08-01

    In natural and engineered environments, microorganisms often co-exist and interact with various minerals or mineral-containing solids. Microorganism-mineral interactions contribute significantly to environmental processes, including biogeochemical cycles in natural ecosystems and biodeterioration of materials in engineered environments. In this mini-review, we provide a summary of several key mechanisms involved in microorganism-mineral interactions, including the following: (i) solid minerals serve as substrata for biofilm development; (ii) solid minerals serve as an electron source or sink for microbial respiration; (iii) solid minerals provide microorganisms with macro or micronutrients for cell growth; and (iv) (semi)conductive solid minerals serve as extracellular electron conduits facilitating cell-to-cell interactions. We also highlight recent developments in harnessing microbe-mineral interactions for biotechnological applications.

  6. Assessment of critical-fluid extractions in the process industries

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    1982-01-01

    The potential for critical-fluid extraction as a separation process for improving the productive use of energy in the process industries is assessed. Critical-fluid extraction involves the use of fluids, normally gaseous at ambient conditions, as extraction solvents at temperatures and pressures around the critical point. Equilibrium and kinetic properties in this regime are very favorable for solvent applications, and generally allow major reductions in the energy requirements for separating and purifying chemical component of a mixture.

  7. The Perceived Influence of Industry-Sponsored Credentials on the Recruitment Process in the Information Technology Industry: Employer and Employee Perspectives

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Bartlett, Kenneth R.; Horwitz, Sujin K.; Ipe, Minu; Liu, Yuwen

    2005-01-01

    The increase in the number of industry-sponsored credential programs raises many questions for career and technical education. This study investigated the perceived influence of industry-sponsored credentials on the recruitment process in the information technology (IT) field. Influence is examined from the perspective of Human Resource (HR)…

  8. Error-proofing test system of industrial components based on image processing

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Huang, Ying; Huang, Tao

    2018-05-01

    Due to the improvement of modern industrial level and accuracy, conventional manual test fails to satisfy the test standards of enterprises, so digital image processing technique should be utilized to gather and analyze the information on the surface of industrial components, so as to achieve the purpose of test. To test the installation parts of automotive engine, this paper employs camera to capture the images of the components. After these images are preprocessed including denoising, the image processing algorithm relying on flood fill algorithm is used to test the installation of the components. The results prove that this system has very high test accuracy.

  9. Effects of pollution and bioleaching process on the mineral composition and texture of contaminated sediments of the Reconquista River, Argentina.

    PubMed

    Tufo, Ana E; Porzionato, Natalia F; Curutchet, Gustavo

    2017-10-31

    In this work, we report on the structural and textural changes in fluvial sediments from Reconquista River´s basin, Argentina, due to processes of contamination with organic matter and remediation by bioleaching. The original uncontaminated matrix showed quartz and phyllosilicates as the main primary mineral constituents and phases of interstratified illite-montmorillonite as secondary minerals. It was found that in contaminated sediments, the presence of organic matter in high concentration causes changes in the specific surface area, particle size distribution, size and distribution of micro and meso, and the morphology of the particles with respect to the uncontaminated sediment. After the bioleaching process, there were even greater changes in these parameters at the level of secondary mineral formation and the appearance of nanoparticles, which were confirmed by SEM. Especially, we found the formation of cementing substances such as gypsum, promoting the formation of macroporous aggregates and the weathering of clay components. Our results indicate that the bioleaching not only decreases the content of metals but also favors the formation of a material with improved characteristics for potential future applications.

  10. Mineral resource of the month: gold

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    George, Micheal W.

    2009-01-01

    The article presents information on the valuable mineral called gold. It states that early civilizations valued gold because of its scarcity, durability and characteristics yellow color. By the late 20th century, gold was used as an industrial metal because of its unique physicochemical properties. The U.S. has several productive deposits of gold, including placer, gold-quartz lode, epithermal and Carlin-type gold deposits.

  11. Potential Applications of Immobilized β-Galactosidase in Food Processing Industries

    PubMed Central

    Panesar, Parmjit S.; Kumari, Shweta; Panesar, Reeba

    2010-01-01

    The enzyme β-galactosidase can be obtained from a wide variety of sources such as microorganisms, plants, and animals. The use of β-galactosidase for the hydrolysis of lactose in milk and whey is one of the promising enzymatic applications in food and dairy processing industries. The enzyme can be used in either soluble or immobilized forms but the soluble enzyme can be used only for batch processes and the immobilized form has the advantage of being used in batch wise as well as in continuous operation. Immobilization has been found to be convenient method to make enzyme thermostable and to prevent the loss of enzyme activity. This review has been focused on the different types of techniques used for the immobilization of β-galactosidase and its potential applications in food industry. PMID:21234407

  12. Status review and prospects for solar industrial process heat (SIPH)

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Kreith, F.; Davenport, R.; Feustel, J.

    1983-11-01

    Solar energy systems and components are presently available for industrial process hot air, hot water, and steam applications at temperatures up to about 300 C. Systems capable of operating at temperatures up to about 1000 C are approaching commercialization. A careful matching of the characteristics of the solar system and the industrial process in question has been found by field tests to be an important determinant of the amount of useful energy that can be delivered. While the thermal performance of solar collectors is not expected to improve significantly, better manufacturing, plumbing, and installation techniques may reduce both system and delivered energy costs significantly. Tax credits for solar installations, together with limited partnership financing, can offset the high initial cost of solar energy systems and provide equity between solar and fossil-fueled systems.

  13. Searching for new sources of innovative products for the food industry within halophyte aromatic plants: In vitro antioxidant activity and phenolic and mineral contents of infusions and decoctions of Crithmum maritimum L.

    PubMed

    Pereira, Catarina Guerreiro; Barreira, Luísa; da Rosa Neng, Nuno; Nogueira, José Manuel Florêncio; Marques, Cátia; Santos, Tamára F; Varela, João; Custódio, Luísa

    2017-09-01

    Aromatic halophyte plants are an outstanding source of bioactive compounds and natural products with potential use in the food industry. This work reports the in vitro antioxidant activity, toxicity, polyphenolic profile and mineral contents of infusions and decoctions from stems, leaves and flowers of Crithmum maritimum L., an aromatic and edible maritime halophyte (sea fennel). Aspalathus linearis (Burm.f.) Dahlg. (rooibos) herbal tea was used as a reference. Sea fennel's tisanes, particularly from leaves, were rich in phenolic compounds and five of them (p-hydroxybenzoic and ferulic acids, epicatechin, pyrocatechol and 4-hydroxybenzaldehyde) were here described in C. maritimum for the first time. Chlorogenic acid was the dominant phenolic determined. Na was the most abundant mineral in all tisanes followed by Ca and Mg in leaves' tisanes and K in flowers. Sea fennel's samples had a similar antioxidant activity than those from A. linearis, and had no significant toxicity towards four different mammalian cell lines. Altogether, our results suggest that sea fennel can be a source of products and/or molecules for the food industry with antioxidant properties and minerals in the form, for example, of innovative health-promoting herbal beverages. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  14. 30 CFR 285.116 - Requests for information on the state of the offshore renewable energy industry.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-07-01

    ... offshore renewable energy industry. 285.116 Section 285.116 Mineral Resources MINERALS MANAGEMENT SERVICE, DEPARTMENT OF THE INTERIOR OFFSHORE RENEWABLE ENERGY ALTERNATE USES OF EXISTING FACILITIES ON THE OUTER... the state of the offshore renewable energy industry, including the identification of potential...

  15. Solar industrial process heat: A study of applications and attitudes

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Wilson, V.

    1981-04-01

    Data were gathered through site visits to 100 industrial plants. The site specific data suggests several possible near term market opportunities for solar thermal energy systems. Plants using electricity as their primary fuel for industrial process heat were identified, on the basis of their high fuel prices, as attractive early entry markets for solar energy. Additional opportunities were reflected in plants that had accomplished much of their conservation plans, or bad sizeable percentages of their operating budgets committed to energy expenses. A suitability analysis identified eleven industrial plants as highly suitable for solar thermal applications, they included producers of fluid milk, pottery, canned and bottled soft drinks, fabricated structural metal, refined petroleum, aluminum cans, chrome and nickel plating and stamped frame metal and metal finishings.

  16. In situ control of industrial processes using laser light scattering and optical rotation

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Mendoza Sanchez, Patricia Judith; López Echevarria, Daniel; Huerta Ruelas, Jorge Adalberto

    2006-02-01

    We present results of optical measurements in products or processes usually found in industrial processes, which can be used to control them. Laser light scattering was employed during semiconductor epitaxial growth by molecular beam epitaxy. With this technique, it was possible to determine growth rate, roughness and critical temperatures related to substrate degradation. With the same scattering technique, oil degradation as function of temperature was monitored for different automotive lubricants. Clear differences can be studied between monograde and multigrade oils. Optical rotation measurements as function of temperature were performed in apple juice in a pasteurization process like. Average variations related to optical rotation dependence of sugars were measured and monitored during heating and cooling process, finding a reversible behavior. As opposite behavior, sugar-protein solution was measured in a similar heating and cooling process. Final result showed a non-reversible behavior related to protein denaturation. Potential applications are discussed for metal-mechanic, electronic, food, and pharmaceutical industry. Future improvements in optical systems to make them more portable and easily implemented under typical industry conditions are mentioned.

  17. Total Reducing Capacity in Aquifer Minerals and Sediments: Quantifying the Potential to Attenuate Cr(VI) in Groundwater

    SciTech Connect

    Sisman, S. Lara

    2015-07-20

    Hexavalent chromium, Cr(VI), is present in the environment as a byproduct of industrial processes. Due to its mobility and toxicity, it is crucial to attenuate or remove Cr(VI) from the environment. The objective of this investigation was to quantify potential natural attenuation, or reduction capacity, of reactive minerals and aquifer sediments. Samples of reduced-iron containing minerals such as ilmenite, as well as Puye Formation sediments representing a contaminated aquifer in New Mexico, were reacted with chromate. The change in Cr(VI) during the reaction was used to calculate reduction capacity. This study found that minerals that contain reduced iron, such asmore » ilmenite, have high reducing capacities. The data indicated that sample history may impact reduction capacity tests due to surface passivation. Further, this investigation identified areas for future research including: a) refining the relationships between iron content, magnetic susceptibility and reduction capacity, and b) long term kinetic testing using fresh aquifer sediments.« less

  18. Picosecond and femtosecond lasers for industrial material processing

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Mayerhofer, R.; Serbin, J.; Deeg, F. W.

    2016-03-01

    Cold laser materials processing using ultra short pulsed lasers has become one of the most promising new technologies for high-precision cutting, ablation, drilling and marking of almost all types of material, without causing unwanted thermal damage to the part. These characteristics have opened up new application areas and materials for laser processing, allowing previously impossible features to be created and also reducing the amount of post-processing required to an absolute minimum, saving time and cost. However, short pulse widths are only one part of thee story for industrial manufacturing processes which focus on total costs and maximum productivity and production yield. Like every other production tool, ultra-short pulse lasers have too provide high quality results with maximum reliability. Robustness and global on-site support are vital factors, as well ass easy system integration.

  19. T Lymphocytes Influence the Mineralization Process of Bone

    PubMed Central

    El Khassawna, Thaqif; Serra, Alessandro; Bucher, Christian H.; Petersen, Ansgar; Schlundt, Claudia; Könnecke, Ireen; Malhan, Deeksha; Wendler, Sebastian; Schell, Hanna; Volk, Hans-Dieter; Schmidt-Bleek, Katharina; Duda, Georg N.

    2017-01-01

    Bone is a unique organ able to regenerate itself after injuries. This regeneration requires the local interplay between different biological systems such as inflammation and matrix formation. Structural reconstitution is initiated by an inflammatory response orchestrated by the host immune system. However, the individual role of T cells and B cells in regeneration and their relationship to bone tissue reconstitution remain unknown. Comparing bone and fracture healing in animals with and without mature T and B cells revealed the essential role of these immune cells in determining the tissue mineralization and thus the bone quality. Bone without mature T and B cells is stiffer when compared to wild-type bone thus lacking the elasticity that helps to absorb forces, thus preventing fractures. In-depth analysis showed dysregulations in collagen deposition and osteoblast distribution upon lack of mature T and B cells. These changes in matrix deposition have been correlated with T cells rather than B cells within this study. This work presents, for the first time, a direct link between immune cells and matrix formation during bone healing after fracture. It illustrates specifically the role of T cells in the collagen organization process and the lack thereof in the absence of T cells. PMID:28596766

  20. Effect of Food Regulation on the Spanish Food Processing Industry: A Dynamic Productivity Analysis.

    PubMed

    Kapelko, Magdalena; Oude Lansink, Alfons; Stefanou, Spiro E

    2015-01-01

    This article develops the decomposition of the dynamic Luenberger productivity growth indicator into dynamic technical change, dynamic technical inefficiency change and dynamic scale inefficiency change in the dynamic directional distance function context using Data Envelopment Analysis. These results are used to investigate for the Spanish food processing industry the extent to which dynamic productivity growth and its components are affected by the introduction of the General Food Law in 2002 (Regulation (EC) No 178/2002). The empirical application uses panel data of Spanish meat, dairy, and oils and fats industries over the period 1996-2011. The results suggest that in the oils and fats industry the impact of food regulation on dynamic productivity growth is negative initially and then positive over the long run. In contrast, the opposite pattern is observed for the meat and dairy processing industries. The results further imply that firms in the meat processing and oils and fats industries face similar impacts of food safety regulation on dynamic technical change, dynamic inefficiency change and dynamic scale inefficiency change.

  1. Effect of Food Regulation on the Spanish Food Processing Industry: A Dynamic Productivity Analysis

    PubMed Central

    Kapelko, Magdalena; Lansink, Alfons Oude; Stefanou, Spiro E.

    2015-01-01

    This article develops the decomposition of the dynamic Luenberger productivity growth indicator into dynamic technical change, dynamic technical inefficiency change and dynamic scale inefficiency change in the dynamic directional distance function context using Data Envelopment Analysis. These results are used to investigate for the Spanish food processing industry the extent to which dynamic productivity growth and its components are affected by the introduction of the General Food Law in 2002 (Regulation (EC) No 178/2002). The empirical application uses panel data of Spanish meat, dairy, and oils and fats industries over the period 1996-2011. The results suggest that in the oils and fats industry the impact of food regulation on dynamic productivity growth is negative initially and then positive over the long run. In contrast, the opposite pattern is observed for the meat and dairy processing industries. The results further imply that firms in the meat processing and oils and fats industries face similar impacts of food safety regulation on dynamic technical change, dynamic inefficiency change and dynamic scale inefficiency change. PMID:26057878

  2. Mineralogy and Geochemical Processes of Carbonate Mineral-rich Sulfide Mine Tailings, Zimapan, Mexico

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    McClure, R. J.; Deng, Y.; Loeppert, R.; Herbert, B. E.; Carrillo, R.; Gonzalez, C.

    2009-12-01

    Mining for silver, lead, zinc, and copper in Zimapan, Hidalgo State, Mexico has been ongoing since 1576. High concentrations of heavy metals have been found in several mine tailing heaps in the Zimapan area, with concentrations of arsenic observed as high as 28,690 mg/kg and levels of Pb as high as 2772 mg/kg. Unsecured tailings heaps and associated acid mine drainage has presented tremendous problems to revegetation, water quality, and dust emission control in the Zimapan area. Although acid mine drainage problems related to weathering of sulfide minerals have been extensively studied and are well known, the weathering products of sulfides in areas with a significant presence of carbonate minerals and their effect on the mobility of heavy metals warrant further study. Carbonate minerals are expected to neutralize sulfuric acid produced from weathering of sulfide minerals, however, in the Zimapan area localized areas of pH as low as 1.8 were observed within carbonate mineral-rich tailing heaps. The objectives of this study are to characterize (1) the heavy metal-containing sulfide minerals in the initial tailing materials, (2) the intermediate oxidation products of sulfide minerals within the carbonate-rich tailings, (3) chemical species of heavy metals within pH gradients between 1.8 and 8.2, the approximate natural pH of limestone, and (4) the mobility of soluble and colloidal heavy metals and arsenic within the carbonate-rich tailings. Representative mine tailings and their intermediate oxidation products have been sampled from the Zimapan area. Mineralogical characterization will be conducted with X-ray diffraction, infrared spectroscopy, electron microscopes and microprobes, and chemical methods. Chemical species will be extracted by selective dissolution methods. Preliminary results have identified calcite as the dominant mineral in the tailing heaps with a pH of 7, suggesting non-equilibrium with the acidic weathering products. Other minerals identified in

  3. Oxygen Extraction from Minerals

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Muscatello, Tony

    2017-01-01

    Oxygen, whether used as part of rocket bipropellant or for astronaut life support, is a key consumable for space exploration and commercialization. In Situ Resource Utilization (ISRU) has been proposed many times as a method for making space exploration more cost effective and sustainable. On planetary and asteroid surfaces the presence of minerals in the regolith that contain oxygen is very common, making them a potential oxygen resource. The majority of research and development for oxygen extraction from minerals has been for lunar regolith although this work would generally be applicable to regolith at other locations in space. This presentation will briefly survey the major methods investigated for oxygen extraction from regolith with a focus on the current status of those methods and possible future development pathways. The major oxygen production methods are (1) extraction from lunar ilmenite (FeTiO3) with either hydrogen or carbon monoxide, (2) carbothermal reduction of iron oxides and silicates with methane, and (3) molten regolith electrolysis (MRE) of silicates. Methods (1) and (2) have also been investigated in a two-step process using CO reduction and carbon deposition followed by carbothermal reduction. All three processes have byproducts that could also be used as resources. Hydrogen or carbon monoxide reduction produce iron metal in small amounts that could potentially be used as construction material. Carbothermal reduction also makes iron metal along with silicon metal and a glass with possible applications. MRE produces iron, silicon, aluminum, titanium, and glass, with higher silicon yields than carbothermal reduction. On Mars and possibly on some moons and asteroids, water is present in the form of mineral hydrates, hydroxyl (-OH) groups on minerals, andor water adsorbed on mineral surfaces. Heating of the minerals can liberate the water which can be electrolyzed to provide a source of oxygen as well. The chemistry of these processes, some key

  4. The United Nations framework classification for fossil energy and mineral reserves and resources 2009

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    MacDonald, D.; Lynch-Bell, M.; Ross, J.; Heiberg, S.; Griffiths, C.; Klett, T.

    2011-01-01

    Effective resource management in a globalizing economy requires accurate assessments of fossil energy and minerals resources. The recoverable quantities must be described and categorized in a manner that is consistent with scientific and social/economic information describing the economy as well as with the information describing the projects to recover them. A number of different standards have evolved over time in response to various professional needs Under a mandate given by the United Nations Economic and Social Council, the United Nations Economic Commission for Europe (UNECE) has cooperated with Governments, regulatory agencies, industry, international organizations, and professional organizations (including Committee for Mineral Reserves International Reporting Standards (CRIRSCO), the Society of Petroleum Engineers (SPE), the American Association of Petroleum Geologists (AAPG), and the Society of Petroleum Evaluation Engineers (SPEE)), as well as with outstanding experts, to define a global classification for extractive activities (including oil, gas, heavy oil and bitumen extraction) that reflects the principal concerns of existing petroleum and mineral classifications. The United Nations Framework Classification for Fossil Energy and Mineral Reserves and Resources-2009 (UNFC-2009) aims to serve the following four principal needs: 1. The needs in international energy and mineral studies to formulate robust and long-sighted policies. 2. The needs of governments in managing their resources accordingly, allowing market prices to be transferred to the wellhead with as little loss as possible. 3. The industries' needs for information while deploying technology, management and finance to secure energy supplies and capture value efficiently within the established frameworks to serve its host countries, shareholders and stakeholders. 4. The financial community's need for information to allocate capital appropriately, providing reduced costs and improved long

  5. Extraction and characterization of beta-D-glucan from oat for industrial utilization.

    PubMed

    Ahmad, Asif; Anjum, Faqir Muhammad; Zahoor, Tahir; Nawaz, Haq; Ahmed, Zaheer

    2010-04-01

    Oat beta-D-glucan is a valuable functional ingredient having numerous industrial, nutritional and health benefits. Its extraction needs careful attention as extraction process may affect the physiochemical and functional properties of extracted beta-D-glucan. The present study aimed at analyzing the effect of extraction of beta-D-glucan gum pellets from oat cultivar followed by detailed chemical and functional analysis. Enzymatic extraction process resulted in highest yield and recovery. Chemical analysis revealed protein as a dominating impurity. The water binding capacity of the beta-D-glucan ranged between 3.14 and 4.52 g g(-1) of sample. beta-D-Glucan exhibited ideal foaming stability when appropriate extraction technique was used. The viscosity of beta-D-glucan gum ranged between 35.6 and 56.16 cp. The color analysis showed L* value of beta-D-glucan gum pellet ranged between 72.18 and 83.54. Phosphorus, potassium and calcium appeared as major minerals in beta-D-glucan gum whereas iron, manganese and copper appeared as minor minerals. FTIR spectroscopy also confirms the presence of beta-D-glucan, protein and other components in extracted beta-D-glucan gum pellets. Overall, extracted beta-D-glucan showed a good potential for industrial usage. Copyright 2010 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  6. Green Clay Minerals

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Velde, B.

    2003-12-01

    Color is a problem for scientific study. One aspect is the vocabulary one used to describe color. Mint green, bottle green, and Kelly green are nice names but not of great utility in that people's physical perception of color is not always the same. In some industries, such as colored fabric manufacture, current use is to send a set of standard colors which are matched by the producer. This is similar to the use of the Munsell color charts in geology. None of these processes makes use of physical optical spectral studies. The reason is that they are difficult to obtain and interpret. For a geologist, color is very important but we rarely have the possibility to standardize the method of our color perception. One reason is that color is both a reflective and transmission phenomenon. The thickness of the sample is critical to any transmission characteristics. Hence, a field color determination is different from one made by using a petrographic microscope. Green glauconite in a hand specimen is not the same color in 30 μm thick thin section seen with a microscope using transmitted light.A second problem is that color in a spectral identification is the result of several absorption emissions,with overlapping signal, forming a complicated spectrum. Interpretation depends very greatly on the spectrum of the light source and the conditions of transmission-reflection of the sample. As a result, for this text, we will not attempt to analyze the physical aspect of green in green clays. In the discussion which follows, reference is made concerning color, to thin section microscopic perception.Very briefly, green clay minerals are green, because they contain iron. This is perhaps not a great revelation to mineralogists, but it is the key to understanding the origin and stability of green clay minerals. In fact, iron can color minerals either red or green or in various shades of orange and brown. The color most likely depends upon the relative abundance of the iron ion valence

  7. Industry and government perspectives on First Nations' participation in the British Columbia environmental assessment process

    SciTech Connect

    Booth, Annie L., E-mail: annie@unbc.ca; Skelton, Norm W.

    2011-04-15

    Research was conducted with West Moberly First Nations, Halfway First Nation and the Treaty 8 Tribal Association (located in northeastern British Columbia, Canada) on effective engagement in environmental assessment processes. As part of this research, we examined the perspectives of a subset of resource industry proponents and their consultants, as well as staff from the British Columbia Environmental Assessment Office on their experiences with the requirement to consult with Canada's indigenous peoples. Research into the perspectives of industry proponents and consultants is almost non-existent, yet industry and governments are key participants within environmental assessments. This research found that industry proponentsmore » were disenfranchised by the British Columbia environmental assessment process and its mechanisms for consulting with First Nations, and that they sought changes to that process. Their concerns and their implications are documented and some recommendations are offered for addressing those concerns. Understanding industry and government views on First Nations engagement could suggest not only potential improvements in EA processes that facilitate all parties but provide common grounds for mutually engaging to resolve challenges.« less

  8. Wood industrial application for quality control using image processing

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Ferreira, M. J. O.; Neves, J. A. C.

    1994-11-01

    This paper describes an application of image processing for the furniture industry. It uses an input data, images acquired directly from wood planks where defects were previously marked by an operator. A set of image processing algorithms separates and codes each defect and detects a polygonal approach of the line representing them. For such a purpose we developed a pattern classification algorithm and a new technique of segmenting defects by carving the convex hull of the binary shape representing each isolated defect.

  9. Industrial Process Cooling Towers: National Emission Standards for Hazardous Air Pollutants

    EPA Pesticide Factsheets

    Standards limiting discharge of chromium compound air emissions from industrial process cooling towers (IPCT's). Includes rule history, Federal Registry citations, implementation information and additional resources.

  10. Industrial Tests to Modify Molten Copper Slag for Improvement of Copper Recovery

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Guo, Zhengqi; Zhu, Deqing; Pan, Jian; Zhang, Feng; Yang, Congcong

    2018-04-01

    In this article, to improve the recovery of copper from copper slag by flotation process, industrial tests of the modification process involving addition of a composite additive into molten copper slag were conducted, and the modified slag was subjected to the flotation process to confirm the modification effect. The phase evolution of the slag in the modification process was revealed by thermodynamic calculations, x-ray diffraction, optical microscopy and scanning electron microscopy. The results show that more copper was transformed and enriched in copper sulfide phases. The magnetite content in the modified slag decreased, and that of "FeO" increased correspondingly, leading to a better fluidity of the molten slag, which improved the aggregation and growth of fine particles of the copper sulfide minerals. Closed-circuit flotation tests of the original and modified slags were conducted, and the results show that the copper recovery increased obviously from 69.15% to 73.38%, and the copper grade of concentrates was elevated slightly from 20.24% to 21.69%, further confirming that the industrial tests of the modification process were successful. Hence, the modification process has a bright future in industrial applications for enhancing the recovery of copper from the copper slag.

  11. [Soil contamination from industrial and community waste in the Cracow area].

    PubMed

    Jarosz, A; Zołdak, M

    1990-01-01

    Problems are discussed connected with the contamination of soil with industrial and community waste in the period 1980-1987. In the Cracow area 82 million tons of waste was accumulated on dumping grounds, waste heaps and in sedimentation ponds for sewage which cover already 1.2% of the area. Among this waste 34% is produced by steel plants, 16% is mineral waste, 9% waste is produced by power plants, and 8% by chemical plants. Particular risk is connected with toxic waste produced mainly by the Lenin Steel Plant, Alwernia Chemical Plant, and Bonarka Cracow Inorganic Industry Plant. In the last 4 years an increase was observed in the amount of processed waste and the amount of dumped waste has decreased by 7.6% in the years 1984-1987. Nevertheless, the problem of processing or neutralization of toxic waste remains to be solved.

  12. Fluorometric determination of zirconium in minerals

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Alford, W.C.; Shapiro, L.; White, C.E.

    1951-01-01

    The increasing use of zirconium in alloys and in the ceramics industry has created renewed interest in methods for its determination. It is a common constituent of many minerals, but is usually present in very small amounts. Published methods tend to be tedious, time-consuming, and uncertain as to accuracy. A new fluorometric procedure, which overcomes these objections to a large extent, is based on the blue fluorescence given by zirconium and flavonol in sulfuric acid solution. Hafnium is the only element that interferes. The sample is fused with borax glass and sodium carbonate and extracted with water. The residue is dissolved in sulfuric acid, made alkaline with sodium hydroxide to separate aluminum, and filtered. The precipitate is dissolved in sulfuric acid and electrolysed in a Melaven cell to remove iron. Flavonol is then added and the fluorescence intensity is measured with a photo-fluorometer. Analysis of seven standard mineral samples shows excellent results. The method is especially useful for minerals containing less than 0.25% zirconium oxide.

  13. An Inexpensive Way of Teaching Uncertainty and Mineral Exploration Drilling in the Classroom

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Aquino, J. S.

    2014-12-01

    This presentation is all about inexpensive ways of teaching uncertainty and mineral exploration drilling in the classroom. These labs were developed as an off-shoot of my years of mineral industry experience before I transitioned to geoscience education. I have developed several classroom lab exercises that relate to the role of modeling, uncertainty and prediction in mineral exploration. These lessons are mostly less expensive ($<5/group) hands-on activities that can be differentiated across grade levels. Early in the semester, modeling is explored through the cube and toilet paper roll puzzle lab. This is then immediately followed by the penny experiment that gives a physical meaning to the concept of uncertainty. However, it is the end-of-semester shoebox drilling lab that serves as the culminating activity for modeling, uncertainty and prediction. An object (orebody) is hidden inside a shoebox and the students are challenged to design a drilling program to predict the location and topology of a "mineral deposit". The students' decision on the location of the first few drill holes will be based on how they analyze, synthesize and evaluate simple surface topographic, geologic and geochemical +/- geophysical data overlain on top of the box. Before drilling, students are required to construct several geologic sections that will "model" the shape of the hidden orebody. Using bamboo skewers as their drilling equipment, students then commence their drilling and along the way learn the importance of drill spacing in decreasing uncertainty or increasing confidence. Lastly, the mineral separation lab gives them an opportunity to design another experiment that mimics mineral processing and learns a valuable lesson on the difficulties in recovery and how it relates to entropy (no such thing as 100% recoverability). The last two labs can be further enhanced with economic analysis through incorporation of drilling and processing costs. Students further appreciate the world

  14. Historical files from Federal Government mineral exploration-assistance programs, 1950 to 1974

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Frank, David G.

    2016-06-16

    The Defense Minerals Administration (DMA), Defense Minerals Exploration Administration (DMEA), and Office of Minerals Exploration (OME) mineral exploration programs were active over the period 1950–1974. Under these programs, the Federal Government contributed financial assistance in the exploration for certain strategic and critical minerals. The information about a mining property that was collected under these programs was placed in files called dockets. A docket is a collection of material (application, contract, correspondence, maps, reports, results) about a property for which an individual applied for exploration assistance from the Federal Government. Information found in dockets describe where mineral deposits were examined, what was found, and whether it was mined. As such, they provide very useful information to private industry regarding potential and non-potential prospect areas, provide the U.S. Geological Survey with useful information on mineral occurrences that are used in national assessments for particular mineral deposits, and provide other U.S. Federal agencies (Bureau of Indian Affairs, Bureau of Land Management, and Environmental Protection Agency) information relevant to land management, permitting, and leasing.

  15. Zinc Isotopes as Tracers of Crust-Mantle Interactions and Mineralization Processes in Layered Intrusions

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Day, J. M.; Moynier, F.

    2016-12-01

    Zinc isotopes are a powerful tool for studying igneous processes and may be useful for distinguishing between mantle or crustal origins for mineralization and for examining crystallization processes. Restricted ranges in δ66Zn for mantle-derived rocks (δ66Zn = 0.28±0.05‰; [{66Zn/64Znsample/66Zn/64ZnJMC-Lyon-1} × 1000] all uncertainties reported are 2SD) contrast the large δ66Zn variations in sedimentary rocks ( 0 to 1‰), or in volcanic and sedimentary hosted ore deposits (e.g., SEDEX; VHMS; MVT = -0.6 to 1.3‰). Here, we use Zn isotopes to investigate magmatic processes in the 1.27 Ga Muskox Intrusion (Canada) and 2.7 Ga Stillwater Intrusion (Montana). The Muskox main chromitite horizon has between 270-330 ppm Zn with δ66Zn ranging from 0.16 to 0.31‰. Zinc isotope compositions negatively correlate with Os isotopes. Chromitite (40a) with the lowest 187Os/188Os (0.132) has δ66Zn of 0.31±0.03‰; indistinguishable from the mantle value. CM19 glass from the co-eval Coppermine Volcanics, which has crust-like O and Nd isotopes but low 187Os/188Os (0.131), has been interpreted as the extrusive manifestation of chromitite genesis. The value of δ66Zn (0.27±0.07‰) for CM19 is within uncertainty of 40A, and permissive of formation during silicic-mafic melt mixing and large-scale chromitite crystallization. Stillwater chromitite seams exhibit a larger range in Zn (166-448 ppm), but generally lower δ66Zn (0.13±0.04‰) than Muskox chromitites, or to a JM Reef bulk sample (69 ppm Zn, δ66Zn = 0.22±0.03‰). These results suggest different sources of Zn for Ultramafic series chromitites versus the JM Reef (Banded series). Correspondingly, variations occur in Os isotopes for PGE poor chromitites (γOs = -2 to +4) versus the PGE-rich JM Reef (γOs = +12 to +34). Zinc isotope variations may be explained by either a mantle source with low δ66Zn that was subsequently contaminated by high δ66Zn crust, or from contamination of the ultramafic series by low δ66Zn

  16. Geophysical aspects of underground fluid dynamics and mineral transformation process

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Khramchenkov, Maxim; Khramchenkov, Eduard

    2014-05-01

    The description of processes of mass exchange between fluid and poly-minerals material in porous media from various kinds of rocks (primarily, sedimentary rocks) have been examined. It was shown that in some important cases there is a storage equation of non-linear diffusion equation type. In addition, process of filtration in un-swelling soils, swelling porous rocks and coupled process of consolidation and chemical interaction between fluid and particles material were considered. In the latter case equations of physical-chemical mechanics of conservation of mass for fluid and particles material were used. As it is well known, the mechanics of porous media is theoretical basis of such branches of science as rock mechanics, soil physics and so on. But at the same moment some complex processes in the geosystems lacks full theoretical description. The example of such processes is metamorphosis of rocks and correspondent variations of stress-strain state. In such processes chemical transformation of solid and fluid components, heat release and absorption, phase transitions, rock destruction occurs. Extensive usage of computational resources in limits of traditional models of the mechanics of porous media cannot guarantee full correctness of obtained models and results. The process of rocks consolidation which happens due to filtration of underground fluids is described from the position of rock mechanics. As an additional impact, let us consider the porous media consolidating under the weight of overlying rock with coupled complex geological processes, as a continuous porous medium of variable mass. Problems of obtaining of correct storage equations for coupled processes of consolidation and mass exchange between underground fluid and skeleton material are often met in catagenesi processes description. The example of such processes is metamorphosis of rocks and correspondent variations of stress-strain state. In such processes chemical transformation of solid and fluid

  17. Lifeline in Danger. An Assessment of the United States Defense Industrial Base

    DTIC Science & Technology

    1988-09-01

    reserves. In- furizing catalyst in crude oil refining, and (4) as a creasing U.S. production of vanadium would be 35 Petroleum and Fossil Fuels CHART 16...industry. Technical manpower. 4. Raw Materials 31 U.S. dependency in minerals and fuels . Excesses and shortages in the stockpile. 5. Key Segments of...power. rating. Instability in funding and in the defense The decline in manufacturing and technol- acquisition process undercut capital investment ogy

  18. Open air mineral treatment operations and ambient air quality: assessment and source apportionment.

    PubMed

    Escudero, M; Alastuey, A; Moreno, T; Querol, X; Pérez, P

    2012-11-01

    We present a methodology for evaluating and quantifying the impact of inhalable mineral dust resuspension close to a potentially important industrial point source, in this case an open air plant producing sand, flux and kaolin in the Capuchinos district of Alcañiz (Teruel, NE Spain). PM(10) levels at Capuchinos were initially high (42 μg m(-3) as the annual average with 91 exceedances of the EU daily limit value during 2007) but subsequently decreased (26 μg m(-3) with 16 exceedances in 2010) due to a reduced demand for minerals from the ceramic industry and construction sector during the first stages of the economic crisis. Back trajectory and local wind pattern analyses revealed only limited contribution from exotic PM sources such as African dust intrusions whereas there was clearly a strong link with the mineral stockpiles of the local industry. This link was reinforced by chemical and mineral speciation and source apportionment analysis which showed a dominance of mineral matter (sum of CO(3)(2-), SiO(2), Al(2)O(3), Ca, Fe, K, Mg, P, and Ti: mostly aluminosilicates) which in 2007 contributed 76% of the PM(10) mass (44 μg m(-3) on average). The contribution from Secondary Inorganic Aerosols (SIA, sum of SO(4)(2-), NO(3)(-) and NH(4)(+)) reached 8.4 μg m(-3), accounting for 14% of the PM(10) mass, similar to the amount of calcareous road dust estimated to be present (8 μg m(-3); 13%). Organic matter and elemental carbon contributed 5.3 μg m(-3) (9%) whereas marine aerosol (Na + Cl) levels were minor with an average concentration of 0.4 μg m(-3) (1% of the PM(10) mass). Finally, chemical and mineralogical analysis of stockpile samples and comparison with filter samples confirmed the local industry to be the major source of ambient PM(10) in the area.

  19. Lasers for industrial production processing: tailored tools with increasing flexibility

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Rath, Wolfram

    2012-03-01

    High-power fiber lasers are the newest generation of diode-pumped solid-state lasers. Due to their all-fiber design they are compact, efficient and robust. Rofin's Fiber lasers are available with highest beam qualities but the use of different process fiber core sizes enables the user additionally to adapt the beam quality, focus size and Rayleigh length to his requirements for best processing results. Multi-mode fibers from 50μm to 600μm with corresponding beam qualities of 2.5 mm.mrad to 25 mm.mrad are typically used. The integrated beam switching modules can make the laser power available to 4 different manufacturing systems or can share the power to two processing heads for parallel processing. Also CO2 Slab lasers combine high power with either "single-mode" beam quality or higher order modes. The wellestablished technique is in use for a large number of industrial applications, processing either metals or non-metallic materials. For many of these applications CO2 lasers remain the best choice of possible laser sources either driven by the specific requirements of the application or because of the cost structure of the application. The actual technical properties of these lasers will be presented including an overview over the wavelength driven differences of application results, examples of current industrial practice as cutting, welding, surface processing including the flexible use of scanners and classical optics processing heads.

  20. 43 CFR 19.8 - Prospecting, mineral locations, mineral patents, and mineral leasing within National Forest...

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-10-01

    ... patents, and mineral leasing within National Forest Wilderness. 19.8 Section 19.8 Public Lands: Interior... § 19.8 Prospecting, mineral locations, mineral patents, and mineral leasing within National Forest... locations, mineral patents, and mineral leasing within National Forest Wilderness are contained in parts...

  1. State Taxation of Mineral Deposits and Production. Rural Development Research Report No. 2.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Stinson, Thomas F.

    Alternative methods for taxing the mineral industry at the State level include four types of taxes: the ad valorem tax, severance tax, gross production tax, and net production tax. An ad valorem tax is a property tax levied on a mineral deposit's assessed value and due whether the deposit is being worked or not. The severance tax is usually an…

  2. Optical luminescence studies of diffusion times at the potassium ethyl xanthate adsorption layer on the surface of sphalerite minerals

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Todoran, R.; Todoran, D.; Anitas, E. M.; Szakács, Zs

    2016-08-01

    We propose reflectance measurements as a method for the evaluation of the kinetics of adsorption processes, to compute the diffusion times of the adsorption products at the thin layers formed at the sphalerite natural mineral-potassium ethyl xanthate solution interface. The method is based on the intensity measurement of the reflected monochromatic radiation obtained from the mineral-xanthate thin layer as a function of time. These determinations were made at the thin layer formed between the sphalerite or activated sphalerite natural minerals with potassium ethyl xanthate, for different solutions concentrations and pH values at constant temperature. Diffusion times of desorbed molecular species into the liquid bring important information about the global kinetics of the ions in this phase during adsorption processes at interfaces. Analysing the time dependence of this parameter one concluded on the diffusion properties of the xanthate molecule in the solution depending on its concentration and pH, knowing that at the initial time these molecules had a uniform spread. This method enabled us to determine that, in time interval of approximately 35 minutes to achieve dynamic equilibrium in the formation of the interface layer, one had three different kinetic behaviours of our systems. In the first 5-8 min one had highly adsorbent character, the state of equilibrium is followed by low adsorbent properties. Gaining information on the adsorption kinetics in the case of xanthate on mineral surface leads to the optimization of the industrial froth flotation process.

  3. Summary of the mineral- and energy-resource endowment, BLM roswell resource area, east-central New Mexico

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Bartsch-Winkler, S.; Sutphin, D.M.; Ball, M.M.; Korzeb, S.L.; Kness, R.F.; Dutchover, J.T.

    1993-01-01

    In this summary of two comprehensive resource reports produced by the U.S. Bureau of Mines and the U.S. Geological Survey for the U.S. Bureau of Land Management, we discuss the mineral- and energyresource endowment of the 14-millon-acre Roswell Resource Area, New Mexico, managed by the Bureau of Land Management. The Bureau and Survey reports result from separate studies that are compilations of published and unpublished data and integrate new findings on the geology, geochemistry, geophysics, mineral, industrial, and energy commodities, and resources for the seven-county area. The reports have been used by the Bureau of Land Management in preparation of the Roswell Resource Area Resource Management Plan, and will have future use in nationwide mineral- and energy-resource inventories and assessments, as reference and training documents, and as public-information tools. In the Roswell Resource Area, many metals, industrial mineral commodities, and energy resources are being, or have been, produced or prospected. These include metals and high-technology materials, such as copper, gold, silver, thorium, uranium and/or vanadium, rare-earth element minerals, iron, manganese, tungsten, lead, zinc, and molybdenum; industrial mineral resources, including barite, limestone/dolomite, caliche, clay, fluorspar, gypsum, scoria, aggregate, and sand and gravel; and fuels and associated resources, such as oil, gas, tar sand and heavy oil, coal, and gases associated with hydrocarbons. Other commodities that have yet to be identified in economic concentrations include potash, halite, polyhalite, anhydrite, sulfur, feldspar, building stone and decorative rock, brines, various gases associated with oil and gas exploration, and carbon dioxide. ?? 1993 Oxford University Press.

  4. Mineral transformations during the dissolution of uranium ore minerals by dissimilatory metal-reducing bacteria

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Glasauer, S.; Weidler, P.; Fakra, S.; Tyliszczak, T.; Shuh, D.

    2011-12-01

    Carnotite minerals [X2(UO2)2(VO4)2]; X = K, Ca, Ba, Mn, Na, Cu or Pb] form the major ore of uranium in the Colorado Plateau. These deposits are highly oxidized and contain U(VI) and V(IV). The biotransformation of U(VI) bound in carnotite by bacteria during dissimilatory metal reduction presents a complex puzzle in mineral chemistry. Both U(VI) and V(V) can be respired by metal reducing bacteria, and the mineral structure can change depending on the associated counterion. We incubated anaerobic cultures of S. putrefaciens CN32 with natural carnotite minerals from southeastern Utah in a nutrient-limited defined medium. Strain CN32 is a gram negative bacterium and a terrestrial isolate from New Mexico. The mineral and metal transformations were compared to a system that contained similar concentrations of soluble U(VI) and V(V). Electron (SEM, TEM) microscopies and x-ray spectromicroscopy (STXM) were used in conjunction with XRD to track mineral changes, and bacterial survival was monitored throughout the incubations. Slow rates of metal reduction over 10 months for the treatment with carnotite minerals revealed distinct biotic and abiotic processes, providing insight on mineral transformation and bacteria-metal interactions. The bacteria existed as small flocs or individual cells attached to the mineral phase, but did not adsorb soluble U or V, and accumulated very little of the biominerals. Reduction of mineral V(V) necessarily led to a dismantling of the carnotite structure. Bioreduction of V(V) by CN32 contributed small but profound changes to the mineral system, resulting in new minerals. Abiotic cation exchange within the carnotite group minerals induced the rearrangement of the mineral structures, leading to further mineral transformation. In contrast, bacteria survival was poor for treatments with soluble U(VI) and V(V), although both metals were reduced completely and formed solid UO2 and VO2; we also detected V(III). For these treatments, the bacteria

  5. Identification of Uranium Minerals in Natural U-Bearing Rocks Using Infrared Reflectance Spectroscopy

    SciTech Connect

    Beiswenger, Toya N.; Gallagher, Neal B.; Myers, Tanya L.

    The identification of minerals, including uranium-bearing minerals, is traditionally a labor-intensive-process using x-ray diffraction (XRD), fluorescence, or other solid-phase and wet chemical techniques. While handheld XRD and fluorescence instruments can aid in field identification, handheld infrared reflectance spectrometers can also be used in industrial or field environments, with rapid, non-destructive identification possible via spectral analysis of the solid’s reflectance spectrum. We have recently developed standard laboratory measurement methods for the infrared (IR) reflectance of solids and have investigated using these techniques for the identification of uranium-bearing minerals, using XRD methods for ground-truth. Due to the rich colors of such species,more » including distinctive spectroscopic signatures in the infrared, identification is facile and specific, both for samples that are pure or are partially composed of uranium (e.g. boltwoodite, schoepite, tyuyamunite, carnotite, etc.) or non-uranium minerals. The method can be used to detect not only pure and partial minerals, but is quite sensitive to chemical change such as hydration (e.g. schoepite). We have further applied statistical methods, in particular classical least squares (CLS) and multivariate curve resolution (MCR) for discrimination of such uranium minerals and two uranium pure chemicals (U3O8 and UO2) against common background materials (e.g. silica sand, asphalt, calcite, K-feldspar) with good success. Each mineral contains unique infrared spectral features; some of the IR features are similar or common to entire classes of minerals, typically arising from similar chemical moieties or functional groups in the minerals: phosphates, sulfates, carbonates, etc. These characteristic 2 infrared bands generate the unique (or class-specific) bands that distinguish the mineral from the interferents or backgrounds. We have observed several cases where the chemical moieties that provide

  6. 43 CFR 19.8 - Prospecting, mineral locations, mineral patents, and mineral leasing within National Forest...

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-10-01

    ... 43 Public Lands: Interior 1 2014-10-01 2014-10-01 false Prospecting, mineral locations, mineral patents, and mineral leasing within National Forest Wilderness. 19.8 Section 19.8 Public Lands: Interior... § 19.8 Prospecting, mineral locations, mineral patents, and mineral leasing within National Forest...

  7. 43 CFR 19.8 - Prospecting, mineral locations, mineral patents, and mineral leasing within National Forest...

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-10-01

    ... 43 Public Lands: Interior 1 2011-10-01 2011-10-01 false Prospecting, mineral locations, mineral patents, and mineral leasing within National Forest Wilderness. 19.8 Section 19.8 Public Lands: Interior... § 19.8 Prospecting, mineral locations, mineral patents, and mineral leasing within National Forest...

  8. 43 CFR 19.8 - Prospecting, mineral locations, mineral patents, and mineral leasing within National Forest...

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-10-01

    ... 43 Public Lands: Interior 1 2012-10-01 2011-10-01 true Prospecting, mineral locations, mineral patents, and mineral leasing within National Forest Wilderness. 19.8 Section 19.8 Public Lands: Interior... § 19.8 Prospecting, mineral locations, mineral patents, and mineral leasing within National Forest...

  9. 43 CFR 19.8 - Prospecting, mineral locations, mineral patents, and mineral leasing within National Forest...

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-10-01

    ... 43 Public Lands: Interior 1 2013-10-01 2013-10-01 false Prospecting, mineral locations, mineral patents, and mineral leasing within National Forest Wilderness. 19.8 Section 19.8 Public Lands: Interior... § 19.8 Prospecting, mineral locations, mineral patents, and mineral leasing within National Forest...

  10. Isolation and the interaction between a mineral-weathering Rhizobium tropici Q34 and silicate minerals.

    PubMed

    Wang, Rong Rong; Wang, Qi; He, Lin Yan; Qiu, Gang; Sheng, Xia Fang

    2015-05-01

    The purposes of this study were to isolate and evaluate the interaction between mineral-weathering bacteria and silicate minerals (feldspar and biotite). A mineral-weathering bacterium was isolated from weathered rocks and identified as Rhizobium tropici Q34 based on 16S rRNA gene sequence analysis. Si and K concentrations were increased by 1.3- to 4.0-fold and 1.1- to 1.7-fold in the live bacterium-inoculated cultures compared with the controls respectively. Significant increases in the productions of tartaric and succinic acids and extracellular polysaccharides by strain Q34 were observed in cultures with minerals. Furthermore, significantly more tartaric acid and polysaccharide productions by strain Q34 were obtained in the presence of feldspar, while better growth and more citric acid production of strain Q34 were observed in the presence of biotite. Mineral dissolution experiments showed that the organic acids and polysaccharides produced by strain Q34 were also capable of promoting the release of Si and K from the minerals. The results showed that the growth and metabolite production of strain Q34 were enhanced in the presence of the minerals and different mineral exerted distinct impacts on the growth and metabolite production. The bio-weathering process is probably a synergistic action of organic acids and extracellular polysaccharides produced by the bacterium.

  11. Vegan-mycoprotein concentrate from pea-processing industry byproduct using edible filamentous fungi.

    PubMed

    Souza Filho, Pedro F; Nair, Ramkumar B; Andersson, Dan; Lennartsson, Patrik R; Taherzadeh, Mohammad J

    2018-01-01

    Currently around one billion people in the world do not have access to a diet which provides enough protein and energy. However, the production of one of the main sources of protein, animal meat, causes severe impacts on the environment. The present study investigates the production of a vegan-mycoprotein concentrate from pea-industry byproduct (PpB), using edible filamentous fungi, with potential application in human nutrition. Edible fungal strains of Ascomycota ( Aspergillus oryzae , Fusarium venenatum , Monascus purpureus , Neurospora intermedia ) and Zygomycota ( Rhizopus oryzae ) phyla were screened and selected for their protein production yield. A. oryzae had the best performance among the tested fungi, with a protein yield of 0.26 g per g of pea-processing byproduct from the bench scale airlift bioreactor cultivation. It is estimated that by integrating the novel fungal process at an existing pea-processing industry, about 680 kg of fungal biomass attributing to about 38% of extra protein could be produced for each 1 metric ton of pea-processing byproduct. This study is the first of its kind to demonstrate the potential of the pea-processing byproduct to be used by filamentous fungi to produce vegan-mycoprotein for human food applications. The pea-processing byproduct (PpB) was proved to be an efficient medium for the growth of filamentous fungi to produce a vegan-protein concentrate. Moreover, an industrial scenario for the production of vegan-mycoprotein concentrate for human nutrition is proposed as an integrated process to the existing PPI production facilities.

  12. Microbial mineralization of organic nitrogen forms in poultry litters

    USDA-ARS?s Scientific Manuscript database

    Ammonia volatilization from the mineralization of uric acid and urea has a major impact on the poultry industry and the environment. Dry acids are a common management practice to reduce ammonia emissions from poultry houses, however little is known about how acidification affects the litter biologic...

  13. March 2016 Memo: Planning for Removal and Remedial Activities at Hardrock Mining and Mineral Processing Sites with Fluid Hazards

    EPA Pesticide Factsheets

    Memo from EPA Assistant Administrator Mathy Stanislaus, regarding planning for removal and remedial activities at hardrock mining and mineral processing sites with fluid hazards, and to share the Agency’s expectations for the work that is done at these sit

  14. Ultrafine particles derived from mineral processing: A case study of the Pb-Zn sulfide ore with emphasis on lead-bearing colloids.

    PubMed

    Mikhlin, Yuri; Vorobyev, Sergey; Romanchenko, Alexander; Karasev, Sergey; Karacharov, Anton; Zharkov, Sergey

    2016-03-01

    Although mining and mineral processing industry is a vast source of heavy metal pollutants, the formation and behavior of micrometer- and nanometer-sized particles and their aqueous colloids entered the environment from the technological media has received insufficient attention to date. Here, the yield and characteristics of ultrafine mineral entities produced by routine grinding of the Pb-Zn sulfide ore (Gorevskoe ore deposit, Russia) were studied using laser diffraction analysis (LDA), dynamic light scattering (DLS) and zeta potential measurement, microscopy, X-ray photoelectron spectroscopy, with most attention given to toxic lead species. It was revealed, in particular, that the fraction of particles less that 1 μm in the ground ore typical reaches 0.4 vol. %. The aquatic particles in supernatants were micrometer size aggregates with increased content of zinc, sulfur, calcium as compared with the bulk ore concentrations. The hydrodynamic diameter of the colloidal species decreased with time, with their zeta potentials remaining about -12 mV. The colloids produced from galena were composed of 20-50 nm PbS nanoparticles associated with lead sulfate and thiosulfate, while the surface oxidation products at precipitated galena were largely lead oxyhydroxides. The size and zeta potential of the lead-bearing colloids decreased with time down to about 100 nm and from -15 mV to -30 mV, respectively. And, conversely, lead sulfide nanoparticles were mobilized before the aggregates during redispersion of the precipitates in fresh portions of water. The potential environmental impact of the metal-bearing colloids, which is due to the large-scale production and relative stability, is discussed. Copyright © 2015 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  15. [Pathogenicity of artificial mineral fibers: are they as dangerous as asbestos?].

    PubMed

    Renzi, P M; Mantha, J; Matar, N; Renzi, G D

    1990-01-01

    Man-Made Mineral Fibres (MMMF) are starting to replace asbestos in the insulation industry. The popularity of these fibres has increased since the demonstration, in man, of the fibrogenicity and carcinogenicity of asbestos. A fear of human toxicity of MMMF has followed the demonstration of toxicity in animals after injection or instillation. This review of the litterature discusses the toxicity and side effects of MMMF. These fibres seem to have less toxicity than asbestos for the following reasons: 1. A lower concentration of fibres found in the air of the MMMF industry. 2. The cleavage of fibres in a perpendicular and non-parallel way. 3. The dissolution of fibres in the lung. Very fine fibreglass and mineral wool seem to be more toxic than continuous filaments and ordinary fibreglass.

  16. Geology and Nonfuel Mineral Deposits of Africa and the Middle East

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Taylor, Cliff D.; Schulz, Klaus J.; Doebrich, Jeff L.; Orris, Greta; Denning, Paul; Kirschbaum, Michael J.

    2009-01-01

    A nation's endowment of nonfuel mineral resources, relative to the world's endowment, is a fundamental consideration in decisions related to a nation's economic and environmental well being and security. Knowledge of the worldwide abundance, distribution, and general geologic setting of mineral commodities provides a framework within which a nation can make decisions about economic development of its own resources, and the economic and environmental consequences of those decisions, in a global perspective. The information in this report is part of a U.S. Geological Survey (USGS) endeavor to evaluate the global endowment of both identified and undiscovered nonfuel mineral resources. The results will delineate areas of the world that are geologically permissive for the occurrence of undiscovered selected nonfuel mineral resources together with estimates of the quantity and quality of the resources. The results will be published as a series of regional reports; this one provides basic data on the identified resources and geologic setting, together with a brief appraisal of the potential for undiscovered mineral resources in Africa and the Middle East. Additional information, such as production statistics, economic factors that affect the mineral industries of the region, and historical information, is available in U.S. Geological Survey publications such as the Minerals Yearbook and the annual Mineral Commodity Summaries (available at http://minerals.usgs.gov/minerals).

  17. Mineral resource of the month: Phosphate rock

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Jasinski, Stephen M.

    2013-01-01

    As a mineral resource, “phosphate rock” is defined as unprocessed ore and processed concentrates that contain some form of apatite, a group of calcium phosphate minerals that is the primary source for phosphorus in phosphate fertilizers, which are vital to agriculture.

  18. Optical properties of mineral dust aerosol including analysis of particle size, composition, and shape effects, and the impact of physical and chemical processing

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Alexander, Jennifer Mary

    distributions. The next goal of this work is to investigate if modeling methods developed in the studies of single mineral components can be generalized to predict the optical properties of more authentic aerosol samples which are complex mixtures of different minerals. Samples of Saharan sand, Iowa loess, and Arizona road dust are used here as test cases. T-matrix based simulations of the authentic samples, using measured particle size distributions, empirical mineralogies, and a priori particle shape models for each mineral component are directly compared with the measured IR extinction spectra and visible scattering profiles. This modeling approach offers a significant improvement over more commonly applied models that ignore variations in particle shape with size or mineralogy and include only a moderate range of shape parameters. Mineral dust samples processed with organic acids and humic material are also studied in order to explore how the optical properties of dust can change after being aged in the atmosphere. Processed samples include quartz mixed with humic material, and calcite reacted with acetic and oxalic acid. Clear differences in the light scattering properties are observed for all three processed mineral dust samples when compared to the unprocessed mineral dust or organic salt products. These interactions result in both internal and external mixtures depending on the sample. In addition, the presence of these organic materials can alter the mineral dust particle shape. Overall, however, these results demonstrate the need to account for the effects of atmospheric aging of mineral dust on aerosol optical properties. Particle shape can also affect the aerodynamic properties of mineral dust aerosol. In order to account for these effects, the dynamic shape factor is used to give a measure of particle asphericity. Dynamic shape factors of quartz are measured by mass and mobility selecting particles and measuring their vacuum aerodynamic diameter. From this, dynamic

  19. Potential for solar industrial process heat in the United States: A look at California

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Kurup, Parthiv; Turchi, Craig

    2016-05-01

    The use of Concentrating Solar Power (CSP) collectors (e.g., parabolic trough or linear Fresnel systems) for industrial thermal applications has been increasing in global interest in the last few years. In particular, the European Union has been tracking the deployment of Solar Industrial Process Heat (SIPH) plants. Although relatively few plants have been deployed in the United States (U.S.), we establish that 29% of primary energy consumption in the U.S. manufacturing sector is used for process heating. Perhaps the best opportunities for SIPH reside in the state of California due to its excellent solar resource, strong industrial base, and solar-friendly policies. This initial analysis identified 48 TWhth/year of process heat demand in certain California industries versus a technical solar-thermal energy potential of 23,000 TWhth/year. The top five users of industrial steam in the state are highlighted and special attention paid to the food sector that has been an early adopter of SIPH in other countries. A comparison of the cost of heat from solar-thermal collectors versus the cost of industrial natural gas in California indicates that SIPH may be cost effective even under the relatively low gas prices seen in 2014. A recommended next step is the identification of pilot project candidates to promote the deployment of SIPH facilities.

  20. Potential for Solar Industrial Process Heat in the United States: A Look at California

    SciTech Connect

    Kurup, Parthiv; Turchi, Craig

    The use of Concentrating Solar Power (CSP) collectors (e.g., parabolic trough or linear Fresnel systems) for industrial thermal applications has been increasing in global interest in the last few years. In particular, the European Union has been tracking the deployment of Solar Industrial Process Heat (SIPH) plants. Although relatively few plants have been deployed in the United States (U.S.), we establish that 29% of primary energy consumption in the U.S. manufacturing sector is used for process heating. Perhaps the best opportunities for SIPH reside in the state of California due to its excellent solar resource, strong industrial base, and solar-friendlymore » policies. This initial analysis identified 48 TWhth/year of process heat demand in certain California industries versus a technical solar-thermal energy potential of 23,000 TWhth/year. The top five users of industrial steam in the state are highlighted and special attention paid to the food sector that has been an early adopter of SIPH in other countries. A comparison of the cost of heat from solar-thermal collectors versus the cost of industrial natural gas in California indicates that SIPH may be cost effective even under the relatively low gas prices seen in 2014. A recommended next step is the identification of pilot project candidates to promote the deployment of SIPH facilities.« less

  1. Solar Program Assessment: Environmental Factors - Solar Agricultural and Industrial Process Heat.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Energy Research and Development Administration, Washington, DC. Div. of Solar Energy.

    The purpose of this report is to present and prioritize the major environmental issues associated with the further development of solar energy as a source of process heat in the industrial and agricultural sectors. To provide a background for this environmental analysis, the basic concepts and technologies of solar process heating are reviewed.…

  2. Comparison of Fenton process and adsorption method for treatment of industrial container and drum cleaning industry wastewater.

    PubMed

    Güneş, Elçin; Çifçi, Deniz İzlen; Çelik, Suna Özden

    2018-04-01

    The present study aims to explore the characterization of industrial container and drum cleaning (ICDC) industry wastewater and treatment alternatives of this wastewater using Fenton and adsorption processes. Wastewater derived from ICDC industry is usually treated by chemical coagulation and biological treatment in Turkey and then discharged in a centralized wastewater treatment facility. It is required that the wastewater COD is below 1500 mg/L to treat in a centralized wastewater treatment facility. The wastewater samples were characterized for parameters of pH, conductivity, COD, BOD 5 , TSS, NH 3 -N, TN, TOC, TP, Cd, Cr, Cu, Fe, Ni, Pb, Zn, and Hg. Initial COD values were in the range of 11,300-14,200 mg/L. The optimum conditions for Fenton treatment were 35-40 g/L for H 2 O 2 , 2-5 g/L for Fe 2+ , and 13-36 for H 2 O 2 /Fe 2+ molar ratio. The optimum conditions of PAC doses and contact times in adsorption studies were 20-30 g/L and 5-12 h, respectively. Removal efficiencies of characterized parameters for the three samples were compared for both Fenton and adsorption processes under optimum conditions. The results suggest that these wastewaters are suitable for discharge to a centralized wastewater treatment plant.

  3. Biominerals and waxes of Calamagrostis epigejos and Phragmites australis leaves from post-industrial habitats.

    PubMed

    Talik, Ewa; Guzik, Adam; Małkowski, Eugeniusz; Woźniak, Gabriela; Sierka, Edyta

    2018-05-01

    Vascular plants are able to conduct biomineralization processes and collect synthesized compounds in their internal tissues or to deposit them on their epidermal surfaces. This mechanism protects the plant from fluctuations of nutrient levels caused by different levels of supply and demand for them. The biominerals reflect both the metabolic characteristics of a vascular plant species and the environmental conditions of the plant habitat. The SEM/EDX method was used to examine the surface and cross-sections of the Calamagrostis epigejos and Phragmites australis leaves from post-industrial habitats (coal and zinc spoil heaps). The results from this study have showed the presence of mineral objects on the surfaces of leaves of both grass species. The calcium oxalate crystals, amorphous calcium carbonate spheres, and different silica forms were also found in the inner tissues. The high variety of mineral forms in the individual plants of both species was shown. The waxes observed on the leaves of the studied plants might be the initializing factor for the crystalline forms and structures that are present. For the first time, wide range of crystal forms is presented for C. epigejos. The leaf samples of P. australis from the post-industrial areas showed an increased amount of mineral forms with the presence of sulfur.

  4. Mineralization dynamics in soil fertilized with seaweed-fish waste compost.

    PubMed

    Illera-Vives, Marta; López-Fabal, Adolfo; López-Mosquera, M Elvira; Ribeiro, Henrique M

    2015-12-01

    Seaweed and fish waste can be composted together to obtain fertilizer with high organic matter and nutrient contents. The nutrients, however, are mostly in organic form and must be mineralized to make them available to plants. The objective of this work was to establish a usage guideline for the compost by studying its mineralization dynamics. Also, the release of inorganic N and C from soil fertilized with the compost was monitored and modelled. C and N were released throughout the assay, to an extent significantly dependent on fertilizer rate. Mineralization of both elements fitted a first-order exponential model, and each fertilizer rate required using a specific fitting model. An increased rate favoured mineralization (especially of carbon). After 90 days, 2.3% of C and 7.7% of N were mineralized (and 23.3% of total nitrogen made plant available) with the higher rate. C mineralization was slow because organic matter in the compost was very stable. On the other hand, the relatively high initial content in mineral N of the compost increased gradually by the effect of mineralization. The amount of N available would suffice to meet the requirements of moderately demanding crops at the lower fertilizer rate, and even those of more demanding crops at the higher rate. © 2015 Society of Chemical Industry.

  5. Laser processing of thin films for industrial packaging

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Sozzi, Michele; Lutey, Adrian H. A.; Cucinotta, Annamaria; Selleri, Stefano; Molari, Pier Gabriele

    2014-05-01

    Single layer thin-film materials such as aluminum, polyethylene, polypropylene, and their multi-layer combinations such as aluminum-paper have been exposed to different laser radiation. A wide number of samples have been processed with 10 - 12.5 ns IR and Green, and 500 - 800 ps IR laser radiation at different translating speeds ranging from 50 mm/s to 1 m/s. High quality incisions have been obtained for all tested materials within the experimental conditions. The presented results provide the necessary parameters for an efficient cut and processing of the tested materials, for the employment of pulsed laser sources in the packaging industry, allowing the laser to prevail in lieu of more costly and energy intensive methods.

  6. Sustaining Partnerships between Schools and Industry: A Minerals and Energy Case

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Flynn, Matthew; Pillay, Hitendra; Watters, James J.

    2016-01-01

    Internationally, there is a growing body of research on industry-school partnership, particularly regarding the principles that contribute to effective and efficient partnership models that facilitate vocational-industrial education. However, there are very few articles in the literature that seek to understand the sustainability of…

  7. How the Food Processing Industry Is Diversifying Rural Minnesota. JSRI Working Paper.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Fennelly, Katherine; Leitner, Helga

    The diversification of rural Minnesota is largely the result of the restructuring of the food processing industry and its recruitment of low-wage laborers. The relocation and expansion of food processing plants into rural areas of Minnesota creates a demand for low-wage labor that can not be met locally. Food processing businesses attract…

  8. 40 CFR 436.60 - Applicability; description of the asphaltic mineral subcategory.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-07-01

    ... asphaltic mineral subcategory. 436.60 Section 436.60 Protection of Environment ENVIRONMENTAL PROTECTION AGENCY (CONTINUED) EFFLUENT GUIDELINES AND STANDARDS MINERAL MINING AND PROCESSING POINT SOURCE CATEGORY Asphaltic Mineral Subcategory § 436.60 Applicability; description of the asphaltic mineral subcategory. The...

  9. 40 CFR 436.60 - Applicability; description of the asphaltic mineral subcategory.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-07-01

    ... asphaltic mineral subcategory. 436.60 Section 436.60 Protection of Environment ENVIRONMENTAL PROTECTION AGENCY (CONTINUED) EFFLUENT GUIDELINES AND STANDARDS MINERAL MINING AND PROCESSING POINT SOURCE CATEGORY Asphaltic Mineral Subcategory § 436.60 Applicability; description of the asphaltic mineral subcategory. The...

  10. A Novel Property of DNA – As a Bioflotation Reagent in Mineral Processing

    PubMed Central

    Vasanthakumar, Balasubramanian; Ravishankar, Honnavar; Subramanian, Sankaran

    2012-01-01

    Environmental concerns regarding the use of certain chemicals in the froth flotation of minerals have led investigators to explore biological entities as potential substitutes for the reagents in vogue. Despite the fact that several microorganisms have been used for the separation of a variety of mineral systems, a detailed characterization of the biochemical molecules involved therein has not been reported so far. In this investigation, the selective flotation of sphalerite from a sphalerite-galena mineral mixture has been achieved using the cellular components of Bacillus species. The key constituent primarily responsible for the flotation of sphalerite has been identified as DNA, which functions as a bio-collector. Furthermore, using reconstitution studies, the obligatory need for the presence of non-DNA components as bio-depressants for galena has been demonstrated. A probable model involving these entities in the selective flotation of sphalerite from the mineral mixture has been discussed. PMID:22768298

  11. Sulfates on Mars as Markers of Aqueous Processes: An Integrated Multidisciplinary Study of Minerals, Mars Analog sites and Recent Mission Data

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Bishop, J. L.; Lane, M. D.; Dyar, M. D.; Brown, A. J.; Parente, M.

    2006-01-01

    Our analyses of sulfate minerals, analog sites, and Martian spectra and spectral images is focused on characterization of the Martian surface and in particular identification of aqueous processes there.

  12. Treatment of industrial effluent water

    SciTech Connect

    Levitskii, Yu.N.

    1982-09-01

    This article reports on a thematic exhibition on ''New Developments in Treatment of Natural and Effluent Water'' in the Sanitary-Technical Construction Section at the Exhibition of Achievements of the National Economy of the USSR. The exhibition acquainted visitors with the achievements of leading organizations in different branches of industry with respect to treatment of natural and industrial effluent water. The Kharkov ''Vodkanalproekt'' Institute and the Kharkov affiliate of the All-Union Scientific-Research Institute of Water and Geodesy has jointly developed a ''Polymer-25'' filter for removal of oil products from nonexplosive effluent water discharged by machine building plants. A Baku affiliate hasmore » developed a new ShFP-1 screw-type press filter for dewatering the sediments from water treatment plants as well as for sediments from chemical, food, and other types of plants. The State Institute for Applied Chemistry has designed a continuous process plant for treating effluent water and removing toxic organic waste by converting them into mineral salts with high efficiency.« less

  13. Separation and Purification of Mineral Salts from Spacecraft Wastewater Processing via Electrostatic Beneficiation

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Miles, John D., II; Lunn, Griffin

    2013-01-01

    Electrostatic separation is a class of material processing technologies commonly used for the sorting of coarse mixtures by means of electrical forces acting on charged or polarized particles. Most if not all of the existing tribo-electrostatic separators had been initially developed for mineral ores beneficiation. It is a well-known process that has been successfully used to separate coal from minerals. Potash (potassium) enrichment where underground salt mines containing large amounts of sodium is another use of this techno logy. Through modification this technology can be used for spacecraft wastewater brine beneficiation. This will add in closing the gap beeen traveling around Earth's Gravity well and long-term space explorations. Food has been brought on all man missions, which is why plant growth for food crops continues to be of interest to NASA. For long-term mission considerations food productions is one of the top priorities. Nutrient recovery is essential for surviving in or past low earth orbit. In our advance bio-regenerative process instead of nitrogen gas produced; soluble nitrate salts that can be recovered for plant fertilizer would be produced instead. The only part missing is the beneficiation of brine to separate the potassium from the sodium. The use of electrostatic beneficiation in this experiment utilizes the electrical charge differences between aluminum and dried brine by surface contact. The helixes within the aluminum tribocharger allows for more surface contact when being agitated. When two materials are in contact, the material with the highest affinity for electrons becomes negatively charged, while the other becomes positively charged. This contact exchange of charge may cause the particles to agglomerate depending on their residence time within the tribocharger, compromising the efficiency of separation. The aim of this experiment is to further the development in electrostatic beneficiation by optimizing the separation of ersatz and

  14. Metals, minerals and microbes: geomicrobiology and bioremediation.

    PubMed

    Gadd, Geoffrey Michael

    2010-03-01

    Microbes play key geoactive roles in the biosphere, particularly in the areas of element biotransformations and biogeochemical cycling, metal and mineral transformations, decomposition, bioweathering, and soil and sediment formation. All kinds of microbes, including prokaryotes and eukaryotes and their symbiotic associations with each other and 'higher organisms', can contribute actively to geological phenomena, and central to many such geomicrobial processes are transformations of metals and minerals. Microbes have a variety of properties that can effect changes in metal speciation, toxicity and mobility, as well as mineral formation or mineral dissolution or deterioration. Such mechanisms are important components of natural biogeochemical cycles for metals as well as associated elements in biomass, soil, rocks and minerals, e.g. sulfur and phosphorus, and metalloids, actinides and metal radionuclides. Apart from being important in natural biosphere processes, metal and mineral transformations can have beneficial or detrimental consequences in a human context. Bioremediation is the application of biological systems to the clean-up of organic and inorganic pollution, with bacteria and fungi being the most important organisms for reclamation, immobilization or detoxification of metallic and radionuclide pollutants. Some biominerals or metallic elements deposited by microbes have catalytic and other properties in nanoparticle, crystalline or colloidal forms, and these are relevant to the development of novel biomaterials for technological and antimicrobial purposes. On the negative side, metal and mineral transformations by microbes may result in spoilage and destruction of natural and synthetic materials, rock and mineral-based building materials (e.g. concrete), acid mine drainage and associated metal pollution, biocorrosion of metals, alloys and related substances, and adverse effects on radionuclide speciation, mobility and containment, all with immense social

  15. Quantitative Measures of Mineral Supply Risk

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Long, K. R.

    2009-12-01

    Almost all metals and many non-metallic minerals are traded internationally. An advantage of global mineral markets is that minerals can be obtained from the globally lowest-cost source. For example, one rare-earth element (REE) mine in China, Bayan Obo, is able to supply most of world demand for rare earth elements at a cost significantly less than its main competitors. Concentration of global supplies at a single mine raises significant political risks, illustrated by China’s recent decision to prohibit the export of some REEs and severely limit the export of others. The expected loss of REE supplies will have a significant impact on the cost and production of important national defense technologies and on alternative energy programs. Hybrid vehicles and wind-turbine generators, for example, require REEs for magnets and batteries. Compact fluorescent light bulbs use REE-based phosphors. These recent events raise the general issue of how to measure the degree of supply risk for internationally sourced minerals. Two factors, concentration of supply and political risk, must first be addressed. Concentration of supply can be measured with standard economic tools for measuring industry concentration, using countries rather than firms as the unit of analysis. There are many measures of political risk available. That of the OECD is a measure of a country’s commitment to rule-of-law and enforcement of contracts, as well as political stability. Combining these measures provides a comparative view of mineral supply risk across commodities and identifies several minerals other than REEs that could suddenly become less available. Combined with an assessment of the impact of a reduction in supply, decision makers can use these measures to prioritize risk reduction efforts.

  16. Mineral and energy resources of the Roswell Resource Area, East-Central New Mexico

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Bartsch-Winkler, Susan B.; Donatich, Alessandro J.

    1995-01-01

    The sedimentary formations of the Roswell Resource Area have significant mineral and energy resources. Some of the pre-Pennsylvanian sequences in the Northwestern Shelf of the Permian Basin are oil and gas reservoirs, and Pennsylvanian rocks in Tucumcari Basin are reservoirs of oil and gas as well as source rocks for oil and gas in Triassic rocks. Pre-Permian rocks also contain minor deposits of uranium and vanadium, limestone, and gases. Hydrocarbon reservoirs in Permian rocks include associated gases such as carbon dioxide, helium, and nitrogen. Permian rocks are mineralized adjacent to the Lincoln County porphyry belt, and include deposits of copper, uranium, manganese, iron, polymetallic veins, and Mississippi-Valley-type lead-zinc. Industrial minerals in Permian rocks include fluorite, barite, potash, halite, polyhalite, gypsum, anhydrite, sulfur, limestone, dolomite, brine deposits (iodine and bromine), aggregate (sand), and dimension stone. Doubly terminated quartz crystals, called 'Pecos diamonds' and collected as mineral specimens, occur in Permian rocks along the Pecos River. Mesozoic sedimentary rocks are hosts for copper, uranium, and small quantities of gold-silver-tellurium veins, as well as significant deposits of oil and gas, carbon dioxide, asphalt, coal, and dimension stone. Mesozoic rocks contain limited amounts of limestone, gypsum, petrified wood, and clay. Tertiary rocks host ore deposits commonly associated with intrusive rocks, including platinum-group elements, iron skarns, manganese, uranium and vanadium, molybdenum, polymetallic vein deposits, gold-silver-tellurium veins, and thorium-rare-earth veins. Museum-quality quartz crystals are associated with Tertiary intrusive rocks. Industrial minerals in Tertiary rocks include fluorite, vein- and bedded-barite, caliche, limestone, and aggregate. Tertiary and Quaternary sediments host important placer deposits of gold and titanium, and occurrences of silver and uranium. Important industrial

  17. Sulfide minerals as new Sm-Nd geochronometers for ore genesis dating of mafic-ultramafic layered intrusions

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Serov, Pavel; Ekimova, Nadezhda; Bayanova, Tamara

    2014-05-01

    The main method of dating the ore process was the Re-Os method of sulfides (Luck, Allegre, 1983; Walker et. al., 1991). However, studies of Re-Os systematics of sulfide minerals do not always give the correct ages and showing the disturbances of the Re-Os systematics. At the same time, Sm-Nd age of sulfides in good agreement with the U-Pb dating on zircon and baddeleyite and suggests that the Sm-Nd system of sulfides is more resistant to secondary alteration processes. Our studies have shown that along with rock-forming, ore minerals (sulfides) can be used to determine the ore genesis time of industrially important geological sites, since exactly with the sulfides the industry Pt-Pd mineralization is closely connected. The Sm-Nd investigations steadily employ new minerals-geochronometers. Of these, sulfides of PGE-bearing layered intrusions are quite important in terms of dating the process of ore origin. Studying the REE distribution in the sulfides of MOR hydrothermal sources has shown possible REE presence in the sulfide lattice (Rimskaya-Korsakova et. al., 2003). These are difficult to carry out because the concentrations of Sm and Nd isotopes in sulfides are much lower than chondrites (Rimskaya-Korsakova et. al., 2003). For the first time in Russia with sulfide and rock-forming minerals and WR in Sm-Nd method have been dated impregnated and brecciform ores of the following objects: Pilguyarvi Cu-Ni deposits, Pechenga (1965±87 Ma); impregnated (2433±83 Ma) and redeposited (1903±24 Ma) ores of Ahmavaara intrusion (Finland); ore gabbronorites of Penikat PGE-bearing layered intrusion (2426±38 Ma (Ekimova et.al., 2011); Pt-Pd gabbro-pegmatite ores (2476± 41 Ma, which agrees with the U-Pb zircon age - 2470±9 Ma (Bayanova, 2004) and gabbronorites (2483±86 Ma) of PGE Kievei deposit and Fedorova Tundra metagabbroids (2494±54 Ma); Monchetundra gabbronorites - 2489±49 Ma. In (Kong et. al., 2000) sulfides from two metamorphosed chondrites studied by instrumental

  18. Spectroscopy for Industrial Applications: High-Temperature Processes

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Fateev, Alexander; Grosch, Helge; Clausen, Sonnik; Barton, Emma J.; Yurchenko, Sergei N.; Tennyson, Jonathan

    2014-06-01

    The continuous development of the spectroscopic databases brings new perspectives in the environmental and industrial on-line process control, monitoring and stimulates further optical sensor developments. This is because no calibration gases are needed and, in general, temperature-dependent spectral absorption features gases of interest for a specific instrument can in principle be calculated by knowing only the gas temperature and pressure in the process under investigation/monitoring. The latest HITRAN-2012 database contains IR/UV spectral data for 47 molecules and it is still growing. However use of HITRAN is limited to low-temperature processes (< 400 K) and therefor can be used for absorption spectra calculations at limited temperature/pressure ranges. For higher temperatures, the HITEMP-2010 database is available. Only a few molecules CO2, H2O, CO and NO are those of interest for e.g. various combustion and astronomical applications are included. In the recent few years, several efforts towards a development of hot line lists have been made; those have been implemented in the latest HITRAN2012 database1. High-resolution absorption measurements of NH3 (IR, 0.1 cm-1) and phenol (UV, 0.019 nm) on a flow gas cell2 up to 800 K are presented. Molecules are of great interest in various high-temperature environments including exoplanets, combustion and gasification. Measured NH3 hot lines have been assigned and spectra have been compared with that obtained by calculations based on the BYTe hot line list1. High-temperature NH3 absorption spectra have been used in the analysis of in situ high-resolution IR absorption measurements on the producer gas in low-temperature gasification process on a large scale. High-resolution UV temperature-dependent absorption cross-sections of phenol are reported for the first time. All UV data have been calibrated by relevant GC/MS measurements. Use of the data is demonstrated by the analysis of in situ UV absorption measurements on a

  19. Offline modeling for product quality prediction of mineral processing using modeling error PDF shaping and entropy minimization.

    PubMed

    Ding, Jinliang; Chai, Tianyou; Wang, Hong

    2011-03-01

    This paper presents a novel offline modeling for product quality prediction of mineral processing which consists of a number of unit processes in series. The prediction of the product quality of the whole mineral process (i.e., the mixed concentrate grade) plays an important role and the establishment of its predictive model is a key issue for the plantwide optimization. For this purpose, a hybrid modeling approach of the mixed concentrate grade prediction is proposed, which consists of a linear model and a nonlinear model. The least-squares support vector machine is adopted to establish the nonlinear model. The inputs of the predictive model are the performance indices of each unit process, while the output is the mixed concentrate grade. In this paper, the model parameter selection is transformed into the shape control of the probability density function (PDF) of the modeling error. In this context, both the PDF-control-based and minimum-entropy-based model parameter selection approaches are proposed. Indeed, this is the first time that the PDF shape control idea is used to deal with system modeling, where the key idea is to turn model parameters so that either the modeling error PDF is controlled to follow a target PDF or the modeling error entropy is minimized. The experimental results using the real plant data and the comparison of the two approaches are discussed. The results show the effectiveness of the proposed approaches.

  20. The Opportunities and Challenges of the State-owned Exploration Companies Confronting the Prosperous Mineral Industry

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Gao, Bangfei; Xie, Hui

    The stated-owned exploration companies (SOEC), of state-owned enterprises background, go for profits as well as national and social responsibility. The SOEC play significant roles in commercial mineral exploration by taking advantage of their brands, strong financial backing and operation capability to integrate the capital and technology. Since the disadvantage of backwardness, the SOEC have to deal with multiple problems, such as high costs of mineral rights acquisition, multi-cooperation project management, and the criterions for traditional techniques can not adapt the rapid commercial mineral exploration and evaluation. Under the new situation, the SOEC should be careful to make investment decisions, strengthen project management, introduce venture capital funds, and cooperate with the government and the state-owned exploration institution (SOEI). It's suggested to carry out small-scale assembled explorations to reduce the exploration risks and costs, and to increase the exploration success rate.

  1. Mg isotope systematics during magmatic processes: Inter-mineral fractionation in mafic to ultramafic Hawaiian xenoliths

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Stracke, A.; Tipper, E. T.; Klemme, S.; Bizimis, M.

    2018-04-01

    Observed differences in Mg isotope ratios between bulk magmatic rocks are small, often on a sub per mill level. Inter-mineral differences in the 26Mg/24Mg ratio (expressed as δ26Mg) in plutonic rocks are on a similar scale, and have mostly been attributed to equilibrium isotope fractionation at magmatic temperatures. Here we report Mg isotope data on minerals in spinel peridotite and garnet pyroxenite xenoliths from the rejuvenated stage of volcanism on Oahu and Kauai, Hawaii. The new data are compared to literature data and to theoretical predictions to investigate the processes responsible for inter-mineral Mg isotope fractionation at magmatic temperatures. Theory predicts up to per mill level differences in δ26Mg between olivine and spinel at magmatic temperatures and a general decrease in Δ26Mgolivine-spinel (=δ26Mgolivine - δ26Mgspinel) with increasing temperature, but also with increasing Cr# in spinel. For peridotites with a simple petrogenetic history by melt depletion, where increasing depletion relates to increasing melting temperatures, Δ26Mgolivine-spinel should thus systematically decrease with increasing Cr# in spinel. However, most natural peridotites, including the Hawaiian spinel peridotites investigated in this study, are overprinted by variable extents of melt-rock reaction, which disturb the systematic primary temperature and compositionally related olivine-spinel Mg isotope systematics. Diffusion, subsolidus re-equilibration, or surface alteration may further affect the observed olivine-spinel Mg isotope fractionation in peridotites, making Δ26Mgolivine-spinel in peridotites a difficult-to-apply geothermometer. The available Mg isotope data on clinopyroxene and garnet suggest that this mineral pair is a more promising geothermometer, but its application is restricted to garnet-bearing igneous (garnet pyroxenites) and metamorphic rocks (eclogites). Although the observed δ26Mg variation is on a sub per mill range in bulk magmatic rocks

  2. Oxalate minerals on Mars?

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Applin, D. M.; Izawa, M. R. M.; Cloutis, E. A.; Goltz, D.; Johnson, J. R.

    2015-06-01

    Small amounts of unidentified organic compounds have only recently been inferred on Mars despite strong reasons to expect significant concentrations and decades of searching. Based on X-ray diffraction and reflectance spectroscopic analyses we show that solid oxalic acid and its most common mineral salts are stable under the pressure and ultraviolet irradiation environment of the surface of Mars, and could represent a heretofore largely overlooked reservoir of organic carbon in the martian near-surface. In addition to the delivery to Mars by carbonaceous chondrites, oxalate minerals are among the predicted breakdown products of meteoritic organic matter delivered to the martian surface, as well as any endogenic organic carbon reaching the martian surface from the interior. A reinterpretation of pyrolysis experiments from the Viking, Phoenix, and Mars Science Laboratory missions shows that all are consistent with the presence of significant concentrations of oxalate minerals. Oxalate minerals could be important in numerous martian geochemical processes, including acting as a possible nitrogen sink (as ammonium oxalate), and contributing to the formation of “organic” carbonates, methane, and hydroxyl radicals.

  3. Skeletal biology: Where matrix meets mineral

    PubMed Central

    Young, Marian F.

    2017-01-01

    The skeleton is unique from all other tissues in the body because of its ability to mineralize. The incorporation of mineral into bones and teeth is essential to give them strength and structure for body support and function. For years, researchers have wondered how mineralized tissues form and repair. A major focus in this context has been on the role of the extracellular matrix, which harbors key regulators of the mineralization process. In this introductory minireview, we will review some key concepts of matrix biology as it related to mineralized tissues. Concurrently, we will highlight the subject of this special issue covering many aspects of mineralized tissues, including bones and teeth and their associated structures cartilage and tendon. Areas of emphasis are on the generation and analysis of new animal models with permutations of matrix components as well as the development of new approaches for tissue engineering for repair of damaged hard tissue. In assembling key topics on mineralized tissues written by leaders in our field, we hope the reader will get a broad view of the topic and all of its fascinating complexities. PMID:27131884

  4. Minerals yearbook, 1991: California. Annual report

    SciTech Connect

    Carrillo, F.V.; Davis, J.F.; Alfors, J.T.

    1993-05-01

    The report has been prepared under a Memorandum of Understanding between the U.S. Bureau of Mines, U.S. Department of the Interior, and the California Department of Conservation, Division of Mines and Geology, for collecting information on all nonfuel minerals. California ranked second among the States, after Arizona, in the value of nonfuel minerals produced in 1991, accounting for almost 10% of the U.S. total. The value of the commodities produced during the year decreased about 9% to $2.5 billion, following last year's 4% decline. California was the sole producer of boron and tungsten and led all States in the productionmore » of asbestos, portland cement, diatomite, calcined gypsum, rare-earth concentrates, and construction sand and gravel. It was second in natural calcium chloride, gold, magnesium compounds, pumice, industrial sand and gravel, and soda ash.« less

  5. Development of a system for treatment of coconut industry wastewater using electrochemical processes followed by Fenton reaction.

    PubMed

    Gomes, Lúcio de Moura; Duarte, José Leandro da Silva; Pereira, Nathalia Marcelino; Martínez-Huitle, Carlos A; Tonholo, Josealdo; Zanta, Carmen Lúcia de Paiva E Silva

    2014-01-01

    The coconut processing industry generates a significant amount of liquid waste. New technologies targeting the treatment of industrial effluents have emerged, including advanced oxidation processes, the Fenton reaction, and electrochemical processes, which produce strong oxidizing species to remove organic matter. In this study we combined the Fenton reaction and electrochemical process to treat wastewater generated by the coconut industry. We prepared a synthetic wastewater consisting of a mixture of coconut milk and water and assessed how the Fenton reagents' concentration, the cathode material, the current density, and the implementation of associated technologies affect its treatment. Electrochemical treatment followed by the Fenton reaction diminished turbidity and chemical oxygen demand (COD) by 85 and 95%, respectively. The Fenton reaction followed by the electrochemical process reduced turbidity and COD by 93 and 85%, respectively. Therefore, a combination of the Fenton and electrochemical technologies can effectively treat the effluent from the coconut processing industry.

  6. Mineral Resources Data System (MRDS)

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Mason, G.T.; Arndt, R.E.

    1996-01-01

    The U.S. Geological Survey (USGS) operates the Mineral Resources Data System (MRDS), a digital system that contained 111,955 records on Sept. 1, 1995. Records describe metallic and industrial commodity deposits, mines, prospects, and occurrences in the United States and selected other countries. These records have been created over the years by USGS commodity specialists and through cooperative agreements with geological surveys of U.S. States and other countries. This CD-ROM contains the complete MRDS data base, several subsets of it, and software to allow data retrieval and display. Data retrievals are made by using GSSEARCH, a program that is included on this CD-ROM. Retrievals are made by specifying fields or any combination of the fields that provide information on deposit name, location, commodity, deposit model type, geology, mineral production, reserves, and references. A tutorial is included. Retrieved records may be printed or written to a hard disk file in four different formats: ascii, fixed, comma delimited, and DBASE compatible.

  7. Mineral Tells Tale of Watery Past

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    2004-01-01

    This spectrum, taken by the Mars Exploration Rover Opportunity's Moessbauer spectrometer, shows the presence of an iron-bearing mineral called jarosite in the collection of rocks dubbed 'El Capitan.' 'El Capitan' is located within the rock outcrop that lines the inner edge of the small crater where Opportunity landed. The pair of yellow peaks specifically indicates a jarosite phase, which contains water in the form of hydroxyl as a part of its structure. These data suggest water-driven processes exist on Mars. Three other phases are also identified in this spectrum: a magnetic phase (blue), attributed to an iron-oxide mineral; a silicate phase (green), indicative of minerals containing double-ionized iron (Fe 2+); and a third phase (red) of minerals with triple-ionized iron (Fe 3+).

  8. Disinfection efficacy over yeast biofilms of juice processing industries.

    PubMed

    Tarifa, María C; Lozano, Jorge E; Brugnoni, Lorena I

    2018-03-01

    Membrane separation systems represent a hot - spot for biofilm formation in juice industries. Sodium hypochlorite (NaOCl) has been traditionally the disinfectant of choice; however, its effectiveness over well-established biofilms is limited. In this work the study of biofilm formation on ultrafiltration membranes was proposed. The effectiveness of cleaning and disinfection procedures commonly used in juice industry was tested on the removal and killing of cells. The species used (Rhodotorula mucilaginosa, Candida krusei, Candida kefyr and Candida tropicalis) were isolated from ultrafiltration modules of a clarified apple juice industry. Industrial concentrations of NaOCl (200mgCL∙L -1 ) showed to be effective against planktonic cultures with >4 log reductions, whereas their overall efficiency against adhered cells was smaller. Recovery of viable cell counts to initial numbers was evidenced regardless of the time of colonization. The topography of the surface showed to have an impact on the efficiency of the disinfectant, presenting membranes smaller log reductions than stainless steel (~1.09-1.53logCFU). At 200mgCl∙L -1 only membrane's cross flow recovery was reached with no long-term effect over the attached cells. The overall results demonstrated the recalcitrance of these biofilms to typical cleaning and disinfection process which may confer them with a selective advantage. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  9. Minerals

    MedlinePlus

    Minerals are important for your body to stay healthy. Your body uses minerals for many different jobs, including keeping your bones, muscles, heart, and brain working properly. Minerals are also important for making enzymes and hormones. ...

  10. Proximate, Antinutrients and Mineral Composition of Raw and Processed (Boiled and Roasted) Sphenostylis stenocarpa Seeds from Southern Kaduna, Northwest Nigeria

    PubMed Central

    Ndidi, Uche Samuel; Ndidi, Charity Unekwuojo; Olagunju, Abbas; Muhammad, Aliyu; Billy, Francis Graham; Okpe, Oche

    2014-01-01

    This research was aimed at evaluating the proximate composition, level of anti-nutrients, and the mineral composition of raw and processed Sphenostylis stenocarpa seeds and at examining the effect of processing on the parameters. From the proximate composition analysis, the ash content showed no significant difference (P > 0.05) between the processed and unprocessed (raw) samples. However, there was significant difference (P < 0.05) in the levels of moisture, crude lipid, nitrogen-free extract, gross energy, true protein, and crude fiber between the processed and unprocessed S. stenocarpa. Analyses of the antinutrient composition show that the processed S. stenocarpa registered significant reduction in levels of hydrogen cyanide, trypsin inhibitor, phytate, oxalate, and tannins compared to the unprocessed. Evaluation of the mineral composition showed that the level of sodium, calcium, and potassium was high in both the processed and unprocessed sample (150–400 mg/100 g). However, the level of iron, copper, zinc, and magnesium was low in both processed and unprocessed samples (2–45 mg/100 g). The correlation analysis showed that tannins and oxalate affected the levels of ash and nitrogen-free extract of processed and unprocessed seeds. These results suggest that the consumption of S. stenocarpa will go a long way in reducing the level of malnutrition in northern Nigeria. PMID:24967265

  11. pH neutralization of the by-product sludge waste water generated from waste concrete recycling process using the carbon mineralization

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Ji, Sangwoo; Shin, Hee-young; Bang, Jun Hwan; Ahn, Ji-Whan

    2017-04-01

    About 44 Mt/year of waste concrete is generated in South Korea. More than 95% of this waste concrete is recycled. In the process of regenerating and recycling pulmonary concrete, sludge mixed with fine powder generated during repeated pulverization process and water used for washing the surface and water used for impurity separation occurs. In this way, the solid matter contained in the sludge as a by-product is about 40% of the waste concrete that was input. Due to the cement component embedded in the concrete, the sludge supernatant is very strong alkaline (pH about 12). And it is necessary to neutralization for comply with environmental standards. In this study, carbon mineralization method was applied as a method to neutralize the pH of highly alkaline waste water to under pH 8.5, which is the water quality standard of discharged water. CO2 gas (purity 99%, flow rate 10ml/min.) was injected and reacted with the waste water (Ca concentration about 750mg/L) from which solid matter was removed. As a result of the experiment, the pH converged to about 6.5 within 50 minutes of reaction. The precipitate showed high whiteness. XRD and SEM analysis showed that it was high purity CaCO3. For the application to industry, it is needed further study using lower concentration CO2 gas (about 14%) which generated from power plant.

  12. Imaging and Analytical Approaches for Characterization of Soil Mineral Weathering

    SciTech Connect

    Dohnalkova, Alice; Arey, Bruce; Varga, Tamas

    Soil minerals weathering is the primary natural source of nutrients necessary to sustain productivity in terrestrial ecosystems. Soil microbial communities increase soil mineral weathering and mineral-derived nutrient availability through physical and chemical processes. Rhizosphere, the zone immediately surrounding plant roots, is a biogeochemical hotspot with microbial activity, soil organic matter production, mineral weathering, and secondary phase formation all happening in a small temporally ephemeral zone of steep geochemical gradients. The detailed exploration of the micro-scale rhizosphere is essential to our better understanding of large-scale processes in soils, such as nutrient cycling, transport and fate of soil components, microbial-mineral interactions, soilmore » erosion, soil organic matter turnover and its molecular-level characterization, and predictive modeling.« less

  13. 78 FR 42085 - Draft Guidance for Industry on Pediatric Study Plans: Content of and Process for Submitting...

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2013-07-15

    ...] Draft Guidance for Industry on Pediatric Study Plans: Content of and Process for Submitting Initial... a draft guidance for industry entitled ``Pediatric Study Plans: Content of and Process for... Plans: Content of and Process for Submitting Initial Pediatric Study Plans and Amended Pediatric Study...

  14. Low back pain and lumbar angles in Turkish coal miners

    SciTech Connect

    Sarikaya, S.; Ozdolap, S.; Gumustas, S.

    This study was designed to assess the incidence of low back pain among Turkish coal miners and to investigate the relationship between angles of the lumbar spine and low back pain in coal miners. Fifty underground workers (Group I) and 38 age-matched surface workers (Group II) were included in the study. All the subjects were asked about low back pain in the past 5 years. The prevalence of low back pain was higher in Group I than in Group II (78.0%, 32.4%, respectively, P {lt} 0.001). The results of the study showed that low back pain occurred in 78.0% ofmore » Turkish coal miners. Although the nature of the occupation may have influenced coal miners' lumbar spinal curvature, lumbar angles are not a determinant for low back pain in this population. Further extensive studies involving ergonomic measurements are needed to validate our results for Turkish coal mining industry.« less

  15. Process analytical technology in the pharmaceutical industry: a toolkit for continuous improvement.

    PubMed

    Scott, Bradley; Wilcock, Anne

    2006-01-01

    Process analytical technology (PAT) refers to a series of tools used to ensure that quality is built into products while at the same time improving the understanding of processes, increasing efficiency, and decreasing costs. It has not been widely adopted by the pharmaceutical industry. As the setting for this paper, the current pharmaceutical manufacturing paradigm and PAT guidance to date are discussed prior to the review of PAT principles and tools, benefits, and challenges. The PAT toolkit contains process analyzers, multivariate analysis tools, process control tools, and continuous improvement/knowledge management/information technology systems. The integration and implementation of these tools is complex, and has resulted in uncertainty with respect to both regulation and validation. The paucity of staff knowledgeable in this area may complicate adoption. Studies to quantitate the benefits resulting from the adoption of PAT within the pharmaceutical industry would be a valuable addition to the qualitative studies that are currently available.

  16. Pleural abnormalities and exposure to elongate mineral particles in Minnesota iron ore (taconite) workers.

    PubMed

    Perlman, David; Mandel, Jeffrey H; Odo, Nnaemeka; Ryan, Andy; Lambert, Christine; MacLehose, Richard F; Ramachandran, Gurumurthy; Alexander, Bruce H

    2018-05-01

    Iron ore (taconite) mining and processing are an important industry in northern Minnesota and western Michigan. Concerns around exposures have centered largely on exposure to non-asbestiform amphibole elongate mineral particles (EMPs) found in the eastern portion of the Minnesota iron range. A cross sectional survey was undertaken of current and former taconite workers and spouses along with a detailed exposure assessment. Participants provided an occupational history and had a chest radiograph performed. A total of 1188 workers participated. Potential exposures to non-amphibole EMPs were evident across multiple jobs in all active mines. Pleural abnormalities were found in 16.8% of workers. There was an association of pleural abnormalities with cumulative EMP exposure that was not specific to the eastern portion of the range. There was evidence of a mild to moderate increase in pleural abnormalities in this population of miners, associated with geographically non-specific cumulative EMP exposure. © 2018 Wiley Periodicals, Inc.

  17. International strategic minerals inventory summary report; lithium

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Anstett, T.F.; Krauss, U.H.; Ober, J.A.; Schmidt, H.W.

    1990-01-01

    Major world resources of lithium are described in this summary report of information in the International Strategic Minerals Inventory (ISMI). ISMI is a cooperative data-collection effort of earth-science and mineral-resource agencies in Australia, Canada, the Federal Republic of Germany, the Republic of South Africa, the United Kingdom, and the United States of America. Part I of this report presents an overview of the resources and potential supply of lithium on the basis of inventory information; Part II contains tables of some of the geologic information and mineral-resource information and production data collected by ISMI participants. In terms of lithium-resource availability, present economically viable resources are more than sufficient to meet likely demand in the foreseeable future. In times of excess capacity such as currently exist, some pegmatite operations cannot compete with brine operations, which are less costly. A further production shift from pegmatites to brines will result in the concentration of supply in a few countries such as Chile and the United States. This shift would lead to the dependence of industrialized countries on deliveries from these sources.

  18. Effect of Dietary Processed Sulfur Supplementation on Texture Quality, Color and Mineral Status of Dry-cured Ham

    PubMed Central

    2015-01-01

    This study was performed to investigate the chemical composition, mineral status, oxidative stability, and texture attributes of dry-cured ham from pigs fed processed sulfur (S, 1 g/kg feed), and from those fed a basal diet (CON), during the period from weaning to slaughter (174 d). Total collagen content and soluble collagen of the S group was significantly higher than that of the control group (p<0.05). The pH of the S group was significantly higher than that of the control group, whereas the S group had a lower expressible drip compared to the control group. The S group also showed the lower lightness compared to the control group (p<0.05). In regard to the mineral status, the S group had significantly lower Fe2+ and Ca2+ content than the control group (p<0.05), whereas the proteolysis index of the S group was significantly increased compared to the control group (p<0.05). The feeding of processed sulfur to pigs led to increased oxidative stability, related to lipids and pigments, in the dry-cured ham (p<0.05). Compared to the dry-cured ham from the control group, that from the S group exhibited lower springiness and gumminess; these results suggest that feeding processed sulfur to pigs can improve the quality of the texture and enhance the oxidative stability of dry-cured ham. PMID:26761895

  19. Effect of Dietary Processed Sulfur Supplementation on Texture Quality, Color and Mineral Status of Dry-cured Ham.

    PubMed

    Kim, Ji-Han; Ju, Min-Gu; Yeon, Su-Jung; Hong, Go-Eun; Park, WooJoon; Lee, Chi-Ho

    2015-01-01

    This study was performed to investigate the chemical composition, mineral status, oxidative stability, and texture attributes of dry-cured ham from pigs fed processed sulfur (S, 1 g/kg feed), and from those fed a basal diet (CON), during the period from weaning to slaughter (174 d). Total collagen content and soluble collagen of the S group was significantly higher than that of the control group (p<0.05). The pH of the S group was significantly higher than that of the control group, whereas the S group had a lower expressible drip compared to the control group. The S group also showed the lower lightness compared to the control group (p<0.05). In regard to the mineral status, the S group had significantly lower Fe(2+) and Ca(2+) content than the control group (p<0.05), whereas the proteolysis index of the S group was significantly increased compared to the control group (p<0.05). The feeding of processed sulfur to pigs led to increased oxidative stability, related to lipids and pigments, in the dry-cured ham (p<0.05). Compared to the dry-cured ham from the control group, that from the S group exhibited lower springiness and gumminess; these results suggest that feeding processed sulfur to pigs can improve the quality of the texture and enhance the oxidative stability of dry-cured ham.

  20. Application of hydrometallurgy techniques in quartz processing and purification: a review

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Lin, Min; Lei, Shaomin; Pei, Zhenyu; Liu, Yuanyuan; Xia, Zhangjie; Xie, Feixiang

    2018-04-01

    Although there have been numerous studies on separation and purification of metallic minerals by hydrometallurgy techniques, applications of the chemical techniques in separation and purification of non-metallic minerals are rarely reported. This paper reviews disparate areas of study into processing and purification of quartz (typical non-metallic ore) in an attempt to summarize current work, as well as to suggest potential for future consolidation in the field. The review encompasses chemical techniques of the quartz processing including situations, progresses, leaching mechanism, scopes of application, advantages and drawbacks of micro-bioleaching, high temperature leaching, high temperature pressure leaching and catalyzed high temperature pressure leaching. Traditional leaching techniques including micro-bioleaching and high temperature leaching are unequal to demand of modern glass industry for quality of quartz concentrate because the quartz products has to be further processed. High temperature pressure leaching and catalyzed high temperature pressure leaching provide new ways to produce high-grade quartz sand with only one process and lower acid consumption. Furthermore, the catalyzed high temperature pressure leaching realizes effective purification of quartz with extremely low acid consumption (no using HF or any fluoride). It is proposed that, by integrating the different chemical processes of quartz processing and expounding leaching mechanisms and scopes of application, the research field as a monopolized industry would benefit.

  1. New Product Development (NPD) Process - An Example of Industrial Sector

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Kazimierska, Marianna; Grębosz-Krawczyk, Magdalena

    2017-12-01

    This aim of this article is to present the process of new product introduction on example of industrial sector in context of new product development (NPD) concept. In the article, the concept of new product development is discussed and the different stages of the process of new electric motor development are analysed taking into account its objectives, implemented procedures, functions and responsibilities division. In the article, information from secondary sources and the results of empirical research - conducted in an international manufacturing company - are used. The research results show the significance of project leader and regular cooperation with final client in the NPD process.

  2. Candidate thermal energy storage technologies for solar industrial process heat applications

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Furman, E. R.

    1979-01-01

    A number of candidate thermal energy storage system elements were identified as having the potential for the successful application of solar industrial process heat. These elements which include storage media, containment and heat exchange are shown.

  3. 3D visualization and quantification of bone and teeth mineralization for the study of osteo/dentinogenesis in mice models

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Marchadier, A.; Vidal, C.; Ordureau, S.; Lédée, R.; Léger, C.; Young, M.; Goldberg, M.

    2011-03-01

    Research on bone and teeth mineralization in animal models is critical for understanding human pathologies. Genetically modified mice represent highly valuable models for the study of osteo/dentinogenesis defects and osteoporosis. Current investigations on mice dental and skeletal phenotype use destructive and time consuming methods such as histology and scanning microscopy. Micro-CT imaging is quicker and provides high resolution qualitative phenotypic description. However reliable quantification of mineralization processes in mouse bone and teeth are still lacking. We have established novel CT imaging-based software for accurate qualitative and quantitative analysis of mouse mandibular bone and molars. Data were obtained from mandibles of mice lacking the Fibromodulin gene which is involved in mineralization processes. Mandibles were imaged with a micro-CT originally devoted to industrial applications (Viscom, X8060 NDT). 3D advanced visualization was performed using the VoxBox software (UsefulProgress) with ray casting algorithms. Comparison between control and defective mice mandibles was made by applying the same transfer function for each 3D data, thus allowing to detect shape, colour and density discrepencies. The 2D images of transverse slices of mandible and teeth were similar and even more accurate than those obtained with scanning electron microscopy. Image processing of the molars allowed the 3D reconstruction of the pulp chamber, providing a unique tool for the quantitative evaluation of dentinogenesis. This new method is highly powerful for the study of oro-facial mineralizations defects in mice models, complementary and even competitive to current histological and scanning microscopy appoaches.

  4. Mapping the Mineral Resource Base for Mineral Carbon-Dioxide Sequestration in the Conterminous United States

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Krevor, S.C.; Graves, C.R.; Van Gosen, B. S.; McCafferty, A.E.

    2009-01-01

    This database provides information on the occurrence of ultramafic rocks in the conterminous United States that are suitable for sequestering captured carbon dioxide in mineral form, also known as mineral carbon-dioxide sequestration. Mineral carbon-dioxide sequestration is a proposed greenhouse gas mitigation technology whereby carbon dioxide (CO2) is disposed of by reacting it with calcium or magnesium silicate minerals to form a solid magnesium or calcium carbonate product. The technology offers a large capacity to permanently store CO2 in an environmentally benign form via a process that takes little effort to verify or monitor after disposal. These characteristics are unique among its peers in greenhouse gas disposal technologies. The 2005 Intergovernmental Panel on Climate Change report on Carbon Dioxide Capture and Storage suggested that a major gap in mineral CO2 sequestration is locating the magnesium-silicate bedrock available to sequester the carbon dioxide. It is generally known that silicate minerals with high concentrations of magnesium are suitable for mineral carbonation. However, no assessment has been made in the United States that details their geographical distribution and extent, nor has anyone evaluated their potential for use in mineral carbonation. Researchers at Columbia University and the U.S. Geological Survey have developed a digital geologic database of ultramafic rocks in the conterminous United States. Data were compiled from varied-scale geologic maps of magnesium-silicate ultramafic rocks. The focus of our national-scale map is entirely on ultramafic rock types, which typically consist primarily of olivine- and serpentine-rich rocks. These rock types are potentially suitable as source material for mineral CO2 sequestration.

  5. Mars weathering analogs - Secondary mineralization in Antarctic basalts

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Berkley, J. L.

    1982-01-01

    Alkalic basalt samples from Ross Island, Antarctica, are evaluated as terrestrial analogs to weathered surface materials on Mars. Secondary alteration in the rocks is limited to pneumatolytic oxidation of igneous minerals and glass, rare groundmass clay and zeolite mineralization, and hydrothermal minerals coating fractures and vesicle surfaces. Hydrothermal mineral assemblages consist mainly of K-feldspar, zeolites (phillipsite and chabazite), calcite, and anhydrite. Low alteration rates are attributed to cold and dry environmental factors common to both Antarctica and Mars. It is noted that mechanical weathering (aeolian abrasion) of Martian equivalents to present Antarctic basalts would yield minor hydrothermal minerals and local surface fines composed of primary igneous minerals and glass but would produce few hydrous products, such as palagonite, clay or micas. It is thought that leaching of hydrothermal vein minerals by migrating fluids and redeposition in duricrust deposits may represent an alternate process for incorporating secondary minerals of volcanic origin into Martian surface fines.

  6. Fractionation of mineral species by electrophoresis

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Dunning, J. D.; Herren, B. J.; Tipps, R. W.; Snyder, R. S.

    1982-01-01

    The fractionation of fine-grained aggregates into their major components is a problem in many scientific areas including earth and planetary science. Electrophoresis, the transport of electrically charged particles, immersed in a suspension medium, by a direct current field (Bier, 1959), was employed in this study as a means of separating simulated lunar soil into its constituent minerals. In these tests, conducted in a static analytical cylindrical microelectrophoresis apparatus, samples of simulated lunar soil and samples of pure mineral constituents were placed in the chamber; the electrophoretic mobilities of the lunar soil and the individual mineral constituents were measured. In most of the suspension buffers employed separability was indicated, on the basis of differences in mobility, for all the constituent mineral species except ilmenite and pyroxene, which were not efficiently separable in any of the buffers. Although only a few suspension media were employed, the success of this initial study suggests that electrophoresis may be an important mineral fractionation option in fine-grained aggregate processing.

  7. Modeling the Influence of Different Processes on Iron Solubilization in Mineral Aerosols: From the Gobi Desert to the North Pacific Ocean

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Meskhidze, N.; Chameides, W. L.; Chen, G.

    2002-12-01

    Atmospheric transport is the only known means to deliver dissolved iron from the continents to remote oceanic areas. Dissolved iron is one of the necessary nutrients for photosynthesis of microscopic, single-celled marine organisms (phytoplankton) that grow abundantly in oceans around the world. Alteration of dissolved iron fluxes may substantially affect ocean ecosystem productivity and even exert a global-scale influence on climate by affecting the rate at which atmospheric CO2 is fixed by oceanic biota. On continents, iron mainly exists in forms of highly insoluble minerals (iron-oxides and iron-aluminosilicates) and the processes that can solubilize iron in mineral aerosols during their long-range transport remain poorly understood. In this work we attempt to elucidate the key processes that control the solubilization of iron in mineral aerosols using a simple Lagrangian box model to simulate the transport and chemical alteration of iron-containing mineral aerosols as they are transported from the east coast of China to the remote western North Pacific Ocean. Model parameters and initial conditions are set using a combination of soil and aerosol data from the Gobi Desert, as well as from measurements made during specific PEM-West B flights that encountered dust storm plumes over the Pacific Ocean that had originated in China. Our preliminary results indicate that the amount of acidic pollutants in the air along the dust transport pathways can have a significant effect on the amount of iron that is solubilized in advecting mineral aerosols. This suggests that there may be a link between the flux of the dissolved iron to the remote North Pacific Ocean and the rate at which pollutants such as sulfur dioxide, nitrogen oxides, and ammonia are emitted in East Asia.

  8. Improvement of home composting process of food waste using different minerals.

    PubMed

    Margaritis, M; Psarras, K; Panaretou, V; Thanos, A G; Malamis, D; Sotiropoulos, A

    2018-03-01

    This article presents the experimental study of the process of composting in a prototype home-scale system with a special focus on process improvement by using different additives (i.e. woodchips, perlite, vermiculite and zeolite). The interventions with different bulking agents were realized through composting cycles using substrates with 10% additives in specific mixtures of kitchen waste materials. The pre-selected proportion of the mixtures examined was 3:1:1 in cellulosic:proteins:carbohydrates, in order to achieve an initial C/N ratio equal to 30. The control of the initial properties of the examined substrates aimed at the consequent improvement of the properties of the final product (compost). The results indicated that composting process was enhanced with the use of additives and especially the case of zeolite and perlite provided the best results, in terms of efficient temperature evolution (>55 °C for 4 consecutive days). Carbon to nitrogen ratios decreased by 40% from the initial values for the reactors were minerals were added, while for the bioreactor tested with woodchips the reduction was slight, showing slowest degradation rate. Moisture content of produced compost varied within the range of 55-64% d.m., while nutrient content (K, Na, Ca, Mg) was in accordance with the limit values reported in literature. Finally, the composts obtained, exhibited a satisfactory degree of maturity, fulfilling the criterion related to the absence of phytotoxic compounds. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  9. Educational tools in the Museum of Rocks and Minerals

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    de Brito Barreto, S.; Ribeiro Sales, E.; de Lima Correia, A. Maria; Lima, M. Abreu e.; Bretas Bittar, S. Maria

    2012-04-01

    The Museum of Rocks and Minerals is a small museum which belongs to the Department of Geology of the Federal University of Pernambuco, Brazil. It was founded in the 1950's and its main exhibits are samples of scarns and pegmatites from the Northeast of Brazil, especially from the Borborema Pegmatitic Region. This museum has been visited by a wide variety of people, but mainly students from private and state schools on scheduled visits. Over the years museum staff felt the necessity to develop some mediating tools to develop a relationship between exhibits and visitors. Due to a lack of technical staff and finance to create interactive exhibits as well as space limitations, the museum decided to produce some games such as memory games, puzzles and dominoes. These fifteen games deal with different subjects of geosciences, especially those more interesting for children. The subjects chosen were: minerals, industrial minerals, gems, dimension stones, rock cycle, fossils, dinosaur footprints (Ichnofossils), wood fossils, Mohs scale. The games were created by the authors, and undergraduate students were responsible for researching concepts and images. Each game presents a concept and images related to it. The interns are undergraduate students of geology and mining engineering and this experience gives them an opportunity to review and improve some concepts and discuss what is important such as pedagogical actions in museums and geology teaching. To give an example, the subject of the industry mineral was treated using two games - a memory game and a puzzle. The first one shows images of minerals related each one to an industrial product and in the second, children can see different parts of a house labeled with the minerals used in the production of that space. Another interesting example is the puzzle about dinosaur footprints that uses an image of a dinosaur footprint, part of the paleontological collection of the Departament, and a representative ichnofossil from the

  10. Process Metallurgy an Enabler of Resource Efficiency: Linking Product Design to Metallurgy in Product Centric Recycling

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Reuter, Markus; van Schaik, Antoinette

    In this paper the link between process metallurgy, classical minerals processing, product centric recycling and urban/landfill mining is discussed. The depth that has to be achieved in urban mining and recycling must glean from the wealth of theoretical knowledge and insight that have been developed in the past in minerals and metallurgical processing. This background learns that recycling demands a product centric approach, which considers simultaneously the multi-material interactions in man-made complex `minerals'. Fast innovation in recycling and urban mining can be achieved by further evolving from this well developed basis, evolving the techniques and tools that have been developed over the years. This basis has already been used for many years to design, operate and control industrial plants for metal production. This has been the basis for Design for Recycling rules for End-of-Life products. Using, among others, the UNEP Metal Recycling report as a basis (authors are respectively Lead and Main authors of report), it is demonstrated that a common theoretical basis as developed in metallurgy and minerals processing can help much to level the playing field between primary processing, secondary processing, recycling, and urban/landfill mining and product design hence enhancing resource efficiency. Thus various scales of detail link product design with metallurgical process design and its fundamentals.

  11. 36 CFR 293.14 - Mineral leases and mineral permits.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-07-01

    ... 36 Parks, Forests, and Public Property 2 2011-07-01 2011-07-01 false Mineral leases and mineral... AGRICULTURE WILDERNESS-PRIMITIVE AREAS § 293.14 Mineral leases and mineral permits. (a) All laws pertaining to mineral leasing shall extend to each National Forest Wilderness for the period specified in the Wilderness...

  12. 36 CFR 293.14 - Mineral leases and mineral permits.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-07-01

    ... 36 Parks, Forests, and Public Property 2 2010-07-01 2010-07-01 false Mineral leases and mineral... AGRICULTURE WILDERNESS-PRIMITIVE AREAS § 293.14 Mineral leases and mineral permits. (a) All laws pertaining to mineral leasing shall extend to each National Forest Wilderness for the period specified in the Wilderness...

  13. 36 CFR 293.14 - Mineral leases and mineral permits.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-07-01

    ... 36 Parks, Forests, and Public Property 2 2012-07-01 2012-07-01 false Mineral leases and mineral... AGRICULTURE WILDERNESS-PRIMITIVE AREAS § 293.14 Mineral leases and mineral permits. (a) All laws pertaining to mineral leasing shall extend to each National Forest Wilderness for the period specified in the Wilderness...

  14. 36 CFR 293.14 - Mineral leases and mineral permits.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-07-01

    ... 36 Parks, Forests, and Public Property 2 2014-07-01 2014-07-01 false Mineral leases and mineral... AGRICULTURE WILDERNESS-PRIMITIVE AREAS § 293.14 Mineral leases and mineral permits. (a) All laws pertaining to mineral leasing shall extend to each National Forest Wilderness for the period specified in the Wilderness...

  15. 36 CFR 293.14 - Mineral leases and mineral permits.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-07-01

    ... 36 Parks, Forests, and Public Property 2 2013-07-01 2013-07-01 false Mineral leases and mineral... AGRICULTURE WILDERNESS-PRIMITIVE AREAS § 293.14 Mineral leases and mineral permits. (a) All laws pertaining to mineral leasing shall extend to each National Forest Wilderness for the period specified in the Wilderness...

  16. [Interaction of clay minerals with microorganisms: a review of experimental data].

    PubMed

    Naĭmark, E B; Eroshchev-Shak, V A; Chizhikova, N P; Kompantseva, E I

    2009-01-01

    A review of publications containing results of experiments on the interaction of microorganisms with clay minerals is presented. Bacteria are shown to be involved in all processes related to the transformation of clay minerals: formation of clays from metamorphic and sedimentary rocks, formation of clays from solutions, reversible transitions of different types of clay minerals, and consolidation of clay minerals into sedimentary rocks. Integration of these results allows to conclude that bacteria reproduced all possible abiotic reactions associated with the clay minerals, these reactions proceed much faster with the bacteria being involved. Thus, bacteria act as a living catalyst in the geochemical cycle of clay minerals. The ecological role of bacteria can be considered as a repetition of a chemical process of the abiotic world, but with the use of organic catalytic innovation.

  17. Tribological behavior of a new green industrial lubricant for stamping operations - Application to Stainless Steels

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Buteri, A.; Borgeot, M.; Roizard, X.; Lallemand, F.; Melot, J.-M.; Morand, L.

    2016-11-01

    Thanks to a fruitful collaboration between different academic and industrial research entities, a new green lubricant solution AFULudine has been developed for stamping operations in substitution to the usual mineral oils, with the idea and the wish to combine different essential properties such as a low environmental impact and ease-of-use according to the market needs and the more and more restrictive environmental legislation (e.g. REACH). Based on the Self-Assembled-Monolayer (SAM) principle and so, on a perfect control of the chemical reaction between the solution and the substrate (grafting of molecules onto the surface), AFULudine offers an efficient technical answer for improving stamping processes. The present study, focused on stainless steel stampings (comparison between a 441-1.4509 grade and a 304-1.4301 grade), investigates the performances of this new green industrial lubricant at different levels: from laboratory tests to industrial conditions through the production of hundreds of parts. Additional results coming from tests made on a rotational pin- on-disk tribometer will allow us to appreciate and retrieve more local information about the tribofilm creation during sliding. Moreover, the comparison with different mineral oils currently used at industrial scale, will strengthen the AFULudine performances. Indeed, this new solution usually outperforms a majority of such oils whatever their viscosity and their own composition: formulation, content of extreme pressure additives (Cl, S, P)...

  18. Inactivation of Salmonella Enteritidis on lettuces used by minimally processed vegetable industries.

    PubMed

    Silveira, Josete Bailardi; Hessel, Claudia Titze; Tondo, Eduardo Cesar

    2017-01-30

    Washing and disinfection methods used by minimally processed vegetable industries of Southern Brazil were reproduced in laboratory in order to verify their effectiveness to reduce Salmonella Enteritidis SE86 (SE86) on lettuce. Among the five industries investigated, four carried out washing with potable water followed by disinfection with 200 ppm sodium hypochlorite during different immersion times. The washing procedure alone decreased approximately 1 log CFU/g of SE86 population and immersion times of 1, 2, 5, and 15 minutes in disinfectant solution demonstrated reduction rates ranging from 2.06±0.10 log CFU/g to 3.01±0.21 log CFU/g. Rinsing alone was able to reduce counts from 0.12±0.63 log CFU/g to 1.90±1.07 log CFU/g. The most effective method was washing followed by disinfection with 200 ppm sodium hypochlorite for 15 minutes and final rinse with potable water, reaching 5.83 log CFU/g of reduction. However, no statistical differences were observed on the reduction rates after different immersion times. A time interval of 1 to 2 minutes may be an advantage to the minimally vegetable processed industries in order to optimize the process without putting at risk food safety.

  19. Critical ICT-Inhibiting Factors on IBS Production Management Processes in the Malaysia Construction Industry

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Ern, Peniel Ang Soon; Kasim, Narimah; Hamid, Zuhairi Abd; Chen, Goh Kai

    2017-10-01

    Industrialized Building System (IBS) is one of the approaches that had been introduced as an alternative to conventional building method where it becomes the new strategy of enhancing the sustainable construction in current industries while spearheading a huge advancement of benefits with green constructions into the existing industries. The IBS approach is actively promoted through several strategies and incentives as an alternative to conventional building methods. Extensive uptakes of modern Information Communication Technology (ICT) applications are able to support the different IBS processes for effective production. However, it is argued that ICT uptake at the organisational level is still in its infancy. This raises the importance to identify critical inhibitors which are inhibing the effective uptake of ICT in the IBS production management process. Critical inhibitors to ICT uptake were identified through questionnaire survey with the IBS industry stakeholders. The mean index and critical t-values are generated with the use of the quantitative tool, Statistical Package for Social Sciences (SPSS). The top ten priority ranked inhibitors reflect the Cost, People and Process elements to ICT uptake. High costs in acquiring the technologies and resistance to change were some main concerns from the findings.

  20. Improved methods for the enumeration of heterotrophic bacteria in bottled mineral waters.

    PubMed

    Ramalho, R; Cunha, J; Teixeira, P; Gibbs, P A

    2001-03-01

    At this time the European Union regulations require that the heterotrophic plate counts (HPC) of mineral waters be assessed at two recovery temperatures: 22 degrees C for 72 h and 37 degrees C for 24 h. This procedure is time consuming and expensive. Development of new rapid methods for microbiological assessment of the microbial flora in the bottled water is an industry-driven need. The objectives of this work were to develop a method for the HPC that utilises only one recovery temperature and one incubation period and evaluate the use of, the LIVE/DEAD(R) BacLight Bacterial Viability Kit, 5-cyano-2,3-ditotyl tetrazolium chloride (CTC) and impedance methods to enumerate viable bacteria in bottled mineral water. Results showed that incubation at 30 degrees C could be used instead of incubation at 22 degrees C and 37 degrees C. Good correlation exists between counts at 30 degrees C and counts at 22 degrees C (r>0.90) and all the pathogens important in mineral water analyses grow similarly at 30 degrees C and 37 degrees C during 24 h. It was demonstrated that impedance methods might be useful to the mineral water industry as a rapid indicator of microbiological quality of the water. Results obtained with BacLight and CTC were similar to those obtained with plate counts.

  1. Implementation of Haccp in the Mexican Poultry Processing Industry

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Maldonado-Siman, Ema; Martínez-Hernández, Pedro Arturo; Ruíz-Flores, Agustín; García-Muñiz, José G.; Cadena-Meneses, José A.

    Hazard Analysis and Critical Control Point (HACCP) is a safety and quality management tool used as major issue in international and domestic trade in food industry. However, detailed information on costs and benefits of HACCP implementation is needed to provide appropriate advice to food processing plants. This paper reports on the perceptions of costs and benefits by the Mexican poultry processing plants and sale destinations. The results suggest that the major costs of implementing and operating HACCP within poultry processing plants are record keeping and external technical advice. The main benefit indicated by the majority of processing plants is a reduction in microbial counts. Over 39% of poultry production is sent to nation-wide chains of supermarkets, and less than 13% is sent to international markets. It was concluded that the adoption of HACCP by the Mexican poultry processing sector is based on the concern to increase and keep the domestic market, rather than to compete in the international market.

  2. Microbe-Clay Mineral Reactions and Characterization Techniques

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Dong, H.; Zhang, G.; Ji, S.; Jaisi, D.; Kim, J.

    2008-12-01

    Clays and clay minerals are ubiquitous in soils, sediments, and sedimentary rocks. They play an important role in environmental processes such as nutrient cycling, plant growth, contaminant migration, organic matter maturation, and petroleum production. The changes in the oxidation state of the structural iron in clay minerals, in part, control their physical and chemical properties in natural environments, such as clay particle flocculation, dispersion, swelling, hydraulic conductivity, surface area, cation and anion exchange capacity, and reactivity towards organic and inorganic contaminants. The structural ferric iron [Fe(III)] in clay minerals can be reduced either chemically or biologically. Many different chemical reductants have been tried, but the most commonly used agent is dithionite. Biological reductants are bacteria, including dissimilatory iron reducing prokaryotes (DIRP) and sulfate-reducing bacteria (SRB). A wide variety of DIRP have been used to reduce ferric iron in clay minerals, including mesophilic, thermophilic, and hyperthermophilic prokaryotes. Multiple clay minerals have been used for microbial reduction studies, including smectite, nontronite (iron-rich smectite variety), illite, illite/smectite, chlorite, and their various mixtures. All these clay minerals are reducible by microorganisms under various conditions with smectite (nontronite) being the most reducible. The reduction extent and rate of ferric iron in clay minerals are measured by wet chemistry, and the reduced clay mineral products are typically characterized with chemical methods, X-ray diffraction, scanning and transmission electron microscopy, Mössbauer spectroscopy, Fourier Transform Infrared Spectroscopy (FTIR), UV-vis spectroscopy, and synchrotron-based techniques (such as EXAFS). Microbially reduced smectites (nontronites) have been found to be reactive in reducing a variety of organic and inorganic contaminants. Degradable organic contaminants include pesticides

  3. Emission characteristics and chemical components of size-segregated particulate matter in iron and steel industry

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Jia, Jia; Cheng, Shuiyuan; Yao, Sen; Xu, Tiebing; Zhang, Tingting; Ma, Yuetao; Wang, Hongliang; Duan, Wenjiao

    2018-06-01

    As one of the highest energy consumption and pollution industries, the iron and steel industry is regarded as a most important source of particulate matter emission. In this study, chemical components of size-segregated particulate matters (PM) emitted from different manufacturing units in iron and steel industry were sampled by a comprehensive sampling system. Results showed that the average particle mass concentration was highest in sintering process, followed by puddling, steelmaking and then rolling processes. PM samples were divided into eight size fractions for testing the chemical components, SO42- and NH4+ distributed more into fine particles while most of the Ca2+ was concentrated in coarse particles, the size distribution of mineral elements depended on the raw materials applied. Moreover, local database with PM chemical source profiles of iron and steel industry were built and applied in CMAQ modeling for simulating SO42- and NO3- concentration, results showed that the accuracy of model simulation improved with local chemical source profiles compared to the SPECIATE database. The results gained from this study are expected to be helpful to understand the components of PM in iron and steel industry and contribute to the source apportionment researches.

  4. Twenty-First Century Research Needs in Electrostatic Processes Applied to Industry and Medicine

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Mazumder, M. K.; Sims, R. A.; Biris, A. S.; Srirama, P. K.; Saini, D.; Yurteri, C. U.; Trigwell, S.; De, S.; Sharma, R.

    2005-01-01

    From the early century Nobel Prize winning (1923) experiments with charged oil droplets, resulting in the discovery of the elementary electronic charge by Robert Millikan, to the early 21st century Nobel Prize (2002) awarded to John Fenn for his invention of electrospray ionization mass spectroscopy and its applications to proteomics, electrostatic processes have been successfully applied to many areas of industry and medicine. Generation, transport, deposition, separation, analysis, and control of charged particles involved in the four states of matter: solid, liquid, gas, and plasma are of interest in many industrial and biomedical processes. In this paper, we briefly discuss some of the applications and research needs involving charged particles in industrial and medical applications including: (1) Generation and deposition of unipolarly charged dry powder without the presence of ions or excessive ozone, (2) Control of tribocharging process for consistent and reliable charging, (3) Thin film (less than 25 micrometers) powder coating and Powder coating on insulative surfaces, (4) Fluidization and dispersion of fine powders, (5) Mitigation of Mars dust, (6) Effect of particle charge on the lung deposition of inhaled medical aerosols, (7) Nanoparticle deposition, and (8) Plasma/Corona discharge processes. A brief discussion on the measurements of charged particles and suggestions for research needs are also included.

  5. TomoMiner and TomoMinerCloud: A software platform for large-scale subtomogram structural analysis

    PubMed Central

    Frazier, Zachary; Xu, Min; Alber, Frank

    2017-01-01

    SUMMARY Cryo-electron tomography (cryoET) captures the 3D electron density distribution of macromolecular complexes in close to native state. With the rapid advance of cryoET acquisition technologies, it is possible to generate large numbers (>100,000) of subtomograms, each containing a macromolecular complex. Often, these subtomograms represent a heterogeneous sample due to variations in structure and composition of a complex in situ form or because particles are a mixture of different complexes. In this case subtomograms must be classified. However, classification of large numbers of subtomograms is a time-intensive task and often a limiting bottleneck. This paper introduces an open source software platform, TomoMiner, for large-scale subtomogram classification, template matching, subtomogram averaging, and alignment. Its scalable and robust parallel processing allows efficient classification of tens to hundreds of thousands of subtomograms. Additionally, TomoMiner provides a pre-configured TomoMinerCloud computing service permitting users without sufficient computing resources instant access to TomoMiners high-performance features. PMID:28552576

  6. Nitrogen losses, uptake and abundance of ammonia oxidizers in soil under mineral and organo-mineral fertilization regimes.

    PubMed

    Florio, Alessandro; Felici, Barbara; Migliore, Melania; Dell'Abate, Maria Teresa; Benedetti, Anna

    2016-05-01

    A laboratory incubation experiment and greenhouse studies investigated the impact of organo-mineral (OM) fertilization as an alternative practice to conventional mineral (M) fertilization on nitrogen (N) uptake and losses in perennial ryegrass (Lolium perenne) as well as on soil microbial biomass and ammonia oxidizers. While no significant difference in plant productivity and ammonia emissions between treatments could be detected, an increase in soil total N content and an average 17.9% decrease in nitrates leached were observed in OM fertilization compared with M fertilization. The microbial community responded differentially to treatments, suggesting that the organic matter fraction of the OM fertilizer might have influenced N immobilization in the microbial biomass in the short-medium term. Furthermore, nitrate contents in fertilized soils were significantly related to bacterial but not archaeal amoA gene copies, whereas in non-fertilized soils a significant relationship between soil nitrates and archaeal but not bacterial amoA copies was found. The application of OM fertilizer to soil maintained sufficient productivity and in turn increased N use efficiency and noticeably reduced N losses. Furthermore, in this experiment, ammonia-oxidizing bacteria drove nitrification when an N source was added to the soil, whereas ammonia-oxidizing archaea were responsible for ammonia oxidation in non-fertilized soil. © 2015 Society of Chemical Industry. © 2015 Society of Chemical Industry.

  7. Understanding Contaminants Associated with Mineral Deposits

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Verplanck, Philip L.

    2008-01-01

    Interdisciplinary studies by the U.S. Geological Survey (USGS) have resulted in substantial progress in understanding the processes that control *the release of metals and acidic water from inactive mines and mineralized areas, *the transport of metals and acidic water to streams, and *the fate and effect of metals and acidity on downstream ecosystems. The potential environmental effects associated with abandoned and inactive mines, resulting from the complex interaction of a variety of chemical and physical processes, is an area of study that is important to the USGS Mineral Resources Program. Understanding the processes contributing to the environmental effects of abandoned and inactive mines is also of interest to a wide range of stakeholders, including both those responsible for managing lands with historically mined areas and those responsible for anticipating environmental consequences of future mining operations. The recently completed (2007) USGS project entitled 'Process Studies of Contaminants Associated with Mineral Deposits' focused on abandoned and inactive mines and mineralized areas in the Rocky Mountains of Montana, Colorado, New Mexico, Utah, and Arizona, where there are thousands of abandoned mines. Results from these studies provide new information that advances our understanding of the physical and biogeochemical processes causing the mobilization, transport, reaction, and fate of potentially toxic elements (including aluminum, arsenic, cadmium, copper, iron, lead, and zinc) in mineralized near-surface systems and their effects on aquatic and riparian habitat. These interdisciplinary studies provide the basis for scientific decisionmaking and remedial action by local, State, and Federal agencies charged with minimizing the effects of potentially toxic elements on the environment. Current (2007) USGS research highlights the need to understand (1) the geologic sources of metals and acidity and the geochemical reactions that release them from their

  8. Sustainable Mineral-Intensive Growth in Odisha, India

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Nayak, S.

    2012-04-01

    The focus of the work is to highlight the present environmental and social impacts of extensive mining on the health of the common people of Odisha. The mining activities have created havoc impact to the environment and social life of the state. Odisha has huge deposits of ores and minerals of chromite, nickel, bauxite, iron, coal, copper, manganese, graphite, vanadium etc. The mining activities have encouraged rapid urbanization and at the same time have altered the topography of these areas and extensively degraded the forest land. For long term sustainable development of the society, it is necessary to take a balanced and integrated approach towards environmental protection and economic advancement. Industries should aim at achieving their goals, through a system of permits based on best available techniques, which gives emphasis on integrated prevention and control of consumption of energy and water as well as pollution of water, air and soil. The rapid industrial growth has brought promising opportunities for economic development and poverty reduction in Odisha but at the same time has caused extensive environmental degradation. The best management practices to deal with environmental and social impacts on mineral-intensive growth are suggested in this work. In addition to lean technology, economic implications of the introduction of environmental technologies for mining activities are also discussed.

  9. Practical applications of trace minerals for dairy cattle.

    PubMed

    Overton, T R; Yasui, T

    2014-02-01

    Trace minerals have critical roles in the key interrelated systems of immune function, oxidative metabolism, and energy metabolism in ruminants. To date, the primary trace elements of interest in diets for dairy cattle have included Zn, Cu, Mn, and Se although data also support potentially important roles of Cr, Co, and Fe in diets. Trace minerals such as Zn, Cu, Mn, and Se are essential with classically defined roles as components of key antioxidant enzymes and proteins. Available evidence indicates that these trace minerals can modulate aspects of oxidative metabolism and immune function in dairy cattle, particularly during the transition period and early lactation. Chromium has been shown to influence both immune function and energy metabolism of cattle; dairy cows fed Cr during the transition period and early lactation have evidence of improved immune function, increased milk production, and decreased cytological endometritis. Factors that complicate trace mineral nutrition at the farm level include the existence of a large number of antagonisms affecting bioavailability of individual trace minerals and uncertainty in terms of requirements under all physiological and management conditions; therefore, determining the optimum level and source of trace minerals under each specific situation continues to be a challenge. Typical factorial approaches to determine requirements for dairy cattle do not account for nuances in biological function observed with supplementation with various forms and amounts of trace minerals. Trace mineral nutrition modulates production, health, and reproduction in cattle although both formal meta-analysis and informal survey of the literature reveal substantial heterogeneity of response in these outcome variables. The industry has largely moved away from oxide-based programs toward sulfate-based programs; however, some evidence favors shifting supplementation strategies further toward more bioavailable forms of inorganic and organic trace

  10. 76 FR 28662 - Industrial, Commercial, and Institutional Boilers and Process Heaters and Commercial and...

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2011-05-18

    ... ENVIRONMENTAL PROTECTION AGENCY 40 CFR Parts 60 and 63 [EPA-HQ-OAR-2002-0058; EPA-HQ-2003-0119; FRL-9308-6] RIN 2060-AQ25; 2060-AO12 Industrial, Commercial, and Institutional Boilers and Process Heaters and Commercial and Industrial Solid Waste Incineration Units AGENCY: Environmental Protection...

  11. Multi - party Game Analysis of Coal Industry and Industry Regulation Policy Optimization

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Jiang, Tianqi

    2018-01-01

    In the face of the frequent occurrence of coal mine safety accidents, this paper analyses the relationship between central and local governments, coal mining enterprises and miners from the perspective of multi - group game. In the actual production, the decision of one of the three groups can affect the game strategy of the other of the three, so we should assume the corresponding game order. In this order, the game analysis of the income and decision of the three is carried out, and the game decision of the government, the enterprise and the workers is obtained through the establishment of the benefit matrix and so on. And then on the existing system to optimize the coal industry regulation proposed practical recommendations to reduce the frequency of industry safety accidents, optimize the industry production environment.

  12. 40 CFR 436.60 - Applicability; description of the asphaltic mineral subcategory.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-07-01

    ... asphaltic mineral subcategory. 436.60 Section 436.60 Protection of Environment ENVIRONMENTAL PROTECTION AGENCY (CONTINUED) EFFLUENT GUIDELINES AND STANDARDS (CONTINUED) MINERAL MINING AND PROCESSING POINT SOURCE CATEGORY Asphaltic Mineral Subcategory § 436.60 Applicability; description of the asphaltic...

  13. 40 CFR 436.60 - Applicability; description of the asphaltic mineral subcategory.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-07-01

    ... asphaltic mineral subcategory. 436.60 Section 436.60 Protection of Environment ENVIRONMENTAL PROTECTION AGENCY (CONTINUED) EFFLUENT GUIDELINES AND STANDARDS (CONTINUED) MINERAL MINING AND PROCESSING POINT SOURCE CATEGORY Asphaltic Mineral Subcategory § 436.60 Applicability; description of the asphaltic...

  14. 40 CFR 436.60 - Applicability; description of the asphaltic mineral subcategory.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-07-01

    ... asphaltic mineral subcategory. 436.60 Section 436.60 Protection of Environment ENVIRONMENTAL PROTECTION AGENCY (CONTINUED) EFFLUENT GUIDELINES AND STANDARDS (CONTINUED) MINERAL MINING AND PROCESSING POINT SOURCE CATEGORY Asphaltic Mineral Subcategory § 436.60 Applicability; description of the asphaltic...

  15. Effects of wireless packet loss in industrial process control systems.

    PubMed

    Liu, Yongkang; Candell, Richard; Moayeri, Nader

    2017-05-01

    Timely and reliable sensing and actuation control are essential in networked control. This depends on not only the precision/quality of the sensors and actuators used but also on how well the communications links between the field instruments and the controller have been designed. Wireless networking offers simple deployment, reconfigurability, scalability, and reduced operational expenditure, and is easier to upgrade than wired solutions. However, the adoption of wireless networking has been slow in industrial process control due to the stochastic and less than 100% reliable nature of wireless communications and lack of a model to evaluate the effects of such communications imperfections on the overall control performance. In this paper, we study how control performance is affected by wireless link quality, which in turn is adversely affected by severe propagation loss in harsh industrial environments, co-channel interference, and unintended interference from other devices. We select the Tennessee Eastman Challenge Model (TE) for our study. A decentralized process control system, first proposed by N. Ricker, is adopted that employs 41 sensors and 12 actuators to manage the production process in the TE plant. We consider the scenario where wireless links are used to periodically transmit essential sensor measurement data, such as pressure, temperature and chemical composition to the controller as well as control commands to manipulate the actuators according to predetermined setpoints. We consider two models for packet loss in the wireless links, namely, an independent and identically distributed (IID) packet loss model and the two-state Gilbert-Elliot (GE) channel model. While the former is a random loss model, the latter can model bursty losses. With each channel model, the performance of the simulated decentralized controller using wireless links is compared with the one using wired links providing instant and 100% reliable communications. The sensitivity of the

  16. Effects of Wireless Packet Loss in Industrial Process Control Systems

    PubMed Central

    Liu, Yongkang; Candell, Richard; Moayeri, Nader

    2017-01-01

    Timely and reliable sensing and actuation control are essential in networked control. This depends on not only the precision/quality of the sensors and actuators used but also on how well the communications links between the field instruments and the controller have been designed. Wireless networking offers simple deployment, reconfigurability, scalability, and reduced operational expenditure, and is easier to upgrade than wired solutions. However, the adoption of wireless networking has been slow in industrial process</