Science.gov

Sample records for mineral residues properties

  1. Elastic properties of minerals

    SciTech Connect

    Aleksandrov, K.S.; Prodaivoda, G.T.

    1993-09-01

    Investigations of the elastic properties of the main rock-forming minerals were begun by T.V. Ryzhova and K.S. Aleksandrov over 30 years ago on the initiative of B.P. Belikov. At the time, information on the elasticity of single crystals in general, and especially of minerals, was very scanty. In the surveys of that time there was information on the elasticity of 20 or 30 minerals. These, as a rule, did not include the main rock-forming minerals; silicates were represented only by garnets, quartz, topaz, tourmaline, zircon, beryl, and staurolite, which are often found in nature in the form of large and fairly high-quality crystals. Then and even much later it was still necessary to prove a supposition which now seems obvious: The elastic properties of rocks, and hence the velocities of elastic (seismic) waves in the earth`s crust, are primarily determined by the elastic characteristics of the minerals composing these rocks. Proof of this assertion, with rare exceptions of mono-mineralic rocks (marble, quartzite, etc.) cannot be obtained without information on the elasticities of a sufficiently large number of minerals, primarily framework, layer, and chain silicates which constitute the basis of most rocks. This also served as the starting point and main problem of the undertakings of Aleksandrov, Ryzhova, and Belikov - systematic investigations of the elastic properties of minerals and then of various rocks. 108 refs., 7 tabs.

  2. Clay Minerals: Adsorbophysical Properties

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Kotova, O.

    2013-12-01

    The structure and features of surfaces of clay minerals (kaolin, montmorillonite, etc) have an important scientific and practical value. On the surface the interrelation of processes at electronic, atomic and molecular levels is realized. Availability of mineral surface to external influences opens wide scientific and technical opportunities of use of the surface phenomena, so the research of crystal-chemical and crystal-physical processes in near-surface area of clay minerals is important. After long term researches of gas-clay mineral system in physical fields the author has obtained experimental and theoretical material contributing to the creation of the surface theory of clays. A part of the researches is dedicated to studying the mechanism of crystal-chemical and crystal-physical processes in near surface area of clay mineral systems, selectivity of the surface centers to interact with gas phase molecules and adsorbophysical properties. The study of physical and chemical properties of fine clay minerals and their modification has a decisive importance for development of theory and practice of nanotechnologies: they are sorbents, membranes, ceramics and other materials with required electronic features.

  3. Thermodynamic properties of minerals

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Robie, Richard A.

    1962-01-01

    In the ten years since the publication of the national Bureau of Standards comprehensive tables of thermochemical properties, by Rossini and other (1952), a very large body of modern calorimetric and equilibrium data has become available. Because of the complex interrelations among many thermochemical data and the necessity for internal consistency among these values, a complete revision of this standard reference is required. This is also true of the summaries of thermochemical data for the sulfides (Richardson and Jeffes 1952) and for the oxides (Coughlin 1954). The following tables present critically selected values for the heat and free energy of formation, the logarithm of the equilibrium constant of formation Log Kf, the entropy and the molar volume, at 298.15°K (25.0°C) and one atmosphere for minerals.

  4. Dentin caries zones: mineral, structure, and properties.

    PubMed

    Pugach, M K; Strother, J; Darling, C L; Fried, D; Gansky, S A; Marshall, S J; Marshall, G W

    2009-01-01

    Caries Detector staining reveals 4 zones in dentin containing caries lesions, but characteristics of each zone are not well-defined. We therefore investigated the physical and microstructural properties of carious dentin in the 4 different zones to determine important differences revealed by Caries Detector staining. Six arrested dentin caries lesions and 2 normal controls were Caries-Detector-stained, each zone (pink, light pink, transparent, apparently normal) being analyzed by atomic force microscopy (AFM) imaging for microstructure, by AFM nano-indentation for mechanical properties, and by transverse digital microradiography (TMR) for mineral content. Microstructure changes, and nanomechanical properties and mineral content significantly decreased across zones. Hydrated elastic modulus and mineral content from normal dentin to pink Caries-Detector-stained dentin ranged from 19.5 [10.6-25.3] GPa to 1.6 [0.0-5.0] GPa and from 42.9 [39.8-44.6] vol% to 12.4 [9.1-14.2] vol%, respectively. Even the most demineralized pink zone contained considerable residual mineral.

  5. Elastic Properties of Mantle Minerals

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Duffy, T. S.; Stan, C. V.

    2012-12-01

    The most direct information about the interior structure of the Earth comes from seismic wave velocities. Interpretation of seismic data requires an understanding of how sound velocities and elastic properties of minerals vary with pressure, temperature, crystal structure, and composition as well as the role of anelasticity, melts, etc. More generally, elastic moduli are important for understanding many solid-state phenomena including mechanical stability, interatomic interactions, material strength, compressibility, and phase transition mechanisms. The database of mineral elasticity measurements has been growing rapidly in recent years. In this work, we report initial results of an ongoing survey of our current knowledge of mineral elasticity at both ambient conditions and high pressures and temperatures. The analysis is selective, emphasizing single crystal measurements but also incorporating polycrystalline measurements and volume compression data as appropriate. The goal is to synthesize our current understanding of mineral elasticity in terms of structure and composition, and to identify the major remaining needs for experimental and theoretical work. Clinopyroxenes (Cpx) provide an example of our approach. A wide range of clinopyroxene compositions are found geologically and Mg-, Ca-, and Na-rich clinopyroxenes are expected to be important components in the upper mantle. The single-crystal elastic properties of a number of endmember Cpx compositions have been measured and these exhibit a range of ~25% in shear velocity. Those with monovalent cations (spodumene, jadeite) in the M2 site exhibit the highest velocities while Fe-rich (hendenbergit, acmite) compositions have the lowest velocities. The effects on velocity due to a wide range of chemical substitutions can be defined, but there are important discrepancies and omissions in the database. New measurements of omphacites, intermediate diopside-hedenbergite compositions, aegerine/acmite, augite, etc. are

  6. The formation of filamentary sublimate residues (FSR) from mineral grains

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Storrs, A. D.; Fanale, F. P.; Saunders, R. S.; Stephens, J. B.

    1988-01-01

    The significant interparticle forces observed between solar system dust grains upon desorption or sublimation of excess volatiles in simulated Martian or cometary environments are presently investigated, in order to more precisely define these mechanisms and to simulate the types of deposits thereby formed. Some classes of phyllosilicate mineral grains are noted to bond together to form a highly porous filamentary sublimate residue (FSR) exhibiting an exceptionally high tensile strength for its density; this may be important in its control of erosion and sublimation in Martian and cometary environments. It is concluded that FSR formation from clean mineral grains in water ice may be important in the formation of the Martian polar layered terrain.

  7. Physical properties of evaporite minerals

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Robertson, Eugene C.

    1962-01-01

    The data in the following tables were abstracted from measurements of physical properties of evaporite minerals or of equivalent synthetic compounds. The compounds considered are the halide and sulfate salts which supposedly precipitated from evaporating ocean water and which form very extensive and thick "rock salt" beds. These beds are composed almost entirely of NaCl. In places where the beds are deeply buried and where fractures occur in the overlying rocks, the salt is plastically extruded upward as in a pipe to form the "salt domes". Most of the tables are for NaCl, both the natural (halite) and the synthetic salt, polycrystalline and single crystals. These measurements have been collected for use 1) in studies on storage of radioactive wastes in salt domes or beds, 2) in calculations concerned with nuclear tests in salt domes and beds, and 3) in studies of phenomena in salt of geologic interest. Rather than an exhaustive compilation of physical property measurements, there tables represent a summary of data from accessible sources. As limitations of time have presented making a more systematic and comprehensive selection, the data given may seem arbitrarily chosen. Some of the data listed are old, and newer, more accurate data are undoubtedly available. Halite (an synthetic NaCl) has been very thoroughly studied because of its relatively simple and highly symmetrical crystal structure, its easy availability naturally or synthetically, both in single crystals and polycrystalline, its useful and scientifically interesting properties, and its role as a compound of almost purely ionic bonding. The measurements of NaCl in the tables, however, represent only a small part of the total number of observations; discrimination was necessary to keep the size of the tabulations manageable. The physical properties of the evaporite minerals other than halite and sylvite have received only desultory attention of experiementalists, and appear in only a few tables. The

  8. ELECTROCHEMICAL PROPERTIES OF ROCKS AND MINERALS.

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Olhoeft, Gary R.

    1985-01-01

    Many phenomena and processes in the earth sciences are a result of the electrochemical properties of rocks and minerals. Examples include formation of mineral deposits and petroleum reservoirs control of drilling muds, and success or failure of toxic waste isolation barriers. Such phenomena can be observed at a distance using geophysical techniques to measure various electrical properties of the earth.

  9. Viscoelastic properties of mineralized alginate hydrogel beads.

    PubMed

    Olderøy, Magnus O; Xie, Minli; Andreassen, Jens-Petter; Strand, Berit L; Zhang, Zhibing; Sikorski, Pawel

    2012-07-01

    Alginate hydrogels have applications in biomedicine, ranging from delivery of cells and growth factors to wound management aids. However, they are mechanically soft and have shown little potential for the use in bone tissue engineering. Here, the viscoelastic properties of alginate hydrogel beads mineralized with calcium phosphate, both by a counter-diffusion (CD) and an enzymatic approach, are characterized by a micro-manipulation technique and mathematical modeling. Fabricated hydrogel materials have low mineral content (below 3 % of the total hydrogel mass, which corresponds to mineral content of up to 60 % of the dry mass) and low dry mass content (<5 %). For all samples compression and hold (relaxation after compression) data was collected and analyzed. The apparent Young's modulus of the mineralized beads was estimated by the Hertz model (compression data) and was shown to increase up to threefold upon mineralization. The enzymatically mineralized beads showed higher apparent Young's modulus compared to the ones mineralized by CD, even though the mineral content of the former was lower. Full compression-relaxation force-time profiles were analyzed using viscoelastic model. From this analysis, infinite and instantaneous Young's moduli were determined. Similarly, enzymatic mineralized beads, showed higher instantaneous and infinite Young's modulus, even if the degree of mineralization is lower then that achieved for CD method. This leads to the conclusion that both the degree of mineralization and the spatial distribution of mineral are important for the mechanical performance of the composite beads, which is in analogy to highly structured mineralized tissues found in many organisms.

  10. Properties of Rasch residual fit statistics.

    PubMed

    Wu, Margaret; Adams, Richard J

    2013-01-01

    This paper examines the residual-based fit statistics commonly used in Rasch measurement. In particular, the paper analytically examines some of the theoretical properties of the residual-based fit statistics with a view to establishing the inferences that can be made using these fit statistics. More specifically, the relationships between the distributional properties of the fit statistics and sample size are discussed; some research that erroneously concludes that residual-based fit statistics are unstable is reviewed; and finally, it is analytically illustrated that, for dichotomous items, residual-based fit statistics provide a measure of the relative slope of empirical item characteristic curves. With a clear understanding of the theoretical properties of the fit statistics, the use and limitations of these statistics can be placed in the right light.

  11. Influence of residue and nitrogen fertilizer additions on carbon mineralization in soils with different texture and cropping histories

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    To improve our ability to predict SOC mineralization response to residue and N additions in soils with different inherent and dynamic organic matter properties, a 330-day incubation was conducted using soil sampled from two long-term experiments (clay loam Mollisols in Iowa [IAsoil] and silt loam Ul...

  12. Erionite series minerals: mineralogical and carcinogenic properties.

    PubMed

    Dogan, A Umran; Dogan, Meral; Hoskins, John A

    2008-08-01

    Erionite is a human and animal carcinogen and one of the most toxic minerals known. Erionite deposits have been reported in many countries; however, it is only in the area of three villages of Cappadocia, Turkey, that environmental exposure to erionite has been demonstrated to be the cause of an epidemic of the disease mesothelioma. In the USA, no cases of mesothelioma have been reliably proven to be the result of erionite exposure, though the possibility exists. Erionite samples from three villages of the Cappadocia region were characterized mineralogically and compared with three different standards from the USA. Micro morphological details of erionite minerals using a high-resolution field-emission SEM showed that microstructures of "bundles", "fibers", and "fibrils" are important physical properties of fibrous erionite minerals. Typical lung burden of erionite and asbestos fibers were compared in terms of number of fibers. Assuming the lung burden of fibers in a human mesothelioma victim is about 1 mg, and the hazardous fibers are approximately 1 mum in diameter and 10 mum long, that milligram contains approximately 40 million asbestos and 50 million erionite fibers. These microstructures of erionite minerals draw attention to the concepts of surface area or surface-area-to-volume ratio and their relationship to the carcinogenicity of the mineral. The larger surface area creates a wider platform for mineral-cell interaction and thus more possibilities of proliferative transformation of mesothelial cells. Consequently, understanding the exact mineralogical properties will help determination of the true carcinogenic mechanism(s) of the mineral for prevention and possibly treatment of malignant mesothelioma.

  13. Relationship between nanoscale mineral properties and calcein labeling in mineralizing bone surfaces.

    PubMed

    Aido, Marta; Kerschnitzki, Michael; Hoerth, Rebecca; Burghammer, Manfred; Montero, Cédric; Checa, Sara; Fratzl, Peter; Duda, Georg N; Willie, Bettina M; Wagermaier, Wolfgang

    2014-08-01

    Bone's mineral properties, such as particle thickness and degree of alignment have been associated with bone quality. Bone formation, remodeling, aging of the tissue and mineral homeostasis influence mineral particle properties leading to specific patterns across bone. Scanning small angle X-ray scattering (sSAXS) with synchrotron radiation is a powerful tool, which allows us to study bone's nanoscale mineral properties in a position-resolved way. We used sSAXS, fluorescence light microscopy and backscattered electron (BSE) imaging to study bone's mineral properties at the tibial midshaft of in vivo-loaded mice. By combining these techniques, we could detect local changes in mineral properties. Regions labeled with calcein fluorochrome have lower mean mineral thickness and degree of mineral alignment. We also observed thinner and less aligned mineral particles near blood vessels. We conclude that mineral properties (i) are altered by fluorochrome labeling and (ii) depend on the proximity to blood vessels.

  14. Pyrolysis of Woody Residues: Impact of Mineral Content

    SciTech Connect

    Iisa, Kristiina; Zacher, Alan; Sykes, Robert; Preto, Fernando; Bronson, Benjamin

    2014-11-21

    Woody residues represent a lower cost option for feedstocks for the production of biofuels. In this study, the pyrolysis of woody residues was investigated as part of Clean Energy Dialogue between the U.S. and Canada. Three pine-based hog fuels from saw mills and wood from pine beetle killed trees were chosen as the woody residue feedstocks and pine and birch as the reference clean feedstocks. The yields and quality of the oil were evaluated in a bubbling fluidized bed reactor and a laboratory-scale pyrolyzer connected to a molecular beam mass spectrometer.

  15. Process for utilizing mineral-containing residue from coal liquefaction processes

    SciTech Connect

    Leonard, R.E.

    1981-02-10

    A process is described for utilizing mineral-containing residue from coal liquefaction processes to produce a hydraulic cement. The residue is mixed with siliceous and calcareous matereals and compacted. The compacted solids are introduced into a kiln and fired to produce hydraulic cement clinker. The primary fuel for the clinker production is contained in the residue. The clinker is removed from the kiln and ground to produce cement.

  16. Electromagnetic properties of high specific surface minerals

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Klein, Katherine Anne

    Interparticle electrical forces play a dominant role in the behaviour of high specific surface minerals, such as clays. This fact encourages the use of small electromagnetic perturbations to assess the microscale properties of these materials. Thus, this research focuses on using electromagnetic waves to understand fundamental particle-particle and particle-fluid interactions, and fabric formation in high specific surface mineral-fluid mixtures (particle size <~1 μm). Topics addressed in this study include: the role of specific surface and double layer phenomena in the engineering behaviour of clay-water-electrolyte mixtures; the interplay between surface conduction, double layer polarization, and interfacial polarization; the relationship between fabric, permittivity, shear wave velocity, and engineering properties in soft slurries; and the effect of ferromagnetic impurities on electromagnetic measurements. The critical role of specific surface on the engineering properties of fine-grained soils is demonstrated through fundamental principles and empirical correlations. Afterwards, the effect of specific surface on the electromagnetic properties of particulate materials is studied using simple microscale analyses of conduction and polarization phenomena in particle-fluid mixtures, and corroborated by experimentation. These results clarify the relative importance of specific surface, water content, electrolyte type, and ionic concentration on the electrical properties of particulate materials. The sensitivity of electromagnetic parameters to particle orientation is addressed in light of the potential assessment of anisotropy in engineering properties. It is shown that effective conductivity measurements provide a robust method to determine electrical anisotropy in particle-fluid mixtures. However, real relative dielectric measurements at frequencies below 1 MHz are unreliable due to electrode effects (especially in highly conductive mixtures). The relationship

  17. Carbon and nitrogen mineralization and persistence of organic residues under conservation and conventional tillage

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    A combination of high biomass cover crops with organic mulches may be an option for no-till vegetable production, but mineralization rates from these residues is lacking. The objective of this study was to assess nutrient release rates and persistence from mimosa, lespedeza, oat straw, and soybean r...

  18. Physical and chemical properties of industrial mineral oils affecting lubrication

    SciTech Connect

    Godfrey, D.; Herguth, W.R.

    1996-02-01

    The lubricating properties of mineral oils, and contaminants which affect those properties, are discussed. A contaminant is any material not in the original fresh oil, whether it is generated within the system or ingested. 5 refs.

  19. [Effects of stabilization treatment on migration and transformation of heavy metals in mineral waste residues].

    PubMed

    Zhao, Shu-Hua; Chen, Zhi-Liang; Zhang, Tai-Ping; Pan, Wei-Bin; Peng, Xiao-Chun; Che, Rong; Ou, Ying-Juan; Lei, Guo-Jian; Zhou, Ding

    2014-04-01

    Different forms of heavy metals in soil will produce different environmental effects, and will directly influence the toxicity, migration and bioavailability of heavy metals. This study used lime, fly ash, dried sludge, peanut shells as stabilizers in the treatment of heavy metals in mineral waste residues. Morphological analyses of heavy metal, leaching experiments, potted plant experiments were carried out to analyze the migration and transformation of heavy metals. The results showed that after adding stabilizers, the pH of the acidic mineral waste residues increased to more than neutral, and the organic matter content increased significantly. The main existing forms of As, Pb, and Zn in the mineral waste residues were the residual. The contents of exchangeable and organic matter-bound As decreased by 65.6% and 87.7% respectively after adding fly ash, dried sludge and peanut shells. Adding lime, fly ash and peanut shells promoted the transformation of As from the Fe-Mn oxide-bound to the carbonate-bound, and adding lime and fly ash promoted the transformation of Pb and Zn from the exchangeable, Fe-Mn oxide-bound, organic matter-bound to the residual. After the early stage of the stabilization treatment, the contents of As, Pb and Zn in the leachate had varying degrees of decline, and adding peanut shells could reduce the contents of As, Pb and Zn in the leachate further. Among them, the content of As decreased most significantly after treatment with fly ash, dried sludge and peanut shells, with a decline of 57.4%. After treatment with lime, fly ash and peanut shells, the content of Zn decreased most significantly, by 24.9%. The addition of stabilizers was advantageous to the germination and growth of plants. The combination of fly ash, dried sludge and peanut shell produced the best effect, and the Vetiveria zizanioides germination rate reached 76% in the treated wasted mineral residues.

  20. Scoping candidate minerals for stabilization of arsenic-bearing solid residuals.

    PubMed

    Raghav, Madhumitha; Shan, Jilei; Sáez, A Eduardo; Ela, Wendell P

    2013-12-15

    Arsenic Crystallization Technology (ACT) is a potentially eco-friendly, effective technology for stabilization of arsenic-bearing solid residuals (ABSRs). The strategy is to convert ABSRs generated by water treatment facilities into minerals with a high arsenic capacity and long-term stability in mature, municipal solid waste landfills. Candidate minerals considered in this study include scorodite, arsenate hydroxyapatites, ferrous arsenates (symplesite-type minerals), tooeleite, and arsenated-schwertmannite. These minerals were evaluated as to ease of synthesis, applicability to use of iron-based ABSRs as a starting material, and arsenic leachability. The Toxicity Characteristic Leaching Procedure (TCLP) was used for preliminary assessment of candidate mineral leaching. Minerals that passed the TCLP and whose synthesis route was promising were subjected to a more aggressive leaching test using a simulated landfill leachate (SLL) solution. Scorodite and arsenate hydroxyapatites were not considered further because their synthesis conditions were not found to be favorable for general application. Tooeleite and silica-amended tooeleite showed high TCLP arsenic leaching and were also not investigated further. The synthesis process and leaching of ferrous arsenate and arsenated-schwertmannite were promising and of these, arsenated-schwertmannite was most stable during SLL testing. The latter two candidate minerals warrant synthesis optimization and more extensive testing.

  1. Scoping Candidate Minerals for Stabilization of Arsenic-Bearing Solid Residuals

    PubMed Central

    Raghav, Madhumitha; Shan, Jilei; Sáez, A. Eduardo; Ela, Wendell P.

    2014-01-01

    Arsenic Crystallization Technology (ACT) is a potentially eco-friendly, effective technology for stabilization of arsenic-bearing solid residuals (ABSRs). The strategy is to convert ABSRs generated by water treatment facilities into minerals with a high arsenic capacity and long-term stability in mature, municipal solid waste landfills. Candidate minerals considered in this study include scorodite, arsenate hydroxyapatites, ferrous arsenates (symplesite-type minerals), tooeleite, and arsenated-schwertmannite. These minerals were evaluated as to ease of synthesis, applicability to use of iron-based ABSRs as a starting material, and arsenic leachability. The Toxicity Characteristic Leaching Procedure (TCLP) was used for preliminary assessment of candidate mineral leaching. Minerals that passed the TCLP and whose synthesis route was promising were subjected to a more aggressive leaching test using a simulated landfill leachate (SLL) solution. Scorodite and arsenate hydroxyapatites were not considered further because their synthesis conditions were not found to be favorable for general application. Tooeleite and silica-amended tooeleite showed high TCLP arsenic leaching and were also not investigated further. The synthesis process and leaching of ferrous arsenate and arsenated-schwertmannite were promising and of these, arsenated-schwertmannite was most stable during SLL testing. The latter two candidate minerals warrant synthesis optimization and more extensive testing. PMID:24231323

  2. Antioxidant properties of roasted coffee residues.

    PubMed

    Yen, Wen-Jye; Wang, Bor-Sen; Chang, Lee-Wen; Duh, Pin-Der

    2005-04-01

    The antioxidant activity of roasted coffee residues was evaluated. Extraction with four solvents (water, methanol, ethanol, and n-hexane) showed that water extracts of roasted coffee residues (WERCR) produced higher yields and gave better protection for lipid peroxidation. WERCR showed a remarkable protective effect on oxidative damage of protein. In addition, WERCR showed scavenging of free radicals as well as the reducing ability and to bind ferrous ions, indicating that WERCR acts as both primary and secondary antioxidants. The HPLC analyses showed that phenolic acids (chlorogenic acid and caffeic acid) and nonphenolic compounds [caffeine, trigonelline, nicotinic acid, and 5-(hydroxymethyl)furfuraldehyde] remained in roasted coffee residues. These compounds showed a protective effect on a liposome model system. The concentrations of flavonoids and polyphenolic compounds in roasted coffee residues were 8,400 and 20,400 ppm, respectively. In addition, the Maillard reaction products (MRPs) remaining in roasted coffee residues were believed to show antioxidant activity. These data indicate that roasted coffee residues have excellent potential for use as a natural antioxidant source because the antioxidant compounds remained in roasted coffee residues. PMID:15796608

  3. Automated mineral identification algorithm using optical properties of crystals

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Aligholi, Saeed; Khajavi, Reza; Razmara, Morteza

    2015-12-01

    A method has been developed to automatically characterize the type of mineral phases by means of digital image analysis using optical properties of crystals. The method relies on microscope automation, digital image acquisition, image processing and analysis. Two hundred series of digital images were taken from 45 standard thin sections using a digital camera mounted on a conventional microscope and then transmitted to a computer. CIELab color space is selected for the processing, in order to effectively employ its well-defined color difference metric for introducing appropriate color-based feature. Seven basic optical properties of minerals (A. color; B. pleochroism; C. interference color; D. birefringence; E. opacity; F. isotropy; G. extinction angle) are redefined. The Local Binary Pattern (LBP) operator and modeling texture is integrated in the Mineral Identification (MI) scheme to identify homogeneous regions in microscopic images of minerals. The accuracy of mineral identification using the method was %99, %98, %96 and %95 for biotite, hornblende, quartz and calcite minerals, respectively. The method is applicable to other minerals and phases for which individual optical properties of crystals do not provide enough discrimination between the relevant phases. On the basis of this research, it can be concluded that if the CIELab color space and the local binary pattern (LBP) are applied, it is possible to recognize the mineral samples with the accuracy of more than 98%.

  4. Three Aromatic Residues are Required for Electron Transfer during Iron Mineralization in Bacterioferritin.

    PubMed

    Bradley, Justin M; Svistunenko, Dimitri A; Lawson, Tamara L; Hemmings, Andrew M; Moore, Geoffrey R; Le Brun, Nick E

    2015-12-01

    Ferritins are iron storage proteins that overcome the problems of toxicity and poor bioavailability of iron by catalyzing iron oxidation and mineralization through the activity of a diiron ferroxidase site. Unlike in other ferritins, the oxidized di-Fe(3+) site of Escherichia coli bacterioferritin (EcBFR) is stable and therefore does not function as a conduit for the transfer of Fe(3+) into the storage cavity, but instead acts as a true catalytic cofactor that cycles its oxidation state while driving Fe(2+) oxidation in the cavity. Herein, we demonstrate that EcBFR mineralization depends on three aromatic residues near the diiron site, Tyr25, Tyr58, and Trp133, and that a transient radical is formed on Tyr25. The data indicate that the aromatic residues, together with a previously identified inner surface iron site, promote mineralization by ensuring the simultaneous delivery of two electrons, derived from Fe(2+) oxidation in the BFR cavity, to the di-ferric catalytic site for safe reduction of O2.

  5. 43 CFR 3873.3 - Non-mineral entry of residue of subdivisions invaded by mining claims.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-10-01

    ... Public Lands (Continued) BUREAU OF LAND MANAGEMENT, DEPARTMENT OF THE INTERIOR MINERALS MANAGEMENT (3000) ADVERSE CLAIMS, PROTESTS AND CONFLICTS Segregation § 3873.3 Non-mineral entry of residue of subdivisions... approve the application (if otherwise regular), exclusive of the conflict with the mining claims. (b)...

  6. Decomposition, nitrogen and carbon mineralization from food and cover crop residues in the central plateau of Haiti.

    PubMed

    Lynch, M J; Mulvaney, M J; Hodges, S C; Thompson, T L; Thomason, W E

    2016-01-01

    Cover crops are a major focus of conservation agriculture efforts because they can provide soil cover and increase nutrient availability after their mineralization in cropping systems. To evaluate the effect of residue type and placement on rate of decomposition and carbon (C) and nitrogen (N) mineralization, residues from two food crops, maize (Zea mays L.) and common bean (Phaseolus vulgaris L.), and two promising cover crops, sunn hemp (Crotalaria juncea L.) and sorghum sudangrass (Sorghum bicolor [L.] Moench x S. bicolor var. Sudanese [Piper] Stapf) were used in a litterbag study in the Central Plateau region of Haiti from May to September, 2013. Residues were placed in litterbags at a rate equivalent to 3.25 Mg residue ha(-1) either on the soil surface or buried at 15 cm to represent a tilled and no-tillage system, respectively. Initial C:N ratios were: maize > common bean > sorghum sudangrass > sunn hemp. Highest residue mass loss rates and C and N mineralization generally occurred in the reverse order. Overall, surface-placed residues decomposed more slowly with 40 and 17 % of initial residue mass of surface and buried residues, respectively, remaining at 112 days. Carbon and N mineralization was higher when residues were buried. Net N mineralization of buried residues was 0.12, 0.07, 0.06, and 0.03 g N g residue(-1) for sunn hemp, sorghum sudangrass, maize, and common bean, respectively over 112 days. To achieve the goal of increasing nutrient supply while maintaining year-round cover, a combination of grass and legume cover crops may be required with benefits increasing over multiple seasons. PMID:27429883

  7. A kinetic approach to evaluate salinity effects on carbon mineralization in a plant residue-amended soil.

    PubMed

    Nourbakhsh, Farshid; Sheikh-Hosseini, Ahmad R

    2006-10-01

    The interaction of salinity stress and plant residue quality on C mineralization kinetics in soil is not well understood. A laboratory experiment was conducted to study the effects of salinity stress on C mineralization kinetics in a soil amended with alfalfa, wheat and corn residues. A factorial combination of two salinity levels (0.97 and 18.2 dS/m) and four levels of plant residues (control, alfalfa, wheat and corn) with three replications was performed. A first order kinetic model was used to describe the C mineralization and to calculate the potentially mineralizable C. The CO(2)-C evolved under non-saline condition, ranged from 814.6 to 4842.4 mg CO(2)-C/kg in control and alfalfa residue-amended soils, respectively. Salinization reduced the rates of CO(2) evolution by 18.7%, 6.2% and 5.2% in alfalfa, wheat and corn residue-amended soils, respectively. Potentially mineralizable C (C(0)) was reduced significantly in salinized alfalfa residue-treated soils whereas, no significant difference was observed for control treatments as well as wheat and corn residue-treated soils. We concluded that the response pattern of C mineralization to salinity stress depended on the plant residue quality and duration of incubation.

  8. Minerals

    MedlinePlus

    Minerals are important for your body to stay healthy. Your body uses minerals for many different jobs, including building bones, making ... regulating your heartbeat. There are two kinds of minerals: macrominerals and trace minerals. Macrominerals are minerals your ...

  9. Crop residue management and fertilization effects on soil organic matter and associated biological properties.

    PubMed

    Zhao, Bingzi; Zhang, Jiabao; Yu, Yueyue; Karlen, Douglas L; Hao, Xiying

    2016-09-01

    Returning crop residue may result in nutrient reduction in soil in the first few years. A two-year field experiment was conducted to assess whether this negative effect is alleviated by improved crop residue management (CRM). Nine treatments (3 CRM and 3 N fertilizer rates) were used. The CRM treatments were (1) R0: 100 % of the N using mineral fertilizer with no crop residues return; (2) R: crop residue plus mineral fertilizer as for the R0; and (3) Rc: crop residue plus 83 % of the N using mineral and 17 % manure fertilizer. Each CRM received N fertilizer rates at 270, 360, and 450 kg N ha(-1) year(-1). At the end of the experiment, soil NO3-N was reduced by 33 % from the R relative to the R0 treatment, while the Rc treatment resulted in a 21 to 44 % increase in occluded particulate organic C and N, and 80 °C extracted dissolved organic N, 19 to 32 % increase in microbial biomass C and protease activity, and higher monounsaturated phospholipid fatty acid (PLFA):saturated PLFA ratio from stimulating growth of indigenous bacteria when compared with the R treatment. Principal component analysis showed that the Biolog and PLFA profiles in the three CRM treatments were different from each other. Overall, these properties were not influenced by the used N fertilizer rates. Our results indicated that application of 17 % of the total N using manure in a field with crop residues return was effective for improving potential plant N availability and labile soil organic matter, primarily due to a shift in the dominant microorganisms. PMID:27234834

  10. Crop residue management and fertilization effects on soil organic matter and associated biological properties.

    PubMed

    Zhao, Bingzi; Zhang, Jiabao; Yu, Yueyue; Karlen, Douglas L; Hao, Xiying

    2016-09-01

    Returning crop residue may result in nutrient reduction in soil in the first few years. A two-year field experiment was conducted to assess whether this negative effect is alleviated by improved crop residue management (CRM). Nine treatments (3 CRM and 3 N fertilizer rates) were used. The CRM treatments were (1) R0: 100 % of the N using mineral fertilizer with no crop residues return; (2) R: crop residue plus mineral fertilizer as for the R0; and (3) Rc: crop residue plus 83 % of the N using mineral and 17 % manure fertilizer. Each CRM received N fertilizer rates at 270, 360, and 450 kg N ha(-1) year(-1). At the end of the experiment, soil NO3-N was reduced by 33 % from the R relative to the R0 treatment, while the Rc treatment resulted in a 21 to 44 % increase in occluded particulate organic C and N, and 80 °C extracted dissolved organic N, 19 to 32 % increase in microbial biomass C and protease activity, and higher monounsaturated phospholipid fatty acid (PLFA):saturated PLFA ratio from stimulating growth of indigenous bacteria when compared with the R treatment. Principal component analysis showed that the Biolog and PLFA profiles in the three CRM treatments were different from each other. Overall, these properties were not influenced by the used N fertilizer rates. Our results indicated that application of 17 % of the total N using manure in a field with crop residues return was effective for improving potential plant N availability and labile soil organic matter, primarily due to a shift in the dominant microorganisms.

  11. Impact of the addition of different plant residues on carbon-nitrogen content and nitrogen mineralization-immobilization turnover in a soil incubated under laboratory conditions

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Abbasi, M. K.; Tahir, M. M.; Sabir, N.; Khurshid, M.

    2014-10-01

    Application of plant residues as soil amendment may represent a valuable recycling strategy that affects on carbon (C) and nitrogen (N) cycling, soil properties improvement and plant growth promotion. The amount and rate of nutrient release from plant residues depend on their quality characteristics and biochemical composition. A laboratory incubation experiment was conducted for 120 days under controlled conditions (25 °C and 58% water filled pore space (WFPS)) to quantify initial biochemical composition and N mineralization of leguminous and non-leguminous plant residues i.e. the roots, shoots and leaves of Glycine max, Trifolium repens, Zea mays, Poplus euramericana, Rubinia pseudoacacia and Elagnus umbellate incorporated into the soil at the rate of 200 mg residue N kg-1 soil. The diverse plant residues showed wide variation in total N, carbon, lignin, polyphenols and C/N ratio with higher polyphenol content in the leaves and higher lignin content in the roots. The shoot of G. max and the shoot and root of T. repens displayed continuous mineralization by releasing a maximum of 109.8, 74.8 and 72.5 mg N kg-1 and representing a 55, 37 and 36% of added N being released from these resources. The roots of G. max and Z. mays and the shoot of Z. mays showed continuous negative values throughout the incubation showing net immobilization. After an initial immobilization, leaves of P. euramericana, R. pseudoacacia and E. umbellate exhibited net mineralization by releasing a maximum of 31.8, 63.1 and 65.1 mg N kg-1, respectively and representing a 16, 32 and 33% of added N being released. Nitrogen mineralization from all the treatments was positively correlated with the initial residue N contents (r = 0.89; p ≤ 0.01), and negatively correlated with lignin content (r = -0.84; p ≤ 0.01), C/N ratio (r = -0.69; p ≤ 0.05), lignin/N ratio (r = -0.68; p ≤ 0.05), polyphenol/N ratio (r = -0.73; p ≤ 0.05) and ligin + polyphenol/N ratio (r = -0.70; p ≤ 0.05) indicating

  12. The VLab repository of thermodynamics and thermoelastic properties of minerals

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Da Silveira, P. R.; Sarkar, K.; Wentzcovitch, R. M.; Shukla, G.; Lindemann, W.; Wu, Z.

    2015-12-01

    Thermodynamics and thermoelastic properties of minerals at planetary interior conditions are essential as input for geodynamics simulations and for interpretation of seismic tomography models. Precise experimental determination of these properties at such extreme conditions is very challenging. Therefore, ab initio calculations play an essential role in this context, but at the cost of great computational effort and memory use. Setting up a widely accessible and versatile mineral physics database can relax unnecessary repetition of such computationally intensive calculations. Access to such data facilitates transactional interaction across fields and can advance more quickly insights about deep Earth processes. Hosted by the Minnesota Supercomputing Institute, the Virtual Laboratory for Earth and Planetary Materials (VLab) was designed to develop and promote the theory of planetary materials using distributed, high-throughput quantum calculations. VLab hosts an interactive database of thermodynamics and thermoelastic properties or minerals computed by ab initio. Such properties can be obtained according to user's preference. The database is accompanied by interactive visualization tools, allowing users to repeat and build upon previously published results. Using VLab2015, we have evaluated thermoelastic properties, such as elastic coefficients (Cij), Voigt, Reuss, and Voigt-Reuss-Hill aggregate averages for bulk (K) and shear modulus (G), shear wave velocity (VS), longitudinal wave velocity (Vp), and bulk sound velocity (V0) for several important minerals. Developed web services are general and can be used for crystals of any symmetry. Results can be tabulated, plotted, or downloaded from the VLab website according to user's preference.

  13. Structure, chemistry, and properties of mineral nanoparticles

    SciTech Connect

    Waychunas, G.A.; Zhang, H.; Gilbert, B.

    2008-12-02

    Nanoparticle properties can depart markedly from their bulk analog materials, including large differences in chemical reactivity, molecular and electronic structure, and mechanical behavior. The greatest changes are expected at the smallest sizes, e.g. 10 nm and below, where surface effects are expected to dominate bonding, shape and energy considerations. The precise chemistry at nanoparticle interfaces can have a profound effect on structure, phase transformations, strain, and reactivity. Certain phases may exist only as nanoparticles, requiring transformations in chemistry, stoichiometry and structure with evolution to larger sizes. In general, mineralogical nanoparticles have been little studied.

  14. EM Properties of Magnetic Minerals at RADAR Frequencies

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Stillman, D. E.; Olhoeft, G. R.

    2005-01-01

    Previous missions to Mars have revealed that Mars surface is magnetic at DC frequency. Does this highly magnetic surface layer attenuate RADAR energy as it does in certain locations on Earth? It has been suggested that the active magnetic mineral on Mars is titanomaghemite and/or titanomagnetite. When titanium is incorporated into a maghemite or magnetite crystal, the Curie temperature can be significantly reduced. Mars has a wide range of daily temperature fluctuations (303K - 143K), which could allow for daily passes through the Curie temperature. Hence, the global dust layer on Mars could experience widely varying magnetic properties as a function of temperature, more specifically being ferromagnetic at night and paramagnetic during the day. Measurements of EM properties of magnetic minerals were made versus frequency and temperature (300K- 180K). Magnetic minerals and Martian analog samples were gathered from a number of different locations on Earth.

  15. Nitrogen mineralization from selected /sup 15/N-labelled crop residues and humus as affected by inorganic nitrogen

    SciTech Connect

    Santos, J.A.

    1987-01-01

    The use of cover crops or crop residues as a source of N to succeeding crops has become a matter of increasing importance for economic and environmental reason. Greenhouse and field studies were conducted to determine the N contribution of four /sup 15/N labelled crop residues, rye (Secale cereale L.), wheat (Triticum aestivum L.), crimson clover (Trifolium encarnatum L.), and hairy vetch (Vicia sativa L.), to successive crops and to evaluate the effect of different organic (ON) and inorganic N (IN) combinations on mineralization of the above residues. Total /sup 15/N recovery from the residues ranged from 51% to 85% and 4% to 74% for the greenhouse and field studies, respectively.

  16. Sugar cane management with humic extract and organic and mineral fertilizer: impacts on Oxisol some physical properties

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Alves, M. C.; Campos, F. S.; Souza, Z. M.

    2012-04-01

    The present investigation has as objective to study the impact of cultive systems, humic extract and organic and mineral fertilizers on Oxisol some physical properties cultivated of sugar cane. It was developed in Aparecida do Taboado, Mato Grosso do Sul, Brazil, in Manufactores Alcoolvale. The study was in sugar cane culture implanted on 3th and 4th cycle. The experimental design was at randomized blocks following scheme in zone with eight treatments and four replications. The two treatments in main zone were represented by cultivation systems (with and without chisel) and the subzone fertilization (T1-mineral, T2-mineral+sugar cane residue, T3-mineral+humic and fulvic acids and T4-mix of mineral, sugar cane residue and humic and fulvic acids). In three soil layers: 0.00-0.05; 0.10-0.20 and 0.20-0.40 m were studied the physical soil properties: macroporosity, microporosity, total porosity and soil bulk density. Also evaluate the technological quality of sugar cane. The conclusions are: the application of mineral fertilizer+sugar cane residue+humic extract (Humitec ®) and cropping system with chisel were more effective in improving soil physical; the system of crop of sugar cane ratton implanted in the 2th and 3th cycle, without the use of chisel was better in the recovery of soil physical properties; the crop system without the chisel and the combination of mineral fertilizer+sugar cane residue was promising to increase of Brix, Pol juice, Pol sugar cane and total recoverable sugars Pol.

  17. Mechanical Properties of Mineralized Collagen Fibrils As Influenced By Demineralization

    SciTech Connect

    Balooch, M.; Habelitz, S.; Kinney, J.H.; Marshall, S.J.; Marshall, G.W.

    2009-05-11

    Dentin and bone derive their mechanical properties from a complex arrangement of collagen type-I fibrils reinforced with nanocrystalline apatite mineral in extra- and intrafibrillar compartments. While mechanical properties have been determined for the bulk of the mineralized tissue, information on the mechanics of the individual fibril is limited. Here, atomic force microscopy was used on individual collagen fibrils to study structural and mechanical changes during acid etching. The characteristic 67 nm periodicity of gap zones was not observed on the mineralized fibril, but became apparent and increasingly pronounced with continuous demineralization. AFM-nanoindentation showed a decrease in modulus from 1.5 GPa to 50 MPa during acid etching of individual collagen fibrils and revealed that the modulus profile followed the axial periodicity. The nanomechanical data, Raman spectroscopy and SAXS support the hypothesis that intrafibrillar mineral etches at a substantially slower rate than the extrafibrillar mineral. These findings are relevant for understanding the biomechanics and design principles of calcified tissues derived from collagen matrices.

  18. Hazardous properties of paint residues from the furniture industry.

    PubMed

    Vaajasaari, Kati; Kulovaara, Maaret; Joutti, Anneli; Schultz, Eija; Soljamo, Kari

    2004-01-30

    The objective of this study was to screen nine excess paint residues for environmental hazard and to evaluate their disposability in a non-hazardous or hazardous-waste landfill. These residues were produced in the process of spray-painting furniture. Residues were classified according to their leaching and ecotoxicological properties. Leaching properties were determined with the European standard SFS-EN 12457-2 leaching-test. The toxicity of the leaching-test eluates was measured with plant-, bacteria- and enzyme-inhibition bioassays. Total organic carbon, formaldehyde and solvent concentrations in the solid wastes and in the leaching-test eluates were analysed. It seemed likely that leached formaldehyde caused very high acute toxicity in leaching-test eluates of the dry-booth residues. This hypothesis was based on the fact that the formaldehyde concentrations in the leaching-test eluates of the dry-booth residues were 62-75 times higher than the EC50 value reported in the literature for formaldehyde. The results of the water-curtain booth residues showed that the samples with the highest TOC and aromatic solvent concentrations were also the most toxic. The studied excess paint residues were complex organic mixtures and contained large amounts of compounds not identifiable from chemical data. Therefore, the evaluation of the hazard based solely on available chemical data is unlikely to be sufficient, as evidenced by our study. Our results show that harmful compounds remain in the solid waste and the toxicity results of their leaching-test eluates show that toxicity may leach from residues in contact with water at landfill sites. They also confirm the benefit of combining chemical and ecotoxicological assays in assessing the potential environmental hazard of complex organic mixtures found in wastes. PMID:15177095

  19. Changes in soil chemical and microbiological properties during 4 years of application of various organic residues.

    PubMed

    Odlare, M; Pell, M; Svensson, K

    2008-01-01

    A 4-year field trial was established in eastern Sweden to evaluate the effects of organic waste on soil chemical and microbiological variables. A simple crop rotation with barley and oats was treated with either compost from household waste, biogas residue from household waste, anaerobically treated sewage sludge, pig manure, cow manure or mineral fertilizer. All fertilizers were amended in rates corresponding to 100kgNha(-1)year(-1). The effects of the different types of organic waste were evaluated by subjecting soil samples, taken each autumn 4 weeks after harvest, to an extensive set of soil chemical (pH, Org-C, Tot-N, Tot-P, Tot-S, P-AL, P-Olsen, K-AL, and some metals) and microbiological (B-resp, SIR, microSIR active and dormant microorganisms, PDA, microPDA, PAO, Alk-P and N-min) analyses. Results show that compost increased pH, and that compost as well as sewage sludge increased plant available phosphorus; however, the chemical analysis showed few clear trends over the 4 years and few clear relations to plant yield or soil quality. Biogas residues increased substrate induced respiration (SIR) and, compared to the untreated control amendment of biogas residues as well as compost, led to a higher proportion of active microorganisms. In addition, biogas residues increased potential ammonia oxidation rate (PAO), nitrogen mineralization capacity (N-min) as well as the specific growth rate constant of denitrifiers (microPDA). Despite rather large concentrations of heavy metals in some of the waste products, no negative effects could be seen on either chemical or microbiological soil properties. Changes in soil microbial properties appeared to occur more rapidly than most chemical properties. This suggests that soil microbial processes can function as more sensitive indicators of short-term changes in soil properties due to amendment of organic wastes. PMID:17697770

  20. Nanomechanical properties of facial sutures and sutural mineralization front.

    PubMed

    Radhakrishnan, P; Mao, J J

    2004-06-01

    The mechanical properties of craniofacial sutures have rarely been investigated. Three facial sutures-the pre-maxillomaxillary (PMS), the nasofrontal (NFS), and the zygomaticotemporal (ZTS)-and their corresponding sutural mineralization fronts in 8 young New Zealand White rabbits were subjected to nano-indentation with atomic force microscopy as a test of the hypothesis that they have different mechanical properties. The average elastic modulus of the PMS was 1.46 +/- 0.24 MPa (mean +/- SD), significantly higher than both the ZTS (1.20 +/- 0.20) and NFS (1.16 +/- 0.18). The average elastic moduli of sutural mineralization fronts 30 micro m away were significantly higher than their corresponding sutures and had the same distribution pattern: the PMS (2.07 +/- 0.24 MPa) significantly higher than both the ZTS (1.56 +/- 0.29) and NFS (1.71 +/- 0.22). Analysis of these data suggests that facial sutures and their immediately adjacent sutural mineralization fronts have different capacities for mechanical deformation. The elastic properties of sutures and sutural mineralization fronts are potentially useful for improving our understanding of their roles in development.

  1. Effect of high-energy X-ray doses on bone elastic properties and residual strains.

    PubMed

    Singhal, A; Deymier-Black, Alix C; Almer, J D; Dunand, D C

    2011-11-01

    Bone X-ray irradiation occurs during medical treatments, sterilization of allografts, space travel and in vitro studies. High doses are known to affect the post-yield properties of bone, but their effect on the bone elastic properties is unclear. The effect of such doses on the mineral-organic interface has also not been adequately addressed. Here, the evolution of elastic properties and residual strains with increasing synchrotron X-ray dose (5-3880 kGy) is examined on bovine cortical bone. It is found that these doses affect neither the degree of nanometer-level load transfer between the hydroxyapatite (HAP) platelets and the collagen up to stresses of -60 MPa nor the microscopic modulus of collagen fibrils (both measured by synchrotron X-ray scattering during repeated in situ loading and unloading). However, the residual elastic strains in the HAP phase decrease markedly with increased irradiation, indicating damage at the HAP-collagen interface. The HAP residual strain also decreases after repeated loading/unloading cycles. These observations can be explained by temporary de-bonding at the HAP/collagen interface (thus reducing the residual strain), followed by rapid re-bonding (so that load transfer capability is not affected).

  2. Scattering Properties of Heterogeneous Mineral Particles with Absorbing Inclusions

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Dlugach, Janna M.; Mishchenko, Michael I.

    2015-01-01

    We analyze the results of numerically exact computer modeling of scattering and absorption properties of randomly oriented poly-disperse heterogeneous particles obtained by placing microscopic absorbing grains randomly on the surfaces of much larger spherical mineral hosts or by imbedding them randomly inside the hosts. These computations are paralleled by those for heterogeneous particles obtained by fully encapsulating fractal-like absorbing clusters in the mineral hosts. All computations are performed using the superposition T-matrix method. In the case of randomly distributed inclusions, the results are compared with the outcome of Lorenz-Mie computations for an external mixture of the mineral hosts and absorbing grains. We conclude that internal aggregation can affect strongly both the integral radiometric and differential scattering characteristics of the heterogeneous particle mixtures.

  3. Structure and physical properties of Hydrogrossular mineral series

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Adhikari, Puja

    The mineral hydrogrossular series (Ca3Al2(SiO 4)3-x(OH)4x; 0 ≤ x ≤ 3) are important water bearing minerals found in the upper and lower part of the Earth's mantle. They are vital to the planet's hydrosphere under different hydrothermal conditions. The composition and structure of this mineral series are important in geoscience and share many commonalities with cement and clay materials. Other than the end members of the series x = 0 (grossular) and x = 3 (katoite) which have a cubic garnet structure, the structure of the series is totally unknown. We used large-scale ab initio modeling to investigate the structures and properties for hydrogrossular series for x = 0, 0.5, 1, 1.5, 2, 2.5, 3. Results indicate that for x > 0 and x < 3, the structures are tetragonal. This shows that there is structural change related to the lowering of overall symmetry associated with the composition of SiO4 tetrahedra and AlO6 octahedra. Total Bond order also explains the reason behind the change in the compressibility of the series. The electronic structure, mechanical and optical properties of the hydrogrossular series are calculated and the results for grossular and katoite are in good agreement with the available experimental data. The x--dependence of these physical properties for the series supports the notion of the aforementioned structural transition from cubic to tetragonal.

  4. Residual stresses calculation in autofrettage using variable material properties method

    SciTech Connect

    Jahed, H.; Dubey, R.N.

    1996-12-01

    Autofrettaged cylinders are used for variety of applications in chemical and nuclear industries where large internal pressures have to be withstood. Autofrettage is in the process by which beneficial residual stresses are introduced into thick-walled tubes by initially subjected the tube to high internal pressure which causes inelastic deformation. Here, the variable material properties method is employed to obtain elastic-plastic analysis of an autofrettaged tube. This method develops inelastic solution from the elastic solution by treating the material properties as field variables. The distribution of these parameters are obtained in an iterative manner as a part of the solution. An energy based scheme is used to update these variables. The residual stress field of autofrettaged tubes based on the actual material curve and isotropic and kinematic hardening models are obtained. The results are shown to be in good agreement with the published experimental and finite element results.

  5. AMBIENT CARBONATION of MINING RESIDUES: Understanding the Mechanisms and Optimization of Direct Carbon Dioxide Mineral Sequestration

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Assima, G. P.; Larachi, F.; Molson, J. W.; Beaudoin, G.

    2013-12-01

    early UMRs passivation by iron (III) hydroxide, lepidocrocite, promptly inhibiting the reaction. The kinetics and extent of CO2 uptake were also determined on the basis of the residues' physicochemical properties while key criteria were proposed to assist in categorizing ultramafic mining residues based on their suitability to bind to CO2. The implementation of techniques such as chelation, draining and venting was also investigated with the aim of improving and sustaining the carbonation reaction under ambient conditions.

  6. 26 CFR 1.615-7 - Effect of transfer of mineral property.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-04-01

    ... 26 Internal Revenue 7 2011-04-01 2009-04-01 true Effect of transfer of mineral property. 1.615-7... TAX (CONTINUED) INCOME TAXES (CONTINUED) Natural Resources § 1.615-7 Effect of transfer of mineral property. (a) Transfer before election by transferor. (1) If mineral property is transferred in...

  7. 26 CFR 1.615-7 - Effect of transfer of mineral property.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-04-01

    ... 26 Internal Revenue 7 2010-04-01 2010-04-01 true Effect of transfer of mineral property. 1.615-7... TAX (CONTINUED) INCOME TAXES (CONTINUED) Natural Resources § 1.615-7 Effect of transfer of mineral property. (a) Transfer before election by transferor. (1) If mineral property is transferred in...

  8. 26 CFR 1.615-7 - Effect of transfer of mineral property.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-04-01

    ... 26 Internal Revenue 7 2012-04-01 2012-04-01 false Effect of transfer of mineral property. 1.615-7... TAX (CONTINUED) INCOME TAXES (CONTINUED) Natural Resources § 1.615-7 Effect of transfer of mineral property. (a) Transfer before election by transferor. (1) If mineral property is transferred in...

  9. 26 CFR 1.615-7 - Effect of transfer of mineral property.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-04-01

    ... 26 Internal Revenue 7 2013-04-01 2013-04-01 false Effect of transfer of mineral property. 1.615-7... TAX (CONTINUED) INCOME TAXES (CONTINUED) Natural Resources § 1.615-7 Effect of transfer of mineral property. (a) Transfer before election by transferor. (1) If mineral property is transferred in...

  10. 26 CFR 1.615-7 - Effect of transfer of mineral property.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-04-01

    ... 26 Internal Revenue 7 2014-04-01 2013-04-01 true Effect of transfer of mineral property. 1.615-7... TAX (CONTINUED) INCOME TAXES (CONTINUED) Natural Resources § 1.615-7 Effect of transfer of mineral property. (a) Transfer before election by transferor. (1) If mineral property is transferred in...

  11. Elastic properties of dry clay mineral aggregates, suspensions and sandstones

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Vanorio, Tiziana; Prasad, Manika; Nur, Amos

    2003-10-01

    The presence of clay minerals can alter the elastic behaviour of rocks significantly. Although clay minerals are common in sedimentary formations and seismic measurements are our main tools for studying subsurface lithologies, measurements of elastic properties of clay minerals have proven difficult. Theoretical values for the bulk modulus of clay are reported between 20 and 50 GPa. The only published experimental measurement of Young's modulus in a clay mineral using atomic force acoustic microscopy (AFAM) gave a much lower value of 6.2 GPa. This study has concentrated on using independent experimental methods to measure the elastic moduli of clay minerals as functions of pressure and saturation. First, ultrasonic P- and S-wave velocities were measured as functions of hydrostatic pressure in cold-pressed clay aggregates with porosity and grain density ranging from 4 to 43 per cent and 2.13 to 2.83 g cm-3, respectively. In the second experiment, P- and S-wave velocities in clay powders were measured under uniaxial stresses compaction. In the third experiment, P-wave velocity and attenuation in a kaolinite-water suspension with clay concentrations between 0 and 60 per cent were measured at ambient conditions. Our elastic moduli measurements of kaolinite, montmorillonite and smectite are consistent for all experiments and with reported AFAM measurements on a nanometre scale. The bulk modulus values of the solid clay phase (Ks) lie between 6 and 12 GPa and shear (μs) modulus values vary between 4 and 6 GPa. A comparison is made between the accuracy of velocity prediction in shaley sandstones and clay-water and clay-sand mixtures using the values measured in this study and those from theoretical models. Using Ks= 12 GPa and μs= 6 GPa from this study, the models give a much better prediction both of experimental velocity reduction due to increase in clay content in sandstones and velocity measurements in a kaolinite-water suspension.

  12. Investigating Radiation Shielding Properties of Different Mineral Origin Heavyweight Concretes

    SciTech Connect

    Basyigit, Celalettin; Uysal, Volkan; Kilincarslan, Semsettin; Akkas, Ayse; Mavi, Betuel; Guenoglu, Kadir; Akkurt, Iskender

    2011-12-26

    The radiation although has hazardous effects for human health, developing technologies bring lots of usage fields to radiation like in medicine and nuclear power station buildings. In this case protecting from undesirable radiation is a necessity for human health. Heavyweight concrete is one of the most important materials used in where radiation should be shielded, like those areas. In this study, used heavyweight aggregates of different mineral origin (Limonite, Siderite), in order to prepare different series in concrete mixtures and investigated radiation shielding properties. The experimental results on measuring the radiation shielding, the heavyweight concrete prepared with heavyweight aggregates of different mineral origin show that, are useful radiation absorbents when they used in concrete mixtures.

  13. 26 CFR 1.381(c)(18)-1 - Depletion on extraction of ores or minerals from the waste or residue of prior mining.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-04-01

    ... 26 Internal Revenue 4 2011-04-01 2011-04-01 false Depletion on extraction of ores or minerals from... Reorganizations § 1.381(c)(18)-1 Depletion on extraction of ores or minerals from the waste or residue of prior... section 613(c)(3) (relating to extraction of ores or minerals from the ground). Thus, an...

  14. 26 CFR 1.381(c)(18)-1 - Depletion on extraction of ores or minerals from the waste or residue of prior mining.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-04-01

    ... 26 Internal Revenue 4 2010-04-01 2010-04-01 false Depletion on extraction of ores or minerals from... Reorganizations § 1.381(c)(18)-1 Depletion on extraction of ores or minerals from the waste or residue of prior... section 613(c)(3) (relating to extraction of ores or minerals from the ground). Thus, an...

  15. Influence of Residue and Nitrogen Fertilizer Additions on Carbon Mineralization in Soils with Different Texture and Cropping Histories

    PubMed Central

    Chen, Xianni; Wang, Xudong; Liebman, Matt; Cavigelli, Michel; Wander, Michelle

    2014-01-01

    To improve our ability to predict SOC mineralization response to residue and N additions in soils with different inherent and dynamic organic matter properties, a 330-day incubation was conducted using samples from two long-term experiments (clay loam Mollisols in Iowa [IAsoil] and silt loam Ultisols in Maryland [MDsoil]) comparing conventional grain systems (Conv) amended with inorganic fertilizers with 3 yr (Med) and longer (Long), more diverse cropping systems amended with manure. A double exponential model was used to estimate the size (Ca, Cs) and decay rates (ka, ks) of active and slow C pools which we compared with total particulate organic matter (POM) and occluded-POM (OPOM). The high-SOC IAsoil containing highly active smectite clays maintained smaller labile pools and higher decay rates than the low-SOC MDsoil containing semi-active kaolinitic clays. Net SOC loss was greater (2.6 g kg−1; 8.6%) from the IAsoil than the MDsoil (0.9 g kg−1, 6.3%); fractions and coefficients suggest losses were principally from IAsoil’s resistant pool. Cropping history did not alter SOC pool size or decay rates in IAsoil where rotation-based differences in OPOM-C were small. In MDsoil, use of diversified rotations and manure increased ka by 32% and ks by 46% compared to Conv; differences mirrored in POM- and OPOM-C contents. Residue addition prompted greater increases in Ca (340% vs 230%) and Cs (38% vs 21%) and decreases in ka (58% vs 9%) in IAsoil than MDsoil. Reduced losses of SOC from residue-amended MDsoil were associated with increased OPOM-C. Nitrogen addition dampened CO2-C release. Clay type and C saturation dominated the IAsoil’s response to external inputs and made labile and stable fractions more vulnerable to decay. Trends in OPOM suggest aggregate protection influences C turnover in the low active MDsoil. Clay charge and OPOM-C contents were better predictors of soil C dynamics than clay or POM-C contents. PMID:25078458

  16. Type Ia Supernova Hubble Residuals and Host-Galaxy Properties

    SciTech Connect

    Nearby Supernova Factory; Kim, A. G.; Aldering, G.; Antilogus, P.; Aragon, C.; Bailey, S.; Baltay, C.; Bongard, S.; Buton, C.; Canto, A.; Cellier-Holzem, F.; Childress, M.; Chotard, N.; Copin, Y.; Fakhouri, H. K.; Feindt, U.; Fleury, M.; Gangler, E.; Greskovic, P.; Guy, J.; Kowalski, M.; Lombardo, S.; Nordin, J.; Nugent, P.; Pain, R.; Pecontal, E.; Pereira, R.; Perlmutter, S.; Rabinowitz, D.; Rigault, M.; Runge, K.; Saunders, C.; Scalzo, R.; Smadja, G.; Tao, C.; Thomas, R. C.; Weaver, B. A.

    2014-01-17

    Kim et al. (2013) [K13] introduced a new methodology for determining peak- brightness absolute magnitudes of type Ia supernovae from multi-band light curves. We examine the relation between their parameterization of light curves and Hubble residuals, based on photometry synthesized from the Nearby Supernova Factory spec- trophotometric time series, with global host-galaxy properties. The K13 Hubble residual step with host mass is 0.013 ? 0.031 mag for a supernova subsample with data coverage corresponding to the K13 training; at ? 1?, the step is not significant and lower than previous measurements. Relaxing the data coverage requirement the Hubble residual step with host mass is 0.045 ? 0.026 mag for the larger sample; a calculation using the modes of the distributions, less sensitive to outliers, yields a step of 0.019 mag. The analysis of this article uses K13 inferred luminosities, as distinguished from previous works that use magnitude corrections as a function of SALT2 color and stretch param- eters: Steps at> 2? significance are found in SALT2 Hubble residuals in samples split by the values of their K13 x(1) and x(2) light-curve parameters. x(1) affects the light- curve width and color around peak (similar to the∆m15 and stretch parameters), and x(2) affects colors, the near-UV light-curve width, and the light-curve decline 20 to 30 days after peak brightness. The novel light-curve analysis, increased parameter set, and magnitude corrections of K13 may be capturing features of SN Ia diversity arising from progenitor stellar evolution.

  17. Type Ia Supernova Hubble Residuals and Host-galaxy Properties

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Kim, A. G.; Aldering, G.; Antilogus, P.; Aragon, C.; Bailey, S.; Baltay, C.; Bongard, S.; Buton, C.; Canto, A.; Cellier-Holzem, F.; Childress, M.; Chotard, N.; Copin, Y.; Fakhouri, H. K.; Feindt, U.; Fleury, M.; Gangler, E.; Greskovic, P.; Guy, J.; Kowalski, M.; Lombardo, S.; Nordin, J.; Nugent, P.; Pain, R.; Pecontal, E.; Pereira, R.; Perlmutter, S.; Rabinowitz, D.; Rigault, M.; Runge, K.; Saunders, C.; Scalzo, R.; Smadja, G.; Tao, C.; Thomas, R. C.; Weaver, B. A.

    2014-03-01

    Kim et al. introduced a new methodology for determining peak-brightness absolute magnitudes of type Ia supernovae from multi-band light curves. We examine the relation between their parameterization of light curves and Hubble residuals, based on photometry synthesized from the Nearby Supernova Factory spectrophotometric time series, with global host-galaxy properties. The K13 Hubble residual step with host mass is 0.013 ± 0.031 mag for a supernova subsample with data coverage corresponding to the K13 training; at Lt1σ, the step is not significant and lower than previous measurements. Relaxing the data coverage requirement of the Hubble residual step with the host mass is 0.045 ± 0.026 mag for the larger sample; a calculation using the modes of the distributions, less sensitive to outliers, yields a step of 0.019 mag. The analysis of this article uses K13 inferred luminosities, as distinguished from previous works that use magnitude corrections as a function of SALT2 color and stretch parameters: steps at >2σ significance are found in SALT2 Hubble residuals in samples split by the values of their K13 x(1) and x(2) light-curve parameters. x(1) affects the light-curve width and color around peak (similar to the Δm 15 and stretch parameters), and x(2) affects colors, the near-UV light-curve width, and the light-curve decline 20-30 days after peak brightness. The novel light-curve analysis, increased parameter set, and magnitude corrections of K13 may be capturing features of SN Ia diversity arising from progenitor stellar evolution.

  18. Type Ia supernova Hubble residuals and host-galaxy properties

    SciTech Connect

    Kim, A. G.; Aldering, G.; Aragon, C.; Bailey, S.; Fakhouri, H. K.; Antilogus, P.; Bongard, S.; Canto, A.; Cellier-Holzem, F.; Fleury, M.; Guy, J.; Baltay, C.; Buton, C.; Feindt, U.; Greskovic, P.; Kowalski, M.; Childress, M.; Chotard, N.; Copin, Y.; Gangler, E. [Université de Lyon, F-69622 Lyon; Université de Lyon 1, Villeurbanne; CNRS and others

    2014-03-20

    Kim et al. introduced a new methodology for determining peak-brightness absolute magnitudes of type Ia supernovae from multi-band light curves. We examine the relation between their parameterization of light curves and Hubble residuals, based on photometry synthesized from the Nearby Supernova Factory spectrophotometric time series, with global host-galaxy properties. The K13 Hubble residual step with host mass is 0.013 ± 0.031 mag for a supernova subsample with data coverage corresponding to the K13 training; at <<1σ, the step is not significant and lower than previous measurements. Relaxing the data coverage requirement of the Hubble residual step with the host mass is 0.045 ± 0.026 mag for the larger sample; a calculation using the modes of the distributions, less sensitive to outliers, yields a step of 0.019 mag. The analysis of this article uses K13 inferred luminosities, as distinguished from previous works that use magnitude corrections as a function of SALT2 color and stretch parameters: steps at >2σ significance are found in SALT2 Hubble residuals in samples split by the values of their K13 x(1) and x(2) light-curve parameters. x(1) affects the light-curve width and color around peak (similar to the Δm {sub 15} and stretch parameters), and x(2) affects colors, the near-UV light-curve width, and the light-curve decline 20-30 days after peak brightness. The novel light-curve analysis, increased parameter set, and magnitude corrections of K13 may be capturing features of SN Ia diversity arising from progenitor stellar evolution.

  19. Gasification of residual materials from coal liquefaction: Type II preliminary pilot plant evaluation of SRC-I extruded Kerr McGee mineral ash residue-water slurry

    SciTech Connect

    Wu, C.M.; Robin, A.M.

    1984-05-01

    A Type II preliminary pilot plant evaluation of SRC-I Kerr McGee mineral ash residue as a water slurry feed to the Texaco Coal Gasification Process was conducted at Texaco's Montebello Research Laboratory (MRL). The residue was obtained in the extrudate form directly from the Critical Solvent Deashing process at Wilsonville, Alabama. Approximately 16 tons of residue were gasified during three test runs which were carried out at 950 psig in MRL's High Pressure Solids Gasification Unit I. The runs lasted from 4.8 hours to 7.2 hours, and a total of 19.1 hours of on-stream time was accumulated. This work was authorized by DOE Delivery Order Number 10 under DOE contract EX-76-C-01-2247 and amendment DEAC-01-76ET-10137. It is part of a continuing effort to evaluate residual materials from various DOE sponsored coal liquefaction projects to determine their suitability for conversion to hydrogen using one of the Texaco gasification processes.

  20. Filter media properties of mineral fibres produced by plasma spray.

    PubMed

    Prasauskas, Tadas; Matulevicius, Jonas; Kliucininkas, Linas; Krugly, Edvinas; Valincius, Vitas; Martuzevicius, Dainius

    2016-01-01

    The purpose of this study was to determine the properties of fibrous gas filtration media produced from mineral zeolite. Fibres were generated by direct current plasma spray. The paper characterizes morphology, chemical composition, geometrical structure of elementary fibres, and thermal resistance, as well as the filtration properties of fibre media. The diameter of the produced elementary fibres ranged from 0.17 to 0.90 μm and the length ranged from 0.025 to 5.1 mm. The release of fibres from the media in the air stream was noticed, but it was minimized by hot-pressing the formed fibre mats. The fibres kept their properties up to the temperature of 956°C, while further increase in temperature resulted in the filter media becoming shrunk and brittle. The filtration efficiency of the prepared filter mats ranged from 95.34% to 99.99% for aerosol particles ranging in a size between 0.03 and 10.0 μm. Unprocessed fibre media showed the highest filtration efficiency when filtering aerosol particles smaller than 0.1 µm. Hot-pressed filters were characterized by the highest quality factor values, ranging from 0.021 to 0.064 Pa(-1) (average value 0.034 Pa(-1)).

  1. Mineral trioxide aggregate: a review of physical properties.

    PubMed

    Malhotra, Neeraj; Agarwal, Antara; Mala, Kundabala

    2013-02-01

    The purpose of this two-part series is to review the composition, properties, products, and clinical aspects of mineral trioxide aggregate (MTA) materials. Electronic search of scientific papers from January 1991 to May 2010 was accomplished using PubMed and MedLine search engines to include relevant scientific citations from the peer-reviewed journals published in English. MTA is a refined form of the parent compound, Portland cement (PC). It demonstrates a strong biocompatible nature owing to the high pH and its ability to form hydroxyapatite. MTA materials provide a better seal than traditional endodontic materials as observed in dye leakage, fluid filtration, protein leakage, and bacterial penetration leakage studies, and it has been recognized as a bioactive material. Currently a variety of MTA commercial products are available, including Proroot Gray MTA and White MTA both from DENTSPLY Tulsa Dental Specialties (www.DENTSPLY.com), and MTA Angelus (Angelus,www.angelus.ind.br). Although these materials are indicated for various dental uses/applications, long-term in-vivo clinical studies are still needed to claim the same. This first of this series highlights and discusses the composition, physical, and/or chemical properties of MTA. A subsequent article will offer an overview of the material aspect (commercial products) and clinical considerations for MTA materials.

  2. Mineral trioxide aggregate: a review of physical properties.

    PubMed

    Malhotra, Neeraj; Agarwal, Antara; Mala, Kundabala

    2013-02-01

    The purpose of this two-part series is to review the composition, properties, products, and clinical aspects of mineral trioxide aggregate (MTA) materials. Electronic search of scientific papers from January 1991 to May 2010 was accomplished using PubMed and MedLine search engines to include relevant scientific citations from the peer-reviewed journals published in English. MTA is a refined form of the parent compound, Portland cement (PC). It demonstrates a strong biocompatible nature owing to the high pH and its ability to form hydroxyapatite. MTA materials provide a better seal than traditional endodontic materials as observed in dye leakage, fluid filtration, protein leakage, and bacterial penetration leakage studies, and it has been recognized as a bioactive material. Currently a variety of MTA commercial products are available, including Proroot Gray MTA and White MTA both from DENTSPLY Tulsa Dental Specialties (www.DENTSPLY.com), and MTA Angelus (Angelus,www.angelus.ind.br). Although these materials are indicated for various dental uses/applications, long-term in-vivo clinical studies are still needed to claim the same. This first of this series highlights and discusses the composition, physical, and/or chemical properties of MTA. A subsequent article will offer an overview of the material aspect (commercial products) and clinical considerations for MTA materials. PMID:23627406

  3. Dissolution and sorption of hexahydro-1,3,5-trinitro-1,3,5-triazine (RDX) and 2,4,6-trinitrotoluene (TNT) residues from detonated mineral surfaces.

    PubMed

    Jaramillo, Ashley M; Douglas, Thomas A; Walsh, Marianne E; Trainor, Thomas P

    2011-08-01

    Composition B (Comp B) is a commonly used military formulation composed of the toxic explosive compounds 2,4,6-trinitrotoluene (TNT), and hexahydro-1,3,5-trinitro-1,3,5-triazine (RDX). Numerous studies of the temporal fate of explosive compounds in soils, surface water and laboratory batch reactors have been conducted. However, most of these investigations relied on the application of explosive compounds to the media via aqueous addition and thus these studies do not provide information on the real world loading of explosive residues during detonation events. To address this we investigated the dissolution and sorption of TNT and RDX from Comp B residues loaded to pure mineral phases through controlled detonation. Mineral phases included nontronite, vermiculite, biotite and Ottawa sand (quartz with minor calcite). High Performance Liquid Chromatography and Attenuated Total Reflectance Fourier Transform Infrared spectroscopy were used to investigate the dissolution and sorption of TNT and RDX residues loaded onto the mineral surfaces. Detonation resulted in heterogeneous loading of TNT and RDX onto the mineral surfaces. Explosive compound residues dissolved rapidly (within 9 h) in all samples but maximum concentrations for TNT and RDX were not consistent over time due to precipitation from solution, sorption onto mineral surfaces, and/or chemical reactions between explosive compounds and mineral surfaces. We provide a conceptual model of the physical and chemical processes governing the fate of explosive compound residues in soil minerals controlled by sorption-desorption processes. PMID:21601233

  4. Electrical properties of dispersions of graphene in mineral oil

    SciTech Connect

    Monteiro, O. R.

    2014-02-03

    Dispersions of graphene in mineral oil have been prepared and electrical conductivity and permittivity have been measured. The direct current (DC) conductivity of the dispersions depends on the surface characteristics of the graphene platelets and followed a percolation model with a percolation threshold ranging from 0.05 to 0.1 wt. %. The difference in DC conductivities can be attributed to different states of aggregation of the graphene platelets and to the inter-particle electron transfer, which is affected by the surface radicals. The frequency-dependent conductivity (σ(ω)) and permittivity (ε(ω)) were also measured. The conductivity of dispersions with particle contents much greater than the percolation threshold remains constant and equal to the DC conductivity at low frequencies ω with and followed a power-law σ(ω)∝ ω{sup s} dependence at very high frequencies with s≈0.9. For dispersions with graphene concentration near the percolation threshold, a third regime was displayed at intermediate frequencies indicative of interfacial polarization consistent with Maxwell-Wagner effect typically observed in mixtures of two (or more) phases with very distinct electrical and dielectric properties.

  5. Surface electrochemical properties of red mud (bauxite residue): zeta potential and surface charge density.

    PubMed

    Liu, Yanju; Naidu, Ravendra; Ming, Hui

    2013-03-15

    The surface electrochemical properties of red mud (bauxite residue) from different alumina refineries in Australia and China were studied by electrophoresis and measuring surface charge density obtained from acid/base potentiometric titrations. The electrophoretic properties were measured from zeta potentials obtained in the presence of 0.01 and 0.001 M KNO(3) over a wide pH range (3.5-10) by titration. The isoelectric point (IEP) values were found to vary from 6.35 to 8.70 for the red mud samples. Further investigation into the surface charge density of one sample (RRM) by acid/base potentiometric titration showed similar results for pH(PZC) with pH(IEP) obtained from electrokinetic measurements. The pH(IEP) determined from zeta potential measurements can be used as a characteristic property of red mud. The minerals contained in red mud contributed to the different values of pH(IEP) of samples obtained from different refineries. Different relationships of pH(IEP) with Al/Fe and Al/Si ratios (molar basis) were also found for different red mud samples. PMID:23270758

  6. Physical, chemical, and mineral properties of the Polonnaruwa stones

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Wallis, Jamie; Wickramasinghe, N. C.; Wallis, Daryl H.; Miyake, Nori; Wallis, M. K.; Hoover, Richard B.; Samaranayake, Anil; Wickramarathne, Keerthi; Oldroyd, Anthony

    2013-09-01

    We report on the physical, chemical and mineral properties of a series of stone fragments recovered from the North Central Province of Sri Lanka following a witnessed fireball event on 29 December 2012. The stones exhibit highly porous poikilitic textures comprising of isotropic silica-rich/plagioclase-like hosts. Inclusions range in size and shape from mm-sized to smaller subangular grains frequently more fractured than the surrounding host and include ilmenite, olivine (fayalitic), quartz and accessory zircon. Bulk mineral compositions include accessory cristobalite, hercynite, anorthite, wuestite, albite, anorthoclase and the high pressure olivine polymorph wadsleyite, suggesting previous endurance of a shock pressure of ~20 GPa. Further evidence of shock is confirmed by the conversion of all plagioclase to maskelynite. Here the infrared absorption spectra in the region 580 cm-1 to 380 cm-1 due to the Si-O-Si or Si-O-Al absorption band shows a partial shift in the peak at 380 cm-1 towards 480 cm-1 indicating an intermediate position between crystalline and amorphous phase. Host matrix chemical compositions vary between samples, but all are rich in SiO2. Silica-rich melts display a heterogeneous K-enrichment comparable to that reported in a range of non-terrestrial material from rare iron meteorites to LL chondritic breccias and Lunar granites. Bulk chemical compositions of plagioclase-like samples are comparable to reported data e.g. Miller Ranger 05035 (Lunar), while Si-rich samples accord well with mafic and felsic glasses reported in NWA 1664 (Howardite) as well as data for fusion crust present in a variety of meteoritic samples. Triple oxygen isotope results show Δ17O = -0.335 with δ18O (‰ rel. SMOW) values of 17.816 +/- 0.100 and compare well with those of known CI chondrites and are within the range of CI-like (Meta-C) chondrites. Rare earth elemental abundances show a profound Europium anomaly of between 0.7 and 0.9 ppm while CI normalized REE

  7. Physical, Chemical and Mineral Properties of the Polonnaruwa Stones

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Wallis, Jamie; Wickramasinghe, N. C.; Wallis, Daryl H.; Miyake, Nori; Wallis, M. K.; Hoover, Richard B.; Samaranayake, Anil; Wickramarathne, Keerthi; Oldroyd, Anthony

    We report on the physical, chemical and mineral properties of a series of stone fragments recovered from the North Central Province of Sri Lanka following a witnessed fireball event on 29 December 2012. The stones exhibit highly porous poikilitic textures comprising of isotropic silica-rich/plagioclase-like hosts. Inclusions range in size and shape from mm-sized to smaller subangular grains frequently more fractured than the surrounding host and include ilmenite, olivine (fayalitic), quartz and accessory zircon. Bulk mineral compositions include accessory cristobalite, hercynite, anorthite, wuestite, albite, anorthoclase and the high pressure olivine polymorph wadsleyite, suggesting previous endurance of a shock pressure of ~20GPa. Further evidence of shock is confirmed by theconversion of all plagioclase to maskelynite. Here the infrared absorption spectra in the region 580 cm-1 to 380 cm-1 due to the Si-O-Si or Si-O-Al absorption band shows a partial shift in the peak at 380 cm-1 towards 480 cm-1 indicating an intermediate position between crystalline and amorphous phase. Host matrix chemical compositions vary between samples, but all are rich in SiO2. Silica-rich melts display a heterogeneous K-enrichment comparable to that reported in a range of nonterrestrial material from rare iron meteorites to LL chondritic breccias and Lunar granites. Bulk chemical compositions of plagioclase-like samples are comparable to reported data e.g. Miller Ranger 05035 (Lunar), while Si-rich samples accord well with mafic and felsic glasses reported in NWA 1664 (Howardite)as well asdata for fusion crust present in a variety of meteoritic samples.Triple oxygen isotope results show Δ17O = .0.335 with δ18O (‰ rel. SMOW) values of 17.816 ± 0.100 and compare well with those of known CI chondrites and are within the range of CI-like (Meta-C) chondrites. Rare earth elemental abundances show a profound Europium anomaly of between 0.7 and 0.9 ppm while CI normalized REE patterns

  8. Arsenic and lead residues in carrots from foliar applications of monosodium methanearsonate (MSMA): A comparison between mineral and organic soils, or from soil residues.

    PubMed

    Zandstra, B H; De Kryger, T A

    2007-01-01

    Carrot roots may absorb arsenic residues when grown in soil that has been treated previously with arsenical pesticides. Arsenic residues in crops also may result from the inappropriate application of post-emergence arsenical herbicides. To compare potential sources of arsenic residues, carrots were planted in mineral or organic soil and treated post-emergence with the herbicide monosodium methanearsonate (MSMA) at 0, 0.56, 1.12, 2.24, 4.48, or 8.96 kg ha(-1). Arsenic concentration in all plant parts declined between 30 days before harvest and harvest. Arsenic concentration in peeled carrot roots ranged from less than the limit of detection (LOD) for untreated carrots to 0.963 mg kg(-1) (fresh weight) at harvest for carrots treated with 8.96 kg ha(-1) MSMA. In another study, carrots were grown in a greenhouse in soil collected from an old orchard site that had been sprayed with lead arsenate for many years. The old orchard site soil had an arsenic level of 110 mg kg(-1), and similar non-orchard soil had an arsenic level of 1.97 mg kg(-1). All carrot plant segments from plants grown in old orchard soil had higher arsenic concentrations than those from non-orchard soil. Peeled carrot roots from non-orchard soil contained 0.034 mg kg(-1) arsenic, while the peeled roots from old orchard soil had 0.135 mg kg(-1). Old orchard soil had a lead level of 496 mg kg(-1), compared with 6.52 mg kg(-1) for non-orchard soil. Peeled carrot roots from old orchard soil contained 0.885 mg kg(-1) lead, and peeled roots from non-orchard soil contained 0.147 mg kg(-1) lead. PMID:17164215

  9. Redox properties of structural Fe in clay minerals: 3. Relationships between smectite redox and structural properties.

    PubMed

    Gorski, Christopher A; Klüpfel, Laura E; Voegelin, Andreas; Sander, Michael; Hofstetter, Thomas B

    2013-01-01

    Structural Fe in clay minerals is an important redox-active species in many pristine and contaminated environments as well as in engineered systems. Understanding the extent and kinetics of redox reactions involving Fe-bearing clay minerals has been challenging due to the inability to relate structural Fe(2+)/Fe(total) fractions to fundamental redox properties, such as reduction potentials (EH). Here, we overcame this challenge by using mediated electrochemical reduction (MER) and oxidation (MEO) to characterize the fraction of redox-active structural Fe (Fe(2+)/Fe(total)) in smectites over a wide range of applied EH-values (-0.6 V to +0.6 V). We examined Fe(2+)/Fe(total )- EH relationships of four natural Fe-bearing smectites (SWy-2, SWa-1, NAu-1, NAu-2) in their native, reduced, and reoxidized states and compared our measurements with spectroscopic observations and a suite of mineralogical properties. All smectites exhibited unique Fe(2+)/Fe(total) - EH relationships, were redox active over wide EH ranges, and underwent irreversible electron transfer induced structural changes that were observable with X-ray absorption spectroscopy. Variations among the smectite Fe(2+)/Fe(total) - EH relationships correlated well with both bulk and molecular-scale properties, including Fe(total) content, layer charge, and quadrupole splitting values, suggesting that multiple structural parameters determined the redox properties of smectites. The Fe(2+)/Fe(total) - EH relationships developed for these four commonly studied clay minerals may be applied to future studies interested in relating the extent of structural Fe reduction or oxidation to EH-values.

  10. Effect of recycling on residuals, processing, and properties of carbon and low-alloy steels

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Stephenson, E. T.

    1983-02-01

    Because of the continuing increase in electric furnace steelmaking, which is a scrap-intensive process, and also in view of future new sources of scrap, such as municipal solid wastes, it is important to develop more knowledge about: (a) the effects of residual elements on steel, (b) processing strategies for producing high-residual steels, and (c) products in which residuals could be used to advantage. This review will first identify the important residual elements and the trends in their use and levels in steels. The effect of these elements on the processing phenomena and product properties of carbon and low-alloy steels will be discussed in detail. These phenomena and properties include hot shortness, scale adherence, room temperature tensile properties, impact resistance, and hardenability. Also discussed are examples of specific problems that residual elements present, both now and with emerging trends, for steel processing and applications, and the ways of using residuals to advantage.

  11. Effects of differences in mineralization on the mechanical properties of bone.

    PubMed

    Currey, J D

    1984-02-13

    There is a considerable variation in the mineralization of bone; normal, non-pathological compact bone has ash masses ranging from 45 to 85% by mass. This range of mineralization results in an even greater range of mechanical properties. The Young modulus of elasticity can range from 4 to 32 GPa, bending strength from 50 to 300 MPa, and the work of fracture from 200 to 7000 Jm-2. It is not possible for any one type of bone to have high values for all three properties. Very high values of mineralization produce high values of Young modulus but low values of work of fracture (which is a measure of fracture toughness). Rather low values of mineralization are associated with high values of work of fracture but low values of Young modulus and intermediate values of bending strength. The reason for the high value for the Young modulus associated with high mineralization is intuitively obvious, but has not yet been rigorously modelled. The low fracture toughness associated with high mineralization may be caused by the failure of various crack-stopping mechanisms that can act when the mineral crystals in bone have not coalesced, but which become ineffective when the volume fraction of mineral becomes too high. The adoption of different degrees of mineralization by different bones, leading to different sets of mechanical properties, is shown to be adaptive in most cases studied, but some puzzles still remain.

  12. Mineral associated and aggregate-occluded soil carbon decreased with increasing nitrogen and residue input for three decades

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Shahbaz, Muhammad; Kuzyakov, Yakov; Heitkamp, Felix

    2016-04-01

    Cropland soils may be a source or sink for atmospheric CO2. Therefore, effects of cropland management and fertilization on soil organic carbon (SOC) can be assessed best in long-term experiments. Generally, it is assumed that change in SOC is linearly related to C-input into the soil. However, recently it has been shown that residue incorporation resulted to only small extents in the increase of SOC levels. This gives rise to environmental concerns regarding the efficient use of crop residue. Such concerns are also applicable for the well designed and documented long-term experiment of Puch, Germany, in a silt-loam soil. The crop rotation is winter barley - winter wheat - silage maize. Five organic amendments were combined with N-fertiliser rates. The levels of organic amendments are unamended control (CON), straw was removed; farmyard manure (FYM), straw was removed; straw incorporation (STR); slurry application (SLU), straw was removed; and straw incorporation combined with slurry application (STSL). Three levels of mineral fertilizer application were selected: no nitrogen (N0); medium, 100 kg N ha-1year-1 (N2); and high, 200 kg N ha-1 year-1 (N4). These treatments resulted in a wide range of mean annual carbon input (1 - 5 t C ha-1 year-1). We hypothesize that the amount of soil carbon stored in different fractions will increase with C-input, but the effect will decrease in the order free light fraction (f-LF), occluded light fraction (o-LF) and heavy mineral-associated fraction (HF). Soil samples were fractionated by density using sodium polytungstate (1.6 g cm-3). Compared to the starting value SOC was lost in STR and CON and increased in SLU and STSL, whereas FYM showed no differences to initial carbon stocks. However, N additions resulted in only slightly increase in SOC contents with reference to C-input. The lower amount of o-LF carbon in CON and STR demonstrated the low ability of crop residue in comparison to animal manures to build up SOC contents

  13. A Fortran Program to Aid in Mineral Identification Using Optical Properties.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Blanchard, Frank N.

    1980-01-01

    Describes a search and match computer program which retreives from a user-generated mineral file those minerals which are not incompatible with the observed or measured optical properties of an unknown. Careful selection of input lists make it unlikely that the program will fail when reasonably accurate observations are recorded. (Author/JN)

  14. Characterization of a mineral waste resulting from the melting treatment of air pollution control residues.

    PubMed

    Trujillo-vazquez, A; Metiver-pignon, H; Tiruta-barna, L; Piantone, P

    2009-02-01

    Air pollution control (APC) residues which are generated by municipal solid waste (MSW) incineration show a high-level of pollution potential. In order to stabilize such APC residues, the French power supply company (EDF) is developing a thermal treatment process which leads to the production of a vitrified material. A structural characterization of the vitrified product was carried out by applying complementary investigation methods: XRD, SEM, Raman spectroscopy, EPMA, and data interpretation methods such as mineralogical analysis and principal component analysis (PCA). The major phase of the material was a solid solution of melilite type composed of five end-members: gehlenite (44%), åkermanite (25%), ferri-gehlenite (5%), sodamelilite (14%) and hardystonite (11%). The minor phases identified were spinels and pyroxenes. An ANC leaching test was performed in order to observe the treatment effect on pollutant release. The natural pH was close to 10, and the major element release was less than in the case of untreated APC. This was a consequence of melilite formation. The effect of pH was fundamental for heavy metals release: lower solubilization occurs at pH 10 than at APC's natural pH (11-12).

  15. Effects of Vermicompost and Water Treatment Residuals on Soil Physical Properties and Wheat Yield

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Ibrahim, Mahmoud M.; Mahmoud, Essawy K.; Ibrahim, Doaa A.

    2015-04-01

    The application of vermicompost and water treatment residuals to improve the physical properties in the salt affected soils is a promising technology to meet the requirements of high plant growth and cost-effective reclamation. Therefore, the aim of this study was to investigate the effect of vermicompost and its mixtures with water treatment residuals on selected physical properties of saline sodic soil and on wheat yield. The treatments were vermicompost, water treatment residuals, vermicompost + water treatment residuals (1:1 and 2:1 wet weight ratio) at levels of 5 and 10 g dry weight kg-1 dry soil. The considered physical properties included aggregate stability, mean weight diameter, pore size distribution and dry bulk density. The addition of vermicompost and water treatment residuals had significant positive effects on the studied soil physical properties, and improved the grain yield of wheat. The treatment of (2 vermicompost + 1 water treatment residuals) at level of 5 g kg-1 soil gave the best grain yield. Combination of vermicompost and water treatment residuals improved the water treatment residuals efficiency in ameliorating the soil physical properties, and could be considered as an ameliorating material for the reclamation of salt affected soils.

  16. Impact of Reed Canary Grass Cultivation and Mineral Fertilisation on the Microbial Abundance and Genetic Potential for Methane Production in Residual Peat of an Abandoned Peat Extraction Area

    PubMed Central

    Espenberg, Mikk; Truu, Marika; Truu, Jaak; Maddison, Martin; Nõlvak, Hiie; Järveoja, Järvi; Mander, Ülo

    2016-01-01

    This study examined physiochemical conditions and prokaryotic community structure (the bacterial and archaeal 16S rRNA genes and mcrA gene abundances and proportions), and evaluated the effect of reed canary grass cultivation and mineral fertilisation on these factors, in the 60 cm thick residual peat layer of experimental plots located on an abandoned peat extraction area. The archaeal proportion was 0.67–39.56% in the prokaryotic community and the methanogens proportion was 0.01–1.77% in the archaeal community. When bacterial abundance was higher in the top 20 cm of peat, the archaea were more abundant in the 20–60 cm layer and methanogens in the 40–60 cm layer of the residual peat. The bacterial abundance was significantly increased, but archaeal abundance was not affected by cultivation. The fertiliser application had a slight effect on peat properties and on archaeal and methanogen abundances in the deeper layer of cultivated peat. The CH4 emission was positively related to mcrA abundance in the 20–60 cm of the bare peat, while in case of reed canary grass cultivation these two parameters were not correlated. Reed canary grass cultivation mitigated CH4 emission, although methanogen abundance remained approximately the same or even increased in different layers of residual peat under cultivated sites over time. This study supports the outlook of using abandoned peat extraction areas to produce reed canary grass for energy purposes as an advisable land-use practice from the perspective of atmospheric impact in peatland-rich Northern Europe. PMID:27684377

  17. [Study on the influence of mineralizer on the structures and spectral properties of calcium aluminates].

    PubMed

    Zheng, Huai-Li; Liu, Jun-Yu; Li, Lin-Tao; Li, Fang

    2009-11-01

    The present paper investigated the effect of mineralizer on the structure and properties of calcium aluminates formation. Calcium aluminates powder was synthesized under high temperature calcination by mixing bauxite, limestone and a certain amount of mineralizer. The product structure, compositional information and spectral properties were carefully characterized by XRD, IR and DTA-TG, and the mineralization mechanism of mineralizer was studied during the process of calcium aluminates preparation. The results showed that calcium aluminates powder could be obtained under lower temperature calcination after adding mineralizer to the raw materials. The main products of the reaction were CaAl10 O18 and CaAl2 Si2 O8 without mineralizer, however, the main products of the reaction were CaAl3 BO7 and Ca3 Al10 O18 with mineralizer, in which Al2 O3s could be extracted easily, while CaAl2 Si2 O8 was reduced greatly in which Al2 O3 could not be extracted easily. At the same time, it is easy for calcspar to decompose after adding mineralizer. It is favorable to Al-Si bond break and Al stripping from bauxite. These facts could improve the extraction rate of Al2 O3 from raw materials. Also, in the case of adding mineralizer to the raw mixes, the crystal structure and composition are changed, which is beneficial to reducing calcination temperature.

  18. Residual occurrence and energy property of proteins in HNP model

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Jiang, Zhou-Ting; Dou, Wen-Hui; Shen, Yu; Sun, Ting-Ting; Xu, Peng

    2015-11-01

    Four categories of globular proteins, including all-α, all-β, α + β, and α/β types, are simplified as the off-lattice HNP model involving the secondary-structural information of each protein. The propensity of three types of residues, i.e., H, N, and P to form a secondary structure is investigated based on 146 protein samples. We find that P residues are easy to form α-helices, whereas H residues have a higher tendency to construct β-sheets. The statistical analysis also indicates that the occurrence of P residues is invariably higher than that of H residues, which is independent of protein category. Changes in bond- and non-bonded potential energies of all protein samples under a wide temperature range are presented by coarse-grained molecular dynamics (MD) simulation. The simulation results clearly show a linear relationship between the bond-stretching/bending potential energy and the reduced temperature. The bond-torsional and non-bonded potential energies show distinct transitions with temperature. The bond-torsional energy increases to the maximum and then decreases with the increase of temperature, which is opposite to the change in non-bonded potential energy. The transition temperature of non-bonded potential energy is independent of the protein category, while that of bond-torsional energy is closely related to the protein secondary structure, i.e., α-helix or β-sheet. The quantitatively bonded- and semi-quantitatively non-bonded potential energy of 24 α + β and 23 α/β protein samples are successfully predicted according to the statistical results obtained from MD simulations. Project supported by the National Natural Science Foundation of China (Grant Nos. 21204078, 11304282, and 11202201) and the Natural Science Foundation of Zhejiang Province, China (Grant No. LY12B04003).

  19. Effect of Solution Properties on Arsenic Adsorption by Drinking Water Treatment Residuals

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Nagar, R.; Sarkar, D.; Datta, R.; Sharma, S.

    2005-05-01

    Arsenic (As) is a ubiquitous element in the environment. Higher levels of As in soils may result from various anthropogenic sources such as use of arsenical pesticides, fertilizers, wood preservatives, smelter wastes, and coal combustion. This is of great environmental and human health concern due to the high toxicity and proven carcinogenicity of several arsenical species. Thus there is a need for developing cost effective technologies capable of lowering bioavailable As concentrations in soils to environmentally acceptable levels. In-situ immobilization of metals using inexpensive amendments such as minerals (apatite, zeolite, or clay minerals) or waste by-products (steel shot, beringite, and iron-rich biosolids) to reduce bioavailability is an inexpensive alternative to the more expensive ex-situ remediation methods. One such emerging in-situ technique is the application of drinking water treatment residuals (WTRs). WTRs can be classified as a byproduct of drinking water treatment plants and are generally composed of amorphous Fe/Al oxides, activated C and cationic polymers. WTRs possess amorphous structure and generally have high positive charge. Because As is chemically similar to phosphorus, the oxyanions As (V) and As (III) may have the potential of being retained by the WTRs. Thus, it is hypothesized that WTRs retain As irreversibly, thereby reducing As biavailability. As mobility of arsenic is controlled by adsorption reactions, knowledge of adsorption of As by WTRs is of primary relevance. Although the overall rate of adsorption is dependent on numerous factors, review of the literature indicates that competing ions in solution play an important role in the overall retention of As; however, little work has been conducted to identify which ions provide the most competition. As arsenic adsorption appears to be influenced by the variable pH-dependent charges developed on the soil particle surfaces, the effect of pH is also of critical importance. Hence, the

  20. Electrical and dielectric properties of bovine trabecular bone - relationships with mechanical properties and mineral density

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Sierpowska, J.; Töyräs, J.; Hakulinen, M. A.; Saarakkala, S.; Jurvelin, J. S.; Lappalainen, R.

    2003-03-01

    Interrelationships of trabecular bone electrical and dielectric properties with mechanical characteristics and density are poorly known. While electrical stimulation is used for healing fractures, better understanding of these relations has clinical importance. Furthermore, earlier studies have suggested that bone electrical and dielectric properties depend on the bone density and could, therefore, be used to predict bone strength. To clarify these issues, volumetric bone mineral density (BMDvol), electrical and dielectric as well as mechanical properties were determined from 40 cylindrical plugs of bovine trabecular bone. Phase angle, relative permittivity, loss factor and conductivity of wet bovine trabecular bone were correlated with Young's modulus, yield stress, ultimate strength, resilience and BMDvol. The reproducibility of in vitro electrical and dielectric measurements was excellent (standardized coefficient of variation less than 1%, for all parameters), especially at frequencies higher than 1 kHz. Correlations of electrical and dielectric parameters with the bone mechanical properties or density were frequency-dependent. The relative permittivity showed the strongest linear correlations with mechanical parameters (r > 0.547, p < 0.01, n = 40, at 50 kHz) and with BMDvol (r = 0.866, p < 0.01, n = 40, at 50 kHz). In general, linear correlations between relative permittivity and mechanical properties or BMDvol were highest at frequencies over 6 kHz. In addition, a significant site-dependent variation of electrical and dielectric characteristics, mechanical properties and BMDvol was revealed in bovine femur (p < 0.05, Kruskall-Wallis H-test). Based on the present results, we conclude that the measurement of electrical and dielectric properties provides quantitative information that is related to bone quantity and quality.

  1. Winter cover crop seeding rate and variety effects during eight years of organic vegetables: III. Cover crop residue quality and nitrogen mineralization

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Winter cover crops (CC) can improve nutrient-use efficiency in tillage-intensive systems. Shoot residue quality and soil mineral N following incorporation of rye (Secale cereale L.), legume-rye, and mustard CC was determined in December to February or March during the first 8 yr of the Salinas Orga...

  2. Does nutrition affect bone porosity and mineral tissue distribution in deer antlers? The relationship between histology, mechanical properties and mineral composition.

    PubMed

    Landete-Castillejos, T; Currey, J D; Ceacero, F; García, A J; Gallego, L; Gomez, S

    2012-01-01

    It is well known that porosity has an inverse relationship with the mechanical properties of bones. We examined cortical and trabecular porosity of antlers, and mineral composition, thickness and mechanical properties in the cortical wall. Samples belonged to two deer populations: a captive population of an experimental farm having a high quality diet, and a free-ranging population feeding on plants of lower nutritive quality. As shown for minerals and mechanical properties in previous studies by our group, cortical and trabecular porosity increased from the base distally. Cortical porosity was always caused by the presence of incomplete primary osteons. Porosity increased along the length of the antler much more in deer with lower quality diet. Despite cortical porosity being inversely related to mechanical properties and positively with K, Zn and other minerals indicating physiological effort, it was these minerals and not porosity that statistically better explained variability in mechanical properties. Histochemistry showed that the reason for this is that Zn is located around incomplete osteons and also in complete osteons that were still mineralizing, whereas K is located in non-osteonal bone, which constitutes a greater proportion of bone where osteons are incompletely mineralized. This suggests that, K, Zn and other minerals indicate reduction in mechanical performance even with little porosity. If a similar process occurred in internal bones, K, Zn and other minerals in the bone may be an early indicator of decrease in mechanical properties and future osteoporosis. In conclusion, porosity is related to diet and physiological effort in deer.

  3. Effect of organic residues addition on the technological properties of clay bricks.

    PubMed

    Demir, Ismail

    2008-01-01

    The objective of this study is to investigate the utilization potential of several organic residues in clay bricks. Sawdust, tobacco residues, and grass are widespread by-products of industrial and agricultural processes in Turkey. These residue materials have long cellulose fibres. Sawdust and tobacco residues generally are used as fuel, and the grass is utilized for agricultural purposes. The insulation capacity of brick increases with the increasing porosity of the clay body. Combustible, organic types of pore-forming additives are most frequently used for this purpose. For this reason, increasing amounts of organic residues (0%, 2.5%, 5% and 10% in wt.) were mixed with raw brick-clay. All samples were fired at 900 degrees C. Effects on shaping, plasticity, density, and mechanical properties were investigated. The organic residue additions were found to be effective for pore-forming in the clay body with the clay maintaining acceptable mechanical properties. It was observed that the fibrous nature of the residues did not create extrusion problems. However, higher residue addition required a higher water content to ensure the right plasticity. As a result, sawdust, tobacco residues, and grass can be utilized in an environmentally safe way as organic pore-forming agents in brick-clay.

  4. Impact of the addition of different plant residues on nitrogen mineralization-immobilization turnover and carbon content of a soil incubated under laboratory conditions

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Kaleeem Abbasi, M.; Tahir, M. Mahmood; Sabir, N.; Khurshid, M.

    2015-02-01

    Application of plant residues as soil amendment may represent a valuable recycling strategy that affects carbon (C) and nitrogen (N) cycling in soil-plant systems. The amount and rate of nutrient release from plant residues depend on their quality characteristics and biochemical composition. A laboratory incubation experiment was conducted for 120 days under controlled conditions (25 °C and 58% water-filled pore space) to quantify initial biochemical composition and N mineralization of leguminous and non-leguminous plant residues, i.e., the roots, shoots and leaves of Glycine max, Trifolium repens, Zea mays, Populus euramericana, Robinia pseudoacacia and Elaeagnus umbellata, incorporated into the soil at the rate of 200 mg residue N kg-1 soil. The diverse plant residues showed a wide variation in total N, C, lignin, polyphenols and C / N ratio with higher polyphenol content in the leaves and higher lignin content in the roots. The shoot of Glycine max and the shoot and root of Trifolium repens displayed continuous mineralization by releasing a maximum of 109.8, 74.8 and 72.5 mg N kg-1 and representing a 55, 37 and 36% recovery of N that had been released from these added resources. The roots of Glycine max and Zea mays and the shoot of Zea mays showed continuous negative values throughout the incubation. After an initial immobilization, leaves of Populus euramericana, Robinia pseudoacacia and Elaeagnus umbellata exhibited net mineralization by releasing a maximum of 31.8, 63.1 and 65.1 mg N kg-1, respectively, and representing a 16, 32 and 33% N recovery, respectively. Nitrogen mineralization from all the treatments was positively correlated with the initial residue N contents (r = 0.89; p ≤ 0.01) and negatively correlated with lignin content (r = -0.84; p ≤ 0.01), C / N ratio (r = -0.69; p ≤ 0.05), lignin / N ratio (r = -0.68; p ≤ 0.05), polyphenol / N ratio (r = -0.73; p ≤ 0.05) and (lignin + polyphenol) : N ratio (r = -0.70; p ≤ 0.05) indicating a

  5. Morphology, absorptivity and viscoelastic properties of mineralized PVP-CMC hydrogel

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Saha, Nabanita; Shah, Rushita; Vyroubal, Radek; Kitano, Takeshi; Saha, Petr

    2013-04-01

    A simple liquid diffusion mineralization technique was applied for the incorporation of calcium carbonate (CaCO3) in PVP-CMC hydrogel. The hydrogel was prepared 6.5 mm thick to achieve around 1 mm thick sample after mineralization of hydrogel matrix with calcite. The calcite crystals were round shaped and organized as building blocks inside the porous three dimensional cross linked structure of the PVP-CMC hydrogel. The present study was designed to evaluate the properties of mineralized (calcite) hydrogel with respect to freshly prepared hydrogel and those swelled in water (H2O) after drying. The viscoelastic properties of swelled and mineralized samples were reported though the dry PVP-CMC hydrogel were swelled and mineralized with calcite until 150 min. It is observed that there is not much difference in elastic property of fresh and 60 min mineralized hydrogels but the values of elastic property are decreased in the case of swelled hydrogels. It is interesting that in case of swelled samples the values of complex viscosity (η*) are increased with the increase of swelling time after 90 min but in case of calcite hydrogel the values (η*) are gradually decreased with the increase of time.

  6. Sensitivity of Residual Soil Moisture Content in VIC Model Soil Property Parameterizations for Sub-arctic Discontinuous Permafrost Watersheds

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Endalamaw, A. M.; Bolton, W. R.; Hinzman, L. D.; Morton, D.; Cable, J.

    2015-12-01

    Most soil property representations in large scale hydrological and atmospheric models are derived from empirical relationships of soil texture, wherein the average hydraulic, thermal and thermodynamic processes are described for each layer of the soil column. Of all the soil hydraulic properties, hydraulic conductivity is one of the most difficult to estimate, particularly in permafrost environments. This is because, for large-scale models, it is estimated from soil properties that are originally estimated from other empirical relationships of soil texture, such as residual soil moisture content. Residual soil moisture content determines the amount of available moisture for evapotranspiration and drainage in unsaturated flow. In cold regions, it is also important to estimate the depth of the freezing front by estimating the antecedent soil moisture status before the soils freeze for the winter. This will have direct and indirect effects on the freeze-thaw depth and runoff generation the following spring. Therefore, inaccurate data on residual soil moisture will impact on hydrological modeling of the discontinuous permafrost watersheds in Interior Alaska, where soil water content is highly variable even within a given soil texture. The main objective of this study is to test the sensitivity of models to variation in residual soil moisture for runoff, evaporation, evapotranspiration and soil moisture simulations in discontinuous permafrost watersheds of Interior Alaska. We use the Variable Infiltration Capacity model, a meso-scale hydrological model, and HYDRUS 1D, a software package for simulating water, heat and solute movement, to estimate the soil hydraulics properties at the two contrasting sub-basins of the Caribou Poker Creek Research Watershed. . Preliminary modeling results show that small variations in the residual soil moisture content results in significant differences in the timing and amount of runoff, evapotranspiration and soil moisture storage. Our

  7. Compositions and sorptive properties of crop residue-derived chars

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Chun, Y.; Sheng, G.; Chiou, G.T.; Xing, B.

    2004-01-01

    Chars originating from the burning or pyrolysis of vegetation may significantly sorb neutral organic contaminants (NOCs). To evaluate the relationship between the char composition and NOC sorption, a series of char samples were generated by pyrolyzing a wheat residue (Triticum aestivum L) for 6 h at temperatures between 300 ??C and 700 ??C and analyzed for their elemental compositions, surface areas, and surface functional groups. The samples were then studied for their abilities to sorb benzene and nitrobenzene from water. A commercial activated carbon was used as a reference carbonaceous sample. The char samples produced at high pyrolytic temperatures (500-700 ??C) were well carbonized and exhibited a relatively high surface area (>300 m2/g), little organic matter (20% oxygen). The char samples exhibited a significant range of surface acidity/basicity because of their different surface polar-group contents, as characterized by the Boehm titration data and the NMR and FTIR spectra. The NOC sorption by high-temperature chars occurred almost exclusively by surface adsorption on carbonized surfaces, whereas the sorption by low-temperature chars resulted from the surface adsorption and the concurrent smaller partition into the residual organic-matter phase. The chars appeared to have a higher surface affinity for a polar solute (nitrobenzene) than for a nonpolar solute (benzene), the difference being related to the surface acidity/basicity of the char samples.

  8. In situ osteoblast mineralization mediates post-injection mechanical properties of osteoconductive material.

    PubMed

    Bialorucki, Callan; Subramanian, Gayathri; Elsaadany, Mostafa; Yildirim-Ayan, Eda

    2014-10-01

    The objective of this study was to understand the temporal relationship between in situ generated calcium content (mineralization) and the mechanical properties of an injectable orthobiologic bone-filler material. Murine derived osteoblast progenitor cells were differentiated using osteogenic factors and encapsulated within an injectable polycaprolactone nanofiber-collagen composite scaffold (PN-COL +osteo) to evaluate the effect of mineralization on the mechanical properties of the PN-COL scaffold. A comprehensive study was conducted using both an experimental and a predictive analytical mechanical analysis for mechanical property assessment as well as an extensive in vitro biological analysis for in situ mineralization. Cell proliferation was evaluated using a PicoGreen dsDNA quantification assay and in situ mineralization was analyzed using both an alkaline phosphatase (ALP) assay and an Alizarin Red stain-based assay. Mineralized matrix formation was further evaluated using energy dispersive x-ray spectroscopy (EDS) and visualized using SEM and histological analyses. Compressive mechanical properties of the PN-COL scaffolds were determined using a confined compression stress-relaxation protocol and the obtained data was fit to the standard linear solid viscoelastic material mathematical model to demonstrate a relationship between increased in situ mineralization and the mechanical properties of the PN-COL scaffold. Cell proliferation was constant over the 21 day period. ALP activity and calcium concentration significantly increased at day 14 and 21 as compared to PN-COL -osteo with undifferentiated osteoblast progenitor cells. Furthermore, at day 21 EDS, SEM and von Kossa histological staining confirmed mineralized matrix formation within the PN-COL scaffolds. After 21 days, compressive modulus, peak stress, and equilibrium stress demonstrate significant increases of 3.4-fold, 3.3-fold, and 4.0-fold respectively due to in situ mineralization. Viscoelastic

  9. Effects of Different Mineral Admixtures on the Properties of Fresh Concrete

    PubMed Central

    Nuruddin, Muhammad Fadhil; Shafiq, Nasir

    2014-01-01

    This paper presents a review of the properties of fresh concrete including workability, heat of hydration, setting time, bleeding, and reactivity by using mineral admixtures fly ash (FA), silica fume (SF), ground granulated blast furnace slag (GGBS), metakaolin (MK), and rice husk ash (RHA). Comparison of normal and high-strength concrete in which cement has been partially supplemented by mineral admixture has been considered. It has been concluded that mineral admixtures may be categorized into two groups: chemically active mineral admixtures and microfiller mineral admixtures. Chemically active mineral admixtures decrease workability and setting time of concrete but increase the heat of hydration and reactivity. On the other hand, microfiller mineral admixtures increase workability and setting time of concrete but decrease the heat of hydration and reactivity. In general, small particle size and higher specific surface area of mineral admixture are favourable to produce highly dense and impermeable concrete; however, they cause low workability and demand more water which may be offset by adding effective superplasticizer. PMID:24701196

  10. Effects of different mineral admixtures on the properties of fresh concrete.

    PubMed

    Khan, Sadaqat Ullah; Nuruddin, Muhammad Fadhil; Ayub, Tehmina; Shafiq, Nasir

    2014-01-01

    This paper presents a review of the properties of fresh concrete including workability, heat of hydration, setting time, bleeding, and reactivity by using mineral admixtures fly ash (FA), silica fume (SF), ground granulated blast furnace slag (GGBS), metakaolin (MK), and rice husk ash (RHA). Comparison of normal and high-strength concrete in which cement has been partially supplemented by mineral admixture has been considered. It has been concluded that mineral admixtures may be categorized into two groups: chemically active mineral admixtures and microfiller mineral admixtures. Chemically active mineral admixtures decrease workability and setting time of concrete but increase the heat of hydration and reactivity. On the other hand, microfiller mineral admixtures increase workability and setting time of concrete but decrease the heat of hydration and reactivity. In general, small particle size and higher specific surface area of mineral admixture are favourable to produce highly dense and impermeable concrete; however, they cause low workability and demand more water which may be offset by adding effective superplasticizer.

  11. Effects of different mineral admixtures on the properties of fresh concrete.

    PubMed

    Khan, Sadaqat Ullah; Nuruddin, Muhammad Fadhil; Ayub, Tehmina; Shafiq, Nasir

    2014-01-01

    This paper presents a review of the properties of fresh concrete including workability, heat of hydration, setting time, bleeding, and reactivity by using mineral admixtures fly ash (FA), silica fume (SF), ground granulated blast furnace slag (GGBS), metakaolin (MK), and rice husk ash (RHA). Comparison of normal and high-strength concrete in which cement has been partially supplemented by mineral admixture has been considered. It has been concluded that mineral admixtures may be categorized into two groups: chemically active mineral admixtures and microfiller mineral admixtures. Chemically active mineral admixtures decrease workability and setting time of concrete but increase the heat of hydration and reactivity. On the other hand, microfiller mineral admixtures increase workability and setting time of concrete but decrease the heat of hydration and reactivity. In general, small particle size and higher specific surface area of mineral admixture are favourable to produce highly dense and impermeable concrete; however, they cause low workability and demand more water which may be offset by adding effective superplasticizer. PMID:24701196

  12. A new model to simulate the elastic properties of mineralized collagen fibril

    SciTech Connect

    Yuan, F.; Stock, S.R.; Haeffner, D.R.; Almer, J.D.; Dunand, D.C.; Brinson, L.C.

    2012-05-02

    Bone, because of its hierarchical composite structure, exhibits an excellent combination of stiffness and toughness, which is due substantially to the structural order and deformation at the smaller length scales. Here, we focus on the mineralized collagen fibril, consisting of hydroxyapatite plates with nanometric dimensions aligned within a protein matrix, and emphasize the relationship between the structure and elastic properties of a mineralized collagen fibril. We create two- and three-dimensional representative volume elements to represent the structure of the fibril and evaluate the importance of the parameters defining its structure and properties of the constituent mineral and collagen phase. Elastic stiffnesses are calculated by the finite element method and compared with experimental data obtained by synchrotron X-ray diffraction. The computational results match the experimental data well, and provide insight into the role of the phases and morphology on the elastic deformation characteristics. Also, the effects of water, imperfections in the mineral phase and mineral content outside the mineralized collagen fibril upon its elastic properties are discussed.

  13. A new model to simulate the elastic properties of mineralized collagen fibril.

    SciTech Connect

    Yuan, F.; Stock, S.R.; Haeffner, D.R.; Almer, J.D.; Dunand , D.C.; Brinson, K.

    2011-01-01

    Bone, because of its hierarchical composite structure, exhibits an excellent combination of stiffness and toughness, which is due substantially to the structural order and deformation at the smaller length scales. Here, we focus on the mineralized collagen fibril, consisting of hydroxyapatite plates with nanometric dimensions aligned within a protein matrix, and emphasize the relationship between the structure and elastic properties of a mineralized collagen fibril. We create two- and three-dimensional representative volume elements to represent the structure of the fibril and evaluate the importance of the parameters defining its structure and properties of the constituent mineral and collagen phase. Elastic stiffnesses are calculated by the finite element method and compared with experimental data obtained by synchrotron X-ray diffraction. The computational results match the experimental data well, and provide insight into the role of the phases and morphology on the elastic deformation characteristics. Also, the effects of water, imperfections in the mineral phase and mineral content outside the mineralized collagen fibril upon its elastic properties are discussed.

  14. Clay Minerals as Solid Acids and Their Catalytic Properties.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Helsen, J.

    1982-01-01

    Discusses catalytic properties of clays, attributed to acidity of the clay surface. The formation of carbonium ions on montmorillonite is used as a demonstration of the presence of surface acidity, the enhanced dissociation of water molecules when polarized by cations, and the way the surface can interact with organic substances. (Author/JN)

  15. Effect of mineral elements on physicochemical properties of oxidised starches and generation of free radicals.

    PubMed

    Pietrzyk, Sławomir; Fortuna, Teresa; Królikowska, Karolina; Rogozińska, Ewelina; Labanowska, Maria; Kurdziel, Magdalena

    2013-09-12

    The objective of this study was to determine the effect of enrichment of oxidised starches with mineral compounds on their physicochemical properties and capability for free radical generation. Potato and spelt wheat starches were oxidised with sodium hypochlorite and, afterwards, modified with ions of potassium, magnesium and iron. The modified starches were analysed for: content of mineral elements, colour parameters (L*a*b*), water binding capacity solubility in water at temperature of 50 and 80 °C, and susceptibility to enzymatic hydrolysis with α-amylase. In addition, thermodynamic characteristics of gelatinisation was determined by differential scanning calorimetry (DSC), and the number and character of thermally generated free radicals was assayed using electron paramagnetic resonance (EPR). Based on the results achieved, it was concluded that the quantity of incorporated minerals and changes in the assayed physicochemical parameters depended not only on the botanical type of starch but also on the type of the incorporated mineral element.

  16. Modeling Optical Properties of Mineral Dust over "The Great Indian Desert"

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Mishra, S.; Tripathi, S. N.

    2007-12-01

    The Thar desert, sometimes also described as 'The Great Indian Desert', lying in the Northwest part of India with an area of 0.32*106 km2, is known to be the source of natural mineral dust . The mineral dust particles are mostly non-spherical having sharp edges, which show different scattering signature compared to that of equivalent spheres while interacting with the radiation. Furthermore accurate mineralogical information, that governs their refractive indices, is essential for scattering calculations. The radiative impacts of dust particles therefore depend on their morphology and mineralogy. Most of the present satellites consider the particle to be spherical while retrieving their optical properties. Some newly launched spacecraft instruments such as MISR accounts for non spherical nature by including spheroid particles in its retrieval algorithm . Clearly there exits a need for improvement in dust model used in retrieval algorithm to account for their sharp edges together with their index of refraction based on the latest chemical composition at the sensing wavelengths. To the best of our knowledge no such attempt has been made to calculate the optical properties of dust particles over the Thar desert. In this study, the optical properties of mineral dust of the Thar desert has been modeled using T-matrix method with realistic dust shapes based on Scanning Electron Microscope images of the dust over the desert with particle size ranging from 0.1-1.0 ìm at wavelengths spanning from ultraviolet to near infrared (0.38-1.2ìm). Representative dust particles shapes considered are sphere, cylinder, spheroids and chebyshev together with realistic mineral dust composition. Mineralogical analysis of airborne dust over Northwest India has revealed the presence of only basic non-metallic minerals such as Quartz, Feldspar, Mica and Calcite, which posses negligible imaginary part of refractive index at considered wavelength domain, however, the subsequent dust sampling

  17. Influence of the mineral staggering on the elastic properties of the mineralized collagen fibril in lamellar bone.

    PubMed

    Vercher-Martínez, Ana; Giner, Eugenio; Arango, Camila; Fuenmayor, F Javier

    2015-02-01

    In this work, a three-dimensional finite element model of the staggered distribution of the mineral within the mineralized collagen fibril has been developed to characterize the lamellar bone elastic behavior at the sub-micro length scale. Minerals have been assumed to be embedded in a collagen matrix, and different degrees of mineralization have been considered allowing the growth of platelet-shaped minerals both in the axial and the transverse directions of the fibril, through the variation of the lateral space between platelets. We provide numerical values and trends for all the elastic constants of the mineralized collagen fibril as a function of the volume fraction of mineral. In our results, we verify the high influence of the mineral overlapping on the mechanical response of the fibril and we highlight that the lateral distance between crystals is relevant to the mechanical behavior of the fibril and not only the mineral overlapping in the axial direction.

  18. Tensile behavior of cortical bone: dependence of organic matrix material properties on bone mineral content.

    PubMed

    Kotha, S P; Guzelsu, N

    2007-01-01

    A porous composite model is developed to analyze the tensile mechanical properties of cortical bone. The effects of microporosity (volksman's canals, osteocyte lacunae) on the mechanical properties of bone tissue are taken into account. A simple shear lag theory, wherein tensile loads are transferred between overlapped mineral platelets by shearing of the organic matrix, is used to model the reinforcement provided by mineral platelets. It is assumed that the organic matrix is elastic in tension and elastic-perfectly plastic in shear until it fails. When organic matrix shear stresses at the ends of mineral platelets reach their yield values, the stress-strain curve of bone tissue starts to deviate from linear behavior. This is referred as the microscopic yield point. At the point where the stress-strain behavior of bone shows a sharp curvature, the organic phase reaches its shear yield stress value over the entire platelet. This is referred as the macroscopic yield point. It is assumed that after macroscopic yield, mineral platelets cannot contribute to the load bearing capacity of bone and that the mechanical behavior of cortical bone tissue is determined by the organic phase only. Bone fails when the principal stress of the organic matrix is reached. By assuming that mechanical properties of the organic matrix are dependent on bone mineral content below the macroscopic yield point, the model is used to predict the entire tensile mechanical behavior of cortical bone for different mineral contents. It is found that decreased shear yield stresses and organic matrix elastic moduli are required to explain the mechanical behavior of bones with lowered mineral contents. Under these conditions, the predicted values (elastic modulus, 0.002 yield stress and strain, and ultimate stress and strain) are within 15% of experimental data.

  19. Tensile behavior of cortical bone: dependence of organic matrix material properties on bone mineral content.

    PubMed

    Kotha, S P; Guzelsu, N

    2007-01-01

    A porous composite model is developed to analyze the tensile mechanical properties of cortical bone. The effects of microporosity (volksman's canals, osteocyte lacunae) on the mechanical properties of bone tissue are taken into account. A simple shear lag theory, wherein tensile loads are transferred between overlapped mineral platelets by shearing of the organic matrix, is used to model the reinforcement provided by mineral platelets. It is assumed that the organic matrix is elastic in tension and elastic-perfectly plastic in shear until it fails. When organic matrix shear stresses at the ends of mineral platelets reach their yield values, the stress-strain curve of bone tissue starts to deviate from linear behavior. This is referred as the microscopic yield point. At the point where the stress-strain behavior of bone shows a sharp curvature, the organic phase reaches its shear yield stress value over the entire platelet. This is referred as the macroscopic yield point. It is assumed that after macroscopic yield, mineral platelets cannot contribute to the load bearing capacity of bone and that the mechanical behavior of cortical bone tissue is determined by the organic phase only. Bone fails when the principal stress of the organic matrix is reached. By assuming that mechanical properties of the organic matrix are dependent on bone mineral content below the macroscopic yield point, the model is used to predict the entire tensile mechanical behavior of cortical bone for different mineral contents. It is found that decreased shear yield stresses and organic matrix elastic moduli are required to explain the mechanical behavior of bones with lowered mineral contents. Under these conditions, the predicted values (elastic modulus, 0.002 yield stress and strain, and ultimate stress and strain) are within 15% of experimental data. PMID:16434048

  20. Endogenous minerals have influences on surface electrochemistry and ion exchange properties of biochar.

    PubMed

    Zhao, Ling; Cao, Xinde; Zheng, Wei; Wang, Qun; Yang, Fan

    2015-10-01

    The feedstocks for biochar production are diverse and many of them contain various minerals in addition to being rich in carbon. Twelve types of biomass classified into 2 categories: plant-based and municipal waste, were employed to produce biochars under 350 °C and 500 °C. Their pH, point of zero net charge (PZNC), zeta potential, cation and anion exchange capacity (CEC and AEC) were analyzed. The municipal waste-based biochars (MW-BC) had higher mineral levels than the plant-based biochars (PB-BC). However, the water soluble mineral levels were lower in the MW-BCs due to the dominant presence of less soluble minerals, such as CaCO3 and (Ca,Mg)3(PO4)2. The higher total minerals in MW-BCs accounted for the higher PZNC (5.47-9.95) than in PB-BCs (1.91-8.18), though the PZNCs of the PB-BCs increased more than that of the MW-BCs as the production temperature rose. The minerals had influence on the zeta potentials via affecting the negative charges of biochars and the ionic strength of solution. The organic functional groups in PB-BCs such as -COOH and -OH had a greater effect on the CEC and AEC, while the minerals had a greater effect on that of MW-BCs. The measured CEC and AEC values had a strong positive correlation with the total amount of soluble cations and anions, respectively. Results indicated that biochar surface charges depend not only on the organic functional groups, but also on the minerals present and to some extent, minerals have more influences on the surface electrochemistry and ion exchange properties of biochar. PMID:25974107

  1. Endogenous minerals have influences on surface electrochemistry and ion exchange properties of biochar.

    PubMed

    Zhao, Ling; Cao, Xinde; Zheng, Wei; Wang, Qun; Yang, Fan

    2015-10-01

    The feedstocks for biochar production are diverse and many of them contain various minerals in addition to being rich in carbon. Twelve types of biomass classified into 2 categories: plant-based and municipal waste, were employed to produce biochars under 350 °C and 500 °C. Their pH, point of zero net charge (PZNC), zeta potential, cation and anion exchange capacity (CEC and AEC) were analyzed. The municipal waste-based biochars (MW-BC) had higher mineral levels than the plant-based biochars (PB-BC). However, the water soluble mineral levels were lower in the MW-BCs due to the dominant presence of less soluble minerals, such as CaCO3 and (Ca,Mg)3(PO4)2. The higher total minerals in MW-BCs accounted for the higher PZNC (5.47-9.95) than in PB-BCs (1.91-8.18), though the PZNCs of the PB-BCs increased more than that of the MW-BCs as the production temperature rose. The minerals had influence on the zeta potentials via affecting the negative charges of biochars and the ionic strength of solution. The organic functional groups in PB-BCs such as -COOH and -OH had a greater effect on the CEC and AEC, while the minerals had a greater effect on that of MW-BCs. The measured CEC and AEC values had a strong positive correlation with the total amount of soluble cations and anions, respectively. Results indicated that biochar surface charges depend not only on the organic functional groups, but also on the minerals present and to some extent, minerals have more influences on the surface electrochemistry and ion exchange properties of biochar.

  2. Residual platinum-group minerals from highly depleted harzburgites of the Lherz massif (France) and their role in HSE fractionation of the mantle

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Luguet, Ambre; Shirey, Steven B.; Lorand, Jean-Pierre; Horan, Mary F.; Carlson, Richard W.

    2007-06-01

    In order to constrain the highly siderophile elements (HSE: Re and platinum group elements (PGE: Os, Ir, Ru, Pt and Pd)) host mineral(s) in refractory, base metal sulfide-free mantle residues, four very depleted spinel-harzburgites from the Lherz massif (France) have been analyzed for HSE in whole-rock and in major mineral separates (olivine, orthopyroxene, clinopyroxene and spinel) by isotope dilution. In addition, HSE host minerals have been separated and analyzed with a scanning electron microscope. Olivine and spinel show the highest HSE concentration especially for Os, Ir, Ru and Pt (up to 10 ppb) among the modally-major minerals, while the pyroxenes are 1-2 orders of magnitude poorer in HSE. The major minerals account for less than 30% of the whole-rock platinum group element budget. On the other hand, rare, micron to submicron platinum group minerals (PGM), such as Ru-Os ± Ir sulfides and Pt-Ir ± Os alloys, likely located in the intergranular spaces of the refractory depleted harzburgite, account for 50-100% of the HSE budget. The PGM grains are interpreted to be residual, having formed in response to the complete consumption of the base-metal sulfides by the high degree of partial melting (i.e. 23-24%) experienced by these samples. As they sequester the compatible platinum group elements (Os, Ir, Ru and Pt) in the mantle residue, these PGM provide key constraints for the modelling of PGE contents in terrestrial basalts (e.g. the solid/liquid partition coefficients needed to account for the compatible behavior of these elements in the mantle residue) and for understanding the long-lived Os isotope heterogeneities of the upper mantle, especially the old Re-Os ages found in young oceanic mantle. In fact, because of their Os-rich compositions and high melting temperatures, these microphases are likely to preserve their initial Os isotopic compositions unmodified over multiple events of mantle melting and mixing, and therefore generate, through recycling

  3. The Challenges of Observing Geologically: Third Graders' Descriptions of Rock and Mineral Properties

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Ford, Danielle J.

    2005-01-01

    The understandings of properties that children develop in the context of rock and mineral identification point to the challenges of observing in a manner authentic to the discipline of geology. The notebook entries of 34 third graders written during the enactment of a commercial unit on earth materials were investigated for their descriptions of…

  4. Magnetic separation, thermo- and magnetochemical properties of coal liquid residues

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Maxwell, E.; Kelland, D. R.

    1981-02-01

    Iron sulfides in the form of ferrimagnetic pyrrhotite have been removed from solvent refined coal by the use of high gradient magnetic separation. The results of such separations have been correlated with those of studies of the thermochemical and magnetochemical properties of the undissolved solids present in the product of coal liquefaction. Complete inorganic desulfurization was achieved at the same temperatures at which the solids exhibit a maximum magnetization, at about 230 °C. The preferred form for the highest magnetization is a monoclinic structure with a composition of Fe0.875S. Where the sulfides do not occur in this form, it has been possible to convert them to the high magnetization state by exposure to a hydrogen sulfide atmosphere at an elevated temperature. To approximate the temperature cycle experienced by the liquid coal coming from the reactor toward the filter, samples were heated above the Curie point to destroy the magnetization and then cooled to about 260 °C for H2S treatment. Measurements on the solids subsequently extracted showed a striking increase in the magnetization compared to the untreated material.

  5. Synchrotron based mass spectrometry to investigate the molecular properties of mineral-organic associations

    SciTech Connect

    Liu, Suet Yi; Kleber, Markus; Takahashi, Lynelle K.; Nico, Peter; Keiluweit, Marco; Ahmed, Musahid

    2013-04-01

    Soil organic matter (OM) is important because its decay drives life processes in the biosphere. Analysis of organic compounds in geological systems is difficult because of their intimate association with mineral surfaces. To date there is no procedure capable of quantitatively separating organic from mineral phases without creating artifacts or mass loss. Therefore, analytical techniques that can (a) generate information about both organic and mineral phases simultaneously and (b) allow the examination of predetermined high-interest regions of the sample as opposed to conventional bulk analytical techniques are valuable. Laser Desorption Synchrotron Postionization (synchrotron-LDPI) mass spectrometry is introduced as a novel analytical tool to characterize the molecular properties of organic compounds in mineral-organic samples from terrestrial systems, and it is demonstrated that when combined with Secondary Ion Mass Spectrometry (SIMS), can provide complementary information on mineral composition. Mass spectrometry along a decomposition gradient in density fractions, verifies the consistency of our results with bulk analytical techniques. We further demonstrate that by changing laser and photoionization energies, variations in molecular stability of organic compounds associated with mineral surfaces can be determined. The combination of synchrotron-LDPI and SIMS shows that the energetic conditions involved in desorption and ionization of organic matter may be a greater determinant of mass spectral signatures than the inherent molecular structure of the organic compounds investigated. The latter has implications for molecular models of natural organic matter that are based on mass spectrometric information.

  6. Influence of Surface Properties and Impact Conditions on Adhesion of Insect Residues

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Wohl, Christopher J.; Smith, Joseph G.; Connell, John W.; Siochi, Emilie J.; Doss, Jereme R.; Shanahan, Michelle H.; Penner, Ronald K.

    2015-01-01

    Insect residues can cause premature transition to turbulent flow on laminar flow airfoils. Engineered surfaces that mitigate the adhesion of insect residues provide, therefore, a route to more efficient aerodynamics and reduced fuel burn rates. Areal coverage and heights of residues depend not only on surface properties, but also on impact conditions. We report high speed photography of fruit fly impacts at different angles of inclination on a rigid aluminum surface, optical microscopy and profilometry, and contact angle goniometry to support the design of engineered surfaces. For the polyurethane and epoxy coatings studied, some of which exhibited superhydrophobicity, it was determined that impact angle and surface compositions play critical roles in the efficacy of these surfaces to reduce insect residue adhesion.

  7. Collagen and mineral deposition in rabbit cortical bone during maturation and growth: effects on tissue properties.

    PubMed

    Isaksson, Hanna; Harjula, Terhi; Koistinen, Arto; Iivarinen, Jarkko; Seppänen, Kari; Arokoski, Jari P A; Brama, Pieter A; Jurvelin, Jukka S; Helminen, Heikki J

    2010-12-01

    We characterized the composition and mechanical properties of cortical bone during maturation and growth and in adult life in the rabbit. We hypothesized that the collagen network develops earlier than the mineralized matrix. Growth was monitored, and the rabbits were euthanized at birth (newborn), and at 1, 3, 6, 9, and 18 months of age. The collagen network was assessed biochemically (collagen content, enzymatic and non-enzymatic cross-links) in specimens from the mid-diaphysis of the tibia and femur and biomechanically (tensile testing) from decalcified whole tibia specimens. The mineralized matrix was analyzed using pQCT and 3-point bend tests from intact femur specimens. The collagen content and the Young's modulus of the collagen matrix increased significantly until the rabbits were 3 months old, and thereafter remained stable. The amount of HP and LP collagen cross-links increased continuously from newborn to 18 months of age, whereas PEN cross-links increased after 6 months of age. Bone mineral density and the Young's modulus of the mineralized bone increased until the rabbits were at least 6 months old. We concluded that substantial changes take place during the normal process of development in both the biochemical and biomechanical properties of rabbit cortical bone. In cortical bone, the collagen network reaches its mature composition and mechanical strength prior to the mineralized matrix.

  8. Minimizing residual aluminum concentration in treated water by tailoring properties of polyaluminum coagulants.

    PubMed

    Kimura, Masaoki; Matsui, Yoshihiko; Kondo, Kenta; Ishikawa, Tairyo B; Matsushita, Taku; Shirasaki, Nobutaka

    2013-04-15

    Aluminum coagulants are widely used in water treatment plants to remove turbidity and dissolved substances. However, because high aluminum concentrations in treated water are associated with increased turbidity and because aluminum exerts undeniable human health effects, its concentration should be controlled in water treatment plants, especially in plants that use aluminum coagulants. In this study, the effect of polyaluminum chloride (PACl) coagulant characteristics on dissolved residual aluminum concentrations after coagulation and filtration was investigated. The dissolved residual aluminum concentrations at a given coagulation pH differed among the PACls tested. Very-high-basicity PACl yielded low dissolved residual aluminum concentrations and higher natural organic matter (NOM) removal. The low residual aluminum concentrations were related to the low content of monomeric aluminum (Ala) in the PACl. Polymeric (Alb)/colloidal (Alc) ratio in PACl did not greatly influence residual aluminum concentration. The presence of sulfate in PACl contributed to lower residual aluminum concentration only when coagulation was performed at around pH 6.5 or lower. At a wide pH range (6.5-8.5), residual aluminum concentrations <0.02 mg/L were attained by tailoring PACl properties (Ala percentage ≤0.5%, basicity ≥85%). The dissolved residual aluminum concentrations did not increase with increasing the dosage of high-basicity PACl, but did increase with increasing the dosage of normal-basicity PACl. We inferred that increasing the basicity of PACl afforded lower dissolved residual aluminum concentrations partly because the high-basicity PACls could have a small percentage of Ala, which tends to form soluble aluminum-NOM complexes with molecular weights of 100 kDa-0.45 μm.

  9. Relating micromechanical properties and mineral densities in severely suppressed bone turnover patients, osteoporotic patients, and normal subjects.

    PubMed

    Tjhia, Crystal K; Stover, Susan M; Rao, D Sudhaker; Odvina, Clarita V; Fyhrie, David P

    2012-07-01

    Mineralization of bone, from the tissue level to whole bones, is associated with mechanical properties. The relationship between bone tissue mineralization and micromechanical properties may be affected by age, disease, and drug treatment. Patients with severely suppressed bone turnover (SSBT) suffered atypical fractures while on bisphosphonate treatment. The role of tissue level mineralization in predicting material level properties of SSBT bone may be different from that of other osteoporotic patients and of normal subjects. The aim of this study was to compare the relationships between mineralization and micromechanical properties of bone biopsies from patients with SSBT, bisphosphonate-naive osteoporotic patients with typical vertebral fracture, and normal young and age-matched subjects. We used nanoindentation and quantitative backscattered electron microscopy to characterize the elastic modulus, contact hardness, plastic deformation resistance, and tissue mineralization of the biopsies at site-matched locations within each biopsy. The linear mineralization-mechanical property relationships were different among the groups with respect to the intercepts for only cortical bone tissue but not the slopes for cortical and trabecular bone tissues. For a given mineral density, there was a trend of greater plastic deformation resistance in SSBT cortical bone compared to young normal bone. Similarly, there was a trend of greater plastic deformation resistance in osteoporotic trabecular bone compared to young normal bone for a given mineral density. The age-matched normal group had higher elastic modulus and a trend of higher contact hardness compared to the young normal group for a given mineral density. However, the mechanical property-mineralization relationships within an individual were weak, and only 21 of 53 biopsies that were analyzed had at least one significant association between mineralization and a mechanical property measurement for either cortical or

  10. Physiochemical properties of carbonaceous aerosol from agricultural residue burning: Density, volatility, and hygroscopicity

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Li, Chunlin; Hu, Yunjie; Chen, Jianmin; Ma, Zhen; Ye, Xingnan; Yang, Xin; Wang, Lin; Wang, Xinming; Mellouki, Abdelwahid

    2016-09-01

    Size-resolved effective density, mixing state, and hygroscopicity of smoke particles from five kinds of agricultural residues burning were characterized using an aerosol chamber system, including a volatility/hygroscopic tandem differential mobility analyzer (V/H-TDMA) combined with an aerosol particle mass analyzer (APM). To profile relationship between the thermodynamic properties and chemical compositions, smoke PM1.0 and PM2.5 were also measured for the water soluble inorganics, mineral elements, and carbonaceous materials like organic carbon (OC) and elemental carbon (EC). Smoke particle has a density of 1.1-1.4 g cm-3, and hygroscopicity parameter (κ) derived from hygroscopic growth factor (GF) of the particles ranges from 0.20 to 0.35. Size- and fuel type-dependence of density and κ are obvious. The integrated effective densities (ρ) and hygroscopicity parameters (κ) both scale with alkali species, which could be parameterized as a function of organic and inorganic mass fraction (forg &finorg) in smoke PM1.0 and PM2.5: ρ-1 =finorg ·ρinorg-1 +forg · ρorg-1 and κ =finorg ·κinorg +forg ·κorg . The extrapolated values of ρinorg and ρorg are 2.13 and 1.14 g cm-3 in smoke PM1.0, while the characteristic κ values of organic and inorganic components are about 0.087 and 0.734, which are similar to the bulk density and κ calculated from predefined chemical species and also consistent with those values observed in ambient air. Volatility of smoke particle was quantified as volume fraction remaining (VFR) and mass fraction remaining (MFR). The gradient temperature of V-TDMA was set to be consistent with the splitting temperature in the OC-EC measurement (OC1 and OC2 separated at 150 and 250 °C). Combing the thermogram data and chemical composition of smoke PM1.0, the densities of organic matter (OM1 and OM2 correspond to OC1 and OC2) are estimated as 0.61-0.90 and 0.86-1.13 g cm-3, and the ratios of OM1/OC1 and OM2/OC2 are 1.07 and 1.29 on average

  11. Physiochemical properties of carbonaceous aerosol from agricultural residue burning: Density, volatility, and hygroscopicity

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Li, Chunlin; Hu, Yunjie; Chen, Jianmin; Ma, Zhen; Ye, Xingnan; Yang, Xin; Wang, Lin; Wang, Xinming; Mellouki, Abdelwahid

    2016-09-01

    Size-resolved effective density, mixing state, and hygroscopicity of smoke particles from five kinds of agricultural residues burning were characterized using an aerosol chamber system, including a volatility/hygroscopic tandem differential mobility analyzer (V/H-TDMA) combined with an aerosol particle mass analyzer (APM). To profile relationship between the thermodynamic properties and chemical compositions, smoke PM1.0 and PM2.5 were also measured for the water soluble inorganics, mineral elements, and carbonaceous materials like organic carbon (OC) and elemental carbon (EC). Smoke particle has a density of 1.1-1.4 g cm-3, and hygroscopicity parameter (κ) derived from hygroscopic growth factor (GF) of the particles ranges from 0.20 to 0.35. Size- and fuel type-dependence of density and κ are obvious. The integrated effective densities (ρ) and hygroscopicity parameters (κ) both scale with alkali species, which could be parameterized as a function of organic and inorganic mass fraction (forg &finorg) in smoke PM1.0 and PM2.5: ρ-1 =finorg · ρinorg-1 +forg · ρorg-1 and κ =finorg ·κinorg +forg ·κorg . The extrapolated values of ρinorg and ρorg are 2.13 and 1.14 g cm-3 in smoke PM1.0, while the characteristic κ values of organic and inorganic components are about 0.087 and 0.734, which are similar to the bulk density and κ calculated from predefined chemical species and also consistent with those values observed in ambient air. Volatility of smoke particle was quantified as volume fraction remaining (VFR) and mass fraction remaining (MFR). The gradient temperature of V-TDMA was set to be consistent with the splitting temperature in the OC-EC measurement (OC1 and OC2 separated at 150 and 250 °C). Combing the thermogram data and chemical composition of smoke PM1.0, the densities of organic matter (OM1 and OM2 correspond to OC1 and OC2) are estimated as 0.61-0.90 and 0.86-1.13 g cm-3, and the ratios of OM1/OC1 and OM2/OC2 are 1.07 and 1.29 on average

  12. Magnetic properties of iron minerals produced by natural iron- and manganese-reducing groundwater bacteria

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Abrajevitch, Alexandra; Kondratyeva, Lubov M.; Golubeva, Evgeniya M.; Kodama, Kazuto; Hori, Rie S.

    2016-06-01

    Understanding the contribution of biogenic magnetic particles into sedimentary assemblages is a current challenge in paleomagnetism. It has been demonstrated recently that magnetic particles produced through biologically controlled mineralization processes, such as magnetosomes from magnetotactic bacteria, contribute to the recording of natural remanent magnetization in marine and lacustrian sediments. Contributions from other, biologically induced, mineralization types, which are known from multiple laboratory experiments to include magnetic minerals, remain largely unknown. Here, we report magnetic properties of iron minerals formed by a community of iron- and manganese-reducing bacteria isolated from a natural groundwater deposit during a two year long incubation experiment. The main iron phases of the biomineralized mass are lepidocrocite, goethite and magnetite, each of which has environmental significance. Unlike the majority of the previous studies that reported superparamagnetic grain size, and thus no remanence carrying capacity of biologically induced magnetite, hysteresis and first order reversal curves measurements in our study have not detected significant superparamagnetic contribution. The biomineralized mass, instead, contains a mixture of single-domain to pseudo-single-domain and multi-domain magnetite particles that are capable of carrying a stable chemical remanent magnetization. Isothermal remanent magnetization acquisition parameters and first order reversal curves signatures of the biomineralized samples deviate from previously proposed criteria for the distinction of extracellular (biologically induced) magnetic particles in mixtures. Given its potential significance as a carrier of natural remanent magnetization, environmental requirements, distribution in nature and the efficiency in the geomagnetic field recording by biologically induced mineralization need comprehensive investigation.

  13. Magnetic properties of iron minerals produced by natural iron- and manganese-reducing groundwater bacteria

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Abrajevitch, Alexandra; Kondratyeva, Lubov M.; Golubeva, Evgeniya M.; Kodama, Kazuto; Hori, Rie S.

    2016-08-01

    Understanding the contribution of biogenic magnetic particles into sedimentary assemblages is a current challenge in palaeomagnetism. It has been demonstrated recently that magnetic particles produced through biologically controlled mineralization processes, such as magnetosomes from magnetotactic bacteria, contribute to the recording of natural remanent magnetization in marine and lacustrian sediments. Contributions from other, biologically induced, mineralization types, which are known from multiple laboratory experiments to include magnetic minerals, remain largely unknown. Here, we report magnetic properties of iron minerals formed by a community of iron- and manganese-reducing bacteria isolated from a natural groundwater deposit during a 2 yr long incubation experiment. The main iron phases of the biomineralized mass are lepidocrocite, goethite and magnetite, each of which has environmental significance. Unlike the majority of the previous studies that reported superparamagnetic grain size, and thus no remanence carrying capacity of biologically induced magnetite, hysteresis and first-order reversal curves measurements in our study have not detected significant superparamagnetic contribution. The biomineralized mass, instead, contains a mixture of single-domain to pseudo-single-domain and multidomain magnetite particles that are capable of carrying a stable chemical remanent magnetization. Isothermal remanent magnetization acquisition parameters and first-order reversal curves signatures of the biomineralized samples deviate from previously proposed criteria for the distinction of extracellular (biologically induced) magnetic particles in mixtures. Given its potential significance as a carrier of natural remanent magnetization, environmental requirements, distribution in nature and the efficiency in the geomagnetic field recording by biologically induced mineralization need comprehensive investigation.

  14. Physicochemical and functional properties of dietary fiber from maca (Lepidium meyenii Walp.) liquor residue.

    PubMed

    Chen, Jinjin; Zhao, Qingsheng; Wang, Liwei; Zha, Shenghua; Zhang, Lijun; Zhao, Bing

    2015-11-01

    Using maca (Lepidium meyenii) liquor residue as the raw material, dietary fiber (DF) was prepared by chemical (MCDF) and enzymatic (MEDF) methods, respectively, of which the physicochemical and functional properties were comparatively studied. High contents of DF were found in MCDF (55.63%) and MEDF (81.10%). Both fibers showed good functional properties, including swelling capacity, water holding capacity, oil holding capacity, glucose adsorption capacity and glucose retardation index. MEDF showed better functional properties, which could be attributed to its higher content of DF, more irregular surface and more abundant monosaccharide composition. The results herein suggest that maca DF prepared by enzymatic method from liquor residue is a good functional ingredient in food products.

  15. Effect of residual sericin on the structural characteristics and properties of regenerated silk films.

    PubMed

    Lee, Ji Hye; Song, Dae Woong; Park, Young Hwan; Um, In Chul

    2016-08-01

    Regenerated silk film has been increasingly attracting the research community's attention for biomedical applications due to its good biocompatibility and excellent cyto-compatibility. However, some limitations regarding its mechanical properties, such as brittleness, have restricted the use of silk films for industrial biomedical applications. In this study, regenerated silk films with different residual sericin content were prepared applying controlled degumming conditions to evaluate the effect of sericin content on the structure and properties of the films generated. When the residual sericin content increased to 0.6%, crystallinity index and breaking strength of silk films were increased. Above this value, these parameters then decreased. A 1.5 fold increase of silk film elongation properties was obtained when incorporating 16% sericin. Regardless of sericin content, all regenerated silk films showed excellent cyto-compatibility, comparable to the one obtained with tissue culture plates.

  16. Physicochemical and functional properties of dietary fiber from maca (Lepidium meyenii Walp.) liquor residue.

    PubMed

    Chen, Jinjin; Zhao, Qingsheng; Wang, Liwei; Zha, Shenghua; Zhang, Lijun; Zhao, Bing

    2015-11-01

    Using maca (Lepidium meyenii) liquor residue as the raw material, dietary fiber (DF) was prepared by chemical (MCDF) and enzymatic (MEDF) methods, respectively, of which the physicochemical and functional properties were comparatively studied. High contents of DF were found in MCDF (55.63%) and MEDF (81.10%). Both fibers showed good functional properties, including swelling capacity, water holding capacity, oil holding capacity, glucose adsorption capacity and glucose retardation index. MEDF showed better functional properties, which could be attributed to its higher content of DF, more irregular surface and more abundant monosaccharide composition. The results herein suggest that maca DF prepared by enzymatic method from liquor residue is a good functional ingredient in food products. PMID:26256376

  17. Water, mineral waters and health.

    PubMed

    Petraccia, Luisa; Liberati, Giovanna; Masciullo, Stefano Giuseppe; Grassi, Marcello; Fraioli, Antonio

    2006-06-01

    The authors focus on water resources and the use of mineral waters in human nutrition, especially in the different stages of life, in physical activity and in the presence of some morbid conditions. Mineral water is characterized by its purity at source, its content in minerals, trace elements and other constituents, its conservation and its healing properties recognized by the Ministry of Health after clinical and pharmacological trials. Based on total salt content in grams after evaporation of 1l mineral water dried at 180 degrees C (dry residues), mineral waters can be classified as: waters with a very low mineral content, waters low in mineral content, waters with a medium mineral content, and strongly mineralized waters. Based on ion composition mineral waters can be classified as: bicarbonate waters, sulfate waters, sodium chloride or saltwater, sulfuric waters. Based on biological activity mineral waters can be classified as: diuretic waters, cathartic waters, waters with antiphlogistic properties. Instructions for use, doses, and current regulations are included.

  18. Residual stress, mechanical behavior and electrical properties of Cu/Nb thin-film multilayers

    SciTech Connect

    Griffin, A.J. Jr.; Hundley, M.F.; Jervis, T.R.; Kung, H.H.; Scarborough, W.K.; Walter, K.C.; Nastasi, M.; Embury, J.D.

    1995-09-01

    Effect of compositional wavelength (modulation) on residual stress, electrical resistivities and mechanical properties of Cu/Nb thin-film multilayers sputtered onto single-crystal Si substrates, was evaluated. Electrical resistivities were measured down to 4 K using a standard 4-point probe. Differential specimen curvature was used to determine residual stress, and a microprobe was used to obtain hardness and elastic modulus. Profilometry, ion-beam analysis and TEM were used. Hardness of the Cu-Nb multilayers increased with decreasing compositional wavelength so that the layered structures had hardness values in excess of either constituent and the hardness predicted by the rule of mixtures. A peak in net residual compressive stress of the multilayers was observed at a compositional wavelength of 100 nm. No resistivity plateau was observed within the composition wavelength range studied.

  19. Effect of mineral reactions on the hydraulic properties of unsaturated soils: Model development and application

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Wissmeier, L.; Barry, D. A.

    2009-08-01

    The selective radius shift model was used to relate changes in mineral volume due to precipitation/dissolution reactions to changes in hydraulic properties affecting flow in porous media. The model accounts for (i) precipitation/dissolution taking place only in the water-filled part of the pore space and further that (ii) the amount of mineral precipitation/dissolution within a pore depends on the local pore volume. The pore bundle concept was used to connect pore-scale changes to macroscopic soil hydraulic properties. Precipitation/dissolution induces changes in the pore radii of water-filled pores and, consequently, in the effective porosity. In a time step of the numerical model, mineral reactions lead to a discontinuous pore-size distribution because only the water-filled pores are affected. The pore-size distribution is converted back to a soil moisture characteristic function to which a new water retention curve is fitted under physically plausible constraints. The model equations were derived for the commonly used van Genuchten/Mualem hydraulic properties. Together with a mixed-form solution of Richards' equation for aqueous phase flow, the model was implemented into the geochemical modelling framework PHREEQC, thereby making available PHREEQC's comprehensive geochemical reactions. Example applications include kinetic halite dissolution and calcite precipitation as a consequence of cation exchange. These applications showed marked changes in the soil's hydraulic properties due to mineral precipitation/dissolution and the dependency of these changes on water contents. The simulations also revealed the strong influence of the degree of saturation on the development of the saturated hydraulic conductivity through its quadratic dependency on the van Genuchten parameter α. Furthermore, it was shown that the unsaturated hydraulic conductivity at fixed reduced water content can even increase during precipitation due to changes in the pore-size distribution.

  20. Effect of different soil washing solutions on bioavailability of residual arsenic in soils and soil properties.

    PubMed

    Im, Jinwoo; Yang, Kyung; Jho, Eun Hea; Nam, Kyoungphile

    2015-11-01

    The effect of soil washing used for arsenic (As)-contaminated soil remediation on soil properties and bioavailability of residual As in soil is receiving increasing attention due to increasing interest in conserving soil qualities after remediation. This study investigates the effect of different washing solutions on bioavailability of residual As in soils and soil properties after soil washing. Regardless of washing solutions, the sequential extraction revealed that the residual As concentrations and the amount of readily labile As in soils were reduced after soil washing. However, the bioassay tests showed that the washed soils exhibited ecotoxicological effects - lower seed germination, shoot growth, and enzyme activities - and this could largely be attributed to the acidic pH and/or excessive nutrient contents of the washed soils depending on washing solutions. Overall, this study showed that treated soils having lower levels of contaminants could still exhibit toxic effects due to changes in soil properties, which highly depended on washing solutions. This study also emphasizes that data on the As concentrations, the soil properties, and the ecotoxicological effects are necessary to properly manage the washed soils for reuses. The results of this study can, thus, be utilized to select proper post-treatment techniques for the washed soils. PMID:26086811

  1. Properties of the Residual Stress of the Temporally Filtered Navier-Stokes Equations

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Pruett, C. D.; Gatski, T. B.; Grosch, C. E.; Thacker, W. D.

    2002-01-01

    The development of a unifying framework among direct numerical simulations, large-eddy simulations, and statistically averaged formulations of the Navier-Stokes equations, is of current interest. Toward that goal, the properties of the residual (subgrid-scale) stress of the temporally filtered Navier-Stokes equations are carefully examined. Causal time-domain filters, parameterized by a temporal filter width 0 less than Delta less than infinity, are considered. For several reasons, the differential forms of such filters are preferred to their corresponding integral forms; among these, storage requirements for differential forms are typically much less than for integral forms and, for some filters, are independent of Delta. The behavior of the residual stress in the limits of both vanishing and in infinite filter widths is examined. It is shown analytically that, in the limit Delta to 0, the residual stress vanishes, in which case the Navier-Stokes equations are recovered from the temporally filtered equations. Alternately, in the limit Delta to infinity, the residual stress is equivalent to the long-time averaged stress, and the Reynolds-averaged Navier-Stokes equations are recovered from the temporally filtered equations. The predicted behavior at the asymptotic limits of filter width is further validated by numerical simulations of the temporally filtered forced, viscous Burger's equation. Finally, finite filter widths are also considered, and a priori analyses of temporal similarity and temporal approximate deconvolution models of the residual stress are conducted.

  2. Mining Properties in Oregon that were Involved in the DMA, DMEA, OME Mineral Exploration Programs, 1950-1974

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Kiilsgaard, Thor H.

    1998-01-01

    Introduction This report and accompanying map (Plate 1) presents information on the Defense Minerals Administration (DMA), Defense Minerals Exploration Administration (DMEA), and Office of Minerals Exploration (OME) mineral exploration programs in Oregon. Under these programs, the federal government participated in the exploration costs for certain strategic and critical minerals. Federal funds for mineral exploration under the programs were available from 1950 to 1974, although limited funds for OME administrative work were continued until 1979. The report reviews the three programs, associated regulations, administrative procedures, and operational techniques. It also describes the various types of informative reports on individual mining properties generated by the programs, lists properties in Oregon that were involved in the different exploration programs, and advises on the location of compiled information that resulted from the work.

  3. A study of the relationship between mineral content and mechanical properties of turkey gastrocnemius tendon

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Landis, W. J.; Librizzi, J. J.; Dunn, M. G.; Silver, F. H.

    1995-01-01

    The vertebrate skeletal system undergoes adaptation in response to external forces, but the relation between the skeletal changes and such forces is not understood. In this context, the variation in the amount and location of calcification has been compared with changes in mechanical properties of the normally mineralizing turkey gastrocnemius tendon using ash weight measurements, X-ray radiography, and mechanical testing. Radiographic evidence from 12- to 17-week-old birds showed calcification in only portions of gastrocnemius tendons proximal to the tarsometatarsal joint. Mechanical testing of these dissected proximal regions demonstrated an increased ultimate stress and modulus and a decreased maximum strain that appeared to parallel calcification. Further, stress-strain curves of portions of uncalcified turkey gastrocnemius tendon were shaped similar to those of other typical unmineralized tendon curves while highly calcified tendons yielded curves resembling those of bone. The proximal portions of the gastrocnemius where mineralization begins were observed to have a decreased tendon cross-sectional area compared with distal portions which do not mineralize. Based on the resultant measures of mineral content and location and mechanical properties, it is hypothesized that increased calcification is a result of increased stresses at certain locations of the tendon, perhaps the consequence of the natural forces exerted by the large leg muscles of the bird into which the gastrocnemius inserts. More specifically, tendon calcification may be the result of stress-induced exposure of charged sites on the surfaces of collagen molecules, fibrils, or fibers so that deposition of mineral and subsequent mechanical reinforcement occur in the tissue.(ABSTRACT TRUNCATED AT 250 WORDS).

  4. Gasification of residual materials from coal liquefaction. Type III extended pilot plant evaluation of a pelletized and ground Kerr McGee mineral ash residue from SRC-I coal liquefaction process

    SciTech Connect

    Wu, C.M.; Robin, A.M.

    1984-02-01

    A Type III extended pilot plant evaluation of pelletized and ground Kerr McGee mineral ash residue, which was obtained from the liquefaction of Illinois No. 6 coal at the SRC-I coal liquefaction process pilot plant at Wilsonville, Alabama, was successfully completed at Texaco's Montebello Research Laboratory (MRL). A total of 60 tons of residue was gasified during three runs which were carried out at 950 psig in the MRL High Pressure Solids Gasification Unit II gasifier. The oxygen-to-residue ratio was varied to determine optimum operating conditions. The runs lasted from 6.9 hours to 56.3 hours and a total of 72.9 hours of on-stream time was accumulated. This work was authorized by DOE Delivery Order Number 9 under DOE contract DEAC-01-76ET-10137. It is part of a continuing project to evaluate residual materials from various DOE sponsored coal liquefaction projects to determine their suitability for conversion to hydrogen using one of the Texaco gasification processes. 5 figures, 5 tables.

  5. HOST GALAXY PROPERTIES AND HUBBLE RESIDUALS OF TYPE Ia SUPERNOVAE FROM THE NEARBY SUPERNOVA FACTORY

    SciTech Connect

    Childress, M.; Aldering, G.; Aragon, C.; Bailey, S.; Fakhouri, H. K.; Hsiao, E. Y.; Kim, A. G.; Loken, S.; Antilogus, P.; Bongard, S.; Canto, A.; Cellier-Holzem, F.; Guy, J.; Baltay, C.; Buton, C.; Kerschhaggl, M.; Kowalski, M.; Chotard, N.; Copin, Y.; Gangler, E. [Universite de Lyon, F-69622, Lyon; Universite de Lyon 1, Villeurbanne; CNRS and others

    2013-06-20

    We examine the relationship between Type Ia supernova (SN Ia) Hubble residuals and the properties of their host galaxies using a sample of 115 SNe Ia from the Nearby Supernova Factory. We use host galaxy stellar masses and specific star formation rates fitted from photometry for all hosts, as well as gas-phase metallicities for a subset of 69 star-forming (non-active galactic nucleus) hosts, to show that the SN Ia Hubble residuals correlate with each of these host properties. With these data we find new evidence for a correlation between SN Ia intrinsic color and host metallicity. When we combine our data with those of other published SN Ia surveys, we find the difference between mean SN Ia brightnesses in low- and high-mass hosts is 0.077 {+-} 0.014 mag. When viewed in narrow (0.2 dex) bins of host stellar mass, the data reveal apparent plateaus of Hubble residuals at high and low host masses with a rapid transition over a short mass range (9.8 {<=} log (M{sub *}/M{sub Sun }) {<=} 10.4). Although metallicity has been a favored interpretation for the origin of the Hubble residual trend with host mass, we illustrate how dust in star-forming galaxies and mean SN Ia progenitor age both evolve along the galaxy mass sequence, thereby presenting equally viable explanations for some or all of the observed SN Ia host bias.

  6. Optical, physical and chemical properties of transported African mineral dust aerosols in the Mediterranean region

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Denjean, Cyrielle; Di Biagio, Claudia; Chevaillier, Servanne; Gaimoz, Cécile; Grand, Noel; Loisil, Rodrigue; Triquet, Sylvain; Zapf, Pascal; Roberts, Greg; Bourrianne, Thierry; Torres, Benjamin; Blarel, Luc; Sellegri, Karine; Freney, Evelyn; Schwarzenbock, Alfons; Ravetta, François; Laurent, Benoit; Mallet, Marc; Formenti, Paola

    2014-05-01

    The transport of mineral dust aerosols is a global phenomenon with strong climate implications. Depending on the travel distance over source regions, the atmospheric conditions and the residence time in the atmosphere, various transformation processes (size-selective sedimentation, mixing, condensation of gaseous species, and weathering) can modify the physical and chemical properties of mineral dust, which, in turn, can change the dust's optical properties. The model predictions of the radiative effect by mineral dust still suffer of the lack of certainty of these properties, and their temporal evolution with transport time. Within the frame of the ChArMex project (Chemistry-Aerosol Mediterranean experiment, http://charmex.lsce.ipsl.fr/), two intensive airborne campaigns (TRAQA, TRansport and Air QuAlity, 18 June - 11 July 2012, and ADRIMED, Aerosol Direct Radiative Impact in the regional climate in the MEDiterranean region, 06 June - 08 July 2013) have been performed over the Central and Western Mediterranean, one of the two major transport pathways of African mineral dust. In this study we have set up a systematic strategy to determine the optical, physical and optical properties of mineral dust to be compared to an equivalent dataset for dust close to source regions in Africa. This study is based on airborne observations onboard the SAFIRE ATR-42 aircraft, equipped with state of the art in situ instrumentation to measure the particle scattering and backscattering coefficients (nephelometer at 450, 550, and 700 nm), the absorption coefficient (PSAP at 467, 530, and 660 nm), the extinction coefficient (CAPS at 530 nm), the aerosol optical depth (PLASMA at 340 to 1640 nm), the size distribution in the extended range 40 nm - 30 µm by the combination of different particle counters (SMPS, USHAS, FSSP, GRIMM) and the chemical composition obtained by filter sampling. The chemistry and transport model CHIMERE-Dust have been used to classify the air masses according to

  7. Properties of transported African mineral dust aerosols in the Mediterranean region

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Denjean, Cyrielle; Chevaillier, Servanne; Gaimoz, Cécile; Grand, Noel; Triquet, Sylvain; Zapf, Pascal; Loisil, Rodrigue; Bourrianne, Thierry; Freney, Evelyn; Dupuy, Regis; Sellegri, Karine; Schwarzenbock, Alfons; Torres, Benjamin; Mallet, Marc; Cassola, Federico; Prati, Paolo; Formenti, Paola

    2015-04-01

    The transport of mineral dust aerosols is a global phenomenon with strong climate implications. Depending on the travel distance over source regions, the atmospheric conditions and the residence time in the atmosphere, various transformation processes (size-selective sedimentation, mixing, condensation of gaseous species, and weathering) can modify the physical and chemical properties of mineral dust, which, in turn, can change the dust's optical properties. The model predictions of the radiative effect by mineral dust still suffer of the lack of certainty of these properties, and their temporal evolution with transport time. Within the frame of the ChArMex project (Chemistry-Aerosol Mediterranean experiment, http://charmex.lsce.ipsl.fr/), one intensive airborne campaign (ADRIMED, Aerosol Direct Radiative Impact in the regional climate in the MEDiterranean region, 06 June - 08 July 2013) has been performed over the Central and Western Mediterranean, one of the two major transport pathways of African mineral dust. In this study we have set up a systematic strategy to determine the optical, physical and optical properties of mineral dust to be compared to an equivalent dataset for dust close to source regions in Africa. This study is based on airborne observations onboard the SAFIRE ATR-42 aircraft, equipped with state of the art in situ instrumentation to measure the particle scattering and backscattering coefficients (nephelometer at 450, 550, and 700 nm), the absorption coefficient (PSAP at 467, 530, and 660 nm), the extinction coefficient (CAPS at 530 nm), the aerosol optical depth (PLASMA at 340 to 1640 nm), the size distribution in the extended range 40 nm - 30 µm by the combination of different particle counters (SMPS, USHAS, FSSP, GRIMM) and the chemical composition obtained by filter sampling. The chemistry and transport model CHIMERE-Dust have been used to classify the air masses according to the dust origin and transport. Case studies of dust transport

  8. Magnetic Properties of Iron Oxide Minerals in Atmospheric Dust and Source Sediments from Western US

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Moskowitz, B. M.; Yauk, K.; Till, J. L.; Berquo, T. S.; Banerjee, S. K.; Reynolds, R. L.; Goldstein, H. L.

    2011-12-01

    Atmospheric dust contains iron oxide minerals that can play important roles in various physical and biological processes affecting atmospheric and surface temperatures, marine phytoplankton productivity, and human health. Iron oxide minerals in dust deposited on mountain snow cover are especially important because these minerals absorb solar and IR radiation leading to changes in albedo and affecting the timing and rate of spring and summer snowpack melting. As part of an ongoing project to study physical and chemical properties of dust from sources to sinks in the western US, we will describe one approach to characterize iron oxide mineralogy using magnetic property measurements and Mossbauer spectroscopy. Magnetic property measurements over a wide range of temperatures (2-300 K) and magnetic fields (0-5 T) are particularly sensitive to composition, particle size (from nanometer to micrometer), and concentration of iron oxide and oxyhydroxide minerals. The high sensitivity of magnetic measurements to target minerals allows the measurement of bulk samples preventing any aliasing of composition or grain size resulting from attempts at prior magnetic separation. In addition, different magnetic measurement protocols can isolate different particle-size assemblages and different compositions in multicomponent mixtures and help to identify dust-source areas. These techniques have been applied to dust deposited on snow (DOS) cover of the San Juan Mountains, Colorado (collected 2005-2010) and Wasatch Mountains, Utah (collected 2010) and possible dust-source sediments from the North American Great Basin and Colorado Plateau deserts. Results show that all samples contain a high coercivity phase consistent with hematite and/or goethite as the dominate ferric oxide mineral plus minor amounts of magnetite (<0.5 wt%). The presence of magnetite was determined from the detection of the characteristic Verwey transition (T=121 K) on low-temperature (< 300 K) remanence and

  9. Overexpression of DMP1 Accelerates Mineralization and Alters Cortical Bone Biomechanical Properties in Vivo

    PubMed Central

    Bhatia, Ankush; Albazzaz, Michael; Espinoza Orías, Alejandro A.; Inoue, Nozomu; Miller, Lisa M.; Acerbo, Alvin; George, Anne; Sumner, Dale R.

    2011-01-01

    Dentin matrix protein-1 (DMP1) is a key regulator of biomineralization. Here, we examine changes in structural, geometric, and material properties of cortical bone in a transgenic mouse model overexpressing DMP1. Micro-computed tomography and three-point bending were performed on 90 femora of wild type and transgenic mice at 1, 2, 4, and 6 months. Fourier transform infrared imaging was performed at 2 months. We found that the transgenic femurs were longer (p<0.01), more robust in cross-section (p<0.05), stronger (p<0.05), but had less post-yield strain and displacement (p<0.01), and higher tissue mineral density (p<0.01) than the wild type femurs at 1 and 2 months. At 2 months, the transgenic femurs also had a higher mineral-to-matrix ratio (p<0.05) and lower carbonate substitution (p<0.05) compared to wild type femurs. These findings indicate that increased mineralization caused by overexpressing DMP1 led to increased structural cortical bone properties associated with decreased ductility during the early post-natal period. PMID:22100074

  10. Organic farming and cover crops as an alternative to mineral fertilizers to improve soil physical properties

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Sánchez de Cima, Diego; Luik, Anne; Reintam, Endla

    2015-10-01

    For testing how cover crops and different fertilization managements affect the soil physical properties in a plough based tillage system, a five-year crop rotation experiment (field pea, white potato, common barley undersown with red clover, red clover, and winter wheat) was set. The rotation was managed under four different farming systems: two conventional: with and without mineral fertilizers and two organic, both with winter cover crops (later ploughed and used as green manure) and one where cattle manure was added yearly. The measurements conducted were penetration resistance, soil water content, porosity, water permeability, and organic carbon. Yearly variations were linked to the number of tillage operations, and a cumulative effect of soil organic carbon in the soil as a result of the different fertilization amendments, organic or mineral. All the systems showed similar tendencies along the three years of study and differences were only found between the control and the other systems. Mineral fertilizers enhanced the overall physical soil conditions due to the higher yield in the system. In the organic systems, cover crops and cattle manure did not have a significant effect on soil physical properties in comparison with the conventional ones, which were kept bare during the winter period. The extra organic matter boosted the positive effect of crop rotation, but the higher number of tillage operations in both organic systems counteracted this effect to a greater or lesser extent.

  11. Overexpression of DMP1 accelerates mineralization and alters cortical bone biomechanical properties in vivo

    SciTech Connect

    Bhatia A.; Miller L.; Albazza, M.; Espinoza Orias, A.A.; Inoue, N.; Acerbo, A.; George, A.; Sumner, D.R.

    2011-09-29

    Dentin matrix protein-1 (DMP1) is a key regulator of biomineralization. Here, we examine changes in structural, geometric, and material properties of cortical bone in a transgenic mouse model overexpressing DMP1. Micro-computed tomography and three-point bending were performed on 90 femora of wild type and transgenic mice at 1, 2, 4, and 6 months. Fourier transform infrared imaging was performed at 2 months. We found that the transgenic femurs were longer (p < 0.01), more robust in cross-section (p < 0.05), stronger (p < 0.05), but had less post-yield strain and displacement (p < 0.01), and higher tissue mineral density (p < 0.01) than the wild type femurs at 1 and 2 months. At 2 months, the transgenic femurs also had a higher mineral-to-matrix ratio (p < 0.05) and lower carbonate substitution (p < 0.05) compared to wild type femurs. These findings indicate that increased mineralization caused by overexpressing DMP1 led to increased structural cortical bone properties associated with decreased ductility during the early post-natal period.

  12. Nano-mechanical properties of individual mineralized collagen fibrils from bone tissue.

    PubMed

    Hang, Fei; Barber, Asa H

    2011-04-01

    Mineralized collagen fibrils (MCFs) are distinct building blocks for bone material and perform an important mechanical function. A novel experimental technique using combined atomic force microscopy and scanning electron microscopy is used to manipulate and measure the mechanical properties of individual MCFs from antler, which is a representative bone tissue. The recorded stress-strain response of individual MCFs under tension shows an initial linear deformation region for all fibrils, followed by inhomogeneous deformation above a critical strain. This inhomogeneous deformation is indicative of fibrils exhibiting either yield or strain hardening and suggests possible mineral compositional changes within each fibril. A phenomenological model is used to describe the fibril nano-mechanical behaviour. PMID:20961895

  13. Size distribution and optical properties of African mineral dust after intercontinental transport

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Denjean, Cyrielle; Formenti, Paola; Desboeufs, Karine; Chevaillier, Servanne; Triquet, Sylvain; Maillé, Michel; Cazaunau, Mathieu; Laurent, Benoit; Mayol-Bracero, Olga L.; Vallejo, Pamela; Quiñones, Mariana; Gutierrez-Molina, Ian E.; Cassola, Federico; Prati, Paolo; Andrews, Elisabeth; Ogren, John

    2016-06-01

    The transatlantic transport of mineral dust from Africa is a persistent atmospheric phenomenon, clue for understanding the impacts of dust at the global scale. As part of the DUST Aging and Transport from Africa to the Caribbean (Dust-ATTACk) intensive field campaign, the size distribution and optical properties of mineral dust were measured in June-July 2012 on the east coast of Puerto Rico, more than 5000 km from the west coast of Africa. During the recorded dust events, the PM10 (particulate matter 10 micrometers or less in diameter) concentrations increased from 20 to 70 µg m-3. Remote sensing observations and modeling analysis were used to identify the main source regions, which were found in the Western Sahara, Mauritania, Algeria, Niger, and Mali. The microphysical and optical properties of the dust plumes were almost independent of origin. The size distribution of mineral dust after long-range transport may have modal diameters similar to those on the eastern side of the Atlantic short time after emission, possibly depending on height of transport. Additional submicron particles of anthropogenic absorbing aerosols (likely from regional marine traffic activities) can be mixed within the dust plumes, without affecting in a significant way the PM10 absorption properties of dust observed in Puerto Rico. The Dust-ATTACk experimental data set may be useful for modeling the direct radiative effect of dust. For accurate representation of dust optical properties over the Atlantic remote marine region, we recommend mass extinction efficiency (MEE) and single-scattering albedo values in the range 1.1-1.5 m2 g-1 and 0.97-0.98, respectively, for visible wavelengths.

  14. Altered distributions of bone tissue mineral and collagen properties in women with fragility fractures.

    PubMed

    Wang, Zhen Xiang; Lloyd, Ashley A; Burket, Jayme C; Gourion-Arsiquaud, Samuel; Donnelly, Eve

    2016-03-01

    Heterogeneity of bone tissue properties is emerging as a potential indicator of altered bone quality in pathologic tissue. The objective of this study was to compare the distributions of tissue properties in women with and without histories of fragility fractures using Fourier transform infrared (FTIR) imaging. We extended a prior study that examined the relationship of the mean FTIR properties to fracture risk by analyzing in detail the widths and the tails of the distributions of FTIR properties in biopsies from fracture and non-fracture cohorts. The mineral and matrix properties of cortical and trabecular iliac crest tissue were compared in biopsies from women with a history of fragility fracture (+Fx; n=21, age: mean 54±SD 15y) and with no history of fragility fracture (-Fx; n=12, age: 57±5y). A subset of the patients included in the -Fx group were taking estrogen-plus-progestin hormone replacement therapy (HRT) (-Fx+HRT n=8, age: 58±5y) and were analyzed separately from patients with no history of HRT (-Fx-HRT n=4, age: 56±7y). When the FTIR parameter mean values were examined by treatment group, the trabecular tissue of -Fx-HRT patients had a lower mineral:matrix ratio (M:M) and collagen maturity (XLR) than that of -Fx+HRT patients (-22% M:M, -18% XLR) and +Fx patients (-17% M:M, -18% XLR). Across multiple FTIR parameters, tissue from the -Fx-HRT group had smaller low-tail (5th percentile) values than that from the -Fx+HRT or +Fx groups. In trabecular collagen maturity and crystallinity (XST), the -Fx-HRT group had smaller low-tail values than those in the -Fx+HRT group (-16% XLR, -5% XST) and the +Fx group (-17% XLR, -7% XST). The relatively low values of trabecular mineral:matrix ratio and collagen maturity and smaller low-tail values of collagen maturity and crystallinity observed in the -Fx-HRT group are characteristic of younger tissue. Taken together, our data suggest that the presence of newly formed tissue that includes small/imperfect crystals

  15. Mining Properties in Washington that were involved in the DMA, DMEA, OME Mineral Exploration Programs, 1950-1974

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Kiilsgaard, Thor H.

    1998-01-01

    Introduction This report and accompanying map (Plate 1) presents information on the Defense Minerals Administration (DMA), Defense Minerals Exploration Administration (DMEA), and Office of Minerals Exploration (OME) mineral exploration programs in Washington. Under these programs, the federal government participated in the exploration costs for certain strategic and critical minerals. Federal funds for mineral exploration under the programs were available from 1950 to 1974, although limited funds for OME administrative work were continued until 1979. The report reviews the three programs, associated regulations, administrative procedures, and operational techniques. It also describes the various types of informative reports generated by the programs, lists mining properties in Washington that were involved in the exploration programs, and advises on location of compiled exploration information that resulted from the work.

  16. Size distribution and optical properties of mineral dust aerosols transported in the western Mediterranean

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Denjean, C.; Cassola, F.; Mazzino, A.; Triquet, S.; Chevaillier, S.; Grand, N.; Bourrianne, T.; Momboisse, G.; Sellegri, K.; Schwarzenbock, A.; Freney, E.; Mallet, M.; Formenti, P.

    2015-08-01

    This study presents in situ aircraft measurements of Saharan mineral dust transported over the western Mediterranean basin in June-July 2013 during the ChArMEx/ADRIMED (the Chemistry-Aerosol Mediterranean Experiment/Aerosol Direct Radiative Impact on the regional climate in the MEDiterranean region) airborne campaign. Dust events differing in terms of source region (Algeria, Tunisia and Morocco), time of tranport (1-5 days) and height of transport were sampled. Mineral dust were transported above the marine boundary layer, which conversely was dominated by pollution and marine aerosols. The dust vertical structure was extremely variable and characterized by either a single layer or a more complex and stratified structure with layers originating from different source regions. Mixing of mineral dust with pollution particles was observed depending on the height of transport of the dust layers. Dust layers carried higher concentration of pollution particles at intermediate altitude (1-3 km) than at elevated altitude (> 3 km), resulting in scattering Angstrom exponent up to 2.2 within the intermediate altitude. However, the optical properties of the dust plumes remained practically unchanged with respect to values previously measured over source regions, regardless of the altitude. Moderate light absorption of the dust plumes was observed with values of aerosol single scattering albedo at 530 nm ranging from 0.90 to 1.00 ± 0.04. Concurrent calculations from the aerosol chemical composition revealed a negligible contribution of pollution particles to the absorption properties of the dust plumes that was due to a low contribution of refractory black carbon in regards to the fraction of dust and sulfate particles. This suggests that, even in the presence of moderate pollution, likely a persistent feature in the Mediterranean, the optical properties of the dust plumes could be assimilated to those of native dust in radiative transfer simulations, modeling studies and

  17. Size distribution and optical properties of mineral dust aerosols transported in the western Mediterranean

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Denjean, C.; Cassola, F.; Mazzino, A.; Triquet, S.; Chevaillier, S.; Grand, N.; Bourrianne, T.; Momboisse, G.; Sellegri, K.; Schwarzenbock, A.; Freney, E.; Mallet, M.; Formenti, P.

    2016-02-01

    This study presents in situ aircraft measurements of Saharan mineral dust transported over the western Mediterranean basin in June-July 2013 during the ChArMEx/ADRIMED (the Chemistry-Aerosol Mediterranean Experiment/Aerosol Direct Radiative Impact on the regional climate in the MEDiterranean region) airborne campaign. Dust events differing in terms of source region (Algeria, Tunisia and Morocco), time of transport (1-5 days) and height of transport were sampled. Mineral dust were transported above the marine boundary layer, which conversely was dominated by pollution and marine aerosols. The dust vertical structure was extremely variable and characterized by either a single layer or a more complex and stratified structure with layers originating from different source regions. Mixing of mineral dust with pollution particles was observed depending on the height of transport of the dust layers. Dust layers carried a higher concentration of pollution particles below 3 km above sea level (a.s.l.) than above 3 km a.s.l., resulting in a scattering Ångström exponent up to 2.2 below 3 km a.s.l. However, the optical properties of the dust plumes remained practically unchanged with respect to values previously measured over source regions, regardless of the altitude. Moderate absorption of light by the dust plumes was observed with values of aerosol single scattering albedo at 530 nm ranging from 0.90 to 1.00. Concurrent calculations from the aerosol chemical composition revealed a negligible contribution of pollution particles to the absorption properties of the dust plumes that was due to a low contribution of refractory black carbon in regards to the fraction of dust and sulfate particles. This suggests that, even in the presence of moderate pollution, likely a persistent feature in the Mediterranean, the optical properties of the dust plumes could be assumed similar to those of native dust in radiative transfer simulations, modelling studies and satellite retrievals

  18. Properties of sintered glass-ceramics prepared from plasma vitrified air pollution control residues.

    PubMed

    Roether, J A; Daniel, D J; Rani, D Amutha; Deegan, D E; Cheeseman, C R; Boccaccini, A R

    2010-01-15

    Air pollution control (APC) residues, obtained from a major UK energy from waste (EfW) plant, processing municipal solid waste, have been blended with silica and alumina and melted using DC plasma arc technology. The glass produced was crushed, milled, uni-axially pressed and sintered at temperatures between 750 and 1150 degrees C, and the glass-ceramics formed were investigated by X-ray diffraction (XRD), scanning electron microscopy (SEM) and transmission electron microscopy (TEM). Mechanical properties assessed included Vickers's hardness, flexural strength, Young's modulus and thermal shock resistance. The optimum sintering temperature was found to be 950 degrees C. This produced a glass-ceramic with high density (approximately 2.58 g/cm(3)), minimum water absorption (approximately 2%) and relatively high mechanical strength (approximately 81+/-4 MPa). Thermal shock testing showed that 950 degrees C sintered samples could withstand a 700 degrees C quench in water without micro-cracking. The research demonstrates that glass-ceramics can be readily formed from DC plasma treated APC residues and that these have comparable properties to marble and porcelain. This novel approach represents a technically and commercially viable treatment option for APC residues that allow the beneficial reuse of this problematic waste.

  19. Effects of laser peening on residual stresses and fatigue crack growth properties of Ti-6Al-4V titanium alloy

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Zhou, J. Z.; Huang, S.; Zuo, L. D.; Meng, X. K.; Sheng, J.; Tian, Q.; Han, Y. H.; Zhu, W. L.

    2014-01-01

    The effects of laser peening (LP) with different laser peening coverage rates on residual stresses and fatigue crack growth (FCG) properties of Ti-6Al-4V titanium alloy were investigated. Residual stresses after LP and micro-structure with different fatigue striation patterns on fracture cross-sections were analyzed. Compressive residual stresses and dense dislocation arrangements can be obtained in the superficial layer after LP. The influence of compressive residual stresses induced under different LP coverage rates on FCG properties was revealed. LP coverage rate had an apparent influence on FCG properties as confirmed by the fatigue striation spacing on fracture cross-sections. Moreover, FCG rate decreased with the increase of compressive residual stresses perpendicular to the crack growth direction, which indicated that LP had an obvious inhibitory effects on FCG.

  20. Self-cementing properties of oil shale solid heat carrier retorting residue.

    PubMed

    Talviste, Peeter; Sedman, Annette; Mõtlep, Riho; Kirsimäe, Kalle

    2013-06-01

    Oil shale-type organic-rich sedimentary rocks can be pyrolysed to produce shale oil. The pyrolysis of oil shale using solid heat carrier (SHC) technology is accompanied by large amount of environmentally hazardous solid residue-black ash-which needs to be properly landfilled. Usage of oil shale is growing worldwide, and the employment of large SHC retorts increases the amount of black ash type of waste, but little is known about its physical and chemical properties. The objectives of this research were to study the composition and self-cementing properties of black ash by simulating different disposal strategies in order to find the most appropriate landfilling method. Three disposal methods were simulated in laboratory experiment: hydraulic disposal with and without grain size separation, and dry dumping of moist residue. Black ash exhibited good self-cementing properties with maximum compressive strength values of >6 MPa after 90 days. About 80% of strength was gained in 30 days. However, the coarse fraction (>125 µm) did not exhibit any cementation, thus the hydraulic disposal with grain size separation should be avoided. The study showed that self-cementing properties of black ash are governed by the hydration of secondary calcium silicates (e.g. belite), calcite and hydrocalumite.

  1. Self-cementing properties of oil shale solid heat carrier retorting residue.

    PubMed

    Talviste, Peeter; Sedman, Annette; Mõtlep, Riho; Kirsimäe, Kalle

    2013-06-01

    Oil shale-type organic-rich sedimentary rocks can be pyrolysed to produce shale oil. The pyrolysis of oil shale using solid heat carrier (SHC) technology is accompanied by large amount of environmentally hazardous solid residue-black ash-which needs to be properly landfilled. Usage of oil shale is growing worldwide, and the employment of large SHC retorts increases the amount of black ash type of waste, but little is known about its physical and chemical properties. The objectives of this research were to study the composition and self-cementing properties of black ash by simulating different disposal strategies in order to find the most appropriate landfilling method. Three disposal methods were simulated in laboratory experiment: hydraulic disposal with and without grain size separation, and dry dumping of moist residue. Black ash exhibited good self-cementing properties with maximum compressive strength values of >6 MPa after 90 days. About 80% of strength was gained in 30 days. However, the coarse fraction (>125 µm) did not exhibit any cementation, thus the hydraulic disposal with grain size separation should be avoided. The study showed that self-cementing properties of black ash are governed by the hydration of secondary calcium silicates (e.g. belite), calcite and hydrocalumite. PMID:23528998

  2. The influence of organic substances type on the properties of mineral-organic fertilizers

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Huculak-Mä Czka, Marta; Hoffmann, Krystyna; Hoffmann, Józef

    2010-05-01

    In presented research the lignite coal, peat, poultry droppings and their composts were suggested as a components of mineral-organic fertilizers. Fertility of soil is conditioned by an ability to supply plants with water and nutrients essential to their growth and development. The soil is described as tri-phase system consisting of solid, liquid and gas phase. In solid phase the soil minerals and organic matter can be distinguished. The content of micro-organisms contained in the soil i.e. microfauna and microflora is indispensable for high soil fertility. Nutrients should occur in the forms available for plants in order to obtain high yields of the high quality crops. Organic fertilizing has versatile activity. Increasing contents of humus, providing mineral nutrients included in organic substance and the improvement in physical properties of the soil belong to its main purposes. Due to applying organic fertilizers heavy soils is getting loosen and in consequence become more airy what probably influences stimulation of soil micro-organisms activity. An aqueous as well as sorption capacity of light soils is also increasing, buffer range and the stabilization of the proper level of pH value of the soil, plants are provided with basic macro and micronutrients. Conventional organic fertilizers applied in an arable farms are manure, dung, green manures and composts of different kind. Within compost group the following types can be distinguished: compost from farming, urban wastes, shredded straw, poultry droppings, industrial wastes, bark of coniferous tree etc. Properly developed fertilizer formulas should contain in their composition both mineral as well as organic elements. Such fertilizer should fit its composition to the soil and plant requirements. It should contain organic substance being characterized by a high aqueous and cations sorption capacity, substance undergoing the fast mineralization with the large calcium content. Inorganic substances e.g. bentonites

  3. Influence of PSMC and other mineral admixtures on the properties of cement mortar

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Xu, George Jianzhou

    PSMC is a waste material produced from pyrolysis of Sheet Molding Compound. The material consists of 35% fibreglass, 55% CaCOsb3 and 10% carbon. In this thesis, PSMC and seven other related materials have been investigated for their influences on the overall properties of cement mortar. The materials under investigation in addition to PSMC are the fibreglass part of PSMC (PG), the filler part of PSMC (C+Ca), the ground virgin fibreglass (RG), the virgin CaCOsb3 powder, the pyrolysed automotive fluff (PAF). For comparison, one class-F fly ash (FA), and one condensed silica fume (CSF) were also tested. The mortar properties that were studied include workability, strength, drying shrinkage, alkali-silica reactivity, sulphate resistance, freezing-thawing expansion, salt scaling resistance, and wet-dry expansion. The pore structures were also studied using water absorption and water evaporation techniques. It was found that PSMC increased the compressive strength, mitigated the ASR expansion and improved the sulphate resistance of cement mortar. All these improvements were largely due to the fibreglass content in the PSMC. Ground fibreglass was found to be a very effective material to improve the properties of cement mortar. It increased the compressive strength, reduced long term drying shrinkage, mitigated the ASR expansion, improved sulphate resistance, decreased the freeze-thaw weight loss and greatly enhanced the salt scaling resistance of cement mortar. The influence of fly ash and condensed silica fume on the properties of cement mortar was found to be similar to that of ground fibreglass. It was also found that the pore structure of cement mortars was greatly influenced by the mineral admixtures which possess pozzolanic properties. From a statistical analysis, it was concluded that the influence of mineral admixtures on the properties of cement mortar can be explained by their influence on three pore related factors. These factors are the porosity factor, the

  4. Metal/metalloid elements and polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbon in various biochars: The effect of feedstock, temperature, minerals, and properties.

    PubMed

    Qiu, Mengyi; Sun, Ke; Jin, Jie; Han, Lanfang; Sun, Haoran; Zhao, Ye; Xia, Xinghui; Wu, Fengchang; Xing, Baoshan

    2015-11-01

    Fourteen metal/metalloid elements and sixteen polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons (PAHs) within biochars were quantified to investigate how heat treatment temperatures (HTTs) and feedstocks affect their concentration and composition. Concentrations and composition of metals/metalloids were strongly dependent upon feedstocks rather than HTTs. HTTs significantly affected concentrations and composition of PAHs. The highest concentration of PAHs was observed for plant residue-derived biochars (PLABs) produced at 450 °C and the opposite result was for animal waste-derived bichars. High mineral content was responsible for depolymerization of organic matter (OM), which facilitated high production of PAHs. High HTTs pyrolysis or combustion PAHs (COMB) of PLABs possibly blocks their micropores derived from other components within OM and leads to a decline of CO2-surface areas (CO2-SAs). Concentration of ∑COMB or individual PAH was affected by biochar properties, including composition and contents of functional groups, ash content, and CO2-SAs. PLABs produced at 600 °C were recommended for low toxicity.

  5. Determination of the mineral fraction and rheological properties of microwave modified starch from Canna edulis.

    PubMed

    Lares, Mary; Pérez, Elevina

    2006-09-01

    The goal of this study was to evaluate the effect of the physical modification by microwave irradiation on the mineral fraction and rheological properties of starch isolated from Canna edulis rhizomes. Phosphorus, sodium, potassium, magnesium, iron, calcium and zinc were evaluated using atomic absorption spectrophotometry. Rheological properties were determined using both the Brabender amylograph and Brookfield viscosimeter. Except for the calcium concentration, mineral contents decreased significantly (p < 0.05) after microwave treatment. The amylographic profile was also modified, showing increased pasting temperature range and breakdown index, whereas the viscosity peak, viscosity at holding (95 degrees C) and cooling periods (50 degrees C), setback and consistency decreased as compared to the native starch counterpart. Although viscosity decreased in the microwaved sample, presumably due to starch changes at molecular level, it retained the general pseudo plastic behavior of native starch. It is concluded that canna starch may be modified by microwave irradiation in order to change its functional properties. This information should be considered when using microwave irradiation for food processing. Furthermore, the altered functional attributes of canna modified starch could be advantageous in new product development.

  6. Torrefaction of cultivation residue of Auricularia auricula-judae to obtain biochar with enhanced fuel properties.

    PubMed

    Zhang, Yan; Yao, Aiying; Song, Kuiyan

    2016-04-01

    Auricularia auricula-judae, commonly known as the wood ear, is a species of edible Auriculariales fungus. Torrefactions of cultivation residues of A. auricula-judae (CRAA) at different temperatures and residence times are carried out. Effect of different torrefaction conditions on the mass and energy yields, elemental composition, heating value, thermal properties; and chemical, crystal and morphological structures of biochars are analyzed. Low torrefaction temperatures could not enhance the fuel properties as expected. Crystallinities of biochars derived from mild torrefaction conditions do not have a suitable variation trend because of the unstable degrees between degradation and recrystallization. Torrefaction of CRAA should be processed under severe conditions, such as 320 °C for 60 min and 280 °C for 120 min, in order to obtain enhanced biochar properties with DTGmax at low peak temperatures of 367 and 361 °C, as well high burnout temperatures of 528 and 530 °C, respectively.

  7. The influence of organic substances type on the properties of mineral-organic fertilizers

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Huculak-Mä Czka, Marta; Hoffmann, Krystyna; Hoffmann, Józef

    2010-05-01

    In presented research the lignite coal, peat, poultry droppings and their composts were suggested as a components of mineral-organic fertilizers. Fertility of soil is conditioned by an ability to supply plants with water and nutrients essential to their growth and development. The soil is described as tri-phase system consisting of solid, liquid and gas phase. In solid phase the soil minerals and organic matter can be distinguished. The content of micro-organisms contained in the soil i.e. microfauna and microflora is indispensable for high soil fertility. Nutrients should occur in the forms available for plants in order to obtain high yields of the high quality crops. Organic fertilizing has versatile activity. Increasing contents of humus, providing mineral nutrients included in organic substance and the improvement in physical properties of the soil belong to its main purposes. Due to applying organic fertilizers heavy soils is getting loosen and in consequence become more airy what probably influences stimulation of soil micro-organisms activity. An aqueous as well as sorption capacity of light soils is also increasing, buffer range and the stabilization of the proper level of pH value of the soil, plants are provided with basic macro and micronutrients. Conventional organic fertilizers applied in an arable farms are manure, dung, green manures and composts of different kind. Within compost group the following types can be distinguished: compost from farming, urban wastes, shredded straw, poultry droppings, industrial wastes, bark of coniferous tree etc. Properly developed fertilizer formulas should contain in their composition both mineral as well as organic elements. Such fertilizer should fit its composition to the soil and plant requirements. It should contain organic substance being characterized by a high aqueous and cations sorption capacity, substance undergoing the fast mineralization with the large calcium content. Inorganic substances e.g. bentonites

  8. Mining Properties in Montana that were involved in the DMA, DMEA, OME Mineral Exploration Programs, 1950-1974

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Kiilsgaard, Thor H.

    1996-01-01

    Introduction This report and accompanying map (plate 1) presents information on the Defense Minerals Administration (DMA), Defense Minerals Exploration Administration (DMEA), and Office of Minerals Exploration (OME) mineral exploration programs in Montana. Under these programs, the federal government participated in the exploration costs for certain strategic and critical minerals. Federal funds for mineral exploration under the programs were available from 1950 to 1974, although limited funds for OME administrative work were continued until 1979. Federal consideration for exploration at a particular property was initiated by submittal of an application for financial assistance by the owner or operator of the property. Each application received was assigned a docket number and all subsequent correspondence and information resulting from the application was filed under that docket number. The report reviews the three programs and some of the associated regulations and procedures. It also describes the various types of information generated by the programs, presents information on mining properties in Montana that were involved in the exploration programs, and advises on location of compiled mineral exploration information that resulted from the work.

  9. Modified Surface Having Low Adhesion Properties to Mitigate Insect Residue Adhesion

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Wohl, Christopher J., Jr. (Inventor); Smith, Joseph G., Jr. (Inventor); Siochi, Emilie J. (Inventor); Penner, Ronald K. (Inventor)

    2016-01-01

    A process to modify a surface to provide reduced adhesion surface properties to mitigate insect residue adhesion. The surface may include the surface of an article including an aircraft, an automobile, a marine vessel, all-terrain vehicle, wind turbine, helmet, etc. The process includes topographically and chemically modifying the surface by applying a coating comprising a particulate matter, or by applying a coating and also topographically modifying the surface by various methods, including but not limited to, lithographic patterning, laser ablation and chemical etching, physical vapor phase deposition, chemical vapor phase deposition, crystal growth, electrochemical deposition, spin casting, and film casting.

  10. Research on the property improvement of PVC using red mud in industrial waste residue

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Nie, Xiaopeng; Li, Xingang; Shuai, Songxian

    2015-07-01

    Red mud is a red solid power waste that is discharged in the aluminium refinery industry during production. It is a strong alkali and can be categorized as polluting industrial residue. How to make comprehensive use of red mud has become a worldwide issue. In this paper, we put red mud into PVC (polyvinyl chloride polymer), taking advantage of the complicated chemical properties of red mud derived from the Bayer process. The results are compared with silica fume, coal ash and calcium carbonate under the same experimental conditions, which shows that improvement of PVC plastication can be achieved by adding red mud.

  11. 26 CFR 1.613-4 - Gross income from the property in the case of minerals other than oil and gas.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-04-01

    ... minerals other than oil and gas. 1.613-4 Section 1.613-4 Internal Revenue INTERNAL REVENUE SERVICE....613-4 Gross income from the property in the case of minerals other than oil and gas. (a) In general... property in the case of minerals other than oil and gas and the rules contained in § 1.613-3 are...

  12. 26 CFR 1.613-4 - Gross income from the property in the case of minerals other than oil and gas.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-04-01

    ... minerals other than oil and gas. 1.613-4 Section 1.613-4 Internal Revenue INTERNAL REVENUE SERVICE....613-4 Gross income from the property in the case of minerals other than oil and gas. (a) In general... property in the case of minerals other than oil and gas and the rules contained in § 1.613-3 are...

  13. Evidence for rapid epithermal mineralization and coeval bimodal volcanism, Bruner Au-Ag property, NV USA

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Baldwin, Dylan

    The character of Au-Ag mineralization and volcanic/hydrothermal relationships at the underexplored Miocene-age Bruner low-sulfidation epithermal Au-Ag deposit are elucidated using field and laboratory studies. Bruner is located in central Nevada within the Great Basin extensional province, near several major volcanic trends (Western Andesite, Northern Nevada Rift) associated with world-class Miocene-age epithermal Au-Ag provinces. Despite its proximity to several >1 Moz Au deposits, and newly discovered high-grade drill intercepts (to 117 ppm Au/1.5m), there is no published research on the deposit, the style of mineralization has not been systematically characterized, and vectors to mineralization remain elusive. By investigating the nature of mineralization and time-space relationships between volcanic/hydrothermal activity, the deposit has been integrated into a regional framework, and exploration targeting improved. Mineralization occurs within narrow quartz + adularia +/- pyrite veins that manifest as sheeted/stockwork zones, vein swarms, and rare 0.3-2 m wide veins hosted by two generations of Miocene high-K, high-silica rhyolite flow dome complexes overlying an andesite flow unit. The most prominent structural controls on veining are N­striking faults and syn-mineral basalt/rhyolite dikes. Productive veins have robust boiling indicators (high adularia content, bladed quartz after calcite, recrystallized colloform quartz bands), lack rhythmic banding, and contain only 1-2 stages; these veins overprint, or occur separately from another population of barren to weakly mineralized rhythmically banded quartz-only veins. Ore minerals consist of coarse Au0.5Ag 0.5 electrum, fine Au0.7Ag0.3 electrum, acanthite, uytenbogaardtite (Ag3AuS2) and minor embolite Ag(Br,Cl). Now deeply oxidized, veins typically contain <1% pyrite/goethite + Au-Ag minerals, with trace marcasite and microscopic Fe-poor sphalerite. Property-scale K-feldspar alteration related to a pre

  14. Age-related ransparent root dentin: mineral concentration,crystallite size and mechanical properties

    SciTech Connect

    Kinney, John H.; Nalla, Ravi K.; Pople, John A.; Breunig, Tom M.; Ritchie, Robert O.

    2004-12-29

    Many fractures occur in teeth that have been altered, forexample restored or endodontically repaired. It is therefore essential toevaluate the structure and mechanical properties of these altereddentins. One such altered form of dentin is transparent (sometimes calledsclerotic) dentin, which forms gradually with aging. The present studyfocuses on differences in the structure and mechanical properties ofnormal versus transparent dentin. The mineral concentration, as measuredby X-ray computed microtomography, was signifcantly higher in transparentdentin, the elevated concentration being consistent with the closure ofthe tubule lumens. Crystallite size, as measured by small angle X-rayscattering, was slightly smaller in transparent dentin, although theimportance of this ending requires further study. The elastic propertieswere unchanged by transparency; however, transparent dentin, unlikenormal dentin, exhibited almost no yielding before failure. In addition,the fracture toughness was lowered by roughly 20 percent while thefatigue lifetime was deleteriously affected at high stress levels. Theseresults are discussed in terms of the altered microstructure oftransparent dentin.

  15. Sugar Profile, Mineral Content, and Rheological and Thermal Properties of an Isomerized Sweet Potato Starch Syrup.

    PubMed

    Dominque, Brunson; Gichuhi, Peter N; Rangari, Vijay; Bovell-Benjamin, Adelia C

    2013-01-01

    Currently, corn is used to produce more than 85% of the world's high fructose syrup (HFS). There is a search for alternative HFS substrates because of increased food demand and shrinking economies, especially in the developing world. The sweet potato is a feasible, alternative raw material. This study isomerized a high glucose sweet potato starch syrup (SPSS) and determined its sugar profile, mineral content, and rheological and thermal properties. Rheological and thermal properties were measured using a rheometer and DSC, respectively. Sweet potato starch was hydrolyzed to syrup with a mean fructose content of 7.6 ± 0.4%. The SPSS had significantly higher (P < 0.05) mineral content when compared to commercial ginger and pancake syrups. During 70 days of storage, the SPSS acted as a non-Newtonian, shear-thinning liquid in which the viscosity decreased as shear stress increased. Water loss temperature of the SPSS continually decreased during storage, while pancake and ginger syrups' peak water loss temperature decreased initially and then increased. Further and more detailed studies should be designed to further enhance the fructose content of the syrup and observe its stability beyond 70 days. The SPSS has the potential to be used in human food systems in space and on Earth. PMID:26904593

  16. Sugar Profile, Mineral Content, and Rheological and Thermal Properties of an Isomerized Sweet Potato Starch Syrup.

    PubMed

    Dominque, Brunson; Gichuhi, Peter N; Rangari, Vijay; Bovell-Benjamin, Adelia C

    2013-01-01

    Currently, corn is used to produce more than 85% of the world's high fructose syrup (HFS). There is a search for alternative HFS substrates because of increased food demand and shrinking economies, especially in the developing world. The sweet potato is a feasible, alternative raw material. This study isomerized a high glucose sweet potato starch syrup (SPSS) and determined its sugar profile, mineral content, and rheological and thermal properties. Rheological and thermal properties were measured using a rheometer and DSC, respectively. Sweet potato starch was hydrolyzed to syrup with a mean fructose content of 7.6 ± 0.4%. The SPSS had significantly higher (P < 0.05) mineral content when compared to commercial ginger and pancake syrups. During 70 days of storage, the SPSS acted as a non-Newtonian, shear-thinning liquid in which the viscosity decreased as shear stress increased. Water loss temperature of the SPSS continually decreased during storage, while pancake and ginger syrups' peak water loss temperature decreased initially and then increased. Further and more detailed studies should be designed to further enhance the fructose content of the syrup and observe its stability beyond 70 days. The SPSS has the potential to be used in human food systems in space and on Earth.

  17. Conformational and dynamic properties of a 14 residue antifreeze glycopeptide from Antarctic cod.

    PubMed Central

    Lane, A. N.; Hays, L. M.; Feeney, R. E.; Crowe, L. M.; Crowe, J. H.

    1998-01-01

    The 1H and 13C NMR spectra of a 14-residue antifreeze glycopeptide from Antarctic cod (Tetramatomnus borchgrevinki) containing two proline residues have been assigned. 13C NMR relaxation experiments indicate motional anisotropy of the peptide, with a tumbling time in water at 5 degrees C of 3-4 ns. The relaxation data and lack of long-range NOEs are consistent with a linear peptide undergoing significant segmental motion. However, extreme values of some coupling constants and strong sequential NOEs indicate regions of local order, which are most evident at the two ATPA subsequences. Similar spectroscopic properties were observed in the 16-residue analogue containing an Arg-Ala dipeptide added to the C-terminus. Molecular modeling also showed no evidence of long-range order, but the two ATPA subsequences were relatively well determined by the experimental data. These motifs were quite distinct from helical structures or beta turns commonly found in proteins, but rather resemble sections of an extended polyproline helix. Thus, the NMR data provide a description of the local order, which is of relevance to the mechanism of action of the antifreeze activity of the antifreeze glycopeptides as well as their ability to protect cells during hypothermic storage. PMID:9684888

  18. Mars residual north polar cap - Earth-based spectroscopic confirmation of water ice as a major constituent and evidence for hydrated minerals

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Clark, R. N.; Mccord, T. B.

    1982-01-01

    A description is presented of new earth-based reflectance spectra of the Martian north residual polar cap. The spectra indicate that the composition is at least mostly water ice plus another component with a 'gray' reflectance. The other minerals in the ice cap appear to be hydrated. The data were obtained with a cooled circular variable filter spectrometer on February 20, 1978, using the 2.2-m telescope on Mauna Kea, Hawaii. It is pointed out that the identification of water ice in the north polar cap alone does not indicate that water makes up all or even most of the bulk of the cap. Kieffer (1970) has shown that a small amount of water will mask the spectral features of CO2.

  19. Dielectric properties of residual water in amorphous lyophilized mixtures of sugar and drug

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    El Moznine, R.; Smith, G.; Polygalov, E.; Suherman, P. M.; Broadhead, J.

    2003-02-01

    Dielectric relaxation spectroscopy was used to investigate the properties of residual water in lyophilized formulations of a proprietary tri-phosphate drug containing a sugar (trehalose, lactose or sucrose) or dextran. The dielectric properties of each formulation were determined in the frequency range (0.1 Hz-0.1 MHz) and temperature range (30°C-Tg). The temperature dependence of the relaxation times for all samples showed Arrhenuis behaviour, from which the activation energy was derived. Proton hopping through the hydrogen-bonded network (clusters) of water molecules was suggested as the principle mode of charge transport. Significant differences in dielectric relaxation kinetics and activation energy were observed for the different formulations, which were found to correlate with the amount of monophosphate degradation product.

  20. The Sensitivity of Abradable Coating Residual Stresses to Varying Material Properties

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Johnston, R. E.

    2009-12-01

    This paper reports recent research on abradable materials employed for aero-engine applications. Such thermal spray coatings are used extensively within the gas turbine, applied to the inner surface of compressor and turbine shroud sections, coating the periphery of the blade rotation path. The function of an abradable seal is to wear preferentially when rotating blades come into contact with it, while minimizing over-tip clearance and improving the efficiency of the engine. Thermal spraying of an abradable coating onto a substrate imparts two components of residual stress; rapid quenching stresses as the spray material cools on impact and stresses arising from differential thermal contraction. In-service thermal stresses are superimposed by the differential expansion of these bonded layers. The combination of the production and operation history will lead to thermal-mechanical fatigue damage within the abradable coating. The present paper will describe the numerical modeling and sensitivity analysis of the thermal spray process. The sensitivity of residual stresses (with varying material properties, coating/substrate thickness, Poisson’s ratio, and substrate temperature) predicted by the Tsui and Clyne progressive deposition model enabled identification of performance drivers to coating integrity. Selecting material properties that minimize in-service stresses is a crucial stage in advancing future abradable performance.

  1. Properties of Filamentary Sublimation Residues from Dispersions of Clay in Ice

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Stephens, J. B.; Parker, T. J.; Saunders, R. S.; Laue, E. G.; Fanale, F. P.

    1985-01-01

    The properties of sublimate residues are of considerable interest in studies of the thermal modeling of Martian and cometary ice surfaces. The study of the formation of sand grains from this mantle on Martian polar ice is also supported by these experiments. To understand these properties, a series of low temperature vacuum experiments were run during which dirty ices that might be expected to be found in Martian polar caps and in comet nuclei were made and then freeze dried. In addition to using particulate material of appropriate grain size and minerology, particle nucleated ices were simulated by dispersing the particulates in the ice so that they did not contact one another. This noncontact dispersion was the most difficult requirement to achieve but the most rewarding in that it produced a new filamentary sublimate residue that was not a relic of the frozen dispersion. If the siliceous particles are allowed to touch one another in the ice the structure of the contacting particles in the ice will remain as a relic after the ice is sublimed away.

  2. Effect of degree of weathering on dynamic properties of residual soils

    SciTech Connect

    Macari, E.J.; Loyos, L. Jr.

    1996-12-01

    The process of soil formation in the tropics is quite different than that of more temperate regions. The weathering processes tend to be intensified by the warm and humid climates that are prevalent in tropical regions. Chemical weathering processes that dominate in these regions, such as decomposition and dissolution, are fairly well understood phenomena. However, the effect this weathering has on the physical, mechanical, and dynamic properties of the rock/soil is not fully understood. This paper presents some laboratory test results and correlations that indicate behavioral trends to be caused by the effects that weathering has on a residual soil from the western coast of Puerto Rico. The study focuses on the dynamic shear modulus G and material damping ratio D of both natural (undisturbed) and remolded samples, for low- to mid-level amplitudes of vibration. The understanding of these effects will allow for a better prediction of phenomena such as soil amplification that may trigger landslides in such soil formations. This study was accomplished with the aid of a computerized resonant column device. Correlations and empirical formulations are presented that demonstrate the effects that the degree of weathering has on the dynamic properties of these residual soils for undisturbed and remolded samples.

  3. The effects of glucocorticoid on microarchitecture, collagen, mineral and mechanical properties of sheep femur cortical bone.

    PubMed

    Ding, Ming; Danielsen, Carl Christian; Overgaard, Søren

    2012-06-01

    In this study, 18 female skeletally mature sheep were randomly allocated into three groups of six each. Group 1 (glucocorticoid-1) received prednisolone treatment (0.60 mg/kg/day, five times weekly) for 7 months. Group 2 (glucocorticoid-2) received the same treatment regime followed by observation of 3 months without treatment. Group 3 was left untreated and served as controls. All sheep received a restricted diet with low calcium and phosphorus. At sacrifice, cortical bone samples from the femur midshaft of each sheep were harvested, micro-CT scanned and subjected to three-point bending and tensile strength testing. Bone collagen and mineral were determined. Cortical porosity was significantly increased in the glucocorticoid-2 compared with the glucocorticoid-1 and control groups. Apparent density was significantly decreased in the glucocorticoid-2 compared with the glucocorticoid-1 group. Collagen content was significantly increased in the glucocorticoid-2 compared with the glucocorticoid-1 and control groups. Bone mineral content did not differ between the groups. Neither the three-point bending mechanical properties nor the tensile mechanical properties differed significantly between the groups, while there was a trend towards decreasing bending mechanical properties in the glucocorticoid-2 group. In conclusion, 7 months of glucocorticoid treatment with malnutrition had a significant impact on the cortical microarchitecture of the sheep femur midshaft. These observed changes occurred 3 months after glucocorticoid cessation, suggesting a delayed effect of glucocorticoid on cortical bone. Thus, changes in cortical bone beyond cancellous bone might further increase fracture risk in patients treated with glucocorticoids. This model might be used as a glucocorticoid-induced osteoporotic model for orthopaedic biomaterial, joint prosthesis and medical device researches.

  4. Effects of amendment of different biochars on soil physical and biological properties related to carbon mineralization

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Zhang, Renduo; Zhu, Shuzhi; Ouyang, Lei

    2014-05-01

    Biochar addition to soils potentially affects various soil properties, and these effects are dependent on biochars derived from different feedstock materials and pyrolysis processes. The objective of this study was to investigate the effects of amendment of different biochars on soil physical and biological properties. Biochars were produced with dairy manure and woodchip at temperatures of 300, 500, and 700°C, respectively. Each biochar was mixed at 5% (w/w) with a forest soil and the mixture was incubated for 180 days, during which soil physical and biological properties, and soil respiration rates were measured. Results showed that the biochar addition significantly enhanced the formation of soil macroaggregates at the early incubation time. The biochar application significantly reduced soil bulk density, increased the amount of soil organic matter, and stimulated microbial activity and soil respiration rates at the early incubation stage. Biochar applications improved water retention capacity, with stronger effects by biochars produced at higher pyrolysis temperatures. At the same suction, the soil with woodchip biochars possessed higher water content than with the dairy manure biochars. Biochar addition significantly affected the soil physical and biological properties, which resulted in different soil carbon mineralization rates.

  5. A crayfish molar tooth protein with putative mineralized exoskeletal chitinous matrix properties.

    PubMed

    Tynyakov, Jenny; Bentov, Shmuel; Abehsera, Shai; Yehezkel, Galit; Roth, Ziv; Khalaila, Isam; Weil, Simy; Berman, Amir; Plaschkes, Inbar; Tom, Moshe; Aflalo, Eliahu D; Sagi, Amir

    2015-11-01

    Some crustaceans possess exoskeletons that are reinforced with calcium carbonate. In the crayfish Cherax quadricarinatus, the molar tooth, which is part of the mandibular exoskeleton, contains an unusual crystalline enamel-like apatite layer. As this layer resembles vertebrate enamel in composition and function, it offers an interesting example of convergent evolution. Unlike other parts of the crayfish exoskeleton, which is periodically shed and regenerated during the molt cycle, molar mineral deposition takes place during the pre-molt stage. The molar mineral composition transforms continuously from fluorapatite through amorphous calcium phosphate to amorphous calcium carbonate and is mounted on chitin. The process of crayfish molar formation is entirely extracellular and presumably controlled by proteins, lipids, polysaccharides, low-molecular weight molecules and calcium salts. We have identified a novel molar protein termed Cq-M15 from C. quadricarinatus and cloned its transcript from the molar-forming epithelium. Its transcript and differential expression were confirmed by a next-generation sequencing library. The predicted acidic pI of Cq-M15 suggests its possible involvement in mineral arrangement. Cq-M15 is expressed in several exoskeletal tissues at pre-molt and its silencing is lethal. Like other arthropod cuticular proteins, Cq-M15 possesses a chitin-binding Rebers-Riddiford domain, with a recombinant version of the protein found to bind chitin. Cq-M15 was also found to interact with calcium ions in a concentration-dependent manner. This latter property might make Cq-M15 useful for bone and dental regenerative efforts. We suggest that, in the molar tooth, this protein might be involved in calcium phosphate and/or carbonate precipitation. PMID:26385331

  6. Residual water in hydrous minerals as a kinetic factor for omphacite destabilization into symplectite in the eclogites of Vårdalsneset (WGR, Norway)

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Martin, Céline; Duchêne, Stéphanie

    2015-09-01

    Symplectitic intergrowths of sodic plagioclase + diopside ± amphibole as replacement of omphacite are commonly found in eclogites. These symplectites are interpreted as the exhumation-related decompression of eclogite into the amphibolite facies. The role of aqueous fluid in symplectite development, which would act as a catalyst and favor open-system reaction, has been suggested but not yet clearly established. In the Vårdalsneset outcrop of the Western Gneiss Region (Norway), eclogites that were not amphibolitized either display a primary eclogitic dry paragenesis (garnet + omphacite + rutile ± quartz) or a paragenesis including phengite. In the last case, omphacite is partly transformed into symplectite. The two groups have been further distinguished from a combined petrological, geochemical, and thermochemical study. Group I samples have a fine-grained unaltered microstructure, with medium Al2O3 (14-16 wt.%), high Fe2O3 (13-16 wt.%) and TiO2 (1.4-2.4 wt.%). Group II samples have a coarse-grained microstructure and are characterized by the presence of symplectites and phengite. They display higher Al2O3 (17.5-23 wt.%) and lower Fe2O3 (5.5-8 wt.%) and TIO2 (0.2-0.5 wt.%) contents than Group I. The P-T estimates for samples from both Groups I and II lead to similar conditions for peak eclogite metamorphism: temperatures range from 590 to 720 °C and pressures from 15 to 25 kbar. Perple_X modeling indicates that for Group I eclogites, temperature range is similar to the temperature range of the water saturation curve, whereas for Group II eclogites, due to slightly different chemical composition, the water saturation curve is located at much higher temperatures (770-900 °C), so that OH- remains in residual phengite at peak eclogite temperature. With no residual hydrous phase in the eclogite assemblage, and although some structural water may persist in nominally anhydrous minerals, Group I eclogites were preserved without change during exhumation. In contrast

  7. Addition of an organic amendment and/or residue mud to bauxite residue sand in order to improve its properties as a growth medium.

    PubMed

    Jones, B E H; Haynes, R J; Phillips, I R

    2012-03-01

    The effects of addition of carbonated residue mud (RMC) or seawater neutralized residue mud (RMS), at two rates, in the presence or absence of added green waste compost, on the chemical, physical and microbial properties of gypsum-treated bauxite residue sand were studied in a laboratory incubation study. The growth of two species commonly used in revegetation of residue sand (Lolium rigidum and Acacia saligna) in the treatments was then studied in a 18-week greenhouse study. Addition of green waste-based compost increased ammonium acetate-extractable (exchangeable) Mg, K and Na. Addition of residue mud at 5 and 10% w/w reduced exchangeable Ca but increased that of Mg and Na (and K for RMS). Concentrations of K, Na, Mg and level of EC in saturation paste extracts were increased by residue mud additions. Concentrations of cations in water extracts were considerably higher than those in saturation paste extracts but trends with treatment were broadly similar. Addition of both compost and residue mud caused a significant decrease in macroporosity with a concomitant increase in mesoporosity and microporosity, available water holding capacity and the quantity of water held at field capacity. Increasing rates of added residue mud reduced the percentage of sample present as discrete sand particles and increased that in aggregated form (particularly in the 1-2 and >10mm diameter ranges). Organic C content, C/N ratio, soluble organic C, microbial biomass C and basal respiration were increased by compost additions. Where compost was added, residue mud additions caused a substantial increase in microbial biomass and basal respiration. L. rigidum grew satisfactorily in all treatments although yields tended to be reduced by additions of mud (especially RMC) particularly in the absence of added compost. Growth of A. saligna was poor in sand alone and mud-amended sand and was greatly promoted by additions of compost. However, in the presence of compost, addition of carbonated

  8. Mineral density and biomechanical properties of bone tissue from male Arctic foxes (Vulpes lagopus) exposed to organochlorine contaminants and emaciation.

    PubMed

    Sonne, Christian; Wolkers, Hans; Rigét, Frank F; Jensen, Jens-Erik Beck; Teilmann, Jenni; Jenssen, Bjørn Munro; Fuglei, Eva; Ahlstrøm, Øystein; Dietz, Rune; Muir, Derek C G; Jørgensen, Even H

    2009-01-01

    We investigated the impact from dietary OC (organochlorine) exposure and restricted feeding (emaciation) on bone mineral density (BMD; g hydroxy-apatite cm(-2)) in femoral, vertebrate, skull and baculum osteoid tissue from farmed Arctic blue foxes (Vulpes lagopus). For femur, also biomechanical properties during bending (displacement [mm], load [N], energy absorption [J] and stiffness [N/mm]) were measured. Sixteen foxes (EXP) were fed a wet food containing 7.7% OC-polluted minke whale (Balaenoptera acutorostrata) blubber in two periods of body fat deposition (Aug-Dec) and two periods of body fat mobilisation (Jan-July) in which the food contained less energy and only 2% blubber. SigmaOC food concentration in the food containing 7.7% whale blubber was 309 ng/g wet mass. This corresponded to a SigmaOC exposure of ca. 17 microg/kg body mass/d and a responding SigmaOC residue in subcutaneous adipose tissue of ca. 1700 ng/g live mass in the 8 EXP fat foxes euthanized after 16 months. A control group (CON) composed of 15 foxes were fed equal daily caloric amounts of clean pork (Sus scrofa) fat. After 16 months, 8 EXP and 7 CON foxes were euthanized (mean body mass=9.25 kg) while the remaining 8 EXP and 8 CON foxes were given restricted food rations for 6 months resulting in a body weight reduction (mean body mass=5.46 kg). The results showed that only BMD(skull) vs. BMD(vertebrae) were significantly correlated (R=0.68; p=0.03; n=10) probably due to a similar composition of trabecular and cortical osteoid tissue. No difference in any of the BMD measurements or femoral biomechanical properties was found between EXP and CON foxes although BMD baculum was 1.6-folds lower in the EXP group. However, lean summer foxes had significantly lower femoral biomechanical properties measured as displacement (mm), energy absorption (J) and time (s) biomechanical properties than fat winter foxes (all p<0.004). This indicates lower stiffness and softer bones from fasting which is in

  9. Effects of heat treatment of wood on hydroxylapatite type mineral precipitation and biomechanical properties in vitro.

    PubMed

    Rekola, J; Lassila, L V J; Hirvonen, J; Lahdenperä, M; Grenman, R; Aho, A J; Vallittu, P K

    2010-08-01

    Wood is a natural fiber reinforced composite. It structurally resembles bone tissue to some extent. Specially heat-treated birch wood has been used as a model material for further development of synthetic fiber reinforced composites (FRC) for medical and dental use. In previous studies it has been shown, that heat treatment has a positive effect on the osteoconductivity of an implanted wood. In this study the effects of two different heat treatment temperatures (140 and 200 degrees C) on wood were studied in vitro. Untreated wood was used as a control material. Heat treatment induced biomechanical changes were studied with flexural and compressive tests on dry birch wood as well as on wood after 63 days of simulated body fluid (SBF) immersion. Dimensional changes, SBF sorption and hydroxylapatite type mineral formation were also assessed. The results showed that SBF immersion decreases the biomechanical performance of wood and that the heat treatment diminishes the effect of SBF immersion on biomechanical properties. With scanning electron microscopy and energy dispersive X-ray analysis it was shown that hydroxylapatite type mineral precipitation formed on the 200 degrees C heat-treated wood. An increased weight gain of the same material during SBF immersion supported this finding. The results of this study give more detailed insight of the biologically relevant changes that heat treatment induces in wood material. Furthermore the findings in this study are in line with previous in vivo studies.

  10. Physico-chemical properties, antioxidant activity and mineral contents of pineapple genotypes grown in china.

    PubMed

    Lu, Xin-Hua; Sun, De-Quan; Wu, Qing-Song; Liu, Sheng-Hui; Sun, Guang-Ming

    2014-06-23

    The fruit physico-chemical properties, antioxidant activity and mineral contents of 26 pineapple [Ananas comosus (L.) Merr.] genotypes grown in China were measured. The results showed great quantitative differences in the composition of these pineapple genotypes. Sucrose was the dominant sugar in all 26 genotypes, while citric acid was the principal organic acid. Potassium, calcium and magnesium were the major mineral constituents. The ascorbic acid (AsA) content ranged from 5.08 to 33.57 mg/100 g fresh weight (FW), while the total phenolic (TP) content varied from 31.48 to 77.55 mg gallic acid equivalents (GAE)/100 g FW. The two parameters in the predominant cultivars Comte de Paris and Smooth Cayenne were relative low. However, MD-2 indicated the highest AsA and TP contents (33.57 mg/100 g and 77.55 mg GAE/100 g FM, respectively), and it also showed the strongest antioxidant capacity 22.85 and 17.30 μmol TE/g FW using DPPH and TEAC methods, respectively. The antioxidant capacity of pineapple was correlated with the contents of phenolics, flavonoids and AsA. The present study provided important information for the further application of those pineapple genotypes.

  11. Mineral Properties and Dietary Value of Raw and Processed Stinging Nettle (Urtica dioica L.)

    PubMed Central

    Xu, Yixiang; Ramirez, Elizabeth

    2013-01-01

    Stinging nettle (Urtica dioica L.) has a long history of usage and is currently receiving attention as a source of fiber and alternative medicine. In many cultures, nettle is also eaten as a leafy vegetable. In this study, we focused on nettle yield (edible portion) and processing effects on nutritive and dietary properties. Actively growing shoots were harvested from field plots and leaves separated from stems. Leaf portions (200 g) were washed and processed by blanching (1 min at 96–98°C) or cooking (7 min at 98-99°C) with or without salt (5 g·L−1). Samples were cooled immediately after cooking and kept in frozen storage before analysis. Proximate composition, mineral, amino acid, and vitamin contents were determined, and nutritive value was estimated based on 100 g serving portions in a 2000 calorie diet. Results show that processed nettle can supply 90%–100% of vitamin A (including vitamin A as β-carotene) and is a good source of dietary calcium, iron, and protein. We recommend fresh or processed nettle as a high-protein, low-calorie source of essential nutrients, minerals, and vitamins particularly in vegetarian, diabetic, or other specialized diets. PMID:26904610

  12. Mineral Phases and Release Behaviors of As in the Process of Sintering Residues Containing As at High Temperature

    PubMed Central

    Wang, Xingrun; Zhang, Fengsong; Nong, Zexi

    2014-01-01

    To investigate the effect of sintering temperature and sintering time on arsenic volatility and arsenic leaching in the sinter, we carried out experimental works and studied the structural changes of mineral phases and microstructure observation of the sinter at different sintering temperatures. Raw materials were shaped under the pressure of 10 MPa and sintered at 1000~1350°C for 45 min with air flow rate of 2000 mL/min. The results showed that different sintering temperatures and different sintering times had little impact on the volatilization of arsenic, and the arsenic fixed rate remained above 90%; however, both factors greatly influenced the leaching concentration of arsenic. Considering the product's environmental safety, the best sintering temperature was 1200°C and the best sintering time was 45 min. When sintering temperature was lower than 1000°C, FeAsS was oxidized into calcium, aluminum, and iron arsenide, mainly Ca3(AsO4)2 and AlAsO4, and the arsenic leaching was high. When it increased to 1200°C, arsenic was surrounded by a glass matrix and became chemically bonded inside the matrix, which lead to significantly lower arsenic leaching. PMID:24723798

  13. Electrochemical properties of nanostructured copper hydroxysulfate mineral brochantite upon reaction with lithium.

    PubMed

    Zhao, Ran; Yang, Ting; Miller, Michael A; Chan, Candace K

    2013-01-01

    Cu-containing conversion electrodes have received much study as high capacity electrodes for lithium-ion batteries, but many suffer from poor reversibility. The electrochemical properties of the copper hydroxysulfate compound, Cu4(OH)6SO4, more commonly known as the mineral brochantite and as a patina constituent on the Statue of Liberty, were investigated. Nanostructured brochantite was synthesized using precipitation and microwave-assisted hydrothermal reactions and evaluated in half-cells with Li metal counter electrodes. Reversible capacities >400 mAh/g corresponding to the 2 electron reduction of Cu(2+) and discharge potential of 1.8 V versus Li/Li(+) were observed in brochantite with a nanoplate morphology. Detailed characterization using X-ray diffraction, scanning and transmission electron microscopy, and X-ray photoelectron spectroscopy was performed to better understand the conversion process. PMID:24205833

  14. Imaginary refractive index and other microphysical properties of volcanic ash, Sarahan dust, and other mineral aerosols

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Rocha Lima, A.; Martins, J.; Krotkov, N. A.; Artaxo, P.; Todd, M.; Ben Ami, Y.; Dolgos, G.; Espinosa, R.

    2013-12-01

    Aerosol properties are essential to support remote sensing measurements, atmospheric circulation and climate models. This research aims to improve the understanding of the optical and microphysical properties of different types of aerosols particles. Samples of volcanic ash, Saharan dust and other mineral aerosols particles were analyzed by different techniques. Ground samples were sieved down to 45um, de-agglomerated and resuspended in the laboratory using a Fluidized Bed Aerosol Generator (FBAG). Particles were collected on Nuclepore filters into PM10, PM2.5, or PM1.0. and analyzed by different techniques, such as Scanning Electron Microscopy (SEM) for determination of size distribution and shape, spectral reflectance for determination of the optical absorption properties as a function of the wavelength, material density, and X-Ray fluorescence for the elemental composition. The spectral imaginary part of refractive index from the UV to the short wave infrared (SWIR) wavelength was derived empirically from the measurements of the spectral mass absorption coefficient, size distribution and density of the material. Some selected samples were also analyzed with the Polarized Imaging Nephelometer (PI-Neph) instrument for the characterization of the aerosol polarized phase function. This work compares results of the spectral refractive index of different materials obtained by our methodology with those available in the literature. In some cases there are significant differences both in magnitude and spectral dependence of the imaginary refractive index. These differences are evaluated and discussed in this work.

  15. Age-related transparent root dentin: mineral concentration, crystallite size, and mechanical properties.

    PubMed

    Kinney, J H; Nalla, R K; Pople, J A; Breunig, T M; Ritchie, R O

    2005-06-01

    Many fractures occur in teeth that have been altered, for example restored or endodontically repaired. It is therefore essential to evaluate the structure and mechanical properties of these altered dentins. One such altered form of dentin is transparent (sometimes called sclerotic) dentin, which forms gradually with aging. The present study focuses on differences in the structure and mechanical properties of normal versus transparent dentin. The mineral concentration, as measured by X-ray computed microtomography, was significantly higher in transparent dentin, the elevated concentration being consistent with the closure of the tubule lumens. Crystallite size, as measured by small angle X-ray scattering, was slightly smaller in transparent dentin, although the importance of this finding requires further study. The elastic properties were unchanged by transparency; however, transparent dentin, unlike normal dentin, exhibited almost no yielding before failure. In addition, the fracture toughness was lowered by roughly 20% while the fatigue lifetime was deleteriously affected at high stress levels. These results are discussed in terms of the altered microstructure of transparent dentin.

  16. Physicochemical properties and mineralization assessment of porous polymethylmethacrylate cement loaded with hydroxyapatite in simulated body fluid.

    PubMed

    Sa, Yue; Yang, Fang; de Wijn, Joost R; Wang, Yining; Wolke, Joop G C; Jansen, John A

    2016-04-01

    The aim of this study was to evaluate the effect of carboxymethylcellulose (CMC) as a pore generator and hydroxyapatite (HA) as an osteoconductive agent on the physicochemical properties and in-vitro mineralization ability of porous polymethylmethacrylate (PMMA) cement. To this end, various compositions of PMMA cements, which differed in amount of millimeter-sized hydroxyapatite (HA) particles and CMC hydrogel, were prepared and immersed into simulated body fluid (SBF) for 0, 7, 14, 21 and 28 days. It was demonstrated that the incorporation of CMC hydrogel decreased the maximum temperature of cement to the normal body temperature and prolonged the handling time during polymerization. Further, the amount of CMC was responsible for the creation of porosity and interconnectivity, which in turn determined the final mechanical properties of cements. The loaded HA particles enhanced the potential bioactivity of cement for bone ingrowth. Albeit different amount of HA particles influenced their final exposures on the surface of cured cement, all of the three amounts of HA did not weaken the final mechanical properties of cements. The data here suggests that the HA particle loaded porous PMMA cement can serve as the promising candidate for bone reconstruction.

  17. Acoustic Properties of Carbonate Rocks and Their Relation with Porosity and Mineral Composition

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Scotellaro, C.; Vanorio, T.; Mavko, G.

    2007-12-01

    Carbonates are complex rocks characterized by a wide range of facies, texture, micro-structure, and rock fabrics. Understanding how this complexity affects the acoustic properties of carbonates is a key issue for interpreting and predicting changes in seismic images and acoustic log. Questions arise from the study of the porosity versus velocity relation for carbonate rocks which often consider the large scatter around the main velocity-porosity trend predominantly related to the porosity. We started a comprehensive laboratory study on carbonate rocks to understand how mineral composition, together with porosity, controls seismic wave propagation. The samples were collected capturing a wide range of porosities (from 1-52 percent) and different depositional environments in order to represent at best pore fabric and mineralogical heterogeneity in carbonates. Results of the hydraulic, transport, and acoustic properties of the collected samples were compared with those reported in the literature. The main results of this research show that a quite heterogeneous mineral composition of the samples (calcite, dolomite, and anhydrite), other than the pore type, controls the elastic behavior of carbonate rocks, and thus, the velocity-porosity trend. In particular, the samples showing the biggest departure from the general velocity-porosity trend show a non-negligible amount of anhydrite. Compared to calcite, anhydrite 1) causes rock softening and in turn, a decrease of P-wave velocity, because of the lower bulk modulus (k =56 GPa); 2) is characterized by a finer grain size (silt-size) which may create two elastic domains separated by a critical porosity approximately 30 percent.

  18. Effect of residual oil saturation on hydrodynamic properties of porous media

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Zhang, Junjie; Zheng, Xilai; Chen, Lei; Sun, Yunwei

    2014-07-01

    To understand the effect of residual oil on hydraulic properties and solute dispersive behavior of porous media, miscible displacement column experiments were conducted using two petroleum products (diesel and engine oil) and a sandy soil. The effective water permeability, effective water-filled porosity, and dispersivity were investigated in two-fluid systems of water and oil as a function of residual oil saturation (ROS). At the end of each experiment, the distribution of ending ROS along the sand column was determined by the method of petroleum ether extraction-ultraviolet spectrophotometry. Darcy’s Law was used to determine permeability, while breakthrough curves (BTCs) of a tracer, Cl-, were used to calibrate effective porosity and dispersivity. The experimental results indicate that the maximum saturated zone residual saturation of diesel and engine oil in this study are 16.0% and 45.7%, respectively. Cl- is found to have no sorption on the solid matrix. Generated BTCs are sigmoid in shape with no evidence of tailing. The effective porosity of sand is inversely proportional to ROS. For the same level of ROS, the magnitude of reduction in effective porosity by diesel is close to that by engine oil. The relative permeability of sand to water saturation decreases with increasing amount of trapped oil, and the slope of the relative permeability-saturation curve for water is larger at higher water saturations, indicating that oil first occupies larger pores, which have the most contribution to the conductivity of the water. In addition, the reduction rate of relative permeability by diesel is greater than that by engine oil. The dispersivity increases with increasing ROS, suggesting that the blockage of pore spaces by immobile oil globules may enhance local velocity variations and increase the tortuosity of aqueous-phase flow paths.

  19. Single residue substitutions that change the gating properties of a mechanosensitive channel in Escherichia coli

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Blount, P.; Sukharev, S. I.; Schroeder, M. J.; Nagle, S. K.; Kung, C.

    1996-01-01

    MscL is a channel that opens a large pore in the Escherichia coli cytoplasmic membrane in response to mechanical stress. Previously, we highly enriched the MscL protein by using patch clamp as a functional assay and cloned the corresponding gene. The predicted protein contains a largely hydrophobic core spanning two-thirds of the molecule and a more hydrophilic carboxyl terminal tail. Because MscL had no homology to characterized proteins, it was impossible to predict functional regions of the protein by simple inspection. Here, by mutagenesis, we have searched for functionally important regions of this molecule. We show that a short deletion from the amino terminus (3 amino acids), and a larger deletion of 27 amino acids from the carboxyl terminus of this protein, had little if any effect in channel properties. We have thus narrowed the search of the core mechanosensitive mechanism to 106 residues of this 136-amino acid protein. In contrast, single residue substitutions of a lysine in the putative first transmembrane domain or a glutamine in the periplasmic loop caused pronounced shifts in the mechano-sensitivity curves and/or large changes in the kinetics of channel gating, suggesting that the conformational structure in these regions is critical for normal mechanosensitive channel gating.

  20. Effect of application of fluidized bed combustion residue to reclaimed mine pastures on forage yield, composition, animal performance, and mineral status

    SciTech Connect

    Smedley, K.O.

    1985-01-01

    Reclaimed surface mined soils in Appalachia are typically infertile and must be amended for optimum vegetative growth. Fluidized bed combustion residue (FBCR) has high levels of Ca, S, Zn, Fe, and Al, and 50% of the neutralizing capacity of limestone. Three treatments were applied to three capacity of limestone. Three treatments were applied to three replicated 0.81 ha reclaimed mine pastures: (A) control (no amendment), (B) 6760 kg FBCR/ha, and (C) 3380 kg limestone/ha. Based on forage availability, six steers were rotationally grazed on pastures receiving each treatment. Steers were weighed and blood samples collected at 14-d intervals and all animals were sacrificed for tissue sampling at the end of the 114-d trial. B and C increased soil pH above control levels. Forage yield and steer gain were not significantly affected by treatment. Forage samples collected during the trial indicated that B and C amendments elevated forage ash, Ca, Mg, S, Cu, and Ca:P ratio and depressed cellulose and NDF. The forage sampled the following spring was lower in hemicellulose, Zn, Mn and Ni; and higher in ash, Ca, S, the Ca:P ratio in the B and C pastures. Mean serum mineral levels of steers were not affected by pasture treatment. The blood packed cell volume was higher in cattle grazing pastures. Liver levels of Fe, Mn, Ni, and Na and bile levels of Mn were depressed in cattle grazing B and C and serum was at deficiency levels and was not detectable in bile, regardless of treatment. Kidney levels of Ca, Mg and P were higher, hair Zn was higher, rib Cr and long bone Cd levels were lower in animals grazing the pastures. This study suggests that FBCR amendment enhances nutrient quality of forage and minerals status of animals at least as well as limestone application to acidic reclaimed mine pastures.

  1. Efficient nonlinear optical properties of dyes confined in interlayer nanospaces of clay minerals.

    PubMed

    Suzuki, Yasutaka; Tenma, Yuta; Nishioka, Yukihiro; Kawamata, Jun

    2012-06-01

    Nonlinear optical (NLO) responses from organic dyes can be maximized when the dyes are aligned in appropriate manners in bulk materials. The use of restricted nanospaces provided by interlayer spacing of inorganic layered materials is a promising strategy for imposing suitable molecular alignments for NLO materials on dyes. The hybrid materials thus obtained exhibit salient NLO responses owing to the improved molecular orientation. In some cases, extension of the π-electron system as a consequence of improved molecular planarity, obtained by the intercalation of a dye into the 2-dimensional interlayer space of an inorganic layered material, is also observed as a factor that enhances NLO responses of chromophores at the molecular level. This review focuses on recent progress in the strategies for controlling the molecular orientation of NLO-phores by employing clay minerals, which are one of the typical inorganic layered materials. In addition, development of a means for fabricating composites that satisfy the properties of an optical material, such as a sufficient size and thickness, a flat surface, and low light-scattering characteristics is required to utilize the superior NLO properties observed for clay/dye hybrid materials for practical applications. A novel means for obtaining such a hybrid material is also outlined.

  2. Chemical composition, mineral profile, and functional properties of Canna (Canna edulis) and Arrowroot (Maranta spp.) starches.

    PubMed

    Pérez, Elevina; Lares, Mary

    2005-09-01

    The aim of the present study was to evaluate some chemical and mineral characteristics and functional and rheological properties of Canna and Arrowroot starches produced in the Venezuelan Andes. Canna starch showed a higher (P < 0.05) moisture, ash, and crude protein content than arrowroot starch, while crude fiber, crude fat, and amylose content of this starch were higher (P < 0.05). Starches of both rhizomes own phosphorus, sodium, potassium, magnesium, iron, calcium, and zinc in their composition. Phosphorus, sodium, and potassium are the higher in both starches. Water absorption, swelling power, and solubility values revealed weak bonding forces in Canna starch granules; this explained the lower gelatinization temperature and the substantial viscosity development of Canna starch during heating. Arrowroot starch showed a higher gelatinization temperature measure by DSC, than Canna starch and exhibited a lower value of DeltaH. Both starches show negative syneresis. The apparent viscosity of Canna starch was higher (P < 0.05) than the Arrowroot starch values. The size (wide and large) of Canna starch granules was higher than arrowroot starch. From the previous results, it can be concluded that Canna and Arrowroot starches could become interesting alternatives for food developers, depending on their characteristics and functional properties.

  3. Chemical composition, mineral profile, and functional properties of Canna (Canna edulis) and Arrowroot (Maranta spp.) starches.

    PubMed

    Pérez, Elevina; Lares, Mary

    2005-09-01

    The aim of the present study was to evaluate some chemical and mineral characteristics and functional and rheological properties of Canna and Arrowroot starches produced in the Venezuelan Andes. Canna starch showed a higher (P < 0.05) moisture, ash, and crude protein content than arrowroot starch, while crude fiber, crude fat, and amylose content of this starch were higher (P < 0.05). Starches of both rhizomes own phosphorus, sodium, potassium, magnesium, iron, calcium, and zinc in their composition. Phosphorus, sodium, and potassium are the higher in both starches. Water absorption, swelling power, and solubility values revealed weak bonding forces in Canna starch granules; this explained the lower gelatinization temperature and the substantial viscosity development of Canna starch during heating. Arrowroot starch showed a higher gelatinization temperature measure by DSC, than Canna starch and exhibited a lower value of DeltaH. Both starches show negative syneresis. The apparent viscosity of Canna starch was higher (P < 0.05) than the Arrowroot starch values. The size (wide and large) of Canna starch granules was higher than arrowroot starch. From the previous results, it can be concluded that Canna and Arrowroot starches could become interesting alternatives for food developers, depending on their characteristics and functional properties. PMID:16187013

  4. Influence of Mineral Fraction on the Rheological Properties of Forsterite + Enstatite during Grain Size Sensitive Creep

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Tasaka, M.; Hiraga, T.

    2014-12-01

    Since the majority of crustal and mantle rocks are polymineralic, it is important to consider the effects of secondary mineral phases on their rheological properties. To examine these effects, we have conducted grain growth and deformation experiments on samples composed of different volumetric fractions of forsterite (Fo) and enstatite (En) at 1 atmosphere and temperatures from 1260 to 1360°C. The results of our grain growth experiments indicate that the grain size ratios of Fo and En in annealed (reference) and deformed samples follow a Zener relationship with dI/dII = b/fIIz, where dI/dII is the grain size of the primary or secondary phase, b and z are the Zener parameters relating grain boundary energies and location of secondary phase, and fII is the volume fraction of the associated phase. Grain growth in the reference samples conforms to the relationship ds 4-d04 = kt, where ds is the grain size under static conditions, d0 is the initial grain size, k is the grain growth coefficient, and t is time. The growth coefficient of Fo decrease with increasing En volume fraction (fEn), and is consistent with theoretical predictions of Ardell's grain growth model that incorporates physical parameters such as diffusivity and interfacial energy of the mineral phases. The results of our deformation experiments at constant temperature and strain rate indicate that the flow stress decreases with increasing fEn, for samples with 0 < fEn < 0.5, and increases with increasing fEn, for samples with 0.5 < fEn < 1. The values of the pre-exponential term, stress and grain size exponents, and activation energy in the constitutive equation for a wide range of fEn were determined. The majority of samples exhibited diffusion accommodated grain boundary sliding creep (i.e., stress exponent = 1). The viscosity measured for all samples is fit well by a model that takes into account (1) grain size calculated from grain growth laws established in our experiments and (2) the flow laws for

  5. Electrical and geochemical properties of tufa deposits as related to mineral composition in the South Western Desert, Egypt

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Gomaa, Mohamed M.; Abou El-Anwar, Esmat A.

    2015-06-01

    The geochemical, petrographical, and electrical properties of rocks are essential to the investigation of the properties of minerals. In this paper we will try to present a study of the A. C. electrical properties of carbonate rock samples and their relation to petrographical and geochemical properties. Samples were collected from four formations from the Bir Dungul area, in the South Western Desert, Egypt. The electrical properties of the samples were measured using a non-polarizing electrode, at room temperature (~28 °C), and at a relative atmospheric humidity of (~45%), in the frequency range from 42 Hz to 5 MHz. The changes in the electrical properties were argued to the change in mineral composition. Generally, the electrical properties of rocks are changed due to many factors e.g., grain size, mineral composition, grain shape and inter-granular relations between grains. The dielectric constant of samples decreases with frequency, and increases with conductor concentration. Also, the conductivity increases with an increase of continuous conductor paths between electrodes. The petrographical and geochemical studies reveal that the deposition of the tufa deposits occurred in shallow lakes accompanied by a high water table, an alkaline spring recharge and significant vegetation cover. Diagenetically, tufa deposits were subjected to early and late diagenesis. Petrography and geochemistry studies indicated that the area of tufa deposits was deposited under the control of bacterial activity. Geochemically, the Sr content indicates that the tufa deposits formed from dissolved bicarbonate under the control of microbes and bacterial activity.

  6. Effect of high temperature creep and oxidation on residual room temperature properties for several thin sheet superalloys

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Royster, D. M.; Lisagor, W. B.

    1972-01-01

    Superalloys are being considered for the primary heat shields and supports in the thermal protection system of both hypersonic transport and space shuttle vehicles. Since conservative design philosophy dictates designs based on residual material properties at the end of the service life, material characterization after exposure to the environmental conditions imposed by the flight requirements of these two classes of vehicles is needed on the candidate alloys. An investigation was conducted to provide some of the necessary data, with emphasis placed on oxidation, creep, and residual properties of thin-gage sheet material.

  7. In ovo feeding with minerals and vitamin D3 improves bone properties in hatchlings and mature broilers.

    PubMed

    Yair, R; Shahar, R; Uni, Z

    2015-11-01

    The objective of this study was to examine the effect of in ovo feeding (IOF) with inorganic minerals or organic minerals and vitamin D3 on bone properties and mineral consumption. Eggs were incubated and divided into 4 groups: IOF with organic minerals, phosphate, and vitamin D3 (IOF-OMD); IOF with inorganic minerals and phosphate (IOF-IM); sham; and non-treated controls (NTC). IOF was performed on embryonic day (E) 17; tibiae and yolk samples were taken on E19 and E21. Post-hatch, only chicks from the IOF-OMD, sham, and NTC were raised, and tibiae were taken on d 10 and 38. Yolk mineral content was examined by inductively coupled plasma spectroscopy. Tibiae were tested for their whole-bone mechanical properties, and mid-diaphysis bone sections were indented in a micro-indenter to determine bone material stiffness (Young's modulus). Micro-computed tomography (μCT) was used to examine cortical and trabecular bone structure. Ash content analysis was used to examine bone mineralization. A latency-to-lie (LTL) test was used to measure standing ability of the d 38 broilers. The results showed that embryos from both IOF-OMD and IOF-IM treatments had elevated Cu, Mn, and Zn amounts in the yolk on E19 and E21 and consumed more of these minerals (between E19 and E21) in comparison to the sham and NTC. On E21, these hatchlings had higher whole-bone stiffness in comparison to the NTC. On d 38, the IOF-OMD had higher ash content, elevated whole-bone stiffness, and elevated Young's modulus (in males) in comparison to the sham and NTC; however, no differences in standing ability were found. Very few structural differences were seen during the whole experiment. This study demonstrates that mineral supplementation by in ovo feeding is sufficient to induce higher mineral consumption from the yolk, regardless of its chemical form or the presence of vitamin D3. Additionally, IOF with organic minerals and vitamin D3 can increase bone ash content, as well as stiffness of the whole

  8. Physical and chemical properties of ice residuals during the 2013 and 2014 CLACE campaigns

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Kupiszewski, Piotr; Weingartner, Ernest; Vochezer, Paul; Hammer, Emanuel; Gysel, Martin; Färber, Raphael; Fuchs, Claudia; Schnaiter, Martin; Baltensperger, Urs; Schmidt, Susan; Schneider, Johannes; Bigi, Alessandro; Toprak, Emre; Linke, Claudia; Klimach, Thomas

    2014-05-01

    The shortcomings in our understanding and, thus, representation of aerosol-cloud interactions are one of the major sources of uncertainty in climate model projections. Among the poorly understood processes is mixed-phase cloud formation via heterogeneous nucleation, and the subsequent spatial and temporal evolution of such clouds. Cloud glaciation augments precipitation formation, resulting in decreased cloud cover and lifetime, and affects cloud radiative properties. Meanwhile, the physical and chemical properties of atmospherically relevant ice nuclei (IN), the sub-population of aerosol particles which enable heterogeneous nucleation, are not well known. Extraction of ice residuals (IR) in mixed-phase clouds is a difficult task, requiring separation of the few small, freshly formed ice crystals (the IR within such crystals can be deemed representative of the original IN) not only from interstitial particles, but also from the numerous supercooled droplets which have aerodynamic diameters similar to those of the ice crystals. In order to address the difficulties with ice crystal sampling and IR extraction in mixed-phase clouds, the new Ice Selective Inlet (ISI) has been designed and deployed at the Jungfraujoch field site. Small ice crystals are selectively sampled via the inlet with simultaneous counting, sizing and imaging of hydrometeors contained in the cloud by a set of optical particle spectrometers, namely Welas optical particle counters (OPC) and a Particle Phase Discriminator (PPD). The heart of the ISI is a droplet evaporation unit with ice-covered inner walls, resulting in removal of droplets using the Wegener-Bergeron-Findeisen process, while transmitting a relatively high fraction of small ice crystals. The ISI was deployed in the winters of 2013 and 2014 at the high alpine Jungfraujoch site (3580 m.a.s.l) during the intensive CLACE field campaigns. The measurements focused on analysis of the physical and chemical characteristics of IR and the

  9. Release process for non-real property containing residual radioactive material

    SciTech Connect

    Ranek, N.L.; Chen, S.Y.; Kamboj, S.; Hensley, J.; Burns, D.; Fleming, R.; Warren, S.; Wallo, A.

    1997-02-01

    It is DOE`s objective to operate its facilities and to conduct its activities so that radiation exposures to members of the public are maintained within acceptable limits and exposures to residual radioactive materials are controlled. To accomplish this, DOE has adopted Order DOE 5400.51 `Radiation Protection of the Public and the Environment`, and will be promulgating IO CR Part 834 to codify and clarify the requirements of DOE 5400.5. Under both DOE 5400.5 and 10 CR Part 834, radioactively contaminated DOE property is prohibited from release unless specific actions have been completed prior to the release. This paper outlines a ten-step process that, if followed, will assist DOE Operations and contractor personnel in ensuring that the required actions established by Order DOE 5400.5 and 10 CR Part 834 have been appropriately completed prior to the release for reuse or recycle of non-real property (e.g., office furniture, computers, hand tools, machinery, vehicles and scrap metal). Following the process will assist in ensuring that radiological doses to the public from the released materials will meet applicable regulatory standards and be as low as reasonably achievable (ALARA).

  10. Influence of the inherent properties of drinking water treatment residuals on their phosphorus adsorption capacities.

    PubMed

    Bai, Leilei; Wang, Changhui; He, Liansheng; Pei, Yuansheng

    2014-12-01

    Batch experiments were conducted to investigate the phosphorus (P) adsorption and desorption on five drinking water treatment residuals (WTRs) collected from different regions in China. The physical and chemical characteristics of the five WTRs were determined. Combined with rotated principal component analysis, multiple regression analysis was used to analyze the relationship between the inherent properties of the WTRs and their P adsorption capacities. The results showed that the maximum P adsorption capacities of the five WTRs calculated using the Langmuir isotherm ranged from 4.17 to 8.20mg/g at a pH of 7 and further increased with a decrease in pH. The statistical analysis revealed that a factor related to Al and 200 mmol/L oxalate-extractable Al (Alox) accounted for 36.5% of the variations in the P adsorption. A similar portion (28.5%) was attributed to an integrated factor related to the pH, Fe, 200 mmol/L oxalate-extractable Fe (Feox), surface area and organic matter (OM) of the WTRs. However, factors related to other properties (Ca, P and 5 mmol/L oxalate-extractable Fe and Al) were rejected. In addition, the quantity of P desorption was limited and had a significant negative correlation with the (Feox+Alox) of the WTRs (p<0.05). Overall, WTRs with high contents of Alox, Feox and OM as well as large surface areas were proposed to be the best choice for P adsorption in practical applications.

  11. Reloading partly recovers bone mineral density and mechanical properties in hind limb unloaded rats

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Zhao, Fan; Li, Dijie; Arfat, Yasir; Chen, Zhihao; Liu, Zonglin; Lin, Yu; Ding, Chong; Sun, Yulong; Hu, Lifang; Shang, Peng; Qian, Airong

    2014-12-01

    Skeletal unloading results in decreased bone formation and bone mass. During long-term space flight, the decreased bone mass is impossible to fully recover. Therefore, it is necessary to develop the effective countermeasures to prevent spaceflight-induced bone loss. Hindlimb Unloading (HLU) simulates effects of weightlessness and is utilized extensively to examine the response of musculoskeletal systems to certain aspects of space flight. The purpose of this study is to investigate the effects of a 4-week HLU in rats and subsequent reloading on the bone mineral density (BMD) and mechanical properties of load-bearing bones. After HLU for 4 weeks, the rats were then subjected to reloading for 1 week, 2 weeks and 3 weeks, and then the BMD of the femur, tibia and lumbar spine in rats were assessed by dual energy X-ray absorptiometry (DXA) every week. The mechanical properties of the femur were determined by three-point bending test. Dry bone and bone ash of femur were obtained through Oven-Drying method and were weighed respectively. Serum alkaline phosphatase (ALP) and serum calcium were examined through ELISA and Atomic Absorption Spectrometry. The results showed that 4 weeks of HLU significantly decreased body weight of rats and reloading for 1 week, 2 weeks or 3 weeks did not recover the weight loss induced by HLU. However, after 2 weeks of reloading, BMD of femur and tibia of HLU rats partly recovered (+10.4%, +2.3%). After 3 weeks of reloading, the reduction of BMD, energy absorption, bone mass and mechanical properties of bone induced by HLU recovered to some extent. The changes in serum ALP and serum calcium induced by HLU were also recovered after reloading. Our results indicate that a short period of reloading could not completely recover bone after a period of unloading, thus some interventions such as mechanical vibration or pharmaceuticals are necessary to help bone recovery.

  12. Tunability of collagen matrix mechanical properties via multiple modes of mineralization.

    PubMed

    Smith, Lester J; Deymier, Alix C; Boyle, John J; Li, Zhen; Linderman, Stephen W; Pasteris, Jill D; Xia, Younan; Genin, Guy M; Thomopoulos, Stavros

    2016-02-01

    Functionally graded, mineralized collagen tissues exist at soft-to-hard material attachments throughout the body. However, the details of how collagen and hydroxyapatite mineral (HA) interact are not fully understood, hampering efforts to develop tissue-engineered constructs that can assist with repair of injuries at the attachments of soft tissues to bone. In this study, spatial control of mineralization was achieved in collagen matrices using simulated body fluids (SBFs). Based upon previous observations of poor bonding between reconstituted collagen and HA deposited using SBF, we hypothesized that mineralizing collagen in the presence of fetuin (which inhibits surface mineralization) would lead to more mineral deposition within the scaffold and therefore a greater increase in stiffness and toughness compared with collagen mineralized without fetuin. We tested this hypothesis through integrated synthesis, mechanical testing and modelling of graded, mineralized reconstituted collagen constructs. Results supported the hypothesis, and further suggested that mineralization on the interior of reconstituted collagen constructs, as promoted by fetuin, led to superior bonding between HA and collagen. The results provide us guidance for the development of mineralized collagen scaffolds, with implications for bone and tendon-to-bone tissue engineering.

  13. Effects of the geophagous earthworm Metaphire guillelmi on sorption, mineralization, and bound-residue formation of 4-nonylphenol in an agricultural soil.

    PubMed

    Shan, Jun; Wang, Yongfeng; Wang, Lianhong; Yan, Xiaoyuan; Ji, Rong

    2014-06-01

    Effects of earthworms on fate of nonylphenol (NP) are obscure. Using (14)C-4-NP111 as a representative, we studied the fate of 4-NP in an agricultural soil with or without the earthworm Metaphire guillelmi and in fresh cast of the earthworm. Sorption of 4-NP on the cast (Kd 1564) was significantly higher than on the parent soil (Kd 1474). Mineralization of 4-NP was significantly lower in the cast (13.2%) and the soil with earthworms (10.4%) than in the earthworm-free soil (16.0%). One nitro metabolite of 4-NP111 (2-nitro-4-NP111) was identified in the soil and cast, and the presence of the earthworm significantly decreased its amounts. The presence of earthworm also significantly decreased formation of bound residues of 4-NP in the soil. Our results demonstrate that earthworms could significantly change the fate of 4-NP, underlining that earthworm effects should be considered when evaluating behavior and risk of 4-NP in soil.

  14. Rheological properties of concentrated skim milk: importance of soluble minerals in the changes in viscosity during storage.

    PubMed

    Bienvenue, A; Jiménez-Flores, R; Singh, H

    2003-12-01

    Properties of condensed milks prior to spray drying dictate to a large extent the functionality of the resulting milk powder. Rheological properties of concentrated skim milk, with total solids content of 45% but different mineral content, were studied as a function of shear rate and storage time at 50 degrees C. These milks are proposed as a model to study the effects of minerals on rheology and age gellation of condensed milk prior to drying. During storage of the concentrated milk, the apparent viscosity, particularly after 4 h, increased markedly at all shear rates studied. The yield stress also increased steeply after 4 h of storage at 50 degrees C. The changes in apparent viscosity of concentrated milk stored for up to 4 h were largely reversible under high shear, but irreversible in samples stored for longer time. The appearance of yield stress suggested the presence of reversible flocculation arising from weak attraction between casein micelles, with a transition from reversible to irreversible aggregation during storage. Particle size analysis confirmed irreversible aggregation and fusion of casein micelles during storage. Gradual reduction of mineral content of concentrated milks resulted in a marked decrease in the apparent viscosity and casein micelle aggregation during storage, while addition of minerals to milk had the opposite effect. The results demonstrated that the soluble mineral content is very important in controlling the storage-induced changes in the rheology of concentrated milks.

  15. Properties of filamentary sublimation residues from dispersions of clay in ice. [on Martian poles, comet nuclei, and icy satellites

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Saunders, R. S.; Parker, T. J.; Stephens, J. B.; Fanale, F. P.; Sutton, S.

    1986-01-01

    Results are reported from experimental studies of the formation of ice mixed with mineral particles in an effort to simulate similar processes on natural surfaces such as at the Martian poles, on comet nuclei and on icy satellites. The study consisted of low-pressure, low-temperature sublimations of water ice from dilutions of water-clay (montmorillonite and Cabosil) dispersions of various component ratios. Liquid dispersions were sprayed into liquid nitrogen to form droplets at about -50 C. Both clay-water dispersions left a filamentary residue on the bottom of the Dewar after the water ice had sublimated off. The residue was studied with optical and SEM microscopy, the latter method revealing a high electrical conductivity in the residue. The results suggest that the sublimation of the water ice can leave a surface crust, which may be analogous to processes at the Martian poles and on comet nuclei. The process could proceed by the attachment of water molecules to salt crystals during the hottest part of the Martian year. The residue remaining was found to remain stable up to 370 C, be porous, and remain resilient, which could allow it to insulate ice bodies such as comets in space.

  16. Influence of long-term mineral fertilization on metal contents and properties of soil samples taken from different locations in Hesse, Germany

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Czarnecki, S.; Düring, R.-A.

    2014-06-01

    Essential and non-essential metals occur in soils as a result of weathering, industrial processes, fertilization and atmospheric deposition. Badly adapted cultivation of agricultural soils (declining pH-value, application of unsuitable fertilizers) can enhance the mobility of metals and by the way increase their concentrations in agricultural products. The main objective of this study was to test the effects of different mineral fertilizer variations on soil properties (pH, Corg and CEC) and pseudo total and mobile metal contents of soils after 14 years of fertilizer application and to determine residual effects of the fertilization 8 years after cessation of fertilizer treatment. Soil samples were taken from a field experiment which was carried out at four different locations 210, 260, 360, and 620 m a.s.l., in Hesse, Germany. During the study, a significant decrease in soil pH and an evident increase in soil carbon content and cation exchange capacity with fertilization were determined. The CEC of the soils was closely related to their organic C contents. Moreover, pseudo and mobile metal (Cd, Cu, Mn, Pb, Zn) contents in the soils increased due to application of 14 years mineral fertilizer treatments (N, P, NP, and NPK) when compared to control plots. Fertilization is one of the major paths for metal input to agricultural soils, therefore monitoring of the long term impact of fertilization is necessary. 8 years after termination of the fertilization in the soil samples taken from soil profiles of the fertilized plots (NPK) for monitoring the residual effects of the fertilizer application, a decrease of 82.6%, 54.2%, 48.5%, 74.4%, and 56.9%, respectively, in pseudo total Cd, Cu, Mn, Pb, and Zn contents was determined.

  17. Influence of long-term mineral fertilization on metal contents and properties of soil samples taken from different locations in Hesse, Germany

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Czarnecki, S.; Düring, R.-A.

    2015-01-01

    Essential and non-essential metals occur in soils as a result of weathering, industrial processes, fertilization, and atmospheric deposition. Badly adapted cultivation of agricultural soils (declining pH value, application of unsuitable fertilizers) can enhance the mobility of metals and thereby increase their concentrations in agricultural products. As the enrichment of metals in soils occurs over long time periods, monitoring of the long-term impact of fertilization is necessary to assess metal accumulation in agricultural soils. The main objective of this study was to test the effects of different mineral fertilizer variations on soil properties (pH, Corg, and cation exchange capacity (CEC)) and pseudo-total and mobile metal contents of soils after 14 years of fertilizer application and to determine residual effects of the fertilization 8 years after cessation of fertilizer treatment. Soil samples were taken from a field experiment which was carried out at four different locations (210, 260, 360, and 620 m above sea level) in Hesse, Germany. During the study, a significant decrease in soil pH and an evident increase in soil carbon content and cation exchange capacity with fertilization were determined. The CEC of the soils was closely related to their organic C contents. Moreover, pseudo- and mobile metal (Cd, Cu, Mn, Pb, Zn) contents in the soils increased due to application of 14 years of mineral fertilizer treatments (N, P, NP, and NPK) when compared to control plots. Eight years after termination of the fertilization in the soil samples taken from soil profiles of the fertilized plots (NPK) for monitoring the residual effects of the fertilizer application, a decrease of 82.6, 54.2, 48.5, 74.4, and 56.9% in pseudo-total Cd, Cu, Mn, Pb, and Zn contents, respectively, was determined.

  18. pH-dependent mineral release and surface properties of cornstraw biochar: agronomic implications.

    PubMed

    Silber, A; Levkovitch, I; Graber, E R

    2010-12-15

    Surface charge and pH-dependent nutrient release properties of cornstraw biochar were examined to elucidate its potential agronomic benefits. Kinetics of element release was characterized by rapid H(+) consumption and rapid, pH-dependent P, Ca, and Mg release, followed by zero-order H(+) consumption and mineral dissolution reactions. Initial K release was not pH-dependent, nor was it followed by a zero-order reaction at any pH. Rapid and constant rate P releases were significant, having the potential to substitute substantial proportions of P fertilizer. K releases were also significant and may replace conventional K fertilizers, however, not long-term plant demand. The cation exchange capacity (CEC) of the biochar leached with a mild acidic solution increased linearly from 179 to 888 mmol(c) (kg C)(-1) over a pH range of 4-8, while the anion exchange capacity of 154 mmol(c) (kg C)(-1) was constant over the same pH range. Since native soil organic constituents have much higher CEC values (average 2800 mmol(c) (kg C)(-1) at pH 7), improved soil fertility as a result of enhanced cation retention by the biochar probably will be favorable only in sandy and low organic matter soils, unless surface oxidation during aging significantly increases its CEC. PMID:21090742

  19. Catanionic surfactant-assisted mineralization and structural properties of single-crystal-like vaterite hexagonal bifrustums.

    PubMed

    Liu, Rui; Liu, Fenglin; Su, Yunlan; Wang, Dujin; Shen, Qiang

    2015-03-01

    Crystalline vaterite is the most thermodynamically unstable polymorph of anhydrous calcium carbonate (CaCO3), and various morphologies can be controlled in the presence of organic additives. Constructing vaterite with minimal defects, determining its distinctive properties, and understanding the formation mechanism behind a biomimetic process are the main challenges in this field. In this paper, a unique single-crystal-like vaterite hexagonal bifrustum with two hexagonal and 12 trapezoidal faces has been fabricated through a catanionic surfactant-assisted mineralization approach for the first time. Compared with the polycrystalline vaterite aggregates, these bifrustums clearly present a doublet for Raman v1 symmetric stretching mode, a low depolarizaiton ratio for carbonate molecular symmetry, and a high structural stability. These indicate a dominant position of hexagonal phase in each crystallite and confirm the Raman v1 doublet characteristics of synthetic and biomineral-based vaterites. Our finding may provide evidence to distinguish vaterite with different structures and shed light on a possible formation mechanism of vaterite single crystals.

  20. AnimoAminoMiner: Exploration of Protein Tunnels and their Properties in Molecular Dynamics.

    PubMed

    Byska, Jan; Le Muzic, Mathieu; Gröller, M Eduard; Viola, Ivan; Kozlíková, Barbora

    2016-01-01

    In this paper we propose a novel method for the interactive exploration of protein tunnels. The basic principle of our approach is that we entirely abstract from the 3D/4D space the simulated phenomenon is embedded in. A complex 3D structure and its curvature information is represented only by a straightened tunnel centerline and its width profile. This representation focuses on a key aspect of the studied geometry and frees up graphical estate to key chemical and physical properties represented by surrounding amino acids. The method shows the detailed tunnel profile and its temporal aggregation. The profile is interactively linked with a visual overview of all amino acids which are lining the tunnel over time. In this overview, each amino acid is represented by a set of colored lines depicting the spatial and temporal impact of the amino acid on the corresponding tunnel. This representation clearly shows the importance of amino acids with respect to selected criteria. It helps the biochemists to select the candidate amino acids for mutation which changes the protein function in a desired way. The AnimoAminoMiner was designed in close cooperation with domain experts. Its usefulness is documented by their feedback and a case study, which are included. PMID:26529726

  1. AnimoAminoMiner: Exploration of Protein Tunnels and their Properties in Molecular Dynamics.

    PubMed

    Byska, Jan; Le Muzic, Mathieu; Gröller, M Eduard; Viola, Ivan; Kozlíková, Barbora

    2016-01-01

    In this paper we propose a novel method for the interactive exploration of protein tunnels. The basic principle of our approach is that we entirely abstract from the 3D/4D space the simulated phenomenon is embedded in. A complex 3D structure and its curvature information is represented only by a straightened tunnel centerline and its width profile. This representation focuses on a key aspect of the studied geometry and frees up graphical estate to key chemical and physical properties represented by surrounding amino acids. The method shows the detailed tunnel profile and its temporal aggregation. The profile is interactively linked with a visual overview of all amino acids which are lining the tunnel over time. In this overview, each amino acid is represented by a set of colored lines depicting the spatial and temporal impact of the amino acid on the corresponding tunnel. This representation clearly shows the importance of amino acids with respect to selected criteria. It helps the biochemists to select the candidate amino acids for mutation which changes the protein function in a desired way. The AnimoAminoMiner was designed in close cooperation with domain experts. Its usefulness is documented by their feedback and a case study, which are included.

  2. Biomimetic Properties of Minerals and the Search for Life in the Martian Meteorite ALH84001

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Martel, Jan; Young, David; Peng, Hsin-Hsin; Wu, Cheng-Yeu; Young, John D.

    2012-05-01

    The existence of extraterrestrial life was heralded by controversial claims made in 1996 that the Martian meteorite ALH84001 harbored relics of ancient microorganisms. We review here the accumulated evidence for and against past extraterrestrial life in this Martian meteorite. The main pro-life arguments—the presence of polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons, magnetite crystals, carbonate globules, and structures resembling terrestrial life-forms known as nanobacteria—can be deemed ambiguous at best. Although these criteria are compatible with living processes, each one of them can be explained by nonliving chemical processes. By undergoing amorphous-to-crystalline transformations and binding to multiple substrates, including other ions and simple organic compounds, minerals—especially those containing carbonate—have been shown to display biomimetic properties, producing forms that resemble bacteria. This simple and down-to-earth explanation can account fully for the existence of mineral entities resembling putative nano- and microorganisms that have been described not only in the ALH84001 meteorite but also in the human body.

  3. Technical Note: Optical properties of desert aerosol with non-spherical mineral particles: data incorporated to OPAC

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Koepke, P.; Gasteiger, J.; Hess, M.

    2015-05-01

    Mineral particles, in general, are not spheres and so the assumption of spherical particles, instead of more realistic shapes, has significant effects on modeled optical properties and therefore on remote-sensing procedures for desert aerosol and the derived radiative forcing. Thus, in a new version of the database OPAC (Optical Properties of Aerosols and Clouds; Hess et al., 1998), the optical properties of the mineral particles are modeled describing the particles as spheroids with size dependent aspect ratio distributions, but with the size distributions and the spectral refractive indices not changed against the previous version of OPAC. The spheroid assumption is known to substantially improve the scattering functions but pays regard to the limited knowledge on particle shapes in an actual case. The relative deviations of the optical properties of non-spherical mineral particles from those of spherical particles are for the phase function in the solar spectral range up to +60% at scattering angles of about 130° and up to -60% in the backscatter region, but less than 2% for the asymmetry parameter. The deviations are generally small in the thermal infrared and for optical properties that are independent of the scattering angle. The improved version of OPAC (4.0) is freely available at www.rascin.net.

  4. Dynamic Alterations in Microarchitecture, Mineralization and Mechanical Property of Subchondral Bone in Rat Medial Meniscal Tear Model of Osteoarthritis

    PubMed Central

    Yu, De-Gang; Nie, Shao-Bo; Liu, Feng-Xiang; Wu, Chuan-Long; Tian, Bo; Wang, Wen-Gang; Wang, Xiao-Qing; Zhu, Zhen-An; Mao, Yuan-Qing

    2015-01-01

    Background: The properties of subchondral bone influence the integrity of articular cartilage in the pathogenesis of osteoarthritis (OA). However, the characteristics of subchondral bone alterations remain unresolved. The present study aimed to observe the dynamic alterations in the microarchitecture, mineralization, and mechanical properties of subchondral bone during the progression of OA. Methods: A medial meniscal tear (MMT) operation was performed in 128 adult Sprague Dawley rats to induce OA. At 2, 4, 8, and 12 weeks following the MMT operation, cartilage degeneration was evaluated using toluidine blue O staining, whereas changes in the microarchitecture indices and tissue mineral density (TMD), mineral-to-collagen ratio, and intrinsic mechanical properties of subchondral bone plates (BPs) and trabecular bones (Tbs) were measured using micro-computed tomography scanning, confocal Raman microspectroscopy and nanoindentation testing, respectively. Results: Cartilage degeneration occurred and worsened progressively from 2 to 12 weeks after OA induction. Microarchitecture analysis revealed that the subchondral bone shifted from bone resorption early (reduced trabecular BV/TV, trabecular number, connectivity density and trabecular thickness [Tb.Th], and increased trabecular spacing (Tb.Sp) at 2 and 4 weeks) to bone accretion late (increased BV/TV, Tb.Th and thickness of subchondral bone plate, and reduced Tb.Sp at 8 and 12 weeks). The TMD of both the BP and Tb displayed no significant changes at 2 and 4 weeks but decreased at 8 and 12 weeks. The mineral-to-collagen ratio showed a significant decrease from 4 weeks for the Tb and from 8 weeks for the BP after OA induction. Both the elastic modulus and hardness of the Tb showed a significant decrease from 4 weeks after OA induction. The BP showed a significant decrease in its elastic modulus from 8 weeks and its hardness from 4 weeks. Conclusion: The microarchitecture, mineralization and mechanical properties of

  5. Morphology Of Diesel Soot Residuals From Supercooled Water Droplets And Ice Crystals: Implications For Optical Properties

    SciTech Connect

    China, Swarup; Kulkarni, Gourihar; Scarnatio, Barbara; Sharma, Noopur; Pekour, Mikhail S.; Shilling, John E.; Wilson, Jacqueline M.; Zelenyuk, Alla; Chand, Duli; Liu, Shang; Aiken, Allison; Dubey, Manvendra K.; Laskin, Alexander; Zaveri, Rahul A.; Mazzoleni, Claudio

    2015-11-04

    Freshly emitted soot particles are fractal-like aggregates, but atmospheric processing often transforms their morphology. Morphology of soot particles plays an important role in determining their optical properties, life cycle and hence their effect on Earth’s radiative balance. However, little is known about the morphology of soot particles that participated in cold cloud processes. Here we report results from laboratory experiments that simulate cold cloud processing of diesel soot particles by allowing them to form supercooled droplets and ice crystals at -20 and -40°C, respectively. Electron microscopy revealed that soot residuals from ice crystals were more compact (roundness~0.55) than those from supercooled droplets (roundness ~0.45), while nascent soot particles were the least compact (roundness~0.41). Optical simulations using the discrete dipole approximation showed that the more compact structure enhances soot single scattering albedo by a factor up to 1.4, thereby reducing the top-of-the-atmosphere direct radiative forcing by ~63%. These results underscore that climate models should consider the morphological evolution of soot particles due to cold cloud processing to improve the estimate of direct radiative forcing of soot.

  6. Morphology of diesel soot residuals from supercooled water droplets and ice crystals: implications for optical properties

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    China, Swarup; Kulkarni, Gourihar; Scarnato, Barbara V.; Sharma, Noopur; Pekour, Mikhail; Shilling, John E.; Wilson, Jacqueline; Zelenyuk, Alla; Chand, Duli; Liu, Shang; Aiken, Allison C.; Dubey, Manvendra; Laskin, Alexander; Zaveri, Rahul A.; Mazzoleni, Claudio

    2015-11-01

    Freshly emitted soot particles are fractal-like aggregates, but atmospheric processes often transform their morphology. Morphology of soot particles plays an important role in determining their optical properties, life cycle and hence their effect on Earth’s radiative balance. However, little is known about the morphology of soot particles that participated in cold cloud processes. Here we report results from laboratory experiments that simulate cold cloud processing of diesel soot particles by allowing them to form supercooled droplets and ice crystals at -20 and -40 °C, respectively. Electron microscopy revealed that soot residuals from ice crystals were more compact (roundness ˜0.55) than those from supercooled droplets (roundness ˜0.45), while nascent soot particles were the least compact (roundness ˜0.41). Optical simulations using the discrete dipole approximation showed that the more compact structure enhances soot single scattering albedo by a factor up to 1.4, thereby reducing the top-of-the-atmosphere direct radiative forcing by ˜63%. These results underscore that climate models should consider the morphological evolution of soot particles due to cold cloud processing to improve the estimate of direct radiative forcing of soot.

  7. [Compositions and residual properties of petroleum hydrocarbon in contaminated soil of the oilfields].

    PubMed

    Hu, Di; Li, Chuan; Dong, Qian-Qian; Li, Li-Ming; Li, Guang-He

    2014-01-01

    The aims of this study were to determine the compositions and residual properties of petroleum hydrocarbon in soil, as well as to identify the source and weathering degree of the pollution. A total of 5 producing wells in Gudao and Hekou oil producing region of Shengli oilfields were analyzed. More than 50 individual target compounds including straight-and branched-chain alkanes( n-alkanes, pristine and phytane) and polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons (PAHs) in soil samples and crude oil were determined by gas chromatography-mass spectrometry (GC-MS). The percentages of chain alkanes and PAHs in total solvent extractable matters(TSEM) of soil samples were both much lower than those in the crude oil samples. The compositions of petroleum hydrocarbon in soil samples differed from those in crude oil, which indicated the n-alkanes with carbon numbers <12 were much easier to lose in contrast to the n-alkanes with high carbon numbers. With n-octadecane/phytane as index for the weathering rate of oil contaminated soils, the relationship between the index and petroleum hydrocarbon compounds was analyzed using principal component analysis (PCA). The results showed that the n-alkanes with carbon numbers > 33 and the PAHs with rings between 3 and 5 were much harder to degrade. PCA of 4 indexes for source identification revealed more than 50% of the soil samples were polluted by crude oil, which needs more attention during remediation.

  8. Investigations of Residual Stresses and Mechanical Properties of Single Crystal Niobium for SRF Cavities

    SciTech Connect

    Thomas Gnäupel-Herold; Ganapati Rao Myneni; Richard E. Ricker

    2007-06-01

    This work investigates properties of large grained, high purity niobium with respect to the forming of superconducting radio frequency (SRF) cavities from such large grained sheets. The yield stresses were examined using tensile specimens that were essentially single crystals in orientations evenly distributed in the standard projection triangle. No distinct yield anisotropy was found, however, vacuum annealing increased the yield strength by a factor 2..3. The deep drawing forming operation of the half cells raises the issues of elastic shape changes after the release of the forming tool (springback) and residual stresses, both of which are indicated to be negligible. This is a consequence of the low yield stress (< 100 MPa) and the large thickness (compared to typical thicknesses in sheet metal forming). However, the significant anisotropy of the transversal plastic strains after uniaxial deformation points to potentially critical thickness variations for large grained / single crystal half cells, thus raising the issue of controlling grain orientation or using single crystal sheet material.

  9. Effects of natural acids on surface properties of asbestos minerals and kaolinite.

    PubMed

    Lavkulich, Les M; Schreier, Hanspeter E; Wilson, Julie E

    2014-01-01

    Serpentine, and other asbestos minerals, are considered potential hazards to human respiratory health. It has been postulated that the surface characteristics of these substances, such as surface charge and adsorbed metals, notably Fe and other transition metals, may be the major agents responsible for their toxicity. There is a general consensus that the amphibole group of minerals possesses a greater health risk than serpentines dominated by chrysotile. There have been suggestions that natural processes can alter the surfaces of these minerals and reduce their potency. This study examined the effects of carbonic acid, oxalic acid and hydrochloric acid on the surface characteristics of two trioctahedral minerals, actinolite (amphibole) and chrysotile (serpentine), and compared the results to a non-asbestiform, dioctahedral mineral, kaolinite. Results confirm that the treatments alter the mineral surfaces by changing the zeta potential of the asbestiform minerals from positive to negative and by removing considerable amounts on non-crystalline Fe and other metals. X-ray analyses indicated that mineral structure was little affected by the treatments, and TOF-SIMS revealed that treatments did remove surface adsorbed metals and cations in octahedral coordination within the samples.

  10. 26 CFR 1.381(c)(18)-1 - Depletion on extraction of ores or minerals from the waste or residue of prior mining.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-04-01

    ... 26 Internal Revenue 4 2013-04-01 2013-04-01 false Depletion on extraction of ores or minerals from...) Insolvency Reorganizations § 1.381(c)(18)-1 Depletion on extraction of ores or minerals from the waste or... the applicability of section 613(c)(3) (relating to extraction of ores or minerals from the...

  11. 26 CFR 1.381(c)(18)-1 - Depletion on extraction of ores or minerals from the waste or residue of prior mining.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-04-01

    ... 26 Internal Revenue 4 2014-04-01 2014-04-01 false Depletion on extraction of ores or minerals from...) Insolvency Reorganizations § 1.381(c)(18)-1 Depletion on extraction of ores or minerals from the waste or... the applicability of section 613(c)(3) (relating to extraction of ores or minerals from the...

  12. 26 CFR 1.381(c)(18)-1 - Depletion on extraction of ores or minerals from the waste or residue of prior mining.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-04-01

    ... 26 Internal Revenue 4 2012-04-01 2012-04-01 false Depletion on extraction of ores or minerals from...) Insolvency Reorganizations § 1.381(c)(18)-1 Depletion on extraction of ores or minerals from the waste or... the applicability of section 613(c)(3) (relating to extraction of ores or minerals from the...

  13. Training of panellists for the sensory control of bottled natural mineral water in connection with water chemical properties.

    PubMed

    Rey-Salgueiro, Ledicia; Gosálbez-García, Aitana; Pérez-Lamela, Concepción; Simal-Gándara, Jesús; Falqué-López, Elena

    2013-11-01

    As bottled mineral water market is increasing in the world (especially in emergent and developed countries), the development of a simple protocol to train a panel to evaluate sensory properties would be a useful tool for natural drinking water industry. A sensory protocol was developed to evaluate bottled natural mineral water (17 still and 10 carbonated trademarks). The tasting questionnaire included 13 attributes for still water plus overall impression and they were sorted by: colour hues, transparency and brightness, odour/aroma and taste/flavour/texture and 2 more for carbonated waters (bubbles and effervescence). The training lasted two months with, at least, 10 sessions, was adequate to evaluate bottled natural mineral water. To confirm the efficiency of the sensory training procedure two sensory groups formed the whole panel. One trained panel (6 persons) and one professional panel (6 sommeliers) and both participated simultaneously in the water tasting evaluation of 3 sample lots. Similar average scores obtained from trained and professional judges, with the same water trademarks, confirmed the usefulness of the training protocol. The differences obtained for trained panel in the first lot confirm the necessity to train always before a sensory procedure. A sensory water wheel is proposed to guide the training in bottled mineral water used for drinking, in connection with their chemical mineral content.

  14. Microscale Material Properties of Bone and the Mineralized Tissues of the Intervertebral Disc-Vertebral Body Interface

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Paietta, Rachel C.

    The objective of this dissertation is to understand the influences of material structure on the properties, function and failure of biological connective tissues. Biological interfaces are becoming an increasingly studied system within mechanics and tissue engineering as a model for attaching dissimilar materials. The elastic modulus of bone (≈ 20 GPa) and cartilage (≈ 0.1-1 MPa) differ over orders of magnitude, which should intuitively create high stress concentrations and failure at the interface. Yet, these natural interface systems rarely fail in vivo, and the mechanism by which loads are transferred between tissues has not yet been established. Tissue quality is one major contributor to the mechanical behavior of bone and cartilage, and is defined by properties such as collagen orientation, mineral volume fraction, porosity and tissue geometry. These properties have yet to be established at the bone-cartilage interface in the spine, and the lack of quantitative data on material microstructure and behavior limits treatments and tissue engineering construct design. In this dissertation, second harmonic generation imaging, quantitative backscattered scanning electron imaging and nanoindentation are combined to characterize micrometer scale tissue quality and modulus in both bone and calcified cartilage. These techniques are utilized to: 1) determine the hierarchical micrometer to millimeter scale properties of lamellar bone, 2) quantify changes throughout development and aging at the human intervertebral disc-vertebral body junction, and 3) explore compressive fractures at this interface. This work is the first to provide quantitative data on the mineral volume fraction, collagen orientation and modulus from the same, undecalcified sections of tissue to corroborate tissue structure and mineralization and describe quantitative parameters of the interface. The principal findings from this work indicate that the underlying matrix, or collagen, organization in

  15. Adhesion of Mineral and Soot Aerosols can Strongly Affect their Scattering and Absorption Properties

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Mishchenko, Michael I.; Dlugach, Jana M.

    2012-01-01

    We use the numerically exact superposition T-matrix method to compute the optical cross sections and the Stokes scattering matrix for polydisperse mineral aerosols (modeled as homogeneous spheres) covered with a large number of much smaller soot particles. These results are compared with the Lorenz-Mie results for a uniform external mixture of mineral and soot aerosols. We show that the effect of soot particles adhering to large mineral particles can be to change the extinction and scattering cross sections and the asymmetry parameter quite substantially. The effect on the phase function and degree of linear polarization can be equally significant.

  16. The use of nanoindentation for characterizing the properties of mineralized hard tissues: state-of-the art review.

    PubMed

    Lewis, Gladius; Nyman, Jeffry S

    2008-10-01

    The use of nanoindentation to determine nanomechanical properties of mineralized tissues has been investigated extensively. A detailed, critical, and comprehensive review of this literature is the subject of the present work. After stating the motivation for the review, a succinct presentation of the challenges, advantages, and disadvantages of the various quasi-static nanoindentation test methods (to obtain elastic modulus, E, and hardness, H) and dynamic test methods (to obtain storage and loss moduli and/or loss/damping factor) is given in the form of a primer. Explicative summaries of literature reports on various intrinsic and extrinsic factors that significantly influence E and H, followed by 15 suggested topics for future research, are included additionally. This review is designed to present a compact guide to the principles of the nanoindentation technique and to emphasize considerations when determining material properties of mineralized tissues. PMID:18395829

  17. Experimental Investigations on Fatigue Damage and Residual Properties of Interacting Notched Woven E-Glass/Epoxy Composite

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Bhaskara Rao, Pathakokila; Rama Krishna, Avasarala; Ramji, Koona; Satya Devi, Ambadipudi

    2015-10-01

    The interacting notched laminates of plain weave E-glass fiber reinforced with epoxy were fatigued at predetermined frequency in tension-tension to investigate the fatigue damage and residual properties. The results from stress-life curves summarize that damage growing around the notches due to stress concentration is the underlying cause for the variation in fatigue strengths among the geometrically different specimens considered. The residual strength and modulus decay with respect to cycle number at 50 % of the ultimate tensile strength were investigated. It is evident from the experimental data that the residual strength decreases with cycle number and increases due to redistribution of stress around the notches. The detailed study of the damage development under cyclic loads also explains the causes of modulus reduction for all the laminate geometries.

  18. Solidification/stabilisation of air pollution control residues using Portland cement: Physical properties and chloride leaching.

    PubMed

    Lampris, C; Stegemann, J A; Cheeseman, C R

    2009-03-01

    Portland cement (CEMI) was used to solidify air pollution control (APC) residues from an energy-from-waste plant burning municipal solid waste. APC residue/CEMI mixes were prepared with CEMI additions ranging from 0 to 50 weight% (wt%) of total dry mass and water/solids ratios between 0.40 and 0.80. Isothermal conduction calorimetry was used to assess the effect of APC residues on the hydration of CEMI. Although up to 30wt% additions of APC residues accelerated CEMI hydration, the total heat of hydration during the initial 98h was significantly reduced. Higher levels of APC residues severely inhibited CEMI hydration. The consistence, setting time, compressive strength, porosity and chloride leaching characteristics of the solidified products were determined. As might be expected, increasing the CEMI addition and reducing the water content resulted in increased compressive strengths. All mixes achieved compressive strengths greater than 1MPa at 7 and 28days but only 50wt% samples did not show significant strength reduction when tested after immersion in water. Monolithic leaching tests indicated low physical immobilisation of chloride in the CEMI solidified APC residues, with chloride leaching in excess of relevant UK landfill waste acceptance criteria (WAC). The results of this study show that greater than 50% CEMI additions would be required to effectively treat APC residues to meet current WAC limits. PMID:18849156

  19. Mechanical property and tissue mineral density differences among severely suppressed bone turnover (SSBT) patients, osteoporotic patients, and normal subjects.

    PubMed

    Tjhia, Crystal K; Odvina, Clarita V; Rao, D Sudhaker; Stover, Susan M; Wang, Xiang; Fyhrie, David P

    2011-12-01

    Pathogenesis of atypical fractures in patients on long term bisphosphonate therapy is poorly understood, and the type, the manner in which they occur and the fracture sites are quite different from the usual osteoporotic fractures. We hypothesized that the tissue-level mechanical properties and mean degree of mineralization of the iliac bone would differ among 1) patients with atypical fractures and severely suppressed bone turnover (SSBT) associated with long-term bisphosphonate therapy, 2) age-matched, treatment-naïve osteoporotic patients with vertebral fracture, 3) age-matched normals and 4) young normals. Large differences in tissue-level mechanical properties and/or mineralization among these groups could help explain the underlying mechanism(s) for the occurrence of typical osteoporotic and the atypical femoral shaft fractures. Elastic modulus, contact hardness, plastic deformation resistance, and tissue mineral densities of cortical and trabecular bone regions of 55 iliac bone biopsies--12 SSBT patients (SSBT; aged 49-77), 11 age-matched untreated osteoporotic patients with vertebral fracture (Osteoporotic), 12 age-matched subjects without bone fracture (Age-Matched Normal), and 20 younger subjects without bone fracture (Young Normal)--were measured using nanoindentation and quantitative backscattered electron microscopy. For cortical bone nanoindentation properties, only plastic deformation resistance was different among the groups (p<0.05), with greater resistance to plastic deformation in the SSBT group compared to all other groups. For trabecular bone, all nanoindentation properties and mineral density of the trabecular bone were different among the groups (p<0.05). The SSBT group had greater plastic deformation resistance and harder trabecular bone compared to the other three groups, stiffer bone compared to the Osteoporotic and Young Normal groups, and a trend of higher mineral density compared to the Age-Matched Normal and Osteoporotic groups. Lower

  20. Relationship between heavy metal contents and clay mineral properties in surface sediments: Implications for metal pollution assessment

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Chen, Yueh-Min; Gao, Jin-bo; Yuan, Yong-Qiang; Ma, Jun; Yu, Shen

    2016-08-01

    Clay minerals in surface sediments can affect the adsorption of heavy metals. However, few historical studies have focused on the influence of fine clay mineral characteristics on metal sorption. Since the reactions between heavy metals and fine clay minerals in sediments remain obscure, this study investigates the influence of fine clay mineral characteristics on metal sorption in a typical urbanizing small watershed. Clay minerals, including nanoparticles with various size fractions ranging from 1000 to 2000 (clay), 450-1000 (fine clay), and 220-450 (very fine clay) nm were used to demonstrate their transformation from well crystalline to poorly crystalline. The nanoparticles were collected and evaluated by determination of their surface area, X-ray diffraction, scanning electron microscopy (SEM) and chemical analyses. The relationship between metal content and properties of the surface sediments was also revealed by canonical correlation analysis. With smaller particle sizes, nanoparticles (very fine clay) were observed to be poorly crystalline, possibly indicating few repetitions of unit cells as a result of preferential structural disruption of other crystal planes caused by pressure-induced phase transition in the fine-size fractions. The first canonical matrix (M) variables of metal contents can be predicted by both surface area and pore volume, followed by kaolinite and illite contents. On the other hand, the category of metal, i.e., Cu, Cr, Zn, or Pb, was significantly correlated with the first 'M' canonical variables. The data obtained in the present study are of fundamental significance in advancing our understanding of the reactions between heavy metals and fine clay minerals in the terrestrial ecosystem.

  1. Prediction of long and short residue properties of crude oils from their infrared and near-infrared spectra.

    PubMed

    de Peinder, Peter; Petrauskas, Derek D; Singelenberg, Fred; Salvatori, Fabien; Visser, Tom; Soulimani, Fouad; Weckhuysen, Bert M

    2008-04-01

    Research has been carried out to determine the feasibility of chemometric modeling of infrared (IR) and near-infrared (NIR) spectra of crude oils to predict the long residue (LR) and short residue (SR) properties of these samples. A novel method is described to predict short residue properties at different flashing temperatures based on the IR spectrum of a crude oil measured at room temperature. The resulting method is the subject of European patent application number 07251853.3 filed by Shell Internationale Research Maatschappij B.V. The study has been carried out on 47 crude oils and 4 blends, representing a large variety of physical and chemical properties. From this set, 28 representative samples were selected by principle component analysis (PCA) and used for calibration. The remaining 23 samples were used as a test set to validate the obtained partial least squares (PLS) regression models. The results demonstrate that this integrated approach offers a fast and viable alternative for the currently applied elaborate ASTM (American Society for Testing and Materials) and IP (Institute of Petroleum) methods. IR spectra, in particular, were found to be a useful input for the prediction of different LR properties. Root mean square error of prediction values of the same order of magnitude as the reproducibility values of the ASTM methods were obtained for yield long on crude (YLC), density (D(LR)), viscosity (V(LR)), and pour point (PP), while the ability to predict the sulfur contents (S) and the carbon residue (CR) was found to be useful for indicative purposes. The prediction of SR properties is also promising. Modeling of the IR spectra, and to a lesser extent, the NIR spectra as a function of the average flash temperature (AFT) was particularly successful for the prediction of the short residue properties density (D(SR)) and viscosity (V(SR)). Similar results were obtained from the models to predict SR properties as a function of the yield short on crude (YSC

  2. Resources in the VLab Science Gateway: Online applications for thermodynamics and thermal elastic properties of mantle minerals

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Wentzcovitch, R. M.; Da Silveira, P. R.; Wu, Z.; Yu, Y.

    2013-12-01

    Today first principles calculations in mineral physics play a fundamental role in understanding of the Earth. They complement experiments by expanding the pressure and temperature range for which properties can be obtained and provide access to atomic scale phenomena. Since the wealth of predictive first principles results can hardly be communicated in printed form, we have developed online applications where published results can be reproduced/verified online and extensive unpublished results can be generated in customized form. So far these applications have included thermodynamics properties of end-member phases and thermal elastic properties of end-member phases and few solid solutions. Extension of this software infrastructure to include other properties is in principle straightforward. This contribution will review the nature of results that can be generated (methods, thermodynamics domain, list of minerals, properties, etc) and nature of the software infrastructure. These applications are part of a more extensive cyber-infrastructure operating in the XSEDE - the VLab Science Gateway [1]. [1] https://www.xsede.org/web/guest/gateways-listing Research supported by NSF grants ATM-0428744 and EAR-1047629.

  3. Ice nucleation of bare and sulfuric acid-coated mineral dust particles and implication for cloud properties

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Kulkarni, Gourihar; Sanders, Cassandra; Zhang, Kai; Liu, Xiaohong; Zhao, Chun

    2014-08-01

    Ice nucleation properties of atmospherically relevant dust minerals coated with soluble materials are not yet well understood. We determined ice nucleation ability of bare and sulfuric acid-coated mineral dust particles as a function of temperature (-25 to -35°C) and relative humidity with respect to water (RHw; 75 to 110%) for five different mineral dust types: (1) Arizona test dust, (2) illite, (3) montmorillonite, (4) K-feldspar, and (5) quartz. The particles were dry dispersed and size selected at 200 nm, and we determined the fraction of dust particles nucleating ice at various temperatures and RHw. Under water-subsaturated conditions, compared to bare dust particles, we found that coated particles showed a reduction in their ice nucleation ability. Under water-supersaturated conditions, however, we did not observe a significant coating effect (i.e., the bare and coated dust particles had nearly similar nucleating properties). X-ray diffraction patterns of the coated particles indicated that acid treatment altered the crystalline nature of the surface and caused structural disorder; thus, we concluded that the lack of such structured order reduced the ice nucleation efficiency of the coated particles in deposition ice nucleation mode. In addition, our single column model results show that coated particles significantly modify cloud properties such as ice crystal number concentration and ice water content compared to bare particles in water-subsaturated conditions. However, in water-supersaturated conditions, cloud properties differ only at warmer temperatures. These modeling results imply that future aged dust particle simulations should implement coating parameterizations to accurately predict cloud properties.

  4. High pressure elastic properties of minerals from ab initio simulations: The case of pyrope, grossular and andradite silicate garnets

    SciTech Connect

    Erba, A. Mahmoud, A.; Dovesi, R.; Belmonte, D.

    2014-03-28

    A computational strategy is devised for the accurate ab initio simulation of elastic properties of crystalline materials under pressure. The proposed scheme, based on the evaluation of the analytical stress tensor and on the automated computation of pressure-dependent elastic stiffness constants, is implemented in the CRYSTAL solid state quantum-chemical program. Elastic constants and related properties (bulk, shear and Young moduli, directional seismic wave velocities, elastic anisotropy index, Poisson's ratio, etc.) can be computed for crystals of any space group of symmetry. We apply such a technique to the study of high-pressure elastic properties of three silicate garnet end-members (namely, pyrope, grossular, and andradite) which are of great geophysical interest, being among the most important rock-forming minerals. The reliability of this theoretical approach is proved by comparing with available experimental measurements. The description of high-pressure properties provided by several equations of state is also critically discussed.

  5. Physicochemical properties related to long-term phosphorus retention by drinking-water treatment residuals.

    PubMed

    Makris, Konstantinos C; Harris, Willie G; O'Connor, George A; Obreza, Thomas A; Elliott, Herschel A

    2005-06-01

    Drinking-water treatment residuals (WTRs) are nonhazardous materials that can be obtained free-of-charge from drinking-water treatment plants to reduce soluble phosphorus (P) concentrations in poorly P sorbing soils. Phosphorus sorption capacities of WTRs can vary 1-2 orders of magnitude, on the basis of short-term equilibration times (up to 7 d), but studies dealing with long-term (weeks to months) P retention by WTRs are lacking. Properties that most affect long-term P sorption capacities are pertinent to the efficacy of WTRs as amendments to stabilize P in soils. This research addressed the long-term (up to 80 d) P sorption/desorption characteristics and kinetics for seven WTRs, including the influence of specific surface area (SSA), porosity, and total C content on the overall magnitude of P sorption by seven WTRs. The data confirm a strong but variable affinity for P by WTRs. Aluminum-based WTRs tended to have higher P sorption capacity than Fe-based WTRs. Phosphorus sorption with time was biphasic in nature for most samples and best fit to a second-order rate model. The P sorption rate dependency was strongly correlated with a hysteretic P desorption, consistent with kinetic limitations on P desorption from micropores. Oxalate-extractable Al + Fe concentrations of the WTRs did not effectively explain long-term (80 d) P sorption capacities of the WTRs. Micropore (CO2-based) SSAs were greater than BET-N2 SSAs for most WTRs, except those with the lowest (<80 g kg(-1)) total C content. There was a significant negative linear correlation between the total C content and the CO2/N2 SSA ratio. The data suggest that C in WTRs increases microporosity, but reduces P sorption per unit pore volume or surface area. Hence, variability in C content confounds direct relations among SSA, porosity, and P sorption. Total C, N2-based SSA, and CO2-based SSAs explained 82% of the variability in the long-term P sorption capacities of the WTRs. Prediction of long-term P sorption

  6. Several properties offilament fibers made from recycled bottles of mineral water using melt spinning method

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Muslim, Ikhwanul; Mardiyati; Basuki, Arif

    2016-01-01

    Waste mineral water bottles made of PET called post-consumer POSTC-PET packaging with recycling code no. 1 can be made into another material other than the bottle by using a mechanical recycling process. In this experiment carried waste recycling process bottled mineral water bottles of PET into filament fibres with the aid of a melt spinning. From the resulting experimental filament fibres diameter of 14-15 microns, obtained the draw ratio is 1/46, 573,5 - 699,8 MPa tensile strength, modulus of elasticity of 2,01 - 2,45GPa, moisture regain of 2,84. Keywords. PET; Bottle; Fiber; Melt; Spinning; Drawing.

  7. Advances in chemical and physical properties of electric arc furnace carbon steel slag by hot stage processing and mineral mixing.

    PubMed

    Liapis, Ioannis; Papayianni, Ioanna

    2015-01-01

    Slags are recognised as a highly efficient, cost effective tool in the metal processing industry, by minimising heat losses, reducing metal oxidation through contact with air, removing metal impurities and protecting refractories and graphite electrodes. When compared to natural aggregates for use in the construction industry, slags have higher specific weight that acts as an economic deterrent. A method of altering the specific weight of EAFC slag by hot stage processing and mineral mixing, during steel production is presented in this article. The method has minimal interference with the production process of steel, even by limited additions of appropriate minerals at high temperatures. Five minerals are examined, namely perlite, ladle furnace slag, bauxite, diatomite and olivine. Measurements of specific weight are accompanied by X-ray diffraction (XRD) and fluorescence (XRF) analysis and scanning electron microscopy spectral images. It is also shown how altering the chemical composition is expected to affect the furnace refractory lining. Additionally, the process has been repeated for the most suitable mix in gas furnace and physical properties (FI, SI, LA, PSV, AAV, volume stability) examined. Alteration of the specific weight can result in tailoring slag properties for specific applications in the construction sector. PMID:25261762

  8. Relationship between mechanical properties and bone mineral density of human femoral bone retrieved from patients with osteoarthritis.

    PubMed

    Haba, Yvonne; Lindner, Tobias; Fritsche, Andreas; Schiebenhöfer, Ann-Kristin; Souffrant, Robert; Kluess, Daniel; Skripitz, Ralf; Mittelmeier, Wolfram; Bader, Rainer

    2012-01-01

    The objective of this study was to analyse retrieved human femoral bone samples using three different test methods, to elucidate the relationship between bone mineral density and mechanical properties. Human femoral heads were retrieved from 22 donors undergoing primary total hip replacement due to hip osteoarthritis and stored for a maximum of 24 hours postoperatively at + 6 °C to 8 °C.Analysis revealed an average structural modulus of 232±130 N/mm(2) and ultimate compression strength of 6.1±3.3 N/mm(2) with high standard deviations. Bone mineral densities of 385±133 mg/cm(2) and 353±172 mg/cm(3) were measured using thedual energy X-ray absorptiometry (DXA) and quantitative computed tomography (QCT), respectively. Ashing resulted in a bone mineral density of 323±97 mg/cm(3). In particular, significant linear correlations were found between DXA and ashing with r = 0.89 (p < 0.01, n = 22) and between structural modulus and ashing with r = 0.76 (p < 0.01, n = 22).Thus, we demonstrated a significant relationship between mechanical properties and bone density. The correlations found can help to determine the mechanical load capacity of individual patients undergoing surgical treatments by means of noninvasive bone density measurements.

  9. Advances in chemical and physical properties of electric arc furnace carbon steel slag by hot stage processing and mineral mixing.

    PubMed

    Liapis, Ioannis; Papayianni, Ioanna

    2015-01-01

    Slags are recognised as a highly efficient, cost effective tool in the metal processing industry, by minimising heat losses, reducing metal oxidation through contact with air, removing metal impurities and protecting refractories and graphite electrodes. When compared to natural aggregates for use in the construction industry, slags have higher specific weight that acts as an economic deterrent. A method of altering the specific weight of EAFC slag by hot stage processing and mineral mixing, during steel production is presented in this article. The method has minimal interference with the production process of steel, even by limited additions of appropriate minerals at high temperatures. Five minerals are examined, namely perlite, ladle furnace slag, bauxite, diatomite and olivine. Measurements of specific weight are accompanied by X-ray diffraction (XRD) and fluorescence (XRF) analysis and scanning electron microscopy spectral images. It is also shown how altering the chemical composition is expected to affect the furnace refractory lining. Additionally, the process has been repeated for the most suitable mix in gas furnace and physical properties (FI, SI, LA, PSV, AAV, volume stability) examined. Alteration of the specific weight can result in tailoring slag properties for specific applications in the construction sector.

  10. Analysis of properties of synthetic mineral microparticles for retention and drainage system

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Lee, Sa Yong

    Over the past 20 years there has been a revolution involving the use of nano- or macro-sized particles as a component of drainage and retention systems during the manufacture of paper. More recently a group of patented technologies called Synthetic Mineral Microparticles (SMM) has been invented and developed. This system has potential to further promote the drainage of water and retention of fine particles during papermaking. Prior research, as well as our own preliminary research showed that the SMM system has advantages in both of drainage and retention, compared with montmorillonite (bentonite), which is one of the most popular materials presently used in this kind of application. In spite of the demonstrated advantages of this SMM system, the properties and activity of SMM particles in the aqueous state have not been elucidated yet. To help understand the molecular mechanisms involved in SMM technology, streaming current and potentiometric titration were employed to characterize the charge behavior of SMM, depending on the synthetic conditions, which included variation of the Al/Si ratio, partial neutralization of Al species, salt addition and shear rate. Surface area of SMM and the distribution of SMM particle size were investigated with scanning electron microscopy in order to elucidate the relationship between the morphology and coagulation behavior of SMM, versus the pre-stated synthetic conditions, as well as to estimate the optimal conditions to produce SMM as a retention and drainage aid for use during papermaking. Through the streaming current titration experiments it was found that pH variation, caused by the change of Al/Si ratio and partial neutralization of aluminum's acidity, profoundly affects the charge properties of SMM. These effects can be attributed to the variation of Al-ion speciation and the influence ionizable groups on the Si-containing particle surfaces. The relationship between Al/Si ratio and isoelectric pH, measured by potentiometric

  11. Residual phytotoxicity of parthenium: Impact on some winter crops, weeds and soil properties.

    PubMed

    Khaliq, Abdul; Aslam, Farhena; Matloob, Amar; Hussain, Saddam; Tanveer, Asif; Alsaadawi, Ibrahim; Geng, Mingjian

    2015-12-01

    Phytotoxic effects of parthenium residues incorporation and parthenium-infested rhizospheric soil on emergence and seedling growth of winter crops (wheat and canola) and weed species (wild oat and canary grass) were examined in different pot studies. In first experiment, parthenium whole plant residues were incorporated at 6 and 8 g kg(-1) soil five days prior to sowing. Pots without residues incorporation were maintained as control. In a second study, parthenium-infested rhizospheric soil collected from different depths (15 and 22.5 cm) and collar regions (horizontal distance away from plant trunk, 15 and 22.5 cm), was used as growing medium. Parthenium-free soil was used as control. Parthenium residues amendment as well as its rhizospheric soil was detrimental for emergence and seedling growth of all test species. Incorporation of parthenium residues reduced the final emergence of canola, wild oat and canary grass by 11-20%, 20-29% and 20-27%, respectively; however wheat emergence was unaffected. Moreover, seedling biomass of wheat, canola, wild oat and canary grass was reduced in the range of 41-48%, 53-61%, 31-45% and 30-45% by parthenium residues incorporation. In second study, soil collected from a rhizospheric depth of 15 cm and collar distance of 15 cm reduced the emergence and seedling growth by 15% and 40%, respectively averaged across different test species. Parthenium residues incorporation and infested rhizospheric soil increased the soil phenolics, electrical conductivity, organic carbon and nitrogen contents over control soils with the exception of pH that was declined. All test species manifested reduced chlorophyll and increased phenolic contents in response to parthenium residues incorporation and infested rhizospheric soil. The inhibition in emergence and seedling growth of all test species was associated with increase in phenolic contents. Parthenium residues incorporation at 8 g kg(-1) soil and upper parthenium-infested rhizospheric soil (15 cm

  12. Technical and environmental long-term properties of industrial residues--summary of field and laboratory investigations.

    PubMed

    Arm, Maria; Suer, Pascal; Arvidsson, Håkan; Lindqvist, Jan-Erik

    2011-01-01

    In Sweden, use of industrial residues is still hindered by concern for their long-term properties. A three-year research project was therefore initiated aiming to (1) identify the crucial processes of ageing related to the usefulness of residues in roads; (2) investigate the consequences of these processes for technical and environmental properties of the residues, and (3) propose a method for accelerated ageing to predict the long-term properties. This paper gives an overview of the project methodology, a summary of the test results and references to papers where further details are given. The project, running through 2006-2008, compared naturally aged samples of two residues used as sub-bases in existing asphalt paved roads with samples of fresh residues from producers' piles. Steel slag of electric arc furnace (EAF) type and municipal solid waste incinerator (MSWI) bottom ash were chosen. The samples were thoroughly characterised in order to identify which ageing processes had been crucial. The results showed that: - Bottom ash from the pavement edge was more aged than bottom ash from the road centre. However, no difference in pH was found, instead the differences were caused by differences in water exposure. - Steel slag from the pavement edge showed traces of carbonation and leaching processes, whereas slag from the road centre was identical to fresh slag. - Water exposure to the subbase materials after ten years in an asphalt paved road was calculated to less than 0.1–0.5 litres per kg. - Ageing reactions in steel slag and MSWI bottom ash, ready for use, were too small to be verified by laboratory measurement of deformation properties under loaded conditions. An accelerated ageing test for steel slag was set up to achieve the carbonation (decrease in pH) and leaching that was observed in the pavement edge material. An accelerated ageing test for bottom ash was set up to achieve the pozzolan reactions that were observed in SEM analyses of in situ specimens

  13. Structure and mechanical properties of aluminosilicate geopolymer composites with Portland cement and its constituent minerals

    SciTech Connect

    Tailby, Jonathan; MacKenzie, Kenneth J.D.

    2010-05-15

    The compressive strengths and structures of composites of aluminosilicate geopolymer with the synthetic cement minerals C{sub 3}S, beta-C{sub 2}S, C{sub 3}A and commercial OPC were investigated. All the composites showed lower strengths than the geopolymer and OPC paste alone. X-ray diffraction, {sup 29}Si and {sup 27}Al MAS NMR and SEM/EDS observations indicate that hydration of the cement minerals and OPC is hindered in the presence of geopolymer, even though sufficient water was present in the mix for hydration to occur. In the absence of SEM evidence for the formation of an impervious layer around the cement mineral grains, the poor strength development is suggested to be due to the retarded development of C-S-H because of the preferential removal from the system of available Si because geopolymer formation is more rapid than the hydration of the cement minerals. This possibility is supported by experiments in which the rate of geopolymer formation is retarded by the substitution of potassium for sodium, by the reduction of the alkali content of the geopolymer paste or by the addition of borate. In all these cases the strength of the OPC-geopolymer composite was increased, particularly by the combination of the borate additive with the potassium geopolymer, producing an OPC-geopolymer composite stronger than hydrated OPC paste alone.

  14. Effects of simulated acid rain on glucose mineralization and some physicochemical properties of forest soils

    SciTech Connect

    Strayer, R.F.; Alexander, M.

    1981-10-01

    To study the effects of acid rain, samples of forest soils were exposed to a continuous application of 100 cm of simulated acid rain (pH 3.2-4.1) at 5 cm/hour, or to intermittent 1-hour applications of 5 cm of simulated acid rain three times per week for 7 weeks. The major effects of the simulated acid rain were localized at the top of the soil and included lower pH values and glucose mineralization rates, and higher exchangeable Al and total and exchange acidity. The acidity penetrated further in the more acid soils. The mineralization of /sup 14/C-glucose was measured at concentrations of 1.5-54 ..mu..g glucose/g of soil. Glucose mineralization in the test soils (pH values of 4.4-7.1) was inhibited by the continuous exposure to simulated acid rain at pH 3.2 but not a pH 4.1. The extent of inhibition depended on the soil and the initial glucose concentration. Exposure of one soil to 7 weeks of intermittent applications of simulated acid rain at pH 3.2 reduced the mineralization rate at the three glucose concentrations tested. These data suggest that acid rain may have a significant impact on microbial activity.

  15. A Seasonal Nitrogen Mineralization Study as Influenced by Soil Properties and Landscape Position

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    An in situ study was conducted to evaluate N mineralization patterns using three different soil types located in close proximity of each other during the summer and winter months. Three Coastal Plain soils investigated were Bama (Ultisol), Lynchburg (Ultisol) and Goldsboro (Ultisol). Dairy composted...

  16. Soil Property and Landscape Position Effects on Seasonal Nitrogen Mineralization of Composted Dairy Manure

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    To develop better management practices that optimize the amount of N derived from manure, more information is needed regarding the mineralization and dynamics of N under normal field conditions. Thus, an in situ field study, using three different soil types located in close proximity, was conducted ...

  17. Study on the microstructure, mechanical property and residual stress of SLM Inconel-718 alloy manufactured by differing island scanning strategy

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Lu, Yanjin; Wu, Songquan; Gan, Yiliang; Huang, Tingting; Yang, Chuanguang; Junjie, Lin; Lin, Jinxin

    2015-12-01

    Inconel-718 has received an extensive using in mold industry. The selective laser melting (SLM) is providing an ideal means for manufacturing mold insert with complex geometrical features and internal architecture. During the manufacturing of high quality mold inserts with conformal cooling channel, the parameters play a vital role in the SLM process. In the study, the Inconel-718 alloys were manufactured by SLM with 2×2 mm2, 3×3 mm2, 5×5 mm2, and 7×7 mm2 island scanning strategies. The microstructure, mechanical property, and residual stress were investigated by optical microscope, tensile test and Vickers micro-indentation, respectively. It can be found that the relative density increased with enlarging the island size; the results on the microstructure indicated that the cracks and more pores were detected in the 22-specimen; whilst the microstructures of all specimens were composed of fine dendritic grains, cellular, and columnar structures; the tensile testing suggested that the ultimate tensile strength and yield strength of all samples was similar; while the outcome of the residual stress showed that the value of residual stress was ranked in the following sequence: 22-specimen<55-specimen<77-specimen<33-specimen. Although the 22-specimen had lower residual stress compared with the other groups, the occurrence of cracks limited its processing application in SLM. Through integrated into account, the 55-scanning strategy is a promising candidate for manufacturing of mold inserts.

  18. bone mineral densities and mechanical properties of retrieved femoral bone samples in relation to bone mineral densities measured in the respective patients.

    PubMed

    Haba, Yvonne; Skripitz, Ralf; Lindner, Tobias; Köckerling, Martin; Fritsche, Andreas; Mittelmeier, Wolfram; Bader, Rainer

    2012-01-01

    The bone mineral density (BMD) of retrieved cancellous bone samples is compared to the BMD measured in vivo in the respective osteoarthritic patients. Furthermore, mechanical properties, in terms of structural modulus (E(s)) and ultimate compression strength (σ(max)) of the bone samples, are correlated to BMD data. Human femoral heads were retrieved from 13 osteoarthritic patients undergoing total hip replacement. Subsequently, the BMD of each bone sample was analysed using dual energy X-ray absorptiometry (DXA) as well as ashing. Furthermore, BMDs of the proximal femur were analysed preoperatively in the respective patients by DXA. BMDs of the femoral neck and head showed a wide variation, from 1016 ± 166 mg/cm(2) to 1376 ± 404 mg/cm(2). BMDs of the bone samples measured by DXA and ashing yielded values of 315 ± 199 mg/cm(2) and 347 ± 113 mg/cm(3), respectively. E(s) and σ(max) amounted to 232 ± 151 N/mm(2) and 6.4 ± 3.7 N/mm(2). Significant correlation was found between the DXA and ashing data on the bone samples and the DXA data from the patients at the femoral head (r = 0.85 and 0.79, resp.). E(s) correlated significantly with BMD in the patients and bone samples as well as the ashing data (r = 0.79, r = 0.82, and r = 0.8, resp.).

  19. Optical and microphysical properties of mineral dust and biomass burning aerosol observed over Warsaw on 10th July 2013

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Janicka, Lucja; Stachlewska, Iwona; Veselovskii, Igor; Baars, Holger

    2016-04-01

    Biomass burning aerosol originating from Canadian forest fires was widely observed over Europe in July 2013. Favorable weather conditions caused long-term westward flow of smoke from Canada to Western and Central Europe. During this period, PollyXT lidar of the University of Warsaw took wavelength dependent measurements in Warsaw. On July 10th short event of simultaneous advection of Canadian smoke and Saharan dust was observed at different altitudes over Warsaw. Different origination of both air masses was indicated by backward trajectories from HYSPLIT model. Lidar measurements performed with various wavelength (1064, 532, 355 nm), using also Raman and depolarization channels for VIS and UV allowed for distinguishing physical differences of this two types of aerosols. Optical properties acted as input for retrieval of microphysical properties. Comparisons of microphysical and optical properties of biomass burning aerosols and mineral dust observed will be presented.

  20. Properties of thermoplastic composites with cotton and guayule biomass residues as fiber fillers

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    This study was conducted to evaluate the suitability of using residual plant fibers from agricultural waste streams as reinforcement in thermoplastic composites. Three groups of plant fibers evaluated included cotton burrs, sticks, and linters from cotton gin waste (CGW), guayule whole plant, and gu...

  1. Effects of Cryogenic Treatment on the Residual Stress and Mechanical Properties of an Aerospace Aluminum Alloy

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Chen, Po; Malone, Tina; Bod, Robert; Torres, Pablo

    2000-01-01

    Investigators at Marshall Space Flight Center (MSFC) are studying the potential benefits of cryogenic treatment for aerospace Aluminum (Al) alloys. This paper reports the effects of cryogenic treatment on residual stress, tensile strength, hardness, fatigue life, and stress corrosion cracking (SCC) resistance.

  2. Effects of Cryogenic Treatment on the Residual Stress and Mechanical Properties of an Aerospace Aluminum Alloy

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Chen, P.; Malone, T.; Bond, R.; Torres, P.

    2001-01-01

    Investigators at Marshall Space Flight Center (MSFC) are studying the potential benefits of cryogenic treatment for aerospace Aluminum (Al) alloys. This paper reports the effects of cryogenic treatment on residual stress, tensile strength, hardness, fatigue life, and stress corrosion cracking (SCC) resistance.

  3. Synergistic analyses of optical and microphysical properties of agricultural crop residue burning aerosols over the Indo-Gangetic Basin (IGB)

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Mishra, Amit Kumar; Shibata, Takashi

    2012-09-01

    Agriculture crop residue burning is one of the important sources of trace gas emissions and aerosol loading over the Indo-Gangetic Basin (IGB). The present study deals with the spatial variability including the vertical structure of optical and microphysical properties of aerosols, during the crop residue burning season (October and November) of 2009 over the IGB. Increased number of fire counts observed by MODIS (MODerate resolution Imaging Spectroradiometer) that is associated with high aerosol optical depth (MODIS-AOD > 0.7) and enhanced tropospheric columnar NO2 concentrations observed by OMI (Ozone Monitoring Instrument), suggests agriculture crop residue burning as a main source of aerosol loading over the IGB during October and November. PARASOL (Polarization and Anisotropy of Reflectances for Atmospheric Science coupled with Observations from a Lidar) observations show an increase in fine mode AOD (at 865 nm) from October (0.1-0.2) to November (0.2-0.3) over the IGB, which is well corroborated with MODIS observations. CALIOP (Cloud-Aerosol Lidar with Orthogonal Polarization) data shows the elevated aerosol plume (4.0-4.5 km) over the north-west IGB (associated with burning activities) that could have been caused by positive buoyancy through pyro-convection. However, large concentrations of aerosol were found below 1.0 km altitude. The averaged vertical structure of crop residue burning aerosols shows an exponential decrease with altitude (mean scale height ˜1.44 ± 0.20 km). Aerosol optical and microphysical properties coupled with backward air trajectories analyses at Kanpur indicated regional transport of biomass burning aerosols in a downwind direction from north-west IGB to south-east IGB. Aerosol classification, using AERONET (AErosol RObotic NETwork)-derived absorption properties coupled with size parameter (2006-2010) showed clear seasonal dependency of aerosol types which revealed the presence of biomass burning aerosols only during the crop

  4. Ultrasonic method to evaluate the residual properties of thermally damaged sandstone based on time-frequency analysis

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Wang, Peng; Xu, Jin-yu; Liu, Shi

    2015-01-01

    Evaluation of the residual properties of thermally damaged rocks is of vital importance for rock engineering. For this study, uniaxial compression experiments and ultrasonic tests were conducted on sandstone specimens which experienced temperature treatments of different levels, including 25, 100, 200, 400, 600, 800 and 1000°C. Time-frequency analysis methods were applied to evaluate the deformation and strength properties of sandstone after being exposed to high temperature, confirming the effectiveness of the ultrasonic evaluation method. Linear correlations between the peak stress, deformation modulus and the longitudinal wave velocity confirm the effectiveness of ultrasonic time-domain properties in estimating the deformation behaviour of the thermally damaged sandstone. Synchronisation in the change of the peak stress and the kurtosis of frequency spectrum as temperature rises, defined in this paper to describe the spectrum distribution, as well as the centroid frequency, demonstrates the feasibility of ultrasonic frequency-domain properties in estimating the residual strength of the thermally damaged sandstone. The results have certain guiding significance for rock engineering in a high-temperature environment.

  5. Design of 11-Residue Peptides with Unusual Biophysical Properties: Induced Secondary Structure in the Absence of Water☆

    PubMed Central

    Mo, Xiaoqun; Hiromasa, Yasuaki; Warner, Matt; Al-Rawi, Ahlam N.; Iwamoto, Takeo; Rahman, Talat S.; Sun, Xiuzhi; Tomich, John M.

    2008-01-01

    A series of oligopeptides with β-forming and adhesive properties, were synthesized and analyzed for adhesion shear strength, secondary structure, and association properties. The sequences contained related hydrophobic core segments varying in length from 5 to 12 residues and flanked by di- or tri-lysine segments. Three remarkable peptides consisting of just 11 residues with hydrophobic core sequences of FLIVI, IGSII, and IVIGS flanked by three lysine residues gave the highest dry adhesion shear strength and displayed unusual biophysical properties in the presence and absence of water. KKKFLIVIKKK had its highest adhesion strength at 2% (w/v) at pH 12.0 and showed the highest adhesion strength after exposure to water (water resistance). Both KKKIGSIIKKK and KKKIVIGSKKK, at 4% (w/v) at pH 12.0, displayed nearly identical dry shear strength values to that with the FLIVI core sequence. The peptide with IGSII core, however, displayed a lower water resistance and the latter, IVIGS, showed no water resistance, completely delaminating upon soaking in water. These are the smallest peptides with adhesive properties reported to date and show remarkable adhesion strength even at lower concentrations of 0.2% (w/v), which corresponds to 1.6 mM. The FLIVI containing peptide adopted a β-sheet secondary structure in water while the IGSII- and IVIGS-containing sequences folded similarly only in the absence of water. Analytical ultracentrifugation studies showed that when the FLIVI sequence adopts β-structure in aqueous solution, it associates into a large molecular weight assembly. The random coils of IGSII and IVIGS showed no tendency to associate at any pH. PMID:18024497

  6. A Combination of Biochar-Mineral Complexes and Compost Improves Soil Bacterial Processes, Soil Quality, and Plant Properties.

    PubMed

    Ye, Jun; Zhang, Rui; Nielsen, Shaun; Joseph, Stephen D; Huang, Danfeng; Thomas, Torsten

    2016-01-01

    Organic farming avoids the use of synthetic fertilizers and promises food production with minimal environmental impact, however this farming practice does not often result in the same productivity as conventional farming. In recent years, biochar has received increasing attention as an agricultural amendment and by coating it with minerals to form biochar-mineral complex (BMC) carbon retention and nutrient availability can be improved. However, little is known about the potential of BMC in improving organic farming. We therefore investigated here how soil, bacterial and plant properties respond to a combined treatment of BMC and an organic fertilizer, i.e., a compost based on poultry manure. In a pakchoi pot trial, BMC and compost showed synergistic effects on soil properties, and specifically by increasing nitrate content. Soil nitrate has been previously observed to increase leaf size and we correspondingly saw an increase in the surface area of pakchoi leaves under the combined treatment of BMC and composted chicken manure. The increase in soil nitrate was also correlated with an enrichment of bacterial nitrifiers due to BMC. Additionally, we observed that the bacteria present in the compost treatment had a high turnover, which likely facilitated organic matter degradation and a reduction of potential pathogens derived from the manure. Overall our results demonstrate that a combination of BMC and compost can stimulate microbial process in organic farming that result in better vegetable production and improved soil properties for sustainable farming. PMID:27092104

  7. A Combination of Biochar–Mineral Complexes and Compost Improves Soil Bacterial Processes, Soil Quality, and Plant Properties

    PubMed Central

    Ye, Jun; Zhang, Rui; Nielsen, Shaun; Joseph, Stephen D.; Huang, Danfeng; Thomas, Torsten

    2016-01-01

    Organic farming avoids the use of synthetic fertilizers and promises food production with minimal environmental impact, however this farming practice does not often result in the same productivity as conventional farming. In recent years, biochar has received increasing attention as an agricultural amendment and by coating it with minerals to form biochar–mineral complex (BMC) carbon retention and nutrient availability can be improved. However, little is known about the potential of BMC in improving organic farming. We therefore investigated here how soil, bacterial and plant properties respond to a combined treatment of BMC and an organic fertilizer, i.e., a compost based on poultry manure. In a pakchoi pot trial, BMC and compost showed synergistic effects on soil properties, and specifically by increasing nitrate content. Soil nitrate has been previously observed to increase leaf size and we correspondingly saw an increase in the surface area of pakchoi leaves under the combined treatment of BMC and composted chicken manure. The increase in soil nitrate was also correlated with an enrichment of bacterial nitrifiers due to BMC. Additionally, we observed that the bacteria present in the compost treatment had a high turnover, which likely facilitated organic matter degradation and a reduction of potential pathogens derived from the manure. Overall our results demonstrate that a combination of BMC and compost can stimulate microbial process in organic farming that result in better vegetable production and improved soil properties for sustainable farming. PMID:27092104

  8. A Combination of Biochar-Mineral Complexes and Compost Improves Soil Bacterial Processes, Soil Quality, and Plant Properties.

    PubMed

    Ye, Jun; Zhang, Rui; Nielsen, Shaun; Joseph, Stephen D; Huang, Danfeng; Thomas, Torsten

    2016-01-01

    Organic farming avoids the use of synthetic fertilizers and promises food production with minimal environmental impact, however this farming practice does not often result in the same productivity as conventional farming. In recent years, biochar has received increasing attention as an agricultural amendment and by coating it with minerals to form biochar-mineral complex (BMC) carbon retention and nutrient availability can be improved. However, little is known about the potential of BMC in improving organic farming. We therefore investigated here how soil, bacterial and plant properties respond to a combined treatment of BMC and an organic fertilizer, i.e., a compost based on poultry manure. In a pakchoi pot trial, BMC and compost showed synergistic effects on soil properties, and specifically by increasing nitrate content. Soil nitrate has been previously observed to increase leaf size and we correspondingly saw an increase in the surface area of pakchoi leaves under the combined treatment of BMC and composted chicken manure. The increase in soil nitrate was also correlated with an enrichment of bacterial nitrifiers due to BMC. Additionally, we observed that the bacteria present in the compost treatment had a high turnover, which likely facilitated organic matter degradation and a reduction of potential pathogens derived from the manure. Overall our results demonstrate that a combination of BMC and compost can stimulate microbial process in organic farming that result in better vegetable production and improved soil properties for sustainable farming.

  9. Edge Delamination and Residual Properties of Drilled Carbon Fiber Composites with and without Short-Aramid-Fiber Interleaf

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Sun, Zhi; Hu, Xiaozhi; Shi, Shanshan; Guo, Xu; Zhang, Yupeng; Chen, Haoran

    2016-10-01

    Edge delamination is frequently observed in carbon fiber reinforced plastic (CFRP) laminates after machining, due to the low fracture toughness of the resin interfaces between carbon fiber plies. In this study, the effects of incorporating tough aramid fibers into the brittle CFRP system are quantified by measuring the residual properties of bolted CFRP. By adding short-aramid-fiber interleaves in CFRP laminates, the residual tensile strength have been substantially increased by 14 % for twill-weave laminates and 45 % for unidirectional laminates respectively. Moreover, tensile failure was observed as the major mode of toughened laminates, in contrast to shear failure of plain laminates. The qualitative FEM results agreed well with the experimental results that edge delamination would cause relatively higher shear stress and therefore alter the failure mode from tensile failure to shear failure.

  10. Edge Delamination and Residual Properties of Drilled Carbon Fiber Composites with and without Short-Aramid-Fiber Interleaf

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Sun, Zhi; Hu, Xiaozhi; Shi, Shanshan; Guo, Xu; Zhang, Yupeng; Chen, Haoran

    2016-05-01

    Edge delamination is frequently observed in carbon fiber reinforced plastic (CFRP) laminates after machining, due to the low fracture toughness of the resin interfaces between carbon fiber plies. In this study, the effects of incorporating tough aramid fibers into the brittle CFRP system are quantified by measuring the residual properties of bolted CFRP. By adding short-aramid-fiber interleaves in CFRP laminates, the residual tensile strength have been substantially increased by 14 % for twill-weave laminates and 45 % for unidirectional laminates respectively. Moreover, tensile failure was observed as the major mode of toughened laminates, in contrast to shear failure of plain laminates. The qualitative FEM results agreed well with the experimental results that edge delamination would cause relatively higher shear stress and therefore alter the failure mode from tensile failure to shear failure.

  11. Dynamics of linker residues modulate the nucleic acid binding properties of the HIV-1 nucleocapsid protein zinc fingers.

    PubMed

    Zargarian, Loussiné; Tisné, Carine; Barraud, Pierre; Xu, Xiaoqian; Morellet, Nelly; René, Brigitte; Mély, Yves; Fossé, Philippe; Mauffret, Olivier

    2014-01-01

    The HIV-1 nucleocapsid protein (NC) is a small basic protein containing two zinc fingers (ZF) separated by a short linker. It is involved in several steps of the replication cycle and acts as a nucleic acid chaperone protein in facilitating nucleic acid strand transfers occurring during reverse transcription. Recent analysis of three-dimensional structures of NC-nucleic acids complexes established a new property: the unpaired guanines targeted by NC are more often inserted in the C-terminal zinc finger (ZF2) than in the N-terminal zinc finger (ZF1). Although previous NMR dynamic studies were performed with NC, the dynamic behavior of the linker residues connecting the two ZF domains remains unclear. This prompted us to investigate the dynamic behavior of the linker residues. Here, we collected 15N NMR relaxation data and used for the first time data at several fields to probe the protein dynamics. The analysis at two fields allows us to detect a slow motion occurring between the two domains around a hinge located in the linker at the G35 position. However, the amplitude of motion appears limited in our conditions. In addition, we showed that the neighboring linker residues R29, A30, P31, R32, K33 displayed restricted motion and numerous contacts with residues of ZF1. Our results are fully consistent with a model in which the ZF1-linker contacts prevent the ZF1 domain to interact with unpaired guanines, whereas the ZF2 domain is more accessible and competent to interact with unpaired guanines. In contrast, ZF1 with its large hydrophobic plateau is able to destabilize the double-stranded regions adjacent to the guanines bound by ZF2. The linker residues and the internal dynamics of NC regulate therefore the different functions of the two zinc fingers that are required for an optimal chaperone activity.

  12. Some compositional properties and mineral contents of carob (Ceratonia siliqua) fruit, flour and syrup.

    PubMed

    Ozcan, Mehmet Musa; Arslan, Derya; Gökçalik, Harun

    2007-12-01

    The approximate composition and mineral contents of carob fruit (Ceratonia siliqua), and the traditional foods produced from this fruit, carob flour and carob syrup, were studied. Protein, crude fiber and ash content and energy values of carob syrup were lower than the values of both carob fruit and carob flour. According to the results, the total sugar content, the most important constituents of carob products, were 48.35%, 41.55% and 63.88% for fruit, flour and syrup, respectively. These products contained high amounts of calcium, potassium, magnesium, sodium and phosphorus, which were the most abundant elements in carob fruits (P < 0.05). Among the samples, potassium, phosphorus and calcium had the highest values in carob syrup, respectively. Carob flour also contained these elements in high amounts, with the addition of sodium. We extended the notion that carob fruit, flour and syrup were rich sources of carbohydrates, proteins and minerals.

  13. Physicochemical properties of skim milk powders prepared with the addition of mineral chelators.

    PubMed

    Sikand, V; Tong, P S; Vink, Sean; Roy, Soma

    2016-06-01

    The objective of this study was to determine the effect of mineral chelator addition during skim milk powder (SMP) manufacture on the solubility, turbidity, soluble protein, and heat stability (HS). Three chelators (sodium citrate dihydrate, sodium polyphosphate, and disodium EDTA) at 3 different concentrations (5, 15, and 25mM) were added to skim milk concentrate (30% total solids), and the pH was adjusted to 6.65 before spray drying to produce SMP. Spray-dried SMP samples were tested for solubility index (SI). Additionally, samples were reconstituted to contain 9% total solids, adjusted to pH 7.0, and tested for turbidity, protein content from supernatants of ultracentrifuged samples, and HS. Lower SI values were observed for samples treated with 5mM disodium EDTA and sodium polyphosphate than control samples or samples with 5mM sodium citrate dihydrate. Furthermore, lower SI values were observed with an increased level of chelating agents regardless of chelator type. A decreased turbidity value was found with increasing levels of mineral chelating salt treatment. Low turbidity with increasing levels of added chelators may be associated with the dissociation of caseins from micelles. Furthermore, higher protein content was observed in supernatants of ultracentrifuged samples treated with increased level of chelators as compared with the control sample. Higher HS was observed in samples treated with 5mM compared with samples treated with 25mM mineral chelator. The results suggest improved solubility and HS upon addition of mineral chelators to SMP during its manufacture. PMID:27040785

  14. Effect of six-month hypokinesia in dogs on mineral component, reconstruction and mechanical properties of bone tissue

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Volozhin, A. I.; Pavlova, M. P.; Muradov, I. S.; Stupakov, G. P.; Korzhenyants, V. A.

    1980-01-01

    Ca45 incorporation into the bones of the limbs, particularly in the area of the muscle attachment increased in dogs as a result of 6 month hypokinesia. There were no phenomena of osteoporosis in the cortical layer of the diaphyses; however, changes in the form of osteons, an increase in the number of anastomoses between the channels and the thinning of the subperiosteal layer pointed to disturbances of the bone tissue reconstruction. Mineral saturation of the bone microstructures of the experimental dogs had a tendency to rise. No changes in the mechanical properties of the long bones occurred as a result of hypokinesia in dogs.

  15. Lathyrism-induced alterations in collagen cross-links influence the mechanical properties of bone material without affecting the mineral

    PubMed Central

    Paschalis, E.P.; Tatakis, D.N.; Robins, S.; Fratzl, P.; Manjubala, I.; Zoehrer, R.; Gamsjaeger, S.; Buchinger, B.; Roschger, A.; Phipps, R.; Boskey, A.L.; Dall'Ara, E.; Varga, P.; Zysset, P.; Klaushofer, K.; Roschger, P.

    2011-01-01

    In the present study a rat animal model of lathyrism was employed to decipher whether anatomically confined alterations in collagen cross-links are sufficient to influence the mechanical properties of whole bone. Animal experiments were performed under an ethics committee approved protocol. Sixty-four female (47 day old) rats of equivalent weights were divided into four groups (16 per group): Controls were fed a semi-synthetic diet containing 0.6% calcium and 0.6% phosphorus for 2 or 4 weeks and β-APN treated animals were fed additionally with β-aminopropionitrile (0.1% dry weight). At the end of this period the rats in the four groups were sacrificed, and L2–L6 vertebra were collected. Collagen cross-links were determined by both biochemical and spectroscopic (Fourier transform infrared imaging (FTIRI)) analyses. Mineral content and distribution (BMDD) were determined by quantitative backscattered electron imaging (qBEI), and mineral maturity/crystallinity by FTIRI techniques. Micro-CT was used to describe the architectural properties. Mechanical performance of whole bone as well as of bone matrix material was tested by vertebral compression tests and by nano-indentation, respectively. The data of the present study indicate that β-APN treatment changed whole vertebra properties compared to non-treated rats, including collagen cross-links pattern, trabecular bone volume to tissue ratio and trabecular thickness, which were all decreased (p < 0.05). Further, compression tests revealed a significant negative impact of β-APN treatment on maximal force to failure and energy to failure, while stiffness was not influenced. Bone mineral density distribution (BMDD) was not altered either. At the material level, β-APN treated rats exhibited increased Pyd/Divalent cross-link ratios in areas confined to a newly formed bone. Moreover, nano-indentation experiments showed that the E-modulus and hardness were reduced only in newly formed bone areas under the influence

  16. Variable contributions of tyrosine residues to the structural and spectroscopic properties of the factor for inversion stimulation.

    PubMed

    Boswell, Sarah; Mathew, John; Beach, Michael; Osuna, Robert; Colón, Wilfredo

    2004-03-16

    The diverse roles of tyrosine residues in proteins may be attributed to their dual hydrophobic and polar nature, which can result in hydrophobic and ring stacking interactions, as well as hydrogen bonding. The small homodimeric DNA binding protein, factor for inversion stimulation (FIS), contains four tyrosine residues located at positions 38, 51, 69, and 95, each involved in specific intra- or intermolecular interactions. To investigate their contributions to the stability, flexibility, and spectroscopic properties of FIS, each one was independently mutated to phenylalanine. Equilibrium denaturation experiments show that Tyr95 and Tyr51 stabilize FIS by about 2 and 1 kcal/mol, respectively, as a result of their involvement in a hydrogen bond-salt bridge network. In contrast, Tyr38 destabilizes FIS by about 1 kcal/mol due to the placement of a hydroxyl group in a hydrophobic environment. The stability of FIS was not altered when the solvent-exposed Tyr69 was mutated. Limited proteolysis with trypsin and V8 proteases was used to monitor the flexibility of the C-terminus (residues 71-98) and the dimer core (residues 26-70), respectively. The results for Y95F and Y51F FIS revealed a different proteolytic susceptibility of the dimer core compared to the C-terminus, suggesting an increased flexibility of the latter. DNA binding affinity of the various FIS mutants was only modestly affected and correlated inversely with the C-terminal flexibility probed by trypsin proteolysis. Deconvolution of the fluorescence contribution of each mutant revealed that it varies in intensity and direction for each tyrosine in WT FIS, highlighting the role of specific interactions and the local environment in determining the fluorescence of tyrosine residues. The significant changes in stability, flexibility, and signals observed for the Y51F and Y95F mutations are attributed to their coupled participation in the hydrogen bond-salt bridge network. These results highlight the importance of

  17. The influence of residual water on the solid-state properties of freeze-dried fibrinogen.

    PubMed

    Wahl, Verena; Leitgeb, Stefan; Laggner, Peter; Pichler, Harald; Liebminger, Andreas; Khinast, Johannes

    2015-04-01

    The purpose of this work was to investigate the influence of residual water in freeze-dried protein powders on the dissolution behavior of the solid-state proteins. To that end, six freeze-dried fibrinogen powder lots were stored at four levels of relative humidity and analyzed with regard to the particle size and shape, the specific surface area, the solid state of protein and the inner surface. Furthermore, the dissolution behavior of the powders was investigated. We clearly identified differences in the specific surface area, specific inner surface area, crystallinity, particle size and shape, which we were able to correlate to the dissolution behavior. These differences were triggered due to the different levels of residual moisture during two weeks of storage. Thus, we were able to show that the storage conditions have significant impact on the processing of pharmaceutical protein materials.

  18. Optical properties of mineral dust aerosol including analysis of particle size, composition, and shape effects, and the impact of physical and chemical processing

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Alexander, Jennifer Mary

    Atmospheric mineral dust has a large impact on the earth's radiation balance and climate. The radiative effects of mineral dust depend on factors including, particle size, shape, and composition which can all be extremely complex. Mineral dust particles are typically irregular in shape and can include sharp edges, voids, and fine scale surface roughness. Particle shape can also depend on the type of mineral and can vary as a function of particle size. In addition, atmospheric mineral dust is a complex mixture of different minerals as well as other, possibly organic, components that have been mixed in while these particles are suspended in the atmosphere. Aerosol optical properties are investigated in this work, including studies of the effect of particle size, shape, and composition on the infrared (IR) extinction and visible scattering properties in order to achieve more accurate modeling methods. Studies of particle shape effects on dust optical properties for single component mineral samples of silicate clay and diatomaceous earth are carried out here first. Experimental measurements are modeled using T-matrix theory in a uniform spheroid approximation. Previous efforts to simulate the measured optical properties of silicate clay, using models that assumed particle shape was independent of particle size, have achieved only limited success. However, a model which accounts for a correlation between particle size and shape for the silicate clays offers a large improvement over earlier modeling approaches. Diatomaceous earth is also studied as an example of a single component mineral dust aerosol with extreme particle shapes. A particle shape distribution, determined by fitting the experimental IR extinction data, used as a basis for modeling the visible light scattering properties. While the visible simulations show only modestly good agreement with the scattering data, the fits are generally better than those obtained using more commonly invoked particle shape

  19. Redox properties of structural Fe in clay minerals. 1. Electrochemical quantification of electron-donating and -accepting capacities of smectites.

    PubMed

    Gorski, Christopher A; Aeschbacher, Michael; Soltermann, Daniela; Voegelin, Andreas; Baeyens, Bart; Marques Fernandes, Maria; Hofstetter, Thomas B; Sander, Michael

    2012-09-01

    Clay minerals often contain redox-active structural iron that participates in electron transfer reactions with environmental pollutants, bacteria, and biological nutrients. Measuring the redox properties of structural Fe in clay minerals using electrochemical approaches, however, has proven to be difficult due to a lack of reactivity between clay minerals and electrodes. Here, we overcome this limitation by using one-electron-transfer mediating compounds to facilitate electron transfer between structural Fe in clay minerals and a vitreous carbon working electrode in an electrochemical cell. Using this approach, the electron-accepting and -donating capacities (Q(EAC) and Q(EDC)) were quantified at applied potentials (E(H)) of -0.60 V and +0.61 V (vs SHE), respectively, for four natural Fe-bearing smectites (i.e., SWa-1, SWy-2, NAu-1, and NAu-2) having different total Fe contents (Fe(total) = 2.3 to 21.2 wt % Fe) and varied initial Fe(2+)/Fe(total) states. For every SWa-1 and SWy-2 sample, all the structural Fe was redox-active over the tested E(H) range, demonstrating reliable quantification of Fe content and redox state. Yet for NAu-1 and NAu-2, a significant fraction of the structural Fe was redox-inactive, which was attributed to Fe-rich smectites requiring more extreme E(H)-values to achieve complete Fe reduction and/or oxidation. The Q(EAC) and Q(EDC) values provided here can be used as benchmarks in future studies examining the extent of reduction and oxidation of Fe-bearing smectites.

  20. Not all feldspars are equal: a survey of ice nucleating properties across the feldspar group of minerals

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Harrison, Alexander D.; Whale, Thomas F.; Carpenter, Michael A.; Holden, Mark A.; Neve, Lesley; O'Sullivan, Daniel; Vergara Temprado, Jesus; Murray, Benjamin J.

    2016-09-01

    Mineral dust particles from wind-blown soils are known to act as effective ice nucleating particles in the atmosphere and are thought to play an important role in the glaciation of mixed phase clouds. Recent work suggests that feldspars are the most efficient nucleators of the minerals commonly present in atmospheric mineral dust. However, the feldspar group of minerals is complex, encompassing a range of chemical compositions and crystal structures. To further investigate the ice-nucleating properties of the feldspar group we measured the ice nucleation activities of 15 characterized feldspar samples. We show that alkali feldspars, in particular the potassium feldspars, generally nucleate ice more efficiently than feldspars in the plagioclase series which contain significant amounts of calcium. We also find that there is variability in ice nucleating ability within these groups. While five out of six potassium-rich feldspars have a similar ice nucleating ability, one potassium rich feldspar sample and one sodium-rich feldspar sample were significantly more active. The hyper-active Na-feldspar was found to lose activity with time suspended in water with a decrease in mean freezing temperature of about 16 °C over 16 months; the mean freezing temperature of the hyper-active K-feldspar decreased by 2 °C over 16 months, whereas the "standard" K-feldspar did not change activity within the uncertainty of the experiment. These results, in combination with a review of the available literature data, are consistent with the previous findings that potassium feldspars are important components of arid or fertile soil dusts for ice nucleation. However, we also show that there is the possibility that some alkali feldspars may have enhanced ice nucleating abilities, which could have implications for prediction of ice nucleating particle concentrations in the atmosphere.

  1. Correction methods of medicinal properties of mineral waters in Pyatigorsk resort

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Reps, Valentina; Potapov, Evgeniy; Abramtsova, Anna; Kotova, Margarita

    2016-04-01

    Mineral Water (MW) of Pyatigorsk deposit (PD) is united in five genetic groups (operational stocks of 2809,8 m3/day): carbonic and hydrosulphuric, carbonic, carbonic chloride-hydrocarbonate sodium (salt and alkaline), radonic low carbonate, nitrogen-carbonic terms. A variety of MW types is explained by peculiarities of geological structure and hydrogeological conditions of PD. Here on the sites of the development of deep semi-ring splits there are overflows and a mixture of various complexes. Unloading of deep water strikes happens not only on the earth surface in the form of springs but also at the depth in its edging crumbling rocks of Palaeocene and quarternary deposits. As a result of mixture processes of water and its subsequent metamorphization, various types of mineral water of this deposit are formed. Pyatigorsk resort is in a special protected ecologo-resort region which mode allows to keep stability of structure and ecological purity of MW. Nevertheless, MW variability, compositional differences and MW mineralization determining the level of its biological effect demand studying of action mechanisms of both natural MW, and possibility of its modification for range expansion of rehabilitation action. There have been examined biological effects of the course drinking reception In experiment on 80 rats males of the Wistar line biological effects of the course drinking reception of two MW types: "Krasnoarmeyskaya new" (MW1) of sulphate-hydrocarbonate-chloride calcium-sodium structure with the raised contents of iron (3-5 mg/dm3), mineralization of 5,0-5,2 g/dm3, CO2 of 1,3-2,2 g/dm3, daily flow of 10-86 m3/day, temperature from 14 to 370C on the mouth of the well and spring №2 (MW2) low sulphate, low carbonate sulphate-hydrocarbonate-chloride calcium-sodium, mineralization of 5,0 g/l, CO2 of 0,7 g/dm3, H2 of S 0,01 g/dm3. There has been shown an ability of the drinking course MW1 to influence on endocrine and metabolic continium - cortisol level increased

  2. 36 CFR 293.14 - Mineral leases and mineral permits.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-07-01

    ... 36 Parks, Forests, and Public Property 2 2014-07-01 2014-07-01 false Mineral leases and mineral... AGRICULTURE WILDERNESS-PRIMITIVE AREAS § 293.14 Mineral leases and mineral permits. (a) All laws pertaining to mineral leasing shall extend to each National Forest Wilderness for the period specified in the...

  3. 36 CFR 293.14 - Mineral leases and mineral permits.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-07-01

    ... 36 Parks, Forests, and Public Property 2 2010-07-01 2010-07-01 false Mineral leases and mineral... AGRICULTURE WILDERNESS-PRIMITIVE AREAS § 293.14 Mineral leases and mineral permits. (a) All laws pertaining to mineral leasing shall extend to each National Forest Wilderness for the period specified in the...

  4. 36 CFR 293.14 - Mineral leases and mineral permits.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-07-01

    ... 36 Parks, Forests, and Public Property 2 2012-07-01 2012-07-01 false Mineral leases and mineral... AGRICULTURE WILDERNESS-PRIMITIVE AREAS § 293.14 Mineral leases and mineral permits. (a) All laws pertaining to mineral leasing shall extend to each National Forest Wilderness for the period specified in the...

  5. 36 CFR 293.14 - Mineral leases and mineral permits.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-07-01

    ... 36 Parks, Forests, and Public Property 2 2011-07-01 2011-07-01 false Mineral leases and mineral... AGRICULTURE WILDERNESS-PRIMITIVE AREAS § 293.14 Mineral leases and mineral permits. (a) All laws pertaining to mineral leasing shall extend to each National Forest Wilderness for the period specified in the...

  6. 36 CFR 293.14 - Mineral leases and mineral permits.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-07-01

    ... 36 Parks, Forests, and Public Property 2 2013-07-01 2013-07-01 false Mineral leases and mineral... AGRICULTURE WILDERNESS-PRIMITIVE AREAS § 293.14 Mineral leases and mineral permits. (a) All laws pertaining to mineral leasing shall extend to each National Forest Wilderness for the period specified in the...

  7. Prediction of hydrodynamic and other solution properties of rigid proteins from atomic- and residue-level models.

    PubMed

    Ortega, A; Amorós, D; García de la Torre, J

    2011-08-17

    Here we extend the ability to predict hydrodynamic coefficients and other solution properties of rigid macromolecular structures from atomic-level structures, implemented in the computer program HYDROPRO, to models with lower, residue-level resolution. Whereas in the former case there is one bead per nonhydrogen atom, the latter contains one bead per amino acid (or nucleotide) residue, thus allowing calculations when atomic resolution is not available or coarse-grained models are preferred. We parameterized the effective hydrodynamic radius of the elements in the atomic- and residue-level models using a very large set of experimental data for translational and rotational coefficients (intrinsic viscosity and radius of gyration) for >50 proteins. We also extended the calculations to very large proteins and macromolecular complexes, such as the whole 70S ribosome. We show that with proper parameterization, the two levels of resolution yield similar and rather good agreement with experimental data. The new version of HYDROPRO, in addition to considering various computational and modeling schemes, is far more efficient computationally and can be handled with the use of a graphical interface.

  8. Utilization of steel, pulp and paper industry solid residues in forest soil amendment: relevant physicochemical properties and heavy metal availability.

    PubMed

    Mäkelä, Mikko; Watkins, Gary; Pöykiö, Risto; Nurmesniemi, Hannu; Dahl, Olli

    2012-03-15

    Industrial residue application to soil was investigated by integrating granulated blast furnace or converter steel slag with residues from the pulp and paper industry in various formulations. Specimen analysis included relevant physicochemical properties, total element concentrations (HCl+HNO3 digestion, USEPA 3051) and chemical speciation of chosen heavy metals (CH3COOH, NH2OH·HCl and H2O2+H2O2+CH3COONH4, the BCR method). Produced matrices showed liming effects comparable to commercial ground limestone and included significant quantities of soluble vital nutrients. The use of converter steel slag, however, led to significant increases in the total concentrations of Cr and V. Subsequently, total Cr was attested to occur as Cr(III) by Na2CO3+NaOH digestion followed by IC UV/VIS-PCR (USEPA 3060A). Additionally, 80.6% of the total concentration of Cr (370 mg kg(-1), d.w.) occurred in the residual fraction. However, 46.0% of the total concentration of V (2470 mg kg(-1), d.w.) occurred in the easily reduced fraction indicating potential bioavailability.

  9. Understanding the chemical properties of macerals and minerals in coal and its potential application for occupational lung disease prevention.

    PubMed

    Huang, Xi; Finkelman, Robert B

    2008-01-01

    Recent increases in oil price further strengthen the argument that coal and coal products will play an increasingly important role in fulfilling the energy needs of our society. Coal is an aggregate of heterogeneous substances composed of organic (macerals) and inorganic (minerals) materials. The objective of this review was to assess whether some chemical parameters in coal play a role in producing environmental health problems. Basic properties of coal--such as chemical forms of the organic materials, structure, compositions of minerals--vary from one coal mine region to another as well as from coals of different ranks. Most importantly, changes in chemical properties of coals due to exposure to air and humidity after mining--a dynamic process--significantly affect toxicity attributed to coal and environmental fate. Although coal is an extremely complex and heterogeneous material, the fundamental properties of coal responsible for environmental and adverse health problems are probably related to the same inducing components of coal. For instance, oxidation of pyrite (FeS2) in the coal forms iron sulfate and sulfuric acid, which produces occupational lung diseases (e.g., pneumoconiosis) and other environmental problems (e.g., acid mine drainage and acid rain). Calcite (CaCO3) contained in certain coals alters the end products of pyrite oxidation, which may make these coals less toxic to human inhalation and less hazardous to environmental pollution. Finally, knowledge gained on understanding of the chemical properties of coals is illustrated to apply for prediction of toxicity due to coal possibly before large-scale mining and prevention of occupational lung disease during mining.

  10. Effect of organic matter properties, clay mineral type and thermal maturity on gas adsorption in organic-rich shale systems

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Zhang, Tongwei; Ellis, Geoffrey S.; Ruppel, Stephen C.; Milliken, Kitty; Lewan, Mike; Sun, Xun; Baez, Luis; Beeney, Ken; Sonnenberg, Steve

    2013-01-01

    A series of CH4 adsorption experiments on natural organic-rich shales, isolated kerogen, clay-rich rocks, and artificially matured Woodford Shale samples were conducted under dry conditions. Our results indicate that physisorption is a dominant process for CH4 sorption, both on organic-rich shales and clay minerals. The Brunauer–Emmett–Teller (BET) surface area of the investigated samples is linearly correlated with the CH4 sorption capacity in both organic-rich shales and clay-rich rocks. The presence of organic matter is a primary control on gas adsorption in shale-gas systems, and the gas-sorption capacity is determined by total organic carbon (TOC) content, organic-matter type, and thermal maturity. A large number of nanopores, in the 2–50 nm size range, were created during organic-matter thermal decomposition, and they significantly contributed to the surface area. Consequently, methane-sorption capacity increases with increasing thermal maturity due to the presence of nanopores produced during organic-matter decomposition. Furthermore, CH4 sorption on clay minerals is mainly controlled by the type of clay mineral present. In terms of relative CH4 sorption capacity: montmorillonite ≫ illite – smectite mixed layer > kaolinite > chlorite > illite. The effect of rock properties (organic matter content, type, maturity, and clay minerals) on CH4 adsorption can be quantified with the heat of adsorption and the standard entropy, which are determined from adsorption isotherms at different temperatures. For clay-mineral rich rocks, the heat of adsorption (q) ranges from 9.4 to 16.6 kJ/mol. These values are considerably smaller than those for CH4 adsorption on kerogen (21.9–28 kJ/mol) and organic-rich shales (15.1–18.4 kJ/mol). The standard entropy (Δs°) ranges from -64.8 to -79.5 J/mol/K for clay minerals, -68.1 to -111.3 J/mol/K for kerogen, and -76.0 to -84.6 J/mol/K for organic-rich shales. The affinity of CH4 molecules for sorption on organic matter

  11. Influence of Surface Properties and Impact Conditions on Insect Residue Adhesion

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Wohl, Christopher J.; Doss, Jereme R.; Shanahan, Michelle H.; Smith, Joseph G., Jr.; Penner, Ronald K.; Connell, John W.; Siochi, Emilie J.

    2015-01-01

    Airflow over airfoils used on current commercial aircraft transitions from laminar to turbulent at relatively low chord positions. As a result, drag increases, requiring more thrust to maintain flight. An airfoil with increased laminar flow would experience reduced drag and a lower fuel burn rate. One of the objectives of NASA's Environmentally Responsible Aviation project is to identify and demonstrate technologies that will enable more environmentally friendly commercial aircraft. While more aerodynamically efficient airfoil shapes can be designed, surface contamination from ice, dirt, pollen, runway debris, and insect residue can degrade performance.

  12. CO2 sequestration in feldspar-rich sandstone: Coupled evolution of fluid chemistry, mineral reaction rates, and hydrogeochemical properties

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Tutolo, Benjamin M.; Luhmann, Andrew J.; Kong, Xiang-Zhao; Saar, Martin O.; Seyfried, William E.

    2015-07-01

    To investigate CO2 Capture, Utilization, and Storage (CCUS) in sandstones, we performed three 150 °C flow-through experiments on K-feldspar-rich cores from the Eau Claire formation. By characterizing fluid and solid samples from these experiments using a suite of analytical techniques, we explored the coupled evolution of fluid chemistry, mineral reaction rates, and hydrogeochemical properties during CO2 sequestration in feldspar-rich sandstone. Overall, our results confirm predictions that the heightened acidity resulting from supercritical CO2 injection into feldspar-rich sandstone will dissolve primary feldspars and precipitate secondary aluminum minerals. A core through which CO2-rich deionized water was recycled for 52 days decreased in bulk permeability, exhibited generally low porosity associated with high surface area in post-experiment core sub-samples, and produced an Al hydroxide secondary mineral, such as boehmite. However, two samples subjected to ∼3 day single-pass experiments run with CO2-rich, 0.94 mol/kg NaCl brines decreased in bulk permeability, showed generally elevated porosity associated with elevated surface area in post-experiment core sub-samples, and produced a phase with kaolinite-like stoichiometry. CO2-induced metal mobilization during the experiments was relatively minor and likely related to Ca mineral dissolution. Based on the relatively rapid approach to equilibrium, the relatively slow near-equilibrium reaction rates, and the minor magnitudes of permeability changes in these experiments, we conclude that CCUS systems with projected lifetimes of several decades are geochemically feasible in the feldspar-rich sandstone end-member examined here. Additionally, the observation that K-feldspar dissolution rates calculated from our whole-rock experiments are in good agreement with literature parameterizations suggests that the latter can be utilized to model CCUS in K-feldspar-rich sandstone. Finally, by performing a number of reactive

  13. Effect of oxygen and associated residual stresses on the mechanical properties of high growth rate Czochralski silicon

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Youssef, Khaled; Shi, Meirong; Radue, Chantelle; Good, Ethan; Rozgonyi, George

    2013-04-01

    The mechanical properties of Czochralski silicon (Cz-Si) crystals grown in vacancy rich regimes with elevated axial oxygen concentrations ranging from ˜6 × 1017 to ˜12 × 1017 atoms/cm3 have been investigated using nano- and micro-indentation techniques. Both hardness and fracture toughness were found to decrease with increasing oxygen concentration, while major differences in mechanical properties were found between the central core and the edge of the high oxygen concentration wafers. Photoluminescence imaging and Nomarski optical microscopy of high-oxygen wafers revealed the presence of a ring and swirl-like distributions of micro defects, including oxidation induced stacking faults. Micro-Raman analysis was used to measure local residual stress profiles associated with these characteristic defects. These results provide a quantitative understanding of the influence of the oxygen content and the associated defects resulting from the sub-optimal growth regimes within the Cz-Si process.

  14. Effect of Laser Shock Peening on surface properties and residual stress of Al6061-T6

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Salimianrizi, A.; Foroozmehr, E.; Badrossamay, M.; Farrokhpour, H.

    2016-02-01

    The purpose of this study is to investigate the effects of Laser Shock Peening (LSP) on Al 6061-T6. The confined LSP regime using Nd: YAG laser with 1200 mJ of energy per pulse and 8 ns of pulse width were applied. The treated specimens were evaluated by means of surface integrity with optical microscopy, scanning electron microscope, microhardness, surface roughness and induced residual stress using an X-ray diffraction method. Results showed that by the use of LSP, compressive residual stress could effectively be induced on the surface of treated material. It was also revealed that the hardened depth of the material, up to a maximum depth of 1875 μm, could be achieved due to work hardening and grain refinement. In addition, surface roughness measurements showed that the LSP could deteriorate surface quality depending on the LSP parameters. The influences of beam overlap rates, number of laser shots and scanning pattern on microhardness as well as surface roughness are discussed.

  15. Magnetic Properties, Processes and Minerals in Crustal Rocks of the Terrestrial Planets and Their Satellites

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Dunlop, D. J.

    2009-05-01

    Earth is unique in having active plate tectonics which continually renews the crust. Deeply eroded ancient crust survives in Precambrian shields but retains little evidence of impact cratering. Continental plutonic rocks owe most of their magnetic signal to magnetite or hemoilmenite, whose potentially strong TRM and susceptibility give rise to both remanent and induced magnetic anomalies. Mafic gneisses and granulites of the middle and lower crust are also probable magnetic anomaly sources. High temperatures enhance the magnetite viscous induced signal but degrade the TRM through thermoviscous demagnetization. Hematite and iron oxyhydroxides are ubiquitous at Earths surface but their magnetic signals are overwhelmed by those of magnetite, whose spontaneous magnetization Ms is two orders of magnitude larger. The primary magnetic minerals of the oceanic crust are Ti-rich titanomagnetites with Ms values about 1/4 that of magnetite. They become more magnetic with phase-splitting to magnetite + ilmenite but less magnetic when altered by seawater to titanomaghemites. The Curie point isotherm of titanomagnetite is shallow, so that oceanic magnetic anomalies have predominantly near-surface remanent sources. Mars and other terrestrial planets have much smaller fields than Earths: their anomaly sources are entirely remanent. The very large anomalies in parts of the southern highlands crust of Mars suggest a deep Curie point isotherm, a high-Ms mineral, single-domain structure (associated with fine grain size) and perhaps also an unusual abundance of magnetic material. Fe-rich titanomagnetites fit the bill in all respects and form in abundance in synthesized basalts of Martian crustal composition. Large impact craters on both Mars and the Moon have low magnetic expression, probably due to shock demagnetization and/or randomization of remanence vectors. Iron-nickel minerals like kamacite and tetrataenite dominate in lunar rocks and meteorites. In most grain sizes they are

  16. SPECTROSCOPIC PROPERTIES OF STAR-FORMING HOST GALAXIES AND TYPE Ia SUPERNOVA HUBBLE RESIDUALS IN A NEARLY UNBIASED SAMPLE

    SciTech Connect

    D'Andrea, Chris B.; Gupta, Ravi R.; Sako, Masao; Morris, Matt; Nichol, Robert C.; Campbell, Heather; Lampeitl, Hubert; Brown, Peter J.; Olmstead, Matthew D.; Frieman, Joshua A.; Kessler, Richard; Garnavich, Peter; Jha, Saurabh W.; Marriner, John; Schneider, Donald P.; Smith, Mathew

    2011-12-20

    We examine the correlation between supernova (SN) host-galaxy properties and their residuals in the Hubble diagram. We use SNe discovered during the Sloan Digital Sky Survey-II Supernova Survey, and focus on objects at a redshift of z < 0.15, where the selection effects of the survey are known to yield a complete Type Ia supernova (SN Ia) sample. To minimize the bias in our analysis with respect to measured host-galaxy properties, spectra were obtained for nearly all hosts, spanning a range in magnitude of -23 < M{sub r} < -17. In contrast to previous works that use photometric estimates of host mass as a proxy for global metallicity, we analyze host-galaxy spectra to obtain gas-phase metallicities and star formation rates (SFRs) from host galaxies with active star formation. From a final sample of {approx}40 emission-line galaxies, we find that light-curve-corrected SNe Ia are {approx}0.1 mag brighter in high-metallicity hosts than in low-metallicity hosts. We also find a significant (>3{sigma}) correlation between the Hubble Residuals of SNe Ia and the specific SFR of the host galaxy. We comment on the importance of SN/host-galaxy correlations as a source of systematic bias in future deep SN surveys.

  17. Spectroscopic Properties of Star-Forming Host Galaxies and Type Ia Supernova Hubble Residuals in a Nearly Unbiased Sample

    SciTech Connect

    D'Andrea, Chris B.; et al.

    2011-12-20

    We examine the correlation between supernova host galaxy properties and their residuals on the Hubble diagram. We use supernovae discovered during the Sloan Digital Sky Survey II - Supernova Survey, and focus on objects at a redshift of z < 0.15, where the selection effects of the survey are known to yield a complete Type Ia supernova sample. To minimize the bias in our analysis with respect to measured host-galaxy properties, spectra were obtained for nearly all hosts, spanning a range in magnitude of -23 < M_r < -17. In contrast to previous works that use photometric estimates of host mass as a proxy for global metallicity, we analyze host-galaxy spectra to obtain gas-phase metallicities and star-formation rates from host galaxies with active star formation. From a final sample of ~ 40 emission-line galaxies, we find that light-curve corrected Type Ia supernovae are ~ 0.1 magnitudes brighter in high-metallicity hosts than in low-metallicity hosts. We also find a significant (> 3{\\sigma}) correlation between the Hubble residuals of Type Ia supernovae and the specific star-formation rate of the host galaxy. We comment on the importance of supernova/host-galaxy correlations as a source of systematic bias in future deep supernova surveys.

  18. Effects of high-temperature annealing on ESR properties of solid solutions of garnet minerals

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Gundu Rao, T. K.; Cano, Nilo F.; Chubaci, Jose F. D.; Watanabe, S.

    2016-04-01

    A garnet (G7) silicate mineral belonging to pyralspite subgroup was studied using the technique of electron spin resonance (ESR). This study shows that iron is present in G7 as isolated species as well as species coupled by dipolar interactions. The ESR data shows a gradual increase of cluster of Fe3+ ions accompanied by decrease of dipolar interactions and increase of possible exchange interactions at high temperature. The Fe2+→Fe3+ oxidation process occurs in the garnets as a function of annealing temperature. Thermoluminescence (TL) peaks at approximately 190 and 340 °C are observed in the irradiated G7 garnet. Investigations using the technique of ESR were carried out to identify the centers involved in the TL process.

  19. Understanding the chemical properties of macerals and minerals in coal and its potential application for occupational lung disease prevention

    SciTech Connect

    Huang, X.; Finkelman, R.B.

    2008-07-01

    The objective of this review was to assess whether some chemical parameters in coal play a role in producing environmental health problems. Basic properties of coal - such as chemical forms of the organic materials, structure, compositions of minerals - vary from one coal mine region to another as well as from coals of different ranks. Most importantly, changes in chemical properties of coals due to exposure to air and humidity after mining - a dynamic process - significantly affect toxicity attributed to coal and environmental fate. Although coal is an extremely complex and heterogeneous material, the fundamental properties of coal responsible for environmental and adverse health problems are probably related to the same inducing components of coal. For instance, oxidation of pyrite (FeS{sub 2}) in the coal forms iron sulfate and sulfuric acid, which produces occupational lung diseases (e.g., pneumoconiosis) and other environmental problems (e.g., acid mine drainage and acid rain). Calcite (CaCO{sub 3}) contained in certain coals alters the end products of pyrite oxidation, which may make these coals less toxic to human inhalation and less hazardous to environmental pollution. Finally, knowledge gained on understanding of the chemical properties of coals is illustrated to apply for prediction of toxicity due to coal possibly before large-scale mining and prevention of occupational lung disease during mining.

  20. Transport properties of interfacial Si-rich layers formed on silicate minerals during weathering: Implications for environmental concerns

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Daval, Damien; Rémusat, Laurent; Bernard, Sylvain; Wild, Bastien; Micha, Jean-Sébastien; Rieutord, François; Fernandez-Martinez, Alejandro

    2015-04-01

    The dissolution of silicate minerals is of primary importance for various processes ranging from chemical weathering to CO2 sequestration. Whether it determines the rates of soil formation, CO2 uptake and its impact on climate change, channeling caused by hydrothermal circulation in reservoirs of geothermal power plants, durability of radioactive waste confinement glasses or geological sequestration of CO2, the same strategy is commonly applied for determining the long term evolution of fluid-rock interactions. This strategy relies on a bottom-up approach, where the kinetic rate laws governing silicate mineral dissolution are determined from laboratory experiments. However, a long-standing problem regarding this approach stems from the observation that laboratory-derived dissolution rates overestimate their field counterparts by orders of magnitude, casting doubt on the accuracy and relevance of predictions based on reactive-transport simulations. Recently [1], it has been suggested that taking into account the formation of amorphous Si-rich surface layers (ASSL) as a consequence of mineral dissolution may contribute to decrease the large gap existing between laboratory and natural rates. Our ongoing study is aimed at deciphering the extent to which ASSL may represent a protective entity which affects the dissolution rate of the underlying minerals, both physically (passivation) and chemically (by promoting the formation of a local chemical medium which significantly differs from that of the bulk solution). Our strategy relies on the nm-scale measurement of the physicochemical properties (diffusivity, thickness and density) of ASSL formed on cleavages of a model mineral (wollastonite) and their evolution as a function of reaction progress. Our preliminary results indicate that the diffusivity of nm-thick ASSL formed on wollastonite surface is ~1,000,000 times smaller than that reported for an aqueous medium, as estimated from the monitoring of the progression of a

  1. How to improve fertility of African soils? Leguminous fallows (Cameroon), addition of farmyard manure and mineral fertilizer (Kenya), organic residues management and introduction of N2 fixing species in forest plantations (Congo).

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Koutika, Lydie-Stella; Mareschal, Louis; Mouanda, Cadeau; Epron, Daniel

    2014-05-01

    Most of African soils are inherently infertile and poor in nutrients mainly nitrogen and phosphorus. Several practices are used to improve soil fertility, increase productivity and ensure their sustainability. Soil fertility in the leguminous fallows was evaluated through particulate organic matter (POM), the more active part of soil organic matter (SOM) in Cameroon. The combination of mineral and organic (manure) fertilizers increased microbial P biomass allowing the release of P along the plant growing period in the Kenyan soils. Organic residues management and introduction of nitrogen fixing species (Acacia) were used to improve soil fertility and sustain forest productivity on the coastal plains of Congo. SOM fractionation was made under Pueraria, Mucuna fallows and natural regrowth mainly Chromolaena and under 3 forest plantation treatments installed in previous savanna: 1) no input, 2) normal input, and 3) double input of organic residues. Microbial P biomass and sequential P fractionation were evaluated in high and low P fixing soils. N, C, available P and pH were determined on soil sampled in acacia (100A), eucalypt (100E) and mixed-species (50A:50E) stands. N and P were determined in aboveground litters and in leaves, bark and wood of trees. The two leguminous fallows increased N content in POM fractions i.e., N >1% for Pueraria and Mucuna against N<1% for natural regrowth in the 0-0.10m depth, probably through N input from N2 fixation from the atmosphere (Cameroon).The addition of mineral fertilizers and farmyard manure increases P biomass (4.8 after 2 weeks to 15.2 after 16 weeks), and then decreased to 9.7 mg P g-1 soil (week 32). It also changes the P Hedley fractions partition in the high P fixing Kenyan soil (0-0.10m). After two rotations (14 years), SOM mineralization was the highest in the double input of organic residues treatment (low coarse POM 5.6 g kg-1 of soil and high organo-mineral fraction (OMF) 115 g kg-1 of soil). The introduction of A

  2. Properties of nanocellulose isolated from corncob residue using sulfuric acid, formic acid, oxidative and mechanical methods.

    PubMed

    Liu, Chao; Li, Bin; Du, Haishun; Lv, Dong; Zhang, Yuedong; Yu, Guang; Mu, Xindong; Peng, Hui

    2016-10-20

    In this work, nanocellulose was extracted from bleached corncob residue (CCR), an underutilized lignocellulose waste from furfural industry, using four different methods (i.e. sulfuric acid hydrolysis, formic acid (FA) hydrolysis, 2,2,6,6-tetramethylpiperidine-1-oxyl (TEMPO)-mediated oxidation, and pulp refining, respectively). The self-assembled structure, morphology, dimension, crystallinity, chemical structure and thermal stability of prepared nanocellulose were investigated. FA hydrolysis produced longer cellulose nanocrystals (CNCs) than the one obtained by sulfuric acid hydrolysis, and resulted in high crystallinity and thermal stability due to its preferential degradation of amorphous cellulose and lignin. The cellulose nanofibrils (CNFs) with fine and individualized structure could be isolated by TEMPO-mediated oxidation. In comparison with other nanocellulose products, the intensive pulp refining led to the CNFs with the longest length and the thickest diameter. This comparative study can help to provide an insight into the utilization of CCR as a potential source for nanocellulose production. PMID:27474618

  3. Synthesis, characterization and fluorescent properties of water-soluble glycopolymer bearing curcumin pendant residues.

    PubMed

    Zhang, Haisong; Yu, Meng; Zhang, Hailei; Bai, Libin; Wu, Yonggang; Wang, Sujuan; Ba, Xinwu

    2016-08-01

    Curcumin is a potential natural anticancer drug with low oral bioavailability because of poor water solubility. The aqueous solubility of curcumin is enhanced by means of modification with the carbohydrate units. Polymerization of the curcumin-containing monomer with carbohydrate-containing monomer gives the water-soluble glycopolymer bearing curcumin pendant residues. The obtained copolymers (P1 and P2) having desirable water solubility were well-characterized by infrared spectroscopy (IR), nuclear magnetic resonance (NMR), gel permeation chromatography (GPC), UV-Vis absorption spectroscopy, and photoluminescence spectroscopy. The copolymer P2 with a molar ratio of 1:6 (curcumin/carbohydrate) calculated from the proton NMR results exhibits a similar anticancer activity compared to original curcumin, which may serve as a potential chemotherapeutic agent in the field of anticancer medicine. PMID:27098211

  4. Mechanical and interfacial properties of poly(vinyl chloride) based composites reinforced by cassava stillage residue with different surface treatments

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Zhang, Yanjuan; Gan, Tao; Li, Qian; Su, Jianmei; Lin, Ye; Wei, Yongzuo; Huang, Zuqiang; Yang, Mei

    2014-09-01

    Cassava stillage residue (CSR), a kind of agro-industrial plant fiber, was modified by coupling agent (CA), mechanical activation (MA), and MA-assisted CA (MACA) surface treatments, respectively. The untreated and different surface treated CSRs were used to prepare plant fibers/polymer composites (PFPC) with poly(vinyl chloride) (PVC) as polymer matrix, and the properties of these CSR/PVC composites were compared. Surface treated CSR/PVC composites possessed better mechanical properties, water resistance and dimensional stability compared with the untreated CSR/PVC composite, attributing to the improvement of interfacial properties between CSR and PVC matrix. MACA-treated CSR was the best reinforcement among four types of CSRs (untreated, MA-treated, CA-treated, and MACA-treated CSRs) because MACA treatment led to the significant improvement of dispersion, interfacial adhesion and compatibility between CSR and PVC. MACA treatment could be considered as an effective and green method for enhancing reinforcement efficiency of plant fibers and the properties of PFPC.

  5. Swelling properties of montmorillonite and beidellite clay minerals from molecular simulation: Comparison of temperature interlayer cation, and charge location effects

    DOE PAGESBeta

    Teich-McGoldrick, Stephanie L.; Greathouse, Jeffery A.; Jove-Colon, Carlos F.; Cygan, Randall Timothy

    2015-08-27

    In this study, the swelling properties of smectite clay minerals are relevant to many engineering applications including environmental remediation, repository design for nuclear waste disposal, borehole stability in drilling operations, and additives for numerous industrial processes and commercial products. We used molecular dynamics and grand canonical Monte Carlo simulations to study the effects of layer charge location, interlayer cation, and temperature on intracrystalline swelling of montmorillonite and beidellite clay minerals. For a beidellite model with layer charge exclusively in the tetrahedral sheet, strong ion–surface interactions shift the onset of the two-layer hydrate to higher water contents. In contrast, for amore » montmorillonite model with layer charge exclusively in the octahedral sheet, weaker ion–surface interactions result in the formation of fully hydrated ions (two-layer hydrate) at much lower water contents. Clay hydration enthalpies and interlayer atomic density profiles are consistent with the swelling results. Water adsorption isotherms from grand canonical Monte Carlo simulations are used to relate interlayer hydration states to relative humidity, in good agreement with experimental findings.« less

  6. Swelling properties of montmorillonite and beidellite clay minerals from molecular simulation: Comparison of temperature interlayer cation, and charge location effects

    SciTech Connect

    Teich-McGoldrick, Stephanie L.; Greathouse, Jeffery A.; Jove-Colon, Carlos F.; Cygan, Randall Timothy

    2015-08-27

    In this study, the swelling properties of smectite clay minerals are relevant to many engineering applications including environmental remediation, repository design for nuclear waste disposal, borehole stability in drilling operations, and additives for numerous industrial processes and commercial products. We used molecular dynamics and grand canonical Monte Carlo simulations to study the effects of layer charge location, interlayer cation, and temperature on intracrystalline swelling of montmorillonite and beidellite clay minerals. For a beidellite model with layer charge exclusively in the tetrahedral sheet, strong ion–surface interactions shift the onset of the two-layer hydrate to higher water contents. In contrast, for a montmorillonite model with layer charge exclusively in the octahedral sheet, weaker ion–surface interactions result in the formation of fully hydrated ions (two-layer hydrate) at much lower water contents. Clay hydration enthalpies and interlayer atomic density profiles are consistent with the swelling results. Water adsorption isotherms from grand canonical Monte Carlo simulations are used to relate interlayer hydration states to relative humidity, in good agreement with experimental findings.

  7. Surface properties and ion release from fluoride-containing bioactive glasses promote osteoblast differentiation and mineralization in vitro.

    PubMed

    Gentleman, E; Stevens, M M; Hill, R G; Brauer, D S

    2013-03-01

    Bioactive glasses (BG) are suitable for bone regeneration applications as they bond with bone and can be tailored to release therapeutic ions. Fluoride, which is widely recognized to prevent dental caries, is efficacious in promoting bone formation and preventing osteoporosis-related fractures when administered at appropriate doses. To take advantage of these properties, we created BG incorporating increasing levels of fluoride whilst holding their silicate structure constant, and tested their effects on human osteoblasts in vitro. Our results demonstrate that, whilst cell proliferation was highest on low-fluoride-containing BG, markers for differentiation and mineralization were highest on BG with the highest fluoride contents, a likely effect of a combination of surface effects and ion release. Furthermore, osteoblasts exposed to the dissolution products of fluoride-containing BG or early doses of sodium fluoride showed increased alkaline phosphatase activity, a marker for bone mineralization, suggesting that fluoride can direct osteoblast differentiation. Taken together, these results suggest that BG that can release therapeutic levels of fluoride may find use in a range of bone regeneration applications.

  8. Ice Nucleation of Bare and Sulfuric Acid-coated Mineral Dust Particles and Implication for Cloud Properties

    SciTech Connect

    Kulkarni, Gourihar R.; Sanders, Cassandra N.; Zhang, Kai; Liu, Xiaohong; Zhao, Chun

    2014-08-27

    Ice nucleation properties of different dust species coated with soluble material are not well understood. We determined the ice nucleation ability of bare and sulfuric acid coated mineral dust particles as a function of temperature (-25 to -35 deg C) and relative humidity with respect to water (RHw). Five different mineral dust species: Arizona test dust (ATD), illite, montmorillonite, quartz and kaolinite were dry dispersed and size-selected at 150 nm and exposed to sulfuric acid vapors in the coating apparatus. The condensed sulfuric acid soluble mass fraction per particle was estimated from the cloud condensation nuclei activated fraction measurements. The fraction of dust particles nucleating ice at various temperatures and RHw was determined using a compact ice chamber. In water-subsaturated conditions, compared to bare dust particles, we found that only coated ATD particles showed suppression of ice nucleation ability while other four dust species did not showed the effect of coating on the fraction of particles nucleating ice. The results suggest that interactions between the dust surface and sulfuric acid vapor are important, such that interactions may or may not modify the surface via chemical reactions with sulfuric acid. At water-supersaturated conditions we did not observed the effect of coating, i.e. the bare and coated dust particles had similar ice nucleation behavior.

  9. Enrichment of enzymatically mineralized gellan gum hydrogels with phlorotannin-rich Ecklonia cava extract Seanol(®) to endow antibacterial properties and promote mineralization.

    PubMed

    Douglas, Timothy E L; Dokupil, Agnieszka; Reczyńska, Katarzyna; Brackman, Gilles; Krok-Borkowicz, Malgorzata; Keppler, Julia K; Božič, Mojca; Van Der Voort, Pascal; Pietryga, Krzysztof; Samal, Sangram Keshari; Balcaen, Lieve; van den Bulcke, Jan; Van Acker, Joris; Vanhaecke, Frank; Schwarz, Karin; Coenye, Tom; Pamuła, Elżbieta

    2016-01-01

    Hydrogels offer several advantages as biomaterials for bone regeneration, including ease of incorporation of soluble substances such as mineralization-promoting enzymes and antibacterial agents. Mineralization with calcium phosphate (CaP) increases bioactivity, while antibacterial activity reduces the risk of infection. Here, gellan gum (GG) hydrogels were enriched with alkaline phosphatase (ALP) and/or Seanol(®), a seaweed extract rich in phlorotannins (brown algae-derived polyphenols), to induce mineralization with CaP and increase antibacterial activity, respectively. The sample groups were unmineralized hydrogels, denoted as GG, GG/ALP, GG/Seanol and GG/Seanol/ALP, and hydrogels incubated in mineralization medium (0.1 M calcium glycerophosphate), denoted as GG/ALP_min, GG/Seanol_min and GG/Seanol/ALP_min. Seanol(®) enhanced mineralization with CaP and also increased compressive modulus. Seanol(®) and ALP interacted in a non-covalent manner. Release of Seanol(®) occurred in a burst phase and was impeded by ALP-mediated mineralization. Groups GG/Seanol and GG/ALP/Seanol exhibited antibacterial activity against methicillin-resistant Staphylococcus aureus. GG/Seanol/ALP_min, but not GG/Seanol_min, retained some antibacterial activity. Eluates taken from groups GG/ALP_min, GG/Seanol_min and GG/ALP/Seanol_min displayed comparable cytotoxicity towards MG-63 osteoblast-like cells. These results suggest that enrichment of hydrogel biomaterials with phlorotannin-rich extracts is a promising strategy to increase mineralizability and antibacterial activity. PMID:27509486

  10. Bioprinting Organotypic Hydrogels with Improved Mesenchymal Stem Cell Remodeling and Mineralization Properties for Bone Tissue Engineering.

    PubMed

    Duarte Campos, Daniela Filipa; Blaeser, Andreas; Buellesbach, Kate; Sen, Kshama Shree; Xun, Weiwei; Tillmann, Walter; Fischer, Horst

    2016-06-01

    3D-manufactured hydrogels with precise contours and biological adhesion motifs are interesting candidates in the regenerative medicine field for the culture and differentiation of human bone-marrow-derived mesenchymal stem cells (MSCs). 3D-bioprinting is a powerful technique to approach one step closer the native organization of cells. This study investigates the effect of the incorporation of collagen type I in 3D-bioprinted polysaccharide-based hydrogels to the modulation of cell morphology, osteogenic remodeling potential, and mineralization. By combining thermo-responsive agarose hydrogels with collagen type I, the mechanical stiffness and printing contours of printed constructs can be improved compared to pure collagen hydrogels which are typically used as standard materials for MSC osteogenic differentiation. The results presented here show that MSC not only survive the 3D-bioprinting process but also maintain the mesenchymal phenotype, as proved by live/dead staining and immunocytochemistry (vimentin positive, CD34 negative). Increased solids concentrations of collagen in the hydrogel blend induce changes in cell morphology, namely, by enhancing cell spreading, that ultimately contribute to enhanced and directed MSC osteogenic differentiation. 3D-bioprinted agarose-collagen hydrogels with high-collagen ratio are therefore feasible for MSC osteogenic differentiation, contrarily to low-collagen blends, as proved by two-photon microscopy, Alizarin Red staining, and real-time polymerase chain reaction.

  11. Modeling Optical Properties of Mineral Aerosol Particles by Using Nonsymmetric Hexahedra

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Bi, Lei; Yang, Ping; Kattawar, George W.; Kahn, Ralph

    2010-01-01

    We explore the use of nonsymmetric geometries to simulate the single-scattering properties of airborne dust particles with complicated morphologies. Specifically, the shapes of irregular dust particles are assumed to be nonsymmetric hexahedra defined by using the Monte Carlo method. A combination of the discrete dipole approximation method and an improved geometric optics method is employed to compute the single-scattering properties of dust particles for size parameters ranging from 0.5 to 3000. The primary optical effect of eliminating the geometric symmetry of regular hexahedra is to smooth the scattering features in the phase function and to decrease the backscatter. The optical properties of the nonsymmetric hexahedra are used to mimic the laboratory measurements. It is demonstrated that a relatively close agreement can be achieved by using only one shape of nonsymmetric hexahedra. The agreement between the theoretical results and their measurement counterparts can be further improved by using a mixture of nonsymmetric hexahedra. It is also shown that the hexahedron model is much more appropriate than the "equivalent sphere" model for simulating the optical properties of dust particles, particularly, in the case of the elements of the phase matrix that associated with the polarization state of scattered light.

  12. Global Distributions of Mineral Dust Properties from SeaWiFS and MODIS: From Sources to Sinks

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Hsu, N. Christina; Bettenhausen, C.; Sayer, A.

    2011-01-01

    The impact of natural and anthropogenic sources of mineral dust has gained increasing attention from scientific communities in recent years. Indeed, these airborne dust particles, once lifted over the source regions, can be transported out of the boundary layer into the free troposphere and can travel thousands of kilometers across the oceans resulting in important biogeochemical impacts on the ecosystem. Due to the relatively short lifetime (a few hours to about a week), the distributions of these mineral dust particles vary extensively in both space and time. Consequently, satellite observations are needed over both source and sink regions for continuous temporal and spatial sampling of aerosol properties. With the launch of SeaWiFS in 1997, Terra/MODIS in 1999, and Aqua/MODIS in 2002, high quality comprehensive aerosol climatology is becoming feasible for the first time. As a result of these unprecedented satellite data records, studies of the radiative and biogeochemical effects due to dust aerosols are now possible. In this study, we will show the comparisons of satellite retrieved aerosol optical thickness using Deep Blue algorithm with data from AERONET sunphotometers over desert and semi-desert regions as well as vegetated areas. Our results indicate reasonable agreements between these two. These new satellite products will allow scientists to determine quantitatively the aerosol properties near sources using high spatial resolution measurements from Sea WiFS and MODIS-like instruments. The multiyear satellite measurements since 1997 from Sea WiFS will be compared with those retrieved from MODIS and MISR, and will be utilized to investigate the interannual variability of source, pathway, and dust loading associated with the dust outbreaks over the entire globe. Finally, the trends observed over the last decade based upon the SeaWiFS time series in the amounts of tropospheric aerosols due to natural and anthropogenic sources (such as changes in the frequency

  13. Impact damage resistance and residual property assessment of (0/+/-45/90)s SCS-6/Timetal 21S

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Miller, Jennifer L.; Portanova, Marc A.; Johnson, W. Steven

    1995-01-01

    The impact damage resistance and residual mechanical properties of (0/ +/- 45/90)s SCS-6/Timetal 21S composites were evaluated. Both quasi-static indentation and drop-weight impact tests were used to investigate the impact behavior at two nominal energy levels (5.5 and 8.4 J) and determine the onset of internal damage. Through x-ray inspection, the extent of internal damage was characterized non-destructively. The composite strength and constant amplitude fatigue response were evaluated to assess the effects of the sustained damage. Scanning electron microscopy was used to characterize internal damage from impact in comparison to damage that occurs during mechanical loading alone. The effect of stacking sequence was examined by using specimens with the long dimension of the specimen both parallel (longitudinal) and perpendicular (transverse) to the 0 deg fiber direction. Damage in the form of longitudinal and transverse cracking occurred in all longitudinal specimens tested at energies greater than 6.3 J. Similar results occurred in the transverse specimens tested above 5.4 J. Initial load drop, characteristic of the onset of damage, occurred on average at 6.3 J in longitudinal specimens and at 5.0 J in transverse specimens. X-ray analysis showed broken fibers in the impacted region in specimens tested at the higher impact energies. At low impact energies, visible matrix cracking may occur, but broken fibers may not. Matrix cracking was noted along fiber swims and it appeared to depend on the surface quality of composite. At low impact energies, little damage has been incurred by the composite and the residual strength and residual life is not greatly reduced as compared to an undamaged composite. At higher impact energies, more damage occurred and a greater effect of the impact damage was observed.

  14. Cationic cellulose nanofibers from waste pulp residues and their nitrate, fluoride, sulphate and phosphate adsorption properties.

    PubMed

    Sehaqui, Houssine; Mautner, Andreas; Perez de Larraya, Uxua; Pfenninger, Numa; Tingaut, Philippe; Zimmermann, Tanja

    2016-01-01

    Cationic cellulose nanofibers (CNF) having 3 different contents of positively charged quaternary ammonium groups have been prepared from waste pulp residues according to a water-based modification method involving first the etherification of the pulp with glycidyltrimethylammonium chloride followed by mechanical disintegration. The cationic nanofibers obtained were observed by scanning electron microscopy and the extent of the reaction was evaluated by conductometric titration, ζ-potential measurements, and thermogravimetric analyses. The cationic CNF had a maximum cationic charge content of 1.2mmolg(-1) and positive ζ-potential at various pH values. Sorption of negatively charged contaminants (fluoride, nitrate, phosphate and sulphate ions) and their selectivity onto cationic CNF have been evaluated. Maximum sorption of ∼0.6mmolg(-1) of these ions by CNF was achieved and selectivity adsorption studies showed that cationic CNF are more selective toward multivalent ions (PO4(3-) and SO4(2-)) than monovalent ions (F(-) and NO3(-)). In addition, we demonstrated that cationic CNF can be manufactured into permeable membranes capable of dynamic nitrate adsorption by utilizing a simple paper-making process.

  15. Cationic cellulose nanofibers from waste pulp residues and their nitrate, fluoride, sulphate and phosphate adsorption properties.

    PubMed

    Sehaqui, Houssine; Mautner, Andreas; Perez de Larraya, Uxua; Pfenninger, Numa; Tingaut, Philippe; Zimmermann, Tanja

    2016-01-01

    Cationic cellulose nanofibers (CNF) having 3 different contents of positively charged quaternary ammonium groups have been prepared from waste pulp residues according to a water-based modification method involving first the etherification of the pulp with glycidyltrimethylammonium chloride followed by mechanical disintegration. The cationic nanofibers obtained were observed by scanning electron microscopy and the extent of the reaction was evaluated by conductometric titration, ζ-potential measurements, and thermogravimetric analyses. The cationic CNF had a maximum cationic charge content of 1.2mmolg(-1) and positive ζ-potential at various pH values. Sorption of negatively charged contaminants (fluoride, nitrate, phosphate and sulphate ions) and their selectivity onto cationic CNF have been evaluated. Maximum sorption of ∼0.6mmolg(-1) of these ions by CNF was achieved and selectivity adsorption studies showed that cationic CNF are more selective toward multivalent ions (PO4(3-) and SO4(2-)) than monovalent ions (F(-) and NO3(-)). In addition, we demonstrated that cationic CNF can be manufactured into permeable membranes capable of dynamic nitrate adsorption by utilizing a simple paper-making process. PMID:26453885

  16. Comprehensive Study of Mediterranean (Croatian) Propolis Peculiarity: Headspace, Volatiles, Anti-Varroa-Treatment Residue, Phenolics, and Antioxidant Properties.

    PubMed

    Jerković, Igor; Marijanović, Zvonimir; Kuś, Piotr M; Tuberoso, Carlo I G

    2016-02-01

    Eight propolis samples from Croatia were analyzed in detail, to study the headspace, volatiles, anti-Varroa-treatment residue, phenolics, and antioxidant properties. The samples exhibited high qualitative/quantitative variability of the chemical profiles, total phenolic content (1,589.3-14,398.3 mg GAE (gallic acid equivalent)/l EtOH extract), and antioxidant activity (11.1-133.5 mmol Fe(2+) /l extract and 6.2-65.3 mmol TEAC (Trolox® equivalent antioxidant capacity)/l extract). The main phenolics quantified by HPLC-DAD at 280 and 360 nm were vanillin, p-coumaric acid, ferulic acid, chrysin, galangin, and caffeic acid phenethyl ester. The major compounds identified by headspace solid-phase microextraction (HS-SPME), simultaneous distillation extraction (SDE), and subsequent GC-FID and GC/MS analyses were α-eudesmol (up to 19.9%), β-eudesmol (up to 12.6%), γ-eudesmol (up to 10.5%), benzyl benzoate (up to 28.5%), and 4-vinyl-2-methoxyphenol (up to 18.1%). Vanillin was determined as minor constituent by SDE/GC-FID/MS and HPLC-DAD. The identified acaricide residue thymol was ca. three times more abundant by HS-SPME/GC-FID/MS than by SDE/GC-FID/MS and was not detected by HPLC-DAD. PMID:26880433

  17. Recognition properties of peptides hydropathically complementary to residues 356-375 of the c-raf protein.

    PubMed

    Fassina, G; Roller, P P; Olson, A D; Thorgeirsson, S S; Omichinski, J G

    1989-07-01

    Two peptides with hydropathic complementarity to residues 356-375 of the c-raf protein were synthesized to determine if they recognize the raf-(356-375) peptide as well as the entire protein. One peptide was deduced from the complementary mRNA for the raf protein corresponding to residues 356-375, whereas the other was deduced solely from the amino acid sequence of the 20-mer segment using a computer program able to generate peptide sequences with hydropathic complementarity to a given sequence. Specific binding of both peptides to the raf 20-mer segment was demonstrated when either the raf 20-mer peptide or the complementary peptides were immobilized on a column. Binding affinities were in the millimolar-micromolar range. Identical binding properties were observed with peptides synthesized with either all D- or all L-amino acids, suggesting a lack of conformational dependence. Binding was also unaffected by the presence of 8 M urea or detergents, was dependent on solvent characteristics of pH and ionic strength, and was abolished by the presence of competing peptides in the eluting buffer. Recognition between raf complementary peptides was accompanied by spectral changes in the far and near UV region, as monitored by circular dichroism. Proteolytic degradation was retarded by the binding of these peptides. Once immobilized on a column, these peptides proved useful for the isolation by affinity chromatography of a recombinant c-raf protein from an Escherichia coli crude cell extract. PMID:2472393

  18. Sequences and antimycoplasmic properties of longibrachins LGB II and LGB III, two novel 20-residue peptaibols from Trichoderma longibrachiatum.

    PubMed

    Leclerc, G; Goulard, C; Prigent, Y; Bodo, B; Wróblewski, H; Rebuffat, S

    2001-02-01

    Longibrachins are members of the class of natural Aib-containing peptides designated as peptaibols. Six longibrachins, LGA I-IV and LGB II and III, were purified from a Trichoderma longibrachiatum strain by a procedure employing several chromatography steps including reversed-phase HPLC. The amino acid sequence determination was based on a combination of liquid secondary ion mass spectrometry (LSIMS) and two-dimensional 1H and 13C NMR spectroscopy. Longibrachins are 20-residue peptaibols with a C-terminal phenylalaninol and either neutral (LGA; Gln18) or acidic (LGB; Glu18) character. Longibrachins LGB II and III have novel sequences. Both longibrachins LGA and LGB show significant bactericidal activity against mycoplasmas (Acholeplasma, Mycoplasma, and Spiroplasma), with minimal inhibitory concentrations in the range 1.56-12.5 microM (3-25 micrograms/mL), and also perturb the permeability of membrane bilayers. Longibrachin LGA IV is the most potent of the presently known 18-20-residue peptaibols. The antimicrobial and membrane-perturbing properties of longibrachins, which are described here for the first time, were shown to be correlated. PMID:11429993

  19. Effects of heavy metals on the electrokinetic properties of bacteria, yeast, and clay minerals

    SciTech Connect

    Collins, Y.E.

    1987-01-01

    The electrokinetic patterns of four bacteria (Bacillus subtilis, Bacillus megaterium, Pseudomonas aeruginosa, Agrobacterium radiobacter), two yeasts (Saccharomyces cerevisiae, Canida albicans), and two clay minerals (montmorillonite, kaolinite) in the presence of the chloride salts of heavy metals (Cd, Cr, Cu, Hg, Ni, Pb, Zn) and of Na and Mg were determined by microelectrophoresis. The cells and clays were net negatively charged at pH values above their isoelectric point (pI) in solutions of Na, Mg, Hg, and Pb with an ionic strength (..mu..) of 3 x 10/sup -4/. However, at pH values above pH 5.0, the charge of some bacteria, S. cerevisiae, and kaolinite changed to a net positive charge (charge reversal) in the presence of Cd, Cr, Cu, Ni, and Zn. The charge of the bacteria and S. cerevisiae also reversed in solution of Ni and Cu with a ..mu.. > 3 x 10/sup -4/, whereas there was no reversal in solutions with a ..mu.. < 3 x 10/sup -4/. The clays became net positively charged when the ..mu.. of Cu was > 3 x 10/sup -4/ and that of Ni was > 1.5 x 10/sup -4/. The charge of the cells and clays also reversed in solutions containing both Mg and Ni or both Cu and Ni (except montmorillonite) but not in solutions containing both Mg and Cu (except kaolinite) (..mu.. = 3 x 10/sup -4/). The pI of the cells in the presence of some heavy metals, especially Ni and Cr, was at higher pH values than in the presence of Na and Mg.

  20. Effects of post-weld heat treatments on the residual stress and mechanical properties of electron beam welded SAE 4130 steel plates

    SciTech Connect

    Huang, C.C.; Chuang, T.H.; Pan, Y.C.

    1997-02-01

    The distribution of the residual stresses of electron beam welded SAE 4130 and the effect of stress relief after various post-weld heat treatments (PWHT) were measured using X-ray diffraction. The mechanical properties and microstructure were also examined. Experimental results show that the tensile residual stress increased with the heat input of the electron beam. Most of the residual stresses were relieved by the PWHT at 530 C for 2 h followed by furnace cooling to 50 C. The strength of the welds decreased slightly, and the elongation of the welds increased after PWHT.

  1. Effects of post-weld heat treatments on the residual stress and mechanical properties of electron beam welded sae 4130 steel plates

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Huang, C. C.; Pan, Y. C.; Chuang, T. H.

    1997-02-01

    The distribution of the residual stresses of electron beam welded SAE 4130 and the effect of stress relief after various post- weld heat treatments (PWHT) were measured using X- ray diffraction. The mechanical properties and microstructure were also examined. Experimental results show that the tensile residual stress increased with the heat input of the electron beam. Most of the residual stresses were relieved by the PWHT at 530 °C for 2 h followed by furnace cooling to 50 °C. The strength of the welds decreased slightly, and the elongation of the welds increased after PWHT.

  2. Dosimetric property of mineral extracted from calamari and exposed to gamma rays

    SciTech Connect

    Cruz-Zaragoza, E.; Roman-Lopez, J.; Cruz, L. Perez; Furetta, C.; Chiaravalle, E.; Mangiacotti, M.; Marchesani, G.

    2013-07-03

    Dosimetric property of polymineral fraction, quartz mainly, obtained from calamari was investigated. The commercial calamari samples from China and Sud Africa were collected in the markets of Italy. All polymineral debris were extracted and isolated from the whole body of calamari. The surface of the polymineral samples was analyzed by using the Scanning Electron Microscopy (SEM) and their chemical composition was determined using Energy Dispersive Spectroscopy (EDS). The polymineral was exposed to gamma rays ({sup 60}Co) at different doses (0.5-80 Gy) to determine dosimetric property. Thermoluminescent (TL) glow curves showed two peaks centered at around 98-100 Degree-Sign C and 128-138 Degree-Sign C temperature range. The glow curves have been analyzed by using a deconvolution program. A linear dose response between 0.5 to 20 Gy was observed. The TL response of the samples as a function of the time storage, fading, presented a reduction of about 36-40 % at the end of 24 h. The reproducibility of the TL response after ten cycles of irradiation-readout showed an acceptable standard deviation in dosimetry. The polimineral fraction obtained from calamari shows an interesting dosimetric property and it may be useful for dosimetry in gamma radiation field.

  3. Hydrographic properties of separate residual basins of the Aral Sea: in situ observations and intercomparison

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Izhitskiy, Alexander; Zavialov, Peter; Kurbaniyazov, Abilgazi

    2015-04-01

    Desiccation of the Aral Sea continued intensively throughout the last decade. As reported by NASA and widely commented in mass media, the eastern lobe of the Southern Sea (i.e., the Large Aral Sea) dried up completely in the summer of 2014. Only the western basin of the Large Sea remains there, and the separation of its northernmost portion called Chernyshev Bay is imminent. The northern part of the former Aral Sea known as the Small Aral Sea has separated decades ago and eventually stabilized thanks to a man-made dam trapping all of the Syr Daria discharges in the Small Sea. In addition, the Tschebas Bay, formerly a large bay of the Aral Sea, has evolved into a separate lake with relatively stable boundaries. In this way, the present-day Aral Sea should be considered as a system of separated water bodies with a common origin but different fates and very different physical, chemical, and biological features. In the presented study, we focus on hydrophysical state of the newly individual parts of the former Aral Sea. The comparative investigation is based on field data collected during two surveys of Shirshov Institute of Oceanology to the Aral Sea which took place in the fall season of 2014. In situ measurements including CTD profiling and water sampling were carried in the central western basin of the Large Aral (Aktumsuk area), in the northern extremity of the western Large Aral (Chernyshev bay), in Tschebas Lake, and the western part of the Small Sea (Shevchenko Bay). The analysis of direct observations together with the satellite data allows clarifying main processes and factors determining the physical state of the residual water bodies. According to the results of the in situ observations, three different types of hydrographic structure were documented in the lakes of the former Aral Sea. Salinity of Tschebas Lake water was around 92 g/kg, with the water column fully mixed from surface to bottom. The CTD measurements conducted in the Shevchenko bay of the

  4. Heavy metals alter the electrokinetic properties of bacteria, yeasts, and clay minerals

    SciTech Connect

    Collins, Y.E.; Stotzky, G. )

    1992-05-01

    The electrokinetic patterns of four bacterial species (Bacillus subtilis, Bacillus megaterium, Pseudomonas aeruginosa, and Agrobacterium radiobacter), two yeasts (Saccharomyces cerevisiae and Candida albicans), and two clay minerals (montmorillonite and kaolinite) in the presence of the chloride salts of the heavy metals, Cd, Cr, Cu, Hg, Ni, Pb, and Zn, and of Na and Mg were determined by microelectrophoresis. The cells and kaolinite were net negatively charged at pH values above their isoelectric points (pI) in the presence of Na, Mg, Hg, and Pb at an ionic strength ([mu]) of 3 [times] 10[sup [minus]4]; montmorillonite has no pI and was net negatively charged at all pH values in the presence of these metals. However, the charge of some bacteria, S. cerevisiae, and kaolinite changed to a net positive charge (charge reversal) in the presence of Cd, Cr, Cu, Ni, and Zn at pH values above 5.0 and then at higher pH values, again became negative. The charge of the bacteria and S. cerevisiae also reversed in solutions of Cu and Ni with a [mu] of >3 [times] 10[sup [minus]4], whereas there was no reversal in solutions with a [mu] of <3 [times] 10[sup [minus]4]. The clays became net positively charged when the [mu] of Cu was >3 [times] 10[sup [minus]4] and that of Ni was >1.5 [times] 10[sup [minus]4]. The charge of the cells and clays also reversed in solutions containing both Mg and Ni or both Cu and Ni (except montmorillonite) but not in solutions containing both Mg and Cu (except kaolinite). The pIs of the cells in the presence of the heavy metals were at either higher or lower pH values than in the presence of Na and Mg. Exposure of the cells to the various metals at pH values from 2 to 9 for the short times (ca. 10 min) required to measured the electrophoretic mobility did not affect their viability.

  5. MISR Decadal Observations of Mineral Dust: Property Characterization and Climate Applications

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Kalashnikova, Olga V.; Garay, Michael J.; Sokolik, Irina; Kahn, Ralph A.; Lyapustin, A.; Diner, David J.; Lee, Jae N.; Torres, Omar; Leptoukh, Gregory G.; Sabbah, Ismail

    2012-01-01

    The Multi-angle Imaging SpectroRadiometer (MISR) provides a unique, independent source of data for studying dust emission and transport. MISR's multiple view angles allow the retrieval of aerosol properties over bright surfaces, and such retrievals have been shown to be sensitive to the non-sphericity of dust aerosols over both land and water. MISR stereographic views of thick aerosol plumes allow height and instantaneous wind derivations at spatial resolutions of better than 1.1 km horizontally and 200m vertically. We will discuss the radiometric and stereo-retrieval capabilities of MISR specifically for dust, and demonstrate the use of MISR data in conjunction with other available satellite observations for dust property characterization and climate studies.First, we will discuss MISR non-spherical (dust) fraction product over the global oceans. We will show that over the Atlantic Ocean, changes in the MISR-derived non-spherical AOD fraction illustrate the evolution of dust during transport. Next, we will present a MISR satellite perspective on dust climatology in major dust source regions with a particular emphasis on the West Africa and Middle East and discuss MISR's unique strengths as well as current product biases. Finally, we will discuss MISR dust plume product and climatological applications.

  6. Proximate composition, functional properties, amino acid, mineral and vitamin contents of a novel food: Alhydwan (Boerhavia elegana Choisy) seed flour.

    PubMed

    Al-Farga, Ammar; Zhang, Hui; Siddeeg, Azhari; Shamoon, Muhammad; V M Chamba, Moses; Al-Hajj, Nabil

    2016-11-15

    Alhydwan (Boerhavia elegana Choisy) seed flour was evaluated for chemical and nutritional composition, and functional properties in a pursuit to identify an innovative plant with high nutraceuticals value which could be exploited in other food applications. The flour was found to be rich in dietary fiber (30.13%), protein (14.60%), crude fat (11.49%), carbohydrates (30.77%), and ash (6.88%) and encompassed adequate amounts of essential amino acids and minerals, whereas, sucrose constituted 71.3% of total sugar contents. Vitamins analysis revealed that flour is rich in water-soluble vitamins such as Thiamin (B1), Riboflavin (B2) and Niacin (B3), to the amounts of 19.3, 8.2 and 2.3mg/100g, respectively. Results on functional properties demonstrated high water and oil absorption capacities of 6.31 and 2.43g/g, respectively. Foaming capacity, foam stability and emulsion capacity were 9.35%, 6.90%, and 29.60%, respectively. It can be concluded that alhydwan is an excellent food material with a high nutritional value. PMID:27283631

  7. Parathyroid hormone PTH(1–34) increases the volume, mineral content, and mechanical properties of regenerated mineralizing tissue after distraction osteogenesis in rabbits

    PubMed Central

    2009-01-01

    Background and purpose Parathyroid hormone (PTH) has attracted considerable interest as a bone anabolic agent. Recently, it has been suggested that PTH can also enhance bone repair after fracture and distraction osteogenesis. We analyzed bone density and strength of the newly regenerated mineralized tissue after intermittent treatment with PTH in rabbits, which undergo Haversian bone remodeling similar to that in humans. Methods 72 New Zealand White rabbits underwent tibial mid-diaphyseal osteotomy and the callus was distracted 1 mm/day for 10 days. The rabbits were divided into 3 groups, which received injections of PTH 25 µg/kg/day for 30 days, saline for 10 days and PTH 25 µg/kg/day for 20 days, or saline for 30 days. At the end of the study, the rabbits were killed and the bone density was evaluated with DEXA. The mechanical bone strength was determined by use of a 3-point bending test. Results In the 2 PTH-treated groups the regenerate callus ultimate load was 33% and 30% higher, absorbed energy was 100% and 65% higher, BMC was 61% and 60% higher, and callus tissue volume was 179% and 197% higher than for the control group. Interpretation We found that treatment with PTH during distraction osteogenesis resulted in substantially higher mineralized tissue volume, mineral content, and bending strength. This suggests that treatment with PTH may benefit new bone formation during distraction osteogenesis and could form a basis for clinical application of this therapy in humans. PMID:19995322

  8. Some Mineral Physics Observations Pertinent to the Rheological Properties of Super-Earths

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Karato, S.

    2010-12-01

    Both orbital and thermal evolution of recently discovered super-Earths (terrestrial planets whit mass exceeding that of Earth) depends critically on the rheological properties of their mantle. Although direct experimental studies on rheological properties are unavailable under the conditions equivalent to the deep mantles of these planets (~1 TPa and ~5000 K), a review of key materials science observations suggests that the deep mantle of these planets have much lower viscosity than most of the shallower regions of these planets. The key observations are: (i) phase transformations likely occur under these conditions including the B1 to B2 transition in MgO (1) and the dissociation of MgSiO3 into two oxides (MgO and SiO2) (2), (ii) the systematics in high-temperature creep show that materials with NaCl (B1) structures have much smaller viscosity than other oxides compared at the same normalized conditions (3), and (iii) diffusion coefficients in most of materials have a minimum at certain pressure and above that pressure it increases with pressure (due to mechanism transition) (4). In addition, a review of existing studies also shows that the ionic solids with B2 (CsCl) structure have larger diffusion coefficients than their B1 counter parts. Furthermore, if metallization transition occurs in any of these materials, delocalized electrons will further weaken the material. All of these observations or concepts suggest that even though the viscosity of a planet (below the asthenosphere) increases with depth in the relatively shallow regions, viscosity likely starts to decrease with depth below some critical depth (>~2000 km). The inferred low viscosity of super-Earths implies a large tidal dissipation and relatively rapid orbital evolution. Also such a rheological properties likely promote a layered mantle convection that enhances a weak deep mantle and retards the thermal evolution. 1. A. R. Oganov, M. J. Gillan, G. D. Price, Journal of Chemical Physics 118, 10174

  9. Influence of mineral aggregates on the rheological properties of concrete mixture

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Klovas, A.; Daukšys, M.

    2015-04-01

    The aim of this research was to determine how the change of concrete mixture constituents: concentration of fine and coarse aggregate as well as the amount of fine particles, not exceeding 0.25 mm, influence concrete mixture's rheological properties. Firstly, inner- concentration of fine aggregate (sand, fraction of 0/1 and 0/4) was changed. Secondly, coarse aggregate (gravel, fraction of 4/16) concentration was changed and finally, the amount of fine particles was changed. Results have shown that with the increase of sand (fraction of 0/1) quantity, the plastic viscosity also increased. On the other hand, yield stress, at the beginning decreased, but eventually - increased. The increase of coarse aggregate quantity acted differently: plastic viscosity and yield stress decreased. Finally, the increase of fine particles quantity decreased the plastic viscosity as well as yield stress of concrete mixture.

  10. Cellulose reinforced nylon-6 nanofibrous membrane: Fabrication strategies, physicochemical characterizations, wicking properties and biomimetic mineralization.

    PubMed

    Joshi, Mahesh Kumar; Tiwari, Arjun Prasad; Maharjan, Bikendra; Won, Ko Sung; Kim, Han Joo; Park, Chan Hee; Kim, Cheol Sang

    2016-08-20

    The aim of the present study is to develop a facile, efficient approach to reinforce nylon 6 (N6) nanofibers with cellulose chains as well as to study the effect that cellulose regeneration has on the physicochemical properties of the composite fibers. Here, a cellulose acetate (CA) solution (17wt%) was prepared in formic acid and was blended with N6 solution (20%, prepared in formic acid and acetic acid) in various proportions, and the blended solutions were then electrospun to produce hybrid N6/CA nanofibers. Cellulose was regenerated in-situ in the fiber via alkaline saponification of the CA content of the hybrid fiber, leading to cellulose-reinforced N6 (N6/CL) nanofibers. Electron microscopy studies suggest that the fiber diameter and hence pore size gradually decreases as the mass composition of CA increases in the electrospinning solution. Cellulose regeneration showed noticeable change in the polymorphic behavior of N6, as observed in the XRD and IR spectra. The strong interaction of the hydroxyl group of cellulose with amide group of N6, mainly via hydrogen bonding, has a pronounced effect on the polymorphic behavior of N6. The γ-phase was dominant in pristine N6 and N6/CA fibers while α- phase was dominant in the N6/CL fibers. The surface wettability, wicking properties, and the tensile stress were greatly improved for N6/CL fibers compared to the corresponding N6/CA hybrid fibers. Results of DSC/TGA revealed that N6/CL fibers were more thermally stable than pristine N6 and N6/CA nanofibers. Furthermore, regeneration of cellulose chain improved the ability to nucleate bioactive calcium phosphate crystals in a simulated body fluid solution. PMID:27178914

  11. Effects of retorting factors on combustion properties of shale char. 3. Distribution of residual organic matters.

    PubMed

    Han, Xiangxin; Jiang, Xiumin; Cui, Zhigang; Liu, Jianguo; Yan, Junwei

    2010-03-15

    Shale char, formed in retort furnaces of oil shale, is classified as a dangerous waste containing several toxic compounds. In order to retort oil shale to produce shale oil as well as treat shale char efficiently and in an environmentally friendly way, a novel kind of comprehensive utilization system was developed to use oil shale for shale oil production, electricity generation (shale char fired) and the extensive application of oil shale ash. For exploring the combustion properties of shale char further, in this paper organic matters within shale chars obtained under different retorting conditions were extracted and identified using a gas chromatography-mass spectrometry (GC-MS) method. Subsequently, the effects of retorting factors, including retorting temperature, residence time, particle size and heating rate, were analyzed in detail. As a result, a retorting condition with a retorting temperature of 460-490 degrees C, residence time of <40 min and a middle particle size was recommended for both keeping nitrogenous organic matters and aromatic hydrocarbons in shale char and improving the yield and quality of shale oil. In addition, shale char obtained under such retorting condition can also be treated efficiently using a circulating fluidized bed technology with fractional combustion. PMID:19896769

  12. Study of Glazes and Their Effects on Properties of Triaxial Electrical Porcelains from Ugandan Minerals

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Olupot, Peter W.; Jonsson, Stefan; Byaruhanga, Joseph K.

    2010-11-01

    Kaolin, ball clay, feldspar, and sand were collected from deposits in Uganda, milled and sieved to particle sizes of 45, 45, 53, and 25 μm, respectively. Three porcelain bodies and five glazes were formulated from them. The glazes were applied on porcelain specimens and subsequently evaluated for their effects on properties of porcelain samples. The formulated specimens were investigated using dilatometry, Steger test, FEG-SEM, XRD, 4-point bending, dielectric strength, and fracture toughness tests. A porcelain specimen consisting of 68% SiO2, 19% Al2O3, 4.7% K2O, and a glaze RO:0.57Al2O3:4.86SiO2 exhibited MOR of 105 MPa with Weibull modulus of 5.6 and a dielectric strength of 18 kV/mm upon firing at a heating rate of 6 °C/min to 1250 °C and holding for 2 h. The microstructure of the high-strength specimen exhibited round mullite needles, quartz, and glass. Holding samples for 2 h at peak temperature resulted in a 22% increase in MOR compared to 1 h holding. Glazing further improved strength by 67% for the best sample. Compressive stresses in glaze contributed to the strengthening effect. The dielectric and mechanical strength values obtained qualify the formulated sample for application in electrical insulation.

  13. Nuclear resonant inelastic x-ray scattering: Methodology and extraction of vibrational properties of minerals

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Hu, M. Y.; Alp, E. E.; Bi, W.; Sturhahn, W.; Toellner, T. S.; Zhao, J.

    2013-12-01

    Nuclear resonant inelastic x-ray scattering (NRIXS) is a synchrotron radiation based experimental method [1]. Since its introduction almost 20 years ago [2], NRIXS has found an expanding range of applications of studying lattice dynamics in condensed matter physics, materials science, high-pressure research, geosciences, and biophysics. After the first high pressure application in geophysics of measuring sound velocity of iron up to 153 GPa [3], it has become a widely used method to investigate deep earth compositions through sound velocity measurements [4,5]. Thermodynamic properties are also explored, in particular Grueneisen parameters [6]. Later, it was realized that isotope fractionaton factors can be derived from NRIXS measurements [7,8]. Sum rules and moments of NRIXS is a critical part of this methodology [9,10]. We will discuss this and in general the data analysis of NRIXS which enables the above mentioned applications. [1] Alp et al. Hyperfine Interactions 144/145, 3 (2002) [2] Sturhahn et al., PRL 74, 3832 (1995) [3] Mao et al., Science 292, 914 (2001) [4] Hu et al., PRB 67, 094304 (2003) [5] Sturhahn & Jackson, GSA special paper 421 (2007) [6] Murphy et al., Geophys. Res. Lett. 38, L24306 (2011) [7] Polyakov, Science 323, 912 (2009) [8] Dauphas et al., Geochimica et Cosmochimica Acta 94, 254 (2012) [9] Lipkin, PRB 52, 10073 (1995) [10] Hu et al., PRB 87, 064301 (2013)

  14. 26 CFR 1.613-4 - Gross income from the property in the case of minerals other than oil and gas.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-04-01

    ... 26 Internal Revenue 7 2013-04-01 2013-04-01 false Gross income from the property in the case of minerals other than oil and gas. 1.613-4 Section 1.613-4 Internal Revenue INTERNAL REVENUE SERVICE, DEPARTMENT OF THE TREASURY (CONTINUED) INCOME TAX (CONTINUED) INCOME TAXES (CONTINUED) Natural Resources § 1.613-4 Gross income from the property in...

  15. 26 CFR 1.613-4 - Gross income from the property in the case of minerals other than oil and gas.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-04-01

    ... 26 Internal Revenue 7 2011-04-01 2009-04-01 true Gross income from the property in the case of minerals other than oil and gas. 1.613-4 Section 1.613-4 Internal Revenue INTERNAL REVENUE SERVICE, DEPARTMENT OF THE TREASURY (CONTINUED) INCOME TAX (CONTINUED) INCOME TAXES (CONTINUED) Natural Resources § 1.613-4 Gross income from the property in...

  16. 26 CFR 1.613-4 - Gross income from the property in the case of minerals other than oil and gas.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-04-01

    ... 26 Internal Revenue 7 2014-04-01 2013-04-01 true Gross income from the property in the case of minerals other than oil and gas. 1.613-4 Section 1.613-4 Internal Revenue INTERNAL REVENUE SERVICE, DEPARTMENT OF THE TREASURY (CONTINUED) INCOME TAX (CONTINUED) INCOME TAXES (CONTINUED) Natural Resources § 1.613-4 Gross income from the property in...

  17. Effects of vegetable oil residue after soil extraction on physical-chemical properties of sandy soil and plant growth.

    PubMed

    Gong, Zongqiang; Li, Peijun; Wilke, B M; Alef, Kassem

    2008-01-01

    Vegetable oil has the ability to extract polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons (PAHs) from contaminated sandy soil for a remediation purpose, with some of the oil remaining in the soil. Although most of the PAHs were removed, the risk of residue oil in the soil was not known. The objective of this study was to evaluate the effects of the vegetable oil residue on higher plant growth and sandy soil properties after soil extraction for a better understanding of the soil remediation. Addition of sunflower oil and column experiment were performed on a PAH contaminated soil and/or a control soil, respectively. Soils were incubated for 90 d, and soil pH was measured during the soil incubation. Higher plant growth bioassays with Avena sativa L. (oat) and Brassica rapa L. (turnip) were performed after the incubation, and then soil organic carbon contents were measured. The results show that both the nutrient amendment and the sunflower oil degradation resulted in the decrease of soil pH. When these two process worked together, their effects were counteracted due to the consumption of the nutrients and oil removal, resulting in different pH profiles. Growth of A. sativa was adversely affected by the sunflower oil, and the nutrient amendments stimulated the A. sativa growth significantly. B. rapa was more sensitive to the sunflower oil than A. sativa. Only 1% sunflower oil addition plus nutrient amendment stimulated B. rapa growth. All the other treatments on B. rapa inhibited its growth significantly. The degradation of the sunflower oil in the soils was proved by the soil organic carbon content.

  18. Effects of vegetable oil residue after soil extraction on physical-chemical properties of sandy soil and plant growth.

    PubMed

    Gong, Zongqiang; Li, Peijun; Wilke, B M; Alef, Kassem

    2008-01-01

    Vegetable oil has the ability to extract polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons (PAHs) from contaminated sandy soil for a remediation purpose, with some of the oil remaining in the soil. Although most of the PAHs were removed, the risk of residue oil in the soil was not known. The objective of this study was to evaluate the effects of the vegetable oil residue on higher plant growth and sandy soil properties after soil extraction for a better understanding of the soil remediation. Addition of sunflower oil and column experiment were performed on a PAH contaminated soil and/or a control soil, respectively. Soils were incubated for 90 d, and soil pH was measured during the soil incubation. Higher plant growth bioassays with Avena sativa L. (oat) and Brassica rapa L. (turnip) were performed after the incubation, and then soil organic carbon contents were measured. The results show that both the nutrient amendment and the sunflower oil degradation resulted in the decrease of soil pH. When these two process worked together, their effects were counteracted due to the consumption of the nutrients and oil removal, resulting in different pH profiles. Growth of A. sativa was adversely affected by the sunflower oil, and the nutrient amendments stimulated the A. sativa growth significantly. B. rapa was more sensitive to the sunflower oil than A. sativa. Only 1% sunflower oil addition plus nutrient amendment stimulated B. rapa growth. All the other treatments on B. rapa inhibited its growth significantly. The degradation of the sunflower oil in the soils was proved by the soil organic carbon content. PMID:19209632

  19. Coal liquefaction process employing extraneous minerals

    SciTech Connect

    Carr, N.L.; Schmid, B.K.

    1980-09-16

    In a coal liquefaction process which includes a recycle of a product slurry which contain recycle mineral residue and recycle of extraneous catalytic material to said liquefication zone, hydrocracking of the hydrocarbonaceous material from the mineral residue occurs and a mixture of hydrocarbon gases, dissolved liquid, normally solid dissolved coal, suspended mineral residue and suspended extraneous catalytic mineral results. A first portion of said residue slurry is recycled to the liquefication zone, a second portion is passed to separation means and the third portion goes to a hydroclone. Overflow from the hydroclone goes to the liquefaction zone to reduce the median diameter of the particles recycled.

  20. Effects of crop residue burning on aerosol properties, plume characteristics, and long-range transport over northern India

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Kaskaoutis, D. G.; Kumar, S.; Sharma, D.; Singh, R. P.; Kharol, S. K.; Sharma, M.; Singh, A. K.; Singh, S.; Singh, Atinderpal; Singh, D.

    2014-05-01

    Aerosol emissions from biomass burning are of specific interest over the globe due to their strong radiative impacts and climate implications. The present study examines the impact of paddy crop residue burning over northern India during the postmonsoon (October-November) season of 2012 on modification of aerosol properties, as well as the long-range transport of smoke plumes, altitude characteristics, and affected areas via the synergy of ground-based measurements and satellite observations. During this period, Moderate Resolution Imaging Spectroradiometer (MODIS) images show a thick smoke/hazy aerosol layer below 2-2.5 km in the atmosphere covering nearly the whole Indo-Gangetic Plains (IGP). The air mass trajectories originating from the biomass-burning source region over Punjab at 500 m reveal a potential aerosol transport pathway along the Ganges valley from west to east, resulting in a strong aerosol optical depth (AOD) gradient. Sometimes, depending upon the wind direction and meteorological conditions, the plumes also influence central India, the Arabian Sea, and the Bay of Bengal, thus contributing to Asian pollution outflow. The increased number of fire counts (Terra and Aqua MODIS data) is associated with severe aerosol-laden atmospheres (AOD500 nm > 1.0) over six IGP locations, high values of Ångström exponent (>1.2), high particulate mass 2.5 (PM2.5) concentrations (>100-150 µgm-3), and enhanced Ozone Monitoring Instrument Aerosol Index gradient (~2.5) and NO2 concentrations (~6 × 1015 mol/cm2), indicating the dominance of smoke aerosols from agricultural crop residue burning. The aerosol size distribution is shifted toward the fine-mode fraction, also exhibiting an increase in the radius of fine aerosols due to coagulation processes in a highly turbid environment. The spectral variation of the single-scattering albedo reveals enhanced dominance of moderately absorbing aerosols, while the aerosol properties, modification, and mixing atmospheric

  1. Spectral properties of mixtures of montmorillonite and dark grains - Implications for remote sensing minerals containing chemically and physically adsorbed water

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Clark, R. N.

    1983-01-01

    The spectral properties from 0.4 to 3 microns of montmorillonite plus dark carbon grains (called opaques) of various sizes are studied as a function of the weight fraction of opaques present. The reflectance level and band depths of the 1.4-, 1.9-, 2.2-, and 2.8-micron water and/or OH absorption features are analyzed using derived empirical relationships and scattering theory. It is found that the absorption band depths and reflectance level are a very nonlinear function of the weight fraction of opaques present but can be predicted in many cases by simple scattering theory. The 2.8-micron bound water fundamental band is the most difficult absorption feature to suppress. The overtone absorptions are suppressed a greater amount than the fundamental but are still apparent even when 10-20 wt pct opaques are present. The relationships observed and the simple scattering theory presented show that quantitative compositional remote sensing studies are feasible for surfaces containing complex mineral mixtures.

  2. Physicochemical Properties Of Starch From Sago (Metroxylon Sagu) Palm Grown In Mineral Soil At Different Growth Stages

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Uthumporn, U.; Wahidah, N.; Karim, A. A.

    2014-08-01

    A study was carried out to determine the physico-chemical properties of sago starch from sago palm grown in mineral soil at different growth stages. Four stages of sago palm, namely, Plawei (P), Bubul (B), Angau Muda (AM) and Angau Tua (AT) were studied. Sago starch granules were observed by using scanning electron microscopy (SEM) while the x-ray diffraction patterns were examined to study the starch crystallinity. The highest starch content was found at Plawei stage (94.2%) and Angau Muda stage (97.9%), respectively. The amylose content varied between 29.4 to 31.2% for each growth stages. The highest swelling power was found at the earliest growth stages (P) late growth stages (AT) which are 13.3 g/g and 13.2 g/g, respectively. Granule size distributions were similar as the palm grows to the later growth stages, where highest mean diameter of sago starches granules was found at AM. Variation of starch, amylose and proximate content was observed for starches derived from sago palm different growth stages were insignificant.

  3. Mineral dust impact on snow radiative properties in the European Alps combining ground, UAV, and satellite observations

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Di Mauro, B.; Fava, F.; Ferrero, L.; Garzonio, R.; Baccolo, G.; Delmonte, B.; Colombo, R.

    2015-06-01

    In this paper, we evaluate the impact of mineral dust (MD) on snow radiative properties in the European Alps at ground, aerial, and satellite scale. A field survey was conducted to acquire snow spectral reflectance measurements with an Analytical Spectral Device (ASD) Field Spec Pro spectroradiometer. Surface snow samples were analyzed to determine the concentration and size distribution of MD in each sample. An overflight of a four-rotor Unmanned Aerial Vehicle (UAV) equipped with an RGB digital camera sensor was carried out during the field operations. Finally, Landsat 8 Operational Land Imager (OLI) data covering the central European Alps were analyzed. Observed reflectance evidenced that MD strongly reduced the spectral reflectance of snow, in particular, from 350 to 600 nm. Reflectance was compared with that simulated by parameterizing the Snow, Ice, and Aerosol Radiation radiative transfer model. We defined a novel spectral index, the Snow Darkening Index (SDI), that combines different wavelengths showing nonlinear correlation with measured MD concentrations (R2 = 0.87, root-mean-square error = 0.037). We also estimated a positive instantaneous radiative forcing that reaches values up to 153 W/m2 for the most concentrated sampling area. SDI maps at local scale were produced using the UAV data, while regional SDI maps were generated with OLI data. These maps show the spatial distribution of MD in snow after a natural deposition from the Saharan desert. Such postdepositional experimental data are fundamental for validating radiative transfer models and global climate models that simulate the impact of MD on snow radiative properties.

  4. Effects of long-term administration of omeprazole on bone mineral density and the mechanical properties of the bone☆

    PubMed Central

    Yanagihara, Gabriela Rezende; de Paiva, Aline Goulart; Neto, Maurílio Pacheco; Torres, Larissa Helena; Shimano, Antônio Carlos; Louzada, Mário Jefferson Quirino; Annoni, Raquel; de Oliveira Penoni, Álvaro César

    2015-01-01

    Objectives Epidemiological studies have shown a relationship between long-term use of proton pump inhibitors and bone metabolism. However, this relationship has not yet become established. The aim of the present study was to analyze the mechanical properties and bone mineral density (BMD) of rats that were subjected to long-term omeprazole use. Methods Fifty Wistar rats weighing between 200 and 240 g were divided equally into five groups: OMP300 (omeprazole intake at a dose of 300 μmoL/kg/day); OMP200 (200 μmoL/kg/day); OMP40 (40 μmoL/kg/day); OMP10 (10 μmoL/kg/day); and Cont (control group; intake of dilution vehicle). The solutions were administered for 90 consecutive days. After the rats had been sacrificed, their BMD, the mechanical properties of the dissected femurs and their serum Ca++ levels were analyzed. Results The BMD of the OMP300 group was lower than that of the controls (p = 0.006). There was no difference on comparing the OMP200, OMP40 and OMP10 groups with the controls. The maximum strength and rigidity of the femur did not differ in the experimental groups in comparison with the controls. The OMP300 group had a statistically lower serum Ca++ concentration than that of the controls (p = 0.049), but the other groups did not show any difference in relation to the controls. Conclusion Daily intake of 300 μmoL/kg/day of omeprazole decreased the BMD of the femur, but without changes to the rigidity and strength of the femur in adult rats. PMID:26229922

  5. A comparison of the physical and optical properties of anthropogenic air pollutants and mineral dust over Northwest China

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Wang, Xin; Pu, Wei; Shi, Jinsen; Bi, Jianrong; Zhou, Tian; Zhang, Xueying; Ren, Yong

    2015-04-01

    Emissions of mineral dust and its mixing with anthropogenic air pollutants affect both regional and global climates. Our fieldwork in late spring 2007 (April 25-June 15) measured the physical and optical properties of dust storms mixed with local air pollutants at a rural site about 48 km southeast of central Lanzhou. Levels of air pollutants and aerosol optical properties were observed during the experiment, with concentrations of NOx (6.8 ± 3.3 ppb, average ± standard deviation), CO (694 ± 486 ppb), SO2 (6.2 ± 10 ppb), O3 (50.7 ± 13.1 ppb), and PM10 (172 ± 180 μg m-3), and aerosol scattering coefficient (164 ± 89 Mm-1; 1 Mm = 106 m) and absorption coefficient (11.7 ± 6.6 Mm-1), all much lower than the values observed during air pollution episodes in urban areas. During a major dust storm, the mass concentration of PM10 reached 4072 μg m-3, approximately 21-fold higher than in non-dust storm periods. The mixing ratios of trace gases declined noticeably after a cold front passed through. The observed CO/SO2 and CO/NOx ratios during air pollution episodes were 4.2-18.3 and 13.7-80.5, respectively, compared with the corresponding ratios of 38.1-255.7 and 18.0-245.9 during non-pollution periods. Our investigations suggest that dust storms have a significant influence on air quality in areas far from their source, and this large-scale transport of dust and air pollutants produces major uncertainties in the quantification of the global effects of emissions over Northwest China.

  6. Thermal properties of peat, marshy and mineral soils in relation to soil moisture status in Polesie and Biebrza wetlands

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Usowicz, Boguslaw; Łukowski, Mateusz; Marczewski, Wojciech; Usowicz, Jerzy B.; Lipiec, Jerzy; Stankiewicz, Krystyna

    2013-04-01

    Knowledge of thermal properties of soil helps in estimating heat fluxes as an important component of the heat balance. The research was conducted to evaluate spatial distribution of the soil thermal properties (thermal conductivity, heat capacity and thermal diffusivity) in relation to soil wetness and bulk density in wetland soils of Polesie and Biebrza regions (Poland). Soil moisture content and bulk density together with soil temperature and texture data, were used for determination of thermal properties. The thermal conductivity was measured, by KD2 Pro Decagon, and calculated by the physical-statistical model of Usowicz, and the heat capacity - was calculated with empirical formulae, and the thermal diffusivity was determined by the ratio of thermal conductivity to the heat capacity. The thermal conductivity of wetland and marsh soils increases with increasing moisture content and density of the soil to higher extent in soils richer in minerals - mostly quartz. Maximum thermal conductivity of the wetland soils at different density did not exceed the value of the thermal conductivity of water. However, for mineral soil at the natural density (1.31 Mg m-3) and with the quartz content of 96%, the thermal conductivity is about four times greater than the thermal conductivity of water. This is due to that the thermal conductivity of quartz is sixteen times greater than that of water. Dependence of the soil thermal conductivity on moisture content is non-linear and the shape of the non-linearity largely depends on the density of the soil. Particular components of soil bring their contribution to the conductivity respectively to their fractions and compounds being dominant in the ground contribute mostly to the effective slope of the thermal conductivity versus the water content at a given soil density. The heat capacity of the soil substrate is linearly dependent on the water content. Soils containing more organic matter within low specific densities, usually are

  7. Effects of Feed Supplementation on Mineral Composition, Mechanical Properties and Structure in Femurs of Iberian Red Deer Hinds (Cervus elaphus hispanicus)

    PubMed Central

    Olguin, Cesar A.; Landete-Castillejos, Tomas; Ceacero, Francisco; García, Andrés J.; Gallego, Laureano

    2013-01-01

    Few studies in wild animals have assessed changes in mineral profile in long bones and their implications for mechanical properties. We examined the effect of two diets differing in mineral content on the composition and mechanical properties of femora from two groups each with 13 free-ranging red deer hinds. Contents of Ca, P, Mg, K, Na, S, Cu, Fe, Mn, Se, Zn, B and Sr, Young’s modulus of elasticity (E), bending strength and work of fracture were assessed in the proximal part of the diaphysis (PD) and the mid-diaphysis (MD). Whole body measures were also recorded on the hinds. Compared to animals on control diets, those on supplemented diets increased live weight by 6.5 kg and their kidney fat index (KFI), but not carcass weight, body or organ size, femur size or cortical thickness. Supplemental feeding increased Mn content of bone by 23%, Cu by 9% and Zn by 6%. These differences showed a mean fourfold greater content of these minerals in supplemental diet, whereas femora did not reflect a 5.4 times greater content of major minerals (Na and P) in the diet. Lower content of B and Sr in supplemented diet also reduced femur B by 14% and Sr by 5%. There was a subtle effect of diet only on E and none on other mechanical properties. Thus, greater availability of microminerals but not major minerals in the diet is reflected in bone composition even before marked body effects, bone macro-structure or its mechanical properties are affected. PMID:23750262

  8. Study of the Elasto-plastic Properties of Mineralized Biomaterials via Synchrotron High-energy X-ray Diffraction

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Deymier-Black, Alix Christine

    Synchrotron high-energy X-ray diffraction was employed to investigate the strains in the hydroxyapatite (HAP) platelets and mineralized collagen fibrils in bovine dentin and cortical bone. The HAP and the fibrillar apparent moduli, defined as the applied stress divided by the phase strain, in dentin were measured as 27+/-7.2 and 16+/-4.9 GPa. The HAP apparent modulus ( EHAPapp ) is less than the lower bound calculated for EHAPapp from the Voigt model. This discrepancy is probably due to stress concentrators or decreases in the HAP Young's modulus due to size or composition effects. EHAPapp and Efibapp in dentin vary significantly within a single tooth in both the apical-cervical direction and the buccal-lingual direction. However, the variation between teeth is minimal. The HAP and fibrillar apparent moduli are not affected by freezing in dentin or by X-ray irradiation in bone and dentin. X-ray irradiation causes a decrease in HAP residual strain in bone. This decrease suggests the presence of HAP-collagen interfacial damage. It was determined from the HAP 00.2 peak broadening that irradiation damage mostly affects the HAP unit cells which are under the highest strain. From this it was theorized that irradiation may damage highly-strained bonds at stress concentrators and/or calcium-mediated electrostatic bonds. The fact that the apparent modulus does not change with irradiation suggests that the interfacial damage must be reversible. Bone and dentin both undergo creep when loaded to high stresses. At low irradiation doses, both the fibrillar and HAP strains increase with creep time indicating that load is being transferred from the matrix to the HAP. However, at high doses, the strain on the HAP decreases with creep time. This supports the interfacial damage theory which would allow the HAP to release its elastic load upon interfacial debonding. At -80 MPa, beyond a dose of 50 kGy, the rate of change in HAP strain with time begins to increase, becoming positive at

  9. Properties of aromatic residues in ferricytochrome c3 of desulforvibrio vulgaris Miyazaki F studied by 1H NMR

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Park, Jang-Su; Enoki, Minoru; Ohbu, Ayako; Fan, Kejung; Niki, Katsumi; Akutsu, Hideo; Kyogoku, Yoshimasa

    1991-01-01

    Conditions for the specific labelling of the tetrahaeme protein cytochrome c3 of Desulfovibrio vulgaris Miyazaki F during culture of this sulphate-reducing bacterium in a minimal medium were established. Phenylalanine and tyrosine residues were specifically deuterated at more than 85% efficiency. Cytochrome c3 has nine histidine, three tyrosine and two phenylalamine residues. Eight histidine imidazoles are ligated to four haeme groups. Using the deuterated cytochrome c3, aromatic proton signals of phenylalanine and tyrosine residues in the fully oxidized state were identified. However, the signals of one phenylalanine residue were missing and this was tentatively assigned to Phe20. The aromatic proton signals of His67 were also assigned p2H titration. Its pk1 was much higher than that for the free histidine residue. No tyrosine residue was ionized up to p2H 12.

  10. The effects of mineral fraction on the rheological properties of forsterite-enstatite rocks during grain size sensitive creep

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Tasaka, M.; Hiraga, T.

    2012-12-01

    Since the majority of crustal and mantle rocks are polymineralic, it is important to consider the effects of secondary mineral phases on their rheological properties. To examine these effects, we have conducted grain growth and deformation experiments on samples composed of different volumetric fractions of forsterite (Fo) and enstatite (En) at 1 atmosphere and temperatures of 1260, 1310 and 1360 C. The results of our grain growth experiments indicate that the grain size ratios of Fo and En in annealed (reference) and deformed samples follow a Zener relationship with d1/d2 = b/f2z, where di is the grain size of the primary or secondary phase, b and z are the Zener parameters relating grain boundary energies, and f is the volume fraction of the associated phase. Grain growth in the reference samples conforms to the relationship d4-d04 = kt, where d is the grain size under static conditions, d0 is the initial grain size, k is the grain growth coefficient, and t is time. The growth coefficient of Fo decrease with increasing En volume fraction (fEn), and is consistent with theoretical predictions of Ardell's grain growth model that incorporates physical parameters such as diffusivity and interfacial energy of the mineral phases. The results of our deformation experiments at constant temperature and strain rate indicate that the flow stress decreases with increasing fEn, for samples with 0 < fEn < 0.5, and increases with increasing fEn, for samples with 0.5 < fEn < 1. The values of the pre-exponential term, stress and grain size exponents, and activation energy in the constitutive equation for a wide range of fEn were determined. The majority of samples exhibited diffusion accommodated grain boundary sliding creep (i.e., stress exponent = 1). The viscosity measured for all samples is fit well by a model that takes into account (1) grain size calculated from grain growth laws established in our experiments and (2) the flow laws for monomineralic systems of forsterite and

  11. Identifying the Types of Ion Channel-Targeted Conotoxins by Incorporating New Properties of Residues into Pseudo Amino Acid Composition

    PubMed Central

    Wu, Yun

    2016-01-01

    Conotoxins are a kind of neurotoxin which can specifically interact with potassium, sodium type, and calcium channels. They have become potential drug candidates to treat diseases such as chronic pain, epilepsy, and cardiovascular diseases. Thus, correctly identifying the types of ion channel-targeted conotoxins will provide important clue to understand their function and find potential drugs. Based on this consideration, we developed a new computational method to rapidly and accurately predict the types of ion-targeted conotoxins. Three kinds of new properties of residues were proposed to use in pseudo amino acid composition to formulate conotoxins samples. The support vector machine was utilized as classifier. A feature selection technique based on F-score was used to optimize features. Jackknife cross-validated results showed that the overall accuracy of 94.6% was achieved, which is higher than other published results, demonstrating that the proposed method is superior to published methods. Hence the current method may play a complementary role to other existing methods for recognizing the types of ion-target conotoxins. PMID:27631006

  12. Identifying the Types of Ion Channel-Targeted Conotoxins by Incorporating New Properties of Residues into Pseudo Amino Acid Composition.

    PubMed

    Wu, Yun; Zheng, Yufei; Tang, Hua

    2016-01-01

    Conotoxins are a kind of neurotoxin which can specifically interact with potassium, sodium type, and calcium channels. They have become potential drug candidates to treat diseases such as chronic pain, epilepsy, and cardiovascular diseases. Thus, correctly identifying the types of ion channel-targeted conotoxins will provide important clue to understand their function and find potential drugs. Based on this consideration, we developed a new computational method to rapidly and accurately predict the types of ion-targeted conotoxins. Three kinds of new properties of residues were proposed to use in pseudo amino acid composition to formulate conotoxins samples. The support vector machine was utilized as classifier. A feature selection technique based on F-score was used to optimize features. Jackknife cross-validated results showed that the overall accuracy of 94.6% was achieved, which is higher than other published results, demonstrating that the proposed method is superior to published methods. Hence the current method may play a complementary role to other existing methods for recognizing the types of ion-target conotoxins. PMID:27631006

  13. Identifying the Types of Ion Channel-Targeted Conotoxins by Incorporating New Properties of Residues into Pseudo Amino Acid Composition

    PubMed Central

    Wu, Yun

    2016-01-01

    Conotoxins are a kind of neurotoxin which can specifically interact with potassium, sodium type, and calcium channels. They have become potential drug candidates to treat diseases such as chronic pain, epilepsy, and cardiovascular diseases. Thus, correctly identifying the types of ion channel-targeted conotoxins will provide important clue to understand their function and find potential drugs. Based on this consideration, we developed a new computational method to rapidly and accurately predict the types of ion-targeted conotoxins. Three kinds of new properties of residues were proposed to use in pseudo amino acid composition to formulate conotoxins samples. The support vector machine was utilized as classifier. A feature selection technique based on F-score was used to optimize features. Jackknife cross-validated results showed that the overall accuracy of 94.6% was achieved, which is higher than other published results, demonstrating that the proposed method is superior to published methods. Hence the current method may play a complementary role to other existing methods for recognizing the types of ion-target conotoxins.

  14. Investigation of the linkages between insoluble precipitation residues and cloud properties at Yosemite National Park during U.S. West Coast storms

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Creamean, J.; Minnis, P.; Palikonda, R.; Spangenberg, D.; Prather, K. A.; White, A. B.

    2015-12-01

    Ice formation in orographic mixed-phase clouds can enhance precipitation, and depends not only on cloud depth and temperature, but also on the type of aerosols that serve as ice nuclei (IN). The resulting precipitation from these clouds serves as a viable source of water, especially for mountainous regions such as the California Sierra Nevada. Thus, a better understanding of the sources of IN that impact these particular clouds is important for assessing water availability in California. We present a multi-site, multi-year (2011 and 2012) analysis of single, insoluble residue particles in precipitation samples that potentially served as IN and influenced ice formation in the clouds above Yosemite National Park, USA. Dust and biological particles typically represented the dominant fraction of the total residues (64% on average) and were ultimately removed via precipitation. Cloud glaciation was determined using GOES satellite observations and was not only dependent on high cloud tops (> 6.2 km MSL) and low temperatures (< -26°C), but also on the composition of the dust and biological residues. The greatest prevalence of ice-phase clouds occurred in conjunction with biologically-rich residues and mineral dust particularly rich in calcium, followed by iron and aluminosilicates. Dust and biological particles are known to serve as efficient IN, and thus we hypothesize that these precipitation residue types induced ice formation in the clouds above the site. The goal of this study is to use precipitation chemistry data to gain a better understanding of the potential sources of IN in the south-central Sierra Nevada, where aerosol-cloud-precipitation interactions are under-studied and where mixed-phase orographic clouds are a key element to precipitation and thus water supply in California.

  15. The effect of crystal plasticity and mineral stability on the rheological properties of magma during spine extrusion at Unzen, Japan

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Wallace, Paul A.; Kendrick, Jackie E.; Lavallée, Yan; Ashworth, James D.; Mariani, Elisabetta; von Aulock, Felix W.; Coats, Rebecca; Miwa, Takahiro

    2016-04-01

    The presence of crystals in silicic magmas is known to have a significant effect on the rheological properties inducing a non-Newtonian response. Plastic deformation of the crystalline phase in magmatic suspensions is believed to be partially responsible for this characteristic behaviour via accommodating strain, but little has been investigated on its role in volcanic processes. The spine extrusion following the final stages of endogenous growth of the 1991-95 lava dome eruption at Unzen volcano, Japan, has provided a unique opportunity to investigate the contribution of the different deformation mechanisms and varying petrological phenomena associated with magma ascent. The spine forms a shear zone consisting of four structurally discrete units over a 6 m transect including: gouge (1), a heavily sheared zone (2) to a moderately sheared zone (3), and an undeformed magmatic core (4). Here we report the first systematic study of the microstructures, mineralogy, crystal stability, geochemistry and crystal size distribution across this shear zone. The spine samples are porphyritic dacites with varying abundance of phenocrysts (20-30 vol.%), dominantly plagioclase, hornblende and biotite with minor quartz. The groundmass contains the same mineralogy plus pyroxene, magnetite and ilmenite. The microlites (35 vol.%) show a strong trachytic texture in areas of high shear, providing evidence of strain localisation. Brittle deformation is evident across the spine, with the higher sheared samples showing more crystal size reduction of the phenocrysts. By performing high-temperature (900° C) uniaxial compressive strength tests at constant strain rates (10-5 and 10-3 s-1), it can be inferred that crystals play a key role in the rheological properties, by forming a rigid but weak network that serves to partition stress and thus localise strain within the flowing melt. Electron backscatter diffraction (EBSD) enables the identification of crystal plasticity in both phenocrysts

  16. Microhardness Properties of Mineral Trioxide Aggregate and Calcium-enriched Mixture Cement Plugs at Different Setting Conditions

    PubMed Central

    Tabrizizadeh, Mehdi; Dabbagh, Mohammad Mahdi; Badrian, Hamid; Davoudi, Amin

    2015-01-01

    Background: Providing an apical stop in open apex roots is one of the endodontic challenges. The aim of present study was to compare the surface hardness of both mineral trioxide aggregate (MTA) and calcium-enriched mixture (CEM) cement at different setting situations. Materials and Methods: A total of 40 freshly extracted human teeth with a single root and normal apex and no obvious caries or curvatures were selected. The teeth were sectioned horizontally from the cement enamel junction and 2 mm above the apex. Standard technique was administered for cleaning and shaping of the canals. Open apex root canal was prepared by using Peso reamer. The prepared teeth were randomly divided into four groups in which two groups were filled by MTA and the other groups were filled by CEM. White MTA and CEM cement plugs were prepared and condensed up to the apical end. In two groups, moistened paper point was placed in the canals and in the other group dried paper points was used. Vickers test was done to evaluate the microhardness and the collected data were analyzed by Kruskal-Wallis and three-way ANOVA tests using SPSS software version 18 at a significant level of 0.05. Results: The highest and lowest surface hardness was observed in CEM group at dried condition with 4 mm thickness indentation (145.10 ± 7.60 kg/mm2) and moist MTA group indented at 8 mm thickness (111.25 ± 5.37 kg/mm2). However, no significant difference was noticed (P > 0.05). Conclusion: Humidity condition might not influence the microhardness properties of both MTA and CEM cement apical plugs at different tested indentation thickness. PMID:26435614

  17. Mineral Fiber Toxicology

    EPA Science Inventory

    The chemical and physical properties of different forms of mineral fibers impact biopersistence and pathology in the lung. Fiber chemistry, length, aspect ratio, surface area and dose are critical factors determining mineral fiber-associated health effects including cancer and as...

  18. Properties of Soil Pore Space Regulate Pathways of Plant Residue Decomposition and Community Structure of Associated Bacteria

    PubMed Central

    Negassa, Wakene C.; Guber, Andrey K.; Kravchenko, Alexandra N.; Marsh, Terence L.; Hildebrandt, Britton; Rivers, Mark L.

    2015-01-01

    Physical protection of soil carbon (C) is one of the important components of C storage. However, its exact mechanisms are still not sufficiently lucid. The goal of this study was to explore the influence of soil structure, that is, soil pore spatial arrangements, with and without presence of plant residue on (i) decomposition of added plant residue, (ii) CO2 emission from soil, and (iii) structure of soil bacterial communities. The study consisted of several soil incubation experiments with samples of contrasting pore characteristics with/without plant residue, accompanied by X-ray micro-tomographic analyses of soil pores and by microbial community analysis of amplified 16S–18S rRNA genes via pyrosequencing. We observed that in the samples with substantial presence of air-filled well-connected large (>30 µm) pores, 75–80% of the added plant residue was decomposed, cumulative CO2 emission constituted 1,200 µm C g-1 soil, and movement of C from decomposing plant residue into adjacent soil was insignificant. In the samples with greater abundance of water-filled small pores, 60% of the added plant residue was decomposed, cumulative CO2 emission constituted 2,000 µm C g-1 soil, and the movement of residue C into adjacent soil was substantial. In the absence of plant residue the influence of pore characteristics on CO2 emission, that is on decomposition of the native soil organic C, was negligible. The microbial communities on the plant residue in the samples with large pores had more microbial groups known to be cellulose decomposers, that is, Bacteroidetes, Proteobacteria, Actinobacteria, and Firmicutes, while a number of oligotrophic Acidobacteria groups were more abundant on the plant residue from the samples with small pores. This study provides the first experimental evidence that characteristics of soil pores and their air/water flow status determine the phylogenetic composition of the local microbial community and directions and magnitudes of soil C

  19. Properties of soil pore space regulate pathways of plant residue decomposition and community structure of associated bacteria.

    PubMed

    Negassa, Wakene C; Guber, Andrey K; Kravchenko, Alexandra N; Marsh, Terence L; Hildebrandt, Britton; Rivers, Mark L

    2015-01-01

    Physical protection of soil carbon (C) is one of the important components of C storage. However, its exact mechanisms are still not sufficiently lucid. The goal of this study was to explore the influence of soil structure, that is, soil pore spatial arrangements, with and without presence of plant residue on (i) decomposition of added plant residue, (ii) CO2 emission from soil, and (iii) structure of soil bacterial communities. The study consisted of several soil incubation experiments with samples of contrasting pore characteristics with/without plant residue, accompanied by X-ray micro-tomographic analyses of soil pores and by microbial community analysis of amplified 16S-18S rRNA genes via pyrosequencing. We observed that in the samples with substantial presence of air-filled well-connected large (>30 µm) pores, 75-80% of the added plant residue was decomposed, cumulative CO2 emission constituted 1,200 µm C g(-1) soil, and movement of C from decomposing plant residue into adjacent soil was insignificant. In the samples with greater abundance of water-filled small pores, 60% of the added plant residue was decomposed, cumulative CO2 emission constituted 2,000 µm C g(-1) soil, and the movement of residue C into adjacent soil was substantial. In the absence of plant residue the influence of pore characteristics on CO2 emission, that is on decomposition of the native soil organic C, was negligible. The microbial communities on the plant residue in the samples with large pores had more microbial groups known to be cellulose decomposers, that is, Bacteroidetes, Proteobacteria, Actinobacteria, and Firmicutes, while a number of oligotrophic Acidobacteria groups were more abundant on the plant residue from the samples with small pores. This study provides the first experimental evidence that characteristics of soil pores and their air/water flow status determine the phylogenetic composition of the local microbial community and directions and magnitudes of soil C

  20. Properties of soil pore space regulate pathways of plant residue decomposition and community structure of associated bacteria

    SciTech Connect

    Negassa, Wakene C.; Guber, Andrey K.; Kravchenko, Alexandra N.; Marsh, Terence L.; Hildebrandt, Britton; Rivers, Mark L.

    2015-07-01

    Physical protection of soil carbon (C) is one of the important components of C storage. However, its exact mechanisms are still not sufficiently lucid. The goal of this study was to explore the influence of soil structure, that is, soil pore spatial arrangements, with and without presence of plant residue on (i) decomposition of added plant residue, (ii) CO₂ emission from soil, and (iii) structure of soil bacterial communities. The study consisted of several soil incubation experiments with samples of contrasting pore characteristics with/without plant residue, accompanied by X-ray micro-tomographic analyses of soil pores and by microbial community analysis of amplified 16S–18S rRNA genes via pyrosequencing. We observed that in the samples with substantial presence of air-filled well-connected large (>30 µm) pores, 75–80% of the added plant residue was decomposed, cumulative CO₂ emission constituted 1,200 µm C g⁻¹ soil, and movement of C from decomposing plant residue into adjacent soil was insignificant. In the samples with greater abundance of water-filled small pores, 60% of the added plant residue was decomposed, cumulative CO₂ emission constituted 2,000 µm C g⁻¹ soil, and the movement of residue C into adjacent soil was substantial. In the absence of plant residue the influence of pore characteristics on CO₂ emission, that is on decomposition of the native soil organic C, was negligible. The microbial communities on the plant residue in the samples with large pores had more microbial groups known to be cellulose decomposers, that is, Bacteroidetes, Proteobacteria, Actinobacteria, and Firmicutes, while a number of oligotrophic Acidobacteria groups were more abundant on the plant residue from the samples with small pores. This study provides the first experimental evidence that characteristics of soil pores and their air/water flow status determine the phylogenetic composition of the local microbial community and directions and magnitudes of

  1. Properties of soil pore space regulate pathways of plant residue decomposition and community structure of associated bacteria.

    PubMed

    Negassa, Wakene C; Guber, Andrey K; Kravchenko, Alexandra N; Marsh, Terence L; Hildebrandt, Britton; Rivers, Mark L

    2015-01-01

    Physical protection of soil carbon (C) is one of the important components of C storage. However, its exact mechanisms are still not sufficiently lucid. The goal of this study was to explore the influence of soil structure, that is, soil pore spatial arrangements, with and without presence of plant residue on (i) decomposition of added plant residue, (ii) CO2 emission from soil, and (iii) structure of soil bacterial communities. The study consisted of several soil incubation experiments with samples of contrasting pore characteristics with/without plant residue, accompanied by X-ray micro-tomographic analyses of soil pores and by microbial community analysis of amplified 16S-18S rRNA genes via pyrosequencing. We observed that in the samples with substantial presence of air-filled well-connected large (>30 µm) pores, 75-80% of the added plant residue was decomposed, cumulative CO2 emission constituted 1,200 µm C g(-1) soil, and movement of C from decomposing plant residue into adjacent soil was insignificant. In the samples with greater abundance of water-filled small pores, 60% of the added plant residue was decomposed, cumulative CO2 emission constituted 2,000 µm C g(-1) soil, and the movement of residue C into adjacent soil was substantial. In the absence of plant residue the influence of pore characteristics on CO2 emission, that is on decomposition of the native soil organic C, was negligible. The microbial communities on the plant residue in the samples with large pores had more microbial groups known to be cellulose decomposers, that is, Bacteroidetes, Proteobacteria, Actinobacteria, and Firmicutes, while a number of oligotrophic Acidobacteria groups were more abundant on the plant residue from the samples with small pores. This study provides the first experimental evidence that characteristics of soil pores and their air/water flow status determine the phylogenetic composition of the local microbial community and directions and magnitudes of soil C

  2. Sublimation of Ices Containing Organics and/or Minerals and Implications for Icy Bodies Surface Structure and Spectral Properties

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Poch, O.; Pommerol, A.; Jost, B.; Yoldi, Z.; Carrasco, N.; Szopa, C.; Thomas, N.

    2015-12-01

    The surfaces of many objects in the Solar System comprise substantial quantities of water ice either in pure form or mixed with minerals and/or organic molecules. Sublimation is a process responsible for shaping and changing the reflectance properties of these objects. We present laboratory data on the evolution of the structure and the visible and near-infrared spectral reflectance of icy surfaces made of mixtures of water ice and non-volatile components (complex organic matter and silicates), as they undergo sublimation of the water ice under low temperature and pressure conditions (Poch et al., under review). We prepared icy surfaces which are potential analogues of ices found on comets, icy satellites or trans-neptunian objects (TNOs). The experiments were carried out in the SCITEAS simulation setup recently built as part of the Laboratory for Outflow Studies of Sublimating Materials (LOSSy) at the University of Bern (Pommerol et al., 2015a). As the water ice sublimated, we observed in situ the formation of a sublimation lag deposit, or sublimation mantle, made of the non-volatiles at the top of the samples. The texture (porosity, internal cohesiveness etc.), the activity (outbursts and ejection of mantle fragments) and the spectro-photometric properties of this mantle are found to differ strongly depending on the chemical nature of the non-volatiles, the size of their particles, the way they are mixed with the volatile component and the dust/ice mass ratio. The results also indicate how the band depths of the sub-surface water ice evolve during the build-up of the sublimation mantle. These data provide useful references for interpreting remote-sensing observations of Rosetta (see Pommerol et al., 2015b), and also New Horizons. Poch, O., et al., under review in IcarusPommerol, A., et al., 2015a, Planet. Space Sci. 109-110, 106-122. http://dx.doi.org/10.1016/j.pss.2015.02.004Pommerol, A., et al., 2015b, Astronomy and Astrophysics, in press. http://dx.doi.org/10.1051/0004-6361/201525977

  3. The impact of atmospheric mineral aerosol deposition on the albedo of snow & sea ice: are snow and sea ice optical properties more important than mineral aerosol optical properties?

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Lamare, M. L.; Lee-Taylor, J.; King, M. D.

    2016-01-01

    Knowledge of the albedo of polar regions is crucial for understanding a range of climatic processes that have an impact on a global scale. Light-absorbing impurities in atmospheric aerosols deposited on snow and sea ice by aeolian transport absorb solar radiation, reducing albedo. Here, the effects of five mineral aerosol deposits reducing the albedo of polar snow and sea ice are considered. Calculations employing a coupled atmospheric and snow/sea ice radiative-transfer model (TUV-snow) show that the effects of mineral aerosol deposits are strongly dependent on the snow or sea ice type rather than the differences between the aerosol optical characteristics. The change in albedo between five different mineral aerosol deposits with refractive indices varying by a factor of 2 reaches a maximum of 0.0788, whereas the difference between cold polar snow and melting sea ice is 0.8893 for the same mineral loading. Surprisingly, the thickness of a surface layer of snow or sea ice loaded with the same mass ratio of mineral dust has little effect on albedo. On the contrary, the surface albedo of two snowpacks of equal depth, containing the same mineral aerosol mass ratio, is similar, whether the loading is uniformly distributed or concentrated in multiple layers, regardless of their position or spacing. The impact of mineral aerosol deposits is much larger on melting sea ice than on other types of snow and sea ice. Therefore, the higher input of shortwave radiation during the summer melt cycle associated with melting sea ice accelerates the melt process.

  4. Bioactive Properties of Phaseolus lunatus (Lima Bean) and Vigna unguiculata (Cowpea) Hydrolyzates Incorporated into Pasta. Residual Activity after Pasta Cooking.

    PubMed

    Drago, Silvina R; Franco-Miranda, Hanai; Cian, Raúl E; Betancur-Ancona, David; Chel-Guerrero, Luis

    2016-09-01

    The aims of the study were to study the inclusion of P. lunatus (PLH) and V. unguiculata (VUH) protein hydrolyzates with bioactive properties into a pasta-extruded product and determine residual activity after extrusion or pasta cooking. Both protein hydrolyzates showed angiotensin-converting enzyme inhibition (ACEI) and antioxidant activity (TEAC). PLH showed higher ACEI but lower TEAC than VUH (97.19 ± 0.23 vs. 91.95 ± 0.29 % and 244.7 ± 3.4 vs. 293.7 ± 3.3 μmol Trolox/g, respectively). They were included at 5 or 10 % into wheat pasta. Control pasta had the lowest ACEI activity or TEAC (22.01 ± 0.76 % or 14.14 ± 1.28 μmol Trolox/g, respectively). Higher activity remained in pasta with PLH than VUH after extrusion, and higher the level of addition, higher the ACEI was. Pasta had practically the same ACEI activity after cooking, thus active compounds were not lost by temperature or lixiviation. Regarding TEAC, higher activity remained in pasta with 10 % VUH (31.84 ± 0.17 μmol Trolox/g). Other samples with hydrolyzates had the same activity. After cooking, pasta with hydrolyzates had higher TEAC values than control, but these were not modified by the level of incorporation. Moreover, the profile changed because pasta with PLH had the highest TEAC values (21.39 ± 0.01 and 20.34 ± 0.15 for 5 or 10 % hydrolyzates, respectively). Cooking decreased this activity (~ 20 %), for all samples. Although a certain loss of antioxidant activity was observed, pasta could be a good vehicle for bioactive compounds becoming a functional food. PMID:27422785

  5. Bioactive Properties of Phaseolus lunatus (Lima Bean) and Vigna unguiculata (Cowpea) Hydrolyzates Incorporated into Pasta. Residual Activity after Pasta Cooking.

    PubMed

    Drago, Silvina R; Franco-Miranda, Hanai; Cian, Raúl E; Betancur-Ancona, David; Chel-Guerrero, Luis

    2016-09-01

    The aims of the study were to study the inclusion of P. lunatus (PLH) and V. unguiculata (VUH) protein hydrolyzates with bioactive properties into a pasta-extruded product and determine residual activity after extrusion or pasta cooking. Both protein hydrolyzates showed angiotensin-converting enzyme inhibition (ACEI) and antioxidant activity (TEAC). PLH showed higher ACEI but lower TEAC than VUH (97.19 ± 0.23 vs. 91.95 ± 0.29 % and 244.7 ± 3.4 vs. 293.7 ± 3.3 μmol Trolox/g, respectively). They were included at 5 or 10 % into wheat pasta. Control pasta had the lowest ACEI activity or TEAC (22.01 ± 0.76 % or 14.14 ± 1.28 μmol Trolox/g, respectively). Higher activity remained in pasta with PLH than VUH after extrusion, and higher the level of addition, higher the ACEI was. Pasta had practically the same ACEI activity after cooking, thus active compounds were not lost by temperature or lixiviation. Regarding TEAC, higher activity remained in pasta with 10 % VUH (31.84 ± 0.17 μmol Trolox/g). Other samples with hydrolyzates had the same activity. After cooking, pasta with hydrolyzates had higher TEAC values than control, but these were not modified by the level of incorporation. Moreover, the profile changed because pasta with PLH had the highest TEAC values (21.39 ± 0.01 and 20.34 ± 0.15 for 5 or 10 % hydrolyzates, respectively). Cooking decreased this activity (~ 20 %), for all samples. Although a certain loss of antioxidant activity was observed, pasta could be a good vehicle for bioactive compounds becoming a functional food.

  6. An in-depth analysis of the physico-mechanical properties imparted by agricultural fibers and food processing residues in polypropylene biocomposites

    SciTech Connect

    Murdy, Rachel Campbell; Mak, Michelle; Misra, Manjusri; Mohanty, Amar K.

    2015-05-22

    The use of agricultural and food processing residues as potential reinforcements in plastics has been extensively studied. However, there is a large variation in the mechanical performance of agricultural fiber-based biocomposites due to different processing materials and parameters. An in-depth comparison of the resulting effect of the agricultural filler on the matrix is often not possible given the discrepancy in processing conditions. This study seeks to determine the intrinsic properties of agricultural fibers and food processing residues for their use in polypropylene biocomposites based on a standardization of experimental design. The effect of 25wt% loading of miscanthus, fall-and spring-harvest switchgrass, wheat straw, oat hull, soy hull, soy stalk, hemp and flax on the physico-mechanical properties of polypropylene biocomposites was investigated. The addition of fiber led to an improvement in flexural strength, flexural modulus, and tensile modulus, and a general decrease in tensile strength at yield, elongation at break and Izod impact strength. Scanning electron microscopy highlighted the interfacial adhesion, orientation and distribution of the fibers within the matrix, confirming that fiber length and dispersion within the matrix are positively correlated with mechanical properties. The crystallization of the polypropylene phase and a compositional analysis of the agricultural fibers and processing residues were also compared to offer insight into the effect of the filler’s intrinsic properties on the resulting material performance.

  7. An in-depth analysis of the physico-mechanical properties imparted by agricultural fibers and food processing residues in polypropylene biocomposites

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Murdy, Rachel Campbell; Mak, Michelle; Misra, Manjusri; Mohanty, Amar K.

    2015-05-01

    The use of agricultural and food processing residues as potential reinforcements in plastics has been extensively studied. However, there is a large variation in the mechanical performance of agricultural fiber-based biocomposites due to different processing materials and parameters. An in-depth comparison of the resulting effect of the agricultural filler on the matrix is often not possible given the discrepancy in processing conditions. This study seeks to determine the intrinsic properties of agricultural fibers and food processing residues for their use in polypropylene biocomposites based on a standardization of experimental design. The effect of 25wt% loading of miscanthus, fall-and spring-harvest switchgrass, wheat straw, oat hull, soy hull, soy stalk, hemp and flax on the physico-mechanical properties of polypropylene biocomposites was investigated. The addition of fiber led to an improvement in flexural strength, flexural modulus, and tensile modulus, and a general decrease in tensile strength at yield, elongation at break and Izod impact strength. Scanning electron microscopy highlighted the interfacial adhesion, orientation and distribution of the fibers within the matrix, confirming that fiber length and dispersion within the matrix are positively correlated with mechanical properties. The crystallization of the polypropylene phase and a compositional analysis of the agricultural fibers and processing residues were also compared to offer insight into the effect of the filler's intrinsic properties on the resulting material performance.

  8. The mechanical properties of the dentine and cement of the tusk of the narwhal Monodon monoceros compared with those of other mineralized tissues.

    PubMed

    Brear, K; Currey, J D; Pond, C M; Ramsay, M A

    1990-01-01

    Values for Young's modulus of elasticity, ultimate and yield stresses, ultimate and yield strains, work under the stress-strain curve and work of fracture were obtained from tensile and bending tests on specimens of narwhal tusk dentine and cement, femoral bone from young and mature cattle, and reindeer antler. Compared with the cattle bone the narwhal tissues had low Young's moduli, low yield stresses, rather low ultimate stresses and high ultimate strains. In all these properties they were similar to reindeer antler. The calcium content and hardness of the narwhal tissues were compared with those of human and cattle dental tissues. The narwhal dentine was considerably softer and less mineralized than human and cattle dentine. Human cementum was softer and less mineralized than cattle cementum, and was like narwhal cementum. In general, the mechanical properties of the narwhal tusk tissues were as would be expected from their mineral content, except that the stiffness of the cementum was low. It is likely that narwhal dentine is not very similar to human and cattle dentine in its mechanical properties.

  9. The mechanical properties of the dentine and cement of the tusk of the narwhal Monodon monoceros compared with those of other mineralized tissues.

    PubMed

    Brear, K; Currey, J D; Pond, C M; Ramsay, M A

    1990-01-01

    Values for Young's modulus of elasticity, ultimate and yield stresses, ultimate and yield strains, work under the stress-strain curve and work of fracture were obtained from tensile and bending tests on specimens of narwhal tusk dentine and cement, femoral bone from young and mature cattle, and reindeer antler. Compared with the cattle bone the narwhal tissues had low Young's moduli, low yield stresses, rather low ultimate stresses and high ultimate strains. In all these properties they were similar to reindeer antler. The calcium content and hardness of the narwhal tissues were compared with those of human and cattle dental tissues. The narwhal dentine was considerably softer and less mineralized than human and cattle dentine. Human cementum was softer and less mineralized than cattle cementum, and was like narwhal cementum. In general, the mechanical properties of the narwhal tusk tissues were as would be expected from their mineral content, except that the stiffness of the cementum was low. It is likely that narwhal dentine is not very similar to human and cattle dentine in its mechanical properties. PMID:2256815

  10. Geopolymers prepared from DC plasma treated air pollution control (APC) residues glass: properties and characterisation of the binder phase.

    PubMed

    Kourti, Ioanna; Devaraj, Amutha Rani; Bustos, Ana Guerrero; Deegan, David; Boccaccini, Aldo R; Cheeseman, Christopher R

    2011-11-30

    Air pollution control (APC) residues have been blended with glass-forming additives and treated using DC plasma technology to produce a high calcium aluminosilicate glass (APC glass). This has been used to form geopolymer-glass composites that exhibit high strength and density, low porosity, low water absorption, low leaching and high acid resistance. The composites have a microstructure consisting of un-reacted residual APC glass particles imbedded in a complex geopolymer and C-S-H gel binder phase, and behave as particle reinforced composites. The work demonstrates that materials prepared from DC plasma treated APC residues have potential to be used to form high quality pre-cast products.

  11. RECOVERY OF URANIUM VALUES FROM RESIDUES

    DOEpatents

    Schaap, W.B.

    1959-08-18

    A process is described for the recovery of uranium from insoluble oxide residues resistant to repeated leaching with mineral acids. The residue is treated with gaseous hydrogen fluoride, then with hydrogen and again with hydrogen fluoride, preferably at 500 to 700 deg C, prior to the mineral acid leaching.

  12. Can supplemental nitrate in cured meats be used as a means of increasing residual and dietary nitrate and subsequent potential for physiological nitric oxide without affecting product properties?

    PubMed

    Usinger, Emily L; Larson, Elaine M; Niebuhr, Steven E; Fedler, Christine A; Prusa, Kenneth J; Dickson, James S; Tarté, Rodrigo; Sebranek, Joseph G

    2016-11-01

    The effects of formulated sodium nitrate plus supplemental nitrate (SN) from celery juice powder on residual nitrite, residual nitrate, rancidity, microbial growth, color, sensory properties, and proximate composition of frankfurters, cotto salami and boneless ham during storage (1°C) were studied. The products were assigned one of two treatments, which were each replicated twice: control (156ppm sodium nitrite) or SN (156ppm sodium nitrite and 1718ppm sodium nitrate in combination with 2% VegStable 502). Sensory parameters and proximate composition were measured once for each replication. All other analytical measurements were conducted at regular intervals for 97-98days. The SN showed no increase in residual nitrite compared to the control. No changes (P>0.05) were observed in residual nitrate during storage for any of the products. The results showed that addition of SN did not significantly alter most physical, chemical or microbial properties of cured meat products during refrigerated storage, but some product dependent sensory effects were observed. PMID:27411075

  13. Why Mineral Interfaces Matter

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Putnis, Andrew; Putnis, Christine V.

    2015-04-01

    While it is obvious that reactions between a mineral and an aqueous solution take place at the mineral-fluid interface it is only relatively recently that high spatial resolution studies have demonstrated how the local structure of the mineral surface and the chemical composition of the fluid at the interface control both the short-range and the long-range consequences of mineral-fluid interaction. Long-range consequences of fluid-mineral interaction control element cycles in the earth, the formation of ore-deposits, the chemical composition of the oceans through weathering of rocks and hence climate changes. Although weathering is clearly related to mineral dissolution, to what extent do experimentally measured dissolution rates of minerals help to understand weathering, especially weathering mechanisms? This question is related to the short-range, local reactions that take place when a mineral, that is not stable in the fluid, begins to dissolve. In this case the fluid composition at the interface will become supersaturated with respect to a different phase or phases. This may be a different composition of the same mineral e.g. a Ca-rich feldspar dissolving in a Na-rich solution results in a fluid at the interface which may be supersaturated with respect to an Na-rich feldspar. Alternatively, the interfacial fluid could be supersaturated with respect to a different mineral e.g. an Na-rich zeolite, depending on the temperature. Numerous experiments have shown that the precipitation of a more stable phase at the mineral-fluid interface results in a coupling between the dissolution and the precipitation, and the replacement of one mineral by another. This process separates the short-range mechanisms which depend only on the composition of the interfacial solution, and the long-range consequences that depend on the composition of the residual fluid released from the reacting parent mineral. Typically such residual fluids may carry metal ions tens to hundreds of

  14. Optical properties and residual stress in aluminum nitride films prepared by alternating-current dual reactive magnetron sputtering.

    PubMed

    Tang, Chien-Jen; Jaing, Cheng-Chung; Lee, Kun-Hsien; Lee, Cheng-Chung

    2011-05-01

    Aluminum nitride films were deposited by alternating-current dual reactive magnetron sputtering. The influence of different nitrogen flow and working pressures at a sputtering power of 5 kW on the refractive index, extinction coefficient, crystalline structure, residual stress, and surface roughness of aluminum nitride films was discussed. The aluminum nitride film would have high refractive index, low extinction coefficient and small residual stress at suitable nitrogen flow rate and low working pressure.

  15. Biomimetic Magnetite Formation: From Biocombinatorial Approaches to Mineralization Effects

    PubMed Central

    2014-01-01

    Biological materials typically display complex morphologies and hierarchical architectures, properties that are hardly matched by synthetic materials. Understanding the biological control of mineral properties will enable the development of new synthetic approaches toward biomimetic functional materials. Here, we combine biocombinatorial approaches with a proteome homology search and in vitro mineralization assays to assess the role of biological determinants in biomimetic magnetite mineralization. Our results suggest that the identified proteins and biomimetic polypeptides influence nucleation in vitro. Even though the in vivo role cannot be directly determined from our experiments, we can rationalize the following design principles: proteins, larger complexes, or membrane components that promote nucleation in vivo are likely to expose positively charged residues to a negatively charged crystal surface. In turn, components with acidic (negatively charged) functionality are nucleation inhibitors, which stabilize an amorphous structure through the coordination of iron. PMID:24499323

  16. Properties of soil pore space regulate pathways of plant residue decomposition and community structure of associated bacteria

    DOE PAGESBeta

    Negassa, Wakene C.; Guber, Andrey K.; Kravchenko, Alexandra N.; Marsh, Terence L.; Hildebrandt, Britton; Rivers, Mark L.

    2015-07-01

    Physical protection of soil carbon (C) is one of the important components of C storage. However, its exact mechanisms are still not sufficiently lucid. The goal of this study was to explore the influence of soil structure, that is, soil pore spatial arrangements, with and without presence of plant residue on (i) decomposition of added plant residue, (ii) CO₂ emission from soil, and (iii) structure of soil bacterial communities. The study consisted of several soil incubation experiments with samples of contrasting pore characteristics with/without plant residue, accompanied by X-ray micro-tomographic analyses of soil pores and by microbial community analysis ofmore » amplified 16S–18S rRNA genes via pyrosequencing. We observed that in the samples with substantial presence of air-filled well-connected large (>30 µm) pores, 75–80% of the added plant residue was decomposed, cumulative CO₂ emission constituted 1,200 µm C g⁻¹ soil, and movement of C from decomposing plant residue into adjacent soil was insignificant. In the samples with greater abundance of water-filled small pores, 60% of the added plant residue was decomposed, cumulative CO₂ emission constituted 2,000 µm C g⁻¹ soil, and the movement of residue C into adjacent soil was substantial. In the absence of plant residue the influence of pore characteristics on CO₂ emission, that is on decomposition of the native soil organic C, was negligible. The microbial communities on the plant residue in the samples with large pores had more microbial groups known to be cellulose decomposers, that is, Bacteroidetes, Proteobacteria, Actinobacteria, and Firmicutes, while a number of oligotrophic Acidobacteria groups were more abundant on the plant residue from the samples with small pores. This study provides the first experimental evidence that characteristics of soil pores and their air/water flow status determine the phylogenetic composition of the local microbial community and directions and

  17. Biological and physical properties of a model calcitonin containing a glutamate residue interrupting the hydrophobic face of the idealized amphiphilic alpha-helical region.

    PubMed Central

    Green, F R; Lynch, B; Kaiser, E T

    1987-01-01

    2A new calcitonin analogue, model calcitonin III (MCt-III), has been synthesized, and its biological and physical characteristics have been studied. This analogue has an idealized alpha-helix from residue 8-22 with glutamate at position 15 interrupting an otherwise continuous surface of aliphatic side chains (those of leucine residues) on the hydrophobic face of the helix. MCt-III differs from a previous model, MCt-II, only by the substitution Leu15----Glu and is here compared with salmon calcitonin I (sCt-I) and MCt-II to elucidate further the role of the putative amphiphilic alpha-helix in determining biological and physical properties of the hormone. MCt-III shows physical properties intermediate between those of sCt-I and MCt-II, demonstrating the influence of appropriately positioned single residues on properties of amphiphilic structures. In our two biological assays, a brain-binding assay and an in vivo hypocalcemic assay, MCt-III reproduces the sigmoidal dose-response curves of sCt-I; this contrasts with the behavior of MCt-II, which demonstrated unusual dose-response curves in these two assays. MCt-III is almost three times more potent than sCt-I in our hypocalcemic assay; this activity groups MCt-III among the most potent known analogues of sCt-I. PMID:2825187

  18. Raman spectral classification of mineral- and collagen-bound water's associations to elastic and post-yield mechanical properties of cortical bone.

    PubMed

    Unal, Mustafa; Akkus, Ozan

    2015-12-01

    Water that is bound to bone's matrix is implied as a predictor of fracture resistance; however, bound water is an elusive variable to be measured nondestructively. To date, the only nondestructive method used for studying bone hydration status is magnetic resonance variants (NMR or MRI). For the first time, bone hydration status was studied by short-wave infrared (SWIR) Raman spectroscopy to investigate associations of mineral-bound and collagen-bound water compartments with mechanical properties. Thirty cortical bone samples were used for quantitative Raman-based water analysis, gravimetric analysis, porosity measurement, and biomechanical testing. A sequential dehydration protocol was developed to replace unbound (heat drying) and bound (ethanol treatment) water in bone. Raman spectra were collected serially to track the OH-stretch band during dehydration. Four previously identified peaks were investigated: I3220/I2949, I3325/I2949 and I3453/I2949 reflect status of organic-matrix related water (mostly collagen-related water) compartments and collagen portion of bone while I3584/I2949 reflects status of mineral-related water compartments and mineral portion of bone. These spectroscopic biomarkers were correlated with elastic and post-yield mechanical properties of bone. Collagen-water related biomarkers (I3220/I2949 and I3325/I2949) correlated significantly and positively with toughness (R(2)=0.81 and R(2)=0.79; p<0.001) and post-yield toughness (R(2)=0.65 and R(2)=0.73; p<0.001). Mineral-water related biomarker correlated significantly and negatively with elastic modulus (R(2)=0.78; p<0.001) and positively with strength (R(2)=0.46; p<0.001). While MR-based techniques have been useful in measuring unbound and bound water, this is the first study which probed bound-water compartments differentially for collagen and mineral-bound water. For the first time, we showed an evidence for contributions of different bound-water compartments to mechanical properties of wet

  19. Raman spectral classification of mineral- and collagen-bound water's associations to elastic and post-yield mechanical properties of cortical bone.

    PubMed

    Unal, Mustafa; Akkus, Ozan

    2015-12-01

    Water that is bound to bone's matrix is implied as a predictor of fracture resistance; however, bound water is an elusive variable to be measured nondestructively. To date, the only nondestructive method used for studying bone hydration status is magnetic resonance variants (NMR or MRI). For the first time, bone hydration status was studied by short-wave infrared (SWIR) Raman spectroscopy to investigate associations of mineral-bound and collagen-bound water compartments with mechanical properties. Thirty cortical bone samples were used for quantitative Raman-based water analysis, gravimetric analysis, porosity measurement, and biomechanical testing. A sequential dehydration protocol was developed to replace unbound (heat drying) and bound (ethanol treatment) water in bone. Raman spectra were collected serially to track the OH-stretch band during dehydration. Four previously identified peaks were investigated: I3220/I2949, I3325/I2949 and I3453/I2949 reflect status of organic-matrix related water (mostly collagen-related water) compartments and collagen portion of bone while I3584/I2949 reflects status of mineral-related water compartments and mineral portion of bone. These spectroscopic biomarkers were correlated with elastic and post-yield mechanical properties of bone. Collagen-water related biomarkers (I3220/I2949 and I3325/I2949) correlated significantly and positively with toughness (R(2)=0.81 and R(2)=0.79; p<0.001) and post-yield toughness (R(2)=0.65 and R(2)=0.73; p<0.001). Mineral-water related biomarker correlated significantly and negatively with elastic modulus (R(2)=0.78; p<0.001) and positively with strength (R(2)=0.46; p<0.001). While MR-based techniques have been useful in measuring unbound and bound water, this is the first study which probed bound-water compartments differentially for collagen and mineral-bound water. For the first time, we showed an evidence for contributions of different bound-water compartments to mechanical properties of wet

  20. Constraints on residual topography and crustal properties in the western United States from virtual deep seismic sounding

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Yu, Chunquan; Chen, Wang-Ping; Hilst, Robert D.

    2016-08-01

    We use virtual deep seismic sounding (VDSS) and data from ~1000 broadband seismic stations to provide high-resolution estimates of crustal structure in the western Cordillera of the United States (U.S.). The most robust result is the geographic distribution of residual topography (that is, the difference between observed elevation and that expected from crustal buoyancy alone) and, by implication, thermal or petrologic anomalies in the mantle. Overall, residual topography of the western U.S. Cordillera varies considerably; with contrasts of up to about 3 km across distances of 200 km or less. High residual topography, indicating large mantle effects, is evident along the periphery of the Colorado Plateau and the surroundings of the Great Basin. In contrast, the central Colorado Plateau and the Wyoming Basin show low residual topography, close to what is expected of a geologically stable lithosphere. Overall, in regions to the east of the Wasatch hinge line (the eastern limit of significant extension in the North American cratonic basement) patterns of high residual topography and anomalies of low seismic wave speeds in the upper mantle are similar, suggestive of a common, thermal origin. In contrast, such a similarity is absent in regions to the west of the hinge line, suggesting substantial effects of petrological heterogeneities in the mantle. Finally, joint analyses of VDSS and conventional receiver functions reveal a wide range of crustal P wave speeds, locally as high as 6.7 km/s, perhaps indicating magmatic modification of the crust.

  1. Effects on soil organic matter mineralization and microbiological properties of applying compost to burned and unburned soils.

    PubMed

    Turrión, M B; Lafuente, F; Mulas, R; López, O; Ruipérez, C; Pando, V

    2012-03-01

    This study was undertaken in the context of a project of reclamation of a burned forest area applying municipal waste compost (MWC) and it consisted of an incubation experience carried out under laboratory conditions. The objectives of this research were to asses the effect of three doses of MWC added to burned and unburned calcareous soils on a) SOM mineralization and b) soil microbiological parameters. The laboratory incubation experience was carried out with three compost doses (1, 2 and 4% w/w) on a burned soil and another unburned one from an adjacent plot, besides the corresponding control samples. The mineralization kinetics of the organic matter was studied for 92 days. The kinetics data were adjusted to a double exponential model, showing two C pools of different degrees of resistance to mineralization and concentration, with half-life times of 1.9-4.9 and 34-76 days, respectively. In the unburned soil, the initial potential mineralization rate of the labile and stable C pools showed an opposed behavior, increased and decreased with the MWC dose, respectively. However in the burned soil no significant tendencies were observed. Although applying compost tended to increase the size of more labile pool with respect to total mineralizable C, however most of the soil or compost OM did not result mineralizable in the short and medium term. The compost amendment did not increase soil microbial activity.

  2. Surface properties and dye loading behavior of Zn{sub 2}SnO{sub 4} nanoparticles hydrothermally synthesized using different mineralizers

    SciTech Connect

    Annamalai, Alagappan; Eo, Yang Dam; Im, Chan; Lee, Man-Jong

    2011-10-15

    We present for the first time the influence of different mineralizers on the isoelectric point (IEP) of zinc stannate (Zn{sub 2}SnO{sub 4}) nanoparticles hydrothermally prepared using three different mineralizers, viz., Na{sub 2}CO{sub 3}, KOH and tert-butyl amine, and the effect of the IEPs on the dye loading behavior of Zn{sub 2}SnO{sub 4} based photoelectrodes in dye sensitized solar cells (DSSCs). To produce highly crystalline, uniform sized Zn{sub 2}SnO{sub 4} nanoparticles, hydrothermal processing parameters, such as reaction temperature, time, and the mineralizers used have been critically adjusted. The structural and morphological features of the as-synthesized Zn{sub 2}SnO{sub 4} nanoparticles have been observed using both scanning and transmission electron microscopy. For the surface state characterization of shape- and size-controlled Zn{sub 2}SnO{sub 4} nanoparticles, the IEPs of Zn{sub 2}SnO{sub 4} surfaces were determined through zeta potential measurements. The IEPs were found to be 5.7, 7.4 and 8.1 for Zn{sub 2}SnO{sub 4} nanoparticles formed using Na{sub 2}CO{sub 3}, KOH and tert-butyl amine, respectively, suggesting that the surface properties of Zn{sub 2}SnO{sub 4} nanoparticles can be manipulated through the choice of the mineralizers used during the hydrothermal reaction. The amount of N719 dye loading on the surfaces of Zn{sub 2}SnO{sub 4} electrodes having different IEPs was also evaluated. It was revealed that the higher the IEP, the higher the dye loading amount, which means that the IEP mainly affects the dye loading at the dye-metal oxide interface. - Highlights: {yields} The effect of various mineralizers on the isoelectric point of Zn{sub 2}SnO{sub 4} was discussed. {yields} The IEP of Zn{sub 2}SnO{sub 4} can be modified by the choice of mineralizer. {yields} Change in IEP affects the surface properties and the morphology of Zn{sub 2}SnO{sub 4} particles. {yields} Modified surface affects the N719 dye loading behaviour of the Zn{sub 2

  3. Composition, size distribution, optical properties and radiative effects of re-suspended local mineral dust of Rome area by individual-particle microanalysis and radiative transfer modelling

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Pietrodangelo, A.; Salzano, R.; Bassani, C.; Pareti, S.; Perrino, C.

    2015-05-01

    New information on the PM10 mineral dust from site-specific (Rome area, Latium) outcropped rocks, and on the microphysics, optical properties and radiative effects of mineral dust at local level were gained in this work. A multi-disciplinary approach was used, based on individual-particle scanning electron microscopy with X-ray energy-dispersive microanalysis (SEM XEDS), X-ray diffraction (XRD) analysis of dust, size distribution of mineral particles, and radiative transfer modelling (RTM).The mineral composition of Rome lithogenic PM10 varies between an end-member dominated by silicate minerals and one exclusively composed of calcite. The first is obtained from volcanic lithotypes, the second from travertine or limestones; lithogenic PM10 with intermediate composition derives mainly from siliciclastic rocks or marlstones of Rome area. Size and mineral species of PM10 particles of silicate-dominated dust types are tuned mainly by weathering and, to lesser extent, by debris formation or crystallization; chemical precipitation of CaCO3 plays a major role in calcite-dominated types. These differences are evidenced by the diversity of volume distributions, within either dust types, or mineral species. Further differences are observed between volume distributions of calcite from travertine (natural source) and from road dust (anthropic source), specifically on the width, shape and enrichment of the fine fraction (unimodal at 5 μm a.d. for travertine, bimodal at 3.8 and 1.8 μm a.d. for road dust). Log-normal probability density functions of volcanics and travertine dusts affect differently the single scattering albedo (SSA) and the asymmetry parameter (g) in the VISible and Near Infrared (NIR) regions, depending also on the absorbing/non-absorbing character of volcanics and travertine, respectively. The downward component of the BOA solar irradiance simulated by RTM for a volcanics-rich or travertine-rich atmosphere shows that volcanics contribution to the solar

  4. Mineral Chart

    MedlinePlus

    ... How Can I Help a Friend Who Cuts? Mineral Chart KidsHealth > For Teens > Mineral Chart Print A A A Text Size en ... sources of calcium. You'll also find this mineral in broccoli and dark green, leafy vegetables. Soy ...

  5. The effect of terebinth (Pistacia terebinthus L.) coffee addition on the chemical and physical characteristics, colour values, organic acid profiles, mineral compositions and sensory properties of ice creams.

    PubMed

    Yüksel, Arzu Kavaz; Şat, Ihsan Güngör; Yüksel, Mehmet

    2015-12-01

    The aim of this research was to evaluate the effect of terebinth (Pistacia terebinthus L.) coffee addition (0.5, 1 and 2 %) on the chemical and physical properties, colour values, organic acid profiles, mineral contents and sensory characteristics of ice creams. The total solids, fat, titratable acidity, viscosity, first dripping time and complete melting time values, a (*) and b (*) colour properties, citric, lactic, acetic and butyric acid levels and Ca, Cu, Mg, Fe, K, Zn and Na concentrations of ice creams showed an increase with the increment of terebinth coffee amount, while protein, pH, L (*), propionic acid and orotic acid values decreased. However, Al and malic acid were not detected in any of the samples. The overall acceptability scores of the sensory properties showed that the addition of 1 % terebinth coffee to the ice cream was more appreciated by the panellists.

  6. The effect of terebinth (Pistacia terebinthus L.) coffee addition on the chemical and physical characteristics, colour values, organic acid profiles, mineral compositions and sensory properties of ice creams.

    PubMed

    Yüksel, Arzu Kavaz; Şat, Ihsan Güngör; Yüksel, Mehmet

    2015-12-01

    The aim of this research was to evaluate the effect of terebinth (Pistacia terebinthus L.) coffee addition (0.5, 1 and 2 %) on the chemical and physical properties, colour values, organic acid profiles, mineral contents and sensory characteristics of ice creams. The total solids, fat, titratable acidity, viscosity, first dripping time and complete melting time values, a (*) and b (*) colour properties, citric, lactic, acetic and butyric acid levels and Ca, Cu, Mg, Fe, K, Zn and Na concentrations of ice creams showed an increase with the increment of terebinth coffee amount, while protein, pH, L (*), propionic acid and orotic acid values decreased. However, Al and malic acid were not detected in any of the samples. The overall acceptability scores of the sensory properties showed that the addition of 1 % terebinth coffee to the ice cream was more appreciated by the panellists. PMID:26604374

  7. Effects of agriculture crop residue burning on aerosol properties and long-range transport over northern India: A study using satellite data and model simulations

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Vijayakumar, K.; Safai, P. D.; Devara, P. C. S.; Rao, S. Vijaya Bhaskara; Jayasankar, C. K.

    2016-09-01

    Agriculture crop residue burning in the tropics is a major source of the global atmospheric aerosols and monitoring their long-range transport is an important element in climate change studies. In this paper, we study the effects of agriculture crop residue burning on aerosol properties and long-range transport over northern India during a smoke event that occurred between 09 and 17 November 2013, with the help of satellite measurements and model simulation data. Satellite data observations on aerosol properties suggested transport of particles from agriculture crop residue burning in Indo-Gangetic Plains (IGP) over large regions. Additionally, ECMWF winds at 850 hPa have been used to trace the source, path and spatial extent of smoke events. Most of the smoke aerosols, during the study period, travel from a west-to-east pathway from the source-to-sink region. Furthermore, aerosol vertical profiles from CALIPSO show a layer of thick smoke extending from surface to an altitude of about 3 km. Smoke aerosols emitted from biomass burning activity from Punjab have been found to be a major contributor to the deterioration of local air quality over the NE Indian region due to their long range transport.

  8. Mineral texture based seismic properties of meta-sedimentary and meta-igneous rocks in the orogenic wedge of the Central Scandinavian Caledonides

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Almqvist, B. S. G.; Czaplinska, D.; Piazolo, S.

    2015-12-01

    Progress in seismic methods offers the possibility to visualize in ever greater detail the structure and composition of middle to lower continental crust. Ideally, the seismic parameters, including compressional (Vp) and shear (Vs) wave velocities, anisotropy and Vp/Vs-ratio, allow the inference of detailed and quantitative information on the deformation conditions, chemical composition, temperature and the amount and geometry of fluids and melts in the crust. However, such inferences regarding the crust should be calibrated with known mineral and rock physical properties. Seismic properties calculated from the crystallographic preferred orientation (CPO) and laboratory measurements on representative core material allow us to quantify the interpretations from seismic data. The challenge of such calibrations lies in the non-unique interpretation of seismic data. A large catalogue of physical rock properties is therefore useful, with as many constraining geophysical parameters as possible (including anisotropy and Vp/Vs ratio). We present new CPO data and modelled seismic properties for amphibolite and greenschist grade rocks representing the orogenic wedge in the Central Scandinavian Caledonides. Samples were collected from outcrops in the field and from a 2.5 km long drill core, which penetrated an amphibolite-grade allochthonous unit composed of meta-sedimentary and meta-igneous rocks, as well as mica and chlorite-rich mylonites. The textural data was acquired using large area electron backscatter diffraction (EBSD) maps, and the chemical composition of minerals obtained by energy dispersive x-ray (EDS). Based on the texture data, we compare and evaluate some of the existing methods to calculate texture-based seismic properties of rocks. The suite of samples consists of weakly anisotropic rocks such as felsic gneiss and calc-silicates, and more anisotropic amphibolite, metagabbro, mica-schist. The newly acquired dataset provides a range of seismic properties that

  9. Unexpected stimulation of soil methane uptake as emergent property of agricultural soils following bio-based residue application.

    PubMed

    Ho, Adrian; Reim, Andreas; Kim, Sang Yoon; Meima-Franke, Marion; Termorshuizen, Aad; de Boer, Wietse; van der Putten, Wim H; Bodelier, Paul L E

    2015-10-01

    Intensification of agriculture to meet the global food, feed, and bioenergy demand entail increasing re-investment of carbon compounds (residues) into agro-systems to prevent decline of soil quality and fertility. However, agricultural intensification decreases soil methane uptake, reducing, and even causing the loss of the methane sink function. In contrast to wetland agricultural soils (rice paddies), the methanotrophic potential in well-aerated agricultural soils have received little attention, presumably due to the anticipated low or negligible methane uptake capacity in these soils. Consequently, a detailed study verifying or refuting this assumption is still lacking. Exemplifying a typical agricultural practice, we determined the impact of bio-based residue application on soil methane flux, and determined the methanotrophic potential, including a qualitative (diagnostic microarray) and quantitative (group-specific qPCR assays) analysis of the methanotrophic community after residue amendments over 2 months. Unexpectedly, after amendments with specific residues, we detected a significant transient stimulation of methane uptake confirmed by both the methane flux measurements and methane oxidation assay. This stimulation was apparently a result of induced cell-specific activity, rather than growth of the methanotroph population. Although transient, the heightened methane uptake offsets up to 16% of total gaseous CO2 emitted during the incubation. The methanotrophic community, predominantly comprised of Methylosinus may facilitate methane oxidation in the agricultural soils. While agricultural soils are generally regarded as a net methane source or a relatively weak methane sink, our results show that methane oxidation rate can be stimulated, leading to higher soil methane uptake. Hence, even if agriculture exerts an adverse impact on soil methane uptake, implementing carefully designed management strategies (e.g. repeated application of specific residues) may

  10. Unexpected stimulation of soil methane uptake as emergent property of agricultural soils following bio-based residue application.

    PubMed

    Ho, Adrian; Reim, Andreas; Kim, Sang Yoon; Meima-Franke, Marion; Termorshuizen, Aad; de Boer, Wietse; van der Putten, Wim H; Bodelier, Paul L E

    2015-10-01

    Intensification of agriculture to meet the global food, feed, and bioenergy demand entail increasing re-investment of carbon compounds (residues) into agro-systems to prevent decline of soil quality and fertility. However, agricultural intensification decreases soil methane uptake, reducing, and even causing the loss of the methane sink function. In contrast to wetland agricultural soils (rice paddies), the methanotrophic potential in well-aerated agricultural soils have received little attention, presumably due to the anticipated low or negligible methane uptake capacity in these soils. Consequently, a detailed study verifying or refuting this assumption is still lacking. Exemplifying a typical agricultural practice, we determined the impact of bio-based residue application on soil methane flux, and determined the methanotrophic potential, including a qualitative (diagnostic microarray) and quantitative (group-specific qPCR assays) analysis of the methanotrophic community after residue amendments over 2 months. Unexpectedly, after amendments with specific residues, we detected a significant transient stimulation of methane uptake confirmed by both the methane flux measurements and methane oxidation assay. This stimulation was apparently a result of induced cell-specific activity, rather than growth of the methanotroph population. Although transient, the heightened methane uptake offsets up to 16% of total gaseous CO2 emitted during the incubation. The methanotrophic community, predominantly comprised of Methylosinus may facilitate methane oxidation in the agricultural soils. While agricultural soils are generally regarded as a net methane source or a relatively weak methane sink, our results show that methane oxidation rate can be stimulated, leading to higher soil methane uptake. Hence, even if agriculture exerts an adverse impact on soil methane uptake, implementing carefully designed management strategies (e.g. repeated application of specific residues) may

  11. A comparative study of zwitterionic ligands-mediated mineralization and the potential of mineralized zwitterionic matrices for bone tissue engineering

    PubMed Central

    Liu, Pingsheng; Emmons, Erin

    2014-01-01

    Cationic and anionic residues of the extracellular matrices (ECM) of bone play synergistic roles in recruiting precursor ions and templating the nucleation, growth and crystalline transformations of calcium apatite in natural biomineralization. We previously reported that zwitterionic sulfobetaine ligands can template extensive 3-dimensional (3-D) hydroxyapaptite (HA)-mineralization of photo-crosslinked polymethacrylatehydrogels. Here, we compared the potency of two other major zwitterionic ligands, phosphobetaine and carboxybetaine, with that of the sulfobetaine in mediating 3-D mineralization using the crosslinked polymethacrylate hydrogel platform. We confirmed that all three zwitterionic hydrogels were able to effectively template 3-D mineralization, supporting the general ability of zwitterions to mediate templated mineralization. Among them, however, sulfobetaine and phosphobetaine hydrogels templated denser 3-D mineralizationthan the carboxybetaine hydrogel, likely due to their higher free water fractions and better maintenance of zwitterionic nature throughout the pH-changes during the in vitro mineralization process. We further demonstrated that the extensively mineralized zwitterionic hydrogels could be exploited for efficient retention (e.g. 99% retention after 24-h incubation in PBS) of osteogenic growth factor recombinant bone morphogenetic protein-2 (rhBMP-2) and subsequent sustained local release with retained bioactivity. Combined with the excellent cytocompatibility of all three zwitterionic hydrogels and the significantly improved cell adhesive properties of their mineralized matrices, these materials could find promising applications in bone tissue engineering. PMID:25558374

  12. Effect of adding different thickening agents on the viscosity properties and in vitro mineral availability of infant formula.

    PubMed

    González-Bermúdez, Carlos A; Frontela-Saseta, Carmen; López-Nicolás, Rubén; Ros-Berruezo, Gaspar; Martínez-Graciá, Carmen

    2014-09-15

    The effect of adding different thickening agents (locust bean gum (LBG), modified corn and rice starches (MCS, MRS)) to an infant formula on both in vitro mineral availability (Ca, Fe and Zn), quantified by atomic absorption spectrophotometry (AAS), and formula viscosity, after in vitro gastrointestinal digestion, was investigated. LBG was the most effective agent to increase formula thickness. However, it showed a negative effect on Ca, Fe and Zn in vitro solubility and dialysability. MCS and MRS only affected calcium solubility and dialysability when they were used at ⩾50% of the maximum legal limit. No negative effect was observed for Fe and Zn when modified starches were added at the different concentrations assessed. The phytate content in the thickening ingredients was also analysed. Despite finding a considerable amount of phytic acid in the raw ingredients, its final concentration in the infant formula was insufficient to decrease in vitro mineral availability. PMID:24767020

  13. Evaluation of the lubrication properties of biodegradable fluids and their potential to replace mineral oil in heavily loaded hydrostatic transmissions

    SciTech Connect

    Feldmann, D.G.; Hinrichs, J.

    1997-12-31

    Increasing public interest in the environmental impact of technical machinery has led to the development of new hydraulic fluids. In case of leakage these fluids pose less of an environmental threat than mineral oil, because they degrade faster and are less toxic or non-toxic. The following paper describes methods and results of laboratory tests with these new, so called biodegradable fluids, in a hydrostatic transmission on a flywheel testing under high load conditions.

  14. Altered bone material properties in HLA-B27 rats include reduced mineral to matrix ratio and altered collagen cross-links.

    PubMed

    Gamsjaeger, Sonja; Srivastava, Apurva K; Wergedal, Jon E; Zwerina, Jochen; Klaushofer, Klaus; Paschalis, Eleftherios P; Tatakis, Dimitris N

    2014-11-01

    Spondyloarthropathy and inflammatory bowel disease (IBD), which includes ulcerative colitis and Crohn's disease, are often associated with severe osteopenia/osteoporosis in both children and adults. HLA-B27 transgenic rats present a phenotype that includes severe colitis and severely accelerated alveolar bone loss. The purpose of this study was to evaluate long bone density status, systemic bone metabolic markers, and intrinsic bone material properties in HLA-B27 transgenic (TG) rats, and compare them with those of age- and sex-matched wild-type (WT) animals. The results indicate that in the HLA-B27 rat, an animal susceptible to both alveolar bone loss (ABL) and long bone osteopenia, there is a statistically significant negative correlation between ABL and long bone bone mineral density (BMD), as well as mineral/matrix ratio at active bone-forming trabecular surfaces. The TG animals had a lower mineral/matrix ratio and higher relative proteoglycan and advanced glycation end product (ϵ-N-Carboxymethyl-L-lysine) content and pyridinoline/divalent collagen cross-link ratio compared with WT. These results may provide better understanding of the interrelationship between osteoporosis and oral bone loss, the underlying causes of the inferior bone strength in the HLA-B27 transgenic animals, and could prove to be a useful model in the elucidation of the pathophysiology of spondyloarthropathy and IBD-associated osteopenia/osteoporosis and in the evaluation of pharmacological intervention(s) against such conditions. PMID:24771481

  15. The properties of the nano-minerals and hazardous elements: Potential environmental impacts of Brazilian coal waste fire.

    PubMed

    Civeira, Matheus S; Pinheiro, Rafael N; Gredilla, Ainara; de Vallejuelo, Silvia Fdez Ortiz; Oliveira, Marcos L S; Ramos, Claudete G; Taffarel, Silvio R; Kautzmann, Rubens M; Madariaga, Juan Manuel; Silva, Luis F O

    2016-02-15

    Brazilian coal area (South Brazil) impacted the environment by means of a large number of coal waste piles emplaced over the old mine sites and the adjacent areas of the Criciúma, Urussanga, and Siderópolis cities. The area studied here was abandoned and after almost 30 years (smokeless visual) some companies use the actual minerals derived from burning coal cleaning rejects (BCCRs) complied in the mentioned area for industry tiles or refractory bricks. Mineralogical and geochemical similarities between the BCCRs and non-anthropogenic geological environments are outlined here. Although no visible flames were observed, this study revealed that auto-combustion existed in the studied area for many years. The presence of amorphous phases, mullite, hematite and other Fe-minerals formed by high temperature was found. There is also pyrite, Fe-sulphates (eg. jarosite) and unburnt coal present, which are useful for comparison purposes. Bad disposal of coal-dump wastes represents significant environmental concerns due to their potential influence on atmosphere, river sediments, soils and as well as on the surface and groundwater in the surroundings of these areas. The present study using advanced analytical techniques were performed to provide an improved understanding of the complex processes related with sulphide-rich coal waste oxidation, spontaneous combustion and mineral formation. It is reporting huge numbers of rare minerals with alunite, montmorillonite, szomolnokite, halotrichite, coquimbite and copiapite at the BCCRs. The data showed the presence of abundant amorphous Si-Al-Fe-Ti as (oxy-)hydroxides and Fe-hydro/oxides with goethite and hematite with various degrees of crystallinity, containing hazardous elements, such as Cu, Cr, Hf, Hg, Mo, Ni, Se, Pb, Th, U, Zr, and others. By Principal Component Analysis (PCA), the mineralogical composition was related with the range of elemental concentration of each sample. Most of the nano-minerals and ultra-fine particles

  16. Effects of rapeseed residue on lead and cadmium availability and uptake by rice plants in heavy metal contaminated paddy soil.

    PubMed

    Ok, Yong Sik; Usman, Adel R A; Lee, Sang Soo; Abd El-Azeem, Samy A M; Choi, Bongsu; Hashimoto, Yohey; Yang, Jae E

    2011-10-01

    Rapeseed (Brassica napus L.) has been cultivated for biodiesel production worldwide. Winter rapeseed is commonly grown in the southern part of Korea under a rice-rapeseed double cropping system. In this study, a greenhouse pot experiment was conducted to assess the effects of rapeseed residue applied as a green manure alone or in combinations with mineral N fertilizer on Cd and Pb speciation in the contaminated paddy soil and their availability to rice plant (Oryza sativa L.). The changes in soil chemical and biological properties in response to the addition of rapeseed residue were also evaluated. Specifically, the following four treatments were evaluated: 100% mineral N fertilizer (N100) as a control, 70% mineral N fertilizer+rapeseed residue (N70+R), 30% mineral N fertilizer+rapeseed residue (N30+R) and rapeseed residue alone (R). The electrical conductivity and exchangeable cations of the rice paddy soil subjected to the R treatment or in combinations with mineral N fertilizer treatment, N70+R and N30+R, were higher than those in soils subjected to the N100 treatment. However, the soil pH value with the R treatment (pH 6.3) was lower than that with N100 treatment (pH 6.9). Use of rapeseed residue as a green manure led to an increase in soil organic matter (SOM) and enhanced the microbial populations in the soil. Sequential extraction also revealed that the addition of rapeseed residue decreased the easily accessible fraction of Cd by 5-14% and Pb by 30-39% through the transformation into less accessible fractions, thereby reducing metal availability to the rice plant. Overall, the incorporation of rapeseed residue into the metal contaminated rice paddy soils may sustain SOM, improve the soil chemical and biological properties, and decrease the heavy metal phytoavailability.

  17. Effects of rapeseed residue on lead and cadmium availability and uptake by rice plants in heavy metal contaminated paddy soil.

    PubMed

    Ok, Yong Sik; Usman, Adel R A; Lee, Sang Soo; Abd El-Azeem, Samy A M; Choi, Bongsu; Hashimoto, Yohey; Yang, Jae E

    2011-10-01

    Rapeseed (Brassica napus L.) has been cultivated for biodiesel production worldwide. Winter rapeseed is commonly grown in the southern part of Korea under a rice-rapeseed double cropping system. In this study, a greenhouse pot experiment was conducted to assess the effects of rapeseed residue applied as a green manure alone or in combinations with mineral N fertilizer on Cd and Pb speciation in the contaminated paddy soil and their availability to rice plant (Oryza sativa L.). The changes in soil chemical and biological properties in response to the addition of rapeseed residue were also evaluated. Specifically, the following four treatments were evaluated: 100% mineral N fertilizer (N100) as a control, 70% mineral N fertilizer+rapeseed residue (N70+R), 30% mineral N fertilizer+rapeseed residue (N30+R) and rapeseed residue alone (R). The electrical conductivity and exchangeable cations of the rice paddy soil subjected to the R treatment or in combinations with mineral N fertilizer treatment, N70+R and N30+R, were higher than those in soils subjected to the N100 treatment. However, the soil pH value with the R treatment (pH 6.3) was lower than that with N100 treatment (pH 6.9). Use of rapeseed residue as a green manure led to an increase in soil organic matter (SOM) and enhanced the microbial populations in the soil. Sequential extraction also revealed that the addition of rapeseed residue decreased the easily accessible fraction of Cd by 5-14% and Pb by 30-39% through the transformation into less accessible fractions, thereby reducing metal availability to the rice plant. Overall, the incorporation of rapeseed residue into the metal contaminated rice paddy soils may sustain SOM, improve the soil chemical and biological properties, and decrease the heavy metal phytoavailability. PMID:21764102

  18. Optical properties of black liquor and refractometric methods for monitoring the solid residue concentration in sulfate cellulose production

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Belov, N. P.; Lapshov, S. N.; Mayorov, E. E.; Sherstobitova, A. S.; Yaskov, A. D.

    2012-07-01

    Measurements of the refractive index, its temperature dependence, and the optical transmission of black liquors produced during sulfate pulping are reported for soluble solid residue concentrations up to k ≅ 60 %. The design features of a commercial refractometer for monitoring the concentration of black liquor are examined briefly. A procedure is proposed for laboratory calibration of commercial sensors that employs black liquor solutions in highly refractive organic liquids as reference samples.

  19. Fluorescent minerals, a review

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Modreski, P.J.; Aumente-Modreski, R.

    1996-01-01

    Fluorescent minerals are more than just an attractive novelty, and collecting them is a speciality for thousands of individuals who appreciate their beauty, rarity, and scientific value. Fluorescent properties can be used as an aid to mineral identification, locality determination, and distinction between natural and synthetic gemstones. This article gives an overview of those aspects of fluorescence that are of most interest to collectors, hobbyists, and mineralogists. -from Authors

  20. Local geological dust in the area of Rome (Italy): linking mineral composition, size distribution and optical properties to radiative transfer modelling

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Pietrodangelo, Adriana; Salzano, Roberto; Bassani, Cristiana; Pareti, Salvatore; Perrino, Cinzia

    2015-04-01

    Airborne mineral dust plays a key role in the energy balance of the Earth - atmosphere coupled system. The microphysical and optical properties of dust drive the direct radiative effects and are in turn influenced by the dust mineralogical composition. The latter varies largely, depending on the geology of the source region. Knowledge gaps still exist about relationships between the scattering and absorption of solar and terrestrial radiation by mineral dust and its mineralogical, size distribution and particle morphology features; this also affects the reliability of radiative transfer (RT) modelling estimates (Hansell et al., 2011). In this study, these relationships were investigated focusing on the crustal suspended PM10 dust, sourced from outcropping rocks of the local geological domains around Rome (Latium, Italy). The mineral composition variability of the Latium rocks ranges from the silicate-dominated (volcanics domain) to the calcite-dominated (travertine), through lithological materials composed in different proportions by silicates, silica and calcite, mainly (limestone series, siliciclastic series) (Cosentino et al., 2009). This peculiarity of the Latium region was thus exploited to investigate the behavior of the size distribution, optical properties and radiative transfer at BOA (Bottom Of Atmosphere) of the suspended dust PM10 fraction with the variability of mineral composition. Elemental source profiles of the same dust samples were previously determined (Pietrodangelo et al., 2013). A multi-faceted analysis was performed, and outcomes from the following approaches were merged: individual-particle scanning electron microscopy combined with X-ray energy-dispersive microanalysis (SEM XEDS), bulk mineralogical analysis by X-ray diffraction (XRD), size distribution fit of the individual-particle data set and modelling of the dust optical and radiative properties. To this aim, the 6SV atmospheric radiative transfer code (Kotchenova et al., 2008

  1. Predictive hydrogeochemical modelling of bauxite residue sand in field conditions.

    PubMed

    Wissmeier, Laurin; Barry, David A; Phillips, Ian R

    2011-07-15

    The suitability of residue sand (the coarse fraction remaining from Bayer's process of bauxite refining) for constructing the surface cover of closed bauxite residue storage areas was investigated. Specifically, its properties as a medium for plant growth are of interest to ensure residue sand can support a sustainable ecosystem following site closure. The geochemical evolution of the residue sand under field conditions, its plant nutrient status and soil moisture retention were studied by integrated modelling of geochemical and hydrological processes. For the parameterization of mineral reactions, amounts and reaction kinetics of the mineral phases natron, calcite, tricalcium aluminate, sodalite, muscovite and analcime were derived from measured acid neutralization curves. The effective exchange capacity for ion adsorption was measured using three independent exchange methods. The geochemical model, which accounts for mineral reactions, cation exchange and activity corrected solution speciation, was formulated in the geochemical modelling framework PHREEQC, and partially validated in a saturated-flow column experiment. For the integration of variably saturated flow with multi-component solute transport in heterogeneous 2D domains, a coupling of PHREEQC with the multi-purpose finite-element solver COMSOL was established. The integrated hydrogeochemical model was applied to predict water availability and quality in a vertical flow lysimeter and a cover design for a storage facility using measured time series of rainfall and evaporation from southwest Western Australia. In both scenarios the sand was fertigated and gypsum-amended. Results show poor long-term retention of fertilizer ions and buffering of the pH around 10 for more than 5 y of leaching. It was concluded that fertigation, gypsum amendment and rainfall leaching alone were insufficient to render the geochemical conditions of residue sand suitable for optimal plant growth within the given timeframe. The

  2. Residual stresses in material processing

    SciTech Connect

    Kozaczek, K.J.; Watkins, T.R.; Hubbard, C.R.; Wang, Xun-Li; Spooner, S.

    1994-09-01

    Material manufacturing processes often introduce residual stresses into the product. The residual stresses affect the properties of the material and often are detrimental. Therefore, the distribution and magnitude of residual stresses in the final product are usually an important factor in manufacturing process optimization or component life prediction. The present paper briefly discusses the causes of residual stresses. It then adresses the direct, nondestructive methods of residual stress measurement by X-ray and neutron diffraction. Examples are presented to demonstrate the importance of residual stress measurement in machining and joining operations.

  3. The effect of mineral fillers on the rheological, mechanical and thermal properties of halogen-free flame-retardant polypropylene/expandable graphite compounds

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Mattausch, Hannelore; Laske, Stephan; Hohenwarter, Dieter; Holzer, Clemens

    2015-05-01

    In many polyolefin applications, such as electrical cables or automotive applications, the fire protection is a very important task. Unfortunately flame-retardant polymeric materials are often halogenated and form toxic substances in case of fire, which explains the general requirement to reduce the halogen content to zero. Non-halogenated, state-of-the-art flame retardants must be incorporated into the polymer in very high grades (> 40 wt%) leading to massive decrease in mechanical properties and/or processability. In this research work halogen-free flame-retardant polypropylene (PP) /expandable graphite (EG) were filled with minerals fillers such as layered silicates (MMT), magnesium hydroxide (MgOH), zeolite (Z) and expanded perlite (EP) in order to enhance the flame-retardant effect. The rheological, mechanical and thermal properties of these materials were investigated to gain more fundamental knowledge about synergistic combinations of flame-retardants and other additives. The rheological properties were characterized with a rotational rheometer with plate-plate setup. The EG/EP/PP compound exhibited the highest increase in viscosity (˜ 37 %). As representative value for the mechanical properties the Young's modulus was chosen. The final Young's modulus values of the twofold systems gained higher values than the single ones. Thermo gravimetric analysis (TGA) was utilized to investigate the material with respect to volatile substances and combustion behavior. All materials decomposed in one-step degradation. The EG filled compounds showed a significant increase in sample weight due to the expansion of EG. The combustion behavior of these materials was characterized by cone calorimeter tests. Especially combinations of expandable graphite with mineral fillers exhibit a reduction of the peak heat release rate during cone calorimeter measurements of up to 87% compared to pure PP.

  4. Analysis of binding properties and specificity through identification of the interface forming residues (IFR) for serine proteases in silico docked to different inhibitors

    PubMed Central

    2010-01-01

    Background Enzymes belonging to the same super family of proteins in general operate on variety of substrates and are inhibited by wide selection of inhibitors. In this work our main objective was to expand the scope of studies that consider only the catalytic and binding pocket amino acids while analyzing enzyme specificity and instead, include a wider category which we have named the Interface Forming Residues (IFR). We were motivated to identify those amino acids with decreased accessibility to solvent after docking of different types of inhibitors to sub classes of serine proteases and then create a table (matrix) of all amino acid positions at the interface as well as their respective occupancies. Our goal is to establish a platform for analysis of the relationship between IFR characteristics and binding properties/specificity for bi-molecular complexes. Results We propose a novel method for describing binding properties and delineating serine proteases specificity by compiling an exhaustive table of interface forming residues (IFR) for serine proteases and their inhibitors. Currently, the Protein Data Bank (PDB) does not contain all the data that our analysis would require. Therefore, an in silico approach was designed for building corresponding complexes The IFRs are obtained by "rigid body docking" among 70 structurally aligned, sequence wise non-redundant, serine protease structures with 3 inhibitors: bovine pancreatic trypsin inhibitor (BPTI), ecotine and ovomucoid third domain inhibitor. The table (matrix) of all amino acid positions at the interface and their respective occupancy is created. We also developed a new computational protocol for predicting IFRs for those complexes which were not deciphered experimentally so far, achieving accuracy of at least 0.97. Conclusions The serine proteases interfaces prefer polar (including glycine) residues (with some exceptions). Charged residues were found to be uniquely prevalent at the interfaces between the

  5. Composition of the amino acid and amino sugar for molecular weight fractions of hot-water extractable soil organic matters from soils with plant residue compost or mineral fertilization

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Moriizumi, M.; Matsunaga, T.; Uezono, I.; Kato, N.

    2009-04-01

    The hot-water extractable organic nitrogen is well known as a laboratory index of mineralizable nitrogen. This available nitrogen is indispensable for growth of plants because of being absorbed in crops. We measured the composition of the amino acid and amino sugar for molecular weight fractions in hot-water extractable organic matters to understand the source of the available nitrogen in soils inserted a compost. Two soil samples were collected from fields (Soil Type; Andosol) in National Agricultural Research Center in Tsukuba, Japan. A plant residue compost of 2 kga-1y-1 during 25 year has been applied to a soil and another soil was under the mineral fertilization. Organic matters were extracted from the soils of 3 g in the water of 50 ml at 80 degree centigrade for16 hours. The molecular size distribution of the hot-water extractable organic matters was analyzed by HPSCE (column YMC Diol-120, elution; 50mM phosphate buffer under pH=7.0, flow rate 1 mlmin-1), and 20 fractions were collected at regular intervals in the retention time. The chromatograms were monitored under the absorbance at 280 nm and fluorescence intensity at Ex.280 nm: Em.330nm. The concentrations of the 15 amino acids and three amino sugars (muramic acid, glucosamine, and galactosamine) for the molecule weight fractions were measured by HPLC as o-phthaldialdehyde (OPA) derivatives after the vapor HCl hydrolysis. Organic nitrogen concentrations of the hot-water extractable organic matters in the soil inserted the compost (C-soil) and the mineral fertilization soil (M-soil) were 133 and 35 mgkg-1, respectively. The extracted organic matters had the variable molecule weight (103- 104 Da). The concentrations of the amino acid and amino sugar of organic nitrogen in the C-soil were higher than those in the M-soil in all fractions. The fractions were classified into 3 groups (LW, MW, and SW) based on the molecule weight and spectroscopic characteristics. Each group had unique composition of the amino

  6. Effect of divalent minerals on the bioaccessibility of pure carotenoids and on physical properties of gastro-intestinal fluids.

    PubMed

    Corte-Real, Joana; Iddir, Mohammed; Soukoulis, Christos; Richling, Elke; Hoffmann, Lucien; Bohn, Torsten

    2016-04-15

    During digestion, high concentrations of divalent minerals (DMs) can lead to insoluble lipid-soap complex formation, hampering carotenoid bioaccessibility. The effect of varying concentrations (0-1000 mg/L) of calcium, magnesium, zinc and sodium (control) on the bioaccessibility of lutein, neoxanthin, lycopene and β-carotene, following in vitro gastro-intestinal digestion (GI), was investigated systematically and coupled with physical measurements of the digesta. Addition of DMs significantly decreased (p<0.001) carotenoid bioaccessibility, up to 100% in the case of calcium. Mean half maximal inhibitory concentrations (EC50) for calcium, magnesium and zinc were 270±18, 253±75 and 420±322 mg/L respectively. Increased DM concentrations correlated with decreased viscosity (r>0.9) and decreased carotenoid bioaccessibility. Surface tension of digesta correlated inversely (p<0.05) with the bioaccessibility of carotenoids. This correlation was mineral and carotenoid dependent. Although based on in vitro findings, it is plausible that similar interactions occur in vivo, with DMs affecting the bioaccessibility and bioavailability of carotenoids and other lipophilic micronutrients and phytochemicals.

  7. A new mineral species rossovskyite, (Fe3+,Ta)(Nb,Ti)O4: crystal chemistry and physical properties

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Konovalenko, Sergey I.; Ananyev, Sergey A.; Chukanov, Nikita V.; Rastsvetaeva, Ramiza K.; Aksenov, Sergey M.; Baeva, Anna A.; Gainov, Ramil R.; Vagizov, Farit G.; Lopatin, Oleg N.; Nebera, Tatiana S.

    2015-11-01

    A new mineral rossovskyite named after L.N. Rossovsky was discovered in granite pegmatites of the Bulgut occurrence, Altai Mts., Western Mongolia. Associated minerals are microcline, muscovite, quartz, albite, garnet of the almandine-spessartine series, beryl, apatite, triplite, zircon, pyrite, yttrobetafite-(Y) and schorl. Rossovskyite forms flattened anhedral grains up to 6 × 6 × 2 cm. The color of the mineral is black, and the streak is black as well. The luster is semi-metallic, dull. Mohs hardness is 6. No cleavage or parting is observed. Rossovskyite is brittle, with uneven fracture. The density measured by the hydrostatic weighing method is 6.06 g/cm2, and the density calculated from the empirical formula is 6.302 g/cm3. Rossovskyite is biaxial, and the color in reflection is gray to dark gray. The IR spectrum contains strong band at 567 cm-1 (with shoulders at 500 and 600 cm-1) corresponding to cation-oxygen stretching vibrations and weak bands at 1093 and 1185 cm-1 assigned as overtones. The reflection spectrum in visible range is obtained. According to the Mössbauer spectrum, the ratio Fe2+:Fe3+ is 35.6:64.4. The chemical composition is as follows (electron microprobe, Fe apportioned between FeO and Fe2O3 based on Mössbauer data, wt%): MnO 1.68, FeO 5.92, Fe2O3 14.66, TiO2 7.69, Nb2O5 26.59, Ta2O5 37.51, WO3 5.61, total 99.66. The empirical formula calculated on four O atoms is: {{Mn}}_{0.06}^{2 + } {{Fe}}_{0.21}^{2 + } {{Fe}}_{0.47}^{3 + } Ti0.25Nb0.51Ta0.43W0.06O4. The crystal structure was determined using single-crystal X-ray diffraction data. The new mineral is monoclinic, space group P2/ c, a = 4.668(1), b = 5.659(1), c = 5.061(1) Å, β = 90.21(1)º; V = 133.70(4) Å3, Z = 2. Topologically, the structure of rossovskyite is analogous to that of wolframite-group minerals. The crystal-chemical formula of rossovskyite is [(Fe3+, Fe2+, Mn)0.57Ta0.32Nb0.11][Nb0.40Ti0.25Fe0.18Ta0.11W0.06]O4. The strongest lines of the powder X-ray diffraction pattern

  8. A micro-mechanical analysis of thermo-elastic properties and local residual stresses in ductile iron based on a new anisotropic model for the graphite nodules

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Andriollo, Tito; Thorborg, Jesper; Tiedje, Niels; Hattel, Jesper

    2016-06-01

    In this paper, the thermo-elastic behavior of the graphite nodules contained in ductile iron is derived on the basis of recent transmission electron microscopy investigations of their real internal structure. The proposed model is initially validated by performing a finite element homogenization analysis to verify its consistency with the room-temperature elastic properties of ductile iron measured at the macro scale. Subsequently, it is used to investigate the formation of local residual stresses around the graphite particles by simulating the manufacturing process of a typical ferritic ductile iron grade, and the results are compared with preliminary measurements using synchrotron x-rays. Finally, the obtained accurate description of the stress & strain field at the micro scale is used to shed light on common failure modes reported for the nodules and on some peculiar properties observed in ductile iron at both micro and macro scale.

  9. Effect of Chinese medicinal herbal residues on microbial community succession and anti-pathogenic properties during co-composting with food waste.

    PubMed

    Zhou, Ying; Selvam, Ammaiyappan; Wong, Jonathan W C

    2016-10-01

    This study investigated the antimicrobial properties of Chinese medicinal herbal residues (CMHRs) during its co-composting with food waste (FW) in two different ratios along with a control. Inhibition on total microbial population were assessed while the numerically dominant microbes were isolated and their antagonistic effects were assessed. Results indicate that the active ingredients persist in the composting mass did not affect the microbes unspecifically as revealed from almost similar bacterial and fungal populations. Rather specific inhibitory activities against Alternaria solani and Fusarium oxysporum were observed. Apart from the CMHR-born active compounds, CMHR-induced changes in the antagonistic and mycoparasitic abilities of the bacteria and fungi also contribute to the specific inhibition against the tested pathogens. Therefore use of CMHRs during the composting of CMHRs enhances its antipathogenic property resulting in an anti-pathogenic compost. PMID:27039351

  10. Effect of Chinese medicinal herbal residues on microbial community succession and anti-pathogenic properties during co-composting with food waste.

    PubMed

    Zhou, Ying; Selvam, Ammaiyappan; Wong, Jonathan W C

    2016-10-01

    This study investigated the antimicrobial properties of Chinese medicinal herbal residues (CMHRs) during its co-composting with food waste (FW) in two different ratios along with a control. Inhibition on total microbial population were assessed while the numerically dominant microbes were isolated and their antagonistic effects were assessed. Results indicate that the active ingredients persist in the composting mass did not affect the microbes unspecifically as revealed from almost similar bacterial and fungal populations. Rather specific inhibitory activities against Alternaria solani and Fusarium oxysporum were observed. Apart from the CMHR-born active compounds, CMHR-induced changes in the antagonistic and mycoparasitic abilities of the bacteria and fungi also contribute to the specific inhibition against the tested pathogens. Therefore use of CMHRs during the composting of CMHRs enhances its antipathogenic property resulting in an anti-pathogenic compost.

  11. Residual Stresses and Tensile Properties of Friction Stir Welded AZ31B-H24 Magnesium Alloy in Lap Configuration

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Naik, Bhukya Srinivasa; Cao, Xinjin; Wanjara, Priti; Friedman, Jacob; Chen, Daolun

    2015-08-01

    AZ31B-H24 Mg alloy sheets with a thickness of 2 mm were friction stir welded in lap configuration using two tool rotational rates of 1000 and 1500 rpm and two welding speeds of 10 and 20 mm/s. The residual stresses in the longitudinal and transverse directions of the weldments were determined using X-ray diffraction. The shear tensile behavior of the lap joints was evaluated at low [233 K (-40 °C)], room [298 K (25 °C)], and elevated [453 K (180 °C)] temperatures. The failure load was highest for the lower heat input condition that was obtained at a tool rotational rate of 1000 rpm and a welding speed of 20 mm/s for all the test temperatures, due to the smaller hooking height, larger effective sheet thickness, and lower tensile residual stresses, as compared to the other two welding conditions that were conducted at a higher tool rotational rate or lower welding speed. The lap joints usually fractured on the advancing side of the top sheet near the interface between the thermo-mechanically affected zone and the stir zone. Elevated temperature testing of the weld assembled at a tool rotational rate of 1000 rpm and a welding speed of 20 mm/s led to the failure along the sheet interface in shear fracture mode due to the high integrity of the joint that exhibited large plastic deformation and higher total energy absorption.

  12. Critical residues of the Caenorhabditis elegans unc-2 voltage-gated calcium channel that affect behavioral and physiological properties.

    PubMed

    Mathews, Eleanor A; García, Esperanza; Santi, Celia M; Mullen, Gregory P; Thacker, Colin; Moerman, Donald G; Snutch, Terrance P

    2003-07-23

    The Caenorhabditis elegans unc-2 gene encodes a voltage-gated calcium channel alpha1 subunit structurally related to mammalian dihydropyridine-insensitive high-threshold channels. In the present paper we describe the characterization of seven alleles of unc-2. Using an unc-2 promoter-tagged green fluorescent protein construct, we show that unc-2 is primarily expressed in motor neurons, several subsets of sensory neurons, and the HSN and VC neurons that control egg laying. Examination of behavioral phenotypes, including defecation, thrashing, and sensitivities to aldicarb and nicotine suggests that UNC-2 acts presynaptically to mediate both cholinergic and GABAergic neurotransmission. Sequence analysis of the unc-2 alleles shows that e55, ra605, ra606, ra609, and ra610 all are predicted to prematurely terminate and greatly reduce or eliminate unc-2 function. In contrast, the ra612 and ra614 alleles are missense mutations resulting in the substitution of highly conserved residues in the C terminus and the domain IVS4-IVS5 linker, respectively. Heterologous expression of a rat brain P/Q-type channel containing the ra612 mutation shows that the glycine to arginine substitution affects a variety of channel characteristics, including the voltage dependence of activation, steady-state inactivation, as well as channel kinetics. Overall, our findings suggest that UNC-2 plays a pivotal role in mediating a number of physiological processes in the nematode and also defines a number of critical residues important for calcium channel function in vivo. PMID:12878695

  13. Industrial Minerals.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Brady, Lawrence L.

    1983-01-01

    Discusses trends in and factors related to the production of industrial minerals during 1982, indicating that, as 1981 marked a downturn in production of industrial minerals, 1982 continued the trend with temporary and permanent cutbacks in mine and plant production. Includes highlights of several conferences/conference papers in this field.…

  14. Influence of Lβ-, Dα- and Dβ-Asp isomers of the Asp-76 residue on the properties of αA-crystallin 70-88 peptide.

    PubMed

    Fujii, Noriko; Fujii, Norihiko; Kida, Masashi; Kinouchi, Tadatoshi

    2010-11-01

    Proteins have been considered to consist exclusively of L-amino acids in living tissues. However, our previous studies showed that two specific aspartyl (Asp) residues in αA- and αB-crystallins from human eye lenses invert to the D-isomers to a high degree during aging. The reaction is also accompanied by isomerization into a form containing β-Asp (isoaspartate) residues. The appearance of D- and β-Asp in a protein potentially induces large changes to the higher order structure of the protein as well as to its function. However, it remains unclear whether the formation of the Asp isomer is the direct trigger of the change to the higher order structure and function. In this study, in order to clarify the effect of the inversion to D-isomers in a protein, we synthesized peptides corresponding to the 70-88 (KFVIFLDVKHFSPEDLTVK) fragment of human αA-crystallin and its corresponding diastereoisomers in which Lα-Asp was replaced with Lβ-Asp, Dα-Asp, and Dβ-Asp at position 76 and compared their biochemical properties with that of normal peptide. The peptides containing abnormal isomers (Lβ-Asp, Dα-Asp, and Dβ-Asp residues, respectively) were more hydrophilic than the normal peptide (containing Lα-Asp), lost β-sheet structure and changed to random structures. The normal peptide promoted the aggregation of insulin while the other three isomers suppressed the aggregation of insulin. This is the first evidence that a single substitution of an Asp isomer in a peptide induces a large change to the properties of the peptide.

  15. Effects of soil tillage and management of crop residues on soil properties: abundance, biomass and diversity of earthworms, soil structure and nutrient evolutions

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    lemtiri, Aboulkacem

    2013-04-01

    The living soil is represented by soil biota that interacts with aboveground biota and with the abiotic environment, soil structure, soil reaction, organic matter, nutrient contents, aso. Maintenance of soil organic matter through integrated soil fertility management is an important issue to conciliate soil quality and agricultural productivity. Earthworms are key actors in soil structure formation through the production of casts and the incorporation of soil organic matter in the soil. Research is still needed about the interactive effects of various tillage and crop residue management practices on earthworm populations and physical and chemical properties of soil. To investigate the impacts of two tillage management systems and two cropping systems on earthworm populations, soil structure evolution and nutrient dynamics, we carried out a three years study in an experimental field. The aims of this experimentation, were to assess the effects of the tillage systems (ploughing versus reduced tillage) and the availability of crop residues (export versus no export) on (i) the abundance, biomass and diversity of earthworms, on the soil structure and on the temporal variation of water extractable nutrients and organic carbon. The first results show that tillage management did significantly affect earthworm abundance and biomass. However, crop residue management did not affect abundance, biomass and diversity of earthworms. Regarding soil physical properties, the tillage affected the compaction profiles within the top 30cm. The analysis of nutrient and organic carbon dynamics show divergent trends (decrease of calcium and magnesium, increase of hot water extractable carbon and phosphorus…) but no clear effect of the studied factors could be identified. The question of the initial soil variability raised as a crucial point in the discussion.

  16. Effect of Activated Flux on the Microstructure, Mechanical Properties, and Residual Stresses of Modified 9Cr-1Mo Steel Weld Joints

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Maduraimuthu, V.; Vasudevan, M.; Muthupandi, V.; Bhaduri, A. K.; Jayakumar, T.

    2012-02-01

    A novel variant of tungsten inert gas (TIG) welding called activated-TIG (A-TIG) welding, which uses a thin layer of activated flux coating applied on the joint area prior to welding, is known to enhance the depth of penetration during autogenous TIG welding and overcomes the limitation associated with TIG welding of modified 9Cr-1Mo steels. Therefore, it is necessary to develop a specific activated flux for enhancing the depth of penetration during autogeneous TIG welding of modified 9Cr-1Mo steel. In the current work, activated flux composition is optimized to achieve 6 mm depth of penetration in single-pass TIG welding at minimum heat input possible. Then square butt weld joints are made for 6-mm-thick and 10-mm-thick plates using the optimized flux. The effect of flux on the microstructure, mechanical properties, and residual stresses of the A-TIG weld joint is studied by comparing it with that of the weld joints made by conventional multipass TIG welding process using matching filler wire. Welded microstructure in the A-TIG weld joint is coarser because of the higher peak temperature in A-TIG welding process compared with that of multipass TIG weld joint made by a conventional TIG welding process. Transverse strength properties of the modified 9Cr-1Mo steel weld produced by A-TIG welding exceeded the minimum specified strength values of the base materials. The average toughness values of A-TIG weld joints are lower compared with that of the base metal and multipass weld joints due to the presence of δ-ferrite and inclusions in the weld metal caused by the flux. Compressive residual stresses are observed in the fusion zone of A-TIG weld joint, whereas tensile residual stresses are observed in the multipass TIG weld joint.

  17. Transformation of corn plant residues in loamy and sandy substrates

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Mal'tseva, A. N.; Zolotareva, B. N.; Pinskii, D. L.

    2014-05-01

    The mineralization and humification dynamics of corn plant residues in loamy and sandy substrates have been studied under laboratory conditions. It has been shown that the dynamics are determined by the undulating development laws of the microbial community under constant temperature and moisture conditions. At the same time, the intensity and final results of the processes significantly differ depending on the composition and properties of the mineral substrate. The loss of Corg during the mineralization and the content of newly formed humic substances reached the maximum values a month after the beginning of the experiment. The mineralization is more intensive in sand at the early stages, and the humification is more active in loam throughout the incubation period. The loamy substrate has better protective properties compared to the sand; therefore, it favors the accumulation of significant amounts of fulvic acids (FAs), along with humic acids (HAs), and causes the relative fulvatization of the humic substances. It has been found using densimetric fractionation and Fourier IR spectroscopy that the different mineralogy of the fractions results in differences in the chemical composition of the formed mineral-organic compounds of newly formed humic substances, mainly due to carboxyl and nitrogen-containing groups. The similarity of the humification products in the heavy fractions of the loamy and sandy substrates has been revealed.

  18. Effects of residual hydrogen in sputtering atmosphere on structures and properties of amorphous In-Ga-Zn-O thin films

    SciTech Connect

    Tang, Haochun; Ishikawa, Kyohei; Ide, Keisuke; Hiramatsu, Hidenori; Hosono, Hideo; Kamiya, Toshio; Ueda, Shigenori; Ohashi, Naoki; Kumomi, Hideya

    2015-11-28

    We investigated the effects of residual hydrogen in sputtering atmosphere on subgap states and carrier transport in amorphous In-Ga-Zn-O (a-IGZO) using two sputtering systems with different base pressures of ∼10{sup −4} and 10{sup −7 }Pa (standard (STD) and ultrahigh vacuum (UHV) sputtering, respectively), which produce a-IGZO films with impurity hydrogen contents at the orders of 10{sup 20} and 10{sup 19 }cm{sup −3}, respectively. Several subgap states were observed by hard X-ray photoemission spectroscopy, i.e., peak-shape near-valence band maximum (near-VBM) states, shoulder-shape near-VBM states, peak-shape near-conduction band minimum (near-CBM) states, and step-wise near-CBM states. It was confirmed that the formation of these subgap states were affected strongly by the residual hydrogen (possibly H{sub 2}O). The step-wise near-CBM states were observed only in the STD films deposited without O{sub 2} gas flow and attributed to metallic In. Such step-wise near-CBM state was not detected in the other films including the UHV films even deposited without O{sub 2} flow, substantiating that the metallic In is segregated by the strong reduction effect of the hydrogen/H{sub 2}O. Similarly, the density of the near-VBM states was very high for the STD films deposited without O{sub 2}. These films had low film density and are consistent with a model that voids in the amorphous structure form a part of the near-VBM states. On the other hand, the UHV films had high film densities and much less near-VBM states, keeping the possibility that some of the near-VBM states, in particular, of the peak-shape ones, originate from –OH and weakly bonded oxygen. These results indicate that 2% of excess O{sub 2} flow is required for the STD sputtering to compensate the effects of the residual hydrogen/H{sub 2}O. The high-density near-VBM states and the metallic In segregation deteriorated the electron mobility to 0.4 cm{sup 2}/(V s)

  19. Effects of residual hydrogen in sputtering atmosphere on structures and properties of amorphous In-Ga-Zn-O thin films

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Tang, Haochun; Ishikawa, Kyohei; Ide, Keisuke; Hiramatsu, Hidenori; Ueda, Shigenori; Ohashi, Naoki; Kumomi, Hideya; Hosono, Hideo; Kamiya, Toshio

    2015-11-01

    We investigated the effects of residual hydrogen in sputtering atmosphere on subgap states and carrier transport in amorphous In-Ga-Zn-O (a-IGZO) using two sputtering systems with different base pressures of ˜10-4 and 10-7 Pa (standard (STD) and ultrahigh vacuum (UHV) sputtering, respectively), which produce a-IGZO films with impurity hydrogen contents at the orders of 1020 and 1019 cm-3, respectively. Several subgap states were observed by hard X-ray photoemission spectroscopy, i.e., peak-shape near-valence band maximum (near-VBM) states, shoulder-shape near-VBM states, peak-shape near-conduction band minimum (near-CBM) states, and step-wise near-CBM states. It was confirmed that the formation of these subgap states were affected strongly by the residual hydrogen (possibly H2O). The step-wise near-CBM states were observed only in the STD films deposited without O2 gas flow and attributed to metallic In. Such step-wise near-CBM state was not detected in the other films including the UHV films even deposited without O2 flow, substantiating that the metallic In is segregated by the strong reduction effect of the hydrogen/H2O. Similarly, the density of the near-VBM states was very high for the STD films deposited without O2. These films had low film density and are consistent with a model that voids in the amorphous structure form a part of the near-VBM states. On the other hand, the UHV films had high film densities and much less near-VBM states, keeping the possibility that some of the near-VBM states, in particular, of the peak-shape ones, originate from -OH and weakly bonded oxygen. These results indicate that 2% of excess O2 flow is required for the STD sputtering to compensate the effects of the residual hydrogen/H2O. The high-density near-VBM states and the metallic In segregation deteriorated the electron mobility to 0.4 cm2/(V s).

  20. Annealing dependence of residual stress and optical properties of TiO2 thin film deposited by different deposition methods.

    PubMed

    Chen, Hsi-Chao; Lee, Kuan-Shiang; Lee, Cheng-Chung

    2008-05-01

    Titanium oxide (TiO(2)) thin films were prepared by different deposition methods. The methods were E-gun evaporation with ion-assisted deposition (IAD), radio-frequency (RF) ion-beam sputtering, and direct current (DC) magnetron sputtering. Residual stress was released after annealing the films deposited by RF ion-beam or DC magnetron sputtering but not evaporation, and the extinction coefficient varied significantly. The surface roughness of the evaporated films exceeded that of both sputtered films. At the annealing temperature of 300 degrees C, anatase crystallization occurred in evaporated film but not in the RF ion-beam or DC magnetron-sputtered films. TiO(2) films deposited by sputtering were generally more stable during annealing than those deposited by evaporation.

  1. Annealing dependence of residual stress and optical properties of TiO2 thin film deposited by different deposition methods.

    PubMed

    Chen, Hsi-Chao; Lee, Kuan-Shiang; Lee, Cheng-Chung

    2008-05-01

    Titanium oxide (TiO(2)) thin films were prepared by different deposition methods. The methods were E-gun evaporation with ion-assisted deposition (IAD), radio-frequency (RF) ion-beam sputtering, and direct current (DC) magnetron sputtering. Residual stress was released after annealing the films deposited by RF ion-beam or DC magnetron sputtering but not evaporation, and the extinction coefficient varied significantly. The surface roughness of the evaporated films exceeded that of both sputtered films. At the annealing temperature of 300 degrees C, anatase crystallization occurred in evaporated film but not in the RF ion-beam or DC magnetron-sputtered films. TiO(2) films deposited by sputtering were generally more stable during annealing than those deposited by evaporation. PMID:18449260

  2. Evaluation of time toxicity, residual effect, and growth-inhibiting property of Carapa guianensis and Copaifera sp. in Aedes aegypti.

    PubMed

    Prophiro, Josiane S; da Silva, Mario A Navarro; Kanis, Luiz A; da Silva, Bruna M; Duque-Luna, Jonny E; da Silva, Onilda S

    2012-02-01

    Oils of Carapa guianensis and Copaifera spp. are well-known in the Amazonian region as natural insect repellents, and studies have reported their efficiency as larvicide against some mosquito species. However, toxicity persistence and effect on mosquito development have not yet been evaluated. Thus, the objective of this study was to evaluate the initial time of larvicidal activity, residual effect, and the effect of very low concentrations of these oils on Aedes aegypti. Different concentrations of the oils were used to evaluate the initial time of larval mortality and residual effect, as well as, the development of larvae, pupae, and adults. Results demonstrated that the lethal effect started mainly between the first 2 and 3 h of larvae exposure to oils, when using concentrations which ranged from 500 mg/L of C. guianensis and 90 mg/L of Copaifera sp. The toxic effect remained with total efficiency (100% mortality) until the sixth day for Copaifera sp. and 12th day for C. guianensis. When using sublethal dosages (ranging from 140 mg/L of C. guianensis to 26 mg/L of Copaifera sp.) mortality was observed after the larval molt. Also, imperfection of pupae and adult development and unsuccessful emergence of adults were observed. A product of botanical origin that could break the development of immature stage of mosquitoes and inhibit the emergence of adults should be essential in vector control. Thus, our results provide new information for a better understanding in using C. guianensis and Copaifera sp. oils with a potential to be used as a natural insecticide. PMID:21766235

  3. Properties of concrete with tire derived aggregate and crumb rubber as a lighthweight substitute for mineral aggregates in the concrete mix

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Siringi, Gideon Momanyi

    Scrap tires continue to be a nuisance to the environment and this research proposes one way of recycling them as a lightweight aggregate which can substitute for mineral aggregates in concrete. Aggregates derived from scrap tires are often referred to as Tire Derived Aggregate (TDA). First, the focus is how much mineral aggregate can be replaced by these waste tires and how the properties of concrete are affected with the introduction of rubber. This is being mindful of the fact that for a new material to be acceptable as an engineering material, its properties and behavior has to be well understood, the materials must perform properly and be acceptable to the regulating agencies. The role played by the quantity of TDA and Crumb Rubber replacing coarse aggregate and fine aggregate respectively as well as different treatment and additives in concrete on its properties are examined. Conventional concrete (without TDA) and concrete containing TDA are compared by examining their compressive strength based on ASTM C39, workability based on ASTM C143, Splitting Tensile Strength based on ASTM C496, Modulus of Rupture (flexural strength) based on ASTM C78 and Bond strength of concrete developed with reinforcing steel based on ASTM C234.Through stress-strain plots, the rubberized concrete is compared in terms of change in ductility, toughness and Elastic Modulus. Results indicate that while replacement of mineral aggregates with TDA results in reduction in compressive strength, this may be mitigated by addition of silica fume or using a smaller size of TDA to obtain the desired strength. The greatest benefit of using TDA is in the development of a higher ductile product with lower density while utilizing recycled TDA. From the results, it is observed that 7-10% of weight of mineral aggregates can be replaced by an equal volume of TDA to produce concrete with compressive strength of up to 4000 psi (27.5 MPa). Rubberized concrete would have higher ductility and toughness with

  4. Function-related adaptations of ultrastructure, mineral phase distribution and mechanical properties in the incisive cuticle of mandibles of Porcellio scaber Latreille, 1804.

    PubMed

    Huber, Julia; Fabritius, Helge-Otto; Griesshaber, Erika; Ziegler, Andreas

    2014-10-01

    In terrestrial isopods the mandibles consist of a corpus carrying strong muscle tissue, and a pars incisiva (PI) that cuts dry leaves into smaller ingestible pieces. We studied the cuticle of the PI of Porcellio scaber in order to understand region-dependent differences in its ultrastructure, composition, and the resulting mechanical properties, employing several microscopic and analytical techniques as well as nanoindentation experiments. The cuticle of the incisive tip is not mineralized and consists of an unusually thick epicuticle containing thin fibrils, two subjacent cuticular layers, and a central core containing fibrils of different orientation, either longitudinal or circumferential. A thick epicuticle of the middle region just behind the tip projects long epicuticular extensions into the subjacent endocuticle, likely to prevent delamination. A distinct exocuticular layer is lacking in the middle region. Most chitin-protein fibrils within the endocuticle are oriented in parallel pointing towards the tip. Surprisingly, the middle region is mineralized by amorphous calcium phosphate (ACP) only. Near the base, ACP is successively replaced by amorphous calcium carbonate and calcite is restricted to a distal layer in the base. At the transition between middle and base, the epicuticle forms a hybrid material containing fibrils of the exocuticle. Nanoindentation experiments reveal an increase of the stiffness and hardness from the tip towards the base and significantly higher values on transversal in comparison to longitudinal planes. The results suggest that ultrastructure and composition are adapted for conveying high forces from a rather thin cutting edge to the stable base of the PI.

  5. A comparative evaluation of the effect of various additives on selected physical properties of white mineral trioxide aggregate

    PubMed Central

    Prasad, Anushree; Pushpa, Shankarappa; Arunagiri, Doraiswamy; Sawhny, Asheesh; Misra, Abhinav; Sujatha, Ramamurthy

    2015-01-01

    Aims: This study examined the setting time, compressive strength, and pH of white mineral trioxide aggregate (MTA) mixed with various additives: Calcium chloride (CaCl2), calcium formate (CaF), disodium hydrogen orthophosphate (Na2HPO4). Materials and Methods: Group 1 (Control) was obtained by mixing MTA with distilled water. In Groups 2 and 3, MTA containing 10% CaCl2 and 20% CaF, respectively, was mixed with distilled water. In Group 4, MTA was mixed with 15% Na2HPO4. Setting time, compressive strength, and pH of each group were examined. Statistical Analysis Used: Analysis was done using Statistical Package for Social Sciences (SPSS) version 14. A P-value < 0.05 was considered statistically significant. Comparison of mean values was done using analysis of variance (ANOVA) with post-hoc Games-Howell test. Results: The setting time of test groups were significantly shorter than that of control group (P < 0.001). The compressive strengths of test groups were lower than that of control group (P < 0.001). The pH value obtained for Groups 3 and 4 were higher than that of the control group (P < 0.001). Conclusions: Study result showed that additives significantly reduced the setting time of MTA and also maintained the pH at a high value. However, there was not much improvement in the compressive strength of the material. PMID:26069412

  6. In situ mineralization of anticancer drug into calcium carbonate monodisperse nanospheres and their pH-responsive release property.

    PubMed

    Yang, Tiezhu; Wan, Zhanghui; Liu, Zhiyuan; Li, Haihong; Wang, Hao; Lu, Nan; Chen, Zhenhua; Mei, Xifan; Ren, Xiuli

    2016-06-01

    In this paper, we facilitated the preparation of uniform calcium carbonate nanospheres and the encapsulation of anticancer drug (Doxorubicin, Dox) in one step by a facile bio-inspired mineralization method at room temperature. Hesperidin (Hesp), a natural originated flavanone glycoside, was introduced as crystallization modifier. The obtained Dox encapsulated CaCO3 nanospheres (Dox@CaCO3-Hesp NSs) having a narrow size range of ~200 nm. The drug loading/release studies reveal that these Dox@CaCO3-Hesp NSs have a drug loading efficiency (DLE) of 83% and drug loading content (DLC) of 14wt%. Besides, the release of Dox from Dox@CaCO3-Hesp NSs was pH depended. At pH=7.4, only a small amount (~28%) of Dox was released. While at pH=5.0, all amount of incorporated Dox was released. Confocal laser scanning microscopy (CLSM) image reveals the Dox@CaCO3-Hesp NSs can internalize the cells. These results suggest the Dox@CaCO3-Hesp NSs can be potentially used to utilize pH-responsive delivery of anticancer drugs.

  7. In vitro comparison of antibacterial properties of bioceramic-based sealer, resin-based sealer and zinc oxide eugenol based sealer and two mineral trioxide aggregates

    PubMed Central

    Singh, Gurpreet; Gupta, Iti; Elshamy, Faheim M. M.; Boreak, Nezar; Homeida, Husham Elraih

    2016-01-01

    Objective: Our goal of the study was to evaluate the antibacterial properties of endodontic sealers against the E. faecalis. Materials and Methods: Six millimeters wells were made for each material in all the preinoculated petri plates. Then, the petri plates were incubated for 24 h. The zones of inhibition appeared were measured, and the measurements were put to statistical analysis. Results: EndoSequence BC Sealer, MM-mineral trioxide aggregate (MTA), and ProRoot MTA showed maximum means of diameter of zones of inhibition, whereas MM-seal and Endoseal did not show any zones of inhibition. Conclusion: EndoSequence BC Sealer was found to be a better endodontic sealer as compared to resin-based and zinc oxide-eugenol-based sealer. PMID:27403055

  8. Mineral Quantification.

    PubMed

    2016-01-01

    Optimal intakes of elements, such as sodium, potassium, magnesium, calcium, manganese, copper, zinc and iodine, can reduce individual risk factors including those related to cardiovascular diseases among humans and animals. In order to meet the need for vitamins, major minerals, trace minerals, fatty acids and amino acids, it is necessary to include a full spectrum programme that can deliver all of the nutrients in the right ratio. Minerals are required for normal growth, activities of muscles, skeletal development (such as calcium), cellular activity, oxygen transport (copper and iron), chemical reactions in the body, intestinal absorption (magnesium), fluid balance and nerve transmission (sodium and potassium), as well as the regulation of the acid base balance (phosphorus). The chapter discusses the chemical and instrumentation techniques used for estimation of minerals such as N, P, Ca, Mg, K, Na, Fe, Cu, Zn, B and Mb. PMID:26939263

  9. Mineral Quantification.

    PubMed

    2016-01-01

    Optimal intakes of elements, such as sodium, potassium, magnesium, calcium, manganese, copper, zinc and iodine, can reduce individual risk factors including those related to cardiovascular diseases among humans and animals. In order to meet the need for vitamins, major minerals, trace minerals, fatty acids and amino acids, it is necessary to include a full spectrum programme that can deliver all of the nutrients in the right ratio. Minerals are required for normal growth, activities of muscles, skeletal development (such as calcium), cellular activity, oxygen transport (copper and iron), chemical reactions in the body, intestinal absorption (magnesium), fluid balance and nerve transmission (sodium and potassium), as well as the regulation of the acid base balance (phosphorus). The chapter discusses the chemical and instrumentation techniques used for estimation of minerals such as N, P, Ca, Mg, K, Na, Fe, Cu, Zn, B and Mb.

  10. Mineralization- and remodeling-unrelated improvement of the post-yield properties of rat cortical bone by high doses of olpadronate.

    PubMed

    Capozza, R F; Mondelo, N; Reina, P S; Nocciolino, L; Meta, M; Roldan, E J; Ferretti, J L; Cointry, G R

    2013-06-01

    Some pharmacologic effects on bone modeling may not be evident in studies of remodeling skeletons. This study analyzes some effects of olpadronate on cortical bone modeling and post-yield properties in femurs diaphyses (virtually only-modeling bones) of young rats by mid-diaphyseal pQCT scans and bending tests. We studied 20/22 male/female animals traetad orally with olpadronate (45-90 mg/kg/d, 3 months) and 8/9 untreated controls. Both OPD doses enhanced diaphyseal cross-sectional moments of inertia (CSMI) with no change in cortical vBMD and elastic modulus. Yield stiffness and strength were mildly increased. Post-yield strength, deflection and energy absorption were strikingly enhanced. Ultimate strength was enhanced mainly because of effects on bone mass/geometry and post-yield properties. The large improvement of post-yield properties could be explained by improvements in bone geometry. Improvements in bone mass/geometry over weight-bearing needs suggest an enhanced modeling-related response to mechanical stimuli. Effects on tissue microstructural factors (not measured) could not be excluded. Results reveal novel olpadronate effects on bone strength and toughness unrelated to tissue mineralization and stiffness, even at high doses. Further studies could establish whether this could also occur in modeling-remodeling skeletons. If so, they could counteract the negative impact of anti-remodeling effects of bisphosphonates on bone strength.

  11. From colloidal spheres to nanofibrils: extensional flow properties of mineral pigment and mixtures with micro and nanofibrils under progressive double layer suppression.

    PubMed

    Dimic-Misic, Katarina; Hummel, Michael; Paltakari, Jouni; Sixta, Herbert; Maloney, Thad; Gane, Patrick

    2015-05-15

    Suspensions of mineral pigment and cellulose fibrillar derivatives are materials regularly found in the forest products industries, particularly in paper and board production. Many manufacturing processes, including forming and coating employ flow geometries incorporating extensional flow. Traditionally, colloidal mineral pigment suspensions have been considered to show little to no non-linear behaviour in extensional viscosity. Additionally, recently, nanofibrillar materials, such as microfibrillar (MFC) and nanofibrillar cellulose (NFC), collectively termed MNFC, have been confirmed by their failure to follow the Cox-Merz rule to behave more as particulate material rather than showing polymeric rheological properties when dispersed in water. Such suspensions and their mixtures are currently intensively investigated to enable them to generate likely enhanced composite material properties. The processes frequently involve exposure to increasing levels of ionic strength, coming either from the weak solubility of pigments, such as calcium carbonate, or retained salts arising from the feed fibre source processing. By taking the simple case of polyacrylate stabilised calcium carbonate suspension and comparing the extensional viscosity as a function of post extension capillary-induced Hencky strain on a CaBER extensional rheometer over a range of increasing salt concentration, it has been shown that the regime of constriction changes as the classic DLVO double layer is progressively suppressed. This change is seen to lead to a characteristic double (bimodal) measured viscosity response for flocculated systems. With this novel characteristic established, more complex mixed suspensions of calcium carbonate, clay and MNFC have been studied, and the effects of fibrils versus flocculation identified and where possible separated. This technique is suggested to enable a better understanding of the origin of viscoelasticity in these important emerging water-based suspensions.

  12. From colloidal spheres to nanofibrils: extensional flow properties of mineral pigment and mixtures with micro and nanofibrils under progressive double layer suppression.

    PubMed

    Dimic-Misic, Katarina; Hummel, Michael; Paltakari, Jouni; Sixta, Herbert; Maloney, Thad; Gane, Patrick

    2015-05-15

    Suspensions of mineral pigment and cellulose fibrillar derivatives are materials regularly found in the forest products industries, particularly in paper and board production. Many manufacturing processes, including forming and coating employ flow geometries incorporating extensional flow. Traditionally, colloidal mineral pigment suspensions have been considered to show little to no non-linear behaviour in extensional viscosity. Additionally, recently, nanofibrillar materials, such as microfibrillar (MFC) and nanofibrillar cellulose (NFC), collectively termed MNFC, have been confirmed by their failure to follow the Cox-Merz rule to behave more as particulate material rather than showing polymeric rheological properties when dispersed in water. Such suspensions and their mixtures are currently intensively investigated to enable them to generate likely enhanced composite material properties. The processes frequently involve exposure to increasing levels of ionic strength, coming either from the weak solubility of pigments, such as calcium carbonate, or retained salts arising from the feed fibre source processing. By taking the simple case of polyacrylate stabilised calcium carbonate suspension and comparing the extensional viscosity as a function of post extension capillary-induced Hencky strain on a CaBER extensional rheometer over a range of increasing salt concentration, it has been shown that the regime of constriction changes as the classic DLVO double layer is progressively suppressed. This change is seen to lead to a characteristic double (bimodal) measured viscosity response for flocculated systems. With this novel characteristic established, more complex mixed suspensions of calcium carbonate, clay and MNFC have been studied, and the effects of fibrils versus flocculation identified and where possible separated. This technique is suggested to enable a better understanding of the origin of viscoelasticity in these important emerging water-based suspensions

  13. Thermal oxidation of medical Ti6Al4V blasted with ceramic particles: Effects on the microstructure, residual stresses and mechanical properties.

    PubMed

    Lieblich, M; Barriuso, S; Multigner, M; González-Doncel, G; González-Carrasco, J L

    2016-02-01

    Roughening of Ti6Al4V by blasting with alumina or zirconia particles improves the mechanical fixation of implants by increasing the surface area available for bone/implant apposition. Additional thermal oxidation treatments of the blasted alloy have already shown to be a complementary low-cost solution to enhancing the in vitro biocompatibility and corrosion resistance of the alloy. In this work, the effects of oxidation treatment on a grit blasted Ti6Al4V biomedical alloy have been analysed in order to understand the net effect of the combined treatments on the alloy fatigue properties. Synchrotron radiation diffraction experiments have been performed to measure residual stresses before and after the treatments and microstructural and hardness changes have been determined. Although blasting of Ti6Al4V with small spherical zirconia particles increases the alloy fatigue resistance with respect to unblasted specimens, fatigue strength after oxidation decreases below the unblasted value, irrespective of the type of particle used for blasting. Moreover, at 700°C the as-blasted compressive residual stresses (700MPa) are not only fully relaxed but even moderate tensile residual stresses, of about 120MPa, are found beneath the blasted surfaces. Contrary to expectations, a moderate increase in hardness occurs towards the blasted surface after oxidation treatments. This can be attributed to the fact that grit blasting modifies the crystallographic texture of the Ti6Al4V shifting it to a random texture, which affects the hardness values as shown by additional experiments on cold rolled samples. The results indicate that the oxidation treatment performed to improve biocompatibility and corrosion resistance of grit blasted Ti6Al4V should be carried out with caution since the alloy fatigue strength can be critically diminished below the value required for high load-bearing components. PMID:26458115

  14. Thermal oxidation of medical Ti6Al4V blasted with ceramic particles: Effects on the microstructure, residual stresses and mechanical properties.

    PubMed

    Lieblich, M; Barriuso, S; Multigner, M; González-Doncel, G; González-Carrasco, J L

    2016-02-01

    Roughening of Ti6Al4V by blasting with alumina or zirconia particles improves the mechanical fixation of implants by increasing the surface area available for bone/implant apposition. Additional thermal oxidation treatments of the blasted alloy have already shown to be a complementary low-cost solution to enhancing the in vitro biocompatibility and corrosion resistance of the alloy. In this work, the effects of oxidation treatment on a grit blasted Ti6Al4V biomedical alloy have been analysed in order to understand the net effect of the combined treatments on the alloy fatigue properties. Synchrotron radiation diffraction experiments have been performed to measure residual stresses before and after the treatments and microstructural and hardness changes have been determined. Although blasting of Ti6Al4V with small spherical zirconia particles increases the alloy fatigue resistance with respect to unblasted specimens, fatigue strength after oxidation decreases below the unblasted value, irrespective of the type of particle used for blasting. Moreover, at 700°C the as-blasted compressive residual stresses (700MPa) are not only fully relaxed but even moderate tensile residual stresses, of about 120MPa, are found beneath the blasted surfaces. Contrary to expectations, a moderate increase in hardness occurs towards the blasted surface after oxidation treatments. This can be attributed to the fact that grit blasting modifies the crystallographic texture of the Ti6Al4V shifting it to a random texture, which affects the hardness values as shown by additional experiments on cold rolled samples. The results indicate that the oxidation treatment performed to improve biocompatibility and corrosion resistance of grit blasted Ti6Al4V should be carried out with caution since the alloy fatigue strength can be critically diminished below the value required for high load-bearing components.

  15. Carbohydrate binding properties of banana (Musa acuminata) lectin I. Novel recognition of internal alpha1,3-linked glucosyl residues.

    PubMed

    Mo, H; Winter, H C; Van Damme, E J; Peumans, W J; Misaki, A; Goldstein, I J

    2001-05-01

    Examination of lectins of banana (Musa acuminata) and the closely related plantain (Musa spp.) by the techniques of quantitative precipitation, hapten inhibition of precipitation, and isothermal titration calorimetry showed that they are mannose/glucose binding proteins with a preference for the alpha-anomeric form of these sugars. Both generate precipitin curves with branched chain alpha-mannans (yeast mannans) and alpha-glucans (glycogens, dextrans, and starches), but not with linear alpha-glucans containing only alpha1,4- and alpha1,6-glucosidic bonds (isolichenan and pullulan). The novel observation was made that banana and plantain lectins recognize internal alpha1,3-linked glucosyl residues, which occur in the linear polysaccharides elsinan and nigeran. Concanavalin A and lectins from pea and lentil, also mannose/glucose binding lectins, did not precipitate with any of these linear alpha-glucans. This is, the authors believe, the first report of the recognition of internal alpha1,3-glucosidic bonds by a plant lectin. It is possible that these lectins are present in the pulp of their respective fruit, complexed with starch.

  16. Clay Minerals

    SciTech Connect

    Mueller, Karl T.; Sanders, Rebecca L.; Washton, Nancy M.

    2014-03-14

    Clay minerals are important components of the environment and are involved or implicated in processes such as the uptake of pollutants and the release of nutrients and as potential platforms for a number of chemical reactions. Owing to their small particle sizes (typically, on the order of microns or smaller) and mixing with a variety of other minerals and soil components, advanced characterization methods are needed to study their structures, dynamics, and reactivities. In this article, we describe the use of solid-state NMR methods to characterize the structures and chemistries of clay minerals. Early one-pulse magic-angle spinning (MAS) NMR studies of 27Al and 29Si have now been enhanced and extended with new studies utilizing advanced methodologies (such as Multiple Quantum MAS) as well as studies of less-sensitive nuclei. In additional work, the issue of reactivity of clay minerals has been addressed, including studies of reactive surface area in the environment. Utilizations of NMR-sensitive nuclides within the clay minerals themselves, and in molecules that react with specific sites on the clay mineral surfaces, have aided in understanding the reactivity of these complex aluminosilicate systems.

  17. Study of effect of substitution of the penultimate amino acid residue on expression, structure, and functional properties of Yersinia pseudotuberculosis OmpY porin.

    PubMed

    Solov'eva, T F; Tischenko, N M; Khomenko, V A; Portnyagina, O Y; Kim, N Y; Likhatskaya, G N; Novikova, O D; Isaeva, M P

    2014-07-01

    The purpose of the study was to compare the expression of two Yersinia pseudotuberculosis proteins, wild-type porin OmpY and the mutant porin OmpY designated as OmpY-Q having the uncharged amino acid residue Gln instead of positively charged Arg at the penultimate position in the same heterologous host. According to the literature, a similar substitution (Lys to Gln) of the penultimate amino acid residue in Neisseria meningitidis porin PorA drastically improved the assembly of the protein in the E. coli outer membrane in vivo. Site-directed mutagenesis was used to replace Arg by Gln (R338Q) in OmpY, and the conditions for optimal expression and maturation of OmpY-Q were selected. It was found that the growth rates of E. coli strains producing OmpY and OmpY-Q and the expression levels of the porins were approximately equal. Comparative analysis of recombinant OmpY and OmpY-Q did not show significant differences in structure, antigenic, and functional properties of the porins, or any noticeable effect of the R338Q substitution in OmpY on its assembly in the E. coli outer membrane in vivo. The probable causes of discrepancies between our results and the previous data on porin PorA are discussed considering the known mechanisms of biogenesis of porins at the periplasmic stage.

  18. Effect of process temperature on structure, microstructure, residual stresses and soft magnetic properties of sputtered Fe70Co30 thin films

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Inamdar, Swaleha; Ramudu, M.; Raja, M. Manivel; Kamat, S. V.

    2016-11-01

    The effect of substrate and post-annealing temperatures on the structure, microstructure, residual stresses and soft magnetic properties of Fe70Co30 thin films was systematically investigated. Microstructural studies reveal that the films are continuous and undergo changes in shape of grain from plate like to spherical resulting in an increase in grain size with the increase in substrate temperature, whereas the post-annealed films show small pores and no significant grain growth till 500 °C. Coercivity (Hc) was found decreasing with both the substrate and post-annealing temperatures; however, the best Hc value of 26 Oe was obtained for the films deposited at substrate temperature of 500 °C. The post-annealed films exhibited relatively higher Hc values. A good combination of high saturation magnetization 4πMs of ~23.2 kG and low coercivity Hc of 26-65 Oe was obtained for the films deposited at substrate temperature of 450-500 °C. Residual stress analysis on films with different substrate temperatures shows the presence of tensile stress. The decrease in tensile stress is attributed to the relaxation of thermal stresses in the films.

  19. Implications of combined ovariectomy and glucocorticoid (dexamethasone) treatment on mineral, microarchitectural, biomechanical and matrix properties of rat bone.

    PubMed

    Govindarajan, Parameswari; Khassawna, Thaqif; Kampschulte, Marian; Böcker, Wolfgang; Huerter, Britta; Dürselen, Lutz; Faulenbach, Miriam; Heiss, Christian

    2013-12-01

    Osteoporosis is one of the deleterious side effects of long-term glucocorticoid therapy. Since the condition is particularly aggressive in postmenopausal women who are on steroid therapy, in this study we have attempted to analyse the combined effect of glucocorticoid (dexamethasone) treatment and cessation of oestrogen on rat bone. The dual aim was to generate osteoporotic bone status in a short time scale and to characterise the combination of glucocorticoid-postmenopausal osteoporotic conditions. Sprague Dawley rats (N = 42) were grouped randomly into three groups: untreated control, sham-operated and ovariectomized-steroid (OVX-Steroid) rats. Control animals were euthanized with no treatment [Month 0 (M0)], while sham and OVX-Steroid rats were monitored up to 1 month (M1) and 3 months (M3) post laparotomy/post OVX-Steroid treatment. Histology, dual-energy X-ray absorptiometry (DXA), micro-computed tomography (micro-CT), and biomechanical and mRNA expression analysis of collagenous, non-collagenous matrix proteins and osteoclast markers were examined. The study indicated enhanced osteoclastogenesis and significantly lower bone mineral density (BMD) in the OVX-Steroid rats with Z-scores below -2.5, reduced torsional strength, reduced bone volume (BV/TV%), significantly enhanced trabecular separation (Tb.S), and less trabecular number (Tb.N) compared with sham rats. Osteoclast markers, cathepsin K and MMP 9 were upregulated along with Col1α1 and biglycan with no significant expression variation in fibronectin, MMP 14, LRP-5, Car II and TNC. These results show higher bone turnover with enhanced bone resorption accompanied with reduced torsional strength in OVX-Steroid rats; and these changes were attained within a short timeframe. This could be a useful model which mimics human postmenopausal osteoporosis that is associated with steroid therapy and could prove of value both in disease diagnosis and for testing generating and testing biological agents which could

  20. Residual Stress, Structure and Other Properties Formation by Combined Thermo-Hardening Processing of Surface Layer of Gray Cast Iron Parts

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Rakhimyanov, Kh M.; Nikitin, Yu V.; Semenova, Yu S.; Eremina, A. S.

    2016-04-01

    The proposed combined thermo-hardening processing of gray cast iron enables to control the surface layer structure and mechanical properties formation. The processing includes high-speed heating by low-temperature plasma source and ultrasonic surface plastic deformation. The algorithm of calculation the stress-strain state of a surface layer at combined processing of gray cast iron is developed. This algorithm is based on method of sections. The ultrasonic surface deformation contribution is determined during formation of residual stresses. It is established that the combination of the thermal and deformation effects on the material provides an additional increment of microhardness and increase of surface layer thickness. Experimental results shows that the features of structural and phase transformations in a surface layer are revealed without a surface melting by energy of low-temperature plasma. The top of a layer does not contain inclusions of graphite that testifies to change of structural transformations in conditions of combined processing.

  1. Potential application of microbial iron redox cycles in nitrate removal and their effects on clay mineral properties

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Zhao, L.; Dong, H.; Kukkadapu, R. K.; Briggs, B. R.; Zeng, Q.

    2014-12-01

    Phyllosilicates that are ubiquitous in subsurface can serve as an iron source for microbial respiration. The objective of this research is to determine the ability of the phyllosilicate Fe to remove nitrate in subsurface undergoing microbial-driven redox cycles. In this study, thus, a well-characterized reference clay (NAu-2; nontronite), was subjected to redox cycles in a system containing dissimilatory Fe(III)-reducing bacteria, Shewanella putrefaciens CN32, and nitrate-dependent Fe(II)-oxidizing bacteria, Pseudogulbenkiania sp. Strain 2002. Three redox cycles were conducted in bicarbonate- and PIPES-buffered medium. The extents of Fe(III) reduction, Fe(II) oxidation, nitrate reduction, and its various intermediate products were measured by wet chemical methods. For each cycle, Electron Energy Loss Spectroscopy and Mossbauer spectroscopy confirmed Fe oxidation state. Mineralogical changes were identified by using X-ray diffraction (XRD), 57Fe-Mössbauer spectroscopy, and infrared absorption spectroscopy. For all three cycles, nitrate was completely reduced to nitrogen gas under both bicarbonate- and PIPES- buffered conditions. As redox cycle increased, bio-reduction extents of Fe(III) in NAu-2 decreased by 33% and 48% in PIPES- and bicarbonate-buffered medium, respectively; however, bio-oxidation extents increased by 66% and 55% in the same medium, respectively. Despite the change of OH-stretching vibration band and OH-bending vibration bands in NAu-2 structure along Fe redox cycles, XRD data showed interlayer spacing of NAu-2 to be constant along the same Fe redox cycle. 57Fe-Mössbauer spectroscopy indicated complex reduction and re-oxidation pathways. For example, a distinct Fe(II) doublet and a Fe2.5+ feature due to interfacial Fe(II)-Fe(III) electron transfer on clay mineral are prominent in their RT spectra. Both these Fe(II) are partially oxidized by Fe(II)-oxidizing bacteria. The result of this study shows that Fe in biogenically reduced or oxidized NAu-2

  2. The Impact of Fluid Properties and Flow Conditions on the Measurement of Relative Permeability and Residual CO2 Trapping Saturation for CO2-Brine Systems

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Niu, B.; Al-Menhali, A.; Krevor, S. C.

    2014-12-01

    Successful industrial scale carbon dioxide injection into deep saline aquifers will be dependent on the ability to model the flow of the fluid and to quantify the impact of various trapping mechanisms. The effectiveness of the models is in turn dependent on high quality laboratory measurements of basic multiphase flow properties such as relative permeability and residual trapping at reservoir conditions. Compared with typical oil-brine systems, however, a unique defining characteristic of the CO2-brine system is its combination of high viscosity ratio and low density ratio. This combination of properties results in unique complications for experiments with CO2 and brine and unique flow conditions must be used to achieve the combined goals of observations across a large saturation range and the avoidance of the effects of heterogeneity as well as capillary forces and gravity segregation. We have simulated the corefloods experiments at various conditions and calculated with different interpretation techniques: Steady state method, JBN-type method and history matching. As one of the essential mechanisms for CO2 storage underground, residual trapping refers to the trapping of CO2 through capillary forces within the pore space of a permeable aquifer. There are few studies that have observed the trapping characteristics for CO2-brine systems in permeable rocks, including the impact of reservoir conditions, and this remains a major uncertainty for geologic CO2 storage. This work presents results from a core-flooding laboratory that has been recently developed at Imperial College dedicated to observations of CO2-brine systems. The apparatus includes high precision pumps, accurate temperature control and a rotating X-ray CT scanner that allows experiments to be performed in both vertical and horizontal directions. The proper approach to measuring relative permeability for CO2-brine system is proposed and demonstrated. The changes in residual trapping correlated to pressure

  3. TRP0033 - PCI Coal Combustion Behavior and Residual Coal Char Carryover in the Blast Furnace of 3 American Steel Companies during Pulverized Coal Injection (PCI) at High Rates

    SciTech Connect

    Veena Sahajwalla; Sushil Gupta

    2005-04-15

    Combustion behavior of pulverized coals (PC), gasification and thermal annealing of cokes were investigated under controlled environments. Physical and chemical properties of PCI, coke and carbon residues of blast furnace dust/sludge samples were characterized. The strong influence of carbon structure and minerals on PCI reactivity was demonstrated. A technique to characterize char carryover in off gas emissions was established.

  4. Structural, elastic, electronic and optical properties of various mineral phases of TiO2 from first-principles calculations

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Liu, Qi-Jun; Zhang, Ning-Chao; Liu, Fu-Sheng; Liu, Zheng-Tang

    2014-07-01

    Titanium dioxide is well known as a semiconductor material, which attracts a great deal of attention for promising applications in many fields due to its outstanding physical and chemical properties. To investigate the structural, elastic, mechanical, electronic and optical properties of various TiO2 phases systematically, we present the ultrasoft pseudopotential planewave method within local density approximation and generalized gradient approximation, as well as the norm-conserving pseudopotential within hybrid functional B3LYP by first-principles calculations on fluorite, pyrite, rutile, anatase, hollandite, brookite, columbite, cotunnite, bronze and baddeleyite TiO2 phases. The structural parameters of ten phases are calculated, which are shown to be consistent with previous theoretical and experimental data. We obtain the elastic constants of ten phases and then estimate the bulk, shear and Young’s moduli, Poisson’s coefficient and Lamé’s constants using the Voigt-Reuss-Hill approximation. The energy band structures, density of states and charge populations of ten phases were obtained and indicated there is covalency in TiO2. Moreover, the complex dielectric function, refractive index and extinction coefficient of the ten phases were calculated; this data can aid future experimental research.

  5. Comparison of optical and microphysical properties of pure Saharan mineral dust observed with AERONET Sun photometer, Raman lidar, and in situ instruments during SAMUM 2006

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Müller, D.; Lee, K.-H.; Gasteiger, J.; Tesche, M.; Weinzierl, B.; Kandler, K.; Müller, T.; Toledano, C.; Otto, S.; Althausen, D.; Ansmann, A.

    2012-04-01

    The Saharan Mineral Dust Experiment (SAMUM) 2006, Morocco, aimed at the characterization of optical, physical, and radiative properties of Saharan dust. AERONET Sun photometer, several lidars (Raman and high-spectral-resolution instruments), and airborne and ground-based in situ instruments provided us with a comprehensive set of data on particle-shape dependent and particle-shape independent dust properties. We compare 4 measurement days in detail, and we carry out a statistical analysis for some of the inferred data products for the complete measurement period. Particle size distributions and complex refractive indices inferred from the Sun photometer observations and measured in situ aboard a research aircraft show systematic differences. We find differences in the wavelength-dependence of single-scattering albedo, compared to light-scattering computations that use data from SOAP (spectral optical absorption photometer). AERONET data products of particle size distribution, complex refractive index, and axis ratios were used to compute particle extinction-to-backscatter (lidar) ratios and linear particle depolarization ratios. We find differences for these parameters to lidar measurements of lidar ratio and particle depolarization ratio. Differences particularly exist at 355 nm, which may be the result of differences of the wavelength-dependent complex refractive index that is inferred by the methods employed in this field campaign. We discuss various error sources that may lead to the observed differences.

  6. Respiration, mineralization, and biochemical properties of the particulate matter in the southern Nansen Basin water column in April 1981

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Packard, T. T.; Codispoti, L. A.

    2007-03-01

    Determinations of the activity of the respiratory electron transport system (ETS), during the FRAM III expedition permit us to estimate oxygen utilization rates ( RO 2) from the surface to 2000 m under the polar pack ice in the Nansen Basin just north of Svalbard (83°N, 7°E) during April 1981. We found RO 2 at in situ temperatures ranging from 20 pM O 2 min -1 just below the ice to 0.2 pM O 2 min -1 at 2000 m. These rates are low compared to most other ocean regions, but they could decrease particulate organic carbon and nitrogen by 76% and 74%, respectively, over a period of ˜6 months. The RO 2 calculations based on measurements made at 0 °C yielded a power function of RO 2 vs. depth ( Z) of RO 2=67 Z-0.5534. When this RO 2 profile was superimposed on a more recent oxygen utilization rate profile made using the 3He- 3H-AOU method (OUR), in the same vicinity of the Nansen Basin during 1987 (OUR=52 Z-0.4058, [Zheng, Y., Schlosser, P., Swift, J.W., Jones, E.P., 1997. Oxygen utilization rates in the Nansen Basin, Arctic Ocean: implications for new production. Deep Sea Research I 44, 1923-1943]), the agreement of the two profiles was close. On one hand, this was to be expected because RO 2 is the biological basis of OUR, on the other hand, it was a surprise because the methodologies are so different. Nitrate mineralization obtained from ETS activities also compared favorably with calculations based on the data of Zheng et al. [1997. Oxygen utilization rates in the Nansen Basin, Arctic Ocean: implications for new production. Deep Sea Research I 44, 1923-1943]. Chlorophyll ranged from 6 ng L -1 at 5 m to 0.06 ng L -1 at 2000 m. Particulate organic carbon (POC) decreased from 0.93 μM C just below the ice to less than 0.4 μM C at 500 m. Particulate organic nitrogen (PON) was not detectable below 70 m, however in the upper 70 m it ranged from 0.16 to 0.04 μM N. The C/N mass ratio over these depths ranged from 5.8 to 11.3. Annual carbon productivity as calculated to

  7. Fluorescence properties of Savinase®: the X-ray structure in the region of the tryptophyl residues

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Georgieva, Dessislava Nikolova; Nikolov, Peter; Ivanova, Veneta; Gusterova, Adriana; Betzel, Christian

    1999-09-01

    Fluorescence properties of the alkaline proteinase Savinase® are described and related to the enzyme X-ray crystal structure. The intrinsic protein emission is dominated by the 'exposed' Trp 241. The fluorescence decay of the phenylmethanesulfonyl (PMS)-proteinase excited at 297 nm was well fitted by three exponentials with lifetimes of 0.34±0.06 ns (39.4%), 2.80±0.17 ns (42.3%) and 6.80±1.15 ns (18.3%). Savinase® and the closely related proteolytic enzyme Esperase® are an attractive couple of proteins for fluorescence studies. Trp 6 and Trp 113, common to both proteinases, are located in identical microenvironments in the two globular proteins. Iodide ions are efficient quenchers of the PMS-Savinase® fluorescence. Caesium had almost no effect on the indole emission. An electrostatic parameter E=12.4 was obtained as the ratio KSV-/ KSV+. This means a positive microenvironment of the emitting tryptophans. Acrylamide quenching proceeds via both dynamic and static processes. The activation energy for the thermal deactivation of the excited indole groups is 59.2 kJ mol -1 in the absence of extraneous calcium and 76.4 kJ mol -1 in the presence of 100 mM Ca 2+. The Tm values in the absence and presence of added Ca 2+ are 61 and 78°C, respectively; saturation of the 'weak' calcium-binding site, Ca2, dramatically increased the PMS-proteinase thermostability. A good correlation between the spectroscopic properties and the crystallographic structure of Savinase® was observed.

  8. Designing poly[(R)-3-hydroxybutyrate]-based polyurethane block copolymers for electrospun nanofiber scaffolds with improved mechanical properties and enhanced mineralization capability.

    PubMed

    Liu, Kerh Li; Choo, Eugene Shi Guang; Wong, Siew Yee; Li, Xu; He, Chao Bin; Wang, John; Li, Jun

    2010-06-10

    Efforts to mineralize electrospun hydrophobic polyester scaffold often require prior surface modification such as plasma or alkaline treatment, which may affect the mechanical integrity of the resultant scaffold. Here through rational design we developed a series of polyurethane block copolymers containing poly[(R)-3-hydroxybutyrate] (PHB) as hard segment and poly(ethylene glycol) (PEG) as soft segment that could be easily fabricated into mineralizable electrospun scaffold without the need of additional surface treatment. To ensure that the block copolymers do not swell excessively in water, PEG content in the polymers was kept below 50 wt %. To obtain good dry and hydrated state mechanical properties with limited PEG, low-molecular-weight PHB-diol with M(n) 1230 and 1790 were used in various molar feed ratios. The macromolecular characteristics of the block copolymers were confirmed by (1)H NMR spectroscopy, gel permeation chromatography (GPC), and thermal gravimetric analyses (TGA). With the incorporation of the hydrophilic PEG segments, the surface and bulk hydrophilicity of the block copolymers were significantly improved. Differential scanning calorimetry (DSC) revealed that the block copolymers had low PHB crystallinity and no PEG crystallinity. This was further confirmed by X-ray diffraction analyses (XRD) in both dry and hydrated states. With short PHB segments and soft PEG coupled together, the block copolymers were no longer brittle. Tensile measurements showed that the block copolymers with higher PEG content or shorter PHB segments were more ductile. Furthermore, their ductility was enhanced in hydrated states with one particular example showing increment in strain at break from 1090 to 1962%. The block copolymers were fabricated into an electrospun fibrous scaffold that was easily mineralized by simple incubation in simulated body fluid. The materials have good potential for bone regeneration application and may be extended to other applications by

  9. Fructus ligustri lucidi ethanol extract improves bone mineral density and properties through modulating calcium absorption-related gene expression in kidney and duodenum of growing rats.

    PubMed

    Feng, Xin; Lyu, Ying; Wu, Zhenghao; Fang, Yuehui; Xu, Hao; Zhao, Pengling; Xu, Yajun; Feng, Haotian

    2014-04-01

    Optimizing peak bone mass in early life is one of key preventive strategies against osteoporosis. Fructus ligustri lucidi (FLL), the fruit of Ligustrum lucidum Ait., is a commonly prescribed herb in many kidney-tonifying traditional Chinese medicinal formulas to alleviate osteoporosis. Previously, FLL extracts have been shown to have osteoprotective effect in aged or ovariectomized rats. In the present study, we investigated the effects of FLL ethanol extract on bone mineral density (BMD) and mechanical properties in growing male rats and explored the underlying mechanisms. Male weaning Sprague-Dawley rats were randomized into four groups and orally administrated for 4 months an AIN-93G formula-based diet supplementing with different doses of FLL ethanol extract (0.40, 0.65, and 0.90 %) or vehicle control, respectively. Then calcium balance, serum level of Ca, P, 25(OH)2D3, 1,25(OH)2D3, osteocalcin (OCN), C-terminal telopeptide of type I collagen (CTX-I), and parathyroid hormone, bone microarchitecture, and calcium absorption-related genes expression in duodenum and kidney were analyzed. The results demonstrated that FLL ethanol extract increased BMD of growing rats and improved their bone microarchitecture and mechanical properties. FLL ethanol extract altered bone turnover, as evidenced by increasing a bone formation maker, OCN, and decreasing a bone resorption maker, CTX-I. Intriguingly, both Ca absorption and Ca retention rate were elevated by FLL ethanol extract treatment, possibly through the mechanisms of up-regulating the transcriptions of calcitropic genes in kidney (1α-hydroxylase) and duodenum (vitamin D receptor, calcium transporter calbindin-D9k, and transient receptor potential vanilloid 6). In conclusion, FLL ethanol extract increased bone mass gain and improved bone properties via modulating bone turnover and up-regulating calcium absorption-related gene expression in kidney and duodenum, which could then activate 1,25(OH)2D3-dependent calcium

  10. Fructus ligustri lucidi ethanol extract improves bone mineral density and properties through modulating calcium absorption-related gene expression in kidney and duodenum of growing rats.

    PubMed

    Feng, Xin; Lyu, Ying; Wu, Zhenghao; Fang, Yuehui; Xu, Hao; Zhao, Pengling; Xu, Yajun; Feng, Haotian

    2014-04-01

    Optimizing peak bone mass in early life is one of key preventive strategies against osteoporosis. Fructus ligustri lucidi (FLL), the fruit of Ligustrum lucidum Ait., is a commonly prescribed herb in many kidney-tonifying traditional Chinese medicinal formulas to alleviate osteoporosis. Previously, FLL extracts have been shown to have osteoprotective effect in aged or ovariectomized rats. In the present study, we investigated the effects of FLL ethanol extract on bone mineral density (BMD) and mechanical properties in growing male rats and explored the underlying mechanisms. Male weaning Sprague-Dawley rats were randomized into four groups and orally administrated for 4 months an AIN-93G formula-based diet supplementing with different doses of FLL ethanol extract (0.40, 0.65, and 0.90 %) or vehicle control, respectively. Then calcium balance, serum level of Ca, P, 25(OH)2D3, 1,25(OH)2D3, osteocalcin (OCN), C-terminal telopeptide of type I collagen (CTX-I), and parathyroid hormone, bone microarchitecture, and calcium absorption-related genes expression in duodenum and kidney were analyzed. The results demonstrated that FLL ethanol extract increased BMD of growing rats and improved their bone microarchitecture and mechanical properties. FLL ethanol extract altered bone turnover, as evidenced by increasing a bone formation maker, OCN, and decreasing a bone resorption maker, CTX-I. Intriguingly, both Ca absorption and Ca retention rate were elevated by FLL ethanol extract treatment, possibly through the mechanisms of up-regulating the transcriptions of calcitropic genes in kidney (1α-hydroxylase) and duodenum (vitamin D receptor, calcium transporter calbindin-D9k, and transient receptor potential vanilloid 6). In conclusion, FLL ethanol extract increased bone mass gain and improved bone properties via modulating bone turnover and up-regulating calcium absorption-related gene expression in kidney and duodenum, which could then activate 1,25(OH)2D3-dependent calcium

  11. Properties of bio-oil generated by a pyrolysis of forest cedar residuals with the movable Auger-type reactor

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Nishimura, Shun; Miyazato, Akio; Ebitani, Kohki

    2016-02-01

    Our research project has developed the new movable reactor for bio-oil production in 2013 on the basis of Auger-type system. This package would be a great impact due to the concept of local production for local consumption in the hilly and mountainous area in not only Japan but also in the world. Herein, we would like to report the properties of the bio-oil generated by the developing Auger-type movable reactor. The synthesized bio-oil possessed C: 46.2 wt%, H: 6.5 wt%, N: wt%, S: <0.1 wt%, O: 46.8 wt% and H2O: 18.4 wt%, and served a good calorific value of 18.1 MJ/kg. The spectroscopic and mass analyses such as FT-IR, GC-MS, 13C-NMR and FT-ICR MS supported that the bio-oil was composed by the fine mixtures of methoxy phenols and variety of alcohol or carboxylic acid functional groups. Thus, it is suggested that the bio-oil generated by the new movable Auger-type reactor has a significant potential as well as the existing bio-oil reported previously.

  12. Bone Mechanical Properties and Mineral Density in Response to Cessation of Jumping Exercise and Honey Supplementation in Young Female Rats

    PubMed Central

    Tavafzadeh, Somayeh Sadat; Ooi, Foong Kiew; Chen, Chee Keong; Sulaiman, Siti Amrah; Hung, Leong Kim

    2015-01-01

    This study investigated effects of cessation of exercise and honey supplementation on bone properties in young female rats. Eighty-four 12-week-old Sprague-Dawley female rats were divided into 7 groups: 16S, 16J, 16H, 16JH, 8J8S, 8H8S, and 8JH8S (8 = 8 weeks, 16 = 16 weeks, S = sedentary without honey supplementation, H = honey supplementation, and J = jumping exercise). Jumping exercise consisted of 40 jumps/day for 5 days/week. Honey was given to the rats at a dosage of 1 g/kg body weight/rat/day via force feeding for 7 days/week. Jumping exercise and honey supplementation were terminated for 8 weeks in 8J8S, 8H8S, and 8JH8S groups. After 8 weeks of cessation of exercise and honey supplementation, tibial energy, proximal total bone density, midshaft cortical moment of inertia, and cortical area were significantly higher in 8JH8S as compared to 16S. Continuous sixteen weeks of combined jumping and honey resulted in significant greater tibial maximum force, energy, proximal total bone density, proximal trabecular bone density, midshaft cortical bone density, cortical area, and midshaft cortical moment of inertia in 16JH as compared to 16S. These findings showed that the beneficial effects of 8 weeks of combined exercise and honey supplementation still can be observed after 8 weeks of the cessation and exercise and supplementation. PMID:26176016

  13. Bone Mechanical Properties and Mineral Density in Response to Cessation of Jumping Exercise and Honey Supplementation in Young Female Rats.

    PubMed

    Tavafzadeh, Somayeh Sadat; Ooi, Foong Kiew; Chen, Chee Keong; Sulaiman, Siti Amrah; Hung, Leong Kim

    2015-01-01

    This study investigated effects of cessation of exercise and honey supplementation on bone properties in young female rats. Eighty-four 12-week-old Sprague-Dawley female rats were divided into 7 groups: 16S, 16J, 16H, 16JH, 8J8S, 8H8S, and 8JH8S (8 = 8 weeks, 16 = 16 weeks, S = sedentary without honey supplementation, H = honey supplementation, and J = jumping exercise). Jumping exercise consisted of 40 jumps/day for 5 days/week. Honey was given to the rats at a dosage of 1 g/kg body weight/rat/day via force feeding for 7 days/week. Jumping exercise and honey supplementation were terminated for 8 weeks in 8J8S, 8H8S, and 8JH8S groups. After 8 weeks of cessation of exercise and honey supplementation, tibial energy, proximal total bone density, midshaft cortical moment of inertia, and cortical area were significantly higher in 8JH8S as compared to 16S. Continuous sixteen weeks of combined jumping and honey resulted in significant greater tibial maximum force, energy, proximal total bone density, proximal trabecular bone density, midshaft cortical bone density, cortical area, and midshaft cortical moment of inertia in 16JH as compared to 16S. These findings showed that the beneficial effects of 8 weeks of combined exercise and honey supplementation still can be observed after 8 weeks of the cessation and exercise and supplementation.

  14. Bone Mechanical Properties and Mineral Density in Response to Cessation of Jumping Exercise and Honey Supplementation in Young Female Rats.

    PubMed

    Tavafzadeh, Somayeh Sadat; Ooi, Foong Kiew; Chen, Chee Keong; Sulaiman, Siti Amrah; Hung, Leong Kim

    2015-01-01

    This study investigated effects of cessation of exercise and honey supplementation on bone properties in young female rats. Eighty-four 12-week-old Sprague-Dawley female rats were divided into 7 groups: 16S, 16J, 16H, 16JH, 8J8S, 8H8S, and 8JH8S (8 = 8 weeks, 16 = 16 weeks, S = sedentary without honey supplementation, H = honey supplementation, and J = jumping exercise). Jumping exercise consisted of 40 jumps/day for 5 days/week. Honey was given to the rats at a dosage of 1 g/kg body weight/rat/day via force feeding for 7 days/week. Jumping exercise and honey supplementation were terminated for 8 weeks in 8J8S, 8H8S, and 8JH8S groups. After 8 weeks of cessation of exercise and honey supplementation, tibial energy, proximal total bone density, midshaft cortical moment of inertia, and cortical area were significantly higher in 8JH8S as compared to 16S. Continuous sixteen weeks of combined jumping and honey resulted in significant greater tibial maximum force, energy, proximal total bone density, proximal trabecular bone density, midshaft cortical bone density, cortical area, and midshaft cortical moment of inertia in 16JH as compared to 16S. These findings showed that the beneficial effects of 8 weeks of combined exercise and honey supplementation still can be observed after 8 weeks of the cessation and exercise and supplementation. PMID:26176016

  15. Industrial Minerals

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Bradbury, James C.

    1978-01-01

    The past year is seen as not particularly good for industrial minerals and for industry in general. Environmental concerns continued to trouble the industry with unacceptable asbestos concentrations and chlorofluorocarbon effects on ozone. A halting U.S. economy also affected industrial progress. (MA)

  16. Extraterrestrial magnetic minerals

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Pechersky, D. M.; Markov, G. P.; Tsel'movich, V. A.; Sharonova, Z. V.

    2012-07-01

    Thermomagnetic and microprobe analyses are carried out and a set of magnetic characteristics are measured for 25 meteorites and 3 tektites from the collections of the Vernadsky Geological Museum of the Russian Academy of Sciences and Museum of Natural History of the North-East Interdisciplinary Science Research Institute, Far Eastern Branch of the Russian Academy of Sciences. It is found that, notwithstanding their type, all the meteorites contain the same magnetic minerals and only differ by concentrations of these minerals. Kamacite with less than 10% nickel is the main magnetic mineral in the studied samples. Pure iron, taenite, and schreibersite are less frequent; nickel, various iron spinels, Fe-Al alloys, etc., are very rare. These minerals are normally absent in the crusts of the Earth and other planets. The studied meteorites are more likely parts of the cores and lower mantles of the meteoritic parent bodies (the planets). Uniformity in the magnetic properties of the meteorites and the types of their thermomagnetic (MT) curves is violated by secondary alterations of the meteorites in the terrestrial environment. The sediments demonstrate the same monotony as the meteorites: kamacite is likely the only extraterrestrial magnetic mineral, which is abundant in sediments and associated with cosmic dust. The compositional similarity of kamacite in iron meteorites and in cosmic dust is due to their common source; the degree of fragmentation of the material of the parent body is the only difference.

  17. Variation of physicochemical properties of drinking water treatment residuals and Phoslock(®) induced by fulvic acid adsorption: Implication for lake restoration.

    PubMed

    Wang, Changhui; Jiang, He-Long; Xu, Huacheng; Yin, Hongbin

    2016-01-01

    The use of phosphorus (P) inactivating agents to reduce internal P loading from sediment for lake restoration has attracted increasing attention. Reasonably, the physicochemical properties of P inactivating agents may vary with the interference of various environmental factors, leading to the change of control effectiveness and risks. In this study, the effect of fulvic acid (FA) adsorption on the properties of two agents, drinking water treatment residuals (DWTRs) and Phoslock®, was investigated. The results showed that after adsorption, there was little change for the main structures of DWTRs and Phoslock®, but the thermostability of Phoslock®, as well as the particle size and settleability of the two agents decreased. The specific surface area and pore volume of DWTRs also decreased, while those of Phoslock® increased. Further analysis indicated that aluminum and iron in DWTRs were stable during FA adsorption, but a substantial increase of lanthanum release from Phoslock® was observed, in particular at first (P < 0.01). Moreover, the P immobilization capability of DWTRs had little change after FA adsorption, while the capability of Phoslock® after FA adsorption decreased in solutions (P < 0.001) and sediments (P < 0.1); interestingly, from the view of engineering application, the performance of Phoslock® was not substantially affected. Overall, each P inactivating agent had its own particular responses of the physicochemical properties to environment factors, and detailed investigations on the applicability of each agent were essential before practical application.

  18. Clay Mineral Preferred Orientation

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Day-Stirrat, R. J.

    2014-12-01

    Anisotropy of the orientation of clay minerals, often referred to as texture, may be unique to sediments' deposition, composition, deformation or diagenetic history. The literature is rich with studies that include preferred orientation generation in fault gouge, low-grade metamorphic rocks, sediments with variable clay content and during the smectite-to-illite transformation. Untangling the interplay between many competing factors in any one geologic situation has proven a significant challenge over many years. Understanding how, where and when clay minerals develop a preferred orientation has significant implications for permeability anisotropy in shallow burial, the way mechanical properties are projected from shallower to deeper settings in basin modeling packages and the way velocity anisotropy is accounted for in seismic data processing. The assessment of the anisotropic properties of fine-grained siliciclastic rocks is gaining significant momentum in rock physics research. Therefore, a fundamental understanding of how clay minerals develop a preferred orientation in space and time is crucial to the understanding of anisotropy of physical properties. The current study brings together a wealth of data that may be used in a predictive sense to account for fabric anisotropy that may impact any number of rock properties.

  19. The Moho as a transition zone: A revisit from seismic and electrical properties of minerals and rocks

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Wang, Qin; Bagdassarov, Nickolai; Ji, Shaocheng

    2013-12-01

    The seismic Moho discontinuity is not always consistent with a chemical boundary (the “petrological Moho”) that separates the mafic lower crust from the ultramafic upper mantle. We summarize the effects of pressure, temperature and metamorphism on seismic and electrical properties of lower crustal and mantle rocks. The sharpness of the Moho discontinuity is generally related with the petrological transition from olivine-poor to olivine-rich compositions. Due to serpentinizat]ion, the seismic Moho may not correspond with the petrological Moho beneath the oceanic crust and forearcs. More precise velocity-density relationships are established for typical oceanic and continental crust-mantle boundaries, as well as for serpentinization of peridotites at low and high temperatures. Combined with Poisson's ratio, the occurrence of continental lowest crust with Vp > 7.2 km/s may reflect pyroxenites and garnet gabbros by magma underplating, or eclogitization of gabbros and mafic granulites by crustal thickening. On the other hand, the “electrical Moho” is defined as the bottom of the relatively conductive continental lower crust (10- 4 to 10- 1 S/m). Electrical conductivity of granulites and peridotites is mainly controlled by temperature, composition (iron content and water content) and oxygen fugacity, but weakly depends on pressure. Even a small amount of hydrogen can significantly enhance electrical conductivity of olivine, pyroxene and garnet. Although amphibole and serpentine are resistive under their stability conditions, their electrical conductivity will be remarkably increased by dehydration reaction at temperature > 600 °C. Granulites and eclogites show similar conductivity of 10- 4 to 10- 2 S/m at 500-1000 °C, about one order more conductive than water-poor garnet pyroxenites and spinel peridotites. Therefore the depth of the electrical Moho varies with temperature and water content at the crust-mantle boundary. The discrepancy between the seismic

  20. 36 CFR 331.17 - Minerals.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-07-01

    ... 36 Parks, Forests, and Public Property 3 2011-07-01 2011-07-01 false Minerals. 331.17 Section 331..., KENTUCKY AND INDIANA § 331.17 Minerals. All activities in connection with prospecting, exploration, development, mining or other removal or the processing of mineral resources and all uses reasonably...

  1. 36 CFR 331.17 - Minerals.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-07-01

    ... 36 Parks, Forests, and Public Property 3 2014-07-01 2014-07-01 false Minerals. 331.17 Section 331..., KENTUCKY AND INDIANA § 331.17 Minerals. All activities in connection with prospecting, exploration, development, mining or other removal or the processing of mineral resources and all uses reasonably...

  2. 36 CFR 331.17 - Minerals.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-07-01

    ... 36 Parks, Forests, and Public Property 3 2013-07-01 2012-07-01 true Minerals. 331.17 Section 331..., KENTUCKY AND INDIANA § 331.17 Minerals. All activities in connection with prospecting, exploration, development, mining or other removal or the processing of mineral resources and all uses reasonably...

  3. 36 CFR 331.17 - Minerals.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-07-01

    ... 36 Parks, Forests, and Public Property 3 2012-07-01 2012-07-01 false Minerals. 331.17 Section 331..., KENTUCKY AND INDIANA § 331.17 Minerals. All activities in connection with prospecting, exploration, development, mining or other removal or the processing of mineral resources and all uses reasonably...

  4. 36 CFR 331.17 - Minerals.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-07-01

    ... 36 Parks, Forests, and Public Property 3 2010-07-01 2010-07-01 false Minerals. 331.17 Section 331..., KENTUCKY AND INDIANA § 331.17 Minerals. All activities in connection with prospecting, exploration, development, mining or other removal or the processing of mineral resources and all uses reasonably...

  5. The potential of residues of furfural and biogas as calcareous soil amendments for corn seed production.

    PubMed

    Zhao, Yunchen; Yan, Zhibin; Qin, Jiahai; Ma, Zhijun; Zhang, Youfu; Zhang, Li

    2016-04-01

    Intensive corn seed production in Northwest of China produced large amounts of furfural residues, which represents higher treatment cost and environmental issue. The broad calcareous soils in the Northwest of China exhibit low organic matter content and high pH, which led to lower fertility and lower productivity. Recycling furfural residues as soil organic and nutrient amendment might be a promising agricultural practice to calcareous soils. A 3-year field study was conducted to evaluate the effects of furfural as a soil amendment on corn seed production on calcareous soil with compared to biogas residues. Soil physical-chemical properties, soil enzyme activities, and soil heavy metal concentrations were assessed in the last year after the last application. Corn yield was determined in each year. Furfural residue amendments significantly decreased soil pH and soil bulk density. Furfural residues combined with commercial fertilizers resulted in the greater cumulative on soil organic matter, total phosphorus, available phosphorus, available potassium, and cation exchange capacity than that of biogas residue. Simultaneously, urease, invertase, catalase, and alkaline phosphatase increased even at the higher furfural application rates. Maize seed yield increased even with lower furfural residue application rates. Furfural residues resulted in lower Zn concentration and higher Cd concentration than that of biogas residues. Amendment of furfural residues led to higher soil electrical conductivity (EC) than that of biogas residues. The addition of furfural residues to maize seed production may be considered to be a good strategy for recycling the waste, converting it into a potential resource as organic amendment in arid and semi-arid calcareous soils, and may help to reduce the use of mineral chemical fertilizers in these soils. However, the impact of its application on soil health needs to be established in long-term basis.

  6. The potential of residues of furfural and biogas as calcareous soil amendments for corn seed production.

    PubMed

    Zhao, Yunchen; Yan, Zhibin; Qin, Jiahai; Ma, Zhijun; Zhang, Youfu; Zhang, Li

    2016-04-01

    Intensive corn seed production in Northwest of China produced large amounts of furfural residues, which represents higher treatment cost and environmental issue. The broad calcareous soils in the Northwest of China exhibit low organic matter content and high pH, which led to lower fertility and lower productivity. Recycling furfural residues as soil organic and nutrient amendment might be a promising agricultural practice to calcareous soils. A 3-year field study was conducted to evaluate the effects of furfural as a soil amendment on corn seed production on calcareous soil with compared to biogas residues. Soil physical-chemical properties, soil enzyme activities, and soil heavy metal concentrations were assessed in the last year after the last application. Corn yield was determined in each year. Furfural residue amendments significantly decreased soil pH and soil bulk density. Furfural residues combined with commercial fertilizers resulted in the greater cumulative on soil organic matter, total phosphorus, available phosphorus, available potassium, and cation exchange capacity than that of biogas residue. Simultaneously, urease, invertase, catalase, and alkaline phosphatase increased even at the higher furfural application rates. Maize seed yield increased even with lower furfural residue application rates. Furfural residues resulted in lower Zn concentration and higher Cd concentration than that of biogas residues. Amendment of furfural residues led to higher soil electrical conductivity (EC) than that of biogas residues. The addition of furfural residues to maize seed production may be considered to be a good strategy for recycling the waste, converting it into a potential resource as organic amendment in arid and semi-arid calcareous soils, and may help to reduce the use of mineral chemical fertilizers in these soils. However, the impact of its application on soil health needs to be established in long-term basis. PMID:26606935

  7. Outcrop analogue study of Permocarboniferous geothermal sandstone reservoir formations (northern Upper Rhine Graben, Germany): impact of mineral content, depositional environment and diagenesis on petrophysical properties

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Aretz, Achim; Bär, Kristian; Götz, Annette E.; Sass, Ingo

    2016-07-01

    The Permocarboniferous siliciclastic formations represent the largest hydrothermal reservoir in the northern Upper Rhine Graben in SW Germany and have so far been investigated in large-scale studies only. The Cenozoic Upper Rhine Graben crosses the Permocarboniferous Saar-Nahe Basin, a Variscan intramontane molasse basin. Due to the subsidence in this graben structure, the top of the up to 2-km-thick Permocarboniferous is located at a depth of 600-2900 m and is overlain by Tertiary and Quaternary sediments. At this depth, the reservoir temperatures exceed 150 °C, which are sufficient for geothermal electricity generation with binary power plants. To further assess the potential of this geothermal reservoir, detailed information on thermophysical and hydraulic properties of the different lithostratigraphical units and their depositional environment is essential. Here, we present an integrated study of outcrop analogues and drill core material. In total, 850 outcrop samples were analyzed, measuring porosity, permeability, thermal conductivity and thermal diffusivity. Furthermore, 62 plugs were taken from drillings that encountered or intersected the Permocarboniferous at depths between 1800 and 2900 m. Petrographic analysis of 155 thin sections of outcrop samples and samples taken from reservoir depth was conducted to quantify the mineral composition, sorting and rounding of grains and the kind of cementation. Its influence on porosity, permeability, the degree of compaction and illitization was quantified. Three parameters influencing the reservoir properties of the Permocarboniferous were detected. The strongest and most destructive influence on reservoir quality is related to late diagenetic processes. An illitic and kaolinitic cementation and impregnation of bitumina document CO2- and CH4-rich acidic pore water conditions, which are interpreted as fluids that migrated along a hydraulic contact from an underlying Carboniferous hydrocarbon source rock. Migrating

  8. Expanding the applications of the ilmenite mineral to the preparation of nanostructures: TiO2 nanorods and their photocatalytic properties in the degradation of oxalic acid.

    PubMed

    Tao, Tao; Chen, Ying; Zhou, Dan; Zhang, Hongzhou; Liu, Sanly; Amal, Rose; Sharma, Neeraj; Glushenkov, Alexey M

    2013-01-14

    The mineral ilmenite is one of the most abundant ores in the Earth's crust and it is the main source for the industrial production of bulk titanium oxide. At the same time, methods to convert ilmenite into nanostructures of TiO(2) (which are required for new advanced applications, such as solar cells, batteries, and photocatalysts) have not been explored to any significant extent. Herein, we describe a simple and effective method for the preparation of rutile TiO(2) nanorods from ball-milled ilmenite. These nanorods have small dimensions (width: 5-20 nm, length: 50-100 nm, thickness: 2-5 nm) and possess large specific surface areas (up to 97 m(2)  g(-1)). Dissolution/hydrolysis/precipitation is proposed as a growth mechanism. The nanorods were found to have attractive photocatalytic properties in the degradation of oxalic acid. Their photocatalytic activity is close to that of the benchmark Degussa P25 material and better than that of a commercial high-surface-area rutile powder. PMID:23180682

  9. Mineral bioprocessing

    SciTech Connect

    Torma, A.E.

    1993-05-01

    In the last 25 years, the introduction of biotechnological methods in hydrometallurgy has created new opportunities and challenges for the mineral processing industry. This was especially true for the production of metal values from mining wastes and low-and-complex-grade mineral resources, which were considered economically not amenable for processing by conventional extraction methods. Using bio-assisted heap, dump and in-situ leaching technologies, copper and uranium extractions gained their first industrial applications. The precious metal industries were the next to adopt the bio-preoxidation technique in the extraction of gold from refractory sulfide-bearing ores and concentrates. A variety of other bioleaching opportunities exist for nickel, cobalt, cadmium and zinc sulfide leaching. Recently developed bioremediation methods and biosorption technologies have shown a good potential for industrial applications to remove trace heavy metal and radionuclide concentrations from contaminated soils, and mining and processing effluents.

  10. Modeling Hydrothermal Mineralization: Fractal or Multifrcatal Models?

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Cheng, Q.

    2004-05-01

    Hydrothermal mineralization occurs when the natural geo-processes involve the interaction of ore material-carrying hydrothermal fluids with rocks in the earth's crust in a specific geological environment. Mineralization can cause element concentration enrichment or depletion in the country rocks. Local enrichment may form ore body that can be mined for profit at the current economic and technological conditions. To understand the spatial distribution of element concentration enrichment or depletion caused by mineralization in a mineral district is essential for mineral exploration and mineral prediction. Grade-tonnage model and mineral deposits size distribution model are common models used for characterizing mineral deposits. This paper proposes a non-linear mineralization model on the basis of a modified classical igneous differentiation mineralization model to describe the generation of multifractal distribution of element concentration in the country rocks as well as grade-tonnage fractal/multifractal distribution of ore deposits that have been often observed in hydrothermal mineralization. This work may also lead to a singularity model to explain the common properties of mineralization and mineralization-associated geochemical anomaly diversity and the generalized self-similarity of the anomalies. The model has been applied to a case study of mineral deposits prediction and mineral resource assessment in the Abitibi district, northern Ontario, Canada.

  11. Chemical and physical properties of cyclone fly ash from the grate-fired boiler incinerating forest residues at a small municipal district heating plant (6MW).

    PubMed

    Pöykiö, R; Rönkkömäki, H; Nurmesniemi, H; Perämäki, P; Popov, K; Välimäki, I; Tuomi, T

    2009-03-15

    In Finland, the new limit values for maximal allowable heavy metal concentrations for materials used as an earth construction agent came into force in July 2006. These limit values are applied if ash is utilized, e.g. in roads, cycling paths, pavements, car parks, sport fields, etc. In this study we have determined the most important chemical and physical properties of the cyclone fly ash originating from the grate-fired boiler incinerating forest residues (i.e. wood chips, sawdust and bark) at a small municipal district heating plant (6 MW), Northern Finland. This study clearly shows that elements are enriched in cyclone fly ash, since the total element concentrations in the cyclone fly ash were within 0.2-10 times higher than those in the bottom ash. The total concentrations of Cd (25 mg kg(-1); d.w.), Zn (3630 mg kg(-1); d.w.), Ba (4260 mg kg(-1); d.w.) and Hg (1.7 mg kg(-1); d.w.) exceeded the limit values, and therefore the cyclone fly ash cannot be used as an earth construction agent. According to the leached amounts of Cr (38 mg kg(-1); d.w.), Zn (51 mg kg(-1); d.w.) and sulphate (50,000 mg kg(-1); d.w.), the cyclone fly ash is classified as a hazardous waste, and it has to be deposited in a hazardous waste landfill.

  12. Chemical and physical properties of cyclone fly ash from the grate-fired boiler incinerating forest residues at a small municipal district heating plant (6MW).

    PubMed

    Pöykiö, R; Rönkkömäki, H; Nurmesniemi, H; Perämäki, P; Popov, K; Välimäki, I; Tuomi, T

    2009-03-15

    In Finland, the new limit values for maximal allowable heavy metal concentrations for materials used as an earth construction agent came into force in July 2006. These limit values are applied if ash is utilized, e.g. in roads, cycling paths, pavements, car parks, sport fields, etc. In this study we have determined the most important chemical and physical properties of the cyclone fly ash originating from the grate-fired boiler incinerating forest residues (i.e. wood chips, sawdust and bark) at a small municipal district heating plant (6 MW), Northern Finland. This study clearly shows that elements are enriched in cyclone fly ash, since the total element concentrations in the cyclone fly ash were within 0.2-10 times higher than those in the bottom ash. The total concentrations of Cd (25 mg kg(-1); d.w.), Zn (3630 mg kg(-1); d.w.), Ba (4260 mg kg(-1); d.w.) and Hg (1.7 mg kg(-1); d.w.) exceeded the limit values, and therefore the cyclone fly ash cannot be used as an earth construction agent. According to the leached amounts of Cr (38 mg kg(-1); d.w.), Zn (51 mg kg(-1); d.w.) and sulphate (50,000 mg kg(-1); d.w.), the cyclone fly ash is classified as a hazardous waste, and it has to be deposited in a hazardous waste landfill. PMID:18603362

  13. Chemical structure and properties of interstrand cross-links formed by reaction of guanine residues with abasic sites in duplex DNA.

    PubMed

    Catalano, Michael J; Liu, Shuo; Andersen, Nisana; Yang, Zhiyu; Johnson, Kevin M; Price, Nathan E; Wang, Yinsheng; Gates, Kent S

    2015-03-25

    A new type of interstrand cross-link resulting from the reaction of a DNA abasic site with a guanine residue on the opposing strand of the double helix was recently identified, but the chemical connectivity of the cross-link was not rigorously established. The work described here was designed to characterize the chemical structure and properties of dG-AP cross-links generated in duplex DNA. The approach involved characterization of the nucleoside cross-link "remnant" released by enzymatic digestion of DNA duplexes containing the dG-AP cross-link. We first carried out a chemical synthesis and complete spectroscopic structure determination of the putative cross-link remnant 9b composed of a 2-deoxyribose adduct attached to the exocyclic N(2)-amino group of dG. A reduced analogue of the cross-link remnant was also prepared (11b). Liquid chromatography-tandem mass spectrometric (LC-MS/MS) analysis revealed that the retention times and mass spectral properties of synthetic standards 9b and 11b matched those of the authentic cross-link remnants released by enzymatic digestion of duplexes containing the native and reduced dG-AP cross-link, respectively. These results establish the chemical connectivity of the dG-AP cross-link released from duplex DNA and provide a foundation for detection of this lesion in biological samples. The dG-AP cross-link in duplex DNA was remarkably stable, decomposing with a half-life of 22 days at pH 7 and 23 °C. The intrinsic chemical stability of the dG-AP cross-link suggests that this lesion in duplex DNA may have the power to block DNA-processing enzymes involved in transcription and replication.

  14. Reburning Characteristics of Residual Carbon in Fly Ash from CFB Boilers

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Zhang, S. H.; Luo, H. H.; Chen, H. P.; Yang, H. P.; Wang, X. H.

    The content of residual carbon in fly ash of CFB boilers is a litter high especially when low-grade coal, such as lean coal, anthracite coal, gangue, etc. is in service, which greatly influences the efficiency of boilers and fly ash further disposal. Reburn of fly ash through collection, recirculation in CFB furnace or external combustor is a possibly effective strategy to decrease the carbon content, mainly depending on the residual carbon reactivity. In this work, the combustion properties of residual carbon in fly ash and corresponding original coal from large commercial CFB boilers (Kaifeng (440t/h), and Fenyi (410t/h), all in china) are comparably investigated through experiments. The residual carbon involved was firstly extracted and enriched from fly ash by means of floating elutriation to mitigate the influence of ash and minerals on the combustion behavior of residual carbon. Then, the combustion characteristic of two residual carbons and the original coal particles was analyzed with thermogravimetric analyzer (TGA, STA409C from Nestch, Germany). It was observed that the ignition temperature of the residual carbon is much higher than that of original coal sample, and the combustion reactivity of residual carbon is not only dependent on the original coal property, but also the operating conditions. The influence of oxygen content and heating rate was also studied in TGA. The O2 concentration is set as 20%, 30%, 40% and 70% respectively in O2/N2 gas mixture with the flow rate of 100ml/min. It was found that higher oxygen content is favor for decreasing ignition temperature, accelerating the combustion rate of residual carbon. And about 40% of oxygen concentration is experimentally suggested as an optimal value when oxygen-enriched combustion is put into practice for decreasing residual carbon content of fly ash in CFB boilers.

  15. Structure-mechanics relationships in mineralized tendons.

    PubMed

    Spiesz, Ewa M; Zysset, Philippe K

    2015-12-01

    In this paper, we review the hierarchical structure and the resulting elastic properties of mineralized tendons as obtained by various multiscale experimental and computational methods spanning from nano- to macroscale. The mechanical properties of mineralized collagen fibres are important to understand the mechanics of hard tissues constituted by complex arrangements of these fibres, like in human lamellar bone. The uniaxial mineralized collagen fibre array naturally occurring in avian tendons is a well studied model tissue for investigating various stages of tissue mineralization and the corresponding elastic properties. Some avian tendons mineralize with maturation, which results in a graded structure containing two zones of distinct morphology, circumferential and interstitial. These zones exhibit different amounts of mineral, collagen, pores and a different mineral distribution between collagen fibrillar and extrafibrillar space that lead to distinct elastic properties. Mineralized tendon cells have two phenotypes: elongated tenocytes placed between fibres in the circumferential zone and cuboidal cells with lower aspect ratios in the interstitial zone. Interestingly some regions of avian tendons seem to be predestined to mineralization, which is exhibited as specific collagen cross-linking patterns as well as distribution of minor tendon constituents (like proteoglycans) and loss of collagen crimp. Results of investigations in naturally mineralizing avian tendons may be useful in understanding the pathological mineralization occurring in some human tendons.

  16. Vitamins and Minerals

    MedlinePlus

    ... I Help a Friend Who Cuts? Vitamins and Minerals KidsHealth > For Teens > Vitamins and Minerals Print A ... of a good thing? What Are Vitamins and Minerals? Vitamins and minerals make people's bodies work properly. ...

  17. Immersion Freezing of Clay Minerals and its Time Dependence

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Hiranuma, N.; Moehler, O.; Bundke, U.; Cziczo, D. J.; Danielczok, A.; Ebert, M.; Garimella, S.; Hoffmann, N.; Kanji, Z. A.; Kiselev, A. A.; Raddatz, M.; Stetzer, O.

    2012-12-01

    Immersion ice nucleation efficiency of clay minerals has been investigated using the AIDA (Aerosol Interaction and Dynamics in the Atmosphere) cloud chamber. Various clay dust samples, including two illite as well as three kaolinite standards, have been examined in the temperature range between 238 K and 255 K. We observed two trends in immersion ice nucleation properties as cloud expansion conditions in the AIDA are varied. First, as previously described in the literature, the supersaturation required for the immersion freezing of clay minerals decreased with decreasing temperature and increasing inferred ice-active surface site densities. Second, the ice nucleation activity of clay minerals strongly depended on the solo-parameter, which is the rate change in temperature (i.e., dNice/dT = ∂Nice/∂t ÷ ∂T/∂t). Further time dependence of ice formation is investigated and discussed as a function of cooling rates, ice nuclei (IN), and aerosol concentrations. Ice residuals collected through a pumped counterflow virtual impactor are examined by electron microprobe analyses to seek the true chemical and physical identity of IN in clay minerals. Brief comparisons of AIDA measurement to the measurements with other ice nucleation chambers (e.g., ETH-PINC, FINCH, and commercially available DMT-SPIN) are also presented.

  18. Tensile properties, residual stress distribution and grain arrangement as a function of sheet thickness of Mg-Al-Mn alloy subjected to two-sided and simultaneous LSP impacts

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Luo, K. Y.; Liu, B.; Wu, L. J.; Yan, Z.; Lu, J. Z.

    2016-04-01

    Two-sided and simultaneous laser shock peening impacts is considered as a novel surface treatment technology for the turbine blade and thin-walled component. In this paper, tensile properties of Mg-Al-Mn alloy specimens with different sheet thickness under two kinds of laser shock peening strategies were investigated, and an overlapping three-dimension axisymmetric numerical model was developed to analyze the effects of sheet thickness on residual stress distributions. Meanwhile, special attentions were paid to the in-depth microstructural evolution as a function of sheet thickness. Results showed that sheet thickness had an important influence on the tensile properties of Mg-Al-Mn alloy, and the generated residual stress distribution and grain arrangement were two important factors. The corresponding influence mechanism of sheet thickness on the tensile properties of Mg-Al-Mn alloy was also presented, and the optimal thickness of Mg-Al-Mn alloy sheet may be 4 mm or more.

  19. 36 CFR 292.18 - Mineral resources.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-07-01

    ... 36 Parks, Forests, and Public Property 2 2013-07-01 2013-07-01 false Mineral resources. 292.18 Section 292.18 Parks, Forests, and Public Property FOREST SERVICE, DEPARTMENT OF AGRICULTURE NATIONAL RECREATION AREAS Sawtooth National Recreation Area-Federal Lands § 292.18 Mineral resources. (a)...

  20. 36 CFR 292.18 - Mineral resources.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-07-01

    ... 36 Parks, Forests, and Public Property 2 2010-07-01 2010-07-01 false Mineral resources. 292.18 Section 292.18 Parks, Forests, and Public Property FOREST SERVICE, DEPARTMENT OF AGRICULTURE NATIONAL RECREATION AREAS Sawtooth National Recreation Area-Federal Lands § 292.18 Mineral resources. (a)...

  1. 36 CFR 292.18 - Mineral resources.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-07-01

    ... 36 Parks, Forests, and Public Property 2 2012-07-01 2012-07-01 false Mineral resources. 292.18 Section 292.18 Parks, Forests, and Public Property FOREST SERVICE, DEPARTMENT OF AGRICULTURE NATIONAL RECREATION AREAS Sawtooth National Recreation Area-Federal Lands § 292.18 Mineral resources. (a)...

  2. 36 CFR 292.18 - Mineral resources.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-07-01

    ... 36 Parks, Forests, and Public Property 2 2011-07-01 2011-07-01 false Mineral resources. 292.18 Section 292.18 Parks, Forests, and Public Property FOREST SERVICE, DEPARTMENT OF AGRICULTURE NATIONAL RECREATION AREAS Sawtooth National Recreation Area-Federal Lands § 292.18 Mineral resources. (a)...

  3. 36 CFR 292.18 - Mineral resources.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-07-01

    ... 36 Parks, Forests, and Public Property 2 2014-07-01 2014-07-01 false Mineral resources. 292.18 Section 292.18 Parks, Forests, and Public Property FOREST SERVICE, DEPARTMENT OF AGRICULTURE NATIONAL RECREATION AREAS Sawtooth National Recreation Area-Federal Lands § 292.18 Mineral resources. (a)...

  4. Radioactivity in bottled mineral waters.

    PubMed

    Martín Sánchez, A; Rubio Montero, M P; Gómez Escobar, V; Jurado Vargas, M

    1999-06-01

    Consumption of bottled mineral water is a growing practice and is sometimes a necessity rather than a choice. In this work, a study of the radioactive content of a wide selection of commercial bottled mineral waters for human intake was carried out. The origins of the analyzed waters were very different, coming from various locations in France, Portugal and Spain. Their total alpha and beta activity concentrations were determined and also gamma spectrometry was used to detect some radionuclides. In some cases, the waters presented high values of the total alpha and beta activity concentrations surpassing the reference levels established by the CSN, the Spanish. Regulatory Organization. In these cases, a determination of uranium and 226Ra was also performed by using low-level liquid scintillation counting. The results revealed a strong correlation between radioactive content and dry residue, and lead one to conclude that high radioactive content is mainly related to the mineralization in waters of underground origin.

  5. Physico-chemical properties of cloud drop residual and interstitial particles sampled inside hill capped clouds during a field experiment in Central Europe

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Mertes, S.; Schneider, J.; Merkel, M.; Roth, A.; Van Pinxteren, D.; Wiedensohler, A.; Herrmann, H.

    2011-12-01

    Aerosol-cloud interaction, particle activation and phase partitioning of ambient aerosol particles between the liquid and interstitial phase in continental boundary layer clouds were investigated during the Hill Cap Cloud Thuringia field experiment in autumn 2010 (HCCT 2010). An interstitial inlet (INT) and two counterflow virtual impactors (CVI) were operated inside cloud in order to separate and collect non-activated interstitial particles (IP) and cloud drops, respectively, on the mountain site Schmücke (938 m asl) in Central Europe. Both inlet types were designed for a separation diameter of 5 μm. Inside the CVI systems the collected drops are evaporated releasing dry cloud drop residues (CDR), which are closely related to the original cloud condensation nuclei forming the cloud. By two sets of instruments that measured the same parameter connected to each inlet type, the CDR and IP were micro-physically and chemically characterized simultaneously. Number concentration and size distribution were determined by a condensation particle counter (CPC) and scanning mobility particle sizer (SMPS) + optical particle counter (OPC) at INT and CVI. The chemical composition of CDR and IP was inferred in various ways. The amount of black carbon in each reservoir was measured by two particle soot absorption photometers (PSAP) supplemented by a multiangle absorption photometer (MAAP) at the interstitial inlet only. The content of non-refractory chemical compounds was analyzed by a compact time-of-flight aerosol mass spectrometer (C-ToF-AMS) and a high-resolution (HR)-ToF- AMS for the CDR and IP, respectively. Filter and adsorption cartridge samples were taken at both inlet types to determine selected inorganic and organic species. The mixing state of single cloud drop residues was derived from the aircraft-based laser ablation aerosol mass spectrometer ALABAMA. During the analyzed cloud events, the cloud microphysical parameters measured by a particle volume monitor (PVM

  6. Effect of solution properties, competing ligands, and complexing metal on sorption of tetracyclines on Al-based drinking water treatment residuals.

    PubMed

    Punamiya, Pravin; Sarkar, Dibyendu; Rakshit, Sudipta; Datta, Rupali

    2015-05-01

    In the current batch study, we investigated the effect of solution properties, competing ligands (phosphate (P(V)) and sulfate), and complexing metal (calcium (Ca(2+))) on tetracycline (TTC) and oxytetracycline (OTC) sorption by Al-based drinking water treatment residuals (Al-WTR). The sorption behavior for both TTC and OTC on Al-WTR was pH dependent. The sorption in absence of competing ligands and complexing metal increased with increasing pH up to circum-neutral pH and then decreased at higher pH. The presence of P(V) when added simultaneously had a significant negative effect (p < 0.001) on the sorption of TTC and OTC adsorbed by Al-WTR at higher TTC/OTC:P ratios. However, when P(V) was added after the equilibration of TTC and OTC by Al-WTR, the effect was minimal and insignificant (p > 0.1). The presence of sulfate had a minimal/negligible effect on the sorption of TCs by Al-WTR. A significant negative effect (p < 0.001) on the adsorption of TCs by Al-WTR was observed in the pH range below 5 and at higher TCs:Ca(2+) ratios, probably due to TCs-Ca(2+) complex formation. Fourier transform infrared (FTIR) analysis indicated the possibility of inner-sphere-type bonding by the functional groups of OTC/TTC on Al-WTR surface. Results from the batch sorption study indicate high affinity of Al-WTR for TCs in the pH range 4-8 (majorly encountered pH in the environment) in the presence of competing ligands and complexing metal. PMID:25647490

  7. Effect of solution properties, competing ligands, and complexing metal on sorption of tetracyclines on Al-based drinking water treatment residuals.

    PubMed

    Punamiya, Pravin; Sarkar, Dibyendu; Rakshit, Sudipta; Datta, Rupali

    2015-05-01

    In the current batch study, we investigated the effect of solution properties, competing ligands (phosphate (P(V)) and sulfate), and complexing metal (calcium (Ca(2+))) on tetracycline (TTC) and oxytetracycline (OTC) sorption by Al-based drinking water treatment residuals (Al-WTR). The sorption behavior for both TTC and OTC on Al-WTR was pH dependent. The sorption in absence of competing ligands and complexing metal increased with increasing pH up to circum-neutral pH and then decreased at higher pH. The presence of P(V) when added simultaneously had a significant negative effect (p < 0.001) on the sorption of TTC and OTC adsorbed by Al-WTR at higher TTC/OTC:P ratios. However, when P(V) was added after the equilibration of TTC and OTC by Al-WTR, the effect was minimal and insignificant (p > 0.1). The presence of sulfate had a minimal/negligible effect on the sorption of TCs by Al-WTR. A significant negative effect (p < 0.001) on the adsorption of TCs by Al-WTR was observed in the pH range below 5 and at higher TCs:Ca(2+) ratios, probably due to TCs-Ca(2+) complex formation. Fourier transform infrared (FTIR) analysis indicated the possibility of inner-sphere-type bonding by the functional groups of OTC/TTC on Al-WTR surface. Results from the batch sorption study indicate high affinity of Al-WTR for TCs in the pH range 4-8 (majorly encountered pH in the environment) in the presence of competing ligands and complexing metal.

  8. Identification and interpretation of tectonic features from ERTS-A imagery. [correlation of tectonic and structural properties with known mineral deposits in Nevada, California, and Arizona

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Abdel-Gawad, M. (Principal Investigator)

    1974-01-01

    The author has identified the following significant results. A set of criteria characterizing known mineralized areas are: (1) occurrence at structural bends, discontinuities, complex deformations along fault zones and intersections; (2) complex terrain textures produced by fracture intersections; (3) color and tone anomalies produced by igneous intrusives, alteration effects, and oxidation. Significant fracture systems which appear to be most commonly related to mineralization in central and northeastern Nevada trend northeast-southwest, north-south, and north-northwest. In the area from Goldfield and Beatty, Nevada, to south of Las Vegas, ERTS-1 and Skylab imagery have been examined together to study an apparent correlation of mineralized areas with suspected hydrothermal alteration effects. It was observed that areas of mineralization are of complex structure, usually cut by many fractures, and sometimes have a similar mottled or variegated appearance. Although the Beatty-Rhyolite mining district is now largely inactive, several analogous areas not known to be mineralized have been identified. Identification of specific mineral prospects within general targets requires extensive field work and detailed geophysical exploration.

  9. Mineralogy of chondritic interplanetary dust particle impact residues from LDEF

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Barrett, R. A.; Zolensky, M. E.; Bernhard, R.

    1993-01-01

    A detailed structural and compositional analysis of several impactor residues was performed utilizing transmission electron microscopy, energy dispersive spectroscopy, and electron diffraction. Residues from the interior of several craters in gold surfaces were removed with a tungsten needle, mounted in EMBED-812 epoxy, and ultramicrotomed. The presence in these residues of equilibrated ferromagnesian minerals, recrystallization textures, glass, and melted metal and sulfide bodies decorating grain boundaries is indicative of varying degrees of shock metamorphism in all impact residues we have characterized.

  10. CONDENSED MATTER: STRUCTURE, MECHANICAL AND THERMAL PROPERTIES: Effect of Carbonized Conditions on Residual Strain and Crystallinity Quality of Heteroepitaxial Growth 3C-SiC Films

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Chen, Da; Zhang, Yu-Ming; Zhang, Yi-Men; Wang, Yue-Hu; Tang, Xiao-Yan

    2009-08-01

    Heteroepitaxial growth of SiC on n-Si(111) substrates is performed by a low pressure chemical vapor deposition process. The effects of different carbonized temperature and carbonized time on the crystalline quality and the residual strain of 3C-SiC films are discussed. The results show that the residual strain is obviously reduced and the crystalline quality is greatly improved at the best carbonized temperature of 1000°C and the carbonized time of 5 min. Under these optimized carbonization conditions, thick epitaxial films of about 15 μm with good crystalline quality and low residual strain can be obtained.

  11. The relation of material properties, residual stresses, and thermal and mechanical loadings to coating degradation in thermal barrier coatings and tungsten carbide thermal spray coatings

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    McGrann, Roy Thomas Rumsey

    Thermal spray coatings (TSCs) are increasing in industrial applications. Further growth in the industry requires a better understanding of the relation between coating production procedures and in-service failure. This work investigates two types of TSCs: plasma sprayed yttria-stabilized zirconia thermal barrier coatings (TBCs) and high velocity oxy-fuel sprayed tungsten carbide (WC) coatings. Residual stresses are inherent in thermal spray coatings and can influence in-service performance and life of the coatings. Therefore, the effective design and processing of thermal spray coatings requires knowledge about residual stress generation and the effect of residual stresses on life. The effect of spraying processes and in-service conditions on Young's modulus is investigated. Residual stresses were evaluated by the Modified Layer Removal Method. The Cantilever Beam Bending Method was used to determine Young's modulus. TBCs were studied to evaluate the effects of (1) substrate temperature during processing, (2) coating powder silica content, and (3) air plasma spraying (APS) versus vacuum plasma spraying (VPS) in conjunction with post-processing thermal cycles (one hour at 1000sp°C) on coating residual stresses and Young's modulus of the top coat. Results show that a higher substrate processing temperature increases top coat compressive residual stress. The initial thermal cycles further increase the compressive residual stresses for both higher and lower substrate processing temperatures, but continued thermal cycling does not further change the residual stresses. A silica content of 1.0% increases the Young's modulus of the coating after ten thermal cycles. As-sprayed, there is no difference in residual stresses in the top coat due to 0.1% and a 1.0% silica content. After ten thermal cycles, the residual stresses increase the same amount for both silica contents. There is no difference in the residual stress in the top coat between APS and VPS methods after ten

  12. 36 CFR 292.68 - Mineral material operations.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-07-01

    ... 36 Parks, Forests, and Public Property 2 2011-07-01 2011-07-01 false Mineral material operations... NATIONAL RECREATION AREAS Smith River National Recreation Area Mineral Materials § 292.68 Mineral material... officer may approve contracts and permits for the sale or other disposal of mineral materials,...

  13. 36 CFR 292.68 - Mineral material operations.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-07-01

    ... 36 Parks, Forests, and Public Property 2 2014-07-01 2014-07-01 false Mineral material operations... NATIONAL RECREATION AREAS Smith River National Recreation Area Mineral Materials § 292.68 Mineral material... officer may approve contracts and permits for the sale or other disposal of mineral materials,...

  14. 36 CFR 292.68 - Mineral material operations.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-07-01

    ... 36 Parks, Forests, and Public Property 2 2012-07-01 2012-07-01 false Mineral material operations... NATIONAL RECREATION AREAS Smith River National Recreation Area Mineral Materials § 292.68 Mineral material... officer may approve contracts and permits for the sale or other disposal of mineral materials,...

  15. 36 CFR 292.68 - Mineral material operations.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-07-01

    ... 36 Parks, Forests, and Public Property 2 2013-07-01 2013-07-01 false Mineral material operations... NATI