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Sample records for mineral water rich

  1. Effect of a natural mineral-rich water on catechol-O-methyltransferase function.

    PubMed

    Bastos, Pedro; Araújo, João Ricardo; Azevedo, Isabel; Martins, Maria João; Ribeiro, Laura

    2014-01-01

    Catechol-O-methyltransferase (COMT) is a magnesium-dependent, catecholamine-metabolizing enzyme, whose impaired activity has been positively associated with cardiovascular diseases, particularly hypertension. Consumption of some natural mineral-rich waters has been shown to exert protective effects on cardiovascular risk factors, eg. by decreasing arterial blood pressure and blood lipids. However, the molecular mechanisms underlying these effects are still poorly understood. So, the aim of this work was to investigate the effect of natural mineral-rich water ingestion upon liver and adrenal glands COMT expression and activity in Wistar Han rats. Over a seven-week period, animals had access to one of the following three drinking solutions: 1) tap water (control group; TW), 2) tap water with added Na(+) (to make the same concentration as in the MW group (TWNaCl group), or 3) natural mineral-rich water [Pedras Salgadas(®), which is very rich in bicarbonate, and with higher sodium, calcium and magnesium content than control tap water (MW group)]. COMT expression and activity were determined by RT-PCR and HPLC-ED, respectively. A higher hepatic COMT activity was found in the MW group compared with the TW and TWNaCl groups. On the other hand, adrenal gland COMT mRNA expression decreased in the MW group compared to TW group. In conclusion, the ability of natural mineral-rich waters to increase hepatic COMT activity may eventually explain the positive cardiovascular effects associated with the consumption of some natural mineral-rich waters. PMID:25560240

  2. Effect of a natural mineral-rich water on catechol-O-methyltransferase function.

    PubMed

    Bastos, Pedro; Araújo, João Ricardo; Azevedo, Isabel; Martins, Maria João; Ribeiro, Laura

    2014-01-01

    Catechol-O-methyltransferase (COMT) is a magnesium-dependent, catecholamine-metabolizing enzyme, whose impaired activity has been positively associated with cardiovascular diseases, particularly hypertension. Consumption of some natural mineral-rich waters has been shown to exert protective effects on cardiovascular risk factors, eg. by decreasing arterial blood pressure and blood lipids. However, the molecular mechanisms underlying these effects are still poorly understood. So, the aim of this work was to investigate the effect of natural mineral-rich water ingestion upon liver and adrenal glands COMT expression and activity in Wistar Han rats. Over a seven-week period, animals had access to one of the following three drinking solutions: 1) tap water (control group; TW), 2) tap water with added Na(+) (to make the same concentration as in the MW group (TWNaCl group), or 3) natural mineral-rich water [Pedras Salgadas(®), which is very rich in bicarbonate, and with higher sodium, calcium and magnesium content than control tap water (MW group)]. COMT expression and activity were determined by RT-PCR and HPLC-ED, respectively. A higher hepatic COMT activity was found in the MW group compared with the TW and TWNaCl groups. On the other hand, adrenal gland COMT mRNA expression decreased in the MW group compared to TW group. In conclusion, the ability of natural mineral-rich waters to increase hepatic COMT activity may eventually explain the positive cardiovascular effects associated with the consumption of some natural mineral-rich waters.

  3. Influence of the consumption pattern of magnesium from magnesium-rich mineral water on magnesium bioavailability.

    PubMed

    Sabatier, Magalie; Grandvuillemin, Antoine; Kastenmayer, Peter; Aeschliman, Jean-Marc; Bouisset, Florilène; Arnaud, Maurice J; Dumoulin, Gilles; Berthelot, Alain

    2011-08-01

    It is generally considered that the absorption of Mg is inversely related to the ingested dose. The objective of the present study was to determine if the mode of administration (bolus v. consumption throughout the day) could influence Mg bioavailability from Mg-rich natural mineral water comparing the same nutritional Mg amount (126 mg). Using a 2 d cross-over design, twelve healthy men were asked to drink 1·5 litres Mg-rich mineral water either as 2 × 750 ml or 7 × 212 ml throughout the day. Two stable isotopes ((25)Mg and (26)Mg) were used to label the water in order to distinguish both regimens. Fractional apparent Mg absorption was determined by faecal monitoring and Mg retention was determined by measuring urinary excretion of Mg isotopes. Higher Mg absorption (50·7 (SD 12·7) v. 32·4 (SD 8·1) %; P = 0·0007) and retention (47·5 (SD 12·9) v. 29·0 (SD 7·5) %; P = 0·0008) from Mg-rich mineral water were observed when it was consumed in seven servings compared with larger servings. Thus, regular water consumption throughout the day is an effective way to increase Mg bioavailability from Mg-rich mineral water. PMID:21473800

  4. Carbonate-mineral/water interactions in sulfide-rich mine tailings

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Al, Tom A.; Martin, Chris J.; Blowes, David W.

    2000-12-01

    The chemical composition and mineralogy of coatings on carbonate minerals from mine tailings have been studied using aqueous geochemical methods, Time-of-Flight Laser-Ionization Mass Spectrometry (TOF-LIMS) and Transmission Electron Microscopy (TEM). The goal is to study major and trace element partitioning between the aqueous and solid phase, and to infer mechanisms that control the concentrations of elements in the pore water of sulfide-rich mine tailings. Pore-water samples and carbonate-mineral grains were collected from four geochemically distinct zones within the tailings. Oxidation of sulfide minerals near the surface results in a large range in pore-water pH (3.85 to 6.98) and aqueous concentrations of metals and sulfate. With increasing depth in the tailings, mineral-water interactions lead to increasing pH, and decreasing concentrations of metals and sulfate. Calculated mineral saturation indices, trends in the abundance of Ca, Fe, Mg and Mn in TOF-LIMS profiles through the secondary coatings, and electron diffraction patterns obtained from the coatings, suggest that precipitation/dissolution of jarosite-group minerals, gypsum, goethite, akaganéite, amorphous Fe oxyhydroxides and siderite control the aqueous Ca, Fe, Na, K and SO 4 concentrations. The occurrence of secondary coatings on primary minerals is widespread, and reactions with the secondary minerals, rather than the primary mineral substrate, probably represent the principal controls on trace-element distributions in the pore water. The data indicate that adsorption, surface-complexation and co-precipitation reactions are important controls on the concentrations of trace elements in the pore water. The occurrence of siderite coatings on the surface of ankerite grains suggests that Fe-bearing dolomite-structure carbonate minerals dissolve incongruently. This corroborates inferences made by previous workers that solubility differences between calcite and siderite lead to calcite dissolution and

  5. The Consumption of Bicarbonate-Rich Mineral Water Improves Glycemic Control.

    PubMed

    Murakami, Shinnosuke; Goto, Yasuaki; Ito, Kyo; Hayasaka, Shinya; Kurihara, Shigeo; Soga, Tomoyoshi; Tomita, Masaru; Fukuda, Shinji

    2015-01-01

    Hot spring water and natural mineral water have been therapeutically used to prevent or improve various diseases. Specifically, consumption of bicarbonate-rich mineral water (BMW) has been reported to prevent or improve type 2 diabetes (T2D) in humans. However, the molecular mechanisms of the beneficial effects behind mineral water consumption remain unclear. To elucidate the molecular level effects of BMW consumption on glycemic control, blood metabolome analysis and fecal microbiome analysis were applied to the BMW consumption test. During the study, 19 healthy volunteers drank 500 mL of commercially available tap water (TW) or BMW daily. TW consumption periods and BMW consumption periods lasted for a week each and this cycle was repeated twice. Biochemical tests indicated that serum glycoalbumin levels, one of the indexes of glycemic controls, decreased significantly after BMW consumption. Metabolome analysis of blood samples revealed that 19 metabolites including glycolysis-related metabolites and 3 amino acids were significantly different between TW and BMW consumption periods. Additionally, microbiome analysis demonstrated that composition of lean-inducible bacteria was increased after BMW consumption. Our results suggested that consumption of BMW has the possible potential to prevent and/or improve T2D through the alterations of host metabolism and gut microbiota composition. PMID:26798400

  6. The Consumption of Bicarbonate-Rich Mineral Water Improves Glycemic Control

    PubMed Central

    Murakami, Shinnosuke; Goto, Yasuaki; Ito, Kyo; Hayasaka, Shinya; Kurihara, Shigeo; Soga, Tomoyoshi; Tomita, Masaru; Fukuda, Shinji

    2015-01-01

    Hot spring water and natural mineral water have been therapeutically used to prevent or improve various diseases. Specifically, consumption of bicarbonate-rich mineral water (BMW) has been reported to prevent or improve type 2 diabetes (T2D) in humans. However, the molecular mechanisms of the beneficial effects behind mineral water consumption remain unclear. To elucidate the molecular level effects of BMW consumption on glycemic control, blood metabolome analysis and fecal microbiome analysis were applied to the BMW consumption test. During the study, 19 healthy volunteers drank 500 mL of commercially available tap water (TW) or BMW daily. TW consumption periods and BMW consumption periods lasted for a week each and this cycle was repeated twice. Biochemical tests indicated that serum glycoalbumin levels, one of the indexes of glycemic controls, decreased significantly after BMW consumption. Metabolome analysis of blood samples revealed that 19 metabolites including glycolysis-related metabolites and 3 amino acids were significantly different between TW and BMW consumption periods. Additionally, microbiome analysis demonstrated that composition of lean-inducible bacteria was increased after BMW consumption. Our results suggested that consumption of BMW has the possible potential to prevent and/or improve T2D through the alterations of host metabolism and gut microbiota composition. PMID:26798400

  7. Mineral species control of aluminum solubility in sulfate-rich acidic waters

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Jones, Adele M.; Collins, Richard N.; Waite, T. David

    2011-02-01

    The identification of the mineral species controlling the solubility of Al in acidic waters rich in sulfate has presented researchers with several challenges. One of the particular challenges is that the mineral species may be amorphous by X-ray diffraction. The difficulty in discerning between adsorbed or structural sulfate is a further complication. Numerous studies have employed theoretical calculations to determine the Al mineral species forming in acid sulfate soil environments. The vast majority of these studies indicate the formation of a mineral species matching the stoichiometry of jurbanite, Al(OH)SO 4·5H 2O. Much debate, however, exists as to the reality of jurbanite forming in natural environments, particularly in view of its apparent rare occurrence. In this work the use of Al, S and O K-edge XANES spectroscopy, in combination with elemental composition analyses of groundwater precipitates and a theoretical analysis of soluble Al concentrations ranging from pH 3.5 to 7, were employed to determine the mineral species controlling the solubility of Al draining from acid sulfate soils into Blacks Drain in north-eastern New South Wales, Australia. The results indicate that a mixture of amorphous Al hydroxide (Al(OH) 3) and basaluminite (Al 4(SO 4)(OH) 10·5H 2O) was forming. The use of XANES spectroscopy is particularly useful as it provides insight into the nature of the bond between sulfate and Al, and confirms the presence of basaluminite. This counters the possibility that an Al hydroxide species, with appreciable amounts of adsorbed sulfate, is forming within these groundwaters. Below approximately pH 4.5, prior to precipitation of this amorphous Al(OH) 3/basaluminite mixture, our studies indicate that the Al 3+ activity of these acidic sulfate-rich waters is limited by the availability of dissolved Al from exchangeable and amorphous/poorly crystalline mineral species within adjacent soils. Further evidence suggests the Al 3+ activity below pH 4.5 is

  8. Mineral composition and heavy metal contamination of sediments originating from radium rich formation water.

    PubMed

    Bzowski, Zbigniew; Michalik, Bogusław

    2015-03-01

    Radium rich formation water is often associated with fossil fuels as crude oil, natural gas and hard coal. As a result of fossil fuels exploitation high amount of such water is released into environment. In spite of the high radium content such waters create a serious radiation risk neither to humans nor biota directly. First and foremost due to very high mineralization they are not drinkable at all. But after discharge chemical and physical conditions are substantially changed and sediments which additionally concentrated radium are arising. Due to features of technological processes such phenomenon is very intensive in underground coal mining where huge volume of such water must be pumped into surface in order to keep underground galleries dry. Slightly different situation occurs in oil rigs, but finally also huge volume of so called process water is pumped into environment. Regardless their origin arising sediments often contain activity concentration of radium isotopes exceeding the clearance levels set for naturally occurring radioactive materials (NORM) (Council Directive, 2013). The analysis of metals and minerals content showed that besides radioactivity such sediments contain high amount of metals geochemically similar to radium as barium, strontium and lead. Correlation analysis proved that main mechanism leading to sediment creation is co-precipitation radium with these metals as a sulfate. The absorption on clay minerals is negligible even when barium is not present in significant quantities. Owing to very low solubility of sulfates radium accumulated in this way should not migrate into environment in the neighborhood of a site where such sediment were deposited.

  9. Mineral composition and heavy metal contamination of sediments originating from radium rich formation water.

    PubMed

    Bzowski, Zbigniew; Michalik, Bogusław

    2015-03-01

    Radium rich formation water is often associated with fossil fuels as crude oil, natural gas and hard coal. As a result of fossil fuels exploitation high amount of such water is released into environment. In spite of the high radium content such waters create a serious radiation risk neither to humans nor biota directly. First and foremost due to very high mineralization they are not drinkable at all. But after discharge chemical and physical conditions are substantially changed and sediments which additionally concentrated radium are arising. Due to features of technological processes such phenomenon is very intensive in underground coal mining where huge volume of such water must be pumped into surface in order to keep underground galleries dry. Slightly different situation occurs in oil rigs, but finally also huge volume of so called process water is pumped into environment. Regardless their origin arising sediments often contain activity concentration of radium isotopes exceeding the clearance levels set for naturally occurring radioactive materials (NORM) (Council Directive, 2013). The analysis of metals and minerals content showed that besides radioactivity such sediments contain high amount of metals geochemically similar to radium as barium, strontium and lead. Correlation analysis proved that main mechanism leading to sediment creation is co-precipitation radium with these metals as a sulfate. The absorption on clay minerals is negligible even when barium is not present in significant quantities. Owing to very low solubility of sulfates radium accumulated in this way should not migrate into environment in the neighborhood of a site where such sediment were deposited. PMID:25434264

  10. Hydrogeochemical and stable isotopic investigations on CO2-rich mineral waters from Harghita Mts. (Eastern Carpathians, Romania)

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Kis, Boglárka-Mercedesz; Baciu, Călin; Kármán, Krisztina; Kékedy-Nagy, Ladislau; Francesco, Italiano

    2013-04-01

    There is a worldwide interest on geothermal, mineral and groundwater as a resource for energy, drinking water supply and therapeutic needs. The increasing trend in replacing tap water with commercial bottled mineral water for drinking purposes has become an economic, hydrogeologic and medical concern in the last decades. Several investigations have been carried out worldwide on different topics related to geothermal and mineral waters, dealing with mineral water quality assessment, origin of geothermal and mineral waters, geochemical processes that influence water chemistry and water-rock interaction In Romania, the Călimani-Gurghiu-Harghita Neogene to Quaternary volcanic chain (Eastern Carpathians) is one of the most important areas from the point of view of CO2-rich mineral waters. These mineral water springs occur within other post-volcanic phenomena like dry CO2 emissions, moffettes, bubbling pools, H2S gas emissions etc. Mineral waters from this area are used for bottling, local spas and drinking purposes for local people. The number of springs, around 2000 according to literature data, shows that there is still a significant unexploited potential for good quality drinking water in this area. Within the youngest segment of the volcanic chain, the Harghita Mts., its volcaniclastic aprons and its boundary with the Transylvanian Basin, we have carried out an investigation on 23 CO2-rich mineral water springs from a hydrogeochemical and stable isotopic point of view. The mineral waters are Ca-Mg-HCO3 to Na-Cl type. Sometimes mixing between the two types can be observed. We have detected a great influence of water-rock interaction on the stable isotopic composition of the mineral waters, shown by isotopic shifts to the heavier oxygen isotope, mixing processes between shallow and deeper aquifers and local thermal anomalies. Acknowledgements: The present work was financially supported by the Romanian National Research Council, Project PN-II-ID-PCE-2011-3-0537 and by

  11. Silicon-rich mineral water as a non-invasive test of the 'aluminum hypothesis' in Alzheimer's disease.

    PubMed

    Davenward, Samantha; Bentham, Peter; Wright, Jan; Crome, Peter; Job, Deborah; Polwart, Anthony; Exley, Christopher

    2013-01-01

    There has been a plausible link between human exposure to aluminum and Alzheimer's disease for several decades. We contend that the only direct and ethically acceptable experimental test of the 'aluminum hypothesis', which would provide unequivocal data specific to the link, is to test the null hypothesis that a reduction in the body burden of aluminum to its lowest practical limit would have no influence upon the incidence, progression, or severity of Alzheimer's disease. Herein we are testing the hypothesis that silicon-rich mineral waters can be used as non-invasive methods to reduce the body burden of aluminum in individuals with Alzheimer's disease and a control group consisting of their carers and partners. We have shown that drinking up to 1 L of a silicon-rich mineral water each day for 12 weeks facilitated the removal of aluminum via the urine in both patient and control groups without any concomitant affect upon the urinary excretion of the essential metals, iron and copper. We have provided preliminary evidence that over 12 weeks of silicon-rich mineral water therapy the body burden of aluminum fell in individuals with Alzheimer's disease and, concomitantly, cognitive performance showed clinically relevant improvements in at least 3 out of 15 individuals. This is a first step in a much needed rigorous test of the 'aluminum hypothesis of Alzheimer's disease' and a longer term study involving many more individuals is now warranted.

  12. Distribution of metals in water and bed sediment in a mineral-rich watershed, Montana, USA

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Nagorski, S.A.; Moore, J.N.; Smith, D.B.

    2002-01-01

    We sampled the Blackfoot River (Montana) and its major tributaries from the headwaters of the basin to near its confluence with the Clark Fork River over the course of 5 days in August 1998. We measured streamflow, collected fine-grained (<63 ??m) streambed sediment, and sampled the dissolved (operationally defined as <0.2 ??m) phase of the surface water using clean techniques. Water and sediment collected from near the historic Heddleston mining district contained the highest concentrations of most trace elements in the basin. Many solute trace metals were at their highest several kilometers downstream from the mining district, where the river flows through an unremediated marsh system that has collected mine wastes in the past. Downstream of the headwaters area, water and bed sediment metal concentrations declined sharply. Comparison of sediment samples with those collected by other workers in August 1989 and August 1995 do not show evidence of basin-scale long term changes, despite the onset of remediation efforts in 1993. The area of the proposed McDonald gold deposit near the confluence of the Landers Fork with the Blackfoot River was not contributing anomalous concentrations of naturally-occurring dissolved and bed-sediment metals into the basin. ?? IMWA Springer-Verlag 2002.

  13. Water, mineral waters and health.

    PubMed

    Petraccia, Luisa; Liberati, Giovanna; Masciullo, Stefano Giuseppe; Grassi, Marcello; Fraioli, Antonio

    2006-06-01

    The authors focus on water resources and the use of mineral waters in human nutrition, especially in the different stages of life, in physical activity and in the presence of some morbid conditions. Mineral water is characterized by its purity at source, its content in minerals, trace elements and other constituents, its conservation and its healing properties recognized by the Ministry of Health after clinical and pharmacological trials. Based on total salt content in grams after evaporation of 1l mineral water dried at 180 degrees C (dry residues), mineral waters can be classified as: waters with a very low mineral content, waters low in mineral content, waters with a medium mineral content, and strongly mineralized waters. Based on ion composition mineral waters can be classified as: bicarbonate waters, sulfate waters, sodium chloride or saltwater, sulfuric waters. Based on biological activity mineral waters can be classified as: diuretic waters, cathartic waters, waters with antiphlogistic properties. Instructions for use, doses, and current regulations are included.

  14. A Thermodynamic Model for Predicting Mineral Reactivity in Supercritical Carbon Dioxide: I. Phase Behavior of Carbon Dioxide - Water - Chloride Salt Systems Across the H2O-Rich to the CO2-Rich Regions

    SciTech Connect

    Springer, Ronald D.; Wang, Zheming; Anderko, Andre; Wang, Peiming; Felmy, Andrew R.

    2012-09-05

    used to predict the effect of various salts on the water content and water activity in CO2-rich phases on the basis of parameters determined from the properties of aqueous systems. Given the importance of water activity in CO2-rich phases for mineral reactivity, the model can be used as a foundation for predicting mineral transformations across the entire CO2/H2O composition range from aqueous solution to anhydrous scCO2. An example application using the model is presented which involves the transformation of forsterite to nesquehonite as a function of temperature and water content in the CO2-rich phase.

  15. The Growth of Melt Inclusion- and Water-Rich Zones in Clinopyroxene Phenocrysts of the Powai Ankaramite Flow, Deccan Traps, India: Rapid Closed System Oscillatory Mineral Growth

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Seaman, S. J.

    2015-12-01

    Water concentrations were measured and mapped using FTIR spectroscopy in clinopyroxene phenocrysts of the Powai ankaramite flow, located near Mumbai, west of the Western Ghats escarpment of the Deccan province, India. Samples were provided by Dr. Hetu Sheth of the Indian Institute of Technology, Mumbai. Chatterjee and Sheth (2015) showed that phenocrysts in the flow were part of a cumulate layer intruded by high-temperature basaltic melt at ~ 6 kb and ~1230oC. Cpx phenocrysts are euhedral and have concentric bands (100 to 200 microns thick) of fine (10-20 micron diameter) melt inclusions. Cpx bands that host melt inclusions have higher concentrations of water than inclusion-free bands. Water concentrations of cpx and ol were used to calculate water concentrations in the melt from which the crystals formed. Water concentrations in the parent magma were between 4.35 and 8.26 wt. % based on water concentrations in cpx, and between 8.24 and 9.41 wt. % based on those in ol. Both Mg and Fe are relatively depleted in the water- and melt inclusion-rich zones in cpx, and Ca is enriched in these zones. We suggest that oscillatory zoning in cpx is a result of repeated growth of cpx in water-richer and water-poorer boundary layers in which water lowered melt viscosity and enhanced diffusion and crystal growth rates. Water-enhanced growth rates may have resulted in preferential capture of melt inclusions preserved in water-rich cpx zones. Mg was preferentially incorporated into the cpx, causing Ca and water to build up in the boundary layer, and Mg and Fe to become relatively depleted in the boundary layer, as discussed for oscillatorially-zoned minerals by Wang and Merino (1993). Application of the equations for growth of oscillatory zones in crystals given by Wang and Merino (1993) to the growth of cpx crystals in the Powai ankaramite indicate that crystal growth occurred relatively quickly, on the order of days, although the width of the boundary zone, which is uncertain

  16. Effects of natural mineral-rich water consumption on the expression of sirtuin 1 and angiogenic factors in the erectile tissue of rats with fructose-induced metabolic syndrome.

    PubMed

    Pereira, Cidália D; Severo, Milton; Rafael, LuIsa; Martins, Maria João; Neves, Delminda

    2014-01-01

    Consuming a high-fructose diet induces metabolic syndrome (MS)-like features, including endothelial dysfunction. Erectile dysfunction is an early manifestation of endothelial dysfunction and systemic vascular disease. Because mineral deficiency intensifies the deleterious effects of fructose consumption and mineral ingestion is protective against MS, we aimed to characterize the effects of 8 weeks of natural mineral-rich water consumption on the structural organization and expression of vascular growth factors and receptors on the corpus cavernosum (CC) in 10% fructose-fed Sprague-Dawley rats (FRUCT). Differences were not observed in the organization of the CC either on the expression of vascular endothelial growth factor (VEGF) or the components of the angiopoietins/Tie2 system. However, opposing expression patterns were observed for VEGF receptors (an increase and a decrease for VEGFR1 and VEGFR2, respectively) in FRUCT animals, with these patterns being strengthened by mineral-rich water ingestion. Mineral-rich water ingestion (FRUCTMIN) increased the proportion of smooth muscle cells compared with FRUCT rats and induced an upregulatory tendency of sirtuin 1 expression compared with the control and FRUCT groups. Western blot results were consistent with the dual immunofluorescence evaluation. Plasma oxidized low-density lipoprotein and plasma testosterone levels were similar among the experimental groups, although a tendency for an increase in the former was observed in the FRUCTMIN group. The mineral-rich water-treated rats presented changes similar to those observed in rats treated with MS-protective polyphenol-rich beverages or subjected to energy restriction, which led us to hypothesize that the effects of mineral-rich water consumption may be more vast than those directly observed in this study.

  17. Relevance of a Hypersaline Sodium-Rich Naturally Sparkling Mineral Water to the Protection against Metabolic Syndrome Induction in Fructose-Fed Sprague-Dawley Rats: A Biochemical, Metabolic, and Redox Approach

    PubMed Central

    Pereira, Cidália Dionísio; Severo, Milton; Araújo, João Ricardo; Guimarães, João Tiago; Pestana, Diogo; Santos, Alejandro; Ferreira, Rita; Ascensão, António; Magalhães, José; Azevedo, Isabel; Monteiro, Rosário; Martins, Maria João

    2014-01-01

    The Metabolic Syndrome increases the risk for atherosclerotic cardiovascular disease and type 2 Diabetes Mellitus. Increased fructose consumption and/or mineral deficiency have been associated with Metabolic Syndrome development. This study aimed to investigate the effects of 8 weeks consumption of a hypersaline sodium-rich naturally sparkling mineral water on 10% fructose-fed Sprague-Dawley rats (Metabolic Syndrome animal model). The ingestion of the mineral water (rich in sodium bicarbonate and with higher potassium, calcium, and magnesium content than the tap water used as control) reduced/prevented not only the fructose-induced increase of heart rate, plasma triacylglycerols, insulin and leptin levels, hepatic catalase activity, and organ weight to body weight ratios (for liver and both kidneys) but also the decrease of hepatic glutathione peroxidase activity and oxidized glutathione content. This mineral-rich water seems to have potential to prevent Metabolic Syndrome induction by fructose. We hypothesize that its regular intake in the context of modern diets, which have a general acidic character interfering with mineral homeostasis and are poor in micronutrients, namely potassium, calcium, and magnesium, could add surplus value and attenuate imbalances, thus contributing to metabolic and redox health and, consequently, decreasing the risk for atherosclerotic cardiovascular disease. PMID:24672546

  18. Relevance of a Hypersaline Sodium-Rich Naturally Sparkling Mineral Water to the Protection against Metabolic Syndrome Induction in Fructose-Fed Sprague-Dawley Rats: A Biochemical, Metabolic, and Redox Approach.

    PubMed

    Pereira, Cidália Dionísio; Severo, Milton; Araújo, João Ricardo; Guimarães, João Tiago; Pestana, Diogo; Santos, Alejandro; Ferreira, Rita; Ascensão, António; Magalhães, José; Azevedo, Isabel; Monteiro, Rosário; Martins, Maria João

    2014-01-01

    The Metabolic Syndrome increases the risk for atherosclerotic cardiovascular disease and type 2 Diabetes Mellitus. Increased fructose consumption and/or mineral deficiency have been associated with Metabolic Syndrome development. This study aimed to investigate the effects of 8 weeks consumption of a hypersaline sodium-rich naturally sparkling mineral water on 10% fructose-fed Sprague-Dawley rats (Metabolic Syndrome animal model). The ingestion of the mineral water (rich in sodium bicarbonate and with higher potassium, calcium, and magnesium content than the tap water used as control) reduced/prevented not only the fructose-induced increase of heart rate, plasma triacylglycerols, insulin and leptin levels, hepatic catalase activity, and organ weight to body weight ratios (for liver and both kidneys) but also the decrease of hepatic glutathione peroxidase activity and oxidized glutathione content. This mineral-rich water seems to have potential to prevent Metabolic Syndrome induction by fructose. We hypothesize that its regular intake in the context of modern diets, which have a general acidic character interfering with mineral homeostasis and are poor in micronutrients, namely potassium, calcium, and magnesium, could add surplus value and attenuate imbalances, thus contributing to metabolic and redox health and, consequently, decreasing the risk for atherosclerotic cardiovascular disease. PMID:24672546

  19. A geochemical and geophysical approach to derive a conceptual circulation model of CO2-rich mineral waters: A case study of Vilarelho da Raia, northern Portugal

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Marques, J. M.; Santos, Monteiro; Graça, R. C.; Castro, R.; Aires-Barros, L.; Mendes Victor, L. A.

    2001-11-01

    The Vilarelho da Raia-Chaves region, located in northern Portugal adjacent to the Spanish border, is characterized by both hot and cold CO2-rich mineral waters issuing from springs and drilled wells. The present paper updates the conceptual circulation model of the Vilarelho da Raia cold CO2-rich mineral waters. Vilarelho da Raia mineral waters, dominated by Na and HCO3 ions, have formed mainly by interaction with CO2 of deep-seated mantle origin. The δ18O, δ2H and 3H values indicate that these waters are the result of meteoric waters infiltrating into Larouco Mountain, NW of Vilarelho da Raia, circulating at shallow depths in granitic rocks and moving into Vilarelho da Raia area. The conceptual geochemical and geophysical circulation model indicates that the hot and cold CO2-rich mineral waters of Chaves (76 °C) and Vilarelho da Raia (17 °C) should be considered manifestations of similar but not the same geohydrological systems. Résumé. La région de Vilarelho da Raia - Chaves, située au Portugal près de la frontière Espagnole, est caractérisée par des eaux carbogazeuses, chaudes et froides, émergeant à des sources et dans des puits. Ce travail constitue une mise au point du modèle conceptuel de circulation des eaux minérales carbogazeuses froides de Vilarelho da Raia. Les eaux minérales de Vilarelho da Raia, dans lesquelles les ions Na and HCO3 sont dominants, résultent principalement d'interactions avec du CO2 d'origine mantellique. Les δ18O, les δ2H, et les teneurs en 3H indiquent que ces eaux proviennent de l'infiltration d'eaux météoriques dans le Mont Larouco au NW de Vilarelho da Raia, circulant à faible profondeur dans les granites en direction de la région de Vilarelho da Raia. Le modèle de circulation géochimique et géophysique conduit à penser que les eaux minérales carbogazeuses chaudes et froides de Chaves (76 °C) et de Vilarelho da Raia (17 °C) doivent être considérées comme des manifestations de systèmes hydrog

  20. Mars: A water-rich planet

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Carr, Michael H.

    1987-01-01

    Good geomorphic evidence is presented for a planet that was once water rich, and that a lower limit on the amount of water available for a given Martian watershed may be estimated by assuming that the volume of material eroded was equal to the volume of water available. This estimate, coupled with high latitude water estimates of 50 to 100 m gives a global inventory of about 500 m total water in the subsurface. It was emphasized that this is a lower limit as considerable water may be bound in weathered debris and in primary minerals.

  1. Mineral and water nutrition.

    PubMed

    Beede, D K

    1991-07-01

    In providing minerals to dairy cattle it is important to distinguish between dietary requirements and feeding recommendations. The requirement is the absolute amount of an element needed to meet the animal's metabolic needs for maintenance, growth, pregnancy, and lactation divided by the coefficient of absorption; this is estimated by the factorial method. Actual estimates of requirements for lactating dairy cattle have been determined for Ca and P. The major difficulties in relying on the requirement estimate are that dry matter intake varies and the true absorption coefficient of the mixture of feeds in the ration generally is unknown. Therefore, feeding recommendations, based on feeding graded concentrations of an element, often offer more applicable information. With the exception of Ca and P, the current feeding recommendations for the other macrominerals, Mg, Na, K, Cl and S, have resulted from feeding trials. With certain environmental and physiologic situations the feeding recommendations may vary. For example, during heat stress the dietary K recommendation for the lactating cow should be higher than in cool weather because of increased sweating and decreased feed intake. Another example may be that the source of supplemental Mg may affect what dietary inclusion rate will yield optimal performance and should be recommended. An important consideration in dairy ration formulation in the future will address the interrelationships of the various macrominerals. There is accumulating evidence that shows that different concentrations of Na, Cl, and K may interrelate and affect lactational performance. Many times the naturally occurring concentrations of one or more of these elements may have to be associated with varying concentrations of the others in order to optimize animal performance and health. Much experimentation likely will examine these interrelationships in the future. Supplementation of trace elements in diets of dairy cattle is common practice. This

  2. Recrystallization and stability of Zn and Pb minerals on their migration to groundwater in soils affected by Acid Mine Drainage under CO2 rich atmospheric waters.

    PubMed

    Goienaga, N; Carrero, J A; Zuazagoitia, D; Baceta, J I; Murelaga, X; Fernández, L A; Madariaga, J M

    2015-01-01

    The extent of vertical contamination is intimately related to the soil solution and surface chemistry of the soil matrix with reference to the metal and waste matrix in question. The present research demonstrated the impact that the dissolved CO2 of the meteoric waters, which acidify the environment with pH values below 4, has in the increase of the metal mobility. Although under the given conditions the Zn remains mainly dissolved, the initial PbS and ZnS have evolved into newly formed secondary carbonates and sulphates (i.e., hydrozincite, gunningite, hydrocerussite) that can be found in the efflorescences. The chemical simulation done on the weathering of the original sulphide ores for the formation of these secondary minerals has proved the transient storage mainly of Pb. Nonetheless, many of the minerals formed inside the galleries will be easily dissolved in the next rains and release in an ionic form to the groundwater. The analytical procedure exposed has been proved to be useful not only for the characterization of AMD but also for the prediction of the mobility of metals.

  3. [Mineral water as a cure].

    PubMed

    Nocco, Priska Binz

    2008-01-01

    The treatment of diseases with mineral spring water belongs to the oldest medical therapies. The "remedy" mineral water is therefore of importance also within the pharmacy. The present pharmacy historical work examines the impact of the use of mineral waters, as well as of their dried components, as therapeutic agents in the 19th and early 20th centuries, i.e. from approx. 1810 to 1930, as well as the contributions given by pharmacists in the development and analysis of mineral water springs. Beside these aspects, the aim here is also to describe the role played by pharmacists in the production of artificial mineral water as well as in the sale and wholesale of natural and artificial mineral water. In the first part of this work the situation in Switzerland and its surrounding countries, such as Germany, France, Italy and Austria, is discussed. The second part contains a case-study of the particular situation in the Canton Tessin. It is known from the scientific literature published at that time that information on mineral water was frequently reported. Starting from the beginning of the 19th century the number of such publications increased tremendously. The major part of them were publications in scientific journals or contributions to medical and pharmaceutical manuals and reference books. In particular the spa-related literature, such as spa-guides, was of growing interest to a broad public. The inclusion of monographs into the Swiss, the Cantonal as well the foreign pharmacopoeias granted a legal frame for the mineral waters and their dried components. These works are of major importance from a pharmacy historical standpoint and represent a unique proof of historical evidence of the old medicinal drug heritage. The most frequently used therapies based on mineral waters were drinking and bath cures. Several diseases, particularly those of a chronic character, were treated with mineral waters. The positive influence of these cures on the recovery of the patients

  4. Hydrogeochemical tracing of mineral water in Jingyu County, Northeast China.

    PubMed

    Yan, Baizhong; Xiao, Changlai; Liang, Xiujuan; Wu, Shili

    2016-02-01

    The east Jilin Province in China, Jingyu County has been explored as a potential for enriching mineral water. In order to assess the water quality and quantity, it is of crucial importance to investigate the origin of the mineral water and its flow paths. In this study, eighteen mineral springs were sampled in May and September of 2012, May and September of 2013, and May 2014 and the environment, evolvement, and reaction mechanism of mineral water formation were analysed by hydrochemical data analysis, geochemical modelling and multivariate statistical analysis. The results showed that the investigated mineral water was rich in calcium, magnesium, potassium, sodium, bicarbonate, chloride, sulphate, fluoride, nitrate, total iron, silicate, and strontium, and mineral water ages ranged from 11.0 to more than 61.0 years. The U-shape contours of the mineral ages indicate a local and discrete recharge. The mineral compositions of the rocks were olivine, potassium feldspar, pyroxene, albite, and anorthite and were under-saturated in the mineral water. The origin of mineral water was from the hydrolysis of basalt minerals under a neutral to slightly alkaline and CO2-rich environment. PMID:26040975

  5. Radioactivity in bottled mineral waters.

    PubMed

    Martín Sánchez, A; Rubio Montero, M P; Gómez Escobar, V; Jurado Vargas, M

    1999-06-01

    Consumption of bottled mineral water is a growing practice and is sometimes a necessity rather than a choice. In this work, a study of the radioactive content of a wide selection of commercial bottled mineral waters for human intake was carried out. The origins of the analyzed waters were very different, coming from various locations in France, Portugal and Spain. Their total alpha and beta activity concentrations were determined and also gamma spectrometry was used to detect some radionuclides. In some cases, the waters presented high values of the total alpha and beta activity concentrations surpassing the reference levels established by the CSN, the Spanish. Regulatory Organization. In these cases, a determination of uranium and 226Ra was also performed by using low-level liquid scintillation counting. The results revealed a strong correlation between radioactive content and dry residue, and lead one to conclude that high radioactive content is mainly related to the mineralization in waters of underground origin.

  6. Reaction Kinetics of CO2 Carbonation with Mg-Rich Minerals

    SciTech Connect

    Kwon, Dr. Soonchul; Fan, Maohong; DaCosta, Dr. Herbert F.M.; Russell, Dr. Armistead; Tsouris, Costas

    2011-01-01

    Due to their low price, wide availability, and stability of the resulting carbonates, Mg-rich minerals are promising materials for carbonating CO{sub 2}. Direct carbonation of CO{sub 2} with Mg-rich minerals reported in this research for the first time could be considerably superior to conventional liquid extraction processes from an energy consumption perspective due to its avoidance of the use of a large amount of water with high specific heat capacity and latent heat of vaporization. Kinetic models of the reactions of the direct CO{sub 2} carbonation with Mg-rich minerals and within simulated flue gas environments are important to the scale-up of reactor designs. Unfortunately, such models have not been made available thus far. This research was initiated to fill that gap. Magnesium silicate (Mg{sub 2}SiO{sub 4}), a representative compound in Mg-rich minerals, was used to study CO{sub 2} carbonation reaction kinetics under given simulated flue gas conditions. It was found that the chosen sorbent deactivation model fits well the experimental data collected under given conditions. A reaction order of 1 with respect to CO{sub 2} is obtained from experimental data. The Arrhenius form of CO{sub 2} carbonation with Mg{sub 2}SiO{sub 4} is established based on changes in the rate constants of the chosen deactivation model as a function of temperature.

  7. Mineralogy and Geochemical Processes of Carbonate Mineral-rich Sulfide Mine Tailings, Zimapan, Mexico

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    McClure, R. J.; Deng, Y.; Loeppert, R.; Herbert, B. E.; Carrillo, R.; Gonzalez, C.

    2009-12-01

    Mining for silver, lead, zinc, and copper in Zimapan, Hidalgo State, Mexico has been ongoing since 1576. High concentrations of heavy metals have been found in several mine tailing heaps in the Zimapan area, with concentrations of arsenic observed as high as 28,690 mg/kg and levels of Pb as high as 2772 mg/kg. Unsecured tailings heaps and associated acid mine drainage has presented tremendous problems to revegetation, water quality, and dust emission control in the Zimapan area. Although acid mine drainage problems related to weathering of sulfide minerals have been extensively studied and are well known, the weathering products of sulfides in areas with a significant presence of carbonate minerals and their effect on the mobility of heavy metals warrant further study. Carbonate minerals are expected to neutralize sulfuric acid produced from weathering of sulfide minerals, however, in the Zimapan area localized areas of pH as low as 1.8 were observed within carbonate mineral-rich tailing heaps. The objectives of this study are to characterize (1) the heavy metal-containing sulfide minerals in the initial tailing materials, (2) the intermediate oxidation products of sulfide minerals within the carbonate-rich tailings, (3) chemical species of heavy metals within pH gradients between 1.8 and 8.2, the approximate natural pH of limestone, and (4) the mobility of soluble and colloidal heavy metals and arsenic within the carbonate-rich tailings. Representative mine tailings and their intermediate oxidation products have been sampled from the Zimapan area. Mineralogical characterization will be conducted with X-ray diffraction, infrared spectroscopy, electron microscopes and microprobes, and chemical methods. Chemical species will be extracted by selective dissolution methods. Preliminary results have identified calcite as the dominant mineral in the tailing heaps with a pH of 7, suggesting non-equilibrium with the acidic weathering products. Other minerals identified in

  8. Formation and occurrence of biogenic iron-rich minerals

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Fortin, Danielle; Langley, Sean

    2005-09-01

    Iron cycling in the Earth's crust depends on redox reactions, which often trigger the precipitation and dissolution of Fe-rich minerals. Microbial activity is also an integral part of iron cycling, through carbon fixation, respiration and passive sorption reactions. Iron oxides formed in close association with bacteria (either as internal or external precipitates) are referred to as biogenic minerals. They form in several types of environments on Earth, from freshwater to marine systems, aquifers, soils and mining impacted systems. Biogenic iron oxides generally occur as nanocrystals and show a wide range of morphology and mineralogy. These minerals form as a result of the direct metabolic activity of bacteria or as a result of passive sorption and nucleation reactions. The metabolic activity of acidophilic and neutrophilic iron-oxidizing bacteria under oxic conditions promotes the oxidation of Fe(II) to Fe(III) and the precipitation of biogenic iron oxides as extracellular precipitates near or on the bacterial cells. Iron oxidation under anoxic conditions can also occur, as a result of the activity of nitrate-reducers and photoautotrophic bacteria using Fe(II) as an electron donor. Secondary Fe-oxide formation has been reported during the microbial reduction of iron oxides. Passive Fe sorption and nucleation onto bacterial cell walls represents another important mechanism leading to iron oxide formation. The surface reactivity of the bacterial surface under environmental pH conditions confers a net negative charge to the cell wall, which leads to the binding of soluble iron and eventually to the precipitation of iron oxides under saturation conditions. Extracellular polymers produced by bacteria can act as a template for iron sorption and Fe-oxide nucleation. Intracellular iron oxide formation has been observed in natural environments. Magnetotactic bacteria produce intracellular magnetosomes, occurring as chains of magnetite crystals within the cells, and an

  9. Distribution of Water in Nominally Anhydrous Minerals during Metamorphic Reactions

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Van Lankvelt, A.; Seaman, S. J.; Williams, M. L.

    2014-12-01

    Nominally anhydrous minerals are a reservoir for water in otherwise dry rocks. This water may play a role in facilitating metamorphic reactions and enhancing deformation. In this study, we examined orthopyroxene-bearing granites from the Athabasca Granulite terrane in northern Saskatchewan. These rocks intruded the lower crust (pressures of 1 GPa) at circa 2.6 Ga at temperatures of > 900 ºC and were subsequently metamorphosed at granulite facies conditions (700 ºC and 1 GPa) in the Paleoproterozoic (Williams et al., 2000). One of the primary reactions recorded by these rocks is locally known as the "Mary" reaction and involves the anhydrous reaction: orthopyroxene + Ca-plagioclase = clinopyroxene + garnet + Na-plagioclase. Measurements of water concentrations in both product and reactant assemblages were performed using a Bruker Vertex 70 Fourier transform infrared spectrometer and revealed that there is a slight excess of water in product minerals over reactant minerals. There are two possible explanations for this. The first is that water was derived from an external source, possibly hydrous, likely contemporaneous, mafic dikes. This interpretation is supported by higher concentrations of K, which is essentially absent from the reactant minerals, in the Na-rich rims of plagioclase. However, only modest amounts of external fluids could have been introduced, or amphiboles would have been stabilized at the expense of clinopyroxene (Moore & Carmichael, 1998). An alternative interpretation is that slightly more water-rich minerals reacted more readily, releasing water that was then incorporated into their products, whereas the water-poorer minerals failed to react. Support for this interpretation comes from very low water concentrations in orthopyroxene and plagioclase from an unreacted and undeformed sample. This interpretation suggests that water in anhydrous minerals may catalyze metamorphic reactions, and a lack of water may be critical for preserving metastable

  10. Mineral constituents in water and their significance

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Dover, T.B.

    1950-01-01

    Pure water does not exist in nature. Because water is a powerful solvent, every drop of rain water carries dissolved or suspended material - dust, pollen, and smoke, as well as the atmospheric gases, oxygen, nitrogen and carbon dioxide. When rain falls, the water running over the rocks and percolating through the soil gathers more and more mineral matter in solution. As the uses to which a water supply may be put depend primarily on its mineral content, information concerning the chemical characteristics of water is of importance to each of us. (available as photostat copy only)

  11. Habitability constraints on water-rich exoplanets

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Noack, Lena; Höning, Dennis; Rivoldini, Attilio; Heistracher, Clemens; Zimov, Nastasia; Journaux, Baptiste; Lammer, Helmut; Van Hoolst, Tim; Hendrik Bredehöft, Jan

    2016-04-01

    This research addresses the characterization, modelling, thermal evolution and possible habitability of water-rich exoplanets. Water is necessary for the origin and survival of life as we know it. In the search for habitable worlds, water-rich planets therefore seem obvious candidates. The water layer on such planets could be hundreds of kilometers deep. Depending on the temperature profile and the pressure gradient, it is likely that at great depths a significant part of the water layer is solid high pressure ice. Whether the solid ice layer extends to the bottom of the water layer, or if a shallow lower ocean forms above the silicate mantle, depends amongst others on the thermal state of the planet. We therefore model the thermal evolution of water-rich planets with a 1D parameterized model. Depth-dependent profiles for thermodynamic properties as well as pressure and gravity are obtained by solving the Poisson equation for the gravity and the hydrostatic pressure equation for pre-defined mass and composition (in terms of iron, silicates and water) [1]. For density, equations of state are applied. For the simulation of the thermal evolution of water-rich planets, several parameters (as initial temperatures or layer thicknesses) are unknown. We therefore employ a quantitatve study with more than 20'000 simulations, where we investigated which parameters have the largest influence on the appearance of a lower ocean, i.e. the possible melting of high-pressure ice by heat flowing out of the silicate mantle [2]. We find that the surface temperature has the largest influence on the thickness of water layers, for which a lower ocean can still form between the high-pressure ice layer and the silicate mantle. For higher surface temperatures, not only entirely liquid oceans are possible for deeper water shells, also a liquid ocean can form under high-pressure ice layers of hundreds of kilometer thickness (for a 1 Earth-mass planet). Deeper down, the lower ocean can still

  12. Water-Signature Mineral Found by Spirit

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    2004-01-01

    This spectrum, taken by the Mars Exploration Rover Spirit's Moessbauer spectrometer, shows the presence of an iron-bearing mineral called goethite in a rock called 'Clovis' in the 'Columbia Hills' of Mars. Goethite contains water in the form of hydroxyl as a part of its structure. By identifying this mineral, the examination of Clovis produced strong evidence for past water activity in the area that Spirit is exploring.

  13. Nanoconfined water in magnesium-rich phyllosilicates.

    SciTech Connect

    Nenoff, Tina Maria; Durkin, Justin S.; Daemen, Luke L.; Ockwig, Nathan W.; Cygan, Randall Timothy; Greathouse, Jeffery A.

    2009-10-01

    Inelastic neutron scattering, density functional theory, ab initio molecular dynamics, and classical molecular dynamics were used to examine the behavior of nanoconfined water in palygorskite and sepiolite. These complementary methods provide a strong basis to illustrate and correlate the significant differences observed in the spectroscopic signatures of water in two unique clay minerals. Distortions of silicate tetrahedra in the smaller-pore palygorskite exhibit a limited number of hydrogen bonds having relatively short bond lengths. In contrast, without the distorted silicate tetrahedra, an increased number of hydrogen bonds are observed in the larger-pore sepiolite with corresponding longer bond distances. Because there is more hydrogen bonding at the pore interface in sepiolite than in palygorskite, we expect librational modes to have higher overall frequencies (i.e., more restricted rotational motions); experimental neutron scattering data clearly illustrates this shift in spectroscopic signatures. Distortions of the silicate tetrahedra in these minerals effectively disrupts hydrogen bonding patterns at the silicate-water interface, and this has a greater impact on the dynamical behavior of nanoconfined water than the actual size of the pore or the presence of coordinatively-unsaturated magnesium edge sites.

  14. Thermal mineral water springs in Karlovy Vary

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Vrba, J.

    1996-03-01

    In the western part of the Czech Republic about 130 180 km west of the capital of Prague, in an area of about 300 sq km, several dozen mineral springs occur from various origins, with water of different chemical characteristics, temperatures, and levels of carbonation and radioactive intensity. Mineral waters are widely utilized, in particular for spa treatment of a broad range of ailments as well as for bottling (curative and table waters), industrial uses of carbon dioxide, evaporation for the salts dissolved in them and, in regard to thermal waters, for local heating.

  15. Mars: A water-rich planet?

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Carr, M.H.

    1986-01-01

    Mars had outgassed at least 0.5 to 1 km of water, 10 to 20 bar of CO2, and 0.1 to 0.3 bar of N2. The volatiles that have been retained are mostly in the cratered uplands. Terrain softening, fretted channels, debris flows, and closed depressions indicate that at least the upper 2 km of the cratered uplands at high latitudes (>30??) contain ice in amounts that exceed the porosity, estimated to be 10-20%. Theoretical studies, and lack of these features in the cratered uplands at low latitudes, suggest that the upper 1 km of the uplands at low latitudes is ice poor. However, valley networks indicate that water was present near the surface early in the planet's history, although in amounts smaller than at high latitudes. The entire upper 1 km, planetwide is estimated to have contained 75-125 m of water at the end of heavy bombardment. The largest sink for water is the megaregolith below 1 km. Episodic eruption of water from the deep megaregolith cut many of the large outflow channels. From the volume of water needed to cut the circum-Chryse channels, and assuming uniform planetwide distribution of water, the deep megaregolith is estimated to have contained at least 350 m of water at the end of heavy bombardment, thereby giving a total minimum inventory of 424-475 m planetwide. Most of the water lost from the low-latitude uplands by diffusion and in cutting the valley networks is now believed to be in the polar layered terrains. Most of the water involved in cutting the outflow channels is in the low-lying northern plains where a variety of features that have been attributed to ground ice is present. A large fraction of the planet's surface has been overplated with water-poor volcanics, of which we have samples in the SNC meteorites. The younger volcanics have reacted extensively with the old volatile-rich basement. Some of the CO2 and N2 outgassed was lost during heavy bombardment by impact erosion of the atmosphere and other processes. The remaining was fixed

  16. Uranium Immobilization and Nanofilm Formation on Magnesium-Rich Minerals.

    PubMed

    van Veelen, Arjen; Bargar, John R; Law, Gareth T W; Brown, Gordon E; Wogelius, Roy A

    2016-04-01

    Polarization-dependent grazing incidence X-ray absorption spectroscopy (XAS) measurements were completed on oriented single crystals of magnesite [MgCO3] and brucite [Mg(OH)2] reacted with aqueous uranyl chloride above and below the solubility boundaries of schoepite (500, 50, and 5 ppm) at pH 8.3 and at ambient (PCO2 = 10(-3.5)) or reduced partial pressures of carbon dioxide (PCO2 = 10(-4.5)). X-ray absorption near edge structure (XANES) spectra show a striking polarization dependence (χ = 0° and 90° relative to the polarization plane of the incident beam) and consistently demonstrated that the uranyl molecule was preferentially oriented with its Oaxial═U(VI)═Oaxial linkage at high angles (60-80°) to both magnesite (101̅4) and brucite (0001). Extended X-ray absorption fine structure (EXAFS) analysis shows that the "effective" number of U(VI) axial oxygens is the most strongly affected fitting parameter as a function of polarization. Furthermore, axial tilt in the surface thin films (thickness ∼ 21 Å) is correlated with surface roughness [σ]. Our results show that hydrated uranyl(-carbonate) complexes polymerize on all of our experimental surfaces and that this process is controlled by surface hydroxylation. These results provide new insights into the bonding configuration expected for uranyl complexes on the environmentally significant carbonate and hydroxide mineral surfaces. PMID:26990311

  17. FT-Raman spectroscopic study of calcium-rich and magnesium-rich carbonate minerals.

    PubMed

    Edwards, Howell G M; Villar, Susana E Jorge; Jehlicka, Jan; Munshi, Tasnim

    2005-08-01

    Calcium and magnesium carbonates are important minerals found in sedimentary environments. Although sandstones are the most common rock colonized by endolith organisms, the production of calcium and magnesium carbonates is important in survival strategies of organisms and as a source for the removal of oxalate ions. Extremophile organisms in some situations may convert or destroy carbonates of calcium and magnesium, which gives important information about the conditions under which these organisms can survive. The identification on the surface of Mars of 'White Rock' formations, in Juventae Chasma or Sabaea Terra, as possibly carbonate rocks makes the study of these minerals a prerequisite of remote Martian exploration. Here, we show the protocol for the identification by Raman spectroscopy of different calcium and magnesium carbonates and we present a database of relevance in the search for life, extinct or extant, on Mars; this will be useful for the assessment of data obtained from remote, miniaturized Raman spectrometers now proposed for Mars exploration.

  18. Effect of organic matter properties, clay mineral type and thermal maturity on gas adsorption in organic-rich shale systems

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Zhang, Tongwei; Ellis, Geoffrey S.; Ruppel, Stephen C.; Milliken, Kitty; Lewan, Mike; Sun, Xun; Baez, Luis; Beeney, Ken; Sonnenberg, Steve

    2013-01-01

    is stronger than for most common clay minerals. Thus, it is expected that CH4 molecules may preferentially occupy surface sites on organic matter. However, active sites on clay mineral surfaces are easily blocked by water. As a consequence, organic-rich shales possess a larger CH4-sorption capacity than clay-rich rocks lacking organic matter. The thermodynamic parameters obtained in this study can be incorporated into model predictions of the maximum Langmuir pressure and CH4- sorption capacity of shales under reservoir temperature and pressure conditions.

  19. CO2 sequestration in feldspar-rich sandstone: Coupled evolution of fluid chemistry, mineral reaction rates, and hydrogeochemical properties

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Tutolo, Benjamin M.; Luhmann, Andrew J.; Kong, Xiang-Zhao; Saar, Martin O.; Seyfried, William E.

    2015-07-01

    To investigate CO2 Capture, Utilization, and Storage (CCUS) in sandstones, we performed three 150 °C flow-through experiments on K-feldspar-rich cores from the Eau Claire formation. By characterizing fluid and solid samples from these experiments using a suite of analytical techniques, we explored the coupled evolution of fluid chemistry, mineral reaction rates, and hydrogeochemical properties during CO2 sequestration in feldspar-rich sandstone. Overall, our results confirm predictions that the heightened acidity resulting from supercritical CO2 injection into feldspar-rich sandstone will dissolve primary feldspars and precipitate secondary aluminum minerals. A core through which CO2-rich deionized water was recycled for 52 days decreased in bulk permeability, exhibited generally low porosity associated with high surface area in post-experiment core sub-samples, and produced an Al hydroxide secondary mineral, such as boehmite. However, two samples subjected to ∼3 day single-pass experiments run with CO2-rich, 0.94 mol/kg NaCl brines decreased in bulk permeability, showed generally elevated porosity associated with elevated surface area in post-experiment core sub-samples, and produced a phase with kaolinite-like stoichiometry. CO2-induced metal mobilization during the experiments was relatively minor and likely related to Ca mineral dissolution. Based on the relatively rapid approach to equilibrium, the relatively slow near-equilibrium reaction rates, and the minor magnitudes of permeability changes in these experiments, we conclude that CCUS systems with projected lifetimes of several decades are geochemically feasible in the feldspar-rich sandstone end-member examined here. Additionally, the observation that K-feldspar dissolution rates calculated from our whole-rock experiments are in good agreement with literature parameterizations suggests that the latter can be utilized to model CCUS in K-feldspar-rich sandstone. Finally, by performing a number of reactive

  20. Quality assessment of Romanian bottled mineral water and tap water.

    PubMed

    M Carstea, Elfrida; Levei, Erika A; Hoaghia, Maria-Alexandra; Savastru, Roxana

    2016-09-01

    This study reports the evaluation of bottled mineral water characteristics using fluorescence spectroscopy (synchronous fluorescence scans and emission spectra) and physico-chemical analyses. Samples from 14 still mineral water brands were compared to 11 tap waters collected from two Romanian cities. Correlation and factor analyses were undertaken to understand the relationships between the individual components. The concentration of major and minor ions showed great variation between the bottled mineral water samples highlighting the diversity of the water intakes, while in the case of tap water the chemical composition was relatively similar for samples collected in the same city. Fluorescence data showed that the mineral water contained low quantities of organic matter. The humic fraction was dominant in all samples, while the microbial fraction was low in most samples. Synchronous fluorescence scans provided more information, regarding the composition of organic matter, compared to emission spectra. The study evidenced the correlation between fluorescence parameters and major elements and highlighted the potential of using fluorescence for qualitative evaluation of the bottled mineral water quality, as a screening method before undertaking complex analyses. PMID:27526046

  1. Natural mineral waters, curative-medical waters and their protection

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Fricke, M.

    1993-10-01

    In Europe different types of water are marketed, each strictly defined by EC Directive 80/777 (Natural Mineral Water, Spring and Table Water) or 80/778 (Drinking Water). In Germany, an additional type of water is common in the market: curative/medical water. Product quality and safety, registration as medicine, and pharmaceutical control are defined by the German Federal Medicine Act. A medical water is treated as any other medicine and may be sold only in pharmacies. The use of any water in Germany is controlled and strictly regulated by the Federal Water Act (Fricke 1981). The following requirements are set by the act: (1) No water use without a permit, which is limited in time and quantity. (2) No single or juristic person may own water. (3) Water resources of public interest and their recharge areas are to be protected by the definition of water protection zones. (Natural mineral water is not of public interest and therefore is not required to be protected by the definition of water protection zones, although it represents a market value of more than US2 billion. Medical water is of public interest). The definition of water protection zones impacts private property rights and has to be handled carefully. In order to protect water resources, sometimes the economic basis of a traditional industrial and/or agricultural infrastructure is destroyed. The concerns and needs all citizens, including industry, must be considered in analyzing the adequacy of water protection zones.

  2. Silica-rich deposits and hydrated minerals at Gusev Crater, Mars: Vis-NIR spectral characterization and regional mapping

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Rice, M.S.; Bell, J.F.; Cloutis, E.A.; Wang, A.; Ruff, S.W.; Craig, M.A.; Bailey, D.T.; Johnson, J. R.; De Souza, P.A.; Farrand, W. H.

    2010-01-01

    The Mars Exploration Rover (MER) Spirit has discovered surprisingly high concentrations of amorphous silica in soil and nodular outcrops in the Inner Basin of the Columbia Hills. In Pancam multispectral observations, we find that an absorption feature at the longest Pancam wavelength (1009 nm) appears to be characteristic of these silica-rich materials; however, spectral analyses of amorphous silica suggest that the ???1009 nm spectral feature is not a direct reflection of their silica-rich nature. Based on comparisons with spectral databases, we hypothesize that the presence of H2O or OH, either free (as water ice), adsorbed or bound in a mineral structure, is responsible for the spectral feature observed by Pancam. The Gertrude Weise soil, which is nearly pure opaline silica, may have adsorbed water cold-trapped on mineral grains. The origin of the ???1009 nm Pancam feature observed in the silica-rich nodular outcrops may result from the presence of additional hydrated minerals (specific sulfates, halides, chlorides, sodium silicates, carbonates or borates). Using the ???1009 nm feature with other spectral parameters as a "hydration signature" we have mapped the occurrence of hydrated materials along the extent of Spirit's traverse across the Columbia Hills from West Spur to Home Plate (sols 155-1696). We have also mapped this hydration signature across large panoramic images to understand the regional distribution of materials that are spectrally similar to the silica-rich soil and nodular outcrops. Our results suggest that hydrated materials are common in the Columbia Hills. ?? 2009 Elsevier Inc.

  3. Silica-rich deposits and hydrated minerals at Gusev Crater, Mars: Vis-NIR spectral characterization and regional mapping

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Rice, M. S.; Bell, J. F.; Cloutis, E. A.; Wang, A.; Ruff, S. W.; Craig, M. A.; Bailey, D. T.; Johnson, J. R.; de Souza, P. A.; Farrand, W. H.

    2010-02-01

    The Mars Exploration Rover (MER) Spirit has discovered surprisingly high concentrations of amorphous silica in soil and nodular outcrops in the Inner Basin of the Columbia Hills. In Pancam multispectral observations, we find that an absorption feature at the longest Pancam wavelength (1009 nm) appears to be characteristic of these silica-rich materials; however, spectral analyses of amorphous silica suggest that the ˜1009 nm spectral feature is not a direct reflection of their silica-rich nature. Based on comparisons with spectral databases, we hypothesize that the presence of H 2O or OH, either free (as water ice), adsorbed or bound in a mineral structure, is responsible for the spectral feature observed by Pancam. The Gertrude Weise soil, which is nearly pure opaline silica, may have adsorbed water cold-trapped on mineral grains. The origin of the ˜1009 nm Pancam feature observed in the silica-rich nodular outcrops may result from the presence of additional hydrated minerals (specific sulfates, halides, chlorides, sodium silicates, carbonates or borates). Using the ˜1009 nm feature with other spectral parameters as a "hydration signature" we have mapped the occurrence of hydrated materials along the extent of Spirit's traverse across the Columbia Hills from West Spur to Home Plate (sols 155-1696). We have also mapped this hydration signature across large panoramic images to understand the regional distribution of materials that are spectrally similar to the silica-rich soil and nodular outcrops. Our results suggest that hydrated materials are common in the Columbia Hills.

  4. Microbiological safety of natural mineral water.

    PubMed

    Leclerc, Henri; Moreau, Annick

    2002-06-01

    Natural mineral water originates from groundwater, an oligotrophic ecosystem where the level of organic matter is low and of a very limited bioavailability. The bacterial populations that evolve in these ecosystems are heterotrophic and in starvation-survival state resulting from an insufficient amount of nutrients; for this reason they enter a viable but non-culturable state. After bottling, the number of viable counts increases rapidly, attaining 10(4)-10(5) colony-forming units ml(-1) within 3-7 days. These bacterial communities, identified by culture or with specific probes, are primarily aerobic, saprophytic, Gram-negative rods. Groundwater sources for natural mineral waters are selected such that they are not vulnerable to fecal contamination. Ecological data, especially the diversity and physiological properties of bacterial communities, are essential together with epidemiological studies in order to perform a risk analysis for natural mineral waters. On a continuing basis, the management of microbial risks has to rely on assessment of the heterotrophic plate count and, more specially, on detection of marker organisms, i.e. the classic fecal contamination indicators that have to be absent, and vulnerability indicators for which the occurrence should be as low as possible. It is also recommended to search regularly, but not routinely, for viral and protozoan pathogens.

  5. Water concentrations in mantle peridotite minerals

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Warren, J. M.; Hauri, E. H.

    2010-12-01

    The concentration and distribution of volatiles in the mantle is important for constraining many key properties, including melting systematics at ridges and subduction zones. We present measurements of water concentrations in nominally anhydrous minerals from abyssal, orogenic and xenolith peridotites. Analyses of fresh and altered samples from a variety of locations are used to assess the extent to which mineral water concentrations reflect primary mantle compositions, versus diffusive loss and/or hydration due to secondary processes. Water concentrations were measured in olivine (Ol), orthopyroxene (Opx) and clinopyroxene (Cpx) by ion microprobe, using mineral specific standards and monitoring background concentrations by analysis of synthetic forsterite. Analytical reproducibility, based on 11 repeat analyses of an Ol grain, is 10%, while background H2O levels varied from 7-19 ppm. Samples include xenoliths from Pali Aike, Samoa and Spitsbergen, along with unusually fresh oceanic peridotites from the Gakkel Ridge and the Tonga Trench. In addition, samples were analyzed from the Southwest Indian Ridge (SWIR) and the Josephine Peridotite, both of which have moderate degrees of alteration. In olivine, water concentrations are <11 ppm, with the exception of Pali Aike xenoliths, which have water concentrations of 16-33 ppm. On average, peridotite Opx have 187 ppm and Cpx have 474 ppm. Pyroxenite veins from the Southwest Indian Ridge have systematically lower concentrations, with an average of 12 ppm in Opx and 55 ppm in Cpx. Water partition coefficients for Opx/Ol have an average value of 28 and Cpx/Ol of 57, significantly higher than previous estimates (e.g., Hirth and Kohlstedt, 1996). Excluding the pyroxenites, the average Cpx/Opx partition coefficient is 2, in agreement with published estimates. This suggests that Cpx and Opx preserve mantle water concentrations, whereas Ol has undergone hydrogen loss. Mineral rims have water concentrations that are within error

  6. How rich is Australia's minerals endowment and is it adequate to sustain a major role in meeting international demand?

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Lambert, I. B.

    2012-04-01

    Dr Ian Lambert, Geoscience Australia and Secretary General 34th International Geological Congress Australia has comparative advantages in production of mineral commodities compared to most other countries. These stem from its rich and diverse mineral endowment; availability of regional scale (pre-competitive) geoscience information to lower the risks of exploration; advances in exploration, mining and processing technologies; skilled work force; generally benign physical conditions; and low population density. Building on these strengths, Australia is a major producer and exporter of a wide range of mineral and energy commodities to global markets. Given that demand for most major commodities is likely to continue, and that there will be growing markets for some other commodities, Australia needs to have a strategic view of what is likely to be available for mining. Further, Australia (and the world) needs to be attuned to issues that need to be faced in meeting international demand for commodities in the long term. This presentation outlines how Australia's national minerals inventory is compiled. It discusses trends for Australia's identified mineral resources for major commodities, and how these compare with other major mining nations. It then considers some significant issues in relation to sustaining a strong mining sector - in the medium to long term this requires a strategic approach to achieve goals such as more effective/lower risk exploration particularly in greenfields regions; well-Informed decisions on mining proposals; ongoing significant improvements in efficiencies of energy, water and land use.

  7. Mineral chemistry and origin of spinel-rich inclusions in the Allende CV3 chondrite

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Kornacki, A. S.; Wood, J. A.

    1985-01-01

    The present electron probe microanalysis of 20 spinel-rich inclusions in Allende indicates that the mineralogy of spinel-rich Allende inclusions is similar to that of fine grained Ca, Al-rich inclusions (CAIs) in ALH-77003 and rims on coarse grained CAIs in Allende. The mineralogy, mineral chemistry, and bulk chemistry of the inclusions indicate that they are not primitive aggregates of crystalline nebular condensates, but rather aggregates of minute concentric objects that are presently interpreted to be a fractionated distillation residue that lost Ca, Si-rich partial melt. It is suggested that interstellar dust aggregates were melted or distilled into Allende inclusions by aerodynamic drag heating, in regions of the nebula where the dust/gas ratio was so enhanced that the local oxygen fugacity was raised by several order of magnitude and liquids became thermodynamically stable.

  8. Mineral water or tap water? An endless debate.

    PubMed

    De Giglio, O; Quaranta, A; Lovero, G; Caggiano, G; Montagna, M T

    2015-01-01

    The consumption of mineral water has been increasing because of the frequent and unjustified reports of the water supply contamination. However some authors have shown that bottled waters are not always better than tap water. Mineral waters are more palatable for organoleptic characteristic because, being pure at source, they do not undergo disinfection treatments and are sometimes enriched with CO2. In fact, they are characterized by their microbial facies subject to changes during the production cycle which can contribute to their contamination. It is necessary to provide people with the tools necessary to operate a critical choice of the type of water to be consumed not exclusively for their organoleptic characteristics or marketing strategies.

  9. [The determination of molecular sulphur in Matsesta mineral water and its analog Novonukutskaya mineral water].

    PubMed

    Khutorianskiĭ, V A; Smirnov, A I; Matveev, D A

    2014-01-01

    The method of microcolumn reversed phase high performance liquid chromatography (rp-HPLC) was employed to determine the content of elemental sulphur in mineral waters. The study envisaged the analysis of the samples of sulphide-containing mineral waters Novonukutskaya and Matsesta obtained by the solid phase extraction technique. Based on these data, the authors discuss the origin and the circulation of sulphur in the hydrogen sulphide sources. The elution conditions selected in this study ensured the high-resolution separation of the octasulphur peak from the peaks of allotropic components of the extract whereas the two-wave detection technique allowed to identify the peaks of molecular sulphur.

  10. Treatment of experimental furcation perforations with mineral trioxide aggregate, platelet rich plasma or platelet rich fibrin in dogs' teeth.

    PubMed

    Tawfik, Hosam E; Abu-Seida, Ashraf M; Hashem, Ahmed A; El-Khawlani, Mohammed M

    2016-06-01

    This work evaluates the effect of mineral trioxide aggregate (MTA), platelet rich plasma (PRP) or platelet rich fibrin (PRF) on healing of non-contaminated and contaminated furcation perforations. A total of 192 teeth of 12 dogs was divided into three equal groups according to evaluation period. Each group was further subdivided into MTA, PRP, PRF, negative and positive control subgroups. Each experimental subgroup was further subdivided according to perforation status into non-contaminated and contaminated subdivisions. Root canal therapy was carried out and furcation perforation was made in all teeth except in negative control subgroup. The furcation perforation was repaired immediately in subdivision (1) and after 4 weeks in subdivision (2). The change in vertical bone loss was measured by radiography. Inflammatory cell count, cemental deposition, new bone formation, bone resorption and epithelial proliferation were assessed. Both PRP and PRF demonstrated statistically significant reduction in vertical bone loss and inflammatory cell count than MTA. No significant difference was found between MTA, PRP and PRF in cemental deposition, new bone formation, bone resorption and epithelial proliferation. The non-contaminated teeth demonstrated better treatment outcomes than the contaminated teeth. In conclusion, PRP and PRF are successful treatment options for repairing of furcation perforation in both non-contaminated and contaminated teeth in dogs with superior outcomes in non contaminated teeth. PMID:27033179

  11. Treatment of experimental furcation perforations with mineral trioxide aggregate, platelet rich plasma or platelet rich fibrin in dogs' teeth.

    PubMed

    Tawfik, Hosam E; Abu-Seida, Ashraf M; Hashem, Ahmed A; El-Khawlani, Mohammed M

    2016-06-01

    This work evaluates the effect of mineral trioxide aggregate (MTA), platelet rich plasma (PRP) or platelet rich fibrin (PRF) on healing of non-contaminated and contaminated furcation perforations. A total of 192 teeth of 12 dogs was divided into three equal groups according to evaluation period. Each group was further subdivided into MTA, PRP, PRF, negative and positive control subgroups. Each experimental subgroup was further subdivided according to perforation status into non-contaminated and contaminated subdivisions. Root canal therapy was carried out and furcation perforation was made in all teeth except in negative control subgroup. The furcation perforation was repaired immediately in subdivision (1) and after 4 weeks in subdivision (2). The change in vertical bone loss was measured by radiography. Inflammatory cell count, cemental deposition, new bone formation, bone resorption and epithelial proliferation were assessed. Both PRP and PRF demonstrated statistically significant reduction in vertical bone loss and inflammatory cell count than MTA. No significant difference was found between MTA, PRP and PRF in cemental deposition, new bone formation, bone resorption and epithelial proliferation. The non-contaminated teeth demonstrated better treatment outcomes than the contaminated teeth. In conclusion, PRP and PRF are successful treatment options for repairing of furcation perforation in both non-contaminated and contaminated teeth in dogs with superior outcomes in non contaminated teeth.

  12. 43 CFR 3594.5 - Minerals soluble in water; brines; minerals taken in solution.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-10-01

    ... 43 Public Lands: Interior 2 2013-10-01 2013-10-01 false Minerals soluble in water; brines; minerals taken in solution. 3594.5 Section 3594.5 Public Lands: Interior Regulations Relating to Public Lands (Continued) BUREAU OF LAND MANAGEMENT, DEPARTMENT OF THE INTERIOR MINERALS MANAGEMENT (3000)...

  13. 43 CFR 3594.5 - Minerals soluble in water; brines; minerals taken in solution.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-10-01

    ... 43 Public Lands: Interior 2 2012-10-01 2012-10-01 false Minerals soluble in water; brines; minerals taken in solution. 3594.5 Section 3594.5 Public Lands: Interior Regulations Relating to Public Lands (Continued) BUREAU OF LAND MANAGEMENT, DEPARTMENT OF THE INTERIOR MINERALS MANAGEMENT (3000)...

  14. 43 CFR 3594.5 - Minerals soluble in water; brines; minerals taken in solution.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-10-01

    ... 43 Public Lands: Interior 2 2014-10-01 2014-10-01 false Minerals soluble in water; brines; minerals taken in solution. 3594.5 Section 3594.5 Public Lands: Interior Regulations Relating to Public Lands (Continued) BUREAU OF LAND MANAGEMENT, DEPARTMENT OF THE INTERIOR MINERALS MANAGEMENT (3000)...

  15. 43 CFR 3594.5 - Minerals soluble in water; brines; minerals taken in solution.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-10-01

    ... 43 Public Lands: Interior 2 2011-10-01 2011-10-01 false Minerals soluble in water; brines; minerals taken in solution. 3594.5 Section 3594.5 Public Lands: Interior Regulations Relating to Public Lands (Continued) BUREAU OF LAND MANAGEMENT, DEPARTMENT OF THE INTERIOR MINERALS MANAGEMENT (3000)...

  16. A Water Rich Mars Surface Mission Scenario

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Hoffman, Stephen; Andrews, Alida; Joosten, Kent; Watts, Kevin

    2017-01-01

    The surface of Mars once had abundant water flowing on its surface, but now there is a general perception that this surface is completely dry. Several lines of research have shown that there are sources of potentially large quantities of water at many locations on the surface, including regions considered as candidates for future human missions. Traditionally, system designs for these human missions are constrained to tightly recycle water and oxygen, and current resource utilization strategies involve ascent vehicle oxidizer production only. But the assumption of relatively abundant extant water may change this. Several scenarios were constructed to evaluate water requirements for human Mars expeditions to assess the impact to system design if locally produced water is available. Specifically, we have assessed water resources needed for 1) ascent vehicle oxidizer and fuel production, 2) open-loop water and oxygen life support requirements along with more robust usage scenarios, and 3) crew radiation protection augmentation. In this assessment, production techniques and the associated chemistry to transform Martian water and atmosphere into these useful commodities are identified, but production mass and power requirements are left to future analyses. The figure below illustrates the type of water need assessment performed and that will be discussed. There have been several sources of feedstock material discussed in recent literature that could be used to produce these quantities of water. This paper will focus on Mars surface features that resemble glacier-like forms on Earth. Several lines of evidence indicate that some of these features are in fact buried ice, likely remnants from an earlier ice age on Mars. This paper examines techniques and hardware systems used in the polar regions of Earth to access this buried ice and withdraw water from it. These techniques and systems will be described to illustrate options available. A technique known as a Rodriguez Well

  17. Mineral carbonation in water-unsaturated porous media

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Harrison, A. L.; Dipple, G. M.; Mayer, K. U.; Power, I. M.

    2014-12-01

    Ultramafic mine tailings have an untapped capacity to sequester CO2 directly from air or CO2-rich gas streams via carbonation of tailings minerals [1]. The CO2 sequestration capacity of these sites could be exploited simply by increasing the supply of CO2 into tailings, such as through circulation of air or flue gas from mine site power plants [1,2]. Mine tailings storage facilities typically have heterogeneously distributed pore water [1], affecting both the reactive capacity of the porous medium and the exposure of reactive phases to CO2 [3]. We examine the physical reaction processes that govern carbonation efficiency in variably saturated porous media using meter-scale column experiments containing the tailings mineral, brucite [Mg(OH)2], that were supplied with 10% CO2 gas streams. The experiments were instrumented with water content and gas phase CO2 sensors to track changes in water saturation and CO2concentration with time. The precipitation of hydrated Mg-carbonates as rinds encasing brucite particles resulted in passivation of brucite surfaces and an abrupt shut down of the reaction prior to completion. Moreover, the extent of reaction was further limited at low water saturation due to the lack of water available to form hydrated Mg-carbonates, which incorporate water into their crystal structures. Reactive transport modeling using MIN3P-DUSTY [4] revealed that the instantaneous reaction rate was not strongly affected by water saturation, but the reactive capacity was reduced significantly. Surface passivation and water-limited reaction resulted in a highly non-geometric evolution of reactive surface area. The extent of reaction was also limited at high water content because viscous fingering of the gas streams injected at the base of the columns resulted in narrow zones of highly carbonated material, but left a large proportion of brucite unreacted. The implication is that carbonation efficiency in mine tailings could be maximized by targeting an

  18. Stable isotopic composition of bottled mineral waters from Romania

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Bădăluţă, Carmen; Nagavciuc, Viorica; Perșoiu, Aurel

    2015-04-01

    Romania has a high potential of mineral waters resources, featuring one of the largest mineral resources at European and global level. In the last decade, due to increased in consumption of bottled water, numerous brands have appeared on the market, with equally numerous and variable sources of provenance. In this study we have analyzed the isotopic composition of bottled mineral waters from Romania in order to determine their source and authenticity. We have analysed 32 carbonated and 24 non-carbonated mineral waters from Romania. and the results were analysed in comparison with stable isotope data from precipitation and river waters. Generally, the isotopic values of the mineral waters follow those in precipitation; however, differences occur in former volcanic regions (due to deep circulation of meteoric waters and increased exchange with host rock and volcanic CO2), as well as in mountainous regions, where high-altitude recharge occurs.

  19. Magnesium-enhanced enzymatically mineralized platelet-rich fibrin for bone regeneration applications.

    PubMed

    Gassling, Volker; Douglas, Timothy E L; Purcz, Nicolai; Schaubroeck, David; Balcaen, Lieve; Bliznuk, Vitaliy; Declercq, Heidi A; Vanhaecke, Frank; Dubruel, Peter

    2013-10-01

    Membranes of the autologous blood-derived biomaterial platelet-rich fibrin (PRF) were mineralized enzymatically with calcium phosphate (CaP) by the incorporation of alkaline phosphatase (ALP) followed by incubation for 3 days in solutions of either 0.1 M calcium glycerophosphate (CaGP) or a combination of CaGP and magnesium glycerophosphate (CaGP:MgGP; both 0.05 M), resulting in the formation of two different PRF-mineral composites. Fourier transform infrared spectroscopy, transmission electron microscopy and selected area electron diffraction examinations showed that the CaP formed was amorphous. Inductively coupled plasma optical emission spectroscopy analysis revealed similar amounts of Ca and P in both composite types, while a smaller amount of Mg (Ca:Mg molar ratio = 10) was detected in the composites formed in the CaGP:MgGP solution, which was supported by the results of energy-dispersive x-ray spectroscopy-based elemental mapping. Scanning electron microscopy (SEM) imaging showed that the mineral deposits in PRF incubated in the CaGP:MgGP solution were markedly smaller. The mass percentage attributable to the mineral phase was similar in both composite types. MTT and WST tests with SAOS-2 cells revealed that incubation in the CaGP:MgGP solution had no negative effect on cytocompatibility and cell proliferation compared to the CaGP solution. Cells on all samples displayed a well-spread morphology as revealed by SEM imaging. In conclusion, the incorporation of Mg reduces mineral deposit dimensions and promotes cell proliferation.

  20. Insights into Collisional between Small Bodies: Comparison of Impacted Magnesium-rich Minerals

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Lederer, Susan M.; Jensen, E. A.; Strojia, C.; Smith, D. C.; Keller, L. P.; Nakamura-Messenger, K.; Berger, E. L.; Lindsay, S. S.; Wooden, D. H.; Cintala, M. J.; Zolensky, M. E.

    2013-01-01

    Impacts are sustained by comets and asteroids throughout their lives, especially early in the Solar system's history, as described by the Nice model. Identifying observable properties that may be altered due to impacts can lead to a better understanding their collisional histories. Here, we investigate spectral effects and physical shock features observed in infrared spectra and Transmission Electron Microscope (TEM) images, respectively, of magnesium-rich minerals subjected to shock through impact experiments. Samples of magnesium-rich forsterite (Mg2SiO4, olivine), orthoenstatite (Mg2SiO3, pyroxene), diopside (MgCaSi2O6, monoclinic pyroxene), and magnesite (MgCO3, carbonate) were impacted at speeds of 2.4 km/s, 2.6 km/s and 2.8 km/s. Impact experiments were conducted in the Johnson Space Center Experimental Impact Laboratory using the vertical gun. Clear signatures are observed in both the mid-IR spectra (shift in wavelengths of the spectral peaks and relative amplitude changes) of all minerals except magnesite, and in TEM images (planar dislocations) of both the forsterite and orthoenstatite samples. Further discussion on forsterite and enstatite analyses can be found in Jensen et al., this meeting.

  1. Iron-rich clay minerals on Mars - Potential sources or sinks for hydrogen and indicators of hydrogen loss over time

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Burt, D. M.

    1989-01-01

    Although direct evidence is lacking, indirect evidence suggests that iron-rich clay minerals or poorly-ordered chemical equivalents are widespread on the Martian surface. Such clays can act as sources or sinks for hydrogen ('hydrogen sponges'). Ferrous clays can lose hydrogen and ferric clays gain it by the coupled substitution Fe(3+)O(Fe(2+)OH)-1, equivalent to minus atomic H. This 'oxy-clay' substitution involves only proton and electron migration through the crystal structure, and therefore occurs nondestructively and reversibly, at relatively low temperatures. The reversible, low-temperature nature of this reaction contrasts with the irreversible nature of destructive dehydroxylation (H2O loss) suffered by clays heated to high temperatures. In theory, metastable ferric oxy-clays formed by dehydrogenation of ferrous clays over geologic time could, if exposed to water vapor, extract the hydrogen from it, releasing oxygen.

  2. Evaluation of minerals content of drinking water in Malaysia.

    PubMed

    Azlan, Azrina; Khoo, Hock Eng; Idris, Mohd Aizat; Ismail, Amin; Razman, Muhammad Rizal

    2012-01-01

    The drinking and mineral water samples obtained from different geographical locations had concentrations of the selected minerals lower than the standard limits, except for manganese, arsenic, and fluoride. The concentrations of manganese and arsenic in two mineral water samples were slightly higher than the standard international recommended limits. One mineral water sample had a fluoride concentration higher than the standard limits, whereas manganese was not detected in nine drinking and mineral water samples. Most of the selected minerals found in the tap water samples were below the international standard limits, except for iron and manganese. The concentrations of iron and manganese in the tap water samples were higher than the standard limits, which were obtained from one and three of the studied locations, respectively. The potable water obtained from various manufacturers and locations in Peninsular Malaysia is safe for consumption, as the minerals concentrations were below the standard limits prescribed by the Malaysian Food Regulations of 1985. The data obtained may also provide important information related to daily intake of these minerals from drinking water. PMID:22649292

  3. Evaluation of Minerals Content of Drinking Water in Malaysia

    PubMed Central

    Azlan, Azrina; Khoo, Hock Eng; Idris, Mohd Aizat; Ismail, Amin; Razman, Muhammad Rizal

    2012-01-01

    The drinking and mineral water samples obtained from different geographical locations had concentrations of the selected minerals lower than the standard limits, except for manganese, arsenic, and fluoride. The concentrations of manganese and arsenic in two mineral water samples were slightly higher than the standard international recommended limits. One mineral water sample had a fluoride concentration higher than the standard limits, whereas manganese was not detected in nine drinking and mineral water samples. Most of the selected minerals found in the tap water samples were below the international standard limits, except for iron and manganese. The concentrations of iron and manganese in the tap water samples were higher than the standard limits, which were obtained from one and three of the studied locations, respectively. The potable water obtained from various manufacturers and locations in Peninsular Malaysia is safe for consumption, as the minerals concentrations were below the standard limits prescribed by the Malaysian Food Regulations of 1985. The data obtained may also provide important information related to daily intake of these minerals from drinking water. PMID:22649292

  4. Microbiological monitoring of mineral water commercialized in Brazil

    PubMed Central

    Pontara, André Venturini; de Oliveira, Christianne Dezuani Dias; Barbosa, Amir Horiquini; dos Santos, Rafael Aparecido; Pires, Regina Helena; Martins, Carlos Henrique Gomes

    2011-01-01

    The quality of mineral water commercialized in Brazil regarding the microbial content was analyzed and the results were compared with the standards established by the current legislation. Results demonstrated there was no bacterial contamination, but several types of fungi were found. Therefore, bottled mineral water could be considered a possible route for the transmission of filamentous fungi and yeasts. PMID:24031667

  5. The mineral content of tap water in United States households

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    The composition of tap water contributes to dietary intake of minerals. The USDA’s Nutrient Data Laboratory (NDL) conducted a study of the mineral content of residential tap water, to generate current data for the USDA National Nutrient Database. Sodium, potassium, calcium, magnesium, iron, copper...

  6. Evaluation of minerals content of drinking water in Malaysia.

    PubMed

    Azlan, Azrina; Khoo, Hock Eng; Idris, Mohd Aizat; Ismail, Amin; Razman, Muhammad Rizal

    2012-01-01

    The drinking and mineral water samples obtained from different geographical locations had concentrations of the selected minerals lower than the standard limits, except for manganese, arsenic, and fluoride. The concentrations of manganese and arsenic in two mineral water samples were slightly higher than the standard international recommended limits. One mineral water sample had a fluoride concentration higher than the standard limits, whereas manganese was not detected in nine drinking and mineral water samples. Most of the selected minerals found in the tap water samples were below the international standard limits, except for iron and manganese. The concentrations of iron and manganese in the tap water samples were higher than the standard limits, which were obtained from one and three of the studied locations, respectively. The potable water obtained from various manufacturers and locations in Peninsular Malaysia is safe for consumption, as the minerals concentrations were below the standard limits prescribed by the Malaysian Food Regulations of 1985. The data obtained may also provide important information related to daily intake of these minerals from drinking water.

  7. Iron (II) sorption to mineral surfaces in uranyl and silicate rich media

    SciTech Connect

    Tyler A. Sullens; Cynthia-May S. Gong; Kenneth R. Czerwinski

    2006-01-01

    Abstract - The unique composition of the Yucca Mountain repository site, which contains large concentrations of silicate in an oxidative environment, has required extensive research into compound formation involving uranium and iron(II) under such conditions. The possibility of uranium leakage from within the containment vessels into the near-field ground water, as well as iron leaching from the vessel itself, necessitates study of the individual contributions of these elements for compound formation. By mimicking the known silicate concentration found in surrounding ground water and varying concentrations of both uranyl and iron(II), subsequent precipitation of uranyl silicate phases has shown evidence of iron(II) sorption to the available sites on the mineral surface. The mineralization seems to be driven by the formation of uranyl silicate, in contrast to iron(III)-control of precipitation in the oxidated system. We present characterization of this system using ICP-AES/MS, EDAX, XRD, and single-crystal X-ray diffraction.

  8. Some physicochemical aspects of water-soluble mineral flotation.

    PubMed

    Wu, Zhijian; Wang, Xuming; Liu, Haining; Zhang, Huifang; Miller, Jan D

    2016-09-01

    Some physicochemical aspects of water-soluble mineral flotation including hydration phenomena, associations and interactions between collectors, air bubbles, and water-soluble mineral particles are presented. Flotation carried out in saturated salt solutions, and a wide range of collector concentrations for effective flotation of different salts are two basic aspects of water-soluble mineral flotation. Hydration of salt ions, mineral particle surfaces, collector molecules or ions, and collector aggregates play an important role in water-soluble mineral flotation. The adsorption of collectors onto bubble surfaces is suggested to be the precondition for the association of mineral particles with bubbles. The association of collectors with water-soluble minerals is a complicated process, which may include the adsorption of collector molecules or ions onto such surfaces, and/or the attachment of collector precipitates or crystals onto the mineral surfaces. The interactions between the collectors and the minerals include electrostatic and hydrophobic interactions, hydrogen bonding, and specific interactions, with electrostatic and hydrophobic interactions being the common mechanisms. For the association of ionic collectors with minerals with an opposite charge, electrostatic and hydrophobic interactions could have a synergistic effect, with the hydrophobic interactions between the hydrophobic groups of the previously associated collectors and the hydrophobic groups of oncoming collectors being an important attractive force. Association between solid particles and air bubbles is the key to froth flotation, which is affected by hydrophobicity of the mineral particle surfaces, surface charges of mineral particles and bubbles, mineral particle size and shape, temperature, bubble size, etc. The use of a collector together with a frother and the use of mixed surfactants as collectors are suggested to improve flotation. PMID:27346329

  9. Some physicochemical aspects of water-soluble mineral flotation.

    PubMed

    Wu, Zhijian; Wang, Xuming; Liu, Haining; Zhang, Huifang; Miller, Jan D

    2016-09-01

    Some physicochemical aspects of water-soluble mineral flotation including hydration phenomena, associations and interactions between collectors, air bubbles, and water-soluble mineral particles are presented. Flotation carried out in saturated salt solutions, and a wide range of collector concentrations for effective flotation of different salts are two basic aspects of water-soluble mineral flotation. Hydration of salt ions, mineral particle surfaces, collector molecules or ions, and collector aggregates play an important role in water-soluble mineral flotation. The adsorption of collectors onto bubble surfaces is suggested to be the precondition for the association of mineral particles with bubbles. The association of collectors with water-soluble minerals is a complicated process, which may include the adsorption of collector molecules or ions onto such surfaces, and/or the attachment of collector precipitates or crystals onto the mineral surfaces. The interactions between the collectors and the minerals include electrostatic and hydrophobic interactions, hydrogen bonding, and specific interactions, with electrostatic and hydrophobic interactions being the common mechanisms. For the association of ionic collectors with minerals with an opposite charge, electrostatic and hydrophobic interactions could have a synergistic effect, with the hydrophobic interactions between the hydrophobic groups of the previously associated collectors and the hydrophobic groups of oncoming collectors being an important attractive force. Association between solid particles and air bubbles is the key to froth flotation, which is affected by hydrophobicity of the mineral particle surfaces, surface charges of mineral particles and bubbles, mineral particle size and shape, temperature, bubble size, etc. The use of a collector together with a frother and the use of mixed surfactants as collectors are suggested to improve flotation.

  10. A new evolved planetary system with water-rich debris: the tip of the iceberg?

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Raddi, Roberto

    2015-12-01

    The detection of metals in white dwarf atmospheres, with a composition resembling that of Solar system asteroids, is unmistakable evidence for recent or ongoing accretion of planetary debris. We present the spectral analysis of SDSS J1242+5226, which is one of the most heavily metal-polluted white dwarfs. We detect atmospheric traces of hydrogen and eight metals, notably including oxygen. The chemical signature exhibited by the metal abundances matches the building blocks of formed planets. The excess of oxygen with respect to other trace metals, and the large hydrogen mass that we measure, suggest the likely accretion of water-rich exo-planetary debris, making this star the second of its kind. Accumulation of hydrogen with increasing cooling age, in this and other white dwarfs, exceeds the equivalent content in water-ice and hydrated minerals within the Solar system asteroid Ceres. This evidence suggests that water-rich asteroids may be common around other stars.

  11. Minerals leached into drinking water from rubber stoppers

    SciTech Connect

    Kennedy, B.W.; Beal, T.S. )

    1991-06-01

    Drinking water and its delivery system are potential sources of variation in animal research. Concern arose that rubber stoppers used to cork water bottles might be a source of some nutritionally required minerals which could leach into drinking water. Six types of stoppers, each having different compositions, were cleaned with stainless-steel sipper tubes inserted into them and attached to polypropylene bottles filled with either deionized water (pH 4.5) or acidified-deionized water (pH 2.5). After six days of contact, water levels of copper, magnesium, iron, manganese, zinc, chromium, and selenium were determined by atomic absorption spectroscopy. Additionally, three of the stopper types were analyzed for mineral content. Minerals were present in both stoppers and drinking water. Acidified-deionized water generally leached minerals from the stoppers than did deionized water. The black stopper which is commonly used in animal facilities contained and leached measurable levels of some minerals, but it still can be recommended for typical animal husbandry uses, although other types of stoppers would be more suitable for specific nutritional and toxicologic studies.

  12. Water-related minerals in Aureum Chaos, Mars.

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Sowe, Mariam; Wendt, Lorenz; Kneissl, Thomas; McGuire, Patrick C.; Neukum, Gerhard

    2010-05-01

    Collapsed plateau material, chaotic terrain, and Interior Layered Deposits (ILDs) characterize Aureum Chaos that is located east of Valles Marineris. As elsewhere on Mars, spectrometers on Mars Express (MEX-OMEGA), Mars Reconnaissance Orbiter (MRO-CRISM) and Mars Global Surveyor (MGS-TES) detected water-related minerals (hydrated sulfates, hematite) in association with ILDs. We studied the hydrated minerals by utilizing MRO-CRISM data and co-aligned MEX-HRSC, MRO-HiRISE and MRO-CTX data since their extent indicates where water was present in the past. Hydrated sulfates (mono- and polyhydrated sulfate) crop out below a spectrally neutral cap rock, whereas monohydrated sulfate underlies polyhydrated sulfate (PHS, e.g. epsomite MgSO4 x 7H2O). PHS is detected at elevations below -3600m, monohydrated sulfate (kieserite MgSO4 x H2O) below -4100m, and phyllosilicate below -4000m. In some regions, weathered PHS (e.g. debris fans on scarps) to some extent covers monohydrated sulfate exposures. These regions have a massive, high-albedo texture which otherwise is observed in outcrops that show a monohydrated sulfate signature. Phyllosilicate is present below sulfates or occurs as windblown material but is not associated with ILDs. Ferric oxide is found in both, bedrock and loose material down slope of sulfates. Local thicknesses of hydrated sulfate were determined to 50m on average, in contrast, phyllosilicate-rich knobs are 20m thick on average. The fact that ILDs are mainly buried by mantling deposits and show an abundant cap rock, overlying most of the sulfate-rich ILDs, may explain why sulfates were not found in all CRISM observations. However, the hydrated area as shown by CRISM is ~70km². Since ILDs are heavily eroded and hardly show impact craters on their surfaces, their indicated impact-cratering ages appear very young (Late Amazonian) and hence do not correspond to their formation ages. In order to define the age of the ILDs, we measured impact-cratering ages of

  13. Evaluation of the Aggressiveness of Slovak Mineral Water Sources

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Vrablíková, Dana; Porubská, Diana; Fendeková, Miriam; Božíková, Jarmila; Kókaiová, Denisa

    2014-07-01

    The aggressive properties of natural waters arise due to their specific physical properties and chemical composition. The latest analyses of certified natural and healing mineral water sources according to Act No. 538/2005 were used for the evaluation. A total of 53 sources in 26 localities were evaluated; they comprised 25 sources of bottled natural mineral and healing waters and 28 sources of natural healing waters in 9 spas. The aggressiveness of the water against concrete was weak (17 sources), medium (17 sources), or none (19 sources). The aggressiveness was mostly caused by low pH values and/or increased SO42- content. Their corrosiveness to metal was mostly very high. The results showed that the disintegration of concrete building constructions, well casings and pipelines could occur in most of the evaluated localities in the case of mineral water contacting them. Therefore, preventive measures are necessary.

  14. Ground and Intermediate Water Equilibrium with Water-Bearing Rock Minerals (Moldova) under Anthropogenic Impact

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Timoshenkova, A. N.; Moraru, C. Ye; Pasechnik, Ye Yu; Tokarenko, O. G.; Butoshina, V. A.

    2016-03-01

    The calculation results of ground water equilibrium with the major water-bearing rock minerals (Moldova) are presented under the condition of anthropogenic impact. As a calculation model the HydroGeo software is used. It is shown that both “ground water-rock” and “intermediate water-rock” systems are in equilibrium with a number of minerals.

  15. Trace metal contamination of mineral spring water in an historical mining area in regional Victoria, Australia

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Martin, Rachael; Dowling, Kim

    2013-11-01

    Significant global consumption of spring and mineral water is fuelled by perceived therapeutic and medicinal qualities, cultural habits and taste. The Central Victorian Mineral Springs Region, Australia comprises approximately 100 naturally effervescent, cold, high CO2 content springs with distinctive tastes linked to a specific spring or pump. The area has a rich settlement history. It was first settled by miners in the 1840s closely followed by the first commercial operations of a health resort 1895. The landscape is clearly affected by gold mining with geographically proximal mine waste, mullock heaps or tailings. Repeated mineral springs sampling since 1985 has revealed elevated arsenic concentrations. In 1985 an arsenic concentration five times the current Australian Drinking Water Guideline was recorded at a popular tourist spring site. Recent sampling and analyses have confirmed elevated levels of heavy metals/metalloids, with higher concentrations occurring during periods of low rainfall. Despite the elevated levels, mineral water source points remain accessible to the public with some springs actively promoting the therapeutic benefits of the waters. In light of our analysis, the risk to consumers (some of whom are likely to be negatively health-affected or health-compromised) needs to be considered with a view to appropriate and verified analyses made available to the public.

  16. Minerals

    MedlinePlus

    Minerals are important for your body to stay healthy. Your body uses minerals for many different jobs, including building bones, making ... regulating your heartbeat. There are two kinds of minerals: macrominerals and trace minerals. Macrominerals are minerals your ...

  17. Collisional Effects on Magnesium-rich Minerals found in Comets and Asteroids

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Lederer, S.; Jensen, E.; Strojia, C.; Smith, D.; Keller, L.; Berger, E.; Lindsay, S.; Wooden, D.; Cintala, M.; Zolensky, M.

    2014-01-01

    While generally touted to be the least-altered bodies remaining from the age of the solar system's formation, comets and asteroids have undergone evolutionary processing throughout the 4.5-billion-year lifetime of the solar system. They have suffered the effects of collisions by impactors ranging in size from micrometeoroids to other comets and asteroids. As such, we must ask ourselves: can we detect these evolutionary effects remotely through telescopic observations? With this in mind, a suite of experiments were conducted, impacting magnesium-rich minerals as analogues to those that have been detected in the spectra of both asteroid surfaces and in the dust of cometary comae, including forsterite (Mg2SiO4, olivine), orthoenstatite (Mg2SiO3, pyroxene), diopside (MgCaSi2O6, monoclinic pyroxene), and magnesite (MgCO3, carbonate). These minerals were impacted at velocities ranging from 2.0 km/s to 2.8 km/s using the vertical gun in the Experimental Impact Laboratory (EIL) at NASA Johnson Space Center. These speeds mimic typical velocities of impacts occurring in the Kuiper belt [1]. Two classes of projectile were used: spherical alumina ceramic, whose density mimics that of rock, and cylinders made from the same material that they impacted (e.g., forsterite impactors for forsterite targets, etc.). The peak shock pressure varies significantly, depending on the target and impactor materials and the velocity; thus, shock effects differed in targets impacted at the same velocity but with compositionally different projectiles. The results indicate both: (a) how varying the impactor-density might change the outcome from a scientific viewpoint, as well as (b) possible contamination effects of the ceramic projectile in the resultant spectra of the target minerals from an experimental perspective. Temperature effects were also investigated by impacting samples at both 25 deg. and -25 deg. to: (a) probe whether the varying temperatures experienced by small bodies plays a role

  18. Collisional effects on magnesium-rich minerals found in comets and asteroids

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Lederer, S.; Jensen, E.; Strojia, C.; Smith, D.; Keller, L.; Berger, E.; Lindsay, S.; Wooden, D.; Cintala, M.; Zolensky, M.

    2014-07-01

    While generally touted to be the least-altered bodies remaining from the age of the solar system's formation, comets and asteroids have undergone evolutionary processing throughout the 4.5-billion-year lifetime of the solar system. They have suffered the effects of collisions by impactors ranging in size from micrometeoroids to other comets and asteroids. As such, we must ask ourselves: can we detect these evolutionary effects remotely through telescopic observations? With this in mind, a suite of experiments were conducted, impacting magnesium-rich minerals as analogues to those that have been detected in the spectra of both asteroid surfaces and in the dust of cometary comae, including forsterite (Mg_2SiO_4, olivine), orthoenstatite (Mg_2SiO_3, pyroxene), diopside (MgCaSi_2O_6, monoclinic pyroxene), and magnesite (MgCO_3, carbonate). These minerals were impacted at velocities ranging from ˜2.0 km/s to ˜2.8 km/s using the vertical gun in the Experimental Impact Laboratory (EIL) at NASA Johnson Space Center. These speeds mimic typical velocities of impacts occurring in the Kuiper belt [1]. Two classes of projectile were used: spherical alumina ceramic, whose density mimics that of rock, and cylinders made from the same material that they impacted (e.g., forsterite impactors for forsterite targets, etc.). The peak shock pressure varies significantly, depending on the target and impactor materials and the velocity; thus, shock effects differed in targets impacted at the same velocity but with compositionally different projectiles. The results indicate both (a) how varying the impactor-density might change the outcome from a scientific viewpoint, as well as (b) possible contamination effects of the ceramic projectile in the resultant spectra of the target minerals from an experimental perspective. Temperature effects were also investigated by impacting samples at both 25°C and -25°C to (a) probe whether the varying temperatures experienced by small bodies plays a

  19. Ground-water conditions in Whisky Flat, Mineral County, Nevada

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Eakin, T.E.; Robinson, T.W.

    1950-01-01

    As a part of the State-wide cooperative program between the Office of the State Engineer of Nevada and the U.S. Geological Survey, the Ground Water Branch of the Geological Survey made a reconnaissance study of ground-water conditions in Whisky Flat, Mineral County, Nevada.

  20. Comparison of the Mineral Content of Tap Water and Bottled Waters

    PubMed Central

    Azoulay, Arik; Garzon, Philippe; Eisenberg, Mark J

    2001-01-01

    OBJECTIVES Because of growing concern that constituents of drinking water may have adverse health effects, consumption of tap water in North America has decreased and consumption of bottled water has increased. Our objectives were to 1) determine whether North American tap water contains clinically important levels of calcium (Ca2+), magnesium (Mg2+), and sodium (Na+) and 2) determine whether differences in mineral content of tap water and commercially available bottled waters are clinically important. DESIGN We obtained mineral analysis reports from municipal water authorities of 21 major North American cities. Mineral content of tap water was compared with published data regarding commercially available bottled waters and with dietary reference intakes (DRIs). MEASUREMENTS AND MAIN RESULTS Mineral levels varied among tap water sources in North America and among bottled waters. European bottled waters generally contained higher mineral levels than North American tap water sources and North American bottled waters. For half of the tap water sources we examined, adults may fulfill between 8% and 16% of their Ca2+ DRI and between 6% and 31% of their Mg2+ DRI by drinking 2 liters per day. One liter of most moderate mineralization European bottled waters contained between 20% and 58% of the Ca2+ DRI and between 16% and 41% of the Mg2+ DRI in adults. High mineralization bottled waters often contained up to half of the maximum recommended daily intake of Na+. CONCLUSION Drinking water sources available to North Americans may contain high levels of Ca2+, Mg2+, and Na+ and may provide clinically important portions of the recommended dietary intake of these minerals. Physicians should encourage patients to check the mineral content of their drinking water, whether tap or bottled, and choose water most appropriate for their needs. PMID:11318912

  1. Enrichment of enzymatically mineralized gellan gum hydrogels with phlorotannin-rich Ecklonia cava extract Seanol(®) to endow antibacterial properties and promote mineralization.

    PubMed

    Douglas, Timothy E L; Dokupil, Agnieszka; Reczyńska, Katarzyna; Brackman, Gilles; Krok-Borkowicz, Malgorzata; Keppler, Julia K; Božič, Mojca; Van Der Voort, Pascal; Pietryga, Krzysztof; Samal, Sangram Keshari; Balcaen, Lieve; van den Bulcke, Jan; Van Acker, Joris; Vanhaecke, Frank; Schwarz, Karin; Coenye, Tom; Pamuła, Elżbieta

    2016-01-01

    Hydrogels offer several advantages as biomaterials for bone regeneration, including ease of incorporation of soluble substances such as mineralization-promoting enzymes and antibacterial agents. Mineralization with calcium phosphate (CaP) increases bioactivity, while antibacterial activity reduces the risk of infection. Here, gellan gum (GG) hydrogels were enriched with alkaline phosphatase (ALP) and/or Seanol(®), a seaweed extract rich in phlorotannins (brown algae-derived polyphenols), to induce mineralization with CaP and increase antibacterial activity, respectively. The sample groups were unmineralized hydrogels, denoted as GG, GG/ALP, GG/Seanol and GG/Seanol/ALP, and hydrogels incubated in mineralization medium (0.1 M calcium glycerophosphate), denoted as GG/ALP_min, GG/Seanol_min and GG/Seanol/ALP_min. Seanol(®) enhanced mineralization with CaP and also increased compressive modulus. Seanol(®) and ALP interacted in a non-covalent manner. Release of Seanol(®) occurred in a burst phase and was impeded by ALP-mediated mineralization. Groups GG/Seanol and GG/ALP/Seanol exhibited antibacterial activity against methicillin-resistant Staphylococcus aureus. GG/Seanol/ALP_min, but not GG/Seanol_min, retained some antibacterial activity. Eluates taken from groups GG/ALP_min, GG/Seanol_min and GG/ALP/Seanol_min displayed comparable cytotoxicity towards MG-63 osteoblast-like cells. These results suggest that enrichment of hydrogel biomaterials with phlorotannin-rich extracts is a promising strategy to increase mineralizability and antibacterial activity. PMID:27509486

  2. Evidence for influence of mineral weathering on stream water sulphate in Vermont and New Hampshire (USA)

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Bailey, S. W.; Mayer, B.; Mitchell, M. J.

    2004-06-01

    Mass balance studies in forested catchments in the northeastern USA show that S losses via streamwater SO42- exceed measured atmospheric S inputs. Possible sources of the excess S loss include underestimated dry deposition, mineralization of organic S in soils, desorption of soil sulphate, oxidation of recently formed sulphides and mineral weathering. Evaluating the relative contribution of these sources and processes to SO42- export is important to our understanding of S cycling as well as to policy makers in their evaluation of the efficacy of S emission controls. In order to evaluate the potential for mineral weathering contributions to SO42- export, we measured concentration and isotopic composition (34S and δ18O) of SO42- in stream water, and concentration and δ34S values of four S fractions in bedrock and soil parent material in catchments of varying geological composition. Geological substrates with low S concentrations were represented by catchments underlain by quartzite and granite, whereas geological substrates with high S concentrations were represented by catchments underlain by sulphidic slate, schist and metavolcanic rocks. Catchments with S-poor bedrock had stream-water SO42- concentrations <100 μeq L-1 and isotopic values consistent with those of atmospheric SO42- that had been cycled through the organic soil pool. Catchments with S-rich bedrock had stream-water SO42- concentrations ranging from 56 to 229 μeq L-1. Isotopic values deviated from those of SO42- in atmospheric deposition, clearly indicating a mineral weathering source in some cases, whereas in others spatial variability of mineral δ34S values precluded the isotopic detection of a weathering contribution. These results, along with evidence suggesting formation of secondary sulphate minerals in bedrock weathering rinds, indicate that mineral weathering may be an important source of S in the surface waters of some forested catchments in the northeastern USA.

  3. Simulated geochemical weathering of a mineral ash-rich biochar in a modified Soxhlet reactor.

    PubMed

    Yao, F X; Arbestain, M Camps; Virgel, S; Blanco, F; Arostegui, J; Maciá-Agulló, J A; Macías, F

    2010-08-01

    Although there are many studies on the characterization of C in biochar and its C sequestration potential, there is little knowledge on the mineral fraction in biochar and its weathering. The latter, however, can have powerful implications on nutrient availability. In the present study, a modified Soxhlet reactor was used to simulate the long-term geochemical weathering of an ash-rich biochar produced from sewage sludge of a non-industrial area in New Zealand. The weathering process took place during a period of 300 h, with and without the addition of humic acid (1.00 g added to 20.00 g of biochar), and the treatments were referred to as treatment BC-HA and BC-B, respectively. Both the leaching kinetics and the transformations within the solid phase were studied. The results revealed that substantial amounts of K (8.5-10.2%) and S (20.2-28.3%) were recovered in the weathering solutions. Noticeable Ca (17.9-20.7%) and P (15.4%) in the solid were released but only a few were recovered in the weathering solutions because of the precipitation. The presence of humic acids increased this dissolution and thus the availability of K, S, Ca, Mg and P, but induced N immobilization. Nitrogen availability was already very low (<1.0% of the total N) due to the probable recalcitrant heterocyclic N structure. The pH of the biochar samples dropped from 8.4 to 7.5; this was mainly attributed to loss of base cations through leaching and probable carbonation of the system. The XPS spectra evidenced the oxidation of C in biochar during the weathering process with the formation of carbonyl and carboxylic functional groups. The results obtained in this study showed some promise for the positive use of modified Soxhlet extractor in simulating the geochemical weathering in ash-rich biochars and providing a better understanding on the kinetics of nutrient release. This will be key information in assessing the added value of biochars as soil amendments.

  4. Sorption and Transport of Pharmaceutical chemicals in Organic- and Mineral-rich Soils

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Vulava, V. M.; Schwindaman, J.; Murphey, V.; Kuzma, S.; Cory, W.

    2011-12-01

    Pharmaceutical, active ingredients in personal care products (PhACs), and their derivative compounds are increasingly ubiquitous in surface waters across the world. Sorption and transport of four relatively common PhACs (naproxen, ibuprofen, cetirizine, and triclosan) in different natural soils was measured. All of these compounds are relatively hydrophobic (log KOW>2) and have acid/base functional groups, including one compound that is zwitterionic (cetirizine.) The main goal of this study was to correlate organic matter (OM) and clay content in natural soils and sediment with sorption and degradation of PhACs and ultimately their potential for transport within the subsurface environment. A- and B-horizon soils were collected from four sub-regions within a pristine managed forested watershed near Charleston, SC, with no apparent sources of anthropogenic contamination. These four soil series had varying OM content (fOC) between 0.4-9%, clay mineral content between 6-20%, and soil pH between 4.5-6. The A-horizon soils had higher fOC and lower clay content than the B-horizon soils. Sorption isotherms measured from batch sorption experimental data indicated a non-linear sorption relationship in all A- and B-horizon soils - stronger sorption was observed at lower PhAC concentrations and lower sorption at higher concentrations. Three PhACs (naproxen, ibuprofen, and triclosan) sorbed more strongly with higher fOC A-horizon soils compared with the B-horizon soils. These results show that soil OM had a significant role in strongly binding these three PhACs, which had the highest KOW values. In contrast, cetirizine, which is predominantly positively charged at pH below 8, strongly sorbed to soils with higher clay mineral content and least strongly to higher fOC soils. All sorption isotherms fitted well to the Freundlich model. For naproxen, ibuprofen, and triclosan, there was a strong and positive linear correlation between the Freundlich adsorption constant, Kf, and f

  5. Formation of water-soluble metal cyanide complexes from solid minerals by Pseudomonas plecoglossicida.

    PubMed

    Faramarzi, Mohammad A; Brandl, Helmut

    2006-06-01

    A few Pseudomonas species are able to form hydrocyanic acid (HCN), particularly when grown under glycine-rich conditions. In the presence of metals, cyanide can form water-soluble metal complexes of high chemical stability. We studied the possibility to mobilize metals as cyanide complexes from solid minerals using HCN-forming microorganisms. Pseudomonas plecoglossicida was cultivated in the presence of copper- and nickel-containing solid minerals. On powdered elemental nickel, fast HCN generation within the first 12 h of incubation was observed and water-soluble tetracyanaonickelate was formed. Cuprite, tenorite, chrysocolla, malachite, bornite, turquoise, millerite, pentlandite as well as shredded electronic scrap was also subjected to a biological treatment. Maximum concentrations of cyanide-complexed copper corresponded to a solubilization of 42% and 27% when P. plecoglossicida was grown in the presence of cuprite or tenorite, respectively. Crystal system, metal oxidation state and mineral hydrophobicity might have a significant influence on metal mobilization. However, it was not possible to allocate metal mobilization to a single mineral property. Cyanide-complexed gold was detected during growth on manually cut circuit boards. Maximum dicyanoaurate concentration corresponded to a 68.5% dissolution of the total gold added. These findings represent a novel type of microbial mobilization of nickel and copper from solid minerals based on the ability of certain microbes to form HCN.

  6. Formation of water-soluble metal cyanide complexes from solid minerals by Pseudomonas plecoglossicida.

    PubMed

    Faramarzi, Mohammad A; Brandl, Helmut

    2006-06-01

    A few Pseudomonas species are able to form hydrocyanic acid (HCN), particularly when grown under glycine-rich conditions. In the presence of metals, cyanide can form water-soluble metal complexes of high chemical stability. We studied the possibility to mobilize metals as cyanide complexes from solid minerals using HCN-forming microorganisms. Pseudomonas plecoglossicida was cultivated in the presence of copper- and nickel-containing solid minerals. On powdered elemental nickel, fast HCN generation within the first 12 h of incubation was observed and water-soluble tetracyanaonickelate was formed. Cuprite, tenorite, chrysocolla, malachite, bornite, turquoise, millerite, pentlandite as well as shredded electronic scrap was also subjected to a biological treatment. Maximum concentrations of cyanide-complexed copper corresponded to a solubilization of 42% and 27% when P. plecoglossicida was grown in the presence of cuprite or tenorite, respectively. Crystal system, metal oxidation state and mineral hydrophobicity might have a significant influence on metal mobilization. However, it was not possible to allocate metal mobilization to a single mineral property. Cyanide-complexed gold was detected during growth on manually cut circuit boards. Maximum dicyanoaurate concentration corresponded to a 68.5% dissolution of the total gold added. These findings represent a novel type of microbial mobilization of nickel and copper from solid minerals based on the ability of certain microbes to form HCN. PMID:16684101

  7. The thermodynamic case for a water-rich Mars

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Clifford, Stephen M.

    1993-01-01

    The geologic evidence for a water-rich Mars has been reviewed, and it has been concluded that it is consistent with an outgassed inventory of H2O equivalent to global ocean 0.5-1 km deep. The most persuasive support for this conclusion comes from the martian outflow channels, whose distribution, size, and range of ages, suggests that a significant body of ground water was present on Mars throughout much of its geologic history. In this abstract, the thermodynamic implications of the outflow channels are considered. The results of this analysis suggest that if the outflow channels were carved by the discharge of ground water in diffusive and thermodynamic equilibrium with the overlying frozen crust, it implies a minimum planetary inventory of water in excess of 300 m. However, if the global inventory of ground water on Mars at the time of outflow channel formation was as high as the 500 m estimate of other researchers, then the total inventory of water on Mars could well exceed 750 m.

  8. Thin Water and Ice Films at Mineral Surfaces

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Yeşilbaş, Merve; Boily, Jean-François

    2016-04-01

    Mineral-water and ice interactions play important roles in atmospheric cloud formation. They also affect soil biogeochemistry as well as outer-space processes. In this study, thin water and ice films formed on minerals of varied bulk and surface structure, shape, size and surface roughness were probed by Fourier Transform Infrared Spectroscopy (FTIR) and by Dynamic Vapor Adsorption (DVA). Measurements on several types of iron (oxyhydr)oxides, phyllosilicates, orthosilicates, tectosilicates as well as Arizona Test Dust (ATD) and Icelandic volcanic ash constrained our understanding of the molecular-level nature of mineral surface-water and ice interactions. DVA experiments showed that particle size is the key feature controlling water loadings at 25 ° C. Under this condition, nano-sized particles stabilized the equivalence of no more than ˜6 monolayers of water at the near saturation of water vapor while sub-micron sized particles stabilized several thousand layers. This result can be explained by the greater ability of larger sized particles at driving water condensation reactions. Cryogenic FTIR measurements at -10 and -50 ° C revealed that most minerals acquired the thin ice films with similar hydrogen bonding environments as those formed at room temperature.[1,2] These thin ice films have weaker hydrogen bond environments than hexagonal ice (νOH ≈ 3130 cm-1), a result seen by FTIR through predominant O-H stretching modes at νOH ≈ 3408-3425 cm-1. The water bending region (˜1630 cm-1) also reveals that most thin ice films are rather supercooled forms of water. Only the materials with greatest levels of heterogeneity, namely ATD and volcanic ash, stabilized solid forms of water reminiscent to hexagonal ice. This work thus constrains further our understanding of how interfacial ice is stabilized at mineral surfaces, and opens possibilities for future studies focused on atmospheric gas uptake on mineral- water and ice admixtures. [1] Song, X. and Boily, J

  9. Water in Nominally Anhydrous Minerals from Nakhlites and Shergottites

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Peslier, Anne H.

    2013-01-01

    Estimating the amount of water in the interior of terrestrial planets has tremendous implications on our understanding of solar nebula evolution, planet formation and geological history, and extraterrestrial volcanism. Mars has been a recent focus of such enquiry with complementary datasets from spacecrafts, rovers and martian meteorite studies. In planetary interiors, water can be dissolved in fluids or melts and hydrous phases, but can also be locked as protons attached to structural oxygen in lattice defects in nominally anhydrous minerals (NAM) such as olivine, pyroxene, or feldspar [1-3]. Measuring water in Martian meteorite NAM is challenging because the minerals are fragile and riddled with fractures from impact processes that makes them break apart during sample processing. Moreover, curing the sample in epoxy causes problems for the two main water analysis techniques, Fourier transform infrared spectrometry (FTIR) and secondary ionization mass spectrometry (SIMS). Measurements to date have resulted in a heated debate on how much water the mantle of Mars contains. SIMS studies of NAM [4], amphiboles [5], and apatites [6-8] from Martian meteorites report finding enough water in these phases to infer that the martian mantle is as hydrous as that of the Earth. On the other hand, a SIMS study of glass in olivine melt inclusions from shergottites concludes that the Martian mantle is much drier [9]. The latter interpretation is also supported by the fact that most martian hydrous minerals generally have the relevant sites filled with Cl and F instead of H [10,11]. As for experimental results, martian basalt compositions can be reproduced using water as well as Cl in the parent melts [12,13]. Here FTIR is used to measure water in martian meteorite minerals in order to constrain the origin of the distribution of water in martian meteorite phases.

  10. Contribution of Nutrient Pollution to Water Scarcity in the Water-Rich Northeastern United States

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Hale, R. L.; Lopez, C.; Vorosmarty, C. J.

    2015-12-01

    Most studies of water stress focus on water-scarce regions such as drylands. Yet, even water-rich regions can be water stressed due to local water withdrawals that exceed supply or due to water pollution that makes water unusable. The northeastern United States (NE) is a water-rich region relative to the rest of the country, as it concentrates about 50% of total renewable water of the country. Yes the NE features relatively high water withdrawals, ~50 km3/yr, for thermo-power generation, agriculture, and industry, as well as to support a human population of about 70 million. At the same time, rivers and streams in the NE suffer from nutrient pollution, largely from agricultural and urban land uses. We asked: to what extent is the NE water stressed, and how do water withdrawals and water quality each contribute to water scarcity across the NE? We used information on county-level water withdrawals and runoff to calculate a water scarcity index (WSI) for 200 hydrologic units across the NE from 1987 to 2002. We used data on surface water concentrations of nitrogen to calculate the additional water necessary to dilute surface water pollution to weak, moderate, and strong water quality standards derived from the literature. Only considering withdrawals, we found that approximately 10% of the NE was water stressed. Incorporating a moderate water quality standard, 25% of the NE was water stressed. We calculated a dilution burden by sectors of water users and found that public utilities faced 41% of the total dilution burden for the region, followed by irrigation users at 21%. Our results illustrate that even water rich regions can experience water stress and even scarcity, where withdrawals exceed surface water supplies. Water quality contributes to water stress and can change the spatial patterns of water stress across a region. The common approach to address scarcity has required the use of inter-basin water transfers, or in the case of water quality-caused scarcity

  11. Delineation of Magnesium-rich Ultramafic Rocks Available for Mineral Carbon Sequestration in the United States

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Krevor, S.C.; Graves, C.R.; Van Gosen, B. S.; McCafferty, A.E.

    2009-01-01

    The 2005 Intergovernmental Panel on Climate Change report on Carbon Dioxide Capture and Storage suggested that a major gap in mineral carbon sequestration is locating the magnesium-silicate bedrock available to sequester CO2. It is generally known that silicate minerals with high concentrations of magnesium are suitable for mineral carbonation. However, no assessment has been made covering the entire United States detailing their geographical distribution and extent, or evaluating their potential for use in mineral carbonation. Researchers at Columbia University and the U.S. Geological Survey have developed a digital geologic database of ultramafic rocks in the continental United States. Data were compiled from varied-scale geologic maps of magnesium-silicate ultramafic rocks. These rock types are potentially suitable as source material for mineral carbon-dioxide sequestration. The focus of the national-scale map is entirely on suitable ultramafic rock types, which typically consist primarily of olivine and serpentine minerals. By combining the map with digital datasets that show non-mineable lands (such as urban areas and National Parks), estimates on potential depth of a surface mine, and the predicted reactivities of the mineral deposits, one can begin to estimate the capacity for CO2 mineral sequestration within the United States. ?? 2009 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  12. [Mineral oil drinking water pollution accident in Slavonski Brod, Croatia].

    PubMed

    Medverec Knežević, Zvonimira; Nadih, Martina; Josipović, Renata; Grgić, Ivanka; Cvitković, Ante

    2011-12-01

    On 21 September 2008, heavy oil penetrated the drinking water supply in Slavonski Brod, Croatia. The accident was caused by the damage of heat exchange units in hot water supply. The system was polluted until the beginning of November, when the pipeline was treated with BIS O 2700 detergent and rinsed with water. Meanwhile, water samples were taken for chemical analysis using spectrometric and titrimetric methods and for microbiological analysis using membrane filtration and total plate count. Mineral oils were determined with infrared spectroscopy. Of the 192 samples taken for mineral oil analysis, 55 were above the maximally allowed concentration (MAC). Five samples were taken for polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbon (PAH), benzene, toluene, ethylbenzene, and xylene analysis (BTEX), but none was above MAC. Epidemiologists conducted a survey about health symptoms among the residents affected by the accident. Thirty-six complained of symptoms such as diarrhoea, stomach cramps, vomiting, rash, eye burning, chills, and gastric disorders.This is the first reported case of drinking water pollution with mineral oil in Slavonski Brod and the accident has raised a number of issues, starting from poor water supply maintenance to glitches in the management of emergencies such as this.

  13. Determination of factors responsible for the bioweathering of copper minerals from organic-rich copper-bearing Kupferschiefer black shale.

    PubMed

    Włodarczyk, Agnieszka; Szymańska, Agata; Skłodowska, Aleksandra; Matlakowska, Renata

    2016-04-01

    The aim of this study was to investigate the bioweathering of copper minerals present in the alkaline, copper-bearing and organic-rich Kupferschiefer black shale through the action of a consortium of indigenous lithobiontic, heterotrophic, neutrophilic bacteria isolated from this sedimentary rock. The involvement of microorganisms in the direct/enzymatic bioweathering of fossil organic matter of the rock was confirmed. As a result of bacterial activity, a spectrum of various organic compounds such as urea and phosphoric acid tributyl ester were released from the rock. These compounds indirectly act on the copper minerals occurring in the rock and cause them to weather. This process was reflected in the mobilization of copper, iron and sulfur and in changes in the appearance of copper minerals observed under reflected light. The potential role of identified enzymes in biodegradation of fossil organic matter and role of organic compounds released from black shale as a result of this process in copper minerals weathering was discussed. The presented results provide a new insight into the role of chemical compounds released by bacteria during fossil organic matter bioweathering potentially important in the cycling of copper and iron deposited in the sedimentary rock. The originality of the described phenomenon lies in the fact that the bioweathering of fossil organic matter and, consequently, of copper minerals occur simultaneously in the same environment, without any additional sources of energy, electrons and carbon.

  14. Determination of factors responsible for the bioweathering of copper minerals from organic-rich copper-bearing Kupferschiefer black shale.

    PubMed

    Włodarczyk, Agnieszka; Szymańska, Agata; Skłodowska, Aleksandra; Matlakowska, Renata

    2016-04-01

    The aim of this study was to investigate the bioweathering of copper minerals present in the alkaline, copper-bearing and organic-rich Kupferschiefer black shale through the action of a consortium of indigenous lithobiontic, heterotrophic, neutrophilic bacteria isolated from this sedimentary rock. The involvement of microorganisms in the direct/enzymatic bioweathering of fossil organic matter of the rock was confirmed. As a result of bacterial activity, a spectrum of various organic compounds such as urea and phosphoric acid tributyl ester were released from the rock. These compounds indirectly act on the copper minerals occurring in the rock and cause them to weather. This process was reflected in the mobilization of copper, iron and sulfur and in changes in the appearance of copper minerals observed under reflected light. The potential role of identified enzymes in biodegradation of fossil organic matter and role of organic compounds released from black shale as a result of this process in copper minerals weathering was discussed. The presented results provide a new insight into the role of chemical compounds released by bacteria during fossil organic matter bioweathering potentially important in the cycling of copper and iron deposited in the sedimentary rock. The originality of the described phenomenon lies in the fact that the bioweathering of fossil organic matter and, consequently, of copper minerals occur simultaneously in the same environment, without any additional sources of energy, electrons and carbon. PMID:26835647

  15. Chemistry of calcium carbonate-rich shallow water sediments in the Bahamas

    SciTech Connect

    Morse, J.W.; Zullig, J.J.; Bernstein, L.D.; Millero, F.J.; Milne, P.; Mucci, A.; Choppin, G.R.

    1985-02-01

    The geochemistry of calcium carbonate-rich sediments from a variety of environments throughout the Bahamas was investigated with particular emphasis on the factors that control the pore water chemistry. Most sediments are supersaturated with respect to aragonite, the most abundant carbonate component. Experimental studies indicate that the observed in situ calcium carbonate ion activity products can often be produced as reversible metastable equilibria between the sediments and seawater. This is interpreted as being the result of interactions between the solutions and the minor high Mg-calcite component present in these sediments. Although the overlying waters are more supersaturated than the pore waters, carbonate dissolution, not precipitation, dominates in these sediments as a result of organic matter oxidation and the resulting increase in P/sub CO/sub 2//. The carbonate sediments of the Bahamas are remarkable for their purity, with the exception of special environments such as mangrove swamps and tidal flats with algal mats. Organic matter and heavy metal content is extremely low. Only minor sulfate reduction is occurring in most sediments. Phosphate is undetectable in all pore waters, probably as a result of adsorption on carbonate mineral surfaces. Other dissolved pore water components such as ammonia and DOC are much lower than typically found in shallow water fine-grained terrigeneous sediments.

  16. Bacteriological and chemical evaluation of overseas mineral waters.

    PubMed

    Kataoka, Hiromi; Matsumura, Yasuyo; Fukui, Sadao; Mine, Takanori; Nishikawa, Junichi; Semma, Masanori

    2011-01-01

    Overseas and imported mineral waters were subjected to visual examination, tested for standard plate count and heterotrophic bacteria, and also analyzed to determine the concentrations of several anions and cations. Some products showed turbidity or color, and several had standard plate count and/or heterotrophic bacteria. One imported natural mineral water product had a high level of standard plate count, and the levels differed with the lot. Tests for total coliform bacteria, Escherichia coli, fecal streptococci, and Pseudomonas aeruginosa were negative on additional testing of samples having standard plate counts of more than 100. The fluoride concentration of one European region sample exceeded the production standard of the Food Sanitation Act in Japan (raw water: less than 2 mg/L) and most of the products lacked the warning labels which are mandatory for fluoride concentrations over 0.8 mg/L. These results indicate that none of the raw water for mineral waters was seriously polluted, but insufficient sterilization of the bottle or cap or contamination with air-borne microbes during the production process was probably responsible for the pollution. Attention needs to be paid to fair labeling, such as no sterilization/no sterile filtration and high fluoride concentration. PMID:22200803

  17. Mineralogy and geochemistry of efflorescent minerals on mine tailings and their potential impact on water chemistry.

    PubMed

    Grover, B P C; Johnson, R H; Billing, D G; Weiersbye, I M G; Tutu, H

    2016-04-01

    In the gold mining Witwatersrand Basin of South Africa, efflorescent mineral crusts are a common occurrence on and nearby tailings dumps during the dry season. The crusts are readily soluble and generate acidic, metal- and sulphate-rich solutions on dissolution. In this study, the metal content of efflorescent crusts at an abandoned gold mine tailings dump was used to characterise surface and groundwater discharges from the site. Geochemical modelling of the pH of the solution resulting from the dissolution of the crusts was used to better understand the crusts' potential impact on water chemistry. The study involved two approaches: (i) conducting leaching experiments on oxidised and unoxidised tailings using artificial rainwater and dilute sulphuric acid and correlating the composition of crusts to these leachates and (ii) modelling the dissolution of the crusts in order to gain insight into their mineralogy and their potential impact on receiving waters. The findings suggested that there were two chemically distinct discharges from the site, namely an aluminium- and magnesium-rich surface water plume and an iron-rich groundwater plume. The first plume was observed to originate from the oxidised tailings following leaching with rainwater while the second plume originated from the underlying unoxidised tailings with leaching by sulphuric acid. Both groups of minerals forming from the respective plumes were found to significantly lower the pH of the receiving water with simulations of their dissolution found to be within 0.2 pH units of experimental values. It was observed that metals in a low abundance within the crust (for example, iron) had a stronger influence on the pH of the resulting solutions than metals in a greater abundance (aluminium or magnesium). Techniques such as powder X-ray diffraction (PXRD) and in situ mineral determination techniques such as remote sensing can effectively determine the dominant mineralogy. However, the minerals or metals

  18. Mineralogy and geochemistry of efflorescent minerals on mine tailings and their potential impact on water chemistry.

    PubMed

    Grover, B P C; Johnson, R H; Billing, D G; Weiersbye, I M G; Tutu, H

    2016-04-01

    In the gold mining Witwatersrand Basin of South Africa, efflorescent mineral crusts are a common occurrence on and nearby tailings dumps during the dry season. The crusts are readily soluble and generate acidic, metal- and sulphate-rich solutions on dissolution. In this study, the metal content of efflorescent crusts at an abandoned gold mine tailings dump was used to characterise surface and groundwater discharges from the site. Geochemical modelling of the pH of the solution resulting from the dissolution of the crusts was used to better understand the crusts' potential impact on water chemistry. The study involved two approaches: (i) conducting leaching experiments on oxidised and unoxidised tailings using artificial rainwater and dilute sulphuric acid and correlating the composition of crusts to these leachates and (ii) modelling the dissolution of the crusts in order to gain insight into their mineralogy and their potential impact on receiving waters. The findings suggested that there were two chemically distinct discharges from the site, namely an aluminium- and magnesium-rich surface water plume and an iron-rich groundwater plume. The first plume was observed to originate from the oxidised tailings following leaching with rainwater while the second plume originated from the underlying unoxidised tailings with leaching by sulphuric acid. Both groups of minerals forming from the respective plumes were found to significantly lower the pH of the receiving water with simulations of their dissolution found to be within 0.2 pH units of experimental values. It was observed that metals in a low abundance within the crust (for example, iron) had a stronger influence on the pH of the resulting solutions than metals in a greater abundance (aluminium or magnesium). Techniques such as powder X-ray diffraction (PXRD) and in situ mineral determination techniques such as remote sensing can effectively determine the dominant mineralogy. However, the minerals or metals

  19. Geophysical Delination of Mg-Rich Ultramafic Rocksfor Mineral Carbon Sequestration

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    McCafferty, Anne E.; Van Gosen, Brad S.; Krevor, Sam C.; Graves, Chris R.

    2009-01-01

    A similar version of this slide presentation was given at the 2009 Society for Mining, Metallurgy, and Exploration (SME) annual meeting in Denver, Colorado, in February 2009. This presentation was part of the 'Industrial Minerals: Reducing Carbon Footprint in Industrial Minerals' session. Two other related talks were presented in the same session by Sam Krevor of Columbia University. The first talk provided a status report on mineral CO2 sequestration as an industrial process. The second talk presented a national-scale geologic compilation of rocks favorable for mineral CO2 sequestration in the United States. This presentation, an extension of the latter talk, shows how airborne geophysical data can be used to further refine the geologic mapping of ultramafic rocks.

  20. Kinetic theory of oxygen isotopic exchange between minerals and water

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Criss, R.E.; Gregory, R.T.; Taylor, H.P.

    1987-01-01

    Kinetic and mass conservation equations are used to describe oxygen isotopic exchange between minerals and water in "closed" and open hydrothermal systems. In cases where n coexisting mineral phases having different reaction rates are present, the exchange process is described by a system of n + 1 simultaneous differential equations consisting of n pseudo first-order rate equations and a conservation of mass equation. The simultaneous solutions to these equations generate curved exchange trajectories on ??-?? plots. Families of such trajectories generated under conditions allowing for different fluid mole fractions, different fluid isotopic compositions, or different fluid flow rates are connected by positive-sloped isochronous lines. These isochrons reproduce the effects observed in hydrothermally exchanged mineral pairs including 1) steep positive slopes, 2) common reversals in the measured fractionation factors (??), and 3) measured fractionations that are highly variable over short distances where no thermal gradient can be geologically demonstrated. ?? 1987.

  1. Criticality of Water: Aligning Water and Mineral Resources Assessment.

    PubMed

    Sonderegger, Thomas; Pfister, Stephan; Hellweg, Stefanie

    2015-10-20

    The concept of criticality has been used to assess whether a resource may become a limiting factor to economic activities. It has been primarily applied to nonrenewable resources, in particular to metals. However, renewable resources such as water may also be overused and become a limiting factor. In this paper, we therefore developed a water criticality method that allows for a new, user-oriented assessment of water availability and accessibility. Comparability of criticality across resources is desirable, which is why the presented adaptation of the criticality approach to water is based on a metal criticality method, whose basic structure is maintained. With respect to the necessary adaptations to the water context, a transparent water criticality framework is proposed that may pave the way for future integrated criticality assessment of metals, water, and other resources. Water criticality scores were calculated for 159 countries subdivided into 512 geographic units for the year 2000. Results allow for a detailed analysis of criticality profiles, revealing locally specific characteristics of water criticality. This is useful for the screening of sites and their related water criticality, for indication of water related problems and possible mitigation options and water policies, and for future water scenario analysis.

  2. Criticality of Water: Aligning Water and Mineral Resources Assessment.

    PubMed

    Sonderegger, Thomas; Pfister, Stephan; Hellweg, Stefanie

    2015-10-20

    The concept of criticality has been used to assess whether a resource may become a limiting factor to economic activities. It has been primarily applied to nonrenewable resources, in particular to metals. However, renewable resources such as water may also be overused and become a limiting factor. In this paper, we therefore developed a water criticality method that allows for a new, user-oriented assessment of water availability and accessibility. Comparability of criticality across resources is desirable, which is why the presented adaptation of the criticality approach to water is based on a metal criticality method, whose basic structure is maintained. With respect to the necessary adaptations to the water context, a transparent water criticality framework is proposed that may pave the way for future integrated criticality assessment of metals, water, and other resources. Water criticality scores were calculated for 159 countries subdivided into 512 geographic units for the year 2000. Results allow for a detailed analysis of criticality profiles, revealing locally specific characteristics of water criticality. This is useful for the screening of sites and their related water criticality, for indication of water related problems and possible mitigation options and water policies, and for future water scenario analysis. PMID:26392153

  3. Chemical exchange in the interior of water-rich exoplanets

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Tobie, G.; Choblet, G.; Grasset, O.

    2015-10-01

    Since the discovery of the first exoplanet in 1995 [1], the number of detected exoplanets has grown nearly exponentially [2]. We have learnt from the existing dataset that our Solar System is rather unusual. Exoplanet surveys revealed notably that exoplanets intermediate between Earth and Neptune are surprisingly common, while notably absent in the Solar System [3]. Model mass-radius relationships indicate a great diversity of interior composition and atmospheric extent for the Super-Earth/Mini- Neptune-planet class [e.g. 4]. The observed continuum between Earth-sized and Neptune-sized planets challenges our understanding of planet formation and evolution, which has been biased for many years by our vision of the Solar System. Planetary worlds are probably much more diverse than originally thought, with a wide range of water and other volatile content. In the Solar System, there is a strong dichotomy between the inner system with dry planetary objects having a very small volatile fraction (<0.1 %), and the outer solar system where water ice constitutes a large fraction of solid phase (> 20%). The volatile contents among other systems likely vary more gradually, and a large fraction of exoplanets with sizes intermediate between Earth and Neptune may have a water content exceeding several percents. The existence of massive water envelops around these planets may significantly affect the internal evolution and chemical exchanges between the deep interior and the atmosphere [e.g. 5]. Due to the very high-pressure expected inside these water-rich planets, especially for the the most massive ones, most of the water will be in the form of a high-pressure ice phase (ice VII) [6,7], the presence of liquid water being limited only to the first kilometres. The thermal structure and dynamics of these thick icy mantles are expected to control the heat and chemical transport from the silicate-rich interior to the surface [8,9], in a way analogous to the internal processes

  4. Cholera in Portugal, 1974. II. Transmission by bottled mineral water.

    PubMed

    Blake, P A; Rosenberg, M L; Florencia, J; Costa, J B; do Prado Quintino, L; Gangarosa, E J

    1977-04-01

    During a cholera epidemic, Vibrio cholerae was isolated from two springs which supplied mineral water to a spa and to a commercial water bottling plant. Epidemiologic investigation found that cholera attack rates were 10-fold greater among visitors to the spa than among non-visitors. A subsequent matched-pair case-control study which excluded persons who had visted the spa showed that a history of consumption of the bottled non-carbonated water was significantly more common among bacteriologically confirmed cholera cases than among paired controls.

  5. Interactions of Water with Mineral Dust Aerosol: Water Adsorption, Hygroscopicity, Cloud Condensation, and Ice Nucleation.

    PubMed

    Tang, Mingjin; Cziczo, Daniel J; Grassian, Vicki H

    2016-04-13

    Mineral dust aerosol is one of the major types of aerosol present in the troposphere. The molecular level interactions of water vapor with mineral dust are of global significance. Hygroscopicity, light scattering and absorption, heterogneous reactivity and the ability to form clouds are all related to water-dust interactions. In this review article, experimental techniques to probe water interactions with dust and theoretical frameworks to understand these interactions are discussed. A comprehensive overview of laboratory studies of water adsorption, hygroscopicity, cloud condensation, and ice nucleation of fresh and atmspherically aged mineral dust particles is provided. Finally, we relate laboratory studies and theoretical simulations that provide fundemental insights into these processes on the molecular level with field measurements that illustrate the atmospheric significance of these processes. Overall, the details of water interactions with mineral dust are covered from multiple perspectives in this review article. PMID:27015126

  6. Interactions of Water with Mineral Dust Aerosol: Water Adsorption, Hygroscopicity, Cloud Condensation, and Ice Nucleation.

    PubMed

    Tang, Mingjin; Cziczo, Daniel J; Grassian, Vicki H

    2016-04-13

    Mineral dust aerosol is one of the major types of aerosol present in the troposphere. The molecular level interactions of water vapor with mineral dust are of global significance. Hygroscopicity, light scattering and absorption, heterogneous reactivity and the ability to form clouds are all related to water-dust interactions. In this review article, experimental techniques to probe water interactions with dust and theoretical frameworks to understand these interactions are discussed. A comprehensive overview of laboratory studies of water adsorption, hygroscopicity, cloud condensation, and ice nucleation of fresh and atmspherically aged mineral dust particles is provided. Finally, we relate laboratory studies and theoretical simulations that provide fundemental insights into these processes on the molecular level with field measurements that illustrate the atmospheric significance of these processes. Overall, the details of water interactions with mineral dust are covered from multiple perspectives in this review article.

  7. Response of anaerobic carbon cycling to water table manipulation in an Alaskan rich fen

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Kane, E.S.; Chivers, M.R.; Turetsky, M.R.; Treat, C.C.; Petersen, D.G.; Waldrop, M.; Harden, J.W.; McGuire, A.D.

    2013-01-01

    To test the effects of altered hydrology on organic soil decomposition, we investigated CO2 and CH4 production potential of rich-fen peat (mean surface pH = 6.3) collected from a field water table manipulation experiment including control, raised and lowered water table treatments. Mean anaerobic CO2 production potential at 10 cm depth (14.1 ± 0.9 μmol C g−1 d−1) was as high as aerobic CO2 production potential (10.6 ± 1.5 μmol C g−1 d−1), while CH4 production was low (mean of 7.8 ± 1.5 nmol C g−1 d−1). Denitrification enzyme activity indicated a very high denitrification potential (197 ± 23 μg N g−1 d−1), but net NO-3 reduction suggested this was a relatively minor pathway for anaerobic CO2 production. Abundances of denitrifier genes (nirK and nosZ) did not change across water table treatments. SO2-4 reduction also did not appear to be an important pathway for anaerobic CO2 production. The net accumulation of acetate and formate as decomposition end products in the raised water table treatment suggested that fermentation was a significant pathway for carbon mineralization, even in the presence of NO-3. Dissolved organic carbon (DOC) concentrations were the strongest predictors of potential anaerobic and aerobic CO2 production. Across all water table treatments, the CO2:CH4 ratio increased with initial DOC leachate concentrations. While the field water table treatment did not have a significant effect on mean CO2 or CH4 production potential, the CO2:CH4 ratio was highest in shallow peat incubations from the drained treatment. These data suggest that with continued drying or with a more variable water table, anaerobic CO2 production may be favored over CH4 production in this rich fen. Future research examining the potential for dissolved organic substances to facilitate anaerobic respiration, or alternative redox processes that limit the effectiveness of organic acids as substrates in anaerobic metabolism, would help explain additional

  8. Effects of washed platelets vs platelet-rich plasma on the proliferation and mineralization of rat dental pulp cells.

    PubMed

    Zhang, L; Xie, Y H; Lin, B R

    2015-08-14

    We examined the effects of washed platelets (WPLTs) and platelet-rich plasma (PRP) on the proliferation and mineralization of rat dental pulp cells. Rat dental pulp cells were separated, cultured, and identified. Medium containing 1, 10, 100, or 500 mL/L PRP or WPLTs was added to 4th generation cells. The MTS method was used to determine cell proliferation. Alizarin red staining was used to observe the formation of mineralized nodules after cell mineralization and induction for 10 and 20 days under different culture conditions, and the areas of the mineralized nodules formed 20 days after induction were computed. The addition of 1, 10, and 100 mL/L WPLTs or PRP significantly promoted rat dental pulp cell proliferation (P < 0.05) whereas 500 mL/L WPLTs or PRP had no significant effect (P > 0.05). Under the same concentrations, no significant differences on cell proliferation were observed between WPLT and PRP treatments (P > 0.05 in all groups). After 10 days mineralization and culture, the 100 and 500 mL/L WPLT and PRP group positive nodule rates were significantly higher than those of the low concentration and the control groups (P < 0.05). After 20 days, the areas of the mineralized nodules formed in the 100 and 500 mL/L WPLT and PRP groups were significantly larger than those in the control group (P < 0.05). These results demonstrate that both WPLTs and PRP are equally able to significantly promote the proliferation and calcification of rat dental pulp cells under a certain range of concentrations.

  9. Ectopic mineralization of cartilage and collagen-rich tendons and ligaments in Enpp1asj-2J mice.

    PubMed

    Zhang, Jieyu; Dyment, Nathaniel A; Rowe, David W; Siu, Sarah Y; Sundberg, John P; Uitto, Jouni; Li, Qiaoli

    2016-03-15

    Generalized arterial calcification of infancy (GACI), an autosomal recessive disorder caused by mutations in the ENPP1 gene, manifests with extensive mineralization of the cardiovascular system. A spontaneous asj-2J mutant mouse has been characterized as a model for GACI. Previous studies focused on phenotypic characterization of skin and vascular tissues. This study further examined the ectopic mineralization phenotype of cartilage, collagen-rich tendons and ligaments in this mouse model. The mice were placed on either control diet or the "acceleration diet" for up to 12 weeks of age. Soft connective tissues, such as ear (elastic cartilage) and trachea (hyaline cartilage), were processed for standard histology. Assessment of ectopic mineralization in articular cartilage and fibrocartilage as well as tendons and ligaments which are attached to long bones were performed using a novel cryo-histological method without decalcification. These analyses demonstrated ectopic mineralization in cartilages as well as tendons and ligaments in the homozygous asj-2J mice at 12 weeks of age, with the presence of immature osteophytes displaying alkaline phosphatase and tartrate-resistant acid phosphatase activities as early as at 6 weeks of age. Alkaline phosphatase activity was significantly increased in asj-2J mouse serum as compared to wild type mice, indicating increased bone formation rate in these mice. Together, these data highlight the key role of ENPP1 in regulating calcification of both soft and skeletal tissues. PMID:26910915

  10. A microbiological study of bottled mineral water marketed in Ludhiana.

    PubMed

    Lal, M; Kaur, H

    2006-01-01

    The microbiological quality of bottled mineral water marketed in Ludhiana was examined, Twenty three brands were analyzed for presumptive coliform count by multiple tube tests, and E. coli count was confirmed by Eijkman test. Bacterial and fungal loads were tested by membrane filtration test. Out of 23 only one sample (4.4%) showed the presumptive coliform count to be 460 most probable number (MPN)l 1 00ml,and 1 was found to be positive when tested by Eijkman test for Ecoli. In the membrane filtration test three samples (13%) showed more than two types of bacteria. Different types of bacteria isolated included Bacillus sp (19/23). Pseudomonas spp (13123), Ecoli, Klebsiella sp and S.albus one each Fungi was isolated from five of twenty three. (22%) samples. Only one brand of mineral water was unfit for human consumption. The rest of the samples were contaminated with non pathogenic flora. PMID:17193757

  11. A microbiological study of bottled mineral water marketed in Ludhiana.

    PubMed

    Lal, M; Kaur, H

    2006-01-01

    The microbiological quality of bottled mineral water marketed in Ludhiana was examined, Twenty three brands were analyzed for presumptive coliform count by multiple tube tests, and E. coli count was confirmed by Eijkman test. Bacterial and fungal loads were tested by membrane filtration test. Out of 23 only one sample (4.4%) showed the presumptive coliform count to be 460 most probable number (MPN)l 1 00ml,and 1 was found to be positive when tested by Eijkman test for Ecoli. In the membrane filtration test three samples (13%) showed more than two types of bacteria. Different types of bacteria isolated included Bacillus sp (19/23). Pseudomonas spp (13123), Ecoli, Klebsiella sp and S.albus one each Fungi was isolated from five of twenty three. (22%) samples. Only one brand of mineral water was unfit for human consumption. The rest of the samples were contaminated with non pathogenic flora.

  12. Magnesium absorption from mineral water decreases with increasing quantities of magnesium per serving in rats.

    PubMed

    Nakamura, Eri; Tai, Hideyuki; Uozumi, Yoshinobu; Nakagawa, Koji; Matsui, Tohru

    2012-01-01

    It is hypothesized that magnesium (Mg) absorption from mineral water is affected by the concentration of Mg in the water, the consumption pattern, and the volume consumed per serving. The present study examined the effect of serving volume and consumption pattern of artificial mineral water (AMW) and Mg concentration on Mg absorption in rats. Magnesium in AMW was labeled with magnesium-25 as a tracer. Each group consisted of 6 or 7 rats. In experiment 1, the rats received 1 mL of AMW containing 200 mg Mg/L at 4 times, 400 mg Mg/L twice, or 800 mg Mg/L at 1 time. In experiment 2, the rats received 1 mL of AMW containing 200 mg Mg/L or 0.25 mL of AMW containing 800 mg Mg/L at 4 times or 1 mL of AMW containing 800 mg Mg/L at 1 time. The absorption of Mg decreased with increasing Mg concentrations in the same serving volume of AMW with different serving frequencies. When the AMW containing 800 mg Mg/L was portioned into 4 servings, Mg absorption increased to the level of absorption in the group exposed to AMW containing 200 mg Mg/L served at the same frequency. These results suggest that the Mg concentration and the volume of AMW do not affect Mg absorption per se, but Mg absorption from AMW decreases when the amount of Mg in each serving is increased. Thus, frequent consumption is preferable for mineral water rich in Mg when the total consumption of mineral water is the same.

  13. Cl-rich hydrous mafic mineral assemblages in the Highiș massif, Apuseni Mountains, Romania

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Bonin, Bernard; Tatu, Mihai

    2016-08-01

    The Guadalupian (Mid-Permian) Highiș massif (Apuseni Mountains, Romania) displays a bimodal igneous suite of mafic (gabbro, diorite) and A-type felsic (alkali feldspar granite, albite granite, and hybrid granodiorite) rocks. Amphibole is widespread throughout the suite, and yields markedly high chlorine contents. Three groups are identified: Cl-rich potassic hastingsite (2.60-3.40 wt% Cl) within A-type felsic rocks and diorite, mildly Cl-rich pargasite to hornblende (0.80-1.90 wt% Cl) within gabbro, and low F-Cl hornblende within gabbro and hybrid granodiorite. Coexisting biotite is either Cl-rich within diorite, or F-Cl-poor to F-rich within A-type felsic rocks. Chlorine and fluorine are distributed in both mafic phases, according to the F-Fe and Cl-Mg avoidance rules. The low-Ti contents suggest subsolidus compositions. Cl-rich amphibole within diorite and A-type felsic rocks yields a restricted temperature range - from 575 °C down to 400 °C, whereas mildly Cl-rich amphibole within gabbro displays the highest range - from 675 to 360 °C. Temperatures recorded by Cl-rich biotite within diorite range from 590 to 410 °C. Biotite within A-type felsic rocks yields higher temperatures than amphibole: the highest values- from 640 to 540 °C - are recorded in low-F-Cl varieties, whereas the lowest values- from 535 to 500 °C - are displayed by F-rich varieties. All data point to halogen-rich hydrothermal fluids at upper greenschist facies conditions percolating through fractures and shear zones and pervasively permeating the whole Highiș massif, with F precipitating as interstitial fluorite and Cl incorporating into amphibole, during one, or possibly several, hydrothermal episodes that would have occurred during a ~ 150 My-long period of time extending from the Guadalupian (Mid-Permian) to the Albian (Mid-Cretaceous).

  14. [The use of the natural mineral saponite for water decontamination].

    PubMed

    Hyrin, V M; Boĭko, I I; Rudychenko, V F

    1999-01-01

    Sorption properties were studied of natural and activated specimens of saponite with respect to poliomyelitis virus, Coxsackie B 1 and B 6 viruses as well as to Enterobacteriaceae group bacteria. With the purpose of comparing the processes of sorption of microorganisms, other minerals were also used, such as bentonite, alunite, glauconite, ceolite. The natural saponite adsorptive properties were found out to undergo changes during the process of thermoactivation. Mechanisms are discussed of a decontaminating effect of thermoactivated saponite in water.

  15. Cl-rich minerals in Archean granulite facies ironstones from the Beartooth Mountains, Montana, USA: Implications for fluids involved in granulite metamorphism

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Henry, D. J.

    1988-01-01

    The implications of Cl-rich minerals in granulite facies rocks are discussed. Results from ironstones of the Beartooth Mountains, Montana are discussed. It is suggested that CO2-brine immiscibility might be applicable to granulite facies conditions, and if so, then aqueous brines might be preferentially adsorbed onto mineral surfaces relative to CO2.

  16. ARSENIC LEACHING FROM IRON RICH MINERAL PROCESSING WASTE: INFLUENCE OF PH AND REDOX POTENTIAL

    EPA Science Inventory

    This paper presents the effect of pH and redox potential on the potential mobility of arsenic (As) from a contaminated mineral processing waste. The selected waste contained about 0.47 g kg-1 of As and 66.2 g kg-1 of iron (Fe). The characteristic of the wast...

  17. Determination of parathion, aldicarb, and thiobencarb in tap water and bottled mineral water in Mashhad, Iran.

    PubMed

    Rezaee, Ramin; Hassanzadeh-Khayyat, Mohammad; Mehri, Fereshteh; Khashyarmanesh, Zahra; Moallemzadeh, Hamideh; Karimi, Gholamreza

    2012-04-01

    Water is a necessity for life. Currently, because of different contaminations in tap water, most people prefer using bottled mineral waters. Pesticides (e.g., organophophorous, carbamates, etc.) are among the most dangerous chemicals that may be found in drinking waters, which can cause long- and short-term complications. Because all people consume at least 2 L of water per day, water-quality monitoring is vital. In this study, we determined the concentration of three pesticides (aldicarb, parathion, and thiobencarb) in 13 tap-water samples collected from 13 different urban areas and 10 samples of bottled mineral water in Mashhad, a major city in northeast Iran. Samples were analyzed by gas chromatography coupled with a pulsed flame photometric detector after solid-phase extraction. Results showed that 2 of 13 tap-water samples and 2 of 10 bottled mineral water trademarks were contaminated either by parathion or by thiobencarb or both, with concentrations ranging between 0.6 and 0.8 ppb. According to the defined guideline values, determined concentrations of pesticides are below the permissible World Health Organization level for these toxic agents, and it is considered that drinking these tap waters and bottled mineral waters are safe for human consumption. PMID:21939365

  18. Determination of parathion, aldicarb, and thiobencarb in tap water and bottled mineral water in Mashhad, Iran.

    PubMed

    Rezaee, Ramin; Hassanzadeh-Khayyat, Mohammad; Mehri, Fereshteh; Khashyarmanesh, Zahra; Moallemzadeh, Hamideh; Karimi, Gholamreza

    2012-04-01

    Water is a necessity for life. Currently, because of different contaminations in tap water, most people prefer using bottled mineral waters. Pesticides (e.g., organophophorous, carbamates, etc.) are among the most dangerous chemicals that may be found in drinking waters, which can cause long- and short-term complications. Because all people consume at least 2 L of water per day, water-quality monitoring is vital. In this study, we determined the concentration of three pesticides (aldicarb, parathion, and thiobencarb) in 13 tap-water samples collected from 13 different urban areas and 10 samples of bottled mineral water in Mashhad, a major city in northeast Iran. Samples were analyzed by gas chromatography coupled with a pulsed flame photometric detector after solid-phase extraction. Results showed that 2 of 13 tap-water samples and 2 of 10 bottled mineral water trademarks were contaminated either by parathion or by thiobencarb or both, with concentrations ranging between 0.6 and 0.8 ppb. According to the defined guideline values, determined concentrations of pesticides are below the permissible World Health Organization level for these toxic agents, and it is considered that drinking these tap waters and bottled mineral waters are safe for human consumption.

  19. Bacterial flora in bottled uncarbonated mineral drinking water.

    PubMed

    González, C; Gutiérrez, C; Grande, T

    1987-12-01

    A quantitative study of bacterial populations in mineral water was carried out. Samples were stored at 6 and 20 degrees C, and the colony counts were determined on tryptone agar plates incubated at 22 and 37 degrees C. Samples were collected from the spring source in sterile glass flasks and from the bottling factory in conventional plastic and glass containers. In both cases, the initial population (10(1)-10(2) cfu/mL water) increased to 10(5)-10(6) cfu/mL after 3 days storage as determined from plate counts incubated at 22 degrees C. The levels reached by this population were similar to those of samples of mineral water obtained at the market stage. Results from plate counts incubated at 37 degrees C showed that populations in samples collected at the bottling factory reached 10(2)-10(3) cfu/mL. No growth was observed in water collected from spring source. Bacterial multiplication was not stopped even when water was stored at 6 degrees C. Caulobacter was the genus found most frequently in both types of samples, followed by Sphaerotilus-Leptothrix. Acinetobacter calcoaceticus and Pseudomonas fluorescens were frequently found in only two springs, and Pseudomonas putida, Arthrobacter, Aeromonas hydrophilia, and Corynebacterium were isolated less frequently. Janthinobacterium was recovered only once from a single spring. A giant bacterium closely resembling Hyphomicrobium and a budding one similar to Pasteuria were recovered from all samples of a single spring and from some of the commercial samples.

  20. Radium Adsorption to Iron Bearing Minerals in Variable Salinity Waters

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Chen, M.; Kocar, B. D.

    2014-12-01

    Radium is a common, naturally occurring radioactive metal found in many subsurface environments. Radium isotopes are a product of natural uranium and thorium decay, and are particularly abundant within groundwaters where minimal flux leads to accumulation within porewaters. Radium has been used as a natural tracer to estimate submarine groundwater discharge (SGD) [1], where the ratios of various radium isotopes are used to estimate total groundwater flux to and from the ocean [2]. Further, it represents a substantial hazard in waste water produced after hydraulic fracturing for natural gas extraction [3], resulting in a significant risk of environmental release and increased cost for water treatment or disposal. Adsorption to mineral surfaces represents a primary pathway of radium retention within subsurface environments. For SGD studies, it is important to understand adsorption processes to correctly estimate GW fluxes, while in hydraulic fracturing, radium adsorption to aquifer solids will mediate the activities of radium within produced water. While some studies of radium adsorption to various minerals have been performed [4], there is a limited understanding of the surface chemistry of radium adsorption, particularly to iron-bearing minerals such as pyrite, goethite and ferrihydrite. Accordingly, we present the results of sorption experiments of radium to a suite of iron-bearing minerals representative of those found within deep saline and near-surface (freshwater) aquifers, and evaluate impacts of varying salinity solutions through the use of artificial groundwater, seawater, and shale formation brine. Further, we explore the impacts of pyrite oxidation and ferrihydrite transformation to other iron-bearing secondary minerals on the retention of radium. This work lays the groundwork for further study of radium use as a tracer for SGD, as well as understanding mechanisms of radium retention and release from deep aquifer materials following hydraulic fracturing

  1. Mineralogy and metals speciation in Mo rich mineral sludges generated at a metal recycling plant.

    PubMed

    Vemic, M; Bordas, F; Guibaud, G; Joussein, E; Labanowski, J; Lens, P N L; van Hullebusch, E D

    2015-04-01

    In France, more than 250 million metric tons of sludges need to be treated each year. These sludges are either dumped on the landfills or reused as secondary resources in order to preserve natural resources. A large portions of these sludges are mineral sludges, originating from metal recycling plants. In order to estimate their metal recovery potential, these mineral sludges were characterized. Four types of mineral sludge samples were collected from a metal recycling plant (3 from the recycling plant storage areas (bulk storage, barrel storage and storage shed) and 1 from the collection basin). The sludges were characterized, wherein the Mo, Ni, Cr, Co, Zn and W content and speciation were quantified. The samples had pH values between 5.9 and 10.3 with organic matter contents varying between 6.3% (storage shed) and 29.5% (bulk storage) (loss on ignition at 500 °C). Based on their leaching properties, the four mineral sludge samples (in the case of Mo) and the bulk storage sludge (in the case of Ni and Zn) were classified as potentially hazardous regarding the EN 12457-1 and EN 12457-2 method. Mineralogical results reveal that both bulk storage and the storage shed give the highest contributions to the metal content of the collection basin sample. Sequential extraction of the collection basin samples indicated that Mo is bound to the oxidizable and residual fraction, while Ni, Cr and Co were bound to the residual fraction, and Zn to the soluble acid fraction, respectively. W tends to be equally distributed among all extracted fractions. A strong correlation existed between Mo and Co, as well as between Ni, Zn and Cr, respectively. PMID:25623002

  2. Mineralogy and metals speciation in Mo rich mineral sludges generated at a metal recycling plant.

    PubMed

    Vemic, M; Bordas, F; Guibaud, G; Joussein, E; Labanowski, J; Lens, P N L; van Hullebusch, E D

    2015-04-01

    In France, more than 250 million metric tons of sludges need to be treated each year. These sludges are either dumped on the landfills or reused as secondary resources in order to preserve natural resources. A large portions of these sludges are mineral sludges, originating from metal recycling plants. In order to estimate their metal recovery potential, these mineral sludges were characterized. Four types of mineral sludge samples were collected from a metal recycling plant (3 from the recycling plant storage areas (bulk storage, barrel storage and storage shed) and 1 from the collection basin). The sludges were characterized, wherein the Mo, Ni, Cr, Co, Zn and W content and speciation were quantified. The samples had pH values between 5.9 and 10.3 with organic matter contents varying between 6.3% (storage shed) and 29.5% (bulk storage) (loss on ignition at 500 °C). Based on their leaching properties, the four mineral sludge samples (in the case of Mo) and the bulk storage sludge (in the case of Ni and Zn) were classified as potentially hazardous regarding the EN 12457-1 and EN 12457-2 method. Mineralogical results reveal that both bulk storage and the storage shed give the highest contributions to the metal content of the collection basin sample. Sequential extraction of the collection basin samples indicated that Mo is bound to the oxidizable and residual fraction, while Ni, Cr and Co were bound to the residual fraction, and Zn to the soluble acid fraction, respectively. W tends to be equally distributed among all extracted fractions. A strong correlation existed between Mo and Co, as well as between Ni, Zn and Cr, respectively.

  3. Determination of 226Ra, 224Ra, 223Ra and 228Ra in mineral water samples of the Slovak Republic

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Durecová, A.; Durec, F.; Bursová, D.

    2006-01-01

    The Slovak Republic is very rich in mineral water sources. In recent years, it has been discovered that a number of mineral waters in the Slovak Republic contain high levels of 226Ra and 228Ra. Moreover, there is a lack of information on 224Ra and 223Ra concentrations in mineral waters as well. The currently approved techniques for alpha emitting radium isotopes are based on radon emanation methods. Due to the long ingrowth periods required by these techniques, any 224Ra and 223Ra in the sample decay away and go undetected. For this reason, we have used an alpha spectrometric method for the simultaneous determination of 226Ra, 223Ra and 224Ra. Radium was concentrated by a lead sulphate co-precipitation. The precipitate was dissolved in EDTA and the radium isotopes were separated from possible interfering radionuclides using barium sulphate micro precipitation. The radium-barium precipitate was filtered and counted by alpha spectrometry. 133Ba was used to quantify the yield by gamma spectrometry. In our laboratory, gamma spectrometry was also used for the determination of 228Ra in mineral water samples. Radium was concentrated by a lead-barium sulphate co-precipitation. 133Ba was used to quantify the yield, found to be 97% on the average, by gamma spectrometry. Furthermore, the committed effective doses for 226Ra, 224Ra, 223Ra, 228Ra intake via ingestion of mineral waters for the members of public were calculated.

  4. [The balneotherapeutic components of sulfide-containing mineral waters].

    PubMed

    Khutoryansky, V A; Gorshkov, A G

    2015-01-01

    It has been suggested in an early study that sulfanes may serve as a source of sulfur contained in hydrogen sulfide sources. We have performed derivatization of sulfanes, known to be present in the "Novonukutskaya" mineral water. The presence of polysulfanes in balneotherapeutic sulfide waters was confirmed by the HPLC-UV and chromato-mass spectrometric techniques. Derivatization of inorganic polysulfides was achieved by using the reaction with methyl iodide. It was shown that polysulfanes contained in the examined samples were metastable and disintegrated into So and H2S. Almost all molecular zero-valent sulfur was present in the form of S8. The application of HPLC allowed to determine the equilibrium concentration of molecular sulfur. The presence of the above compounds in therapeutic sulfide waters raises the question of the mechanism of their curative action. The authors hypothesize that it may be related to the high therapeutic potency of the substances obtained by steam distillation from the "Novonukutskaya" mineral water. PMID:26841531

  5. Water-rich planets: How habitable is a water layer deeper than on Earth?

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Noack, L.; Höning, D.; Rivoldini, A.; Heistracher, C.; Zimov, N.; Journaux, B.; Lammer, H.; Van Hoolst, T.; Bredehöft, J. H.

    2016-10-01

    Water is necessary for the origin and survival of life as we know it. In the search for life-friendly worlds, water-rich planets therefore are obvious candidates and have attracted increasing attention in recent years. The surface H2O layer on such planets (containing a liquid water ocean and possibly high-pressure ice below a specific depth) could potentially be hundreds of kilometres deep depending on the water content and the evolution of the proto-atmosphere. We study possible constraints for the habitability of deep water layers and introduce a new habitability classification relevant for water-rich planets (from Mars-size to super-Earth-size planets). A new ocean model has been developed that is coupled to a thermal evolution model of the mantle and core. Our interior structure model takes into account depth-dependent thermodynamic properties and the possible formation of high-pressure ice. We find that heat flowing out of the silicate mantle can melt an ice layer from below (in some cases episodically), depending mainly on the thickness of the ocean-ice shell, the mass of the planet, the surface temperature and the interior parameters (e.g. radioactive mantle heat sources). The high pressure at the bottom of deep water-ice layers could also impede volcanism at the water-mantle boundary for both stagnant lid and plate tectonics silicate shells. We conclude that water-rich planets with a deep ocean, a large planet mass, a high average density or a low surface temperature are likely less habitable than planets with an Earth-like ocean.

  6. The Geysers-Clear Lake area, California: thermal waters, mineralization, volcanism, and geothermal potential

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Donnelly-Nolan, J. M.; Burns, M.G.; Goff, F.E.; Peters, E.K.; Thompson, J.M.

    1993-01-01

    Manifestations of a major thermal anomaly in the Geysers-Clear Lake area of northern California include the late Pliocene to Holocene Clear Lake Volcanics, The Geysers geothermal field, abundant thermal springs, and epithermal mercury and gold mineralization. The epithermal mineralization and thermal springs typically occur along high-angle faults within the broad San Andreas transform fault system that forms the western boundary of the North American plate in this area. The young volcanic rocks overlie Mesozoic marine rocks of the Great Valley sequence which have been thrust above the coeval Franciscan Complex and penecontemporaneously dropped back down along low-angle detachment faults. Geothermal power production has peaked at The Geysers and pressure declines indicate significant depletion of the fluid resource. It is proposed that recently discovered, isotopically shifted steam in the northwest Geysers area indicates the presence not of deep connate water but rather of boiled-down, boron-rich Franciscan evolved meteoric water. This water is likely to be present in limited quantities and will not provide a significant hot water resource for geothermal power production at The Geysers field or from the main Clear Lake volcanic field. -from Authors

  7. Nicotine occurrence in bottled mineral water: analysis of 10 brands of water in Spain.

    PubMed

    González Alonso, S; Valcárcel, Y; Montero, J C; Catalá, M

    2012-02-01

    The presence of pharmaceuticals in surface and drinking water has been evidenced in numerous studies. Despite representing one of the most common consumption sources, to the best of our knowledge, this is the first report on the presence of pharmaceutical compounds in bottled mineral water. Pollution of these sources not only could pose a serious human health risk, but would also warn about the quality of the water in our aquifers, a vital and vulnerable source of water, essential for the future water supply. Fifty eight pharmaceutically active compounds (PhACs) belonging to the 12 main therapeutic groups were analyzed in 10 bottled mineral water brands produced in Spain. Nicotine was detected in concentrations ranging from 7ngL(-1) to 15ngL(-1) in 5 of 10 bottled mineral waters. Despite the low nicotine concentration measured, the presence of this compound in bottled water still raises concern. Health risk assessment researchers have postulated that the risk to adult healthy humans from oral intake of nicotine at low levels is negligible. However, no studies have been conducted to assess the human health risk of vulnerable populations such as pregnant women and newborns. This population is the target of advertising on the purity and quality characteristics of bottled mineral water.

  8. Nicotine occurrence in bottled mineral water: analysis of 10 brands of water in Spain.

    PubMed

    González Alonso, S; Valcárcel, Y; Montero, J C; Catalá, M

    2012-02-01

    The presence of pharmaceuticals in surface and drinking water has been evidenced in numerous studies. Despite representing one of the most common consumption sources, to the best of our knowledge, this is the first report on the presence of pharmaceutical compounds in bottled mineral water. Pollution of these sources not only could pose a serious human health risk, but would also warn about the quality of the water in our aquifers, a vital and vulnerable source of water, essential for the future water supply. Fifty eight pharmaceutically active compounds (PhACs) belonging to the 12 main therapeutic groups were analyzed in 10 bottled mineral water brands produced in Spain. Nicotine was detected in concentrations ranging from 7ngL(-1) to 15ngL(-1) in 5 of 10 bottled mineral waters. Despite the low nicotine concentration measured, the presence of this compound in bottled water still raises concern. Health risk assessment researchers have postulated that the risk to adult healthy humans from oral intake of nicotine at low levels is negligible. However, no studies have been conducted to assess the human health risk of vulnerable populations such as pregnant women and newborns. This population is the target of advertising on the purity and quality characteristics of bottled mineral water. PMID:22137651

  9. Geochemistry of surface-waters in mineralized and non-mineralized areas of the Yukon-Tanana Uplands

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Wang, B.; Wanty, R.B.; Vohden, J.

    2005-01-01

    The U.S. Geological Survey (USGS) and Alaska Department of Natural Resources (ADNR) are continuing investigations on element mobility in mineralized and non-mineralized areas of the Yukon-Tanana Upland in east-central Alaska. The chemistry of stream water is evaluated in the context of regional bedrock geology and geologic structure. Sampling sites were located in the Big Delta B2 quadrangle, which includes the mineralized areas of the Pogo claim block. The area is typified by steep, subarctic-alpine, boreal forest catchment basins. Samples were collected from catchments that either cross structural features and lithologic contacts, or are underlain by a single lithology. Waters are generally dilute (< 213 mg/L TDS), and are classified as Ca2+ and Mg2+-HCO3- to Ca2+ and Mg2+-SO42- waters. Gneissic lithologies are more SO42- dominated than the intrusive units. The major-ion chemistry of the waters reflects a rock-dominated aqueous system. Trace-element concentrations in water are generally low; however, As and Sb are detected near mineralized areas but in most cases rapidly attenuated downstream and processes other than simple dilution are controlling the concentrations of these trace elements. There is a tendency toward increasing SO42- concentrations downstream in waters both proximal and distal to mineralized areas. More work is necessary to determine what proportion of the increase in SO42- could be derived from the oxidation of sulfide minerals as opposed to water influenced by the underlying gneissic units.

  10. Microbes residing in young organic rich Alaskan soils contain older carbon than those residing in old mineral high Arctic soils

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Ziolkowski, L. A.; Slater, G. F.; Onstott, T. C.; Whyte, L.; Townsend-Small, A.

    2013-12-01

    Arctic soils range from very organic rich to low carbon and mineral-dominated soils. At present, we do not yet fully understand if all carbon in the Arctic is equally vulnerable to mineralization in a warmer climate. Many studies have demonstrated that ancient carbon is respired when permafrost has thawed, yet our understanding of the active layer and permafrost carbon dynamics is still emerging. In an effort to remedy this disconnect between our knowledge of surface fluxes and below ground processes, we used radiocarbon to examine the microbial carbon dynamics in soil cores from organic rich soils near Barrow, Alaska and mineral soils from the Canadian high Arctic. Specifically, we compared the microbial community using lipid biomarkers, the inputs of carbon using n-alkanes and measured the 14C of both the bulk organic carbon and of the microbial lipids. In theory, the microbial lipids (phospholipid fatty acids, PLFA) represent the viable microbial community, as these lipids are hydrolyzed quickly after cell death. Variations in the PLFA distributions suggested that different microbial communities inhabit organic rich Alaskan soils and those of the Canadian high Arctic. When the PLFA concentrations were converted to cellular concentration, they were within the same order of magnitude (1 to 5 x 108 cells/g dry soil) with slightly higher cell concentrations in the organic rich Alaskan soils. When these cellular concentrations were normalized to the organic carbon content, the Canadian high Arctic soils contained a greater proportion of microbes. Although bulk organic carbon 14C of Alaskan soils indicated more recent carbon inputs into the soil than the Canadian high Arctic soils, the 14C of the PLFA revealed the opposite. For corresponding depth horizons, microbes in Alaskan soils were consuming carbon 1000 to 1500 years older than those in the Canadian high Arctic. Differences between the 14C content of bulk organic carbon and the microbial lipids were much smaller

  11. Species richness patterns and water-energy dynamics in the drylands of Northwest China.

    PubMed

    Li, Liping; Wang, Zhiheng; Zerbe, Stefan; Abdusalih, Nurbay; Tang, Zhiyao; Ma, Ming; Yin, Linke; Mohammat, Anwar; Han, Wenxuan; Fang, Jingyun

    2013-01-01

    Dryland ecosystems are highly vulnerable to climatic and land-use changes, while the mechanisms underlying patterns of dryland species richness are still elusive. With distributions of 3637 native vascular plants, 154 mammals, and 425 birds in Xinjiang, China, we tested the water-energy dynamics hypothesis for species richness patterns in Central Asian drylands. Our results supported the water-energy dynamics hypothesis. We found that species richness of all three groups was a hump-shaped function of energy availability, but a linear function of water availability. We further found that water availability had stronger effects on plant richness, but weaker effects on vertebrate richness than energy availability. We conducted piecewise linear regressions to detect the breakpoints in the relationship between species richness and potential evapotranspiration which divided Xinjiang into low and high energy regions. The concordance between mammal and plant richness was stronger in high than in low energy regions, which was opposite to that between birds and plants. Plant richness had stronger effects than climate on mammal richness regardless of energy levels, but on bird richness only in high energy regions. The changes in the concordance between vertebrate and plant richness along the climatic gradient suggest that cautions are needed when using concordance between taxa in conservation planning.

  12. Species Richness Patterns and Water-Energy Dynamics in the Drylands of Northwest China

    PubMed Central

    Zerbe, Stefan; Abdusalih, Nurbay; Tang, Zhiyao; Ma, Ming; Yin, Linke; Mohammat, Anwar; Han, Wenxuan; Fang, Jingyun

    2013-01-01

    Dryland ecosystems are highly vulnerable to climatic and land-use changes, while the mechanisms underlying patterns of dryland species richness are still elusive. With distributions of 3637 native vascular plants, 154 mammals, and 425 birds in Xinjiang, China, we tested the water-energy dynamics hypothesis for species richness patterns in Central Asian drylands. Our results supported the water-energy dynamics hypothesis. We found that species richness of all three groups was a hump-shaped function of energy availability, but a linear function of water availability. We further found that water availability had stronger effects on plant richness, but weaker effects on vertebrate richness than energy availability. We conducted piecewise linear regressions to detect the breakpoints in the relationship between species richness and potential evapotranspiration which divided Xinjiang into low and high energy regions. The concordance between mammal and plant richness was stronger in high than in low energy regions, which was opposite to that between birds and plants. Plant richness had stronger effects than climate on mammal richness regardless of energy levels, but on bird richness only in high energy regions. The changes in the concordance between vertebrate and plant richness along the climatic gradient suggest that cautions are needed when using concordance between taxa in conservation planning. PMID:23840472

  13. Evaporation pathways and solubility of Fe-Ca-Mg-rich salts in acid sulfate waters. A model for Martian ancient surface waters

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Sobron, P.; Sansano, A.; Sanz, A.

    2011-12-01

    It has been suggested that Martian iron rich sulfate and oxyhydroxide deposits were precipitated from meltwaters[1], thought to have been acidic. Alternatively, iron(III)-rich hydrated sulfates from oxidized sulfides observed in the outcrops may occur as a result of long-term reactions[4]. Recent analysis of Martian materials support that they come from hydrothermal activity[5], which is highly consistent with the observation of enriched in iron, magnesium, silicon and calcium materials[2]. Independently of the nature of the sulfate formation paths on Mars, characterizing the interaction of saline mineral assemblages and the aqueous solutions necessary for their formation is significance in assessing Mars' hydrological and mineralogical evolution history. In this work we have characterized a layered deposit(Fig. 1) formed from the evaporation of stream water from Rio Tinto, Spain, a relevant Mars analog site[6]. The minerals detected in-situ, confirmed later via high resolution laser Raman spectroscopy in the laboratory, are, from bottom to top: (A) mixture of goethite and probably schwermannite; (B) goethite; (C) mixture of gypsum and highly hydrated ferric sulfates; (D) hexahydrite; and (E) mixture of hexahydrite and epsomite. What we observed in this deposit is the precipitation of relatively insoluble hydroxysulfates (schwermannite admixed with goethite), followed by the precipitation of other relatively insoluble ferric and gypsum, and finally the occurrence of the very soluble Mg-sulfates. We are currently investigating the correlation of this evaporite deposit with the hydrochemistry of the stream water from which it evaporated through dedicated laboratory analysis of natural mineral and aqueous samples. A solubility model including the minerals identified in this work will be reported at the conference. The study of this particular acid sulfate system (with analog mineralogy to that observed in Meridiani[3]) provides constraints on the evaporation pathways

  14. Discharge, water temperature, and water quality of Warm Mineral Springs, Sarasota County, Florida: A retrospective analysis

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Metz, Patricia A.

    2016-09-27

    Warm Mineral Springs, located in southern Sarasota County, Florida, is a warm, highly mineralized, inland spring. Since 1946, a bathing spa has been in operation at the spring, attracting vacationers and health enthusiasts. During the winter months, the warm water attracts manatees to the adjoining spring run and provides vital habitat for these mammals. Well-preserved late Pleistocene to early Holocene-age human and animal bones, artifacts, and plant remains have been found in and around the spring, and indicate the surrounding sinkhole formed more than 12,000 years ago. The spring is a multiuse resource of hydrologic importance, ecological and archeological significance, and economic value to the community.The pool of Warm Mineral Springs has a circular shape that reflects its origin as a sinkhole. The pool measures about 240 feet in diameter at the surface and has a maximum depth of about 205 feet. The sinkhole developed in the sand, clay, and dolostone of the Arcadia Formation of the Miocene-age to Oligocene-age Hawthorn Group. Underlying the Hawthorn Group are Oligocene-age to Eocene-age limestones and dolostones, including the Suwannee Limestone, Ocala Limestone, and Avon Park Formation. Mineralized groundwater, under artesian pressure in the underlying aquifers, fills the remnant sink, and the overflow discharges into Warm Mineral Springs Creek, to Salt Creek, and subsequently into the Myakka River. Aquifers described in the vicinity of Warm Mineral Springs include the surficial aquifer system, the intermediate aquifer system within the Hawthorn Group, and the Upper Floridan aquifer in the Suwannee Limestone, Ocala Limestone, and Avon Park Formation. The Hawthorn Group acts as an upper confining unit of the Upper Floridan aquifer.Groundwater flow paths are inferred from the configuration of the potentiometric surface of the Upper Floridan aquifer for September 2010. Groundwater flow models indicate the downward flow of water into the Upper Floridan aquifer

  15. The Mineral Content of U.S. Drinking and Municipal Water

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Objective: The mineral composition of tap water may contribute significant amounts of some minerals to dietary intake. The USDA’s Nutrient Data Laboratory (NDL) conducted a study of the mineral content of residential tap water, to generate new current data for the USDA National Nutrient Database. ...

  16. Recycling of solid waste rich in organic nitrogen from leather industry: mineral nutrition of rice plants.

    PubMed

    Nogueira, Francisco G E; Castro, Isabela A; Bastos, Ana R R; Souza, Guilherme A; de Carvalho, Janice G; Oliveira, Luiz C A

    2011-02-28

    The leather industry produces a large quantity of solid waste (wet blue leather), which contains a high amount of chromium. After its removal from wet blue leather, a solid collagenic material is recovered, containing high nitrogen levels, which can be used as a nitrogen source in agriculture. In order to take more advantage of the collagen, it was enriched with mineral P and K in order to produce NPK formulations. The objective was also to evaluate the efficiency of such formulations as a nutrient supply for rice plants in an Oxisoil, under greenhouse conditions. The application of PK enriched-collagen formulations resulted in N contents in the vegetative parts and grains of rice plants which were equivalent or superior to those obtained with urea and commercial NPK formulations.

  17. Recycling of solid waste rich in organic nitrogen from leather industry: mineral nutrition of rice plants.

    PubMed

    Nogueira, Francisco G E; Castro, Isabela A; Bastos, Ana R R; Souza, Guilherme A; de Carvalho, Janice G; Oliveira, Luiz C A

    2011-02-28

    The leather industry produces a large quantity of solid waste (wet blue leather), which contains a high amount of chromium. After its removal from wet blue leather, a solid collagenic material is recovered, containing high nitrogen levels, which can be used as a nitrogen source in agriculture. In order to take more advantage of the collagen, it was enriched with mineral P and K in order to produce NPK formulations. The objective was also to evaluate the efficiency of such formulations as a nutrient supply for rice plants in an Oxisoil, under greenhouse conditions. The application of PK enriched-collagen formulations resulted in N contents in the vegetative parts and grains of rice plants which were equivalent or superior to those obtained with urea and commercial NPK formulations. PMID:21167640

  18. Water emission from the chemically rich outflow L1157

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Vasta, M.; Codella, C.; Lorenzani, A.; Santangelo, G.; Nisini, B.; Giannini, T.; Tafalla, M.; Liseau, R.; van Dishoeck, E. F.; Kristensen, L.

    2012-01-01

    Context. In the framework of the Herschel-WISH key program, several ortho-H2O and para-H2O emission lines, in the frequency range from 500 to 1700 GHz, were observed with the HIFI instrument in two bow-shock regions (B2 and R) of the L1157 cloud, which hosts what is considered to be the prototypical chemically-rich outflow. Aims: Our primary aim is to analyse water emission lines as a diagnostic of the physical conditions in the blue (B2) and red-shifted (R) lobes to compare the excitation conditions. Methods: For this purpose, we ran the non-LTE RADEX model for a plane-parallel geometry to constrain the physical parameters (Tkin, NH2O and nH2) of the water emission lines detected. Results: A total of 5 ortho- and para-H216O plus one o-H218O transitions were observed in B2 and R with a wide range of excitation energies (27 K ≤ Eu ≤ 215 K). The H2O spectra, observed in the two shocked regions, show that the H2O profiles differ markedly in the two regions. In particular, at the bow-shock R, we observed broad (~30 km s-1 with respect to the ambient velocity) red-shifted wings where lines at different excitation peak at different red-shifted velocities. The B2 spectra are associated with a narrower velocity range (~6 km s-1), peaking at the systemic velocity. The excitation analysis suggests, for B2, low values of column density NH2O ≤ 5 × 1013 cm-2, a density range of 105 ≤ nH2 ≤ 107 cm-3, and warm temperatures (≥300 K). The presence of the broad red-shifted wings and multiple peaks in the spectra of the R region, prompted the modelling of two components. High velocities are associated with relatively low temperatures (~100 K), NH2O ≃ 5 × 1012-5 × 1013 cm-2 and densities nH2 ≃ 106-108 cm-3. Lower velocities are associated with higher excitation conditions with Tkin ≥ 300 K, very dense gas (nH2 ~ 108 cm-3) and low column density (NH2O < 5 × 1013 cm-2). Conclusions: The overall analysis suggests that the emission in B2 comes from an extended (

  19. Climate-change-driven deterioration of water quality in a mineralized watershed.

    PubMed

    Todd, Andrew S; Manning, Andrew H; Verplanck, Philip L; Crouch, Caitlin; McKnight, Diane M; Dunham, Ryan

    2012-09-01

    A unique 30-year streamwater chemistry data set from a mineralized alpine watershed with naturally acidic, metal-rich water displays dissolved concentrations of Zn and other metals of ecological concern increasing by 100-400% (400-2000 μg/L) during low-flow months, when metal concentrations are highest. SO(4) and other major ions show similar increases. A lack of natural or anthropogenic land disturbances in the watershed during the study period suggests that climate change is the underlying cause. Local mean annual and mean summer air temperatures have increased at a rate of 0.2-1.2 °C/decade since the 1980s. Other climatic and hydrologic indices, including stream discharge during low-flow months, do not display statistically significant trends. Consideration of potential specific causal mechanisms driven by rising temperatures suggests that melting of permafrost and falling water tables (from decreased recharge) are probable explanations for the increasing concentrations. The prospect of future widespread increases in dissolved solutes from mineralized watersheds is concerning given likely negative impacts on downstream ecosystems and water resources, and complications created for the establishment of attainable remediation objectives at mine sites.

  20. Questa Baseline and Pre-Mining Ground-Water Quality Investigation. 13. Mineral Microscopy and Chemistry of Mined and Unmined Porphyry Molybdenum Mineralization Along the Red River, New Mexico: Implications for Ground- and Surface-Water Quality

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Plumlee, Geoff; Lowers, Heather; Ludington, Steve; Koenig, Alan; Briggs, Paul

    2005-01-01

    This report is one in a series presenting results of an interdisciplinary U.S. Geological Survey (USGS) study of ground-water quality in the lower Red River watershed prior to open-pit and underground molybdenite mining at Molycorp's Questa mine. The stretch of the Red River watershed that extends from just upstream of the town of Red River to just above the town of Questa includes several mineralized areas in addition to the one mined by Molycorp. Natural erosion and weathering of pyrite-rich rocks in the mineralized areas has created a series of erosional scars along this stretch of the Red River that contribute acidic waters, as well as mineralized alluvial material and sediments, to the river. The overall goal of the USGS study is to infer the pre-mining ground-water quality at the Molycorp mine site. An integrated geologic, hydrologic, and geochemical model for ground water in the mineralized but unmined Straight Creek drainage is being used as an analogue for the geologic, geochemical, and hydrologic conditions that influenced ground-water quality and quantity at the mine site prior to mining. This report summarizes results of reconnaissance mineralogical and chemical characterization studies of rock samples collected from the various scars and the Molycorp open pit, and of drill cuttings or drill core from bedrock beneath the scars and adjacent debris fans.

  1. The geochemistry of water near a surficial organic-rich uranium deposit, northeastern Washington State, U.S.A.

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Zielinski, R.A.; Otton, J.K.; Wanty, R.B.; Pierson, C.T.

    1987-01-01

    The chemistry of three stream, three spring and six near-surface waters in the vicinity of a Holocene organic-rich uranium deposit is described, with particular emphasis on the chemistry of U. Results characterize the solution behavior of uranium as U-bearing water interacts with relatively undecomposed, surficial organic matter. Of the measured major and trace chemical species, only U is consistently highly enriched (17-318 ppb) relative to reported values for regional waters, or to literature values for waters in largely granitic terrains. R-mode factor analysis of the chemical data suggests that most U is present in a soluble form, but that some U is also associated with fine suspended particulates of clay, organic matter, or hydrous oxides. Calculations that apply thermodynamic data to predict U speciation in solution indicate the relative importance of uranyl carbonate and uranyl phosphate complexes. Analysis of more finely filtered samples (0.05 ??m vs. 0.45 ??m), and direct radiographic observations using fission-track detectors suspended in the waters indicate the presence of some uraniferous particulate matter. Application of existing thermodynamic data for uranous- and uranyl-bearing minerals indicates that all waters are undersaturated with U minerals as long as ambient Eh ??? +0.1 v. If coexisting surface and near-surface waters are sufficiently oxidizing, initial fixation of U in the deposit should be by a mechanism of adsorption. Alternatively, more reducing conditions may prevail in deeper pore waters of the organic-rich host sediments, perhaps leading to direct precipitation or diagenetic formation of U4+ minerals. A 234U 238U alpha activity ratio of 1.08 ?? 0.02 in a spring issuing from a hillslope above the deposit suggests a relatively soluble source of U. In contrast, higher activity ratios of 234U 238U (??? 1.3) in waters in contact with the uraniferous valley-fill sediments suggest differences in the nature of interaction between groundwater

  2. Following water and hydrated minerals along a path of MSL rover by DAN Instrument

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Litvak, M. L.; Mitrofanov, I. G.; Kozyrev, A. S.; Mokrousov, M. I.; Malakhov, A. V.; Sanin, A. B.; Tretyakov, V. I.; Vostrukhin, A. A.; Varenikov, A.

    2009-04-01

    The Dynamic Albedo of Neutrons instrument is designed to perform an in-situ analysis of the hydrogen content of the bulk Martian subsurface at depths down to 0.5-1 meter. DAN is also designed to perform an in-situ analysis of the layering structure of hydrogen bearing minerals (or water) in the Martian subsurface, with horizontal resolution up to 1 m as MSL traverses on Mars. In 2008 the flight model of DAN has been assembled, tested, calibrated and delivered to Jet Propulsion laboratory (USA, NASA) for the integration with MSL rover. But in the end of 2008 NASA has announced decision to shift launch of MSL to 2011. Taking this into account we decided focused on the additional field tests with spare flight models of DAN to provide fine adjusting and calibration of DAN. We would like to improve our knowledge about instrument response functions and its sensitivity to the presence of Hydrogen in the different form (water, chemically bound water, hydrated materials) and in the different soils (various compositions and structure). The first results of the field tests including sensitivity to the layered regolith and discovery of water rich spots along MSL path are already presented in this investigation. In addition we also discussed the different possibilities to perform field tests with DAN instrument in Martian like conditions (dry deserts, permafrost areas, Antarctica). Based on first field tests and calibrations we have created numerical model of DAN which can be used for various predictions showing how DAN will be able to find water and locations of layered deposits of hydrated minerals. The most interesting areas of such investigation are MSL landing cite candidates (Nili Fossae Trough, Holden crater fan, Mawrth Vallis, Eberswalde Crater, Miyamoto, S Meridiani, Gale Crater) selected during last MSL landing site workshop. Practically all of these candidates are considered (based on the orbital observations from MGS, Odyssey, Mars Express and MRO missions) as a

  3. Mineral concentration of livestock water varies from surface to ground sources in Eastern Montana

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Mineral content of water drank by livestock grazing native rangelands can be an important source of minerals affecting health and drinkability. To estimate water intake contribution, fifteen indicators of water quality were measured at 98 livestock water sites in May 2009 at the 22,257 ha USDA-ARS F...

  4. Mineral concentration of livestock water varies from surfaceto ground sources in Eastern Montana

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Mineral content of water drank by livestock grazing native rangelands can be an important source of minerals affecting health and drinkability. To estimate water intake contribution, fifteen indicators of water quality were measured at 98 livestock water sites in May 2009 at the 22,257 ha USDA-ARS F...

  5. Gas-rich minerals in the Allende meteorite - Attempted chemical characterization

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Gros, J.; Anders, E.

    1977-01-01

    A ten-step etching experiment with HNO3 was performed on a chromite-carbon residue from Allende, in order to characterize the HNO3-soluble minor phase 'Q' that contains most of the primordial Ar, Kr, and Xe. Each etch fraction was analyzed by neutron activation analysis for Cr, Fe, Co, Ir, and Au. The results suggest that Q consists of two minerals, each comprising about 5 per cent of the residue. Phase Q1, of Fe/Cr ratio greater than 20, is soluble in cold dilute HNO3 and seems to contain most of the heavy noble gases. It may be an HCl-insoluble sulfide of nominal composition (Fe84Ni12Cr4)Sx. Phase Q2, of Fe/Cr ratio about 0.5 and somewhat enriched in Co, is slowly soluble in hot concentrated HNO3 and seems to be at least an order of magnitude poorer in heavy noble gases than Q1. It may be daubre-elite or an acid-soluble variety of chromite.

  6. Transformation of dense AgI into a silver-rich framework iodide using thiophenol as mineralizer

    SciTech Connect

    Zhang, Ren-Chun; Zhang, You-Juan; Yuan, Bai-Qing; Miao, Jun-Peng; Pei, Bao-Hua; Liu, Pan-Pan; Wang, Jun-Jie Zhang, Dao-Jun

    2014-12-15

    A new three-dimensional framework iodide, (DabcoH){sub 2}[(Dabco){sub 2}Ag{sub 14}I{sub 16}] (1), was solvothermal synthesized by transformation of dense AgI using p-methylthiophenol as mineralizer, and characterized by elemental analysis, single-crystal and powder X-ray diffraction, thermogravimetric analysis, differential scanning calorimetry analysis, UV–vis diffuse reflectance spectroscopy and fluorescence spectroscopy. Compound 1 crystallizes in the trigonal space group R-3c, a=13.4452(2) Å, c=63.725(2) Å, V=9976.5(4) Å{sup 3}, Z=6. It features a 3D silver-rich [(Dabco){sub 2}Ag{sub 14}I{sub 16}]{sup 2−} anionic framework built up from corner-sharing of hybrid [(Dabco){sub 2}Ag{sub 14}I{sub 19}]{sup 5−} clusters, with protonated DabcoH{sup +} as counterions residing in the channels. UV–vis reflectance spectroscopy reveals the band gap of 1 is 3.3 eV. Compound 1 exhibits a strong photoluminescent emission band at 567 nm upon excitation at 489 nm. - Graphical abstract: A new 3-D iodoargentate was synthesized by transformation of dense AgI in I{sup −}-deficient system using thiophenol as mineralizer. - Highlights: • We have developed a new method to synthesize iodide using thiophenol as mineralizer. • A new 3D iodide, (DabcoH){sub 2}[(Dabco){sub 2}Ag{sub 14}I{sub 16}], was synthesized by transformation of dense AgI under solvothermal condition. • The compound features a 3D Ag–I framework with highest Ag/I ratio. • Compound 1 is a semiconductor with the band gap of 3.3 eV. • Compound 1 exhibits a strong photoluminescent emission band at 567 nm upon excitation at 489 nm.

  7. Origin of the fluorine-rich highly differentiated granites from the Qianlishan composite plutons (South China) and implications for polymetallic mineralization

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Chen, Bin; Ma, Xinghua; Wang, Zhiqiang

    2014-10-01

    Many composite granite plutons occur in South China, accompanied by large-scale polymetallic mineralization. Each composite pluton is composed of main-phase granite and late-stage highly differentiated granite. Traditionally, the highly differentiated granite is thought to be residual melt of the former via fractionation, and ore-forming materials and fluids are from granite magma itself. We propose a different model for the origin of the granites and related mineralization, based on petrological and geochemical studies on the Qianlishan composite plutons that host the supergiant Shizhuyuan W-Sn-Bi-Mo deposit. The main-phase granite shows features of normal granites, while the highly differentiated granite is characterized by F-rich, water-deficient, low fO2, alkalinity, REE tetrad effect, and modified behavior of some trace elements, e.g., very high K/Ba and low K/Rb and Zr/Hf ratios. We suggest that the parent magma of the highly differentiated granite was derived from melting of dominantly lower crustal rocks, triggered by underplating of a new pulse of basaltic magmas; small amounts of basaltic magmas and volatiles such as fluorine were involved in the source of the granite. Addition of fluorine lowered the solidus temperature and viscosity of granite magma, and thus prolonged the process of magma evolution. This resulted in extreme fractional crystallization, and intense interaction between melt and circulating waters from country rocks, forming the unusual geochemical features of the granite. The high temperature circulating waters, along with metamorphic fluids released from deep crustal rocks, subsequently, extract ore-forming metals from country rocks through forming F-bearing complexation, forming the polymetallic deposits.

  8. Transport properties of interfacial Si-rich layers formed on silicate minerals during weathering: Implications for environmental concerns

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Daval, Damien; Rémusat, Laurent; Bernard, Sylvain; Wild, Bastien; Micha, Jean-Sébastien; Rieutord, François; Fernandez-Martinez, Alejandro

    2015-04-01

    The dissolution of silicate minerals is of primary importance for various processes ranging from chemical weathering to CO2 sequestration. Whether it determines the rates of soil formation, CO2 uptake and its impact on climate change, channeling caused by hydrothermal circulation in reservoirs of geothermal power plants, durability of radioactive waste confinement glasses or geological sequestration of CO2, the same strategy is commonly applied for determining the long term evolution of fluid-rock interactions. This strategy relies on a bottom-up approach, where the kinetic rate laws governing silicate mineral dissolution are determined from laboratory experiments. However, a long-standing problem regarding this approach stems from the observation that laboratory-derived dissolution rates overestimate their field counterparts by orders of magnitude, casting doubt on the accuracy and relevance of predictions based on reactive-transport simulations. Recently [1], it has been suggested that taking into account the formation of amorphous Si-rich surface layers (ASSL) as a consequence of mineral dissolution may contribute to decrease the large gap existing between laboratory and natural rates. Our ongoing study is aimed at deciphering the extent to which ASSL may represent a protective entity which affects the dissolution rate of the underlying minerals, both physically (passivation) and chemically (by promoting the formation of a local chemical medium which significantly differs from that of the bulk solution). Our strategy relies on the nm-scale measurement of the physicochemical properties (diffusivity, thickness and density) of ASSL formed on cleavages of a model mineral (wollastonite) and their evolution as a function of reaction progress. Our preliminary results indicate that the diffusivity of nm-thick ASSL formed on wollastonite surface is ~1,000,000 times smaller than that reported for an aqueous medium, as estimated from the monitoring of the progression of a

  9. Biomass and habitability potential of clay minerals- and iron-rich environments: Testing novel analogs for Mars Science Laboratory landing sites candidates

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Bonaccorsi, Rosalba; McKay, Christopher P.; Chen, Bin

    2010-06-01

    The landing site of the next mission to Mars (the US 2011 Mars Science Laboratory) will include phyllosilicate outcrops as targets for investigating the geological and biological history of the planet. In this context, we present a preliminary study assessing the living biomass and habitability potential in mineralogical Mars analogs by means of multi-component investigations (X-ray diffraction, microRaman spectroscopy and SEMEDX). Phyllosilicate and hematite-rich deposits from the Atacama Desert (Chile), Death Valley (CA), and the California Coast, encompassing a broad arid to hyper-arid climate range (annual rainfall <0.2 to ∼700 mm/year), were analyzed for total and viable Gram-negative biomass, i.e. adenosine 5‧-triphosphate (ATP) and Limulus amebocyte lysate (LAL) assays. Basic observations were: (1) there is no systematic pattern in biomass content of clay-rich versus non-clay (oxidized) materials; (2) Atacama desiccation polygons (6.0 × 104 cells/g) and contiguous hematite-rich deposits contain the lowest biomass (1.2 × 105 cells/g), which is even lower than that of coarse-grained soil nearby (3.3-5.0 × 105 cells/g); (3) the Atacama clay-rich samples (illite-muscovite and kaolinite) are three orders of magnitude lower than surface clay (montmorillonite, illite, and chlorite) from Death Valley; and (4) finally, and unexpectedly, the Gram-negative content (∼6.4 × 107 cells/g) of clay mineral-rich materials from the arid Death Valley region is up to six times higher than that (∼1.5 to ∼3.0 × 107 cells/g) of water-saturated massive clays (kaolinite, illite and montmorillonite) from the California Coast (wetter end-member). MicroRaman spectroscopy investigation on a Death Valley sample indicates that gypsum (1008, 618, and 414 cm-1 Raman shift), and inferred associated organic (scytonemin) biosignatures (1281 cm-1) for the measured Gram-negatives (cyanobacteria) were successfully captured.

  10. Radiological of natural and mineral drinking waters in Slovenia.

    PubMed

    Benedik, L; Jeran, Z

    2012-08-01

    Various types of water were collected in Slovenia and analysed in order to assess the radiation doses from (238)U, (234)U, (228)Ra, (226)Ra, (210)Pb and (210)Po for three different age groups of the population. It was found in all cases that the calculated median committed effective dose from the investigated radionuclides for each population group was well below the recommended value of 100 µSv y(-1), ranging from 4 to 7 µSv y(-1) for adults, from 8 to 10 µSv y(-1) for children and from 6 to 7 µSv y(-1) for infants. Of the investigated groups of the population children are the most exposed with the highest absolute doses of 19.1 and 18.7 µSv y(-1) after drinking a certain bottled brand of mineral and natural water, respectively. The contribution of each particular radionuclide to total doses varied among different water types and within each type, as well as between different age groups.

  11. A Mineral-Rich Extract from the Red Marine Algae Lithothamnion calcareum Preserves Bone Structure and Function in Female Mice on a Western-Style Diet

    PubMed Central

    Aslam, Muhammad Nadeem; Kreider, Jaclynn M.; Paruchuri, Tejaswi; Bhagavathula, Narasimharao; DaSilva, Marissa; Zernicke, Ronald F.; Goldstein, Steven A.; Varani, James

    2010-01-01

    The purpose of this study was to determine whether a mineral-rich extract derived from the red marine algae Lithothamnion calcareum could be used as a dietary supplement for prevention of bone mineral loss. Sixty C57BL/6 mice were divided into three groups based on diet: the first group received a high-fat Western-style diet (HFWD), the second group was fed the same HFWD along with the mineral-rich extract included as a dietary supplement, and the third group was used as a control and was fed a low-fat rodent chow diet (AIN76A). Mice were maintained on the respective diets for 15 months. Then, long bones (femora and tibiae) from both males and females were analyzed by three-dimensional micro-computed tomography (micro-CT) and (bones from female mice) concomitantly assessed in bone strength studies. Tartrate-resistant acid phosphatase (TRAP), osteocalcin, and N-terminal peptide of type I procollagen (PINP) were assessed in plasma samples obtained from female mice at the time of sacrifice. To summarize, female mice on the HFWD had reduced bone mineralization and reduced bone strength relative to female mice on the low-fat chow diet. The bone defects in female mice on the HFWD were overcome in the presence of the mineral-rich supplement. In fact, female mice receiving the mineral-rich supplement in the HFWD had better bone structure/function than did female mice on the low-fat chow diet. Female mice on the mineral-supplemented HFWD had higher plasma levels of TRAP than mice of the other groups. There were no differences in the other two markers. Male mice showed little diet-specific differences by micro-CT. PMID:20180099

  12. The composition of coexisting jarosite-group minerals and water from the Richmond mine, Iron Mountain, California

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Jamieson, H.E.; Robinson, C.; Alpers, C.N.; Nordstrom, D.K.; Poustovetov, A.; Lowers, H.A.

    2005-01-01

    Jarosite-group minerals accumulate in the form of stalactites and fine-grained mud on massive pyrite in the D drift of the Richmond mine, Iron Mountain, California. Water samples were collected by placing beakers under the dripping stalactites and by extracting pore water from the mud using a centrifuge. The water is rich in Fe3+ and SO42-, with a pH of approximately 2.1, which is significantly higher than the extremely acidic waters found elsewhere in the mine. Electron-microprobe analysis and X-ray mapping indicate that the small crystals (<10 ??m in diameter) are compositionally zoned with respect to Na and K, and include hydronium jarosite corresponding to the formula (H3O)0.6K0.3 Na0.1Fe3+3 (SO4)2(OH)6. The proton-microprobe analyses indicate that the jarosite-group minerals contain significant amounts of As, Pb and Zn, and minor levels of Bi, Rb, Sb, Se, Sn and Sr. Speciation modeling indicates that the drip waters are supersaturated with respect to jarosite-group minerals. The expected range in composition of jarosite-group solid-solution in equilibrium with the pore water extracted from the mud was found to be consistent with the observed range in composition.

  13. Evaluation of Water-Mineral Interaction Using Microfluidic Tests with Thin Sections

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Oh, Y. S.; Ryu, J. H.; Koh, Y. K.; Jo, H. Y.

    2014-12-01

    For the geological disposal of radioactive wastes, geological settings and groundwater conditions are significantly important because of their effects on a radionuclide migration. One of the preferred host rocks for the radioactive waste disposal is crystalline rock. Fractures in crystalline rocks are main fluid pathways. Groundwater reacts with fracture filling minerals in fracture zones, resulting in physicochemical changes in the minerals and groundwater. In this study, fracture filling mineral-groundwater interactions were investigated by conducting microfluidic tests using thin sections at various conditions (i.e., fluid chemistry and flow rate). Groundwater and rock core samples collected from the KAERI Underground Research Tunnel (KURT) located in the Korea Atomic Energy Research Institute (KAERI) were used in this study. Dominant bedrock is two-mica granite, which contains both biotite and muscovite. Secondary minerals (e.g., chlorite, calcite and clay minerals) occur in fracture and alteration zones. In nature, water-mineral interactions generally take long time. Microfluidic tests were conducted to simulate water-mineral interactions in shorter time with smaller scale. Thin sections of fracture filling minerals, minerals from alteration zones, and natural and synthetic groundwater samples were used for the microfluidic tests. Results showed that water-mineral interactions at various conditions caused changes in groundwater chemistry, dissolution of minerals, precipitation of secondary minerals, and formation of colloids, which can affect radionuclide migration. In addition, the fluid chemistry and flow rate affected characteristics of water-rock interactions.

  14. The effect of mineral bond strength and adsorbed water on fault gouge frictional strength

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Morrow, C.A.; Moore, Diane E.; Lockner, D.A.

    2000-01-01

    Recent studies suggest that the tendency of many fault gouge minerals to take on adsorbed or interlayer water may strongly influence their frictional strength. To test this hypothesis, triaxial sliding experiments were conducted on 15 different single-mineral gouges with various water-adsorbing affinities. Vacuum dried samples were sheared at 100 MPa, then saturated with water and sheared farther to compare dry and wet strengths. The coefficients of friction, μ, for the dry sheet-structure minerals (0.2-0.8), were related to mineral bond strength, and dropped 20-60% with the addition of water. For non-adsorbing minerals (μ = 0.6-0.8), the strength remained unchanged after saturation. These results confirm that the ability of minerals to adsorb various amounts of water is related to their relative frictional strengths, and may explain the anomalously low strength of certain natural fault gouges.

  15. Hydrolysis of organic esters at the mineral/water interface

    SciTech Connect

    Torrents, A.

    1992-01-01

    Organic esters are widely used as insecticides and are part of many commercial products and industrial processes. When these compounds are released into the environment, they contaminate natural resources. To assess their fate and transport it is important to explore degradation and retainment processes. Numerous previous studies have studied the role of adsorption in lowering pollutant concentration and retarding pollutant migration into soils. However, adsorption at the mineral/water interface also affects the mechanisms of degradation and reaction rates. This dissertation research focuses on the ability of metal oxides to catalyze ester hydrolysis and a reaction mechanism is proposed. Furthermore, the authors studied the role of natural occurring adsorbates on the reaction rates. The oxides used in this study are amorphous silica (SiO[sub 2]), [gamma]-aluminum oxide (Al[sub 2]O[sub 3]), anatase (TiO[sub 2]), and geothite (FeOOH). These either occur naturally, or are similar to naturally occurring surfaces. The capability of such oxides to catalyze ester hydrolysis was studied in batch reactors. The organic compounds investigated were carboxylic acid esters and organophosphate pesticides. The hydrolysis of several esters was catalyzed by the presence of oxide suspensions; the extent of catalysis was dependent on the ester structure, the metal oxide, and solution composition. Results suggest that catalysis for carboxylate esters occurs via a surface chelate formation between the carbonyl oxygen, a second donor group of the ester and the surface metal. The presence of organic co-solvents appears to diminish the catalytic effect. Inhibition of surface catalysis was also observed from specific adsorption of naturally occurring ions onto the oxide surface. Natural organic matter was also observed to influence surface catalysis. This research suggests that mineral surfaces may have a role in abiotic transformations of organic pollutants.

  16. Discharge, water temperature, and water quality of Warm Mineral Springs, Sarasota County, Florida: A retrospective analysis

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Metz, Patricia A.

    2016-09-27

    Warm Mineral Springs, located in southern Sarasota County, Florida, is a warm, highly mineralized, inland spring. Since 1946, a bathing spa has been in operation at the spring, attracting vacationers and health enthusiasts. During the winter months, the warm water attracts manatees to the adjoining spring run and provides vital habitat for these mammals. Well-preserved late Pleistocene to early Holocene-age human and animal bones, artifacts, and plant remains have been found in and around the spring, and indicate the surrounding sinkhole formed more than 12,000 years ago. The spring is a multiuse resource of hydrologic importance, ecological and archeological significance, and economic value to the community.The pool of Warm Mineral Springs has a circular shape that reflects its origin as a sinkhole. The pool measures about 240 feet in diameter at the surface and has a maximum depth of about 205 feet. The sinkhole developed in the sand, clay, and dolostone of the Arcadia Formation of the Miocene-age to Oligocene-age Hawthorn Group. Underlying the Hawthorn Group are Oligocene-age to Eocene-age limestones and dolostones, including the Suwannee Limestone, Ocala Limestone, and Avon Park Formation. Mineralized groundwater, under artesian pressure in the underlying aquifers, fills the remnant sink, and the overflow discharges into Warm Mineral Springs Creek, to Salt Creek, and subsequently into the Myakka River. Aquifers described in the vicinity of Warm Mineral Springs include the surficial aquifer system, the intermediate aquifer system within the Hawthorn Group, and the Upper Floridan aquifer in the Suwannee Limestone, Ocala Limestone, and Avon Park Formation. The Hawthorn Group acts as an upper confining unit of the Upper Floridan aquifer.Groundwater flow paths are inferred from the configuration of the potentiometric surface of the Upper Floridan aquifer for September 2010. Groundwater flow models indicate the downward flow of water into the Upper Floridan aquifer

  17. Deconstructing responses of dragonfly species richness to area, nutrients, water plant diversity and forestry.

    PubMed

    Honkanen, Merja; Sorjanen, Aili-Maria; Mönkkönen, Mikko

    2011-06-01

    Understanding large-scale variation in species richness in relation to area, energy, habitat heterogeneity and anthropogenic disturbance has been a major task in ecology. Ultimately, variation in species richness results from variation in individual species occupancies. We studied whether the individual species occupancy patterns are determined by the same candidate factors as total species richness. We sampled 26 boreal forest ponds for dragonflies (Odonata) and studied the effects of shoreline length, water vascular plant species density (WVPSD), availability of nutrients, intensity of forestry, amount of Sphagnum peat cover and pH on dragonfly species richness and individual dragonfly species. WVPSD and pH had a strong positive effect on species richness. Removal of six dragonfly species experiencing strongest responses to WVPSD cancelled the relationship between species richness and WVPSD. By contrast, removal of nine least observed species did not affect the relationship between WVPSD and species richness. Thus, our results showed that relatively common species responding strongly to WVPSD shaped the observed species richness pattern whereas the effect of least observed, often rare, species was negligible. Also, our results support the view that, despite of the great impact of energy on species richness at large spatial scales, habitat heterogeneity can still have an effect on species richness in smaller scales, even overriding the effects of area.

  18. Neodymium isotope equilibration during crustal metamorphism revealed by in situ microanalysis of REE-rich accessory minerals

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Hammerli, J.; Kemp, A. I. S.; Spandler, C.

    2014-04-01

    Radiogenic isotopes are widely used to investigate crustal evolutionary processes, however recent claims of Nd and Sr isotope disequilibrium during anatexis question the reliability of such information. We have conducted an in situ Sm-Nd isotope study of apatite, allanite, titanite, xenotime and monazite in metasedimentary rocks of different metamorphic grade to test Nd isotope equilibrium during metamorphism. Our results show that apatite retains an original, probably detrital, highly variable Nd isotopic signature until at least 500 °C before being isotopically homogenised, irrespective of textural context within the rock. Once equilibrated, apatite retains its Nd isotope signature throughout anatexis. In contrast, allanite and titanite are equilibrated at temperatures as low as 350-400 °C. REE-rich accessory minerals in high-grade rocks (∼600 °C) show very similar initial εNd values at the time of metamorphism. We conclude that under these metamorphic conditions Nd isotope disequilibrium between crustal melts and metasedimentary sources is unlikely. Intra-grain Nd isotope zoning of monazite indicates that partial melting was open system, involving the injection of externally-derived melt into migmatites. This process, likely to be common in anatectic terranes but not always obvious at hand-specimen scale or from bulk rock geochemical data, can produce isotope variation that could potentially be misinterpreted as disequilibrium between the melt and its protolith.

  19. Transformation of dense AgI into a silver-rich framework iodide using thiophenol as mineralizer

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Zhang, Ren-Chun; Zhang, You-Juan; Yuan, Bai-Qing; Miao, Jun-Peng; Pei, Bao-Hua; Liu, Pan-Pan; Wang, Jun-Jie; Zhang, Dao-Jun

    2014-12-01

    A new three-dimensional framework iodide, (DabcoH)2[(Dabco)2Ag14I16] (1), was solvothermal synthesized by transformation of dense AgI using p-methylthiophenol as mineralizer, and characterized by elemental analysis, single-crystal and powder X-ray diffraction, thermogravimetric analysis, differential scanning calorimetry analysis, UV-vis diffuse reflectance spectroscopy and fluorescence spectroscopy. Compound 1 crystallizes in the trigonal space group R-3c, a=13.4452(2) Å, c=63.725(2) Å, V=9976.5(4) Å3, Z=6. It features a 3D silver-rich [(Dabco)2Ag14I16]2- anionic framework built up from corner-sharing of hybrid [(Dabco)2Ag14I19]5- clusters, with protonated DabcoH+ as counterions residing in the channels. UV-vis reflectance spectroscopy reveals the band gap of 1 is 3.3 eV. Compound 1 exhibits a strong photoluminescent emission band at 567 nm upon excitation at 489 nm.

  20. Efficacy and tolerability of hydrogen carbonate-rich water for heartburn

    PubMed Central

    Beer, André-Michael; Uebelhack, Ralf; Pohl, Ute

    2016-01-01

    requested and were analyzed as ITT population. The occurrence of heartburn was statistically significantly reduced at wk 6 in both the ITT and the PP populations. At wk 6, the mean number of heartburn episodes/week decreased by 5.1 episodes (P < 0.001) and the mean duration of heartburn symptoms by 19 min (ITT) (P = 0.002). The frequency of heartburn symptoms was reduced in 89.6% of the patients (P < 0.001), and the duration of symptoms in 79.2% of patients (ITT) (P < 0.001). All dimensions of the RDQ (heartburn, regurgitation, gastro-esophageal reflux disease symptoms, dyspepsia) showed a significant improvement at 6 wk. Likewise, disease-specific quality of life improved significantly (QOLRAD, GIQLI). Overall, 89.4% of patients rated the efficacy of the test water as “good” or “very good”, as did the investigators for 91.5% of the patients. There were no serious AEs. After 6 wk, systolic and diastolic blood pressure values decreased slightly but significantly [-3.5 and -3.0 mmHg, respectively (P = 0.008 and P = 0,002)]. Ninety-six percent of patients and investigators for the same percentage of patients rated the tolerability of the water as “good” or “very good”. CONCLUSION: The data demonstrate effectiveness of a hydrogen carbonate-rich mineral water in alleviating heartburn frequency and severity, thereby improving quality of life. The water has excellent tolerability. PMID:26909240

  1. Mineral inventory of continuously erupting basaltic andesites at Arenal volcano, Costa Rica: implications for interpreting monotonous, crystal-rich, mafic arc stratigraphies

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Streck, Martin J.; Dungan, Michael A.; Bussy, Francois; Malavassi, Eduardo

    2005-01-01

    Except for the first 2 years since July 29, 1968, Arenal volcano has continuously erupted compositionally monotonous and phenocryst-rich (˜35%) basaltic andesites composed of plagioclase (plag), orthopyroxene (opx), clinopyroxene (cpx), spinel±olivine. Detailed textural and compositional analyses of phenocrysts, mineral inclusions, and microlites reveal comparable complexities in any given sample and identify mineral components that require a minimum of four crystallization environments. We suggest three distinct crystallization environments crystallized low Mg# (<78) silicate phases from andesitic magma but at different physical conditions, such as variable pressure of crystallization and water conditions. The dominant environment, i.e., the one which accounts for the majority of minerals and overprinted all other assemblages near rims of phenocrysts, cocrystallized clinopyroxene (Mg# ˜71-78), orthopyroxene (Mg# ˜71-78), titanomagnetite and plagioclase (An 60 to An 85). The second environment cocrystallized clinopyroxene (Mg# 71-78), olivine (7) Al/Ti and high (>4 wt.%) Al 2O 3, titanomagnetite with considerable Al 2O 3 (10-18 wt.%) and possibly olivine but appears to lack plagioclase. A fourth crystallization environment is characterized by clinopyroxene (e.g., Mg#=˜78-85; Cr 2O 3=0.15-0.7 wt.%), Al-, Cr-rich spinel, olivine (˜Fo 80), and in some circumstances high-An (>80) plagioclase. This assemblage seems to record mafic inputs into the Arenal system and crystallization at high to low pressures. Single crystals cannot be completely classified as xenocrysts, antecrysts (cognate crystals), or phenocrysts, because they often contain different parts each representing a different crystallization environment and thus belong to different categories. Bulk compositions are mostly too mafic to have crystallized the bulk of

  2. Optimal measures for characterizing water-rich super-Earths

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Madhusudhan, Nikku; Redfield, Seth

    2015-04-01

    The detection and atmospheric characterization of super-Earths is one of the major frontiers of exoplanetary science. Currently, extensive efforts are underway to detect molecules, particularly H2O, in super-Earth atmospheres. In the present work, we develop a systematic set of strategies to identify and observe potentially H2O-rich super-Earths that provide the best prospects for characterizing their atmospheres using existing instruments. First, we provide analytic prescriptions and discuss factors that need to be taken into account while planning and interpreting observations of super-Earth radii and spectra. We discuss how observations in different spectral bandpasses constrain different atmospheric properties of a super-Earth, including radius and temperature of the planetary surface as well as the mean molecular mass, the chemical composition and thermal profile of the atmosphere. In particular, we caution that radii measured in certain bandpasses can induce biases in the interpretation of the interior compositions. Second, we investigate the detectability of H2O-rich super-Earth atmospheres using the Hubble Space Telescope Wide Field Camera 3 spectrograph as a function of the planetary properties and stellar brightness. We find that highly irradiated super-Earths orbiting bright stars, such as 55 Cancri e, present better candidates for atmospheric characterization compared to cooler planets such as GJ 1214b even if the latter orbit lower-mass stars. Besides being better candidates for both transmission and emission spectroscopy, hotter planets offer higher likelihood of cloud-free atmospheres which aid tremendously in the observation and interpretation of spectra. Finally, we present case studies of two super-Earths, GJ 1214b and 55 Cancri e, using available data and models of their interiors and atmospheres.

  3. Influence of Seasonal and Geochemical Changes on the Geomicrobiology of an Iron Carbonate Mineral Water Spring

    PubMed Central

    Hegler, Florian; Lösekann-Behrens, Tina; Hanselmann, Kurt; Behrens, Sebastian

    2012-01-01

    Fuschna Spring in the Swiss Alps (Engadin region) is a bicarbonate iron(II)-rich, pH-neutral mineral water spring that is dominated visually by dark green microbial mats at the side of the flow channel and orange iron(III) (oxyhydr)oxides in the flow channel. Gradients of O2, dissolved iron(II), and bicarbonate establish in the water. Our goals were to identify the dominating biogeochemical processes and to determine to which extent changing geochemical conditions along the flow path and seasonal changes influence mineral identity, crystallinity, and microbial diversity. Geochemical analysis showed microoxic water at the spring outlet which became fully oxygenated within 2.3 m downstream. X-ray diffraction and Mössbauer spectroscopy revealed calcite (CaCO3) and ferrihydrite [Fe(OH)3] to be the dominant minerals which increased in crystallinity with increasing distance from the spring outlet. Denaturing gradient gel electrophoresis banding pattern cluster analysis revealed that the microbial community composition shifted mainly with seasons and to a lesser extent along the flow path. 16S rRNA gene sequence analysis showed that microbial communities differ between the flow channel and the flanking microbial mat. Microbial community analysis in combination with most-probable-number analyses and quantitative PCR (qPCR) showed that the mat was dominated by cyanobacteria and the channel was dominated by microaerophilic Fe(II) oxidizers (1.97 × 107 ± 4.36 × 106 16S rRNA gene copies g−1 using Gallionella-specific qPCR primers), while high numbers of Fe(III) reducers (109 cells/g) were identified in both the mat and the flow channel. Phototrophic and nitrate-reducing Fe(II) oxidizers were present as well, although in lower numbers (103 to 104 cells/g). In summary, our data suggest that mainly seasonal changes caused microbial community shifts, while geochemical gradients along the flow path influenced mineral crystallinity. PMID:22865064

  4. An Intervention with Mineral Water Decreases Cardiometabolic Risk Biomarkers. A Crossover, Randomised, Controlled Trial with Two Mineral Waters in Moderately Hypercholesterolaemic Adults.

    PubMed

    Toxqui, Laura; Vaquero, M Pilar

    2016-01-01

    Water intake is essential for health maintenance and disease prevention. The effects of an intervention with two mineral waters, sodium-bicarbonated mineral water (BW) or control mineral water low in mineral content (CW), on cardiometabolic risk biomarkers were studied. In a randomised-controlled crossover-trial, sixty-four moderately hypercholesterolaemic adults were randomly assigned to consume 1 L/day of either BW (sodium, 1 g/L; bicarbonate, 2 g/L) or CW with the main meals for eight weeks, separated by an eight-week washout period. Blood lipids, lipid oxidation, glucose, insulin, aldosterone, urine pH, urinary electrolytes, blood pressure, body weight, fluid intake, energy, and nutrients from total diet and beverages were determined. Total cholesterol, LDL cholesterol, and glucose decreased (p < 0.01), oxidised LDL tended to decrease (p = 0.073), and apolipoprotein B increased during the intervention, without water type effect. Energy and carbohydrates from beverages decreased since soft drinks and fruit juice consumptions decreased throughout the trial. BW increased urinary pH (p = 0.006) and reduced calcium/creatinine excretion (p = 0.011). Urinary potassium/creatinine decreased with both waters. Consumption of 1 L/day of mineral water with the main meals reduces cardiometabolic risk biomarkers, likely to be attributed to a replacement of soft drinks by water. In addition, BW does not affect blood pressure and exerts a moderate alkalizing effect in the body. PMID:27367723

  5. An Intervention with Mineral Water Decreases Cardiometabolic Risk Biomarkers. A Crossover, Randomised, Controlled Trial with Two Mineral Waters in Moderately Hypercholesterolaemic Adults

    PubMed Central

    Toxqui, Laura; Vaquero, M. Pilar

    2016-01-01

    Water intake is essential for health maintenance and disease prevention. The effects of an intervention with two mineral waters, sodium-bicarbonated mineral water (BW) or control mineral water low in mineral content (CW), on cardiometabolic risk biomarkers were studied. In a randomised-controlled crossover-trial, sixty-four moderately hypercholesterolaemic adults were randomly assigned to consume 1 L/day of either BW (sodium, 1 g/L; bicarbonate, 2 g/L) or CW with the main meals for eight weeks, separated by an eight-week washout period. Blood lipids, lipid oxidation, glucose, insulin, aldosterone, urine pH, urinary electrolytes, blood pressure, body weight, fluid intake, energy, and nutrients from total diet and beverages were determined. Total cholesterol, LDL cholesterol, and glucose decreased (p < 0.01), oxidised LDL tended to decrease (p = 0.073), and apolipoprotein B increased during the intervention, without water type effect. Energy and carbohydrates from beverages decreased since soft drinks and fruit juice consumptions decreased throughout the trial. BW increased urinary pH (p = 0.006) and reduced calcium/creatinine excretion (p = 0.011). Urinary potassium/creatinine decreased with both waters. Consumption of 1 L/day of mineral water with the main meals reduces cardiometabolic risk biomarkers, likely to be attributed to a replacement of soft drinks by water. In addition, BW does not affect blood pressure and exerts a moderate alkalizing effect in the body. PMID:27367723

  6. The interaction between decomposition, net N and P mineralization and their mobilization to the surface water in fens.

    PubMed

    Geurts, Jeroen J M; Smolders, Alfons J P; Banach, Artur M; van de Graaf, Jan P M; Roelofs, Jan G M; Lamers, Leon P M

    2010-06-01

    Worldwide, fens and peat lakes that used to be peat-forming systems have become a significant source of C, N and P due to increased peat decomposition. To test the hypothesis that net nutrient mineralization rates may be uncoupled from decomposition rates, we investigated decomposition and net mineralization rates of nutrients in relation to sediment and pore water characteristics. We incubated 28 non-calcareous peat sediments and floating fen soils under aerobic and anaerobic conditions. We also tried to find a simple indicator to estimate the potential nutrient mobilization rates from peat sediments to the water layer by studying their relation with sediment and pore water characteristics in 44 Dutch non-calcareous peat lakes and ditches. Decomposition rates were primarily determined by the organic matter content, and were higher under aerobic conditions. However, highly decomposed peat sediments with low C:P and C:N ratios still showed high net nutrient mineralization rates. At Fe:PO(4) ratios below 1molmol(-1), PO(4) mobilization from the sediment to the water layer was considerable and linearly related to the pore water PO(4) concentration. At higher ratios, there was a strong linear correlation between the Fe:PO(4) ratio and PO(4) mobilization. Hence, measuring Fe and PO(4) in anaerobic sediment pore water provides a powerful tool for a quick assessment of internal PO(4) fluxes. Mobilization of mineral N was largely determined by diffusion. Total sediment Fe:S ratios gave an important indication of the amount of Fe that is available to immobilize PO(4). Pore water Fe concentrations decreased at ratios <1molmol(-1), whereas pore water PO(4) concentrations and PO(4) mobilization to the water layer increased. As PO(4) mobilization rates from the sediment to the water layer contribute to almost half of the total P load in Dutch peat lakes and fens, it is of pivotal importance to examine the magnitude of internal fluxes. Dredging of the nutrient-rich upper

  7. Water-bearing minerals on mars: source of observed mid-latitude water?

    SciTech Connect

    Bish, D. L.; Carey, J. W.; Fialips, C. I.

    2003-01-01

    The Odyssey spacecraft documented the existence of heterogeneously distributed hydrogen at martian mid-latitudes, suggesting that large areas of the near-equatorial highlands contain near-surface deposits of 'chemically and/or physically bound H20 and/or OH' in amounts up to 3 .8% equivalent H20. Shallow occurrences of water ice are not stable near the martian equator, making the hydrogen deposits at these latitudes somewhat enigmatic. Clay minerals and zeolites have both been proposed as possible water-bearing constituents on Mars, and both are common terrestrial alteration products of hydrovolcanic basaltic ashes and palagonitic material comparable to those that may be widespread on Mars. Smectites within martian meteorites, attributed to hydrous alteration on Mars rather than on Earth, provide direct evidence of clay minerals from Mars. In addition, new thermal emission spectrometer (TES) data provide good evidence for unspecified zeolites in martian surface dust [6] . The nature of the hydrogen-containing material observed in the equatorial martian regolith is of particular importance to the question of whether hydrous minerals have formed in the past on Mars. Also, whether these minerals exist in a hydrated (i .e., containing H2O molecules in their structures) or dehydrated state is a crucial question . The existence of hydrous minerals is also important in connection with their possible role in affecting the diurnal variation of the martian atmosphere, in their potential role in unraveling the paleohydrology and paleobiology of Mars, and in their possible use as a water resource to support exploration of the martian mid-latitudes.

  8. Effects of hydrogen-rich water on aging periodontal tissues in rats

    PubMed Central

    Tomofuji, Takaaki; Kawabata, Yuya; Kasuyama, Kenta; Endo, Yasumasa; Yoneda, Toshiki; Yamane, Mayu; Azuma, Tetsuji; Ekuni, Daisuke; Morita, Manabu

    2014-01-01

    Oxidative damage is involved in age-related inflammatory reactions. The anti-oxidative effects of hydrogen-rich water suppress oxidative damage, which may aid in inhibiting age-related inflammatory reactions. We investigated the effects of drinking hydrogen-rich water on aging periodontal tissues in healthy rats. Four-month-old male Fischer 344 rats (n = 12) were divided into two groups: the experimental group (hydrogen-rich water treatment) and the control group (distilled water treatment). The rats consumed hydrogen-rich water or distilled water until 16 months of age. The experimental group exhibited lower periodontal oxidative damage at 16 months of age than the control group. Although protein expression of interleukin-1β did not differ, gene expression of Nod-like receptor protein 3 inflammasomes was activated in periodontal tissues from the experimental group as compared with the control group. Drinking hydrogen-rich water is proposed to have anti-aging effects on periodontal oxidative damage, but not on inflammatory reactions in healthy rats. PMID:24985521

  9. Extensive, water-rich magma reservoir beneath southern Montserrat

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Edmonds, M.; Kohn, S. C.; Hauri, E. H.; Humphreys, M. C. S.; Cassidy, M.

    2016-05-01

    South Soufrière Hills and Soufrière Hills volcanoes are 2 km apart at the southern end of the island of Montserrat, West Indies. Their magmas are distinct geochemically, despite these volcanoes having been active contemporaneously at 131-129 ka. We use the water content of pyroxenes and melt inclusion data to reconstruct the bulk water contents of magmas and their depth of storage prior to eruption. Pyroxenes contain up to 281 ppm H2O, with significant variability between crystals and from core to rim in individual crystals. The Al content of the enstatites from Soufrière Hills Volcano (SHV) is used to constrain melt-pyroxene partitioning for H2O. The SHV enstatite cores record melt water contents of 6-9 wt%. Pyroxene and melt inclusion water concentration pairs from South Soufriere Hills basalts independently constrain pyroxene-melt partitioning of water and produces a comparable range in melt water concentrations. Melt inclusions recorded in plagioclase and in pyroxene contain up to 6.3 wt% H2O. When combined with realistic melt CO2 contents, the depth of magma storage for both volcanoes ranges from 5 to 16 km. The data are consistent with a vertically protracted crystal mush in the upper crust beneath the southern part of Montserrat which contains heterogeneous bodies of eruptible magma. The high water contents of the magmas suggest that they contain a high proportion of exsolved fluids, which has implications for the rheology of the mush and timescales for mush reorganisation prior to eruption. A depletion in water in the outer 50-100 μm of a subset of pyroxenes from pumices from a Vulcanian explosion at Soufrière Hills in 2003 is consistent with diffusive loss of hydrogen during magma ascent over 5-13 h. These timescales are similar to the mean time periods between explosions in 1997 and in 2003, raising the possibility that the driving force for this repetitive explosive behaviour lies not in the shallow system, but in the deeper parts of a vertically

  10. Links between climate change, water-table depth, and water chemistry in a mineralized mountain watershed

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Manning, Andrew H.; Verplanck, Philip L.; Caine,; Todd, Andrew S.

    2013-01-01

    Recent studies suggest that climate change is causing rising solute concentrations in mountain lakes and streams. These changes may be more pronounced in mineralized watersheds due to the sensitivity of sulfide weathering to changes in subsurface oxygen transport. Specific causal mechanisms linking climate change and accelerated weathering rates have been proposed, but in general remain entirely hypothetical. For mineralized watersheds, a favored hypothesis is that falling water tables caused by declining recharge rates allow an increasing volume of sulfide-bearing rock to become exposed to air, thus oxygen. Here, we test the hypothesis that falling water tables are the primary cause of an increase in metals and SO4 (100-400%) observed since 1980 in the Upper Snake River (USR), Colorado. The USR drains an alpine watershed geologically and climatologically representative of many others in mineralized areas of the western U.S. Hydrologic and chemical data collected from 2005 to 2011 in a deep monitoring well (WP1) at the top of the USR watershed are utilized. During this period, both water table depths and groundwater SO4 concentrations have generally increased in the well. A numerical model was constructed using TOUGHREACT that simulates pyrite oxidation near WP1, including groundwater flow and oxygen transport in both saturated and unsaturated zones. The modeling suggests that a falling water table could produce an increase in metals and SO4 of a magnitude similar to that observed in the USR (up to 300%). Future water table declines may produce limited increases in sulfide weathering high in the watershed because of the water table dropping below the depth of oxygen penetration, but may continue to enhance sulfide weathering lower in the watershed where water tables are shallower. Advective air (oxygen) transport in the unsaturated zone caused by seasonally variable recharge and associated water table fluctuations was found to have little influence on pyrite

  11. Do rock fragments participate to plant water and mineral nutrition?

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Korboulewsky, Nathalie; Tétégan, Marion; Besnault, Adeline; Cousin, Isabelle

    2010-05-01

    Rock fragments modify soil properties, and can be a potential reservoir of water. Besides, recent studies showed that this coarse soil fraction is chemically active, release nutrients, and could therefore be involved in biogeochemical nutrient cycles. However, these studies carried out on rock fragments, crushed pebbles or mineral particles do not answer the question whether the coarse soil fraction has significant nutritive functions. Only a couple of studies were conducted on plants, one on grass and the other on coniferous seedlings. This present work attempted to assess if pebbles may act as water and nutrient sources for poplar saplings, a deciduous species. Remoulded soils were set up in 5 L-pots with three percentages of pebbles: 0, 20, and 40% in volume. We used, as substrate either fine earth or sand (quartz), and as rock fragments either calcareous or inert pebbles (quartz). Additional modalities were settled with sand mixed with 20 and 40% pebbles enriched with nutrients. Both fine earth and calcareous pebbles were collected from the Ap horizon of a calcareous lacustrine limestone silty soil located in the central region of France. After cleaning, all pebbles were mixed to reach a bulk density in pots of 1.1 g/cm3 for the fine earth and 1.5 g/cm3 for the sand. Ten replicates were settled per modality, and one cutting of Populus robusta was planted in each. The experiment was conducted under controlled conditions. All pots were saturated at the beginning of the experiment, then irrigated by capillarity and controlled to maintain a moderate water stress. Growth and evapotranspiration were followed regularly, while water stress status was measured by stomatal conductivity every day during two drying periods of 10 days. After three months, plants were collected, separated in below- and above-ground parts for biomass and cation analysis (Ca, Mg, K). Results showed that pebbles can participate to plant nutrition, but no reduction of water stress was observed

  12. Particle Size Controls on Water Adsorption and Condensation Regimes at Mineral Surfaces.

    PubMed

    Yeşilbaş, Merve; Boily, Jean-François

    2016-01-01

    Atmospheric water vapour interacting with hydrophilic mineral surfaces can produce water films of various thicknesses and structures. In this work we show that mineral particle size controls water loadings achieved by water vapour deposition on 21 contrasting mineral samples exposed to atmospheres of up to ~16 Torr water (70% relative humidity at 25 °C). Submicrometer-sized particles hosted up to ~5 monolayers of water, while micrometer-sized particles up to several thousand monolayers. All films exhibited vibrational spectroscopic signals akin to liquid water, yet with a disrupted network of hydrogen bonds. Water adsorption isotherms were predicted using models (1- or 2- term Freundlich and Do-Do models) describing an adsorption and a condensation regime, respectively pertaining to the binding of water onto mineral surfaces and water film growth by water-water interactions. The Hygroscopic Growth Theory could also account for the particle size dependence on condensable water loadings under the premise that larger particles have a greater propensity of exhibiting of surface regions and interparticle spacings facilitating water condensation reactions. Our work should impact our ability to predict water film formation at mineral surfaces of contrasting particle sizes, and should thus contribute to our understanding of water adsorption and condensation reactions occuring in nature. PMID:27561325

  13. Particle Size Controls on Water Adsorption and Condensation Regimes at Mineral Surfaces

    PubMed Central

    Yeşilbaş, Merve; Boily, Jean-François

    2016-01-01

    Atmospheric water vapour interacting with hydrophilic mineral surfaces can produce water films of various thicknesses and structures. In this work we show that mineral particle size controls water loadings achieved by water vapour deposition on 21 contrasting mineral samples exposed to atmospheres of up to ~16 Torr water (70% relative humidity at 25 °C). Submicrometer-sized particles hosted up to ~5 monolayers of water, while micrometer-sized particles up to several thousand monolayers. All films exhibited vibrational spectroscopic signals akin to liquid water, yet with a disrupted network of hydrogen bonds. Water adsorption isotherms were predicted using models (1- or 2- term Freundlich and Do-Do models) describing an adsorption and a condensation regime, respectively pertaining to the binding of water onto mineral surfaces and water film growth by water-water interactions. The Hygroscopic Growth Theory could also account for the particle size dependence on condensable water loadings under the premise that larger particles have a greater propensity of exhibiting of surface regions and interparticle spacings facilitating water condensation reactions. Our work should impact our ability to predict water film formation at mineral surfaces of contrasting particle sizes, and should thus contribute to our understanding of water adsorption and condensation reactions occuring in nature. PMID:27561325

  14. Particle Size Controls on Water Adsorption and Condensation Regimes at Mineral Surfaces

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Yeşilbaş, Merve; Boily, Jean-François

    2016-08-01

    Atmospheric water vapour interacting with hydrophilic mineral surfaces can produce water films of various thicknesses and structures. In this work we show that mineral particle size controls water loadings achieved by water vapour deposition on 21 contrasting mineral samples exposed to atmospheres of up to ~16 Torr water (70% relative humidity at 25 °C). Submicrometer-sized particles hosted up to ~5 monolayers of water, while micrometer-sized particles up to several thousand monolayers. All films exhibited vibrational spectroscopic signals akin to liquid water, yet with a disrupted network of hydrogen bonds. Water adsorption isotherms were predicted using models (1- or 2- term Freundlich and Do-Do models) describing an adsorption and a condensation regime, respectively pertaining to the binding of water onto mineral surfaces and water film growth by water-water interactions. The Hygroscopic Growth Theory could also account for the particle size dependence on condensable water loadings under the premise that larger particles have a greater propensity of exhibiting of surface regions and interparticle spacings facilitating water condensation reactions. Our work should impact our ability to predict water film formation at mineral surfaces of contrasting particle sizes, and should thus contribute to our understanding of water adsorption and condensation reactions occuring in nature.

  15. Interaction among minerals, organics and water in comets: insights from Antarctic micrometeorites

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Nagahara, Hiroko; Noguchi, Takaaki; Yabuta, Hikaru; Itoh, Shoichi; Sakamoto, Naoya; Mitsunari, Takuya; Okubo, Aya; Okazaki, Ryuji; Nakamura, Tomoki; Tachibana, Shogo; Terada, Kentaro; Ebihara, Mitsuru; Imae, Naoya; Kimura, Makoto

    2016-04-01

    The evolution and interaction of inorganic materials and organic materials are one of the crucial issues of space science, which is also a main topic of current planetary missions. In order to clarify the early stage of evo-lution of primitive materials in the solar system, we have carried out a comprehensive study on micrometeorites collected from the Antarctica virgin snow with SEM, TEM, Carbon-, N-, and O-XANES, and SIMS. On the basis of observation, we estimate the primary materials and the sequence of aqueous reaction in the inorganic and organic materials. The most primitive materials are GEMS (amorphous silicate with Fe-metal and sulfide), small olivine and low-Ca pyroxene, and pyrrhotite, which are embedded in organic materials. The or-ganic materials are macromolecules being rich in C=O groups with subordinate amount of C≡N and/or C=N-C groups, and they accompany D and 15N enrichments. Due to the heavy hydrogen and nitrogen isotopic composi-tions, the organics are estimated to be originated at very low temperature in the molecular cloud or a prestellar environment, which also generated various organic molecules. The aqueous alteration reaction started at first in organic materials, where N-heterocycle, δD, and δ15N are lost and the organics become aromatic-rich. GEMS altered next, where metallic Fe dissolved into water to form Fe-rich saponite remaining Mg-rich amorphous silicate (Stage I). The aromaticity of the organics increases, and the chemical nature of organics becomes close to insoluble organic materials in primitive chondrites. Then, sulfide in GEMS, small olivine and low-Ca pyroxene grains, and Fe-rich saponite react with water to form Mg-rich saponite and Fe-hydroxide (Stage II). Sulfur may have been incorporated into phyllosilicate and/or organics or flew away. Finally, heterogeneous phyllosilicates at Stage II were homogenized to be Mg-rich saponite with formation of carbonate and loss of organics (Stage III). Carbon to form carbonate were

  16. [Pay attention to the human health risk of drinking low mineral water].

    PubMed

    Shu, Weiqun

    2015-10-01

    The consumption of low mineral drinking water has been increasing around the world with the shortage of water resources and the development of advanced water treatment technologies. Evidences from systematic document reviews, ecological epidemiological observations, and experimental drinking water intervention studies indicate that lack of minerals in drinking water may cause direct or indirect harm to human health, among which, the associations of magnesium in water with cardiovascular disease, as well as calcium in water with osteoporosis, are well proved by sufficient evidence. This article points out that it is urgent to pay more attention to the issues about establishment of health risk evaluation system on susceptible consuming population, establishment of lab evaluation system on water quality and health effect for non-traditional drinking water, and program of safety mineralization for demineralized or desalinated water and so on. PMID:26813714

  17. [Pay attention to the human health risk of drinking low mineral water].

    PubMed

    Shu, Weiqun

    2015-10-01

    The consumption of low mineral drinking water has been increasing around the world with the shortage of water resources and the development of advanced water treatment technologies. Evidences from systematic document reviews, ecological epidemiological observations, and experimental drinking water intervention studies indicate that lack of minerals in drinking water may cause direct or indirect harm to human health, among which, the associations of magnesium in water with cardiovascular disease, as well as calcium in water with osteoporosis, are well proved by sufficient evidence. This article points out that it is urgent to pay more attention to the issues about establishment of health risk evaluation system on susceptible consuming population, establishment of lab evaluation system on water quality and health effect for non-traditional drinking water, and program of safety mineralization for demineralized or desalinated water and so on.

  18. No evidence of complementary water use along a plant species richness gradient in temperate experimental grasslands.

    PubMed

    Bachmann, Dörte; Gockele, Annette; Ravenek, Janneke M; Roscher, Christiane; Strecker, Tanja; Weigelt, Alexandra; Buchmann, Nina

    2015-01-01

    Niche complementarity in resource use has been proposed as a key mechanism to explain the positive effects of increasing plant species richness on ecosystem processes, in particular on primary productivity. Since hardly any information is available for niche complementarity in water use, we tested the effects of plant diversity on spatial and temporal complementarity in water uptake in experimental grasslands by using stable water isotopes. We hypothesized that water uptake from deeper soil depths increases in more diverse compared to low diverse plant species mixtures. We labeled soil water in 8 cm (with 18O) and 28 cm depth (with ²H) three times during the 2011 growing season in 40 temperate grassland communities of varying species richness (2, 4, 8 and 16 species) and functional group number and composition (legumes, grasses, tall herbs, small herbs). Stable isotope analyses of xylem and soil water allowed identifying the preferential depth of water uptake. Higher enrichment in 18O of xylem water than in ²H suggested that the main water uptake was in the upper soil layer. Furthermore, our results revealed no differences in root water uptake among communities with different species richness, different number of functional groups or with time. Thus, our results do not support the hypothesis of increased complementarity in water use in more diverse than in less diverse communities of temperate grassland species.

  19. Radionuclide and chemical concentrations in mineral waters at Saratoga Springs, New York.

    PubMed

    Kitto, Michael E; Parekh, Pravin P; Torres, Miguel A; Schneider, Dominik

    2005-01-01

    A project to characterize the radionuclide and chemical components in natural spring waters in the vicinity of Saratoga Springs, New York (USA) has been completed. As a result of the measured radionuclide and chemical content, eight springs were labeled as mineral waters, whereas three springs contained very low concentrations of these components. The mineral waters were highly enriched in alkaline and alkaline-earth elements, as well as chloride ions. Three isotopes of radium ((224)Ra, (226)Ra, (228)Ra) were detected in the mineral waters and reached concentrations of 1, 20, and 2 Bq/L, respectively. Overall, the (226)Ra isotope constituted about 80% of the total radioactivity measured in the water samples. Dissolved uranium concentrations in the mineral waters were very low (mean approximately 50 mBq/L).

  20. Mineralization of biogenic materials in the water masses of the South Atlantic Ocean. II: Stoichiometric ratios and mineralization rates

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Álvarez-Salgado, X. A.; Álvarez, M.; Brea, S.; Mèmery, L.; Messias, M. J.

    2014-04-01

    The variability of nitrate (N), phosphate (P), silicate (Si) and Apparent Oxygen Utilization (AOU) due to water mass mixing was objectively separated from the variability due to mineralization of biogenic materials in the western and eastern South Atlantic Ocean on basis of the constrained Optimum MultiParameter (OMP) analysis implemented in the companion manuscript. Using a consensus linear regression model, AOU/N/P/Si mineralization ratios and the corresponding oxygen utilisation rates (OURs) were obtained for the realm of each water mass defined after the OMP analysis. Combining these results with a stoichiometric model, the organic carbon to nitrogen (C/N) ratios and the biochemical composition (carbohydrates + lipids, proteins and phosphorus compounds) of the mineralized material, were derived. The vertical variability of the AOU/N, AOU/P and AOU/C mineralization ratios pointed to a significant fractionation during the mineralization of sinking organic matter. This fractionation was confirmed by preferential consumption of organic phosphorous compounds and proteins in shallower levels, which produced an increase of the C/N ratio of the mineralised materials of 0.5 ± 0.2 mol C mol N-1 every 1000 dbar. OURs in the twilight zone decreased quadratically with the C/N molar ratio of the mineralised material and exponentially with pressure (p, in 103 dbar) according to the following regression equation: Ln (OUR) = 6.2(±1.2) - 2.0(±0.7) * Ln (C/N) - 0.6(±0.2) * p (r2 = 0.87, p < 0.006, n = 8). This variability in the rates and stoichiometric ratios of the biogenic material mineralization compromises our capacity to predict the ocean biogeochemistry response to global change, including the CO2 uptake and storage and the corresponding feedback mechanisms.

  1. Water-rich bending faults at the Middle America Trench

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Naif, Samer; Key, Kerry; Constable, Steven; Evans, Rob L.

    2015-09-01

    The portion of the Central American margin that encompasses Nicaragua is considered to represent an end-member system where multiple lines of evidence point to a substantial flux of subducted fluids. The seafloor spreading fabric of the incoming Cocos plate is oriented parallel to the trench such that flexural bending at the outer rise optimally reactivates a dense network of normal faults that extend several kilometers into the upper mantle. Bending faults are thought to provide fluid pathways that lead to serpentinization of the upper mantle. While geophysical anomalies detected beneath the outer rise have been interpreted as broad crustal and upper mantle hydration, no observational evidence exists to confirm that bending faults behave as fluid pathways. Here we use seafloor electromagnetic data collected across the Middle America Trench (MAT) offshore of Nicaragua to create a comprehensive electrical resistivity image that illuminates the infiltration of seawater along bending faults. We quantify porosity from the resistivity with Archie's law and find that our estimates for the abyssal plain oceanic crust are in good agreement with independent observations. As the Cocos crust traverses the outer rise, the porosity of the dikes and gabbros progressively increase from 2.7% and 0.7% to 4.8% and 1.7%, peaking within 20 km of the trench axis. We conclude that the intrusive crust subducts twice as much pore water as previously thought, significantly raising the flux of fluid to the seismogenic zone and the mantle wedge.

  2. Multi-Generational Drinking of Bottled Low Mineral Water Impairs Bone Quality in Female Rats

    PubMed Central

    Zeng, Hui; Wang, Lingqiao; Wang, Dahua; Luo, Jiaohua; Zhang, Liang; Huang, Yujing; Chen, Ji-an; Shu, Weiqun

    2015-01-01

    Background Because of reproductions and hormone changes, females are more sensitive to bone mineral loss during their lifetime. Bottled water has become more popular in recent years, and a large number of products are low mineral water. However, research on the effects of drinking bottled low mineral water on bone health is sparse. Objective To elucidate the skeletal effects of multi-generational bottled water drinking in female rats. Methods Rats continuously drank tap water (TW), bottled natural water (bNW), bottled mineralized water (bMW), or bottled purified water (bPW) for three generations. Results The maximum deflection, elastic deflection, and ultimate strain of the femoral diaphysis in the bNW, bMW, and bPW groups and the fracture strain in the bNW and bMW groups were significantly decreased. The tibiae calcium levels in both the bNW and bPW groups were significantly lower than that in the TW group. The tibiae and teeth magnesium levels in both the bNW and bPW groups were significantly lower than those in the TW group. The collagen turnover markers PICP (in both bNW and bPW groups) were significantly lower than that in the TW group. In all three low mineral water groups, the 1,25-dihydroxy-vitamin D levels were significantly lower than those in the TW group. Conclusion Long-term drinking of low mineral water may disturb bone metabolism and biochemical properties and therefore weaken biomechanical bone properties in females. Drinking tap water, which contains adequate minerals, was found to be better for bone health. To our knowledge, this is the first report on drinking bottled low mineral water and female bone quality on three generation model. PMID:25803851

  3. Survival of Campylobacter jejuni in mineral bottled water according to difference in mineral content: application of the Weibull model.

    PubMed

    Guillou, S; Leguerinel, I; Garrec, N; Renard, M A; Cappelier, J M; Federighi, M

    2008-04-01

    The aim of the study was to examine the hypothesis proposed by Evans et al. [2003. Hazards of healthy living: bottled water and salad vegetables as risk factors for Campylobacter infection. Emerg. Infect. Dis. 9(10), 1219-1225] that mineral bottled water accidentally contaminated by Campylobacter jejuni would represent a risk factor for Campylobacter infection. Culturability of C. jejuni cells inoculated in low- and high-mineral bottled water during storage at 4 degrees C in the dark was performed by surface plating and modelled using the Weibull model. The loss of C. jejuni culturability observed in all conditions tested was shown to be dependent on strain, preculture condition and water composition. Following inoculation of C. jejuni, the rapid loss of culturability was not correlated to complete cell death as the passage into embryonated eggs enabled recovery of cells from the viable but non-culturable state. In conclusion, the sanitary risk associated with contaminated bottled water cannot be excluded although it is presumably low. Culture conditions, strain and water type must be taken into account in the evaluation of the risk factors as they influence significantly Campylobacter survival in water.

  4. [Effect of fluorine in drinking water of varying hardness on protein-mineral metabolism of mineralized tissues of rats maintained on a sugar diet].

    PubMed

    Kosenko, K M; Podorozhnia, R P; Henesina, T I

    1993-01-01

    Variations of mineral and protein metabolism in calcified tissues were studied using 32P, 45Ca and 35S methionine in the rats on sugar diet and water of different hardness with F and without it. Hard drinking water without F like soft water and water of medium hardness with F affect metabolism in mineralized tissues preventing the development of carious process. Incorporation of 32P and 45Ca to mineralized tissues, specific radioactivity of 32P and 35S methionine of tooth and bone proteins are lower in rats which drank soft water without F. These parameters increase in rats which received hard water without F almost to the level of animals which received water with F. Ways of the effect of Ca2+ Mg2+ and F on protein and mineral metabolism of calcified tissues of rats on sugar diet (including proteins (osteo-induced, etc., which initiate mineralization) and enzymes are considered.

  5. An assessment of the quality of various bottled mineral water marketed in Turkey.

    PubMed

    Baba, A; Ereeş, F S; Hiçsönmez, U; Cam, S; Ozdilek, H G

    2008-04-01

    Fifteen bottled mineral waters purchased at random all over Turkey were analyzed for their chemical composition by OPTIMA-2000 ICP-AES Perkin Elmer techniques. Results show a wide spread in the chemical specification of these mineral waters, with differences in chemical composition observed in the regions being due to the geological environment and the majority of bottled mineral waters exceeding the pH limit of Turkish drinking water standards. When the concentrations of elements are evaluated, it can readily be seen that generally there are three types of mineral water in Turkey. The concentrations of Al, B, Ba, Cd, Cu, Cr, Fe, Mn Pb and Zn in mineral water were compared with the limits established by the Turkish Standard for Natural Mineral Waters (Turkish Official Gazette 2004); water standards prepared by World Health Organization (2006) and the United States of America Environmental Protection Agency (US EPA) drinking water standards (1993). Such a comparison shows that, except for Ba and Mn, the concentrations of the other heavy metals are lower than the limit of the US. EPA in Turkey. Some parameters examined were found to comprise strong correlations pair-wise. PMID:17577674

  6. Hydrogenous mineral neoformations in Tomsk water intake facility from underground sources

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Dutova, E.; Vologdina, I.; Pokrovsky, D.; Nalivaiko, N.; Kuzevanov, K.; Pokrovsky, V.

    2016-03-01

    The article considers study outcomes of hydrogenous mineral neoformations precipitated on deferrization filters of Tomsk water intake facility from underground sources. Compositionally, these precipitations are colloform and polymineral including ferrous, carbonate and aluminosilicate mineral phases. Ferrous phase predominates and embraces ferric hydroxides (ferrihydrate, goethite, hematite and lepidocrocite) and ferrous hydrophosphates (vivianite, strengite, strunzite and rockbridgeit). Carbonate and aluminosilicate minerals are calcite and kaolinite-group, respectively.

  7. Water-rich basalts at mid-ocean-ridge cold spots.

    PubMed

    Ligi, Marco; Bonatti, Enrico; Cipriani, Anna; Ottolini, Luisa

    2005-03-01

    Although water is only present in trace amounts in the suboceanic upper mantle, it is thought to play a significant role in affecting mantle viscosity, melting and the generation of crust at mid-ocean ridges. The concentration of water in oceanic basalts has been observed to stay below 0.2 wt%, except for water-rich basalts sampled near hotspots and generated by 'wet' mantle plumes. Here, however, we report unusually high water content in basaltic glasses from a cold region of the mid-ocean-ridge system in the equatorial Atlantic Ocean. These basalts are sodium-rich, having been generated by low degrees of melting of the mantle, and contain unusually high ratios of light versus heavy rare-earth elements, implying the presence of garnet in the melting region. We infer that water-rich basalts from such regions of thermal minima derive from low degrees of 'wet' melting greater than 60 km deep in the mantle, with minor dilution by melts produced by shallower 'dry' melting--a view supported by numerical modelling. We therefore conclude that oceanic basalts are water-rich not only near hotspots, but also at 'cold spots'.

  8. Mineral concentrations in diets, water, and milk and their value in estimating on-farm excretion of manure minerals in lactating dairy cows.

    PubMed

    Castillo, A R; St-Pierre, N R; Silva del Rio, N; Weiss, W P

    2013-05-01

    Thirty-nine commercial dairies in Merced County, California were enrolled in the present study to (1) compare lactating cow mineral intakes (via drinking water and total mixed ration) to the National Research Council (NRC) requirements, (2) evaluate the association between dietary concentrations of minerals with and without drinking water and adjusted for mineral concentrations in milk, and (3) compare 4 different methods to estimate excretion of minerals using either assays or estimations of milk mineral outputs and total daily mineral intake per cow with or without minerals coming from drinking water. Dairies were selected to represent a range of herd milk yields and a range of water mineral contents. Samples of total mixed ration, drinking water, and bulk tank milk were taken on 2 different days, 3 to 7d apart in each farm. Across-farm medians and percentile distributions were used to analyze results. The herd median milk yield interquartile ranged (10th to 90th percentile) from less than 25 to more than 39 kg/d and the concentration of total solids in water interquartile ranged from less than 200 to more than 1,490 mg/L. Including drinking water minerals in the diets increased dietary concentrations by <4% for all minerals except for Na and Cl, which increased by 9.3 and 6.5%, respectively. Concentrations of P and K in milk were essentially the same as the NRC value to estimate lactation requirements. However, NRC milk values of Ca, Cl, and Zn were 10 to 20% greater than dairy farm values; and Na, Cu, Fe, and Mn were no less than 36% below NRC values. Estimated excretion of minerals via manure varied substantially across farms. Farms in the 10th percentile did have 2 to 3 times less estimated mineral excretions than those in the 90th percentile (depending on the mineral). Although including water minerals increased excretion of most minerals, the actual median effect of Ca, Mg, S, Cu, Fe, and Mn was less than 5%, and about 8% for Na and Cl. Replacing assayed

  9. Water in the formation of biogenic minerals: peeling away the hydration layers.

    PubMed

    Dorvee, Jason R; Veis, Arthur

    2013-08-01

    Minerals of biogenic origin form and crystallize from aqueous environments at ambient temperatures and pressures. The in vivo environment either intracellular or intercellular, contains many components that modulate both the activity of the ions which associate to form the mineral, as well as the activity and structure of the crowded water. Most of the studies about the mechanism of mineralization, that is, the detailed pathways by which the mineral ions proceed from solution to crystal state, have been carried out in relatively dilute solutions and clean solutions. These studies have considered both thermodynamic and kinetic controls. Most have not considered the water itself. Is the water a passive bystander, or is it intimately a participant in the mineral ion densification reaction? A wide range of experiments show that the mineralization pathways proceed through a series of densification stages with intermediates, such as a "dense liquid" phase and the prenucleation clusters that form within it. This is in contrast to the idea of a single step phase transition, but consistent with the Gibbs concept of discontinuous phase transitions from supersaturated mother liquor to crystal. Further changes in the water structure at every surface and interface during densification guides the free energy trajectory leading to the crystalline state. In vertebrates, mineralization takes place in a hydrated collagen matrix, thus water must be considered as a direct participant. Although different in detail, the crystallization of calcium phosphates, as apatite, and calcium carbonates, as calcite, are mechanistically identical from the viewpoint of water.

  10. Major and trace element composition of copiapite-group minerals and coexisting water from the Richmond mine, Iron Mountain, California

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Jamieson, H.E.; Robinson, C.; Alpers, C.N.; McCleskey, R.B.; Nordstrom, D.K.; Peterson, Ronald C.

    2005-01-01

    Copiapite-group minerals of the general formula AR4 (SO4)6(OH)2??nH2O, where A is predominantly Mg, Fe2+, or 0.67Al3+, R is predominantly Fe3+, and n is typically 20, are among several secondary hydrous Fe sulfates occurring in the inactive mine workings of the massive sulfide deposit at Iron Mountain, CA, a USEPA Superfund site that produces extremely acidic drainage. Samples of copiapite-group minerals, some with coexisting water, were collected from the Richmond mine. Approximately 200 mL of brownish pore water with a pH of -0.9 were extracted through centrifugation from a 10-L sample of moist copiapite-group minerals taken from pyritic muck piles. The pore water is extremely rich in ferric iron (Fe3+=149 g L-1, FeT=162 g L-1 and has a density of 1.52 g mL-1. The composition of the pore water is interpreted in the context of published phase relations in the Fe2O3- SO3-H2O system and previous work on the chemistry of extremely acid mine waters and associated minerals in the Richmond mine. Two distinct members of the copiapite mineral group were identified in the samples with coexisting water: (1) abundant magnesiocopiapite consisting of platy crystals 10 to 50 ??m and (2) minor aluminocopiapite present as smaller platy crystals that form spheroidal aggregates. The average composition (n=5) of the magnesiocopiapite is (Mg0.90Fe0.172+ Zn0.02Cu0.01)???1.10(Fe3.833+Al0.09)???3.92(SO4) 6.00(OH)1.96??20H2O. Bulk compositions determined by digestion and wet-chemical analysis are consistent with the microanalytical results. These results suggest that magnesiocopiapite is the least soluble member of the copiapite group under the prevailing conditions. Micro-PIXE analysis indicates that the copiapite-group minerals in this sample sequester Zn (average 1420 ppm), with lesser amounts of Cu (average 270 ppm) and As (average 64 ppm). ?? 2004 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  11. Cavitation pitting and erosion of Al 6061-T6 in mineral oil and water

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Rao, B. C. S.; Buckley, D. H.

    1983-01-01

    The authors are currently carrying out a study of the cavitation erosion of different bearing metals and alloys in mineral oils were studied. The variations of weight loss, the pit diameter and depth due to cavitation erosion on Al 6061-T6 in mineral oil and water are presented.

  12. Chemical and isotopic compositions of thermal waters in Anatolia, Turkey: A link to fluid-mineral equilibria

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Mutlu, Halim; Gülec, Nilgün; Hilton, David R.

    2015-04-01

    The complex magmato-tectonic setting of Turkey has resulted in the occurrence of numerous geothermal fields with distinct chemical and isotopic fluid compositions. We evaluate the data on these fluids in terms of water-rock interaction, mineral equilibrium conditions and reservoir temperatures of each geothermal field. The Ca-HCO3 rich nature of most waters is ascribed to derivation from carbonate-type reservoir rocks. SO4-type waters are found in areas where the reservoir is partly comprised of evaporite units. Na-Cl type waters are characteristic for the coastal areas of west Anatolia. Chemical geothermometer applications estimate average reservoir temperatures of 180 °C for the western Anatolian region, 120 °C for the Balıkesir region, 130 °C for the eastern Anatolian region, 140 °C for the North Anatolian Fault Zone and 70 °C for the Eskişehir region. For most of the waters, chalcedony controls the silica solubility and the majority of waters are equilibrated with calcite and chalcedony minerals. Oxygen and hydrogen isotope compositions (-13.5 to -4 permil (VSMOW) and -95.4 to -23 permil (VSMOW), respectively) are generally conformable with Global Meteoric Water Line (GMWL); however, stable isotope systematics of geothermal waters close to the coast are consistent with the Mediterranean Meteoric Water Line (MMWL). Carbon and sulfur isotope compositions (δ13C (VPDB): -17.7 to +5.6 permil and δ34S (VCDT): -5.5 to +45.7 permil) suggest marine carbonates and terrestrial evaporite units as the main source of dissolved carbon and sulfate in the waters.

  13. Training of panellists for the sensory control of bottled natural mineral water in connection with water chemical properties.

    PubMed

    Rey-Salgueiro, Ledicia; Gosálbez-García, Aitana; Pérez-Lamela, Concepción; Simal-Gándara, Jesús; Falqué-López, Elena

    2013-11-01

    As bottled mineral water market is increasing in the world (especially in emergent and developed countries), the development of a simple protocol to train a panel to evaluate sensory properties would be a useful tool for natural drinking water industry. A sensory protocol was developed to evaluate bottled natural mineral water (17 still and 10 carbonated trademarks). The tasting questionnaire included 13 attributes for still water plus overall impression and they were sorted by: colour hues, transparency and brightness, odour/aroma and taste/flavour/texture and 2 more for carbonated waters (bubbles and effervescence). The training lasted two months with, at least, 10 sessions, was adequate to evaluate bottled natural mineral water. To confirm the efficiency of the sensory training procedure two sensory groups formed the whole panel. One trained panel (6 persons) and one professional panel (6 sommeliers) and both participated simultaneously in the water tasting evaluation of 3 sample lots. Similar average scores obtained from trained and professional judges, with the same water trademarks, confirmed the usefulness of the training protocol. The differences obtained for trained panel in the first lot confirm the necessity to train always before a sensory procedure. A sensory water wheel is proposed to guide the training in bottled mineral water used for drinking, in connection with their chemical mineral content.

  14. Detection of Helicobacter pylori in City Water, Dental Units' Water, and Bottled Mineral Water in Isfahan, Iran

    PubMed Central

    Bahrami, Ahmad Reza; Rahimi, Ebrahim; Ghasemian Safaei, Hajieh

    2013-01-01

    Helicobacter pylori infection in human is one of the most common infections worldwide. However, the origin and transmission of this bacterium has not been clearly explained. One of the suggested theories is transmission via water. This study was conducted to determine the prevalence rate of H. pylori in tap water, dental units' water, and bottled mineral water in Iran. In the present study, totally 200 water samples were collected in Isfahan province and tested for H. pylori by cultural method and polymerase chain reaction (PCR) by the detection of the ureC (glmM) gene. Using cultural method totally 5 cultures were positive. Two out of 50 tap water samples (4%), 2 out of 35 dental units' water (5.8%) samples, and 1 out of 40 (2.5% ) from water cooler in public places were found to be contaminated with H. pylori. H. pylori ureC gene was detected in 14 (7%) of water samples including 5 tap water (10%), 4 dental units' water (11.4%), 1 refrigerated water with filtration, and 4 (10%) water cooler in public places samples. This may be due to the coccoid form of bacteria which is detected by PCR method. PMID:23606812

  15. Thermal behavior of water confined in micro porous of clay mineral at additional pressure.

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Ito, Y.; Takemura, T.; Fujimori, H.; Nagoe, A.; Sugimoto, T.

    2014-12-01

    Water is the most familiar substance. However water has specific properties that has a crystal structure of a dozen and density of that is maximum at 277.15 K. Therefore it understands various natural phenomena to study physical properties of water. Oodo et al study physical properties of water confined in silica gel [1]. They indicate that melting point of water confined in silica gel decrease with decreasing pore size of silica gel. Also in case that pore size is less than 2 nm, water confined in silica gel is unfreezing water at low temperature. It is considered that effect of pore size prevent crystal growth of water. Therefore we are interested in water confined in clay minerals. Clay minerals have a number of water conditions. Also it is thought that water confined in clay minerals show different physical behavior to exist the domain where change with various effect. Therefore we studied a thermal properties and phase behavior of absorption water in clay minerals. In addition, we analyzed the changes in the thermal behavior of absorption water due to the effect of earth pressure that was an environmental factor in the ground. [1] Oodo & Fujimori, J. Non-Cryst. Solids, 357 (2011) 683.

  16. [Fundamental study on effect of high-mineral drinking water for osteogenesis in calciprivia ovariectomized rats].

    PubMed

    Ogata, Fumihiko; Nagai, Noriaki; Ito, Yoshimasa; Kawasaki, Naohito

    2014-01-01

    Since osteoporosis is a major public health problem in Japan, it is important to clarify the effect of high-mineral drinking water consumption on osteogenesis. Therefore, in this study, we investigated the relationship between high-mineral drinking water consumption and osteogenesis in ovariectomized rats that received a low-calcium diet and purified water (PW group) or a low-calcium diet and high-mineral drinking water (CR group). High-mineral drinking water affected the rats' body weight. After 3 months, the bone density of the CR group was higher than that of the PW group (p<0.05). Furthermore, the CR group showed a decrease in the amount of calcium in the bones after 3 months. These results suggest that high-mineral drinking water contributes to the maintenance of bone density and not to the amount of calcium in bone. On the other hand, serum alkaline phosphatase levels in the PW group at 3 months were higher than those in the CR group, which indicates that the blood concentration of calcium in the CR group was maintained. Moreover, the amount of magnesium in the bones and the blood concentration of magnesium in the CR group after 3 months were higher than the corresponding values in the PW group. These results suggest that consumption of high-mineral drinking water could be beneficial for osteogenesis (i.e., for maintaining bone quantity).

  17. Cavitation pitting and erosion of aluminum 6061-T6 in mineral oil water

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Rao, B. C. S.; Buckley, D. H.

    1983-01-01

    Cavitation erosion studies of aluminum 6061-T6 in mineral oil and in ordinary tap water are presented. The maximum erosion rate (MDPR, or mean depth of penetration rate) in mineral oil was about four times that in water. The MDPR in mineral oil decreased continuously with time, but the MDPR in water remained approximately constant. The cavitation pits in mineral oil were of smaller diameter and depth than the pits in water. Treating the pits as spherical segments, we computed the radius r of the sphere. The logarithm of h/a, where h is the pit depth and 2a is the top width of the pit, was linear when plotted against the logarithm of 2r/h - 1.

  18. Real-time QEXAFS spectroscopy measures rapid precipitate formation at the mineral-water interface.

    PubMed

    Siebecker, Matthew; Li, Wei; Khalid, Syed; Sparks, Donald

    2014-01-01

    Reactions at the mineral-water interface are central to numerous geochemical processes and have consequences at local, regional and global scales. They are also important in materials science research. Kinetics greatly influences mineral-water interface reactions; however, there are few kinetic data in real-time and at the molecular scale. Here we report real-time data illustrating the rapid formation of nickel aluminium-layered double hydroxide precipitates at the mineral-water interface in a flow environment in as little as 31-40 min. Layered double hydroxides have a variety of applications in environmental remediation and materials science. The real-time data shown here enhance our fundamental understanding of the kinetics of mineral-water interface processes, such as adsorption, dissolution and precipitation, by illustrating their rapid and simultaneous occurrence in a dynamic environment. Both precipitation and adsorption can occur on the same rapid timescale. PMID:25233849

  19. Conditions that regulate the growth of moulds inoculated into bottled mineral water.

    PubMed

    Criado, Maria Victoria; Fernández Pinto, Virginia E; Badessari, Alicia; Cabral, Daniel

    2005-04-01

    The influence of different storage conditions (temperature, illumination, brand of mineral water and storage time) on growth of mould spores was studied. Alternaria alternata, Penicillium citrinum and Cladosporium cladosporioides spores were inoculated in bottles of mineral and mineralised water, packaged in polyethylene terephtalate (PET). The bottles were incubated under different storage conditions. The strains had been isolated from bottled mineral water in a previous study. Storage time was the parameter that had the most important influence in mould growth. The spores grew into visible colonies after 5 month of incubation in bottles just filled, and in a month in bottles that had been stored for 5 month. This could be due to the migration of compounds from PET packaging material into mineral water. This compounds could be used as nutrients (organic matter) for mould growth. The plasticizer additive di-n-butyl phthalate (DBP) concentration in recently bottled mineral water and in 5-month stored bottles was measured. An increase of 20% of DBP concentration was observed. A. alternata and P. citrinum strains were toxicological characterised. Both strains produced mycotoxins in vitro, and P. citrinum produced citrinin in mineral water, posing a potential health risk for consumers.

  20. [Contribution of natural mineral water to the iodine supply of the population].

    PubMed

    Kirchner, S; Stelz, A; Muskat, E

    1996-10-01

    Most parts of Germany are iodine deficiency areas. Daily iodine intake may be increased by food with high iodine content. Therefore determination of iodine in different foodstuffs is of importance. Aim of our work was to develop a method for mineral waters. Besides, we wanted to find out to what extent natural mineral waters can contribute to the iodine supply of the population. The method is based on the reaction of the halogenids iodide and bromide with ethylene oxide in a sulfuric acid medium while converting into 2-iodo- and 2-bromoethanol. After extraction, the reaction products are determined by capillary gas chromatography with an electron capture detector. The method was modified for mineral waters. Single results were confirmed by ICP-MS. For mineral waters the limits of determination are 3 micrograms/L for iodide and 42 micrograms/L for bromide. The investigation of mineral waters from Hessen showed, that only few sources contain iodide in remarkable amounts. Therefore a considerable improvement of iodide intake is possible only with single mineral waters.

  1. Conditions that regulate the growth of moulds inoculated into bottled mineral water.

    PubMed

    Criado, Maria Victoria; Fernández Pinto, Virginia E; Badessari, Alicia; Cabral, Daniel

    2005-04-01

    The influence of different storage conditions (temperature, illumination, brand of mineral water and storage time) on growth of mould spores was studied. Alternaria alternata, Penicillium citrinum and Cladosporium cladosporioides spores were inoculated in bottles of mineral and mineralised water, packaged in polyethylene terephtalate (PET). The bottles were incubated under different storage conditions. The strains had been isolated from bottled mineral water in a previous study. Storage time was the parameter that had the most important influence in mould growth. The spores grew into visible colonies after 5 month of incubation in bottles just filled, and in a month in bottles that had been stored for 5 month. This could be due to the migration of compounds from PET packaging material into mineral water. This compounds could be used as nutrients (organic matter) for mould growth. The plasticizer additive di-n-butyl phthalate (DBP) concentration in recently bottled mineral water and in 5-month stored bottles was measured. An increase of 20% of DBP concentration was observed. A. alternata and P. citrinum strains were toxicological characterised. Both strains produced mycotoxins in vitro, and P. citrinum produced citrinin in mineral water, posing a potential health risk for consumers. PMID:15808368

  2. Authigenic Mineralization of Silicates at the Organic-water Interface

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    McEvoy, B.; Wallace, A. F.

    2015-12-01

    It is relatively common for some fraction of organic material to be preserved in the sedimentary rock record as disseminated molecular fragments. The survival of wholly coherent tissues from primarily soft-bodied organisms is far more unusual. However, the literature is now well- populated with spectacular examples of soft-tissue preservation ranging from a 2,600 year old human brain to the tissues of the Ediacaran biota that have survived ~600 million years. Some of the most exceptional examples of soft tissue preservation are from the Proterozoic-Cambrian transition, however, nearly all modes of fossil preservation during this time are debated. Clay mineral templates have been implicated as playing a role in several types of soft tissue preservation, including Burgess Shale and Beecher's Trilobite-type preservation, and more recently, Bitter Springs-type silicification. Yet, there is still much debate over whether these clay mineral coatings form during early stage burial and diagenesis, or later stage metamorphism. This research addresses this question by using in situ fluid cell Atomic Force Microscopy (AFM) to investigate the nucleation and growth of silicate minerals on model biological surfaces. Herein we present preliminary results on the deposition of hydrous magnesium silicates on self-assembled monolayers (-OH, -COOH, -CH3, and -H2PO3 terminated surfaces) at ambient conditions.

  3. Sustainable urban water systems in rich and poor cities--steps towards a new approach.

    PubMed

    Newman, P

    2001-01-01

    The 'big pipes in, big pipes out' approach to urban water management was developed in the 19th century for a particular linear urban form. Large, sprawling car-dependent cities are pushing this approach to new limits in rich cities and it has never worked in poor cities. An alternative which uses new small-scale technology and is more community-based, is suggested for both rich and poor countries. The Sydney Olympics and a demonstration project in Java show that the approach can work. PMID:11379232

  4. Sustainable urban water systems in rich and poor cities--steps towards a new approach.

    PubMed

    Newman, P

    2001-01-01

    The 'big pipes in, big pipes out' approach to urban water management was developed in the 19th century for a particular linear urban form. Large, sprawling car-dependent cities are pushing this approach to new limits in rich cities and it has never worked in poor cities. An alternative which uses new small-scale technology and is more community-based, is suggested for both rich and poor countries. The Sydney Olympics and a demonstration project in Java show that the approach can work.

  5. Effect of a water-rich diet on adrenal zona glomerulosa in Gerbillus tarabuli.

    PubMed

    Saadi, Leila; Lebaili, Nemcha

    2012-02-01

    The objective of this work is to evaluate the aldosterone level and to study the gerbil adrenal zona glomerulosa morphology in the presence of an important water diet content during seven days. Thirty adult gerbils, Gerbilus tarabuli, were randomly assigned to two watering regimes, with fifteen gerbils per group. The first group was the control and the second group was exposed to a water-rich diet during seven days. Thin sections of the adrenal glands were observed in photonic and electron microscopy. Their blood was sampled and analyzed for aldosterone, electrolyte concentrations and hematocrit. Urine was collected after 24hours. A water-rich diet decreased the body weight but increased the hematocrit, total protein, aldosterone concentration and urine volume. In electronic microscopy, the adrenal zona glomerulosa cells present a decrease in lipid compartment and Golgi apparatus zone development. The blood electrolyte concentrations were not changed significantly. These findings indicate that the water-rich diet exerts a potent stimulatory effect on aldosterone secretion by the gerbil adrenal zona glomerulosa through plasma volume perturbation.

  6. Mineral-water reactions in metamorphism and volcanism

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Barnes, I.

    1985-01-01

    Low-temperature (120??C and less) metamorphism of graywacke, granite and andesite yields zeolites and precursor gels by reaction with fresh water but low-greenschist facies by reaction with salt (sea)water. ?? 1985.

  7. Molecular Simulations of Water and Ion Diffusion in Nanosized Mineral Fractures

    SciTech Connect

    Kerisit, Sebastien N.; Liu, Chongxuan

    2009-02-01

    Molecular dynamics simulations were carried out to investigate the effects of confinement and of the presence of the mineral surface on the diffusion of water and electrolyte ions in nano-sized mineral fractures. Feldspar was used as a representative mineral because recent studies found that it is an important mineral that hosts contaminants within its intragrain fractures at US Department of Energy Hanford site (1, 2). Several properties of the mineral-water interface were varied, such as the fracture width, the ionic strength of the contacting solution, and the surface charge, to provide atomic-level insights into the diffusion of ions and contaminants within intragrain regions. In each case, the self-diffusion coefficient of water and that of the electrolyte ions were computed as a function of distance from the mineral surface. Our calculations reveal a 2.0 to 2.5 nm interfacial region within which the self-diffusion coefficient of water and that of the electrolyte ions decrease as the diffusing species approach the surface. As a result of the extent of the interfacial region, water and electrolyte ions are predicted to never reach bulk-like diffusion in fractures narrower than approximately 5 nm. A density weighted, averaged diffusion coefficient was computed as a function of fracture width and indicated that the surface effects only become negligible for fractures several tens of nanometers wide. The calculations also showed that, within 1.2 nm from the surface, the diffusion of electrolyte ions is affected by the presence of the mineral surface to a greater extent than that of water. The molecular dynamics results improve our conceptual models of ion transport in nano-scale pore regions surrounded by mineral surfaces in porous media.

  8. Cd Mobility in Anoxic Fe-Mineral-Rich Environments - Potential Use of Fe(III)-Reducing Bacteria in Soil Remediation

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Muehe, E. M.; Adaktylou, I. J.; Obst, M.; Schröder, C.; Behrens, S.; Hitchcock, A. P.; Tylsizczak, T.; Michel, F. M.; Krämer, U.; Kappler, A.

    2014-12-01

    Agricultural soils are increasingly burdened with heavy metals such as Cd from industrial sources and impure fertilizers. Metal contaminants enter the food chain via plant uptake from soil and negatively affect human and environmental health. New remediation approaches are needed to lower soil metal contents. To apply these remediation techniques successfully, it is necessary to understand how soil microbes and minerals interact with toxic metals. Here we show that microbial Fe(III) reduction initially mobilizes Cd before its immobilization under anoxic conditions. To study how microbial Fe(III) reduction influences Cd mobility, we isolated a new Cd-tolerant, Fe(III)-reducing Geobacter sp. from a heavily Cd-contaminated soil. In lab experiments, this Geobacter strain first mobilized Cd from Cd-loaded Fe(III) hydroxides followed by precipitation of Cd-bearing mineral phases. Using Mössbauer spectroscopy and scanning electron microscopy, the original and newly formed Cd-containing Fe(II) and Fe(III) mineral phases, including Cd-Fe-carbonates, Fe-phosphates and Fe-(oxyhydr)oxides, were identified and characterized. Using energy-dispersive X-ray spectroscopy and synchrotron-based scanning transmission X-ray microscopy, Cd was mapped in the Fe(II) mineral aggregates formed during microbial Fe(III) reduction. Microbial Fe(III) reduction mobilizes Cd prior to its precipitation in Cd-bearing mineral phases. The mobilized Cd could be taken up by phytoremediating plants, resulting in a net removal of Cd from contaminated sites. Alternatively, Cd precipitation could reduce Cd bioavailability in the environment, causing less toxic effects to crops and soil microbiota. However, the stability and thus bioavailability of these newly formed Fe-Cd mineral phases needs to be assessed thoroughly. Whether phytoremediation or immobilization of Cd in a mineral with reduced Cd bioavailability are feasible mechanisms to reduce toxic effects of Cd in the environment remains to be

  9. Geochemistry and origins of mineralized waters in the Floridan aquifer system, northeastern Florida

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Phelps, G.G.

    2001-01-01

    Increases in chloride concentration have been observed in water from numerous wells tapping the Floridan aquifer system in northeastern Florida. Although most increases have been in the eastern part of Duval County, Florida, no spatial pattern in elevated chloride concentrations is discernible. Possible sources of the mineralized water include modern seawater intrusion; unflushed Miocene-to-Pleistocene-age seawater or connate water in aquifer sediments; or mineralized water from deeper zones of the aquifer system or from formations beneath the Floridan aquifer system. The purpose of this study was to document the chemical and isotopic characteristics of water samples from various aquifer zones, and from geochemical and hydrogeologic data, to infer the source of the increased mineralization. Water samples were collected from 53 wells in northeastern Florida during 1997-1999. Wells tapped various zones of the aquifer including: the Fernandina permeable zone (FPZ), the upper zone of the Lower Floridan aquifer (UZLF), the Upper Floridan aquifer (UFA), and both the UFA and the UZLF. Water samples were analyzed for major ions and trace constituents and for isotopes of carbon, oxygen, hydrogen, sulfur, strontium, chlorine, and boron. Samples of rock from the aquifer were analyzed for isotopes of oxygen, carbon, and strontium. In general, water from various aquifer zones cannot be differentiated based on chemistry, except for water from FPZ wells. Major-ion concentrations vary as much within the upper zone of the Lower Floridan aquifer and the Upper Floridan aquifer as between these two zones. Simple models of mixing between fresh ground water and either modern seawater or water from the FPZ as a mineralized end member show that many water samples from the UZLF aquifer and the UFA are enriched in bicarbonate, calcium, magnesium, sulfate, fluoride, and silica and are depleted in sodium and potassium (as compared to concentrations predicted by simple mixing). Chemical mass

  10. Water geochemistry of the Lucero Uplift, New Mexico: geothermal investigation of low-temperature mineralized fluids

    SciTech Connect

    Goff, F.; McCormick, T.; Gardner, J.N.; Trujillo, P.E.; Counce, D.; Vidale, R.; Charles, R.

    1983-04-01

    A detailed geochemical investigation of 27 waters of the Lucero uplift, central New Mexico, was performed to determine if the fluids originate from a high-temperature geothermal system along the Rio Grande rift. Two types of mineralized water issue from the Lucero region: a relatively saline (high-Cl, high-SO/sub 4/) type and a relatively dilute (low-Cl, high-SO/sub 4/) type. Emergence temperatures of both types range from 12 to 26/sup 0/C. Chemical data and thermodynamic and geothermometer calculations all indicate that both water types are in equilibrium with carbonate and evaporite minerals found in local Colorado Plateau rocks at surface temperatures or slightly higher. Stable isotope data do not indicate high-temperature rock-water interaction. Although evidence is seen for mixing between mineralized waters and dilute surface waters, no evidence for mixing of a deep hot fluid and surface waters is seen. Dilute mineral waters, which issue from a large area of Chinle Formation on the west side of the Lucero uplift, may be useful for low-temperature geothermal applications with appropriate design of equipment. Saline mineral waters, which leak from a zone of faulted and folded rocks along the Comanche fault zone, do not appear to have much, if any, geothermal potential due to their low-temperature, restricted distribution, and high concentration of dissolved solids. No evidence that saline mineral waters are associated with Quaternary faults of the Rio Grande rift or Quaternary basaltic volcanism within the immediate area is seen.

  11. Concentrations of selected trace elements in mineral and spring bottled waters on the Serbian market.

    PubMed

    Ristić, M; Popović, I; Pocajt, V; Antanasijević, D; Perić-Grujić, A

    2011-01-01

    Eight selected trace elements, which are generally included in regulations, were analyzed in 23 types of bottled waters. Ten mineral and seven spring bottled waters were from the Serbian market and six mineral bottled waters were obtained in different EU countries. For the purpose of comparison, selected tap waters were also analyzed. Inductively coupled plasma mass spectrometry (ICP-MS) was used for the analysis of trace elements (arsenic, cadmium, copper, manganese, nickel, lead and antimony). Results were compared with the Serbian regulations for bottled water, EU regulations and guideline values set by the World Health Organization for drinking water. With few exceptions, the trace element levels of most bottled waters were below the guideline values. However, a higher content of antimony was observed in waters from polyethylene terephthalate (PET) containers, indicating a potential leaching of this element from the plastic packaging.

  12. One-step apexification in immature tooth using grey mineral trioxide aggregate as an apical barrier and autologus platelet rich fibrin membrane as an internal matrix

    PubMed Central

    Rudagi, Kavitarani B; Rudagi, BM

    2012-01-01

    Immature teeth with necrotic pulp and periapical lesion are difficult to treat via conventional endodontic therapy. Numerous procedures and materials have been utilized to induce root-end barrier formation. Traditionally, calcium hydroxide has been the material of choice for the apexification of immature permanent teeth; however, Mineral Trioxide Aggregate holds significant promise as an alternative to multiple treatments with calcium hydroxide. One of the technical problems associated with the placement of the restorative materials used as artificial barrier is to prevent overfill and underfill. Using a matrix avoids the extrusion of the material into the periodontal tissues. This case report presents the successful healing and apexification with combined use of Mineral Trioxide Aggregate as an apical barrier, and autologus platelet rich fibrin membrane as an internal matrix. PMID:22557824

  13. Electrically Conducting, Ca-Rich Brines, Rather Than Water, Expected in the Martian Subsurface

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Burt, D. M.; Knauth, L. P.

    2003-01-01

    If Mars ever possessed a salty liquid hydrosphere, which later partly evaporated and froze down, then any aqueous fluids left near the surface could have evolved to become dense eutectic brines. Eutectic brines, by definition, are the last to freeze and the first to melt. If CaC12-rich, such brines can remain liquid until temperatures below 220 K, close to the average surface temperature of Mars. In the Martian subsurface, in intimate contact with the Ca-rich basaltic regolith, NaC1-rich early brines should have reacted to become Ca-rich. Fractional crystallization (freezing) and partial melting would also drive brines toward CaC12-rich compositions. In other words, eutectic brine compositions could be present in the shallow subsurface of Mars, for the same reasons that eutectic magma compositions are common on Earth. Don Juan Pond, Antarctica, a CaC12-rich eutectic brine, provides a possible terrestrial analog, particularly because it is fed from a basaltic aquifer. Owing to their relative density and fluid nature, brines in the Martian regolith should eventually become sandwiched between ice above and salts beneath. A thawing brine sandwich provides one explanation (among many) for the young gullies recently attributed to seepage of liquid water on Mars. Whether or not brine seepage explains the gullies phenomenon, dense, CaC12-rich brines are to be expected in the deep subsurface of Mars, although they might be somewhat diluted (temperatures permitting) and of variable salt composition. In any case, they should be good conductors of electricity.

  14. In hot water: effects of temperature-dependent interiors on the radii of water-rich super-Earths

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Thomas, Scott W.; Madhusudhan, Nikku

    2016-05-01

    Observational advancements are leading to increasingly precise measurements of super-Earth masses and radii. Such measurements are used in internal structure models to constrain interior compositions of super-Earths. It is now critically important to quantify the effect of various model assumptions on the predicted radii. In particular, models often neglect thermal effects, a choice justified by noting that the thermal expansion of a solid Earth-like planet is small. However, the thermal effects for water-rich interiors may be significant. We have systematically explored the extent to which thermal effects can influence the radii of water-rich super-Earths over a wide range of masses, surface temperatures, surface pressures and water mass fractions. We developed temperature-dependent internal structure models of water-rich super-Earths that include a comprehensive temperature-dependent water equation of state. We found that thermal effects induce significant changes in their radii. For example, for super-Earths with 10 per cent water by mass, the radius increases by up to 0.5 R⊕ when the surface temperature is increased from 300 to 1000 K, assuming a surface pressure of 100 bar and an adiabatic temperature gradient in the water layer. The increase is even larger at lower surface pressures and/or higher surface temperatures, while changing the water fraction makes only a marginal difference. These effects are comparable to current super-Earth radial measurement errors, which can be better than 0.1 R⊕. It is therefore important to ensure that the thermal behaviour of water is taken into account when interpreting super-Earth radii using internal structure models.

  15. The occurrence of cytotoxic Aeromonas hydrophila strains in Italian mineral and thermal waters.

    PubMed

    Biscardi, D; Castaldo, A; Gualillo, O; de Fusco, R

    2002-06-26

    Bacteria of the genus Aeromonas are ubiquitous in aquatic environments, including mineral drinking and thermal waters. Motile species are related to different diseases, mostly gastrointestinal disorders. Criteria for Aeromonas pathogenicity in humans and animals are still unclear and neither is the relationship between production virulence and pathogenicity factors. In the present study, strains of Aeromonas hydrophila, from 61 samples of bottled mineral waters and 23 thermal Italian sources have been isolated and identified by biochemical tests, for toxicity and detection of the aerolysin gene by the Polymerase Chain Reaction (PCR). Six strains were isolated from the mineral waters and were found to be cytotoxic and in possession of the aerolysin gene. For the twelve strains isolated from thermal waters, seven were cytotoxic and eleven contained the aerolysin gene.

  16. Natural radioactivity in bottled mineral and thermal spring waters of Turkey.

    PubMed

    Taskin, Halim; Asliyuksek, Hizir; Bozkurt, Ahmet; Kam, Erol

    2013-12-01

    Radiological assessment of bottled mineral waters and thermal spring waters collected from various natural sources in Turkey was carried out using gross alpha and gross beta counting techniques. For 40 samples of bottled mineral water, the mean gross alpha activity concentration was determined to be 164 mBq l(-1) (min.:7 mBq l(-1); max.: 3042 mBq l(-1)), whereas the gross beta activity concentration was found to be 555 mBq l(-1) (min.: 21 mBq l(-1); max.: 4845 mBq l(-1)). For 24 samples of thermal spring water, the mean gross alpha activity concentration was obtained to be 663 mBq l(-1) (min.: 18 mBq l(-1); max.: 3070 mBq l(-1)). The gross beta activity concentration for these samples, on the other hand, was determined to be 3314 mBq l(-1) (min.: 79 mBq l(-1); max.: 17955 mBq l(-1)). These values lead to the average annual effective doses of 313 µSv for mineral waters and 1805 µSv for thermal spa waters, which are found to be higher than those recommended for drinking waters by the World Health Organization. It should be noted, however, that one will get less dose from mineral waters since the daily consumption is much lower than 2 l that these calculations assume.

  17. Buffering of Marshall Sandstone pore waters by mineral-water interactions in the overlying glacial drift

    SciTech Connect

    Sibley, D.F.; Westjohn, D.B.; Long, D.T. . Dept. of Geological Sciences Geological Survey, Lansing, MI . Michigan Basin RASA)

    1994-04-01

    The salinity of pore waters in the Marshall Sandstone increases by three orders in magnitude from basin margin to center. Chlorite, dolomite-ankerite and kaolinite cements in the Marshall were analyzed to determine if these cements reflect this salinity gradient. One test of the hypothesis that cements reflect the present pore water salinity gradient is the distribution of cements. If kaolinite formed by influx of freshwater into the Marshall from the basin periphery the distribution of kaolinite would parallel distribution of salinity. However, kaolinite is common in brine bearing and freshwater bearing samples. Another consequence of freshwater recharge from the basin periphery could be dissolution of dolomite-ankerite cements. However, SEM analyses of dolomite-ankerite cements show no evidence of dissolution. Lack of apparent mineral alteration in response to the strong salinity gradient can be explained by the fact that freshwater recharges the Marshall Sandstone through glacial drift. As a result of drift-water interactions, recharge to the Marshall Sandstone may be close to equilibrium with the major diagenetic phases.

  18. The spectral reflectance of water-mineral mixtures at low temperatures. [observed on natural satellites and other solar system objects

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Clark, R. N.

    1981-01-01

    Laboratory reflectance spectra in the 0.325-2.5 micron region of bound water, water-mineral mixtures, mineral grains on frost, and frost on minerals are presented. The materials used in this study are montmorillonite, kaolinite, beryl, Mauna Kea red cinder, and black charcoal. It is found that the wavelengths of bound water and bound OH absorptions do not shift appreciably with temperature and can be detected when large amounts of free water ice are present. The decrease in the visible reflectance seen in many planetary reflectance spectra containing strong water ice absorptions can be explained by water-mineral mixtures, mineral grains on frost, or frost on mineral grains. Mineral grains on frost are detectable in very small quantities (fractional areal coverage less than approximately 0.005) depending on the mineral reflectance features, while it takes a thick layer of frost (greater than approximately 1 mm) to mask a mineral below 1.4 microns, again depending on the mineral reflectance. Frost on a very dark surface (albedo about 6%) is easily seen; however, a dark mineral mixed with water could completely mask the water absorptions (shortward of 2.5 microns).

  19. Microbiological safety of bottled mineral water in patients susceptible to infections.

    PubMed

    Oie, Shigeharu; Matsuzaka, Yuuki; Kiyonaga, Hiroko; Maeda, Kumiko; Kamiya, Akira

    2008-08-01

    We evaluated the microbiological safety of bottled mineral water products commercially available in Japan. Of 10 bottled mineral water products manufactured in Japan, no bacteria or fungi were detected in 9 (90%), but 1 (10%) contained 1.8x10(3) colony-forming units (cfu)/mL. Of 12 bottled mineral water products manufactured in the EU, 11 (91.7%) contained 23-3.5x10(4) cfu/mL. On the other hand, of 5 bottled mineral water products manufactured in North America, 2 (40%) contained 2.3x10(2)-2.5x10(3) cfu/mL. The detected microorganisms were glucose-nonfermentative Gram-negative bacilli such as Brevundimonas vesicularis, Moraxella spp., and Burkholderia cepacia, but Pseudomonas aeruginosa was not detected in any product. For immunocompromised host patients being managed in ultra-clean rooms, the examined bottled mineral water products manufactured in Japan, except 1, were microbiologically safe.

  20. Adsorption mechanisms of microcystin variant conformations at water-mineral interfaces: A molecular modeling investigation.

    PubMed

    Pochodylo, Amy L; Aoki, Thalia G; Aristilde, Ludmilla

    2016-10-15

    Microcystins (MCs) are potent toxins released during cyanobacterial blooms. Clay minerals are implicated in trapping MCs within soil particles in surface waters and sediments. In the absence of molecular characterization, the relevance of previously proposed adsorption mechanisms is lacking. Towards obtaining this characterization, we conducted Monte Carlo simulations combined with molecular dynamics relaxation of two MC variants, MC-leucine-arginine (MC-LR) and MC-leucine-alanine (MC-LA), adsorbed on hydrated montmorillonite with different electrolytes. The resulting adsorbate structures revealed how MC conformations and aqueous conditions dictate binding interactions at the mineral surface. Electrostatic coupling between the arginine residue and a carboxylate in MC-LR excluded the participation of arginine in mediating adsorption on montmorillonite in a NaCl solution. However, in a CaCl2 solution, the complexation of Ca by two carboxylate moieties in MC-LR changed the MC conformation, which allowed arginine to mediate electrostatic interaction with the mineral. By contrast, due to the lack of arginine in MC-LA, complexation of Ca by only one carboxylate in MC-LA was required to favor Ca-bridging interaction with the mineral. Multiple water-bridged H-bonding interactions were also important in anchoring MCs at the mineral surface. Our modeling results offer molecular insights into the structural and chemical factors that can control the fate of MCs at water-mineral interfaces.

  1. Adsorption mechanisms of microcystin variant conformations at water-mineral interfaces: A molecular modeling investigation.

    PubMed

    Pochodylo, Amy L; Aoki, Thalia G; Aristilde, Ludmilla

    2016-10-15

    Microcystins (MCs) are potent toxins released during cyanobacterial blooms. Clay minerals are implicated in trapping MCs within soil particles in surface waters and sediments. In the absence of molecular characterization, the relevance of previously proposed adsorption mechanisms is lacking. Towards obtaining this characterization, we conducted Monte Carlo simulations combined with molecular dynamics relaxation of two MC variants, MC-leucine-arginine (MC-LR) and MC-leucine-alanine (MC-LA), adsorbed on hydrated montmorillonite with different electrolytes. The resulting adsorbate structures revealed how MC conformations and aqueous conditions dictate binding interactions at the mineral surface. Electrostatic coupling between the arginine residue and a carboxylate in MC-LR excluded the participation of arginine in mediating adsorption on montmorillonite in a NaCl solution. However, in a CaCl2 solution, the complexation of Ca by two carboxylate moieties in MC-LR changed the MC conformation, which allowed arginine to mediate electrostatic interaction with the mineral. By contrast, due to the lack of arginine in MC-LA, complexation of Ca by only one carboxylate in MC-LA was required to favor Ca-bridging interaction with the mineral. Multiple water-bridged H-bonding interactions were also important in anchoring MCs at the mineral surface. Our modeling results offer molecular insights into the structural and chemical factors that can control the fate of MCs at water-mineral interfaces. PMID:27433998

  2. Hydrothermal alteration of a chevkinite-group mineral to a bastnäsite-(Ce)-ilmenite- columbite-(Fe) assemblage: interaction with a F-, CO2-rich fluid

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Macdonald, Ray; Bagiński, Bogusław; Kartashov, Pavel M.; Zozulya, Dmitry; Dzierżanowski, Piotr; Jokubauskas, Petras

    2015-12-01

    The results are presented of a textural and mineral chemical study of a previously undescribed type of hydrothermal alteration of chevkinite-(Ce) which occurs in a syenitic pegmatite from the Vishnevye Mountains, Urals Region, Russia. The progressive alteration of the chevkinite to a bastnäsite-(Ce)-ilmenite-columbite-(Fe) assemblage through a series of texturally complex intermediate stages is described and electron microprobe analyses are given of all the major phases. Unusual Nb ± Th-rich phases formed late in the alteration sequence provide evidence of local Nb mobility. The main compositional fluxes are traced, especially of the REE, HFSE, Th and U. It appears that almost all elements, with the exception of La, released from the chevkinite-(Ce) were reincorporated into later phases, such that they did not leave the alteration crust in significant amounts. The hydrothermal fluids are inferred to have been F- and CO2-rich, with variable levels of Ca activity, and with fO2 mainly between the nickel-nickel oxide and magnetite-hematite buffers. This occurrence represents a new paragenesis for a columbite-group mineral.

  3. Effects of microbial iron reduction and oxidation on the immobilization and mobilization of copper in synthesized Fe(III) minerals and Fe-rich soils.

    PubMed

    Hu, Chaohua; Zhang, Youchi; Zhang, Lei; Luo, Wensui

    2014-04-01

    The effects of microbial iron reduction and oxidation on the immobilization and mobilization of copper were investigated in a high concentration of sulfate with synthesized Fe(III) minerals and red earth soils rich in amorphous Fe (hydr)oxides. Batch microcosm experiments showed that red earth soil inoculated with subsurface sediments had a faster Fe(III) bioreduction rate than pure amorphous Fe(III) minerals and resulted in quicker immobilization of Cu in the aqueous fraction. Coinciding with the decrease of aqueous Cu, SO4(2-) in the inoculated red earth soil decreased acutely after incubation. The shift in the microbial community composite in the inoculated soil was analyzed through denaturing gradient gel electrophoresis. Results revealed the potential cooperative effect of microbial Fe(III) reduction and sulfate reduction on copper immobilization. After exposure to air for 144 h, more than 50% of the immobilized Cu was remobilized from the anaerobic matrices; aqueous sulfate increased significantly. Sequential extraction analysis demonstrated that the organic matter/sulfide-bound Cu increased by 52% after anaerobic incubation relative to the abiotic treatment but decreased by 32% after oxidation, indicating the generation and oxidation of Cu-sulfide coprecipitates in the inoculated red earth soil. These findings suggest that the immobilization of copper could be enhanced by mediating microbial Fe(III) reduction with sulfate reduction under anaerobic conditions. The findings have an important implication for bioremediation in Cucontaminated and Fe-rich soils, especially in acid-mine-drainage-affected sites.

  4. Mineral-coated polymer membranes with superhydrophilicity and underwater superoleophobicity for effective oil/water separation.

    PubMed

    Chen, Peng-Cheng; Xu, Zhi-Kang

    2013-01-01

    Oil-polluted water is a worldwide problem due to the increasing industrial oily wastewater and the frequent oil spill accidents. Here, we report a novel kind of superhydrophilic hybrid membranes for effective oil/water separation. They were prepared by depositing CaCO3-based mineral coating on PAA-grafted polypropylene microfiltration membranes. The rigid mineral-coating traps abundant water in aqueous environment and forms a robust hydrated layer on the membrane pore surface, thus endowing the membranes with underwater superoleophobicity. Under the drive of either gravity or external pressure, the hybrid membranes separate a range of oil/water mixtures effectively with high water flux (>2000 L m(-2) h(-1)), perfect oil/water separation efficiency (>99%), high oil breakthrough pressure (>140 kPa) and low oil fouling. The oil/water mixtures include not only free mixtures but also oil-in-water emulsions. Therefore, the mineral-coated membrane enables an efficient and energy-saving separation for various oil/water mixtures, showing attractive potential for practical oil/water separation. PMID:24072204

  5. Mineral-Coated Polymer Membranes with Superhydrophilicity and Underwater Superoleophobicity for Effective Oil/Water Separation

    PubMed Central

    Chen, Peng-Cheng; Xu, Zhi-Kang

    2013-01-01

    Oil-polluted water is a worldwide problem due to the increasing industrial oily wastewater and the frequent oil spill accidents. Here, we report a novel kind of superhydrophilic hybrid membranes for effective oil/water separation. They were prepared by depositing CaCO3-based mineral coating on PAA-grafted polypropylene microfiltration membranes. The rigid mineral-coating traps abundant water in aqueous environment and forms a robust hydrated layer on the membrane pore surface, thus endowing the membranes with underwater superoleophobicity. Under the drive of either gravity or external pressure, the hybrid membranes separate a range of oil/water mixtures effectively with high water flux (>2000 L m−2 h−1), perfect oil/water separation efficiency (>99%), high oil breakthrough pressure (>140 kPa) and low oil fouling. The oil/water mixtures include not only free mixtures but also oil-in-water emulsions. Therefore, the mineral-coated membrane enables an efficient and energy-saving separation for various oil/water mixtures, showing attractive potential for practical oil/water separation. PMID:24072204

  6. Calibration of Mineralization Degree for Dynamic Pure-water Measurement in Horizontal Oil-water Two-phase Flow

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Kong, Weihang; Li, Lei; Kong, Lingfu; Liu, Xingbin

    2016-08-01

    In order to solve the problem of dynamic pure-water electrical conductivity measurement in the process of calculating water content of oil-water two-phase flow of production profile logging in horizontal wells, a six-group local-conductance probe (SGLCP) is proposed to measure dynamic pure-water electrical conductivity in horizontal oil-water two-phase flow. The structures of conductance sensors which include the SGLCP and ring-shaped conductance probe (RSCP) are analyzed by using the finite-element method (FEM). In the process of simulation, the electric field distribution generated by the SGLCP and RSCP are investigated, and the responses of the measuring electrodes are calculated under the different values of the water resistivity. The static experiments of the SGLCP and RSCP under different mineralization degrees in horizontal oil-water two-phase flow are carried out. Results of simulation and experiments demonstrate a nice linearity between the SGLCP and RSCP under different mineralization degrees. The SGLCP has also a good adaptability to stratified flow, stratified flow with mixing at the interface and dispersion of oil in water and water flow. The validity and feasibility of pure-water electrical conductivity measurement with the designed SGLCP under different mineralization degrees are verified by experimental results.

  7. Study of mineral water resources from the Eastern Carpathians using stable isotopes.

    PubMed

    Magdas, Dana A; Cuna, Stela M; Berdea, Petre; Balas, Gabriela; Cuna, Cornel; Dordai, Edina; Falub, Mihaela C

    2009-08-30

    The Eastern Carpathians contain many mineral water springs that feed famous Romanian health resorts such as Borsec, Biborteni and Vatra Dornei. These waters have been used for their different therapeutic effects. In this work, mineral and spring waters from these Romanian regions were investigated by means of chemical and isotopic (deltaD and delta(18)O) analyses in order to understand the recharge mechanisms and also to determine their origins. Most of the investigated springs are of meteoric origin, having the average deuterium content of the local meteoric water. The higher (18)O content with respect to the Meteoric Water Line (MWL) indicated an exchange reaction with crystalline igneous rocks at depth and with other rocks that the water encounters on its journey back to the surface. PMID:19603457

  8. Study of mineral water resources from the Eastern Carpathians using stable isotopes.

    PubMed

    Magdas, Dana A; Cuna, Stela M; Berdea, Petre; Balas, Gabriela; Cuna, Cornel; Dordai, Edina; Falub, Mihaela C

    2009-08-30

    The Eastern Carpathians contain many mineral water springs that feed famous Romanian health resorts such as Borsec, Biborteni and Vatra Dornei. These waters have been used for their different therapeutic effects. In this work, mineral and spring waters from these Romanian regions were investigated by means of chemical and isotopic (deltaD and delta(18)O) analyses in order to understand the recharge mechanisms and also to determine their origins. Most of the investigated springs are of meteoric origin, having the average deuterium content of the local meteoric water. The higher (18)O content with respect to the Meteoric Water Line (MWL) indicated an exchange reaction with crystalline igneous rocks at depth and with other rocks that the water encounters on its journey back to the surface.

  9. Thallium speciation and extractability in a thallium- and arsenic-rich soil developed from mineralized carbonate rock.

    PubMed

    Voegelin, Andreas; Pfenninger, Numa; Petrikis, Julia; Majzlan, Juraj; Plötze, Michael; Senn, Anna-Caterina; Mangold, Stefan; Steininger, Ralph; Göttlicher, Jörg

    2015-05-01

    We investigated the speciation and extractability of Tl in soil developed from mineralized carbonate rock. Total Tl concentrations in topsoil (0-20 cm) of 100-1000 mg/kg are observed in the most affected area, subsoil concentrations of up to 6000 mg/kg Tl in soil horizons containing weathered ore fragments. Using synchrotron-based microfocused X-ray fluorescence spectrometry (μ-XRF) and X-ray absorption spectroscopy (μ-XAS) at the Tl L3-edge, partly Tl(I)-substituted jarosite and avicennite (Tl2O3) were identified as Tl-bearing secondary minerals formed by the weathering of a Tl-As-Fe-sulfide mineralization hosted in the carbonate rock from which the soil developed. Further evidence was found for the sequestration of Tl(III) into Mn-oxides and the uptake of Tl(I) by illite. Quantification of the fractions of Tl(III), Tl(I)-jarosite and Tl(I)-illite in bulk samples based on XAS indicated that Tl(I) uptake by illite was the dominant retention mechanism in topsoil materials. Oxidative Tl(III)uptake into Mn-oxides was less relevant, probably because the Tl loadings of the soil exceeded the capacity of this uptake mechanism. The concentrations of Tl in 10 mM CaCl2-extracts increased with increasing soil Tl contents and decreasing soil pH, but did not exhibit drastic variations as a function of Tl speciation. With respect to Tl in contaminated soils, this study provides first direct spectroscopic evidence for Tl(I) uptake by illite and indicates the need for further studies on the sorption of Tl to clay minerals and Mn-oxides and its impact on Tl solubility in soils. PMID:25885948

  10. Thallium speciation and extractability in a thallium- and arsenic-rich soil developed from mineralized carbonate rock.

    PubMed

    Voegelin, Andreas; Pfenninger, Numa; Petrikis, Julia; Majzlan, Juraj; Plötze, Michael; Senn, Anna-Caterina; Mangold, Stefan; Steininger, Ralph; Göttlicher, Jörg

    2015-05-01

    We investigated the speciation and extractability of Tl in soil developed from mineralized carbonate rock. Total Tl concentrations in topsoil (0-20 cm) of 100-1000 mg/kg are observed in the most affected area, subsoil concentrations of up to 6000 mg/kg Tl in soil horizons containing weathered ore fragments. Using synchrotron-based microfocused X-ray fluorescence spectrometry (μ-XRF) and X-ray absorption spectroscopy (μ-XAS) at the Tl L3-edge, partly Tl(I)-substituted jarosite and avicennite (Tl2O3) were identified as Tl-bearing secondary minerals formed by the weathering of a Tl-As-Fe-sulfide mineralization hosted in the carbonate rock from which the soil developed. Further evidence was found for the sequestration of Tl(III) into Mn-oxides and the uptake of Tl(I) by illite. Quantification of the fractions of Tl(III), Tl(I)-jarosite and Tl(I)-illite in bulk samples based on XAS indicated that Tl(I) uptake by illite was the dominant retention mechanism in topsoil materials. Oxidative Tl(III)uptake into Mn-oxides was less relevant, probably because the Tl loadings of the soil exceeded the capacity of this uptake mechanism. The concentrations of Tl in 10 mM CaCl2-extracts increased with increasing soil Tl contents and decreasing soil pH, but did not exhibit drastic variations as a function of Tl speciation. With respect to Tl in contaminated soils, this study provides first direct spectroscopic evidence for Tl(I) uptake by illite and indicates the need for further studies on the sorption of Tl to clay minerals and Mn-oxides and its impact on Tl solubility in soils.

  11. Application of Membrane Crystallization for Minerals' Recovery from Produced Water.

    PubMed

    Ali, Aamer; Quist-Jensen, Cejna Anna; Macedonio, Francesca; Drioli, Enrico

    2015-01-01

    Produced water represents the largest wastewater stream from oil and gas production. Generally, its high salinity level restricts the treatment options. Membrane crystallization (MCr) is an emerging membrane process with the capability to extract simultaneously fresh water and valuable components from various streams. In the current study, the potential of MCr for produced water treatment and salt recovery was demonstrated. The experiments were carried out in lab scale and semi-pilot scale. The effect of thermal and hydrodynamic conditions on process performance and crystal characteristics were explored. Energy dispersive X-ray (EDX) and X-ray diffraction (XRD) analyses confirmed that the recovered crystals are sodium chloride with very high purity (>99.9%), also indicated by the cubic structure observed by microscopy and SEM (scanning electron microscopy) analysis. It was demonstrated experimentally that at recovery factor of 37%, 16.4 kg NaCl per cubic meter of produced water can be recovered. Anti-scaling surface morphological features of membranes were also identified. In general, the study provides a new perspective of isolation of valuable constituents from produced water that, otherwise, is considered as a nuisance.

  12. Application of Membrane Crystallization for Minerals' Recovery from Produced Water.

    PubMed

    Ali, Aamer; Quist-Jensen, Cejna Anna; Macedonio, Francesca; Drioli, Enrico

    2015-01-01

    Produced water represents the largest wastewater stream from oil and gas production. Generally, its high salinity level restricts the treatment options. Membrane crystallization (MCr) is an emerging membrane process with the capability to extract simultaneously fresh water and valuable components from various streams. In the current study, the potential of MCr for produced water treatment and salt recovery was demonstrated. The experiments were carried out in lab scale and semi-pilot scale. The effect of thermal and hydrodynamic conditions on process performance and crystal characteristics were explored. Energy dispersive X-ray (EDX) and X-ray diffraction (XRD) analyses confirmed that the recovered crystals are sodium chloride with very high purity (>99.9%), also indicated by the cubic structure observed by microscopy and SEM (scanning electron microscopy) analysis. It was demonstrated experimentally that at recovery factor of 37%, 16.4 kg NaCl per cubic meter of produced water can be recovered. Anti-scaling surface morphological features of membranes were also identified. In general, the study provides a new perspective of isolation of valuable constituents from produced water that, otherwise, is considered as a nuisance. PMID:26610581

  13. Multimedia level-III partitioning and residence times of xenobiotics in water-rich and water-poor environments

    SciTech Connect

    Breitkopf, C.; Kuehne, R.; Schueuermann, G.

    2000-05-01

    The environmental fate of 10 compounds covering a wide range of intrinsic persistence and volatility is studied with a multimedia level-III fugacity model at two system temperatures (293 and 282 K) using water-rich and water-poor model environments and standard emission scenarios to air and water, respectively. The resultant level-III partitionings depend significantly on the entry mode and on the relative compartment sizes, and the variation with system temperature is more pronounced for polar compounds and when air is the primary discharge compartment. For example, the steady-state portion in soil of airborne phenol varies from 21 to 89%, whereas waterborne phenol resides in water at a rate of 100% in both water-rich and water-poor environments. For some compounds, the residence time (considering both advection and degradation) is substantially affected by intermedia transport processes such as rainfall. With airborne atrazine, the regional residence time is comparable to that of DDT and significantly greater than the ones of hexachlorobenzene, polychlorinated biphenyl 28, and lindane, although the latter have much longer media-specific half-lives and much greater hydrophobicity. The discussion includes detailed analyses of the compound properties and their impact on the level-III environmental fate.

  14. [Study of combined application of mineral water and medicinal plants as regulators of gastric secretion].

    PubMed

    Gridneva, V I; Mamonova, N V; Zadorozhnaia, N A

    2003-01-01

    The goal of this work was to study the impact of the concurrent application of mineral water from the lake of Shira (Khakassia) and phytotherapeutic preparations on the secretory and excretory stomach functions. Mineral water from the lake of Shira belongs to highly mineralized (18.4 g/l) hydrocarbonate sodium-magnesium waters with alkaline reaction (pH 8.9). Phytotherapeutic preparations included the following herbs: common St. John's wort--4 parts (6.0 g per liter), bay willow--5 parts (7.5 g), peppermint: 5 parts (7.5 g), quinquelobate motherwort--3 parts (4.5 g), and shelf fungus--3 parts (4.5 g). PMID:15065539

  15. Geochemical Insight from Nonlinear Optical Studies of Mineral-Water Interfaces

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Covert, Paul A.; Hore, Dennis K.

    2016-05-01

    The physics and chemistry of mineral-water interfaces are complex, even in idealized systems. Our need to understand this complexity is driven by both pure and applied sciences, that is, by the need for basic understanding of earth systems and for the knowledge to mitigate our influences upon them. The second-order nonlinear optical techniques of second-harmonic generation and sum-frequency generation spectroscopy have proven adept at probing these types of interfaces. This review focuses on the contributions to geochemistry made by nonlinear optical methods. The types of questions probed have included a basic description of the structure adopted by water molecules at the mineral interface, how flow and porosity affect this structure, adsorption of trace metal and organic species, and dissolution mechanisms. We also discuss directions and challenges that lie ahead and the outlook for the continued use of nonlinear optical methods for studies of mineral-water boundaries.

  16. Minerals, phenolic compounds, and antioxidant capacity of citrus peel extract by hot water.

    PubMed

    Xu, G H; Chen, J C; Liu, D H; Zhang, Y H; Jiang, P; Ye, X Q

    2008-01-01

    Some dried citrus peels, more familiar as chenpi in China, have been widely used in traditional Chinese medicines from ancient times. This paper reports the efficiency of infusion cooking on extracting minerals and phenolic compounds (flavanone glycosides [FGs], polymethoxylated flavones [PMFs], and phenolic acids), and also antioxidant activity of hot water extract of citrus peels. Peels of 2 citrus varieties, namely, Satsuma mandarin (C. unshiu Marc.) and Ponkan (C. poonensis Hort. ex Tanaka), which belong to C. reticulata, were selected. As a result, hot water extraction was efficient in extracting phenolic acids and some minerals. As for citrus flavonoids, narirutin, nobiletin, and tangeretin were easier to extract than hesperidin. The result of antioxidant capacity assays indicated that for citrus peels, hot water extract had almost the same capacity as the methanol extract. We suggested that Ponkan was more suitable as the source of chenpi, since its hot water extract had much higher content of phenolic acids, FGs and PMFs, and higher antioxidant capacity than those of Satsuma mandarin. Generally, to raise the extraction temperature or to prolong the time could not yield higher content of phenolic compounds and stronger antioxidant capacity, though the content of minerals increased to some extent. Furthermore, a 2nd-time extraction seemed necessary since considerable minerals and phenolic compounds could be obtained by doing so. Finally, we suggested that 2 times extraction at 100 degrees C for 30 min was proper to extract the minerals and phenolic compounds in chenpi. PMID:18211343

  17. Water availability determines the richness and density of fig trees within Brazilian semideciduous forest landscapes

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Coelho, Luís Francisco Mello; Ribeiro, Milton Cezar; Pereira, Rodrigo Augusto Santinelo

    2014-05-01

    The success of fig trees in tropical ecosystems is evidenced by the great diversity (+750 species) and wide geographic distribution of the genus. We assessed the contribution of environmental variables on the species richness and density of fig trees in fragments of seasonal semideciduous forest (SSF) in Brazil. We assessed 20 forest fragments in three regions in Sao Paulo State, Brazil. Fig tree richness and density was estimated in rectangular plots, comprising 31.4 ha sampled. Both richness and fig tree density were linearly modeled as function of variables representing (1) fragment metrics, (2) forest structure, and (3) landscape metrics expressing water drainage in the fragments. Model selection was performed by comparing the AIC values (Akaike Information Criterion) and the relative weight of each model (wAIC). Both species richness and fig tree density were better explained by the water availability in the fragment (meter of streams/ha): wAICrichness = 0.45, wAICdensity = 0.96. The remaining variables related to anthropic perturbation and forest structure were of little weight in the models. The rainfall seasonality in SSF seems to select for both establishment strategies and morphological adaptations in the hemiepiphytic fig tree species. In the studied SSF, hemiepiphytes established at lower heights in their host trees than reported for fig trees in evergreen rainforests. Some hemiepiphytic fig species evolved superficial roots extending up to 100 m from their trunks, resulting in hectare-scale root zones that allow them to efficiently forage water and soil nutrients. The community of fig trees was robust to variation in forest structure and conservation level of SSF fragments, making this group of plants an important element for the functioning of seasonal tropical forests.

  18. Structure, dynamics and stability of water/scCO2/mineral interfaces from ab initio molecular dynamics simulations

    DOE PAGES

    Lee, Mal -Soon; Peter McGrail, B.; Rousseau, Roger; Glezakou, Vassiliki -Alexandra

    2015-10-12

    Here, the interface between a solid and a complex multi-component liquid forms a unique reaction environment whose structure and composition can significantly deviate from either bulk or liquid phase and is poorly understood due the innate difficulty to obtain molecular level information. Feldspar minerals, as typified by the Ca-end member Anorthite, serve as prototypical model systems to assess the reactivity and ion mobility at solid/water-bearing supercritical fluid (WBSF) interfaces due to recent X-ray based measurements that provide information on water-film formation, and cation vacancies at these surfaces. Using density functional theory based molecular dynamics, which allows the evaluation of reactivitymore » and condensed phase dynamics on equal footing, we report on the structure and dynamics of water nucleation and surface aggregation, carbonation and Ca mobilization under geologic carbon sequestration scenarios (T = 323 K and P = 90 bar). We find that water has a strong enthalpic preference for aggregation on a Ca-rich, O-terminated anorthite (001) surface, but entropy strongly hinders the film formation at very low water concentrations. Carbonation reactions readily occur at electron-rich terminal Oxygen sites adjacent to cation vacancies, when in contact with supercritical CO2. Cation vacancies of this type can form readily in the presence of a water layer that allows for facile and enthalpicly favorable Ca2+ extraction and solvation. Apart from providing unprecedented molecular level detail of a complex three component (mineral, water and scCO2) system), this work highlights the ability of modern capabilities of AIMD methods to begin to qualitatively and quantitatively address structure and reactivity at solid-liquid interfaces of high chemical complexity. This work was supported by the US Department of Energy, Office of Fossil Energy (M.-S. L., B. P. M. and V.-A. G.) and the Office of Basic Energy Science, Division of Chemical Sciences

  19. Influence of mineral weathering reactions on the chemical composition of soil water, springs, and ground water, Catoctin Mountains, Maryland

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Katz, B.G.

    1989-01-01

    During 1983 and 1984, wet precipitation was primarily a solution of dilute sulphuric acid, whereas calcium and bicarbonate were the major ions in springs and ground water in two small watersheds with a deciduous forest cover in central Maryland. Dominant ions in soil water were calcium, magnesium, and sulphate. The relative importance of mineral weathering reactions on the chemical composition of these subsurface waters was compared to the contribution from wet precipitation, biological processes, and road deicing salts. -from Author

  20. Silica-rich lavas in the oceanic crust: experimental evidence for fractional crystallization under low water activity

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Erdmann, Martin; Koepke, Jürgen

    2016-10-01

    We experimentally investigated phase relations and phase compositions as well as the influence of water activity ( aH2O) and redox conditions on the equilibrium crystallization path within an oceanic dacitic potassium-depleted system at shallow pressure (200 MPa). Moreover, we measured the partitioning of trace elements between melt and plagioclase via secondary ion mass spectrometry for a highly evolved experiment (SiO2 = 74.6 wt%). As starting material, we used a dacitic glass dredged at the Pacific-Antarctic Rise. Phase assemblages in natural high-silica systems reported from different locations of fast-spreading oceanic crust could be experimentally reproduced only in a relatively small range of temperature and melt-water content ( T ~950 °C; melt H2O < 1.5 wt%) at redox conditions slightly below the quartz-fayalite-magnetite buffer. The relatively low water content is remarkable, because distinct hydrothermal influence is generally regarded as key for producing silica-rich rocks in an oceanic environment. However, our conclusion is also supported by mineral and melt chemistry of natural evolved rocks; these rocks are only congruent to the composition of those experimental phases that are produced under low aH2O. Low FeO contents under water-saturated conditions and the characteristic enrichment of Al2O3 in high aH2O experiments, in particular, contradict natural observations, while experiments with low aH2O match the natural trend. Moreover, the observation that highly evolved experimental melts remain H2O-poor while they are relatively enriched in chlorine implies a decoupling between these two volatiles during crustal contamination.

  1. Erosion of aluminum 6061-T6 under cavitation attack in mineral oil and water

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Rao, B. C. S.; Buckley, D. H.

    1985-01-01

    Studies of the erosion of aluminum 6061-T6 under cavitation attack in distilled water, ordinary tap water and a viscous mineral oil are presented. The mean depth of penetration for the mineral oil was about 40 percent of that for water at the end of a 40 min test. The mean depth of penetration and its rate did not differ significantly for distilled and tap water. The mean depth of penetration rate for both distilled and tap water increased to a maximum and then decreased with test duration, while that for mineral oil had a maximum during the initial period. The ratio h/2a of the pit depth h to the pit diameter 2a varied from 0.04 to 0.13 in water and from 0.06 to 0.20 in mineral oil. Scanning electron microscopy indicates that the pits are initially formed over the grain boundaries and precipitates while the surface grains are deformed under cavitation attack.

  2. Crystallographic controls on the frictional behavior of dry and water-saturated sheet structure minerals

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Moore, Diane E.; Lockner, D.A.

    2004-01-01

    We compare the frictional strengths of 17 sheet structure mineral powders, measured under dry and water-saturated conditions, to identify the factors that cause many of them to be relatively weak. The dry coefficient of friction ?? ranges upward from 0.2 for graphite, leveling off at 0.8 for margarite, clintonite, gibbsite, kaolinite, and lizardite. The values of ?? (dry) correlate directly with calculated (001) interlayer bond strengths of the minerals. This correlation occurs because shear becomes localized along boundary and Riedel shears and the platy minerals in them rotate into alignment with the shear planes. For those gouges with ?? (dry) < 0.8, shear occurs by breaking the interlayer bonds to form new cleavage surfaces. Where ?? (dry) = 0.8, consistent with Byerlee's law, the interlayer bonds are sufficiently strong that other frictional processes dominate. The transition in dry friction mechanisms corresponds to calculated surface energies of 2-3 J/m2. Adding water causes ?? to decrease for every mineral tested except graphite. If the minerals are separated into groups with similar crystal structures, ?? (wet) increases with increasing interlayer bond strength within each group. This relationship also holds for the swelling clay montmorillonite, whose water-saturated strength is consistent with the strengths of nonswelling clays of similar crystal structure. Water in the saturated gouges forms thin, structured films between the plate surfaces. The polar water molecules are bonded to the plate surfaces in proportion to the mineral's surface energy, and ?? (wet) reflects the stresses required to shear through the water films. Copyright 2004 by the American Geophysical Union.

  3. Contamination in mafic mineral-rich calc-alkaline granites: a geochemical and Sr-Nd isotope study of the Neoproterozoic Piedade Granite, SE Brazil.

    PubMed

    Leite, Renato J; Janasi, Valdecir A; Martins, Lucelene

    2006-06-01

    The Piedade Granite (approximately 600 Ma) was emplaced shortly after the main phase of granite magmatism in the Agudos Grandes batholith, Apiaí-Guaxupé Terrane, SE Brazil. Its main units are: mafic mineral-rich porphyritic granites forming the border (peraluminous muscovite-biotite granodiorite-monzogranite MBmg unit) and core (metaluminous titanite-bearing biotite monzogranite BmgT unit) and felsic pink inequigranular granite (Bmg unit) between them. Bmg has high LaN/YbN (up to 100), Th/U (> 10) and low Rb, Nb and Ta, and can be a crustal melt derived from deep-seated sources with residual garnet and biotite. The core BmgT unit derived from oxidized magmas with high Mg# (approximately 45), Ba and Sr, fractionated REE patterns (LaN/YbN = 45), 87Sr/86Sr(t) approximately 0.710, epsilonNd(t) approximately -12 to -14, interpreted as being high-K calc-alkaline magmas contaminated with metasedimentary rocks that had upper-crust signature (high U, Cs, Ta). The mafic-rich peraluminous granites show a more evolved isotope signature (87Sr/86Sr(t) = 0.713-0.714; epsilonNd(t) = -14 to -16), similar to Bmg, and Mg# and incompatible trace-element concentrations intermediate between Bmg and BmgT. A model is presented in whichMBmgis envisaged as the product of contamination between a mafic mineral-rich magma consanguineous with BmgT and pure crustal melts akin to Bmg. PMID:16710571

  4. Contamination in mafic mineral-rich calc-alkaline granites: a geochemical and Sr-Nd isotope study of the Neoproterozoic Piedade Granite, SE Brazil.

    PubMed

    Leite, Renato J; Janasi, Valdecir A; Martins, Lucelene

    2006-06-01

    The Piedade Granite (approximately 600 Ma) was emplaced shortly after the main phase of granite magmatism in the Agudos Grandes batholith, Apiaí-Guaxupé Terrane, SE Brazil. Its main units are: mafic mineral-rich porphyritic granites forming the border (peraluminous muscovite-biotite granodiorite-monzogranite MBmg unit) and core (metaluminous titanite-bearing biotite monzogranite BmgT unit) and felsic pink inequigranular granite (Bmg unit) between them. Bmg has high LaN/YbN (up to 100), Th/U (> 10) and low Rb, Nb and Ta, and can be a crustal melt derived from deep-seated sources with residual garnet and biotite. The core BmgT unit derived from oxidized magmas with high Mg# (approximately 45), Ba and Sr, fractionated REE patterns (LaN/YbN = 45), 87Sr/86Sr(t) approximately 0.710, epsilonNd(t) approximately -12 to -14, interpreted as being high-K calc-alkaline magmas contaminated with metasedimentary rocks that had upper-crust signature (high U, Cs, Ta). The mafic-rich peraluminous granites show a more evolved isotope signature (87Sr/86Sr(t) = 0.713-0.714; epsilonNd(t) = -14 to -16), similar to Bmg, and Mg# and incompatible trace-element concentrations intermediate between Bmg and BmgT. A model is presented in whichMBmgis envisaged as the product of contamination between a mafic mineral-rich magma consanguineous with BmgT and pure crustal melts akin to Bmg.

  5. Crystal-structure refinement of zirconium-rich eudialyte and its place among calcium-poor eudialyte-group minerals

    SciTech Connect

    Aksenov, S. M. Rastsvetaeva, R. K.

    2013-09-15

    The repeated refinement of the crystal structure of zirconium-rich eudialyte based on the X-ray diffraction data set collected earlier revealed new structural features. The trigonal unit-cell parameters are a = 14.222(3) A, c = 30.165(5) A, V = 5283.9 A{sup 3}. The refinement resulted in the reduction of the R factor from 0.045 (2347F > 4{sigma}(F)) to 0.035 (3124F > 3{sigma}(F)). It was found that the ordering of Ca and Fe in six-membered rings leads to the lowering of the symmetry to R3. An excess amount of zirconium (more than three atoms per symmetrically independent unit) is located in the M2 microregion in square and five-vertex polyhedral positions. However, this amount is insufficient to be dominant, and the deficiency of zirconium is compensated for by sodium atoms. Based on the new data, zirconium-rich eudialyte can be assigned to the oneillite subtype, being a zirconium-rich and aluminum variety of raslakite.

  6. Several properties offilament fibers made from recycled bottles of mineral water using melt spinning method

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Muslim, Ikhwanul; Mardiyati; Basuki, Arif

    2016-01-01

    Waste mineral water bottles made of PET called post-consumer POSTC-PET packaging with recycling code no. 1 can be made into another material other than the bottle by using a mechanical recycling process. In this experiment carried waste recycling process bottled mineral water bottles of PET into filament fibres with the aid of a melt spinning. From the resulting experimental filament fibres diameter of 14-15 microns, obtained the draw ratio is 1/46, 573,5 - 699,8 MPa tensile strength, modulus of elasticity of 2,01 - 2,45GPa, moisture regain of 2,84. Keywords. PET; Bottle; Fiber; Melt; Spinning; Drawing.

  7. Innovative Approaches to Teaching Packaging Design Using the Example of Mineral Water Supply Chains

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Lestyánszka Škůrková, Katarína; Bajor, Peter; Trafela, Sabrina

    2013-12-01

    Designing the packaging of a product has many critical factors. In our paper, we present some of them on the example of a simple product: mineral water. In spite of the fact that today not only products, but also supply chains are competing with each other, designers sometimes pay little attention to considering the packaging system not only from the customer and the producer side, but for warehousing and transportation as well. We cover a lot of "what can go wrong" scenarios on the example of mineral water packaging for the purpose of defining the critical points in the supply chain.

  8. Cold temperature decreases bacterial species richness in nitrogen-removing bioreactors treating inorganic mine waters.

    PubMed

    Karkman, A; Mattila, K; Tamminen, M; Virta, M

    2011-12-01

    Explosives used in mining, such as ammonium nitrate fuel oil (ANFO), can cause eutrophication of the surrounding environment by leakage of ammonium and nitrate from undetonated material that is not properly treated. Cold temperatures in mines affect nitrogen removal from water when such nutrients are treated with bioreactors in situ. In this study we identified bacteria in the bioreactors and studied the effect of temperature on the bacterial community. The bioreactors consisted of sequential nitrification and denitrification units running at either 5 or 10°C. One nitrification bioreactor running at 5°C was fed with salt spiked water. From the nitrification bioreactors, sequences from both ammonia- and nitrite-oxidizing bacteria were identified, but the species were distinct at different temperatures. The main nitrifiers in the lower temperature were closely related to the genera Nitrosospira and Candidatus Nitrotoga. 16S rRNA gene sequences closely related to halotolerant Nitrosomonas eutropha were found only from the salt spiked nitrification bioreactor. At 10°C the genera Nitrosomonas and Nitrospira were the abundant nitrifiers. The results showed that bacterial species richness estimates were low, <150 operational taxonomic units (OTUs), in all bioreactor clone libraries, when sequences were assigned to operational taxonomic units at an evolutionary distance of 0.03. The only exception was the nitrification bioreactor running at 10°C where species richness was higher, >300 OTUs. Species richness was lower in bioreactors running at 5°C compared to those operating at 10°C.

  9. Water-soluble organophosphorus reagents for mineralization of heavy metals.

    SciTech Connect

    Nash, K. L.

    1999-02-26

    In this report, we have described the principal stages of a two-step process for the in-situ stabilization of actinide ions in the environment. The combination of cation exchange and mineralization appears likely to provide a long-term solution to environments contaminated with heavy metals. Relying on a naturally occurring sequestering agent has obvious potential advantages from a regulatory standpoint. There are additional aspects of this technology requiring further elucidation, including the demonstration of the effect of these treatment protocols on the geohydrology of soil columns, further examination of the influence of humates and other colloidal species on cation uptake, and microbiological studies of phytate hydrolysis. We have learned during the course of this investigation that phytic acid is potentially available in large quantities. In the US alone, phytic acid is produced at an annual rate of several hundred thousand metric tons as a byproduct of fermentation processes (11). This material presently is not isolated for use. Instead, most of the insoluble phyate (as phytin) is being recycled along with the other solid fermentation residues for animal feed. This material is in fact considered undesirable in animal feed. The details of possible separation processes for phytate from these residues would have to be worked out before this untapped resource would be available for application to heavy metal sequestration. The results described emphasize the behavior of actinide and trivalent lanthanide metal ions, as these species are of primary interest to the Department of Energy for the cleanup of the former nuclear weapons production complex. While the specific demonstration includes this limited selection of metal ions, the technique should be readily applicable to any class of metal ions that form insoluble phosphate compounds under appropriate conditions. Further, though this demonstration has been conducted in the pH 5-8 range, it is conceivable that

  10. Environmental geochemistry of shale-hosted Ag-Pb-Zn massive sulfide deposits in northwest Alaska: Natural background concentrations of metals in water from mineralized areas

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Kelley, K.D.; Taylor, C.D.

    1997-01-01

    Red Dog, Lik and Drenchwater are shale-hosted stratiform Ag-Pb-Zn massive sulfide deposits in the northwestern Brooks Range. Natural background concentrations of metals in waters from the undisturbed (unmined) Drenchwater prospect and Lik deposit were compared to pre-mining baseline studies conducted at Red Dog. The primary factors affecting water chemistry are the extent of exposure of the deposits, the grade of mineralization, the presence of carbonate reeks in the section, and the proportion of Fe-sulfide in the ore. Surface water samples from the Drenchwater prospect, which has pyrite-dominant mineralization exposed in outcrop, have pH values as low as 2.8 and high dissolved concentrations of metals including as much as 95 mg 1-1 Al, 270 mg 1-1 Fe, 8 ??1-1 Cd, 10 ??1-1 Pb, and 2600 ??1-1 Zn, with As up to 26 ??g1-1. Surface waters from the Red Dog deposit prior to mining were also acidic and metal-rich, however, dissolved metal concentrations in Red Dog waters were many times greater. The higher metal concentrations in Red Dog waters reflect the high Zn grades and the abundant sphalerite, pyrite, and galena that were present in outcrop prior to mining. In contrast, despite significant mineralization at the Lik deposit, carbonate rocks in the section buffer the system, resulting in less acidic, mostly near-neutral pH values with low concentrations of most metals except Zn.

  11. Floating bioplato for purification of waste quarry waters from mineral nitrogen compounds in the Arctic.

    PubMed

    Evdokimova, Galina A; Ivanova, Lyubov A; Mozgova, Natalia P; Myazin, Vladimir A; Fokina, Nadezhda V

    2016-08-23

    A bioplato was organized at Kirovogorskiy pond-settling of OLKON Company (the city of Olenegorsk, in Murmansk region) to reduce the content of nitrogen mineral compounds in water which come into the pond with the quarry waters after blasting operations using nitrogen compounds. The assortment of aboriginal plants was selected, a method of fixing and growing them on the water surface was developed, and observations of their vegetation were carried out. The dynamics of nitrogen compounds was determined in the laboratory and with full-scale tests. The coverage area pond by plants for the effective reduction of mineral nitrogen compounds was calculated. The use of floating bioplato helped to reduce content of ammonium and nitrite to maximum permissible levels or even lower in pond water. Also there was a tendency towards reduction of nitrate concentrations in water. The developmental technology can be used in any climatic zone with a specific assortment of plants-ameliorants.

  12. Impacts of diffusive transport on carbonate mineral formation from magnesium silicate-CO2-water reactions.

    PubMed

    Giammar, Daniel E; Wang, Fei; Guo, Bin; Surface, J Andrew; Peters, Catherine A; Conradi, Mark S; Hayes, Sophia E

    2014-12-16

    Reactions of CO2 with magnesium silicate minerals to precipitate magnesium carbonates can result in stable carbon sequestration. This process can be employed in ex situ reactors or during geologic carbon sequestration in magnesium-rich formations. The reaction of aqueous CO2 with the magnesium silicate mineral forsterite was studied in systems with transport controlled by diffusion. The approach integrated bench-scale experiments, an in situ spectroscopic technique, and reactive transport modeling. Experiments were performed using a tube packed with forsterite and open at one end to a CO2-rich solution. The location and amounts of carbonate minerals that formed were determined by postexperiment characterization of the solids. Complementing this ex situ characterization, (13)C NMR spectroscopy tracked the inorganic carbon transport and speciation in situ. The data were compared with the output of reactive transport simulations that accounted for diffusive transport processes, aqueous speciation, and the forsterite dissolution rate. All three approaches found that the onset of magnesium carbonate precipitation was spatially localized about 1 cm from the opening of the forsterite bed. Magnesite was the dominant reaction product. Geochemical gradients that developed in the diffusion-limited zones led to locally supersaturated conditions at specific locations even while the volume-averaged properties of the system remained undersaturated.

  13. Optimization of the Liquid Culture Medium Composition to Obtain the Mycelium of Agaricus bisporus Rich in Essential Minerals.

    PubMed

    Krakowska, Agata; Reczyński, Witold; Muszyńska, Bożena

    2016-09-01

    Agaricus bisporus species (J.E. Lange) Imbach one of the most popular Basidiomycota species was chosen for the research because of its dietary and medicinal value. The presented herein studies included determination of essential mineral accumulation level in the mycelium of A. bisporus, cultivated on liquid cultures in the medium supplemented with addition of the chosen metals' salts. Quantitative analyses of Zn, Cu, Mg, and Fe in liquid cultures made it possible to determine the relationship between accumulation of the selected mineral in A. bisporus mycelium and the culture conditions. Monitoring of the liquid cultures and determination of the elements' concentrations in mycelium of A. bisporus were performed using the flame technique of AAS method. Concentration of Zn in the mycelium, maintained in the medium with the addition of its salt, was in a very wide range from 95.9 to 4462.0 mg/g DW. In the analyzed A. bisporus mycelium, cultured in the medium enriched with copper salt, this metal concentration changed from 89.79 to 7491.50 mg/g DW; considering Mg in liquid cultured mycelium (medium with Mg addition), its concentration has changed from 0.32 to 10.55 mg/g DW. The medium enriched with iron salts has led to bioaccumulation of Fe in mycelia of A. bisporus. Determined Fe concentration was in the range from 0.62 to 161.28 mg/g DW. The proposed method of liquid A. bisporus culturing on medium enriched with the selected macro- and microelements in proper concentrations ratio have led to obtaining maximal growth of biomass, characterized by high efficiency of the mineral accumulation. As a result, a dietary component of increased nutritive value was obtained. PMID:26857993

  14. Water loss from terrestrial planets with CO{sub 2}-rich atmospheres

    SciTech Connect

    Wordsworth, R. D.; Pierrehumbert, R. T.

    2013-12-01

    Water photolysis and hydrogen loss from the upper atmospheres of terrestrial planets is of fundamental importance to climate evolution but remains poorly understood in general. Here we present a range of calculations we performed to study the dependence of water loss rates from terrestrial planets on a range of atmospheric and external parameters. We show that CO{sub 2} can only cause significant water loss by increasing surface temperatures over a narrow range of conditions, with cooling of the middle and upper atmosphere acting as a bottleneck on escape in other circumstances. Around G-stars, efficient loss only occurs on planets with intermediate CO{sub 2} atmospheric partial pressures (0.1-1 bar) that receive a net flux close to the critical runaway greenhouse limit. Because G-star total luminosity increases with time but X-ray and ultraviolet/ultravoilet luminosity decreases, this places strong limits on water loss for planets like Earth. In contrast, for a CO{sub 2}-rich early Venus, diffusion limits on water loss are only important if clouds caused strong cooling, implying that scenarios where the planet never had surface liquid water are indeed plausible. Around M-stars, water loss is primarily a function of orbital distance, with planets that absorb less flux than ∼270 W m{sup –2} (global mean) unlikely to lose more than one Earth ocean of H{sub 2}O over their lifetimes unless they lose all their atmospheric N{sub 2}/CO{sub 2} early on. Because of the variability of H{sub 2}O delivery during accretion, our results suggest that many 'Earth-like' exoplanets in the habitable zone may have ocean-covered surfaces, stable CO{sub 2}/H{sub 2}O-rich atmospheres, and high mean surface temperatures.

  15. Application of water mist for the control of fuel-rich fires in model coal mine entries

    SciTech Connect

    Loomis, I.M.; McPherson, M.J.

    1995-12-31

    A fuel-rich fire exists when the quantity of fuel exceeds the oxygen available to support complete combustion. The transition of a mine fire from Oxygen-rich to Fuel-rich combustion, at this time, represents a point-of-no-return in the fire fighting efforts. Once the transition has been made to fuel-rich the fire can spread at a rate 6 to 10 times as fast as in the oxygen-rich state. Utilizing available technology the fire fighters are left to seal the fuel-rich fire as the only technique to extinguish it. In order to minimize the devastating effects of a fuel-rich fire it is important to understand the means by which the fire becomes fuel-rich and by what means the fire may be returned to an oxygen-rich state. This paper covers: the development mechanism of a fuel-rich fire in a coal mine entry and the physical and chemical effects of applying water to a fire. Experiments concerning these matters have been conducted in a 30 cm square wind tunnel constructed at the Virginia Polytechnic Institute and State University as a model coal mine entry. This paper also addresses the results obtained in testing application of a water mist to fuel-rich fires in this model. These tests have centered on the development profile of a fuel-rich fire in a duct and demonstrate a means of regaining control of a fuel-rich fire by returning it to an oxygen-rich state.

  16. Survival of human pathogenic bacteria in different types of natural mineral water.

    PubMed

    Serrano, Concepción; Romero, Margarita; Alou, Luis; Sevillano, David; Corvillo, Iluminada; Armijo, Francisco; Maraver, Francisco

    2012-09-01

    The aim of this study was to determine the survival of human pathogens (Staphylococcus aureus, Escherichia coli, and Pseudomonas aeruginosa) in five natural mineral waters (NMWs) with different properties and mineralization levels. Five NMWs from four Spanish spas with different dry residue at 110 °C were used: A = 76,935 mg/L; B = 1,827 mg/L; C = 808.4 mg/L; D = 283.8 mg/L; and E = 170.4 mg/L. An initial inoculum of 1 × 10(6) colony forming units (cfu)/mL was used for survival studies. Distilled water, chlorinated tap water and Mueller-Hinton broth were used as controls. Colony counts in all different waters were lower than those achieved with Mueller-Hinton broth over all incubation periods. A direct effect between the bacterial survival and the level of mineralization water was observed. The NMW E with low mineralization level along with the radioactive properties showed the highest antibacterial activity among all NMWs.

  17. Mars Gully: No Mineral Trace of Liquid Water

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    2007-01-01

    This image of the Centauri-Hellas Montes region was taken by the Compact Reconnaissance Imaging Spectrometer for Mars (CRISM) at 2107 UTC (4:07 p.m. EST) on Jan. 9, 2007, near 38.41 degrees south latitude, 96.81 degrees east longitude. CRISM's image was taken in 544 colors covering 0.36-3.92 micrometers, and shows features as small as 20 meters (66 feet) across. The region covered is slightly wider than 10 kilometers (6.2 miles) at its narrowest point.

    Narrow gullies found on hills and crater walls in many mid-latitude regions of Mars have been interpreted previously as cut by geologically 'recent' running water, meaning water that flowed on Mars long after impact cratering, tectonic forces, volcanism or other processes created the underlying landforms. Some gullies even eroded into sand dunes, which would date their formation at thousands to millions of years ago, or less. In fact, Mars Orbiter Camera (MOC) images showed two of the gullies have bright deposits near their downslope ends - but those deposits were absent in images taken just a few years earlier. The bright deposits must have formed within the period 1999-2004.

    Has there been running water on Mars so recently? To address that question, CRISM and MRO's other instruments observed the bright gully deposits. CRISM's objective was to determine if the bright deposits contained salts left behind from water evaporating into Mars' thin air. The high-resolution imager's (HiRISE's) objective was to determine if the small-scale morphology was consistent with formation by running water.

    This CRISM image of a bright gully deposit was constructed by showing 2.53, 1.50, and 1.08 micrometer light in the red, green, and blue image planes. CRISM can just resolve the deposits (highlighted by arrows in the inset), which are only a few tens of meters (about 150 feet) across. The spectrum of the deposits barely differs from that of the surrounding material, and is just a little brighter. This difference

  18. Chemical and isotopic composition of water from thermal springs and mineral springs of Washington

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Mariner, R.H.; Presser, T.S.; Evans, William C.

    1982-01-01

    Water from thermal springs of Washington range in chemical composition from dilute NaHC03, to moderately saline C02-charged NaHC03-Cl waters. St. Martin 's Hot Spring which discharges a slightly saline NaCl water, is the notable exception. Mineral springs generally discharge a moderately saline C02-charged NaHC03-Cl water. The dilute Na-HC03 waters are generally associated with granite. The warm to hot waters charged with C02 issue on or near the large stratovolcanoes and many of the mineral springs also occur near the large volcanoes. The dilute waters have oxygen isotopic compositions which indicate relatively little water-rock exchange. The C02-charged waters are usually more enriched in oxygen-18 due to more extensive water-rock reaction. Carbon-13 in the C02-charged thermal waters is more depleted (-10 to -12 permil) than in the cold C02-charged soda springs (-2 to -8 permil) which are also scattered throughout the Cascades. The hot and cold C02-charged waters are supersaturated with respect to CaC03, but only the hot springs are actively depositing CaC03. Baker, Gamma, Sulphur , and Ohanapecosh seem to be associated with thermal aquifers of more than 100C. (USGS)

  19. Water safety and inequality in access to drinking-water between rich and poor households.

    PubMed

    Yang, Hong; Bain, Robert; Bartram, Jamie; Gundry, Stephen; Pedley, Steve; Wright, James

    2013-02-01

    While water and sanitation are now recognized as a human right by the United Nations, monitoring inequality in safe water access poses challenges. This study uses survey data to calculate household socio-economic-status (SES) indices in seven countries where national drinking-water quality surveys are available. These are used to assess inequalities in access as indicated by type of improved water source, use of safe water, and a combination of these. In Bangladesh, arsenic exposure through drinking-water is not significantly related to SES (p = 0.06) among households using tubewells, whereas in Peru, chlorine residual in piped systems varies significantly with SES (p < 0.0001). In Ethiopia, Nicaragua, and Nigeria, many poor households access nonpiped improved sources, which may provide unsafe water, resulting in greater inequality of access to "safe" water compared to "improved" water sources. Concentration indices increased from 0.08 to 0.15, 0.10 to 0.14, and 0.24 to 0.26, respectively, in these countries. There was minimal difference in Jordan and Tajikistan. Although the results are likely to be underestimates as they exclude individual-level inequalities, they show that use of a binary "improved"/"unimproved" categorization masks substantial inequalities. Future international monitoring programmes should take account of inequality in access and safety.

  20. Extraction of reusable water from a mineral mining process

    SciTech Connect

    Gleim, W.K.

    1982-01-19

    A method for the treatment of an aqueous effluent slime derived from a tar sand extraction process is disclosed. The effluent slime ph is adjusted to an acidic ph and treated with an anionic surface active agent to create flocculation of solid asphaltic material entrained within the slime. A solvent solution comprising chlorinated hydrocarbon and a solvent therefor is added so that upon centrifuging of the treated slime three physical layers of material comprising (1) water; (2) asphaltics in the solvent solution and (3) clay are formed.

  1. Scientific basis for the study of demineralization of highly mineralized water for use in public water supply systems.

    PubMed Central

    Sidorenko, G I; Rakhmanin, Y A

    1979-01-01

    New criteria (full physiological value and preservation of the properties of drinking water) are scientifically substantiated. Also discussed are indices (minimal admissible and optimal levels of basic water mineralization and calcium content, standards of microelements such as boron and bromine content, content of individual groups of microorganisms, water temperature) for evaluating the quality of demineralized water obtained from brackish and briny water (including water from the sea and ocean) by various methods which are designed for public water supply systems. Research results served as the scientific hygiene basis for the development of a new technology of obtaining drinking water. The necessity for developing a special quality standard for demineralized drinking water is shown. PMID:446445

  2. Survival of Brucella spp. in mineral water, milk and yogurt.

    PubMed

    Falenski, Alexander; Mayer-Scholl, Anne; Filter, Matthias; Göllner, Cornelia; Appel, Bernd; Nöckler, Karsten

    2011-01-31

    Knowledge of the number of organisms in a food product at the time of consumption is crucial to assess the risk from a deliberate contamination of food samples with Brucella. To date, very little data on the survival times of Brucella in different food matrices is available. This study was conducted to assess the survival times of Brucella spp. in water, milk and yogurt. These food products were inoculated with bacteria, serial dilutions of the food samples plated and the number of surviving bacteria counted. Under normal storage conditions Brucella survived in UHT milk for 87 days, for 60 days in water and less than a week in yogurt. Also, when milk was inoculated with low bacterial numbers, Brucella multiplied by five log units within three weeks. Further we could not confirm that a high fat content in food has a protective effect on Brucella survival. Brucella survived in 3.5% and 10.0% fat yogurt for four and two days, respectively. These results show that appropriate methods for the rapid detection of this pathogen from food matrices are required.

  3. Hydrogen-rich water attenuates brain damage and inflammation after traumatic brain injury in rats.

    PubMed

    Tian, Runfa; Hou, Zonggang; Hao, Shuyu; Wu, Weichuan; Mao, Xiang; Tao, Xiaogang; Lu, Te; Liu, Baiyun

    2016-04-15

    Inflammation and oxidative stress are the two major causes of apoptosis after traumatic brain injury (TBI). Most previous studies of the neuroprotective effects of hydrogen-rich water on TBI primarily focused on antioxidant effects. The present study investigated whether hydrogen-rich water (HRW) could attenuate brain damage and inflammation after traumatic brain injury in rats. A TBI model was induced using a controlled cortical impact injury. HRW or distilled water was injected intraperitoneally daily following surgery. We measured survival rate, brain edema, blood-brain barrier (BBB) breakdown and neurological dysfunction in all animals. Changes in inflammatory cytokines, inflammatory cells and Cho/Cr metabolites in brain tissues were also detected. Our results demonstrated that TBI-challenged rats exhibited significant brain injuries that were characterized by decreased survival rate and increased BBB permeability, brain edema, and neurological dysfunction, while HRW treatment ameliorated the consequences of TBI. HRW treatment also decreased the levels of pro-inflammatory cytokines (TNF-α, IL-1β and HMGB1), inflammatory cell number (Iba1) and inflammatory metabolites (Cho) and increased the levels of an anti-inflammatory cytokine (IL-10) in the brain tissues of TBI-challenged rats. In conclusion, HRW could exert a neuroprotective effect against TBI and attenuate inflammation, which suggests HRW as an effective therapeutic strategy for TBI patients. PMID:26826009

  4. Discrimination of fish oil and mineral oil slicks on sea water

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Mac Dowall, J.

    1969-01-01

    Fish oil and mineral oil slicks on sea water can be discriminated by their different spreading characteristics and by their reflectivities and color variations over a range of wavelengths. Reflectivities of oil and oil films are determined using a duel beam reflectance apparatus.

  5. Water Mites (Acari: Hydrachnida) of Ozark Streams - Abundance, Species Richness, and Potential as Environmental Indicators

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Radwell, A. J.; Brown, A. V.

    2005-05-01

    Because water mites are tightly linked to other stream metazoans through parasitism and predation, they are potentially effective indicators of environmental quality. Meiofauna (80 μm to 1 mm) were sampled from headwater riffles of 11 Ozark streams to determine relative abundance and densities of major meiofauna taxa. Water mites comprised 15.3% of the organisms collected exceeded only by chironomids (50.2%) and oligochaetes (17.8%), and mean water mite density among the 11 streams was 265 organisms per liter. The two streams that differed the most in environmental quality were sampled using techniques suitable for identification of species. An estimated 32 species from 20 genera and 13 families were found in the least disturbed stream; an estimated 19 species from 13 genera and 8 families were found in the most disturbed stream. This preliminary finding supports the notion that water mite species richness declines in response to environmental disturbance. Many species could only be identified as morphospecies of particular genera, but the ongoing taxonomic revision of Hydrachnida is expected to provide needed information. A collaborative effort between those interested in taxonomy/systematics of water mites and ecologists interested in the significance of water mites in aquatic communities could prove mutually beneficial.

  6. Homogenous VUV advanced oxidation process for enhanced degradation and mineralization of antibiotics in contaminated water.

    PubMed

    Pourakbar, Mojtaba; Moussavi, Gholamreza; Shekoohiyan, Sakine

    2016-03-01

    This study was aimed to evaluate the degradation and mineralization of amoxicillin(AMX), using VUV advanced process. The effect of pH, AMX initial concentration, presence of water ingredients, the effect of HRT, and mineralization level by VUV process were taken into consideration. In order to make a direct comparison, the test was also performed by UVC radiation. The results show that the degradation of AMX was following the first-order kinetic. It was found that direct photolysis by UVC was able to degrade 50mg/L of AMX in 50min,while it was 3min for VUV process. It was also found that the removal efficiency by VUV process was directly influenced by pH of the solution, and higher removal rates were achieved at high pH values.The results show that 10mg/L of AMX was completely degraded and mineralized within 50s and 100s, respectively, indicating that the AMX was completely destructed into non-hazardous materials. Operating the photoreactor in contentious-flow mode revealed that 10mg/L AMX was completely degraded and mineralized at HRT values of 120s and 300s. it was concluded that the VUV advanced process was an efficient and viable technique for degradation and mineralization of contaminated water by antibiotics. PMID:26669695

  7. Urban net-zero water treatment and mineralization: experiments, modeling and design.

    PubMed

    Englehardt, James D; Wu, Tingting; Tchobanoglous, George

    2013-09-01

    Water and wastewater treatment and conveyance account for approximately 4% of US electric consumption, with 80% used for conveyance. Net zero water (NZW) buildings would alleviate demands for a portion of this energy, for water, and for the treatment of drinking water for pesticides and toxic chemical releases in source water. However, domestic wastewater contains nitrogen loads much greater than urban/suburban ecosystems can typically absorb. The purpose of this work was to identify a first design of a denitrifying urban NZW treatment process, operating at ambient temperature and pressure and circum-neutral pH, and providing mineralization of pharmaceuticals (not easily regulated in terms of environmental half-life), based on laboratory tests and mass balance and kinetic modeling. The proposed treatment process is comprised of membrane bioreactor, iron-mediated aeration (IMA, reported previously), vacuum ultrafiltration, and peroxone advanced oxidation, with minor rainwater make-up and H2O2 disinfection residual. Similar to biological systems, minerals accumulate subject to precipitative removal by IMA, salt-free treatment, and minor dilution. Based on laboratory and modeling results, the system can produce potable water with moderate mineral content from commingled domestic wastewater and 10-20% rainwater make-up, under ambient conditions at individual buildings, while denitrifying and reducing chemical oxygen demand to below detection (<3 mg/L). While economics appear competitive, further development and study of steady-state concentrations and sludge management options are needed. PMID:23770482

  8. Urban net-zero water treatment and mineralization: experiments, modeling and design.

    PubMed

    Englehardt, James D; Wu, Tingting; Tchobanoglous, George

    2013-09-01

    Water and wastewater treatment and conveyance account for approximately 4% of US electric consumption, with 80% used for conveyance. Net zero water (NZW) buildings would alleviate demands for a portion of this energy, for water, and for the treatment of drinking water for pesticides and toxic chemical releases in source water. However, domestic wastewater contains nitrogen loads much greater than urban/suburban ecosystems can typically absorb. The purpose of this work was to identify a first design of a denitrifying urban NZW treatment process, operating at ambient temperature and pressure and circum-neutral pH, and providing mineralization of pharmaceuticals (not easily regulated in terms of environmental half-life), based on laboratory tests and mass balance and kinetic modeling. The proposed treatment process is comprised of membrane bioreactor, iron-mediated aeration (IMA, reported previously), vacuum ultrafiltration, and peroxone advanced oxidation, with minor rainwater make-up and H2O2 disinfection residual. Similar to biological systems, minerals accumulate subject to precipitative removal by IMA, salt-free treatment, and minor dilution. Based on laboratory and modeling results, the system can produce potable water with moderate mineral content from commingled domestic wastewater and 10-20% rainwater make-up, under ambient conditions at individual buildings, while denitrifying and reducing chemical oxygen demand to below detection (<3 mg/L). While economics appear competitive, further development and study of steady-state concentrations and sludge management options are needed.

  9. Redistributed water by saprotrophic fungi triggers carbon mineralization in dry soils

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Guhr, Alexander; Borken, Werner; Matzner, Egbert

    2015-04-01

    Summer droughts are common in temperate forests and especially the upper soil horizons experience soil drought. Drought events can be accompanied by negative effects for forest ecosystems but many plants can reduce drought stress by hydraulic redistribution (HR). Similar processes were recently described for ectomycorrhizal networks but no information is available for mycelia networks of saprotrophic fungi. They strongly contribute to belowground nutrient cycling, C and N mineralization. We hypothesize that redistributed water by saprotrophic fungi triggers mineralization of organic matter in soils under drought conditions. The impact of HR by saprotrophic fungi on mineralization was determined using mesocosms comprising two chambers, separated by a 2 mm air gap to prevent bulk flow of water. After inoculation with fungal cultures and a growth phase, both chambers were desiccated. Subsequently, only chamber I was rewetted while chamber II was treated with 13C labelled plant material. CO2 samples were collected over 7 days after rewetting and analyzed for stable isotope ratio. In addition, enzymatic activity of chitinases and cellobiohydrolases in chamber II was determined after 7 days using the soil zymographie method with fluorogenic 4-Methylumbelliferyl-substrates. A negative control was provided by mesocosms in which hyphal connections between the chambers were severed before rewetting. Intact fungal connections between the chambers led to a strong increase in volumetric water content in chamber II after rewetting of chamber I and the CO2 had a higher enrichment in 13C than in the control mescosms with severed connections. Enrichment started 48 h after rewetting and continued for the rest of the experiment. This resulted in a more than two fold higher total carbon mineralization after 7 days in chamber II of mesocosms with intact hyphal connections. In addition, enzyme activities were also strongly increased compared to controls. In conclusion, mycelia networks

  10. Co-occurrence of phycocyanin- and phycoerythrin-rich Synechococcus in subtropical estuarine and coastal waters of Hong Kong.

    PubMed

    Liu, Hongbin; Jing, Hongmei; Wong, Thomas H C; Chen, Bingzhang

    2014-02-01

    Phylogenetic diversity of Synechococcus with different pigmentation in subtropical estuarine and coastal waters of Hong Kong was revealed by the phylogeny of cpcBA and cpeBA operons encoding for phycocyanin (PC) and phycoerythrin (PE). Synechococcus containing only PC (PC-rich Synechococcus) dominated at the estuarine station in summer, whereas PE-rich marine Synechococcus containing both PC and PE (PE-rich Synechococcus) dominated in the coastal waters. Our PC sequences are closely related to freshwater strains but differed from Baltic Sea strains, implying that they were from river discharge. Among PE-rich Synechococcus, clones grouping with strains containing only phycoerythrobilin (PEB-only) were abundant in July, while clones grouping with strains possessing a low content of phycourobilin (PUB) in addition to PEB (low PUB/PEB) were more abundant in January at both stations. Clones of high PUB/PEB types were only presented at the coastal station, but were not detected at the estuarine station. The much higher diversity of both PC-rich and PE-rich Synechococcus, as compared with the Baltic Sea, and the occurrence of the high PUB/PEB strains indicate the high dynamic nature of this subtropical estuarine-coastal environment with strong mixing of water masses ranging from Pearl River plume to oceanic South China Sea water. Our results of phylogenetic study agreed well with flow cytometric counts, which revealed the coexistence of PC-rich and PE-rich Synechococcus in the subtropical coastal waters and the dominance of the former type in the estuarine waters during summer high freshwater discharge. These results indicate that picocyanobacteria, particularly PC-rich Synechococcus, which has long been overlooked, are an important part of the primary production, and they could play an important role in the microbial food web in estuarine ecosystems.

  11. Clade Age and Diversification Rate Variation Explain Disparity in Species Richness among Water Scavenger Beetle (Hydrophilidae) Lineages

    PubMed Central

    Bloom, Devin D.; Fikáček, Martin; Short, Andrew E. Z.

    2014-01-01

    Explaining the disparity of species richness across the tree of life is one of the great challenges in evolutionary biology. Some lineages are exceptionally species rich, while others are relatively species poor. One explanation for heterogeneity among clade richness is that older clades are more species rich because they have had more time to accrue diversity than younger clades. Alternatively, disparity in species richness may be due to among-lineage diversification rate variation. Here we investigate diversification in water scavenger beetles (Hydrophilidae), which vary in species richness among major lineages by as much as 20 fold. Using a time-calibrated phylogeny and comparative methods, we test for a relationship between clade age and species richness and for shifts in diversification rate in hydrophilids. We detected a single diversification rate increase in Megasternini, a relatively young and species rich clade whose diversity might be explained by the stunning diversity of ecological niches occupied by this clade. We find that Amphiopini, an old clade, is significantly more species poor than expected, possibly due to its restricted geographic range. The remaining lineages show a correlation between species richness and clade age, suggesting that both clade age and variation in diversification rates explain the disparity in species richness in hydrophilids. We find little evidence that transitions between aquatic, semiaquatic, and terrestrial habitats are linked to shifts in diversification rates. PMID:24887453

  12. Characterization of the mineral phosphate-solubilizing activity of Pantoea agglomerans MMB051 isolated from an iron-rich soil in southeastern Venezuela (Bolívar State).

    PubMed

    Sulbarán, Miguel; Pérez, Elizabeth; Ball, María M; Bahsas, Alí; Yarzábal, Luis Andrés

    2009-04-01

    The mineral phosphate-solubilizing (MPS) activity of a Pantoea agglomerans strain, namely MMB051, isolated from an iron-rich, acidic soil near Ciudad Piar (Bolívar State, Venezuela), was characterized on a chemically defined medium (NBRIP). Various insoluble inorganic phosphates, including tri-calcium phosphate [Ca(3)(PO(4))(2)], iron phosphate (FePO(4)), aluminum phosphate (AlPO(4)), and Rock Phosphate (RP) were tested as sole sources of P for bacterial growth. Solubilization of Ca(3)(PO(4))(2) was very efficient and depended on acidification of the external milieu when MMB051 cells were grown in the presence of glucose. This was also the case when RP was used as the sole P source. On the other hand, the solubilization efficiency toward more insoluble mineral phosphates (FePO(4) and AlPO(4)) was shown to be very low. Even though gluconic acid (GA) was detected on culture supernatants of strain MMB051, a consequence of the direct oxidation pathway of glucose, inorganic-P solubilization seemed also to be related to other processes dependent on active cell growth. Among these, proton release by ammonium (NH(4)(+) ) fixation appeared to be of paramount importance to explain inorganic-P solubilization mediated by strain MMB051. On the contrary, the presence of nitrate (NO(3)(-) ) salts as the sole N source affected negatively the ability of MMB051 cells to solubilize inorganic P.

  13. Variations in the chemical composition of lamprophyllite-group minerals and the crystal structure of fluorine-rich barytolamprophyllite from new peralkaline dyke

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Akimenko, M. I.; Aksenov, S. M.; Sorokhtina, N. V.; Kogarko, L. N.; Kononkova, N. N.; Rastsvetaeva, R. K.; Rozenberg, K. A.

    2015-11-01

    The variations in the chemical composition of lamprophyllite-group minerals from a peralkaline dyke of the Mokhnatye Roga area (Kandalaksha region, Kola Peninsula), which are crystallized during the entire period of dyke formation and form several generations, have been investigated. The early generations differ in a steadily high fluorine content, while the later ones exhibit reduced amount of fluorine, impurity elements, and sodium, with a simultaneous increase in the potassium content. The crystal structure of fluorine- rich barytolamprophyllite (potentially a new representative of the lamprophyllite group, differing by the predominance of fluorine in the anion X site) has been analyzed by single crystal X-ray diffraction. This mineral is found to have a monoclinic unit cell with the following parameters: a = 19.5219(8) Å, b = 7.0915(2) Å, c = 5.3925(2) Å, β = 96.628(3)°, and sp. gr. C2/ m. The structure is refined to R = 5.73% in the anisotropic approximation of the atomic displacement parameters using 3668 I > 2σ( I). The idealized formula ( Z = 2) is (Ba,Sr)2[Na(Na,Fe)2(Ti,Mg)F2][Ti2(Si2O7)2O2].

  14. Geochemistry of summit fumarole vapors and flanking thermal/mineral waters at Popocatepetl Volcano, Mexico

    SciTech Connect

    Werner, C.; Goff, F.; Janik, C.J.

    1997-06-01

    Popocatepetl Volcano is potentially devastating to populations living in the greater Mexico City area. Systematic monitoring of fumarole gases and flanking thermal/mineral springs began in early 1994 after increased fumarolic and seismic activity were noticed in 1991. These investigations had two major objectives: (1) to determine if changes in magmatic conditions beneath Popocatepetl might be reflected by chemical changes in fumarolic discharges and (2) to determine if thermal/mineral spring waters in the vicinity of Popocatepetl are geochemically related to or influences by the magmatic system. This report summarizes results from these two discrete studies.

  15. The Anoxic Corrosion of Copper in Pure Water and Chloride Rich Brines

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Ilic, Emilija

    The Nuclear Waste Management Organization (NWMO) is developing an approach for the permanent geological disposal of nuclear waste. The waste will be encased in copper coated used fuel containers (UFCs) and placed in a deep geological repository (DGR). To support the NWMO in their investigations on the long-term corrosion of copper a lab scale simulation of the DGR environment was created. Copper wires were placed in glass electrochemical cells and exposed to one of two environments; pure anoxic water or chloride-rich anoxic brine. The systems were allowed to freely corrode and accumulate hydrogen within their headspaces over extended durations at 30 to 75 °C. The hydrogen was periodically purged and subsequently analyzed using a highly sensitive amperometric sensor; these measurements were utilized to calculate the corresponding copper corrosion rates. Corrosion with hydrogen evolution was demonstrated in both pure water and brines at slow rates below 1 and 10 nm/year, respectively.

  16. Self-propagating high-temperature synthesis of Ce-bearing zirconolite-rich minerals using Ca(NO3)2 as the oxidant

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Zhang, Kuibao; Wen, Guanjun; Yin, Dan; Zhang, Haibin

    2015-12-01

    Synroc is recognized as the second generation waste form for the immobilization of high-level radioactive waste (HLW). Zirconolite-rich (CaZrTi2O7) Synroc minerals were attempted by self-propagating high-temperature synthesis (SHS) using Fe2O3, CrO3, Ca(NO3)2 as the oxidants and Ti as the reductant. All designed reactions were ignited and sustained using Ca(NO3)2 as the oxidant, and zirconolite-rich ceramic matrices were successfully prepared with pyrochlore (Ca2Ti2O6), perovskite (CaTiO3) and rutile (TiO2) as the minor phases. The sample CN-4, which was designed using Ca(NO3)2 as the oxidant with TiO2/Ti ratio of 7:9, was readily solidified with density of 4.62 g/cm3 and Vickers hardness of 1052 HV. CeO2 was successfully stabilized by the CN-4 sample with resultant phase constituent of 2M-CaZrTi2O7 and CaTiO3.

  17. Synchrotron X-ray scattering studies at mineral-water interfaces

    SciTech Connect

    Chiarello, R.P.; Sturchio, N.C.

    1995-03-01

    Synchrotron X-ray scattering techniques provide a powerful tool for the in situ study of atomic scale processes occurring at solid-liquid interfaces. We have applied these techniques to characterize and study reactions at mineral-water interfaces. Here we present two examples. The first is the characterization of the calcite (CaCO{sub 3}) (10{bar 1}4) cleavage surface, in equilibrium with deionized water, by crystal truncation rod measurements. The second is the in situ study of the heteroepitaxial growth of otavite (CdCO{sub 3}) on the calcite (10{bar 1}4) cleavage surface. The results of such studies will lead to significant progress in understanding mineral-water interface geochemistry.

  18. [The hepatotropic action of sodium chloride and hydrocarbonate mineral water containing humic acids (an experimental study)].

    PubMed

    Verigo, N S; Ulashchik, V S

    2015-01-01

    The present article summarizes the results of experimental studies on the hepatotropic action of native and modified low-mineralized sodium chloride and bicarbonate waters differing in the content of humic acids. It was found that the most beneficial changes after a course of 21 day therapy with the use of such mineral waters for the treatment of experimental hepatitis were observed after the application of the water with a humic acid content of roughly 20 g/dm3. Such treatment resulted in the significant improvement of the liver antitoxic function, intensification of basal metabolism, reduction of the inflammatory processes, normalization of the hepatic enzyme activity, and stimulation of proteinsynthetic function in parallel with positive dynamics of the morphological and histochemical characteristics of the liver.

  19. Bacteriological quality and risk assessment of the imported and domestic bottled mineral water sold in Fiji.

    PubMed

    Zeenat, A; Hatha, A A M; Viola, L; Vipra, K

    2009-12-01

    Considering the popularity of bottled mineral water among indigenous Fijians and tourists alike, a study was carried out to determine the bacteriological quality of different bottled waters. A risk assessment was also carried out. Seventy-five samples of bottled mineral water belonging to three domestic brands and 25 samples of one imported brand were analysed for heterotrophic plate count (HPC) bacteria and faecal coliforms. HPC counts were determined at 22 degrees C and 37 degrees C using R2A medium and a membrane filtration technique was used to determine the faecal coliform (FC) load in 100 ml of water on mFC agar. Between 28 and 68% of the samples of the various domestic brands failed to meet the WHO standard of 100 colony forming units (cfu) per 100 ml at 22 degrees C and 7% of these also tested positive for faecal coliforms. All imported bottled mineral water samples were within WHO standards. A risk assessment of the HPC bacteria was carried out in terms of beta haemolytic activity and antibiotic resistance. More than 50% of the isolates showed beta haemolytic activity and were multi-drug resistant. While the overall quality of the product was generally good, there is a need to enforce stringent quality standards for the domestic bottlers to ensure the safety of consumers.

  20. Detection of solar wind-produced water in irradiated rims on silicate minerals.

    PubMed

    Bradley, John P; Ishii, Hope A; Gillis-Davis, Jeffrey J; Ciston, James; Nielsen, Michael H; Bechtel, Hans A; Martin, Michael C

    2014-02-01

    The solar wind (SW), composed of predominantly ∼1-keV H(+) ions, produces amorphous rims up to ∼150 nm thick on the surfaces of minerals exposed in space. Silicates with amorphous rims are observed on interplanetary dust particles and on lunar and asteroid soil regolith grains. Implanted H(+) may react with oxygen in the minerals to form trace amounts of hydroxyl (-OH) and/or water (H2O). Previous studies have detected hydroxyl in lunar soils, but its chemical state, physical location in the soils, and source(s) are debated. If -OH or H2O is generated in rims on silicate grains, there are important implications for the origins of water in the solar system and other astrophysical environments. By exploiting the high spatial resolution of transmission electron microscopy and valence electron energy-loss spectroscopy, we detect water sealed in vesicles within amorphous rims produced by SW irradiation of silicate mineral grains on the exterior surfaces of interplanetary dust particles. Our findings establish that water is a byproduct of SW space weathering. We conclude, on the basis of the pervasiveness of the SW and silicate materials, that the production of radiolytic SW water on airless bodies is a ubiquitous process throughout the solar system.

  1. Comparative assessment of genotoxicity of mineral water packed in polyethylene terephthalate (PET) and glass bottles.

    PubMed

    Ceretti, Elisabetta; Zani, Claudia; Zerbini, Ilaria; Guzzella, Licia; Scaglia, Mauro; Berna, Vanda; Donato, Francesco; Monarca, Silvano; Feretti, Donatella

    2010-03-01

    The potential migration of genotoxic compounds into mineral water stored in polyethylene terephthalate (PET) bottles was evaluated by an integrated chemical/biological approach using short-term toxicity/genotoxicity tests and chemical analysis. Six commercial brands of still and carbonated mineral water bottled in PET and in glass were stored at 40 degrees C for 10 days in a stove according to the standard EEC total migration test (82/711/EEC), or at room temperature in the dark. After treatment, the samples were analysed using gas-chromatography/mass spectrometry (GC/MS) to detect volatile and non-volatile compounds, the Microtox test to evaluate potential toxicity of the samples, and three mutagenicity tests -Tradescantia and Allium cepa micronucleus tests and the Comet assay on human leukocytes - to detect their genotoxic activity. GC/MS analysis did not detect phthalates or acetaldehyde in the water samples. The Microtox test found no toxic effects. Mutagenicity tests detected genotoxic properties of some samples in both PET and glass bottles. Statistical analyses showed a positive association between mineral content and mutagenicity (micronuclei in A. cepa and DNA damage in human leukocytes). No clear effect of treatment and PET bottle was found. These results suggest the absence of toxic compounds migrating from PET regardless of time and conditions of storage. In conclusion, bottle material and stove treatment were not associated with the genotoxic properties of the water; the genotoxic effects detected in bottled water may be related to the characteristics of the water (minerals and CO(2) content).

  2. Reflectance spectroscopy of low atomic weight and Na-rich minerals: Borates, hydroxides, nitrates, nitrites, and peroxides

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Cloutis, E.; Berg, B.; Mann, P.; Applin, D.

    2016-01-01

    We have measured reflectance spectra (0.35-20 μm) of a suite of minerals and synthetic compounds that contain low-Z (⩽Na) elements as the major cation and/or the major anion in oxides/oxyhydroxides, and are relevant to planetary geology and astrobiology. The suite comprises Na-borates, Na-, K-, Ca-hydroxides, nitrates, nitrites, and peroxides. Na-borate spectra exhibit B-O fundamental vibrations between 7 and 14 μm, and overtones/combinations of these bands in the 1.55, 1.75, 2.15, and 2.25 μm regions. Na-, K-, and Ca-hydroxide reflectance spectra are characterized by OH and metal-OH fundamental vibrations near 3, 8, and 18 μm, and a number of overtone and combination absorption bands at shorter wavelengths, and a characteristic metal-OH band near 2.35 μm. The nitrate and nitrite spectra exhibit fundamental N-O vibrations in the 7-14 μm region and numerous combinations and overtones that are still detectable to as low as ∼1.8 μm. Na-peroxide is largely spectrally featureless below 24 μm, making its detection problematic, while H-peroxide has many OH-related absorption features below 2.5 μm that differ in position from those of H2O ice and liquid. The results of this study indicate that the borates, hydroxides, nitrates, nitrite, and hydrogen peroxide can all be uniquely identified using characteristic absorption features that are present below 2.5 μm. However, some of these features are weak, and their detectability will depend on the types and abundances of any accessory phases that may be present.

  3. Naturally acidic surface and ground waters draining porphyry-related mineralized areas of the Southern Rocky Mountains, Colorado and New Mexico

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Verplanck, P.L.; Nordstrom, D.K.; Bove, D.J.; Plumlee, G.S.; Runkel, R.L.

    2009-01-01

    Acidic, metal-rich waters produced by the oxidative weathering and resulting leaching of major and trace elements from pyritic rocks can adversely affect water quality in receiving streams and riparian ecosystems. Five study areas in the southern Rocky Mountains with naturally acidic waters associated with porphyry mineralization were studied to document variations in water chemistry and processes that control the chemical variations. Study areas include the Upper Animas River watershed, East Alpine Gulch, Mount Emmons, and Handcart Gulch in Colorado and the Red River in New Mexico. Although host-rock lithologies in all these areas range from Precambrian gneisses to Cretaceous sedimentary units to Tertiary volcanic complexes, the mineralization is Tertiary in age and associated with intermediate to felsic composition, porphyritic plutons. Pyrite is ubiquitous, ranging from ???1 to >5 vol.%. Springs and headwater streams have pH values as low as 2.6, SO4 up to 3700 mg/L and high dissolved metal concentrations (for example: Fe up to 400 mg/L; Cu up to 3.5 mg/L; and Zn up to 14.4 mg/L). Intensity of hydrothermal alteration and presence of sulfides are the primary controls of water chemistry of these naturally acidic waters. Subbasins underlain by intensely hydrothermally altered lithologies are poorly vegetated and quite susceptible to storm-induced surface runoff. Within the Red River study area, results from a storm runoff study documented downstream changes in river chemistry: pH decreased from 7.80 to 4.83, alkalinity decreased from 49.4 to <1 mg/L, SO4 increased from 162 to 314 mg/L, dissolved Fe increased from to 0.011 to 0.596 mg/L, and dissolved Zn increased from 0.056 to 0.607 mg/L. Compared to mine drainage in the same study areas, the chemistry of naturally acidic waters tends to overlap but not reach the extreme concentrations of metals and acidity as some mine waters. The chemistry of waters draining these mineralized but unmined areas can be used to

  4. Covariation of viral parameters with bacterial assemblage richness and diversity in the water column and sediments

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Hewson, Ian; Fuhrman, Jed A.

    2007-05-01

    Viruses are hypothesized to maintain diversity in microbial assemblages by regulating the abundance of dominant competitors and thereby allowing less-dominant competitors to persist in assemblages; however, there have been few empirical data sets to support this idea. In this study, we examined the relationship between the ratio of viral abundance to bacterial abundance, viral production, and the relative richness and diversity of bacterial assemblage fingerprints, in samples taken from geographically widespread locations (North Pacific gyre, the Amazon River plume and adjacent North Atlantic gyre, Gulf of Mexico, Southern California Bight and Arafura—Coral Seas) which are oligo- to mesotrophic. Bacterial assemblage richness and diversity as measured by automated rRNA intergenic spacer (ARISA) fingerprinting were significantly and positively correlated with the ratio of virus abundance to bacteria abundance (VBR) and to the rate of virus production only in the oligotrophic North Pacific gyre. ARISA fingerprint richness/diversity were not significantly correlated to viral parameters when assessed across all samples in surface waters, suggesting there is not a singular global quantitative relationship between viral pressure and host diversity within well evolved host/virus systems in different geographic locations in plankton. In sediments off Southern California, viral parameters significantly and negatively correlated with ARISA diversity, suggesting strong viral interactions in this habitat. To examine covariation of viral parameters and the relative abundance and diversity of rarer bacterial taxa (i.e., less-dominant competitor), the richness and diversity of diazotroph communities was measured using terminal restriction fragment length polymorphism (TRFLP) of a portion ( nifH) of the nitrogenase gene. The richness and diversity of diazotrophic communities were significantly and negatively correlated with viral parameters across all locations. Since diazotrophs

  5. Lineation-parallel c-axis Fabric of Quartz Formed Under Water-rich Conditions

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Wang, Y.; Zhang, J.; Li, P.

    2014-12-01

    The crystallographic preferred orientation (CPO) of quartz is of great significance because it records much valuable information pertinent to the deformation of quartz-rich rocks in the continental crust. The lineation-parallel c-axis CPO (i.e., c-axis forming a maximum parallel to the lineation) in naturally deformed quartz is generally considered to form under high temperature (> ~550 ºC) conditions. However, most laboratory deformation experiments on quartzite failed to produce such a CPO at high temperatures up to 1200 ºC. Here we reported a new occurrence of the lineation-parallel c-axis CPO of quartz from kyanite-quartz veins in eclogite. Optical microstructural observations, fourier transform infrared (FTIR) and electron backscattered diffraction (EBSD) techniques were integrated to illuminate the nature of quartz CPOs. Quartz exhibits mostly straight to slightly curved grain boundaries, modest intracrystalline plasticity, and significant shape preferred orientation (SPO) and CPOs, indicating dislocation creep dominated the deformation of quartz. Kyanite grains in the veins are mostly strain-free, suggestive of their higher strength than quartz. The pronounced SPO and CPOs in kyanite were interpreted to originate from anisotropic crystal growth and/or mechanical rotation during vein-parallel shearing. FTIR results show quartz contains a trivial amount of structurally bound water (several tens of H/106 Si), while kyanite has a water content of 384-729 H/106 Si; however, petrographic observations suggest quartz from the veins were practically deformed under water-rich conditions. We argue that the observed lineation-parallel c-axis fabric in quartz was inherited from preexisting CPOs as a result of anisotropic grain growth under stress facilitated by water, but rather than due to a dominant c-slip. The preservation of the quartz CPOs probably benefited from the preexisting quartz CPOs which renders most quartz grains unsuitably oriented for an easy a-slip at

  6. Mineral Acquisition from Clay by Budongo Forest Chimpanzees

    PubMed Central

    Reynolds, Vernon; Lloyd, Andrew W.; English, Christopher J.; Lyons, Peter; Dodd, Howard; Hobaiter, Catherine; Newton-Fisher, Nicholas; Mullins, Caroline; Lamon, Noemie; Schel, Anne Marijke; Fallon, Brittany

    2015-01-01

    Chimpanzees of the Sonso community, Budongo Forest, Uganda were observed eating clay and drinking clay-water from waterholes. We show that clay, clay-rich water, and clay obtained with leaf sponges, provide a range of minerals in different concentrations. The presence of aluminium in the clay consumed indicates that it takes the form of kaolinite. We discuss the contribution of clay geophagy to the mineral intake of the Sonso chimpanzees and show that clay eaten using leaf sponges is particularly rich in minerals. We show that termite mound soil, also regularly consumed, is rich in minerals. We discuss the frequency of clay and termite soil geophagy in the context of the disappearance from Budongo Forest of a formerly rich source of minerals, the decaying pith of Raphia farinifera palms. PMID:26218593

  7. Mineral Acquisition from Clay by Budongo Forest Chimpanzees.

    PubMed

    Reynolds, Vernon; Lloyd, Andrew W; English, Christopher J; Lyons, Peter; Dodd, Howard; Hobaiter, Catherine; Newton-Fisher, Nicholas; Mullins, Caroline; Lamon, Noemie; Schel, Anne Marijke; Fallon, Brittany

    2015-01-01

    Chimpanzees of the Sonso community, Budongo Forest, Uganda were observed eating clay and drinking clay-water from waterholes. We show that clay, clay-rich water, and clay obtained with leaf sponges, provide a range of minerals in different concentrations. The presence of aluminium in the clay consumed indicates that it takes the form of kaolinite. We discuss the contribution of clay geophagy to the mineral intake of the Sonso chimpanzees and show that clay eaten using leaf sponges is particularly rich in minerals. We show that termite mound soil, also regularly consumed, is rich in minerals. We discuss the frequency of clay and termite soil geophagy in the context of the disappearance from Budongo Forest of a formerly rich source of minerals, the decaying pith of Raphia farinifera palms.

  8. Effects of land use on fresh waters: Agriculture, forestry, mineral exploitation, urbanisation

    SciTech Connect

    Solbe, J.F.

    1986-01-01

    This book offers a broad consideration of the effects of land use on fresh waters above and below ground. Experts address a wide range of issues in relation to the four major uses of land. Taken from an international conference held at the University of Stirling in 1985, coverage includes sewerage and waste-water treatment, long-term contamination of aquifers below cities, mineral exploitation, use of water in food production, wood production and more. Remedies and areas requiring further study are outlined.

  9. Evaporative Evolution of Carbonate-Rich Brines from Synthetic Topopah Spring Tuff Pore Water, Yucca Mountain

    SciTech Connect

    Sutton, M; Alai, M; Carroll, S A

    2004-04-14

    The evaporation of a range of synthetic pore water solutions representative of the potential high-level-nuclear-waste repository at Yucca Mountain, NV is being investigated. The motivation of this work is to understand and predict the range of brine compositions that may contact the waste containers from evaporation of pore waters, because these brines could form corrosive thin films on the containers and impact their long-term integrity. A relatively complex synthetic Topopah Spring Tuff pore water was progressively concentrated by evaporation in a closed vessel, heated to 95 C in a series of sequential experiments. Periodic samples of the evaporating solution were taken to determine the evolving water chemistry. According to chemical divide theory at 25 C and 95 C our starting solution should evolve towards a high pH carbonate brine. Results at 95 C show that this solution evolves towards a complex brine that contains about 99 mol% Na{sup +} for the cations, and 71 mol% Cl{sup -}, 18 mol% {Sigma}CO{sub 2}(aq), 9 mol%SO{sub 4}{sup 2-} for the anions. Initial modeling of the evaporating solution indicates precipitation of aragonite, halite, silica, sulfate and fluoride phases. The experiments have been used to benchmark the use of the EQ3/6 geochemical code in predicting the evolution of carbonate-rich brines during evaporation.

  10. Naturally occurring radionuclides in food and drinking water from a thorium-rich area.

    PubMed

    da Costa Lauria, Dejanira; Rochedo, Elaine R R; Godoy, Maria Luisa D P; Santos, Eliane E; Hacon, Sandra S

    2012-11-01

    This paper focuses on a survey of uranium and thorium decay chain radionuclides in food and drinking water from the thorium-rich (monazite-bearing) region of Buena, which is located in the state of Rio de Janeiro, Brazil. The radionuclide concentration values in the food and drinking water from Buena reached values higher than 100-fold the international reference values. The daily intake of radionuclides by the local population is similar to that of another high background radiation area in Brazil, but the intake is higher than that of residents from a normal background radiation area. Approximately 58 % of the food consumed by Buena inhabitants is produced locally. Based on that figure, locally produced food and the dilution of total radionuclides in the diet of residents caused by food importation are both highly relevant to a population's intake of radionuclides. The concentration values for (210)Pb and the radium isotopes in drinking water from Buena are among the highest values to be reported in the literature. (228)Ra is the most important radionuclide ingested with both food and water among the inhabitants of Buena.

  11. Feasibility of sulfide control in sewers by reuse of iron rich drinking water treatment sludge.

    PubMed

    Sun, Jing; Pikaar, Ilje; Sharma, Keshab Raj; Keller, Jürg; Yuan, Zhiguo

    2015-03-15

    Dosage of iron salt is the most commonly used method for sulfide control in sewer networks but incurs high chemical costs. In this study, we experimentally investigate the feasibility of using iron rich drinking water treatment sludge for sulfide control in sewers. A lab-scale rising main sewer biofilm reactor was used. The sulfide concentration in the effluent decreased from 15.5 to 19.8 mgS/L (without dosing) to below 0.7-2.3 mgS/L at a sludge dosing rate achieving an iron to total dissolved inorganic sulfur molar ratio (Fe:S) of 1:1, with further removal of sulfide possible by prolonging the reaction time. In fact, batch tests revealed an Fe consumption to sulfide removal ratio of 0.5 ± 0.02 (mole:mole), suggesting the possible occurrence of other reactions involving the removal of sulfide. Modelling revealed that the reaction between iron in sludge and sulfide has reaction orders of 0.65 ± 0.01 and 0.77 ± 0.02 with respect to the Fe and sulfide concentrations, respectively. The addition of sludge slightly increased the total chemical oxidation demand (tCOD) concentration (by approximately 12%) as expected, but decreased the soluble chemical oxidation demand (sCOD) concentration and methane formation by 7% and 20%, respectively. Some phosphate removal (13%) was also observed at the sludge dosing rate of 1:1 (Fe:S), which is beneficial to nutrient removal from the wastewater. Overall, this study suggests that dosing iron-rich drinking water sludge to sewers could be an effective strategy for sulfide removal in sewer systems, which would also reduce the sludge disposal costs for drinking water treatment works. However, its potential side-effects on sewer sedimentation and on the wastewater treatment plant effluent remain to be investigated.

  12. Remediation of nutrient-rich waters using the terrestrial plant, Pandanus amaryllifolius Roxb.

    PubMed

    Han, Ping; Kumar, Prakash; Ong, Bee-Lian

    2014-02-01

    Effective control of eutrophication is generally established through the reduction of nutrient loading into waterways and water bodies. An economically viable and ecologically sustainable approach to nutrient pollution control could involve the integration of retention ponds, wetlands and greenways into water management systems. Plants not only play an invaluable role in the assimilation and removal of nutrients, but they also support fauna richness and can be aesthetically pleasing. Pandanus amaryllifolius, a tropical terrestrial plant, was found to establish well in hydrophytic conditions and was highly effective in remediating high nutrient levels in an aquatic environment showing 100% removal of NO3(-)-N up to 200 mg/L in 14 days. Phosphate uptake by the plant was less efficient with 64% of the PO4(-)-P removed at the maximum concentration of 100 mg/L at the end of 6 weeks. With its high NO3(-)-N and PO4(3-)-P removal efficiency, P. amaryllifolius depleted the nutrient-rich media and markedly contained the natural colonization of algae. The impediment of algal growth led to improvements in the water quality with significant decreases in turbidity, pH and electrical conductivity. In addition, the plants did not show stress symptoms when grown in high nutrient levels as shown by the changes in their biomass, total soluble proteins and chlorophyll accumulation as well as photochemical efficiency. Thus, P. amaryllifolius is a potential candidate for the mitigation of nutrient pollution in phytoremediation systems in the tropics as the plant requires low maintenance, is tolerant to the natural variability of weather conditions and fluctuating hydro-periods, and exhibit good nutrient removal capabilities. PMID:25076532

  13. Molecular Dynamics Simulation and Analysis of Interfacial Water at Selected Sulfide Mineral Surfaces under Anaerobic Conditions

    SciTech Connect

    Jin, Jiaqi; Miller, Jan D.; Dang, Liem X.

    2014-04-10

    In this paper, we report on a molecular dynamics simulation (MDS) study of the behavior of interfacial water at selected sulfide mineral surfaces under anaerobic conditions. The study revealed the interfacial water structure and wetting characteristics of the pyrite (100) surface, galena (100) surface, chalcopyrite (012) surface, sphalerite (110) surface, and molybdenite surfaces (i.e., the face, armchair-edge, and zigzag-edge surfaces), including simulated contact angles, relative number density profiles, water dipole orientations, hydrogen-bonding, and residence times. For force fields of the metal and sulfur atoms in selected sulfide minerals used in the MDS, we used the universal force field (UFF) and another set of force fields optimized by quantum chemical calculations for interactions with interfacial water molecules at selected sulfide mineral surfaces. Simulation results for the structural and dynamic properties of interfacial water molecules indicate the natural hydrophobic character for the selected sulfide mineral surfaces under anaerobic conditions as well as the relatively weak hydrophobicity for the sphalerite (110) surface and two molybdenite edge surfaces. Part of the financial support for this study was provided by the U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) under Basic Science Grant No. DE-FG-03-93ER14315. The Division of Chemical Sciences, Geosciences, and Biosciences, Office of Basic Energy Sciences (BES), of the DOE, funded work performed by Liem X. Dang. Battelle operates Pacific Northwest National Laboratory for DOE. The calculations were carried out using computer resources provided by BES. The authors are grateful to Professor Tsun-Mei Chang for valuable discussions.

  14. The importance of water transit time and mineral dissolution kinetics for the flux of weathering products

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Erlandsson, Martin; Bishop, Kevin; Köhler, Stephan; Amvrosiadi, Nino

    2016-04-01

    Soil mineral weathering is one of the major sources of base cations (BC), which play a dual role for a forest ecosystem; they function both as plant nutrients, and for buffering against acidification of catchment runoff. On a long-term basis, the soil weathering rates will determine the highest sustainable forest productivity without causing acidification. It is believed that the hydrologic residence time play a key role in determining weathering rates on a landscape scale. In this study, we investigate the significance of the water transit residence time (WTT) distribution for the transport of base cations to catchment runoff. By modelling hillslope flowpaths with different transit times, using the geochemical computing code PHREEQC, we demonstrate how in-stream dynamics as exemplified by elemental ratios can be explained by mineral dissolution kinetics and equilibria. Specifically, we hypothesize that equilibrium of plagioclase regulates the delivery of base cations and silica to catchment runoff. These patters can be seen in field data from 10 years of sampling from a nested-catchment, where the Na+/BC and the Si/BC-ratios vary systematically with WTT on both a temporal and a spatial scale. This behavior has implications for the total transport of products from mineral dissolution to catchment runoff. As the water entering the stream is a mixture of water with different transit times, the composition of stream water will not only be dependent on the average WTT, but also on the shape of the WTT distribution. For the base cations associated with minerals that becomes supersaturated or with precipitating secondary phases within the range of WTT, i.e. Na+ and K+, the tails of "old water" of the WRT-distribution will not contribute to any extra transport of these elements. Finally, we use the derived relationships to estimate the transport of weathering products from a forested hillslope, given the modelled WRT distribution.

  15. Mineralization of a Malaysian crude oil by Pseudomonas sp. and Achromabacter sp. isolated from coastal waters

    SciTech Connect

    Ahmad, J.; Ahmad, M.F.

    1995-12-31

    Regarded as being a potentially effective tool to combat oil pollution, bioremediation involves mineralization, i.e., the conversion of complex hydrocarbons into harmless CO{sub 2} and water by action of microorganisms. Therefore, in achieving optimum effectiveness from the application of these products on crude oil in local environments, the capability of the bacteria to mineralize hydrocarbons was evaluated. The microbial laboratory testing of mineralization on local oil degraders involved, first, isolation of bacteria found at a port located on the west coast of Peninsular Malaysia. Subsequently, these bacteria were identified by means of Biomereux`s API 20E and 20 NE systems and later screened by their growth on a Malaysian crude oil. Selected strains of Pseudomonas sp. and Achromabacter sp. were then exposed individually to a similar crude oil in a mineralization unit and monitored for 16 days for release of CO{sub 2}. Pseudomonas paucimobilis was found to produce more CO{sub 2} than Achromobacter sp. When tested under similar conditions, mixed populations of these two taxa produced more CO{sub 2} than that produced by any individual strain. Effective bioremediation of local crude in Malaysian waters can therefore be achieved from biochemically developed Pseudomonas sp. strains.

  16. Batch study of arsenate (V) adsorption using Akadama mud: Effect of water mineralization

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Chen, Rongzhi; Zhang, Zhenya; Feng, Chuanping; Lei, Zhongfang; Li, Yuan; Li, Miao; Shimizu, Kazuya; Sugiura, Norio

    2010-02-01

    Akadama mud, consisting mainly of different forms of iron and aluminum oxide minerals, was used for arsenate (V) adsorption from aqueous solutions. The adsorption process fitted the first-order kinetic equation and the Langmuir monolayer model well. The adsorption capacity, estimated by the Langmuir isotherm model, was 5.30 mg/g at 20 ± 0.5 °C. The effects of the solution properties (initial concentration of As (V), pH, temperature, and mineralization degree) on As (V) removal were investigated. Various mineralization degrees in underground water were simulated by adjusting the ionic strength of the solution or adding coexisting ions to the contaminated solution. It was found that mineralization of the water significantly influenced the arsenic adsorption. The existence of multivalent metallic cations significantly enhanced the As (V) adsorption ability, whereas competing anions such as fluoride and phosphate greatly decreased the As (V) adsorption. This result suggests that Akadama mud is more suitable for arsenic adsorption in low-level phosphate and fluoride solutions. The loaded Akadama mud could be desorbed at polar pH conditions, especially in acidic conditions, and more than 65% As (V) sorption has been achieved at pH 1.

  17. Redistribution of soil water by a saprotrophic fungus enhances carbon mineralization

    PubMed Central

    Guhr, Alexander; Borken, Werner; Spohn, Marie; Matzner, Egbert

    2015-01-01

    The desiccation of upper soil horizons is a common phenomenon, leading to a decrease in soil microbial activity and mineralization. Recent studies have shown that fungal communities and fungal-based food webs are less sensitive and better adapted to soil desiccation than bacterial-based food webs. One reason for a better fungal adaptation to soil desiccation may be hydraulic redistribution of water by mycelia networks. Here we show that a saprotrophic fungus (Agaricus bisporus) redistributes water from moist (–0.03 MPa) into dry (–9.5 MPa) soil at about 0.3 cm⋅min−1 in single hyphae, resulting in an increase in soil water potential after 72 h. The increase in soil moisture by hydraulic redistribution significantly enhanced carbon mineralization by 2,800% and enzymatic activity by 250–350% in the previously dry soil compartment within 168 h. Our results demonstrate that hydraulic redistribution can partly compensate water deficiency if water is available in other zones of the mycelia network. Hydraulic redistribution is likely one of the mechanisms behind higher drought resistance of soil fungi compared with bacteria. Moreover, hydraulic redistribution by saprotrophic fungi is an underrated pathway of water transport in soils and may lead to a transfer of water to zones of high fungal activity. PMID:26554004

  18. Redistribution of soil water by a saprotrophic fungus enhances carbon mineralization.

    PubMed

    Guhr, Alexander; Borken, Werner; Spohn, Marie; Matzner, Egbert

    2015-11-24

    The desiccation of upper soil horizons is a common phenomenon, leading to a decrease in soil microbial activity and mineralization. Recent studies have shown that fungal communities and fungal-based food webs are less sensitive and better adapted to soil desiccation than bacterial-based food webs. One reason for a better fungal adaptation to soil desiccation may be hydraulic redistribution of water by mycelia networks. Here we show that a saprotrophic fungus (Agaricus bisporus) redistributes water from moist (-0.03 MPa) into dry (-9.5 MPa) soil at about 0.3 cm ⋅ min(-1) in single hyphae, resulting in an increase in soil water potential after 72 h. The increase in soil moisture by hydraulic redistribution significantly enhanced carbon mineralization by 2,800% and enzymatic activity by 250-350% in the previously dry soil compartment within 168 h. Our results demonstrate that hydraulic redistribution can partly compensate water deficiency if water is available in other zones of the mycelia network. Hydraulic redistribution is likely one of the mechanisms behind higher drought resistance of soil fungi compared with bacteria. Moreover, hydraulic redistribution by saprotrophic fungi is an underrated pathway of water transport in soils and may lead to a transfer of water to zones of high fungal activity.

  19. Water Partition Coefficients Between Nominally Anhydrous Minerals and Basaltic Melts: Implication on Mantle Melting

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Aubaud, C. P.; Hauri, E. H.; Hirschmann, M. M.

    2004-12-01

    Partitioning of water between peridotite minerals and basaltic magma has a significant influence on the initiation of melting in the mantle and on the rheological structure of the lithosphere. To investigate mineral/melt and mineral/mineral partitioning of H2O applicable to the mantle, we have conducted multiple saturation experiments consisting of hydrous basalt±ol±opx±cpx in a piston-cylinder apparatus at pressures of 1--2 GPa, temperatures of 1230--1380\\deg C and bulk initial water contents of 3.3 to 6.3 wt.%. We measured H2O in melts and minerals (ol, opx, cpx) by SIMS using methods described by [1]. Resulting liquids have 3.1-6.4 wt.% H2O and average mineral/melt partition coefficients as follows: Dol-melt=0.0017±0.0005 (n=9), Dopx-melt=0.019±0.004 (n=8), and Dcpx-melt=0.023±0.005 (n=2). Mineral/mineral partition coefficients are Dol-opx=0.11±0.01 (n=4), Dol-cpx=0.08±0.01 (n=2) and Dcpx-opx=1.4±0.3 (n=1). Observed partition coefficients are reproducible between experiments and systematic variations with pressure, temperature or concentration of H2O are not apparent, possibly because of the relatively small range of pressures and compositions examined. The Dpyroxene-melt increases with the Al2O3 content of the pyroxene due to enhanced solubility of water in Al-bearing pyroxenes. For a peridotite consisting of 58% ol, 30% opx, 10% cpx, and 2% spinel (assumed nominally anhydrous) the calculated bulk sol-liq D is 0.009±0.002 confirming that water is highly incompatible in mantle minerals. Compared to conventional trace elements, water has a behavior similar to Ce, in accordance with studies on natural basaltic glasses (e.g., [2]). If this bulk D is applicable to the deeper parts of the MORB melting regime, then following [3], we can estimate the effect of H2O on peridotite partial melting: for mantle water concentrations of 50--200 ppm, the near-solidus melt would contain 0.6-2.3 wt.% water. Using the data of [4] for Δ Hfusion, the freezing point

  20. IR-based Water Quantification in Nominally Anhydrous High-Pressure Minerals

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Koch-Müller, Monika; Rhede, Dieter

    2010-05-01

    Infrared spectroscopy is a powerful tool to determine traces of OH and H2O in minerals and glasses. The application is based on the Beer Lambert law A = ɛ*c*t, where A is the absorbance, ɛ the absorption coefficient, e.g. in L mol H2O-1 cm-2, c the concentration in mol/L and t the thickness in cm. It has been shown in numerous experimental and theoretical studies, i.e. Paterson (1982) and Libowitzky and Rossman (1997) that ɛ generally increases with decreasing wavenumbers. However, this general trend seems to be valid only for hydrous minerals and glasses and should not be applied to water quantification in nominally anhydrous minerals (NAMs) which incorporate traces of water in their structures (e.g. Rossman 2006, Thomas et al. 2009). For example, Bell et al. (2003) showed that if the general IR calibration of Paterson (1982) is adopted, the water concentration of olivine is underestimated by about 25 %. A similar result has been obtained by Deon et al. (2010) for Mg-wadsleyite. Thomas et al. (2009) evidenced using a large variety of analytical methods that not using mineral-specific IR-calibrations for the OH quantification in NAMs (e.g. SiO2 polymorphs and olivine) leads to either underestimation as for olivine or overestimation of the water content as for stishovite and coesite. Thus, to quantify the water content of NAMs mineral specific absorption coefficients are needed but unfortunately only for a few minerals available. In this study we propose that within a polymorphic mineral series of the same composition ɛ positively correlates with the density and negatively with the molar volume of the respective mineral phase. To prove this hypothesis we determined ɛ-values for synthetic hydrous ringwoodite samples ranging in composition from xMg = 0.0 to 0.6 by combining results of FTIR-spectroscopy with those of Secondary Ion Mass Spectrometry. The ɛ-values plot well below the general calibration curves of Paterson (1982) and Libowitzky and Rossman (1997

  1. Minerals Masquerading As Enzymes: Abiotic Oxidation Of Soil Organic Matter In An Iron-Rich Humid Tropical Forest Soil

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Hall, S. J.; Silver, W. L.

    2010-12-01

    ). Tyrosinase generated a red compound (dopachrome) that is the target analyte of the traditional L-DOPA oxidative enzyme assay, whereas our soil slurries generated purple melanin-like compounds that were likely generated by more extensive oxidation. To investigate the importance of Fe(II) for L-DOPA oxidation, we added realistic concentrations of Fe(II) (equivalent to 10 - 500 μg Fe g-1 soil) to an L-DOPA buffer solution under oxic conditions, and found rates of L-DOPA oxidation comparable to those from soil slurries. Molecular oxygen and Fe(II) are known to generate strong oxidants via Fenton reactions. We decreased L-DOPA oxidation rates in soil slurries by adding catalase and superoxide-dismutase enzymes to scavenge reactive oxygen species, suggesting that a free-radical mechanism contributed to L-DOPA oxidation. We obtained similar results using another humic model compound, tetramethylbenzidine (TMB). Although abiotic oxidative reactions involving iron have been employed to degrade anthropogenic organic contaminants, this study is among the first to demonstrate their potential importance for oxidizing organic matter in natural ecosystems. In soils rich in Fe(II), abiotic reactions could complement, or even obviate, the role of microbial oxidative enzymes in degrading recalcitrant organic compounds.

  2. [Calcium, magnesium, iron and zinc in drinking water and status biomarkers of these minerals among elder people from Warsaw region].

    PubMed

    Madej, Dawid; Kaluza, Joanna; Antonik, Anna; Brzozowska, Anna; Roszkowski, Wojciech

    2011-01-01

    The aim of this study was to estimate the influence of calcium, magnesium, iron and zinc contents in drinking water on chosen parameters of nutritional status of these minerals in 164 elder people, 75-80 age, living in Warsaw region. Blood, hair and saliva were collected to assess the calcium, magnesium, iron and zinc nutritional status, while the samples of drinking water were collected to determine these minerals in water Mineral concentrations in blood, hair saliva and water were assessment using the atomic spectrophotometer absorption method It was showed that contribution of drinking water to calcium, magnesium, iron and zinc intake was: 15%, 4%, 5%, 9%, respectively. The relationship between the contents of these minerals in drinking water and their levels in the blood, hair and saliva had low correlation coefficients. It probably showed that homeostasis was maintained in the human body and other factors such as demographic or lifestyle factors were important.

  3. 238U, 226Ra, 210Po concentrations of bottled mineral waters in Hungary and their committed effective dose.

    PubMed

    Kovács, T; Bodrogi, E; Dombovári, P; Somlai, J; Németh, Cs; Capote, A; Tarján, S

    2004-01-01

    Nowadays the consumption of bottled mineral waters has become very popular. The average consumption of these is 0.36 l d(-1) per person in Europe. A considerable segment of the population drinks almost only mineral water as drinking water, which is about 1 l d(-1). As is known, some kinds of mineral waters contain naturally occurring radionuclides in higher concentration than the usual drinking (tap) water. The WHO (1993) legislation concerning the drinking waters does not include the mineral waters. In our work, the concentrations of (226)Ra, (238)U and (210)Po were determined in mineral waters available in Hungary. To determine the (226)Ra concentration the emanation method was used. The (238)U and (210)Po concentrations were determined by alpha spectrometry using semiconductor detector. The dose contribution was calculated using the radionuclide concentrations and the dose conversion factors from the Basic Safety Standard IAEA (1995), for 1 l d(-1) mineral water consumption. In some cases the calculated doses were considerable higher than the limit for drinking waters. Especially for children the doses can be remarkably high.

  4. Measurement of natural radionuclides in Malaysian bottled mineral water and consequent health risk estimation

    SciTech Connect

    Priharti, W.; Samat, S. B.; Yasir, M. S.

    2015-09-25

    The radionuclides of {sup 226}Ra, {sup 232}Th and {sup 40}K were measured in ten mineral water samples, of which from the radioactivity obtained, the ingestion doses for infants, children and adults were calculated and the cancer risk for the adult was estimated. Results showed that the calculated ingestion doses for the three age categories are much lower than the average worldwide ingestion exposure of 0.29 mSv/y and the estimated cancer risk is much lower than the cancer risk of 8.40 × 10{sup −3} (estimated from the total natural radiation dose of 2.40 mSv/y). The present study concludes that the bottled mineral water produced in Malaysia is safe for daily human consumption.

  5. Measurement of natural radionuclides in Malaysian bottled mineral water and consequent health risk estimation

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Priharti, W.; Samat, S. B.; Yasir, M. S.

    2015-09-01

    The radionuclides of 226Ra, 232Th and 40K were measured in ten mineral water samples, of which from the radioactivity obtained, the ingestion doses for infants, children and adults were calculated and the cancer risk for the adult was estimated. Results showed that the calculated ingestion doses for the three age categories are much lower than the average worldwide ingestion exposure of 0.29 mSv/y and the estimated cancer risk is much lower than the cancer risk of 8.40 × 10-3 (estimated from the total natural radiation dose of 2.40 mSv/y). The present study concludes that the bottled mineral water produced in Malaysia is safe for daily human consumption.

  6. Interactions of 14C-labeled multi-walled carbon nanotubes with soil minerals in water.

    PubMed

    Zhang, Liwen; Petersen, Elijah J; Zhang, Wen; Chen, Yongsheng; Cabrera, Miguel; Huang, Qingguo

    2012-07-01

    Carbon nanotubes are often modified to be stable in the aqueous phase by adding extensive hydrophilic surface functional groups. The stability of such CNTs in water with soil or sediment is one critical factor controlling their environmental fate. We conducted a series of experiments to quantitatively assess the association between water dispersed multi-walled carbon nanotubes (MWCNTs) and three soil minerals (kaolinite, smectite, or shale) in aqueous solution under different sodium concentrations. (14)C-labeling was used in these experiments to unambiguously quantify MWCNTs. The results showed that increasing ionic strength strongly promoted the removal of MWCNTs from aqueous phase. The removal tendency is inversely correlated with the soil minerals' surface potential and directly correlated with their hydrophobicity. This removal can be interpreted by the extended Derjaguin-Landau-Verwey-Overbeek (EDLVO) theory especially for kaolinite and smectite. Shale, which contains large and insoluble organic materials, sorbed MWCNTs the most strongly.

  7. Hydrogen-rich water delays postharvest ripening and senescence of kiwifruit.

    PubMed

    Hu, Huali; Li, Pengxia; Wang, Yuning; Gu, Rongxin

    2014-08-01

    The effect of hydrogen-rich water (HRW) on prolonging the shelf life of kiwifruit and possible underlying mechanisms were assessed. Our results revealed that HRW (30%, 80%, and 100%) displayed different effects in inhibiting the rot of kiwifruit. Among these treatments, 80% HRW had the most significant effect by decreasing the rot incidence and preserving the firmness of kiwifruit. This conclusion was supported by the fact that 80% HRW treatment could effectively alleviate pectin solubilization and reduce the activities of cell wall-degrading enzymes. On the other hand, HRW treatment was able to reduce the respiration intensity, increase the activity of superoxide dismutase, decrease lipid peroxidation level, and maintain the radical (DPPH,O2(-),andOH)-scavenging activity of kiwifruit. Moreover, the inner membrane of mitochondria exhibited higher integrity. Thus, our results demonstrate that HRW treatment could delay fruit ripening and senescence during storage by regulating the antioxidant defence.

  8. Methyl t-Butyl Ether Mineralization in Surface-Water Sediment Microcosms under Denitrifying Conditions

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Bradley, P.M.; Chapelle, F.H.; Landmeyer, J.E.

    2001-01-01

    Mineralization of [U-14C] methyl t-butyl ether (MTBE) to 14CO2 without accumulation of t-butyl alcohol (TBA) was observed in surface-water sediment microcosms under denitrifying conditions. Methanogenic activity and limited transformation of MTBE to TBA were observed in the absence of denitrification. Results indicate that bed sediment microorganisms can effectively degrade MTBE to nontoxic products under denitrifying conditions.

  9. The fate of carbon dioxide in water-rich fluids under extreme conditions

    PubMed Central

    Pan, Ding; Galli, Giulia

    2016-01-01

    Investigating the fate of dissolved carbon dioxide under extreme conditions is critical to understanding the deep carbon cycle in Earth, a process that ultimately influences global climate change. We used first-principles molecular dynamics simulations to study carbonates and carbon dioxide dissolved in water at pressures (P) and temperatures (T) approximating the conditions of Earth’s upper mantle. Contrary to popular geochemical models assuming that molecular CO2(aq) is the major carbon species present in water under deep Earth conditions, we found that at 11 GPa and 1000 K, carbon exists almost entirely in the forms of solvated carbonate (CO32−) and bicarbonate (HCO3−) ions and that even carbonic acid [H2CO3(aq)] is more abundant than CO2(aq). Furthermore, our simulations revealed that ion pairing between Na+ and CO32−/HCO3− is greatly affected by P-T conditions, decreasing with increasing pressure at 800 to 1000 K. Our results suggest that in Earth’s upper mantle, water-rich geofluids transport a majority of carbon in the form of rapidly interconverting CO32− and HCO3− ions, not solvated CO2(aq) molecules. PMID:27757424

  10. Managing the potential risks of using bacteria-laden water in mineral processing to protect freshwater.

    PubMed

    Liu, Wenying; Moran, Chris J; Vink, Sue

    2013-06-18

    The minerals industry is being driven to access multiple water sources and increase water reuse to minimize freshwater withdrawal. Bacteria-laden water, such as treated effluent, has been increasingly used as an alternative to freshwater for mineral processing, in particular flotation, where conditions are favorable for bacterial growth. However, the risk posed by bacteria to flotation efficiency is poorly understood. This could be a barrier to the ongoing use of this water source. This study tested the potential of a previously published risk-based approach as a management tool to both assist mine sites in quantifying the risk from bacteria, and finding system-wide cost-effective solutions for risk mitigation. The result shows that the solution of adjusting the flotation chemical regime could only partly control the risk. The second solution of using tailings as an absorbent was shown to be effective in the laboratory in reducing bacterial concentration and thus removing the threat to flotation recovery. The best solution is likely to combine internal and external approaches, that is, inside and outside processing plants. Findings in this study contribute possible methods applicable to managing the risk from water-borne bacteria to plant operations that choose to use bacteria-containing water, when attempting to minimize freshwater use, and avoiding the undesirable consequences of increasing its use.

  11. Influence of minerals on the taste of bottled and tap water: a chemometric approach.

    PubMed

    Platikanov, Stefan; Garcia, Veronica; Fonseca, Ignacio; Rullán, Elena; Devesa, Ricard; Tauler, Roma

    2013-02-01

    Chemometric analysis was performed on two sets of sensory data obtained from two separate studies. Twenty commercially-available bottled mineral water samples (from the first study) and twenty-five drinking tap and bottled water samples (from the second study) were blind tasted by trained panelists. The panelists expressed their overall liking of the water samples by rating from 0 (worst flavor) to 10 (best flavor). The mean overall score was compared to the physicochemical properties of the samples. Thirteen different physicochemical parameters were considered in both studies and, additionally, residual chlorine levels were assessed in the second study. Principal component analysis performed on the physicochemical parameters and the panelists' mean scores generated models that explain most of the total data variance. Moreover, partial least squares regression of the panelists' sensory evaluations of the physicochemical data helped elucidate the main features underlying the panelists' ratings. The preferred bottled and tap water samples were associated with moderate (relatively to the parameters mean values) contents of total dissolved solids and with relatively high concentrations of HCO₃⁻, SO₄²⁻, Ca²⁺ and Mg²⁺ as well as with relatively high pH values. High concentrations of Na⁺, K⁺ and Cl⁻ were scored low by many of the panelists, while residual chlorine did not affect the ratings, but did enable the panel to distinguish between bottled mineral water and tap water samples.

  12. Concentration of Ra-226 in Malaysian Drinking and Bottled Mineral Water

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Amin, Y. B. Mohd; Jemangin, M. H.; Mahat, R. H.

    2010-07-01

    The concentration of the radionuclide 226Ra was determined in the drinking water which was taken from various sources. It was found that the concentration varies from non-detectable (ND) to highest value of 0.30 Bq per liter. The concentration was found to be high in mineral water as compare with surface water such as domestic pipe water. Some of these values have exceeded the EPA (Environmental Protection Agency) of America regulations. The activity concentrations obtained are compared with data from other countries. The estimated annual effective doses from drinking the water are determined. The values obtained range from 0.02 mSv to about 0.06 mSv per year.

  13. Concentration of Ra-226 in Malaysian Drinking and Bottled Mineral Water

    SciTech Connect

    Amin, Y. B. Mohd; Jemangin, M. H.; Mahat, R. H.

    2010-07-07

    The concentration of the radionuclide {sup 226}Ra was determined in the drinking water which was taken from various sources. It was found that the concentration varies from non-detectable (ND) to highest value of 0.30 Bq per liter. The concentration was found to be high in mineral water as compare with surface water such as domestic pipe water. Some of these values have exceeded the EPA (Environmental Protection Agency) of America regulations. The activity concentrations obtained are compared with data from other countries. The estimated annual effective doses from drinking the water are determined. The values obtained range from 0.02 mSv to about 0.06 mSv per year.

  14. Determination of dimethyl selenide and dimethyl sulphide compounds causing off-flavours in bottled mineral waters.

    PubMed

    Guadayol, Marta; Cortina, Montserrat; Guadayol, Josep M; Caixach, Josep

    2016-04-01

    Sales of bottled drinking water have shown a large growth during the last two decades due to the general belief that this kind of water is healthier, its flavour is better and its consumption risk is lower than that of tap water. Due to the previous points, consumers are more demanding with bottled mineral water, especially when dealing with its organoleptic properties, like taste and odour. This work studies the compounds that can generate obnoxious smells, and that consumers have described like swampy, rotten eggs, sulphurous, cooked vegetable or cabbage. Closed loop stripping analysis (CLSA) has been used as a pre-concentration method for the analysis of off-flavour compounds in water followed by identification and quantification by means of GC-MS. Several bottled water with the aforementioned smells showed the presence of volatile dimethyl selenides and dimethyl sulphides, whose concentrations ranged, respectively, from 4 to 20 ng/L and from 1 to 63 ng/L. The low odour threshold concentrations (OTCs) of both organic selenide and sulphide derivatives prove that several objectionable odours in bottled waters arise from them. Microbial loads inherent to water sources, along with some critical conditions in water processing, could contribute to the formation of these compounds. There are few studies about volatile organic compounds in bottled drinking water and, at the best of our knowledge, this is the first study reporting the presence of dimethyl selenides and dimethyl sulphides causing odour problems in bottled waters. PMID:26852288

  15. Determination of dimethyl selenide and dimethyl sulphide compounds causing off-flavours in bottled mineral waters.

    PubMed

    Guadayol, Marta; Cortina, Montserrat; Guadayol, Josep M; Caixach, Josep

    2016-04-01

    Sales of bottled drinking water have shown a large growth during the last two decades due to the general belief that this kind of water is healthier, its flavour is better and its consumption risk is lower than that of tap water. Due to the previous points, consumers are more demanding with bottled mineral water, especially when dealing with its organoleptic properties, like taste and odour. This work studies the compounds that can generate obnoxious smells, and that consumers have described like swampy, rotten eggs, sulphurous, cooked vegetable or cabbage. Closed loop stripping analysis (CLSA) has been used as a pre-concentration method for the analysis of off-flavour compounds in water followed by identification and quantification by means of GC-MS. Several bottled water with the aforementioned smells showed the presence of volatile dimethyl selenides and dimethyl sulphides, whose concentrations ranged, respectively, from 4 to 20 ng/L and from 1 to 63 ng/L. The low odour threshold concentrations (OTCs) of both organic selenide and sulphide derivatives prove that several objectionable odours in bottled waters arise from them. Microbial loads inherent to water sources, along with some critical conditions in water processing, could contribute to the formation of these compounds. There are few studies about volatile organic compounds in bottled drinking water and, at the best of our knowledge, this is the first study reporting the presence of dimethyl selenides and dimethyl sulphides causing odour problems in bottled waters.

  16. Stabilization of Sulfur and Arsenic Species in Sulfidic, Iron-rich Geothermal Waters Using Solid Phase Extraction

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Ullrich, M. K.; Gayout, A.; Misiari, V.; Planer-Friedrich, B.

    2015-12-01

    Iron-rich geothermal waters pose a special challenge regarding sample stabilization for sulfur and arsenic speciation analysis. Standard stabilization techniques fail to preserve speciation due to precipitating iron oxyhydroxides and thus adsorption of arsenic when flash-freezing a sample or precipitation of orpiment (As2S3)-like phases when adding HNO3. Solid phase extraction has the potential to extract anionic sulfur and arsenic species from solution and consequently separate them from cationic iron. This method was tested by applying synthetic solutions of sulfur and arsenic species onto Bio-Rad AG2-X8 resin and eluting the target species using 0.5 M Na-Salicylate. Complete retention of the initially applied amount on the resin was found for sulfate, thiosulfate, arsenate, monothioarsenate and trithioarsenate with 100.0 %, 99.7 %, 95.1 %, 98.9 %, and 99.8 %, respectively. Arsenite passed the resin without binding (3.0 % retention). All species bound to the resin could be eluted quantitatively and species-conserving with a recovery of 98.4 %, 102.8 %, 95.3 %, 90.5 % and 85.3 % for sulfate, thiosulfate, arsenate, monothioarsenate and trithioarsenate, respectively. Addition of 5 ppm FeCl2 did not reduce method efficiency with 98.7 % retention and 105.1 % recovery for monothioarsenate, while all of the applied iron passed the resin without binding as hypothesized. However, in solutions containing a mixture of arsenite, arsenate, monothioarsenate and trithioarsenate we found arsenite retention up to 59.1 % both in the presence and absence of iron. This effect cannot be fully explained yet and might be attributed to free sulfide in these mixed solutions facilitating arsenite binding via sulfide sorbed onto the resin. The interaction between different species needs to be further investigated. Samples from geothermal features in Yellowstone and mineral springs in the Czech Republic have been collected and results of immediate elution and stability during storage will

  17. Long-term survival of hepatitis A virus and poliovirus type 1 in mineral water.

    PubMed

    Biziagos, E; Passagot, J; Crance, J M; Deloince, R

    1988-11-01

    The survival in mineral water of hepatitis A virus (HAV) and poliovirus type 1 was compared, under controlled experimental conditions, at 4 degrees C and room temperature. Viral infectivity titers were determined by cell culture titration, while HAV antigenicity was monitored by radioimmunoassay-endpoint titration. Both viruses persisted longest at 4 degrees C. At this temperature, after 1 year of exposure, the inactivation of either HAV or poliovirus type 1 was not important. At room temperature, poliovirus type 1 was not detected after 300 days, whereas HAV was still infectious. For both temperatures, the computed regression coefficients of best-fit lines for inactivation rates for the two viruses were significantly different. The survival of HAV was also studied at 4 degrees C and room temperature in mineral water with 5- and 50-micrograms/ml protein concentrations (i.e., purity of the virus suspension) for 120 days. As shown by a comparison of the regression coefficients for the inactivation rates, the stability of HAV in mineral water depends on protein concentration and temperature. Radioimmunoassay-endpoint titration results showed inactivation patterns similar to those of cell culture titration, with the most significant reduction in HAV antigenicity at room temperature. At the two temperatures, the infectivity of HAV declined at a faster rate than the antigenicity.

  18. Efficient artificial mineralization route to decontaminate Arsenic(III) polluted water - the Tooeleite Way

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Malakar, Arindam; Das, Bidisa; Islam, Samirul; Meneghini, Carlo; de Giudici, Giovanni; Merlini, Marco; Kolen’Ko, Yury V.; Iadecola, Antonella; Aquilanti, Giuliana; Acharya, Somobrata; Ray, Sugata

    2016-05-01

    Increasing exposure to arsenic (As) contaminated ground water is a great threat to humanity. Suitable technology for As immobilization and removal from water, especially for As(III) than As(V), is not available yet. However, it is known that As(III) is more toxic than As(V) and most groundwater aquifers, particularly the Gangetic basin in India, is alarmingly contaminated with it. In search of a viable solution here, we took a cue from the natural mineralization of Tooeleite, a mineral containing Fe(III) and As(III)ions, grown under acidic condition, in presence of SO42‑ ions. Complying to this natural process, we could grow and separate Tooeleite-like templates from Fe(III) and As(III) containing water at overall circumneutral pH and in absence of SO42‑ ions by using highly polar Zn-only ends of wurtzite ZnS nanorods as insoluble nano-acidic-surfaces. The central idea here is to exploit these insoluble nano-acidic-surfaces (called as INAS in the manuscript) as nucleation centres for Tooeleite growth while keeping the overall pH of the aqueous media neutral. Therefore, we propose a novel method of artificial mineralization of As(III) by mimicking a natural process at nanoscale.

  19. Networking and rheology of concentrated clay suspensions "matured" in mineral medicinal water.

    PubMed

    Aguzzi, Carola; Sánchez-Espejo, Rita; Cerezo, Pilar; Machado, José; Bonferoni, Cristina; Rossi, Silvia; Salcedo, Inmaculada; Viseras, César

    2013-09-10

    This work studied the influence of "maturation" conditions (time and agitation) on aggregation states, gel structure and rheological behaviour of a special kind of pharmaceutical semisolid products made of concentrated clay suspensions in mineral medicinal water. Maturation of the samples was carried out in distilled and sulphated mineral medicinal water, both in static conditions (without agitation) and with manual stirring once a week, during a maximum period of three months. At the measured pH interval (7.5-8.0), three-dimensional band-type networks resulting from face/face contacts were predominant in the laminar (disc-like) clay suspensions, whereas the fibrous (rod-like) particles formed micro-aggregates by van der Waals attractions. The high concentration of solids in the studied systems greatly determined their behaviour. Rod-like sepiolite particles tend to align the major axis in aggregates promoted by low shearing maturation, whereas aggregates of disc-like smectite particles did not have a preferential orientation and their complete swelling required long maturation time, being independent of stirring. Maturation of both kinds of suspensions resulted in improved rheological properties. Laminar clay suspensions became more structured with time, independently from static or dynamic maturation conditions, whereas for fibrous clay periodic agitation was also required. Rheological properties of the studied systems have been related to aggregation states and networking mechanisms, depending on the type of clay minerals constituents. Physical stability of the suspensions was not impaired by the specific composition of the Graena medicinal water.

  20. Efficient artificial mineralization route to decontaminate Arsenic(III) polluted water - the Tooeleite Way.

    PubMed

    Malakar, Arindam; Das, Bidisa; Islam, Samirul; Meneghini, Carlo; De Giudici, Giovanni; Merlini, Marco; Kolen'ko, Yury V; Iadecola, Antonella; Aquilanti, Giuliana; Acharya, Somobrata; Ray, Sugata

    2016-01-01

    Increasing exposure to arsenic (As) contaminated ground water is a great threat to humanity. Suitable technology for As immobilization and removal from water, especially for As(III) than As(V), is not available yet. However, it is known that As(III) is more toxic than As(V) and most groundwater aquifers, particularly the Gangetic basin in India, is alarmingly contaminated with it. In search of a viable solution here, we took a cue from the natural mineralization of Tooeleite, a mineral containing Fe(III) and As(III)ions, grown under acidic condition, in presence of SO4(2-) ions. Complying to this natural process, we could grow and separate Tooeleite-like templates from Fe(III) and As(III) containing water at overall circumneutral pH and in absence of SO4(2-) ions by using highly polar Zn-only ends of wurtzite ZnS nanorods as insoluble nano-acidic-surfaces. The central idea here is to exploit these insoluble nano-acidic-surfaces (called as INAS in the manuscript) as nucleation centres for Tooeleite growth while keeping the overall pH of the aqueous media neutral. Therefore, we propose a novel method of artificial mineralization of As(III) by mimicking a natural process at nanoscale. PMID:27189251

  1. Efficient artificial mineralization route to decontaminate Arsenic(III) polluted water - the Tooeleite Way

    PubMed Central

    Malakar, Arindam; Das, Bidisa; Islam, Samirul; Meneghini, Carlo; De Giudici, Giovanni; Merlini, Marco; Kolen’ko, Yury V.; Iadecola, Antonella; Aquilanti, Giuliana; Acharya, Somobrata; Ray, Sugata

    2016-01-01

    Increasing exposure to arsenic (As) contaminated ground water is a great threat to humanity. Suitable technology for As immobilization and removal from water, especially for As(III) than As(V), is not available yet. However, it is known that As(III) is more toxic than As(V) and most groundwater aquifers, particularly the Gangetic basin in India, is alarmingly contaminated with it. In search of a viable solution here, we took a cue from the natural mineralization of Tooeleite, a mineral containing Fe(III) and As(III)ions, grown under acidic condition, in presence of SO42− ions. Complying to this natural process, we could grow and separate Tooeleite-like templates from Fe(III) and As(III) containing water at overall circumneutral pH and in absence of SO42− ions by using highly polar Zn-only ends of wurtzite ZnS nanorods as insoluble nano-acidic-surfaces. The central idea here is to exploit these insoluble nano-acidic-surfaces (called as INAS in the manuscript) as nucleation centres for Tooeleite growth while keeping the overall pH of the aqueous media neutral. Therefore, we propose a novel method of artificial mineralization of As(III) by mimicking a natural process at nanoscale. PMID:27189251

  2. Efficient artificial mineralization route to decontaminate Arsenic(III) polluted water - the Tooeleite Way.

    PubMed

    Malakar, Arindam; Das, Bidisa; Islam, Samirul; Meneghini, Carlo; De Giudici, Giovanni; Merlini, Marco; Kolen'ko, Yury V; Iadecola, Antonella; Aquilanti, Giuliana; Acharya, Somobrata; Ray, Sugata

    2016-05-18

    Increasing exposure to arsenic (As) contaminated ground water is a great threat to humanity. Suitable technology for As immobilization and removal from water, especially for As(III) than As(V), is not available yet. However, it is known that As(III) is more toxic than As(V) and most groundwater aquifers, particularly the Gangetic basin in India, is alarmingly contaminated with it. In search of a viable solution here, we took a cue from the natural mineralization of Tooeleite, a mineral containing Fe(III) and As(III)ions, grown under acidic condition, in presence of SO4(2-) ions. Complying to this natural process, we could grow and separate Tooeleite-like templates from Fe(III) and As(III) containing water at overall circumneutral pH and in absence of SO4(2-) ions by using highly polar Zn-only ends of wurtzite ZnS nanorods as insoluble nano-acidic-surfaces. The central idea here is to exploit these insoluble nano-acidic-surfaces (called as INAS in the manuscript) as nucleation centres for Tooeleite growth while keeping the overall pH of the aqueous media neutral. Therefore, we propose a novel method of artificial mineralization of As(III) by mimicking a natural process at nanoscale.

  3. Linear adsorption of nonionic organic compounds from water onto hydrophilic minerals: Silica and alumina

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Su, Y.-H.; Zhu, Y.-G.; Sheng, G.; Chiou, C.T.

    2006-01-01

    To characterize the linear adsorption phenomena in aqueous nonionic organic solute-mineral systems, the adsorption isotherms of some low-molecular- weightnonpolar nonionic solutes (1,2,3-trichlorobenzene, lindane, phenanthrene, and pyrene) and polar nonionic solutes (1,3-dinitrobenzene and 2,4-dinitrotoluene) from single-and binary-solute solutions on hydrophilic silica and alumina were established. Toward this objective, the influences of temperature, ionic strength, and pH on adsorption were also determined. It is found that linear adsorption exhibits low exothermic heats and practically no adsorptive competition. The solute-solid configuration and the adsorptive force consistent with these effects were hypothesized. For nonpolar solutes, the adsorption occurs presumably by London (dispersion) forces onto a water film above the mineral surface. For polar solutes, the adsorption is also assisted by polar-group interactions. The reduced adsorptive forces of solutes with hydrophilic minerals due to physical separation by the water film and the low fractions of the water-film surface covered by solutes offer a theoretical basis for linear solute adsorption, low exothermic heats, and no adsorptive competition. The postulated adsorptive forces are supported by observations that ionic strength or pH poses no effect on the adsorption of nonpolar solutes while it exhibits a significant effect on the uptake of polar solutes. ?? 2006 American Chemical Society.

  4. A compilation of rate parameters of water-mineral interaction kinetics for application to geochemical modeling

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Palandri, James L.; Kharaka, Yousif K.

    2004-01-01

    Geochemical reaction path modeling is useful for rapidly assessing the extent of water-aqueous-gas interactions both in natural systems and in industrial processes. Modeling of some systems, such as those at low temperature with relatively high hydrologic flow rates, or those perturbed by the subsurface injection of industrial waste such as CO2 or H2S, must account for the relatively slow kinetics of mineral-gas-water interactions. We have therefore compiled parameters conforming to a general Arrhenius-type rate equation, for over 70 minerals, including phases from all the major classes of silicates, most carbonates, and many other non-silicates. The compiled dissolution rate constants range from -0.21 log moles m-2 s-1 for halite, to -17.44 log moles m-2 s-1 for kyanite, for conditions far from equilibrium, at 25 ?C, and pH near neutral. These data have been added to a computer code that simulates an infinitely well-stirred batch reactor, allowing computation of mass transfer as a function of time. Actual equilibration rates are expected to be much slower than those predicted by the selected computer code, primarily because actual geochemical processes commonly involve flow through porous or fractured media, wherein the development of concentration gradients in the aqueous phase near mineral surfaces, which results in decreased absolute chemical affinity and slower reaction rates. Further differences between observed and computed reaction rates may occur because of variables beyond the scope of most geochemical simulators, such as variation in grain size, aquifer heterogeneity, preferred fluid flow paths, primary and secondary mineral coatings, and secondary minerals that may lead to decreased porosity and clogged pore throats.

  5. Coordinated Isotopic and Mineral Characterization of Highly Fractionated 18O-Rich Silicates in the Queen Alexandra Range 99177 CR3 Chondrite

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Nguyen, A. N.; Keller, L. P.; Messenger, S.; Rahman, Z.

    2016-01-01

    Carbonaceous chondrites contain a mixture of solar system condensates, pre-solar grains, and primitive organic matter. Each of these materials record conditions and processes in different regions of the solar nebula, on the meteorite parent body, and beyond the solar system. Oxygen isotopic studies of meteorite components can trace interactions of distinct oxygen isotopic reservoirs in the early solar system and secondary alteration processes. The O isotopic compositions of the earliest solar system condensates fall along a carbonaceous chondrite anhydrous mineral (CCAM) line of slope approximately 1 in a plot of delta 17O against delta 18O. This trend is attributed to mixing of material from 16O-poor and 16O-rich reservoirs. Secondary processing can induce mass-dependent fractionation of the O isotopes, shifting these compositions along a line of slope approximately 0.52. Substantial mass-dependent fractionation of O isotopes has been observed in secondary minerals in CAIs, calcite, and FUN inclusions. These fractionations were caused by significant thermal or aqueous alteration. We recently reported the identification of four silicate grains with extremely fractionated O isotopic ratios (delta 18O equals 37 - 55 per mille) in the minimally altered CR3 chondrite QUE 99177. TEM analysis of one grain indicates it is a nebular condensate that did not experience substantial alteration. The history of these grains is thus distinct from those of the aforementioned fractionated materials. To constrain the origin of the silicate grains, we conducted further Mg and Fe isotopic studies and TEM analyses of two grains.

  6. Influence of Water Content on the Mechanical Behaviour of Limestone: Role of the Clay Minerals Content

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Cherblanc, F.; Berthonneau, J.; Bromblet, P.; Huon, V.

    2016-06-01

    The mechanical characteristics of various sedimentary stones significantly depend on the water content, where 70 % loss of their mechanical strengths can be observed when saturated by water. Furthermore, the clay fraction has been shown to be a key factor of their hydro-mechanical behaviour since it governs for instance the hydric dilation. This work aims at investigating the correlations between the clay mineral content and the mechanical weakening experienced by limestones when interacting with water. The experimental characterization focuses on five different limestones that exhibit very different micro-structures. For each of them, we present the determination of clay mineral composition, the sorption isotherm curve and the dependences of tensile and compressive strengths on the water content. It emerges from these results that, first, the sorption behaviour is mainly governed by the amount of smectite layers which exhibit the larger specific area and, second, the rate of mechanical strength loss depends linearly on the sorption capacity. Indeed, the clay fraction plays the role of a retardation factor that delays the appearance of capillary bridges as well as the mechanical weakening of stones. However, no correlation was evidenced between the clay content and the amplitude of weakening. Since the mechanisms whereby the strength decreases with water content are not clearly established, these results would help to discriminate between various hypothesis proposed in the literature.

  7. Natural radioactivity of 226Ra and 228Ra in thermal and mineral waters in Croatia.

    PubMed

    Bituh, Tomislav; Marovic, Gordana; Petrinec, Branko; Sencar, Jasminka; Franulovic, Iva

    2009-01-01

    Thermal waters are known as valuable natural resources of a country. They contain certain degree of natural radioactivity attributable to the elements of the uranium and thorium natural decay series. Among these elements, the most radiotoxic and the most important is radium that exists in several isotopic forms (226Ra and 228Ra). The focus of attention was the content of radium in samples of thermal and mineral spring water from several spas in Croatia. These waters are mainly used for medical, bathing and recreational purposes, and some of them are used for drinking. Measured activity concentrations of 226Ra ranged from 87 to 6200 mBq l(-1) which, in some springs, exceed the maximal permissible level of 1 Bq l(-1) for drinking water. Measured activity concentrations of 228Ra ranged from 23 to 3480 mBq l(-1). The study showed that radium content for the investigated thermal and mineral waters is below the levels at which negative consequences would arise due to ingestion.

  8. Iron-rich drinking water and ascorbic acid supplementation improved hemolytic anemia in experimental Wistar rats.

    PubMed

    Chaturvedi, Richa; Chattopadhyay, Pronobesh; Banerjee, Saumen; Bhattacharjee, Chira R; Raul, Prasanta; Borah, Kusum; Singh, Lokendra; Veer, Vijay

    2014-11-01

    Anemia is a frequent problem in both the primary and secondary health care programs. In contrast, most areas of northeast India are vulnerable to iron toxicity. In the present study, we documented the effect of administration of iron rich water on hemolytic anemia in a Wistar rats' animal model. Hemolytic anemia was induced by phenyl hydrazine through intraperitoneal route and diagnosed by the lowering of blood hemoglobin. After inducing the hemolytic anemia, 24 Wistar rats (n = 6 in four groups) were randomly assigned to 1 mg/l, 5 mg/l, and 10 mg/l ferric oxide iron along with 1 mg/ml ascorbic acid administered through drinking water; a control group was treated with iron-free water. The hematological and biochemical parameters, iron levels in liver, spleen, and kidney were estimated after 30 d of treatment. In the group treated with 5 mg/l iron and ascorbic acid, a significant increase of serum iron and ferritin, and a decrease of TIBC (total iron binding capacity) were observed without changes in other biochemical parameters and histopathological findings. However, in the group treated with 10 mg/l iron and ascorbic acid, hematological changes with significantly higher values for white blood cell count, serum glutamic phospho transaminase, serum glutamic oxaloacetic transaminase, alkaline phosphatase, glucose, splenic, and liver iron content, indicate potential toxicity at this supplementation level. Data suggest that the optimum concentration of iron (5 mg/l) and ascorbic acid solution may improve anemic conditions and may be therapeutically beneficial in the treatment of iron deficiency anemia without any negative impact, while 10 mg/l in drinking water seems to be the threshold for the initiation of toxicity.

  9. Inelastic neutron scattering and molecular simulation of the dynamics of interlayer water in smectite clay minerals

    SciTech Connect

    Cygan, Randall T.; Daemen, Luke L.; Ilgen, Anastasia G.; Krumhansl, James L.; Nenoff, Tina M.

    2015-11-16

    The study of mineral–water interfaces is of great importance to a variety of applications including oil and gas extraction, gas subsurface storage, environmental contaminant treatment, and nuclear waste repositories. Understanding the fundamentals of that interface is key to the success of those applications. Confinement of water in the interlayer of smectite clay minerals provides a unique environment to examine the interactions among water molecules, interlayer cations, and clay mineral surfaces. Smectite minerals are characterized by a relatively low layer charge that allows the clay to swell with increasing water content. Montmorillonite and beidellite varieties of smectite were investigated to compare the impact of the location of layer charge on the interlayer structure and dynamics. Inelastic neutron scattering of hydrated and dehydrated cation-exchanged smectites was used to probe the dynamics of the interlayer water (200–900 cm–1 spectral region) and identify the shift in the librational edge as a function of the interlayer cation. Molecular dynamics simulations of equivalent phases and power spectra, derived from the resulting molecular trajectories, indicate a general shift in the librational behavior with interlayer cation that is generally consistent with the neutron scattering results for the monolayer hydrates. Both neutron scattering and power spectra exhibit librational structures affected by the location of layer charge and by the charge of the interlayer cation. Furthermore, divalent cations (Ba2+ and Mg2+) characterized by large hydration enthalpies typically exhibit multiple broad librational peaks compared to monovalent cations (Cs+ and Na+), which have relatively small hydration enthalpies.

  10. Inelastic neutron scattering and molecular simulation of the dynamics of interlayer water in smectite clay minerals

    DOE PAGES

    Cygan, Randall T.; Daemen, Luke L.; Ilgen, Anastasia G.; Krumhansl, James L.; Nenoff, Tina M.

    2015-11-16

    The study of mineral–water interfaces is of great importance to a variety of applications including oil and gas extraction, gas subsurface storage, environmental contaminant treatment, and nuclear waste repositories. Understanding the fundamentals of that interface is key to the success of those applications. Confinement of water in the interlayer of smectite clay minerals provides a unique environment to examine the interactions among water molecules, interlayer cations, and clay mineral surfaces. Smectite minerals are characterized by a relatively low layer charge that allows the clay to swell with increasing water content. Montmorillonite and beidellite varieties of smectite were investigated to comparemore » the impact of the location of layer charge on the interlayer structure and dynamics. Inelastic neutron scattering of hydrated and dehydrated cation-exchanged smectites was used to probe the dynamics of the interlayer water (200–900 cm–1 spectral region) and identify the shift in the librational edge as a function of the interlayer cation. Molecular dynamics simulations of equivalent phases and power spectra, derived from the resulting molecular trajectories, indicate a general shift in the librational behavior with interlayer cation that is generally consistent with the neutron scattering results for the monolayer hydrates. Both neutron scattering and power spectra exhibit librational structures affected by the location of layer charge and by the charge of the interlayer cation. Furthermore, divalent cations (Ba2+ and Mg2+) characterized by large hydration enthalpies typically exhibit multiple broad librational peaks compared to monovalent cations (Cs+ and Na+), which have relatively small hydration enthalpies.« less

  11. Likely detection of water-rich asteroid debris in a metal-polluted white dwarf

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Raddi, R.; Gänsicke, B. T.; Koester, D.; Farihi, J.; Hermes, J. J.; Scaringi, S.; Breedt, E.; Girven, J.

    2015-06-01

    The cool white dwarf SDSS J124231.07+522626.6 exhibits photospheric absorption lines of eight distinct heavy elements in medium resolution optical spectra, notably including oxygen. The Teff = 13 000 K atmosphere is helium-dominated, but the convection zone contains significant amounts of hydrogen and oxygen. The four most common rock-forming elements (O, Mg, Si, and Fe) account for almost all the accreted mass, totalling at least 1.2 × 1024 g, similar to the mass of Ceres. The time-averaged accretion rate is 2 × 1010 g s-1, one of the highest rates inferred among all known metal-polluted white dwarfs. We note a large oxygen excess, with respect to the most common metal oxides, suggesting that the white dwarf accreted planetary debris with a water content of ≈38 per cent by mass. This star, together with GD 61, GD 16, and GD 362, form a small group of outliers from the known population of evolved planetary systems accreting predominantly dry, rocky debris. This result strengthens the hypothesis that, integrated over the cooling ages of white dwarfs, accretion of water-rich debris from disrupted planetesimals may significantly contribute to the build-up of trace hydrogen observed in a large fraction of helium-dominated white dwarf atmospheres.

  12. Effect of PAC addition on immersed ultrafiltration for the treatment of algal-rich water.

    PubMed

    Zhang, Yan; Tian, Jiayu; Nan, Jun; Gao, ShanShan; Liang, Heng; Wang, Meilian; Li, Guibai

    2011-02-28

    The aim of this study was to evaluate the effect of powdered activated carbon (PAC) addition on the treatment of algal-rich water by immersed ultrafiltration (UF), in terms of permeate quality and membrane fouling. Experiments were performed with a hollow-fiber polyvinyl chloride ultrafiltration membrane at a laboratory scale, 20-25°C and 10 L/(m(2) h) constant permeate flux. UF could achieve an absolute removal of Microcystis aeruginosa cells, but a poor removal of algogenic organic matter (AOM) released into water, contaminants responsible for severe membrane fouling. The addition of 4 g/L PAC to the immersed UF reactor significantly alleviated the development of trans-membrane pressure and enhanced the removal of dissovled organic carbon (by 10.9±1.7%), UV(254) (by 27.1±1.7%), and microcystins (expressed as MC-LR(eq), by 40.8±4.2%). However, PAC had little effect on the rejection of hydrophilic high molecular weight AOM such as carbohydrates and proteins. It was also identified that PAC reduced the concentrations of carbohydrates and proteins in the reactor due to decreased light intensity, as well as the MC-LR(eq) concentration by PAC adsorption. PMID:21216530

  13. Treatment of nitrate-rich water in a baffled membrane bioreactor (BMBR) employing waste derived materials.

    PubMed

    Basu, Subhankar; Singh, Saurabh K; Tewari, Prahlad K; Batra, Vidya S; Balakrishnan, Malini

    2014-12-15

    Nitrate removal in submerged membrane bioreactors (MBRs) is limited as intensive aeration (for maintaining adequate dissolved oxygen levels and for membrane scouring) deters the formation of anoxic zones essential for biological denitrification. The present study employs baffled membrane bioreactor (BMBR) to overcome this constraint. Treatment of nitrate rich water (synthetic and real groundwater) was investigated. Sludge separation was achieved using ceramic membrane filters prepared from waste sugarcane bagasse ash. A complex external carbon source (leachate from anaerobic digestion of food waste) was used to maintain an appropriate C/N ratio. Over 90% COD and 95% NO3-N reduction was obtained. The bagasse ash filters produced a clear permeate, free of suspended solids. Sludge aggregates were observed in the reactor and were linked to the high extracellular polymeric substances (EPS) content. Lower sludge volume index (40 mL/g compared to 150 mL/g for seed sludge), higher settling velocity (47 m/h compared to 10 m/h for seed sludge) and sludge aggregates (0.7 mm aggregates compared to <0.2 mm for seed sludge) was observed. The results demonstrate the potential of waste-derived materials viz. food waste leachate and bagasse ash filters in water treatment.

  14. Ultrathin Spinel-Structured Nanosheets Rich in Oxygen Deficiencies for Enhanced Electrocatalytic Water Oxidation.

    PubMed

    Bao, Jian; Zhang, Xiaodong; Fan, Bo; Zhang, Jiajia; Zhou, Min; Yang, Wenlong; Hu, Xin; Wang, Hui; Pan, Bicai; Xie, Yi

    2015-06-15

    Electrochemical water splitting is a clean technology for H2 fuels, but greatly hindered by the slow kinetics of the oxygen evolution reaction (OER). Herein, a series of spinel-structured nanosheets with oxygen deficiencies and ultrathin thicknesses were designed to increase the reactivity and the number of active sites of the catalysts, which were then taken as an excellent platform for promoting the water oxidation process. Theoretical investigations showed that the oxygen vacancies confined in the ultrathin nanosheet could lower the adsorption energy of H2O, leading to increased OER efficiency. As expected, the NiCo2O4 ultrathin nanosheets rich in oxygen vacancies exhibited a large current density of 285 mA cm(-2) at 0.8 V and a small overpotential of 0.32 V, both of which are superior to the corresponding values of bulk samples or samples with few oxygen deficiencies and even higher than those of most reported non-precious-metal catalysts. This work should provide a new pathway for the design of advanced OER catalysts.

  15. Utilization of water-reducing admixtures in cemented paste backfill of sulphide-rich mill tailings.

    PubMed

    Ercikdi, Bayram; Cihangir, Ferdi; Kesimal, Ayhan; Deveci, Haci; Alp, Ibrahim

    2010-07-15

    This study presents the effect of three different water-reducing admixtures (WRAs) on the rheological and mechanical properties of cemented paste backfill (CPB) samples. A 28-day strength of > or = 0.7 MPa and the maintenance of the stability (i.e. > or = 0.7 MPa) over 360 days of curing were desired as the design criteria. Ordinary Portland cement (OPC) and Portland composite cement (PCC) were used as binders at 5 wt.% dose. WRAs were initially tested to determine the dosage of a WRA for a required consistency of 7'' for CPB mixtures. A total of 192 CPB samples were then prepared using WRAs. The utilization of WRAs enhanced the flow characteristics of the CPB mixture and allowed to achieve the same consistency at a lower water-to-cement ratio. For OPC, the addition of WRAs appeared to improve the both short- and long-term performance of CPB samples. However, only polycarboxylate-based superplasticiser produced the desired 28-day strength of > or = 0.7 MPa when PCC was used as the binder. These findings suggest that WRAs can be suitably exploited for CPB of sulphide-rich tailings to improve the strength and stability in short and long terms allowing to reduce binder costs in a CPB plant. PMID:20382473

  16. Treatment of nitrate-rich water in a baffled membrane bioreactor (BMBR) employing waste derived materials.

    PubMed

    Basu, Subhankar; Singh, Saurabh K; Tewari, Prahlad K; Batra, Vidya S; Balakrishnan, Malini

    2014-12-15

    Nitrate removal in submerged membrane bioreactors (MBRs) is limited as intensive aeration (for maintaining adequate dissolved oxygen levels and for membrane scouring) deters the formation of anoxic zones essential for biological denitrification. The present study employs baffled membrane bioreactor (BMBR) to overcome this constraint. Treatment of nitrate rich water (synthetic and real groundwater) was investigated. Sludge separation was achieved using ceramic membrane filters prepared from waste sugarcane bagasse ash. A complex external carbon source (leachate from anaerobic digestion of food waste) was used to maintain an appropriate C/N ratio. Over 90% COD and 95% NO3-N reduction was obtained. The bagasse ash filters produced a clear permeate, free of suspended solids. Sludge aggregates were observed in the reactor and were linked to the high extracellular polymeric substances (EPS) content. Lower sludge volume index (40 mL/g compared to 150 mL/g for seed sludge), higher settling velocity (47 m/h compared to 10 m/h for seed sludge) and sludge aggregates (0.7 mm aggregates compared to <0.2 mm for seed sludge) was observed. The results demonstrate the potential of waste-derived materials viz. food waste leachate and bagasse ash filters in water treatment. PMID:25151111

  17. Effect of the water-vapor content on the oxidative desulfurization of sulfur-rich coal

    SciTech Connect

    S. Pysh'yev; K. Shevchuk; L. Chmielarz; P. Kutrowski; A. Pattek-Janczyk

    2007-01-15

    Ukrainian sulfur-rich coal containing about 3.6 mass % of sulfur was studied. The desulfurization process was performed in the fluidized-bed reactor in dry (4 vol % of H{sub 2}O vapor) and wet (30-70 vol % of H{sub 2}O vapor) atmospheres in the temperature range of 350-450{sup o}C. A significant influence of the water-vapor content in the reaction mixture on the sulfur removal during the oxidative desulfurization of the coal was observed especially at low temperatures. The extent of FeS{sub 2} oxidation, the main sulfur-containing compound, was studied by Moessbauer spectroscopy. The Moessbauer data revealed different iron-containing products (FeSO{sub 4}nH{sub 2}O, Fe{sub 2}O{sub 3}, Fe{sub 3}O{sub 4}, and Fe{sub 1-x}S) formed in the course of the process carried out in dry and wet atmospheres. The promoting effect of water vapor on the pyrite transformation was observed especially at low temperatures. The mechanism of this promotion on the molecular scale was proposed. 19 refs., 6 figs., 4 tabs.

  18. Br-rich tips of calcified crab claws are less hard but more fracture resistant: a comparison of mineralized and heavy-element biological materials.

    PubMed

    Schofield, Robert M S; Niedbala, Jack C; Nesson, Michael H; Tao, Ye; Shokes, Jacob E; Scott, Robert A; Latimer, Matthew J

    2009-06-01

    We find that the spoon-like tips of the chelipeds (large claws) of the crab Pachygrapsus crassipes differ from the rest of the claw in that they are not calcified, but instead contain about 1% bromine--thus they represent a new example of a class of structural biological materials that contain heavy elements such as Zn, Mn, Fe, Cu, and Br bound in an organic matrix. X-ray absorption spectroscopy data suggest that the bromine is bound to phenyl rings, possibly in tyrosine. We measure a broad array of mechanical properties of a heavy-element biological material for the first time (abrasion resistance, coefficient of kinetic friction, energy of fracture, hardness, modulus of elasticity and dynamic mechanical properties), and we make a direct comparison with a mineralized tissue. Our results suggest that the greatest advantage of bromine-rich cuticle over calcified cuticle is resistance to fracture (the energy of fracture is about an order of magnitude greater than for calcified cuticle). The greatest advantage relative to unenriched cuticle, represented by ant mandible cuticle, is a factor of about 1.5 greater hardness and modulus of elasticity.The spoon-like tips gain additional fracture resistance from the orientation of the constituent laminae and from the viscoelasticity of the material. We suggest that fracture resistance is of greater importance in smaller organisms, and we speculate that one function of heavy elements in structural biological materials is to reduce molecular resonant frequencies and thereby increase absorption of energy from impacts.

  19. Water of Hydration Dynamics in Minerals Gypsum and Bassanite: Ultrafast 2D IR Spectroscopy of Rocks.

    PubMed

    Yan, Chang; Nishida, Jun; Yuan, Rongfeng; Fayer, Michael D

    2016-08-01

    Water of hydration plays an important role in minerals, determining their crystal structures and physical properties. Here ultrafast nonlinear infrared (IR) techniques, two-dimensional infrared (2D IR) and polarization selective pump-probe (PSPP) spectroscopies, were used to measure the dynamics and disorder of water of hydration in two minerals, gypsum (CaSO4·2H2O) and bassanite (CaSO4·0.5H2O). 2D IR spectra revealed that water arrangement in freshly precipitated gypsum contained a small amount of inhomogeneity. Following annealing at 348 K, water molecules became highly ordered; the 2D IR spectrum became homogeneously broadened (motional narrowed). PSPP measurements observed only inertial orientational relaxation. In contrast, water in bassanite's tubular channels is dynamically disordered. 2D IR spectra showed a significant amount of inhomogeneous broadening caused by a range of water configurations. At 298 K, water dynamics cause spectral diffusion that sampled a portion of the inhomogeneous line width on the time scale of ∼30 ps, while the rest of inhomogeneity is static on the time scale of the measurements. At higher temperature, the dynamics become faster. Spectral diffusion accelerates, and a portion of the lower temperature spectral diffusion became motionally narrowed. At sufficiently high temperature, all of the dynamics that produced spectral diffusion at lower temperatures became motionally narrowed, and only homogeneous broadening and static inhomogeneity were observed. Water angular motions in bassanite exhibit temperature-dependent diffusive orientational relaxation in a restricted cone of angles. The experiments were made possible by eliminating the vast amount of scattered light produced by the granulated powder samples using phase cycling methods. PMID:27385320

  20. Marine electromagnetic experiment across the Nicaragua Trench: Imaging water-rich faults and melt-rich asthenosphere

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Naif, Samer Nasri

    Archie's law to infer porosity and find that the crust subducts significantly more pore water than previously thought. The CSEM data also image the complete subduction of the incoming sediments along the megathrust plate interface, providing the first large-scale estimates of porosity at the megathrust. At 20 km into the forearc, a conductive anomaly extends from the plate interface into the overlying crust beneath a high concentration of active seafloor seeps, possibly imaging both the origin and migratory pathway of fluids escaping along the margin seafloor. The location of the anomaly correlates with a section of the seafloor that exhibits steepened bathymetric slope, suggesting a sediment underplating mechanism as its cause.

  1. Structure and hydrogeochemical functioning of a sparkling natural mineral water system determined using a multidisciplinary approach: a case study from southern France

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Maréchal, J. C.; Lachassagne, P.; Ladouche, B.; Dewandel, B.; Lanini, S.; Le Strat, P.; Petelet-Giraud, E.

    2013-12-01

    Natural mineral waters (NMW), often used to produce bottled water, are of high socio-economic interest and need appropriate management to ensure the sustainability of the resource. A complex sparkling NMW system at La Salvetat, southern France, was investigated using a multidisciplinary approach. Geological and geophysical investigations, pumping test analyses, time-series signal processing, hydrogeochemical and isotopic data (both stable and radiogenic), and numerical modelling provided complementary information on the geometry, hydrodynamic characteristics and functioning of this mineral system. The conceptual model consists of a compartmentalized reservoir characterized by two subvertical, parallel deeply rooted hydraulically independent permeable structures that are fed by deep CO2-rich crustal fluids. The non-mineralized shallow aquifer system corresponds to a fissured layer within the weathered zone that is recharged by leakage from the overlying saprolite. This surficial aquifer responds rapidly to recharge (40-80 days), whereas the deep system's response to recharge is much longer (up to 120 days). This research demonstrates the need for multidisciplinary approaches and modelling (quantity, hydrochemistry) for understanding complex NMW systems. This knowledge is already being applied by the bottling company that manages the resource at La Salvetat, and would be useful for conceptualising other NMW sites.

  2. Minerals consumption by Acetobacter xylinum on cultivation medium on coconut water

    PubMed Central

    Almeida, Denise Milleo; Prestes, Rosilene Aparecida; da Fonseca, Adriel Ferreira; Woiciechowski, Adenise L.; Wosiacki, Gilvan

    2013-01-01

    The objective of this work is to verifying the consume of the minerals K, Na, Fe, Mg, P, S-SO4−2, B, N Total Kjedahl (NTK), NO3−-N, and NH4+-N in the production of bacterial cellulose by Acetobacter xylinum, according to the medium and the manner of cultivation. The fermentative process was in ripe and green coconut water. K and Na were determined by flame emission photometry, Mg and Fe by atomic absorption spectrophotometry, P by molecular absorption spectrophotometry, S-SO4−2 by barium sulphate turbidimetry, B by Azomethin-H method, NTK by Kjeldahl method, N-NO3− and N-NH4+ by vapor distillation with magnesium oxide and Devarda’s alloy, respectively. In Fermentation of ripe coconut water there were higher consumption of K (69%), Fe (84,3%), P (97,4%), S-SO2−2 (64,9%), B (56,1%), N-NO3− (94,7%) and N-NH4+ (95,2%), whereas coconut water of green fruit the most consumed ions were Na (94,5%), Mg (67,7%) and NTK (56,6%). The cultivation under agitation showed higher mineral consumption. The higher bacterial cellulose production, 6 g.L−1, was verified in the coconut water fermentative in ripe fruit, added KH2PO4, FeSO4 and NaH2PO4 kept under agitation. PMID:24159306

  3. Trace elements and heavy metals in mineral and bottled drinking waters on the Iranian market.

    PubMed

    Hadiani, Mohammad Rasoul; Dezfooli-Manesh, Shirin; Shoeibi, Shahram; Ziarati, Parisa; Mousavi Khaneghah, Amin

    2015-01-01

    A survey of Iranian waters, sampled from 2010 to 2013, is presented. A total of 128 water samples from 42 different brands of bottled mineral and drinking water were collected and analysed for contamination levels of lead (Pb), cadmium (Cd), copper (Cu), arsenic (As) and mercury (Hg). Determinations were performed using a graphite furnace atomic absorption spectrophotometer for Pb, Cd and Cu, a hydride vapour generation as well as an Arsenator digital kit (Wagtech WTD, Tyne and Wear, UK) for As and a direct mercury analyser for Hg. Arsenic concentration in six bottled gaseous mineral samples was higher than the related limit. Regardless of these, mean concentrations of Pb, Cd, Cu, As and Hg in all types of water samples were 4.50 ± 0.49, 1.08 ± 0.09, 16.11 ± 2.77, 5.80 ± 1.63 and 0.52 ± 0.03 µg L⁻¹, respectively. Values obtained for analysed heavy metals in all samples were permissible according to the limits of national and international standards.

  4. Trace elements and heavy metals in mineral and bottled drinking waters on the Iranian market.

    PubMed

    Hadiani, Mohammad Rasoul; Dezfooli-Manesh, Shirin; Shoeibi, Shahram; Ziarati, Parisa; Mousavi Khaneghah, Amin

    2015-01-01

    A survey of Iranian waters, sampled from 2010 to 2013, is presented. A total of 128 water samples from 42 different brands of bottled mineral and drinking water were collected and analysed for contamination levels of lead (Pb), cadmium (Cd), copper (Cu), arsenic (As) and mercury (Hg). Determinations were performed using a graphite furnace atomic absorption spectrophotometer for Pb, Cd and Cu, a hydride vapour generation as well as an Arsenator digital kit (Wagtech WTD, Tyne and Wear, UK) for As and a direct mercury analyser for Hg. Arsenic concentration in six bottled gaseous mineral samples was higher than the related limit. Regardless of these, mean concentrations of Pb, Cd, Cu, As and Hg in all types of water samples were 4.50 ± 0.49, 1.08 ± 0.09, 16.11 ± 2.77, 5.80 ± 1.63 and 0.52 ± 0.03 µg L⁻¹, respectively. Values obtained for analysed heavy metals in all samples were permissible according to the limits of national and international standards. PMID:25174358

  5. Minerals consumption by Acetobacter xylinum on cultivation medium on coconut water.

    PubMed

    Almeida, Denise Milleo; Prestes, Rosilene Aparecida; da Fonseca, Adriel Ferreira; Woiciechowski, Adenise L; Wosiacki, Gilvan

    2013-01-01

    The objective of this work is to verifying the consume of the minerals K, Na, Fe, Mg, P, S-SO4 (-2), B, N Total Kjedahl (NTK), NO3 (-)-N, and NH4 (+)-N in the production of bacterial cellulose by Acetobacter xylinum, according to the medium and the manner of cultivation. The fermentative process was in ripe and green coconut water. K and Na were determined by flame emission photometry, Mg and Fe by atomic absorption spectrophotometry, P by molecular absorption spectrophotometry, S-SO4 (-2) by barium sulphate turbidimetry, B by Azomethin-H method, NTK by Kjeldahl method, N-NO3 (-) and N-NH4 (+) by vapor distillation with magnesium oxide and Devarda's alloy, respectively. In Fermentation of ripe coconut water there were higher consumption of K (69%), Fe (84,3%), P (97,4%), S-SO2 (-2) (64,9%), B (56,1%), N-NO3 (-) (94,7%) and N-NH4 (+) (95,2%), whereas coconut water of green fruit the most consumed ions were Na (94,5%), Mg (67,7%) and NTK (56,6%). The cultivation under agitation showed higher mineral consumption. The higher bacterial cellulose production, 6 g.L(-1), was verified in the coconut water fermentative in ripe fruit, added KH2PO4, FeSO4 and NaH2PO4 kept under agitation. PMID:24159306

  6. Effects of mineral content of bovine drinking water: does iron content affect milk quality?

    PubMed

    Mann, G R; Duncan, S E; Knowlton, K F; Dietrich, A D; O'Keefe, S F

    2013-01-01

    The composition of water given to dairy cattle is often ignored, yet water is a very important nutrient and plays a major role in milk synthesis. The objective of this study was to study effects of elevated levels of iron in bovine drinking water on milk quality. Ferrous lactate treatments corresponding to 0, 2, 5, and 12.5mg/kg drinking water concentrations were delivered through the abomasum at 10 L/d to 4 lactating dairy cows over 4 periods (1 wk infusion/period) in a Latin square design. On d 6 of infusion, milk was collected, processed (homogenized, pasteurized), and analyzed. Mineral content (Fe, Cu, P, Ca) was measured by inductively coupled plasma mass spectrometry. Oxidative stability of whole processed milk was measured by the thiobarbituric acid reactive substances (TBARS) assay for malondialdehyde (MDA) and sensory analysis (triangle test) within 72 h of processing and after 7d of storage (4°C). Significant sensory differences between processed milks from cows receiving iron and the control infusion were observed. No differences in TBARS (1.46±0.04 mg of MDA/kg) or mineral content (0.22±0.01 mg/kg Fe) were observed. A 2-way interaction (iron treatment by cow) for Ca, Cu, and Fe concentrations was seen. While iron added directly to milk causes changes in oxidation of milk, high levels of iron given to cattle have subtle effects that initially may not be obvious.

  7. Preliminary observations of voluminous ice-rich and water-rich lahars generated during the 2009 eruption of Redoubt, Alaska

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Waythomas, Christopher F.; Pierson, Thomas C.; Major, Jon J.; Scott, William E.

    2012-01-01

    juvenile andesite. We infer that the lahars generated on March 23 were initiated by a rapid succession of vent-clearing explosions that blasted through about 50–100 m of crater-filling glacier ice and snow, producing a voluminous release of meltwater from the Drift glacier. The resulting flood eroded and entrained snow, fragments of glacier and river ice, and liquid water along its flow path. Small-volume pyroclastic flows, possibly associated with destruction of a small dome or minor eruption-column collapses, may have contributed additional meltwater to the lahar. Meltwater generated by subglacial hydrothermal activity and stored beneath the Drift glacier may have been ejected or released rapidly as well. The April 4 lahar was initiated when hot dome-collapse pyroclastic flows entrained and swiftly melted snow and ice, and incorporated additional rock debris from the Drift glacier. The peak discharge of the April 4 lahar was in the range of 60,000–160,000 m3s-1. For comparison, the largest lahar of the 1989–90 eruption had a peak discharge of about 80,000 m3s-1. Lahars generated by the 2009 eruption led to significant channel aggradation in the lower Drift River valley and caused extensive inundation at an oil storage and transfer facility located there. The April 4, 2009, lahar was 6–30 times larger than the largest meteorological floods known or estimated in the Drift River drainage.

  8. High Relative Humidity of Water-Rich Atmospheres and Its Implications

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Ding, F.; Pierrehumbert, R.

    2015-12-01

    The onset of the runaway greenhouse of water vapor is one of the important criteria defining the inner edge of the habitable zone, and has been extensively studied in one-dimensional (1D) radiative-convective models. One limitation of 1D simulations is the assumption of the fully saturated troposphere. In the real atmosphere, sub-saturated regions are created by the large-scale subsidence of air. These regions significantly delay the onset of the runaway greenhouse by playing the role of "radiator fins" that allow more infrared radiation escaping the planet. Here, we show that the degree of sub-saturation in the atmosphere strongly depends on the mass of background non-condensable component (e.g., N2) in an idealized three-dimensional general circulation model (3D GCM). We specially develop the GCM to simulate the climate dynamics of water-rich atmospheres, based on the GFDL finite-volume dynamical core, a two-stream gray-radiation scheme and an energy-conserving convection scheme. Numerical simulation shows that the mid-troposphere becomes more saturated by reducing the background partial pressure from 105 Pa to 500 Pa. The increase in relative humidity can be explained by the increase in static stability of the atmosphere when water vapor becomes dominated. In general, the mass of the background non-condensable components on potentially habitable planets could be regulated by many processes including the volcanic outgassing, stellar wind and impact erosion. These processes may also play an important role in determining the inner edge of the habitable zone besides the stellar spectral type and planetary rotation.

  9. [The effectiveness of sulfate magnesium-calcium mineral water for the treatment of the patients presenting with chronic acalculous cholecystitis].

    PubMed

    Tudakova, V G; Vladimirskiĭ, E V; Kunstman, T G

    2013-01-01

    This paper was designed to report the results of investigations into the therapeutic effectiveness of "Kluchi" sulfate magnesiumcalcium mineral water used to treat 194 patients presenting with chronic acalculous cholecystitis and different types of biliary tract dysfunction. The control group was comprised of 92 patients who took a diet. It was shown, that mineral water "Kluchi" exerted well apparent beneficial action on the motor function of the gallbladder and the sphincter apparatus. Moreover, drinking the mineral water improved colloidal stability of bile. It is concluded that the therapeutic application of "Kluchi" sulfate magnesium-calcium mineral water results in the reduction of bile lihogenicity, produces anti-inflammatory and choleretic effects, and promotes normalization of the motor and tonic condition of the biliary tract. PMID:23819416

  10. Influences of pH and CO2 on the formation of Metasilicate mineral water in Changbai Mountain, Northeast China

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Yan, Baizhong; Xiao, Changlai; Liang, Xiujuan; Wu, Shili

    2015-07-01

    Mineral dissolution reactions actively participate in controlling the composition of mineral water. In this study, water soluble, acidic-alkaline and carbonated solution experiments were designed, and mineral reaction mechanisms were researched using chemical kinetics and the minimum free-energy method. The results showed that the release of metasilicate was controlled by pH, CO2, and rock characteristics. In the water soluble experiment, the release process of metasilicate in powdered rocks reached equilibrium after 40 days, while metasilicate in solid rocks took 170 days. The release process of metasilicate in solid rocks satisfied an asymptotic model, while in powdered rocks it accorded with the Stanford reaction kinetic model. In the acidic-alkaline experiment, metasilicate was released earlier under acidic conditions (2.46 < pH < 7) than under alkaline conditions (7 < pH < 10.61). The release process of metasilicate under acidic conditions reached equilibrium in 40 days, compared with 60 days for alkaline conditions. The addition of CO2 to the water solution was beneficial to the formation of metasilicate. Under neutral pH conditions, the reaction barely occurred. Under alkaline conditions, metasilicate was produced by the hydrolysis of metasilicate minerals. Under acidic and additional CO2 conditions, metasilicate formation was mainly via the reaction of H+, CO2, and metasilicate minerals. From these results, we concluded that the metasilicate mineral water from the Changbai Mountains, Jingyu County, is generated by a combination of the hydrolysis of metasilicate minerals and the reaction of H+, CO2, and metasilicate minerals. These results can contribute to a better development and protection of the mineral water resources in the Changbai Mountains.

  11. Radioactivity and geochemistry of selected mineral-spring waters in the Western United States; basic data and multivariate statistical analysis

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Felmlee, J.K.; Cadigan, R.A.

    1982-01-01

    Multivariate statistical analyses were performed on data from 156 mineral-spring sites in nine Western States to analyze relationships among the various parameters measured in the spring waters. Correlation analysis and R-mode factor analysis indicate that three major factors affect water composition in the spring systems studied: (1) duration of water circulation, (2) depth of water circulation, and (3) partial pressure of carbon dioxide. An examination of factor scores indicates that several types of hydrogeologic systems were sampled. Most of the samples are (1) older water from deeper circulating systems having relatively high salinity, high temperature, and low Eh or (2) younger water from shallower circulating systems having relatively low salinity, low temperature, and high Eh. The rest of the samples are from more complex systems. Any of the systems can have a relatively high or low content of dissolved carbonate species, resulting in a low or high pH, respectively. Uranium concentrations are commonly higher in waters of relatively low temperature and high Eh, and radium concentrations are commonly higher in waters having a relatively high carbonate content (low pH) and, secondarily, relatively high salinity. Water samples were collected and (or) measurements were taken at 156 of the 171 mineral-spring sites visited. Various samples were analyzed for radium, uranium, radon, helium, and radium-228 as well as major ions and numerous trace elements. On-site measurements for physical properties including temperature, specific conductance, pH, Eh, and dissolved oxygen were made. All constituents and properties show a wide range of values. Radium concentrations range from less than 0.01 to 300 picocuries per liter; they average 1.48 picocuries per liter and have an anomaly threshold value of 171 picocuries per liter for the samples studied. Uranium concentrations range from less than 0.01 to 120 micrograms per liter and average 0.26 micrograms per liter; they

  12. Subsurface water and clay mineral formation during the early history of Mars.

    PubMed

    Ehlmann, Bethany L; Mustard, John F; Murchie, Scott L; Bibring, Jean-Pierre; Meunier, Alain; Fraeman, Abigail A; Langevin, Yves

    2011-11-01

    Clay minerals, recently discovered to be widespread in Mars's Noachian terrains, indicate long-duration interaction between water and rock over 3.7 billion years ago. Analysis of how they formed should indicate what environmental conditions prevailed on early Mars. If clays formed near the surface by weathering, as is common on Earth, their presence would indicate past surface conditions warmer and wetter than at present. However, available data instead indicate substantial Martian clay formation by hydrothermal groundwater circulation and a Noachian rock record dominated by evidence of subsurface waters. Cold, arid conditions with only transient surface water may have characterized Mars's surface for over 4 billion years, since the early-Noachian period, and the longest-duration aqueous, potentially habitable environments may have been in the subsurface.

  13. Radium isotopes in the Polish Outer Carpathian mineral waters of various chemical composition.

    PubMed

    Chau, Nguyen Dinh; Lucyna, Rajchel; Jakub, Nowak; Paweł, Jodłowski

    2012-10-01

    The paper presents the activity concentrations of radium isotopes ((226)Ra, (228)Ra) and chemical compositions of above 70 mineral water samples collected from several dozens of springs and boreholes localized in the Polish Outer Carpathians. The activity concentrations of both radium isotopes clearly increase with the increase of water TDS, but decrease when the SO(4)(2-) content increases. These concentrations vary in the broad interval from a few to near 1000 mBq/L. The coefficient of the linear correlation between concentrations of these isotopes amounts to 0.85, and the activity ratio (226)Ra/(228)Ra is >1 for chloride-sodium waters, being ≈1 for hydrogen-carbonate and <1 for the sulfate ones.

  14. Hydrogen and oxygen isotope exchange reactions between clay minerals and water

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    O'Neil, J.R.; Kharaka, Y.K.

    1976-01-01

    The extent of hydrogen and oxygen isotope exchange between clay minerals and water has been measured in the temperature range 100-350?? for bomb runs of up to almost 2 years. Hydrogen isotope exchange between water and the clays was demonstrable at 100??. Exchange rates were 3-5 times greater for montmorillonite than for kaolinite or illite and this is attributed to the presence of interlayer water in the montmorillonite structure. Negligible oxygen isotope exchange occurred at these low temperatures. The great disparity in D and O18 exchange rates observed in every experiment demonstrates that hydrogen isotope exchange occurred by a mechanism of proton exchange independent of the slower process of O18 exchange. At 350?? kaolinite reacted to form pyrophyllite and diaspore. This was accompanied by essentially complete D exchange but minor O18 exchange and implies that intact structural units in the pyrophyllite were inherited from the kaolinite precursor. ?? 1976.

  15. Effect of sewage water on mineral nutritive potential of six fodder species grown under semiarid conditions

    PubMed Central

    Ahmad, Kafeel; Ibrahim, Muhammad; Khan, Zafar Iqbal; Rizwan, Yasir; Ejaz, Abid; Fardsous, Asia; Gondal, Sumaira; Lee, Dong Jin; Al-Yemeni, Mohammed

    2011-01-01

    Investigation was performed to assess the effect of different sewage water treatments on the metal status of different fodder species consumed by ruminants under semi-arid conditions. Five samples each of six fodder species viz., Trifolium alexandrinum, Cichorium intybus, Avena sativa, Medicago polymorpha, Brassica campestris and Medicago sativa were collected from three fields irrigated with canal water, mix water (canal water and sewage water) and sewage water, respectively. Fodder samples were analyzed to determine the Mg, Co and Zn concentrations in shoots. Higher values of these metals were found in fodder species irrigated with sewage water relatively. Mg and Zn concentrations in all the fodder species were found to be below the critical level among all treatments. Whereas, concentrations of Co in the different fodder species were significantly different (p < 0.05) and above the critical level. Consequently, ruminants feeding on these fodder species need continued mineral supplementation of Zn and Mg elements to prevent diseases caused by the deficiency of these elements, and to support optimum animal productivity. PMID:23961142

  16. Remote pulsed laser Raman spectroscopy system for detecting water, ice, and hydrous minerals

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Garcia, Christopher S.; Abedin, M. Nurul; Sharma, Shiv K.; Misra, Anupam K.; Ismail, Syed; Singh, Upendra N.; Refaat, Tamer F.; Elsayed-Ali, Hani E.; Sandford, Steve P.

    2006-08-01

    For exploration of planetary surfaces, detection of water and ice is of great interest in supporting existence of life on other planets. Therefore, a remote Raman spectroscopy system was demonstrated at NASA Langley Research Center in collaboration with the University of Hawaii for detecting ice-water and hydrous minerals on planetary surfaces. In this study, a 532 nm pulsed laser is utilized as an excitation source to allow detection in high background radiation conditions. The Raman scattered signal is collected by a 4-inch telescope positioned in front of a spectrograph. The Raman spectrum is analyzed using a spectrograph equipped with a holographic super notch filter to eliminate Rayleigh scattering, and a holographic transmission grating that simultaneously disperses two spectral tracks onto the detector for higher spectral range. To view the spectrum, the spectrograph is coupled to an intensified charge-coupled device (ICCD), which allows detection of very weak Stokes line. The ICCD is operated in gated mode to further suppress effects from background radiation and long-lived fluorescence. The sample is placed at 5.6 m from the telescope, and the laser is mounted on the telescope in a coaxial geometry to achieve maximum performance. The system was calibrated using the spectral lines of a Neon lamp source. To evaluate the system, Raman standard samples such as calcite, naphthalene, acetone, and isopropyl alcohol were analyzed. The Raman evaluation technique was used to analyze water, ice and other hydrous minerals and results from these species are presented.

  17. Analysis of phthalate migration from plastic containers to packaged cooking oil and mineral water.

    PubMed

    Xu, Qian; Yin, Xueyan; Wang, Min; Wang, Haifeng; Zhang, Niping; Shen, Yanyan; Xu, Shi; Zhang, Ling; Gu, Zhongze

    2010-11-10

    The migration of phthalates (PAEs), a class of typical environmental estrogen contaminants in food, from food packaging to packaged food attracts more and more attention worldwide. Many factors will affect the migration processes. The purpose of this study was to evaluate PAE migration from plastic containers to cooking oil and mineral water packed in authentic commercial packaging and stored under various conditions (different storage temperatures, contact times, and storage states (static or dynamic state)) and to identify a potential relationship between the amount and type of PAEs migrated and the lipophilic character of the food matrix. The samples were analyzed by a novel method of liquid chromatography combined with solid-phase extraction by an electrospun nylon 6 nanofibers mat, with PAE detection limits of 0.001 μg/L in mineral water and 0.020 μg/L in cooking oil, respectively. The results demonstrated that the cooking oil was a more suitable medium for the migration of PAEs from packages into foodstuffs than mineral water. Scilicet, the migration potential of the PAEs into foodstuffs, depends on the lipophilic characteristics of the food matrix. The results also demonstrated that migrations were more significant at higher temperature, longer contact time, and higher dynamic frequency; thus, the migration tests should be evaluated with consideration of different storage temperatures and contact times. Mathematical models with good logarithmic relationships were established to demonstrate the relationship between the PAE migration and food/packaging contact time for different storage temperatures. These established mathematical models would be expected to become a set of practical tools for the prediction of PAE migration.

  18. Hydrogen-rich water ameliorates bronchopulmonary dysplasia (BPD) in newborn rats.

    PubMed

    Muramatsu, Yukako; Ito, Mikako; Oshima, Takahiro; Kojima, Seiji; Ohno, Kinji

    2016-09-01

    Bronchopulmonary dysplasia (BPD) is characterized by developmental arrest of the alveolar tissue. Oxidative stress is causally associated with development of BPD. The effects of hydrogen have been reported in a wide range of disease models and human diseases especially caused by oxidative stress. We made a rat model of BPD by injecting lipopolysaccharide (LPS) into the amniotic fluid at E16.5. The mother started drinking hydrogen-rich water from E9.5 and also while feeding milk. Hydrogen normalized LPS-induced abnormal enlargement of alveoli at P7 and P14. LPS increased staining for nitrotyrosine and 8-OHdG of the lungs, and hydrogen attenuated the staining. At P1, LPS treatment decreased expressions of genes for FGFR4, VEGFR2, and HO-1 in the lungs, and hydrogen increased expressions of these genes. In contrast, LPS treatment and hydrogen treatment had no essential effect on the expression of SOD1. Inflammatory marker proteins of TNFα and IL-6 were increased by LPS treatment, and hydrogen suppressed them. Treatment of A549 human lung adenocarcinoma epithelial cells with 10% hydrogen gas for 24 hr decreased production of reactive oxygen species in both LPS-treated and untreated cells. Lack of any known adverse effects of hydrogen makes hydrogen a promising therapeutic modality for BPD. Pediatr Pulmonol. 2016; 51:928-935. © 2016 Wiley Periodicals, Inc. PMID:26845501

  19. Postexercise rehydration: potassium-rich drinks versus water and a sports drink.

    PubMed

    Pérez-Idárraga, Alexandra; Aragón-Vargas, Luis Fernando

    2014-10-01

    Fluid retention, thirst quenching, tolerance, and palatability of different drinks were assessed. On 4 different days, 12 healthy, physically active volunteers (24.4 ± 3.2 years old, 74.75 ± 11.36 kg body mass (mean ± S.D)), were dehydrated to 2.10% ± 0.24% body mass by exercising in an environmental chamber (32.0 ± 0.4 °C dry bulb, 53.8 ± 5.2% relative humidity). Each day they drank 1 of 4 beverages in random order: fresh coconut water (FCW), bottled water (W), sports drink (SD), or potassium-rich drink (NEW); volume was 120% of weight loss. Urine was collected and perceptions self-reported for 3 h. Urine output was higher (p < 0.05) for W (894 ± 178 mL) than SD (605 ± 297 mL) and NEW (599 ± 254 mL). FCW (686 ± 250 mL) was not different from any other drink (p > 0.05). Fluid retention was higher for SD than W (68.2% ± 13.0% vs. 51.3% ± 12.6%, p = 0.013), but not for FCW and NEW (62.5% ± 15.4% and 65.9% ± 15.4%, p > 0.05). All beverages were palatable and well tolerated; none maintained a positive net fluid balance after 3 h, but deficit was greater in W versus SD (p = 0.001). FCW scored higher for sweetness (p = 0.03). Thirst increased immediately after exercise but returned to baseline after drinking a small volume (p < 0.0005). In conclusion, additional potassium in FCW and NEW did not result in additional rehydration benefits over those already found in a conventional sports drink with sodium.

  20. Postexercise rehydration: potassium-rich drinks versus water and a sports drink.

    PubMed

    Pérez-Idárraga, Alexandra; Aragón-Vargas, Luis Fernando

    2014-10-01

    Fluid retention, thirst quenching, tolerance, and palatability of different drinks were assessed. On 4 different days, 12 healthy, physically active volunteers (24.4 ± 3.2 years old, 74.75 ± 11.36 kg body mass (mean ± S.D)), were dehydrated to 2.10% ± 0.24% body mass by exercising in an environmental chamber (32.0 ± 0.4 °C dry bulb, 53.8 ± 5.2% relative humidity). Each day they drank 1 of 4 beverages in random order: fresh coconut water (FCW), bottled water (W), sports drink (SD), or potassium-rich drink (NEW); volume was 120% of weight loss. Urine was collected and perceptions self-reported for 3 h. Urine output was higher (p < 0.05) for W (894 ± 178 mL) than SD (605 ± 297 mL) and NEW (599 ± 254 mL). FCW (686 ± 250 mL) was not different from any other drink (p > 0.05). Fluid retention was higher for SD than W (68.2% ± 13.0% vs. 51.3% ± 12.6%, p = 0.013), but not for FCW and NEW (62.5% ± 15.4% and 65.9% ± 15.4%, p > 0.05). All beverages were palatable and well tolerated; none maintained a positive net fluid balance after 3 h, but deficit was greater in W versus SD (p = 0.001). FCW scored higher for sweetness (p = 0.03). Thirst increased immediately after exercise but returned to baseline after drinking a small volume (p < 0.0005). In conclusion, additional potassium in FCW and NEW did not result in additional rehydration benefits over those already found in a conventional sports drink with sodium. PMID:25017113

  1. Hydrogen-rich water decreases serum LDL-cholesterol levels and improves HDL function in patients with potential metabolic syndrome

    PubMed Central

    Song, Guohua; Li, Min; Sang, Hui; Zhang, Liying; Li, Xiuhong; Yao, Shutong; Yu, Yang; Zong, Chuanlong; Xue, Yazhuo; Qin, Shucun

    2013-01-01

    We have found that hydrogen (dihydrogen; H2) has beneficial lipid-lowering effects in high-fat diet-fed Syrian golden hamsters. The objective of this study was to characterize the effects of H2-rich water (0.9–1.0 l/day) on the content, composition, and biological activities of serum lipoproteins on 20 patients with potential metabolic syndrome. Serum analysis showed that consumption of H2-rich water for 10 weeks resulted in decreased serum total-cholesterol (TC) and LDL-cholesterol (LDL-C) levels. Western blot analysis revealed a marked decrease of apolipoprotein (apo)B100 and apoE in serum. In addition, we found H2 significantly improved HDL functionality assessed in four independent ways, namely, i) protection against LDL oxidation, ii) inhibition of tumor necrosis factor (TNF)-α-induced monocyte adhesion to endothelial cells, iii) stimulation of cholesterol efflux from macrophage foam cells, and iv) protection of endothelial cells from TNF-α-induced apoptosis. Further, we found consumption of H2-rich water resulted in an increase in antioxidant enzyme superoxide dismutase and a decrease in thiobarbituric acid-reactive substances in whole serum and LDL. In conclusion, supplementation with H2-rich water seems to decrease serum LDL-C and apoB levels, improve dyslipidemia-injured HDL functions, and reduce oxidative stress, and it may have a beneficial role in prevention of potential metabolic syndrome. PMID:23610159

  2. Hydrogen-rich water decreases serum LDL-cholesterol levels and improves HDL function in patients with potential metabolic syndrome.

    PubMed

    Song, Guohua; Li, Min; Sang, Hui; Zhang, Liying; Li, Xiuhong; Yao, Shutong; Yu, Yang; Zong, Chuanlong; Xue, Yazhuo; Qin, Shucun

    2013-07-01

    We have found that hydrogen (dihydrogen; H2) has beneficial lipid-lowering effects in high-fat diet-fed Syrian golden hamsters. The objective of this study was to characterize the effects of H2-rich water (0.9-1.0 l/day) on the content, composition, and biological activities of serum lipoproteins on 20 patients with potential metabolic syndrome. Serum analysis showed that consumption of H2-rich water for 10 weeks resulted in decreased serum total-cholesterol (TC) and LDL-cholesterol (LDL-C) levels. Western blot analysis revealed a marked decrease of apolipoprotein (apo)B100 and apoE in serum. In addition, we found H2 significantly improved HDL functionality assessed in four independent ways, namely, i) protection against LDL oxidation, ii) inhibition of tumor necrosis factor (TNF)-α-induced monocyte adhesion to endothelial cells, iii) stimulation of cholesterol efflux from macrophage foam cells, and iv) protection of endothelial cells from TNF-α-induced apoptosis. Further, we found consumption of H2-rich water resulted in an increase in antioxidant enzyme superoxide dismutase and a decrease in thiobarbituric acid-reactive substances in whole serum and LDL. In conclusion, supplementation with H2-rich water seems to decrease serum LDL-C and apoB levels, improve dyslipidemia-injured HDL functions, and reduce oxidative stress, and it may have a beneficial role in prevention of potential metabolic syndrome.

  3. Evaluation of toxic chemical parameters and ecotoxicity levels in bottled mineral waters.

    PubMed

    Signorile, G; Neve, A; Lugoli, F; Piccinni, M C; Arena, R; Di Marino, R

    2007-03-01

    Heavy metals, phthalates, characterizing elements, CO2 concentrations and pH and hardness levels were measured in forty samples of bottled mineral waters. In some samples arsenic, manganese, mercury and selenium were present in higher concentrations than permitted by Italian law. No significant release of phthalates from containers in PET was observed. In the same samples, toxicity tests with Daphnia magna were carried out. Toxicity levels, expressed as % of immobile organisms, ranged from 0 to 100%; generally the highest toxicity values were found in the hardwaters.

  4. Can hydrous minerals account for the observed mid-latitude water on Mars?

    SciTech Connect

    Bish, D. L.; Vaniman, D. T.; Fialips, C. I.; Carey, J. W.; Feldman, W. C.

    2003-01-01

    Great interest was generated with the discovery by the Odyssey spacecraft OC heterogeneously distributed hydrogcn at martian mid-latitudes, suggesting that large areas of the near-equatorial highlands contain near-surface deposits of 'chemically and/or physically bound 1120 and/or OH' in amounts up to 3.8% equivalent H20. More recent interpretations of the Odyssey data using new calibrations suggest that some near-equatorial areas, such as Arabia Terra, contain up to 8.5f I .3% water-equivalent hydrogen. Such shallow occurrences (minerals and zeolites, have been proposed as possible M20-bearing constituents on Mars, and both groups of minerals are common terrestrial alteration products of hydrovolcanic basaltic ashes and palagonitic material comparable io those that may be widespread on Mars. Smectites within martian meteorites, attributed to hydrous alteration on Mars rather than on Earth, provide direct evidence of clay minerals from Mars. In addition, new thermal emission spectrometer (TES) data provide evidence for unspecified zeolites in martian surface dust, and concluded that spectral deconvolution of MGS TES and Mariner 9 IRIS data is consistent with the presence of zeolite in the martian surface dust.

  5. Elaboration of new ceramic microfiltration membranes from mineral coal fly ash applied to waste water treatment.

    PubMed

    Jedidi, Ilyes; Saïdi, Sami; Khemakhem, Sabeur; Larbot, André; Elloumi-Ammar, Najwa; Fourati, Amine; Charfi, Aboulhassan; Salah, Abdelhamid Ben; Amar, Raja Ben

    2009-12-15

    This work aims to develop a new mineral porous tubular membrane based on mineral coal fly ash. Finely ground mineral coal powder was calcinated at 700 degrees C for about 3 h. The elaboration of the mesoporous layer was performed by the slip-casting method using a suspension made of the mixture of fly-ash powder, water and polyvinyl alcohol (PVA). The obtained membrane was submitted to a thermal treatment which consists in drying at room temperature for 24 h then a sintering at 800 degrees C. SEM photographs indicated that the membrane surface was homogeneous and did not present any macrodefects (cracks, etc...). The average pore diameter of the active layer was 0.25 microm and the thickness was around 20 microm. The membrane permeability was 475 l/h m(2) bar. This membrane was applied to the treatment of the dying effluents generated by the washing baths in the textile industry. The performances in term of permeate flux and efficiency were determined and compared to those obtained using a commercial alumina microfiltration membrane. Almost the same stabilised permeate flux was obtained (about 100 l h(-1)m(-2)). The quality of permeate was almost the same with the two membranes: the COD and color removal was 75% and 90% respectively. PMID:19699033

  6. Correction methods of medicinal properties of mineral waters in Pyatigorsk resort

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Reps, Valentina; Potapov, Evgeniy; Abramtsova, Anna; Kotova, Margarita

    2016-04-01

    Mineral Water (MW) of Pyatigorsk deposit (PD) is united in five genetic groups (operational stocks of 2809,8 m3/day): carbonic and hydrosulphuric, carbonic, carbonic chloride-hydrocarbonate sodium (salt and alkaline), radonic low carbonate, nitrogen-carbonic terms. A variety of MW types is explained by peculiarities of geological structure and hydrogeological conditions of PD. Here on the sites of the development of deep semi-ring splits there are overflows and a mixture of various complexes. Unloading of deep water strikes happens not only on the earth surface in the form of springs but also at the depth in its edging crumbling rocks of Palaeocene and quarternary deposits. As a result of mixture processes of water and its subsequent metamorphization, various types of mineral water of this deposit are formed. Pyatigorsk resort is in a special protected ecologo-resort region which mode allows to keep stability of structure and ecological purity of MW. Nevertheless, MW variability, compositional differences and MW mineralization determining the level of its biological effect demand studying of action mechanisms of both natural MW, and possibility of its modification for range expansion of rehabilitation action. There have been examined biological effects of the course drinking reception In experiment on 80 rats males of the Wistar line biological effects of the course drinking reception of two MW types: "Krasnoarmeyskaya new" (MW1) of sulphate-hydrocarbonate-chloride calcium-sodium structure with the raised contents of iron (3-5 mg/dm3), mineralization of 5,0-5,2 g/dm3, CO2 of 1,3-2,2 g/dm3, daily flow of 10-86 m3/day, temperature from 14 to 370C on the mouth of the well and spring №2 (MW2) low sulphate, low carbonate sulphate-hydrocarbonate-chloride calcium-sodium, mineralization of 5,0 g/l, CO2 of 0,7 g/dm3, H2 of S 0,01 g/dm3. There has been shown an ability of the drinking course MW1 to influence on endocrine and metabolic continium - cortisol level increased

  7. Petrogenesis and emplacement of the TTG and K-rich granites at the Buzwagi gold mine, northern Tanzania: Implications for the timing of gold mineralization

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Manya, Shukrani

    2016-07-01

    The Buzwagi gold mine, found in the Neoarchaean Nzega greenstone belt of northern Tanzania, is underlain by Neoarchaean mafic volcanic rocks which are intruded by a massive body of ultramafic rocks that are cross-cut by grey colored TTG and pink microcline K-rich granites. Geochemical alteration studies for the sheared and hydrothermally altered K-granites show that the LFSE and REE were significantly mobilized during the shearing and subsequent injection of hydrothermal fluid events whereas the HFSE remained virtually unchanged. The Buzwagi mine TTG exhibit geochemical characteristics of other worldwide known TTG (Al2O3 ~ 15.0 wt.%; Na2O/K2O ratios of 1.19-5.16, low concentration of heavy REE with Y contents of 3-7 ppm and Yb = 0.3-0.5 ppm leading to high Sr/Y ratios (61-152) and La/Yb = 32-140) which are comparable to those of Phanerozoic adakites. The Buzwagi mine TTG are characterized by strongly fractionated REE patterns (La/YbCN = 23-100) with slightly negative to no Eu anomalies (Eu/Eu* = 0.77-1.05), negative anomalies of Nb, Ta and Ti, and εNd (2713) values of + 1.19 to + 1.77. These geochemical and isotopic characteristics are interpreted as formation of the TTG by partial melting of the hydrous basaltic crust at pressures and depths where garnet and amphibole were stable phases in the late Archaean subduction zone. The Buzwagi mine K-rich granites differ from their TTG counterparts in having elevated concentrations of incompatible elements like K, Zr, Th, Hf, and REE. They however share similar Nd-isotopic compositions (εNd (2674 Ma) = + 1.19 to + 1.22), and some geochemical features including fractionated REE patterns (La/YbCN = 13-204) with slightly negative to no Eu anomalies (Eu/Eu* = 0.78-0.89) and negative anomalies of Nb, Ta and Ti. These geochemical features and isotopic signatures have been interpreted as formation of the K-granites by anhydrous partial melting of the TTG (and greenstones). The Buzwagi mine K-granites were emplaced at 2674

  8. Trace Element Speciation and Distribution Study at Shewanella oneidensis MR-1 Biofilm/Mineral/Water Interfaces

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Gelabert, A.; Wang, Y.; Gescher, J.; Ha, J.; Cordova, C. D.; Singer, D. M.; Spormann, A. M.; Trainor, T. P.; Eng, P. J.; Brown, G. E.

    2006-12-01

    Fe- and Al-(oxyhydr)oxides are among the most reactive mineral surfaces contacted by surface and ground waters, and thus they constitute important sorbents for heavy metal and metalloid ions. As microbial biofilms may be present as coatings on these minerals, they are likely to induce major changes in surface charges and sorption capacities for metal(loid) ions compared to biofilm-free mineral surfaces. In addition, the micro- environments in biofilms can be quite different from those in bulk solutions, which can enhance (or inhibit) metal adsorption on mineral surfaces and produce biominerals that are not predicted by equilibrium thermodynamics based on the bulk solution values. In order to provide a more quantitative understanding of these effects, we have carried out a study of the interaction of Zn(II), Pb(II), and As(V) with Shewanella oneidensis (wild type, EPS-deficient mutant, and ppx- and ppk-deficient mutants) grown on highly polished and oriented single crystal surfaces of α-Al2O3 (1-102) and α-Fe2O3 (0001). This gram-negative bacterium commonly found in soil and sediments can use a wide range of electron donors and terminal electron acceptors including Fe(III) and Mn(IV) oxides under anaerobic conditions. In-situ ATR-FTIR analyses and potentiometric titrations of S. oneidensis biofilm collected from a glass bead-filled column inoculated with S. oneidensis were conducted in order to determine the nature of functional groups present on the bacterial surfaces, to quantify the site densities and protonation constants for these groups, and to determine the electrostatic parameters for S. oneidensis surfaces. GI-XAFS analyses performed on BL 11-2 at SSRL, together with macroscopic metal adsorption experiments as a function of pH (2 to 6.5), metal concentration (10-3 to 10-7 M), and ionic strength (10-1 to 10-3 M), were used to determine ion speciation and local coordination environments in the biofilm and to develop a surface complexation model describing

  9. Immunohistochemical Evaluation of Fibronectin and Tenascin Following Direct Pulp Capping with Mineral Trioxide Aggregate, Platelet-Rich Plasma and Propolis in Dogs’ Teeth

    PubMed Central

    Moradi, Saeed; Saghravanian, Nasrollah; Moushekhian, Siavash; Fatemi, Samar; Forghani, Maryam

    2015-01-01

    Introduction: The aim of the present study was to evaluate the expression of fibronectin (FN) and tenascin (TN) after direct pulp capping (DPC) in dogs’ teeth with either mineral trioxide aggregate (MTA), Propolis or Platelet-rich plasma (PRP), by means of immunohistochemistry. Methods and Materials: A total of 48 sound molars and premolars with mature apices from four dogs, were included. The teeth were randomly divided into 4 groups according to the material used for DPC: PRP, Propolis, MTA, and glass-ionomer (as the negative control group). Each group was divided into two 7-day and 30-day subgroups. The teeth were restored at the same session. The animals were sacrificed at the mentioned time intervals and the expression of FN and TN in each test group and between each time intervals was assessed with Wilcoxon and Mann-Whitney U tests, respectively. The Kruskal-Wallis test was used to compare FN and TN staining among the test groups. The significance level was set at 0.05. Results: The amount of FN in the MTA group in the 30-day interval was significantly higher than the 7-day interval; however, there were no significant differences among the other groups. The amount of TN in the MTA and Propolis groups in the 30-day interval was significantly higher than that in the 7-day interval; no recognizable difference was observed in the other groups. Moreover, the difference in expression of FN and TN in the 7-day interval was not significant in the experimental groups. Nevertheless, the difference was significant in the 30-day interval, with the highest and lowest expressions belonging to the MTA and glass-ionomer groups, respectively. Conclusion: Based on the results of the present animal study, MTA is still a better choice for direct pulp capping PMID:26213542

  10. Treatment of Mandibular Molar Class II Furcation Defects in Humans With Bovine Porous Bone Mineral in Combination With Plasma Rich in Growth Factors

    PubMed Central

    Mansouri, S. Sadat; Ghasemi, M.; Darmian, S. Saljughi; Pourseyediyan, T.

    2012-01-01

    Objective: The purpose of the present randomized clinical trial study was to compare the effectiveness of Bovine Porous Bone Mineral (BPBM) with and without Plasma Rich in Growth Factors (PRGF) in the treatment of mandibular Class II furcation defects. Materials and Methods: In seven patients, nine pairs of symmetric buccal or lingual mandibular class II furcation defects were treated. In each patient, one defect received BPBM (control) and the other received BPBM/PRGF (test) by random assignment. Clinical measurements were made both at baseline and 6-month evaluation. Results: Similar improvements were observed with both treatment modalities. Significant reductions were gained in the gingival index, probing depth and relative vertical clinical attachment level. Plaque index and gingival recession changes were not significant in both groups. The mean probing depth reductions were 2.67±0.87 mm for the control group and 3.22±1.56 mm for the test group (p<0.001). The mean relative vertical clinical attachment level gains were 1.57±0.96 mm (p<0.001) and 1.65±1.24 mm (p<0.004) in the control and test groups, respectively. In the test group, the relative horizontal clinical attachment level reduced from 5.87±0.96 mm to 4.58±1.02 mm (p<0.02). No significant differences were observed in all clinical parameters 6 months postoperatively between the two groups. Conclusion: The application of a combined technique using BPBM/PRGF, compared to the BPBM alone, resulted in greater healing, although not significant, in the treatment of mandibular class II furcation defects. PMID:22924101

  11. Br-rich tips of calcified crab claws are less hard but more fracture resistant: a comparison of mineralized and heavy-element biological materials.

    PubMed

    Schofield, Robert M S; Niedbala, Jack C; Nesson, Michael H; Tao, Ye; Shokes, Jacob E; Scott, Robert A; Latimer, Matthew J

    2009-06-01

    We find that the spoon-like tips of the chelipeds (large claws) of the crab Pachygrapsus crassipes differ from the rest of the claw in that they are not calcified, but instead contain about 1% bromine--thus they represent a new example of a class of structural biological materials that contain heavy elements such as Zn, Mn, Fe, Cu, and Br bound in an organic matrix. X-ray absorption spectroscopy data suggest that the bromine is bound to phenyl rings, possibly in tyrosine. We measure a broad array of mechanical properties of a heavy-element biological material for the first time (abrasion resistance, coefficient of kinetic friction, energy of fracture, hardness, modulus of elasticity and dynamic mechanical properties), and we make a direct comparison with a mineralized tissue. Our results suggest that the greatest advantage of bromine-rich cuticle over calcified cuticle is resistance to fracture (the energy of fracture is about an order of magnitude greater than for calcified cuticle). The greatest advantage relative to unenriched cuticle, represented by ant mandible cuticle, is a factor of about 1.5 greater hardness and modulus of elasticity.The spoon-like tips gain additional fracture resistance from the orientation of the constituent laminae and from the viscoelasticity of the material. We suggest that fracture resistance is of greater importance in smaller organisms, and we speculate that one function of heavy elements in structural biological materials is to reduce molecular resonant frequencies and thereby increase absorption of energy from impacts. PMID:19422071

  12. Low water contents in diamond mineral inclusions: Proto-genetic origin in a dry cratonic lithosphere

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Taylor, Lawrence A.; Logvinova, Alla M.; Howarth, Geoffrey H.; Liu, Yang; Peslier, Anne H.; Rossman, George R.; Guan, Yunbin; Chen, Yang; Sobolev, Nikolay V.

    2016-01-01

    The mantle is the major reservoir of Earth's water, hosted within Nominally Anhydrous Minerals (NAMs) (e.g., Bell and Rossman, 1992; Peslier et al., 2010; Peslier, 2010; Nestola and Smyth, 2015), in the form of hydrogen bonded to the silicate's structural oxygen. From whence cometh this water? Is the water in these minerals representative of the Earth's primitive upper mantle or did it come from melting events linked to crustal formation or to more recent metasomatic/re-fertilization events? During diamond formation, NAMs are encapsulated at hundreds of kilometers depth within the mantle, thereby possibly shielding and preserving their pristine water contents from re-equilibrating with fluids and melts percolating through the lithospheric mantle. Here we show that the NAMs included in diamonds from six locales on the Siberian Craton contain measurable and variable H2O concentrations from 2 to 34 parts per million by weight (ppmw) in olivine, 7 to 276 ppmw in clinopyroxene, and 11-17 ppmw in garnets. Our results suggest that if the inclusions were in equilibrium with the diamond-forming fluid, the water fugacity would have been unrealistically low. Instead, we consider the H2O contents of the inclusions, shielded by diamonds, as pristine representatives of the residual mantle prior to encapsulation, and indicative of a protogenetic origin for the inclusions. Hydrogen diffusion in the diamond does not appear to have modified these values significantly. The H2O contents of NAMs in mantle xenoliths may represent some later metasomatic event(s), and are not always representative of most of the continental lithospheric mantle. Results from the present study also support the conclusions of Peslier et al. (2010) and Novella et al. (2015) that the dry nature of the SCLM of a craton may provide stabilization of its thickened continental roots.

  13. Water-rich carbonatites at low pressures and kimberlites at high pressures

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Gudfinnsson, G.; Keshav, S.; Presnall, D.

    2008-12-01

    Trace-element chemistry of carbonatites found on the Earth's surface indicates their general derivation from the mantle. However, while most documented carbonatites (both from the surface and in diamonds from the continental mantle) have calcic compositions, melting experiments on anhydrous, carbonated mantle peridotite produce magnesiocarbonatitic melts. Moderately calcic melts are produced in dry experiments, but even these melt compositions are fairly far removed from resembling calciocarbonatites. Explanations for this discrepancy include derivation of calciocarbonatites from more Mg-rich carbonatite melts by crystal fractionation or wall-rock reactions in the mantle. While these two mechanisms might well work, at least in some cases, the emplacement of carbonatites seems to occur at temperatures considerably less than 1000 C. This low temperature compared to the melting temperature of pure carbonates can, in part, be explained by the presence of alkalis and halogens in natural carbonatites. However, there is also ample evidence for the presence of significant amounts of H2O, and melting experiments indicate its high solubility in molten sodium carbonate melts. In addition, in other model systems, most notably MgO-SiO2-H2O (MSH), supercritical behavior (no difference between melt and fluid) has been demonstrated to occur at pressures somewhere around 11-13 GPa. Owing to different physical and chemical properties of melts and fluids, there is considerable petrological interest toward understanding supercritical behavior in the Earth. Here we present melting relations for hydrous, carbonated garnet lherzolite in the system CaO-MgO-Al2O3-SiO2- CO2-H2O (CMAS-CO2-H2O) from 2.5 to 7 GPa. With fo+opx+cpx+gt+carbonate+melt+fluid present in this system, the solidus is isobarically invariant, and is a curve in P-T space. Major findings can be summarized as follows: (1) at 2.5-3 GPa, the solidus temperature of hydrous, carbonated garnet lherzolite is lower by 225-250 C

  14. Investigation and optimization of a passively operated compost-based system for remediation of acidic, highly iron- and sulfate-rich industrial waste water.

    PubMed

    Dann, Alison L; Cooper, Rodney S; Bowman, John P

    2009-05-01

    A passively operated multi-stage bioremediation system utilizing composted agricultural waste products and an artificial wetland system was found to be effective for purification of acidic, iron- and sulfate-rich waste water derived from titanium mineral processing. The main microbial players involved in the remediation system processes and the dynamics were investigated; mineral processing waste water-filled sludge dams possessed stable microbial communities that included Acidithiobacillus, Desulfurella, and acidophilic, anaerobic fermenters of the order Bacteroidales. These groups were enriched in a subsequent potato waste-based iron mobilization pre-treatment stage. Within downstream reduction treatment stages ("reduction cells"), compost/straw decomposition and associated sulfur/sulfate and iron reduction were carried out by a complex mix of aerobic and anaerobic bacteria. The efficaciousness of the system without replacement of the compost was found to steadily decline following 2 years of operation and corresponded with the reduction cell communities becoming simultaneously more diverse and homogenous. Microcosm-based experiments demonstrated that operational declines were due to unsustained supply of suitable labile carbon sources combined with spatial heterogeneity within the layered design of the reduction stage of the system resulting in inadequate redox conditions. Temperature was not found to be a critical performance factor in the range of 10-25 degrees C. Application of a combined emulsified oil/molasses amendment was found to be highly effective in promoting a microbial community capable of remediating waste water with high iron and sulfate levels. Acidophilic members of the order Bacteroidales were found to be critical in the investigated remediation system, providing organic donors for subsequent metal and sulfur transformations and could have a broader ecological significance than previously suspected. PMID:19297003

  15. Peroxone mineralization of chemical oxygen demand for direct potable water reuse: Kinetics and process control.

    PubMed

    Wu, Tingting; Englehardt, James D

    2015-04-15

    Mineralization of organics in secondary effluent by the peroxone process was studied at a direct potable water reuse research treatment system serving an occupied four-bedroom, four bath university residence hall apartment. Organic concentrations were measured as chemical oxygen demand (COD) and kinetic runs were monitored at varying O3/H2O2 dosages and ratios. COD degradation could be accurately described as the parallel pseudo-1st order decay of rapidly and slowly-oxidizable fractions, and effluent COD was reduced to below the detection limit (<0.7 mg/L). At dosages ≥4.6 mg L(-1) h(-1), an O3/H2O2 mass ratio of 3.4-3.8, and initial COD <20 mg/L, a simple first order decay was indicated for both single-passed treated wastewater and recycled mineral water, and a relationship is proposed and demonstrated to estimate the pseudo-first order rate constant for design purposes. At this O3/H2O2 mass ratio, ORP and dissolved ozone were found to be useful process control indicators for monitoring COD mineralization in secondary effluent. Moreover, an average second order rate constant for OH oxidation of secondary effluent organics (measured as MCOD) was found to be 1.24 × 10(7) ± 0.64 × 10(7) M(-1) S(-1). The electric energy demand of the peroxone process is estimated at 1.73-2.49 kW h electric energy for removal of one log COD in 1 m(3) secondary effluent, comparable to the energy required for desalination of medium strength seawater. Advantages/disadvantages of the two processes for municipal wastewater reuse are discussed.

  16. Peroxone mineralization of chemical oxygen demand for direct potable water reuse: Kinetics and process control.

    PubMed

    Wu, Tingting; Englehardt, James D

    2015-04-15

    Mineralization of organics in secondary effluent by the peroxone process was studied at a direct potable water reuse research treatment system serving an occupied four-bedroom, four bath university residence hall apartment. Organic concentrations were measured as chemical oxygen demand (COD) and kinetic runs were monitored at varying O3/H2O2 dosages and ratios. COD degradation could be accurately described as the parallel pseudo-1st order decay of rapidly and slowly-oxidizable fractions, and effluent COD was reduced to below the detection limit (<0.7 mg/L). At dosages ≥4.6 mg L(-1) h(-1), an O3/H2O2 mass ratio of 3.4-3.8, and initial COD <20 mg/L, a simple first order decay was indicated for both single-passed treated wastewater and recycled mineral water, and a relationship is proposed and demonstrated to estimate the pseudo-first order rate constant for design purposes. At this O3/H2O2 mass ratio, ORP and dissolved ozone were found to be useful process control indicators for monitoring COD mineralization in secondary effluent. Moreover, an average second order rate constant for OH oxidation of secondary effluent organics (measured as MCOD) was found to be 1.24 × 10(7) ± 0.64 × 10(7) M(-1) S(-1). The electric energy demand of the peroxone process is estimated at 1.73-2.49 kW h electric energy for removal of one log COD in 1 m(3) secondary effluent, comparable to the energy required for desalination of medium strength seawater. Advantages/disadvantages of the two processes for municipal wastewater reuse are discussed. PMID:25704155

  17. Reactivity of organic-rich sediment in sea water at 350/sup 0/C, 500 bars: experimental and theoretical constraints and implications for the Guaymas basin hydrothermal system

    SciTech Connect

    Thornton, E.C.; Seyfried, W.E. Jr.

    1987-07-01

    Hydrothermal alteration of organic-rich diatomaceous sediment by sea water was modeled experimentally at 350/sup 0/C, 500 bars, and sea water/sediment mass ratio of 3. The experiment was performed to assess the effect of organic matter reactivity on solution speciation and sediment alteration processes at an elevated temperature and pressure, and provide requisite data to better understand the chemistry of hydrothermal fluids issuing from vents in the Guaymas Basin, Gulf of California. Sea water chemistry changed greatly during the experiment. Moreover, owing to the thermal alteration of sediment organic matter, organic acids, phenolic derivatives and phthlate were released to solution. Examination of solid alteration products revealed the effects of extensive dissolution and precipitation processes characterized by total elimination of diatoms and formation of cristobalite, quartz, pyrite, pyrrhotite, mixed layer chlorite/smectite, and calcite. A graphitic residue was also present in the products of the experiment. Mg and Na fixation reactions during the experiment generated significant H/sup +/, although the pH measured at 25/sup 0/C was approximately 6.2. Speciation calculations including ammine and acetate protonation reactions give a pH at experimental conditions of approximately 5.1, while mineral solubility relations involving virtually all alteration phases require a pH of 5.57 to 5.94. A near neutral pH at experimental conditions constrains the mobility of Fe, Mn, Zn, Cu and Ni, which existed in solution as chloro-complexes.

  18. Water Soluble Components of ‘Osteocare’ Promote Cell Proliferation, Differentiation, and Matrix Mineralization in Human Osteoblast-Like SaOS-2 Cells

    PubMed Central

    Varma, Sandeep R.; Sharath Kumar, L. M.; Vidyashankar, Satyakumar; Patki, Pralhad Sadashiv

    2014-01-01

    Osteocare, a herbal formulation, has been found to be very effective in bone mineralization and support of the microstructure of bone tissue. The water-soluble components of Osteocare (WSCO) induced osteogenic activity in human osteoblast-like SaOS-2 cells. The addition of WSCO (100 μg/ml) to SaOS-2 cells was effective in increasing the cell proliferation by 41.49% and DNA content by 1.9-fold. WSCO increased matrix mineralization in SaOS-2 cells by increased alkaline phosphatase levels and calcium-rich deposits as observed by Alizarin red staining. WSCO markedly increased mRNA expression for osteopontin (OPN), osteocalcin (OCN), type I collagen (Col I) in SaOS-2 cells, and it down-regulated IL-6 mRNA levels in SaOS-2 cells. The present study showed that WSCO plays an important role in osteoblastic bone formation through enhanced activities of ALP, Col I, bone matrix proteins such as OPN and OCN, down-regulation of cytokines like IL-6, as well as promoting mineralization in SaOS-2 cells. PMID:24959407

  19. Water Soluble Components of 'Osteocare' Promote Cell Proliferation, Differentiation, and Matrix Mineralization in Human Osteoblast-Like SaOS-2 Cells.

    PubMed

    Varma, Sandeep R; Sharath Kumar, L M; Vidyashankar, Satyakumar; Patki, Pralhad Sadashiv

    2014-06-01

    Osteocare, a herbal formulation, has been found to be very effective in bone mineralization and support of the microstructure of bone tissue. The water-soluble components of Osteocare (WSCO) induced osteogenic activity in human osteoblast-like SaOS-2 cells. The addition of WSCO (100 μg/ml) to SaOS-2 cells was effective in increasing the cell proliferation by 41.49% and DNA content by 1.9-fold. WSCO increased matrix mineralization in SaOS-2 cells by increased alkaline phosphatase levels and calcium-rich deposits as observed by Alizarin red staining. WSCO markedly increased mRNA expression for osteopontin (OPN), osteocalcin (OCN), type I collagen (Col I) in SaOS-2 cells, and it down-regulated IL-6 mRNA levels in SaOS-2 cells. The present study showed that WSCO plays an important role in osteoblastic bone formation through enhanced activities of ALP, Col I, bone matrix proteins such as OPN and OCN, down-regulation of cytokines like IL-6, as well as promoting mineralization in SaOS-2 cells.

  20. Mineral-Water Interface Processes Affecting Uranium Fate in Contaminated Sediments

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Catalano, J. G.

    2011-12-01

    Widespread uranium contamination of soil, sediments, and groundwater systems has resulted from mining activities, nuclear weapon production, and energy generation. The fate and transport of uranium in such systems is strongly affected by geochemical processes occurring at mineral-water interfaces. I will present a summary of the mineral-water interface processes found to affect uranium fate in example contaminated sediments at the U.S. Department of Energy's Hanford sites and in related model systems. Processes occurring under oxic conditions will be the primary focus of this talk as under these conditions uranium is most mobile and thus presents the greatest hazard. Three dominant solid-phase uranium species are observed in contaminated soil and sediments at the Hanford site: uranyl silicates, uranyl phosphates, and uranyl adsorbed to clays and iron oxides. In deep sediments, uranyl silicates are found in microfractures in feldspar grains, likely because slow diffusion in such fractures maintains a high silicate activity. Such silicates are also found in waste-impacted shallow sediments and soil; waste fluids or evaporative processes may have generated the silicate activity needed to produce such phases. Uranyl phosphates are less abundant, occurring primarily in shallow sediments exposed to P-bearing waste fluids. However, remediation approaches under consideration may produce substantial quantities of uranyl phosphates in the future. Adsorbed uranyl is dispersed throughout contaminated soils and shallow sediments and likely has the greatest potential for remobilization. Analogue studies show that precipitation of uranyl phosphates is rapid when such phases are supersaturated and that both homogeneous and heterogeneous nucleation may occur. Specific adsorption of uranyl to minerals is strongly affected by the presence of complexation anions. Carbonate suppresses uranyl adsorption but also forms uranyl-carbonate ternary surface complexes. At conditions below

  1. Characterization of the bacterial flora in mineral waters in upstreaming fluids of deep igneous rock aquifers

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Wagner, C.; Mau, M.; SchlöMann, M.; Heinicke, J.; Koch, U.

    2007-03-01

    The bacterial community of the mineral spring Wettinquelle in the Vogtland/NW Bohemian region (German-Czech border) was characterized by sequence analysis of amplified small subunit ribosomal RNA genes. The acidulous spring water consists mostly of old groundwater from deep aquifers, which is mixed with 15-20% young water from upper groundwater horizons. The spring water contains high concentrations of iron, Ca2+ and SO42- ions. A remarkable attribute is the high radon activity of 27 kBq L-1 water. Free escaping spring gas consists mainly of CO2 originating from the mantle, N2 (1.2%) and traces of other gases, like methane and helium. Close relatives of Gallionella ferruginea, a micro-aerobic oxidizer of ferrous iron, contributed most to the clone library. Clones with sequences related to Thiobacillus aquaesulis, members of the Sulfuricurvum-cluster and members of several branches of the OP11 group were present in significantly lower numbers but still with some microdiversity. These bacterial groups, which contributed strongly to the clone library and have known physiology, obviously depend on the oxygen in the younger water and reduced compounds from the below.

  2. Uranium in stream and mineral water of the Federal Republic of Germany.

    PubMed

    Birke, Manfred; Rauch, Uwe; Lorenz, Hans

    2009-12-01

    The concentration of uranium was determined in 944 samples from stream water by the inductively coupled plasma quadrupole mass spectrometry (ICP-QMS) method and represented on a color-shaded contour map. Uranium concentrations in surface water were determined to be between 0.007 μg/l and 43.7 μg/l with median of 0.33 μg/l. The regional distribution of uranium is influenced primarily by lithological and anthropogenic factors. In Mecklenburg, northern Brandenburg, and eastern Schleswig-Holstein, elevated uranium concentrations coincide with the extent of the last Weichselian ice sheet. The maximum concentrations are observed in the surface waters of the old mining districts in the western part of the Ore Mountains and in eastern Thuringia. Elevated concentrations are found in areas of agriculturally used loess soils. These concentrations correlate with the use of phosphate fertilizers. There is a zone of elevated concentrations up to 10.0 μg U/l in the Keuper Sandstone area south of the Thuringian Forest and from northwest of Stuttgart as far as Coburg. The distribution of elevated values in mineral water shows a clear correlation with the elevated values in surface water and the geology of those locations. Bunter and Keuper strata are the most important uranium source.

  3. The maximum water storage capacities in nominally anhydrous minerals in the mantle transition zone and lower mantle

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Inoue, T.; Yurimoto, H.

    2012-12-01

    Water is the most important volatile component in the Earth, and affects the physicochemical properties of mantle minerals, e.g. density, elastic property, electrical conductivity, thermal conductivity, rheological property, melting temperature, melt composition, element partitioning, etc. So many high pressure experiments have been conducted so far to determine the effect of water on mantle minerals. To clarify the maximum water storage capacity in nominally anhydrous mantle minerals in the mantle transition zone and lower mantle is an important issue to discuss the possibility of the existence of water reservoir in the Earth mantle. So we have been clarifying the maximum water storage capacity in mantle minerals using MA-8 type (KAWAI-type) high pressure apparatus and SIMS (secondary ion mass spectroscopy). Upper mantle mineral, olivine can contain ~0.9 wt% H2O in the condition just above 410 km discontinuity in maximum (e.g. Chen et al., 2002; Smyth et al., 2006). On the other hand, mantle transition zone mineral, wadsleyite and ringwoodite can contain significant amount (about 2-3 wt.%) of H2O (e.g. Inoue et al., 1995, 1998, 2010; Kawamoto et al., 1996; Ohtani et al., 2000). But the lower mantle mineral, perovskite can not contain significant amount of H2O, less than ~0.1 wt% (e.g. Murakami et al., 2002; Inoue et al., 2010). In addition, garnet and stishovite also can not contain significant amount of H2O (e.g. Katayama et al., 2003; Mookherjee and Karato, 2010; Litasov et al., 2007). On the other hand, the water storage capacities of mantle minerals are supposed to be significantly coupled with Al by a substitution with Mg2+, Si4+ or Mg2+ + Si4+, because Al3+ is the trivalent cation, and H+ is the monovalent cation. To clarify the degree of the substitution, the water contents and the chemical compositions of Al-bearing minerals in the mantle transition zone and the lower mantle were also determined in the Al-bearing systems with H2O. We will introduce the

  4. Oral intake of hydrogen-rich water ameliorated chlorpyrifos-induced neurotoxicity in rats

    SciTech Connect

    Wang, Tingting; Zhao, Ling; Liu, Mengyu; Xie, Fei; Ma, Xuemei Zhao, Pengxiang; Liu, Yunqi; Li, Jiala; Wang, Minglian; Yang, Zhaona; Zhang, Yutong

    2014-10-01

    Chronic exposure to low-levels of organophosphate (OP) compounds, such as chlorpyrifos (CPF), induces oxidative stress and could be related to neurological disorders. Hydrogen has been identified as a novel antioxidant which could selectively scavenge hydroxyl radicals. We explore whether intake of hydrogen-rich water (HRW) can protect Wistar rats from CPF-induced neurotoxicity. Rats were gavaged daily with 6.75 mg/kg body weight (1/20 LD{sub 50}) of CPF and given HRW by oral intake. Nissl staining and electron microscopy results indicated that HRW intake had protective effects on the CPF-induced damage of hippocampal neurons and neuronal mitochondria. Immunostaining results showed that the increased glial fibrillary acidic protein (GFAP) expression in astrocytes induced by CPF exposure can be ameliorated by HRW intake. Moreover, HRW intake also attenuated CPF-induced oxidative stress as evidenced by enhanced level of MDA, accompanied by an increase in GSH level and SOD and CAT activity. Acetylcholinesterase (AChE) activity tests showed significant decrease in brain AChE activity after CPF exposure, and this effect can be ameliorated by HRW intake. An in vitro study demonstrated that AChE activity was more intense in HRW than in normal water with or without chlorpyrifos-oxon (CPO), the metabolically-activated form of CPF. These observations suggest that HRW intake can protect rats from CPF-induced neurotoxicity, and the protective effects of hydrogen may be mediated by regulating the oxidant and antioxidant status of rats. Furthermore, this work defines a novel mechanism of biological activity of hydrogen by directly increasing the AChE activity. - Highlights: • Hydrogen molecules protect rats from CPF-induced damage of hippocampal neurons. • The increased GFAP expression induced by CPF can also be ameliorated by hydrogen. • Hydrogen molecules attenuated the increase in CPF-induced oxidative stress. • Hydrogen molecules attenuated AChE inhibition in vivo

  5. Mesoscale Modelling of the Compaction of Water-Rich Asteroids by Low-Velocity Impacts

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Davison, T. M.; Collins, G. S.; Bland, P. A.; Derrick, J. G.; Ciesla, F. J.

    2016-08-01

    We will present simulations of impact processing of ice-rich primordial materials. We will show that ice in the interstitial spaces between grains acts to buffer temperature increases and protect grains from deformation.

  6. Impact of mineral deposition on shrimp, Penaeus monodon in a high alkaline water.

    PubMed

    Gopalakrishnan, A; Rajkumar, M; Sun, Jun; Martin, Gary G; Parida, A

    2011-05-01

    This study compares water quality parameters, shrimp growth and mortality rates, and biomass at harvest in two ponds of equal size, seeded with the same density (7 m2) of White Spot Syndrome Virus (WSSV) and Monodon Baculo Virus (MBV) negative post-larvae (PL)-20 of shrimp, Penaeus monodon in the Vellar estuary of South India. The primary difference between the ponds was the water source; one was filled from the estuary and the second with water from bore wells with high alkalinity. Temperature in both ponds was similar and reached 320C after 185 days of culture. Dissolved oxygen (DO) levels were within the acceptable range although levels in the alkaline pond were near the lower limit for the last 90 days before harvest. Salinity levels were similar in both ponds, above optimal levels, and increased over the 185 days. Alkalinity in the estuarine water was typically <50 ppm and again 200-320 ppm in the alkaline pond. In the alkaline pond, beginning on the 75th day mineral deposits was observed covering all parts of the shrimp including the eye and the inner gill chambers, and by harvest, 42% of the shrimp showed this coating. Elemental analysis identified the major constituents as calcium, phosphorus and manganese. Survival rates in the estuarine-water-fed pond was 92% with a total pond biomass at harvest of 1.65 tons ha-1 compared to survival of 79% in the alkaline pond and a biomass at harvest of 1.020 tons ha-1. When well water must be used, its alkalinity should be monitored and diluted with water from other sources.

  7. Characterization of hydrophilic-rich phase mimic in dentin adhesive and computer-aided molecular design of water compatible visible light initiators

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Abedin, Farhana

    The clinical lifetime of moderate-to-large dental composite restorations is lower than dental amalgam restorations. With the imminent and significant reduction in the use and availability of dental amalgam, the application of composite for the restoration of teeth will increase. Since composite has a higher failure rate, the increased use of composite will translate to an increase in the frequency of dental restoration replacement, overall cost for dental health and discomfort for patients. The composite is too viscous to bond directly to the tooth and thus, a low viscosity adhesive is used to form the bond between the composite and tooth. The bond at the adhesive/tooth is intended to form an impervious seal that protects the restored tooth from acids, oral fluids and bacteria that will undermine the composite restoration. The integrity of the adhesive/tooth bond (the exposed tooth structure is largely composed of enamel and dentin) plays an important role in preventing secondary caries which undermine the composite restoration. This study focuses on the durability of etch-and-rinse dental adhesives. As the adhesive infiltrates the demineralized dentin matrix, it undergoes phase separation into hydrophobic- and hydrophilic-rich phases. The hydrophilic-rich phase contains the conventional hydrophobic photo-initiator system (camphorquinone/ethyl 4-(dimethylamino)benzoate) and cross-linker both in inadequate concentrations. This may compromise the polymerization reaction and the cross-linking density of this phase, making it vulnerable to failure. The goal of this study is to characterize the hydrophilic-rich phase of the dental adhesive by monitoring its polymerization kinetics and glass transition temperature under the presence of an iodonium salt (reaction accelerator), and varying water concentration, photo-initiator concentration and light intensity. The final goal is to develop a computational framework for designing water compatible visible light

  8. Nephrocalcinosis and hyperlipidemia in rats fed a cholesterol- and fat-rich diet: association with hyperoxaluria, altered kidney and bone minerals, and renal tissue phospholipid-calcium interaction.

    PubMed

    Schmiedl, A; Schwille, P O; Bonucci, E; Erben, R G; Grayczyk, A; Sharma, V

    2000-12-01

    To determine whether an "atherogenic" diet (excess of cholesterol and neutral fat) induces pathological calcification in various organs, including the kidney, and abnormal oxalate metabolism, 24 male Sprague-Dawley rats were fed either normal lab chow (controls, n = 12) or the cholesterol- and fat-rich experimental diet (CH-F, n = 12) for 111 +/- 3 days. CH-F rats developed dyslipidemia [high blood levels of triglycerides, total, low-density lipoprotein (LDL)-, very low-density lipoprotein (VLDL)-, high-density lipoprotein (HDL)-bound cholesterol, total phospholipids], elevated serum total alkaline phosphatase and lactate dehydrogenase (LDH) levels, in the absence of changes in overall renal function, extracellular mineral homeostasis [serum protein-corrected total calcium, magnesium, parathyroid hormone (PTH), 1,25-dihydroxyvitamin D (1,25(OH)2D)], plasma glycolate and oxalate levels. There was a redistribution of bone calcium and enhanced exchange of this within the extraosseous space, which was accompanied by significant bone calcium loss, but normal bone histomorphometry. Liver oxalate levels, if expressed per unit of defatted (DF) dry liver, were three times higher than in the controls. Urinary glycolate, oxalate, calcium and total protein excretion levels were elevated, the latter showing an excess of proteins > 100 kD and a deficit of proteins > 30-50 kD. Urinary calcium oxalate supersaturation was increased, and calcium phosphate supersaturation was unchanged. There were dramatically increased (by number, circumference, and area) renal calcium phosphate calcifications in the cortico-medullary region, but calcium oxalate deposits were not detectable. Electron microscopy (EM) and elemental analysis revealed intratubular calcium phosphate, apparently needle-like hydroxyapatite. Immunohistochemistry of renal tissue calcifications revealed co-localization of phospholipids and calcium phosphate. It is concluded that rats fed the CH-F diet exhibited: (1) a

  9. Optimization of process parameters for extrusion cooking of low amylose rice flour blended with seeded banana and carambola pomace for development of minerals and fiber rich breakfast cereal.

    PubMed

    Borah, Anjan; Lata Mahanta, Charu; Kalita, Dipankar

    2016-01-01

    The low-amylose rice flour, seeded banana (Musa balbisiana, ABB) and carambola (Averrhoa carambola L.) pomace blends were extruded to prepare ready to eat breakfast cereal in a single-screw extruder. Response surface methodology using a central composite design was used to evaluate effect of independent variables, namely blend ratio (80:10:10 - 60:30:10 of low-amylose rice flour, seeded banana and carambola pomace), screw speed (200 - 400 rpm), barrel temperature (90 - 130 (°)C) and feed moisture content (9 - 21 g/100 g, wet basis) on product responses. Quadratic polynomial equations were also obtained by multiple regression analysis. The predicted models were adequate based on lack-of-fit test and coefficient of determination obtained. The feed moisture content had critical effect on all response variables. The compromised optimal conditions obtained by numerical integration for development of extrudates were: screw speed of 350 rpm, barrel temperature of 120 (°)C, feed moisture content of 12 g/100 g and 65:25:10 of blend ratio of feed. In the optimized condition low-amylose rice blend is found to have better physicochemical properties (water absorption index of 481.79 g/100 g; water solubility index of 44.13 g/100 g) and dietary fiber content of 21.35 g/100 g respectively. The developed breakfast cereal showed considerable amount of minerals (Mg and K) and overall acceptability was found to be 7.8. PMID:26787944

  10. Optimization of process parameters for extrusion cooking of low amylose rice flour blended with seeded banana and carambola pomace for development of minerals and fiber rich breakfast cereal.

    PubMed

    Borah, Anjan; Lata Mahanta, Charu; Kalita, Dipankar

    2016-01-01

    The low-amylose rice flour, seeded banana (Musa balbisiana, ABB) and carambola (Averrhoa carambola L.) pomace blends were extruded to prepare ready to eat breakfast cereal in a single-screw extruder. Response surface methodology using a central composite design was used to evaluate effect of independent variables, namely blend ratio (80:10:10 - 60:30:10 of low-amylose rice flour, seeded banana and carambola pomace), screw speed (200 - 400 rpm), barrel temperature (90 - 130 (°)C) and feed moisture content (9 - 21 g/100 g, wet basis) on product responses. Quadratic polynomial equations were also obtained by multiple regression analysis. The predicted models were adequate based on lack-of-fit test and coefficient of determination obtained. The feed moisture content had critical effect on all response variables. The compromised optimal conditions obtained by numerical integration for development of extrudates were: screw speed of 350 rpm, barrel temperature of 120 (°)C, feed moisture content of 12 g/100 g and 65:25:10 of blend ratio of feed. In the optimized condition low-amylose rice blend is found to have better physicochemical properties (water absorption index of 481.79 g/100 g; water solubility index of 44.13 g/100 g) and dietary fiber content of 21.35 g/100 g respectively. The developed breakfast cereal showed considerable amount of minerals (Mg and K) and overall acceptability was found to be 7.8.

  11. Effect of UV radiation and temperature on mineralization and volatilization of coumaphos in water.

    PubMed

    Jindal, Tanu; Singh, Dileep K; Agarwal, H C

    2007-05-01

    This study was undertaken to determine the dissipation and degradation of coumaphos [O-(3-chloro-4-methyl-2-oxo-2H-1-benzopyran-7-yl) O,O-diethyl phosphorothioate] under different sunlight conditions and at different temperatures. The effect of the ultra violet (UV) component of solar radiation was also studied using quartz tubes in addition to other radiation in the visible range using glass tubes and the results were compared with those obtained under the dark light conditions. Water suspensions of coumaphos were incubated at three temperatures viz. 22 degrees C, 37 degrees C and 53 degrees C in closed systems to study the effect of temperature. Volatilization, mineralization and degradation of coumaphos increased with an increase in temperature and exposure to solar radiation, particularly under the UV component of the solar radiation. Major loss of the pesticide occurred through volatilization. The optimum temperature for the degradation of coumaphos was found to be at 37 degrees C. The data obtained from the mineralization and degradation studies indicated that 53 degrees C crosses the biological range for suitable growth of microorganism. UV radiation exposure along with maintaining temperature at 37 degrees C may prove useful in the dissipation and/or degradation of coumaphos prior to its disposal as waste from cattle dipping vats. PMID:17474015

  12. Effects of Sulphate-Sulphide Mineral Water “Mlječanica” in Patients with Hypertension

    PubMed Central

    Erceg-Rukavina, Tatjana; Stefanovski, Mihajlo

    2014-01-01

    Introduction: Arterial hypertension is the main independent risk factor for cardiovascular (CV) disease and death. It affects development and course of cerebrovascular insult (CVI) and chronic kidney disease (CKD). Balneotherapy with sulphide baths was administered to patients having stage I hypertension (BP values 140-159/90-99), with no arrhythmia or pronounced coronary disease. Baths also had advantage in patients having hypertension joined with obesity, diabetes, microangiopathy, and atherosclerosis of peripheral arteries. Goal: Determine the effects of sulphate-sulphide mineral baths on stage I hypertension after 10 days therapy. Materials and methods: Patients having stage I hypertension were sent to “Mlječanica” Institute for rehabilitation. All subjects were treated with kinesitherapy and electrotherapy, while experimental group (n=30) was also treated with 20 minute baths, daily, for period of 10 days. Results: In experimental group BP level lowered in average 10 mmHg after 10-day therapy, and change was evident even after only 5 days. Conclusion: Sulphate-sulphide mineral water “Mlječanica” caused significant (p<0.05) lowering of arterial BP level after 10 days of therapy in patients who had stage I hypertension. PMID:25685078

  13. Increasing nitrogen limitation in the Bothnian Sea, potentially caused by inflow of phosphate-rich water from the Baltic Proper.

    PubMed

    Rolff, Carl; Elfwing, Tina

    2015-11-01

    The study showed that the open water of the Bothnian Sea (BS) is likely to have shifted from altering nitrogen and phosphorous limitations of the spring bloom to more nitrogen-limited conditions during the last 20 years. This is affected by the by inflow of phosphate-rich and oxygen-depleted water from depths near the halocline in the northern Baltic Proper, where severe oxygen conditions currently cause extreme phosphate concentrations in the deep water. The change in relation between inorganic nitrogen and phosphorous in the BS occurs first in the deep water and then progresses to the surface water. The change can potentially cause increased production in the BS and more frequent cyanobacterial blooms. There does not appear to be any immediate concern in the short-term perspective for the state of the BS, but a progression of the processes may lead to a more eutrophic state of the BS.

  14. Increasing nitrogen limitation in the Bothnian Sea, potentially caused by inflow of phosphate-rich water from the Baltic Proper.

    PubMed

    Rolff, Carl; Elfwing, Tina

    2015-11-01

    The study showed that the open water of the Bothnian Sea (BS) is likely to have shifted from altering nitrogen and phosphorous limitations of the spring bloom to more nitrogen-limited conditions during the last 20 years. This is affected by the by inflow of phosphate-rich and oxygen-depleted water from depths near the halocline in the northern Baltic Proper, where severe oxygen conditions currently cause extreme phosphate concentrations in the deep water. The change in relation between inorganic nitrogen and phosphorous in the BS occurs first in the deep water and then progresses to the surface water. The change can potentially cause increased production in the BS and more frequent cyanobacterial blooms. There does not appear to be any immediate concern in the short-term perspective for the state of the BS, but a progression of the processes may lead to a more eutrophic state of the BS. PMID:25990584

  15. Protective role of hydrogen-rich water on aspirin-induced gastric mucosal damage in rats

    PubMed Central

    Zhang, Jing-Yao; Wu, Qi-Fei; Wan, Yong; Song, Si-Dong; Xu, Jia; Xu, Xin-Sen; Chang, Hu-Lin; Tai, Ming-Hui; Dong, Ya-Feng; Liu, Chang

    2014-01-01

    AIM: To investigate the role of the hydrogen-rich water (HRW) in the prevention of aspirin-induced gastric mucosal injury in rats. METHODS: Forty male rats were allocated into four groups: normal control group, HRW group, aspirin group, and HRW plus aspirin group. The protective efficacy was tested by determining the gastric mucosal damage score. Malondialdehyde (MDA), superoxide dismutase (SOD), myeloperoxidase (MPO), interleukin (IL)-06 and tumor necrosis factor (TNF)-α in gastric tissues were evaluated. The serum levels of IL-1β and TNF-α were also detected. Histopathology of gastric tissues and localization of Cyclooxygenase 2 (COX-2) were detected using hematoxylin and eosin staining and immunohistochemistry, respectively. RESULTS: Pretreatment with HRW obviously reduced aspirin-induced gastric damage scores (4.04 ± 0.492 vs 2.10 ± 0.437, P < 0.05). The oxidative stress levels of MDA and MPO in the gastric tissues increased significantly in the aspirin-treated group compared with the HRW group (2.43 ± 0.145 vs 1.79 ± 0.116 nmol/mg prot, P < 0.05 and 2.53 ± 0.238 vs 1.40 ± 0.208 U/g tissue, P < 0.05, respectively). HRW could obviously elevated the SOD levels in the gastric tissues (37.94 ± 8.44 vs 59.55 ± 9.02 nmol/mg prot, P < 0.05). Pretreatment with HRW significantly reduced IL-06 and TNF-α in the gastric tissues (46.65 ± 5.50 vs 32.15 ± 4.83 pg/mg, P < 0.05 and 1305.08 ± 101.23 vs 855.96 ± 93.22 pg/mg, P < 0.05), and IL-1β and TNF-α in the serum (505.38 ± 32.97 vs 343.37 ± 25.09 pg/mL, P < 0.05 and 264.53 ± 28.63 vs 114.96 ± 21.79 pg/mL, P < 0.05) compared to treatment with aspirin alone. HRW could significantly decrease the COX-2 expression in the gastric tissues (staining score: 8.4 ± 2.1 vs 2.9 ± 1.5, P < 0.05). CONCLUSION: HRW pretreatment alleviated the aspirin-induced gastric lesions by inhibiting the oxidative stress, inflammatory reaction and reducing the COX-2 in the gastric tissues. PMID:24587639

  16. Effects of soil water table regime on tree community species richness and structure of alluvial forest fragments in Southeast Brazil.

    PubMed

    Silva, A C; Higuchi, P; van den Berg, E

    2010-08-01

    In order to determine the influence of soil water table fluctuation on tree species richness and structure of alluvial forest fragments, 24 plots were allocated in a point bar forest and 30 plots in five forest fragments located in a floodplain, in the municipality of São Sebastião da Bela Vista, Southeast Brazil, totalizing 54, 10 X 20 m, plots. The information recorded in each plot were the soil water table level, diameter at breast height (dbh), total height and botanical identity off all trees with dbh > 5 cm. The water table fluctuation was assessed through 1 m deep observation wells in each plot. Correlations analysis indicated that sites with shallower water table in the flooding plains had a low number of tree species and high tree density. Although the water table in the point bar remained below the wells during the study period, low tree species richness was observed. There are other events taking place within the point bar forest that assume a high ecological importance, such as the intensive water velocity during flooding and sedimentation processes.

  17. Enrichment adsorption of a labile substance to the surface of particular mineral particles in river water as investigated by SEM-EDX and dilute-acid extraction/ICP-MS.

    PubMed

    Kyotani, Tomohiro; Koshimizu, Satoshi

    2003-06-01

    The selective enrichment behavior of a labile substance, such as hydroxides, to the surface of particular mineral particles in river water was clarified by scanning electron microscopy/energy dispersive X-ray microanalysis (SEM-EDX). Individual particles other than diatom collected on a 0.45 microm filter from the Fuji and Sagami rivers, central Japan, were analyzed by SEM-EDX and classified into seventeen groups according to the chemical composition and shape. Phosphorus, sulfur, chlorine, manganese and copper detected in each particle collected on the 0.45 microm filter could be successfully used as effective indicators of labile substance secondarily formed and adsorbed afresh in river water, because the detection frequencies of such elements are quite low, or negligible, in fresh mineral particles derived from igneous rocks. The labile substance adsorbed on mineral particles collected on the 0.45 microm filter was also evaluated by dilute-acid leaching, followed by inductively coupled plasma mass spectrometry (ICP-MS). Almost all parts of the manganese detected in individual particles were those adsorbed afresh as hydroxides together with iron and aluminum. Also, anionic elements, such as phosphorus, sulfur and chlorine, formed complexes with the hydroxides and/or were incorporated in them. Mg and/or Ca-rich aluminosilicate groups were the most effective adsorbers of such labile species. However, Si-rich and Na-, K- and Na-Ca rich aluminosilicates did not significantly adsorb the labile substance. Consequently, the remarkable selectivity was clarified in the adsorption process of labile substance to individual mineral particles in river water.

  18. Enrichment adsorption of a labile substance to the surface of particular mineral particles in river water as investigated by SEM-EDX and dilute-acid extraction/ICP-MS.

    PubMed

    Kyotani, Tomohiro; Koshimizu, Satoshi

    2003-06-01

    The selective enrichment behavior of a labile substance, such as hydroxides, to the surface of particular mineral particles in river water was clarified by scanning electron microscopy/energy dispersive X-ray microanalysis (SEM-EDX). Individual particles other than diatom collected on a 0.45 microm filter from the Fuji and Sagami rivers, central Japan, were analyzed by SEM-EDX and classified into seventeen groups according to the chemical composition and shape. Phosphorus, sulfur, chlorine, manganese and copper detected in each particle collected on the 0.45 microm filter could be successfully used as effective indicators of labile substance secondarily formed and adsorbed afresh in river water, because the detection frequencies of such elements are quite low, or negligible, in fresh mineral particles derived from igneous rocks. The labile substance adsorbed on mineral particles collected on the 0.45 microm filter was also evaluated by dilute-acid leaching, followed by inductively coupled plasma mass spectrometry (ICP-MS). Almost all parts of the manganese detected in individual particles were those adsorbed afresh as hydroxides together with iron and aluminum. Also, anionic elements, such as phosphorus, sulfur and chlorine, formed complexes with the hydroxides and/or were incorporated in them. Mg and/or Ca-rich aluminosilicate groups were the most effective adsorbers of such labile species. However, Si-rich and Na-, K- and Na-Ca rich aluminosilicates did not significantly adsorb the labile substance. Consequently, the remarkable selectivity was clarified in the adsorption process of labile substance to individual mineral particles in river water. PMID:12834221

  19. Application of mineral bed materials during fast pyrolysis of rice husk to improve water-soluble organics production.

    PubMed

    Li, R; Zhong, Z P; Jin, B S; Zheng, A J

    2012-09-01

    Fast pyrolysis of rice husk was performed in a spout-fluid bed to produce water-soluble organics. The effects of mineral bed materials (red brick, calcite, limestone, and dolomite) on yield and quality of organics were evaluated with the help of principal component analysis (PCA). Compared to quartz sand, red brick, limestone, and dolomite increased the yield of the water-soluble organics by 6-55% and the heating value by 16-19%. The relative content of acetic acid was reduced by 23-43% with calcite, limestone and dolomite when compared with quartz sand. The results from PCA showed all minerals enhanced the ring-opening reactions of cellulose into furans and carbonyl compounds rather than into monomeric sugars. Moreover, calcite, limestone, and dolomite displayed the ability to catalyze the degradation of heavy compounds and the demethoxylation reaction of guaiacols into phenols. Minerals, especially limestone and dolomite, were beneficial to the production of water-soluble organics.

  20. Geologic and mineral and water resources investigations in western Colorado, using Skylab EREP data

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Lee, K. (Principal Investigator); Prost, G. L.; Knepper, D. H.; Sawatzky, D. L.; Huntley, D.; Weimer, R. J.

    1975-01-01

    The author has identified the following significant results. Skylab photographs are superior to ERTS images for photogeologic interpretation, primarily because of improved resolution. Lithologic contacts can be detected consistently better on Skylab S190A photos than on ERTS images. Color photos are best; red and green band photos are somewhat better than color-infrared photos; infrared band photos are worst. All major geologic structures can be recognized on Skylab imagery. Large folds, even those with very gentle flexures, can be mapped accurately and with confidence. Bedding attitudes of only a few degrees are recognized; vertical exaggeration factor is about 2.5X. Mineral deposits in central Colorado may be indicated on Skylab photos by lineaments and color anomalies, but positive identification of these features is not possible. S190A stereo color photography is adequate for defining drainage divides that in turn define the boundaries and distribution of ground water recharge and discharge areas within a basin.

  1. Mineralization of alkylbenzenesulfonates in water by means of contact glow discharge electrolysis.

    PubMed

    Amano, Ryo; Tezuka, Meguru

    2006-05-01

    Mineralization of aqueous alkylbenzenesulfonates (ABS) was investigated by means of contact glow discharge electrolysis (CGDE). Toluenesulfonic and dodecylbenzenesulfonic acids in a neutral phosphate buffer solution were smoothly degraded and eventually converted to inorganic carbon and sulfate ion when CGDE was conducted under the applied DC voltage of 500 V and current of ca. 90 mA. As the intermediate products, some phenolic compounds were detected as well as carboxylic acids such as oxalate, formate and so on. It was demonstrated that the decay of ABS followed the first-order rate law. Based on the detailed analysis of the hydroxylation products and kinetic consideration, it was assumed that hydroxyl radicals would play a crucial role in the oxidative degradation of aqueous ABS. The features of CGDE as a tool for the removal of organic pollutants in water were discussed in comparison with other physicochemical methods. PMID:16616949

  2. Structure, dynamics and stability of water/scCO2/mineral interfaces from ab initio molecular dynamics simulations

    SciTech Connect

    Lee, Mal -Soon; Peter McGrail, B.; Rousseau, Roger; Glezakou, Vassiliki -Alexandra

    2015-10-12

    Here, the interface between a solid and a complex multi-component liquid forms a unique reaction environment whose structure and composition can significantly deviate from either bulk or liquid phase and is poorly understood due the innate difficulty to obtain molecular level information. Feldspar minerals, as typified by the Ca-end member Anorthite, serve as prototypical model systems to assess the reactivity and ion mobility at solid/water-bearing supercritical fluid (WBSF) interfaces due to recent X-ray based measurements that provide information on water-film formation, and cation vacancies at these surfaces. Using density functional theory based molecular dynamics, which allows the evaluation of reactivity and condensed phase dynamics on equal footing, we report on the structure and dynamics of water nucleation and surface aggregation, carbonation and Ca mobilization under geologic carbon sequestration scenarios (T = 323 K and P = 90 bar). We find that water has a strong enthalpic preference for aggregation on a Ca-rich, O-terminated anorthite (001) surface, but entropy strongly hinders the film formation at very low water concentrations. Carbonation reactions readily occur at electron-rich terminal Oxygen sites adjacent to cation vacancies, when in contact with supercritical CO2. Cation vacancies of this type can form readily in the presence of a water layer that allows for facile and enthalpicly favorable Ca2+ extraction and solvation. Apart from providing unprecedented molecular level detail of a complex three component (mineral, water and scCO2) system), this work highlights the ability of modern capabilities of AIMD methods to begin to qualitatively and quantitatively address structure and reactivity at solid-liquid interfaces of high chemical complexity. This work was supported by the US Department of Energy, Office of Fossil Energy (M.-S. L., B. P. M. and V.-A. G.) and the Office of Basic Energy Science, Division of

  3. Effects of human placental S9 and induced rat liver S9 on the mutagenicity of drinking waters processed from humus-rich surface waters

    SciTech Connect

    Vartiainen, T.; Lampelo, S. )

    1990-01-01

    The mutagenicity of chlorinated drinking waters processed from humus-rich surface waters has been shown to be very high. The effect of placental S9 on the mutagenicity of drinking waters has not been studied previously. The purpose of this study was to compare the effects of human placental and rat liver microsomal fractions on the mutagenicity of drinking waters processed from humus-rich surface waters. The samples of 34 drinking and two raw waters from 26 localities in Finland were tested for mutagenicity in Ames Salmonella typhimurium tester strain TA100 with and without metabolic activations. Between the drinking water samples, clear differences were recorded in the presence of placental and rat liver S9, suggesting different mutagens in the drinking waters. Rat liver S9 decreased the mutagenicities of drinking water concentrates, but placental S9 increased, decreased, or had no effect. It is not known if placental mutagenicity enhancing system might cause any health hazard to a developing fetus.

  4. Synthetic statistical approach reveals a high degree of richness of microbial eukaryotes in an anoxic water column.

    PubMed

    Jeon, S-O; Bunge, J; Stoeck, T; Barger, K J-A; Hong, S-H; Epstein, S S

    2006-10-01

    Molecular surveys suggest that communities of microbial eukaryotes are remarkably rich, because even large clone libraries seem to capture only a minority of species. This provides a qualitative picture of protistan richness but does not measure its real extent either locally or globally. Statistical analysis can estimate a community's richness, but the specific methods used to date are not always well grounded in statistical theory. Here we study a large protistan molecular survey from an anoxic water column in the Cariaco Basin (Caribbean Sea). We group individual 18S rRNA gene sequences into operational taxonomic units (OTUs) using different cutoff values for sequence similarity (99 to 50%) and systematically apply parametric models and nonparametric estimators to the OTU frequency data to estimate the total protistan diversity. The parametric models provided statistically sound estimates of protistan richness, with biologically meaningful standard errors, maximal data usage, and extensive model diagnostics and were preferable to the available nonparametric tools. Our clone library exceeded 700 clones but still covered only a minority of species and less than half of the larger protistan clades. Our estimates of total protistan richness portray the target community as very rich at all OTU levels, with hundreds of different populations apparently co-occurring in the small (3-liter) volume of our sample, as well as dozens of clades of the highest taxonomic order. These estimates are among the first for microbial eukaryotes that are obtained using state-of-the-art statistical methods and can serve as benchmark numbers for the local diversity of protists.

  5. Flow cytometric determination of bacterial populations in bottled natural mineral waters

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Beisker, Wolfgang; Meier, H.

    1998-04-01

    In order to enhance the quality and safety of bottled natural mineral waters, new methodologies besides classical bacteriology have been evaluated. Multi laser flow cytometry has been used to identify bacterial populations based on their DNA content, physiological activity and phylogeny from in situ hybridization with rRNA targeted DNA probes. Due to the low content of organic material in these waters, the bacterial population are under conditions (low ribosome content, low activity, etc.) which makes it hard to detect them flow cytometrically. The numbers of bacteria are in the range between 1000 and 100,000 per ml (for uncarbonated waters). Filtration techniques to enrich the bacterial population have been developed in combination with specific staining and hybridization protocols. First results on some selected brands show, that most bacteria belong to the beta subclass of proteobacteria. If the DNA containing cells (DAPI staining) are counted as 100%, 84% could be stained with a eubacteria probe. From these 84% 68% belong to the beta subclass, 8.2% to the alpha and 0.3% to the gamma subclass of roteobacteria. 8.5% could be identified as cytophaga flexibacter. By optimizing DNA staining with cyanine dyes and enhancing the sensitivity of light scatter detection, the detection limit could be considerably lowered.

  6. Bioremediating oil spills in nutrient poor ocean waters using fertilized clay mineral flakes: some experimental constraints.

    PubMed

    Warr, Laurence N; Friese, André; Schwarz, Florian; Schauer, Frieder; Portier, Ralph J; Basirico, Laura M; Olson, Gregory M

    2013-01-01

    Much oil spill research has focused on fertilizing hydrocarbon oxidising bacteria, but a primary limitation is the rapid dilution of additives in open waters. A new technique is presented for bioremediation by adding nutrient amendments to the oil spill using thin filmed minerals comprised largely of Fullers Earth clay. Together with adsorbed N and P fertilizers, filming additives, and organoclay, clay flakes can be engineered to float on seawater, attach to the oil, and slowly release contained nutrients. Our laboratory experiments of microbial activity on weathered source oil from the Deepwater Horizon spill in the Gulf of Mexico show fertilized clay treatment significantly enhanced bacterial respiration and consumption of alkanes compared to untreated oil-in-water conditions and reacted faster than straight fertilization. Whereas a major portion (up to 98%) of the alkane content was removed during the 1 month period of experimentation by fertilized clay flake interaction; the reduced concentration of polyaromatic hydrocarbons was not significantly different from the non-clay bearing samples. Such clay flake treatment could offer a way to more effectively apply the fertilizer to the spill in open nutrient poor waters and thus significantly reduce the extent and duration of marine oil spills, but this method is not expected to impact hydrocarbon toxicity.

  7. Bioremediating oil spills in nutrient poor ocean waters using fertilized clay mineral flakes: some experimental constraints.

    PubMed

    Warr, Laurence N; Friese, André; Schwarz, Florian; Schauer, Frieder; Portier, Ralph J; Basirico, Laura M; Olson, Gregory M

    2013-01-01

    Much oil spill research has focused on fertilizing hydrocarbon oxidising bacteria, but a primary limitation is the rapid dilution of additives in open waters. A new technique is presented for bioremediation by adding nutrient amendments to the oil spill using thin filmed minerals comprised largely of Fullers Earth clay. Together with adsorbed N and P fertilizers, filming additives, and organoclay, clay flakes can be engineered to float on seawater, attach to the oil, and slowly release contained nutrients. Our laboratory experiments of microbial activity on weathered source oil from the Deepwater Horizon spill in the Gulf of Mexico show fertilized clay treatment significantly enhanced bacterial respiration and consumption of alkanes compared to untreated oil-in-water conditions and reacted faster than straight fertilization. Whereas a major portion (up to 98%) of the alkane content was removed during the 1 month period of experimentation by fertilized clay flake interaction; the reduced concentration of polyaromatic hydrocarbons was not significantly different from the non-clay bearing samples. Such clay flake treatment could offer a way to more effectively apply the fertilizer to the spill in open nutrient poor waters and thus significantly reduce the extent and duration of marine oil spills, but this method is not expected to impact hydrocarbon toxicity. PMID:23864952

  8. Microbial diversity and dynamics of a groundwater and a still bottled natural mineral water.

    PubMed

    França, Luís; Lopéz-Lopéz, Arantxa; Rosselló-Móra, Ramon; da Costa, Milton S

    2015-03-01

    The microbial abundance and diversity at source, after bottling and through 6 months of storage of a commercial still natural mineral water were assessed by culture-dependent and culture-independent methods. The results revealed clear shifts of the dominant communities present in the three different stages. The borehole waters displayed low cell densities that increased 1.5-fold upon bottling and storage, reaching a maximum (6.2 × 10(8)  cells l(-1) ) within 15 days after bottling, but experienced a significant decrease in diversity. In all cases, communities were largely dominated by Bacteria. The culturable heterotrophic community was characterized by recovering 3626 isolates, which were primarily affiliated with the Alphaproteobacteria, Betaproteobacteria and Gammaproteobacteria. This study indicates that bottling and storage induce quantitative and qualitative changes in the microbial assemblages that seem to be similar as revealed by the two sample batches collected on 2 consecutive years. To our knowledge, this is the first study combining culture-independent with culture-dependent methods, and repeated tests to reveal the microbial dynamics occurring from source to stored bottled water.

  9. Bioremediating Oil Spills in Nutrient Poor Ocean Waters Using Fertilized Clay Mineral Flakes: Some Experimental Constraints

    PubMed Central

    Warr, Laurence N.; Friese, André; Schwarz, Florian; Schauer, Frieder; Portier, Ralph J.; Basirico, Laura M.; Olson, Gregory M.

    2013-01-01

    Much oil spill research has focused on fertilizing hydrocarbon oxidising bacteria, but a primary limitation is the rapid dilution of additives in open waters. A new technique is presented for bioremediation by adding nutrient amendments to the oil spill using thin filmed minerals comprised largely of Fullers Earth clay. Together with adsorbed N and P fertilizers, filming additives, and organoclay, clay flakes can be engineered to float on seawater, attach to the oil, and slowly release contained nutrients. Our laboratory experiments of microbial activity on weathered source oil from the Deepwater Horizon spill in the Gulf of Mexico show fertilized clay treatment significantly enhanced bacterial respiration and consumption of alkanes compared to untreated oil-in-water conditions and reacted faster than straight fertilization. Whereas a major portion (up to 98%) of the alkane content was removed during the 1 month period of experimentation by fertilized clay flake interaction; the reduced concentration of polyaromatic hydrocarbons was not significantly different from the non-clay bearing samples. Such clay flake treatment could offer a way to more effectively apply the fertilizer to the spill in open nutrient poor waters and thus significantly reduce the extent and duration of marine oil spills, but this method is not expected to impact hydrocarbon toxicity. PMID:23864952

  10. Competition between trees and grasses for both soil water and mineral nitrogen in dry savannas.

    PubMed

    Donzelli, D; De Michele, C; Scholes, R J

    2013-09-01

    The co-existence of trees and grasses in savannas in general can be the result of processes involving competition for resources (e.g. water and nutrients) or differential response to disturbances such as fire, animals and human activities; or a combination of both broad mechanisms. In moist savannas, the tree-grass coexistence is mainly attributed to of disturbances, while in dry savannas, limiting resources are considered the principal mechanism of co-existence. Virtually all theoretical explorations of tree-grass dynamics in dry savannas consider only competition for soil water. Here we investigate whether coexistence could result from a balanced competition for two resources, namely soil water and mineral nitrogen. We introduce a simple dynamical resource-competition model for trees and grasses. We consider two alternative hypotheses: (1) trees are the superior competitors for nitrogen while grasses are superior competitors for water, and (2) vice-versa. We study the model properties under the two hypotheses and test each hypothesis against data from 132 dry savannas in Africa using Kendall's test of independence. We find that Hypothesis 1 gets much more support than Hypothesis 2, and more support than the null hypothesis that neither is operative. We further consider gradients of rainfall and nitrogen availability and find that the Hypothesis 1 model reproduces the observed patterns in nature. We do not consider our results to definitively show that tree-grass coexistence in dry savannas is due to balanced competition for water and nitrogen, but show that this mechanism is a possibility, which cannot be a priori excluded and should thus be considered along with the more traditional explanations.

  11. Partitioning of F between H2O and CO2 fluids and topaz rhyolite melt - Implications for mineralizing magmatic-hydrothermal fluids in F-rich granitic systems

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Webster, J.D.

    1990-01-01

    Fluid/melt distribution coefficients for F have been determined in experiments conducted with peraluminous topaz rhyolite melts and fluids consisting of H2O and H2O+CO2 at pressures of 0.5 to 5 kbar, temperatures of 775??-1000??C, and concentrations of F in the melt ranging from 0.5 to 6.9 wt%. The major element, F, and Cl concentrations of the starting material and run product glasses were determined by electron microprobe, and the concentration of F in the fluid was calculated by mass balance. The H2O concentrations of some run product glasses were determined by ion microprobe (SIMS). The solubility of melt in the fluid phase increases with increasing F in the system; the solubility of H2O in the melt is independent of the F concentration of the system with up to 6.3 wt% F in the melt. No evidence of immiscible silica- and fluoriderich liquids was detected in the hydrous but water-undersaturated starting material glasses (???8.5 wt% F in melt) or in the water-saturated run product glasses. F concentrates in topaz rhyolite melts relative to coexisting fluids at most conditions studied; however, DF (wt% F in fluid/wt% F in melt) increases strongly with increasing F in the system. Maximum values of DF in this study are significantly larger than those previously reported in the literature. Linear extrapolation of the data suggests that DF is greater than one for water-saturated, peraluminous granitic melts containing ???8 wt% F at 800?? C and 2 kbar. DF increases as temperature and as (H2O/H2O+CO2) of the fluid increase. For topaz rhyolite melts containing ???1 wt% F and with H2O-rich fluids, DF is independent of changes in pressure from 2 to 5 kbar at 800?? C; for melts containing ???1 wt% F and in equilibrium with CO2-bearing fluids the concentrations of F in fluid increases with increasing pressure. F-and lithophile element-enriched granites may evolve to compositions containing extreme concentrations of F during the final stages of crystallization. If F in the

  12. Kingian Co-Evolution of the Water and Mineral/Rock Components for Earth and Mars: Implications for Planetary Habitability (Invited)

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Baker, V. R.

    2013-12-01

    -to-icehouse climatic transitions. Recent discoveries from Mars missions reveal the extensive role of water in generating sedimentary rocks, active and relict glacial and periglacial features, aqueous weathering products (clay minerals and sulfates), alluvial fans and deltas, the extensive development of paleolakes, and even a probable, though transient ocean. The latter may have formed episodically, associated with episodes of intensive volcanism that disrupted a water-ice-rich permafrost, thereby transferring much of the hydrosphere f

  13. Surface water connectivity drives richness and composition of Arctic lake fish assemblages

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Laske, Sarah M.; Haynes, Trevor B.; Rosenberger, Amanda E.; Koch, Joshua C.; Wipfli, Mark S.; Whitman, Matthew; Zimmerman, Christian E.

    2016-01-01

    This work provides useful baseline information on the processes that drive the relations between patch connectivity and fish species richness and assemblage composition. The environmental processes that organise fish assemblages in Arctic lakes are likely to change in a warming climate.

  14. The hydro- and multi-isotope geochemistry of iron-rich ground waters emerging at the southern Baltic Sea coast line

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Lipka, Marko; Wu, Zijun; Escher, Peter; Struck, Ulrich; Dellwig, Olaf; Schafmeister, Maria; Böttcher*, Michael E.

    2013-04-01

    Iron-rich groundwater springs emerging at the shore zone of the southern Baltic Sea (BS; Site Meschendorf) were examined on a seasonal base for a period of about two years. Besides major, minor, and trace elements, stable isotopes of water (H-2, O-18), dissolved inorganic carbon (DIC; C-13), and sulfate (S-34) were analyzed. The stream bed sediment was extracted for the geochemistry of the newly formed precipitates and further characterized via SEM-EDAX. Subsequently, the hydrogeochemical results were subjected to a thermodynamic analysis via the PHREEQC speciation model. The springs emerge from small pits (about 60 cm diameter; up to 15cm depth). Surrounding sediments are sandy with gravels found at depth and corresponding high permeabilities. The positions of different springs on the shore zone were stable during the investigation period while the shape of the pits and the stream beds may vary due to wind- and wave-driven forces. Selected measurements of spring yield discharges close to 10 L/min. The H-2 and O-18 contents of the spring waters indicate the ground water to originate from relatively young mixed meteoric waters. The hydrochemistry of the springs was similar and showed some variability in between which indicates that the genetic processes for the ground water before reaching the surface may slightly differ. The springs are characterized by dissolved Ca, Mg, Na, DIC and sulfate, mainly reflecting the interaction with soils and bedrocks in the recharge area that is dominated by marly till. The oxygen-free ground water is rich in Fe, P, and DIC. Iron and dissolved sulfate originate from the oxidation of pyrite, as further confirmed by the 34-S signature of sulfate. The carbon isotope signature of DIC indicates a mixture of biogenic CO2 from the soil zone with some water-rock interaction with carbonate minerals. The streams flow towards the BS and, in contact with the atmosphere, outgas carbon dioxide and takes up oxygen. Upon CO2-degassing, C-12 is

  15. Freezing temperatures of aqueous iron(III) sulfate solutions and crystallization of a new acidic water-rich sulfate

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Hennings, E.; Zürner, P.; Schmidt, H.; Voigt, W.

    2013-09-01

    An important question concerning the possibility of life under martian conditions is the existence of liquid water at low temperatures. On the martian surface, the existence of iron(III) sulfate is expected. The influence of iron(III) sulfate salt on ice deposits in respect to the formation of liquid salt brines was not investigated in the past. In this contribution, the investigation of the phase diagram of the system iron(III) sulfate-water and the influence of sulfuric acid to this system are presented. A new crystalline acidic iron(III) sulfate hydrate has been found in the ternary system iron(III) sulfate-water-sulfuric acid, which represents the most water-rich iron salt phase ever detected.

  16. Opportunistic pathogens and elements of the resistome that are common in bottled mineral water support the need for continuous surveillance.

    PubMed

    Falcone-Dias, Maria Fernanda; Centrón, Daniela; Pavan, Fernando; Moura, Adriana Candido da Silva; Naveca, Felipe Gomes; de Souza, Victor Costa; Farache Filho, Adalberto; Leite, Clarice Queico Fujimura

    2015-01-01

    Several differences concerning bacterial species, opportunistic pathogens, elements of the resistome as well as variations concerning the CFU/mL counts were identified in some of the five most marketed bottled mineral water from Araraquara city, São Paulo, Brazil. Two out of five brands tested were confirmed as potential source of opportunistic pathogens, including Mycobacterium gordonae, Ralstonia picketti and Burkholderia cepacia complex (Bcc). A total of one hundred and six isolates were recovered from four of these bottled mineral water brands. Betaproteobacteria was predominant followed by Alphaproteobacteria, Gammaproteobacteria and Firmicutes. Ninety percent of the bacteria isolated demonstrated resistance to seventeen of the nineteen antimicrobials tested. These antimicrobials included eight different classes, including 3rd and 4th generation cephalosporins, carbapenems and fluoroquinolones. Multidrug resistant bacteria were detected for fifty-nine percent of isolates in three water brands at counts up to 103 CFU/ml. Of major concern, the two bottled mineral water harboring opportunistic pathogens were also source of elements of the resistome that could be directly transferred to humans. All these differences found among brands highlight the need for continuous bacteriological surveillance of bottled mineral water.

  17. Deep mineral water accelerates recovery after dehydrating aerobic exercise: a randomized, double-blind, placebo-controlled crossover study

    PubMed Central

    2014-01-01

    Background The effect of deep mineral water (DMW) with moderate mineralization on the recovery of physical performance after prolonged dehydrating aerobic exercise in the heat was studied in nine healthy, physically active (VO2max = 45.8 ± 8.4 mL kg−1 min−1) women aged 24.0 ± 3.7 years. Methods We conducted a randomized, double-blind, placebo-controlled crossover human study to evaluate the effect of ingestion of natural mineral water extracted from a depth of 689 m on recovery from prolonged fatiguing aerobic running conducted at 30°C. Results Mean body weight decreased by 2.6–2.8% following dehydrating exercise. VO2max was 9% higher after 4 h of recovery after rehydrating with DMW compared with plain water. Leg muscle power recovered better during the slow phase of recovery and was significantly higher after 48 h of recovery after rehydrating with DMW compared with plain water. Conclusions DMW with moderate mineralization was more effective in inducing recovery of aerobic capacity and leg muscle power compared with plain water following prolonged dehydrating aerobic running exercise. PMID:25002835

  18. Role of sulfurous mineral water and sodium hydrosulfide as potent inhibitors of fibrosis in the heart of diabetic rats.

    PubMed

    El-Seweidy, Mohamed M; Sadik, Nermin A H; Shaker, Olfat G

    2011-02-01

    This study examined the downstream signaling whereby hyperglycemia may lead to myocardial fibrosis and apoptosis in the left ventricle of diabetic rats. The effects of sulfurous mineral water or sodium hydrosulfide (NaHS) as possible modulators were also examined. Sulfurous mineral water (as drinking water) and NaHS (14μmol/kg/day, IP) were administered for 7 week to rats with streptozotocin (STZ)-induced diabetes. Hyperglycemia, overproduction of glycated hemoglobin (HbA1C) and serum decline in insulin, C-peptide and insulin like growth factor-I (IGF-I) were observed in diabetic rats. Up-regulation of gene expressions of nuclear factor (NF-κB), profibrogenic growth factor such as transforming growth factor-β1 (TGF-β1), matrix metalloproteniase-2 (MMP-2), procollagen-1 and Fas ligand (Fas-L) were observed in the left ventricle of diabetic rats. A linear positive correlation between TGF-β1 and MMP-2 was also detected in diabetic group. An increase in hydroxyproline level and a disturbance in oxidative balance were detected in heart of diabetic rats. Sulfurous mineral water and NaHS treatment possibly, by improving cardiac GSH level, counteracted the enhanced expression of NF-κB, the profibrogenic and apoptotic parameters. Histopathological examination was in accordance with the biochemical and molecular findings of this study. We suggest a novel therapeutic approach of sulfurous mineral water and exogenous supplementation of H(2)S in diabetic cardiomyopathy.

  19. Scheelite and coexisting F-rich zoned garnet, vesuvianite, fluorite, and apatite in calc-silicate rocks from the Mogok metamorphic belt, Myanmar: Implications for metasomatism in marble and the role of halogens in W mobilization and mineralization

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Guo, Shun; Chen, Yi; Liu, Chuan-Zhou; Wang, Jian-Gang; Su, Bin; Gao, Yi-Jie; Wu, Fu-Yuan; Sein, Kyaing; Yang, Yue-Heng; Mao, Qian

    2016-03-01

    Scheelite, which is an important ore of tungsten and colored gemstone, is well developed in the calc-silicate rocks from the Mogok metamorphic belt (MMB), Myanmar. In this study, the textural, mineralogical, and compositional characteristics of scheelite and its associated minerals were systematically investigated to constrain the petrogenesis of scheelite-bearing calc-silicate rocks and the tungsten transfer and mineralization mechanism in a hydrothermal-metasomatic system. The petrological evidence, bulk and mineral geochemical signatures, and mass-transfer calculations indicate that the calc-silicate rocks formed by local metasomatism of marble via the introduction of an externally derived Si-Al-Fe-W-F-bearing, H2O-rich fluid phase. The distinct compositional zonations [F, Fe, Ca, and heavy rare earth elements (HREEs)] of garnet in the calc-silicate rocks record a two-stage metasomatic process and significant compositional variation in the associated fluid. The late-stage metasomatic fluid that led to the formation of the F-rich garnet rims, scheelite, and most of the calc-silicate minerals has noticeably higher fluorine activity (aF-), oxygen fugacity (fo2), and HREE content than the early-stage metasomatic fluid responsible for the garnet cores. The MMB scheelite exhibits typical "skarn-type" compositional characteristics with a high LaN/YbN ratio (100-180), a negative Eu anomaly (δEu = 0.3-0.5), and a high Mo content (1100-1330 ppm). These geochemical signatures are primarily controlled by the protolith, metasomatic fluid, redox conditions, and coexisting mineral phases. The enrichment of rare earth elements (REEs) and high field strength elements (HFSEs) in the MMB scheelite was dominated by two substitution reactions: Ca2+ + W6+ = REE3+ + HFSE5+ and 3Ca2+ = 2REE3+ + □Ca (where □Ca is a Ca-site vacancy). Considerable amounts of F and OH in the metasomatic fluid substituted for O in the garnet via the substitute reaction 4(F, OH)- = 4O2- + Si4+, leading

  20. Natural radionuclides in Austrian mineral water and their sequential measurement by fast methods.

    PubMed

    Wallner, Gabriele; Wagner, Rosmarie; Katzlberger, Christian

    2008-07-01

    Ten samples of Austrian mineral water were investigated with regard to the natural radionuclides (228)Ra, (226)Ra, (210)Pb, (210)Po, (238)U and (234)U. The radium isotopes as well as (210)Pb were measured by liquid scintillation counting (LSC) after separation on a membrane loaded with element-selective particles (Empore Radium Disks) and (210)Po was determined by alpha-spectroscopy after spontaneous deposition onto a copper planchette. Uranium was determined by ICP-MS as well as by alpha-spectroscopy after ion separation and microprecipitation with NdF(3). From the measured activity concentrations the committed effective doses for adults and babies were calculated and compared to the total indicative dose of 0.1 mSv/a given in the EC Drinking Water Directive as a maximum dose. The dominant portion of the committed effective dose was due to the radium isotopes; the dose from (228)Ra in most samples clearly exceeded the dose from (226)Ra.

  1. Migration of antimony from polyethylene terephthalate used in mineral water bottles.

    PubMed

    Carneado, S; Hernández-Nataren, E; López-Sánchez, J F; Sahuquillo, A

    2015-01-01

    The influence of storage time and temperature on Sb migration from PET bottles into mineral water was studied in short-term tests lasting up to 15 days and long-term studies lasting up to 220 days. Samples purchased were stored in three different coloured bottles: clear (CL), light blue (LB) and dark blue (DB). Sb migration was assayed by HG-AFS for total determination and HPLC-ICP-MS for speciation analysis. Migration studies showed that waters stored at 4 and 20 °C were not subject to Sb migration. At 40 °C there was a significant increase in Sb concentration, although the maximum limit established by the European Union (5.0 μgL(-)(1)) was not exceeded, whereas at 60 °C samples were subject to considerable Sb migration after 30 days of storage. In this case, the maximum limit established by the European Union was exceeded and both Sb (V) and Sb (III) were detected.

  2. A comparison of pre- and post-remediation water quality, Mineral Creek, Colorado

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Runkel, R.L.; Bencala, K.E.; Kimball, B.A.; Walton-Day, K.; Verplanck, P.L.

    2009-01-01

    Pre- and post-remediation data sets are used herein to assess the effectiveness of remedial measures implemented in the headwaters of the Mineral Creek watershed, where contamination from hard rock mining has led to elevated metal concentrations and acidic pH. Collection of pre- and post-remediation data sets generally followed the synoptic mass balance approach, in which numerous stream and inflow locations are sampled for the constituents of interest and estimates of streamflow are determined by tracer dilution. The comparison of pre- and post-remediation data sets is confounded by hydrologic effects and the effects of temporal variation. Hydrologic effects arise due to the relatively wet conditions that preceded the collection of pre-remediation data, and the relatively dry conditions associated with the post-remediation data set. This difference leads to a dilution effect in the upper part of the study reach, where pre-remediation concentrations were diluted by rainfall, and a source area effect in the lower part of the study reach, where a smaller portion of the watershed may have been contributing constituent mass during the drier post-remediation period. A second confounding factor, temporal variability, violates the steady-state assumption that underlies the synoptic mass balance approach, leading to false identification of constituent sources and sinks. Despite these complications, remedial actions completed in the Mineral Creek headwaters appear to have led to improvements in stream water quality, as post-remediation profiles of instream load are consistently lower than the pre-remediation profiles over the entire study reach for six of the eight constituents considered (aluminium, arsenic, cadmium, copper, iron, and zinc). Concentrations of aluminium, cadmium, copper, lead, and zinc remain above chronic aquatic-life standards, however, and additional remedial actions may be needed. Future implementations of the synoptic mass balance approach should be

  3. Wine Valley Inn: A mineral water spa in Calistoga, California. Geothermal-energy-system conceptual design and economic feasibility

    SciTech Connect

    Not Available

    1981-10-26

    The purpose of this study is to determine the engineering and economic feasibility for utilizing geothermal energy for air conditioning and service water heating at the Wine Valley Inn, a mineral water spa in Calistoga, California. The study evaluates heating, ventilating, air conditioning and water heating systems suitable for direct heat geothermal application. Due to the excellent geothermal temperatures available at this site, the mechanics and economics of a geothermally powered chilled water cooling system are evaluated. The Wine Valley Inn has the resource potential to have one of the few totally geothermal powered air conditioning and water heating systems in the world. This total concept is completely developed. A water plan was prepared to determine the quantity of water required for fresh water well development based on the special requirements of the project. An economic evaluation of the system is included to justify the added capital investment needed to build the geothermally powered mineral spa. Energy payback calculations are presented. A thermal cascade system is proposed to direct the geothermal water through the energy system to first power the chiller, then the space heating system, domestic hot water, the two spas and finally to heat the swimming pool. The Energy Management strategy required to automatically control this cascade process using industrial quality micro-processor equipment is described. Energy Management controls are selected to keep equipment sizing at a minimum, pump only the amount of geothermal water needed and be self balancing.

  4. Fabrication and characterization of brookite-rich, visible light-active TiO2 films for water splitting

    SciTech Connect

    Pan, Hui; Qiu, Xiaofeng; Ivanov, Ilia N; Meyer III, Harry M; Wang, Wei; Zhu, Wenguang; Paranthaman, Mariappan Parans; Zhang, Zhenyu; Eres, Gyula; Gu, Baohua

    2009-01-01

    We report that mild oxidation of Ti foils in air results in brookite-rich titanium oxide (TiO2) films with similar spectral response to that of dye-sensitized TiO2. X-ray powder diffraction and Raman spectroscopy show that the onset of brookite formation occurs at 500 8C, and the material is characterized by a strong absorption band in the visible spectral range. The first-principle calculations show that enhanced visible light absorption correlates with the presence of Ti interstitials. Photocurrent density measurements of water splitting reveal that the brookite-rich TiO2 exhibits the highest photocatalytic performance among the different forms of TiO2 produced by oxidation of Ti foils. With increasing oxidation temperature transformation to the rutile phase accompanied by declining visible range photoactivity is observed.

  5. Effects of iron on Vitamin C/copper-induced hydroxyl radical generation in bicarbonate-rich water.

    PubMed

    Jansson, Patric J; Del Castillo, Urko; Lindqvist, Christer; Nordström, Tommy

    2005-05-01

    The aim of this study was to evaluate whether iron, like copper, could support Vitamin C mediated hydroxyl radical formation in bicarbonate-rich water. By using the hydroxyl radical indicator coumarin-3-carboxylic acid, we found that iron, in contrast to copper, was not capable to support Vitamin C induced hydroxyl radical formation. However, when 0.2 mg/l iron and 0.1 mg/l copper were both added to bicarbonate supplemented Milli-Q water, the Vitamin C induced formation of 7-hydroxycoumarin, as measured by HPLC analysis, was inhibited by 47.5%. The inhibition of hydroxyl radical formation by iron was also evident in the experiments performed on copper contaminated bicarbonate-rich household drinking water samples. In the presence of 0.2 mg/l of ferric iron the ascorbic acid induced hydroxyl radical formation was inhibited by 36.0-44.6%. This inhibition was even more significant, 47.0-59.2%, when 0.8 mg/l of ferric iron was present. None of the other redox-active metals, e.g. manganese, nickel or cobalt, could support ascorbic acid induced hydroxyl radical formation and did not have any impact on the ascorbic acid/copper-induced hydroxyl radical generation. Our results show, that iron cannot by itself produce hydroxyl radicals in bicarbonate rich water but can significantly reduce Vitamin C/copper-induced hydroxyl radical formation. These findings might partly explain the mechanism for the iron-induced protective effect on various copper related degenerative disorders that earlier has been observed in animal model systems. PMID:16036332

  6. STABILITY: AN INVESTIGATION OF AS(III)/AS(V) STABILITY IN IRON RICH DRINKING WATER MATRICES

    EPA Science Inventory

    Arsenic in drinking water is predominantly inorganic arsenic. The two oxidation states of inorganic arsenic are As(III)(pKa=9.3) and As(V)(pKa2=6.9). The distribution of As(III) and AS(V) in a water is dependent on the redox potential of the water. The actual distribution can ...

  7. Areal extent of a plume of mineralized water from a flowing artesian well in Dade County, Florida

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Waller, Bradley G.

    1982-01-01

    A flowing artesian well that taps the Floridan aquifer at Chekika Hammock State Park is contaminating the overlying Biscayne aquifer with saline water. The plume of mineralized water extends approximately 7 miles southeast of the well and ranges in width from 1 to 2 miles. The areal extent of contamination in the primary plume is approximately 12 square miles. The principal ions contaminating the Biscayne aquifer are chloride, sodium, and sulfate. (USGS)

  8. Rubidium-strontium dating of ore deposits hosted by Rb-rich rocks, using calcite and other common Sr-bearing minerals

    SciTech Connect

    Ruiz, J.; Jones, L.M.; Kelly, W.C.

    1984-05-01

    The authors have tested a Rb-Sr technique that permits ore deposits to be dated using common gangue minerals such as calcite and fluorite. The only conditions the deposit must meet are that (1) it have minerals with a low Rb/Sr ratio and (2) it be enclosed by wall rock with a high Rb/Sr ratio. Because hydrothermal minerals acquire a strontium-isotope composition that is usually similar to that of the wall rock, minerals with low Rb/Sr ratio should record and retain the isotopic composition that the wall rock had at the time of mineralization. The difference between that ratio and that of the wall rock at present is a function of time and the Rb/Sr composition of the wall rock. The technique was tested fusing fluorite and calcite from three deposits ranging in age from Tertiary to Precambrian. In all cases the age determined here closely resembles that obtained by conventional K-Ar and Rb-Sr dating methods. The precision, however, can be poor and depends chiefly on the strontium-isotope heterogeneity of the wall rock and its Rb/Sr enrichment. 36 references, 1 figure, 1 table.

  9. Profiling contents of water-soluble metabolites and mineral nutrients to evaluate the effects of pesticides and organic and chemical fertilizers on tomato fruit quality.

    PubMed

    Watanabe, Masami; Ohta, Yuko; Licang, Sun; Motoyama, Naoki; Kikuchi, Jun

    2015-02-15

    In this study, the contents of water-soluble metabolites and mineral nutrients were measured in tomatoes cultured using organic and chemical fertilizers, with or without pesticides. Mineral nutrients and water-soluble metabolites were determined by inductively coupled plasma-atomic emission spectrometry and (1)H nuclear magnetic resonance spectrometry, respectively, and results were analysed by principal components analysis (PCA). The mineral nutrient and water-soluble metabolite profiles differed between organic and chemical fertilizer applications, which accounted for 88.0% and 55.4%, respectively, of the variation. (1)H-(13)C-hetero-nuclear single quantum coherence experiments identified aliphatic protons that contributed to the discrimination of PCA. Pesticide application had little effect on mineral nutrient content (except Fe and P), but affected the correlation between mineral nutrients and metabolites. Differences in the content of mineral nutrients and water-soluble metabolites resulting from different fertilizer and pesticide applications probably affect tomato quality. PMID:25236242

  10. Profiling contents of water-soluble metabolites and mineral nutrients to evaluate the effects of pesticides and organic and chemical fertilizers on tomato fruit quality.

    PubMed

    Watanabe, Masami; Ohta, Yuko; Licang, Sun; Motoyama, Naoki; Kikuchi, Jun

    2015-02-15

    In this study, the contents of water-soluble metabolites and mineral nutrients were measured in tomatoes cultured using organic and chemical fertilizers, with or without pesticides. Mineral nutrients and water-soluble metabolites were determined by inductively coupled plasma-atomic emission spectrometry and (1)H nuclear magnetic resonance spectrometry, respectively, and results were analysed by principal components analysis (PCA). The mineral nutrient and water-soluble metabolite profiles differed between organic and chemical fertilizer applications, which accounted for 88.0% and 55.4%, respectively, of the variation. (1)H-(13)C-hetero-nuclear single quantum coherence experiments identified aliphatic protons that contributed to the discrimination of PCA. Pesticide application had little effect on mineral nutrient content (except Fe and P), but affected the correlation between mineral nutrients and metabolites. Differences in the content of mineral nutrients and water-soluble metabolites resulting from different fertilizer and pesticide applications probably affect tomato quality.

  11. Draft genome sequence of Lampropedia cohaerens strain CT6(T) isolated from arsenic rich microbial mats of a Himalayan hot water spring.

    PubMed

    Tripathi, Charu; Mahato, Nitish K; Rani, Pooja; Singh, Yogendra; Kamra, Komal; Lal, Rup

    2016-01-01

    Lampropedia cohaerens strain CT6(T), a non-motile, aerobic and coccoid strain was isolated from arsenic rich microbial mats (temperature ~45 °C) of a hot water spring located atop the Himalayan ranges at Manikaran, India. The present study reports the first genome sequence of type strain CT6(T) of genus Lampropedia cohaerens. Sequencing data was generated using the Illumina HiSeq 2000 platform and assembled with ABySS v 1.3.5. The 3,158,922 bp genome was assembled into 41 contigs with a mean GC content of 63.5 % and 2823 coding sequences. Strain CT6(T) was found to harbour genes involved in both the Entner-Duodoroff pathway and non-phosphorylated ED pathway. Strain CT6(T) also contained genes responsible for imparting resistance to arsenic, copper, cobalt, zinc, cadmium and magnesium, providing survival advantages at a thermal location. Additionally, the presence of genes associated with biofilm formation, pyrroloquinoline-quinone production, isoquinoline degradation and mineral phosphate solubilisation in the genome demonstrate the diverse genetic potential for survival at stressed niches.

  12. Draft genome sequence of Lampropedia cohaerens strain CT6(T) isolated from arsenic rich microbial mats of a Himalayan hot water spring.

    PubMed

    Tripathi, Charu; Mahato, Nitish K; Rani, Pooja; Singh, Yogendra; Kamra, Komal; Lal, Rup

    2016-01-01

    Lampropedia cohaerens strain CT6(T), a non-motile, aerobic and coccoid strain was isolated from arsenic rich microbial mats (temperature ~45 °C) of a hot water spring located atop the Himalayan ranges at Manikaran, India. The present study reports the first genome sequence of type strain CT6(T) of genus Lampropedia cohaerens. Sequencing data was generated using the Illumina HiSeq 2000 platform and assembled with ABySS v 1.3.5. The 3,158,922 bp genome was assembled into 41 contigs with a mean GC content of 63.5 % and 2823 coding sequences. Strain CT6(T) was found to harbour genes involved in both the Entner-Duodoroff pathway and non-phosphorylated ED pathway. Strain CT6(T) also contained genes responsible for imparting resistance to arsenic, copper, cobalt, zinc, cadmium and magnesium, providing survival advantages at a thermal location. Additionally, the presence of genes associated with biofilm formation, pyrroloquinoline-quinone production, isoquinoline degradation and mineral phosphate solubilisation in the genome demonstrate the diverse genetic potential for survival at stressed niches. PMID:27610214

  13. Physiological effects of fibre-rich types of bread. 1. The effect of dietary fibre from bread on the mineral balance of young men.

    PubMed

    Van Dokkum, W; Wesstra, A; Schippers, F A

    1982-05-01

    1. Twelve young adult male volunteers were given a low-fibre white bread diet (9 g neutral-detergent fibre (NDF)/d) and a medium-fibre coarse-bran bread diet (22 g NDF/d), each lasting 20 d. In ad third period of 20 d the volunteers were subdivided in groups of four, consuming a high-fibre coarse-bran bread diet (35 g NDF/d), a medium-fibre fine-bran bread diet (22 g NDF/d, bran particle size less than 0.35 mm) or a wholemeal bread diet (22 g NDF/d). Retention of calcium, magnesium, iron, zinc and copper were determined during each 20 d period. 2. An increase of the amount of dietary fibre (through bran) from 9 g to 22 g NDF/d resulted in a significantly increased mineral intake, but also faecal excretion increased significantly; mineral retention remained almost constant. 3. Both intake and faecal excretion of all minerals studied, except faecal Ca, increased further (P less than 0.05) on the diet providing 35 g NDF/d; only Fe balance decreased significantly. No significant differences with respect to intake, excretion (except urinary Ca) and balance of the minerals could be detected between the coarse-bran bread and fine-bran bread diets providing 22 g NDF/d. Faecal Fe, Cu balance and Mg balance increased significantly during the wholemeal bread period compared to the coarse-bran bread diet providing 22 g NDF. 4. Serum cholesterol increased significantly, i.e. by 0.3 mmol/l, during the coarse-bran bread diet providing 22 g NDF, compared to the white-bread diet. 5. It is concluded that increasing the amount of bran in bread does not appear to affect mineral balance considerably but there seems to be an influence on mineral availability. The increased intake was accompanied by increased faecal excretion.

  14. Influence of changing water sources and mineral chemistry on the everglades ecosystem

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    McCormick, P.V.; Harvey, J.W.; Crawford, E.S.

    2011-01-01

    Human influences during the previous century increased mineral inputs to the Florida Everglades by changing the sources and chemistry of surface inflows. Biogeochemical responses to this enrichment include changes in the availability of key limiting nutrients such as P, the potential for increased turnover of nutrient pools due to accelerated plant decomposition, and increased rates of mercury methylation associated with sulfate enrichment. Mineral enrichment has also been linked to the loss of sensitive macrophyte species, although dominant Everglades species appear tolerant of a broad range of mineral chemistry. Shifts in periphyton community composition and function provide an especially sensitive indicator of mineral enrichment. Understanding the influence of mineral chemistry on Everglades processes and biota may improve predictions of ecosystem responses to ongoing hydrologic restoration efforts and provide guidelines for protecting remaining mineral-poor areas of this peatland. Copyright ?? 2011 Taylor & Francis Group, LLC.

  15. Large-basin ground water circulation and paleo-reconstruction of circulation leading to uranium mineralization in Grand Canyon breccia pipes, Arizona

    SciTech Connect

    Huntoon, P.W.

    1996-07-01

    Breccia pipes - vertical collapse structures - are common in the Phanerozoic sedimentary section in the Grand Canyon region. Breccias in economically significant pipes are as great as 900 m high and 90 m in diameter. The pipes originated through collapse into paleocaverns in Mississippian carbonates. The large heights of the mineralized pipes is attributed to upward stoping resulting from progressive creation of space within the pipes through dissolution of wall rocks and soluble constituents in the breccia clasts. The paleocaves that served as nucleation sites for the pipes date from Mississippian time. Stoping appears to have been reactivated or accelerated during Triassic time as terrains to the south became uplifted. Uplift cause hydraulic gradients within aquifers in the Paleozoic section to increase significantly which enhanced ground water circulation and attendant dissolution. The most likely source for uranium in the Grand Canyon breccia pipes was eroding volcanic and Precambrian crystalline rocks in the Triassic Mogollon highlands south of the Grand Canyon region. The circulation model proposed herein assumes that uranium-rich waters originating in the highlands recharged through the exposed Redwall Limestone and circulated northward in the artesian Redwall aquifer. On reaching the Grand Canyon region, the water circulated upward into the Phanerozoic section in the breccia pipes which served as permeability pathways through thick confining strata. The pipes concentrated fluid circulation and directed it through reducing environments which caused precipitation of the uranium and associated metals yielding a number of economic uranium ore bodies. The architecture of the circulation systems in the Colorado plateau prior to incision of the Colorado river was such that hydraulic heads decreased within successively shallower aquifers. Consequently, head gradients at any location were upward in the pipes during the mineralizing stages.

  16. Hydrogen-Rich Water Intake Accelerates Oral Palatal Wound Healing via Activation of the Nrf2/Antioxidant Defense Pathways in a Rat Model.

    PubMed

    Tamaki, Naofumi; Orihuela-Campos, Rita Cristina; Fukui, Makoto; Ito, Hiro-O

    2016-01-01

    The wound healing process attempts to restore the integrity and function of the injured tissue. Additionally, proinflammatory cytokines, growth factors, and oxidative stress play important roles in wound healing. The aim of this study was to determine whether hydrogen-rich water intake induces the activation of the Nrf2/antioxidant defense pathway in rat palatal tissue, thereby reducing systemic oxidative stress and proinflammatory cytokine levels and promoting healing-associated genes. A circular excisional wound was created in the oral palatal region, and the wound healing process was observed. The rats were divided into two experimental groups in which either hydrogen-rich water or distilled water was consumed. In the drinking hydrogen-rich water, the palatal wound healing process was accelerated compared to that in the control group. As molecular hydrogen upregulated the Nrf2 pathway, systemic oxidative stresses were decreased by the activation of antioxidant activity. Furthermore, hydrogen-rich water intake reduced proinflammatory cytokine levels and promoted the expression of healing-associated factors in rat palatal tissue. In conclusion, hydrogen-rich water intake exhibited multiple beneficial effects through activation of the Nrf2/antioxidant defense pathway. The results of this study support the hypothesis that oral administration of hydrogen-rich water benefits the wound healing process by decreasing oxidative stress and inflammatory responses.

  17. Hydrogen-Rich Water Intake Accelerates Oral Palatal Wound Healing via Activation of the Nrf2/Antioxidant Defense Pathways in a Rat Model

    PubMed Central

    Orihuela-Campos, Rita Cristina; Fukui, Makoto; Ito, Hiro-O

    2016-01-01

    The wound healing process attempts to restore the integrity and function of the injured tissue. Additionally, proinflammatory cytokines, growth factors, and oxidative stress play important roles in wound healing. The aim of this study was to determine whether hydrogen-rich water intake induces the activation of the Nrf2/antioxidant defense pathway in rat palatal tissue, thereby reducing systemic oxidative stress and proinflammatory cytokine levels and promoting healing-associated genes. A circular excisional wound was created in the oral palatal region, and the wound healing process was observed. The rats were divided into two experimental groups in which either hydrogen-rich water or distilled water was consumed. In the drinking hydrogen-rich water, the palatal wound healing process was accelerated compared to that in the control group. As molecular hydrogen upregulated the Nrf2 pathway, systemic oxidative stresses were decreased by the activation of antioxidant activity. Furthermore, hydrogen-rich water intake reduced proinflammatory cytokine levels and promoted the expression of healing-associated factors in rat palatal tissue. In conclusion, hydrogen-rich water intake exhibited multiple beneficial effects through activation of the Nrf2/antioxidant defense pathway. The results of this study support the hypothesis that oral administration of hydrogen-rich water benefits the wound healing process by decreasing oxidative stress and inflammatory responses. PMID:26798423

  18. Mineral saturation and scaling tendencies of waters discharged from wells (>150 şC) in geothermal areas of Turkey

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Tarcan, Gültekin

    2005-04-01

    Aqueous species distribution was calculated from the chemical composition of water discharges from 27 selected production wells, with reservoir temperatures >150 şC, in seven geothermal areas including Kızıldere, Salavatlı, Germencik, Kavaklıdere-Sazdere, Salihli-Caferbeyli, Simav, and Tuzla. Twenty-five of the water compositions are relatively dilute with electroconductivity values of 1826 to 7200 μS/cm and are dominated by Na (410 to 2027 mg/kg), Cl (45 to 1882 mg/kg), and alkalinity-CO 2 (491 to 2312 mg/kg). Two water samples from Tuzla are highly saline connate waters with Cl of 35 273 to 44 140 mg/kg and Na of 18 200 to 22 250 mg/kg. Mineral equilibrium modeling indicates that the aquifer waters in these selected geothermal wells, with some exceptions, are oversaturated with respect to calcite, aragonite, and celestite, but undersaturated with respect to gypsum, anhydrite, fluorite, Ca-montmorillonite, anorthite, albite-low, gibbsite, illite, kaolinite, and K-feldspar. The waters are at near saturation with respect to chalcedony, quartz, amorphous silica, dolomite, and strontianite. Calculation of mineral saturation states, geochemical studies, and field observations show that carbonate minerals (calcite, aragonite, and dolomite), amorphous silica, and sulfate minerals (celestite and anhydrite) are most likely to be precipitated as scales in geothermal wells. Assessment of calcite and amorphous silica scaling tendencies for selected well waters indicates that hot injection is favorable for Tuzla well T-2 (˜50-170 şC) and for Kızıldere wells R-1 and KD-6 (around 100 şC). For the other wells, cold injection (<50 şC) is favored if calcite and amorphous silica accumulation is to be avoided in injection wells.

  19. Geochemical study of groundwater mineralization in the Grombalia shallow aquifer, north-eastern Tunisia: implication of irrigation and industrial waste water accounting

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Ben Moussa, Amor; Zouari, Kamel; Oueslati, Naceur

    2009-08-01

    Hydrochemistry of groundwater is largely determined by both natural processes, such as dissolution, cation exchange, mixing, evaporation; and anthropogenic activities, which can affect the aquifer systems by contaminating them or by modifying their hydrological cycle. Both natural and anthropogenic processes vary in time and space; which is reflected in groundwater hydrochemistry variation. The objective of this study is the determination of the main hydrogeochemical processes that affect the quality of shallow groundwaters in the Grombalia basin, located in the Cap Bon Peninsula, north-eastern Tunisia. In this area, the chemical composition of groundwater is mostly characterized by Na-Cl-NO3-Ca water type which reveals the implication of natural and anthropogenic major factors. Natural factors are dissolution of evaporatic minerals, i.e. halite and gypsum and cation exchange with clays, while anthropogenic factors are pollution with industrial Sr-rich waste water and return flow of irrigation water, highly contaminated by MgSO4 and methyl-bromide fertilizers.

  20. Water quality improvement by natural plant-mineral composites and field temperatures of a eutrophic lake in South Korea.

    PubMed

    Jung-Hwan, Byung; Kim, Ha-Kyung; Mun, Sun-Ki; Kim, Baik-Ho

    2014-09-01

    To improve the water quality of Shingal Reservoir, a eutrophic lake in South Korea, field tests were performed to assess the influence of water temperature on water quality improvement (WQI) ability of domestic plant-mineral composites (PMCs). Interestingly, Cyanobacterium was found to be dominant even in low-temperature seasons, especially winter leading to more effective for diatom growth. Factors such as phytoplankton, biological oxygen demand (BOD) and phosphorous showed high WQI over 70% at 20 degrees C, but declined to 40% at temperatures above 25 degrees C. WQI for Cyanobacteria decreased with increasing water temperature, whereas for diatoms WQI was 90% regardless of water temperature. Additionally, bacterial density and total nitrogen showed very low WQI without water temperature. Collectively, the results indicate that high water temperature decreased WQI ability of a PMC to control phytoplankton (Microcystis aeruginosa) and increased their ability to control diatoms. PMID:25204051

  1. [Development and Applicability of Analytical Methods for Quantifying Cyanide and Bromic Acid in Mineral Waters].

    PubMed

    Fukuda, Yusaku; Kataoka, Yohei; Sano, Yuki; Takizawa, Kazuhiro; Watanabe, Takahiro; Teshima, Reiko

    2015-01-01

    We developed and evaluated methods of quantifying cyanide (cyanide ion and cyanogen chloride) and bromic acid in mineral waters (MW). After performance evaluation, recovery studies were performed on 110 kinds of MW products to examine the applicability of the methods. The approximate proportion of the MW samples, in which the recovery rate of these anionic compounds was within 90 to 110%, was 95% in the cyanide ion and bromic acid analysis and 45% in the cyanogen chloride analysis. We observed low rates of recovery of cyanogen chloride from some MW products with pH values around neutral. To increase the recovery rate, we propose adding phosphoric acid buffer to adjust the pH of these MW samples. The retention times for bromic acid in some MW products differed from that in standard solution. We concluded that carbonic acid influences the retention times. It may be necessary to to exclude carbon dioxide from the MW samples by degassing to synchronize the retention times of bromic acid in the MW samples and the standard solution.

  2. [Development and Applicability of Analytical Methods for Quantifying Cyanide and Bromic Acid in Mineral Waters].

    PubMed

    Fukuda, Yusaku; Kataoka, Yohei; Sano, Yuki; Takizawa, Kazuhiro; Watanabe, Takahiro; Teshima, Reiko

    2015-01-01

    We developed and evaluated methods of quantifying cyanide (cyanide ion and cyanogen chloride) and bromic acid in mineral waters (MW). After performance evaluation, recovery studies were performed on 110 kinds of MW products to examine the applicability of the methods. The approximate proportion of the MW samples, in which the recovery rate of these anionic compounds was within 90 to 110%, was 95% in the cyanide ion and bromic acid analysis and 45% in the cyanogen chloride analysis. We observed low rates of recovery of cyanogen chloride from some MW products with pH values around neutral. To increase the recovery rate, we propose adding phosphoric acid buffer to adjust the pH of these MW samples. The retention times for bromic acid in some MW products differed from that in standard solution. We concluded that carbonic acid influences the retention times. It may be necessary to to exclude carbon dioxide from the MW samples by degassing to synchronize the retention times of bromic acid in the MW samples and the standard solution. PMID:26699274

  3. Pseudomonas brenneri sp. nov., a new species isolated from natural mineral waters.

    PubMed

    Baïda, N; Yazourh, A; Singer, E; Izard, D

    2001-06-01

    The vernacular name 'fluorescent Pseudomonas group 97-391' was coined for a group of 11 strains isolated from two French natural mineral waters. All these strains were Gram-negative, rod-shaped and motile by means of a single polar flagellum. They produced fluorescent pigment (pyoverdin) on King B medium, catalase and cytochrome oxidase. They were not able to accumulate poly-beta-hydroxybutyrate. They were capable of respiratory but not fermentative metabolism. DNA-DNA hybridization results and DNA base composition analysis revealed that strains of the 'fluorescent Pseudomonas group 97-391' were members of a new species, for which the name Pseudomonas brenneri sp. nov. (type strain CIP 106646T) is proposed. The levels of DNA-DNA relatedness within this group ranged from 70 to 100% with DeltaTm below 1 degree C. The G+C content of the DNA of the type strain was 58 mol%. DNA relatedness with 72 strains representing well-known or partially characterized species of the genus Pseudomonas (sensu stricto) was below 48%. The complete 16S rRNA sequence of the type strain CIP 106646T was determined and compared with those of the type strains of Pseudomonas species. Finally, a phylogenetic tree was inferred from sequence analysis and demonstrated that the new species fell into the 'Pseudomonas fluorescens intrageneric cluster'. The clinical significance of P. brenneri is unknown. PMID:11446518

  4. In situ observations of nanoparticle early development kinetics at mineral-water interfaces.

    SciTech Connect

    Jun, Y. S.; Lee, B.; Waychunas, G. A.

    2010-10-08

    The early development of nanoparticles at mineral?water interfaces exerts crucial influences on the sequestration and transport of aqueous toxic species originating from both natural and anthropogenic sources. Homogeneous and heterogeneous nucleation often occur simultaneously, making it difficult to sort out whether toxic species are transported as free species, sorbed on nanoparticle surfaces, or trapped between aggregated nanoparticles. Here, using a newly developed X-ray scattering setup, we show how homogeneous nucleation and growth can be quantitatively separated from heterogeneous processes under aqueous conditions in real-time. Under conditions found in acid-mine-drainage (at pH 3.6 and [Fe{sup 3+}] = 10{sup -4} M), heterogeneous nucleation of iron oxide nanoparticles on quartz dominated homogeneous nucleation by a factor of 192 (by particle volume). The smallest heterogeneously formed nanoparticles had radii of 1.7 {+-} 0.5 nm, significantly smaller than the size estimated using classical nucleation theory (CNT). Based on the data, the dominant nucleation and growth mechanisms of iron oxide nanoparticles depending on ionic strength were presented. Our findings have implications for the formation and transport of nanoparticles, and thus toxins, in both environmental and biological systems.

  5. [Shmakovka narzan mineral water in the treatment of chronic pyelonephritis in children].

    PubMed

    Olofinskiĭ, L A; Alekseeva, I L

    1990-01-01

    The impact of "Pasechnyĭ" spa of the Shmakovka health resort on the circadian urinary output, renal excretion of magnesium, calcium, nonorganic phosphorus, oxalates, uric acid, phospholipids, acido- and ammoniogenases, daily fluctuations of urinary pH was studied for the first time in 65 children with chronic pyelonephritis. In the presence of spa treatment the authors revealed a 75-100 per cent increase in the circadian urinary output, urinary excretion of magnesium, uric acid, ammonia, titrated acids, a decrease in the levels of calcium, oxalates, nonorganic phosphorus and acidification of the urine at 9 o'clock in the morning mainly in children with primary pyelonephritis and at 9 and 6 o'clock in the morning in patients with concurrent uricosuria. Other parameters were not significantly different from those in the controls. Acidification of the urine in the presence of high uricosuria resulted in crystalluria of urates and oxalates in 26.31 per cent of patients with the concurrent urate diathesis. The water of Shmakovka mineral springs is recommended for patients with primary pyelonephritis, phosphaturia and calcium oxalate crystalluria with alkaline reaction of the urine and unjustified for those who suffered from urate diathesis.

  6. Herminiimonas fonticola gen. nov., sp. nov., a Betaproteobacterium isolated from a source of bottled mineral water.

    PubMed

    Fernandes, Chantal; Rainey, Fred A; Nobre, M Fernanda; Pinhal, Isabel; Folhas, Fátima; da Costa, Milton S

    2005-09-01

    Several yellowish-pigmented bacteria with an optimum growth temperature of about 30 degrees C, were recovered from the source (borehole) of bottled mineral water in the Serra da Estrela in Eastern Portugal. Phylogenetic analyses of the 16S rRNA gene sequence of strains S-94T , S-97, S-99 and S-92 indicated that these organisms represent a new species of the Betaproteobacteria that is not closely related to any other known species. The major fatty acids of the strains are 16:1 omega7c and 16:0. Ubiquinone 8 is the major respiratory quinone. The new isolates are strictly organotrophic and aerobic. The new strains only assimilated organic acids, glycine and alanine. Casamino acids and a mixture of all natural amino acids are not used as sole carbon and nitrogen sources; these are used as nitrogen source in the presence of organic acids. On the basis of the phylogenetic analyses, physiological and biochemical characteristics, we are of the opinion that strains S-94T, S-97, S-99 and S-92 represent a new species of a novel genus for which we propose the name Herminiimonas fonticola gen. nov., sp. nov.

  7. [A De-Noising Algorithm for Fluorescence Detection Signal of Mineral Oil in Water by SWT].

    PubMed

    Wang, Yu-tian; Cheng, Peng-fei; Hou, Pei-guo; Yang, Zhe

    2015-05-01

    Fluorescence analysis is an important means of detecting mineral oil in water pollutants because of high sensitivity, selectivity, ease of design, etc. Noise generated from Photo detector will affect the sensitivity of fluorescence detection system, so the elimination of fluorescence signal noise has been a hot issue. For the fluorescence signal, due to the length increase of the branch set, it produces some boundary issues. The dbN wavelet family can flexibly balance the border issues, retain the useful signals and get. rid of noise, the de-noising effects of dbN families are compared, the db7 wavelet is chosen as the optimal wavelet. The noisy fluorescence signal is statically decomposed into 5 levels via db7 wavelet, and the thresholds are chosen adaptively based on the wavelet entropy theory. The pure fluorescence signal is obtained after the approximation coefficients and detail coefficients quantified by thresholds reconstructed. Compared with the DWT, the signal de-noised via SWT has the advantage of information integrity and time translation invariance.

  8. Water chemistry and nutrient release during the resuspension of FeS-rich sediments in a eutrophic estuarine system.

    PubMed

    Morgan, Bree; Rate, Andrew W; Burton, Edward D

    2012-08-15

    The objective of this study was to investigate the impact of resuspending FeS-rich benthic sediment on estuarine water chemistry. To address this objective, we conducted (1) a series of laboratory-based sediment resuspension experiments and (2) also monitored changes in surface water composition during field-based sediment resuspension events that were caused by dredging activities in the Peel-Harvey Estuary, Western Australia. Our laboratory resuspension experiments showed that the resuspension of FeS-rich sediments rapidly deoxygenated estuarine water. In contrast, dredging activities in the field did not noticeably lower O(2) concentrations in adjacent surface water. Additionally, while FeS oxidation in the laboratory resuspensions caused measurable decreases in pH, the field pH was unaffected by the dredging event and dissolved trace metal concentrations remained very low throughout the monitoring period. Dissolved ammonium (NH(4)(+)) and inorganic phosphorus (PO(4)-P) were released into the water column during the resuspension of sediments in both the field and laboratory. Following its initial release, PO(4)-P was rapidly removed from solution in the laboratory-based (<1h) and field-based (<100 m from sediment disposal point) investigations. In comparison to PO(4)-P, NH(4)(+) release was observed to be more prolonged over the 2-week period of the laboratory resuspension experiments. However, our field-based observations revealed that elevated NH(4)(+) concentrations were localised to <100 m from the sediment disposal point. This study demonstrates that alongside the emphasis on acidification, deoxygenation and metal release during FeS resuspension, it is important to consider the possibility of nutrient release from disturbed sediments in eutrophic estuaries.

  9. Discovery of Buseckite, (Fe,Zn,Mn)S, a New Mineral in Zakłodzie, an Ungrouped Enstatite-Rich Achondrite

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Ma, C.; Beckett, J. R.; Rossman, G. R.

    2012-03-01

    We report here new mineral buseckite (Fe,Zn,Mn)S with a wurtzite-type hexagonal structure, and consider the origin of this phase and implications through its formation and survival for the evolution of the Zakłodzie meteorite.

  10. Volatile Delivery to Planets from Water-rich Planetesimals around Low Mass Stars

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Ciesla, Fred J.; Mulders, Gijs D.; Pascucci, Ilaria; Apai, Dániel

    2015-05-01

    Most models of volatile delivery to accreting terrestrial planets assume that the carriers for water are similar in water content to the carbonaceous chondrites in our solar system. Here we consider how the water content of planetesimals may be higher in many planetary systems, as they could lack the short-lived radionuclides that drove water loss in carbonaceous chondrites in our solar system. Using N-body simulations, we explore how planetary accretion would be different if bodies beyond the water line contained a water-mass fraction consistent with chemical equilibrium calculations, and more similar to comets, as opposed to the more traditional water-depleted values. We apply this model to consider planet formation around stars of different masses and identify trends in the properties of habitable zone planets and planetary system architecture that could be tested by ongoing exoplanet census data collection. Comparison of such data with the model-predicted trends will serve to evaluate how well the N-body simulations and the initial conditions used in studies of planetary accretion can be used to understand this stage of planet formation.

  11. VOLATILE DELIVERY TO PLANETS FROM WATER-RICH PLANETESIMALS AROUND LOW-MASS STARS

    SciTech Connect

    Ciesla, Fred J.; Mulders, Gijs D.; Pascucci, Ilaria; Apai, Dániel

    2015-05-01

    Most models of volatile delivery to accreting terrestrial planets assume that the carriers for water are similar in water content to the carbonaceous chondrites in our solar system. Here we consider how the water content of planetesimals may be higher in many planetary systems, as they could lack the short-lived radionuclides that drove water loss in carbonaceous chondrites in our solar system. Using N-body simulations, we explore how planetary accretion would be different if bodies beyond the water line contained a water-mass fraction consistent with chemical equilibrium calculations, and more similar to comets, as opposed to the more traditional water-depleted values. We apply this model to consider planet formation around stars of different masses and identify trends in the properties of habitable zone planets and planetary system architecture that could be tested by ongoing exoplanet census data collection. Comparison of such data with the model-predicted trends will serve to evaluate how well the N-body simulations and the initial conditions used in studies of planetary accretion can be used to understand this stage of planet formation.

  12. Geochemistry of thermal/mineral waters in the Clear Lake region, California, and implications for hot dry rock geothermal development

    SciTech Connect

    Goff, F.; Adams, A.I.; Trujillo, P.E.; Counce, D.; Mansfield, J.

    1993-02-01

    Thermal/mineral waters of the Clear Lake region are broadly classified as thermal meteoric and connote types based on chemical and isotopic criteria. Ratios of conservative components such as B/Cl are extremely different among all thermal/mineral waters of the Clear Lake region except for clusters of waters emerging from specific areas such as the Wilbur Springs district and the Agricultural Park area south of Mt. Konocti. In contrast, ratios of conservative components in large, homogeneous geothermal reservoirs are constant. Stable isotope values of Clear Lake region waters show a mixing trend between thermal meteoric and connote end-members. The latter end-member has enriched [delta]D as well as enriched d[sup l8]O, very different from typical high-temperature geothermal reservoir waters. Tritium data and modeling of ages indicate most Clear Lake region waters are 500 to > 10,000 yr., although mixing of old and young components is implied by the data. The age of end-member connate water is probably > 10,000 yr. Subsurface equilibration temperature of most thermal/mineral waters of the Clear Lake region is [le] 150[degrees]C based on chemical geothermometers but it is recognized that Clear Lake region waters are not typical geothermal fluids and that they violate rules of application of many geothermometers. The combined data indicate that no large geothermal reservoir underlies the Clear Lake region and that small localized reservoirs have equilibration temperatures [le] 150[degrees]C (except for Sulphur Bank Mine). Hot dry rock technologies are the best way to commercially exploit the known high temperatures existing beneath the Clear Lake region, particularly within the main Clear Lake volcanic field.

  13. Ground water regimes containing country rock minerals in Southern Kuzbass (case study: Narysk-Ostashkin)

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Domrocheva, E.; Lepokurova, O.

    2016-03-01

    The paper describes the calculation results revealing groundwater in equilibrium to carbonates and aluminosilicate minerals of country rocks in Narysk-Ostashkinsk area. It was proved that groundwater is in nonequilibrium to primary (endogenous) minerals in which they dissolve, however are in equilibrium to clays and carbonates which precipitate in the groundwater. The groundwater composition varies.

  14. 3-D Numerical Modeling as a Tool for Managing Mineral Water Extraction from a Complex Groundwater Basin in Italy

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Zanini, A.; Tanda, M.

    2007-12-01

    The groundwater in Italy plays an important role as drinking water; in fact it covers about the 30% of the national demand (70% in Northern Italy). The mineral water distribution in Italy is an important business with an increasing demand from abroad countries. The mineral water Companies have a great interest in order to increase the water extraction, but for the delicate and complex geology of the subsoil, where such very high quality waters are contained, a particular attention must be paid in order to avoid an excessive lowering of the groundwater reservoirs or great changes in the groundwater flow directions. A big water Company asked our University to set up a numerical model of the groundwater basin, in order to obtain a useful tool which allows to evaluate the strength of the aquifer and to design new extraction wells. The study area is located along Appennini Mountains and it covers a surface of about 18 km2; the topography ranges from 200 to 600 m a.s.l.. In ancient times only a spring with naturally sparkling water was known in the area, but at present the mineral water is extracted from deep pumping wells. The area is characterized by a very complex geology: the subsoil structure is described by a sequence of layers of silt-clay, marl-clay, travertine and alluvial deposit. Different groundwater layers are present and the one with best quality flows in the travertine layer; the natural flow rate seems to be not subjected to seasonal variations. The water age analysis revealed a very old water which means that the mineral aquifers are not directly connected with the meteoric recharge. The Geologists of the Company suggest that the water supply of the mineral aquifers comes from a carbonated unit located in the deep layers of the mountains bordering the spring area. The valley is crossed by a river that does not present connections to the mineral aquifers. Inside the area there are about 30 pumping wells that extract water at different depths. We built a 3

  15. Electronic structure calculations of mercury mobilization from mineral phases and photocatalytic removal from water and the atmosphere.

    PubMed

    Da Pieve, Fabiana; Stankowski, Martin; Hogan, Conor

    2014-09-15

    Mercury is a hazardous environmental pollutant mobilized from natural sources, and anthropogenically contaminated and disturbed areas. Current methods to assess mobility and environmental impact are mainly based on field measurements, soil monitoring, and kinetic modelling. In order to understand in detail the extent to which different mineral sources can give rise to mercury release it is necessary to investigate the complexity at the microscopic level and the possible degradation/dissolution processes. In this work, we investigated the potential for mobilization of mercury structurally trapped in three relevant minerals occurring in hot spring environments and mining areas, namely, cinnabar (α-HgS), corderoite (α-Hg3S2Cl2), and mercuric chloride (HgCl2). Quantum chemical methods based on density functional theory as well as more sophisticated approaches are used to assess the possibility of a) direct photoreduction and formation of elemental Hg at the surface of the minerals, providing a path for ready release in the environment; and b) reductive dissolution of the minerals in the presence of solutions containing halogens. Furthermore, we study the use of TiO2 as a potential photocatalyst for decontamination of polluted waters (mainly Hg(2+)-containing species) and air (atmospheric Hg(0)). Our results partially explain the observed pathways of Hg mobilization from relevant minerals and the microscopic mechanisms behind photocatalytic removal of Hg-based pollutants. Possible sources of disagreement with observations are discussed and further improvements to our approach are suggested.

  16. Biogeochemical response of organic-rich freshwater marshes in the Louisiana delta plain to chronic river water influx

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Swarzenski, C.M.; Doyle, T.W.; Fry, B.; Hargis, T.G.

    2008-01-01

    To help evaluate effects of Mississippi River inputs to sustainability of coastal Louisiana ecosystems, we compared porewater and substrate quality of organic-rich Panicum hemitomon freshwater marshes inundated by river water annually for more than 30 years (Penchant basin, PB) or not during the same time (Barataria basin, BB). In the marshes receiving river water the soil environment was more reduced, the organic substrate was more decomposed and accumulated more sulfur. The porewater dissolved ammonium and orthophosphate concentrations were an order of magnitude higher and sulfide and alkalinity concentrations were more than twice as high in PB compared with BB marshes. The pH was higher and dissolved iron concentrations were more than an order of magnitude lower in PB marshes than in BB marshes. The influx of nutrient-rich river water did not enhance end-of-year above-ground standing biomass or vertical accretion rates of the shallow substrate. The differences in porewater chemistry and substrate quality are reasonably linked to the long-term influx of river water through biogeochemical processes and transformations involving alkalinity, nitrate and sulfate. The key factor is the continual replenishment of alkalinity, nitrate and sulfate via overland flow during high river stage each year for several weeks to more than 6 months. This leads to a reducing soil environment, pooling of the phytotoxin sulfide and inorganic nutrients in porewater, and internally generated alkalinity. Organic matter decomposition is enhanced under these conditions and root mats degraded. The more decomposed root mat makes these marshes more susceptible to erosion during infrequent high-energy events (for example hurricanes) and regular low-energy events, such as tides and the passage of weather fronts. Our findings were unexpected and, if generally applicable, suggest that river diversions may not be the beneficial mitigating agent of wetland restoration and conservation that they are

  17. Effects of experimental water table and temperature manipulations on ecosystem CO2 fluxes in an Alaskan rich fen

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Chivers, M.R.; Turetsky, M.R.; Waddington, J.M.; Harden, J.W.; McGuire, A.D.

    2009-01-01

    Peatlands store 30% of the world's terrestrial soil carbon (C) and those located at northern latitudes are expected to experience rapid climate warming. We monitored growing season carbon dioxide (CO2) fluxes across a factorial design of in situ water table (control, drought, and flooded plots) and soil warming (control vs. warming via open top chambers) treatments for 2 years in a rich fen located just outside the Bonanza Creek Experimental Forest in interior Alaska. The drought (lowered water table position) treatment was a weak sink or small source of atmospheric CO2 compared to the moderate atmospheric CO2 sink at our control. This change in net ecosystem exchange was due to lower gross primary production and light-saturated photosynthesis rather than increased ecosystem respiration. The flooded (raised water table position) treatment was a greater CO2 sink in 2006 due largely to increased early season gross primary production and higher light-saturated photosynthesis. Although flooding did not have substantial effects on rates of ecosystem respiration, this water table treatment had lower maximum respiration rates and a higher temperature sensitivity of ecosystem respiration than the control plot. Surface soil warming increased both ecosystem respiration and gross primary production by approximately 16% compared to control (ambient temperature) plots, with no net effect on net ecosystem exchange. Results from this rich fen manipulation suggest that fast responses to drought will include reduced ecosystem C storage driven by plant stress, whereas inundation will increase ecosystem C storage by stimulating plant growth. ?? 2009 Springer Science+Business Media, LLC.

  18. Heterogeneous water content in the lunar interior: insights from orbital detection of water in lunar pyroclastic deposits and silicic rich domes

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Li, S.; Milliken, R.

    2015-12-01

    Constraining the distribution and abundance of water (H2O and/or OH) in the lunar interior is crucial for assessing the formation and evolution of the Moon. Deriving such information from returned lunar samples is the most direct approach, but only a few regions have been sampled. Reflectance spectra for the 3μm region, remotely sensed by the Moon Mineralogy Mapper (M3), provide an alternative way to characterize lunar water at a global scale. Though such methods only probe the optical surface, hydration in some materials may result from internal processes instead of interaction with the solar wind. Constraining the volatile content of pyroclastic deposits and silicic rich domes, for example, can provide insight into volatile distribution and evolution related to magmatic processes. Thermally-corrected M3 data, constrained by Diviner temperatures and laboratory data, enable us to estimate the amount of water in these deposits. We find evidence for increased hydration signatures at nearly all large pyroclastic deposits relative to background values for surrounding terrains, suggestive of H2O-bearing magmas. Water contents for these deposits exhibit a linear correlation with the deposit range, largely consistent with lunar magma eruption models. In addition, the water content at inferred high-Ti deposits is higher than that of low-Ti pyroclastics for the same deposit range, which may reflect inherent differences in the water content or degassing history of the associated magmas. Our results also suggest that over half of the examined silicic-rich domes are very dry (no detectable water signature), which suggests either a volatile-poor source or a very different degassing history compared to pyroclastic deposits. Potential silicic-rich domes are inferred to have formed due to ascension of immiscible silicic melts in which volatiles may have been concentrated. Those silicic melts might cool slowly and allow extensive diffusion of water, whereas quenched glasses in

  19. Microbially mediated mineral carbonation

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Power, I. M.; Wilson, S. A.; Dipple, G. M.; Southam, G.

    2010-12-01

    Mineral carbonation involves silicate dissolution and carbonate precipitation, which are both natural processes that microorganisms are able to mediate in near surface environments (Ferris et al., 1994; Eq. 1). (Ca,Mg)SiO3 + 2H2CO3 + H2O → (Ca,Mg)CO3 + H2O + H4SiO4 + O2 (1) Cyanobacteria are photoautotrophs with cell surface characteristics and metabolic processes involving inorganic carbon that can induce carbonate precipitation. This occurs partly by concentrating cations within their net-negative cell envelope and through the alkalinization of their microenvironment (Thompson & Ferris, 1990). Regions with mafic and ultramafic bedrock, such as near Atlin, British Columbia, Canada, represent the best potential sources of feedstocks for mineral carbonation. The hydromagnesite playas near Atlin are a natural biogeochemical model for the carbonation of magnesium silicate minerals (Power et al., 2009). Field-based studies at Atlin and corroborating laboratory experiments demonstrate the ability of a microbial consortium dominated by filamentous cyanobacteria to induce the precipitation of carbonate minerals. Phototrophic microbes, such as cyanobacteria, have been proposed as a means for producing biodiesel and other value added products because of their efficiency as solar collectors and low requirement for valuable, cultivable land in comparison to crops (Dismukes et al., 2008). Carbonate precipitation and biomass production could be facilitated using specifically designed ponds to collect waters rich in dissolved cations (e.g., Mg2+ and Ca2+), which would allow for evapoconcentration and provide an appropriate environment for growth of cyanobacteria. Microbially mediated carbonate precipitation does not require large quantities of energy or chemicals needed for industrial systems that have been proposed for rapid carbon capture and storage via mineral carbonation (e.g., Lackner et al., 1995). Therefore, this biogeochemical approach may represent a readily

  20. Trace level determination of beryllium in natural and flavored mineral waters after pre-concentration using activated carbon.

    PubMed

    Kılınç, Ersin; Bakırdere, Sezgin; Yaman, Mehmet

    2011-04-01

    The concentrations of beryllium (Be) in natural and flavored mineral water samples were determined by flame atomic absorption spectrophotometer (FAAS) after pre-concentration based on the complexation of Be(+2) with a mixture of acetylacetone (pentane-2,4-dione) plus morin (3,5,7,2',4'-pentaoxyflavone) and adsorption on activated carbon. The adsorbed complex was eluted with 1.5 ml of 2.0 M HNO(3) and evaporated to dryness. After adding 1.5 ml of 2 M HNO(3) and centrifuging, Be in acid solution was determined by FAAS. To remove a number of metals present in water, EDTA was used as a chelating agent. Beryllium in mineral water samples was pre-concentrated by 500-fold, taking 750 ml as initial sample and 1.5 ml as the final volume. The relative standard deviations were sufficiently low for practical purposes and recoveries were up to 85%. Spiking experiments were performed in real samples to establish accuracy and recoveries. The limits of detection and quantification were 0.01 and 0.03 ng ml(-1), respectively. Twenty samples were analyzed for their beryllium content using optimum parameters. The highest concentration of beryllium was found to be 0.94 ± 0.15 ng ml(-1) in a natural mineral water, while beryllium was not detected in five samples.