Science.gov

Sample records for mines and mineral products

  1. Minerals and mine drainage

    SciTech Connect

    Liang, H.C.; Thomson, B.M.

    2009-09-15

    A review of literature published in 2008 and early 2009 on research related to the production of acid mine drainage and/or in the dissolution of minerals as a result of mining, with special emphasis on the effects of these phenomena on the water quality in the surrounding environment, is presented. This review is divided into six sections: 1) Site Characterization and Assessment, 2) Protection, Prevention, and Restoration, 3) Toxicity Assessment, 4) Environmental Fate and Transport, 5) Biological Characterization, and 6) Treatment Technologies. Because there is much overlap in research areas associated with minerals and mine drainage, many papers presented in this review can be classified into more than one category, and the six sections should not be regarded as being mutually-exclusive, nor should they be thought of as being all-inclusive.

  2. Minerals and mine drainage

    SciTech Connect

    Thomson, B.M.; Turney, W.R. |

    1995-06-01

    This paper briefly lists the various literature reviews dealing with (a) Environmental regulations and impacts, and (b) Characterization, prevention, treatment and reclamation, with respect to minerals and mine drainage. 47 refs.

  3. Minerals and mine drainage

    SciTech Connect

    Thomson, B.M.; Turney, W.R.

    1996-11-01

    This paper provides a review of literature published in 1995 on the subject of wastewater related to minerals and mine drainage. Topics covered include: environmental regulations and impacts; and characterization, prevention, treatment and reclamation. 65 refs.

  4. Mineral production and mining trends for selected non-fuel commodities in Idaho and Montana, 1905-2001

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Larsen, Jeremy C.; Long, Keith R.; Assmus, Kenneth C.; Zientek, Michael L.

    2004-01-01

    Idaho and Montana state mining statistics were obtained from historical mineral production records and compiled into a continuous record from 1905 through 2001. To facilitate comparisons, the mineral production data were normalized by converting the units of measure to metric tons for all included commodities. These standardized statistical data include production rates for principal non-fuel mineral commodities from both Idaho and Montana, as well as the production rates of similar commodities for the U.S. and the world for contrast. Data are presented here in both tabular and bar chart format. Moreover, the tables of standardized mineral production data are also provided in digital format as, commodity_production.xls. Some significant historical events pertaining to the mining industry are described as well. When taken into account with the historical production data, this combined information may to help explain both specific fluctuations and general tendencies in the overall trends in the rates of mineral resource production over time.

  5. Mine and mineral occurrences of Afghanistan

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Orris, G.J.; Bliss, J.D.

    2002-01-01

    This inventory of more than 1000 mines and mineral occurrences in Afghanistan was compiled from published literature and the files of project members of the National Industrial Minerals project of the U.S. Geological Survey. The compiled data have been edited for consistency and most duplicates have been deleted. The data cover metals, industrial minerals, coal, and peat. Listings in the table represent several levels of information, including mines, mineral showings, deposits, and pegmatite fields.

  6. 36 CFR 1005.14 - Prospecting, mining, and mineral leasing.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-07-01

    ... mineral leasing. 1005.14 Section 1005.14 Parks, Forests, and Public Property PRESIDIO TRUST COMMERCIAL AND PRIVATE OPERATIONS § 1005.14 Prospecting, mining, and mineral leasing. Prospecting, mining, and the location of mining claims under the general mining laws and leasing under the mineral leasing laws are...

  7. Mineral dusts and radon in uranium mines

    SciTech Connect

    Abelson, P.H.

    1991-11-08

    The Environmental Protection Agency (EPA) continues to assert that radon is a major cause of lung cancer in this country. EPA is fostering a radon program that could entail huge financial and emotional costs while yielding negligible benefits to public health. Justification for the program was the occurrence of lung cancer in men exposed to huge amounts of radon, mineral dusts, and other lung irritants in uranium mines on the Colorado Plateau. Lung cancer has been reported in about 356 cigarette smokers and in about 25 nonsmokers. During the era of high radon levels, monitoring was sporadic. Conditions in only a small fraction of the mines were measured, and that on a few separate occasions. Later, cumulative exposure to radon was calculated on the basis of measurements involving only a tiny fraction of the miners. Some were exposed to more than 15,000 pCi/liter of radon and its products. The level in the average home is about 1.5 pCi/liter. In making extrapolations from mine to home, the assumption is made that residents are in their dwellings most of the time and that miners spend only 170 hours a month in the mine. Two major questionable assumptions are involved in extrapolations from high doses of radon in the mines to low doses in homes. One is that no threshold is involved; that is, that humans have no remediation mechanism for {alpha} particle damages. There is evidence to the contrary. The most unrealistic assumption is that heavy exposure to silica has no effect on inducing lung cancer. Many studies have shown that silica dust causes lung cancer in animals. Exposure of human culture cells to silica has resulted in formation of neoplastic tissue. EPA has no solid evidence that exposures to 4 pCi/liter of radon causes lung cancer in either smokers or nonsmokers. Indeed, there is abundant evidence to the contrary in the fact that in states with high levels of radon, inhabitants have less lung cancer than those in states with low levels.

  8. 36 CFR 1005.14 - Prospecting, mining, and mineral leasing.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-07-01

    ... 36 Parks, Forests, and Public Property 3 2014-07-01 2014-07-01 false Prospecting, mining, and... PRIVATE OPERATIONS § 1005.14 Prospecting, mining, and mineral leasing. Prospecting, mining, and the location of mining claims under the general mining laws and leasing under the mineral leasing laws...

  9. 36 CFR 1005.14 - Prospecting, mining, and mineral leasing.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-07-01

    ... 36 Parks, Forests, and Public Property 3 2013-07-01 2012-07-01 true Prospecting, mining, and... PRIVATE OPERATIONS § 1005.14 Prospecting, mining, and mineral leasing. Prospecting, mining, and the location of mining claims under the general mining laws and leasing under the mineral leasing laws...

  10. 36 CFR 1005.14 - Prospecting, mining, and mineral leasing.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-07-01

    ... 36 Parks, Forests, and Public Property 3 2012-07-01 2012-07-01 false Prospecting, mining, and... PRIVATE OPERATIONS § 1005.14 Prospecting, mining, and mineral leasing. Prospecting, mining, and the location of mining claims under the general mining laws and leasing under the mineral leasing laws...

  11. 36 CFR 1005.14 - Prospecting, mining, and mineral leasing.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-07-01

    ... 36 Parks, Forests, and Public Property 3 2011-07-01 2011-07-01 false Prospecting, mining, and... PRIVATE OPERATIONS § 1005.14 Prospecting, mining, and mineral leasing. Prospecting, mining, and the location of mining claims under the general mining laws and leasing under the mineral leasing laws...

  12. Micro-Raman spectroscopic identification of natural mineral phases and their weathering products inside an abandoned zinc/lead mine.

    PubMed

    Goienaga, N; Arrieta, N; Carrero, J A; Olivares, M; Sarmiento, A; Martinez-Arkarazo, I; Fernández, L A; Madariaga, J M

    2011-10-01

    Mining activities provide a good source of minerals of different nature. On the one hand, the primary minerals for whose formation a geological time-scale is required. On the other hand, secondary minerals, formed from removed products after the earlier weathering and alteration states. These are characteristic of the local geology and the environment context that commonly appears due to the low chemical stability of their original primary minerals. This work shows how quickly the reactions promoting secondary minerals may have taken place, due to the fact that these were found in newly formed solid materials called efflorescences. To achieve this purpose, the sampling is crucial. It was carried out in such a way that tried to guarantee that the samples collected consisted in the very top soil matter (first 2 cm depth). Thus, unlike the deeper soil, the material analysed may have been newly formed due to the interactions that they had with the place weathering agents (i.e. air oxygen, humidity, and microbial activities). Raman spectroscopy has emerged as a good and fast non-destructive technique that provides molecular information of the local mineralogy without the need of any pre-treatment of the samples. At the same time, the work looked for information on the variety of non-stable lead and-or zinc containing minerals due to the possible health and environmental risks they convey. Among the different minerals identified, 16 were of primary nature while 23 may be classified as secondary minerals, probably formed in the last decades as the result of the extractive activities.

  13. Proceedings of the sixteenth international symposium on mine planning and equipment selection (MPES 2007) and the tenth international symposium on environmental issues and waste management in energy and mineral production (SWEMP 2007)

    SciTech Connect

    Singhal, R.K.; Fytas, K.; Jongsiri, S.; Ge, Hao

    2007-07-01

    Papers presented at MPES 2007 covered: coal mining and clean coal processing technologies; control, design and planning of surface and underground mines; drilling, blasting and excavation engineering; mining equipment selection; automation and information technology; maintenance and production management for mines and mining systems; health, safety and environment; cost effective methods of mine reclamation; mine closure and waste disposal; and rock mechanics and geotechnical issues. Papers from SWEMP 2007 discussed methods and technologies for assessing, minimizing and preventing environmental problems associated with mineral and energy production. Topics included environmental impacts of coal-fired power projects; emission control in thermal power plants; greenhouse gas abatement technologies; remediation of contaminated soil and groundwater; environmental issues in surface and underground mining of coal, minerals and ores; managing mine waste and mine water; and control of effluents from mineral processing, metallurgical and chemical plants.

  14. 36 CFR 5.14 - Prospecting, mining, and mineral leasing.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-07-01

    ... 36 Parks, Forests, and Public Property 1 2012-07-01 2012-07-01 false Prospecting, mining, and... OF THE INTERIOR COMMERCIAL AND PRIVATE OPERATIONS § 5.14 Prospecting, mining, and mineral leasing. Prospecting, mining, and the location of mining claims under the general mining laws and leasing under...

  15. 36 CFR 5.14 - Prospecting, mining, and mineral leasing.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-07-01

    ... 36 Parks, Forests, and Public Property 1 2014-07-01 2014-07-01 false Prospecting, mining, and... OF THE INTERIOR COMMERCIAL AND PRIVATE OPERATIONS § 5.14 Prospecting, mining, and mineral leasing. Prospecting, mining, and the location of mining claims under the general mining laws and leasing under...

  16. 36 CFR 5.14 - Prospecting, mining, and mineral leasing.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-07-01

    ... 36 Parks, Forests, and Public Property 1 2011-07-01 2011-07-01 false Prospecting, mining, and... OF THE INTERIOR COMMERCIAL AND PRIVATE OPERATIONS § 5.14 Prospecting, mining, and mineral leasing. Prospecting, mining, and the location of mining claims under the general mining laws and leasing under...

  17. 36 CFR 5.14 - Prospecting, mining, and mineral leasing.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-07-01

    ... 36 Parks, Forests, and Public Property 1 2013-07-01 2013-07-01 false Prospecting, mining, and... OF THE INTERIOR COMMERCIAL AND PRIVATE OPERATIONS § 5.14 Prospecting, mining, and mineral leasing. Prospecting, mining, and the location of mining claims under the general mining laws and leasing under...

  18. Tribology of earthmoving, mining, and minerals processing

    SciTech Connect

    Hawk, Jeffrey A.; Wilson, Rick D.

    2001-01-01

    Earthmoving, mining, and minerals processing each involve frequent, and often severe, mechanical interactions between metals, and between metals and abrasive nonmetallic and metallic materials (i.e., mineral bearing ores). The abrasive nature of ores causes significant wear to extracting, handling, and processing equipment. Consequently, wear in earthmoving, mining, and minerals processing operations results in the removal of large amounts of material from the wear surfaces of scraping, digging, and ore processing equipment. From an energy point of view, material wear of this nature is classified as an indirect tribological loss (Imhoff et al., 1985). Additionally, a significant amount of energy is expended to overcome frictional forces in the operation of all earthmoving, mining, and minerals processing machinery (i.e., a direct tribological loss). However, in these particular processes, wear losses are more than five times those of frictional losses. In general, the amount of material lost from a particular component in these operations, before it becomes unserviceable, is far greater than that which can be tolerated in typical metal-to-metal wear situations (e.g., lubricated bearing-shaft wear couples in machinery). Consequently, much of the equipment used in earthmoving, mining, and ore processing makes use of easily replaceable or repairable, and preferably low-cost, wear components. The mechanisms by which metal-to-metal and abrasive wear occurs, and the relationships between material properties and wear behavior, are reasonably well-understood in general terms. However, the specific wear mechanisms/wear material interactions that occur during earthmoving, digging, and the processing of ore are more complex, and depend on the wear material, and on the nature of abrasive, the type of loading, and the environment. As a result of this general knowledge, reliable predictions can be made regarding the performance of particular materials under a range of in

  19. 78 FR 16863 - Agency Information Collection Activities: Comment Request for the Mine, Development, and Mineral...

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2013-03-19

    ..., Development, and Mineral Exploration Supplement (1 Form) AGENCY: U.S. Geological Survey (USGS), Interior... extension of the currently approved paperwork requirements for the Mine, Development, and Mineral... production, exploration, and mine development data for nonfuel mineral commodities. This information will...

  20. A Dictionary of Mining, Mineral and Related Terms.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Thrush, Paul W., Comp.

    This dictionary contains about 55,000 terms with approximately 150,000 definitions. These terms are of both a technical and local nature and apply to metal mining, coal mining, quarrying, geology, metallurgy, ceramics and clays, glassmaking, minerals and mineralogy, and general terminology. Petroleum, natural gas, and legal mining terminology,…

  1. 36 CFR 5.14 - Prospecting, mining, and mineral leasing.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-07-01

    ... mineral leasing. 5.14 Section 5.14 Parks, Forests, and Public Property NATIONAL PARK SERVICE, DEPARTMENT OF THE INTERIOR COMMERCIAL AND PRIVATE OPERATIONS § 5.14 Prospecting, mining, and mineral leasing... mineral leasing laws are prohibited in park areas except as authorized by law. ...

  2. Minerals, metal production and greenhouse gases

    SciTech Connect

    Themelis, N.J.; Wernick, I.

    1997-12-31

    The construction minerals, industrial minerals, and metals used in the U.S. annually amount to about 2.3 billion tons or 72% of all materials produced by industry, agriculture and forestry, excluding the bulk of the fossil fuel production (about 1.9 billion tons) which is used for electricity, heating and transportation. On a global scale, the consumption of minerals and metals has increased by a factor of ten in the 20th century and is an important contributor to the generation of greenhouse gases. As the grades of mined ores diminish, the energy units required to produce minerals and metals, and the corresponding emissions to the atmosphere, will increase substantially. The current emissions of the dominant production technologies and the prospects for reducing emissions, by means of recycling and technological advances, will be discussed.

  3. Iowa State Mining and Mineral Resources Research Institute

    SciTech Connect

    Not Available

    1990-08-01

    This final report describes the activities of the Iowa State Mining and Mineral Resources Research Institute (ISMMRRI) at Iowa State University for the period July 1, 1989, to June 30, 1990. Activities include research in mining- and mineral-related areas, education and training of scientists and engineers in these fields, administration of the Institute, and cooperative interactions with industry, government agencies, and other research centers. During this period, ISMMRRI has supported research efforts to: (1) Investigate methods of leaching zinc from sphalerite-containing ores. (2) Study the geochemistry and geology of an Archean gold deposit and of a gold-telluride deposit. (3) Enchance how-quality aggregates for use in construction. (4) Pre-clean coal by triboelectric charging in a fluidized-bed. (5) Characterize the crystal/grain alignment during processing of yttrium-barium-copper-perovskite (1-2-3) superconductors. (5) Study the fluid inclusion properties of a fluorite district. (6) Study the impacts of surface mining on community planning. (7) Assess the hydrophobicity of coal and pyrite for beneficiation. (8) Investigate the use of photoacoustic absorption spectroscopy for monitoring unburnt carbon in the exhaust gas from coal-fired boilers. The education and training program continued within the interdepartmental graduate minor in mineral resources includes courses in such areas as mining methods, mineral processing, industrial minerals, extractive metallurgy, coal science and technology, and reclamation of mined land. In addition, ISMMRRI hosted the 3rd International Conference on Processing and Utilization of High-Sulfur Coals in Ames, Iowa. The Institute continues to interact with industry in order to foster increased cooperation between academia and the mining and mineral community.

  4. Mineral mining installations

    SciTech Connect

    Werner, G.; Wisniewski, P.

    1983-12-15

    A mineral mining installation serves to win mineral by explosive blasting. The installation employs a shuttle conveyor arranged alongside a mineral face. Roof supports stand side-by-side at the side of the conveyor remote from the conveyor. The roof supports are connected to the conveyor through shifting rams and have roof-engageable caps or the like supported on hydraulic props. The pans of the conveyor have upstanding walls at the rear side nearest the roof supports which carry rails at their upper ends. The roof caps have wall components pivoted thereto and hydraulic piston and cylinder units serve to swing the wall components up and down. When explosive blasting takes place the wall components are swung down to engage on the walls of the conveyor pans to form a screen between the winning region and the access region of the working.

  5. Mineral mining installation

    SciTech Connect

    Plevak, L.; Weirich, W.

    1982-04-20

    A longwall mineral mining installation has a longwall conveyor and a plurality of roof support units positioned side-by-side at the goaf side of the conveyor. The hydraulic appliances of the roof support units, such as their hydraulic props, hydraulic advance rams and hydraulic control valves, are supplied with pressurized hydraulic fluid from hydraulic supply lines which run along the goaf side of the conveyor. A plurality of flat, platelike intermediate members are provided at the goaf side of the conveyor. These intermediate members are formed with internal ducts for feeding the hydraulic fluid from the supply lines to the hydraulic appliances of the roof support units.

  6. Mineralogy and Geochemical Processes of Carbonate Mineral-rich Sulfide Mine Tailings, Zimapan, Mexico

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    McClure, R. J.; Deng, Y.; Loeppert, R.; Herbert, B. E.; Carrillo, R.; Gonzalez, C.

    2009-12-01

    Mining for silver, lead, zinc, and copper in Zimapan, Hidalgo State, Mexico has been ongoing since 1576. High concentrations of heavy metals have been found in several mine tailing heaps in the Zimapan area, with concentrations of arsenic observed as high as 28,690 mg/kg and levels of Pb as high as 2772 mg/kg. Unsecured tailings heaps and associated acid mine drainage has presented tremendous problems to revegetation, water quality, and dust emission control in the Zimapan area. Although acid mine drainage problems related to weathering of sulfide minerals have been extensively studied and are well known, the weathering products of sulfides in areas with a significant presence of carbonate minerals and their effect on the mobility of heavy metals warrant further study. Carbonate minerals are expected to neutralize sulfuric acid produced from weathering of sulfide minerals, however, in the Zimapan area localized areas of pH as low as 1.8 were observed within carbonate mineral-rich tailing heaps. The objectives of this study are to characterize (1) the heavy metal-containing sulfide minerals in the initial tailing materials, (2) the intermediate oxidation products of sulfide minerals within the carbonate-rich tailings, (3) chemical species of heavy metals within pH gradients between 1.8 and 8.2, the approximate natural pH of limestone, and (4) the mobility of soluble and colloidal heavy metals and arsenic within the carbonate-rich tailings. Representative mine tailings and their intermediate oxidation products have been sampled from the Zimapan area. Mineralogical characterization will be conducted with X-ray diffraction, infrared spectroscopy, electron microscopes and microprobes, and chemical methods. Chemical species will be extracted by selective dissolution methods. Preliminary results have identified calcite as the dominant mineral in the tailing heaps with a pH of 7, suggesting non-equilibrium with the acidic weathering products. Other minerals identified in

  7. Alteration and vein mineralization, Ladwig uranium mine, Jefferson County, Colorado

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Wallace, Alan R.

    1979-01-01

    Uranium ore at the Ladwig mine, Jefferson County, Colo., occurs in steeply dipping, northwest-striking faults and related fractures with a carbonate-adularia assemblage that forms in altered wallrocks and fills veins. The faults occur between large intrusive pegmatites and garnetiferous gneisses of Precambrian age, and were reactivated as the result of the early Paleocene uplift of the Front Range foothills. Mineralization in the deposit includes both wallrock alteration and vein filling. Alteration was intense but local, and chiefly involved the carbonatization of mafic minerals in the wallrocks. Felsic minerals in the wallrocks are relatively unaltered. The veins are filled with an adularia-pitchblende-carbonate assemblage with minor related sulfides and coffinite. Many of the iron-bearing carbonates in both the alteration and vein assemblages have been altered to hematite. The mineralization and alteration are believed to have formed in response to initially high amounts of CO2 and the subsequent release of dissolved CO2 by boiling or effervescence. Uranium, carried in a dicarbonate complex, was precipitated directly as pitchblende when the CO2 was released. The expulsion of H+ during boiling created a net oxidizing environment which oxidized the iron-bearing carbonates. Late stage calcite and sulfides were deposited in existing voids in the veins.

  8. Coal mine dust exposure and spirometry in experienced miners.

    PubMed

    Henneberger, P K; Attfield, M D

    1996-05-01

    In a previous study of new miners from the National Study of Coal Workers' Pneumoconiosis (NSCWP), researchers examined changes in spirometry values associated with coal mine dust exposure (Br J Ind Med 1993; 50:929-937). An unusual pattern of dust-related effects was observed: initial sharp decrements in FVC and FEV1 were followed by partial recovery. In the current study, similar methods were used to analyze data from experienced miners. Each of 1,915 male subjects contributed data from two of the NSCWP field surveys: either Round 1 (1969-71) and Round 2 (1972-75) and Round 4 (1985-88). From the cross-sectional analysis at Round 1 or Round 2 (R1/R2), changes of +0.6 ml FVC and -0.5 ml FEV1 were associated with each mg/m3-yr of cumulative coal mine dust exposure, but were not statistically significant (p > 0.05). From the analysis of longitudinal change in spirometry from R1/R2 to Round 4 (R4), annual declines in FVC (-0.10 ml/yr per mg/m3-yr, p = 0.003) and FEV1 (-0.07 ml/yr per mg/m3-yr, p = 0.006) were associated with pre-R1/R2 exposure. Both the pattern and the magnitude of the exposure-response relationship were different for experienced versus new miners. Possible reasons for these contrasts include differences in cumulative exposure between the two groups and the healthy worker effect among experienced miners.

  9. Acid Mine Drainage and Metal Sulfate Minerals in the Shasta Mining District, California

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Livingston, J. D.; Murphy, W. M.; Miller, R. M.; Ayars, E. J.

    2005-12-01

    Metal sulfate minerals were collected at four surface water drainage sites during September and October of 2004 in the Shasta Mining District, southern Klamath Mountains, Shasta County, California and analyzed by X-ray fluorescence, atomic absorption spectroscopy, and X-ray diffraction to determine elements present, quantities of Fe, Cu, and Zn, and mineralogy. The Shasta Mining District produced major quantities of Cu, Zn, and pyrite (S) with minor amounts of Au, Ag, and Fe from massive sulfide bodies (Kinkel et al., 1956). Three study sites are located on Iron Mountain and one study site is at Bully Hill. Although mining occurred during a period of just over 100 years, it is estimated that acid mine drainage (AMD) will continue from Iron Mountain for over 3,200 years (Nordstrom and Alpers, 1998). AMD at the study sites produces blooms of metal sulfates during California's Mediterranean climate summer. The minerals readily dissolve in the "first flush" of seasonal rain creating runoff water of low pH with high amounts of dissolved metals (Bayless and Olyphant, 1993; Jambor et al., 2000). Data were examined for mineralogical changes in time and space and for zoning of minerals on a scale of centimeters. Sulfate mineral samples are complex with some samples composed of over a dozen different minerals. Site 1 is located on Spring Creek downstream from the Iron Mountain superfund remediation site, so levels of Fe, Cu, and Zn in the sulfates at this site are lower than at the other sites. Two site 1 samples from the same location taken a month apart show Ca, Fe, Cu, Sr, Y, and Sn, and the first sample also has detectable Br. The metal sulfates identified from the first visit are celestine, cesanite, chessexite, hectorfloresite, and ungemachite, and the mineralogy of the second visit is bilinite, epsomite, millosevichite, and anhydrite. The Fe bearing sulfate mineral during the first visit is ungemachite, but bilinite was the Fe bearing mineral at the time of the second

  10. Sorption of pesticides by a mineral sand mining by-product, neutralised used acid (NUA).

    PubMed

    Oliver, Danielle P; Pan, Yi Fong; Anderson, Jenny S; Lin, Tsair Fuh; Kookana, Rai S; Douglas, Grant B; Wendling, Laura A

    2013-01-01

    This study investigated the sorption-desorption behaviour of four pesticides by a by-product from mineral sand mining, commonly referred to as neutralised used acid (NUA). In batch studies the average amount of pesticide removed after 6h was 69% for atrazine, 89% for diuron, 61% for 2,4-D and 83% for chlorpyrifos. The lower sorption of 2,4-D to NUA compared with the other pesticides studied is most likely to be due to the high pH of the solutions (7.8 to 8.8) which would have resulted in 2,4-D being predominantly in an anionic form. The presence of other pesticides only significantly decreased the amount of 2,4-D sorbed from 59% to 34% when present in a mixture. Little (2 to 17%) diuron, chlorpyrifos, atrazine or 2,4-D were found to desorb from the NUA. The presence of nitrate or phosphate had minimal effect on the amount of diuron or atrazine sorbed to the NUA. However, all phosphate and nitrate treatments significantly (P<0.05) decreased the amount of 2,4-D sorbed (<50%) compared with when 2,4-D was present alone (65%). This study has shown that NUA has potential to be used as a sorbent for pesticides.

  11. Contamination by Cd, Cu, Pb, and Zn in mine wastes from abandoned metal mines classified as mineralization types in Korea.

    PubMed

    Jung, Myung Chae

    2008-06-01

    The objective of this study was to investigate heavy metal contamination and geochemical characteristics of mine wastes, including tailings, from 38 abandoned mines classified as five mineralization types. Mine waste materials including tailings and soils were sampled from the mines and the physical and chemical characteristics of the samples were analyzed. The particle size of tailings was in the range of 10-100 microm. The pH of the waste covered a wide range, from 1.73 to 8.11, and was influenced by associated minerals and elevated levels of Cd, Cu, Pb, and Zn, extracted by a Korean Standard Method (digestion with 0.1 mol L(-1) HCl), which were found in the wastes. Half of the samples contained heavy metals at levels above those stipulated by the Soil Environmental Conservation Act (SECA) in Korea. In addition, extremely high concentrations of the metals were also found in mine wastes extracted by aqua regia, especially those from mines associated with sulfide minerals. Thus, it can be expected that trace elements in mine wastes may be dispersed both downstream and downslope through water and wind. Eventually they may pose a potential health risk to residents in the vicinity of the mine. It is necessary to control mine wastes by using a proper method for their reclamation, such as neutralization of the mine wastes using a fine-grained limestone.

  12. Radon exposure, cigarette smoking, and other mining experience in the beaverlodge uranium miners cohort

    SciTech Connect

    L'Abbe, K.A.; Howe, G.R.; Burch, J.D.; Miller, A.B.; Abbatt, J.; Band, P.; Choi, W.; Du, J.; Feather, J.; Gallagher, R. )

    1991-04-01

    A nested case-control study within the Beaverlodge Uranium Miners Cohort was undertaken to assess any possible contribution of confounding by smoking and other mining experience to the risk estimate derived from the original cohort study. Next of kin have been interviewed for 46 lung cancer cases and 95 controls enrolled in the Beaverlodge Uranium Miners Cohort Study who died between 1950 and 1980. Confounding by cigarette smoking and other mining experience appears unlikely to have contributed to the relative risk coefficient for exposure to Rn decay products derived in the parent study. Data for smoking and exposure to Rn decay products are consistent with a multiplicative model, although considerable caution must be applied to this interpretation.

  13. Longwall mineral mining installation

    SciTech Connect

    Becker, K.; Beyer, H.

    1982-09-14

    A longwall mineral mining installation comprises a scraper-chain conveyor having a scraper assembly, a first straight conveyor portion extending along the longwall working, a second straight conveyor portion extending along a roadway positioned at one end of the longwall working, and a curved conveyor section connecting the two straight conveyor portions. A guide assembly is provided for guiding the scraper assembly around the curved conveyor section. A guide is fixed to the face side of the first straight conveyor portion, and a winning machine is reciprocable along the guide. A drive station is mounted on the goaf side of the first straight conveyor portion in the region of the curved conveyor section. A drive sprocket is rotatably mounted on the face side of the first straight conveyor portion in said region. The drive sprocket drives the winning machine via a drive chain. A drive shaft drivably connects the drive station and the drive sprocket. The drive station includes a drive motor whose axis of rotation is substantially parallel to the longitudinal axis of the first straight conveyor portion, and the guide is angled away from the first straight conveyor portion in said region.

  14. Mineral mining installation

    SciTech Connect

    Weirich, W.

    1984-01-24

    A longwall mineral mining installation has a conveyor and a plurality of roof support units positioned side-by-side on the goaf side of the conveyor. Each roof support unit has a roof shield having an advanceable shield extension. Each unit has a first hydraulic ram for extending its shield extension, and a second hydraulic ram for advancing the conveyor. The extension of each first ram is controlled in dependence upon the retraction of one of the second rams (either the second ram of the same unit or that of an adjacent unit). This control is effected by controlling the supply of pressurized hydraulic fluid to the first rams. In one embodiment this is carried out by a control valve which has a springloaded plunger which engages with a series of equispaced cams on the movable cylinder of the associated second ram. In another embodiment, the piston rods of the rams are provided with series of equispaced magnets. The cylinders of the rams are provided with sensors, which sense the magnets and generate control signals. A control box is provided to direct the control signals to control valves associated with the rams, so that the first rams are extended by the same distance as that through which the second rams are retracted.

  15. Mineral mining installation

    SciTech Connect

    Becker, K.; Rosenberg, H.; Weirich, W.

    1981-12-29

    A longwall mineral mining installation has a conveyor and a plurality of roof support units positioned side-by-side on the goaf side of the conveyor. Each roof support unit has a roof shield having an advanceable shield extension. Each unit has a first hydraulic ram for extending its shield extension, and a second hydraulic ram for advancing the conveyor. The extension of each first ram is controlled in dependence upon the retraction of one of the second rams (Either the second ram of the same unit or that of an adjacent unit). This control is effected by controlling the supply of pressurized hydraulic fluid to the first rams. In one embodiment this is carried out by a control valve which has a spring-loaded plunger which engages with a series of equispaced cams on the movable cylinder of the associated second ram. In another embodiment, the piston rods of the rams are provided with series of equispaced magnets. The cylinders of the rams are provided with sensors, which sense the magnets and generate control signals. A control box is provided to direct the control signals to control valves associated with the rams, so that the first rams are extended by the same distance as that through which the second rams are retracted.

  16. Injury experience in nonmetallic mineral mining (except stone and coal), 1992

    SciTech Connect

    Reich, R.B; Hugler, E.C.

    1994-05-01

    This Mine Safety and Health Administration (MSHA) informational report reviews in detail the occupational injury and illness experience of nonmetallic mineral mining (except stone and coal) in the United States for 1992. Data reported by operators of mining establishments concerning work injuries are summarized by work location, accident classification, part of body injured, nature of injury, occupation, and principal type of mineral. Related information on employment, worktime, and operating activity also is presented. Data reported by independent contractors performing certain work at mining locations are depicted separately in this report. For ease of comparison with other metal and nonmetallic mineral mining industries and with coal mining, summary reference tabulations are included at the end of both the operator and the contractor sections of this report.

  17. Injury experience in nonmetallic mineral mining (except stone and coal), 1991

    SciTech Connect

    Not Available

    1993-10-01

    This Mine Safety and Health Administration (MSHA) informational report reviews in detail the occupational injury and illness experience of nonmetallic mineral mining (except stone and coal) in the United States for 1991. Data reported by operators of mining establishments concerning work injuries are summarized by work location, accident classification, part of body injured, nature of injury, occupation, and principal type of mineral. Related information on employment, worktime, and operating activity also is presented. Data reported by independent contractors performing certain work at mining locations are depicted separately in this report. For ease of comparison with other metal and nonmetallic mineral mining industries and with coal mining, summary reference tabulations are included at the end of both the operator and the contractor sections of this report.

  18. 77 FR 57111 - Agency Information Collection Activities: Comment Request for the Mine, Development, and Mineral...

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2012-09-17

    ..., Development, and Mineral Exploration Supplement (1 Form) AGENCY: U.S. Geological Survey (USGS), Interior... data for nonfuel mineral commodities. This information will be published as an Annual Report for use by... Number: 9-4000-A. Title: Mine, Development, and Mineral Exploration Supplement. Type of...

  19. Injury experience in metallic mineral mining, 1992

    SciTech Connect

    Not Available

    1994-05-01

    This Mine Safety and Health Administration (MSHA) informational report reviews in detail the occupational injury and illness experience of metallic mineral mining in the United States for 1992. Data reported by operators of mining establishments concerning work injuries are summarized by work location, accident classification, part of body injured, nature of injury, occupation, and principal type of mineral. Related information on employment, worktime, and operating activity also is presented. Data reported by independent contractors performing certain work at mining locations are depicted separately in this report. For ease of comparison with other metal and nonmetallic mineral mining industries and with coal mining, summary reference tabulations are included at the end of both the operator and the contractor sections of this report.

  20. Injury experience in metallic mineral mining, 1991

    SciTech Connect

    Not Available

    1993-10-01

    This Mine Safety and Health Administration (MSHA) informational report reviews in detail the occupational injury and illness experience of metallic mineral mining in the United States for 1991. Data reported by operators of mining establishments concerning work injuries are summarized by work location, accident classification, part of body injured, nature of injury, occupation, and principal type of mineral. Related information on employment, worktime, and operating activity also is presented. Data reported by independent contractors performing certain work at mining locations are depicted separately in this report. For ease of comparison with other metal and nonmetallic mineral mining industries and with coal mining, summary reference tabulations are included at the end of both the operator and the contractor sections of this report.

  1. The role of conflict minerals, artisanal mining, and informal trading networks in African intrastate and regional conflicts

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Chirico, Peter G.; Malpeli, Katherine C.

    2014-01-01

    The relationship between natural resources and armed conflict gained public and political attention in the 1990s, when it became evident that the mining and trading of diamonds were connected with brutal rebellions in several African nations. Easily extracted resources such as alluvial diamonds and gold have been and continue to be exploited by rebel groups to fund their activities. Artisanal and small-scale miners operating under a quasi-legal status often mine these mineral deposits. While many African countries have legalized artisanal mining and established flow chains through which production is intended to travel, informal trading networks frequently emerge in which miners seek to evade taxes and fees by selling to unauthorized buyers. These networks have the potential to become international in scope, with actors operating in multiple countries. The lack of government control over the artisanal mining sector and the prominence of informal trade networks can have severe social, political, and economic consequences. In the past, mineral extraction fuelled violent civil wars in Sierra Leone, Liberia, and Angola, and it continues to do so today in several other countries. The significant influence of the informal network that surrounds artisanal mining is therefore an important security concern that can extend across borders and have far-reaching impacts.

  2. The Philippine mining industry: status and trends in mineral resources development

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Domingo, Edwin G.

    The mining industry sector is a major backbone of the Philippine economy. The long history of the industry has been much affected by the vicissitudes of the international market, as well as other domestic factors. With the adoption of the 1986 Constitution, the concept of awarding mineral rights has been drastically changed from leasehold to a system of contracts for various modes of production. Such changes have, as expected, temporarily unsettled the industry. The preponderance of small-scale mining, the growing public awareness on the environment, increasing labor and energy costs are concerns which should be addressed. Amidst all these, and in the framework of very stiff competition in the region for investments, new thrusts and directions, without compromising general stability, are urgently required for the overall development not only of the industry but for the whole country.

  3. Health disparities of coal miners and coal mining communities: the role of occupational health nurses.

    PubMed

    Apostle, Elisa P; O'Connell, Marykate E; Vezeau, Toni M

    2011-07-01

    This article investigates how the health disparities of Appalachian coal miners and coal mining communities could be decreased through a partnership with occupational health nurses. On-site health clinics managed by occupational health nurses working in the coal mining industry are proposed as a means to improve health care outcomes. Health effects, economic considerations, environmental impacts, and U.S. coal mining legislation and regulation are examined. An epidemiological approach is presented to the unique health effects experienced by Appalachian coal miners and coal mining communities within the context of existent socioeconomic disparities. The long-standing health crisis in Appalachian coal mining communities requires a multidisciplinary approach led by occupational health nurses. Copyright 2011, SLACK Incorporated.

  4. Mercury contamination in agricultural soils from abandoned metal mines classified by geology and mineralization.

    PubMed

    Kim, Han Sik; Jung, Myung Chae

    2012-01-01

    This survey aimed to compare mercury concentrations in soils related to geology and mineralization types of mines. A total of 16,386 surface soils (0~15 cm in depth) were taken from agricultural lands near 343 abandoned mines (within 2 km from each mine) and analyzed for Hg by AAS with a hydride-generation device. To meaningfully compare mercury levels in soils with geology and mineralization types, three subclassification criteria were adapted: (1) five mineralization types, (2) four valuable ore mineral types, and (3) four parent rock types. The average concentration of Hg in all soils was 0.204 mg kg(-1) with a range of 0.002-24.07 mg kg(-1). Based on the mineralization types, average Hg concentrations (mg kg(-1)) in the soils decreased in the order of pegmatite (0.250) > hydrothermal vein (0.208) > hydrothermal replacement (0.166) > skarn (0.121) > sedimentary deposits (0.045). In terms of the valuable ore mineral types, the concentrations decreased in the order of Au-Ag-base metal mines ≈ base metal mines > Au-Ag mines > Sn-W-Mo-Fe-Mn mines. For parent rock types, similar concentrations were found in the soils derived from sedimentary rocks and metamorphic rocks followed by heterogeneous rocks with igneous and metamorphic processes. Furthermore, farmland soils contained relatively higher Hg levels than paddy soils. Therefore, it can be concluded that soils in Au, Ag, and base metal mines derived from a hydrothermal vein type of metamorphic rocks and pegmatite deposits contained relatively higher concentrations of mercury in the surface environment.

  5. Calcioaravaipaite: A new mineral and associated lead fluoride minerals from the Grand Reef mine, Graham County, Arizona

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Kampf, A.R.; Foord, E.E.

    1996-01-01

    The Grand Reef mine in southeastern Arizona, best known to collectors for superb crystals of linarite, is also the type locality far a unique suite of lead fluoride minerals. Grandreefite, pseudograndreefite, laurelite, aravaipaite, and artroeite have been found nowhere else; added to this group is calcioaravaipaite, described here for the first time.

  6. The StreamCat Dataset: Accumulated Attributes for NHDPlusV2 Catchments (Version 2.1) for the Conterminous United States: Mine Density Active Mines and Mineral Plants in the US

    EPA Pesticide Factsheets

    This dataset represents the mine density within individual, local NHDPlusV2 catchments and upstream, contributing watersheds based on mine plants and operations monitored by the USGS National Minerals Information Center (see Data Sources for links to NHDPlusV2 data and metadata). The National Minerals Information Center canvasses the nonfuel mining and mineral-processing industry in the United States for data on mineral production, consumption, recycling, stocks, and shipments. Mine plants and operations for commodities are expressed as points in a shapefile that was downloaded from the USGS directly. The (mines / catchment) were summarized and accumulated into watersheds to produce local catchment-level and watershed-level metrics as a point data type (see Data Structure and Attribute Information for a description).

  7. Electromagnetic system for detection and localization of miners caught in mine accidents

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Pronenko, Vira; Dudkin, Fedir

    2016-12-01

    The profession of a miner is one of the most dangerous in the world. Among the main causes of fatalities in underground coal mines are the delayed alert of the accident and the lack of information regarding the actual location of the miners after the accident. In an emergency situation (failure or destruction of underground infrastructure), personnel search behind and beneath blockage needs to be performed urgently. However, none of the standard technologies - radio-frequency identification (RFID), Digital Enhanced Cordless Telecommunications (DECT), Wi-Fi, emitting cables, which use the stationary technical devices in mines - provide information about the miners location with the necessary precision. The only technology that is able to provide guaranteed delivery of messages to mine personnel, regardless of their location and under any destruction in the mine, is low-frequency radio technology, which is able to operate through the thickness of rocks even if they are wet. The proposed new system for miner localization is based on solving the inverse problem of determining the magnetic field source coordinates using the data of magnetic field measurements. This approach is based on the measurement of the magnetic field radiated by the miner's responder beacon using two fixed and spaced three-component magnetic field receivers and the inverse problem solution. As a result, a working model of the system for miner's beacon search and localization (MILES - MIner's Location Emergency System) was developed and successfully tested. This paper presents the most important aspects of this development and the results of experimental tests.

  8. Biogeochemical aspects of uranium mineralization, mining, milling, and remediation

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Campbell, Kate M.; Gallegos, Tanya J.; Landa, Edward R.

    2015-01-01

    Natural uranium (U) occurs as a mixture of three radioactive isotopes: 238U, 235U, and 234U. Only 235U is fissionable and makes up about 0.7% of natural U, while 238U is overwhelmingly the most abundant at greater than 99% of the total mass of U. Prior to the 1940s, U was predominantly used as a coloring agent, and U-bearing ores were mined mainly for their radium (Ra) and/or vanadium (V) content; the bulk of the U was discarded with the tailings (Finch et al., 1972). Once nuclear fission was discovered, the economic importance of U increased greatly. The mining and milling of U-bearing ores is the first step in the nuclear fuel cycle, and the contact of residual waste with natural water is a potential source of contamination of U and associated elements to the environment. Uranium is mined by three basic methods: surface (open pit), underground, and solution mining (in situ leaching or in situ recovery), depending on the deposit grade, size, location, geology and economic considerations (Abdelouas, 2006). Solid wastes at U mill tailings (UMT) sites can include both standard tailings (i.e., leached ore rock residues) and solids generated on site by waste treatment processes. The latter can include sludge or “mud” from neutralization of acidic mine/mill effluents, containing Fe and a range of coprecipitated constituents, or barium sulfate precipitates that selectively remove Ra (e.g., Carvalho et al., 2007). In this chapter, we review the hydrometallurgical processes by which U is extracted from ore, the biogeochemical processes that can affect the fate and transport of U and associated elements in the environment, and possible remediation strategies for site closure and aquifer restoration.This paper represents the fourth in a series of review papers from the U.S. Geological Survey (USGS) on geochemical aspects of UMT management that span more than three decades. The first paper (Landa, 1980) in this series is a primer on the nature of tailings and radionuclide

  9. Towards zero waste production in the minerals and metals sector

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Rankin, William J.

    The production of mineral and metal commodities results in large quantities of wastes (solid, liquid and gaseous) at each stage of value-adding — from mining to manufacturing. Waste production (both consumer and non-consumer) is a major contributor to environmental degradation. Approaches to waste management in the minerals industry are largely `after the event'. These have moved progressively from foul-and-flee to dilute-and-disperse to end end-of-pipe treatments. There is now a need to move to approaches which aim to reduce or eliminate waste production at source. Modern waste management strategies include the application of cleaner production principles, the use of wastes as raw materials, the reengineering of process flowsheets to minimise waste production, and use of industrial symbioses through industrial ecology to convert wastes into useful by-products. This paper examines how these can be adopted by the minerals industry, with some recent examples. The financial, technical, systemic and regulatory drivers and barriers are also examined.

  10. 25 CFR 215.23a - Suspension of operations and production on leases for minerals other than oil and gas.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-04-01

    ... minerals other than oil and gas. 215.23a Section 215.23a Indians BUREAU OF INDIAN AFFAIRS, DEPARTMENT OF THE INTERIOR ENERGY AND MINERALS LEAD AND ZINC MINING OPERATIONS AND LEASES, QUAPAW AGENCY § 215.23a Suspension of operations and production on leases for minerals other than oil and gas. The provisions...

  11. Mineral Mapping with Imaging Spectroscopy: The Ray Mine, AZ

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Clark, Roger N.; Vance, J. Sam; Livo, K. Eric; Green, Robert O.

    1998-01-01

    Mineral maps generated for the Ray Mine, Arizona were analyzed to determine if imaging spectroscopy can provide accurate information for environmental management of active and abandoned mine regions. The Ray Mine, owned by the ASARCO Corporation, covers an area of 5700 acres and is situated in Pinal County, Arizona about 70 miles north of Tucson near Hayden, Arizona. This open-pit mine has been a major source of copper since 1911, producing an estimated 4.5 million tons of copper since its inception. Until 1955 mining was accomplished by underground block caving and shrinkage stope methods. (excavation by working in stepped series usually employed in a vertical or steeply inclined orebody) In 1955, the mine was completely converted to open pit method mining with the bulk of the production from sulfide ore using recovery by concentrating and smelting. Beginning in 1969 a significant production contribution has been from the leaching and solvent extraction-electrowinnowing method of silicate and oxide ores. Published reserves in the deposit as of 1992 are 1.1 billion tons at 0.6 percent copper. The Environmental Protection Agency, in conjunction with ASARCO, and NASA/JPL obtained AVIRIS data over the mine in 1997 as part of the EPA Advanced Measurement Initiative (AMI) (Tom Mace, Principal Investigator). This AVIRIS data set is being used to compare and contrast the accuracy and environmental monitoring capabilities of remote sensing technologies: visible-near-IR imaging spectroscopy, multispectral visible and, near-IR sensors, thermal instruments, and radar platforms. The goal of this effort is to determine if these various technologies provide useful information for envirorunental management of active and abandoned mine sites in the arid western United States. This paper focuses on the analysis of AVIRIS data for assessing the impact of the Ray Mine on Mineral Creek. Mineral Creek flows to the Gila River. This paper discusses our preliminary AVIRIS mineral mapping

  12. 43 CFR 3814.1 - Mineral reservation in entry and patent; mining and removal of reserved deposits; bonds.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-10-01

    ...; mining and removal of reserved deposits; bonds. 3814.1 Section 3814.1 Public Lands: Interior Regulations... Homestead Act § 3814.1 Mineral reservation in entry and patent; mining and removal of reserved deposits... caused to the value of the land for grazing by such prospecting for, mining, or removal of...

  13. 43 CFR 3741.6 - Acquisition of Leasing Act minerals in lands covered by mining claims and millsites.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-10-01

    ... 43 Public Lands: Interior 2 2012-10-01 2012-10-01 false Acquisition of Leasing Act minerals in... Acquisition of Leasing Act minerals in lands covered by mining claims and millsites. The Leasing Act minerals... pursuant to the Act may be acquired under the mineral leasing laws, upon appropriate application...

  14. 43 CFR 3741.6 - Acquisition of Leasing Act minerals in lands covered by mining claims and millsites.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-10-01

    ... 43 Public Lands: Interior 2 2014-10-01 2014-10-01 false Acquisition of Leasing Act minerals in... Acquisition of Leasing Act minerals in lands covered by mining claims and millsites. The Leasing Act minerals... pursuant to the Act may be acquired under the mineral leasing laws, upon appropriate application...

  15. Geology and Mineral Resources of the North Absaroka Wilderness and Vicinity, Park County, Wyoming, with Sections on Mineralization of the Sunlight Mining Region and Geology and Mineralization of the Cooke City Mining District, and a Section on Aeromagnetic Survey

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Nelson, Willis H.; Prostka, Harold J.; Williams, Frank E.; Elliott, James E.; Peterson, Donald L.

    1980-01-01

    SUMMARY The North Absaroka Wilderness is approximately 560 square miles (1,450 km 2 ) of rugged scenic mountainous terrain that adjoins the eastern boundary of Yellowstone National Park in northwestern Wyoming. The area was studied during 1970, 1971, and 1972 by personnel of the U. S. Geological Survey and the U. S. Bureau of Mines to evaluate its mineral-resource potential as required by the Wilderness Act of 1964. This evaluation is based on a search of the literature courthouse and production records, geologic field mapping, field inspection of claims and prospects, analyses of bedrock and stream-sediment samples, and an aeromagnetic survey. The North Absaroka Wilderness is underlain almost entirely by andesitic and basaltic volcanic rocks of Eocene age. These volcanics rest on deformed sedimentary rocks of Paleozoic and, locally, of Mesozoic age that are exposed at places along the northern and eastern edges of the wilderness. Dikes and other igneous intrusive bodies cut both the volcanic and sedimentary rocks. A nearly flat detachment fault, the Heart Mountain fault, and a related steep break-away fault have displaced middle and upper Paleozoic rocks and some of the older part of the volcanic sequence to the southeast. A much greater thickness of volcanic rocks was found to be involved in Heart Mountain faulting than had previously been recognized; however, most of the volcanic rocks and many of the intrusives were emplaced after Heart Mountain faulting. Local folding and high-angle faulting in mid-Eocene time have deformed all but the youngest part of the volcanic sequence in the southeastern part of the wilderness. This deformation is interpreted as the last pulse of Laramide orogeny. The results of this study indicate that the mineral-resource potential of the wilderness is minimal. Bentonite, petroleum, low-quality coal, and localized deposits of uranium and chromite have been produced in the surrounding region from rocks that underlie the volcanic rocks

  16. An epidemiological study of salt miners in diesel and nondiesel mines

    SciTech Connect

    Gamble, J.; Jones, W.; Hudak, J.

    1983-01-01

    A cross-sectional study of 5 NaCl mines and 259 miners addressed the following questions: 1) Is there an association of increased respiratory symptoms, radiographic findings, and reduced pulmonary function with exposure to nitrogen dioxide (NO2) and/or respirable particulate (RP) among these miners. 2) Is there increased morbidity of these miners compared to other working populations. Personal samples of NO2 and respirable particulate for jobs in each mine were used to estimate cumulative exposure. NO2 is used as a surrogate measure of diesel exposure. Cough was associated with age and smoking, dyspnea with age; neither symptom was associated with exposure (years worked, estimated cumulative NO2 or RP exposure). Phlegm was associated with age, smoking, and exposure. Reduced pulmonary function (FVC, FEV1, peak, flow, FEF50, FEF75) showed no association with exposure. There was one case of small rounded and one case of small irregular opacities; pneumoconiosis was not analyzed further. Compared to underground coal miners, above ground coal miners, potash miners, and nonmining workers, the study population after adjustment for age and smoking generally showed no increased prevalence of cough, phlegm, dyspnea, or obstruction (FEV1/FVC less than 0.7). Obstruction in younger salt miners and phlegm in older salt miners was elevated compared to nonmining workers. Mean predicted pulmonary function was reduced 2-4% for FEV1 and FVC, 7-13% for FEF50, and 18-22% for FEF75 below all comparison populations.

  17. PubMedMiner: Mining and Visualizing MeSH-based Associations in PubMed

    PubMed Central

    Zhang, Yucan; Sarkar, Indra Neil; Chen, Elizabeth S.

    2014-01-01

    The exponential growth of biomedical literature provides the opportunity to develop approaches for facilitating the identification of possible relationships between biomedical concepts. Indexing by Medical Subject Headings (MeSH) represent high-quality summaries of much of this literature that can be used to support hypothesis generation and knowledge discovery tasks using techniques such as association rule mining. Based on a survey of literature mining tools, a tool implemented using Ruby and R – PubMedMiner – was developed in this study for mining and visualizing MeSH-based associations for a set of MEDLINE articles. To demonstrate PubMedMiner’s functionality, a case study was conducted that focused on identifying and comparing comorbidities for asthma in children and adults. Relative to the tools surveyed, the initial results suggest that PubMedMiner provides complementary functionality for summarizing and comparing topics as well as identifying potentially new knowledge. PMID:25954472

  18. Standard for metal/nonmetal mining and metal mineral processing facilities. 2004 ed.

    SciTech Connect

    2004-07-01

    This standard addresses the protection of diesel-powered equipment and the storage and handling of flammable and combustible liquids at these specialized sites. The 2004 edition consolidates requirements from NFPA 122 and 121 : Standard on Fire Protection for Self-Propelled and Mobile Surface Mining Equipment. Major changes include a new chapter on fire protection of surface metal mineral processing plants. The Standard is also revised to emphasize the use of a fire risk assessment when determining fire protection criteria. Chapter headings are: Administration; Referenced publications; Definitions; General; Fire risk assessment and risk reduction; Fire detection and suppression equipment; Fire protection for diesel-powered equipment in underground mines; Transfer of flammable or combustible liquids in underground mines; Flammable liquid storage in underground mines; Combustible liquid storage in underground mines; Fire suppression for flammable or combustible liquid storage areas in underground mines; Fire protection of surface mobile and self-propelled equipment; and Fire protection of surface metal mineral processing plants. 3 annexes.

  19. Overall requirements for an advanced underground coal extraction system. [environment effects, miner health and safety, production cost, and coal conservation

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Goldsmith, M.; Lavin, M. L.

    1980-01-01

    Underground mining systems suitable for coal seams expoitable in the year 2000 are examined with particular relevance to the resources of Central Appalachia. Requirements for such systems may be summarized as follows: (1) production cost; (2)miner safety; (3) miner health; (4) environmental impact; and (5) coal conservation. No significant trade offs between production cost and other performance indices were found.

  20. SkyMine Carbon Mineralization Pilot Project

    SciTech Connect

    Christenson, Norm; Walters, Jerel

    2014-12-31

    This Topical Report addresses accomplishments achieved during Phase 2b of the SkyMine® Carbon Mineralization Pilot Project. The primary objectives of this project are to design, construct, and operate a system to capture CO2 from a slipstream of flue gas from a commercial coal-fired cement kiln, convert that CO2 to products having commercial value (i.e., beneficial use), show the economic viability of the CO2 capture and conversion process, and thereby advance the technology to the point of readiness for commercial scale demonstration and deployment. The overall process is carbon negative, resulting in mineralization of CO2 that would otherwise be released into the atmosphere. The project will also substantiate market opportunities for the technology by sales of chemicals into existing markets, and identify opportunities to improve technology performance and reduce costs at the commercial scale. The project is being conducted in two phases. The primary objectives of Phase 1 were to evaluate proven SkyMine® process chemistry for commercial pilot-scale operation and complete the preliminary design for the pilot plant to be built and operated in Phase 2, complete a NEPA evaluation, and develop a comprehensive carbon life cycle analysis. The objective of Phase 2b was to build the pilot plant to be operated and tested in Phase 2c.

  1. Oil shale mining claims. Hearing before the Subcommittee on Mineral Resources Development and Production of the Committee on Energy and Natural Resources, United States Senate, One Hundredth Congress, First Session, October 16, 1987

    SciTech Connect

    Not Available

    1988-01-01

    The hearing was called to consider the reprocessing of oil shale mining claims and patents by the Department of the Interior under the Mining Law of 1872. After 50 years of litigation, a ruling was made last year. In the settlement the US agreed to issue patents to people who had claims for 2.5 dollars per acre. In total 82,000 acres of public lands were given away. Congress put a moratorium on further issuing of patents, but the moratorium ends March 31, 1988. Testimony was heard from 11 witnesses, representing the DOI Land and Minerals Management, Colorado Department of Natural Resources, Public Lands and Energy Division of the National Wildlife Federation, and the states of Colorado, Utah, Montana, and Wyoming. Additional material was submitted by the DOI Office of the Solicitor and the Sierra Club.

  2. Mining technology and policy issues 1983

    SciTech Connect

    Not Available

    1983-01-01

    This book presents conference papers on advances in mineral processing, coal mining, communications for mining executives, environmental laws and regulations, exploration philosophy, exploration technology, government controls and the environment, management, mine finance, minerals availability, mine safety, occupational health, open pit mining, the precious metals outlook, public lands, system improvements in processing ores, and underground mining. Topics considered include coal pipelines and saline water, an incentive program for coal mines, sandwich belt high-angle conveyors, the development of a mining company, regulations for radionuclides, contracts for western coal production for Pacific Rim exports, and the control of radon daughters in underground mines.

  3. Weathering of sulfidic shale and copper mine waste: Secondary minerals and metal cycling in Great Smoky Mountains National Park, Tennessee, and North Carolina, USA

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Hammarstrom, J.M.; Seal, R.R.; Meier, A.L.; Jackson, J.C.

    2003-01-01

    Metal cycling via physical and chemical weathering of discrete sources (copper mines) and regional (non-point) sources (sulfide-rich shale) is evaluated by examining the mineralogy and chemistry of weathering products in Great Smoky Mountains National Park, Tennessee, and North Carolina, USA. The elements in copper mine waste, secondary minerals, stream sediments, and waters that are most likely to have negative impacts on aquatic ecosystems are aluminum, copper, zinc, and arsenic because these elements locally exceed toxicity guidelines for surface waters or for stream sediments. Acid-mine drainage has not developed in streams draining inactive copper mines. Acid-rock drainage and chemical weathering processes that accompany debris flows or human disturbances of sulfidic rocks are comparable to processes that develop acid-mine drainage elsewhere. Despite the high rainfall in the mountain range, sheltered areas and intermittent dry spells provide local venues for development of secondary weathering products that can impact aquatic ecosystems.

  4. VCF-Miner: GUI-based application for mining variants and annotations stored in VCF files.

    PubMed

    Hart, Steven N; Duffy, Patrick; Quest, Daniel J; Hossain, Asif; Meiners, Mike A; Kocher, Jean-Pierre

    2016-03-01

    Next-generation sequencing platforms are widely used to discover variants associated with disease. The processing of sequencing data involves read alignment, variant calling, variant annotation and variant filtering. The standard file format to hold variant calls is the variant call format (VCF) file. According to the format specifications, any arbitrary annotation can be added to the VCF file for downstream processing. However, most downstream analysis programs disregard annotations already present in the VCF and re-annotate variants using the annotation provided by that particular program. This precludes investigators who have collected information on variants from literature or other sources from including these annotations in the filtering and mining of variants. We have developed VCF-Miner, a graphical user interface-based stand-alone tool, to mine variants and annotation stored in the VCF. Powered by a MongoDB database engine, VCF-Miner enables the stepwise trimming of non-relevant variants. The grouping feature implemented in VCF-Miner can be used to identify somatic variants by contrasting variants in tumor and in normal samples or to identify recessive/dominant variants in family studies. It is not limited to human data, but can also be extended to include non-diploid organisms. It also supports copy number or any other variant type supported by the VCF specification. VCF-Miner can be used on a personal computer or large institutional servers and is freely available for download from http://bioinformaticstools.mayo.edu/research/vcf-miner/.

  5. WebTraceMiner: a web service for processing and mining EST sequence trace files.

    PubMed

    Liang, Chun; Wang, Gang; Liu, Lin; Ji, Guoli; Liu, Yuansheng; Chen, Jinqiao; Webb, Jason S; Reese, Greg; Dean, Jeffrey F D

    2007-07-01

    Expressed sequence tags (ESTs) remain a dominant approach for characterizing the protein-encoding portions of various genomes. Due to inherent deficiencies, they also present serious challenges for data quality control. Before GenBank submission, EST sequences are typically screened and trimmed of vector and adapter/linker sequences, as well as polyA/T tails. Removal of these sequences presents an obstacle for data validation of error-prone ESTs and impedes data mining of certain functional motifs, whose detection relies on accurate annotation of positional information for polyA tails added posttranscriptionally. As raw DNA sequence information is made increasingly available from public repositories, such as NCBI Trace Archive, new tools will be necessary to reanalyze and mine this data for new information. WebTraceMiner (www.conifergdb.org/software/wtm) was designed as a public sequence processing service for raw EST traces, with a focus on detection and mining of sequence features that help characterize 3' and 5' termini of cDNA inserts, including vector fragments, adapter/linker sequences, insert-flanking restriction endonuclease recognition sites and polyA or polyT tails. WebTraceMiner complements other public EST resources and should prove to be a unique tool to facilitate data validation and mining of error-prone ESTs (e.g. discovery of new functional motifs).

  6. Chronic Bronchitis in Miners and Non-miners: An Epidemiological Survey of a Community in the Gold-mining Area in the Transvaal1

    PubMed Central

    Sluis-Cremer, G. K.; Walters, L. G.; Sichel, H. S.

    1967-01-01

    An epidemiological survey to determine the prevalence of chronic bronchitis in a mixed mining and non-mining population of Carletonville on the Witwatersrand is described. Eight hundred and twenty-seven men over the age of 35 years were investigated. Chronic bronchitis is shown to significantly more common in miners than in non-miners for every age and smoking category with the exception of the non-smoker no significant difference exists in the prevalence of chronic bronchitis between the mining and non-mining groups. Smoking habits were found to have overwhelming effects on the prevalence of chronic bronchitis in both groups. It is suggested that a synergistic interplay of smoking and general underground aerial pollution (rather than dust inhalation alone) is responsible for the excess prevalence of chronic bronchitis in the miner who smokes. PMID:6017135

  7. Questa Baseline and Pre-Mining Ground-Water Quality Investigation. 13. Mineral Microscopy and Chemistry of Mined and Unmined Porphyry Molybdenum Mineralization Along the Red River, New Mexico: Implications for Ground- and Surface-Water Quality

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Plumlee, Geoff; Lowers, Heather; Ludington, Steve; Koenig, Alan; Briggs, Paul

    2005-01-01

    This report is one in a series presenting results of an interdisciplinary U.S. Geological Survey (USGS) study of ground-water quality in the lower Red River watershed prior to open-pit and underground molybdenite mining at Molycorp's Questa mine. The stretch of the Red River watershed that extends from just upstream of the town of Red River to just above the town of Questa includes several mineralized areas in addition to the one mined by Molycorp. Natural erosion and weathering of pyrite-rich rocks in the mineralized areas has created a series of erosional scars along this stretch of the Red River that contribute acidic waters, as well as mineralized alluvial material and sediments, to the river. The overall goal of the USGS study is to infer the pre-mining ground-water quality at the Molycorp mine site. An integrated geologic, hydrologic, and geochemical model for ground water in the mineralized but unmined Straight Creek drainage is being used as an analogue for the geologic, geochemical, and hydrologic conditions that influenced ground-water quality and quantity at the mine site prior to mining. This report summarizes results of reconnaissance mineralogical and chemical characterization studies of rock samples collected from the various scars and the Molycorp open pit, and of drill cuttings or drill core from bedrock beneath the scars and adjacent debris fans.

  8. Electromagnetic system for detection and localization of the miners caught by accident in mine

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Pronenko, Vira; Dudkin, Fedir

    2016-04-01

    It is well known that the profession of a miner is one of the most dangerous in the world. Among the main causes of the people death in the underground coal mining enterprises is their untimely alerting of the accident, as well as the lack of information for the rescuers about the actual location of the miners after the accident. As world practice shows, the electromagnetic (EM) systems for the search and detection of people across a massive layer of rock are the most effective. Such systems are under development almost half a century in many countries dealing with mine industry. However, substantial progress related to the localization of personnel at a distance at least of 20-30 meters through the rock is not reached. In an emergency situation (failure or destruction of underground infrastructure), personnel search behind and beneath of obstruction should be provided urgently. But none of the standard technologies (RFID, DECT, WiFi, emitting cable), which use the stationary technical devices in mines, do not provide notification of people caught by accident location. The only technology that provides guaranteed delivery of messages about the accident to the mine personnel, regardless of their location and under any destruction in the mine, is low-frequency radio technology able to operate through the thickness of rocks. From the general theoretical considerations, it is clear that the miners localization system requires solving the inverse problem of the magnetic field source coordinates determining using the data of 3-component magnetic field measurements. A fundamentally new approach, based on the measurement of the magnetic field of the miner's responder beacon by two fixed and spaced three-component magnetic field receivers and solution of the inverse problem using the results of the magnetic field measurement, was proposed. As a result, the concept of the equipment for miners beacon search and localization implementation (MILES - miner's location emergency

  9. Microbially mediated carbon mineralization: Geoengineering a carbon-neutral mine

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Power, I. M.; McCutcheon, J.; Harrison, A. L.; Wilson, S. A.; Dipple, G. M.; Southam, G.

    2013-12-01

    Ultramafic and mafic mine tailings are a potentially valuable feedstock for carbon mineralization, affording the mining industry an opportunity to completely offset their carbon emissions. Passive carbon mineralization has previously been documented at the abandoned Clinton Creek asbestos mine, and the active Diavik diamond mine and Mount Keith nickel mine, yet the majority of tailings remain unreacted. Examples of microbe-carbonate interactions at each mine suggest that biological pathways could be harnessed to promote carbon mineralization. In suitable environmental conditions, microbes can mediate geochemical processes to accelerate mineral dissolution, increase the supply of carbon dioxide (CO2), and induce carbonate precipitation, all of which may accelerate carbon mineralization. Tailings mineralogy and the availability of a CO2 point source are key considerations in designing tailings storage facilities (TSF) for optimizing carbon mineralization. We evaluate the efficacy of acceleration strategies including bioleaching, biologically induced carbonate precipitation, and heterotrophic oxidation of waste organics, as well as abiotic strategies including enhancing passive carbonation through modifying tailings management practices and use of CO2 point sources (Fig. 1). With the aim of developing carbon-neutral mines, implementation of carbon mineralization strategies into TSF design will be driven by economic incentives and public pressure for environmental sustainability in the mining industry. Figure 1. Schematic illustrating geoengineered scenarios for carbon mineralization of ultramafic mine tailings. Scenarios A and B are based on non-point and point sources of CO2, respectively.

  10. SkyMine Carbon Mineralization Pilot Project

    SciTech Connect

    Joe Jones; Clive Barton; Mark Clayton; Al Yablonsky; David Legere

    2010-09-30

    This Topical Report addresses accomplishments achieved during Phase 1 of the SkyMine{reg_sign} Carbon Mineralization Pilot Project. The primary objectives of this project are to design, construct, and operate a system to capture CO{sub 2} from a slipstream of flue gas from a commercial coal-fired cement kiln, convert that CO{sub 2} to products having commercial value (i.e., beneficial use), show the economic viability of the CO{sub 2} capture and conversion process, and thereby advance the technology to a point of readiness for commercial scale demonstration and proliferation. The project will also substantiate market opportunities for the technology by sales of chemicals into existing markets, and identify opportunities to improve technology performance and reduce costs at commercial scale. The primary objectives of Phase 1 of the project were to elaborate proven SkyMine{reg_sign} process chemistry to commercial pilot-scale operation and complete the preliminary design ('Reference Plant Design') for the pilot plant to be built and operated in Phase 2. Additionally, during Phase 1, information necessary to inform a DOE determination regarding NEPA requirements for the project was developed, and a comprehensive carbon lifecycle analysis was completed. These items were included in the formal application for funding under Phase 2. All Phase 1 objectives were successfully met on schedule and within budget.

  11. Research and implementation of mining GIS software for unstratified mineral deposit

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Li, Mei; Liu, Yajing; Mao, Shanjun

    2006-10-01

    In this paper, a professional mining GIS software called Geological and Surveying Spatial Management Information System (GSSMIS) was designed and implemented. Due to restriction of mine design and computerization level, geostatistics and 3D block model were not fully applied in metal mining. The geologists interpreted drill holes and delimit mineral boundaries on the 2D plane and section. Unlike other 3D mining software, a 2D & 3D integration technological architecture for unstratified mineral deposit was proposed considering the conventional exploration and exploitation approaches. The whole system contains 3 modules: geological and surveying database module, 2D MGIS module and 3D modeling and visualization module. Database module input, manage, store and extract all kinds of geological and surveying data. 2D MGIS module provide lots of toolbox for plotting all sorts of engineering maps and processing advance analysis such as geostatistical and uncertain analysis, reserve computation and mining economic estimation. GSSMIS has a typical COM GIS configuration with 5 different developing levels. The 5 level structure has advantage of less coding, easier maintenance and management, good ability of extension and secondary development, adding or subtracting the modules according to user's need. Also, 5 important system characters were introduced in the article, which were: 1) 2D auto-mapping; 2) interactive interpretation of geological boundaries; 3) mutual modifications of plane and section; 4) 3D solid modeling; 5) section profile cutting. Finally, the article presented the implement of GSSMIS in Laixin Iron, Shandong Province. The system changed traditional handcraft mapping mode thoroughly, relieved the heavy burden of engineers and promoted the process of computerization and informatization in China.

  12. Opportunities for membrane technologies in the treatment of mining and mineral process streams and effluents

    SciTech Connect

    Awadalla, F.T.; Kumar, A. )

    1994-06-01

    The membrane separation technologies of microfiltration, ultrafiltration, nanofiltration, and reverse osmosis are suitable for treating many dilute streams and effluents generated in mining and mineral processing. Membrane technologies are capable of treating these dilute streams in order to produce clean permeate water for recycle and a concentrate that can potentially be used for valuable metals recovery. Membrane technologies can be utilized alone, or in combination with other techniques as a polishing step, in these separation processes. A review of potential applications of membranes for the treatment of different process streams and effluents for water recycling and pollution control is given here. Although membranes may not be optimum in all applications, these technologies are recognized in the mining sector for the many potential advantages they can provide. 59 refs.

  13. 43 CFR 3838.3 - What rules must I follow to explore for minerals and locate mining claims on SRHA lands?

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-10-01

    ... minerals and locate mining claims on SRHA lands? 3838.3 Section 3838.3 Public Lands: Interior Regulations... MANAGEMENT (3000) SPECIAL PROCEDURES FOR LOCATING AND RECORDING MINING CLAIMS AND TUNNEL SITES ON... minerals and locate mining claims on SRHA lands? (a) The regulations in this part describe how to...

  14. Managers and minerals in a monarchy: The political economy of mining in Jordan, 1970-1989

    SciTech Connect

    Piro, T.J.

    1992-01-01

    This study investigates why developing states that profess to follow free market principles continue to intervene in their economies. The study investigates the extent to which the state in Jordan has penetrated its most potentially productive economic sector - the extractive mineral industry (phosphates, potash, fertilizers, cement, and the refining of oil). The study examined Jordan's [open quotes]Big 5[close quotes] companies: the Jordan Cement Factories Company, the Jordan Phosphate Mines Company, the Jordan Petroleum Refinery Company, the Arab Potash Company, and the Jordan Fertilizer Industries Company. This examination sought to reveal the political factors that give rise to an interventionist state and that sustain intervention over time. The study discusses the political nature of building a national economy in a society with limited resources and in which certain groups and classes are favored over others. In Jordan the absence of a real entrepreneurial class or vibrant private sector prompted the state to enter the economy in order to construct its economic infrastructure. This is evidenced in the establishment of Jordan's extractive minerals companies. Through its links to these companies, the state crafted an economy in which the role of labor is weak and economic power is still situated within the organs of the state. Centralized authority within the kingdom and the various policy networks linking the state to industry make it difficult for the state to withdraw from the economy. Regional and international factors reinforce this tendency. A review of these companies' activities from 1970 to 1989 reveals the political contours of state capitalism and demonstrates why the private sector has not taken hold in many small developing nations. This study analyzes the institutional environment in which public officials act. The study concludes that the state's room to maneuver within the political arena and the economy is quite substantial.

  15. Aquatic ecosystems in Central Colorado are influenced by mineral forming processes and historical mining

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Schmidt, T.S.; Church, S.E.; Clements, W.H.; Mitchell, K.A.; Fey, D. L.; Wanty, R.B.; Verplanck, P.L.; San, Juan C.A.; Klein, T.L.; deWitt, E.H.; Rockwell, B.W.

    2009-01-01

    Stream water and sediment toxicity to aquatic insects were quantified from central Colorado catchments to distinguish the effect of geologic processes which result in high background metals concentrations from historical mining. Our sampling design targeted small catchments underlain by rocks of a single lithology, which allowed the development of biological and geochemical baselines without the complication of multiple rock types exposed in the catchment. By accounting for geologic sources of metals to the environment, we were able to distinguish between the environmental effects caused by mining and the weathering of different mineralized areas. Elevated metal concentrations in water and sediment were not restricted to mined catchments. Impairment of aquatic communities also occurred in unmined catchments influenced by hydrothermal alteration. Hydrothermal alteration style, deposit type, and mining were important determinants of water and sediment quality and aquatic community structure. Weathering of unmined porphyry Cu-Mo occurrences resulted in water (median toxic unit (TU) = 108) and sediment quality (TU = 1.9) that exceeded concentrations thought to be safe for aquatic ecosystems (TU = 1). Metalsensitive aquatic insects were virtually absent from streams draining catchments with porphyry Cu-Mo occurrences (1.1 individuals/0.1 m2 ). However, water and sediment quality (TU = 0.1, 0.5 water and sediment, respectively) and presence of metalsensitive aquatic insects (204 individuals/0.1 m2 ) for unmined polymetallic vein occurrences were indistinguishable from that for unmined and unaltered streams (TU = 0.1, 0.5 water and sediment, respectively; 201 individuals/0.1 m2 ). In catchments with mined quartz-sericite-pyrite altered polymetallic vein deposits, water (TU = 8.4) and sediment quality (TU = 3.1) were degraded and more toxic to aquatic insects (36 individuals/0.1 m2 ) than water (TU = 0.4) and sediment quality (TU = 1.7) from mined propylitically altered

  16. Annotated bibliography of environmentally relevant investigations of uranium mining and milling in the Grants Mineral Belt, northwestern New Mexico

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Otton, James K.

    2011-01-01

    Studies of the natural environment in the Grants Mineral Belt in northwestern New Mexico have been conducted since the 1930s; however, few such investigations predate uranium mining and milling operations, which began in the early 1950s. This report provides an annotated bibliography of reports that describe the hydrology and geochemistry of groundwaters and surface waters and the geochemistry of soils and sediments in the Grants Mineral Belt and contiguous areas. The reports referenced and discussed provide a large volume of information about the environmental conditions in the area after mining started. Data presented in many of these studies, if evaluated carefully, may provide much basic information about the baseline conditions that existed over large parts of the Grants Mineral Belt prior to mining. Other data may provide information that can direct new work in efforts to discriminate between baseline conditions and the effects of the mining and milling on the natural environment.

  17. Municipal and industrial waste product utilization for bauxite mine reclamation

    SciTech Connect

    Clark, M.D.

    1986-01-01

    Laboratory and field studies were conducted on acidic bauxite mine soil to compare the effectiveness of fly ash and brown lime to ag-lime for pH and soluble salt control. After 3 additions (109 mt/ha) of liming materials, ag-lime and fly ash were superior to brown lime for controlling mine soil acidity over the three year period. All liming materials were equally effective in controlling soil salinity. Rye, wheat, and bermudagrass were grown sequentially from 1982 to 1984. Nitrogen treatments in the field consisted of the addition of anaerobically digested sewage sludge (50 mt/ha) and (424 kg/ha) commercial inorganic nitrogen fertilizer. Nitrogen mineralization characteristics of sewage sludge were compared to inorganic N fertilizer by measuring decomposition in the laboratory and ground cover establishment and dry matter production in the field. Field results indicated that inorganic N and sludge were equally effective in ground cover establishment and the production of dry matter for rye, wheat and bermudagrass in 1983. Forage tissues were analyzed for 16 trace elements (As, B, Ca, Cd, Cu, Fe, K, Mg, Mn, Mo, Na, Ni, P, Pb, Se, and Zn). Results were compared between lime and nitrogen treatments for each grass crop and harvest time. Fly ash generally increased B content in forage tissue compared to the other lime materials. Wheat accumulated the highest amount. Tissue concentrations of (As, Cd, Cu, Fe, Mn, Ni, Pb, Se, and Zn) were sufficiently low enough to not be detrimental to grazing animals or the human food chain. Overall, levels of N, P, K, Ca, and Mg were sufficient to satisfy nutrient requirements for grazing animals.

  18. U.S. mineral dependence—Statistical compilation of U.S. and world mineral production, consumption, and trade, 1990–2010

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Barry, James J.; Matos, Grecia R.; Menzie, W. David

    2013-01-01

    This report provides insight into the dependence of the United States on foreign supply to meet the country’s mineral needs. When determining vulnerabilities to the U.S. supply, it is not enough to look solely at the mining source for each mineral to determine the potential impact that a supply disruption might have on the Nation’s economy. The tables that accompany this report help to illustrate the importance not only of the mining and processing of minerals but also the exporting countries and end uses. Understanding the total risks and costs of supply disruptions along the supply chain are beyond the scope of this report. However, this overview of mineral production, consumption, and trade highlights the importance of understanding what is happening at each point along the supply chain.

  19. The Skouriotissa mine: a new terrestrial analogue for hydrated mineral formation on Early Mars

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Bost, N.; Ramboz, C.; Foucher, F.; Westall, F.

    2013-09-01

    We describe a location in Cyprus, the Skouriotissa mine, that exhibits a large variety of basaltic weathering products (e.g. phylosilicates and sulfates), similar to the minerals observed on the Martian surface. The diversity of relevant alteration assemblages in one, easily accessible location make the mine an ideal Mars-analogue site.

  20. [Changes in the interleukin-6 and interleukin-10 concentrations in the blood plasma of miners working in deep coal mines].

    PubMed

    Plotkin, V Ia; Rebrov, B A; Belkina, E B

    2000-03-01

    Blood plasma levels of interleukin-6 (IL-6) and interleukin-10 (IL-10) were measured in 45 miners working in a deep coal mine immediately after work shift using an immunoenzyme technique. The highest IL-6 level was recorded in those miners engaged in hard work under most adverse conditions of underground workings--it was found to exceed the control values. The same group of workers demonstrated the lowest level of IL-10 that differed from the control value. Miners aged between 41 to 50 years working in a coal mine, their underground service duration 16 to 20 years, displayed a decline in the level of IL-6. The coal mine miners with the 11- to 15-year service duration revealed an increase in the level of IL-10.

  1. On the mineral characteristics and geochemistry of the Florida phosphate of Four Corners and Hardee County mines

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Baghdady, Ashraf R.; Howari, Fares M.; Al-Wakeel, Mohamed I.

    2016-08-01

    The Florida phosphate deposits in Four Corners and Hardee County mines are composed mainly of phosphate minerals and quartz in addition to subordinate proportions of feldspars, dolomite, calcite, gypsum, kaolinite, attapulgite and montmorillonite. These phosphorites contain three structurally different types of mudclasts: massive mudclasts, mudclasts with concentric structure and mudclasts consisting of agglomerates of apatite microparticles. The latter are represented by particles resembling phosphatized fossil bacteria associated with microbial filaments, and hollow apatite particles having surfacial coatings and connected to microbial filaments. The Florida phosphate particles are reworked and vary in mineral composition, color and shape. They are composed of a mixture of well-crystalline species including carbonate fluorapatite (francolite), carbonate apatite and fluorapatite. The color variation of the phosphate particles is related to difference in mineral composition, extent of diagenetic effects and reworking. The light-colored mudclasts are characterized by the presence of carbonate apatite and aluminum hydroxide phosphate minerals, whereas the dark mudclasts are rich in iron aluminum hydroxide phosphate minerals. The Florida phosphorites are suggested to be formed partially by authigenetic precipitation, replacement of the sea floor carbonate and diatomite, and microbial processes. With respect to elemental geochemistry, the analyzed particles contain small percentages of sulfur and iron which are related to the occurrence of pyrite. Traces of silica and alumina are recorded which may be attributed to the diagenetic. Some of the tested particles are relatively rich in phosphorous, fluorine, calcium, and magnesium, while poor in silicon, potassium and sulfur. Whereas, the bioclasts (especially teeth) are relatively rich in calcium, phosphorous and fluorine while poor in silicon, aluminum, magnesium and potassium. Hence, the microchemical analyses revealed

  2. GIS-technologies for integrated assessment of the productive mining areas

    SciTech Connect

    Zamaraev, R.Y.; Oparin, V.N.; Popov, S.E.; Potapov, V.P.; Pyastunovich,O.L.

    2008-05-15

    The paper describes the bases of a new application of GIS-technologies for integrated assessment and comparison of the productive mining areas, involving a wide range of mining and technological factors, considering mineral properties, mineral occurrence conditions and geographical advantages of a mineral deposit location. The model capabilities are exemplified by a comparison of technological characteristics of coals, transportation and power supply infrastructure of the productive mining areas at the Kuznetsk Coal Basin.

  3. Thorium in mineral products.

    PubMed

    Collier, D E; Brown, S A; Blagojevic, N; Soldenhoff, K H; Ring, R J

    2001-01-01

    Many ores contain low levels of thorium. When these ores are processed, the associated radioactivity can be found in mineral concentrates, intermediates and final products. There is an incentive for industries to remove radioactivity from mineral products to allow the movement and sale of these materials, both nationally and internationally, without the need for licensing. Control of thorium in various products involves the development and optimisation of process steps to be able to meet product specifications. The Australian Nuclear Science and Technology Organisation (ANSTO) has undertaken a range of R & D programmes targeting the treatment of thorium-bearing minerals. This paper discusses the application of a microprobe technique for siting radioactivity in zircon and ilmenite and the problems experienced in measuring the concentrations in solid rare earth products.

  4. Determination of acid forming potential of massive sulfide minerals and the tailings situated in lead/zinc mining district of Balya (NW Turkey)

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Çelebi, E. Ender; Öncel, M. Salim

    2016-12-01

    Weathering of sulfide minerals is a major source of acid production in nature and especially in mining territories. Pyrite is not the only principal mineral that generates acid drainage: other sulfide minerals (sphalerite, galena, chalcopyrite, etc.) may also be responsible for acid production. In addition to massive sulfide minerals, sulfide-bearing mine tailings may also produce acid drainage due to oxidation and hydrolysis reactions in waste dumps. The lead/zinc (Pb/Zn) mining region in Balya and Balıkesir, in Turkey, has operated mines intensively since the 1860s; so that characterization of the sulfide minerals and tailings situated and formed around the mining site is of great importance to secure a sustainable environment. For this purpose, acid production and neutralization potentials of massive sulfide ores of the region, and in the Pb/Zn process facility mine tailings from ten different points of tailings dam, have been determined by applied conventional Acid-Base Accounting (ABA) and Net Acid Generation (NAG) static tests after chemical and mineralogical analysis. The NAG pH and net acid production potential (NAPP) values were compared on a chart in order to classify the samples as either acid generating or non-acid generating. According to the comparisons, the sulfide minerals were classified as potentially acid forming (PAF). Massive pyrite had the highest NAPP and NAG pH value of 1966.6 kg H2SO4/ton and 1.91, respectively and the galena had the lowest NAPP value of 558.9 kg H2SO4/ton. However, the sphalerite NAG leachate pH value of 4.30 was the highest in sulfide minerals so that the sphalerite plotted near the uncertainty reference border in the PAF zone. In the mine tailings, NAPP values of 105.9 kg H2SO4/ton on average and the NAG pH values of over 7.5 were determined. In addition to these tests, water leaching (agitation test) was carried out on tailings in order to generate more information. The tailings did not generate acidic leachates as

  5. Mineralogy and geochemistry of efflorescent minerals on mine tailings and their potential impact on water chemistry.

    PubMed

    Grover, B P C; Johnson, R H; Billing, D G; Weiersbye, I M G; Tutu, H

    2016-04-01

    In the gold mining Witwatersrand Basin of South Africa, efflorescent mineral crusts are a common occurrence on and nearby tailings dumps during the dry season. The crusts are readily soluble and generate acidic, metal- and sulphate-rich solutions on dissolution. In this study, the metal content of efflorescent crusts at an abandoned gold mine tailings dump was used to characterise surface and groundwater discharges from the site. Geochemical modelling of the pH of the solution resulting from the dissolution of the crusts was used to better understand the crusts' potential impact on water chemistry. The study involved two approaches: (i) conducting leaching experiments on oxidised and unoxidised tailings using artificial rainwater and dilute sulphuric acid and correlating the composition of crusts to these leachates and (ii) modelling the dissolution of the crusts in order to gain insight into their mineralogy and their potential impact on receiving waters. The findings suggested that there were two chemically distinct discharges from the site, namely an aluminium- and magnesium-rich surface water plume and an iron-rich groundwater plume. The first plume was observed to originate from the oxidised tailings following leaching with rainwater while the second plume originated from the underlying unoxidised tailings with leaching by sulphuric acid. Both groups of minerals forming from the respective plumes were found to significantly lower the pH of the receiving water with simulations of their dissolution found to be within 0.2 pH units of experimental values. It was observed that metals in a low abundance within the crust (for example, iron) had a stronger influence on the pH of the resulting solutions than metals in a greater abundance (aluminium or magnesium). Techniques such as powder X-ray diffraction (PXRD) and in situ mineral determination techniques such as remote sensing can effectively determine the dominant mineralogy. However, the minerals or metals

  6. ASSESSING AND MANAGING MERCURY FROM HISTORIC AND CURRENT MINING ACTIVITIES

    EPA Science Inventory

    Mining activities in the US (not counting coal) produce between one and two billion tons of mine waste annually. Since many of the ore mines involve sulfide minerals, the production of acid mine drainage (AMD) is a common problem from these abandoned mine sites. The combination o...

  7. ASSESSING AND MANAGING MERCURY FROM HISTORIC AND CURRENT MINING ACTIVITIES

    EPA Science Inventory

    Mining activities in the US (not counting coal) produce between one and two billion tons of mine waste annually. Since many of the ore mines involve sulfide minerals, the production of acid mine drainage (AMD) is a common problem from these abandoned mine sites. The combination o...

  8. Mineral Carbonation Employing Ultramafic Mine Waste

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Southam, G.; McCutcheon, J.; Power, I. M.; Harrison, A. L.; Wilson, S. A.; Dipple, G. M.

    2014-12-01

    Carbonate minerals are an important, stable carbon sink being investigated as a strategy to sequester CO2 produced by human activity. A natural playa (Atlin, BC, CAN) that has demonstrated the ability to microbially-accelerate hydromagnesite formation was used as an experimental model. Growth of microbial mats from Atlin, in a 10 m long flow-through bioreactor catalysed hydromagnesite precipitation under 'natural' conditions. To enhance mineral carbonation, chrysotile from the Clinton Creek Asbestos Mine (YT, CAN) was used as a target substrate for sulphuric acid leaching, releasing as much as 94% of the magnesium into solution via chemical weathering. This magnesium-rich 'feedstock' was used to examine the ability of the microbialites to enhance carbonate mineral precipitation using only atmospheric CO2 as the carbon source. The phototrophic consortium catalysed the precipitation of platy hydromagnesite [Mg5(CO3)4(OH)2·4H2O] accompanied by magnesite [MgCO3], aragonite [CaCO3], and minor dypingite [Mg5(CO3)4(OH)2·5H2O]. Scanning Electron Microscopy-Energy Dispersive Spectroscopy indicated that cell exteriors and extracellular polymeric substances (EPS) served as nucleation sites for carbonate precipitation. In many cases, entire cyanobacteria filaments were entombed in magnesium carbonate coatings, which appeared to contain a framework of EPS. Cell coatings were composed of small crystals, which intuitively resulted from rapid crystal nucleation. Excess nutrient addition generated eutrophic conditions in the bioreactor, resulting in the growth of a pellicle that sealed the bioreactor contents from the atmosphere. The resulting anaerobic conditions induced fermentation and subsequent acid generation, which in turn caused a drop in pH to circumneutral values and a reduction in carbonate precipitation. Monitoring of the water chemistry conditions indicated that a high pH (> 9.4), and relatively high concentrations of magnesium (> 3000 ppm), compared with the natural

  9. Mining hydrogeological data from existing AEM datasets for mineral Mining

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Menghini, Antonio; Viezzoli, Andrea; Teatini, Pietro; Cattarossi, Andrea

    2017-04-01

    Large amount of existing Airborne Electromagnetic (AEM) data are potentially available all over the World. Originally acquired for mining purposes, AEM data traditionally do not get processed in detail and inverted: most of the orebodies can be easily detected by analyzing just the peak anomaly directly evidenced by voltage values (the so-called "bump detection"). However, the AEM acquisitions can be accurately re-processed and inverted to provide detailed 3D models of resistivity: a first step towards hydrogeological studies and modelling. This is a great opportunity especially for the African continent, where the detection of exploitable groundwater resources is a crucial issue. In many cases, a while after AEM data have been acquired by the mining company, Governments become owners of those datasets and have the opportunity to develop detailed hydrogeological characterizations at very low costs. We report the case in which existing VTEM (Versatile Time Domain Electromagnetic - Geotech Ltd) data, originally acquired to detect gold deposits, are used to improve the hydrogeological knowledge of a roughly 50 km2 pilot-test area in Sierra Leone. Thanks to an accurate processing workflow and an advanced data inversion, based on the Spatially Constrained Inversion (SCI) algorithm, we have been able to resolve the thickness of the regolith aquifer and the top of the granitic-gneiss or greenstone belt bedrock. Moreover, the occurrence of different lithological units (more or less conductive) directly related to groundwater flow, sometimes having also a high chargeability (e.g. in the case of lateritic units), has been detailed within the regolith. The most promising areas to drill new productive wells have been recognized where the bedrock is deeper and the regolith thickness is larger. A further info that was considered in hydrogeological mapping is the resistivity of the regolith, provided that the most permeable layers coincide with the most resistive units. The

  10. Mineral investigations in the Colville Mining District and Southern National Petroleum Reserve in Alaska. Open file report (Final)

    SciTech Connect

    Kurtak, J.M.; Hicks, R.W.; Werdon, M.B.; Meyer, M.P.; Mull, C.G.

    1995-12-31

    The U.S. Bureau of Mines conducted a five-year mineral resource assessment of the 16.6 million acre Colville Mining District in northern Alaska, which includes part of the National Petroleum Reserve in Alaska. During fieldwork, 1593 rock, soil, and stream sediment samples were collected and four bulk samples taken for beneficiation studies. A total of 40 mineral occurrences were documented, including 27 which were previously undescribed. Moderate potential exists for development of zinc-lead-silver, barite, and phosphate deposits.

  11. U-Pb isotope systematics and age of uranium mineralization, Midnite mine, Washington.

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Ludwig, K. R.; Nash, J.T.; Naeser, C.W.

    1981-01-01

    Uranium ores at the Midnite mine, near Spokane, Washington, occur in phyllites and calcsilicates of the Proterozoic Togo Formation, near the margins of an anomalously uraniferous, porphyritic quartz monzonite of Late Cretaceous age. The present geometry of the ore zones is tabular, with the thickest zones above depressions in the pluton-country rock contact. Analyses of high-grade ores from the mine define a 207 Pb/ 204 Pb- 235 U/ 204 Pb isochron indicating an age of mineralization of 51.0 + or - 0.5 m.y. This age coincides with a time of regional volcanic activity (Sanpoil Volcanics), shallow intrusive activity, erosion, and faulting. U-Th-Pb isotopic ages of zircons from the porphyritic quartz monzonite in the mine indicate an age of about 75 m.y., hence the present orebodies were formed about 24 m.y. after its intrusion. The 51-m.y. time of mineralization probably represents a period of mobilization and redeposition of uranium by supergene ground waters, perhaps aided by mild heating and ground preparation and preserved by a capping of newly accumulated, impermeable volcanic rocks. It seems most likely that the initial concentration of uranium occurred about 75 m.y. ago, probably from relatively mild hydrothermal fluids in the contact-metamorphic aureole of the U-rich porphyritic quartz monzonite.Pitchblende, coffinitc, pyrite, marcasite, and hisingerite are the most common minerals in the uranium-bearing veinlets, with minor sphalerite and chalcopyrite. Coffinitc with associated marcasite is paragenetically later than pitchblende, though textural and isotopic evidence suggests no large difference in the times of pitchblende and colfinite formation.The U-Pb isotope systematics of total ores and of pitchblende-coffinite and pyrite-marcasite separates show that whereas open system behavior for U and Pb is essentially negligible for large (200-500 g) ore samples, Pb migration has occurred on a scale of 1 to 10 mm (out of pitchblende and coffinite and into pyrite

  12. March 2016 Memo: Planning for Removal and Remedial Activities at Hardrock Mining and Mineral Processing Sites with Fluid Hazards

    EPA Pesticide Factsheets

    Memo from EPA Assistant Administrator Mathy Stanislaus, regarding planning for removal and remedial activities at hardrock mining and mineral processing sites with fluid hazards, and to share the Agency’s expectations for the work that is done at these sit

  13. 75 FR 82074 - Fee Adjustment for Testing, Evaluation, and Approval of Mining Products

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2010-12-29

    ... for Testing, Evaluation, and Approval of Mining Products AGENCY: Mine Safety and Health Administration... schedule for testing, evaluating, and approving mining products as provided by 30 CFR part 5. MSHA charges... equipment and materials manufactured for use in the mining industry. The new fee schedule, effective...

  14. Natural and mining-related sources of dissolved minerals during low flow in the Upper Animas River Basin, southwestern Colorado

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Wright, Winfield G.

    1997-01-01

    As part of the Clean Water Act of 1972 (Public Law 92-500), all States are required to establish water-quality standards for every river basin in the State. During 1994, the Colorado Department of Public Health and Environment proposed to the Colorado Water Quality Control Commission (CWQCC) an aquatic-life standard of 225 µg/L (micrograms per liter) for the dissolved-zinc concentration in the Animas River downstream from Silverton (fig.1). The CWQCC delayed implementation of this water-quality standard until further information was collected and a plan for the cleanup of abandoned mines was developed. Dissolved-zinc concentrations in this section of the river ranged from about 270 µg/L during high flow, when rainfall and snowmelt runoff dilute the dissolved minerals in the river (U.S. Geological Survey, 1996, p. 431), to 960 µg/L (Colorado Department of Public Health and Environment, written commun., 1996) during low flow (such as late summer and middle winter when natural springs and drainage from mines are the main sources for the streams). Mining sites in the basin were developed between about 1872 and the 1940's, with only a few mines operated until the early 1990's. For local governments, mining sites represent part of the Nation's heritage, tourists are attracted to the historic mining sites, and governments are obligated to protect the historic mining sites according to the National Historic Preservation Act (Public Law 89-665). In the context of this fact sheet, the term "natural sources of dissolved minerals" refers to springs and streams where no effect from mining were determined. "Mining-related sources of dissolved minerals" are assumed to be: (1 ) Water draining from mines , and (2) water seeping from mine-waste dump pile where the waste piles were saturated by water draining from mines. Although rainfall and snowmelt runoff from mine-waste piles might affect water quality in streams, work described in this fact sheet was done during low

  15. Production Quality, Value and Revenue in Polish Copper Mines

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Malewski, Jerzy

    2016-10-01

    Polish copper ore deposits, located in the Legnica-Głogów Copper District (LGOM) documented an area of over 200 km2, at a depth of 600-1400 meters. The estimated resources equal to 22.7 million tonnes of copper (proven and probable), or 44.4 million t (measured and indicated), or 8.7 million t (infered), at the criterion of profitability at a cost less than 50 cents per ton of ore. Organization of production takes place in the combine of mining and metallurgy (KGHM). Ore is extracted in three mines: Lubin, Polkowice-Sieroszowice and Rudna. The total production of these mines is about 31 million tonnes/year of ore, from which it receives a 576000 t/y of copper, 1152 t/y of silver, 1066 kg/y of gold, and certain amounts of Pb, Zn, Se, Re, Ni, SO4, H2SO4. The quality (grading) of the ore in exploited deposits is varied, affecting the quality and quantity of produced concentrates, what influence on its market value. The paper presents a brief description of ore deposit and estimates mines revenues and production profit. Calculations show that at today's (June 2016) metal prices each of the mine can expect the following net smelter revenue: Lubin ∼⃒41, P-S ∼⃒70, Rudna ∼⃒75 /t of ore. But estimated cost production differs less, i.e.: 45, 56 and 65/t of ore respectively, because of mining depth.

  16. Transformations of nitrogen and carbon in entrenched biosolids at a reclaimed mineral sands mining site.

    PubMed

    Kostyanovsky, K I; Evanylo, G K; Lasley, K K; Shang, C; Sukkariyah, B F; Daniels, W L

    2011-01-01

    Biosolids deep-row incorporation (DRI) provides high levels of nutrients to the reclamation sites; however, additions of N in excess of the vegetation requirements can potentially impair water quality. The effects of anaerobically digested (AD) and lime stabilized (LS) DRI biosolids and inorganic N fertilizer were compared on C and N transformations and transport at a reclaimed mineral sands mining site. Biosolids were applied at 213 and 426 Mg AD biosolids ha(-1) and 328 and 656 Mg LS biosolids ha)(-1) (dry mass), and inorganic N fertilizer was applied at 0 (control) and 504 kg N ha-(-1) yr(-1). Zero tension lysimeters were installed to collect leachate for determination of vertical N transport, and the biosolids seams were analyzed for N and C transformations after 28 mo aging. The leachijng masses from the DRI biosolids treatments were 139 to 291 kg ha(-1) NO3-N, 61 to 243 kg ha(-1) NH4-N, and 61 to 269 kg ha(-1) organic N, while the fertilizer treatment did not differ from the control. Aged biosolids analysis showed that total N lost over the course of 2 yr was 15.2 Mg ha(-1) and 10.9 Mg ha(-1) for LS and AD biosolids, respectively, which was roughly 50% of the N applied. Organic C losses were 81 Mg ha(-1) and 33 Mg ha(-1) for LS and AD biosolids, respectively. Our results indicated that entrenchment of biosolids in coarse-textured media should not be used as a mined land reclamation technique because the anaerobic conditions required to limit mineralization and nitrification cannot be maintained in such permeable soils.

  17. E-Alerts: Natural resources and earth sciences (mineral industries). E-mail newsletter

    SciTech Connect

    1999-04-01

    The paper discusses industries and their processes that exploit metallic and nonmetallic, fuel and nonfuel resources, including: Coal mining, mining wastes, and acid mine drainage; Coal preparation; Petroleum exploration, drilling, and production; Metals exploration and mining; Exploration geophysics and seismology; Reserves; Mine safety; Mineral economics; Underwater and continental shelf mining; Natural resources studies (excluding Earth Resource Satellite Surveys).

  18. Exposure to chrysotile mining dust and digestive cancer mortality in a Chinese miner/miller cohort.

    PubMed

    Lin, Sihao; Wang, Xiaorong; Yano, Eiji; Yu, Ignatius; Lan, Yajia; Courtice, Midori N; Christiani, David C

    2014-05-01

    To examine mortality from digestive cancers in a Chinese miner cohort and to explore the exposure-response relationship between chrysotile mining dust and site-specific digestive cancers. A cohort of 1539 asbestos miners was followed for 26 years. Information on vital status and death causes was collected from personnel records and hospitals. Underlying causes of death from cancers were determined by combination of clinical manifestations and pathological confirmation. Individual cumulative dust exposures were estimated based on periodic dust measurements of different workshops, individuals' job title and employment duration, and treated as a time-dependent variable. Standardised mortality ratios (SMR) were calculated according to Chinese national data and stratified by exposure (levels 1-3, from low to high). Cox proportional hazard models were constructed to estimate HRs in relation to cumulative exposure with adjustment of smoking. Fifty-one deaths from digestive cancers were identified in the cohort, giving an SMR of 1.45 (95% CI 1.10 to 1.90). There was a clear exposure-response relationship between asbestos dust exposure and mortality from stomach cancer, with SMR of 2.39 (95% CI 1.02 to 5.60) and 6.49 (2.77 to 15.20) at exposure levels 2 and 3, respectively. The clear relationship remained in multivariate analysis, in which workers at the highest exposure level had HRs of 12.23 (95% CI 8.74 to 17.12). In addition, excess mortality from oesophageal and liver cancers was also observed at high exposure levels. This study provides additional evidence for the association between exposure to chrysotile mining dust and excess mortality from digestive cancers, particularly stomach cancer.

  19. Reclamation of prime farmland following mineral sands mining in Virginia

    SciTech Connect

    Daniels, W.L.; Schroeder, P.D.; Nagle, S.M.; Zelazny, L.W.; Alley, M.M.

    1999-07-01

    Significant deposits of mineral sands were discovered in Virginia's Upper Coastal Plain in 1989. The Old Hickory deposit is the largest ore body in the state (>2,000 ha) and supports a productive rowcrop agriculture on prime farmlands. field experiments were installed on pilot-scale (25 m x 60 m) mining pits in the late summer of 1995 and replicated on an adjacent undisturbed area. Half of each mining pit was topsoiled (25 cm) while the remaining half was left as either (1) mixed tails/slimes or (2) re-graded subsoil over tails/slimes to simulate various pit closure scenarios. Both non-topsoiled areas received 112 Mg/ha of yard waste compost as a soil building amendment. The entire area was ripped/disked to ameliorate compaction and incorporate lime and fertilizer additions. The experiment was cropped through a wheat/soybeans/corn/cotton rotation over the 1995 to 1998 growing seasons. Taken as a whole, these combined results clearly indicate that mining and reclamation of these prime farmlands will lead to a substantial decrease in rowcrop productivity, at least over the initial years following pit closure and reclamation. For the rotation studied, post-mining productivity was estimated by this experiment to be reduced by 23%, 3%, 27%, and 20% for each crop (wheat/soybeans/corn/cotton) in sequence. For a given crop in a given year, response to topsoiling versus compost addition to the surface varied, and neither treatment appeared superior. Corn and cotton yields on the mined land treatments were reduced despite the application of irrigation. Cotton quality was also adversely affected by the mining reclamation treatments. Results of these controlled experiments are somewhat encouraging. However, the implementation of protocols will be complicated in practice if tailings and slimes cannot be re-blended to generate a reasonably uniform final reclaimed surface.

  20. Mining, visualizing and comparing multidimensional biomolecular data using the Genomics Data Miner (GMine) Web-Server.

    PubMed

    Proietti, Carla; Zakrzewski, Martha; Watkins, Thomas S; Berger, Bernard; Hasan, Shihab; Ratnatunga, Champa N; Brion, Marie-Jo; Crompton, Peter D; Miles, John J; Doolan, Denise L; Krause, Lutz

    2016-12-06

    Genomics Data Miner (GMine) is a user-friendly online software that allows non-experts to mine, cluster and compare multidimensional biomolecular datasets. Various powerful visualization techniques are provided, generating high quality figures that can be directly incorporated into scientific publications. Robust and comprehensive analyses are provided via a broad range of data-mining techniques, including univariate and multivariate statistical analysis, supervised learning, correlation networks, clustering and multivariable regression. The software has a focus on multivariate techniques, which can attribute variance in the measurements to multiple explanatory variables and confounders. Various normalization methods are provided. Extensive help pages and a tutorial are available via a wiki server. Using GMine we reanalyzed proteome microarray data of host antibody response against Plasmodium falciparum. Our results support the hypothesis that immunity to malaria is a higher-order phenomenon related to a pattern of responses and not attributable to any single antigen. We also analyzed gene expression across resting and activated T cells, identifying many immune-related genes with differential expression. This highlights both the plasticity of T cells and the operation of a hardwired activation program. These application examples demonstrate that GMine facilitates an accurate and in-depth analysis of complex molecular datasets, including genomics, transcriptomics and proteomics data.

  1. Mining, visualizing and comparing multidimensional biomolecular data using the Genomics Data Miner (GMine) Web-Server

    PubMed Central

    Proietti, Carla; Zakrzewski, Martha; Watkins, Thomas S.; Berger, Bernard; Hasan, Shihab; Ratnatunga, Champa N.; Brion, Marie-Jo; Crompton, Peter D.; Miles, John J.; Doolan, Denise L.; Krause, Lutz

    2016-01-01

    Genomics Data Miner (GMine) is a user-friendly online software that allows non-experts to mine, cluster and compare multidimensional biomolecular datasets. Various powerful visualization techniques are provided, generating high quality figures that can be directly incorporated into scientific publications. Robust and comprehensive analyses are provided via a broad range of data-mining techniques, including univariate and multivariate statistical analysis, supervised learning, correlation networks, clustering and multivariable regression. The software has a focus on multivariate techniques, which can attribute variance in the measurements to multiple explanatory variables and confounders. Various normalization methods are provided. Extensive help pages and a tutorial are available via a wiki server. Using GMine we reanalyzed proteome microarray data of host antibody response against Plasmodium falciparum. Our results support the hypothesis that immunity to malaria is a higher-order phenomenon related to a pattern of responses and not attributable to any single antigen. We also analyzed gene expression across resting and activated T cells, identifying many immune-related genes with differential expression. This highlights both the plasticity of T cells and the operation of a hardwired activation program. These application examples demonstrate that GMine facilitates an accurate and in-depth analysis of complex molecular datasets, including genomics, transcriptomics and proteomics data. PMID:27922118

  2. Impact of epidermal leaf mining by the aspen leaf miner (Phyllocnistis populiella) on the growth, physiology, and leaf longevity of quaking aspen

    Treesearch

    Diane Wagner; Linda DeFoliart; Patricia Doak; Jenny Schneiderheinze

    2008-01-01

    We studied the effect of epidermal mining on aspen growth and physiology during an outbreak of Phyllocnistis populiella in the boreal forest of interior Alaska. Experimental reduction of leaf miner density across two sites and 3 years significantly increased annual apsen growth rates relative to naturally mined controls. Leaf mining damage was...

  3. Ferric minerals and organic matter change arsenic speciation in copper mine tailings.

    PubMed

    Wang, Peng; Liu, Yunjia; Menzies, Neal W; Wehr, J Bernhard; de Jonge, Martin D; Howard, Daryl L; Kopittke, Peter M; Huang, Longbin

    2016-11-01

    Arsenic (As) is commonly associated with Cu ore minerals, with the resultant risk that As can be released offsite from mine tailings. We used synchrotron-based fluorescence X-ray absorption near-edge spectroscopy (XANES) imaging to provide in situ, laterally-resolved speciation of As within tailings which differed in magnetite content (5-12%) and organic matter content (0-5%). Although the total As content was lower in tailings with low magnetite (LM), the soluble (pore water) As was actually 7-times higher in LM tailings than in high magnetite (HM) tailings. Additionally, amendment with 5% sugarcane mulch residues (SMR) (for revegetation) further increased soluble As due to the dissolution and oxidation of arsenopyrite or orpiment. Indeed, in HM tailings, arsenopyrite and orpiment initially accounted for 88% of the total As, which decreased to 48% upon the addition of SMR - this being associated with an increase in As(V)-ferrihydrite from 12% to 52%. In LM tailings, the pattern of As distribution and speciation was similar, with As as As(V)-ferrihydrite increasing from 57% to 75% upon the addition of SMR. These findings indicate that changes in ore processing technology, such as the recovery of magnetite could have significant environmental consequences regarding the As mobilisation and transformation in mine tailings.

  4. "Farming Miners" or "Mining Farmers"?: Diamond Mining and Rural Development in Post-Conflict Sierra Leone

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Maconachie, Roy; Binns, Tony

    2007-01-01

    Sierra Leone is currently emerging from a brutal civil war that lasted most of the 1990s, and now has the dubious distinction of being ranked among the world's poorest countries. As thousands of displaced people move back to their villages, a large proportion of the predominantly farm-based rural population are growing food crops for the first…

  5. "Farming Miners" or "Mining Farmers"?: Diamond Mining and Rural Development in Post-Conflict Sierra Leone

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Maconachie, Roy; Binns, Tony

    2007-01-01

    Sierra Leone is currently emerging from a brutal civil war that lasted most of the 1990s, and now has the dubious distinction of being ranked among the world's poorest countries. As thousands of displaced people move back to their villages, a large proportion of the predominantly farm-based rural population are growing food crops for the first…

  6. Explanation of fields used in the Alaska Resource Data File of mines, prospects, and mineral occurrences in Alaska

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    ,

    1996-01-01

    Descriptions of mines, prospects, and mineral occurrences in the Alaska Resource Data File (ARDF) are published for individual U.S. Geological Survey 1:250,000 scale quadrangles in Alaska (see accompanying map) and are available for downloading from USGS World Wide Web site: http://www-rnrs-ak.wr.usgs.gov/ardf.These descriptions are divided into a number of fields which describe features of each mine, prospect, or mineral occurrence. These descriptions were complied from published literature and from unpublished reports and data from industry, the U.S. Bureau of Mines, and the U.S. Geological Survey and other sources. Compilation of this database is an ongoing process and each report is essentially a progress report. The authors of the individual quadrangle reports would appreciate any corrections or additional information that users may be able to contribute.

  7. 76 FR 2617 - Lowering Miners' Exposure to Respirable Coal Mine Dust, Including Continuous Personal Dust Monitors

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2011-01-14

    ...' Exposure to Respirable Coal Mine Dust, Including Continuous Personal Dust Monitors AGENCY: Mine Safety and... rule addressing Lowering Miners' Exposure to Respirable Coal Mine Dust, Including Continuous Personal..., Lowering Miners' Exposure to Respirable Coal Mine Dust, Including Continuous Personal Dust Monitors....

  8. 76 FR 25277 - Lowering Miners' Exposure to Respirable Coal Mine Dust, Including Continuous Personal Dust Monitors

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2011-05-04

    ...' Exposure to Respirable Coal Mine Dust, Including Continuous Personal Dust Monitors AGENCY: Mine Safety and... period on the proposed rule addressing Lowering Miners' Exposure to Respirable Coal Mine Dust, Including... FR 64412), MSHA published a proposed rule, Lowering Miners' Exposure to Respirable Coal Mine...

  9. Mineral zoning and gold occurrence in the Fortuna skarn mine, Nambija district, Ecuador

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Markowski, Agnès; Vallance, Jean; Chiaradia, Massimo; Fontboté, Lluìs

    2006-07-01

    The Fortuna oxidized gold skarn deposit is located in the northern part of the Nambija gold district, southern Ecuador. It has been subdivided into four mineralized sites, covering a distance of 1 km, which are named from north to south: Cuerpo 3, Mine 1, Mine 2, and Southern Sector. Massive skarn bodies occur in K-Na metasomatized volcanic and volcaniclastic rocks of the Triassic Piuntza unit. They appear to result from selective replacement of volcaniclastic rocks. Very minor presence of bioclast relicts suggests the presence of subordinate limestone. Endoskarn type alteration with development of Na-rich plagioclase, K-feldspar, epidote, actinolite, anhedral pyroxene, and titanite affects a quartz-diorite porphyritic intrusion which crops out below the skarn bodies in Mine 2 and the Southern Sector. Endoskarn alteration in the intrusion grades into a K-feldspar ± biotite ± magnetite assemblage (K-alteration), suggesting that skarn formation is directly related to the quartz-diorite porphyritic intrusion, the latter being probably emplaced between 141 and 146 Ma. The massive skarn bodies were subdivided into a dominant brown garnet skarn, a distal green pyroxene-epidote skarn, and two quartz-rich varieties, a blue-green garnet skarn and light green pyroxene-garnet skarn, which occur as patches and small bodies within the former skarn types. The proximal massive brown garnet skarn zone is centered on two 060° trending faults in Mine 2, where the highest gold grades (5-10 g/t) were observed. It grades into a distal green pyroxene-epidote skarn zone to the North (Cuerpo 3). Granditic garnet shows iron enrichment from the proximal to the distal zone. Diopsidic pyroxene exhibits iron and manganese enrichment from proximal to distal zones. The retrograde stage is weakly developed and consists mainly of mineral phases filling centimeter-wide veins, vugs, and interstices between garnet and pyroxene grains. The main filling mineral is quartz, followed by K

  10. Treatment of antimony mine drainage: challenges and opportunities with special emphasis on mineral adsorption and sulfate reducing bacteria.

    PubMed

    Li, Yongchao; Hu, Xiaoxian; Ren, Bozhi

    2016-01-01

    The present article summarizes antimony mine distribution, antimony mine drainage generation and environmental impacts, and critically analyses the remediation approach with special emphasis on iron oxidizing bacteria and sulfate reducing bacteria. Most recent research focuses on readily available low-cost adsorbents, such as minerals, wastes, and biosorbents. It is found that iron oxides prepared by chemical methods present superior adsorption ability for Sb(III) and Sb(V). However, this process is more costly and iron oxide activity can be inhibited by plenty of sulfate in antimony mine drainage. In the presence of sulfate reducing bacteria, sulfate can be reduced to sulfide and form Sb(2)S(3) precipitates. However, dissolved oxygen and lack of nutrient source in antimony mine drainage inhibit sulfate reducing bacteria activity. Biogenetic iron oxide minerals from iron corrosion by iron-oxidizing bacteria may prove promising for antimony adsorption, while the micro-environment generated from iron corrosion by iron oxidizing bacteria may provide better growth conditions for symbiotic sulfate reducing bacteria. Finally, based on biogenetic iron oxide adsorption and sulfate reducing bacteria followed by precipitation, the paper suggests an alternative treatment for antimony mine drainage that deserves exploration.

  11. Mining and Minerals Technical Advisory Committee on Curriculum Development. Job Clusters, Competencies and Task Analysis.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Northern Montana Coll., Havre. Montana Center for Vocational Education, Research, Curriculum and Personnel Development.

    This skills inventory for mining occupations was developed by a technical committee in Montana to assist in the development of model curricula and to address state labor market needs. The committee included employers from the mining industry, members of trade and professional associations, and educators. The validated task list and defined job…

  12. Mineral phases and mobility of trace metals in white aluminum precipitates found in acid mine drainage.

    PubMed

    Kim, Yeongkyoo

    2015-01-01

    The white aluminum precipitates (S1,S2,S4-1,S4-2) collected at three different locations affected by acid mine and rock drainage were studied to characterize the mineral phases and mobility of trace metals. Chemical analysis, XRD, SEM, NMR, and sequential extraction method were mainly used. XRD data showed that most white aluminum precipitates are amorphous with small amount of gypsum, which was also confirmed by SEM. The (27)Al MAS NMR spectra provide more detailed information on the local environments of aluminum in those samples. The samples collected at two locations (S3, and S4-1 and S4-2) contain 4-coordinated aluminum, suggesting that the samples contain a significant amount of amorphous phase from Al13-tridecamer. Chemical data of calcium and sulfur with (27)Al MAS NMR spectra suggest that the relative amounts of amorphous phase from Al13-tridecamer, hydrobasaluminite, aluminum hydroxide, and gypsum are different for each sample. Different amount of amorphous phase from Al13-tridecamer in those samples are probably caused by the different geochemical conditions and hydrolysis by aging in water. Sequential extraction results show that water soluble fraction and sorbed and exchangeable fraction of trace metals in sample collected as suspended particles (S1) are higher than other samples, and can affect the ecological system in waters by releasing aluminum and trace metals. These results suggest that careful characterization of white aluminum precipitates is needed to estimate the environmental effects of those precipitates in acid mine drainage. Copyright © 2014 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  13. Paleomagnetic and mineral magnetic constraints on Zn-Pb ore genesis in the Pend Oreille Mine, Metaline district, Washington, USA

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Pannalal, S.J.; Symons, David T. A.; Leach, D.L.

    2007-01-01

    Zinc-lead mineralization in the Metaline mining district of northeastern Washington, USA, is hosted by the Cambrian Metaline Formation and is classified into Yellowhead-type (YO) and Josephine-type (JO) ore based on texture and mineralogy. Paleomagnetic results are reported for four Cambrian Metaline Formation sites, one Ordovician Ledbetter slate site, 12 YO and 13 JO (including two breccia sites) mineralization sites in the Pend Oreille Mine, and eight sites from the nearby Cretaceous Kaniksu granite batholith. Thermal and alternating field step demagnetization, saturation isothermal remanence analysis, and synthetic specimen tests show that the remanence in the host carbonates and Zn-Pb mineralization is carried mostly by pseudosingle (PSD) to single domain (SD) pyrrhotite and mostly by PSD to SD magnetite in the Kaniksu granite. Based on thermomagnetic measurements, sphalerite and galena concentrates and tailings from the mine's mill contain hexagonal and monoclimc pyrrhotite. The postfolding characteristic remanent magnetization (ChRM), known thermal data, and paleoarc method of dating suggest that the Zn-Pb mineralization carries a primary chemical remanent magnetization (CRM), and Metaline Formation carbonates a secondary CRM that were acquired during the Middle Jurassic (166 ??6 Ma) during the waning stages of the Nevadan orogeny. A paleomagnetic breccia test favours a solution-collapse origin for the Josephine breccia. Finally, the Kaniksu paleopole is concordant with the North American Cretaceous reference paleopole, suggesting the Kootenay terrane has not been rotated since emplacement of the batholith at ???94 Ma. ?? 2007 NRC Canada.

  14. Solubility relationships of aluminum and iron minerals associated with acid mine drainage

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Sullivan, Patrick J.; Yelton, Jennifer L.; Reddy, K. J.

    1988-06-01

    The ability to properly manage the oxidation of pyritic minerals and associated acid mine drainage is dependent upon understanding the chemistry of the disposal environment. One accepted disposal method is placing pyritic-containing materials in the groundwater environment. The objective of this study was to examine solubility relationships of Al and Fe minerals associated with pyritic waste disposed in a low leaching aerobic saturated environment. Two eastern oil shales were used in this oxidizing equilibration study, a New Albany Shale (unweathered, 4.6 percent pyrite), and a Chattanooga Shale (weathered, 1.5 percent pyrite). Oil shale samples were equilibrated with distilled-deionized water from 1 to 180 d with a 1∶1 solid-to-solution ratio. The suspensions were filtered and the clear filtrates were analyzed for total cations and anions. Ion activities were calculated from total concentrations. Below pH 6.0, depending upon SO{4/2-} activity, Al3+ solubility was controlled by AlOHSO4 (solid phase) for both shales. Initially, Al3+ solubility for the New Albany Shale showed equilibrium with amorphous Al(OH)3. The pH decreased with time, and Al3+ solubility approached equilibrium with AlOHSO4(s). Below pH 6.0, Fe3+ solubility appeared to be regulated by a basic iron sulfate solid phase with the stoichiometric composition of FeOHSO4(s). The results of this study indicate that below pH 6.0, Al3+ solubilities, are limited by basic Al and Fe sulfate solid phases (AlOHSO4(s) and FeHSO4(s)). The results from this study further indicate that the acidity in oil shale waters is produced from the hydrolysis of Al3+ and Fe3+ activities in solution. These results indicate a fundamental change in the stoichiometric equations used to predict acidity from iron sulfide oxidation. The results of this study also indicate that water quality predictions associated with acid mine drainage can be based on fundamental thermodynamic relationships. As a result, waste management decisions

  15. The Archveyor{trademark} mining system: Automated high wall mining, a precursor to improved safety, productivity, and cost underground

    SciTech Connect

    Sawarynski, T.J.

    1996-12-31

    Arch Mineral Corporation has an automated high wall miner called the Archveyor {trademark}. In production since 1992, it uses just two employees to operate the system. They consistently produce 91 metric tons per eight-hour employer-shift with peaks nearing 226 metric tons. The system uses a modified Joy 12CM miner cutting 3.7 meters. That loads into a 219 meter long continuous haulage Archveyor{trademark}. It discharges into a loadout vehicle that elevates the coal to load haul trucks. This technology can be adapted to mine over 305 meters into the high wall. Any continuous miner can be used to suit conditions. It is programmed to sump, shear down, sump, and shear up in a continuous cycle. It advances a set distance before the Archveyor{trademark} moves up behind it. The Archveyor{trademark} has a flight conveyor 838 mm wide used to tram and convey. Lift cylinders raise it off the ground to convey. To tram, the cylinders retract, dropping the Archveyor{trademark} to the ground. That places the full length of the return side or bottom of the flight conveyor in contract with the floor to tram in either direction. Programmable logic controllers are used with a gyroscope, gamma detectors, and inclinometers to keep on-heading and in-seam. Critical system functions are monitored and displayed for the operator. Safety, lower costs, and higher productivity drive the effort to use the Archveyor{trademark} technology underground. Arch Technology is assembling and preparing to install an underground system in the third quarter of 1996.

  16. Robust stochastic mine production scheduling

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Kumral, Mustafa

    2010-06-01

    The production scheduling of open pit mines aims to determine the extraction sequence of blocks such that the net present value (NPV) of a mining project is maximized under capacity and access constraints. This sequencing has significant effect on the profitability of the mining venture. However, given that the values of coefficients in the optimization procedure are obtained in a medium of sparse data and unknown future events, implementations based on deterministic models may lead to destructive consequences to the company. In this article, a robust stochastic optimization (RSO) approach is used to deal with mine production scheduling in a manner such that the solution is insensitive to changes in input data. The approach seeks a trade off between optimality and feasibility. The model is demonstrated on a case study. The findings showed that the approach can be used in mine production scheduling problems efficiently.

  17. Laser cladding of tungsten carbides (Spherotene ®) hardfacing alloys for the mining and mineral industry

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Amado, J. M.; Tobar, M. J.; Alvarez, J. C.; Lamas, J.; Yáñez, A.

    2009-03-01

    The abrasive nature of the mechanical processes involved in mining and mineral industry often causes significant wear to the associated equipment and derives non-negligible economic costs. One of the possible strategies to improve the wear resistance of the various components is the deposition of hardfacing layers on the bulk parts. The use of high power lasers for hardfacing (laser cladding) has attracted a great attention in the last decade as an alternative to other more standard methods (arc welding, oxy-fuel gas welding, thermal spraying). In laser cladding the hardfacing material is used in powder form. For high hardness applications Ni-, Co- or Fe-based alloys containing hard phase carbides at different ratios are commonly used. Tungsten carbides (WC) can provide coating hardness well above 1000 HV (Vickers). In this respect, commercially available WC powders normally contain spherical micro-particles consisting of crushed WC agglomerates. Some years ago, Spherotene ® powders consisting of spherical-fused monocrystaline WC particles, being extremely hard, between 1800 and 3000 HV, were patented. Very recently, mixtures of Ni-based alloy with Spherotene powders optimized for laser processing were presented (Technolase ®). These mixtures have been used in our study. Laser cladding tests with these powders were performed on low carbon steel (C25) substrates, and results in terms of microstructure and hardness will be discussed.

  18. Assessment of the geoavailability of trace elements from minerals in mine wastes: analytical techniques and assessment of selected copper minerals

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Driscoll, Rhonda; Hageman, Phillip L.; Benzel, William M.; Diehl, Sharon F.; Adams, David T.; Morman, Suzette; Choate, LaDonna M.

    2012-01-01

    In this study, four randomly selected copper-bearing minerals were examined—azurite, malachite, bornite, and chalcopyrite. The objectives were to examine and enumerate the crystalline and chemical properties of each of the minerals, to determine which, if any, of the Cu-bearing minerals might adversely affect systems biota, and to provide a multi-procedure reference. Laboratory work included use of computational software for quantifying crystalline and amorphous material and optical and electron imaging instruments to model and project crystalline structures. Chemical weathering, human fluid, and enzyme simulation studies were also conducted. The analyses were conducted systematically: X-ray diffraction and microanalytical studies followed by a series of chemical, bio-leaching, and toxicity experiments.

  19. Respiratory symptoms and spirometry in experienced coal miners: effects of both distant and recent coal mine dust exposures.

    PubMed

    Henneberger, P K; Attfield, M D

    1997-09-01

    The goal of this study was to determine whether respiratory symptoms were associated with the lower concentrations of respirable coal mine dust that were required by the U.S. Coal Mine Health and Safety Act (CMHSA) of 1969. The subjects were 1,866 male miners who had participated in the National Study of Coal Workers' Pneumoconiosis (NSCWP) and been tested at least twice, initially in either Round 1 (R1) (1969-71) or Round 2 (R2) (1972-75) and then finally in Round 4 (R4) (1985-88). Self-reported information elicited with a standardized questionnaire was used to determine the presence at the final round (i.e., R4) of chronic bronchitis, shortness of breath, and wheeze. Cumulative coal mine dust exposure was characterized for both the pre- and post-CMHSA periods. Controlling for age and other potential confounders, increased risks for the symptoms were associated with higher levels of both measurements of exposure. Moreover, the adverse effects of the lower, post-CMHSA exposure were evident for shortness of breath and wheeze especially among subjects who had little pre-CMHSA coal mining experience. These findings provide additional evidence of the limitations of the current 2.0 mg/m3 coal mine dust standard to prevent respiratory disease.

  20. Mines and mineral processing facilities in the vicinity of the March 11, 2011, earthquake in northern Honshu, Japan

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Menzie, W. David; Baker, Michael S.; Bleiwas, Donald I.; Kuo, Chin

    2011-01-01

    U.S. Geological Survey data indicate that the area affected by the March 11, 2011, magnitude 9.0 earthquake and associated tsunami is home to nine cement plants, eight iodine plants, four iron and steel plants, four limestone mines, three copper refineries, two gold refineries, two lead refineries, two zinc refineries, one titanium dioxide plant, and one titanium sponge processing facility. These facilities have the capacity to produce the following percentages of the world's nonfuel mineral production: 25 percent of iodine, 10 percent of titanium sponge (metal), 3 percent of refined zinc, 2.5 percent of refined copper, and 1.4 percent of steel. In addition, the nine cement plants contribute about one-third of Japan's cement annual production. The iodine is a byproduct from production of natural gas at the Miniami Kanto gas field, east of Tokyo in Chiba Prefecture. Japan is the world's second leading (after Chile) producer of iodine, which is processed in seven nearby facilities.

  1. Impact of epidermal leaf mining by the aspen leaf miner (Phyllocnistis populiella) on the growth, physiology, and leaf longevity of quaking aspen.

    PubMed

    Wagner, Diane; DeFoliart, Linda; Doak, Patricia; Schneiderheinze, Jenny

    2008-08-01

    The aspen leaf miner, Phyllocnistis populiella, feeds on the contents of epidermal cells on both top (adaxial) and bottom (abaxial) surfaces of quaking aspen leaves, leaving the photosynthetic tissue of the mesophyll intact. This type of feeding is taxonomically restricted to a small subset of leaf mining insects but can cause widespread plant damage during outbreaks. We studied the effect of epidermal mining on aspen growth and physiology during an outbreak of P. populiella in the boreal forest of interior Alaska. Experimental reduction of leaf miner density across two sites and 3 years significantly increased annual aspen growth rates relative to naturally mined controls. Leaf mining damage was negatively related to leaf longevity. Leaves with heavy mining damage abscised 4 weeks earlier, on average, than leaves with minimal mining damage. Mining damage to the top and bottom surfaces of leaves had different effects on physiology. Mining on the top surface of the leaf had no significant effect on photosynthesis or conductance and was unrelated to leaf stable C isotope ratio (delta(13)C). Mining damage to the bottom leaf surface, where stomata are located, had significant negative effects on net photosynthesis and water vapor conductance. Percent bottom mining was positively related to leaf delta(13)C. Taken together, the data suggest that the primary mechanism for the reduction of photosynthesis by epidermal leaf mining by P. populiella is the failure of stomata to open normally on bottom-mined leaves.

  2. Minerals Yearbook Volume 1, Metals and Minerals

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    ,

    2016-01-01

    This volume contains chapters about virtually all metallic and industrial mineral commodities important to the U.S. economy.  Chapters on survey methods, summary statistics for domestic nonfuel minerals, and trends in mining and quarrying in the metals and industrial mineral industries in the United States are also included.

  3. Microbially Accelerated Carbonate Mineral Precipitation as a Strategy for in Situ Carbon Sequestration and Rehabilitation of Asbestos Mine Sites.

    PubMed

    McCutcheon, Jenine; Wilson, Siobhan A; Southam, Gordon

    2016-02-02

    A microbially accelerated process for the precipitation of carbonate minerals was implemented in a sample of serpentinite mine tailings collected from the abandoned Woodsreef Asbestos Mine in New South Wales, Australia as a strategy to sequester atmospheric CO2 while also stabilizing the tailings. Tailings were leached using sulfuric acid in reaction columns and subsequently inoculated with an alkalinity-generating cyanobacteria-dominated microbial consortium that was enriched from pit waters at the Woodsreef Mine. Leaching conditions that dissolved 14% of the magnesium from the serpentinite tailings while maintaining circumneutral pH (1800 ppm, pH 6.3) were employed in the experiment. The mineralogy, water chemistry, and microbial colonization of the columns were characterized following the experiment. Micro-X-ray diffraction was used to identify carbonate precipitates as dypingite [Mg5(CO3)4(OH)2·5H2O] and hydromagnesite [Mg5(CO3)4(OH)2·4H2O] with minor nesquehonite (MgCO3·3H2O). Scanning electron microscopy revealed that carbonate mineral precipitates form directly on the filamentous cyanobacteria. These findings demonstrate the ability of these organisms to generate localized supersaturating microenvironments of high concentrations of adsorbed magnesium and photosynthetically generated carbonate ions while also acting as nucleation sites for carbonate precipitation. This study is the first step toward implementing in situ carbon sequestration in serpentinite mine tailings via microbial carbonate precipitation reactions.

  4. Major and trace element composition of copiapite-group minerals and coexisting water from the Richmond mine, Iron Mountain, California

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Jamieson, H.E.; Robinson, C.; Alpers, C.N.; McCleskey, R.B.; Nordstrom, D.K.; Peterson, Ronald C.

    2005-01-01

    Copiapite-group minerals of the general formula AR4 (SO4)6(OH)2??nH2O, where A is predominantly Mg, Fe2+, or 0.67Al3+, R is predominantly Fe3+, and n is typically 20, are among several secondary hydrous Fe sulfates occurring in the inactive mine workings of the massive sulfide deposit at Iron Mountain, CA, a USEPA Superfund site that produces extremely acidic drainage. Samples of copiapite-group minerals, some with coexisting water, were collected from the Richmond mine. Approximately 200 mL of brownish pore water with a pH of -0.9 were extracted through centrifugation from a 10-L sample of moist copiapite-group minerals taken from pyritic muck piles. The pore water is extremely rich in ferric iron (Fe3+=149 g L-1, FeT=162 g L-1 and has a density of 1.52 g mL-1. The composition of the pore water is interpreted in the context of published phase relations in the Fe2O3- SO3-H2O system and previous work on the chemistry of extremely acid mine waters and associated minerals in the Richmond mine. Two distinct members of the copiapite mineral group were identified in the samples with coexisting water: (1) abundant magnesiocopiapite consisting of platy crystals 10 to 50 ??m and (2) minor aluminocopiapite present as smaller platy crystals that form spheroidal aggregates. The average composition (n=5) of the magnesiocopiapite is (Mg0.90Fe0.172+ Zn0.02Cu0.01)???1.10(Fe3.833+Al0.09)???3.92(SO4) 6.00(OH)1.96??20H2O. Bulk compositions determined by digestion and wet-chemical analysis are consistent with the microanalytical results. These results suggest that magnesiocopiapite is the least soluble member of the copiapite group under the prevailing conditions. Micro-PIXE analysis indicates that the copiapite-group minerals in this sample sequester Zn (average 1420 ppm), with lesser amounts of Cu (average 270 ppm) and As (average 64 ppm). ?? 2004 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  5. AN ELECTROMAGNETIC PNEUMO CAPSULE SYSTEM FOR CONVEYING MINERALS AND MINE WASTES

    SciTech Connect

    Henry Liu; Charles W. Lenau

    2005-03-01

    The purpose of this project is to investigate the technical and economic feasibility of using a new and advanced pneumatic capsule pipeline (PCP) system for transporting minerals and mine wastes. The new system is different from conventional PCPs in two main respects: (1) it uses linear induction motors (LIMs) instead of blowers (fans) at the inlet of the pipeline to drive (pump) the capsules and the air through the pipeline; and (2) the capsules in the PCP have steel wheels running on steel rails as opposed to capsules in conventional systems, which use wheels with rubber tires running inside a pipe without rail. The advantage of using LIM pump instead of blower is that the former is non-intrusive and hence does not block the passage of capsules, enabling the system to run continuously without having to make the capsules bypass the pump. This not only simplifies the system but also enables the system to achieve much larger cargo throughput than that of PCPs using blowers, and use of LIMs as booster pumps which enables the system to have any length or to be used for transporting cargoes over practically any distance, say even one thousand kilometers or miles. An advantage of using steel wheels rolling on steel rails instead of using rubber tires rolling inside a pipeline is that the rolling friction coefficient and hence the use of energy is greatly reduced from that of conventional PCP systems. Moreover, rails enable easy control of capsule motion, such as switching capsules to a branch line by using railroad switching equipment. The advanced PCP system studied under this project uses rectangular conduits instead of circular pipe, having cross-sectional areas of 1 m by 1 m approximately. The system can be used for various transportation distances, and it can transport up to 50 million tonnes (metric tons) of cargo annually--the throughput of the largest mines in the world. Both an aboveground and an underground system were investigated and compared. The technical

  6. Mining (except Oil and Gas) Sector (NAICS 212)

    EPA Pesticide Factsheets

    EPA Regulatory and enforcement information for the mining sector, including metal mining & nonmetallic mineral mining and quarrying. Includes information about asbestos, coal mining, mountaintop mining, Clean Water Act section 404, and abandoned mine lands

  7. 75 FR 69617 - Lowering Miners' Exposure to Respirable Coal Mine Dust, Including Continuous Personal Dust Monitors

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2010-11-15

    ... 30 CFR Parts 70, 71, 72, 75, and 90 RIN 1219-AB64 Lowering Miners' Exposure to Respirable Coal Mine... Respirable Coal Mine Dust, Including Continuous Personal Dust Monitors. The proposed rule was published on... rule. The proposed rule would lower miners' exposure to respirable coal mine dust by revising...

  8. Mineral oil and synthetic hydrocarbons in cosmetic lip products.

    PubMed

    Niederer, M; Stebler, T; Grob, K

    2016-04-01

    Lipsticks and lip care products may contain saturated hydrocarbons which either stem from mineral oil saturated hydrocarbons (MOSH) or are synthetic, that is polyolefin oligomeric saturated hydrocarbons (POSH). Some of these hydrocarbons are strongly accumulated and form granulomas in human tissues, which prompted Cosmetics Europe (former Colipa) to issue a recommendation for their use in lip care and oral products. From 2012 to 2014, MOSH+POSH were determined in 175 cosmetic lip products taken from the Swiss market in order to estimate their contribution to human exposure. Mineral oil saturated hydrocarbons and POSH were extracted and analysed by GC with FID. Areas were integrated as a total as well as by mass ranges with cuts at n-C25 and n-C34 to characterize the molecular mass distribution. About 68% of the products contained at least 5% MOSH+POSH (total concentration). For regular users, these products would be major contributors to their MOSH+POSH exposure. About 31% of the products contained more than 32% MOSH+POSH. Their regular usage would amount in an estimated MOSH+POSH exposure exceeding the highest estimated dietary exposure. The majority of the products contained hydrocarbons with a molecular mass range which was not in line with the recommendations of Cosmetics Europe. Taking into account that material applied to the lips largely ends up being ingested, MOSH and POSH levels should be reduced in the majority of cosmetic lip products. As the extensive evaluation of the data available on MOSH (EFSA J., 10, 2012, 2704) did not enable the specification of limits considered as safe, the present level of dietary exposure and its evaluation as 'of potential concern' provide the relevant bench mark, which means that lip products should contain clearly less than 5% MOSH+POSH. © 2015 Society of Cosmetic Scientists and the Société Française de Cosmétologie.

  9. HIV-1 and STIs Prevalence and Risk Factors of Miners in Mining Districts of Yunnan, China

    PubMed Central

    Zhang, Guolei; Wang, Ning; Wong, Michelle; Yi, Pu; Xu, Junjie; Li, Baoshan; Ding, Guowei; Ma, Yanling; Wang, Haibo; Zheng, Xiwen; Wu, Zhenglai

    2010-01-01

    Objective To assess HIV/STI prevalence and associated risk factors among miners in Yunnan, China. Methods A cross-sectional study was conducted among 1,798 miners in 2 townships of Gejiu City, Yunnan, from March to May, 2006. Standardized interviewer-administered questionnaires were completed and specimens collected for HIV/STI testing. Results The prevalence of HIV, Chlamydia trachomatis, Neisseria gonorrhoeae, syphilis, HSV-2, and any STIs among all miners was 0.7%, 4.8%, 0.8%, 1.8%, 9.6%, and 14.9%, respectively. One-fifth of miners reported patronizing female sex workers (FSWs) at least once, and of these 72% never used a condom with a FSW. Miners who visited FSWs had a higher prevalence of HIV (1.8% vs. 0.5%) and any STI (23.2% vs. 4.3%), including C. trachomatis (6.9% vs. 4.3%), N. gonorrhoeae (2.1% vs. 0.5%), and HSV-2 (14.9% vs. 8.4%), and higher rates of illegal drug use, compared to miners who visited no FSWs. Conclusions High prevalence of HIV/STIs among miners in Gejiu warrants special attention to this population, and vigorous interventions should address both sexual and drug use related risk. PMID:20104111

  10. Nutrient and dissolved organic carbon removal from water using mining and metallurgical by-products.

    PubMed

    Wendling, Laura A; Douglas, Grant B; Coleman, Shandel; Yuan, Zheng

    2012-05-15

    Excess nutrient input to water bodies frequently results in algal blooms and development of oxygen deficient conditions. Mining or metallurgical by-products can potentially be utilised as filtration media within water treatment systems such as constructed wetlands, permeable reactive barriers, or drain liners. These materials may offer a cost-effective solution for the removal of nutrients and dissolved organic carbon (DOC) from natural waters. This study investigated steel-making, alumina refining (red mud and red sand) and heavy mineral processing by-products, as well as the low-cost mineral-based material calcined magnesia, in laboratory column trials. Influent water and column effluents were analysed for pH and flow rate, alkalinity, nutrient species and DOC, and a range of major cations and anions. In general, by-products with high Ca or Mg, and to a lesser extent those with high Fe content, were well-suited to nutrient and DOC removal from water. Of the individual materials examined, the heavy mineral processing residue neutralised used acid (NUA) exhibited the highest sorption capacity for P, and removed the greatest proportions of all N species and DOC from influent water. In general, NUA and mixtures containing NUA, particularly those with calcined magnesia or red mud/red sand were the most effective in removing nutrients and DOC from influent water. Post-treatment effluents from columns containing NUA and NUA/steel-making by-product, NUA/red sand and NUA/calcined magnesia mixtures exhibited large reductions in DOC, P and N concentrations and exhibited a shift in nutrient ratios away from potential N- and Si-limitation and towards potential P-limitation. If employed as part of a large-scale water treatment scheme, use of these mining and metallurgical by-products for nutrient removal could result in reduced algal biomass and improved water quality. Identification and effective implementation of mining by-products or blends thereof in constructed wetlands

  11. Brief description of mines, prospects, and mineral occurrences in the Port Moller and Stepovak Bay quadrangles, Alaska Peninsula

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Wilson, Frederic H.; White, Willis H.; DuBois, Gregory D.

    1988-01-01

    This report contains brief descriptions of known mines, prospects, and mineral occurrences in the Port Moller and Stepovak Bay quadrangles on the Alaska Peninsula. These quadrangles, and the adjoining Simeonof Island quadrangle to the south were the subject of an Alaska Mineral Resource Assessment Program (AMRAP) mapping and mineral resource assessment project. This compilation of descriptions was made from the published literature (Wilson and others, 1986) and unpublished reports and data of The Aleut Corporation, the U.S. Bureau of Mines, and the U.S. Geological Survey. The initial compilation was primarily based on data from Cobb (1972) and MacKevett and Holloway (1977), however information provided by The Aleut Corporation and data gathered during the Port Moller AMRAP project added most of the information in the descriptions and the database. Compilation of this database is an ongoing process and this is a progress report of work completed to date. The authors would appreciate any corrections or additional information that users may be able to contribute. To facilitate active use of the descriptions, where information is not available for a particular field in the database, it is left blank so that the use can write in data as they obtain it.

  12. Combined SEM/EDX and micro-Raman spectroscopy analysis of uranium minerals from a former uranium mine.

    PubMed

    Stefaniak, Elzbieta A; Alsecz, Anita; Frost, Ray; Máthé, Zoltán; Sajó, István E; Török, Szabina; Worobiec, Anna; Van Grieken, René

    2009-08-30

    Samples of the secondary uranium minerals collected in the abandoned uranium mine at Pecs (Hungary) were investigated by two micro-techniques: scanning electron microscopy (SEM/EDX) and micro-Raman spectroscopy (MRS). They were applied to locate U-rich particles and identify the chemical form and oxidation state of the uranium compounds. The most abundant mineral was a K and/or Na uranyl sulphate (zippeite group). U(VI) was also present in the form showing intensive Raman scattering at 860 cm(-1) which can be attributed to uranium trioxide. This research has shown the successful application of micro-Raman spectroscopy for the identification of uranyl mineral species on the level of individual particles.

  13. Summaries of important areas for mineral investment and production opportunities of nonfuel minerals in Afghanistan

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Peters, Stephen G.; King, Trude V.V.; Mack, Thomas J.; Chornack, Michael P.

    2011-01-01

    The U.S. Geological Survey (USGS) and the U.S. Department of Defense Task Force for Business and Stability Operations (TFBSO) entered into an agreement with the Afghanistan Geological Survey to study and assess the fuel and nonfuel mineral resources of Afghanistan from October 2009 to September 2011 so that these resources could be economically extracted to expand the economy of Afghanistan. This report summarizes the results of joint studies on 24 important areas of interest (AOIs) of nonfuel mineral resources that were identified for mineral investment and production opportunities in Afghanistan. This report is supported by digital data and archival and non-USGS reports on each AOI, and these data are available from the Afghanistan Geological Survey Data Center in Kabul (http://mom.gov.af/en/ and http://www.bgs.ac.uk/afghanminerals/) and for viewing and download on the USGS public Web site and in a separate viewer at http://mapdss2.er.usgs.gov/.

  14. Minerals yearbook, 1982. volume 1. metals and minerals

    SciTech Connect

    Not Available

    1984-01-01

    This volume of the Minerals Yearbook, covering metals and minerals, contains 73 commodity or commodity group chapters with data on approximately 90 minerals that were obtained as a result of the mineral information gathering activities of the Bureau of Mines. In addition, the volume contains a chapter on mining and quarrying trends and a statistical summary.

  15. Minerals yearbook, 1983. Volume 1. Metals and minerals

    SciTech Connect

    Not Available

    1984-01-01

    This volume of the Minerals Yearbook, covering metals and minerals, contains 73 commodity or commodity group chapters with data on approximately 90 minerals that were obtained as a result of the mineral information gathering activities of the Bureau of Mines. In addition, the volume contains a chapter on mining and quarrying trends and a statistical summary.

  16. Uranium-lead and lead-lead investigations of minerals from the Broken Hill lodes and mine sequence rocks

    SciTech Connect

    Gulson, B.L.

    1984-05-01

    Mineral separates from the main lodes and mine sequence rocks at Broken Hill have been analyzed using the U-Pb and Pb-Pb methods. Apatite separates were analyzed from the mine sequence rocks, from banded iron-formations, and from the lodes. A regression analysis of the combined rock and lode apatite data for the /sup 207/Pb//sup 206/Pb vs. /sup 204/Pb//sup 206/Pb plot gives an age of 1,565 + or - 20 m.y. (2sigma) which is similar, within the experimental error limits, to the minimum U-Pb ages for monazite and Pb-pb age for sphene from the mine sequence rocks of about 1,595 m.y. Apparent differences in initial /sup 208/Pb//sup 206/Pb (or /sup 208/Pb//sup 204/Pb) ratios in the lode, and in the banded iron-formations and mine sequence rock apatites preclude a simple genetic relationship between them.

  17. 43 CFR 3830.11 - Which minerals are locatable under the General Mining Law?

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-10-01

    ... 43 Public Lands: Interior 2 2013-10-01 2013-10-01 false Which minerals are locatable under the... (Continued) BUREAU OF LAND MANAGEMENT, DEPARTMENT OF THE INTERIOR MINERALS MANAGEMENT (3000) LOCATING, RECORDING, AND MAINTAINING MINING CLAIMS OR SITES; GENERAL PROVISIONS Mining Law Minerals § 3830.11...

  18. 43 CFR 3830.11 - Which minerals are locatable under the General Mining Law?

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-10-01

    ... 43 Public Lands: Interior 2 2012-10-01 2012-10-01 false Which minerals are locatable under the... (Continued) BUREAU OF LAND MANAGEMENT, DEPARTMENT OF THE INTERIOR MINERALS MANAGEMENT (3000) LOCATING, RECORDING, AND MAINTAINING MINING CLAIMS OR SITES; GENERAL PROVISIONS Mining Law Minerals § 3830.11...

  19. 43 CFR 3830.11 - Which minerals are locatable under the General Mining Law?

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-10-01

    ... 43 Public Lands: Interior 2 2014-10-01 2014-10-01 false Which minerals are locatable under the... (Continued) BUREAU OF LAND MANAGEMENT, DEPARTMENT OF THE INTERIOR MINERALS MANAGEMENT (3000) LOCATING, RECORDING, AND MAINTAINING MINING CLAIMS OR SITES; GENERAL PROVISIONS Mining Law Minerals § 3830.11...

  20. 43 CFR 3830.11 - Which minerals are locatable under the General Mining Law?

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-10-01

    ... 43 Public Lands: Interior 2 2011-10-01 2011-10-01 false Which minerals are locatable under the... (Continued) BUREAU OF LAND MANAGEMENT, DEPARTMENT OF THE INTERIOR MINERALS MANAGEMENT (3000) LOCATING, RECORDING, AND MAINTAINING MINING CLAIMS OR SITES; GENERAL PROVISIONS Mining Law Minerals § 3830.11...

  1. The design of hazard risk assessment matrices for ranking occupational health risks and their application in mining and minerals processing.

    PubMed

    Donoghue, A M

    2001-03-01

    Two hazard risk assessment matrices for the ranking of occupational health risks are described. The qualitative matrix uses qualitative measures of probability and consequence to determine risk assessment codes for hazard-disease combinations. A walk-through survey of an underground metalliferous mine and concentrator is used to demonstrate how the qualitative matrix can be applied to determine priorities for the control of occupational health hazards. The semi-quantitative matrix uses attributable risk as a quantitative measure of probability and uses qualitative measures of consequence. A practical application of this matrix is the determination of occupational health priorities using existing epidemiological studies. Calculated attributable risks from epidemiological studies of hazard-disease combinations in mining and minerals processing are used as examples. These historic response data do not reflect the risks associated with current exposures. A method using current exposure data, known exposure-response relationships and the semi-quantitative matrix is proposed for more accurate and current risk rankings.

  2. 78 FR 22369 - National Emissions Standards for Hazardous Air Pollutants: Mineral Wool Production and Wool...

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2013-04-15

    ... Hazardous Air Pollutants: Mineral Wool Production and Wool Fiberglass Manufacturing; National Emission... Standards for Hazardous Air Pollutants: Mineral Wool Production and Wool Fiberglass Manufacturing; National... (Mineral Wool Production) and EPA-HQ-OAR-2010-1042 (Wool Fiberglass Manufacturing). All documents in the...

  3. Assessing Water Management of Mining Effluent Using Temporal and Spatial Hydrologic Analyses: The Case of QIT Madagascar Minerals

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Hoagland, N. E.

    2013-12-01

    Associated with the commencement of any water-intensive mining operation is the formation of a set of policies, standards, and sampling protocols that guide the management of all water resources connected to the mining facility, surrounding environment, and affected communities. This study explores the interface between corporate water management and hydrologic methods by evaluating changes in water quality over the course of the mining cycle at QIT Madagascar Minerals (QMM) in Tolagnaro, Madagascar. Sampling and lab research of processed water were conducted following established QMM procedures and then analyzed in conjunction with the complete QMM water quality database. Water quality was analyzed spatially to exhibit how processed water changes as it moves throughout the mining cycle before release into the environment. Graphical representation of the spatial changes in various parameters exhibit deterioration in water quality relative to the source, improvement in quality before being released as effluent, and natural remediation by wetlands before discharge into the Mandromondromotra River. In addition, water quality parameters were evaluated temporally, using data supplied by QMM's Service de l'Eau et Déchets. Yearly and monthly comparisons of hydrological parameters highlight data gaps, the effects of seasonality, and the evolution of water quality monitoring at QMM. Technical evaluation of processed water as it flows through the mining system provides insight into how water monitoring and management can best be adapted at the corporate level to prevent negative impacts on the environment. Water quality data for various parameters from April 2013 at each of the sampling locations. The graphs highlight spatial changes in parameters as water moves from the sources (WD90, Paddock 3), to sites on the mine (500M, Basmin, SCC2), to release points (WMC703, WMC803), to discharge points into the MMM River.

  4. Ultra-fine grinding and mechanical activation of mine waste rock using a high-speed stirred mill for mineral carbonation

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Li, Jia-jie; Hitch, Michael

    2015-10-01

    CO2 sequestration by mineral carbonation can permanently store CO2 and mitigate climate change. However, the cost and reaction rate of mineral carbonation must be balanced to be viable for industrial applications. In this study, it was attempted to reduce the carbonation costs by using mine waste rock as a feed stock and to enhance the reaction rate using wet mechanical activation as a pre-treatment method. Slurry rheological properties, particle size distribution, specific surface area, crystallinity, and CO2 sequestration reaction efficiency of the initial and mechanically activated mine waste rock and olivine were characterized. The results show that serpentine acts as a catalyst, increasing the slurry yield stress, assisting new surface formation, and hindering the size reduction and structure amorphization. Mechanically activated mine waste rock exhibits a higher carbonation conversion than olivine with equal specific milling energy input. The use of a high-speed stirred mill may render the mineral carbonation suitable for mining industrial practice.

  5. Minerals Yearbook, centennial edition 1981. Volume I. Metals and minerals

    SciTech Connect

    Not Available

    1983-01-01

    This edition of the Minerals Yearbook Marks the centennial of the first annual publication of comprehensive mineral industry statistics by the Federal Government. This volume of the Minerals Yearbook, covering metals and minerals, contains 71 commodity or commodity group chapters with data on approximately 90 minerals that were obtained as a result of the mineral information gathering activities of the Bureau of Mines. In addition, the volume contains a chapter on mining and quarrying trends and a statistical summary.

  6. Mössbauer and XRD Comparative Study of Host Rock and Iron Rich Mineral Samples from Paz del Rio Iron Ore Mineral Mine in Colombia

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Fajardo, M.; Pérez Alcázar, G. A.; Moreira, A. M.; Speziali, N. L.

    2004-12-01

    A comparative study between the host rock and the iron rich mineral samples from the Paz del Rio iron ore mineral mine in Colombia was performed using X-ray diffraction and Mössbauer spectroscopy. Diffraction results of the iron rich mineral sample show that goethite, hematite, quartz, kaolinite and siderite are the main phases, and that a small amount of illite is also present. By Mössbauer spectroscopy at room temperature (RT) the presence of all the above mentioned phases was detected except quartz as well as an additional presence of small amount of biotite. The goethite, which appears as four sextets with hyperfine fields of 33.5, 30.5, 27.5 and 18.5 T, respectively, is the majority phase. This result shows the different grades of formation of this oxyhydroxide. The Mössbauer spectrum of this sample at 80 K presents the same phases obtained at RT without any superparamagnetic effect. In this case the goethite appears as two sextets. Diffraction results of the host rock sample show a large amount of quartz and kaolinite and small amounts of illite and biotite, whereas by Mössbauer spectroscopy illite, kaolinite and biotite were detected.

  7. Mine wastes and human health

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Plumlee, Geoffrey S.; Morman, Suzette A.

    2011-01-01

    Historical mining and mineral processing have been linked definitively to health problems resulting from occupational and environmental exposures to mine wastes. Modern mining and processing methods, when properly designed and implemented, prevent or greatly reduce potential environmental health impacts. However, particularly in developing countries, there are examples of health problems linked to recent mining. In other cases, recent mining has been blamed for health problems but no clear links have been found. The types and abundances of potential toxicants in mine wastes are predictably influenced by the geologic characteristics of the deposit being mined. Hence, Earth scientists can help understand, anticipate, and mitigate potential health issues associated with mining and mineral processing.

  8. The composition of coexisting jarosite-group minerals and water from the Richmond mine, Iron Mountain, California

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Jamieson, H.E.; Robinson, C.; Alpers, C.N.; Nordstrom, D.K.; Poustovetov, A.; Lowers, H.A.

    2005-01-01

    Jarosite-group minerals accumulate in the form of stalactites and fine-grained mud on massive pyrite in the D drift of the Richmond mine, Iron Mountain, California. Water samples were collected by placing beakers under the dripping stalactites and by extracting pore water from the mud using a centrifuge. The water is rich in Fe3+ and SO42-, with a pH of approximately 2.1, which is significantly higher than the extremely acidic waters found elsewhere in the mine. Electron-microprobe analysis and X-ray mapping indicate that the small crystals (<10 ??m in diameter) are compositionally zoned with respect to Na and K, and include hydronium jarosite corresponding to the formula (H3O)0.6K0.3 Na0.1Fe3+3 (SO4)2(OH)6. The proton-microprobe analyses indicate that the jarosite-group minerals contain significant amounts of As, Pb and Zn, and minor levels of Bi, Rb, Sb, Se, Sn and Sr. Speciation modeling indicates that the drip waters are supersaturated with respect to jarosite-group minerals. The expected range in composition of jarosite-group solid-solution in equilibrium with the pore water extracted from the mud was found to be consistent with the observed range in composition.

  9. Gangue mineral textures and fluid inclusion characteristics of the Santa Margarita Vein in the Guanajuato Mining District, Mexico

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Moncada, Daniel; Bodnar, Robert

    2012-06-01

    Successful exploration for mineral deposits requires tools that the explorationist can use to distinguish between targets with high potential for mineralization and those with lower economic potential. In this study, we describe a technique based on gangue mineral textures and fluid inclusion characteristics that has been applied to identify an area of high potential for gold-silver mineralization in the epithermal Ag-Au deposits at Guanajuato, Mexico. The Guanajuato mining district in Mexico is one of the largest silver producing districts in the world with continuous mining activity for nearly 500 years. Previous work conducted on the Veta Madre vein system that is located in the central part of this district identified favorable areas for further exploration in the deepest levels that have been developed and explored. The resulting exploration program discovered one of the richest gold-silver veins ever found in the district. This newly discovered vein that runs parallel to the Veta Madre was named the Santa Margarita vein. Selected mineralized samples from this vein contain up to 249 g/t of Au and up to 2,280 g/t Ag. Fluid inclusions in these samples show homogenization temperatures that range from 184 to 300°C and salinities ranging from 0 to 5 wt.% NaCl. Barren samples show the same range in homogenization temperature, but salinities range only up to 3 wt.% NaCl. Evidence of boiling was observed in most of the samples based on fluid inclusions and/or quartz and calcite textures. Liquid-rich inclusions with trapped illite are closely associated with high silver grades. The presence of assemblages of vapor-rich-only fluid inclusions, indicative of intense boiling or "flashing", shows the best correlation with high gold grades.

  10. Gangue mineral textures and fluid inclusion characteristics of the Santa Margarita Vein in the Guanajuato Mining District, Mexico

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Moncada, Daniel; Bodnar, Robert J.

    2012-06-01

    Successful exploration for mineral deposits requires tools that the explorationist can use to distinguish between targets with high potential for mineralization and those with lower economic potential. In this study, we describe a technique based on gangue mineral textures and fluid inclusion characteristics that has been applied to identify an area of high potential for gold-silver mineralization in the epithermal Ag-Au deposits at Guanajuato, Mexico. The Guanajuato mining district in Mexico is one of the largest silver producing districts in the world with continuous mining activity for nearly 500 years. Previous work conducted on the Veta Madre vein system that is located in the central part of this district identified favorable areas for further exploration in the deepest levels that have been developed and explored. The resulting exploration program discovered one of the richest gold-silver veins ever found in the district. This newly discovered vein that runs parallel to the Veta Madre was named the Santa Margarita vein. Selected mineralized samples from this vein contain up to 249 g/t of Au and up to 2,280 g/t Ag. Fluid inclusions in these samples show homogenization temperatures that range from 184 to 300°C and salinities ranging from 0 to 5 wt.% NaCl. Barren samples show the same range in homogenization temperature, but salinities range only up to 3 wt.% NaCl. Evidence of boiling was observed in most of the samples based on fluid inclusions and/or quartz and calcite textures. Liquid-rich inclusions with trapped illite are closely associated with high silver grades. The presence of assemblages of vapor-rich-only fluid inclusions, indicative of intense boiling or "flashing", shows the best correlation with high gold grades.

  11. Minerals Yearbook, 1988. Volume 1. Metals and minerals

    SciTech Connect

    Not Available

    1990-01-01

    Volume I of the 1988 Minerals Yearbook, covering metals and minerals, contains 79 commodity or commodity group chapters with data on approximately 90 minerals that were obtained as a result of the mineral information gathering activities of the U.S. Bureau of Mines. In addition, the volume contains chapters on mining and quarrying trends and on the statistical surveying methods used by the Bureau of Mines and a statistical summary.

  12. Minerals yearbook, 1985. Volume 1. Metals and minerals

    SciTech Connect

    Not Available

    1987-01-01

    This volume of the 1985 Minerals Yearbook, covering metals and minerals, contains 72 commodity or commodity group chapters with data on approximately 90 minerals that were obtained as a result of the mineral information gathering activities of the Bureau of Mines. In addition, the volume contains a chapter on mining and quarrying trends, a chapter discussing the statistical surveying methods used by the Bureau of Mines, and a statistical summary.

  13. Minerals yearbook, 1984. Volume 1. Metals and minerals

    SciTech Connect

    Not Available

    1985-01-01

    The volume of the Minerals Yearbook, covering metals and minerals, contains 72 commodity or commodity group chapters with data on approximately 90 minerals that were obtained as a result of the mineral information gathering activities of the Bureau of Mines. In addition, the volume contains a chapter on mining and quarrying trends, a chapter discussing the statistical surveying methods used by the Bureau of Mines, and a statistical summary.

  14. Planning the Mine and Mining the Plan

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Boucher, D. S.; Chen, N.

    2016-11-01

    Overview of best practices used in the terrestrial mining industry when developing a mine site towards production. The intent is to guide planners towards an effective and well constructed roadmap for the development of ISRU mining activities. A strawman scenario is presented as an illustration for lunar mining of water ice.

  15. O-miner: an integrative platform for automated analysis and mining of -omics data.

    PubMed

    Cutts, Rosalind J; Dayem Ullah, Abu Z; Sangaralingam, Ajanthah; Gadaleta, Emanuela; Lemoine, Nicholas R; Chelala, Claude

    2012-07-01

    High-throughput profiling has generated massive amounts of data across basic, clinical and translational research fields. However, open source comprehensive web tools for analysing data obtained from different platforms and technologies are still lacking. To fill this gap and the unmet computational needs of ongoing research projects, we developed O-miner, a rapid, comprehensive, efficient web tool that covers all the steps required for the analysis of both transcriptomic and genomic data starting from raw image files through in-depth bioinformatics analysis and annotation to biological knowledge extraction. O-miner was developed from a biologist end-user perspective. Hence, it is as simple to use as possible within the confines of the complexity of the data being analysed. It provides a strong analytical suite able to overlay and harness large, complicated, raw and heterogeneous sets of profiles with biological/clinical data. Biologists can use O-miner to analyse and integrate different types of data and annotations to build knowledge of relevant altered mechanisms and pathways in order to identify and prioritize novel targets for further biological validation. Here we describe the analytical workflows currently available using O-miner and present examples of use. O-miner is freely available at www.o-miner.org.

  16. Small mine size is associated with lung function abnormality and pneumoconiosis among underground coal miners in Kentucky, Virginia and West Virginia.

    PubMed

    Blackley, David J; Halldin, Cara N; Wang, Mei Lin; Laney, A Scott

    2014-10-01

    To describe the prevalence of lung function abnormality and coal workers' pneumoconiosis (CWP) by mine size among underground coal miners in Kentucky, Virginia and West Virginia. During 2005-2012, 4491 miners completed spirometry and chest radiography as part of a health surveillance programme. Spirometry was interpreted according to American Thoracic Society and European Respiratory Society guidelines, and radiography per International Labour Office standards. Prevalence ratios (PR) were calculated for abnormal spirometry (obstructive, restrictive or mixed pattern using lower limits of normal derived from National Health and Nutrition Examination Survey (NHANES) III) and CWP among workers from small mines (≤50 miners) compared with those from large mines. Among 3771 eligible miners, those from small mines were more likely to have abnormal spirometry (18.5% vs 13.8%, p<0.01), CWP (10.8% vs 5.2%, p<0.01) and progressive massive fibrosis (2.4% vs 1.1%, p<0.01). In regression analysis, working in a small mine was associated with 37% higher prevalence of abnormal spirometry (PR 1.37, 95% CI 1.16 to 1.61) and 2.1 times higher prevalence of CWP (95% CI 1.68 to 2.70). More than one in four of these miners had evidence of CWP, abnormal lung function or both. Although 96% of miners in the study have worked exclusively under dust regulations implemented following the 1969 Federal Coal Mine Safety and Health Act, we observed high rates of respiratory disease including severe cases. The current approach to dust control and provision of safe work conditions for central Appalachian underground coal miners is not adequate to protect them from adverse respiratory health effects. Published by the BMJ Publishing Group Limited. For permission to use (where not already granted under a licence) please go to http://group.bmj.com/group/rights-licensing/permissions.

  17. Small mine size is associated with lung function abnormality and pneumoconiosis among underground coal miners in Kentucky, Virginia and West Virginia

    PubMed Central

    Blackley, David J; Halldin, Cara N; Wang, Mei Lin; Laney, A Scott

    2015-01-01

    Objectives To describe the prevalence of lung function abnormality and coal workers’ pneumoconiosis (CWP) by mine size among underground coal miners in Kentucky, Virginia and West Virginia. Methods During 2005–2012, 4491 miners completed spirometry and chest radiography as part of a health surveillance programme. Spirometry was interpreted according to American Thoracic Society and European Respiratory Society guidelines, and radiography per International Labour Office standards. Prevalence ratios (PR) were calculated for abnormal spirometry (obstructive, restrictive or mixed pattern using lower limits of normal derived from National Health and Nutrition Examination Survey (NHANES) III) and CWP among workers from small mines (≤50 miners) compared with those from large mines. Results Among 3771 eligible miners, those from small mines were more likely to have abnormal spirometry (18.5% vs 13.8%, p<0.01), CWP (10.8% vs 5.2%, p<0.01) and progressive massive fibrosis (2.4% vs 1.1%, p<0.01). In regression analysis, working in a small mine was associated with 37% higher prevalence of abnormal spirometry (PR 1.37, 95% CI 1.16 to 1.61) and 2.1 times higher prevalence of CWP (95% CI 1.68 to 2.70). Conclusions More than one in four of these miners had evidence of CWP, abnormal lung function or both. Although 96% of miners in the study have worked exclusively under dust regulations implemented following the 1969 Federal Coal Mine Safety and Health Act, we observed high rates of respiratory disease including severe cases. The current approach to dust control and provision of safe work conditions for central Appalachian underground coal miners is not adequate to protect them from adverse respiratory health effects. PMID:25052085

  18. Mapping Mineralization in the Monitor Pass Mining District

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Shoffner, J. D.; Calvin, W. M.

    2007-12-01

    The Leviathan Mine, located in the Monitor Pass mining district in Alpine county California, was previously an open pit sulfur mine that supplied a nearby operation in Yerington, Nevada with sulfur for copper oxide leaching. The area was first mined underground in the mid 1800s and by the 1950s became an open pit operation. A decade later, the sulfur became uneconomic to extract, leaving the company bankrupt. By the 1980s, the EPA had declared Leviathan Mine a Superfund site due to acid mine drainage into Leviathan creek. Remediation continues today, but high sulfur soils and the potential for acid generation is abundant in the Monitor Pass area. This discovery of iron sulfate on Mars motivated the acquisition of airborne and spaceborne data similar to datasets available for Mars. In addition, high spatial resolution mineral mapping could help identify high priority remediation targets within the mine site. Low resolution (30m per pixel) spaceborne data from ALI and ASTER sensors were combined into a 13-filter dataset to locate areas of interest and as an overview of the area. Initial results were promising, showing evidence for iron oxides and clay mineralization, with some areas suggesting sulfates. The combination of thermal infrared and shortwave infrared datasets optimizes the potential for mineral identification. Therefore, we planned dual hyperspectral acquitions. SEBASS thermal data (7-15μm) at 2m per pixel was acquired on July 16, 2007. ProSpecTIR V-S (0.43- 2.45μm) was acquired on August 17, 2007, also at 2m per pixel. Field spectra were collected concurrently with the SpecTIR flight. The high resolution data will be used to confirm and refine the findings from spaceborne results and be presented at the meeting.

  19. 30 CFR 282.24 - Mining Plan.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-07-01

    ... 30 Mineral Resources 2 2010-07-01 2010-07-01 false Mining Plan. 282.24 Section 282.24 Mineral... § 282.24 Mining Plan. All OCS mineral development and production activities shall be conducted in accordance with a Mining Plan submitted by the lessee and approved by the Director. A Mining Plan...

  20. Mineral surveys by the Geological Survey and the Bureau of Mines of Bureau of Land Management Wilderness Study Areas

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Beikman, Helen M.; Hinkle, Margaret E.; Frieders, Twila; Marcus, Susan M.; Edward, James R.

    1983-01-01

    The Federal Land Policy and Management Act of 1976 instructed the Bureau of Land Management (BLM) to review all public lands under its jurisdiction and to determine their suitability or nonsuitability for wilderness designation. As part of this process, the Geological Survey and the Bureau of Mines conduct mineral surveys of areas for which a preliminary determination of wilderness suitability has been made. The BLM has completed its wilderness inventory phase and has found that 23.2 million acres deserve further study for wilderness consideration. These 23.2 million acres of wilderness study areas include 1 million acres of natural and primitive areas (Instant Study Areas), 5.7 million acres in the California Desert Conservation Area, and 16.5 million acres in other wilderness study areas. Mineral surveys on all areas recommended for wilderness will be completed by 1990.

  1. Comparison of arsenic co-precipitation and adsorption by iron minerals and the mechanism of arsenic natural attenuation in a mine stream.

    PubMed

    Park, Jin Hee; Han, Young-Soo; Ahn, Joo Sung

    2016-12-01

    Mine stream precipitate collected from Ilkwang mine, Korea, contained high concentrations of arsenic (As), while water collected from the same site had negligible As concentrations, indicating natural attenuation of As occurred in the mine stream. The mechanism of attenuation was explained by comparison of X-ray absorption near edge structure (XANES) of As(V) co-precipitated with or adsorbed to iron (Fe) minerals in mine precipitates. Arsenic in the mine precipitate was present as As(V) and schwertmannite was the main Fe mineral. Arsenic co-precipitation with schwertmannite was the major mechanism of As removal in the mine stream, followed by As adsorption by goethite and As co-precipitation with ferrihydrite. Schwertmannite and ferrihydrite were formed in acid mine drainage and As was incorporated in their structure during formation. Additionally, schwertmannite and ferrihydrite may transform to goethite with As adsorbed onto the goethite surface. Based on the results of batch experiments of As co-precipitation and adsorption, co-precipitation of As with ferrihydrite and schwertmannite was the most effective As sequestration mechanism in the removal of As(V) from acid mine drainage. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  2. AMBIENT CARBONATION of MINING RESIDUES: Understanding the Mechanisms and Optimization of Direct Carbon Dioxide Mineral Sequestration

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Assima, G. P.; Larachi, F.; Molson, J. W.; Beaudoin, G.

    2013-12-01

    The huge amounts (GTs) of ultramafic mining residues (UMRs) produced by mining activities around the world and accumulated in multi-square-kilometer stockpiles are stimulating a vivid interest regarding their possible use as a stable and permanent sink for CO2. Virtually costless and often found crushed and / or ground, UMRs are being considered as ideal candidates for atmospheric CO2 mitigation. The present work, therefore, explores the potential of several UMRs available in Quebec (Thetford Mines, Asbestos, Nunavik, Amos, Otish Mountains), for carbonation under ambient conditions, as a cost-effective alternative to remove low-concentration CO2 from the atmosphere and alleviate global warming. Several experimental reactors have been built to specifically simulate various climatic changes at the laboratory scale. The impact of various environmental conditions to which the residues are subjected to in their storage location, including temperature variations, precipitation, flooding, drought, changing water saturation, oxygen gradient and CO2 diffusion have been thoroughly studied. Dry and heavy-rain periods are unsuitable for efficient CO2 sequestration. Low liquid saturation within UMRs pores favors carbonation by combining fast percolation of gaseous CO2, rapid dissemination of CO2 dissolved species and creation of highly reactive sites throughout the mining residue pile. Partly saturated samples were also found to exhibit lower gaseous CO2 breakthrough times across the mining residues. Warm periods significantly accelerate the rate of CO2 uptake as compared to cold periods, which, in contrast are characterized by heat generation levels that could possibly be exploited by low temperature geothermal systems. A temperature rise from 10 to 40 °C was accompanied by a ten-fold increase in initial reaction rate. The carbonation reaction caused a rise in UMRs temperature up to 4.9°C during experiments at a 10°C. The presence of oxygen in the reaction medium induces

  3. The Mechanization of Mining.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Marovelli, Robert L.; Karhnak, John M.

    1982-01-01

    Mechanization of mining is explained in terms of its effect on the mining of coal, focusing on, among others, types of mining, productivity, machinery, benefits to retired miners, fatality rate in underground coal mines, and output of U.S. mining industry. (Author/JN)

  4. The Mechanization of Mining.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Marovelli, Robert L.; Karhnak, John M.

    1982-01-01

    Mechanization of mining is explained in terms of its effect on the mining of coal, focusing on, among others, types of mining, productivity, machinery, benefits to retired miners, fatality rate in underground coal mines, and output of U.S. mining industry. (Author/JN)

  5. 78 FR 29780 - Fees for Testing, Evaluation, and Approval of Mining Products

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2013-05-21

    ... Safety and Health Administration Fees for Testing, Evaluation, and Approval of Mining Products AGENCY...) contains new authority for 30 CFR part 5, Fees for testing, evaluation, and approval of mining products; it allows MSHA to collect fees up to $2,499,000 for the testing, evaluation, and approval of certain...

  6. Mining and engineering natural-product biosynthetic pathways.

    PubMed

    Wilkinson, Barrie; Micklefield, Jason

    2007-07-01

    Natural products continue to fulfill an important role in the development of therapeutic agents. In addition, with the advent of chemical genetics and high-throughput screening platforms, these molecules have become increasingly valuable as tools for interrogating fundamental aspects of biological systems. To access the vast portion of natural-product structural diversity that remains unexploited for these and other applications, genome mining and microbial metagenomic approaches are proving particularly powerful. When these are coupled with recombineering and related genetic tools, large biosynthetic gene clusters that remain intractable or cryptic in the native host can be more efficiently cloned and expressed in a suitable heterologous system. For lead optimization and the further structural diversification of natural-product libraries, combinatorial biosynthetic engineering has also become indispensable. However, our ability to rationally redesign biosynthetic pathways is often limited by our lack of understanding of the structure, dynamics and interplay between the many enzymes involved in complex biosynthetic pathways. Despite this, recent structures of fatty acid synthases should allow a more accurate prediction of the likely architecture of related polyketide synthase and nonribosomal peptide synthetase multienzymes.

  7. Geological modelling of mineral deposits for prediction in mining

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Sides, E. J.

    Accurate prediction of the shape, location, size and properties of the solid rock materials to be extracted during mining is essential for reliable technical and financial planning. This is achieved through geological modelling of the three-dimensional (3D) shape and properties of the materials present in mineral deposits, and the presentation of results in a form which is accessible to mine planning engineers. In recent years the application of interactive graphics software, offering 3D database handling, modelling and visualisation, has greatly enhanced the options available for predicting the subsurface limits and characteristics of mineral deposits. A review of conventional 3D geological interpretation methods, and the model struc- tures and modelling methods used in reserve estimation and mine planning software packages, illustrates the importance of such approaches in the modern mining industry. Despite the widespread introduction and acceptance of computer hardware and software in mining applications, in recent years, there has been little fundamental change in the way in which geology is used in orebody modelling for predictive purposes. Selected areas of current research, aimed at tackling issues such as the use of orientation data, quantification of morphological differences, incorporation of geological age relationships, multi-resolution models and the application of virtual reality hardware and software, are discussed.

  8. Mines, prospects, and mineral sites, wilderness and RARE II areas, White Mountain National Forest, New Hampshire

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Gazdik, G. C.; Harris, Gazdik; Welsh, R. A.; Girol, V. P.

    1988-01-01

    The areas investigated are located in the White Mountain National Forest in Coos, Grafton, and Carroll Counties, New Hampshire. Personnel from the U.S. Bureau of Mines conducted field reconnaissance of the westernmost areas, Kinsman Mountain, Mt. Wolf-Gordon Pond, Jobildunk, and Carr Mountain, in the fall of 1980. Field reconnaissance of the eastern areas, Great Gulf, Presidential Range-Dry River, Dartmouth Range, Pemigewasset and Wild River was conducted in the spring of 1981. A total of 237 rock and 103 panned-concentrate samples were collected during the investigations. Reconnaissance radiometric ground surveys were conducted at selected locations.

  9. Data set of world phosphate mines, deposits, and occurrences: Part A. geologic data; Part B. location and mineral economic data

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Chernoff, Carlotta B.; Orris, G.J.

    2002-01-01

    An inventory of more than 1,600 world phosphate mines, deposits, and occurrences was compiled from smaller data sets collected as part of multiple research efforts by Carlotta Chernoff, University of Arizona, and Greta Orris, U.S. Geological Survey. These data have been utilized during studies of black shale depositional environments and to construct phosphate deposit models. The compiled data have been edited for consistency and additional location information has been added where possible. The database of compiled phosphate information is being released in two sections; the geologic data in one section and the location and mineral economic data in the second. This report, U.S. Geological Survey Open-File Report 02–156–A, contains the geologic data and is best used with the complimentary data contained in Open-File Report 02–156–B. U.S. Geological Survey Open-File Report 02–156–B contains commodity data, location and analytical data, a variety of mineral economic data, reference information, and pointers to related records in the U.S. Geological Survey National mineral databases—MASMILS and MRDS.

  10. Effects of moisture and temperature on carbon and nitrogen mineralization in mine tailings mixed with sewage sludge.

    PubMed

    Wennman, Pär; Kätterer, Thomas

    2006-01-01

    Digested sewage sludge mixed with copper mine tailings was incubated for 3 mo at 16 combinations of temperature (-1, 5, 10, and 15 degrees C) and soil moisture content (2, 8, 14, and 24% by weight). Carbon dioxide evolution and net N mineralization were measured at increasing time intervals. A two compartment first-order kinetic model (refractory and labile C) was fitted to the time series of measured CO2 fluxes using nonlinear regression analysis. The dependencies of the rate constants on moisture and temperature could be well described by log-linear functions. The estimated Q10 value (the factor by which the rate is increased as temperature is increased 10 degrees C) was 2.55. Within the range of temperature and moisture considered here, which correspond to conditions occurring naturally in Sweden, CO2 evolution was more strongly controlled by moisture than by temperature. Less mineral N accumulated during the experiment at the lowest moisture or temperature. However, the dependency of net N mineralization on moisture and temperature in the remaining treatments was less clear than for C evolution, presumably due to denitrification at the higher temperatures and moisture contents. Nitrate was formed after around 2 wk but only at 10 and 15 degrees C.

  11. [Radioactive waste due to electric power and mineral fertiliser production].

    PubMed

    Marović, Gordana; Sencar, Jasminka; Bronzović, Maja; Franić, Zdenko; Kovac, Jadranka

    2006-09-01

    Radiation Protection Unit of the Institute for Medical Research and Occupational Health in Zagreb has been conducting systematic investigations of radioactive contamination of the Croatian environment by anthropogenic fission products as well as by naturally occurring radioactive material (NORM) since 1963. Several critical sites in Croatia were identified for NORM, that is, for slag and ash repositories from coal-fired power plants and phosphogypsum repository from a mineral fertilizer production plant. As the coals and phosphate ores contain naturally occurring radionuclides, especially the members of the uranium and thorium radioactive chains, utilising these materials in various industries only enhances their natural radioactivity in residual waste. Consequently, the resulting activity concentrations of natural radionuclides in waste material could be several times higher than in the adjacent soil. These deposited materials pose permanent risk of radiation exposure due to the long physical half-life of natural radionuclides (e.g., T 1/2 = 1600 years for 226Ra). Results of scientific investigations related to natural radioactivity are used in the recovery of slag and ash repositories and landfills, as well as in establishing regulatory criteria targeting import of coal and phosphate ores. In consequence, recently measured activity concentrations of natural radioactivity in imported materials used nowadays in coal-fired power plants are significantly lower than in previously used raw materials. Therefore, slag and ash can be used as additive materials in cement production.

  12. The Mine Safety and Health Administration's criterion threshold value policy increases miners' risk of pneumoconiosis

    SciTech Connect

    Weeks, J.L.

    2006-06-15

    Background The Mine Safety and Health Administration (MSHA) proposes to issue citations for non-compliance with the exposure limit for respirable coal mine dust when measured exposure exceeds the exposure limit with a 'high degree of confidence.' This criterion threshold value (CTV) is derived from the sampling and analytical error of the measurement method. This policy is based on a combination of statistical and legal reasoning: the one-tailed 95% confidence limit of the sampling method, the apparent principle of due process and a standard of proof analogous to 'beyond a reasonable doubt.' This policy raises the effective exposure limit, it is contrary to the precautionary principle, it is not a fair sharing of the burden of uncertainty, and it employs an inappropriate standard of proof. Its own advisory committee and NIOSH have advised against this policy. For longwall mining sections, it results in a failure to issue citations for approximately 36% of the measured values that exceed the statutory exposure limit. Citations for non-compliance with the respirable dust standard should be issued for any measure exposure that exceeds the exposure limit.

  13. The Mine Safety and Health Administration's criterion threshold value policy increases miners' risk of pneumoconiosis.

    PubMed

    Weeks, James L

    2006-06-01

    The Mine Safety and Health Administration (MSHA) proposes to issue citations for non-compliance with the exposure limit for respirable coal mine dust when measured exposure exceeds the exposure limit with a "high degree of confidence." This criterion threshold value (CTV) is derived from the sampling and analytical error of the measurement method. This policy is based on a combination of statistical and legal reasoning: the one-tailed 95% confidence limit of the sampling method, the apparent principle of due process and a standard of proof analogous to "beyond a reasonable doubt." This policy raises the effective exposure limit, it is contrary to the precautionary principle, it is not a fair sharing of the burden of uncertainty, and it employs an inappropriate standard of proof. Its own advisory committee and NIOSH have advised against this policy. For longwall mining sections, it results in a failure to issue citations for approximately 36% of the measured values that exceed the statutory exposure limit. Citations for non-compliance with the respirable dust standard should be issued for any measure exposure that exceeds the exposure limit.

  14. Monitoring CO2 Sequestration by Mineral Carbonation in Mine Tailings at Thetford Mines, Quebec, Canada

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Lechat, K.; Lemieux, J. M.; Molson, J. W. H.; Beaudoin, G.; Hebert, R.

    2014-12-01

    Mineral carbonation is considered a permanent option to capture and store atmospheric CO2. This reaction occurs naturally under ambient conditions in ultramafic mining and milling waste. In the region of Thetford Mines, Quebec, chrysotile mining has produced approximately 0.8 Gt of magnesium-rich milling waste, which mainly consists of poorly sorted ultramafic rock fragments (< 10 cm) and chrysotile fibers. To quantify the amount of CO2 that can be captured in the mine wastes of Thetford Mines, two experimental pilot-scale tailings cells were constructed and instrumented for measuring soil temperature, volumetric water content, gas pressure and gas composition, with ambient conditions recorded by an autonomous meteorological station. The cells were monitored for water geochemistry, carbon content and mineralogy, with the objective to better understand the mineral carbonation processes under natural conditions and to propose a conceptual model for mineral carbonation at the pilot scale. To validate this model, numerical simulations with the MIN3P reactive transport code have been carried out. The chemical composition of the cell leachate (pH > 10, Mg from 85 to 140 mg.L-1, and high total alkalinity from 260 to 300 mg.L-1 CaCO3) is consistent with active CO2 mineralization reactions within the cell. SEM analyses show precipitation of dypingite with a lamellar texture and cemented grain surfaces. The milling waste contains up to 1.2% C, which indicates CO2 sequestration by mineral carbonation. Measured CO2 concentrations in the interstitial air are also ten times lower than in the atmosphere. Analysis of seasonal variations in fluid flow and heat transfer (essentially by thermal conduction) shows that molecular diffusion is the main process for CO2 supply within the experimental cells. These observations have helped develop a conceptual model for mineral carbonation in the wastes and were used to calibrate the reactive transport model.

  15. Topographic Maps and Coal Mining.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Raitz, Karl B.

    1984-01-01

    Geography teachers can illustrate the patterns associated with mineral fuel production, especially coal, by using United States Geological Survey topographic maps, which are illustrated by symbols that indicate mine-related features, such as shafts and tailings. Map reading exercises are presented; an interpretative map key that can facilitate…

  16. Topographic Maps and Coal Mining.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Raitz, Karl B.

    1984-01-01

    Geography teachers can illustrate the patterns associated with mineral fuel production, especially coal, by using United States Geological Survey topographic maps, which are illustrated by symbols that indicate mine-related features, such as shafts and tailings. Map reading exercises are presented; an interpretative map key that can facilitate…

  17. Report of activities, 1997, Resident Geologist program, southern Ontario regional Resident Geologist`s report: Southeastern and Southwestern districts, Mines and Minerals Information Centre, and Petroleum Resources Centre. Ontario Geological Survey open file report number 5974

    SciTech Connect

    Sangster, P.J.

    1998-10-01

    This report reviews activities in the Southeastern and Southwestern Ontario Resident Geologist districts for the year, including mining and exploration activity, mineral property examinations, recommendations for exploration, and Ontario Geological Survey activities and research by others. It also reviews activities at the Ontario Geological Survey Mines and Minerals Information Centre and exploration and development activity in the province`s oil and gas sector.

  18. Effects of modified atmosphere on crop productivity and mineral content

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Chagvardieff, P.; Dimon, B.; Souleimanov, A.; Massimino, D.; Le Bras, S.; Péan, M.; Louche-Teissandier, D.

    1997-01-01

    Wheat, potato, pea and tomato crops were cultivated from seeding to harvest in a controlled and confined growth chamber at elevated CO_2 concentration (3700 muL.L^-1) to examine the effects on biomass production and edible part yields. Different responses to high CO_2 were recorded, ranging from a decline in productivity for wheat, to slight stimulation for potatoes, moderate increase for tomatoes, and very large enhancement for pea. Mineral content in wheat and pea seeds was not greatly modified by the elevated CO_2. Short-term experiments (17 d) were conducted on potato at high (3700 muL.L^-1) and very high (20,000 muL.L^-1) CO_2 concentration and/or low O_2 partial pressure (~ 20,600 muL.L^-1 or 2 kPa). Low O_2 was more effective than high CO_2 in total biomass accumulation, but development was affected: Low O_2 inhibited tuberization, while high CO_2 significantly increased production of tubers.

  19. Surface Mine Design and Planning for Lunar Regolith Production

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Gertsch, Leslie Sour; Gertsch, Richard E.

    2003-01-01

    Terrestrial surface mine design and planning techniques are applied to the production of lunar regolith for manufacturing makeup gases for the life-support system of a lunar base. Two scenarios are examined, due to the uncertainty of whether bound hydrogen sensed near the lunar poles is from cometary ice deposited in cold traps (mesh 1), or to hydrogen implanted within regolith grains by the solar wind (mesh 2). Scenario mesh 1, with a total production requirement of 44 tonne/day of regolith, could be handled with four groups of four 6-m3 capacity slushers (drag scrapers), each group extending 100 m around a single processing module. Scenario mesh 2 (4.382 tonne/day) could be accomplished with three powered bowl-type scrapers (capacity 24 m3) gathering the regolith into long windrows feeding a large processor. The present orebody model is extremely thin (1 m), although broad in extent: this prevents usage of high production-rate systems such as large draglines.

  20. Assessing the influence of reacting pyrite and carbonate minerals on the geochemistry of drainage in the Coeur d'Alene mining district

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Balistrieri, L.S.; Box, S.E.; Bookstrom, A.A.; Ikramuddin, M.

    1999-01-01

    The relative abundance of minerals that react to generate or consume acid in mineralized areas is critical in determining the quality of water draining from such areas. This work examines the fundamental reactions that influence the pH and composition of drainage from mine adits and tailings piles. We construct triangle diagrams that predict stoichiometric relationships between concentrations of dissolved SO4 dissolved Ca and Mg, and either alkalinity or acidity by considering reactions involving the oxidation of pyrite, dissolution of carbonate minerals, and precipitation of iron oxide and iron hydroxysulfate minerals. Drainage data from the Coeur d'Alene mining district are used to test our stoichiometric approach. Comparisons between theoretical predictions and drainage data indicate that the range of pH values in the mining district is due to reacting pyrite to carbonate mineral ratios that range from near 0/1 to 1/1. Calcite and ankerite are the dominant carbonate minerals that buffer the acid produced during pyrite oxidation and ferrihydrite or schwertmannite precipitation.The relative abundance of minerals that react to generate or consume acid in mineralized areas is critical in determining the quality of water draining from such areas. This work examines the fundamental reactions that influence the pH and composition of drainage from mine adits and tailings piles. We construct triangle diagrams that predict stoichiometric relationships between concentrations of dissolved SO4, dissolved Ca and Mg, and either alkalinity or acidity by considering reactions involving the oxidation of pyrite, dissolution of carbonate minerals, and precipitation of iron oxide and iron hydroxysulfate minerals. Drainage data from the Coeur d'Alene mining district are used to test our stoichiometric approach. Comparisons between theoretical predictions and drainage data indicate that the range of pH values in the mining district is due to reacting pyrite to carbonate mineral ratios

  1. A dozen miners perish in W.Va. mine explosion

    SciTech Connect

    2006-01-15

    A report is given of the mine explosion which occurred at the Sago mine in Upshur County, WV, leaving 13 coal miners trapped underground. Only one of the 13 was found alive. The cause of the explosion might have been the miners' equipment igniting trapped methane. Early reports blamed a lightning strike. 2 photos.

  2. The application of data mining technology in the quality and security of agricultural products

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Li, Huaqin; Luo, Ying

    The quality and security of agricultural products is the hot issue with public attention in China and also one of the issues that Chinese government attaches great importance to. This paper describes the principle of data mining technology and based on the environmental information data of agricultural production and the quality-security testing data of agricultural products, analyses the application of data mining technology in the quality and security of agricultural products.

  3. Solutions for Arsenic Control in Mining Processes and Extractive Industry

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Neitola, Raisa; Korhonen, Tero; Backnäs, Soile; Turunen, Kaisa; Kaartinen, Tommi; Laine-Ylijoki, Jutta; Wahlström, Margareta; Venho, Antti; Ahoranta, Sarita; Nissilä, Marika; Puhakka, Jaakko

    2015-04-01

    In mining, quarrying and industrial minerals production arsenic is a common element, thus creating a challenge in mining processes. This project aimed to develop solutions to control and remove As-compounds in materials and effluents of beneficiation processes and other mining operations. Focus was on various technologies e.g. traditional mineral processing, bioprocessing, water treatment, as well as various materials such as gold ores and concentrates, industrial by-products, and mine waters. The results of suggest that by novel mineral processing and proper water treatment methods the amount of As-compounds in tailings and effluents can be reduced to levels that satisfy the regulations concerning mining waste management. According to the environmental research, mining activities tend to increase the proportion of potentially mobile and available elements in soil. The effect of mining activity on geogenic contamination needs to be considered in risk assessment.

  4. Applications of multi-season hyperspectral remote sensing for acid mine water characterization and mapping of secondary iron minerals associated with acid mine drainage

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Davies, Gwendolyn E.

    Acid mine drainage (AMD) resulting from the oxidation of sulfides in mine waste is a major environmental issue facing the mining industry today. Open pit mines, tailings ponds, ore stockpiles, and waste rock dumps can all be significant sources of pollution, primarily heavy metals. These large mining-induced footprints are often located across vast geographic expanses and are difficult to access. With the continuing advancement of imaging satellites, remote sensing may provide a useful monitoring tool for pit lake water quality and the rapid assessment of abandoned mine sites. This study explored the applications of laboratory spectroscopy and multi-season hyperspectral remote sensing for environmental monitoring of mine waste environments. Laboratory spectral experiments were first performed on acid mine waters and synthetic ferric iron solutions to identify and isolate the unique spectral properties of mine waters. These spectral characterizations were then applied to airborne hyperspectral imagery for identification of poor water quality in AMD ponds at the Leviathan Mine Superfund site, CA. Finally, imagery varying in temporal and spatial resolutions were used to identify changes in mineralogy over weathering overburden piles and on dry AMD pond liner surfaces at the Leviathan Mine. Results show the utility of hyperspectral remote sensing for monitoring a diverse range of surfaces associated with AMD.

  5. Iron-mineral accretion from acid mine drainage and its application in passive treatment

    PubMed Central

    Florence, K.; Sapsford, D.J.; Johnson, D.B.; Kay, C.M.; Wolkersdorfer, C.

    2016-01-01

    ABSTRACT This study demonstrates substantial removal of iron (Fe) from acid mine drainage (pH ≈3) in a passive vertical flow reactor (VFR) with an equivalent footprint of 154 m2 per L/s mine water and residence times of >23 h. Average Fe removal rate was 67% with a high of 85% over the 10-month trial. The fraction of Fe passing a 0.22 µm filter (referred to here as Fe-filt) was seen to be removed in the VFR even when Fe(II) was absent, indicating that the contribution of microbial Fe(II) oxidation and precipitation was not the dominant removal mechanism in the VFR. Removal rates of Fe-filt in the VFR were up to 70% in residence times as low as 8 h compared with laboratory experiments where much smaller changes in Fe-filt were observed over 60 h. Centrifugation indicated that 80–90% of the influent Fe had particle sizes <35 nm. Together with analyses and geochemical modelling, this suggests that the Fe-filt fraction exists as either truly aqueous (but oversaturated) Fe(III) or nanoparticulate Fe(III) and that this metastability persists. When the water was contacted with VFR sludge, the Fe-filt fraction was destabilized, leading to an appreciably higher removal of this fraction. Heterogeneous precipitation and/or aggregation of nanoparticulate Fe(III) precipitates are considered predominant removal mechanisms. Microbial analyses of the mine water revealed the abundance of extracellular polymeric substance-generating Fe-oxidizing bacterium ‘Ferrovum myxofaciens’, which may aid the removal of iron and explain the unusual appearance and physical properties of the sludge. PMID:26675674

  6. Iron-mineral accretion from acid mine drainage and its application in passive treatment.

    PubMed

    Florence, K; Sapsford, D J; Johnson, D B; Kay, C M; Wolkersdorfer, C

    2016-01-01

    This study demonstrates substantial removal of iron (Fe) from acid mine drainage (pH ≈3) in a passive vertical flow reactor (VFR) with an equivalent footprint of 154 m(2) per L/s mine water and residence times of >23 h. Average Fe removal rate was 67% with a high of 85% over the 10-month trial. The fraction of Fe passing a 0.22 µm filter (referred to here as Fe-filt) was seen to be removed in the VFR even when Fe(II) was absent, indicating that the contribution of microbial Fe(II) oxidation and precipitation was not the dominant removal mechanism in the VFR. Removal rates of Fe-filt in the VFR were up to 70% in residence times as low as 8 h compared with laboratory experiments where much smaller changes in Fe-filt were observed over 60 h. Centrifugation indicated that 80-90% of the influent Fe had particle sizes <35 nm. Together with analyses and geochemical modelling, this suggests that the Fe-filt fraction exists as either truly aqueous (but oversaturated) Fe(III) or nanoparticulate Fe(III) and that this metastability persists. When the water was contacted with VFR sludge, the Fe-filt fraction was destabilized, leading to an appreciably higher removal of this fraction. Heterogeneous precipitation and/or aggregation of nanoparticulate Fe(III) precipitates are considered predominant removal mechanisms. Microbial analyses of the mine water revealed the abundance of extracellular polymeric substance-generating Fe-oxidizing bacterium 'Ferrovum myxofaciens', which may aid the removal of iron and explain the unusual appearance and physical properties of the sludge.

  7. MegaMiner: A Tool for Lead Identification Through Text Mining Using Chemoinformatics Tools and Cloud Computing Environment.

    PubMed

    Karthikeyan, Muthukumarasamy; Pandit, Yogesh; Pandit, Deepak; Vyas, Renu

    2015-01-01

    Virtual screening is an indispensable tool to cope with the massive amount of data being tossed by the high throughput omics technologies. With the objective of enhancing the automation capability of virtual screening process a robust portal termed MegaMiner has been built using the cloud computing platform wherein the user submits a text query and directly accesses the proposed lead molecules along with their drug-like, lead-like and docking scores. Textual chemical structural data representation is fraught with ambiguity in the absence of a global identifier. We have used a combination of statistical models, chemical dictionary and regular expression for building a disease specific dictionary. To demonstrate the effectiveness of this approach, a case study on malaria has been carried out in the present work. MegaMiner offered superior results compared to other text mining search engines, as established by F score analysis. A single query term 'malaria' in the portlet led to retrieval of related PubMed records, protein classes, drug classes and 8000 scaffolds which were internally processed and filtered to suggest new molecules as potential anti-malarials. The results obtained were validated by docking the virtual molecules into relevant protein targets. It is hoped that MegaMiner will serve as an indispensable tool for not only identifying hidden relationships between various biological and chemical entities but also for building better corpus and ontologies.

  8. 30 CFR 210.201 - How do I submit Form MMS-4430, Solid Minerals Production and Royalty Report?

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-07-01

    ... 30 Mineral Resources 2 2010-07-01 2010-07-01 false How do I submit Form MMS-4430, Solid Minerals Production and Royalty Report? 210.201 Section 210.201 Mineral Resources MINERALS MANAGEMENT SERVICE, DEPARTMENT OF THE INTERIOR MINERALS REVENUE MANAGEMENT FORMS AND REPORTS Production and Royalty...

  9. Second powerful bounce at Utah mine kills three rescuers trying to reach six trapped miners

    SciTech Connect

    2007-09-15

    The article reports on rescue operations at Crandall Canyon Mine in Energy Country, Utah, where coal miners were trapped on 6 August by a large cave-in. The miners, who were carrying out retreat mining, were believed to be 1,500 ft deep and 4 miles from the portal. Rescue efforts involved drilling several boreholes and injecting compressed air into the mine. A significant bounce occurred on 17 August killing three rescue workers. 1 photo.

  10. Extracellular Enzyme Production and Synthetic Lignin Mineralization by Ceriporiopsis subvermispora

    PubMed Central

    Rüttimann-Johnson, Carmen; Salas, Loreto; Vicuña, Rafael; Kirk, T. Kent

    1993-01-01

    The ability of the white rot fungus Ceriporiopsis subvermispora to mineralize 14C-synthetic lignin was studied under different culture conditions, and the levels of two extracellular enzymes were monitored. The highest mineralization rates (28% after 28 days) were obtained in cultures containing a growth-limiting amount of nitrogen source (1.0 mM ammonium tartrate); under this condition, the levels of manganese peroxidase (MnP) and laccase present in the culture supernatant solutions were very low compared with cultures containing 10 mM of the nitrogen source. In contrast, cultures containing a limiting concentration of the carbon source (0.1% glucose) showed low levels of both enzymes and also very low mineralization rates compared with cultures containing 1% glucose. Cultures containing 11 ppm of Mn(II) showed a higher rate of mineralization than those containing 0.3 or 40 ppm of this cation. Levels of MnP and laccase were higher when 40 ppm of Mn(II) was used. Mineralization rates were slightly higher in cultures flushed daily with oxygen, whereas laccase levels were lower and MnP levels were approximately the same as in cultures maintained under an air atmosphere. The presence of 0.4 mM veratryl alcohol reduced both mineralization rates and MnP levels, without affecting laccase levels. Lignin peroxidase activity was not detected under any condition. Addition of purified lignin peroxidase to the cultures in the presence or absence of veratryl alcohol did not enhance mineralization rates significantly. PMID:16348955

  11. Mesozoic Magmatism and Base-Metal Mineralization in the Fortymile Mining District, Eastern Alaska - Initial Results of Petrographic, Geochemical, and Isotopic Studies in the Mount Veta Area

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Dusel-Bacon, Cynthia; Slack, John F.; Aleinikoff, John N.; Mortensen, James K.

    2009-01-01

    We present here the initial results of a petrographic, geochemical, and isotopic study of Mesozoic intrusive rocks and spatially associated Zn-Pb-Ag-Cu-Au prospects in the Fortymile mining district in the southern Eagle quadrangle, Alaska. Analyzed samples include mineralized and unmineralized drill core from 2006 and 2007 exploration by Full Metal Minerals, USA, Inc., at the Little Whiteman (LWM) and Fish prospects, and other mineralized and plutonic samples collected within the mining district is part of the USGS study. Three new ion microprobe U-Pb zircon ages are: 210 +- 3 Ma for quartz diorite from LWM, 187 +- 3 Ma for quartz monzonite from Fish, and 70.5 +- 1.1 Ma for altered rhyolite porphyry from Fish. We also present 11 published and unpublished Mesozoic thermal ionization mass spectrometric U-Pb zircon and titanite ages and whole-rock geochemical data for the Mesozoic plutonic rocks. Late Triassic and Early Jurassic plutons generally have intermediate compositions and are slightly foliated, consistent with synkinematic intrusion. Several Early Jurassic plutons contain magmatic epidote, indicating emplacement of the host plutons at mesozonal crustal depths of greater than 15 km. Trace-element geochemical data indicate an arc origin for the granitoids, with an increase in the crustal component with time. Preliminary study of drill core from the LWM Zn-Pb-Cu-Ag prospect supports a carbonate-replacement model of mineralization. LWM massive sulfides consist of sphalerite, galena, and minor pyrite and chalcopyrite, in a gangue of calcite and lesser quartz; silver resides in Sb-As-Ag sulfosalts and pyrargyrite, and probably in submicroscopic inclusions within galena. Whole-rock analyses of LWM drill cores also show elevated In, an important metal in high-technology products. Hypogene mineralized rocks at Fish, below the secondary Zn-rich zone, are associated with a carbonate host and also may be of replacement origin, or alternatively, may be a magnetite

  12. Mineral Mapping Using AVIRIS Data at Ray Mine, AZ

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    McCubbin, Ian; Lang, Harold; Green, Robert O.; Roberts, Dar

    1998-01-01

    Imaging Spectroscopy enables the identification and mapping of surface mineralogy over large areas. This study focused on assessing the utility of Airborne Visible/Infrared Imaging Spectrometer (AVIRIS) data for environmental impact analysis over the Environmental Protection Agency's (EPA) high priority Superfund site Ray Mine, AZ. Using the Spectral Angle Mapper (SAM) algorithm to analyze AVIRIS data makes it possible to map surface materials that are indicative of acid generating minerals. The improved performance of the AVIRIS sensor since 1996 provides data with sufficient signal to noise ratio to characterize up to 8 image endmembers. Specifically we employed SAM to map minerals associated with mine generated acid waste, namely jarositc, goethite, and hematite, in the presence of a complex mineralogical background.

  13. Mineral Mapping Using AVIRIS Data at Ray Mine, AZ

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    McCubbin, Ian; Lang, Harold; Green, Robert O.; Roberts, Dar

    1998-01-01

    Imaging Spectroscopy enables the identification and mapping of surface mineralogy over large areas. This study focused on assessing the utility of Airborne Visible/Infrared Imaging Spectrometer (AVIRIS) data for environmental impact analysis over the Environmental Protection Agency's (EPA) high priority Superfund site Ray Mine, AZ. Using the Spectral Angle Mapper (SAM) algorithm to analyze AVIRIS data makes it possible to map surface materials that are indicative of acid generating minerals. The improved performance of the AVIRIS sensor since 1996 provides data with sufficient signal to noise ratio to characterize up to 8 image endmembers. Specifically we employed SAM to map minerals associated with mine generated acid waste, namely jarositc, goethite, and hematite, in the presence of a complex mineralogical background.

  14. Biogenic catalysis in sulphide minerals' weathering processes and acid mine drainage genesis.

    PubMed

    Kušnierová, Mária; Praščáková, Mária; Nowak, Anna K; Gorazda, Katarzyna; Wzorek, Zbigniew

    2014-01-01

    Bioleaching and biogenesis are the main outputs from a large group of environmental processes participating in the natural material cycle, used in raw materials processing. Bio-oxidation reactions are the main basis for bioleaching procedures, often participating in parallel leaching processes. During the leaching processes of polycomponent sulphide substrates, the factor of process selection also plays an important role, being in direct relation to the electric properties and galvanic effect occurring between the individual components of the leaching substrate. This work gives a summary of the results of a research focused on the possibilities of using biotechnological procedures for treatment of Slovak sulphide ores. The object of the research is extraction of valuable metals, undesirable admixtures and degradation of crystal lattice of sulphides for subsequent chemical leaching processing of precious metals. The results of experiments on the existence of biogenic processes in situ on waste dumps from exploitation containing residual sulphides are also presented. The processes result in acid mine drainage water generation. These waters are strongly mineralised (over 48 g/L) and of low pH; that is why they are very caustic. The arsenic content (2.558 mg/L) in outflowing waters from old mines is high and over the limits set by the law.

  15. Minerals yearbook 1977. Volume I. Metals and minerals

    SciTech Connect

    Not Available

    1980-01-01

    This report contains chapters on virtually all metallic and nonmetallic mineral commodities important to the domestic economy. In addition, it includes a general review chapter on the mineral industries, a chapter on mining and quarrying trends, and a statistical summary.

  16. Assessing the influence of reacting pyrite and carbonate minerals on the geochemistry of drainage in the Coeur d'Alene mining district

    SciTech Connect

    Balistrieri, L.S.; Box, S.E.; Bookstrom, A.A.; Ikramuddin, M.

    1999-10-01

    The relative abundance of minerals that react to generate or consume acid in mineralized areas is critical in determining the quality of water draining from such areas. This work examines the fundamental reactions that influence the pH and composition of drainage from mine adits and tailings piles. The authors construct triangle diagrams that predict stoichiometric relationships between concentrations of dissolved SO{sub 4}{sup {minus}}, dissolved Ca and Mg, and either alkalinity or acidity by considering reactions involving the oxidation of pyrite, dissolution of carbonate minerals, and precipitation of iron oxide and iron hydroxysulfate minerals. Drainage data from the Coeur d'Alene mining district are used to test their stoichiometric approach. Comparisons between theoretical predictions and drainage data indicate that the range of pH values in the mining district is due to reacting pyrite to carbonate mineral ratios that range from near 0/1 to 1/1. Calcite and ankerite are the dominant carbonate minerals that buffer the acid produced during pyrite oxidation and ferrihydrite or schwertmannite precipitation.

  17. Uranium Mines and Mills Location Database

    EPA Pesticide Factsheets

    The Uranium Mines and Mills location database identifies and shows the location of active and inactive uranium mines and mills, as well as mines which principally produced other minerals, but were known to have uranium in the ore.

  18. Thermodynamic data for modeling acid mine drainage problems: compilation and estimation of data for selected soluble iron-sulfate minerals

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Hemingway, Bruch S.; Seal, Robert R., II; Chou, I-Ming

    2002-01-01

    Enthalpy of formation, Gibbs energy of formation, and entropy values have been compiled from the literature for the hydrated ferrous sulfate minerals melanterite, rozenite, and szomolnokite, and a variety of other hydrated sulfate compounds. On the basis of this compilation, it appears that there is no evidence for an excess enthalpy of mixing for sulfate-H2O systems, except for the first H2O molecule of crystallization. The enthalpy and Gibbs energy of formation of each H2O molecule of crystallization, except the first, in the iron(II) sulfate - H2O system is -295.15 and -238.0 kJ?mol-1, respectively. The absence of an excess enthalpy of mixing is used as the basis for estimating thermodynamic values for a variety of ferrous, ferric, and mixed-valence sulfate salts of relevance to acid-mine drainage systems.

  19. Mining Glossary and Games.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    National Energy Foundation, Salt Lake City, UT.

    This booklet was produced in an effort to increase the awareness and appreciation of young people for the Earth's resources. The Mining Education Glossary is intended to provide easy reference to mining terms which are used in the minerals recovery industry and as a useful resource for teaching basic learning skills. Accompanying the glossary are…

  20. Study of arsenopyrite weathering products in mine wastes from abandoned tungsten and tin exploitations.

    PubMed

    Murciego, A; Alvarez-Ayuso, E; Pellitero, E; Rodríguez, Ma A; García-Sánchez, A; Tamayo, A; Rubio, J; Rubio, F; Rubin, J

    2011-02-15

    Arsenopyrite-rich wastes from abandoned tungsten and tin exploitations were studied to determine the composition and characteristics of the secondary phases formed under natural weathering conditions so as to assess their potential environmental risk. Representative weathered arsenopyrite-bearing rock wastes collected from the mine dumps were analysed using the following techniques: X-ray powder diffraction (XRD) analysis, polarizing microscopy analysis, electron microprobe analysis (EMPA) and microRaman and Mössbauer spectroscopies. Scorodite, pharmacosiderite and amorphous ferric arsenates (AFA) with Fe/As molar ratios in the range 1.2-2.5 were identified as secondary arsenic products. The former showed to be the most abundant and present in the different studied mining areas. Its chemical composition showed to vary in function of the original surrounding rock mineralogy in such a way that phosphoscorodite was found as the mineral variety present in apatite-containing geoenvirons. Other ever-present weathering phases were goethite and hydrous ferric oxides (HFO), displaying, respectively, As retained amounts about 1 and 20% (expressed as As(2)O(5)). The low solubility of scorodite, the relatively low content of AFA and the formation of compounds of variable charge, mostly of amorphous nature, with high capacity to adsorb As attenuate importantly the dispersion of this element into the environment from these arsenopyrite-bearing wastes. Copyright © 2010 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  1. Toxicity identification and evaluation for the effluent from a nonmetallic mineral mining facility in Korea using D. magna.

    PubMed

    Lee, Sungjong; Ha, Hongjoo; Hong, JinKyung; Kang, Guyoung; Hong, Chunsang

    2017-09-01

    Industrial wastewater has attracted increasing attention in recent years because of its impact on ecosystems and human health. Whole-effluent tests are generally used to monitor toxicities of unknown chemicals and conventional pollutants from industrial effluent discharges. This study described identification evaluation (TIE) procedures to determine the acute toxicity of a nonmetallic mineral mining facility effluent that was toxic to Daphnia magna. In the characterization step (TIE phase I), toxic effects of heavy metals, organic compounds, oxidants, volatile organic compounds, suspended solids, and ammonia were screened. Results revealed that the source of toxicity was beyond these toxicants. Chemical analysis (TIE phase II) of total dissolved solid showed that the concentration of chloride ion (15,302.5 mg/L) was substantially higher than the predicted EC50 value for D. magna. Chemical analysis for heavy metal and ionic materials used ion chromatography and induced coupled plasma-optic emission spectroscopy. In the confirmation step (TIE phase III), using spiking and deletion approaches, it was demonstrated that chloride ion was the main toxicant in this effluent. Concentrations of potassium (317.5 mg/L), magnesium (970.5 mg/L), sodium (8595.3 mg/L), and sulfate (2854.3 mg/L) were not high enough to cause toxicity to D. magna. Finally, we concluded that chloride was the main toxicant in the nonmetallic mineral mining facility effluent. Based on these results, advanced treatment processes such as ion exchange and reverse osmosis technology are recommended to treat wastewater in this and similar situations. Further research is needed to provide technical support for toxin identification and evaluation of various types of wastewater treatment plant discharge.

  2. Coupling process study of lipid production and mercury bioremediation by biomimetic mineralized microalgae.

    PubMed

    Peng, Yang; Deng, Aosong; Gong, Xun; Li, Xiaomin; Zhang, Yang

    2017-11-01

    Considering the high concentration of mercury in industrial wastewater, such as coal-fired power plants and gold mining wastewater, this research study investigated the coupling process of lipid production and mercury bioremediation using microalgae cells. Chlorella vulgaris modified by biomimetic mineralization. The cultivation was divided in two stages: a natural cultivation for 7days and 5days of Hg(2+) addition (10-100μg/L) for cultivation at different pH values (4-7) after inoculation. Next, the harvested cells were eluted, and lipid was extracted. The fluorescein diacetate (FDA) dye tests demonstrated that the mineralized layer enhanced the biological activity of microalgae cells in Hg(2+) contaminated media. Hg distribution tests showed that the Hg removal capacity of modified cells was increased from 62.85% to 94.74%, and 88.72% of eluted Hg(2+) concentration was observed in modified cells compared to 48.42% of raw cells, implying that more mercury was transferred from lipid and residuals into elutable forms. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  3. [Clinical and morphologic characteristics of lung cancer in miners of Krivoy Rog iron-ore region and of uranium mines of Zhovti Vody].

    PubMed

    Bednaryk, O M; Filipchenko, L L; Pan'kova, A O; Kryvosheĭ, L O; Slinchenko, M Z

    2004-01-01

    Clinical and morphological features of cancer were observed in two groups of miners (of Krivoy Rog iron-ore and Zholty Vody uranium mines), working in hazardous labour conditions. In both of groups the disease course had typical features for lung cancer. Roentgenologic changes were observed, central cancer of left and right lung was revealed by bronchoscopy method. In all the cases lung cancer was morphologically proved and classified as squamous. Rapid progression of the disease and late medical aid appealability cause the patients consulted with their doctors only at the stage of II-III, sometimes III of the disease and it makes a distinction of lung cancer in miners of iron-ore and uranium mines. In order to prevent such a late diagnostics all the miners should be referred to the group of risk on lung cancer.

  4. Geochemical investigations and interim recommendations for priority abandoned mine sites on U.S.D.A. Forest Service lands, Mineral Creek watershed, San Juan County, Colorado

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Nash, J.T.

    1999-01-01

    Field observations, sampling of mine dumps and mine drainage waters, and laboratory studies of dump materials have been made at mining areas deemed to be on public lands administered by the USDA Forest Service in the Mineral Creek watershed. Results of chemical analyses of dump materials, leachates of those materials, and of surface waters draining mines or dumps provide indications of where acid is generated or consumed, and what metals are mobilized below mines or dumps. Information on 25 sites is reviewed and reclamation priorities are ranked into four classes (high, medium, low priority, or no work required). The western side of the upper Animas watershed (the Mineral Creek watershed) has a history of mining and prospecting for about 130 years. The intensity of miningrelated disturbance is higher than in most parts of the San Juan Mountains region, but actually is much less than the eastern half of the watershed (US BLM lands) and none of the mines moved millions of tons of rock and ore as in some of the eastern mines. The majority of the roughly one thousand mining sites on the USFS lands are very small (less than 100 tons or 70 cubic yards of dump material), are more than 2 miles from a major stream, or are so inaccessible as to prohibit reclamation. Twenty five sites have been considered by others to have significant size and potential for significant environmental degradation. These most significant mining areas were evaluated by multiple criteria, including tendency to generate acid or liberate toxic metals, observed acidic pH or dead vegetation (?kill zones?) below dumps or adits, potential mobility of metals, and likelihood of transport into streams of the watershed. In the author?s opinion, no single measurable parameter, such as metal concentration, is reliable for ranking significance or feasibility of reclamation. Rather, subjective estimates are required to evaluate combinations of, or interactions among, several parameters. The most subjective

  5. A Closed Network Queue Model of Underground Coal Mining Production, Failure, and Repair

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Lohman, G. M.

    1978-01-01

    Underground coal mining system production, failures, and repair cycles were mathematically modeled as a closed network of two queues in series. The model was designed to better understand the technological constraints on availability of current underground mining systems, and to develop guidelines for estimating the availability of advanced mining systems and their associated needs for spares as well as production and maintenance personnel. It was found that: mine performance is theoretically limited by the maintainability ratio, significant gains in availability appear possible by means of small improvements in the time between failures the number of crews and sections should be properly balanced for any given maintainability ratio, and main haulage systems closest to the mine mouth require the most attention to reliability.

  6. Mining Careers. Instructor's Manual and Student's Basic Course of Study. Recommended Courses for Entry Level Miner, General Inside Laborer, Timber Framer, Face Worker.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Admiral Peary Area Vocational-Technical School, Ebensburg, PA.

    Guides for organizing and individualizing three courses of study for job training in the mining careers of entry level miner, general inside laborer/timber framer, and faceman are presented in this manual. Introductory information includes (1) suggestions for utilizing, modifying, or customizing materials (task sheets) in the manual to suit…

  7. Mining Careers. Instructor's Manual and Student's Basic Course of Study. Recommended Courses for Entry Level Miner, General Inside Laborer, Timber Framer, Face Worker.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Admiral Peary Area Vocational-Technical School, Ebensburg, PA.

    Guides for organizing and individualizing three courses of study for job training in the mining careers of entry level miner, general inside laborer/timber framer, and faceman are presented in this manual. Introductory information includes (1) suggestions for utilizing, modifying, or customizing materials (task sheets) in the manual to suit…

  8. 30 CFR 49.3 - Alternative mine rescue capability for small and remote mines.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-07-01

    ... 30 Mineral Resources 1 2010-07-01 2010-07-01 false Alternative mine rescue capability for small and remote mines. 49.3 Section 49.3 Mineral Resources MINE SAFETY AND HEALTH ADMINISTRATION, DEPARTMENT OF LABOR EDUCATION AND TRAINING MINE RESCUE TEAMS § 49.3 Alternative mine rescue capability...

  9. 30 CFR 49.3 - Alternative mine rescue capability for small and remote mines.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-07-01

    ... 30 Mineral Resources 1 2011-07-01 2011-07-01 false Alternative mine rescue capability for small and remote mines. 49.3 Section 49.3 Mineral Resources MINE SAFETY AND HEALTH ADMINISTRATION, DEPARTMENT OF LABOR EDUCATION AND TRAINING MINE RESCUE TEAMS § 49.3 Alternative mine rescue capability...

  10. 30 CFR 49.13 - Alternative mine rescue capability for small and remote mines.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-07-01

    ... 30 Mineral Resources 1 2011-07-01 2011-07-01 false Alternative mine rescue capability for small and remote mines. 49.13 Section 49.13 Mineral Resources MINE SAFETY AND HEALTH ADMINISTRATION, DEPARTMENT OF LABOR EDUCATION AND TRAINING MINE RESCUE TEAMS Mine Rescue Teams for Underground Coal...

  11. 30 CFR 49.13 - Alternative mine rescue capability for small and remote mines.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-07-01

    ... 30 Mineral Resources 1 2010-07-01 2010-07-01 false Alternative mine rescue capability for small and remote mines. 49.13 Section 49.13 Mineral Resources MINE SAFETY AND HEALTH ADMINISTRATION, DEPARTMENT OF LABOR EDUCATION AND TRAINING MINE RESCUE TEAMS Mine Rescue Teams for Underground Coal...

  12. Surface Miners: Evaluation of the Production Rate and Cutting Performance Based on Rock Properties and Specific Energy

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Origliasso, Chiara; Cardu, Marilena; Kecojevic, Vladislav

    2014-03-01

    The purpose of this research was to evaluate the production rate (PR) and cutting performance of surface miners (SM) based on rock properties and specific energy (SE). We use data from equipment manufacturers and experimental data in this study and propose a new method and equations to determine both the PR and the cutting speed of SM. The unconfined compressive strength (UCS) of the rock, its abrasivity, and the machine's engine power are the three most important factors influencing the PR. Moreover, the cutting depth, UCS, and engine power have a significant impact on the cutting speed. We propose a new method and equations to determine the energy required to cut a volume unit and a surface unit, i.e., specific energy, and establish the relationship between SE, UCS, and PR. The results of this study can be used by surface miner operators to evaluate the applicability of the machines to a specific mine site.

  13. Minerals yearbook, 1993. Volume 1. Metals and minerals. Annual report

    SciTech Connect

    1993-12-31

    This edition of the Mineral Yearbook discusses the performance of the worlwide minerals and materials industry during 1993 and provides background information to assist in interpreting that performance. Volume 1, Metals and Minerals, contains chapters on virtually all metallic and industrial mineral commodities important to the U.S. economy. A chapter on survey methods with a statistical summary of nonfuel minerals, and a chapters on trends in mining and quarrying in the metals and industrial mineral industries are also included.

  14. The estimation of the number of underground coal miners and the annual dose to coal miners in China

    SciTech Connect

    Liu, F.D.; Pan, Z.Q.; Liu, S.L.; Chen, L.; Ma, J.Z.; Yang, M.L.; Wang, N.P.

    2007-08-15

    This paper introduces an estimation method for the number of underground coal miners and the annual dose to coal miners in China. It shows that there are about 6 million underground miners at present and the proportion is about 1, 1 and 4 million for national key coal mines, state-owned local coal mines, and township and private-ownership coal mines, respectively. The collective dose is about 1.65 X 10{sup 4} person-Sv y{sup -1}, of which township and private-ownership coal mines contribute about 91%. This paper also points out that the 2000 UNSCEAR report gives the number of miners of coal production and their collective dose, which are underestimated greatly because the report only includes the number of underground miners in national key coal mines, which only accounts for 1/6 of the workers all working under the best ventilation conditions in China.

  15. The estimation of the number of underground coal miners and the annual dose to coal miners in China.

    PubMed

    Liu, Fu-dong; Pan, Zi-qiang; Liu, Sen-lin; Chen, Ling; Ma, Ji-zeng; Yang, Ming-li; Wang, Nan-ping

    2007-08-01

    This paper introduces an estimation method for the number of underground coal miners and the annual dose to coal miners in China. It shows that there are about 6 million underground miners at present and the proportion is about 1, 1 and 4 million for national key coal mines, state-owned local coal mines, and township and private-ownership coal mines, respectively. The collective dose is about 1.65 x 10(4) person-Sv y(-1), of which township and private-ownership coal mines contribute about 91%. This paper also points out that the 2000 UNSCEAR report gives the number of miners of coal production and their collective dose, which are underestimated greatly because the report only includes the number of underground miners in national key coal mines, which only accounts for 1/6 of the workers all working under the best ventilation conditions in China.

  16. Impact of epidermal leaf mining by the aspen leaf miner (Phyllocnistis populiella) on the growth, physiology, and leaf longevity of quaking aspen.

    Treesearch

    Diane L. Wagner; Linda DeFoliart; Patricia Doak; Jenny Schneiderheinze

    2008-01-01

    The aspen leaf miner, Phyllocnistis populiella, feeds on the contents of epidermal cells on both top (adaxial) and bottom (abaxial) surfaces of quaking aspen leaves, leaving the photosynthetic tissue of the mesophyll intact. This type of feeding is taxonomically restricted to a small subset of leaf mining insects but can cause widespread plant...

  17. State Taxation of Mineral Deposits and Production. Rural Development Research Report No. 2.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Stinson, Thomas F.

    Alternative methods for taxing the mineral industry at the State level include four types of taxes: the ad valorem tax, severance tax, gross production tax, and net production tax. An ad valorem tax is a property tax levied on a mineral deposit's assessed value and due whether the deposit is being worked or not. The severance tax is usually an…

  18. Structurally controlled volcanism and contrasting types of mineralization, Tuscarora mining district and vicinity, Nevada

    SciTech Connect

    Wright, B.A. ); Boden, D.R.; Struhsacker, E.M.

    1993-04-01

    The Tuscarora district lies within an Eocene volcanic field that covers [approximately]800 km[sup 2] in the northern Tuscarora Mountains in northwest Elko County. Geologic mapping of [approximately]100 km[sup 2] at Tuscarora and vicinity and new K-Ar age determinations reveal a complex, rapidly evolving volcanic history. Volcanism began with construction of a poorly preserved andesitic stratovolcano(s) at 42+ Ma. Subsequently, the 7- by 10-km Mt. Blitzen graben developed between 41--42 Ma. The graben filled with the tuff of Mt. Blitzen. Graben subsidence occurred along NE to ENE and NNW to NW faults, and a variety of dikes and plugs, including the 39.8-Ma Mt. Neva granodiorite, locally intruded the bounding faults. Rocks of the graben strike NE, dip moderately to steeply, and are cut by penecontemporaneous NE-striking dikes, indicating that the graben formed in response to NW-SE-directed extension. Collapse of the rhyolitic Big Cottonwood Canyon caldera truncated the northern part of the Mt. Blitzen graben between 40.6 and 41.0 Ma. Rocks of the Mt. Blitzen graben range from silicic andesite to rhyodacite, whereas rocks of the Big Cottonwood Canyon caldera are rhyolite and high-silica rhyolite. Mineralization at Tuscarora occurs near the southeast margin of the Mt. Blitzen graben and mainly as quartz-adularia veins filling ENE, N, and NW faults. New K-Ar analyses on adularia from the Dexter and Grand Prize veins yield ages of 38.9 and 39.9 Ma, respectively. Although closely developed in space and time, the Ag-rich, base-metal-bearing mineralization, characterized by the Grand Prize vein, and the Au-rich, base-metal-poor Dexter vein zone likely represent separate, unrelated hydrothermal events. In general, alteration in the district, as observed in outcrops and drill-hole cuttings, changes from fault or fracture controlled in the north to more pervasive in the Dexter pit area and eastward under pediment.

  19. Miners' return to work following injuries in coal mines.

    PubMed

    Bhattacherjee, Ashis; Kunar, Bijay Mihir

    2016-12-22

    The occupational injuries in mines are common and result in severe socio-economical consequences. Earlier studies have revealed the role of multiple factors such as demographic factors, behavioral factors, health-related factors, working environment, and working conditions for mine injuries. However, there is a dearth of information about the role of some of these factors in delayed return to work (RTW) following a miner's injury. These factors may likely include personal characteristics of injured persons and his or her family, the injured person's social and economic status, and job characteristics. This study was conducted to assess the role of some of these factors for the return to work following coal miners' injuries. A study was conducted for 109 injured workers from an underground coal mine in the years 2000-2009. A questionnaire, which was completed by the personnel interviews, included among others age, height, weight, seniority, alcohol consumption, sleeping duration, presence of diseases, job stress, job satisfaction, and injury type. The data was analyzed using the Kaplan-Meier estimates and the Cox proportional hazard model. According to Kaplan-Meier estimate it was revealed that a lower number of dependents, longer sleep duration, no job stress, no disease, no alcohol addiction, and higher monthly income have a great impact on early return to work after injury. The Cox regression analysis revealed that the significant risk factors which influenced miners' return to work included presence of disease, job satisfaction and injury type. The mine management should pay attention to significant risk factors for injuries in order to develop effective preventive measures. Med Pr 2016;67(6):729-742.

  20. Assessment of the total effective dose of miners in the underground Rožná Uranium Mine in the Czech Republic during the period 2004-2009.

    PubMed

    Sabol, J; Jurda, M; Gregor, Z; Navrátil, L

    2011-03-01

    The paper discusses the situation in the Czech Republic regarding past and present uranium mining activities with emphasis on the evaluation of the exposure of underground miners in the Rožná Uranium Mine, which is currently the only active mine in the country and practically in the entire European Union. The total effective dose has been summarised taking into account all three major components, namely radon short-lived decay products, long-lived alpha emitters in ore dust and penetrating external gamma radiation. The average and maximum values of the effective dose as well as the collective effective dose of underground miners are also presented. The purpose of the paper is to document the miners' exposures during a period of 6 years in a uranium mine where conditions including the ore grade and methods of mining showed recently some changes that may affect the individual components of the total effective dose.

  1. Memoirs of the Geological Survey of Great Britain and of the Museum of Practical Geology: Mining records: Mineral statistics of the United Kingdom of Great Britain and Ireland for the year 1856

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Hunt, Robert

    1857-01-01

    Ten years since, the publication of Mineral Statistics of a reliable character was commenced, by issuing from the Mining Record Office returns of the produce of the Lead Mines of the United Kingdom.  With each year, efforts have been made to enlarge the circle of inquiry; and it is with much satisfaction that I find myself enabled, in the Mineral Statistics for 1856, to embrace every important branch of our Mineral Industries.

  2. Technical Note: Minerals in dust productive soils - impacts and global distribution

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Nickovic, S.; Vukovic, A.; Vujadinovic, M.; Djurdjevic, V.; Pejanovic, G.

    2011-09-01

    Dust storms and associated mineral aerosol transport are mainly driven by meso and synoptic scale atmospheric processes. It is therefore essential that the dust aerosol process and background atmospheric conditions that drive the dust emission and atmospheric transport be represented with sufficiently well resolved spatial and temporal features. Effects of airborne dust interactions with the environment are determent by the mineral composition of dust particles. Fractions of various minerals in the aerosol are determined by the mineral composition of arid soils, therefore high-resolution specification of mineral and physical properties of dust sources is needed as well. Most current dust atmospheric models simulate/predict the evolution of dust concentration but in most cases they do not consider fractions of minerals in dust. Accumulated knowledge on impacts of mineral composition in dust on weather and climate processes emphasizes the importance of considering minerals in modelling systems. Following such needs, in this study we developed a global dataset on mineral composition of potentially dust productive soils. In our study (a) we mapped mineral data into a high-resolution 30-s grid, (b) we included mineral carrying soil types in dust productive regions that were not considered in previous studies, and (c) included phosphorus having in mind their importance for terrestrial and marine nutrition processes.

  3. The Economics of Mineral Byproducts and Coproducts.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Wilkenson, T.

    1983-01-01

    In the minerals industries, joint products are a normal occurrence in many production systems, and byproducts are often crucial to the viability of mining operations. A contrast was seen between the relatively free market in cabmium with volatile prices and a producer-controlled market in germanium with greater price stability. (IS)

  4. The Economics of Mineral Byproducts and Coproducts.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Wilkenson, T.

    1983-01-01

    In the minerals industries, joint products are a normal occurrence in many production systems, and byproducts are often crucial to the viability of mining operations. A contrast was seen between the relatively free market in cabmium with volatile prices and a producer-controlled market in germanium with greater price stability. (IS)

  5. star Miner: A suit of classifiers for spatial, temporal, ancillary, and remote sensing data mining

    SciTech Connect

    Vatsavai, Raju; Shekhar, Shashi; Burk, Thomas E; Bhaduri, Budhendra L

    2008-01-01

    Thematic classification of multi-spectral remotely sensed imagery for large geographic regions requires complex algorithms and feature selection techniques. Traditional statistical classifiers rely exclusively on spectral characteristics, but thematic classes are often spectrally overlapping. The spectral response distributions of thematic classes are dependent on many factors including terrain, slope, aspect, soil type, and atmospheric conditions present during the image acquisition. With the availability of geo-spatial databases, it is possible to exploit the knowledge derived from these ancillary geo-spatial databases to improve the classification accuracies. However, it is not easy to incorporate this additional knowledge into traditional statistical classification methods. On the other hand, knowledge-based and neural network classifiers can readily incorporate these spatial databases, but these systems are often complex to train and their accuracy is only slightly better than statistical classifiers. In this paper we present a new suit of classifiers developed through NASA funding, which addresses many of these problems and provide a framework for mining multi-spectral and temporal remote sensing images guided by geo-spatial databases.

  6. star Miner: A suit of classifiers for spatial, temporal, ancillary, and remote sensing data mining

    SciTech Connect

    Burk, Thomas E; Bhaduri, Budhendra L

    2008-01-01

    Thematic classification of multi-spectral remotely sensed imagery for large geographic regions requires complex algorithms and feature selection techniques. Traditional statistical classifiers rely exclusively on spectral characteristics, but thematic classes are often spectrally overlapping. The spectral response distributions of thematic classes are dependent on many factors including terrain, slope, aspect, soil type, and atmospheric conditions present during the image acquisition. With the availability of geo-spatial databases, it is possible to exploit the knowledge derived from these ancillary geo-spatial databases to improve the classification accuracies. However, it is not easy to incorporate this additional knowledge into traditional statistical classification methods. On the other hand, knowledge-based and neural network classifiers can readily incorporate these spatial databases, but these systems are often complex to train and their accuracy is only slightly better than statistical classifiers. In this paper we present a new suit of classifiers developed through NASA funding, which addresses many of these problems and provide a framework for mining multi-spectral and temporal remote sensing images guided by geo-spatial databases.

  7. Distribution of Cu, Co, As, and Fe in mine waste, sediment, soil, and water in and around mineral deposits and mines of the Idaho Cobalt Belt, USA

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Gray, John E.; Eppinger, Robert G.

    2012-01-01

    The distribution of Cu, Co, As and Fe was studied downstream from mines and deposits in the Idaho Cobalt Belt (ICB), the largest Co resource in the USA. To evaluate potential contamination in ecosystems in the ICB, mine waste, stream sediment, soil, and water were collected and analyzed for Cu, Co, As and Fe in this area. Concentrations of Cu in mine waste and stream sediment collected proximal to mines in the ICB ranged from 390 to 19,000 μg/g, exceeding the USEPA target clean-up level and the probable effect concentration (PEC) for Cu of 149 μg/g in sediment; PEC is the concentration above which harmful effects are likely in sediment dwelling organisms. In addition concentrations of Cu in mine runoff and stream water collected proximal to mines were highly elevated in the ICB and exceeded the USEPA chronic criterion for aquatic organisms of 6.3 μg/L (at a water hardness of 50 mg/L) and an LC50 concentration for rainbow trout of 14 μg/L for Cu in water. Concentrations of Co in mine waste and stream sediment collected proximal to mines varied from 14 to 7400 μg/g and were highly elevated above regional background concentrations, and generally exceeded the USEPA target clean-up level of 80 μg/g for Co in sediment. Concentrations of Co in water were as high as in 75,000 μg/L in the ICB, exceeding an LC50 of 346 μg/L for rainbow trout for Co in water by as much as two orders of magnitude, likely indicating an adverse effect on trout. Mine waste and stream sediment collected in the ICB also contained highly elevated As concentrations that varied from 26 to 17,000 μg/g, most of which exceeded the PEC of 33 μg/g and the USEPA target clean-up level of 35 μg/g for As in sediment. Conversely, most water samples had As concentrations that were below the 150 μg/L chronic criterion for protection of aquatic organisms and the USEPA target clean-up level of 14 μg/L. There is abundant Fe oxide in streams in the ICB and several samples of mine runoff and stream water

  8. Production, characterization, and modeling of mineral filled polypropylene filaments

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    George, Brian Robert

    1999-11-01

    This research produced mineral filled polypropylene filaments using a variety of fillers, characterized these filaments, and attempted to model their mechanical properties with current composite models. Also, these filaments were compared with bone to determine if they are suitable for modeling the mechanical properties of bone. Fillers used consist of wollastonite, talc, calcium carbonate, titanium dioxide, and hydroxyapatite. Fillers and polypropylene chips were combined and extruded into rods with the use of a mixer. The rods were chipped up and then formed into filaments through melt extrusion utilizing a piston extruder. Filaments with volume fractions of filler of 0.05, 0.10, 0.15, and 0.20 were produced. Additionally, some methods of trying to improve the properties of these filaments were attempted, but did not result in any significant property improvements. The fillers and filaments were visually characterized with a scanning electron microscope. Cross-sections, filament outer surfaces, fracture surfaces, and longitudinal cut open surfaces were viewed in this manner. Those filaments with anisotropic filler had some oriented filler particles, while all filaments suffered from poor adhesion between the polypropylene and the filler as well as agglomerations of filler particles. Twenty specimens of each filament were tensile tested and the average tenacity, strain, and modulus were calculated. Filaments containing talc, talc and wollastonite, titanium dioxide, or hydroxyapatite suffered from a drastic transition from ductile to brittle with the addition of 0.05 volume fraction of filler. This is evidenced by the sharp decrease in strain at this volume fraction of filler when compared to the strain of the unfilled polypropylene filament. Additionally, these same filaments suffered a sharp decrease in tenacity at the same volume fraction. These instant decreases are attributed to the agglomerations of filler in the filament. Generally, the modulus of the

  9. Miners' Misconceptions of Flow Distribution Within Circuits as a Factor Influencing Underground Mining Accidents.

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Passaro, Perry David

    Misconceptions can be thought of as naive approaches to problem solving that are perceptually appealing but incorrect and inconsistent with scientific evidence (Piaget, 1929). One type of misconception involves flow distributions within circuits. This concept is important because miners' conceptual errors about flow distribution changes within complex circuits may be in part responsible for fatal mine disasters. Based on the theory that misconceptions of flow distribution changes within circuits were responsible for underground mine disasters involving mine ventilation circuits, a series of studies was undertaken with mining engineering students, professional mining engineers, as well as mine foremen, mine supervisors, mine rescue members, mine maintenance personnel, mining researchers and working miners to identify these conceptual errors and errors in mine ventilation procedures. Results indicate that misconceptions of flow distribution changes within circuits exist in over 70 percent of the subjects sampled. It is assumed that these misconceptions of flow distribution changes within circuits result in errors of judgment when miners are faced with inferring and changing ventilation arrangements when two or more mine sections are connected. Furthermore, it is assumed that these misconceptions are pervasive in the mining industry and may be responsible for at least two mine ventilation disasters. The findings of this study are consistent with Piaget's (1929) model of figurative and operative knowledge. This model states that misconceptions are in part due to a lack of knowledge of dynamic transformations and how to apply content information. Recommendations for future research include the development of an interactive expert system for training miners with ventilation arrangements. Such a system would meet the educational recommendations made by Piaget (1973b) by involving a hands-on approach that allows discovery, interaction, the opportunity to make mistakes and

  10. 30 CFR 282.24 - Mining Plan.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-07-01

    ... 30 Mineral Resources 2 2011-07-01 2011-07-01 false Mining Plan. 282.24 Section 282.24 Mineral... Obligations and Responsibilities of Lessees § 282.24 Mining Plan. All OCS mineral development and production activities shall be conducted in accordance with a Mining Plan submitted by the lessee and approved by...

  11. Evolution of the Creede Caldera and its relation to mineralization in the Creede mining district, Colorado

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Barton, Paul B.; Rye, Robert O.; Bethke, Philip M.

    2000-01-01

    At 25 Ma a major epithermal silver and base metal deposit formed in rhyolitic welded tuff near Creede, Colorado. Nearly 24000 metric tons of silver, appreciable lead, and small amounts of zinc, copper, and gold, have been produced from large, crustified veins under Bachelor and Bulldog Mountains north and northwest of Creede. Prior geologic, hydrologic, and stable-isotope studies showed that ore deposition was associated with the mixing and boiling of waters from diverse sources and suggester that a critical part of the ore-forming fluid may have originated within the ancient lake and sediments of the lacustrine Creede Formation that filled the Creede caldera. Two drill holes that sampled the heretofore hidden lower half of the Creede Formation are the focus of this book. The Creede caldera formed at 26.9 Ma within a high constructional plateau of silicic ashflows that covered and were sporadically interlayed with, intermediate lavas and lahars from large stratovolcanoes. The Creede caldera lake had an inflow evaporation balance that did not permit rapid filling to create a brim-full deep lake. Thus salts were evaporatively concentrated; but, with the exception of possible gypsum, no evaporite minerals preserved. Cool springs deposited travertine as mounds and contributed to limestone interlaminations within the sediment. The lake bottom was anoxic, and bacterial reduction of sulfate led to extreme sulfur isotopic fractionation in diagenetic pyrite. The caldera gradually resurged, converting the initial equant lake into an arcuate moat. Resurgent doming, alluvial fans, lacustrine sediments, ashfalls, and lava domes displaced water, lifted the lake so that it overlapped what later became the southern edge of the mineralized are, and eventually filled the basin. At 25.1 Ma an unseen pluton intruded beneath the northen part of the Creede district and created a convecting olume that drew in brine from the Creede caldera fill, meteotic water from highlands to the north

  12. 43 CFR 3814.1 - Mineral reservation in entry and patent; mining and removal of reserved deposits; bonds.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-10-01

    ... MANAGEMENT (3000) LANDS AND MINERALS SUBJECT TO LOCATION Disposal of Reserved Minerals Under the Stockraising... subject to disposal by the United States in accordance with the provisions of the coal and mineral land laws in force at the time of such disposal. (b) Said section 9 also provides that any person...

  13. Alchemy and mining: metallogenesis and prospecting in early mining books.

    PubMed

    Dym, Warren Alexander

    2008-11-01

    Historians have assumed that alchemy had a close association with mining, but exactly how and why miners were interested in alchemy remains unclear. This paper argues that alchemical theory began to be synthesised with classical and Christian theories of the earth in mining books after 1500, and served an important practical function. The theory of metals that mining officials addressed spoke of mineral vapours (Witterungen) that left visible markings on the earth's surface. The prospector searched for mineral ore in part by studying these indications. Mineral vapours also explained the functioning of the dowsing rod, which prospectors applied to the discovery of ore. Historians of early chemistry and mining have claimed that mining had a modernising influence by stripping alchemy of its theoretical component, but this paper shows something quite to the contrary: mining officials may have been sceptical of the possibility of artificial transmutation, but they were interested in a theory of the earth that could translate into prospecting knowledge.

  14. UNDERGROUNG PLACEMENT OF COAL PROCESSING WASTE AND COAL COMBUSTION BY-PRODUCTS BASED PASTE BACKFILL FOR ENHANCED MINING ECONOMICS

    SciTech Connect

    Y.P. Chugh; D. Biswas; D. Deb

    2002-06-01

    This project has successfully demonstrated that the extraction ratio in a room-and-pillar panel at an Illinois mine can be increased from the current value of approximately 56% to about 64%, with backfilling done from the surface upon completion of all mining activities. This was achieved without significant ground control problems due to the increased extraction ratio. The mined-out areas were backfilled from the surface with gob, coal combustion by-products (CCBs), and fine coal processing waste (FCPW)-based paste backfill containing 65%-70% solids to minimize short-term and long-term surface deformations risk. This concept has the potential to increase mine productivity, reduce mining costs, manage large volumes of CCBs beneficially, and improve the miner's health, safety, and environment. Two injection holes were drilled over the demonstration panel to inject the paste backfill. Backfilling was started on August 11, 1999 through the first borehole. About 9,293 tons of paste backfill were injected through this borehole with a maximum flow distance of 300-ft underground. On September 27, 2000, backfilling operation was resumed through the second borehole with a mixture of F ash and FBC ash. A high-speed auger mixer (new technology) was used to mix solids with water. About 6,000 tons of paste backfill were injected underground through this hole. Underground backfilling using the ''Groutnet'' flow model was simulated. Studies indicate that grout flow over 300-foot distance is possible. Approximately 13,000 tons of grout may be pumped through a single hole. The effect of backfilling on the stability of the mine workings was analyzed using SIUPANEL.3D computer program and further verified using finite element analysis techniques. Stiffness of the backfill mix is most critical for enhancing the stability of mine workings. Mine openings do not have to be completely backfilled to enhance their stability. Backfill height of about 50% of the seam height is adequate to

  15. Economical Recovery of By-products in the Mining Industry

    SciTech Connect

    Berry, J.B.

    2001-12-05

    The U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Office of Industrial Technologies, Mining Industry of the Future Program, works with the mining industry to further the industry's advances toward environmental and economic goals. Two of these goals are (1) responsible emission and by-product management and (2) low-cost and efficient production (DOE 1998). DOE formed an alliance with the National Mining Association (NMA) to strengthen the basis for research projects conducted to benefit the mining industry. NMA and industry representatives actively participate in this alliance by evaluating project proposals and by recommending research project selection to DOE. Similarly, the National Research Council (NRC) has recently and independently recommended research and technology development opportunities in the mining industry (NRC 2001). The Oak Ridge National Laboratory (ORNL) and Colorado School of Mines engineers conducted one such project for DOE regarding by -product recovery from mining process residue. The results of this project include this report on mining industry process residue and waste with opportunity for by-product recovery. The U.S. mineral processing industry produces over 30,000,000 metric tons per year of process residue and waste that may contain hazardous species as well as valuable by-products. This study evaluates the copper, lead, and zinc commodity sectors which generate between 23,300,000 and 24,000,000 metric tons per year. The distribution of residual elements in process residues and wastes varies over wide ranges* because of variations in the original ore content as it is extracted from the earth's crust. In the earth's crust, the elements of interest to mining fall into two general geochemical classifications, lithophiles and chalcophiles** (Cox 1997). Groups of elements are almost always present together in a given geochemical classification, but the relative amounts of each element are unique to a particular ore body. This paper generally describes

  16. Automated Mineral Analysis to Characterize Metalliferous Mine Waste

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Hensler, Ana-Sophie; Lottermoser, Bernd G.; Vossen, Peter; Langenberg, Lukas C.

    2016-10-01

    The objective of this study was to investigate the applicability of automated QEMSCAN® mineral analysis combined with bulk geochemical analysis to evaluate the environmental risk of non-acid producing mine waste present at the historic Albertsgrube Pb-Zn mine site, Hastenrath, North Rhine-Westphalia, Germany. Geochemical analyses revealed elevated average abundances of As, Cd, Cu, Mn, Pb, Sb and Zn and near neutral to slightly alkaline paste pH values. Mineralogical analyses using the QEMSCAN® revealed diverse mono- and polymineralic particles across all samples, with grain sizes ranging from a few μm up to 2000 μm. Calcite and dolomite (up to 78 %), smithsonite (up to 24 %) and Ca sulphate (up to 11.5 %) are present mainly as coarse-grained particles. By contrast, significant amounts of quartz, muscovite/illite, sphalerite (up to 10.8 %), galena (up to 1 %), pyrite (up to 3.4 %) and cerussite/anglesite (up to 4.3 %) are present as fine-grained (<500 μm) particles. QEMSCAN® analysis also identified disseminated sauconite, coronadite/chalcophanite, chalcopyrite, jarosite, apatite, rutile, K-feldspar, biotite, Fe (hydr) oxides/CO3 and unknown Zn Pb(Fe) and Zn Pb Ca (Fe Ti) phases. Many of the metal-bearing sulphide grains occur as separate particles with exposed surface areas and thus, may be matter of environmental concern because such mineralogical hosts will continue to release metals and metalloids (As, Cd, Sb, Zn) at near neutral pH into ground and surface waters. QEMSCAN® mineral analysis allows acquisition of fully quantitative data on the mineralogical composition, textural characteristics and grain size estimation of mine waste material and permits the recognition of mine waste as “high-risk” material that would have otherwise been classified by traditional geochemical tests as benign.

  17. Industrial Minerals.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Brady, Lawrence L.

    1983-01-01

    Discusses trends in and factors related to the production of industrial minerals during 1982, indicating that, as 1981 marked a downturn in production of industrial minerals, 1982 continued the trend with temporary and permanent cutbacks in mine and plant production. Includes highlights of several conferences/conference papers in this field.…

  18. Quantifying the link between crop production and mined groundwater irrigation in China.

    PubMed

    Grogan, Danielle S; Zhang, Fan; Prusevich, Alexander; Lammers, Richard B; Wisser, Dominik; Glidden, Stanley; Li, Changsheng; Frolking, Steve

    2015-04-01

    In response to increasing demand for food, Chinese agriculture has both expanded and intensified over the past several decades. Irrigation has played a key role in increasing crop production, and groundwater is now an important source of irrigation water. Groundwater abstraction in excess of recharge (which we use here to estimate groundwater mining) has resulted in declining groundwater levels and could eventually restrict groundwater availability. In this study we used a hydrological model, WBMplus, in conjunction with a process based crop growth model, DNDC, to evaluate Chinese agriculture's recent dependence upon mined groundwater, and to quantify mined groundwater-dependent crop production across a domain that includes variation in climate, crop choice, and management practices. This methodology allowed for the direct attribution of crop production to irrigation water from rivers and reservoirs, shallow (renewable) groundwater, and mined groundwater. Simulating 20 years of weather variability and circa year 2000 crop areas, we found that mined groundwater fulfilled 20%-49% of gross irrigation water demand, assuming all demand was met. Mined groundwater accounted for 15%-27% of national total crop production. There was high spatial variability across China in irrigation water demand and crop production derived from mined groundwater. We find that climate variability and mined groundwater demand do not operate independently; rather, years in which irrigation water demand is high due to the relatively hot and dry climate also experience limited surface water supplies and therefore have less surface water with which to meet that high irrigation water demand. Copyright © 2014 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  19. Hydrogeochemical processes governing the origin, transport and fate of major and trace elements from mine wastes and mineralized rock to surface waters

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Nordstrom, D. Kirk

    2011-01-01

    Mobility of potential or actual contaminants from mining and mineral processing activities depends on (1) occurrence: is the mineral source of the contaminant actually present? (2) abundance: is the mineral present in sufficient quantity to make a difference? (3) reactivity: what are the energetics, rates, and mechanisms of sorption and mineral dissolution and precipitation relative to the flow rate of the water? and (4) hydrology: what are the main flow paths for contaminated water? Estimates of relative proportions of minerals dissolved and precipitated can be made with mass-balance calculations if minerals and water compositions along a flow path are known. Combined with discharge, these mass-balance estimates quantify the actual weathering rate of pyrite mineralization in the environment and compare reasonably well with laboratory rates of pyrite oxidation except when large quantities of soluble salts and evaporated mine waters have accumulated underground. Quantitative mineralogy with trace-element compositions can substantially improve the identification of source minerals for specific trace elements through mass balances. Post-dissolution sorption and precipitation (attenuation) reactions depend on the chemical behavior of each element, solution composition and pH, aqueous speciation, temperature, and contact-time with mineral surfaces. For example, little metal attenuation occurs in waters of low pH (2, and redox-sensitive oxyanions (As, Sb, Se, Mo, Cr, V). Once dissolved, metal and metalloid concentrations are strongly affected by redox conditions and pH. Iron is the most reactive because it is rapidly oxidized by bacteria and archaea and Fe(III) hydrolyzes and precipitates at low pH (1–3) which is related directly to its first hydrolysis constant, pK1 = 2.2. Several insoluble sulfate minerals precipitate at low pH including anglesite, barite, jarosite, alunite and basaluminite. Aluminum hydrolyzes near pH 5 (pK1 = 5.0) and provides buffering and removal

  20. Proposed True Minor NSR Permit: Table Rock Minerals, LLC - Gilsonite Mine

    EPA Pesticide Factsheets

    Proposed true minor NSR permit, public notice bulletin, and administrative permit docket for the Table Rock Minerals, LLC, Gilsonite Mine, to be located on Uintah and Ouray Indian Reservation in Utah.

  1. Increased Lung Cancer Mortality in Taconite Mining: The Potential for Disease from Elongate Mineral Particle Exposure.

    PubMed

    Mandel, Jeffrey H; Ramachandran, Gurumurthy; Alexander, Bruce H

    2016-02-15

    Taconite mining involves potential exposure to non-asbestiform amphibole mineral fiber. More recent studies have demonstrated increased mortality from respiratory cancers and heart disease among workers in the taconite industry. This finding is not consistent with recent exposure assessment findings, nor is the toxicology of this mineral suggestive of neoplastic disease. The understanding of respiratory disease in taconite mining is hampered by the lack of exposure data to asbestiform mineral fibers that occurred in the 1950s and 1960s. Other industries with similar mineral exposure have not demonstrated definitive associations with respiratory cancer, although non-malignant respiratory disease is a consistent finding in epidemiological studies.

  2. Minerals yearbook, 1993. Volume 1. Metals and minerals. Annual report

    SciTech Connect

    1993-12-31

    This edition of the Minerals Yearbook discusses the performance of the worldwide minerals and materials industry during 1993 and provides background information to assist in interpreting that performance. It contains chapters on virtually all metallic and industrial mineral commodities important to the U.S. economy. A chapter on survey methods with a statistical summary of nonfuel minerals, and a chapter on trends in mining and quarrying in the metals and industrial mineral industries are also included.

  3. Minerals yearbook, 1994. Volume 1. Metals and minerals. Annual report

    SciTech Connect

    1994-12-31

    The edition of the Minerals Yearbook discusses the performance of the worldwide minerals and materials industry during 1994 and provides background information to assist in interpreting that performance. The volume I, Metals and Minerals, contains chapters on virtually all metallic and industrial mineral commodities important to the U.S. economy. The volume also contains chapters on Survey Methods, a Statistical Summary of Nonfuel Minerals, and Trends in Mining and Quarrying.

  4. Modification, adsorption, and geochemistry processes on altered minerals and amorphous phases on the nanometer scale: examples from copper mining refuse, Touro, Spain.

    PubMed

    Civeira, Matheus; Oliveira, Marcos L S; Hower, James C; Agudelo-Castañeda, Dayana M; Taffarel, Silvio R; Ramos, Claudete G; Kautzmann, Rubens M; Silva, Luis F O

    2016-04-01

    The sulfide oxidation and precipitation of Al-Fe-secondary minerals associated with abandoned acid mine drainage (AMD) from the abandoned copper mine waste pile at Touro, Spain, has been studied by sequential extraction (SE) combined with several techniques with the intent of understanding the role of these processes play in the natural attenuation of hazardous element contaminants in the AMD. In addition, the fragile nature of nanominerals and ultrafine particle (UFP) assemblages from contaminated sediment systems from the abandoned copper mine required novel techniques and experimental approaches. The investigation of the geochemistry of complex nanominerals and UFP assemblages was a prerequisite to accurately assess the environmental and human health risks of contaminants and cost-effective chemical and biogeological remediation strategies. Particular emphasis was placed on the study and characterization of the complex mixed nanominerals and UFP containing potentially toxic elements. Nanometer-sized phases in sediments were characterized using energy-dispersive X-ray spectrometer (EDS), field-emission scanning electron microscope (FE-SEM), and high-resolution transmission electron microscopy (HR-TEM) images. The identification of the geochemical and mineralogical composition of AMD in Touro, as well as the different formation mechanisms proposed, complement the existing literature on secondary mineral assemblages and provide new emphasis to increase the understanding of extreme environments. The results also demonstrated that variations in the geochemical fractionation of hazardous elements in AMD were more influenced by the secondary mineral proportion and by AMD pH.

  5. Bioavailability and Chronic Toxicity of Metal Sulfide Minerals to Benthic Marine Invertebrates: Implications for Deep Sea Exploration, Mining and Tailings Disposal.

    PubMed

    Simpson, Stuart L; Spadaro, David A

    2016-04-05

    The exploration and proposed mining of sulfide massive deposits in deep-sea environments and increased use deep-sea tailings placement (DSTP) in coastal zones has highlighted the need to better understand the fate and effects of mine-derived materials in marine environments. Metal sulfide ores contain high concentrations of metal(loid)s, of which a large portion exist in highly mineralized or sulfidised forms and are predicted to exhibit low bioavailability. In this study, sediments were spiked with a range of natural sulfide minerals (including chalcopyrite, chalcocite, galena, sphalerite) to assess the bioavailability and toxicity to benthic invertebrates (bivalve survival and amphipod survival and reproduction). The metal sulfide phases were considerably less bioavailable than metal contaminants introduced to sediment in dissolved forms, or in urban estuarine sediments contaminated with mixtures of metal(loid)s. Compared to total concentrations, the dilute-acid extractable metal(loid) (AEM) concentrations, which are intended to represent the more oxidized and labile forms, were more effective for predicting the toxicity of the sulfide mineral contaminated sediments. The study indicates that sediment quality guidelines based on AEM concentrations provide a useful tool for assessing and monitoring the risk posed by sediments impacted by mine-derived materials in marine environments.

  6. The mineral base and productive capacities of metals and non-metals of Kosovo

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Rizaj, M.; Beqiri, E.; McBow, I.; O'Brien, E. Z.; Kongoli, F.

    2008-08-01

    All historical periods of Kosovo—Ilirik, Roman, Medieval, Turkish, and former Yugoslavian—are linked with the intensive development of mining and metallurgy. This activity influenced and still is influencing the overall position of Kosovo as a country. For example, according to a 2006 World Bank report as well as other studies, Kosovo has potential lignite resources (geological reserves) of about 1.5 billion tonnes, which are ranked fifth in the world in importance. Other significant Kosovan mineral resources include lead, zinc, gold, silver, bauxite, and uranium, and rare metals accompanying those minerals, including indium, cadmium, thallium, gallium, and bismuth. These rare metals are of particular importance in developing advanced industrial technologies. Kosovo also has reserves of high-quality non-metals, including magnesite, quartz grit, bentonite, argil, talc, and asbestos. No database exists for these non-metal reserves, and further research and studies are needed.

  7. The mineral base and productive capacities of metals and non-metals of Kosovo

    SciTech Connect

    Rizaj, M.; Beqiri, E.; McBow, I.; O'Brien, E.Z.; Kongoli, F.

    2008-08-15

    All historical periods of Kosovo - Ilirik, Roman, Medieval, Turkish, and former Yugoslavian - are linked with the intensive development of mining and metallurgy. This activity influenced and still is influencing the overall position of Kosovo as a country. For example, according to a 2006 World Bank report as well as other studies, Kosovo has potential lignite resources (geological reserves) of about 1.5 billion tonnes, which are ranked fifth in the world in importance. Other significant Kosovan mineral resources include lead, zinc, gold, silver, bauxite, and uranium, and rare metals accompanying those minerals, including indium, cadmium, thallium, gallium, and bismuth. These rare metals are of particular importance in developing advanced industrial technologies. Kosovo also has reserves of high-quality non-metals, including magnesite, quartz grit, bentonite, argil, talc, and asbestos. No database exists for these non-metal reserves, and further research and studies are needed.

  8. Use of animal waste and flue gas desulfurized gypsum to improve forage production on reclaimed mine soil in Mississippi

    USDA-ARS?s Scientific Manuscript database

    Reclaimed mine soils amended with flue gas desulfurized (FGD) gypsum may tolerate higher levels of animal manure, and would therefore be more productive in the long-term. Studies were conducted in respread soil during the first year of land reclamation at Red Hills Mine, a surface lignite mine in no...

  9. State policies and requirements for management of uranium mining and milling in New Mexico. Volume IV. The supply of electric power and natural gas fuel as possible constraints on uranium production

    SciTech Connect

    Page, G.B.

    1980-04-01

    The report contained in this volume considers the availability of electric power to supply uranium mines and mills. The report, submited to Sandia Laboratories by the New Mexico Department of Energy and Minerals (EMD), is reproduced without modification. The state concludes that the supply of power, including natural gas-fueled production, will not constrain uranium production.

  10. Petrology and textural evolution of granites associated with tin and rare-metals mineralization at the Pitinga mine, Amazonas, Brazil

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Lenharo, Sara Lais Rahal; Pollard, Peter J.; Born, Helmut

    2003-01-01

    The Água Boa and Madeira igneous complexes at the Pitinga mine were emplaced into acid volcanic rocks of the Paleoproterozoic Iricoumé Group, and host major tin, rare-metal (Zr, Nb, Ta, Y, REE) and cryolite mineralization. The igneous complexes are elongate NE-SW and each is composed of three major facies that, in order of emplacement, include porphyritic and equigranular rapakivi granite and biotite granite in both igneous complexes, followed by topaz granite in the Água Boa igneous complex (ABIC) and albite granite in the Madeira igneous complex (MIC). Rapakivi, porphyritic and granophyric textures observed in the granites are interpreted to reflect multiple stages of crystallization at different pressures (depths). Decompression during ascent shifted the magmas into the plagioclase stability field, causing partial resorption of quartz, with subsequent growth at lower pressure. Fluid saturation and separation probably occurred after final emplacement at shallow levels. Temperature and pressure estimates based on phase relations and zircon concentrations range from a maximum of 930 °C and 5 kbar for the rapakivi granites to below 650 °C and 1 kbar for the peralkaline albite granite. This suggests initial crystallization of early intrusive phases at around 15 km depth, with final emplacement of more volatile-rich crystal-mush at a depth of 0.5-1 km. Accessory minerals, including zircon, thorite, monazite, columbite-tantalite, cassiterite, bastnaesite and xenotime are present in almost all facies of the Água Boa and Madeira igneous complexes, attesting to the highly evolved character of the magmas. The presence of magnetite and/or primary cassiterite indicate crystallization under oxidizing conditions above the NNO buffer. The evolutionary sequence and Nd isotope characteristics ( TDM=2.2-2.4 Ga) of the Pitinga granites are similar to those of other Proterozoic rapakivi granites. However, petrographic, geochemical and Nd isotopic data ( ɛNd initial=-2.1 to +0

  11. Development of a controlled vocabulary for semantic interoperability of mineral exploration geodata for mining projects

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Ma, Xiaogang; Wu, Chonglong; Carranza, Emmanuel John M.; Schetselaar, Ernst M.; van der Meer, Freek D.; Liu, Gang; Wang, Xinqing; Zhang, Xialin

    2010-12-01

    Semantic interoperability of mineral exploration geodata is a long-term concern in mining projects. Inconsistent conceptual schemas and heterogeneous professional terms among various geodata sources in a mining project often hinder their efficient use and/or reuse. Our study of a controlled vocabulary focuses on interoperability of mineral exploration geodata of different mining projects of a mining group in China. In order to achieve this purpose, a proper representation of concepts and their inter-relationships in the knowledge domain of mineral exploration for mining projects is proposed. In addition, we propose that for wider interoperability of mining project geodata the controlled vocabulary underpinning them should be interoperable with concepts in related applications in the mineral exploration domain. In developing our controlled vocabulary, we adopted/adapted national standards of geosciences taxonomies and terminologies. The organization structure of terms, coding method, metadata schema for database applications and an extensible structure of our controlled vocabulary are discussed. The controlled vocabulary we developed was then used to reconcile heterogeneous geodata and to set up integrated databases for various mining projects of the mining group. Our study shows that a properly organized controlled vocabulary not only allows for efficient reconciliation of heterogeneous geodata sources in similar or related projects, but also makes related geodata to be interoperable with extramural applications in the same knowledge domain.

  12. Determination of mineral oil and white petrolatum ratios in ointment products by capillary gas chromatography

    SciTech Connect

    Gavlick, W.K.; Ohlemeier, L.A.

    1994-12-31

    The determination of mineral oil and white petrolatum ratios in ointment products is important due to regulatory and formulation concerns. A capillary gas chromatographic method utilizing on-column temperature programmed injection and flame ionization detection has been developed to characterize mineral oil and white petrolatum raw materials. Once the raw materials have been characterized, the method can then be used to estimate the ratios of mineral oil and white petrolatum in the ointment product. Chromatographic method development work along with the final chromatographic conditions will be presented. Chromatograms of raw material and final formulation sample analyses demonstrate the utility of the method.

  13. Case study of underground-coal-mining productivity in Utah

    SciTech Connect

    Hannah, R.L.

    1981-01-01

    Reasons for the wide variance in productivity levels among underground-coal-mining firms in Utah are examined. Related objectives are to test the feasibility of relying on in-depth field research in the coal industry to clarify relationships and develop more-useful perspectives concerning productivity, to demonstrate in detail the considerable variance in productivity levels among firms, and to suggest more-useful hypotheses for further research. The methodology employed is a series of case studies of individual firms which include in-depth interviews, mine tours, and the collection of firm-specific data. Results indicate that, in the Utah case, the industrial-relations environment is the key to analyzing the determinants of productivity differences. However, this view of industrial relations encompasses more than the traditional area of labor-management relations. From the most-narrow perspective, it focuses on the impact on productivity of the differences in internal-labor-market organizations and functions in union and nonunion firms. From a broader perspective it includes such variables as the impact of the United Mine Workers of America on management philosophy, the work ethic and motivation of miners, and the impact of the size of the firm. The most general interpretation of the industrial-relations framework of analysis concerns the evolution of mine ownership patterns in Utah. The suggestion from this more historical view is that institutional forces have dictated the pattern of acquisition of union and nonunion coal operators.

  14. Strategic Minerals in the New World Order

    DTIC Science & Technology

    1993-11-30

    mineral scarcity does not exist; for an Neconomic price any product will be available in the world market. The domestic mining industry and those...shipping, and domestic mining industry efforts to establish subsidies for U.S. mineral production, using foreign flag hulls to import the minerals and...seeking to prevent further mining Industry damage; and those who saw the strategic minerals debate as but another politically incorrect effort to

  15. Mining technology, economics and policy 1990

    SciTech Connect

    Not Available

    1990-01-01

    The American Mining Conference is an industry association that encompasses: producers of most of America's metals, coal, and industrial and agricultural minerals; manufacturers of mining and mineral processing machinery, equipment and supplies; and engineering and consulting firms and financial institutions that serve the mining industry. The 1990 conference was held in New Orleans, Louisiana, September 23-26, 1990. The conference covered a broad spectrum of issues relevant to the mining industry. Beginning with presentations on accounting and taxation, the conference was divided into sessions covering the following topics: coal and acid rain, communication with the environmental community, employee relations, the environment and environmental technology, mineral exploration, finance, management, mineral processing and new technologies, minerals availability, the mining company, manufacturer, engineer partnership, precious metals, public lands, safety and health, new initiatives for surface mining and reclamation, technical aspects of surface mining and reclamation, and technical aspects of underground mining.

  16. Acid drainage from coal mining: Effect on paddy soil and productivity of rice.

    PubMed

    Choudhury, Burhan U; Malang, Akbar; Webster, Richard; Mohapatra, Kamal P; Verma, Bibhash C; Kumar, Manoj; Das, Anup; Islam, Mokidul; Hazarika, Samarendra

    2017-04-01

    Overburden and acid drainage from coal mining is transforming productive agricultural lands to unproductive wasteland in some parts of Northeast India. We have investigated the adverse effects of acid mine drainage on the soil of rice paddy and productivity by comparing them with non-mined land and abandoned paddy fields of Jaintia Hills in Northeast India. Pot experiments with a local rice cultivar (Myngoi) as test crop evaluated biological productivity of the contaminated soil. Contamination from overburden and acid mine drainage acidified the soil by 0.5 pH units, increased the exchangeable Al(3+) content 2-fold and its saturation on clay complexes by 53%. Available sulfur and extractable heavy metals, namely Fe, Mn and Cu increased several-fold in excess of critical limits, while the availability of phosphorus, potassium and zinc contents diminished by 32-62%. The grain yield of rice was 62% less from fields contaminated with acid mine drainage than from fields that have not suffered. Similarly, the amounts of vegetation, i.e. shoots and roots, in pots filled with soil from fields that received acid mine drainage were 59-68% less than from uncontaminated land (average shoot weight: 7.9±2.12gpot(-1); average root weight: 3.40±1.15gpot(-1)). Paddy fields recovered some of their productivity 4years after mining ceased. Step-wise multiple regression analysis affirmed that shoot weight in the pots and grain yield in field were significantly (p<0.01) and positively influenced by the soil's pH and its contents of K, N and Zn, while concentration of S in excess of threshold limits in contaminated soil significantly (p<0.01) reduced the weight of shoots in the pots and grain yield in the field. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  17. Biotesting as a Method of Evaluating Waste Hazard in Metallic Mineral Mining

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Lugovaya, Y. R.; Orlova, K. N.; Litovkin, S. V.; Malchik, A. G.; Gaydamak, M. A.

    2016-04-01

    As the result of identifying content of each chemical element it has been revealed that metallic mineral wastes have a considerable amount of valuable useful metals. Thus, large-tonnage inorganic wastes are considered to be an additional raw source of metal production. This paper highlights the necessity of supplementary biotesting metallic mineral wastes in order to bring into correlation with corresponding hazard classes and facilitate efficient recycling of these wastes in future. It has been found out that determined in this way waste class can be dumped or used after recycling. It has been also indicated that mill tailings are to be stored according to contained metals without messing up dissimilar metal-containing wastes. After winning metals these wastes are similar to the group of inorganic non-metallic wastes and can be used in building material production, for filling mined-out spaces, in road construction etc.

  18. Minor and trace-elements in apiary products from a historical mining district (Les Malines, France).

    PubMed

    Losfeld, Guillaume; Saunier, Jean-Baptiste; Grison, Claude

    2014-03-01

    The trace-elements (TE) contents of honey, royal-jelly and beeswax from a historical Zn-Pb mining district have been investigated to assess potential contamination. In spite of high levels of heavy metal (As, Cd, Tl, Pb) in wastes left after mining stopped, apiary products appear to be relatively free of TE contamination. For honey, the following average levels (±standard error) were observed: Zn 571±440μgkg(-1), Pb 26±20μgkg(-1), Tl 13±10μgkg(-1), Cd 7±6μgkg(-1) and As 3±4μg.kg(-1). These results bring additional data to the potential impact of brownfields left after mining on apiary products. They also bring new data to assess potential risks linked with honey consumption and discuss legal TE contents in honey and other food products from apiaries.

  19. 30 CFR 819.19 - Auger mining: Backfilling and grading.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-07-01

    ... 30 Mineral Resources 3 2010-07-01 2010-07-01 false Auger mining: Backfilling and grading. 819.19 Section 819.19 Mineral Resources OFFICE OF SURFACE MINING RECLAMATION AND ENFORCEMENT, DEPARTMENT OF THE... MINING § 819.19 Auger mining: Backfilling and grading. (a) General. Auger mining shall be conducted...

  20. 30 CFR 819.19 - Auger mining: Backfilling and grading.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-07-01

    ... 30 Mineral Resources 3 2012-07-01 2012-07-01 false Auger mining: Backfilling and grading. 819.19 Section 819.19 Mineral Resources OFFICE OF SURFACE MINING RECLAMATION AND ENFORCEMENT, DEPARTMENT OF THE... MINING § 819.19 Auger mining: Backfilling and grading. (a) General. Auger mining shall be conducted...

  1. 30 CFR 819.19 - Auger mining: Backfilling and grading.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-07-01

    ... 30 Mineral Resources 3 2014-07-01 2014-07-01 false Auger mining: Backfilling and grading. 819.19 Section 819.19 Mineral Resources OFFICE OF SURFACE MINING RECLAMATION AND ENFORCEMENT, DEPARTMENT OF THE... MINING § 819.19 Auger mining: Backfilling and grading. (a) General. Auger mining shall be conducted...

  2. 30 CFR 819.19 - Auger mining: Backfilling and grading.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-07-01

    ... 30 Mineral Resources 3 2013-07-01 2013-07-01 false Auger mining: Backfilling and grading. 819.19 Section 819.19 Mineral Resources OFFICE OF SURFACE MINING RECLAMATION AND ENFORCEMENT, DEPARTMENT OF THE... MINING § 819.19 Auger mining: Backfilling and grading. (a) General. Auger mining shall be conducted...

  3. 30 CFR 819.19 - Auger mining: Backfilling and grading.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-07-01

    ... 30 Mineral Resources 3 2011-07-01 2011-07-01 false Auger mining: Backfilling and grading. 819.19 Section 819.19 Mineral Resources OFFICE OF SURFACE MINING RECLAMATION AND ENFORCEMENT, DEPARTMENT OF THE... MINING § 819.19 Auger mining: Backfilling and grading. (a) General. Auger mining shall be conducted...

  4. Some topics in English newsmagazines in autumn to winter, 2010, with special reference to the mining redevelopment of Afghanistan, review of rare earth elements mineral resources and current geological mapping

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Takahashi, Yuhei

    Some topics in English newsmagazines in autumn to winter, 2010, with special reference to the mining redevelopment of Afghanistan, review of rare earth elements mineral resources and current geological mapping

  5. Mineral resources accounting: A technique formonitoring the Philippine mining industry for sustainable development

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Santos, Teodoro M.; Zaratan, May L.

    Mining which extracts exhaustible mineral resources has been condemned by certain sectors as promoting social inequity and underdevelopment. This is so because once a tonne of copper, say, is mined it is forever lost to the future generation. Such perception translates into policies that are usually disadvantageous or even hostile to the industry. Despite this adverse criticism, recent developments in natural resources accounting indicate that mining can truly contribute to the sustainable economic development of a society. True worth of mining in economic development can be assessed and monitored on a continuing basis through an appropriate system of natural accounts (SNA). If the industry is found deficient, such SNA can also point out how the industry can be made to constribute to sustainable growth. The prevailing SNA is criticized as having failed to capture the adverse effects on the welfare of society of producing a nonrenewable resource such as minerals. For instance, the production of copper for a particular year registers an increase in gross national product equivalent to its monetary value. However, the concomitant depletion of the country's natural wealth due to such production is nowhere recorded in the SNA. This faulty accounting gives rise to policies that result in nonsustainable economic growth. In order to address the preceding problem, this paper presents an accounting formula applicable to any nonrenewable resource whereby revenue is decomposed into income and capital components. To achieve sustainable economic growth, it states that the capital component must be invested to generate future incomes. However, investments need not be confined to the same sector. Application of the accounting scheme to the Philippine copper and gold sectors during the 1980-1990 period leads to the following conclusions: (a) by and large, gold and copper mining operations have indeed contributed positively to national income, contrary to allegations of certain

  6. Minerals Yearbook, 1989. Volume i. Metals and Minerals

    SciTech Connect

    Not Available

    1989-01-01

    The edition of the Minerals Yearbook discusses the performance of the worldwide mineral industry during 1989 and provides background information to assist in interpreting that performance. Volume I, Metals and Minerals, contains chapters on virtually all metallic and industrial mineral commodities important to the U.S. economy. A chapter on advanced materials also has been added to the Minerals Yearbook series beginning with the 1989 volume. In addition, a chapter on survey methods used in data collection with a statistical summary of nonfuel minerals and a chapter on trends in mining and quarrying in the metals and industrial mineral industries are included.

  7. Underground mining and deep geologic disposal - Two compatible and complementary activities

    SciTech Connect

    Rempe, N.T.

    1995-12-31

    Active and mature underground mining districts offer conditions favorable to deep geologic disposal because their geology is known in more detail, the feasibility of underground excavations has already been demonstrated, mining leaves distinctive footprints and records that alert subsequent generations to the anthropogenic alterations of the underground environment, and subsequent exploration and production proceeds with great care and accuracy to locate and generally to avoid old mine workings. Compatibility of mining with deep geologic waste disposal has been proven by decades of experience with safe storage and disposal in former mines and in the mined-out areas of still active mining operations. Mineral extraction around an intended repository reduces the incentive for future disturbance. Incidental features of mineral exploration and extraction such as lost circulation zones, allochthonous backfill, and permanent surface markers can deter future intrusion into a repository. Thus exploration and production of mineral resources should be compatible with, and complementary to, deep geologic waste disposal.

  8. SEASAT economic assessment. Volume 4: Ocean mining case study and generalization. [economic benefits of SEASAT satellites for mineral exploration

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    1975-01-01

    The results of a study of the weather sensitive features of near shore and deep water ocean mining industries are described. Problems with the evaluation of economic benefits for the deep water ocean mining industry are attributed to the relative immaturity and highly proprietary nature of the industry. Case studies on the gold industry, diamond industry, tin industry and sand and gravel industry are cited.

  9. Rehabilitation of semi-arid coal mine spoil bank soils with mine residues and farm organic by-products

    SciTech Connect

    Salazar, M.; Bosch-Serra, A.; Estudillos, G.; Poch, R.M.

    2009-07-01

    A method of rehabilitating coal mine soils was studied under the conditions of a semi-arid climate, lack of topsoil but availability of farm by-products in NE Spain. The objectives of the research were to assess a new method in order to achieve a suitable substrate for the establishment of native vegetation, to evaluate environmental impacts associated with the reclamation process, and to determine the time necessary to integrate the treated area into the surrounding environment. Eight plots (10 x 35 m{sup 2}) were established in September 1997. Substrate combinations of two types of mine spoil (coal dust and coarse-sized material), two levels of pig slurry (39 and 94 Mg ha{sup -1}dry-wt), and cereal straw (0 and 15 Mg ha{sup -1}) were applied. Monitoring of select physical and chemical soil properties and vegetation characteristics was performed from 1997 until 2005. The bulk density and the saturated hydraulic conductivity measured did not limit plant development and water availability. Initial substrate salinity (1.37 S m{sup -1}) decreased with time and in the long term did not limit plant colonization to salinity-adapted species. Initial nitrate concentration was 298 mg kg{sup -1}, but was reduced significantly to acceptable values in 3 years (55 mg kg{sup -1}) and the measured pH (7.6) was maintained at the level of initial spoil values. Vegetation cover reached up to 90%. In the treated area, spontaneous vegetation cover (15 to 70%) colonized the nonsown areas widely. In the medium term, vegetation cover tended to be higher in plots with a thicker layer of coal dust material and the higher slurry rate. Soil rehabilitation and environmental reintegration, taking into account soil and vegetation indicators, was possible in the studied area with low cost inputs using residual materials from mining activities and animal husbandry by-products.

  10. Characteristics of vitamin and mineral supplement products in the United States.

    PubMed

    Park, Y K; Kim, I; Yetley, E A

    1991-10-01

    A 1986 nationwide survey of 11,775 adults 18 y or older and 1877 children 2-6 y old identified approximately 3400 different (unique) vitamin and mineral supplement products being taken. The most commonly included nutrient listed on the product labels was vitamin C, which was present in 50% of the unique products examined. Calcium and iron were the most commonly included minerals and were present in 25% of the unique products examined. Prenatal and children's chewable products came in a relatively narrow potency range and generally contained nutrients in amounts approximating or less than the US recommended daily allowances. These products also contained significant minimum amounts of nutrients. Potencies of products not targeted for use by these special groups, particularly those products that were self-prescribed, varied widely and ranged from insignificant to extremely large amounts of nutrients. Units used to declare product potency or to prescribe the dosage varied.

  11. Geochemistry, mineralization, structure, and permeability of a normal-fault zone, Casino mine, Alligator Ridge district, north central Nevada

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Hammond, K. Jill; Evans, James P.

    2003-05-01

    We examine the geochemical signature and structure of the Keno fault zone to test its impact on the flow of ore-mineralizing fluids, and use the mined exposures to evaluate structures and processes associated with normal fault development. The fault is a moderately dipping normal-fault zone in siltstone and silty limestone with 55-100 m of dip-slip displacement in north-central Nevada. Across-strike exposures up to 180 m long, 65 m of down-dip exposure and 350 m of along-strike exposure allow us to determine how faults, fractures, and fluids interact within mixed-lithology carbonate-dominated sedimentary rocks. The fault changes character along strike from a single clay-rich slip plane 10-20 mm thick at the northern exposure to numerous hydrocarbon-bearing, calcite-filled, nearly vertical slip planes in a zone 15 m wide at the southern exposure. The hanging wall and footwall are intensely fractured but fracture densities do not vary markedly with distance from the fault. Fault slip varies from pure dip-slip to nearly pure strike-slip, which suggests that either slip orientations may vary on faults in single slip events, or stress variations over the history of the fault caused slip vector variations. Whole-rock major, minor, and trace element analyses indicate that Au, Sb, and As are in general associated with the fault zone, suggesting that Au- and silica-bearing fluids migrated along the fault to replace carbonate in the footwall and adjacent hanging wall rocks. Subsequent fault slip was associated with barite and calcite and hydrocarbon-bearing fluids deposited at the southern end of the fault. No correlation exists at the meter or tens of meter scale between mineralization patterns and fracture density. We suggest that the fault was a combined conduit-barrier system in which the fault provides a critical connection between the fluid sources and fractures that formed before and during faulting. During the waning stages of deposit formation, the fault behaved as

  12. Evaluation of the content and the potential bioavailability of minerals from gluten-free products.

    PubMed

    Suliburska, Joanna; Krejpcio, Zbigniew; Reguła, Julita; Grochowicz, Agnieszka

    2013-01-01

    Gluten-free products usually contain low amounts of protein and minerals. However, the information about their nutritional quality is limited. The objective of this study was to determine the content and release of minerals from selected gluten-free products. The content and release of Ca, Mg, Fe, Zn and Cu from selected gluten-free products was determined. The samples were subjected to enzymatic digestion under in vitro conditions. The content of minerals in samples before and after enzymatic digestion was determined by the fl ame atomic absorption spectrometry. The content of minerals varied considerably among the types of foods. The amount of calcium in gluten-free products ranged (mg/100 g d.w.) from 3 in corn porridge to 45 in peas puff, magnesium: from 13 in peas puff to 33 in corn porridge, iron: from 1.1 in bread to 2.6 in pasta, zinc: from 0.8 in biscuits to 6.3 peas puff and copper: from 0.07 in bread to 0.4 in pasta. Among analysed products the significant higher release of calcium (~68%) and zinc (~62%) was found in corn porridge. The highest potential bioavailability for magnesium (~54%) in peas puff, for iron (~58%) in biscuits and for copper (~63%) in bread was observed. The relative low bioavailability of minerals was found in pasta (from 7% for Ca to 27% for Fe). The content and amount of released minerals from gluten-free products are relatively low. The release of minerals from gluten-free products depends on the element and composition of the analysed product.

  13. Uranium and thorium in soils, mineral sands, water and food samples in a tin mining area in Nigeria with elevated activity.

    PubMed

    Arogunjo, A M; Höllriegl, V; Giussani, A; Leopold, K; Gerstmann, U; Veronese, I; Oeh, U

    2009-03-01

    The activity concentrations of uranium and thorium have been determined in soils and mineral sands from the Nigerian tin mining area of Bisichi, located in the Jos Plateau, and from two control areas in Nigeria (Jos City and Akure) using high-purity germanium detectors (HPGe). High resolution sector field inductively coupled plasma mass spectroscopy (HR-SF-ICP-MS) was used to determine uranium and thorium in liquids and foodstuffs consumed locally in the mining area. The activities of uranium and thorium measured in the soils and mineral sands from Bisichi ranged from 8.7 kBq kg(-1) to 51 kBq kg(-1) for (238)U and from 16.8 kBq kg(-1) to 98 kBq kg(-1) for (232)Th, respectively. These values were significantly higher than those in the control areas of Jos City and Akure and than the reference values reported in the literature. They even exceeded the concentrations reported for areas of high natural radioactive background. Radionuclide concentrations in samples of the local foodstuffs and in water samples collected in Bisichi were found to be higher than UNSCEAR reference values. The results reveal the pollution potential of the mining activities on the surrounding areas.

  14. Organic carbon production, mineralization and preservation on the Peruvian margin

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Dale, A. W.; Sommer, S.; Lomnitz, U.; Montes, I.; Treude, T.; Gier, J.; Hensen, C.; Dengler, M.; Stolpovsky, K.; Bryant, L. D.; Wallmann, K.

    2014-09-01

    Carbon cycling in Peruvian margin sediments (11° S and 12° S) was examined at 16 stations from 74 m on the inner shelf down to 1024 m water depth by means of in situ flux measurements, sedimentary geochemistry and modeling. Bottom water oxygen was below detection limit down to ca. 400 m and increased to 53 μM at the deepest station. Sediment accumulation rates and benthic dissolved inorganic carbon fluxes decreased rapidly with water depth. Particulate organic carbon (POC) content was lowest on the inner shelf and at the deep oxygenated stations (< 5%) and highest between 200 and 400 m in the oxygen minimum zone (OMZ, 15-20%). The organic carbon burial efficiency (CBE) was unexpectedly low on the inner shelf (< 20%) when compared to a global database, for reasons which may be linked to the frequent ventilation of the shelf by oceanographic anomalies. CBE at the deeper oxygenated sites was much higher than expected (max. 81%). Elsewhere, CBEs were mostly above the range expected for sediments underlying normal oxic bottom waters, with an average of 51 and 58% for the 11° S and 12° S transects, respectively. Organic carbon rain rates calculated from the benthic fluxes alluded to a very efficient mineralization of organic matter in the water column, with a Martin curve exponent typical of normal oxic waters (0.88 ± 0.09). Yet, mean POC burial rates were 2-5 times higher than the global average for continental margins. The observations at the Peruvian margin suggest that a lack of oxygen does not affect the degradation of organic matter in the water column but promotes the preservation of organic matter in marine sediments.

  15. Identification of Crystalline Minerals in Volcanic Alteration Products and Applications to the Surface of Mars

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Bishop, J. L.; Madsen, M. B.; Murad, E.; Wagner, P. A.

    2000-01-01

    Visible, infrared and Mossbauer spectra have been measured for fine-grained alteration products of volcanic tephra and ash. Comparison of the spectral and chemical properties for different size separates and related samples provides information about the crystalline materials in these samples and how they may have formed. Hydrothermal processes can increase the alteration rates of the primary minerals and glass and provide S, Fe and/or water for formation of sulfates and hydrated minerals. Identification of crystalline alteration minerals on Mars may indicate hydrothermal alteration and sites of interesting geologic processes.

  16. Identification of Crystalline Minerals in Volcanic Alteration Products and Applications to the Surface of Mars

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Bishop, J. L.; Madsen, M. B.; Murad, E.; Wagner, P. A.

    2000-01-01

    Visible, infrared and Mossbauer spectra have been measured for fine-grained alteration products of volcanic tephra and ash. Comparison of the spectral and chemical properties for different size separates and related samples provides information about the crystalline materials in these samples and how they may have formed. Hydrothermal processes can increase the alteration rates of the primary minerals and glass and provide S, Fe and/or water for formation of sulfates and hydrated minerals. Identification of crystalline alteration minerals on Mars may indicate hydrothermal alteration and sites of interesting geologic processes.

  17. Formation Sequences of Iron Minerals in the Acidic Alteration Products and Variation of Hydrothermal Fluid Conditions

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Isobe, H.; Yoshizawa, M.

    2008-12-01

    Iron minerals have important role in environmental issues not only on the Earth but also other terrestrial planets. Iron mineral species related to alteration products of primary minerals with surface or subsurface fluids are characterized by temperature, acidity and redox conditions of the fluids. We can see various iron- bearing alteration products in alteration products around fumaroles in geothermal/volcanic areas. In this study, zonal structures of iron minerals in alteration products of the geothermal area are observed to elucidate temporal and spatial variation of hydrothermal fluids. Alteration of the pyroxene-amphibole andesite of Garan-dake volcano, Oita, Japan occurs by the acidic hydrothermal fluid to form cristobalite leaching out elements other than Si. Hand specimens with unaltered or weakly altered core and cristobalite crust show various sequences of layers. XRD analysis revealed that the alteration degree is represented by abundance of cristobalite. Intermediately altered layers are characterized by occurrence including alunite, pyrite, kaolinite, goethite and hematite. A specimen with reddish brown core surrounded by cristobalite-rich white crust has brown colored layers at the boundary of core and the crust. Reddish core is characterized by occurrence of crystalline hematite by XRD. Another hand specimen has light gray core, which represents reduced conditions, and white cristobalite crust with light brown and reddish brown layers of ferric iron minerals between the core and the crust. On the other hand, hornblende crystals, typical ferrous iron-bearing mineral of the host rock, are well preserved in some samples with strongly decolorized cristobalite-rich groundmass. Hydrothermal alteration experiments of iron-rich basaltic material shows iron mineral species depend on acidity and temperature of the fluid. Oxidation states of the iron-bearing mineral species are strongly influenced by the acidity and redox conditions. Variations of alteration

  18. Map showing potential metal-mine drainage hazards in Colorado, based on mineral-deposit geology

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Plumlee, Geoffrey S.; Streufert, Randall K.; Smith, Kathleen S.; Smith, Steven M.; Wallace, Alan R.; Toth, Margo I.; Nash, J. Thomas; Robinson, Rob A.; Ficklin, Walter H.; Lee, Gregory K.

    1995-01-01

    This map, compiled by the U.S. Geological Survey (USGS) in cooperation with the Colorado Geological Survey (CGS) and the U. S. Bureau of Land Management (BLM), shows potential mine-drainage hazards that may exist in Colorado metal-mining districts, as indicated by the geologic characteristics of the mineral deposits that occur in the respective districts. It was designed to demonstrate how geologic and geochemical information can be used on a regional scale to help assess the potential for mining-related and natural drainage problems in mining districts, unmined mineralized areas, and surrounding watersheds. The map also provides information on the distribution of different mineral deposit types across Colorado. A GIS (Geographic Information System) format was used to integrate geologic, geochemical, water-quality, climate, landuse, and ecological data from diverse sources. Likely mine-drainage signatures were defined for each mining district based on: (1) a review of the geologic characteristics of the mining district, including mineralogy, trace-element content, host-rock lithology, and wallrock alteration, and; (2) results of site specific studies on the geologic controls on mine-drainage composition.

  19. Mining law and regulations of Mexico

    SciTech Connect

    Miranda, F.C.

    1992-01-01

    The mining law and regulations of Mexico have been of considerable interest to mining lawyers in the united States. Recent wide-ranging changes in Mexican mining regulations have come at a time when the mining industry hopes to broaden its scope to contend with worldwide competition. Article 27 of the Federal Constitution of Mexico governs the mining of metallic, nonmetallic, and coal materials. New regulation implementing this law became effective on December 10, 1990. These regulations, generally regarded as providing far greater flexibility in the acquisition and maintenance of mineral rights, also provide substantial additional flexibility in the ability of non-Mexican companies to own concessions. The Laws section of this book includes: General Provision, ministry of National Patrimony, mining concession, beneficiating plant concessions, execution and proof of exploitation work oppositions, national mineral reserves, special concessions on National Mineral Reserves, Public/Registry of mining, mining promotion and of the assistance to small miners, Industrial Mining Reserves and violations and penalties. The regulations section includes: general dispositions, mineral reserves, mining assignments and concessions, right of mining concession holders, obligations of the holders of mining concessions, mining companies, mining public registry, mining experts, inspections, sanctions and remedies.

  20. Memoirs of the Geological Survey of Great Britain and of the Museum of Practical Geology: Mining records: Mineral statistics of the United Kingdom of Great Britain and Ireland for the year 1855

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Hunt, Robert

    1856-01-01

    In the Introduction to the Mineral Statistics of 1853 and 1854 the principal sources through which information had been obtained for the Mining Record Office were distinctly stated.  these were made available for the present returns, and during the year no effort has been spared to secure the most exact statistics on every point of interest connected with our mineral industries.

  1. To build a mine: Prospect to product

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Gertsch, Richard E.

    1992-01-01

    The terrestrial definition of ore is a quantity of earth materials containing a mineral that can be extracted at a profit. While a space-based resource-gathering operation may well be driven by other motives, such an operation should have the most favorable cost-benefit ratio possible. To this end, principles and procedures already tested by the stringent requirements of the profit motive should guide the selection, design, construction, and operation of a space-based mine. Proceeding from project initiation to a fully operational mine requires several interacting and overlapping steps, which are designed to facilitate the decision process and insure economic viability. The steps to achieve a fully operational mine are outlined. Presuming that the approach to developing nonterrestrial resources will parallel that for developing mineral resources on Earth, we can speculate on some of the problems associated with developing lunar and asteroidal resources. The baseline for our study group was a small lunar mine and oxygen extraction facility. The development of this facility is described in accordance with the steps outlined.

  2. 77 FR 3223 - National Emissions Standards for Hazardous Air Pollutants: Mineral Wool Production and Wool...

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2012-01-23

    ... Production and Wool Fiberglass Manufacturing AGENCY: Environmental Protection Agency (EPA). ACTION: Proposed...: Mineral Wool Production and Wool Fiberglass Manufacturing.'' The EPA was asked to hold a public hearing only on the wool fiberglass manufacturing proposed rule, and on December 20, 2011, published a...

  3. 30 CFR 49.3 - Alternative mine rescue capability for small and remote mines.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-07-01

    ... employment of the operator's mine and any surrounding mine(s) within two hours ground travel time of the...; (3) The total underground employment of mines within two hours ground travel time of the operator's... suitable mine rescue capability is provided at all times when miners are underground; and (9) Other...

  4. 30 CFR 49.3 - Alternative mine rescue capability for small and remote mines.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-07-01

    ... employment of the operator's mine and any surrounding mine(s) within two hours ground travel time of the...; (3) The total underground employment of mines within two hours ground travel time of the operator's... suitable mine rescue capability is provided at all times when miners are underground; and (9) Other...

  5. 30 CFR 49.3 - Alternative mine rescue capability for small and remote mines.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-07-01

    ... employment of the operator's mine and any surrounding mine(s) within two hours ground travel time of the...; (3) The total underground employment of mines within two hours ground travel time of the operator's... suitable mine rescue capability is provided at all times when miners are underground; and (9) Other...

  6. Ecosystem Health in Mineralized Terrane-Data from Podiform Chromite (Chinese Camp Mining District, California), Quartz Alunite (Castle Peak and Masonic Mining Districts, Nevada/California), and Mo/Cu Porphyry (Battle Mountain Mining District, Nevada) Deposits

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Blecker, Steve W.; Stillings, Lisa L.; Amacher, Michael C.; Ippolito, James A.; DeCrappeo, Nicole M.

    2010-01-01

    The myriad definitions of soil/ecosystem quality or health are often driven by ecosystem and management concerns, and they typically focus on the ability of the soil to provide functions relating to biological productivity and/or environmental quality. A variety of attempts have been made to create indices that quantify the complexities of soil quality and provide a means of evaluating the impact of various natural and anthropogenic disturbances. Though not without their limitations, indices can improve our understanding of the controls behind ecosystem processes and allow for the distillation of information to help link scientific and management communities. In terrestrial systems, indices were initially developed and modified for agroecosystems; however, the number of studies implementing such indices in nonagricultural systems is growing. Soil quality indices (SQIs) are typically composed of biological (and sometimes physical and chemical) parameters that attempt to reduce the complexity of a system into a metric of a soil's ability to carry out one or more functions. The indicators utilized in SQIs can be as varied as the studies themselves, reflecting the complexity of the soil and ecosystems in which they function. Regardless, effective soil quality indicators should correlate well with soil or ecosystem processes, integrate those properties and processes, and be relevant to management practices. Commonly applied biological indicators include measures associated with soil microbial activity or function (for example, carbon and nitrogen mineralization, respiration, microbial biomass, enzyme activity. Cost, accessibility, ease of interpretation, and presence of existing data often dictate indicator selection given the number of available measures. We employed a large number of soil biological, chemical, and physical measures, along with measures of vegetation cover, density, and productivity, in order to test the utility and sensitivity of these measures within

  7. Vegetation successfully prevents oxidization of sulfide minerals in mine tailings.

    PubMed

    Li, Yang; Sun, Qingye; Zhan, Jing; Yang, Yang; Wang, Dan

    2016-07-15

    The oxidization of metal sulfide in tailings causes acid mine drainage. However, it remains unclear whether vegetation prevents the oxidization of metal sulfides. The oxidization characteristics and microbial indices of the tailings in the presence of various plant species were investigated to explore the effects of vegetation on the oxidization of sulfide minerals in tailings. The pH, reducing sulfur, free iron oxides (Fed), chemical oxygen consumption (COC) and biological oxygen consumption (BOC) were measured. Key iron- and sulfur-oxidizing bacteria (Acidithiobacillus spp., Leptospirillum spp. and Thiobacillus spp.) were quantified using real-time PCR. The results indicate that vegetation growing on tailings can effectively prevent the oxidization of sulfide minerals in tailings. A higher pH and reducing-sulfur content and lower Fed were observed in the 0-30 cm depth interval in the presence of vegetation compared to bare tailings (BT). The COC gradually decreased with depth in all of the soil profiles; specifically, the COC rapidly decreased in the 10-20 cm interval in the presence of vegetation but gradually decreased in the BT profiles. Imperata cylindrica (IC) and Chrysopogon zizanoides (CZ) profiles contained the highest BOC in the 10-20 cm interval. The abundance of key iron- and sulfur-oxidizing bacteria in the vegetated tailings were significantly lower than in the BT; in particular, IC was associated with the lowest iron- and sulfur-oxidizing bacterial abundance. In conclusion, vegetation successfully prevented the oxidization of sulfide minerals in the tailings, and Imperata cylindrica is the most effective in reducing the number of iron- and sulfur-oxidizing bacteria and helped to prevent the oxidization of sulfide minerals in the long term.

  8. Micro-mineralogical study with SEM on skarn mineralization at Geodo Mine, Korea

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Son, H.; Lee, I.; Seo, J.

    2012-12-01

    The Geodo Mine was originally developed for Fe and Cu ores as a skarn type deposit. In 2003, however, the gold ore zones were discovered by Korea Resources Corporation (KORES). The estimated reservoir is 53,700 metric tons with 1.2 g/t Au and 63.9 g/t Ag in average. The Geodo Mine is located in the Taebaeksan Basin, which is one of the most important mineral deposit districts in the Korean Peninsula. The Sangdong Mine, well known World Class W-Mo skarn deposit, also belongs to this area. The Taebaeksan Basin is mainly composed of Precambrian metasedimentary rocks: the Yeongnam Massif, Cambrian-Ordovician sedimentary rocks: the Joseon Supergroup, Carboniferous-Triassic sedimentary rocks: the Pyongan Supergroup, and Mesozoic igneous intrusions. The Joseon Supergroup is host rocks of the Geodo Mine, which mainly consist of thick carbonates with less amounts of sandstone and shale. Especially, among the Mesozoic igneous intrusions, the Cretaceous Eopyeong granitoids are closely related with skarn zones of the Geodo Mine, which consist of quartz monzodiorite and granodiorite. The age of quartz monzodiorite (108 ± 1 and 111 ± 1 Ma) and granodiorite (107 ± 1, 108 ± 1, and 109 ± 1 Ma) has been reported. In order to establish the skarn mineral assemblage, polished thin sections prepared from the Geodo Mine were investigated by optical microscope and scanning electron microscope (SEM) at Seoul National University. Observed skarn mineral assemblage is predominated by garnet and pyroxene, which are partially altered to epidote and chlorite, respectively. The garnet has obvious oscillatory zoning. It is a typical hydrothermal metasomatic garnet, which formed during interaction of the hydrothermal fluid with the host rocks. Its characteristics suggest a cyclical history of alternating fluid circulation and stagnation or changes in the patterns, composition, oxidation state, and sources of fluid flow. Epidote occurs as an alteration product of garnet and can be observed in

  9. Lunar resource evaluation and mine site selection

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Bence, A. Edward

    1992-01-01

    Two scenarios in this evaluation of lunar mineral resources and the selection of possible mining and processing sites are considered. The first scenario assumes that no new surface or near-surface data will be available before site selection (presumably one of the Apollo sites). The second scenario assumes that additional surface geology data will have been obtained by a lunar orbiter mission, an unmanned sample return mission (or missions), and followup manned missions. Regardless of the scenario, once a potentially favorable mine site has been identified, a minimum amount of fundamental data is needed to assess the resources at that site and to evaluate its suitability for mining and downstream processing. Since much of the required data depends on the target mineral(s), information on the resource, its beneficiation, and the refining, smelting, and fabricating processes must be factored into the evaluation. The annual capacity and producing lifetime of the mine and its associated processing plant must be estimated before the resource reserves can be assessed. The available market for the product largely determines the capacity and lifetime of the mine. The Apollo 17 site is described as a possible mining site. The use of new sites is briefly addressed.

  10. Chemical composition and minerals in pyrite ash of an abandoned sulphuric acid production plant.

    PubMed

    Oliveira, Marcos L S; Ward, Colin R; Izquierdo, Maria; Sampaio, Carlos H; de Brum, Irineu A S; Kautzmann, Rubens M; Sabedot, Sydney; Querol, Xavier; Silva, Luis F O

    2012-07-15

    The extraction of sulphur produces a hematite-rich waste, known as roasted pyrite ash, which contains significant amounts of environmentally sensitive elements in variable concentrations and modes of occurrence. Whilst the mineralogy of roasted pyrite ash associated with iron or copper mining has been studied, as this is the main source of sulphur worldwide, the mineralogy, and more importantly, the characterization of submicron, ultrafine and nanoparticles, in coal-derived roasted pyrite ash remain to be resolved. In this work we provide essential data on the chemical composition and nanomineralogical assemblage of roasted pyrite ash. XRD, HR-TEM and FE-SEM were used to identify a large variety of minerals of anthropogenic origin. These phases result from highly complex chemical reactions occurring during the processing of coal pyrite of southern Brazil for sulphur extraction and further manufacture of sulphuric acid. Iron-rich submicron, ultrafine and nanoparticles within the ash may contain high proportions of toxic elements such as As, Se, U, among others. A number of elements, such as As, Cr, Cu, Co, La, Mn, Ni, Pb, Sb, Se, Sr, Ti, Zn, and Zr, were found to be present in individual nanoparticles and submicron, ultrafine and nanominerals (e.g. oxides, sulphates, clays) in concentrations of up to 5%. The study of nanominerals in roasted pyrite ash from coal rejects is important to develop an understanding on the nature of this by-product, and to assess the interaction between emitted nanominerals, ultra-fine particles, and atmospheric gases, rain or body fluids, and thus to evaluate the environmental and health impacts of pyrite ash materials.

  11. 30 CFR 49.13 - Alternative mine rescue capability for small and remote mines.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-07-01

    ... hour ground travel time of the operator's mine is less than 36. (b) An application for alternative mine... ground travel time of the operator's mine; (4) The operator's mine fire, ground, and roof control history... alternative plan for assuring that a suitable mine rescue capability is provided at all times when miners are...

  12. 30 CFR 49.13 - Alternative mine rescue capability for small and remote mines.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-07-01

    ... hour ground travel time of the operator's mine is less than 36. (b) An application for alternative mine... ground travel time of the operator's mine; (4) The operator's mine fire, ground, and roof control history... alternative plan for assuring that a suitable mine rescue capability is provided at all times when miners are...

  13. 30 CFR 49.13 - Alternative mine rescue capability for small and remote mines.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-07-01

    ... hour ground travel time of the operator's mine is less than 36. (b) An application for alternative mine... ground travel time of the operator's mine; (4) The operator's mine fire, ground, and roof control history... alternative plan for assuring that a suitable mine rescue capability is provided at all times when miners are...

  14. Stand characteristics and productivity potential of Indiana surface mines reclaimed under SMCRA

    SciTech Connect

    Groninger, J.W.; Fillmore, S.D.; Rathfon, R.A.

    2006-06-15

    The Surface Mining Control and Reclamation Act of 1977 (SMCRA) addresses a wide range of environmental concerns. However, its impacts on forest stand development and productive potential have only recently been investigated. We surveyed the vegetation and forest productivity on 22 surface mine sites throughout the coal-bearing region of Indiana that were reclaimed to forest cover under the provisions of SMCRA 7-14 years prior to sampling. Black locust (Robinia pseudoacacia) and green ash (Fraxinus pennsylvanica) were the most widely occurring tree species. Tall fescue and goldenrod were the most widely occurring nonarborescent species. Median site index (base age 50 for black oak) was 30 ft. Although satisfying forest cover stocking requirements for bond release, these reclaimed surface mines almost always displayed a level of productivity far below those of native forests typical of this region. Reclamation techniques differing from those used on these study sites are needed to restore forest productivity to surface-mined lands while still complying with SMCRA.

  15. Assessment of Hg contamination and exposure to miners and schoolchildren at a small-scale gold mining and recovery operation in Thailand.

    PubMed

    Umbangtalad, S; Parkpian, P; Visvanathan, C; Delaune, R D; Jugsujinda, A

    2007-12-01

    Gold extracted by Hg-amalgamation process, which can cause both health and environmental problems, is widespread in South East Asia including Myanmar, Laos, Cambodia, and Thailand. Small-scale gold mining operations have been carried out since the year 2000 in Phanom Pha District, Phichit Province, Thailand. Since no data is available for evaluating Hg exposure, an investigation of mercury (Hg) contamination and exposure assessment was carried out at this mine site. Environmental monitoring illustrated the total Hg in water was as high as 4 microg/l while Hg in sediment ranged between 102 to 325 microg/kg dry weight. Both Hg deposition from the air (1.28 microg/100 cm(2)/day) and concentration in surface soil (20,960 microg/kg dry weight) were elevated in the area of amalgamation. The potential of Hg exposure to miners as well as to schoolchildren was assessed. The concentrations of Hg in urine of 79 miners who were directly (group I) or indirectly (group II) involved in the gold recovery operation were 32.02 and 20.04 microg/g creatinine, respectively, which did not exceed regulatory limits (35 microg/g creatinine). Hair Hg levels in both groups (group I and group II) also were not significantly higher than the non-exposed group. In terms of risk factors, gender and nature of food preparation and consumption were the two significant variables influencing the concentration of Hg in urine of miners (P < 0.05). A hazard quotient (HQ) was estimated based on the inorganic Hg exposure of individual miners. The HQ values of group I were in a range 16 to 218 times higher than the safety level set as 1. By comparison the group II HQ index was very low (0.03-0.39). The miners in group I who worked and ate food from this area experienced potentially high exposure to Hg associated with the mining process. In a second Hg exposure assessment, a group of 59 schoolchildren who attended an elementary school near the gold mine site was evaluated for Hg exposure. A slightly higher

  16. Characterization of U ore from a roll-front U deposit: Implications of dominant U-Ti mineral for ore genesis and post solution-mining U immobilization

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Brown, S. T.; Basu, A.; Christensen, J. N.; Reimus, P. W.; Heikoop, J. M.; WoldeGabriel, G. W.; Hartmann, M.; DePaolo, D. J.

    2015-12-01

    Reductive immobilization of dissolved U(VI) is an important process that gives rise to roll-front U deposits as well as offers a remediation strategy after in situ recovery (ISR) mining of roll-fronts by oxidative dissolution of the U ore. About 25% of the global and over 90% of all U resources in the United States consist of roll-front deposits. Accordingly, ~50% of global U mining and almost all current U mining in the United States is ISR mining. Therefore, it is important to identify the U immobilization pathways for an improved understanding of the U ore genesis and postmining U(VI) remediation. Here, we characterize (XRD, XRF, SEM/EDS, QEMSCAN) the U ore from a roll-front U deposit and sediments downgradient of the ore from an ISR site at Rosita, TX, USA. The dominant U mineral in Rosita U ore is brannerite (nominally U4+Ti2O6, up to 0.032 wt%), followed by coffinite and U-oxides. The U mineralized sand is composed of quartz (41-53%), calcite (15-30%), plagioclase (11-19%), microcline (2-9%), clinoptilolite (0.5-7%) with minor amounts of pyrite/marcasite (2-7%) and clays/micas (1-4%), and very little organic C (<0.1%). Ore zone samples contain minor amounts (<2%) of hematite, V-oxides/V-Ti-Fe-oxides and sulfidized Fe-Ti oxides with variable Fe, Ti and S ratios locally hosting low levels of U. The dominant sulfide mineral is marcasite. We observe a complex relationship between U-Ti minerals and sulfide/silicate phases where U minerals occur as inclusions, irregularly developed veins or intergrowths. Except for the U concentrations, the downgradient sediments are compositionally similar to the ore and contain abundant smectite/illite (7-45%). The predominance of brannerite implies direct reduction of U(VI) on surfaces of reduced Fe-Ti oxides as a major ore-forming mechanism. Our results reveal an as yet unidentified mechanism of ore genesis that differs from the current model that presupposes the sulfidized Fe-Ti oxides as the main reductant of U

  17. Mortality patterns of rock and slag mineral wool production workers: an epidemiological and environmental study.

    PubMed

    Robinson, C F; Dement, J M; Ness, G O; Waxweiler, R J

    1982-02-01

    An epidemiological and environmental study of rock and slag mineral wool production workers was undertaken at a plant that has been in operation since the early 1900s. Size characteristics of fibres produced by each process at the plant and data from industrial hygiene surveys were used to evaluate current and past exposures. These data suggest that the average historical airborne fibre concentration probably did not exceed 2.5 fibres/cc before 1935 and 1.0 fibre/cc after 1935. A retrospective cohort mortality study was designed to assess mortality patterns. Detailed occupational histories were compiled on all plant employees. All jobs in the plant were assigned to one of eight potential exposure categories to assess the extent and severity of mineral wool exposure and the effect of other significant exposures on employee mortality. Findings included an increase in the number of deaths due to cancer of the digestive system and non-malignant respiratory disease among workers who had over 20 years' exposure to mineral wool or who had survived 20 years since their first exposure to mineral wool. These findings are not inconsistent with those of Enterline's (Symposium on Biological Effects of Mineral Fibres, Lyon, France, September 1979) in the Thermal Insulation Manufacturers' Association's mortality study of men employed in four mineral wool plants.

  18. Mortality patterns of rock and slag mineral wool production workers: an epidemiological and environmental study.

    PubMed Central

    Robinson, C F; Dement, J M; Ness, G O; Waxweiler, R J

    1982-01-01

    An epidemiological and environmental study of rock and slag mineral wool production workers was undertaken at a plant that has been in operation since the early 1900s. Size characteristics of fibres produced by each process at the plant and data from industrial hygiene surveys were used to evaluate current and past exposures. These data suggest that the average historical airborne fibre concentration probably did not exceed 2.5 fibres/cc before 1935 and 1.0 fibre/cc after 1935. A retrospective cohort mortality study was designed to assess mortality patterns. Detailed occupational histories were compiled on all plant employees. All jobs in the plant were assigned to one of eight potential exposure categories to assess the extent and severity of mineral wool exposure and the effect of other significant exposures on employee mortality. Findings included an increase in the number of deaths due to cancer of the digestive system and non-malignant respiratory disease among workers who had over 20 years' exposure to mineral wool or who had survived 20 years since their first exposure to mineral wool. These findings are not inconsistent with those of Enterline's (Symposium on Biological Effects of Mineral Fibres, Lyon, France, September 1979) in the Thermal Insulation Manufacturers' Association's mortality study of men employed in four mineral wool plants. PMID:6279138

  19. Seasonal factors controlling mineral precipitation in the acid mine drainage at Donghae coal mine, Korea.

    PubMed

    Kim, J J; Kim, S J

    2004-06-05

    Monitoring over a 12 month period in the Sanae creek flow in acid mine drainage, Donghae coal mine area, demonstrates that the concentrations of dissolved metals and sulphate are highest during autumn when water flow in the creek is at its lowest. The highest pH values of the stream were measured in April and May, whereas the lowest pH was recorded in October. The Fe concentration of stream water rapidly decreased downstream due to the precipitation of Fe oxyhydroxide and/or oxyhydroxysulfate phases in the stream. Mineral precipitates in the creek in the Donghae mine area show various colours such as brownish yellow (Munsell colour 9.5 YR hues), reddish brown (Munsell colour 3.5 YR hues) and white depending on seasons and distance from the pollution source in the creek. Such phenomena are attributed to the variation in pH and chemical composition of stream water caused by seasonal factors. The measured pH ranges in stream water of the brownish yellow, white and reddish brown precipitates are pH 3.2-4.5, 4.5-6.0 and 5.3-6.9, respectively.

  20. A review of mortality associated with elongate mineral particle (EMP) exposure in occupational epidemiology studies of gold, talc, and taconite mining.

    PubMed

    Mandel, Jeffrey H; Alexander, Bruce H; Ramachandran, Gurumurthy

    2016-12-01

    Mining of gold, taconite, and talc may involve exposure to elongate mineral particles (EMP). The involved EMPs are typically non-asbestiform, include dimensions that regulatory definitions exclude, and have been less studied. A review of the literature was undertaken for this exposure and occupational epidemiological studies that occur in gold, talc, and taconite mining. Quantitative EMP exposure information in these industries is incomplete. However, there are consistent findings of pneumoconiosis in each of these types of mining. A recent case-control study suggests a possible association between this exposure and mesothelioma. Lung cancer is inconsistently reported in these industries and is an unlikely outcome of non-asbestiform EMP exposure. There is evidence of cardiovascular mortality excess across all of these types of mining. Non-malignant respiratory disease and cardiovascular mortality have been consistently increased in these industries. Further investigation, including additional insights for the role of non-asbestiform EMP, is warranted. Am. J. Ind. Med. 59:1047-1060, 2016. © 2016 Wiley Periodicals, Inc. © 2016 Wiley Periodicals, Inc.

  1. Carbon dioxide sequestration by direct mineral carbonation: process mineralogy of feed and products

    SciTech Connect

    O'Connor, William K.; Dahlin, David C.; Rush, G.E.; Dahlin, Cheryl L.; Collins, W. Keith

    2001-01-01

    Direct mineral carbonation has been investigated as a process to convert gaseous CO2 into a geologically stable final form. The process utilizes a slurry of water, with bicarbonate and salt additions, mixed with a mineral reactant, such as olivine (Mg2SiO4) or serpentine [Mg3Si2O5(OH)4]. Carbon dioxide is dissolved into this slurry, resulting in dissolution of the mineral and precipitation of magnesium carbonate (MgCO3). Optimum results have been achieved using heat pretreated serpentine feed material and high partial pressure of CO2 (PCO2). Specific conditions include: 155?C; PCO2=185 atm; 15% solids. Under these conditions, 78% conversion of the silicate to the carbonate was achieved in 30 minutes. Process mineralogy has been utilized to characterize the feed and process products, and interpret the mineral dissolution and carbonate precipitation reaction paths.

  2. Strain Prioritization and Genome Mining for Enediyne Natural Products

    PubMed Central

    Yan, Xiaohui; Ge, Huiming; Huang, Tingting; Hindra; Yang, Dong; Teng, Qihui; Crnovčić, Ivana; Li, Xiuling; Rudolf, Jeffrey D.; Lohman, Jeremy R.; Gansemans, Yannick; Zhu, Xiangcheng; Huang, Yong; Zhao, Li-Xing; Jiang, Yi; Van Nieuwerburgh, Filip; Rader, Christoph

    2016-01-01

    ABSTRACT The enediyne family of natural products has had a profound impact on modern chemistry, biology, and medicine, and yet only 11 enediynes have been structurally characterized to date. Here we report a genome survey of 3,400 actinomycetes, identifying 81 strains that harbor genes encoding the enediyne polyketide synthase cassettes that could be grouped into 28 distinct clades based on phylogenetic analysis. Genome sequencing of 31 representative strains confirmed that each clade harbors a distinct enediyne biosynthetic gene cluster. A genome neighborhood network allows prediction of new structural features and biosynthetic insights that could be exploited for enediyne discovery. We confirmed one clade as new C-1027 producers, with a significantly higher C-1027 titer than the original producer, and discovered a new family of enediyne natural products, the tiancimycins (TNMs), that exhibit potent cytotoxicity against a broad spectrum of cancer cell lines. Our results demonstrate the feasibility of rapid discovery of new enediynes from a large strain collection. PMID:27999165

  3. 25 CFR 215.25 - Other minerals and deep-lying lead and zinc minerals.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-04-01

    ... 25 Indians 1 2010-04-01 2010-04-01 false Other minerals and deep-lying lead and zinc minerals. 215... LEAD AND ZINC MINING OPERATIONS AND LEASES, QUAPAW AGENCY § 215.25 Other minerals and deep-lying lead... minerals other than lead and zinc and for lead and zinc and associated minerals below the horizon of the...

  4. The relationship between various exposure metrics for elongate mineral particles (EMP) in the taconite mining and processing industry.

    PubMed

    Hwang, Jooyeon; Ramachandran, Gurumurthy; Raynor, Peter C; Alexander, Bruce H; Mandel, Jeffrey H

    2014-01-01

    Different dimensions of elongate mineral particles (EMP) have been proposed as being relevant to respiratory health end-points such as mesothelioma and lung cancer. In this article, a methodology for converting personal EMP exposures measured using the National Institute for Occupational Safety and Health (NIOSH) 7400/7402 methods to exposures based on other size-based definitions has been proposed and illustrated. Area monitoring for EMP in the taconite mines in Minnesota's Mesabi Iron Range was conducted using a Micro Orifice Uniform Deposit Impactor (MOUDI) size-fractionating sampler. EMP on stages of the MOUDI were counted and sized according to each EMP definition using an indirect-transfer transmission electron microscopy (ISO Method 13794). EMP were identified using energy-dispersive x-ray and electron diffraction analysis. Conversion factors between the EMP counts based on different definitions were estimated using (1) a linear regression model across all locations and (2) a location-specific ratio of the count based on each EMP definition to the NIOSH 7400/7402 count. The highest fractions of EMP concentrations were found for EMP that were 1-3 μm in length and 0.2-0.5 μm in width. Therefore, the current standard NIOSH Method 7400, which only counts EMP >5 μm in length and ≥ 3 in aspect ratio, may underestimate amphibole EMP exposures. At the same time, there was a high degree of correlation between the exposures estimated according to the different size-based metrics. Therefore, the various dimensional definitions probably do not result in different dose-response relationships in epidemiological analyses. Given the high degree of correlation between the various metrics, a result consistent with prior research, a more reasonable metric might be the measurement of all EMP irrespective of size. [Supplementary materials are available for this article. Go to the publisher's online edition of Journal of Occupational and Environmental Hygiene for the

  5. A field evaluation of the physiological demands of miners in Canada's deep mechanized mines.

    PubMed

    Kenny, Glen P; Vierula, Matthieu; Maté, Joseph; Beaulieu, Francois; Hardcastle, Stephen G; Reardon, Francis

    2012-01-01

    This study was conducted to evaluate the physical/mechanical characteristics of typical selected mining tasks and the energy expenditure required for their performance. The study comprised two phases designed to monitor and record the typical activities that miners perform and to measure the metabolic energy expenditure and thermal responses during the performance of these activities under a non-heat stress environmental condition (ambient air temperature of 25.8°C and 61% relative humidity with a wet bulb globe temperature (WBGT) of 22.0°C). Six common mining jobs were evaluated in 36 miners: (1) production drilling (jumbo drill) (n = 3), (2) production ore transportation (load-haul dump vehicle) (n = 4), (3) manual bolting (n = 9), (4) manual shotcrete (wet/dry) (n = 3), (5) general services (n = 8) and, (6) conventional mining (long-hole drill) (n = 9). The time/motion analysis involved the on-site monitoring, video recording, and mechanical characterization of the different jobs. During the second trial, continuous measurement of oxygen consumption was performed with a portable metabolic system. Core (ingestible capsule) and skin temperatures (dermal patches) were recorded continuously using a wireless integrated physiological monitoring system. We found that general services and manual bolting demonstrated the highest mean energy expenditure (331 ± 98 and 290 ± 95 W, respectively) as well as the highest peak work rates (513 and 529 W, respectively). In contrast, the lowest mean rate of energy expenditure was measured in conventional mining (221 ± 44 W) and manual shotcrete (187 ± 77 W) with a corresponding peak rate of 295 and 276 W, respectively. The low rate of energy expenditure recorded for manual shotcrete was paralleled by the lowest work to rest ratio (1.8:1). While we found that production drilling had a moderate rate of energy expenditure (271 ± 11 W), it was associated with the highest work to rest ratio (6.7:1) Despite the large inter

  6. Under-mining health: environmental justice and mining in India.

    PubMed

    Saha, Shubhayu; Pattanayak, Subhrendu K; Sills, Erin O; Singha, Ashok K

    2011-01-01

    Despite the potential for economic growth, extractive mineral industries can impose negative health externalities in mining communities. We estimate the size of these externalities by combining household interviews with mine location and estimating statistical functions of respiratory illness and malaria among villagers living along a gradient of proximity to iron-ore mines in rural India. Two-stage regression modeling with cluster corrections suggests that villagers living closer to mines had higher respiratory illness and malaria-related workday loss, but the evidence for mine workers is mixed. These findings contribute to the thin empirical literature on environmental justice and public health in developing countries.

  7. Mercury from mineral deposits and potential environmental impact

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Rytuba, J.J.

    2003-01-01

    Mercury deposits are globally distributed in 26 mercury mineral belts. Three types of mercury deposits occur in these belts: silica-carbonate, hot-spring, and Almaden. Mercury is also produced as a by-product from several types of gold-silver and massive sulfide deposits, which account for 5% of the world's production. Other types of mineral deposits can be enriched in mercury and mercury phases present are dependent on deposit type. During processing of mercury ores, secondary mercury phases form and accumulate in mine wastes. These phases are more soluble than cinnabar, the primary ore mineral, and cause mercury deposits to impact the environment more so than other types of ore deposits enriched in mercury. Release and transport of mercury from mine wastes occur primarily as mercury-enriched particles and colloids. Production from mercury deposits has decreased because of environmental concerns, but by-product production from other mercury-enriched mineral deposits remains important.

  8. A Look into Miners' Health in Prevailing Ambience of Underground Coal Mine Environment

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Dey, N. C.; Pal, S.

    2012-04-01

    Environmental factors such as noise, vibration, illumination, humidity, temperature and air velocity, etc. do play a major role on the health, comfort and efficient performance of underground coal miners at work. Ergonomics can help to promote health, efficiency and well being of miners and to make best use of their capabilities within the ambit of underground coal mine environment. Adequate work stretch and work-rest scheduling have to be determined for every category of miners from work physiology point of view so as to keep better health of the miners in general and to have their maximum efficiency at work in particular.

  9. Petrogenesis and emplacement of the TTG and K-rich granites at the Buzwagi gold mine, northern Tanzania: Implications for the timing of gold mineralization

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Manya, Shukrani

    2016-07-01

    Ma, some 40 Ma years after the emplacement of TTG at 2713 ± 8 Ma. The timing of the Buzwagi mine granitic magmatism falls within the peak crustal growth period in the northern part of the Archaean Tanzania Craton. Gold mineralization at the Buzwagi mine is hosted in quartz veins that are within strongly sheared and hydrothermally altered K-granites in which silica and sericite alterations and sulphides (mainly pyrite and chalcopyrite although chalcocite is also present) are important. The Buzwagi gold deposit is thus a typical Archaean orogenic deposit whose mineralization is hydrothermally and structurally controlled and the abundance of sulphides, silica and sericite alteration assemblages suggests that the deposition conditions were reducing and acidic in nature. Owing to its epigenetic nature, it can be inferred that the maximum age of deposition of gold at the Buzwagi mine is 2674 Ma; which is more or less the same age inferred for the Golden Pride mine ( 2680 Ma) both of which are found in the Nzega greenstone belt.

  10. 43 CFR 3931.70 - Production maps and production reports.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-10-01

    ... OF LAND MANAGEMENT, DEPARTMENT OF THE INTERIOR MINERALS MANAGEMENT (3000) MANAGEMENT OF OIL SHALE... reports. (a) Report production of all oil shale products or by-products to the BLM on a quarterly basis no... licensed mine surveyor to make a survey and maps of the mine, and the cost will be charged to the operator...

  11. 43 CFR 3601.14 - When can BLM dispose of mineral materials from unpatented mining claims?

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-10-01

    .... If the mining claimant refuses to sign a waiver, BLM will make sure that disposal of the mineral...) MINERAL MATERIALS DISPOSAL Mineral Materials Disposal; General Provisions Limitations on Disposal of...) BLM may dispose of mineral materials from unpatented mining claims if disposal does not endanger...

  12. 43 CFR 3601.14 - When can BLM dispose of mineral materials from unpatented mining claims?

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-10-01

    .... If the mining claimant refuses to sign a waiver, BLM will make sure that disposal of the mineral...) MINERAL MATERIALS DISPOSAL Mineral Materials Disposal; General Provisions Limitations on Disposal of...) BLM may dispose of mineral materials from unpatented mining claims if disposal does not endanger...

  13. 43 CFR 3601.14 - When can BLM dispose of mineral materials from unpatented mining claims?

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-10-01

    .... If the mining claimant refuses to sign a waiver, BLM will make sure that disposal of the mineral...) MINERAL MATERIALS DISPOSAL Mineral Materials Disposal; General Provisions Limitations on Disposal of...) BLM may dispose of mineral materials from unpatented mining claims if disposal does not endanger...

  14. 43 CFR 3601.14 - When can BLM dispose of mineral materials from unpatented mining claims?

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-10-01

    .... If the mining claimant refuses to sign a waiver, BLM will make sure that disposal of the mineral...) MINERAL MATERIALS DISPOSAL Mineral Materials Disposal; General Provisions Limitations on Disposal of...) BLM may dispose of mineral materials from unpatented mining claims if disposal does not endanger...

  15. Production of lightweight aggregates from mining and industrial wastes.

    PubMed

    González-Corrochano, B; Alonso-Azcárate, J; Rodas, M

    2009-06-01

    Washing aggregate sludge from a gravel pit, sewage sludge from a wastewater treatment plant (WWTP) and a clay-rich sediment have been physically, chemically and mineralogically characterized. They were mixed, milled and formed into pellets, pre-heated for 5 min and sintered in a rotary kiln at 1150 degrees C, 1175 degrees C, 1200 degrees C and 1225 degrees C for 10 and 15 min at each temperature. The effects of the raw material characteristics, heating temperatures and dwell times on the loss on ignition (LOI), bloating index (BI), bulk density (rho(b)), apparent and dry particle densities (rho(a), rho(d)), voids (H), water absorption (WA(24h)) and compressive strength (S) were determined. All the mixtures presented a bloating potential taking into consideration the gases released at high temperatures. The products obtained were lightweight aggregates (LWAs) in accordance with Standard UNE-EN-13055-1 (rho(b)and 50% clay-rich sediment were expanded LWAs (BI>0) and showed the lowest apparent particle density, the lowest water absorption and the highest compressive strength. It was possible to establish three groups of LWAs on the basis of their properties in comparison to Arlita G3, F3 and F5, commercially available lightweight aggregates manufactured in Spain. Our LWAs may have the same or similar applications as these commercial products, such as horticulture, prefabricated lightweight structures and building structures.

  16. Mineral composition of pulp and production of the yellow passion fruit with organic and conventional fertilizers.

    PubMed

    Pacheco, Anália Lúcia Vieira; Pagliarini, Mateus Francisco; de Freitas, Gilberto Bernardo; Santos, Ricardo Henrique Silva; Serrão, José Eduardo; Zanuncio, José Cola

    2017-02-15

    The use of organic foods has been increased in the world. Organic fertilizers, like cattle manure, have emerged as an important component of the organic system production. The production, mass, size, and mineral composition of passion fruit pulp were evaluated when treated with a mineral fertilizer (control) (MIN) or cattle manure at a single dose equivalent to potassium fertilizer (ORG) or double dose (2×ORG). The production and the numbers of fruits of plants treated with MIN and 2×ORG was higher than with ORG. The level of nitrogen (N), phosphorus (P), zinc (Zn), iron (Fe), and copper (Cu) in the fruit pulp was similar with all three fertilizers, but the calcium (Ca) and magnesium (Mg) was higher with ORG and 2×ORG. The number and weight of the fruits of passion fruit treated with 2×ORG were similar to those with MIN fertilizer, but they contained more Ca and Mg.

  17. "Once a Miner, Always a Miner": Poverty and Livelihood Diversification in Akwatia, Ghana

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Hilson, Gavin

    2010-01-01

    This paper offers an alternative viewpoint on why people choose to engage in artisanal mining--the low tech mineral extraction and processing of mainly precious metals and stones--for extended periods in sub-Saharan Africa. Drawing upon experiences from Akwatia, Ghana's epicentre of diamond production since the mid-1920s, the analysis challenges…

  18. "Once a Miner, Always a Miner": Poverty and Livelihood Diversification in Akwatia, Ghana

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Hilson, Gavin

    2010-01-01

    This paper offers an alternative viewpoint on why people choose to engage in artisanal mining--the low tech mineral extraction and processing of mainly precious metals and stones--for extended periods in sub-Saharan Africa. Drawing upon experiences from Akwatia, Ghana's epicentre of diamond production since the mid-1920s, the analysis challenges…

  19. Web search and data mining of natural products and their bioactivities in PubChem.

    PubMed

    Ming, Hao; Tiejun, Cheng; Yanli, Wang; Stephen, Bryant H

    2013-10-01

    Natural products, as major resources for drug discovery historically, are gaining more attentions recently due to the advancement in genomic sequencing and other technologies, which makes them attractive and amenable to drug candidate screening. Collecting and mining the bioactivity information of natural products are extremely important for accelerating drug development process by reducing cost. Lately, a number of publicly accessible databases have been established to facilitate the access to the chemical biology data for small molecules including natural products. Thus, it is imperative for scientists in related fields to exploit these resources in order to expedite their researches on natural products as drug leads/candidates for disease treatment. PubChem, as a public database, contains large amounts of natural products associated with bioactivity data. In this review, we introduce the information system provided at PubChem, and systematically describe the applications for a set of PubChem web services for rapid data retrieval, analysis, and downloading of natural products. We hope this work can serve as a starting point for the researchers to perform data mining on natural products using PubChem.

  20. Strain Prioritization and Genome Mining for Enediyne Natural Products.

    PubMed

    Yan, Xiaohui; Ge, Huiming; Huang, Tingting; Hindra; Yang, Dong; Teng, Qihui; Crnovčić, Ivana; Li, Xiuling; Rudolf, Jeffrey D; Lohman, Jeremy R; Gansemans, Yannick; Zhu, Xiangcheng; Huang, Yong; Zhao, Li-Xing; Jiang, Yi; Van Nieuwerburgh, Filip; Rader, Christoph; Duan, Yanwen; Shen, Ben

    2016-12-20

    The enediyne family of natural products has had a profound impact on modern chemistry, biology, and medicine, and yet only 11 enediynes have been structurally characterized to date. Here we report a genome survey of 3,400 actinomycetes, identifying 81 strains that harbor genes encoding the enediyne polyketide synthase cassettes that could be grouped into 28 distinct clades based on phylogenetic analysis. Genome sequencing of 31 representative strains confirmed that each clade harbors a distinct enediyne biosynthetic gene cluster. A genome neighborhood network allows prediction of new structural features and biosynthetic insights that could be exploited for enediyne discovery. We confirmed one clade as new C-1027 producers, with a significantly higher C-1027 titer than the original producer, and discovered a new family of enediyne natural products, the tiancimycins (TNMs), that exhibit potent cytotoxicity against a broad spectrum of cancer cell lines. Our results demonstrate the feasibility of rapid discovery of new enediynes from a large strain collection. Recent advances in microbial genomics clearly revealed that the biosynthetic potential of soil actinomycetes to produce enediynes is underappreciated. A great challenge is to develop innovative methods to discover new enediynes and produce them in sufficient quantities for chemical, biological, and clinical investigations. This work demonstrated the feasibility of rapid discovery of new enediynes from a large strain collection. The new C-1027 producers, with a significantly higher C-1027 titer than the original producer, will impact the practical supply of this important drug lead. The TNMs, with their extremely potent cytotoxicity against various cancer cells and their rapid and complete cancer cell killing characteristics, in comparison with the payloads used in FDA-approved antibody-drug conjugates (ADCs), are poised to be exploited as payload candidates for the next generation of anticancer ADCs. Follow

  1. Design of a beneficial product for newborn calves by combining Lactobacilli, minerals, and vitamins.

    PubMed

    Maldonado, Natalia Cecilia; Silva de Ruiz, Clara; Nader-Macías, María Elena Fátima

    2016-10-02

    Diarrhea is one of the most frequent diseases affecting newborn calves in intensive systems. Several strategies were proposed to protect and improve health, such as probiotics. This work was directed to design a product containing freeze-dried bacteria, vitamins, and minerals, as well as to optimize conditions with lyoprotectors, combine strains and add vitamins, minerals, and inulin to the product. The lyoprotectors were milk, milk-whey, and actose, and products were stored for 6 months at 4°C. Combined bacteria were freeze-dried in milk and the final products were added with minerals, vitamins, and insulin. The viable cells were determined by the plate count assay and antibiotic profiles to differentiate strains. Lactobacillus johnsonii CRL1693, L. murinus CRL1695, L. mucosae CRL1696, L. salivarius CRL1702, L. amylovorus CRL1697, and Enterococcus faecium CRL1703 were evaluated. The optimal conditions were different for each strain. Milk and milk whey maintained the viability during the process and storage after 6 months for most of the strains, except for L. johnsonii. Lactose did not improve cell's recovery. L. murinus was viable for 6 months in all the conditions, with similar results in enterococci. In strains combined before freeze-dried, the viability decreased deeply, showing that one-step process with bacteria mixtures, vitamins, and minerals were not adequate. Freeze-dried resistance depends on each strain and must be lyophilized individually.

  2. Map showing locations of mines, prospects, and patented mining claims, and classification of mineral deposits in the Silver City 7 1/2-minute Quadrangle, Black Hills, South Dakota

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    DeWitt, Ed; Buscher, David; Wilson, A.B.; Johnson, Thomas

    1988-01-01

    This map is one in a set of 26 maps (see index map) at 1:24,000 scale of the Black Hills region of South Dakota and Wyoming om which are shown a geologic classification of mines, a bibliography of mineral deposits, and locations of active and inactive mines, prospects, and patented mining claims. Some of these maps are published as U. S. Geological Survey Miscellaneous Field Studies Maps (MF series) and some as U.S. Geological Survey Open-File Reports (QF series); see index map. An earlier unpublished version of this set of maps was the data base from which plate 4 (scale 1:250,000) of DeWitt and others (1986) was compiled. Subsequent to that publication, the set has been revised and updated, and prospects and patented claims have been added. These revised and more detailed 1:24,000-scale maps should be used for the equivalent areas of plate 4 of DeWitt and others (1986).

  3. Improving mine safety technology and training in the U.S. recommendations of the Mine Safety Technology and Training Commission

    SciTech Connect

    Grayson, R. Larry

    2008-09-15

    The key issues studied focused on underground coal mining and included (1) prevention of explosions in sealed areas, (2) better emergency preparedness and response, (3) improvement of miners' ability to escape, (4) better protection of miners before and after a fire or explosion, (5) improved provision of oxygen, and (6) development and implementation of more robust post-incident communication. The U.S. Congress passed the Mine Improvement and New Emergency Response Act of 2006, which mandated new laws to address the issues. Concurrent with investigations and congressional deliberations, the National Mining Association formed the independent Mine Safety Technology and Training Commission to study the state-of-the-art relative to technology and training that could address the vulnerabilities exposed by the mine disasters. As discussed, the report outlined persistent vulnerabilities linked with significant hazards in underground coal mines, and made recommendations to provide a path for addressing them. Overall the commission report made 75 recommendations in the areas of risk-based design and management, communications technology, emergency response and mine rescue procedures, training for preparedness, and escape and protection strategies. In its deliberations, the commission importantly noted that mine safety in the U.S. needs to follow a new paradigm for ensuring mine safety and developing a culture of prevention that supports safe production at the business core. In the commission's viewpoint, the bottom line in protecting coal miners is not only adopting a culture of prevention but also systematically pursuing mitigation of significant risks. 4 refs., 2 figs.

  4. Spectral reflectance properties (0.4-2.5 um) of secondary Fe-oxide, Fe-hydroxide, and Fe-sulfate-hydrate minerals associated with sulfide-bearing mine waste

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Crowley, J.K.; Williams, D.E.; Hammarstrom1, J.M.; Piatak, N.; Mars, J.C.; Chou, I-Ming

    2006-01-01

    Fifteen Fe-oxide, Fe-hydroxide, and Fe-sulphate-hydrate mineral species commonly associated with sulphide bearing mine wastes were characterized by using X-ray powder diffraction and scanning electron microscope methods. Diffuse reflectance spectra of the samples show diagnostic absorption features related to electronic processes involving ferric and/or ferrous iron, and to vibrational processes involving water and hydroxyl ions. Such spectral features enable field and remote sensing based studies of the mineral distributions. Because secondary minerals are sensitive indicators of pH, Eh, relative humidity, and other environmental conditions, spectral mapping of these minerals promises to have important applications to mine waste remediation studies. This report releases digital (ascii) spectra (spectral_data_files.zip) of the fifteen mineral samples to facilitate usage of the data with spectral libraries and spectral analysis software. The spectral data are provided in a two-column format listing wavelength (in micrometers) and reflectance, respectively.

  5. Gold Mining in Ecuador: A Cross-Sectional Assessment of Mercury in Urine and Medical Symptoms in Miners from Portovelo/Zaruma.

    PubMed

    Schutzmeier, Paul; Berger, Ursula; Bose-O'Reilly, Stephan

    2016-12-30

    Mercury is a toxic metal and is used in small scale gold mining. In Portovelo, Ecuador, mercury has been an environmental and health problem for decades. The target of this study was to assess the mercury concentration in the urine of miners from Portovelo/Zaruma to establish a prevalence of high values. Eight hundred and sixty-five (865) urine samples were collected and analysed for their mercury content, using cold vapor atom absorption spectroscopy. The prevalence of high mercury values (>25 μg/L) was estimated. Forty-four (44) miners with mercury levels >15 μg/L filled in a questionnaire for characteristics and possible confounders, and were examined for intoxication symptoms to establish the ten points medical score sum. The median urine value was 1.8 μg/L; 78.3% of miners were below 7 μg/L and were not at risk of an intoxication, whereas 5.9% of miners exceeded the limit of 25 μg/L and were probable to experience intoxication symptoms. The medical score sum had a range of 2 to 8 points with a median of 6. The low prevalence of high mercury concentrations shows that the politics and techniques to eliminate the use of mercury are being successfully implemented. Further studies are needed to identify factors enabling this process.

  6. Gold Mining in Ecuador: A Cross-Sectional Assessment of Mercury in Urine and Medical Symptoms in Miners from Portovelo/Zaruma

    PubMed Central

    Schutzmeier, Paul; Berger, Ursula; Bose-O’Reilly, Stephan

    2016-01-01

    Mercury is a toxic metal and is used in small scale gold mining. In Portovelo, Ecuador, mercury has been an environmental and health problem for decades. The target of this study was to assess the mercury concentration in the urine of miners from Portovelo/Zaruma to establish a prevalence of high values. Eight hundred and sixty-five (865) urine samples were collected and analysed for their mercury content, using cold vapor atom absorption spectroscopy. The prevalence of high mercury values (>25 μg/L) was estimated. Forty-four (44) miners with mercury levels >15 μg/L filled in a questionnaire for characteristics and possible confounders, and were examined for intoxication symptoms to establish the ten points medical score sum. The median urine value was 1.8 μg/L; 78.3% of miners were below 7 μg/L and were not at risk of an intoxication, whereas 5.9% of miners exceeded the limit of 25 μg/L and were probable to experience intoxication symptoms. The medical score sum had a range of 2 to 8 points with a median of 6. The low prevalence of high mercury concentrations shows that the politics and techniques to eliminate the use of mercury are being successfully implemented. Further studies are needed to identify factors enabling this process. PMID:28042847

  7. 26 CFR 1.614-3 - Rules relating to separate operating mineral interests in the case of mines.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-04-01

    ... 26 Internal Revenue 7 2010-04-01 2010-04-01 true Rules relating to separate operating mineral....614-3 Rules relating to separate operating mineral interests in the case of mines. (a) Election to aggregate separate operating mineral interests—(1) General rule. Except in the case of oil and gas wells,...

  8. Spectral reflectance properties (0.4-2.5 μm) of secondary Fe-oxide, Fe-hydroxide, and Fe-sulphate-hydrate minerals associated with sulphide-bearing mine wastes

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Crowley, J.K.; Williams, D.E.; Hammarstrom, J.M.; Piatak, N.; Chou, I.-Ming; Mars, J.C.

    2003-01-01

    Diffuse reflectance spectra of 15 mineral species commonly associated with sulphide-bearing mine wastes show diagnostic absorption bands related to electronic processes involving ferric and/or ferrous iron, and to vibrational processes involving water and hydroxyl. Many of these absorption bands are relatively broad and overlapping; however, spectral analysis methods, including continuum removal and derivative analysis, permit most of the minerals to be distinguished. Key spectral differences between the minerals are illustrated in a series of plots showing major absorption band centres and other spectral feature positions. Because secondary iron minerals are sensitive indicators of pH, Eh, relative humidity, and other environmental conditions, spectral mapping of mineral distributions promises to have important application to mine waste remediation studies.

  9. CAERs's mine mapping program and Kentucky's mine mapping initiative

    SciTech Connect

    Hiett, J.

    2007-07-01

    Since 1884 the Kentucky Department of Mines and Minerals (KDMM now OMSL) has had a mine mapping function as it relates to mine safety. The CAER's Mine Mapping Program has provided this service to that agency since 1972. The program has been in continuous operation under the current staff and management over that period. Functions include operating the Mine Map Repository/Mine Map Information Center of the OMSL; and receiving and processing all annual coal mine license maps, old maps, and related data. The Kentucky Mine Mapping Initiative's goal is to ensure that every underground and surface mine map in Kentucky is located, digitized and online. The Kentucky mine mapping website plays a vital role in the safety of Kentuckians. The purpose of the web service is to make available electronic maps of mined out areas and approximately 32,000 engineering drawings of operating or closed mines that are located in the state. Future phases of the project will include the archival scanning of all submitted mine maps; the recovery from outside sources of maps that were destroyed in a 1948 fire; and the development of further technology to process maps and related data. 7 photos.

  10. Effect of weathering product assemblages on Pb bioaccessibility in mine waste: implications for risk management.

    PubMed

    Palumbo-Roe, Barbara; Wragg, Joanna; Cave, Mark R; Wagner, Doris

    2013-11-01

    General assessments of orebody types and associated mine wastes with regard to their environmental signature and human health hazards are needed to help in managing present and historical mine waste facilities. Bioaccessibility tests and mineralogical analysis were carried out on mine waste from a systematic sampling of mine sites from the Central Wales orefield, UK. The bioaccessible Pb widely ranged from 270 to 20,300 mg/kg (mean 7,250 mg/kg, median 4,890 mg/kg), and the bioaccessible fraction from 4.53 to >100% (mean 33.2%, median 32.2%), with significant (p=0.001) differences among the mine sites. This implies sensitivity of bioaccessibility to site-specific conditions and suggests caution in the use of models to assess human health impacts generalised on the basis of the mineral deposit type. Mineralogical similarities of the oxidation products of primary galena provided a better control over the observed Pb bioaccessibility range. The higher Pb bioaccessibility (%) was related to samples containing cerussite, irrespective of the presence of other Pb minerals in the mineral assemblage; lower Pb bioaccessibility resulted where anglesite was the main Pb mineral phase and cerussite was absent. A solubility diagram for the various Pb minerals in the waste was derived using PHREEQC model, and the experimental Pb concentrations, measured in the simulated gastric solution, were compared with the equilibrium modelling results. For samples containing cerussite, the model well predicted the soluble Pb concentrations measured in the gastric solution, indicative of the carbonate mineral phase control on the Pb in solution for these samples and little kinetic control on the dissolution of cerussite. On the contrary, most mine waste samples containing dominant anglesite and or plumbojarosite (no cerussite) had lower solution Pb values, falling at or below the anglesite and plumbojarosite solubility equilibrium concentrations, implying kinetic or textural factors hindering

  11. New Mexico's energy resources '81. Annual report of Bureau of Geology in the Mining and Minerals Division of New Mexico Energy and Minerals Department

    SciTech Connect

    Arnold, E.C.; Hill, J.M.

    1981-09-03

    Although production of U/sub 3/O/sub 8/ declined only slightly in 1980, New Mexico's share of domestic production has declined from 48% in 1976 to 35% in 1980. Production projections indicate a continued decline in 1981 and lower production until at least 1984. New Mexico has 41% of total domestic reserves producible in the $50-per-lb cost category. In keeping with the anticipated steady depletion of reserves, production of crude oil in New Mexico was 69.9 million bls, a 6.3% decline in production from 1979. Condensate production of 5.4 million bbls in 1980, however, represented an increase of 7% from 1979 production. Although natural gas production was the lowest since 1970 and declined by 2.6% from 1979 production, 1980 was the 15th year that production exceeded 1 trillion cu ft. Despite declines in production, the valuation of oil and gas production has increased significantly with oil sales doubling from the previous year and gas sales increasing by $409 million because of higher prices. Reserves have been estimated to be 959 million bbls of crude oil and 17.667 trillion cu ft of natural gas. Production of 19.5 million short tons of coal in 1980 represented a 33% increase over 1979 production and an increase of 157% since 1970. Coal resources in New Mexico are estimated to be 180.79 billion short tons, and production is projected to incease to 39.61 million tons in 1985 and 67.53 million tons in 1990. The most notable developments in geothermal energy have been in technical advances in drilling, testing, and applications, especially in the area of hot dry rock systems. The US Bureau of Land Management has issued 113 geothermal leases that remain active. Recent geothermal exploration activity has been detailed for 21 companies.

  12. Herbaceous vegetation productivity, persistence, and metals uptake on a biosolids-amended mine soil

    SciTech Connect

    Evanylo, G.K.; Abaye, A.O.; Dundas, C.; Zipper, C.E.; Lemus, R.; Sukkariyah, B.; Rockett, J.

    2005-10-01

    The selection of plant species is critical for the successful establishment and long-term maintenance of vegetation on reclaimed surface mined soils. A study was conducted to assess the capability of 16 forage grass and legume species in monocultures and mixes to establish and thrive on a reclaimed Appalachian surface mine amended with biosolids. The 0.15-ha coarse-textured, rocky, non-acid forming mined site was prepared for planting by grading to a 2% slope and amending sandstone overburden materials with a mixture of composted and dewatered, anaerobically digested biosolids at a rate of 368 Mg ha{sup -1} (dry weight). The high rate of biosolids applied provided favorable soil chemical properties but could not overcome physical property limitations due to shallow undeveloped soil perched atop a compacted soil layer at 25 cm depth. The plant species whose persistence and biomass production were the greatest after a decade or more of establishment (i.e., switchgrass, sericea lespedeza, reed canarygrass, tall fescue, and crownvetch) shared the physiological and reproductive characteristics of low fertility requirements, drought and moisture tolerance, and propagation by rhizome and/or stolons. Of these five species, two (tall fescue and sericea lespedeza) are or have been seeded commonly on Appalachian coal surface mines, and often dominate abandoned pasture sites. Despite the high rates of heavy metal-bearing biosolids applied to the soil, plant uptake of Cd, Cu, Ni, and Zn were well within critical concentrations more than a decade after establishment of the vegetation.

  13. Lotus Seed Resistant Starch Regulates Gut Microbiota and Increases SCFAs Production and Mineral Absorption in Mice.

    PubMed

    Zeng, Hongliang; Huang, Cancan; Lin, Shan; Zheng, Mingjing; Chen, Chuanjie; Zheng, Baodong; Zhang, Yi

    2017-09-27

    Lotus seed resistant starch, known as resistant starch type 3 (LRS3), was orally administered to mice to investigate its effects on the gut microbiota, short-chain fatty acids (SCFAs) production, and mineral absorption. The results showed that mice fed LRS3 displayed a lower level of gut bacterial diversity than other groups. The numbers of starch-utilizing and butyrate-producing bacteria, such as Lactobacillus and Bifidobacterium, and Lachnospiraceae, Ruminococcaceae, and Clostridium, respectively, in mice increased after the administration of medium and high doses of LRS3, while those of Rikenellaceae and Porphyromonadaceae decreased. Furthermore, SCFAs and lactic acid in mice feces were affected by LRS3, and lactate was fermented to butyrate by gut microbiota. LRS3 enhanced the intestinal absorption of calcium, magnesium, and iron, and this was dependent on the type and concentration of SCFAs, especially butyrate. Thus, LRS3 promoted the production of SCFAs and mineral absorption by regulating gut microbiota in mice.

  14. Development of mining technology and equipment for seafloor massive sulfide deposits

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Liu, Shaojun; Hu, Jianhua; Zhang, Ruiqiang; Dai, Yu; Yang, Hengling

    2016-09-01

    Seafloor massive sulfide(SMS) deposits which consist of Au, Ag, Cu, and other metal elements, have been a target of commercial mining in recent decades. The demand for established and reliable commercial mining system for SMS deposits is increasing within the marine mining industry. The current status and progress of mining technology and equipment for SMS deposits are introduced. First, the mining technology and other recent developments of SMS deposits are comprehensively explained and analyzed. The seafloor production tools manufactured by Nautilus Minerals and similar mining tools from Japan for SMS deposits are compared and discussed in turn. Second, SMS deposit mining technology research being conducted in China is described, and a new SMS deposits mining tool is designed according to the environmental requirement. Finally, some new trends of mining technology of SMS deposits are summarized and analyzed. All of these conclusions and results have reference value and guiding significance for the research of SMS deposit mining in China.

  15. Application of kinematic vorticity and gold mineralization for the wall rock alterations of shear zone at Dungash gold mining, Central Eastern Desert, Egypt

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Kassem, Osama M. K.; Abd El Rahim, Said H.; El Nashar, EL Said R.; AL Kahtany, Kaled M.

    2016-11-01

    The use of porphyroclasts rotating in a flowing matrix to estimate mean kinematic vorticity number (Wm) is important for quantifying the relative contributions of pure and simple shear in wall rocks alterations of shear zone at Dungash gold mine. Furthermore, it shows the relationship between the gold mineralization and deformation and also detects the orientation of rigid objects during progressive deformation. The Dungash gold mine area is situated in an EW-trending quartz vein along a shear zone in metavolcanic and metasedimentary host rocks in the Eastern Desert of Egypt. These rocks are associated with the major geologic structures which are attributed to various deformational stages of the Neoproterozoic basement rocks. We conclude that finite strain in the deformed rocks is of the same order of magnitude for all units of metavolcano-sedimentary rocks. The kinematic vorticity number for the metavolcanic and metasedimentary samples in the Dungash area range from 0.80 to 0.92, and together with the strain data suggest deviations from simple shear. It is concluded that nappe stacking occurred early during the underthrusting event probably by brittle imbrication and that ductile strain was superimposed on the nappe structure during thrusting. Furthermore, we conclude that disseminated mineralization, chloritization, carbonatization and silicification of the wall rocks are associated with fluids migrating along shearing, fracturing and foliation of the metamorphosed wall rocks.

  16. Use of data mining at the Food and Drug Administration.

    PubMed

    Duggirala, Hesha J; Tonning, Joseph M; Smith, Ella; Bright, Roselie A; Baker, John D; Ball, Robert; Bell, Carlos; Bright-Ponte, Susan J; Botsis, Taxiarchis; Bouri, Khaled; Boyer, Marc; Burkhart, Keith; Condrey, G Steven; Chen, James J; Chirtel, Stuart; Filice, Ross W; Francis, Henry; Jiang, Hongying; Levine, Jonathan; Martin, David; Oladipo, Taiye; O'Neill, Rene; Palmer, Lee Anne M; Paredes, Antonio; Rochester, George; Sholtes, Deborah; Szarfman, Ana; Wong, Hui-Lee; Xu, Zhiheng; Kass-Hout, Taha

    2016-03-01

    This article summarizes past and current data mining activities at the United States Food and Drug Administration (FDA). We address data miners in all sectors, anyone interested in the safety of products regulated by the FDA (predominantly medical products, food, veterinary products and nutrition, and tobacco products), and those interested in FDA activities. Topics include routine and developmental data mining activities, short descriptions of mined FDA data, advantages and challenges of data mining at the FDA, and future directions of data mining at the FDA. Published by Oxford University Press on behalf of the American Medical Informatics Association 2015. This work is written by US Government employees and is in the public domain in the US.

  17. [Cohort mortality study of dust exposed miners in iron mine].

    PubMed

    Su, Liang-ping; Guan, Hong-yu; Zhao, Li-fan; Zhang, Jian-min; Chen, Wei-hong

    2006-06-01

    To investigate the main diseases jeopardizing the health of the iron miners and to explore the relationship between dust exposure and malignancies as well as other diseases. A retrospective study with a cohort of 7,469 workers employed between January 1, 1972 and December 31, 1974 in Daye Iron Ore Mine Co. in Hubei Province was conducted. Standardized mortality ratio (SMR) was calculated for the main causes of death using Chinese national mortality rates for reference. All subjects were followed up through December 31, 2003 with an accumulation of 199, 108.0 person years. A total of 1,752 workers died. The cumulative mortality was 23.5%. The cancers, cerebrovascular diseases, non-malignant respiratory diseases and cardiovascular diseases were main diseases that threatened workers' life span. The SMR for all subjects was a little higher than expected based on the Chinese national mortality rates. The diseases causing the significantly higher death rate were the nasopharynx cancer, liver cancer, lung cancer, pneumoconiosis and accident with SMR 1.84, 1.51, 1.83, 14.94 and 1.25 respectively. Increased mortality was observed among dust-exposed workers in the cohort. The cumulative mortality from all causes such as stomach cancer, lung cancer, nonmalignant respiratory diseases, cardiovascular diseases and accident in dust exposed workers were significantly increased compared with those in non-exposure workers with RR 1.35, 1.83, 1.61, 2.27, 1.34 and 1.69 respectively. The risk factors especially dust exposure affect the health and lifespan of the iron mine workers.

  18. Mining activities and arsenic in a Baja California Sur watershed

    Treesearch

    Alejandro Naranjo-Pulido; Alfredo Ortega-Rubio; Baudillo Acost-Vargas; Lia Rodriguez-Mendez; Marcos Acevedo-Beltran; Cerafina Arguelles-Mendez

    2000-01-01

    Mining is one of the most important sources of income for the Baja California Sur state. This state is the second most important area for mineral (gold, silver, copper) and non-mineral (salt) mining activities in the Mexican Republic. In the San Antonio-El Triunfo region, mineral-mining activities flourished during the 19th century. Tons of debris containing a high...

  19. National Strategic and Critical Minerals Production Act of 2012

    THOMAS, 112th Congress

    Rep. Amodei, Mark E. [R-NV-2

    2012-04-19

    07/16/2012 Received in the Senate and Read twice and referred to the Committee on Energy and Natural Resources. (All Actions) Tracker: This bill has the status Passed HouseHere are the steps for Status of Legislation:

  20. National Strategic and Critical Minerals Production Act of 2013

    THOMAS, 113th Congress

    Rep. Amodei, Mark E. [R-NV-2

    2013-02-15

    09/19/2013 Received in the Senate and Read twice and referred to the Committee on Energy and Natural Resources. (All Actions) Tracker: This bill has the status Passed HouseHere are the steps for Status of Legislation:

  1. National Strategic and Critical Minerals Production Act of 2013

    THOMAS, 113th Congress

    Rep. Amodei, Mark E. [R-NV-2

    2013-02-15

    09/19/2013 Received in the Senate and Read twice and referred to the Committee on Energy and Natural Resources. (All Actions) Tracker: This bill has the status Passed HouseHere are the steps for Status of Legislation:

  2. National Strategic and Critical Minerals Production Act of 2012

    THOMAS, 112th Congress

    Rep. Amodei, Mark E. [R-NV-2

    2012-04-19

    07/16/2012 Received in the Senate and Read twice and referred to the Committee on Energy and Natural Resources. (All Actions) Tracker: This bill has the status Passed HouseHere are the steps for Status of Legislation:

  3. A data mining approach to finding relationships between reservoir properties and oil production for CHOPS

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Cai, Yongxiang; Wang, Xin; Hu, Kezhen; Dong, Mingzhe

    2014-12-01

    Cold heavy oil production with sand (CHOPS) is a primary oil extraction process for heavy crude oil and reservoir properties are key factors that contribute to the effectiveness of CHOPS. However, identification of the key reservoir properties and quantification of the relationships between the reservoir properties and the oil production are still challenging tasks. In this paper, we propose the use of a data mining approach for finding quantitative relationships between various reservoir properties and oil production for CHOPS. The approach includes four steps: firstly, a set of reservoir properties are identified to describe reservoir characteristics through a petrophysical analysis. In addition to common parameters, such as porosity and permeability, two new parameters - a fluid mobility factor and the maximum inscribed rectangular of net pay (MIRNP) - are proposed. Secondly, three new parameters to describe the production performance of wells are proposed: the peak value, effective life cycle and effective yield. Next, the fuzzy ranking method is used to rank the importance of the identified reservoir properties in terms of oil production. Finally, association rule mining is used to obtain quantitative relationships between reservoir property variables and the production performance of wells. The proposed methods have been applied for 118 wells in the Sparky Formation of the Lloydminster heavy oil field in Alberta. The result shows that the production performance of wells in the area could be described and predicted by using the found quantitative relations.

  4. National Strategic and Critical Minerals Production Act of 2012

    THOMAS, 112th Congress

    Rep. Amodei, Mark E. [R-NV-2

    2012-04-19

    Senate - 07/16/2012 Received in the Senate and Read twice and referred to the Committee on Energy and Natural Resources. (All Actions) Tracker: This bill has the status Passed HouseHere are the steps for Status of Legislation:

  5. National Strategic and Critical Minerals Production Act of 2013

    THOMAS, 113th Congress

    Rep. Amodei, Mark E. [R-NV-2

    2013-02-15

    Senate - 09/19/2013 Received in the Senate and Read twice and referred to the Committee on Energy and Natural Resources. (All Actions) Tracker: This bill has the status Passed HouseHere are the steps for Status of Legislation:

  6. Intercalibration of 3He and Other Cosmogenic Nuclide Production Rates In Multiple Mineral Phases

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Farley, K. A.; Amidon, W. H.; Renne, P. R.; Simon, J. I.; Burbank, D. W.

    2007-12-01

    To extend the applicability of cosmogenic 3He dating beyond minerals restricted to mafic rocks (i.e., olivine and pyroxene), we have been assessing the suitability of 3He dating of additional minerals, e.g., zircon. A key aspect of this undertaking is the calibration of spallation production rates. Because the production rate of 3He varies from element to element in a fashion that is not yet well known, an empirical approach is necessary. Our recent work has focused on the Devil's Kitchen rhyolite, Coso Volcanic Field, SE California. This rhyolite has a 587 ka K/Ar age, which will be verified with a new 40Ar/39Ar age on sanidine. The attraction of this rhyolite is its extraordinary mineral assemblage arising from both the rhyolite itself and abundant mafic inclusions. From two individual rocks we obtained separates and measured 3He in the following minerals: olivine, clinopyroxene, orthopyroxene, garnet, zircon, apatite, hornblende, and ilmenite. In addition we intend to measure 21Ne in quartz and sanidine, 38Ar in sanidine, and 10Be and 26Al in quartz. We sampled two surfaces: one with tension gashes documenting an original flow surface, and a protruding rock fin. The sample with primary surface morphology is apparently uneroded, but preliminary 3He analyses of olivine suggest the surface has been buried for a substantial part of its history. Olivine 3He analyses from the fin indicate exposure ages consistent with the eruption age, so this sample may allow absolute calibration of production rates. In either case we can use these samples to inter-calibrate production rates in a large number of minerals using multiple cosmogenic isotopes.

  7. Kinetics and Products of Chromium(VI) Reduction by Iron(II/III)-Bearing Clay Minerals.

    PubMed

    Joe-Wong, Claresta; Brown, Gordon E; Maher, Kate

    2017-09-05

    Hexavalent chromium is a water-soluble pollutant, the mobility of which can be controlled by reduction of Cr(VI) to less soluble, environmentally benign Cr(III). Iron(II/III)-bearing clay minerals are widespread potential reductants of Cr(VI), but the kinetics and pathways of Cr(VI) reduction by such clay minerals are poorly understood. We reacted aqueous Cr(VI) with two abiotically reduced clay minerals: an Fe-poor montmorillonite and an Fe-rich nontronite. The effects of ionic strength, pH, total Fe content, and the fraction of reduced structural Fe(II) [Fe(II)/Fe(total)] were examined. The last variable had the largest effect on Cr(VI) reduction kinetics: for both clay minerals, the rate constant of Cr(VI) reduction varies by more than 3 orders of magnitude with Fe(II)/Fe(total) and is described by a linear free energy relationship. Under all conditions examined, Cr and Fe K-edge X-ray absorption near-edge structure spectra show that the main Cr-bearing product is a Cr(III)-hydroxide and that Fe remains in the clay structure after reacting with Cr(VI). This study helps to quantify our understanding of the kinetics of Cr(VI) reduction by Fe(II/III)-bearing clay minerals and may improve predictions of Cr(VI) behavior in subsurface environments.

  8. Airflow obstruction and mining

    SciTech Connect

    Stenton, S.C.; Hendrick, D.J. )

    1993-01-01

    Bronchitis and emphysema have long been described as diseases of miners, but the precise contribution of occupational exposures to coal and other mine dusts in causing these disorders, as opposed to cofactors such as social class, environmental pollution, and cigarette smoking, has not been fully defined. Epidemiologic studies have attempted, with varying degrees of success, to determine the incidence and severity of chronic obstructive pulmonary diseases in miners as compared to the general population. The results from these studies, and those in other nonmining industries with dust exposures, are examined. 98 refs.

  9. Characterization of geochemical alteration halo associated with gold mineralization at the Buzwagi mine, northern Tanzania

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Manya, Shukrani

    2017-05-01

    Alteration halo geochemical study was carried out along one transect at the Buzwagi mine which is found in the Neoarchaean Nzega greenstone belt of northern Tanzania. The Buzwagi mine Au mineralization is hosted in quartz veins that are cross-cutting strongly sheared and hydrothermally altered K-granites. Mineralogical studies within the shear zone reveal that sericite, silica and sulphides are the most important hydrothermal mineral assemblages responsible for Au mineralization at the Buzwagi mine. The geochemical alteration halo is characterized by the addition of Au, Cu, Fe, K, Rb, Sn, W and U to wall rocks and simultaneous removal of Na, Sr, Ba, LREE and MREE from the host rocks. The concentrations of Cu (130-870 ppm) which show strong positive correlation with Au (R2 = 0.99) are so high in the alteration halo indicating that Cu is a strong Au pathfinder at the Buzwagi mine. Owing to their immobility during the post-emplacement processes, the HFSE (Zr, Hf, Th, Ta) remained unchanged during the hydrothermal alteration process. The addition of Fe and Cu is attributed to the presence of Fe- and Cu-sulphides (pyrite, chalcopyrite and chalcocite) whereas the addition of K, Rb, Sn, W and U is a function of both primary concentrations of these elements in the host rocks as well as the subsequent strong hydrothermal alteration evidenced by sericitization and silicification which involved the destruction of feldspars into sericites). The destruction of albite and its replacement by sericite accounts for the depletion of Na, Sr (and Ba). The Buzwagi mine Au mineralization mineral association do not include the more known pathfinders like Ag, As, Sb, Bi, Te and Tl and they seem not to have played a role in the mineralization process. These elements, therefore, should not be considered as pathfinders for Au exploration purposes at a Buzwagi-like deposit.

  10. Novel Insect Leaf-Mining after the End-Cretaceous Extinction and the Demise of Cretaceous Leaf Miners, Great Plains, USA

    PubMed Central

    Donovan, Michael P.; Wilf, Peter; Labandeira, Conrad C.; Johnson, Kirk R.; Peppe, Daniel J.

    2014-01-01

    Plant and associated insect-damage diversity in the western U.S.A. decreased significantly at the Cretaceous-Paleogene (K-Pg) boundary and remained low until the late Paleocene. However, the Mexican Hat locality (ca. 65 Ma) in southeastern Montana, with a typical, low-diversity flora, uniquely exhibits high damage diversity on nearly all its host plants, when compared to all known local and regional early Paleocene sites. The same plant species show minimal damage elsewhere during the early Paleocene. We asked whether the high insect damage diversity at Mexican Hat was more likely related to the survival of Cretaceous insects from refugia or to an influx of novel Paleocene taxa. We compared damage on 1073 leaf fossils from Mexican Hat to over 9000 terminal Cretaceous leaf fossils from the Hell Creek Formation of nearby southwestern North Dakota and to over 9000 Paleocene leaf fossils from the Fort Union Formation in North Dakota, Montana, and Wyoming. We described the entire insect-feeding ichnofauna at Mexican Hat and focused our analysis on leaf mines because they are typically host-specialized and preserve a number of diagnostic morphological characters. Nine mine damage types attributable to three of the four orders of leaf-mining insects are found at Mexican Hat, six of them so far unique to the site. We found no evidence linking any of the diverse Hell Creek mines with those found at Mexican Hat, nor for the survival of any Cretaceous leaf miners over the K-Pg boundary regionally, even on well-sampled, surviving plant families. Overall, our results strongly relate the high damage diversity on the depauperate Mexican Hat flora to an influx of novel insect herbivores during the early Paleocene, possibly caused by a transient warming event and range expansion, and indicate drastic extinction rather than survivorship of Cretaceous insect taxa from refugia. PMID:25058404

  11. Novel insect leaf-mining after the end-Cretaceous extinction and the demise of cretaceous leaf miners, Great Plains, USA.

    PubMed

    Donovan, Michael P; Wilf, Peter; Labandeira, Conrad C; Johnson, Kirk R; Peppe, Daniel J

    2014-01-01

    Plant and associated insect-damage diversity in the western U.S.A. decreased significantly at the Cretaceous-Paleogene (K-Pg) boundary and remained low until the late Paleocene. However, the Mexican Hat locality (ca. 65 Ma) in southeastern Montana, with a typical, low-diversity flora, uniquely exhibits high damage diversity on nearly all its host plants, when compared to all known local and regional early Paleocene sites. The same plant species show minimal damage elsewhere during the early Paleocene. We asked whether the high insect damage diversity at Mexican Hat was more likely related to the survival of Cretaceous insects from refugia or to an influx of novel Paleocene taxa. We compared damage on 1073 leaf fossils from Mexican Hat to over 9000 terminal Cretaceous leaf fossils from the Hell Creek Formation of nearby southwestern North Dakota and to over 9000 Paleocene leaf fossils from the Fort Union Formation in North Dakota, Montana, and Wyoming. We described the entire insect-feeding ichnofauna at Mexican Hat and focused our analysis on leaf mines because they are typically host-specialized and preserve a number of diagnostic morphological characters. Nine mine damage types attributable to three of the four orders of leaf-mining insects are found at Mexican Hat, six of them so far unique to the site. We found no evidence linking any of the diverse Hell Creek mines with those found at Mexican Hat, nor for the survival of any Cretaceous leaf miners over the K-Pg boundary regionally, even on well-sampled, surviving plant families. Overall, our results strongly relate the high damage diversity on the depauperate Mexican Hat flora to an influx of novel insect herbivores during the early Paleocene, possibly caused by a transient warming event and range expansion, and indicate drastic extinction rather than survivorship of Cretaceous insect taxa from refugia.

  12. Geology and mineral resources of the Port Moller region, western Alaska Peninsula, Aleutian arc: A section in USGS research on mineral resources - 1989: Program and abstracts

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Wilson, Frederic H.; White, Willis H.; Detterman, Robert L.

    1988-01-01

    Geologic mapping of the Port Moller, Stepovak Bay, and Simeonof Island quadrangles was begun under the auspices of the Alaska Mineral Resource Assessment Program (AMRAP) in 1983 . Two important mineral deposits are located in the Port Moller quadrangle; the Pyramid prospect is the largest copper porphyry system in the Aleutian Arc, and the Apollo Mine is the only gold mine to reach production status in the Aleutian Arc.

  13. Mining Mineral Aggregates in Urban Areas.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Thomson, Robert D.

    This study can be used in a geographic research methods course to show how nearest-neighbor analysis and regression analysis can be used to study various aspects of land use. An analysis of the sand, gravel, and crushed stone industry in three urban areas of Pennsylvania, Massachusetts, and Florida illustrates the locational problems faced by…

  14. Mining Mineral Aggregates in Urban Areas.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Thomson, Robert D.

    This study can be used in a geographic research methods course to show how nearest-neighbor analysis and regression analysis can be used to study various aspects of land use. An analysis of the sand, gravel, and crushed stone industry in three urban areas of Pennsylvania, Massachusetts, and Florida illustrates the locational problems faced by…

  15. 30 CFR 75.829 - Tramming continuous mining machines in and out of the mine and from section to section.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-07-01

    ... 30 Mineral Resources 1 2012-07-01 2012-07-01 false Tramming continuous mining machines in and out... continuous mining machines in and out of the mine and from section to section. (a) Conditions of use. Tramming the continuous mining machine in and out of the mine and from section to section must be done...

  16. 30 CFR 75.829 - Tramming continuous mining machines in and out of the mine and from section to section.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-07-01

    ... 30 Mineral Resources 1 2013-07-01 2013-07-01 false Tramming continuous mining machines in and out... continuous mining machines in and out of the mine and from section to section. (a) Conditions of use. Tramming the continuous mining machine in and out of the mine and from section to section must be done...

  17. 30 CFR 75.829 - Tramming continuous mining machines in and out of the mine and from section to section.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-07-01

    ... 30 Mineral Resources 1 2014-07-01 2014-07-01 false Tramming continuous mining machines in and out... continuous mining machines in and out of the mine and from section to section. (a) Conditions of use. Tramming the continuous mining machine in and out of the mine and from section to section must be done...

  18. 30 CFR 75.829 - Tramming continuous mining machines in and out of the mine and from section to section.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-07-01

    ... 30 Mineral Resources 1 2010-07-01 2010-07-01 false Tramming continuous mining machines in and out... continuous mining machines in and out of the mine and from section to section. (a) Conditions of use. Tramming the continuous mining machine in and out of the mine and from section to section must be done...

  19. 30 CFR 75.829 - Tramming continuous mining machines in and out of the mine and from section to section.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-07-01

    ... 30 Mineral Resources 1 2011-07-01 2011-07-01 false Tramming continuous mining machines in and out... continuous mining machines in and out of the mine and from section to section. (a) Conditions of use. Tramming the continuous mining machine in and out of the mine and from section to section must be done...

  20. Proceedings of the 15. annual national meeting of the American Society for Surface Mining and Reclamation. Mining -- Gateway to the future

    SciTech Connect

    Throgmorton, D.; Nawrot, J.; Mead, J.; Galetovic, J.; Joseph, W.

    1998-12-31

    The 124 papers of these proceedings are arranged under the following topical sections: Minerals education; Hydrology--Characterization and monitoring; Tailings--Reclamation; Reforestation; Mine drainage--Biogeochemical processes; Mine drainage--Treatment, general; Mine drainage--Passive treatment, wetlands; Mine drainage--Prediction and monitoring; Acid soils--Reclamation practices; Wildlife and fisheries habitat; Subsidence--Engineering practices and environmental effects; OSM acid forming materials mini workshops; RUSLE--Erosion prediction techniques on mined construction and reclaimed lands; IDNR wetlands technology transfer program; Mine planning and postmining land use; Vegetation establishment--Principles and practices; Vegetation establishment--Warm season grasses; Coal combustion by-products--General; Coal combustion by-products--Mine drainage treatment; and Prime farmland reclamation and mine soils management. Papers within scope have been processed separately for inclusion on the data base.

  1. The Black Lake (Quebec, Canada) mineral carbonation experimental station: CO2 capture in mine waste

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Beaudoin, G.; Constantin, M.; Duchesne, J.; Dupuis, C.; Entrazi, A.; Gras, A.; Huot, F.; Fortier, R.; Hebert, R.; Larachi, F.; Lechat, K.; Lemieux, J. M.; Molson, J. W. H.; Maldague, X.; Therrien, R.; Assima, G. P.

    2014-12-01

    Passive mineral carbonation of chrysotile mining and milling waste was discovered at the Black Lake mine, southern Québec, 10 years ago. Indurated crusts were found at the surface and within waste piles where mineral and rock fragments are cemented by hydrated magnesium carbonates. A long-term research program has yielded significant insight into the process of CO2 capture from the atmosphere, and how it can be implemented during mining operations. Laboratory experiments show that the waste mineralogy is crucial, brucite being more reactive than serpentine. Partial water saturation, circa 40%, is also critical to dissolve magnesium from minerals, and transport aqueous CO2 to precipitation sites. Grain armoring by iron oxidation induced by dissolved oxygen prevents further reaction. Two experimental cells constructed with milling waste and fitted with various monitoring probes (T, H2O content, leachate) and gas sampling ports, have been monitored for more than 3 years, along with environmental conditions. The interstitial gas in the cells remains depleted in CO2 indicating continuous capture of ambient atmospheric CO2 at rates faster than advection to reaction sites. The energy released by the exothermic mineral carbonation reactions has been observed both in laboratory experiments (up to 4 °C) and in the field. Warm air, depleted to 10 ppmv CO2, vents at the surface of the waste piles, indicating reaction with atmospheric CO2 deep inside the piles. A thermal anomaly, detected by airborne infrared and coincident with a known venting area, was selected for locating a 100 m deep borehole fitted with sensor arrays to monitor active mineral carbonation within the pile. The borehole has intersected areas where mineral carbonation has indurated the milling waste. The borehole will be monitored for the next 3 years to better understand the mineral carbonation process, and its potential to yield recoverable geothermal energy in mining environments.

  2. What was the groundwater quality before mining in a mineralized region? Lessons from the Questa Project

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Nordstrom, D.K.

    2008-01-01

    The U.S. Geological Survey, in cooperation with the New Mexico Environment Department and supported by Molycorp, Inc (currently Chevron Minerals), has completed a 5-year investigation (2001-2006) to determine the pre-mining ground-water quality at Molycorp's Questa molybdenum mine in northern New Mexico. Current mine-site ground waters are often contaminated with mine-waste leachates and no data exists on premining ground-water quality so that pre-mining conditions must be inferred. Ground-water quality undisturbed by mining is often worse than New Mexico standards and data are needed to help establish closure requirements. The key to determining pre-mining conditions was to study the hydrogeochemistry of a proximal natural analog site, the Straight Creek catchment. Main rock types exposed to weathering include a Tertiary andesite and the Tertiary Amalia tuff (rhyolitic composition), both hydrothermally altered to various degrees. Two types of ground water are common in mineralized areas, acidic ground waters in alluvial debris fans with pH 3-4 and bedrock ground waters with pH 6-8. Siderite, ferrihydrite, rhodochrosite, amorphous to microcrystalline Al(OH)3, calcite, gypsum, barite, and amorphous silica mineral solubilities control concentrations of Fe(II), Fe(III), Mn(II), Al, Ca, Ba, and SiO2, depending on pH and solution composition. Concentrations at low pH are governed by element abundance and mineral weathering rates. Concentrations of Zn and Cd range from detection up to about 10 and 0.05 mg/L, respectively, and are derived primarily from sphalerite dissolution. Concentrations of Ni and Co range from detection up to 1 and 0.4 mg/L, respectively, and are derived primarily from pyrite dissolution. Concentrations of Ca and SO4 are derived from secondary gypsum dissolution and weathering of calcite and pyrite. Metal:sulfate concentration ratios are relatively constant for acidic waters, suggesting consistent weathering rates, independent of catchment. These

  3. Alteration Products and Secondary Minerals in Martian Meteorite Allan Hills 84001

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Wentworth, S. J.; Thomas-Keprta, K. L.; McKay, D. S.

    1998-01-01

    The martian meteorites contain alteration products and secondary minerals that are a critical part of understanding their near-surface histories on both Mars and Earth. In some martian meteorites, suspected martian preterrestrial alteration products can be distinguished from terrestrial weathering effects Using scanning electron microscopy (SEM), field emission SEM (FE-SEM), transmission electron microscopy (TEM), and energy-dispersive X-ray analysis (EDS), we are studying natural fracture surfaces of ALH 84001 chips, including samples from both the interior and the exterior of the meteorite. Exterior samples include fusion crust surfaces, which are important in determining the extent of terrestrial weathering of meteorites. The focus of this study is weathering features and secondary minerals other than the distinctive carbonate globules that continue to be studied by many researchers.

  4. Psycho-social aspects of productivity in underground coal mining

    SciTech Connect

    Akin, G.

    1981-10-01

    The psychosocial aspects of productivity in underground coal mining were investigated. The following topics were studied: (1) labor productivity in deep mines and the explanations for productivity changes; (2) current concepts and research on psychosocial factors in productivity; (3) a survey of experiments in productivity improvement (4) the impact of the introduction of new technology on the social system and the way that it accomplishes production (5) a clinical study of a coal mining operation, model described how production is actually accomplished by workers at the coal face; and (6) implications and recommendations for new technology design, implementation and ongoing management.

  5. Linking Magmatism and Mineralization using In-Situ Nd- and Sr-isotope Systematics of Vein-Hosted Apatite at the Morila Au Mine, Mali

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    McFarlane, C. R.; Lentz, D.

    2009-05-01

    At the Morila Au Mine, Mali, auriferous arsenopyrite, scheelite, and alloys of Au-Sb and Bi-Te occur in polymineralic veins with timing relationships that match those of nearby calc-alkaline plutons. Although an intrusion-related origin is implicated spatially and temporally, robust isotopic links between alteration and ore deposition and the adjacent 'smoking gun' pluton have yet to be established. Previous attempts to fingerprint the mineralizing fluids at Morila using S-isotopes for sulfides in host metasediments (R. Quick, unpublished data) yielded an equivocal range of values between +2 to +6 permil (relative to CDT) reflecting mixing and isotopic re-equilibration during the growth of Aspy at the expense of pyrrhotite within a tortuous micro-porosity network. As an alternative, radiogenic isotope systematics for mineralized veins that contain accessory minerals amenable to in-situ isotope measurements can be used to help minimize potential homogenization of isotope signatures. At Morila, LREE- and Sr-bearing apatite occurs in calc-alkaline intrusions and mineralized polymineralic veins. This allows us to compare the isotopic signature of mineralized veins to that of nearby plutonic rocks. Three distinct vein assemblages were targeted for in-situ work: 1) scheelite-bearing veins hosted by granodiorite stocks, 2) Au-Loellingite-Aspy-bearing veins in the upper footwall of the deposit, and 3) late-stage peraluminous granitic veins distal to the ore body. Apatite was analyzed by LA-MC-ICPMS in standard thin sections thereby providing complete control on the textural context of each grain. The results, calculated at t = 2095 Ma, yield a narrow range of epsilon-Nd values between -1 to +2 but a wide range of initial 87Sr/86Sr between 0.7015 to >0.7030. Whereas the Nd-isotope data overlaps with the full range of intrusive rocks at Morila and with the host metasediments, the bulk of the Sr-isotope data for the veins matches the isotopic signature of late-stage granites

  6. 25 CFR 215.25 - Other minerals and deep-lying lead and zinc minerals.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-04-01

    ... 25 Indians 1 2013-04-01 2013-04-01 false Other minerals and deep-lying lead and zinc minerals. 215.25 Section 215.25 Indians BUREAU OF INDIAN AFFAIRS, DEPARTMENT OF THE INTERIOR ENERGY AND MINERALS LEAD AND ZINC MINING OPERATIONS AND LEASES, QUAPAW AGENCY § 215.25 Other minerals and deep-lying...

  7. 25 CFR 215.25 - Other minerals and deep-lying lead and zinc minerals.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-04-01

    ... 25 Indians 1 2014-04-01 2014-04-01 false Other minerals and deep-lying lead and zinc minerals. 215.25 Section 215.25 Indians BUREAU OF INDIAN AFFAIRS, DEPARTMENT OF THE INTERIOR ENERGY AND MINERALS LEAD AND ZINC MINING OPERATIONS AND LEASES, QUAPAW AGENCY § 215.25 Other minerals and deep-lying...

  8. 25 CFR 215.25 - Other minerals and deep-lying lead and zinc minerals.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-04-01

    ... 25 Indians 1 2012-04-01 2011-04-01 true Other minerals and deep-lying lead and zinc minerals. 215.25 Section 215.25 Indians BUREAU OF INDIAN AFFAIRS, DEPARTMENT OF THE INTERIOR ENERGY AND MINERALS LEAD AND ZINC MINING OPERATIONS AND LEASES, QUAPAW AGENCY § 215.25 Other minerals and deep-lying...

  9. 25 CFR 215.25 - Other minerals and deep-lying lead and zinc minerals.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-04-01

    ... 25 Indians 1 2011-04-01 2011-04-01 false Other minerals and deep-lying lead and zinc minerals. 215.25 Section 215.25 Indians BUREAU OF INDIAN AFFAIRS, DEPARTMENT OF THE INTERIOR ENERGY AND MINERALS LEAD AND ZINC MINING OPERATIONS AND LEASES, QUAPAW AGENCY § 215.25 Other minerals and deep-lying...

  10. Mines, prospects, and occurrences of nonmetallic mineral commodities in the Greenville 1 degree by 2 degrees Quadrangle, South Carolina, Georgia, and North Carolina

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    D'Agostino, John P.; O'Connor, Bruce J.; Zupan, Alan J.W.; Maybin, Arthur H.

    1994-01-01

    Mines, prospects, and occurrences of nonmetal mineral commodities in the Greenville 1° x 2° quadrangle are tabulated in this report. There are 488 symbols representing 579 mines, prospects, and occurrences located in the quadrangle. There are 379 symbols used for 466 features in Georgia, 106 symbols for 110 features in South Carolina, and 3 symbols for 3 features in North Carolina. The table lists, in consecutive orders for each county (fig. 1), the map number of each feature, which correlates and locates the item on the accompanying Greenville 1° x 2° quadrangle map. Also listed are the known name of the feature; the 7.5 topographic map on which the commodity site is located; the Transverse Mercator (UTM) northing and easting grid coordinates from the appropriate 7.5’ topographic map; the commodity; remarks; and references. Some locations are known, but many sites are not verified and their locations are only approximate. Reference are listed in References Cited and referred to by number to save space. The generalized tectonic framework for the quadrangle is shown in figure 2.

  11. 30 CFR 18.82 - Permit to use experimental electric face equipment in a gassy mine or tunnel.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-07-01

    ... 30 Mineral Resources 1 2010-07-01 2010-07-01 false Permit to use experimental electric face equipment in a gassy mine or tunnel. 18.82 Section 18.82 Mineral Resources MINE SAFETY AND HEALTH ADMINISTRATION, DEPARTMENT OF LABOR TESTING, EVALUATION, AND APPROVAL OF MINING PRODUCTS ELECTRIC MOTOR-DRIVEN MINE EQUIPMENT AND ACCESSORIES...

  12. 30 CFR 18.82 - Permit to use experimental electric face equipment in a gassy mine or tunnel.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-07-01

    ... 30 Mineral Resources 1 2012-07-01 2012-07-01 false Permit to use experimental electric face equipment in a gassy mine or tunnel. 18.82 Section 18.82 Mineral Resources MINE SAFETY AND HEALTH ADMINISTRATION, DEPARTMENT OF LABOR TESTING, EVALUATION, AND APPROVAL OF MINING PRODUCTS ELECTRIC MOTOR-DRIVEN MINE EQUIPMENT AND ACCESSORIES...

  13. 30 CFR 18.82 - Permit to use experimental electric face equipment in a gassy mine or tunnel.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-07-01

    ... 30 Mineral Resources 1 2011-07-01 2011-07-01 false Permit to use experimental electric face equipment in a gassy mine or tunnel. 18.82 Section 18.82 Mineral Resources MINE SAFETY AND HEALTH ADMINISTRATION, DEPARTMENT OF LABOR TESTING, EVALUATION, AND APPROVAL OF MINING PRODUCTS ELECTRIC MOTOR-DRIVEN MINE EQUIPMENT AND ACCESSORIES...

  14. 30 CFR 18.82 - Permit to use experimental electric face equipment in a gassy mine or tunnel.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-07-01

    ... 30 Mineral Resources 1 2014-07-01 2014-07-01 false Permit to use experimental electric face equipment in a gassy mine or tunnel. 18.82 Section 18.82 Mineral Resources MINE SAFETY AND HEALTH ADMINISTRATION, DEPARTMENT OF LABOR TESTING, EVALUATION, AND APPROVAL OF MINING PRODUCTS ELECTRIC MOTOR-DRIVEN MINE EQUIPMENT AND ACCESSORIES...

  15. Beryllium—A critical mineral commodity—Resources, production, and supply chain

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Lederer, Graham W.; Foley, Nora K.; Jaskula, Brian W.; Ayuso, Robert A.

    2016-11-14

    Beryllium is a lightweight metallic element used in a wide variety of specialty and industrial applications. As a function of its unique chemical and physical properties, such as a high stiffness-to-weight ratio, resistance to temperature extremes, and high thermal conductivity, beryllium cannot be easily replaced by substitute materials in applications where combinations of these properties make it the material of choice. Because the number of beryllium producers is limited and the use of substitute materials in specific defense-related applications that are vital to national security is inadequate, several studies have categorized beryllium as a critical and strategic material. This categorization has led to the United States Government recommending that beryllium be stockpiled for use in the event of a national emergency. As of December 31, 2015, the National Defense Stockpile inventory of hot-pressed beryllium metal powder, structured beryllium metal powder, and vacuum-cast beryllium metal totaled 78 metric tons (t).The U.S. Geological Survey (USGS) Mineral Resources Program supports research on the occurrence, quality, quantity, and availability of mineral resources vital to the economy and national security. The USGS, through its National Minerals Information Center (NMIC), collects, analyzes, and disseminates information on more than 90 nonfuel mineral commodities from more than 180 countries. This fact sheet provides information on the production, consumption, supply chain, geology, and resource availability of beryllium in a global context.

  16. Isolation of novel microalgae from acid mine drainage and its potential application for biodiesel production.

    PubMed

    Yun, Hyun-Shik; Lee, Hongkyun; Park, Young-Tae; Ji, Min-Kyu; Kabra, Akhil N; Jeon, Chung; Jeon, Byong-Hun; Choi, Jaeyoung

    2014-08-01

    Microalgae were selected and isolated from acid mine drainage in order to find microalgae species which could be cultivated in low pH condition. In the present investigation, 30 microalgae were isolated from ten locations of acid mine drainage in South Korea. Four microalgae were selected based on their growth rate, morphology, and identified as strains of KGE1, KGE3, KGE4, and KGE7. The dry biomass of microalgae species ranged between 1 and 2 g L(-1) after 21 days of cultivation. The growth kinetics of microalgae was well described by logistic growth model. Among these, KGE7 has the highest biomass production (2.05 ± 0.35 g L(-1)), lipid productivity (0.82 ± 0.14 g L(-1)), and C16-C18 fatty acid contents (97.6 %). These results suggest that Scenedesmus sp. KGE 7 can be utilized for biodiesel production based on its high biomass and lipid productivity.

  17. Summaries and data packages of important areas for mineral investment and production opportunities in Afghanistan

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Peters, Stephen G.

    2011-01-01

    The U.S. Geological Survey (USGS) of the Department of the Interior and the Task Force for Business and Stability Operations (TFBSO) of the Department of Defense entered into an agreement to study and assess the fuel and nonfuel mineral resources of Afghanistan from October 2009 through September 2011. The work resulted in a report that summarizes new results and interpretations on 24 important Areas of Interest (AOIs) of nonfuel mineral resources that were identified for mineral investment and production opportunities inAfghanistan (Peters and others, 2011). The report is supported by digital data in the form of geographic information system (GIS) databases and by archival and non-USGS reports on each AOI. The data packages contain from 20 to 50 digital layers of data, such as geology, geophysics, and hyperspectral and remotely sensed imagery. Existing reports and maps are mainly from the Afghanistan Geological Survey (AGS) archive and are Soviet-era (1960s and 1970s) reports. These data are available from the AGS Data Center in Kabul (http://mom.gov.af/en; http://www.bgs.ac.uk/afghanminerals/) and also are available for viewing and download from the USGS public Web site (http://afghanistan.cr.usgs.gov/) and from a separate viewer at http://mapdss2.er.usgs.gov.

  18. Minerals yearbook, 1992. Volume 1. Metals and minerals. Annual report

    SciTech Connect

    Not Available

    1992-01-01

    This edition of the Minerals Yearbook discusses the performance of the worldwide mineral and materials industry during 1992 and provides background information to assist in interpreting that performance. Content of the individual Yearbook volumes follows: Volume I, Metals and Minerals, contains chapters on virtually all metallic and industrial mineral commodities important to the U.S. economy. Chapters on advanced materials, nonrenewable organic materials, and nonferrous metals recycling also were added to the Minerals Yearbook series beginning with the 1989, 1990, and 1991 volumes, respectively. A new chapter on materials recycling has been initiated in this 1992 volume. In addition, a chapter on survey methods used in data collection with a statistical summary of nonfuel minerals and a chapter on trends in mining and quarrying in the metals and industrial mineral industries are included.

  19. Minerals yearbook, 1991. Volume 1. Metals and minerals. Annual report

    SciTech Connect

    1991-12-31

    This edition of the Mineral Yearbook discusses the performance of the worlwide minerals and materials industry during 1991 and provides background information to assist in interpreting that performance. Volume 1, Metals and Mineral, contains chapters on virtually all metallic and industrial mineral commodities important to the U.S. economy. Chapters on advanced materials and nonrenewable organic materials also were added to the Minerals Yearbook series beginning with the 1989 and 1990 volumes, respectively. A new chapter on nonferrous metals recycling has been initiated in this 1991 volume. In addition, a chapter on survey methods used in data collection with a statistical summary of nonfuel minerals and a chapter on trends in mining and quarrying in the metals and industrial mineral industries are included.

  20. Method and apparatus for scrubbing effluent gases from mineral fiber production

    SciTech Connect

    Baduel, G. M.

    1985-04-02

    Method and apparatus are disclosed for scrubbing effluent gases arising during the production of mineral fibers and particularly during the production of glass fiber insulation blankets or mats. The scrubbing is effected by the use of opposed jets of water, the interaction of which produces a planar dispersion of water droplets across the path of the effluent gases. The jets are preferably located within the gas collecting ducts closely adjacent the region of gas emergence to prevent buildup of glass fibers and binder on the duct walls. The water is separated from the gas, following which the water and gas are both subjected to further treatment before being recycled or released.

  1. Mineral transformations and Zn, Pb, As, Cd mobility in soils developed on Zn non-sulfide mining wastes near Olkusz, S Poland

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Jerzykowska, Irena; Michalik, Marek

    2014-05-01

    To estimate the degree of threat posed by heavy metals and other environmentally harmful elements it is necessary to determine forms in which these elements occur and their stability in the weathering environment. The aim of this work was to (1) describe mineral transformations occurring in soils developed on Zn non-sulfide mining wastes near Olkusz (S Poland), (2) identify forms of occurrence of Zn, Pb, As, Cd; and (3) predict potential mobility of these elements. Studied samples come from soil profiles developed on four dumps after mining of non-sulfide Zn ores from the end of the XIX century until 1985. Two types of approaches were used: mineralogical methods (optical and electron microscopy with in situ elemental analysis, X-ray diffraction) and geochemical methods (selective sequential extraction and bulk elemental analysis). Zn in studied samples is present in smithsonite or hemimorphite, Zn aluminosilicates (smectite and kaolinite groups) and absorbed on Fe-oxide. The largest amounts of Pb is encountered in Mn-oxides and less in cerrusite, Fe-oxides and dolomite. As dominates as the ions absorbed on goethite and Cd as an impurity in carbonates, silicates and Zn-aluminosilicates, and in the form of exchangeable ions. Most important mineral transformations due to weathering observed in the samples are dissolution of dolomite, goethite, smithsonite, hemimorphite and precipitation of Zn-aluminosilicates, Mn-oxides and secondary Fe-oxides. The study has shown that Cd occurring in the form of exchangeable ions, potentially available to living organisms, pose the greatest threat to the environment. Cd is the most mobile in surface horizons of the soils developed on the oxidized ores dumps. Zn and Pb can be released from their forms in the event of a change of pH of the environment to a more acidic and As in case of changing conditions to more reductive.

  2. Dereplication, sequencing and identification of peptidic natural products: from genome mining to peptidogenomics to spectral networks.

    PubMed

    Mohimani, Hosein; Pevzner, Pavel A

    2016-01-01

    Covering: 2000 to 2015. While recent breakthroughs in the discovery of peptide antibiotics and other Peptidic Natural Products (PNPs) raise a challenge for developing new algorithms for their analyses, the computational technologies for high-throughput PNP discovery are still lacking. We discuss the computational bottlenecks in analyzing PNPs and review recent advances in genome mining, peptidogenomics, and spectral networks that are now enabling the discovery of new PNPs via mass spectrometry. We further describe the connections between these advances and the new generation of software tools for PNP dereplication, de novo sequencing, and identification.

  3. The importance of water transit time and mineral dissolution kinetics for the flux of weathering products

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Erlandsson, Martin; Bishop, Kevin; Köhler, Stephan; Amvrosiadi, Nino

    2016-04-01

    Soil mineral weathering is one of the major sources of base cations (BC), which play a dual role for a forest ecosystem; they function both as plant nutrients, and for buffering against acidification of catchment runoff. On a long-term basis, the soil weathering rates will determine the highest sustainable forest productivity without causing acidification. It is believed that the hydrologic residence time play a key role in determining weathering rates on a landscape scale. In this study, we investigate the significance of the water transit residence time (WTT) distribution for the transport of base cations to catchment runoff. By modelling hillslope flowpaths with different transit times, using the geochemical computing code PHREEQC, we demonstrate how in-stream dynamics as exemplified by elemental ratios can be explained by mineral dissolution kinetics and equilibria. Specifically, we hypothesize that equilibrium of plagioclase regulates the delivery of base cations and silica to catchment runoff. These patters can be seen in field data from 10 years of sampling from a nested-catchment, where the Na+/BC and the Si/BC-ratios vary systematically with WTT on both a temporal and a spatial scale. This behavior has implications for the total transport of products from mineral dissolution to catchment runoff. As the water entering the stream is a mixture of water with different transit times, the composition of stream water will not only be dependent on the average WTT, but also on the shape of the WTT distribution. For the base cations associated with minerals that becomes supersaturated or with precipitating secondary phases within the range of WTT, i.e. Na+ and K+, the tails of "old water" of the WRT-distribution will not contribute to any extra transport of these elements. Finally, we use the derived relationships to estimate the transport of weathering products from a forested hillslope, given the modelled WRT distribution.

  4. Mineral Nutritional Yield and Nutrient Density of Locally Adapted Wheat Genotypes under Organic Production

    PubMed Central

    Moreira-Ascarrunz, Sergio Daniel; Larsson, Hans; Prieto-Linde, Maria Luisa; Johansson, Eva

    2016-01-01

    The aim of the present investigation was to investigate the nutritional yield, nutrient density, stability, and adaptability of organically produced wheat for sustainable and nutritional high value food production. This study evaluated the nutritional yield of four minerals (Fe, Zn, Cu, and Mg) in 19 wheat genotypes, selected as being locally adapted under organic agriculture conditions. The new metric of nutritional yield was calculated for each genotype and they were evaluated for stability using the Additive Main effects and Multiplicative Interaction (AMMI) stability analysis and for genotypic value, stability, and adaptability using the Best Linear Unbiased Prediction (BLUP procedure). The results indicated that there were genotypes suitable for production under organic agriculture conditions with satisfactory yields (>4000 kg·ha−1). Furthermore, these genotypes showed high nutritional yield and nutrient density for the four minerals studied. Additionally, since these genotypes were stable and adaptable over three environmentally different years, they were designated “balanced genotypes” for the four minerals and for the aforementioned characteristics. Selection and breeding of such “balanced genotypes” may offer an alternative to producing nutritious food under low-input agriculture conditions. Furthermore, the type of evaluation presented here may also be of interest for implementation in research conducted in developing countries, following the objectives of producing enough nutrients for a growing population. PMID:28231184

  5. Using remote sensing techniques and field-based structural analysis to explore new gold and associated mineral sites around Al-Hajar mine, Asir terrane, Arabian Shield

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Sonbul, Abdullah R.; El-Shafei, Mohamed K.; Bishta, Adel Z.

    2016-05-01

    Modern earth resource satellites provide huge amounts of digital imagery at different resolutions. These satellite imageries are considered one of the most significant sources of data for mineral exploration. Image processing techniques were applied to the exposed rocks around the Al-Aqiq area of the Asir terrane in the southern part of the Arabian Shield. The area under study has two sub-parallel N-S trending metamorphic belts of green-schist facies. The first belt is located southeast of Al-Aqiq, where the Al-Hajar Gold Mine is situated. It is essentially composed of metavolcanics and metasedimentary rocks, and it is intruded by different plutonic rocks of primarily diorite, syenite and porphyritic granite. The second belt is located northwest of Al-Aqiq, and it is composed of metavolcanics and metasedimentary rocks and is intruded by granite bodies. The current study aimed to distinguish the lithological units, detect and map the alteration zones, and extract the major fault lineaments around the Al-Hajar gold prospect. Digital satellite imageries, including Landsat 7 ETM + multispectral and panchromatic and SPOT-5 were used in addition to field verification. Areas with similar spectral signatures to the prospect were identified in the nearby metamorphic belt; it was considered as a target area and was inspected in the field. The relationships between the alteration zones, the mineral deposits and the structural elements were used to locate the ore-bearing zones in the subsurface. The metasedimentary units of the target area showed a dextral-ductile shearing top-to-the-north and the presence of dominant mineralized quartz vein-system. The area to the north of the Al-Hajar prospect showed also sub-parallel shear zones along which different types of alterations were detected. Field-based criteria such as hydrothermal breccia, jasper, iron gossans and porphyritic granite strongly indicate the presence of porphyry-type ore deposits in Al-Hajar metamorphic belt that

  6. The geology and 40Ar/ 39Ar geochronology of magmatic activity and related mineralization in the Nevados del Famatina mining district, La Rioja province, Argentina

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Losada-Calderón, A. J.; McBride, S. L.; Bloom, M. S.

    1994-01-01

    The Nevados del Famatina mining district (NFMD) is located in La Rioja province, Argentina. This district contains porphyry-style mineralization (Nevados del Famatina) and high sulfidation veins (La Mejicana). The stratigraphic column in the NFMD begins with Cambrian siltstones which were metamorphosed during the Late Ordovician - Early Silurian and intruded by Late Ordovician-Silurian granitic rocks. These units were covered by Upper Paleozoic and Tertiary continental sedimentary rocks which are intercalated with and overlain by dacitic-rhyodacitic porphyritic rocks (Mogote Formation) emplaced during the Pliocene. All these units are covered by Pleistocene sediments and Quaternary alluvial and colluvial deposits. Magmatic activity and related mineralization in the NFMD have been dated by the 40Ar/ 39Ar technique. Step heating studies of orthoclase and biotite phenocrysts from the Mogote Formation in the NFMD suggest that the igneous rocks were emplaced around 5.0±0.3 Ma ago. However, plateau ages of biotite from the outer carapace of the subjacent granodioritic magma chamber and of muscovite from quartz-sericite alteration at both Nevados del Famatina and La Mejicana are around 3.8±0.2 Ma. Emplacement of the shallow stocks is separated from cooling of the outer carapace of the subjacent granodioritic magma chamber to temperatures below 350° C by a time span of approximately 1 Ma. During this interval, a convective hydrothermal system was established proximal to the granodioritic magma chamber, which resulted in porphyry molybdenumcoppergold mineralization adjacent to the igneous rocks and more distal high sulfidation veins located in fault zones.

  7. MARINE MINERAL RESOURCES - AN UPDATE AND INTRODUCTION.

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Cruickshank, Michael J.; Siapno, William

    1985-01-01

    This article briefly traces the status of marine minerals development, and it describes papers presented in this special issue on the subject. Subjects covered include types of deposits, marine mining in Canada, Manganese nodules, metalliferous sulfides as seabed minerals, metallurgical processes for reducing sulfide minerals, U. S. phosphate industry, construction materials and placers, and industry problems.

  8. The mineral sector and economic development in Ghana: A computable general equilibrium analysis

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Addy, Samuel N.

    A computable general equilibrium model (CGE) model is formulated for conducting mineral policy analysis in the context of national economic development for Ghana. The model, called GHANAMIN, places strong emphasis on production, trade, and investment. It can be used to examine both micro and macro economic impacts of policies associated with mineral investment, taxation, and terms of trade changes, as well as mineral sector performance impacts due to technological change or the discovery of new deposits. Its economywide structure enables the study of broader development policy with a focus on individual or multiple sectors, simultaneously. After going through a period of contraction for about two decades, mining in Ghana has rebounded significantly and is currently the main foreign exchange earner. Gold alone contributed 44.7 percent of 1994 total export earnings. GHANAMIN is used to investigate the economywide impacts of mineral tax policies, world market mineral prices changes, mining investment, and increased mineral exports. It is also used for identifying key sectors for economic development. Various simulations were undertaken with the following results: Recently implemented mineral tax policies are welfare increasing, but have an accompanying decrease in the output of other export sectors. World mineral price rises stimulate an increase in real GDP; however, this increase is less than real GDP decreases associated with price declines. Investment in the non-gold mining sector increases real GDP more than investment in gold mining, because of the former's stronger linkages to the rest of the economy. Increased mineral exports are very beneficial to the overall economy. Foreign direct investment (FDI) in mining increases welfare more so than domestic capital, which is very limited. Mining investment and the increased mineral exports since 1986 have contributed significantly to the country's economic recovery, with gold mining accounting for 95 percent of the

  9. Coal-mine spoil banks offer good potential for timber and wildlife production

    Treesearch

    Grant Davis; Walter H. Davidson

    1968-01-01

    More than 300,000 acres have been strip-mined for coal in the Anthracite and Bituminous Regions of Pennsylvania—most of this since World War II. And an additional 10,000 to 15,000 acres are strip-mined each year. Since 1945 coal operators have been required to revegetate the areas disturbed by mining. Although the primary purpose of revegetation is to provide permanent...

  10. Isolation and characterisation of mineral-oxidising "Acidibacillus" spp. from mine sites and geothermal environments in different global locations.

    PubMed

    Holanda, Roseanne; Hedrich, Sabrina; Ňancucheo, Ivan; Oliveira, Guilherme; Grail, Barry M; Johnson, D Barrie

    2016-09-01

    Eight strains of acidophilic bacteria, isolated from mine-impacted and geothermal sites from different parts of the world, were shown to form a distinct clade (proposed genus "Acidibacillus") within the phylum Firmicutes, well separated from the acidophilic genera Sulfobacillus and Alicyclobacillus. Two of the strains (both isolated from sites in Yellowstone National Park, USA) were moderate thermophiles that oxidised both ferrous iron and elemental sulphur, while the other six were mesophiles that also oxidised ferrous iron, but not sulphur. All eight isolates reduced ferric iron to varying degrees. The two groups shared <95% similarity of their 16S rRNA genes and were therefore considered to be distinct species: "Acidibacillus sulfuroxidans" (moderately thermophilic isolates) and "Acidibacillus ferrooxidans" (mesophilic isolates). Both species were obligate heterotrophs; none of the eight strains grew in the absence of organic carbon. "Acidibacillus" spp. were generally highly tolerant of elevated concentrations of cationic transition metals, though "A. sulfuroxidans" strains were more sensitive to some (e.g. nickel and zinc) than those of "A. ferrooxidans". Initial annotation of the genomes of two strains of "A. ferrooxidans" revealed the presence of genes (cbbL) involved in the RuBisCO pathway for CO2 assimilation and iron oxidation (rus), though with relatively low sequence identities.

  11. Management of mine spoil for crop productivity with lignite fly ash and biological amendments.

    PubMed

    Ram, L C; Srivastava, N K; Tripathi, R C; Jha, S K; Sinha, A K; Singh, G; Manoharan, V

    2006-04-01

    Long-term field trials using lignite fly ash (LFA) were carried out in rice crops during the period 1996-2000 at Mine I, Neyveli Lignite Corporation, Tamil Nadu. LFA, being alkaline and endowed with an excellent pozzolanic nature, silt loam texture, and plant nutrients, has the potential to improve the texture, fertility, and crop productivity of mine spoil. The rice crops were the first, third, fifth, and sixth crops in rotation. The other crops, such as green gram (second) and sun hemp (fourth), were grown as green manure. For experimental trials, LFA was applied at various dosages (0, 5, 10, 20, 50, 100, and 200 t/ha), with and without press mud (10 t/ha), before cultivation of the first crop. Repeat applications of LFA were made at the same dosages in treatments of up to 50 t/ha (with and without press mud) before cultivation of the third and fifth crops. Press mud, a lightweight organic waste product from the sugar industry, was used as an organic amendment and source of plant nutrients. Also, a recommended dosage of chemical fertilizer, along with gypsum, humic acid, and biofertilizer as supplementing agents, was applied in all the treatments, including control. With one-time and repeat applications of LFA, from 5 to 20 t/ha (with and without press mud), the crop yield (grain and straw) increased significantly (p < 0.05), in the range from 3.0 to 42.0% over the corresponding control. The maximum yield was obtained with repeat applications of 20 t/ha of LFA with press mud in the third crop. The press mud enhanced the yield in the range of 1.5-10.2% with various dosages of LFA. The optimum dosage of LFA was 20 t/ha for both one-time and repeat applications. Repeat applications of LFA at lower dosages of up to 20 t/ha were more effective in increasing the yield than the corresponding one-time applications of up to 20 t/ha and repeat applications at 50 t/ha. One-time and repeat applications of LFA of up to 20 t/ha (with and without press mud), apart from

  12. Restoring Sustainable Forests on Appalachian Mined Lands for Wood Products, Renewable Energy, Carbon Sequestration, and Other Ecosystems Services

    SciTech Connect

    James A. Burger; J. Galbraith; T. Fox; G. Amacher; J. Sullivan; C. Zipper

    2006-04-30

    The overall purpose of this project is to evaluate the biological and economic feasibility of restoring high-quality forests on mined land, and to measure carbon sequestration and wood production benefits that would be achieved from forest restoration procedures. During this quarter we worked on methodologies for analyzing carbon in mine soils. A unique property of mine soils is the presence of coal and carboniferous rock particles that are present in mine soils in various sizes, quantities, and qualities. There is no existing method in the literature that may be of use for quantitative estimation of soil organic carbon (SOC) in mine soils that can successfully differentiate between pedogenic and geogenic carbon forms. In this report we present a detailed description of a 16-step method for measuring SOC in mine soils designed for and tested on a total of 30 different mine soil mixtures representing a wide spectrum of mine soils in the hard-rock region of the Appalachian coalfield. The proposed method is a combination of chemical procedure for carbonates removal, a thermal procedure for pedogenic C removal, and elemental C analysis procedure at 900 C. Our methodology provides a means to correct for the carbon loss from the more volatile constituents of coal fragments in the mine soil samples and another correction factor for the protected organic matter that can also remain unoxidized following thermal pretreatment. The correction factors for coal and soil material-specific SOM were based on carbon content loss from coal and SOM determined by a parallel thermal oxidation analysis of pure ground coal fragments retrieved from the same mined site as the soil samples and of coal-free soil rock fragments of sandstone and siltstone origin.

  13. RESTORING SUSTAINABLE FORESTS ON APPALACHIAN MINED LANDS FOR WOOD PRODUCTS, RENEWABLE ENERGY, CARBON SEQUESTRATION, AND OTHER ECOSYSTEM SERVICES

    SciTech Connect

    Jonathan Aggett

    2003-12-15

    The overall purpose of this project is to evaluate the biological and economic feasibility of restoring high-quality forests on mined land, and to measure carbon sequestration and wood production benefits that would be achieved from forest restoration procedures. In this segment of work, our goal was to review methods for estimating tree survival, growth, yield and value of forests growing on surface mined land in the eastern coalfields of the USA, and to determine the extent to which carbon sequestration is influenced by these factors. Public Law 95-87, the Surface Mining Control and Reclamation Act of 1977 (SMCRA), mandates that mined land be reclaimed in a fashion that renders the land at least as productive after mining as it was before mining. In the central Appalachian region, where prime farmland and economic development opportunities for mined land are scarce, the most practical land use choices are hayland/pasture, wildlife habitat, or forest land. Since 1977, the majority of mined land has been reclaimed as hayland/pasture or wildlife habitat, which is less expensive to reclaim than forest land, since there are no tree planting costs. As a result, there are now hundreds of thousands of hectares of grasslands and scrublands in various stages of natural succession located throughout otherwise forested mountains in the U.S. A literature review was done to develop the basis for an economic feasibility study of a range of land-use conversion scenarios. Procedures were developed for both mixed hardwoods and white pine under a set of low product prices and under a set of high product prices. Economic feasibility is based on land expectation values. Further, our review shows that three types of incentive schemes might be important: (1) lump sum payment at planting (and equivalent series of annual payments); (2) revenue incentive at harvest; and (3) benefit based on carbon volume.

  14. Tectonic conditions of hydrothermal polymetallic vein-type mineralization, Sainte Marie-aux-Mines, France

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Hafeznia, Y.; Bourlange, S.; Ohnenstetter, M.

    2012-04-01

    The Sainte-Marie-aux-Mines (SMM) mines host one of the most famous and oldest silver deposits in Europe. The SMM district is located in the central part of the Vosges mountains, France, within gneiss and granites of the Moldanubian zone. The SMM district includes the Neuenberg E-W vein-type Cu-Ag-As/Pb-Zn deposit and the Altenberg N-S vein-type Pb-Zn-Ag deposit. Deposition of the SMM hydrothermal mineralization occurred under a brittle tectonic regime that might be connected to neo-Variscan and/or post-Variscan tectonics, in a similar way as the polymetallic vein deposits of the Black Forest, Germany. A structural study was done in the Neuenberg area, in the vicinity of the Saint-Jacques vein, and within the Gabe Gottes mine, considering the orientation, extent, chronology and density of faults as well as the nature of the infilling minerals. In the Gabe-Gottes mine, the Saint-Jacques vein comprises multiple successive, sub-parallel subvertical veinlets with gangue minerals, mostly carbonates and quartz, and metal-bearing phases, sulfides and sulfosalts. The veinlets are 2 to 50 cm thick and strike N80° to N110°, the earlier veins slightly dipping towards the north, and the latest one, to the south. Seven systems of faults were identified, which may be classified into three major groups formed respectively before, during and after the main stage of ore deposition: a) Pre-mineralization faults - These consist of sinistral NE-SW strike-slip faults, and NW-SE and NE-SW steeply dipping normal faults. These could be related to Carboniferous events considering their relationships with the granitoid intrusives present in the mine area (Brézouard leucogranite ~329 Ma), and the extensional tectonics developed during exhumation processes. b) Faults associated with the main ore-deposition - These faults could be related to late-Hercynian processes from compressional to extensional tectonic regimes. Mineralization controlling faults consist of dextral and sinistral E

  15. Offshore sand and gravel mining

    SciTech Connect

    Pandan, J.W.

    1983-05-01

    This paper reviews the status of mining offshore for sand and gravel on a world-wide basis. It discusses the technology for exploration and evaluation of sea floor mineral targets, as well as mining, transportation, and processing. Large operations in Japan and Europe are described, based upon personal observations of the author. The U.S. situation is outlined and opinions offered as to the outlook for the future.

  16. Predicting long-term carbon mineralization and trace gas production from thawing permafrost of Northeast Siberia.

    PubMed

    Knoblauch, Christian; Beer, Christian; Sosnin, Alexander; Wagner, Dirk; Pfeiffer, Eva-Maria

    2013-04-01

    The currently observed Arctic warming will increase permafrost degradation followed by mineralization of formerly frozen organic matter to carbon dioxide (CO2 ) and methane (CH4 ). Despite increasing awareness of permafrost carbon vulnerability, the potential long-term formation of trace gases from thawing permafrost remains unclear. The objective of the current study is to quantify the potential long-term release of trace gases from permafrost organic matter. Therefore, Holocene and Pleistocene permafrost deposits were sampled in the Lena River Delta, Northeast Siberia. The sampled permafrost contained between 0.6% and 12.4% organic carbon. CO2 and CH4 production was measured for 1200 days in aerobic and anaerobic incubations at 4 °C. The derived fluxes were used to estimate parameters of a two pool carbon degradation model. Total CO2 production was similar in Holocene permafrost (1.3 ± 0.8 mg CO2 -C gdw(-1) aerobically, 0.25 ± 0.13 mg CO2 -C gdw(-1) anaerobically) as in 34 000-42 000-year-old Pleistocene permafrost (1.6 ± 1.2 mg CO2 -C gdw(-1) aerobically, 0.26 ± 0.10 mg CO2 -C gdw(-1) anaerobically). The main predictor for carbon mineralization was the content of organic matter. Anaerobic conditions strongly reduced carbon mineralization since only 25% of aerobically mineralized carbon was released as CO2 and CH4 in the absence of oxygen. CH4 production was low or absent in most of the Pleistocene permafrost and always started after a significant delay. After 1200 days on average 3.1% of initial carbon was mineralized to CO2 under aerobic conditions while without oxygen 0.55% were released as CO2 and 0.28% as CH4 . The calibrated carbon degradation model predicted cumulative CO2 production over a period of 100 years accounting for 15.1% (aerobic) and 1.8% (anaerobic) of initial organic carbon, which is significantly less than recent estimates. The multiyear time series from the incubation experiments helps to more reliably constrain projections of future

  17. Geology and porphyry copper-type alteration-mineralization of igneous rocks at the Christmas Mine, Gila County, Arizona

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Koski, Randolph A.

    1979-01-01

    The Christmas copper deposit, located in southern Gila County, Arizona, is part of the major porphyry copper province of southwestern North America. Although Christmas is known for skarn deposits in Paleozoic carbonate rocks, ore-grade porphyry-type copper mineralization also occurs in a composite granodioritic intrusive complex and adjacent mafic volcanic country rocks. This study considers the nature, distribution, and genesis of alteration-mineralization in the igneous rock environment at Christmas. At the southeast end of the Dripping Spring Mountains, the Pennsylvanian Naco Limestone is unconformably overlain by the Cretaceous Williamson Canyon Volcanics, a westward-thinning sequence of basaltic volcanic breccia and lava flows, and subordinate clastic sedimentary rocks. Paleozoic and Mesozoic strata are intruded by Laramide-age dikes, sills, and small stocks of hornblende andesite porphyry and hornblende rhyodacite porphyry, and the mineralized Christmas intrusive complex. Rocks of the elongate Christmas stock, intruded along an east-northeast-trending fracture zone, are grouped into early, veined quartz diorite (Dark Phase), biotite granodiorite porphyry (Light Phase), and granodiorite; and late, unveined dacite porphyry and granodiorite porphyry. Biotite rhyodacite porphyry dikes extending east and west from the vicinity of the stock are probably coeval with biotite granodiorite porphyry. Accumulated normal displacement of approximately 1 km along the northwest-trending Christmas-Joker fault system has juxtaposed contrasting levels (lower, intrusive-carbonate rock environment and upper, intrusive-volcanic rock environment) within the porphyry copper system. K-Ar age determinations and whole-rock chemical analyses of the major intrusive rock types indicate that Laramide calc-alkaline magmatism and ore deposition at Christmas evolved over an extended period from within the Late Cretaceous (~75-80 m.y. ago) to early Paleocene (~63-61 m.y. ago). The sequence of

  18. Method for the production of mineral wool and iron from serpentine ore

    SciTech Connect

    O'Connor, William K; Rush, Gilbert E; Soltau, Glen F

    2011-10-11

    Magnesium silicate mineral wools having a relatively high liquidus temperature of at least about 1400.degree. C. and to methods for the production thereof are provided. The methods of the present invention comprise melting a magnesium silicate feedstock (e.g., comprising a serpentine or olivine ore) having a liquidus temperature of at least about 1400.degree. C. to form a molten magnesium silicate, and subsequently fiberizing the molten magnesium silicate to produce a magnesium silicate mineral wool. In one embodiment, the magnesium silicate feedstock contains iron oxide (e.g., up to about 12% by weight). Preferably, the melting is performed in the presence of a reducing agent to produce an iron alloy, which can be separated from the molten ore. Useful magnesium silicate feedstocks include, without limitation, serpentine and olivine ores. Optionally, silicon dioxide can be added to the feedstock to lower the liquidus temperature thereof.

  19. Distributed communications and control network for robotic mining

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Schiffbauer, William H.

    1989-01-01

    The application of robotics to coal mining machines is one approach pursued to increase productivity while providing enhanced safety for the coal miner. Toward that end, a network composed of microcontrollers, computers, expert systems, real time operating systems, and a variety of program languages are being integrated that will act as the backbone for intelligent machine operation. Actual mining machines, including a few customized ones, have been given telerobotic semiautonomous capabilities by applying the described network. Control devices, intelligent sensors and computers onboard these machines are showing promise of achieving improved mining productivity and safety benefits. Current research using these machines involves navigation, multiple machine interaction, machine diagnostics, mineral detection, and graphical machine representation. Guidance sensors and systems employed include: sonar, laser rangers, gyroscopes, magnetometers, clinometers, and accelerometers. Information on the network of hardware/software and its implementation on mining machines are presented. Anticipated coal production operations using the network are discussed. A parallelism is also drawn between the direction of present day underground coal mining research to how the lunar soil (regolith) may be mined. A conceptual lunar mining operation that employs a distributed communication and control network is detailed.

  20. 238U, and its decay products, in grasses from an abandoned uranium mine

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Childs, Edgar; Maskall, John; Millward, Geoffrey

    2016-04-01

    Bioaccumulation of radioactive contaminants by plants is of concern particularly where the sward is an essential part of the diet of ruminants. The abandoned South Terras uranium mine, south west England, had primary deposits of uraninite (UO2) and pitchblende (U3O8), which contained up to 30% uranium. When the mine was active uranium and radium were extracted but following closure it was abandoned without remediation. Waste rock and gangue, consisting of inefficiently processed minerals, were spread around the site, including a field where ruminants are grazed. Here we report the activity concentrations of 238U, 235U 214,210Pb, and the concentrations of selected metals in the soils, roots and leaves of grasses taken from the contaminated field. Soil samples were collected at the surface, and at 30 cm depth, using an auger along a 10-point transect in the field from the foot of a waste heap. Whole, individual grass plants were removed with a spade, ensuring that their roots were intact. The soils and roots and grass leaves were freeze-dried. Activity concentrations of the radionuclides were determined by gamma spectroscopy, following 30 days incubation for development of secular equilibrium. Dried soils, roots and grasses were also digested in aqua regia and the concentrations of elements determined by ICP techniques. Maximum activity concentrations of 238U, 235U, 214Pb and 210Pb surface soils were 63,300, 4,510, 23,300 and 49,400 Bq kg-1, respectively. The mean 238U:235U ratio was 11.8 ± 1.8, an order of magnitude lower than the natural value of 138, indicating disequilibrium within the decay chain due to mineral processing. Radionuclides in the roots had 5 times lower concentration and only grass leaves in the vicinity of the waste heap had measureable values. The mean soil to root transfer factor for 238U was 36%, the mean root to leaf was 3% and overall only 0.7% of 238U was transferred from the soil to the leaves. The roots contained 0.8% iron, possibly as

  1. Radio-Ecological Situation in the Area of the Priargun Production Mining and Chemical Association - 13522

    SciTech Connect

    Semenova, M.P.; Seregin, V.A.; Kiselev, S.M.; Titov, A.V.; Zhuravleva, L.A.; Marenny, A.M.

    2013-07-01

    'The Priargun Production Mining and Chemical Association' (hereinafter referred to as PPMCA) is a diversified mining company which, in addition to underground mining of uranium ore, carries out refining of such ores in hydrometallurgical process to produce natural uranium oxide. The PPMCA facilities are sources of radiation and chemical contamination of the environment in the areas of their location. In order to establish the strategy and develop criteria for the site remediation, independent radiation hygienic monitoring is being carried out over some years. In particular, this monitoring includes determination of concentration of the main dose-forming nuclides in the environmental media. The subjects of research include: soil, grass and local foodstuff (milk and potato), as well as media of open ponds (water, bottom sediments, water vegetation). We also measured the radon activity concentration inside surface workshops and auxiliaries. We determined the specific activity of the following natural radionuclides: U-238, Th-232, K-40, Ra-226. The researches performed showed that in soil, vegetation, groundwater and local foods sampled in the vicinity of the uranium mines, there is a significant excess of {sup 226}Ra and {sup 232}Th content compared to areas outside the zone of influence of uranium mining. The ecological and hygienic situation is as follows: - at health protection zone (HPZ) gamma dose rate outdoors varies within 0.11 to 5.4 μSv/h (The mean value in the reference (background) settlement (Soktui-Molozan village) is 0.14 μSv/h); - gamma dose rate in workshops within HPZ varies over the range 0.14 - 4.3 μSv/h. - the specific activity of natural radionuclides in soil at HPZ reaches 12800 Bq/kg and 510 Bq/kg for Ra-226 and Th-232, respectively. - beyond HPZ the elevated values for {sup 226}Ra have been registered near Lantsovo Lake - 430 Bq/kg; - the radon activity concentration in workshops within HPZ varies over the range 22 - 10800 Bq/m{sup 3}. The

  2. [Bone mineralization and mineral status].

    PubMed

    Boivin, Georges

    2003-01-01

    After initial calcification in matrix vesicles or collagen fibrils, bones are continually modified by modelling then remodelling. In bone tissue, the degree of mineralisation of bone structural units is heterogeneous, reflects the rate of bone remodelling, and can be measured using microradiography. Our model is based on the fact that bone remodelling activity and thus the duration of the secondary mineralisation of bone tissue would influence its mineral status (mainly its degree of mineralisation or bone density at tissue level). When the bone remodelling rate increases (menopause, parathyroid hormone), the degree of mineralisation of bone tissue decreases. Conversely, after a diminution of the remodelling rate induced by antiresorptive treatments, the degree of mineralisation of bone tissue increases. Strontium ranelate (PROTELOS) has been tested to date as a potential therapeutic agent in patients suffering from postmenopausal osteoporosis. Recent phase III studies (the Spinal Osteoporosis Therapeutic Intervention [SOTI] study and the TReatment Of Peripheral Osteoporosis Study [TROPOS]) show a decrease in the vertebral and extravertebral fracture risk and an increase in bone mineral density measured at lumbar spine and femoral levels. Strontium ranelate has a unique mechanism of action, since it decreases bone resorption and increases bone formation ('decoupling' agent). Our preliminary observations in animal and man reveal that, because of this dual mechanism of action, the degree of mineralisation of bone tissue and the crystal characteristics of bone mineral are maintained at normal levels. More generally, these data indicate that the mineral status of bone tissue should be systematically taken into account during histomorphometric studies of bone.

  3. The mineral industry of Ethiopia: present conditions and future prospects

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Assefa, Getaneh

    Despite a record of mineral activity that dates back to Biblical times and the occurrence of a wide variety of minerals, as well as continuing efforts to discover major ore deposits, Ethiopia's mineral resources ahve remained of minor importance in the world economy. Mineral production in the last 20 years, for example, forms less than 1% of the estimated GDP. Well known minerals andmineral products available in the country in commercial quantities are: gold, platinum, manganese ore, natural agas, clays and clay products, feldspars, gypsum and anhydrite, slat, lime, limestone, cement, sand, structural and crushed stones, marble, mineral water and pumice. There are also vast reserves of water and geothermal power. Recently discovered deposits (over the last 20 years), with major reserves that may attain an important role in mineral production in the future, include potash salts, copper ore and diatomites. Minerals which are known to occur in Ethiopia, but of which supplies are deficient, or which have not yet been proved to exist in economic quantities are: nickel, iron, chromium, mineral fuels (oil, coal and uranium), sulphur, asbesttos, mica, talc, barytes, fluorites, borates, soda-ash, phosphates, wolframite, abrasives (garnet), molybdenite and vanadium. Within the last few years there has been an increasing appreciation of the economic significance of a mineral industry and a definite attempt to foster it. Mineral ownership is vested in the state are cotnrolled by the MInistry of Mines, Energy and Water Resources. The law relating to foreign investment in mines is liberal. The plans for the future have to provide for detailed and intensive exploration of the country's mineral resources, manufacture and fabrication.

  4. Mercury residues and productivity in osprey and grebes from a mine-dominated ecosystem.

    PubMed

    Anderson, Daniel W; Suchanek, Thomas H; Eagles-Smith, Collin A; Cahill, Thomas M

    2008-12-01

    Mercury (Hg) and reproduction and status of Western and Clark's Grebes (Aechmophorus sp.) and Osprey (Pandion haliaetus) were studied from 1992 through 2001 and then less intensely through 2006 at Clear Lake, California, USA. Remediation to reduce Hg loading from the Sulphur Bank Mercury Mine was initiated in 1992. Mercury in grebe feathers declined monotonically from approximately 23 mg/kg dry mass (DM) in 1967-1969 to 1 mg/kg in 2003, but then increased to 7 mg/kg in 2004-2006. Mercury in Osprey feathers varied similarly, with mean values of 20 mg/kg DM in 1992, declining to a low of 2 mg/kg in 1998, but increasing to 23 mg/kg in 2003, and 12 mg/kg in 2006. Mercury in Osprey feathers at our reference site (Eagle Lake, California) remained low (1-8 ppm) throughout the entire period, 1992-2003. Grebe productivity at Clear Lake improved from approximately 0.1 to 0.5 fledged young per adult during the latter part of the study when human disturbance was prevented. At that period in time, improved productivity did not differ from our reference site at Eagle Lake. Human disturbance, however, as a co-factor made it impossible to evaluate statistically subtle Hg effects on grebe productivity at Clear Lake. Osprey reproduced sufficiently to maintain increasing breeding numbers from 1992 to 2006. Mercury in Clear Lake water, sediments, invertebrates, and fish did not decline from 1992 to 2003, but a shift in trophic structure induced by an introduced planktivorous fish species may have caused significant alterations in Hg concentrations in several species of prey fishes that may have produced concomitant changes in Osprey and grebe Hg exposure. The temporary declines observed in grebe and Osprey feather residues in the late 1990s, with coincidental improvements in reproductive performance, however, could not be attributed to remediation at the mine site.

  5. Identification of mineral composition and weathering product of tuff using reflectance spectroscopy

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Hyun, C.; Park, H.

    2009-12-01

    spectral reflectance of each constituent. Unmixing of mineral composition and their weathering products of blocks and matrixes in tuff were conducted and the ratio of mineral composition was calculated for each specimen. This study was supported by National Research Institute of Cultural Heritage (project title: Development on Evaluation Technology for Weathering Degree of Stone Cultural Properties, project no.: 09B011Y-00150-2009).

  6. Exploration and Mining Roadmap

    SciTech Connect

    none,

    2002-09-01

    This Exploration and Mining Technology Roadmap represents the third roadmap for the Mining Industry of the Future. It is based upon the results of the Exploration and Mining Roadmap Workshop held May 10 ñ 11, 2001.

  7. Evaluation of Mineral Assets: Interconnection of Financial and Managerial Aspects

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Sergeev, Igor B.; Lebedeva, Olesia Y.

    2016-01-01

    Mining business makes no sense without mineral assets comprising mineral rights, exploration and evaluation expenditures, development costs, ore reserves and resources. The paper is aimed at investigation of how mineral reserves and resources are evaluated and represented in financial statements of mining companies, and what kind of influence do…

  8. Mars surface weathering products and spectral analogs: Palagonites and synthetic iron minerals

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Golden, D. C.; Ming, D. W.; Morris, R. V.; Lauer, H. V., Jr.

    1992-01-01

    There are several hypotheses regarding the formation of Martian surface fines. These surface fines are thought to be products of weathering processes occurring on Mars. Four major weathering environments of igneous rocks on Mars have been proposed; (1) impact induced hydrothermal alterations; (2) subpermafrost igneous intrusion; (3) solid-gas surface reactions; and (4) subaerial igneous intrusion over permafrost. Although one or more of these processes may be important on the Martian surface, one factor in common for all these processes is the reaction of solid or molten basalt with water (solid, liquid, or gas). These proposed processes, with the exception of solid-gas surface reactions, are transient processes. The most likely product of transient hydrothermal processes are layer silicates, zeolites, hydrous iron oxides and palagonites. The long-term instability of hydrous clay minerals under present Martian conditions has been predicted; however, the persistence of such minerals due to slow kinetics of dehydration, or entrapment in permafrost, where the activity of water is high, can not be excluded. Anhydrous oxides of iron (e.g., hematite and maghemite) are thought to be stable under present Martian surface conditions. Oxidative weathering of sulfide minerals associated with Martian basalts has been proposed. Weathering of sulfide minerals leads to a potentially acidic permafrost and the formation of Fe(3) oxides and sulfates. Weathering of basalts under acidic conditions may lead to the formation of kaolinite through metastable halloysite and metahalloysite. Kaolinite, if present, is thought to be a thermodynamically stable phase at the Martian surface. Fine materials on Mars are important in that they influence the surface spectral properties; these fines are globally distributed on Mars by the dust storms and this fraction will have the highest surface area which should act as a sink for most of the absorbed volatiles near the surface of Mars. Therefore

  9. Mars surface weathering products and spectral analogs: Palagonites and synthetic iron minerals

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Golden, D. C.; Ming, D. W.; Morris, R. V.; Lauer, H. V., Jr.

    1992-01-01

    There are several hypotheses regarding the formation of Martian surface fines. These surface fines are thought to be products of weathering processes occurring on Mars. Four major weathering environments of igneous rocks on Mars have been proposed; (1) impact induced hydrothermal alterations; (2) subpermafrost igneous intrusion; (3) solid-gas surface reactions; and (4) subaerial igneous intrusion over permafrost. Although one or more of these processes may be important on the Martian surface, one factor in common for all these processes is the reaction of solid or molten basalt with water (solid, liquid, or gas). These proposed processes, with the exception of solid-gas surface reactions, are transient processes. The most likely product of transient hydrothermal processes are layer silicates, zeolites, hydrous iron oxides and palagonites. The long-term instability of hydrous clay minerals under present Martian conditions has been predicted; however, the persistence of such minerals due to slow kinetics of dehydration, or entrapment in permafrost, where the activity of water is high, can not be excluded. Anhydrous oxides of iron (e.g., hematite and maghemite) are thought to be stable under present Martian surface conditions. Oxidative weathering of sulfide minerals associated with Martian basalts has been proposed. Weathering of sulfide minerals leads to a potentially acidic permafrost and the formation of Fe(3) oxides and sulfates. Weathering of basalts under acidic conditions may lead to the formation of kaolinite through metastable halloysite and metahalloysite. Kaolinite, if present, is thought to be a thermodynamically stable phase at the Martian surface. Fine materials on Mars are important in that they influence the surface spectral properties; these fines are globally distributed on Mars by the dust storms and this fraction will have the highest surface area which should act as a sink for most of the absorbed volatiles near the surface of Mars. Therefore

  10. Comparative mineral mapping in the Colorado Mineral Belt using AVIRIS and ASTER remote sensing data

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Rockwell, Barnaby W.

    2013-01-01

    This report presents results of interpretation of spectral remote sensing data covering the eastern Colorado Mineral Belt in central Colorado, USA, acquired by the Airborne Visible/Infrared Imaging Spectrometer (AVIRIS) and Advanced Spaceborne Thermal Emission and Reflection Radiometer (ASTER) sensors. This study was part of a multidisciplinary mapping and data integration project at the U.S. Geological Survey that focused on long-term resource planning by land-managing entities in Colorado. The map products were designed primarily for the regional mapping and characterization of exposed surface mineralogy, including that related to hydrothermal alteration and supergene weathering of pyritic rocks. Alteration type was modeled from identified minerals based on standard definitions of alteration mineral assemblages. Vegetation was identified using the ASTER data and subdivided based on per-pixel chlorophyll content (depth of 0.68 micrometer absorption band) and dryness (fit and depth of leaf biochemical absorptions in the shortwave infrared spectral region). The vegetation results can be used to estimate the abundance of fire fuels at the time of data acquisition (2002 and 2003). The AVIRIS- and ASTER-derived mineral mapping results can be readily compared using the toggleable layers in the GeoPDF file, and by using the provided GIS-ready raster datasets. The results relating to mineral occurrence and distribution were an important source of data for studies documenting the effects of mining and un-mined, altered rocks on aquatic ecosystems at the watershed level. These studies demonstrated a high correlation between metal concentrations in streams and the presence of hydrothermal alteration and (or) pyritic mine waste as determined by analysis of the map products presented herein. The mineral mapping results were also used to delineate permissive areas for various mineral deposit types.

  11. Minimisation and utilisation of waste mineral sludge from sodium perborate production.

    PubMed

    Grilc, Viktor; Jersan, Rok

    2002-10-01

    Various approaches to waste minimisation, waste treatment and recycling or safe disposal of the waste mineral sludge from sodium perborate production are presented and critically discussed. Some most promising actions for waste (or its harmful potential) reduction on the production level are identified. These include: a) use of better raw materials (richer boron ore), b) improvement of the ore leaching process, and c) intensification of sludge washing and dewatering. These source reduction measures have already resulted in 50% reduction of boron content in the sludge. Utilisation of the raw or treated (e.g. dried, compacted) waste sludge could be found in agriculture, civil engineering and construction material production. Agricultural use (as a lime substitute) is based on favourable content of calcium-magnesium minerals and alkali pH value of the sludge, and simultaneous absence of heavy metals. Application in civil engineering (as an aggregate) is possible after calcination, which is costly, or as a cement kiln additive. Stabilisation of sludge before disposal, when no utilisation is available, is possible by small addition of commercial binders (e.g. Portland cement) or larger amounts of pozzolanic wastes (e.g. coal fly ash).

  12. The influence of mineral ions on the microbial production and molecular weight of hyaluronic acid.

    PubMed

    Pires, Aline Mara B; Eguchi, Silvia Y; Santana, Maria Helena Andrade

    2010-12-01

    This study aimed to evaluate the influence of the culture medium supplementation with mineral ions, focusing on the growth of Streptococcus zooepidemicus as well as on the production and average molecular weight (MW) of hyaluronic acid (HA). The ions were investigated in terms of individual absence from the totally supplemented medium (C+) or individual presence in the non-supplemented medium (C-), where C+ and C- were used as controls. Differences between the effects were analyzed using the Tukey's test at p < 0.05. The adopted criteria considered required the ions, whose individual absence attained at 80% or less of the C+ and their individual presence was 20% or more than the C-. The supplementation was either inhibitory or acted in synergy with other ions, when the individual absence or presence was 20% higher than C+ or 20% lower than C-, respectively. Results showed that the effects of C+ or C- were equal for both the production of HA and its yield from glucose. However, C+ showed to be beneficial to cell growth while the individual absence of Na+ was beneficial to the production of HA. The highest MW of HA (7.4 x 10⁷ Da) was observed in the individual presence of Na+ in spite of the lowest HA concentration (0.65 g x L⁻¹). These results suggest that the quality of HA can be modulated through the mineral ion supplementation.

  13. Debilitating lung disease among surface coal miners with no underground mining tenure.

    PubMed

    Halldin, Cara N; Reed, William R; Joy, Gerald J; Colinet, Jay F; Rider, James P; Petsonk, Edward L; Abraham, Jerrold L; Wolfe, Anita L; Storey, Eileen; Laney, A Scott

    2015-01-01

    To characterize exposure histories and respiratory disease among surface coal miners identified with progressive massive fibrosis from a 2010 to 2011 pneumoconiosis survey. Job history, tenure, and radiograph interpretations were verified. Previous radiographs were reviewed when available. Telephone follow-up sought additional work and medical history information. Among eight miners who worked as drill operators or blasters for most of their tenure (median, 35.5 years), two reported poor dust control practices, working in visible dust clouds as recently as 2012. Chest radiographs progressed to progressive massive fibrosis in as few as 11 years. One miner's lung biopsy demonstrated fibrosis and interstitial accumulation of macrophages containing abundant silica, aluminum silicate, and titanium dust particles. Overexposure to respirable silica resulted in progressive massive fibrosis among current surface coal miners with no underground mining tenure. Inadequate dust control during drilling/blasting is likely an important etiologic factor.

  14. Carbonate-mineral/water interactions in sulfide-rich mine tailings

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Al, Tom A.; Martin, Chris J.; Blowes, David W.

    2000-12-01

    The chemical composition and mineralogy of coatings on carbonate minerals from mine tailings have been studied using aqueous geochemical methods, Time-of-Flight Laser-Ionization Mass Spectrometry (TOF-LIMS) and Transmission Electron Microscopy (TEM). The goal is to study major and trace element partitioning between the aqueous and solid phase, and to infer mechanisms that control the concentrations of elements in the pore water of sulfide-rich mine tailings. Pore-water samples and carbonate-mineral grains were collected from four geochemically distinct zones within the tailings. Oxidation of sulfide minerals near the surface results in a large range in pore-water pH (3.85 to 6.98) and aqueous concentrations of metals and sulfate. With increasing depth in the tailings, mineral-water interactions lead to increasing pH, and decreasing concentrations of metals and sulfate. Calculated mineral saturation indices, trends in the abundance of Ca, Fe, Mg and Mn in TOF-LIMS profiles through the secondary coatings, and electron diffraction patterns obtained from the coatings, suggest that precipitation/dissolution of jarosite-group minerals, gypsum, goethite, akaganéite, amorphous Fe oxyhydroxides and siderite control the aqueous Ca, Fe, Na, K and SO 4 concentrations. The occurrence of secondary coatings on primary minerals is widespread, and reactions with the secondary minerals, rather than the primary mineral substrate, probably represent the principal controls on trace-element distributions in the pore water. The data indicate that adsorption, surface-complexation and co-precipitation reactions are important controls on the concentrations of trace elements in the pore water. The occurrence of siderite coatings on the surface of ankerite grains suggests that Fe-bearing dolomite-structure carbonate minerals dissolve incongruently. This corroborates inferences made by previous workers that solubility differences between calcite and siderite lead to calcite dissolution and

  15. Sustainable rehabilitation of mining waste and acid mine drainage using geochemistry, mine type, mineralogy, texture, ore extraction and climate knowledge.

    PubMed

    Anawar, Hossain Md

    2015-08-01

    The oxidative dissolution of sulfidic minerals releases the extremely acidic leachate, sulfate and potentially toxic elements e.g., As, Ag, Cd, Cr, Cu, Hg, Ni, Pb, Sb, Th, U, Zn, etc. from different mine tailings and waste dumps. For the sustainable rehabilitation and disposal of mining waste, the sources and mechanisms of contaminant generation, fate and transport of contaminants should be clearly understood. Therefore, this study has provided a critical review on (1) recent insights in mechanisms of oxidation of sulfidic minerals, (2) environmental contamination by mining waste, and (3) remediation and rehabilitation techniques, and (4) then developed the GEMTEC conceptual model/guide [(bio)-geochemistry-mine type-mineralogy- geological texture-ore extraction process-climatic knowledge)] to provide the new scientific approach and knowledge for remediation of mining wastes and acid mine drainage. This study has suggested the pre-mining geological, geochemical, mineralogical and microtextural characterization of different mineral deposits, and post-mining studies of ore extraction processes, physical, geochemical, mineralogical and microbial reactions, natural attenuation and effect of climate change for sustainable rehabilitation of mining waste. All components of this model should be considered for effective and integrated management of mining waste and acid mine drainage.

  16. Effective Conveyor Belt Inspection for Improved Mining Productivity

    SciTech Connect

    David LaRose

    2006-07-01

    This document details progress on the project ''Effective Conveyor Belt Inspection for Improved Mining Productivity'' during the period from November 15, 2005 to May 14, 2006. Highlights include significant improvements in the accuracy and reliability of computer-vision based vulcanized splice detection, deployment of the vulcanized splice detection algorithms for daily use in two working mines, and successful demonstration of an early prototype of a Smart-Camera based system for on-site mechanical splice detection in coal mine installations.

  17. Herbaceous vegetation productivity, persistence, and metals uptake on a biosolids-amended mine soil.

    PubMed

    Evanylo, G K; Abaye, A O; Dundas, C; Zipper, C E; Lemus, R; Sukkariyah, B; Rockett, J

    2005-01-01

    The selection of plant species is critical for the successful establishment and long-term maintenance of vegetation on reclaimed surface mined soils. A study was conducted to assess the capability of 16 forage grass and legume species in monocultures and mixes to establish and thrive on a reclaimed Appalachian surface mine amended with biosolids. The 0.15-ha coarse-textured, rocky, non-acid forming mined site was prepared for planting by grading to a 2% slope and amending sandstone overburden materials with a mixture of composted and dewatered, anaerobically digested biosolids at a rate of 368 Mg ha(-1) (dry weight). Tall fescue (Festuca arundinacea Schreb.), orchardgrass (Dactylis glomerata L.), switchgrass (Panicum virgatum L.), caucasian bluestem (Bothriochloa caucasia L.), reed canarygrass (Phalaris arundinacea L.), ladino clover (Trifolium repens L.), birdsfoot trefoil (Lotus corniculatus L.), crownvetch (Coronilla varia L.), alfalfa (Medicago sativa L.), common sericea lespedeza and AULotan sericea lespedeza (Lespedeza cuneata L.), tall fescue-ladino clover, tall fescue-alfalfa, orchardgrass-birdsfoot trefoil, switchgrass-AULotan, and an herbaceous species mix intended for planting on reforested sites consisting of foxtail millet [Setaria italica (L.) Beauv.], perennial ryegrass (Lolium perenne L.), redtop (Agrostis alba L.), kobe lespedeza (Kummerowia striata L.), appalow lespedeza (Lespedeza cuneata L.), and birdsfoot trefoil were established between spring 1990 and 1991. Vegetative biomass and/or persistence were assessed in 1996, 1997, 1998, 2000, 2001, and 2002. The high rate of biosolids applied provided favorable soil chemical properties but could not overcome physical property limitations due to shallow undeveloped soil perched atop a compacted soil layer at 25 cm depth. The plant species whose persistence and biomass production were the greatest after a decade or more of establishment (i.e., switchgrass, sericea lespedeza, reed canarygrass, tall

  18. Official Methods for the Determination of Minerals and Trace Elements in Infant Formula and Milk Products: A Review.

    PubMed

    Poitevin, Eric

    2016-01-01

    The minerals and trace elements that account for about 4% of total human body mass serve as materials and regulators in numerous biological activities in body structure building. Infant formula and milk products are important sources of endogenic and added minerals and trace elements and hence, must comply with regulatory as well as nutritional and safety requirements. In addition, reliable analytical data are necessary to support product content and innovation, health claims, or declaration and specific safety issues. Adequate analytical platforms and methods must be implemented to demonstrate both the compliance and safety assessment of all declared and regulated minerals and trace elements, especially trace-element contaminant surveillance. The first part of this paper presents general information on the mineral composition of infant formula and milk products and their regulatory status. In the second part, a survey describes the main techniques and related current official methods determining minerals and trace elements in infant formula and milk products applied for by various international organizations (AOAC INTERNATIONAL, the International Organization for Standardization, the International Dairy Federation, and the European Committe for Standardization). The third part summarizes method officialization activities by Stakeholder Panels on Infant Formula and Adult Nutritionals and Stakeholder Panel on Strategic Food Analytical Methods. The final part covers a general discussion focusing on analytical gaps and future trends in inorganic analysis that have been applied for in infant formula and milk-based products.

  19. Strawberries from integrated and organic production: mineral contents and antioxidant activity.

    PubMed

    Kristl, Janja; Krajnc, Andreja Urbanek; Kramberger, Branko; Mlakar, Silva Grobelnik

    2013-01-01

    As the nutritional quality of food is becoming increasingly more important for consumers, significant attention needs to be devoted to agricultural practices and their influences on the nutrient contents in food. The presented investigation studied the mineral contents and antioxidant activities in the fruits of four organically-grown strawberry cultivars 'St. Pierre', 'Elsanta', 'Sugar Lia' and 'Thuchampion' when compared to those of integrated-grown plants. The strawberries were digested and analyzed for K, Mg, Fe, Zn, Cu, and Mn using an atomic absorption spectrometer, whilst P was analyzed using a vanadate-molybdate method. In addition, antioxidant activity was estimated by using the ABTS assay. The results showed that the mineral contents and antioxidant activities in strawberries depends on the cultivar, and its production system. Organically-grown fruits showed higher antioxidant activities and Cu content than the integrated fruits, whilst the integrated fruits were superior in their contents of P, K, Mg, Fe and Mn. All the cultivars showed similar Zn content, probably reflecting the fact that the Zn content in strawberries does not depend on the cultivar.

  20. Criminalistic identification of PGM-containing products of mining and metallurgical companies.

    PubMed

    Perelygin, Alexander; Kuchkin, Alexander; Kharkov, Nikolay; Moskvina, Tatyana

    2008-01-15

    In early 1990 s some organized criminal groups started to develop a new field of illegal business, which involved thefts of intermediary products from mining and metal-producing plants in Russia and in the south of Africa. Since local sulfide copper/nickel ores contain certain concentrations of precious and platinum group metals (PGMs), the intermediary products recovered at different stages of metallurgical transformation of these ores are materials of high commercial value. Illicit transportation and refining of these materials in Western Europe and North America has evolved into a large-scale business, where a lot of unlawful revenues are being laundered. The most important tasks in combating this organized crime are as follows: to establish the facts when some PGM-containing semi-products had been received at certain refineries; to carry out the identification of these semi-products; and to prove that these semi-products had been produced by a certain company. As a rule, it is not difficult to establish the identity of a "clean product". However, when a material is a mix of several semi-products or a mix of some semi-product with masking substances, the identification of individual components becomes an extremely complicated task. The purpose of developing the "complex procedure for establishing the nature and source of origin of precious metal-bearing products of mining and metallurgical operations" was to make possible the identification of complex mixes comprised of various metallurgical semi-products. In the complex procedure that we have developed to characterize dispersed materials, distribution of particles by their elemental composition (the so-called "pseudophase" composition) was used instead of mineralogical composition. To determine the "pseudophase" composition by the method of scanning electron microscopy with X-ray spectral microanalysis (SEM-EDX), a representative sample of material containing not less than 1000 particles was analyzed. All

  1. Geochemical modeling of scale formation, and formation damage during production from sulfate and carbonate mineral-bearing reservoirs

    SciTech Connect

    Macgowan, D.B.; Dunn, T.L.; Surdam, R.C. )

    1991-03-01

    The physical and chemical processes that affect reservoir fluids during production can be modeled by methodologies similar to those used for modeling clastic diagenesis. That these processes may result in formation damage and scale formation make them of interest to production geologists and engineers. Pathway modeling, based upon a series of critical divides, predicts which reactions are likely to occur between formation, production tubing, and reservoir fluids. Thermodynamic equilibria modeling calculates direction and magnitude of possible reactions. Integration of these approaches with observations of patterns of scale formation, production line, and formation damage yield a model capable of predicting the magnitude and direction of reactions that may produce negative impacts on reservoir production. Critical divides characterizing these processes in carbonate and sulfate mineral-bearing reservoirs include: (1) presence or absence of sulfate-bearing minerals within the production volume; (2) presence of iron within production line or formation; (3) ratio of concentration of bicarbonate to hydrogen sulfide; (4) capacity of aqueous and solid phases to buffer formation fluid pH; and (5) magnitude of pressure and temperature drops during production. The model qualitatively predicts: (1) likelihood of sulfide, sulfate, or carbonate mineral precipitation during production; (2) souring of the reservoir; and (3) corrosion of production tubing. The model has been developed from production histories for Weber Sandstone reservoirs, Colorado and Wyoming, and has been applied to examples of reservoir production from Tensleep and Minnelusa reservoirs in Wyoming.

  2. Trace metal contamination of mineral spring water in an historical mining area in regional Victoria, Australia

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Martin, Rachael; Dowling, Kim

    2013-11-01

    Significant global consumption of spring and mineral water is fuelled by perceived therapeutic and medicinal qualities, cultural habits and taste. The Central Victorian Mineral Springs Region, Australia comprises approximately 100 naturally effervescent, cold, high CO2 content springs with distinctive tastes linked to a specific spring or pump. The area has a rich settlement history. It was first settled by miners in the 1840s closely followed by the first commercial operations of a health resort 1895. The landscape is clearly affected by gold mining with geographically proximal mine waste, mullock heaps or tailings. Repeated mineral springs sampling since 1985 has revealed elevated arsenic concentrations. In 1985 an arsenic concentration five times the current Australian Drinking Water Guideline was recorded at a popular tourist spring site. Recent sampling and analyses have confirmed elevated levels of heavy metals/metalloids, with higher concentrations occurring during periods of low rainfall. Despite the elevated levels, mineral water source points remain accessible to the public with some springs actively promoting the therapeutic benefits of the waters. In light of our analysis, the risk to consumers (some of whom are likely to be negatively health-affected or health-compromised) needs to be considered with a view to appropriate and verified analyses made available to the public.

  3. Geochemical modeling of the influence of silicate mineral alteration on alkalinity production and carbonate precipitation

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Herda, Gerhard; Kraemer, Stephan M.; Gier, Susanne; Meister, Patrick

    2016-04-01

    High CO2 partial pressure (pCO2) in deep rock reservoirs causes acidification of the porefluid. Such conditions occur during injection and subsurface storage of CO2 (to prevent the release of greenhouse gas) but also naturally in zones of strong methanogenic microbial activity in organic matter-rich ocean margin sediments. The acidic fluids are corrosive to carbonates and bear the risk of leakage of CO2 gas to the surface. Porefluid acidification may be moderated by processes that increase the alkalinity, i.e. that produce weak acid anions capable of buffering the acidification imposed by the CO2. Often, alkalinity increases as a result of anaerobic microbial activity, such as anaerobic oxidation of methane. However, on a long term the alteration of silicates, in particular, clay minerals, may be a more efficient mechanism of alkalinity production. Under altered temperature, pressure and porefluid composition at depth, clay minerals may change to thermodynamically more stable states, thereby increasing the alkalinity of the porefluid by partial leaching of Mg-(OH)2 and Ca-(OH)2 (e.g. Wallmann et al., 2008; Mavromatis et al., 2014). This alteration may even be enhanced by a high pCO2. Thus, silicate alteration can be essential for a long-term stabilization of volatile CO2 in the form of bicarbonate or may even induce precipitation of carbonate minerals, but these processes are not fully understood yet. The goal of this study is to simulate the alkalinity effect of silicate alteration under diagenetic conditions and high pCO2 by geochemical modeling. We are using the program PHREEQC (Parkhurst and Appelo, 2013) to generate high rock/fluid ratio characteristics for deep subsurface rock reservoirs. Since we are interested in the long-term evolution of diagenetic processes, over millions of years, we do not consider kinetics but calculate the theoretically possible equilibrium conditions. In a first step we are calculating the saturation state of different clay minerals

  4. Geology and K-Ar geochronology of the Paradise Peak Mine and the relationship of pre-Basin and Range extension to Early Miocene precious metal mineralization in west-central Nevada

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    John, D.A.; Thomason, R.E.; McKee, E.H.

    1989-01-01

    The Paradise Peak mine is a major gold-silver-mercury deposit located in the southwestern part of the Paradise Range near the eastern edge of the Walker Lane in the western Great Basin, Nevada. Regional stratigraphic relations and K-Ar ages indicate that volcanism changed from silicic ash-flow tuffs to intermediate lavas at about 20 to 19 Ma. Regionally extensive angular unconformities indicate that a period of "pre-Basin and Range' crustal extension occurred between about 22 to 19 Ma. This extension was penecontemporaneous with the shift in the style of volcanism and with gold-silver mineralization in the Paradise Peak mine and in the Goldfield and Tonopah districts of western Nevada. The close temporal and spatial relationships of precious metal mineralization with pre-Basin and Range extension suggest that extension was a major factor in the genesis of early Miocene precious metal deposits in the western Great Basin. -from Authors

  5. Comparative Respiratory Morbidity of Former and Current US Coal Miners.

    PubMed

    Halldin, Cara N; Wolfe, Anita L; Laney, A Scott

    2015-12-01

    We compared the prevalence of respiratory disease in former and current US coal miners using chest radiographs and lung functions collected from 2009 to 2013 among miners of the Appalachian and Interior US coalfields. We calculated prevalence ratios (PRs) of pneumoconiosis and impaired lung function. Significantly higher prevalences of pneumoconiosis (PR = 1.5; 95% confidence interval = 1.2, 2.0) and impaired lung function were observed among former miners compared with active miners. Former miners continue to suffer negative health effects from occupational coal mine dust exposure. The respiratory health of active and former miners is a global concern because international coal production is projected to increase for decades to come.

  6. What's weathering? Mineralogy and field leach studies in mine waste, Leadville and Montezuma mining districts, Colorado

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Diehl, S.F.; Hageman, Phil L.; Smith, Kathleen S.

    2006-01-01

    Weathering is important in the development of rock fabrics that control porosity in mine-waste materials, and in turn, porosity affects metal transport through and from mine-waste piles into watersheds. Mine-waste piles are dynamic physical and chemical systems as evidenced by remnant Fe-oxide boxwork structures after sulfide minerals, development of alteration rinds and etch pits on grains, and precipitation of secondary minerals under low temperature conditions. These microscale changes in the mine-waste materials are the result of partial to total dissolution of sulfide and other minerals. Mine-waste materials from the Dinero, Lower Chatauqua, and Saints John sites, Leadville and Montezuma mining districts, Colorado, exhibit rock fabrics that indicate that weathering products, e.g., Fe oxyhydroxides, jarosite, and clays, have been transported in suspension through the waste piles and deposited in voids and as coatings on rock fragments. Microscale characterization of weathered, partially dissolved minerals lends insight into the source of leachable metals in these mine-waste sites. Mineralogic studies show that galena in the Lower Chatauqua waste is enriched in Ag. Qualitative and semiquantitative microanalysis of weathered, altered galena grains from all three sites show that the Ag-bearing galena is more susceptible to dissolution. It is not surprising, then, that solutions experimentally leached from Lower Chatauqua waste are higher in Pb (2310 ppb) compared to leachates from the Dinero (31 ppb) and Saints John (1360 ppb) wastes. The mobility of metals is increased at acidic pH. Using the USGS Field Leach Test protocol, leachate derived from the Dinero waste has a pH of 3 and high concentrations of Al (443 ppb), Fe (441 ppb), and Zn (7970 ppb). Leachate from Sts. John tailings has a pH about 4 and high concentrations of Mn (1520 ppb), Zn (2240 ppb), and Pb (1360 ppb). Leachate from the Lower Chatauqua waste has an intermediate pH of 5, but in addition to the

  7. Mineral resources, environmental issues, and land use.

    PubMed

    Hodges, C A

    1995-06-02

    Contrary to predictions from the 1950s through the mid-1980s, persistent shortages of nonfuel minerals have not occurred, despite prodigious consumption, and world reserves have increased. Global availability of raw materials is relevant to policy decisions regarding mineral development and land use. Justification for environmental protection may exceed that for mining a specific ore body. Demand for environmental accountability is rising worldwide, and new technologies are enabling internalization of costs. Mineral-rich developing nations plagued by inefficient state-owned mining enterprises, high population growth rates, and environmental degradation could realize substantial benefit by reforming government policies to encourage foreign investment in resources and by appropriate allocation of mineral rents.

  8. The legality of designating a union representative as the miners` walkaround representative at a non-unionized mine

    SciTech Connect

    1996-10-01

    Reflecting the need for miner participation in maintaining safe conditions in the nation`s mines, current federal law gives miners at each mining operation the right to appoint a representative to accompany federal inspectors on periodic mine inspections. The Federal Mine Safety and Health Act (Mine Act) grants the miners the right to choose this {open_quotes}walkaround{close_quotes} representative, and provides that the walkaround representative shall be given an opportunity to accompany a federal agent during an inspection of a mine for the purposes of aiding the inspection. The issue of the propriety of a non-employee union walkaround representative at a non-union mine was recently addressed in Kerr-McGee Coal Corp. v. Federal Mine Safety & Health Review Commission (Kerr-McGee) and Thunder Basin Coal Co. v. Federal Mine Safety & Health Review Commission (Thunder Basin). This Note is devoted to a discussion of Kerr-McGee and Thunder Basin. However, it is important to first briefly review the provision of the federal statutes that give rise to the controversy. The Note then explains how the statutes were interpreted by the Kerr-McGee and Thunder Basin courts. A reading of the two decisions makes it apparent that any group of employees of a non-unionized mine are free to select a non-employee union agent as their walkaround representative. Finally, the Note discusses the ramifications of the conclusions reached in Kerr-McGee and Thunder Basin on the future duties and behavior of mine operators, organized labor, and those designated as walkaround representatives.

  9. 43 CFR 3833.20 - Amending mining claims and sites.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-10-01

    ... 43 Public Lands: Interior 2 2014-10-01 2014-10-01 false Amending mining claims and sites. 3833.20... MANAGEMENT, DEPARTMENT OF THE INTERIOR MINERALS MANAGEMENT (3000) RECORDING MINING CLAIMS AND SITES Amending Mining Claims and Sites § 3833.20 Amending mining claims and sites....

  10. 43 CFR 3833.20 - Amending mining claims and sites.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-10-01

    ... 43 Public Lands: Interior 2 2011-10-01 2011-10-01 false Amending mining claims and sites. 3833.20... MANAGEMENT, DEPARTMENT OF THE INTERIOR MINERALS MANAGEMENT (3000) RECORDING MINING CLAIMS AND SITES Amending Mining Claims and Sites § 3833.20 Amending mining claims and sites....

  11. 43 CFR 3833.20 - Amending mining claims and sites.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-10-01

    ... 43 Public Lands: Interior 2 2013-10-01 2013-10-01 false Amending mining claims and sites. 3833.20... MANAGEMENT, DEPARTMENT OF THE INTERIOR MINERALS MANAGEMENT (3000) RECORDING MINING CLAIMS AND SITES Amending Mining Claims and Sites § 3833.20 Amending mining claims and sites....

  12. 43 CFR 3833.20 - Amending mining claims and sites.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-10-01

    ... 43 Public Lands: Interior 2 2012-10-01 2012-10-01 false Amending mining claims and sites. 3833.20... MANAGEMENT, DEPARTMENT OF THE INTERIOR MINERALS MANAGEMENT (3000) RECORDING MINING CLAIMS AND SITES Amending Mining Claims and Sites § 3833.20 Amending mining claims and sites....

  13. ASEAN Mineral Database and Information System (AMDIS)

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Okubo, Y.; Ohno, T.; Bandibas, J. C.; Wakita, K.; Oki, Y.; Takahashi, Y.

    2014-12-01

    AMDIS has lunched officially since the Fourth ASEAN Ministerial Meeting on Minerals on 28 November 2013. In cooperation with Geological Survey of Japan, the web-based GIS was developed using Free and Open Source Software (FOSS) and the Open Geospatial Consortium (OGC) standards. The system is composed of the local databases and the centralized GIS. The local databases created and updated using the centralized GIS are accessible from the portal site. The system introduces distinct advantages over traditional GIS. Those are a global reach, a large number of users, better cross-platform capability, charge free for users, charge free for provider, easy to use, and unified updates. Raising transparency of mineral information to mining companies and to the public, AMDIS shows that mineral resources are abundant throughout the ASEAN region; however, there are many datum vacancies. We understand that such problems occur because of insufficient governance of mineral resources. Mineral governance we refer to is a concept that enforces and maximizes the capacity and systems of government institutions that manages minerals sector. The elements of mineral governance include a) strengthening of information infrastructure facility, b) technological and legal capacities of state-owned mining companies to fully-engage with mining sponsors, c) government-led management of mining projects by supporting the project implementation units, d) government capacity in mineral management such as the control and monitoring of mining operations, and e) facilitation of regional and local development plans and its implementation with the private sector.

  14. Physiological strain of miners at hot working places in German coal mines.

    PubMed

    Kalkowsky, Bernhard; Kampmann, Bernhard

    2006-07-01

    As the percentage of shifts in hot working conditions in German Coal mines had increased to more than 50% during the last decade, a study was carried out to record the physiological strain of miners. Thirty-eight miners participated during 125 shifts. Heart rate and rectal temperature were measured continuously. Sweat losses as well as food and fluid uptake were estimated from measurements before and after shifts. During all shifts mean heart rates resulted in 102.8 min(-1), mean rectal temperature was 37.7 degrees C. Mean sweat loss per shift was 3,436 g; mean sweat rates resulted in 494 g/h. Rehydration during the shift at high climatic stress decreased to about 60% of sweat losses. In order to state the organizational frame of work at hot working places in German coal mines, the main features of regulations of work at hot working places are presented.

  15. Lung cancer in relation to exposure to silica dust, silicosis and uranium production in South African gold miners

    PubMed Central

    Hnizdo, E.; Murray, J.; Klempman, S.

    1997-01-01

    BACKGROUND: A nested case-control study for lung cancer was performed on a cohort of 2260 South African gold miners in whom an association between exposure to silica dust and risk of lung cancer was previously reported. The objective was to investigate an expanded set of risk factors and also cancer cell type. METHODS: The 78 cases of lung cancer found during the follow up period from 1970 to 1986 were matched with 386 controls. Risk of lung cancer was related to smoking, exposure to silica dust, incidence of silicosis, and uranium production and the uranium content of the mine ore. RESULTS: The risk of lung cancer was associated with tobacco smoking, cumulative dust exposure, duration of underground mining, and with silicosis. The best predictive model included pack years of cigarette consumption (adjusted relative risk (RR) = 1.0 for < 6.5 pack years, 3.5 (95% confidence interval (CI) 0.7 to 16.8) for 6.5-20 pack years, 5.7 (95% CI 1.3 to 25.8) for 21-30 pack years, and 13.2 (95% CI 3.1 to 56.2) for more than 30 pack years) and silicosis (RR = 2.45 (95% CI 1.2 to 5.2)). No association was found with uranium production. The lung tumour cell type distribution was 40.3% small cell carcinoma, 38.8% squamous cell, 16.4% adenocarcinoma, and 4.5% large cell carcinoma. Small and large cell cancer combined were associated with exposure to dust. CONCLUSIONS: The results cannot be interpreted definitively in terms of causal association. Possible interpretations are: (1) subjects with high dust exposure who develop silicosis are at increased risk of lung cancer; (2) high levels of exposure to silica dust on its own is important in the pathogenesis of lung cancer and silicosis is coincidental; and (3) high levels of silica dust exposure may be a surrogate for the exposure to radon daughters. 


 PMID:9093345

  16. [Blood plasma level of endothelin in miners of a deep coal mine].

    PubMed

    Plotkin, V Ia; Rebrov, B A; Nikitina, I V

    2000-09-01

    In 60 miners working in a deep coal mine the blood plasma level of endoteline-1 (E-1) was measured by the immunoenzyme technique immediately after working shift. Those in the mining where the working conditions are especially harsh were found to have the highest level of E-1 exceeding the control values. In studying the age-related content of E-1 in blood plasma of coal miners the highest levels of E-1 were recordable in workers 20 to 30 years old, declining and differing in age groups 20-30 and 41-50 years old. The level of E-1 was at its greatest in those workers with minimum length of service in the underground conditions, declining with the service more than 10 years in duration.

  17. Utilization of coal mine methane for methanol and SCP production. Topical report, May 5, 1995--March 4, 1996

    SciTech Connect

    1998-12-31

    The feasibility of utilizing a biological process to reduce methane emissions from coal mines and to produce valuable single cell protein (SCP) and/or methanol as a product has been demonstrated. The quantities of coal mine methane from vent gas, gob wells, premining wells and abandoned mines have been determined in order to define the potential for utilizing mine gases as a resource. It is estimated that 300 MMCFD of methane is produced in the United States at a typical concentration of 0.2-0.6 percent in ventilation air. Of this total, almost 20 percent is produced from the four Jim Walter Resources (JWR) mines, which are located in very gassy coal seams. Worldwide vent gas production is estimated at 1 BCFD. Gob gas methane production in the U.S. is estimated to be 38 MMCFD. Very little gob gas is produced outside the U.S. In addition, it is estimated that abandoned mines may generate as much as 90 MMCFD of methane. In order to make a significant impact on coal mine methane emissions, technology which is able to utilize dilute vent gases as a resource must be developed. Purification of the methane from the vent gases would be very expensive and impractical. Therefore, the process application must be able to use a dilute methane stream. Biological conversion of this dilute methane (as well as the more concentrated gob gases) to produce single cell protein (SCP) and/or methanol has been demonstrated in the Bioengineering Resources, Inc. (BRI) laboratories. SCP is used as an animal feed supplement, which commands a high price, about $0.11 per pound.

  18. 43 CFR 3832.20 - Lode and placer mining claims.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-10-01

    ... 43 Public Lands: Interior 2 2011-10-01 2011-10-01 false Lode and placer mining claims. 3832.20... MANAGEMENT, DEPARTMENT OF THE INTERIOR MINERALS MANAGEMENT (3000) LOCATING MINING CLAIMS OR SITES Types of Mining Claims § 3832.20 Lode and placer mining claims....

  19. 43 CFR 3832.20 - Lode and placer mining claims.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-10-01

    ... 43 Public Lands: Interior 2 2013-10-01 2013-10-01 false Lode and placer mining claims. 3832.20... MANAGEMENT, DEPARTMENT OF THE INTERIOR MINERALS MANAGEMENT (3000) LOCATING MINING CLAIMS OR SITES Types of Mining Claims § 3832.20 Lode and placer mining claims....

  20. 43 CFR 3832.20 - Lode and placer mining claims.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-10-01

    ... 43 Public Lands: Interior 2 2014-10-01 2014-10-01 false Lode and placer mining claims. 3832.20... MANAGEMENT, DEPARTMENT OF THE INTERIOR MINERALS MANAGEMENT (3000) LOCATING MINING CLAIMS OR SITES Types of Mining Claims § 3832.20 Lode and placer mining claims....

  1. 43 CFR 3832.20 - Lode and placer mining claims.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-10-01

    ... 43 Public Lands: Interior 2 2012-10-01 2012-10-01 false Lode and placer mining claims. 3832.20... MANAGEMENT, DEPARTMENT OF THE INTERIOR MINERALS MANAGEMENT (3000) LOCATING MINING CLAIMS OR SITES Types of Mining Claims § 3832.20 Lode and placer mining claims....

  2. Effect of soil depth and topographic position on plant productivity and community development on 28-year old reclaimed mine lands

    USDA-ARS?s Scientific Manuscript database

    Reclamation research has shifted from short- to long-term assessment of mine land reclamation management strategies, wherein previously established study sites are revisited. In this study, we assessed long-term (28 yr) relations among re-established plant communities (production and diversity), re...

  3. Discovery of novel phosphonate natural products and their biosynthetic pathways by large-scale genome mining

    USDA-ARS?s Scientific Manuscript database

    Genome mining has revolutionized the field of natural products, providing hope that new antibiotics can be discovered in time before all remainders are rendered useless against multidrug resistant pathogens. While this approach has been successful in academic settings focused on small collections or...

  4. Potential of castor bean (Ricinus communis L.) for phytoremediation of mine tailings and oil production.

    PubMed

    Ruiz Olivares, Alejandro; Carrillo-González, Rogelio; González-Chávez, Ma del Carmen A; Soto Hernández, Ramón Marcos

    2013-01-15

    Bioenergy production combined with phytoremediation has been suggested to help in solving two critical world problems: the gradual reduction of fossil fuels and soil contamination. The aim of this research was to investigate the potential for the use of Ricinus communis L. (castor oil plant) as an energy crop and plant species to remediate metal-polluted sites. This study was performed in mine tailings containing high concentrations of Cu, Zn, Mn, Pb and Cd. Physico-chemical characterization, total, DTPA-extractable and water-soluble metals in rhizospheric tailings heap samples were carried. Metal concentrations in plant tissues and translocation factors (TFs) were also determined. The Ricinus seed-oil content was high between 41 and 64%, seeds from San Francisco site 6 had the highest oil content, while these from site 7 had the lowest. No trend between oil yield vs seed origin site was observed. Seed-oil content was negatively correlated with root concentration of Cu, Zn, Pb and Cd, but no correlation was observed with the extractable-metals. According to its shoot metal concentrations and TFs, castor bean is not a metal accumulator plant. This primary colonizing plant is well suited to cope with the local toxic conditions and can be useful for the stabilization of these residues, and for then decreasing metal bioavailability, dispersion and human health risks on these barren tailings heaps and in the surrounding area. Our work is the first report regarding combined oil production and a phytostabilization role for Ricinus plants in metal mine tailings and may give a new value to suitable metal-polluted areas.

  5. Mining disasters in South Africa: the Rovic Diamond Mine disaster and the criminal liability of the mine authorities.

    PubMed

    Oosthuizen, Hennie

    2003-01-01

    The South African economy depends heavily on the mining industry. Deep level mining--which is a very common occurrence in the South African Mining Industry, is fraught with dangers. It is therefore inevitable that these dangers will be a constant source of medico-legal involvement. At the end of November 1996, a mining disaster occurred at the Rovic Diamond Mine between Boshof and Dealsville. At about 1000 metres underground, a mudslide occurred and trapped 20 miners. Rescue workers could only retrieve four bodies. Due to the dangers of additional mudslides and collapse of the entire slope, the rescue workers were withdrawn. The 16 miners were later declared dead by a Court Order after a full investigation into the disaster was completed. In this discussion focus will be placed on the Rovic Mine Disaster Investigation, the post mortem examination of the four victims, the legal declaration of death of the other victims not found and the legal accountability of the mine authority.

  6. Mitochondrial DNA copy number in peripheral blood cell and hypertension risk among mining workers: a case-control study in Chinese coal miners.

    PubMed

    Lei, L; Guo, J; Shi, X; Zhang, G; Kang, H; Sun, C; Huang, J; Wang, T

    2017-09-01

    Alteration of mitochondrial DNA (mtDNA) copy number, which reflects oxidant-induced cell damage, has been observed in a wide range of human diseases. However, whether it correlates with hypertension has not been elucidated. We aimed to explore the association between mtDNA copy number and the risk of hypertension in Chinese coal miners. A case-control study was performed with 378 hypertension patients and 325 healthy controls in a large coal mining group located in North China. Face-to-face interviews were conducted by trained staffs with necessary medical knowledge. The mtDNA copy number was measured by a quantitative real-time PCR assay using DNA extracted from peripheral blood. No significant differences in mtDNA copy number were observed between hypertension patients and healthy controls. However, in both case and control groups, the mtDNA copy number was statistically significantly lower in the elder population (≥45 years old) compared with the younger subjects (<45 years old; 7.17 vs 6.64, P=0.005 and 7.21 vs 6.84, P=0.036). A significantly higher mtDNA copy number could be found in hypertension patients consuming alcohol regularly compared with no alcohol consumption patients (7.09 vs 6.69); mtDNA copy number was also positively correlated with age and alcohol consumption. Hypertension was found significantly correlated with factors such as age, work duration, monthly family income and drinking status. Our results suggest that the mtDNA copy number is not associated with hypertension in coal miners.

  7. 30 CFR 75.1502 - Mine emergency evacuation and firefighting program of instruction.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-07-01

    ..., DEPARTMENT OF LABOR COAL MINE SAFETY AND HEALTH MANDATORY SAFETY STANDARDS-UNDERGROUND COAL MINES Mine... underground coal mine shall adopt and follow a mine emergency evacuation and firefighting program that instructs all miners in the proper procedures they must follow if a mine emergency occurs. (a)...

  8. 30 CFR 75.1502 - Mine emergency evacuation and firefighting program of instruction.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-07-01

    ..., DEPARTMENT OF LABOR COAL MINE SAFETY AND HEALTH MANDATORY SAFETY STANDARDS-UNDERGROUND COAL MINES Mine... underground coal mine shall adopt and follow a mine emergency evacuation and firefighting program that instructs all miners in the proper procedures they must follow if a mine emergency occurs. (a)...

  9. 30 CFR 75.1502 - Mine emergency evacuation and firefighting program of instruction.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-07-01

    ..., DEPARTMENT OF LABOR COAL MINE SAFETY AND HEALTH MANDATORY SAFETY STANDARDS-UNDERGROUND COAL MINES Mine... underground coal mine shall adopt and follow a mine emergency evacuation and firefighting program that instructs all miners in the proper procedures they must follow if a mine emergency occurs. (a)...

  10. Anaerobic digestion of paunch in a CSTR for renewable energy production and nutrient mineralization

    SciTech Connect

    Nkemka, Valentine Nkongndem; Marchbank, Douglas H.; Hao, Xiying

    2015-09-15

    Highlights: • Anaerobic digestion and nutrient mineralization of paunch in a CSTR. • Low CH{sub 4} yield and high CH{sub 4} productivity was obtained at an OLR of 2.8 g VS L{sup −1} day{sup −1.} • Post-digestion of the digestate resulted in a CH{sub 4} yield of 0.067 L g{sup −1} VS. • Post-digestion is recommended for further digestate stabilization. - Abstract: A laboratory study investigated the anaerobic digestion of paunch in a continuous stirred tank reactor (CSTR) for the recovery of biogas and mineralization of nutrients. At an organic loading rate (OLR) of 2.8 g VS L{sup −1} day{sup −1} with a 30-day hydraulic retention time (HRT), a CH{sub 4} yield of 0.213 L g{sup −1} VS and CH{sub 4} production rate of 0.600 L L{sup −1} day{sup −1} were obtained. Post-anaerobic digestion of the effluent from the CSTR for 30 days at 40 °C recovered 0.067 L g{sup −1} VS as CH{sub 4}, which was 21% of the batch CH{sub 4} potential. Post-digestion of the effluent from the digestate obtained at this OLR is needed to meet the stable effluent criteria. Furthermore, low levels of soluble ions such as K{sup +}, Ca{sup 2+} and Mg{sup 2+} were found in the liquid fraction of the digestate and the remainder could have been retained in the solid digestate fraction. This study demonstrates the potential of biogas production from paunch in providing renewable energy. In addition, recovery of plant nutrients in the digestate is important for a sustainable agricultural system.

  11. Integrating data mining technique and AHP in market analysis to propose new product development in real estate

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Yunita; Galinium, M.; Lukas

    2017-01-01

    New product development in real estate industry is a challenging process since it is related to long term concept and high cost. A newly proposed product development should meet customer need and their preferences which appropriate with customer buying power and company value. This research use data mining for profiling customer transaction and Analytic Hierarchy Process (AHP) method for product selection in new product development. This research utilizes Weka as data mining open source software to profiling data customers. The analysis correlated product preferences and profiling demography such as city, age, gender and occupation. Demography profiles gives description buying power and product preferences. The products proposed are based on customer profiles and rank of the product by AHP method. The product with the highest score will be proposed as new product development. Case studies of this research are real estate projects in Serang, Makassar, and Balikpapan. Makassar and Balikpapan are the project that already gained success and Serang is new project which new products development will be proposed to launch. Based on profiling and product preference of customer in Balikpapan, Makassar, and prospectus of Serang markets, new products development that will be proposed are house type of 120/200 m2 with price around Rp1.300.000.000 and house type of 71/120 m2 with price around Rp800.000.000. The markets of Serang and Balikpapan have similarities in profiles as urban city so the new products development will adopt the succeed story of Balikpapan project.

  12. Carbon dioxide sequestration by direct mineral carbonation: process mineralogy of feed and products

    SciTech Connect

    O'Connor, William K.; Dahlin, David C.; Rush, G.E.; Dahlin, Cheryl L.; Collins, W. Keith

    2002-05-01

    Direct mineral carbonation was investigated as a process to convert gaseous CO[2] into a geologically stable final form. The process utilizes a slurry of water, with bicarbonate and salt additions, mixed with a mineral reactant, such as olivine (Mg[2]SiO[4]) or serpentine [Mg[3]Si[2]O[5](OH)[4

  13. E3Miner: a text mining tool for ubiquitin-protein ligases.

    PubMed

    Lee, Hodong; Yi, Gwan-Su; Park, Jong C

    2008-07-01

    Ubiquitination is a regulatory process critically involved in the degradation of >80% of cellular proteins, where such proteins are specifically recognized by a key enzyme, or a ubiquitin-protein ligase (E3). Because of this important role of E3s, a rapidly growing body of the published literature in biology and biomedical fields reports novel findings about various E3s and their molecular mechanisms. However, such findings are neither adequately retrieved by general text-mining tools nor systematically made available by such protein databases as UniProt alone. E3Miner is a web-based text mining tool that extracts and organizes comprehensive knowledge about E3s from the abstracts of journal articles and the relevant databases, supporting users to have a good grasp of E3s and their related information easily from the available text. The tool analyzes text sentences to identify protein names for E3s, to narrow down target substrates and other ubiquitin-transferring proteins in E3-specific ubiquitination pathways and to extract molecular features of E3s during ubiquitination. E3Miner also retrieves E3 data about protein functions, other E3-interacting partners and E3-related human diseases from the protein databases, in order to help facilitate further investigation. E3Miner is freely available through http://e3miner.biopathway.org.

  14. Prolonged triboluminescence in clays and other minerals

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Lahav, N.; Coyne, L. M.; Lawless, J. G.

    1982-01-01

    Samples of various clays and minerals were ground or fractured and monitored with a liquid scintillation spectrometer in order to obtain triboluminescent decay curves. Kaolinite samples displayed several million counts/min after grinding, with a surface area emission estimated at tens of billions of photons/sq cm of surface. The photon production rates varied with the origin of the sample, and kaolinite continually yielded higher production rates than bentonite. The addition of water to the samples slightly increased the count rate of emitted light, while the addition of the fluorescent molecule substance tryptofan significantly enhanced the count rate. Freezing smears of kaolinite and montmorillonite in liquid nitrogen and in a salt ice mixture also induced triboluminescence in the montmorillonite. A possible connection between powdery triboluminescent materials formed in mining industries and respiratory disorders among miners is suggested.

  15. Prolonged triboluminescence in clays and other minerals

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Lahav, N.; Coyne, L. M.; Lawless, J. G.

    1982-01-01

    Samples of various clays and minerals were ground or fractured and monitored with a liquid scintillation spectrometer in order to obtain triboluminescent decay curves. Kaolinite samples displayed several million counts/min after grinding, with a surface area emission estimated at tens of billions of photons/sq cm of surface. The photon production rates varied with the origin of the sample, and kaolinite continually yielded higher production rates than bentonite. The addition of water to the samples slightly increased the count rate of emitted light, while the addition of the fluorescent molecule substance tryptofan significantly enhanced the count rate. Freezing smears of kaolinite and montmorillonite in liquid nitrogen and in a salt ice mixture also induced triboluminescence in the montmorillonite. A possible connection between powdery triboluminescent materials formed in mining industries and respiratory disorders among miners is suggested.

  16. New potassium-argon data on the age of mineralization and metamorphism in the Willow Creek mining district, southern Talkeetna Mountains, Alaska: A section in The United States Geological Survey in Alaska: Accomplishments during 1977

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Silberman, Miles L.; Csejtey, Bela; Smith, James G.; Lanphere, Marvin A.; Wilson, Frederic H.

    1978-01-01

    The now largely abandoned Willow Creek mining district, southern Talkeetna Mountains, Alaska, produced nearly $18,000,000 in gold and minor silver between 1909 and the early 1950's. Mineralized quartz veins, which contain gold and silver along with minor quantities of base metals (in pyrite, galena, chalcopyrite, sphalerite, molybdenite, and arsenopyrite), cut Late Cretaceous and early Tertiary tonalite and quartzmica schist of probable Jurassic age (Ray, 1954; Silberman and others, 1976; Bela Csejtey, Jr., unpub. data, 1978).

  17. Phytostabilization of copper mine tailings with biosolids: implications for metal uptake and productivity of Lolium perenne.

    PubMed

    Santibáñez, Claudia; Verdugo, Cesar; Ginocchio, Rosanna

    2008-05-20

    A greenhouse pot experiment was conducted to evaluate the feasibility of using biosolids and Lolium perenne for the phytostabilization of copper mine tailings and to evaluate the patterns of metal accumulation and translocation in plants. Biosolids were applied either on the surface or mixed with the tailings at rates of 0, 6, and 12% w/w. All pots were seeded with L. perenne and after six months, the plants were harvested and separated into roots and shoots for metal concentrations analyses as well as some physiological characteristics of the plants. In order to correlate the metal content in plant tissues with some chemical properties, the pore-water of the substrates was analyzed for metals, pH and dissolved organic carbon. Results showed that biosolids application increased the dry biomass production of L. perenne and the shoot concentrations of N and chlorophyll. On the other hand, biosolids increased the concentration of Cu and Zn in the pore-water and in plant tissues. Despite this, there were no evident symptoms of phytotoxicity and the concentration of metals was within the normal ranges described for plants and below the maximum tolerable level for animals. In addition, plant tissue analysis showed that the application of biosolids could significantly reduce Mo uptake and shoot accumulation in plants. The metals were taken up by plants in the following order: Cu>Zn>Mo>Cd. The distribution patterns of metals in plants showed that metals were mainly accumulated in the roots and only a small amount of them were transported to the shoots. These results suggest that mixed application of biosolids (6%) and the use of L. perenne could be appropriate for use in programs of phytostabilization of copper mine tailings. However, these results should be tested under field conditions in order to confirm their efficacy under semi-arid Mediterranean climate conditions.

  18. The geology and mineral deposits of part of the western half of the Hailey 1 degree x 2 degrees quadrangle, Idaho; with sections on the Neal mining district and the Dixie mining district

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Bennett, Earl H.

    2001-01-01

    Rocks in the western half of the Hailey 1 ?? 2 ? quadrangle of south-central Idaho include various units of the Atlanta lobe of the Idaho batholith (biotite granodiorite to two-mica granite) of Cretaceous age and plutons and dikes of Tertiary (Eocene to Miocene) age that intrude the batholith. Eocene plutonic rocks consist of a bimodal suite of anorogenic granite and tonalite-granodiorite and hypabyssal rhyolite and rhyodacite dikes. Rocks of the Eocene Challis Volcanics are scarce in the map area but are widespread to the east. Rhyolite ash flows of the Miocene Idavada Volcanics and basalt of the Snake River Plain crop out in the southern part of the area. Lacustrine rocks of probable Eocene to Holocene age are present in the vicinity of Anderson Ranch Reservoir. Quaternary basalts and gravels are widespread on the South Fork of the Boise River, and alluvial deposits are common along active drainages. Metasedimentary rocks of unknown age crop out on House Mountain, Chimney Peak, and on the ridges east of Anderson Ranch Reservoir. Older structures in the Idaho batholith include a major fault beneath House Mountain that may be a decollement for one of the large thrust sheets in eastern Idaho or part of an extensional core complex. The southern part of the Atlanta lobe of the Idaho batholith is cut by northeast-striking faults (parallel with the Trans-Challis fault system) that are related to Eocene extension and by northwest-oriented faults that formed during basin and range extension in the Miocene. The basin and range faults have prominent scarps typical of basin and range topography. The combination of northeast and northwest faults has broken the batholith into a series of rhomboid blocks. Some of these northeast and northwest faults are older structures that were reactivated in the Eocene or Miocene, as indicated by Ar 40 /Ar 39 dates on mineralized rock contained in some of the structures. The Idaho batholith and associated rocks in the map area host several

  19. Mapping of the Frazee Mine, the Western Maryland Coal Combustion By-Products/Acid Mine Drainage Initiative, Part 2 of 3

    SciTech Connect

    Egers, K.M.; Rafalko, L.G.; Petzrick, P.; Duckett, G.; Beck, L.A.

    1996-12-31

    Maryland coal production over the years before 1977 reveals that Maryland coal basins have void space from mining a quarter billion tons of coal. The exposure of sulfur-bearing minerals in these mine voids to oxygen and water generates AMD, which is toxic to aquatic flora and fauna. It is estimated that about 450 miles of waterways in western Maryland are impacted by AMD. The majority of these waterways ultimately drain to the east, and affect the overall water quality of the Chesapeake Bay. Typically, AMD is treated by dosing discharges with limestone, which only provides a temporary solution as AMD continues to form at its source in underground mines. The Maryland Department of Natural Resources (DNR) Power Plant Research Program (PPRP) and the Maryland Department of the Environment Bureau of Mines (MDE) have undertaken the Western Maryland CCB/AMD Initiative (the Initiative), which is a joint effort with private industry to develop permanent solutions to abate AMD at its source. The Initiative`s goal is to demonstrate the beneficial application of alkaline CCBs to abate AMD from underground coal mines. The Initiative is based on the concept that alkaline CCBs generated by clean coal technologies, such as fluidized bed combustion (FBC) and flue gas desulfurization (FGD), can be injected into underground mines to prevent the formation of AMD by sealing mines from exposure to oxygen and water. This goal will be met by performing the following: Determining optimum grout formulations for mine injection; Optimizing engineering techniques for mine reclamation to achieve economic viability; Implementing appropriately-sized demonstration projects, progressing to full-scale applications at Maryland`s largest abandoned mines; and Developing industry partnerships for implementation of the Initiative`s findings to abate AMD in western Maryland.

  20. Debilitating Lung Disease Among Surface Coal Miners With No Underground Mining Tenure

    PubMed Central

    Halldin, Cara N.; Reed, William R.; Joy, Gerald J.; Colinet, Jay F.; Rider, James P.; Petsonk, Edward L.; Abraham, Jerrold L.; Wolfe, Anita L.; Storey, Eileen; Laney, A. Scott

    2015-01-01

    Objective To characterize exposure histories and respiratory disease among surface coal miners identified with progressive massive fibrosis from a 2010 to 2011 pneumoconiosis survey. Methods Job history, tenure, and radiograph interpretations were verified. Previous radiographs were reviewed when available. Telephone follow-up sought additional work and medical history information. Results Among eight miners who worked as drill operators or blasters for most of their tenure (median, 35.5 years), two reported poor dust control practices, working in visible dust clouds as recently as 2012. Chest radiographs progressed to progressive massive fibrosis in as few as 11 years. One miner’s lung biopsy demonstrated fibrosis and interstitial accumulation of macrophages containing abundant silica, aluminum silicate, and titanium dust particles. Conclusions Overexposure to respirable silica resulted in progressive massive fibrosis among current surface coal miners with no underground mining tenure. Inadequate dust control during drilling/blasting is likely an important etiologic factor. PMID:25563541

  1. The mineral treasure that almost got away: Re-evaluating yesterday's mine waste

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Högdahl, K.; Jonsson, E.; Troll, V.; Majka, J.

    2012-04-01

    Rare metals and semi-metals such as In, Ga, Se, Te and rare earth elements (REE) are increasing in demand for use in "new" and "green" technology. Yet, before the end of the 20th century the applications and thus the markets for these elements were limited. In many mines, the exploration paradigms and current knowledge as well as contemporary analytical methodology likely resulted in minerals hosting these metals to end up as waste, that is, on the mine dumps. In other cases, they were identified, but considered as mineralogical "exotica". Even extremely well-known and traditionally valuable metals such as gold went undetected on the dumps in some mine fields. This is due to a combination of factors such as that the deposits were "of the wrong type", assays were expensive, and suitable laboratory capacity sparse. This implies that in many regions, this old mine waste is a potential resource for several sought-after metals and semi-metals, including the ones increasingly used in modern high-tech applications. Admittedly, many older dumps and dump fields host only minor to moderate total amounts of material, but in todaýs society - increasingly focused on sustainability and related needs for recycling - this is likely to become an asset. In Sweden, many mine dumps date back hundreds of years or more as mining has been documented to go back at least 1000 years. Before the 20th century, only a single or, at best, a couple of metals were extracted from any given mine. Due to modern development in analytical techniques, the concentrations of trace elements, including highly sought-after metals and semi-metals can be obtained at moderate costs today. The presence of variable amounts of precious and rare elements along with the main ore commodity has now been documented in several cases. A recently started project in the classic, Palaeoproterozoic Bergslagen ore province in central Sweden is aimed at resolving the potential for finding and utilising these "unknown

  2. Mine Drainage and Oil Sand Water.

    PubMed

    Wei, Xinchao; Wolfe, F Andrew; Li, Yanjun

    2015-10-01

    Mine drainage from the mining of mineral resources (coal, metals, oil sand, or industrial minerals) remains as a persistent environmental problem. This review summarizes the scientific literature published in 2014 on the technical issues related to mine drainage or mine water in active and abandoned coal/hard rock mining sites or waste spoil piles. Also included in this review is the water from oil sand operations. This review is divided into the four sections: 1) mine drainage characterization, 2) prediction and environmental impact, 3) treatment technologies, 4) oil sand water. Many papers presented in this review address more than one aspect and different sections should not be regarded as being mutuallyexclusive or all-inclusive.

  3. Effect of Natural Mineral on Methane Production and Process Stability During Semi-Continuous Mono-Digestion of Maize Straw.

    PubMed

    González-Suárez, A; Pereda-Reyes, I; Pozzi, E; da Silva, A José; Oliva-Merencio, D; Zaiat, M

    2016-04-01

    The effect of natural mineral on the mono-digestion of maize straw was evaluated in continuously stirred tank reactors (CSTRs) at 38 °C. Different strategies of mineral addition were studied. The organic loading rate (OLR) was varied from 0.5 to 2.5 g volatile solid (VS) L(-1) d(-1). A daily addition of 1 g mineral L(-1) in reactor 2 (R2) diminished the methane production by about 11 % with respect to the initial phase. However, after a gradual addition of mineral, an average methane yield of 257 NmL CH4 g VS(-1) was reached and the methane production was enhanced by 30 % with regard to R1. An increase in the frequency of mineral addition did not enhance the methane production. The archaeal community was more sensitive to the mineral than the bacterial population whose similarity stayed high between R1 and R2. Significant difference in methane yield was found for both reactors throughout the operation.

  4. Land application of sugar beet by-products: effects on nitrogen mineralization and crop yields.

    PubMed

    Kumar, Kuldip; Rosen, Carl J; Gupta, Satish C; McNearney, Matthew

    2009-01-01

    Land application of food processing wastes has become an acceptable practice because of the nutrient value of the wastes and potential cost savings in their disposal. Spoiled beets and pulp are among the main by-products generated by the sugar beet (Beta vulgaris L.) processing industry. Farmers commonly land apply these by-products at rates >224 Mg ha(-1) on a fresh weight basis. However, information on nutrient release in soils treated with these by-products and their subsequent impacts on crop yield is lacking. Field studies were conducted to determine the effects of sugar beet by-product application on N release and crop yields over two growing seasons. Treatments in the first year were two rates (224 and 448 Mg ha(-1) fresh weight) of pulp and spoiled beets and a nonfertilized control. In the second year after by-product application, the control treatment was fertilized with N fertilizer and an additional treatment was added as a nonfertilized control in buffer areas. Wheat (Triticum aestivum L.) was grown in the year of by-product application and sugar beet in the subsequent year. By-product treatments caused a significant reduction in wheat grain yield compared with the control. This was due to a decline in N availability as a result of immobilization. Based on microplots receiving 15N labeled beets, wheat took up <1% of spoiled beet-N (approximately 4.7 kg ha(-1)) during the year of by-product application. In the second cropping year, sugar beet root yields were significantly higher in the fertilized control and by-product treatments than the nonfertilized control. The lack of significant difference in sugar beet yield between the fertilized control and by-product treatments was likely due to the greater availability of N in the second year. Labeled 15N data also showed that the sugar beet crop recovered a 17% of sugar beet-N, an equivalent of 86 kg N ha(-1), during the second cropping year. There was no difference in sugar beet root yield, N uptake, or

  5. Rocks and Minerals.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Naturescope, 1987

    1987-01-01

    Provides background information on rocks and minerals, including the unique characteristics of each. Teaching activities on rock-hunting and identification, mineral configurations, mystery minerals, and growing crystals are provided. Reproducible worksheets are included for two of the activities. (TW)

  6. Rocks and Minerals.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Naturescope, 1987

    1987-01-01

    Provides background information on rocks and minerals, including the unique characteristics of each. Teaching activities on rock-hunting and identification, mineral configurations, mystery minerals, and growing crystals are provided. Reproducible worksheets are included for two of the activities. (TW)

  7. SURVEY OF ASBESTOS-RELATED DISEASES IN TRADES AND MINING OCCUPATIONS AND IN FACTORY AND MINING COMMUNITIES AS A MEANS OF PREDICTING HEALTH RISKS OF NONOCCUPATIONAL EXPOSURE TO FIBROUS MINERALS.

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Ross, Malcolm; ,

    1984-01-01

    A review based on 36 published epidemiological studies is given of disease patterns that have developed among industrial workers, miners, and millers who had been exposed to dusts of one or more of the commercial asbestos minerals or to dusts from minerals perceived to be asbestos-like. Health data are also reviewed for individuals exposed to asbestos dusts in nonoccupational settings. From the published reports it is clear that there are very significant differences in the health effects of the several asbestos or asbestos-like minerals.

  8. RESTORING SUSTAINABLE FORESTS ON APPALACHIAN MINED LANDS FOR WOOD PRODUCTS, RENEWABLE ENERGY, CARBON SEQUESTRATION, AND OTHER ECOSYSTEM SERVICES

    SciTech Connect

    J. Burger; J. Galbraith; T. Fox; G. Amacher; J. Sullivan; C. Zipper

    2004-06-04

    The overall purpose of this project is to evaluate the biological and economic feasibility of restoring high-quality forests on mined land, and to measure carbon sequestration and wood production benefits that would be achieved from forest restoration procedures. In this quarterly report, we present a preliminary comparison of the carbon sequestration potential of forests growing on 14 mined sites in a seven-state region in the Midwestern and Eastern Coalfields. Carbon contents of these forests were compared to adjacent forests on non-mined land. The study was installed as a 3 x 3 factorial in a random complete block design with three replications at each location. The treatments include three forest types (white pine, hybrid poplar, mixed hardwood) and three silvicultural regimes (competition control, competition control plus tillage, competition control plus tillage plus fertilization). Each individual treatment plot is 0.5 acres. Each block of nine plots requires 4.5 acres, and the complete installation at each site requires 13.5 acres. The plots at all three locations have been installed and the plot corners marked with PVC stakes. GPS coordinates of each plot have been collected. Soil samples were collected from each plot to characterize the sites prior to treatment. Analysis of soil samples was completed and these data are being used to prepare fertilizer prescriptions. Fertilizer prescripts will be developed for each site. Fertilizer will be applied during the second quarter 2004. Data are included as appendices in this report. As part of our economic analysis of mined land reforestation, we focused on the implications of a shift in reforestation burden from the landowner to the mine operator. Results suggest that the reforestation of mined lands as part of the mining operation creates a viable and profitable forest enterprise for landowners with greater potential for carbon sequestration.

  9. New Minerals and Science.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Birch, William D.

    1997-01-01

    Defines geodiversity, compares it to biodiversity, and discusses the mineral classification system. Charts the discovery of new minerals in Australia over time and focuses on uses of these minerals in technological advances. (DDR)

  10. Mines, prospects, mining claims, and sample localities of the Dark Canyon Instant Study Area and vicinity, San Juan County, Utah

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Light, Thomas D.

    1981-01-01

    In conjunction with studies conducted by the U.S. Geological Survey, the U.S. Bureau of Mines conducted a mineral survey in 1979 of known mines, prospect workings, and mineralized zones in the Dark Canyon Instant Study Area, San Juan County, Utah.  This map is a supplement to the Mineral Resources of the Dark Canyon Instant Study Area (Weitz and Light, 1981)., and depicts the locations of mines, prospects, mining claims and sample localities for the area examined by the U.S. Bureau of Mines.

  11. What are the health costs of uranium mining? A case study of miners in Grants, New Mexico

    PubMed Central

    Jones, Benjamin A

    2014-01-01

    Background: Uranium mining is associated with lung cancer and other health problems among miners. Health impacts are related with miner exposure to radon gas progeny. Objectives: This study estimates the health costs of excess lung cancer mortality among uranium miners in the largest uranium-producing district in the USA, centered in Grants, New Mexico. Methods: Lung cancer mortality rates on miners were used to estimate excess mortality and years of life lost (YLL) among the miner population in Grants from 1955 to 2005. A cost analysis was performed to estimate direct (medical) and indirect (premature mortality) health costs. Results: Total health costs ranged from $2.2 million to $7.7 million per excess death.