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Sample records for mines and mineral products

  1. Minerals and mine drainage

    SciTech Connect

    Liang, H.C.; Thomson, B.M.

    2009-09-15

    A review of literature published in 2008 and early 2009 on research related to the production of acid mine drainage and/or in the dissolution of minerals as a result of mining, with special emphasis on the effects of these phenomena on the water quality in the surrounding environment, is presented. This review is divided into six sections: 1) Site Characterization and Assessment, 2) Protection, Prevention, and Restoration, 3) Toxicity Assessment, 4) Environmental Fate and Transport, 5) Biological Characterization, and 6) Treatment Technologies. Because there is much overlap in research areas associated with minerals and mine drainage, many papers presented in this review can be classified into more than one category, and the six sections should not be regarded as being mutually-exclusive, nor should they be thought of as being all-inclusive.

  2. Measurement systems and indices of miners' exposure to radon daughter products in the air of mines.

    PubMed

    Domański, T

    1990-01-01

    This paper presents the classification of measurement systems that may be used for the assessment of miners' exposure to radiation in mines. The following systems were described and characterized as the Air Sampling System (ASS), the Environmental Control System (ECS), the Individual Dosimetry System (IDS), the Stream Monitoring System (SMS) and the Exhaust Monitoring System (EMS). The indices for evaluation of miners' working environments, or for assessment of individual or collective miners' exposure, were selected and determined. These are: average expected concentration (CAE), average observed concentration (CAO), average expected rate of exposure cumulation rate (EEXP), average observed exposure cumulation rate (EOBS), average effective exposure cumulation rate (EEFF). Mathematical formulae for determining all these indicators, according to the type of measurement system used in particular mines, are presented. The reliability of assessment of miners' exposure in particular measurement systems, as well as the role of the possible reference system, are discussed. PMID:2134320

  3. Mine and mineral occurrences of Afghanistan

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Orris, G.J.; Bliss, J.D.

    2002-01-01

    This inventory of more than 1000 mines and mineral occurrences in Afghanistan was compiled from published literature and the files of project members of the National Industrial Minerals project of the U.S. Geological Survey. The compiled data have been edited for consistency and most duplicates have been deleted. The data cover metals, industrial minerals, coal, and peat. Listings in the table represent several levels of information, including mines, mineral showings, deposits, and pegmatite fields.

  4. Mineral dusts and radon in uranium mines

    SciTech Connect

    Abelson, P.H.

    1991-11-08

    The Environmental Protection Agency (EPA) continues to assert that radon is a major cause of lung cancer in this country. EPA is fostering a radon program that could entail huge financial and emotional costs while yielding negligible benefits to public health. Justification for the program was the occurrence of lung cancer in men exposed to huge amounts of radon, mineral dusts, and other lung irritants in uranium mines on the Colorado Plateau. Lung cancer has been reported in about 356 cigarette smokers and in about 25 nonsmokers. During the era of high radon levels, monitoring was sporadic. Conditions in only a small fraction of the mines were measured, and that on a few separate occasions. Later, cumulative exposure to radon was calculated on the basis of measurements involving only a tiny fraction of the miners. Some were exposed to more than 15,000 pCi/liter of radon and its products. The level in the average home is about 1.5 pCi/liter. In making extrapolations from mine to home, the assumption is made that residents are in their dwellings most of the time and that miners spend only 170 hours a month in the mine. Two major questionable assumptions are involved in extrapolations from high doses of radon in the mines to low doses in homes. One is that no threshold is involved; that is, that humans have no remediation mechanism for {alpha} particle damages. There is evidence to the contrary. The most unrealistic assumption is that heavy exposure to silica has no effect on inducing lung cancer. Many studies have shown that silica dust causes lung cancer in animals. Exposure of human culture cells to silica has resulted in formation of neoplastic tissue. EPA has no solid evidence that exposures to 4 pCi/liter of radon causes lung cancer in either smokers or nonsmokers. Indeed, there is abundant evidence to the contrary in the fact that in states with high levels of radon, inhabitants have less lung cancer than those in states with low levels.

  5. 36 CFR 1005.14 - Prospecting, mining, and mineral leasing.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-07-01

    ... mineral leasing. 1005.14 Section 1005.14 Parks, Forests, and Public Property PRESIDIO TRUST COMMERCIAL AND PRIVATE OPERATIONS § 1005.14 Prospecting, mining, and mineral leasing. Prospecting, mining, and the location of mining claims under the general mining laws and leasing under the mineral leasing laws...

  6. 36 CFR 1005.14 - Prospecting, mining, and mineral leasing.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-07-01

    ... mineral leasing. 1005.14 Section 1005.14 Parks, Forests, and Public Property PRESIDIO TRUST COMMERCIAL AND PRIVATE OPERATIONS § 1005.14 Prospecting, mining, and mineral leasing. Prospecting, mining, and the location of mining claims under the general mining laws and leasing under the mineral leasing laws...

  7. 36 CFR 1005.14 - Prospecting, mining, and mineral leasing.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-07-01

    ... mineral leasing. 1005.14 Section 1005.14 Parks, Forests, and Public Property PRESIDIO TRUST COMMERCIAL AND PRIVATE OPERATIONS § 1005.14 Prospecting, mining, and mineral leasing. Prospecting, mining, and the location of mining claims under the general mining laws and leasing under the mineral leasing laws...

  8. 36 CFR 1005.14 - Prospecting, mining, and mineral leasing.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-07-01

    ... mineral leasing. 1005.14 Section 1005.14 Parks, Forests, and Public Property PRESIDIO TRUST COMMERCIAL AND PRIVATE OPERATIONS § 1005.14 Prospecting, mining, and mineral leasing. Prospecting, mining, and the location of mining claims under the general mining laws and leasing under the mineral leasing laws...

  9. 36 CFR 1005.14 - Prospecting, mining, and mineral leasing.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-07-01

    ... mineral leasing. 1005.14 Section 1005.14 Parks, Forests, and Public Property PRESIDIO TRUST COMMERCIAL AND PRIVATE OPERATIONS § 1005.14 Prospecting, mining, and mineral leasing. Prospecting, mining, and the location of mining claims under the general mining laws and leasing under the mineral leasing laws...

  10. Micro-Raman spectroscopic identification of natural mineral phases and their weathering products inside an abandoned zinc/lead mine.

    PubMed

    Goienaga, N; Arrieta, N; Carrero, J A; Olivares, M; Sarmiento, A; Martinez-Arkarazo, I; Fernández, L A; Madariaga, J M

    2011-10-01

    Mining activities provide a good source of minerals of different nature. On the one hand, the primary minerals for whose formation a geological time-scale is required. On the other hand, secondary minerals, formed from removed products after the earlier weathering and alteration states. These are characteristic of the local geology and the environment context that commonly appears due to the low chemical stability of their original primary minerals. This work shows how quickly the reactions promoting secondary minerals may have taken place, due to the fact that these were found in newly formed solid materials called efflorescences. To achieve this purpose, the sampling is crucial. It was carried out in such a way that tried to guarantee that the samples collected consisted in the very top soil matter (first 2 cm depth). Thus, unlike the deeper soil, the material analysed may have been newly formed due to the interactions that they had with the place weathering agents (i.e. air oxygen, humidity, and microbial activities). Raman spectroscopy has emerged as a good and fast non-destructive technique that provides molecular information of the local mineralogy without the need of any pre-treatment of the samples. At the same time, the work looked for information on the variety of non-stable lead and-or zinc containing minerals due to the possible health and environmental risks they convey. Among the different minerals identified, 16 were of primary nature while 23 may be classified as secondary minerals, probably formed in the last decades as the result of the extractive activities.

  11. Proceedings of the sixteenth international symposium on mine planning and equipment selection (MPES 2007) and the tenth international symposium on environmental issues and waste management in energy and mineral production (SWEMP 2007)

    SciTech Connect

    Singhal, R.K.; Fytas, K.; Jongsiri, S.; Ge, Hao

    2007-07-01

    Papers presented at MPES 2007 covered: coal mining and clean coal processing technologies; control, design and planning of surface and underground mines; drilling, blasting and excavation engineering; mining equipment selection; automation and information technology; maintenance and production management for mines and mining systems; health, safety and environment; cost effective methods of mine reclamation; mine closure and waste disposal; and rock mechanics and geotechnical issues. Papers from SWEMP 2007 discussed methods and technologies for assessing, minimizing and preventing environmental problems associated with mineral and energy production. Topics included environmental impacts of coal-fired power projects; emission control in thermal power plants; greenhouse gas abatement technologies; remediation of contaminated soil and groundwater; environmental issues in surface and underground mining of coal, minerals and ores; managing mine waste and mine water; and control of effluents from mineral processing, metallurgical and chemical plants.

  12. Tribology of earthmoving, mining, and minerals processing

    SciTech Connect

    Hawk, Jeffrey A.; Wilson, Rick D.

    2001-01-01

    Earthmoving, mining, and minerals processing each involve frequent, and often severe, mechanical interactions between metals, and between metals and abrasive nonmetallic and metallic materials (i.e., mineral bearing ores). The abrasive nature of ores causes significant wear to extracting, handling, and processing equipment. Consequently, wear in earthmoving, mining, and minerals processing operations results in the removal of large amounts of material from the wear surfaces of scraping, digging, and ore processing equipment. From an energy point of view, material wear of this nature is classified as an indirect tribological loss (Imhoff et al., 1985). Additionally, a significant amount of energy is expended to overcome frictional forces in the operation of all earthmoving, mining, and minerals processing machinery (i.e., a direct tribological loss). However, in these particular processes, wear losses are more than five times those of frictional losses. In general, the amount of material lost from a particular component in these operations, before it becomes unserviceable, is far greater than that which can be tolerated in typical metal-to-metal wear situations (e.g., lubricated bearing-shaft wear couples in machinery). Consequently, much of the equipment used in earthmoving, mining, and ore processing makes use of easily replaceable or repairable, and preferably low-cost, wear components. The mechanisms by which metal-to-metal and abrasive wear occurs, and the relationships between material properties and wear behavior, are reasonably well-understood in general terms. However, the specific wear mechanisms/wear material interactions that occur during earthmoving, digging, and the processing of ore are more complex, and depend on the wear material, and on the nature of abrasive, the type of loading, and the environment. As a result of this general knowledge, reliable predictions can be made regarding the performance of particular materials under a range of in

  13. A Dictionary of Mining, Mineral and Related Terms.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Thrush, Paul W., Comp.

    This dictionary contains about 55,000 terms with approximately 150,000 definitions. These terms are of both a technical and local nature and apply to metal mining, coal mining, quarrying, geology, metallurgy, ceramics and clays, glassmaking, minerals and mineralogy, and general terminology. Petroleum, natural gas, and legal mining terminology,…

  14. 36 CFR 5.14 - Prospecting, mining, and mineral leasing.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-07-01

    ... mineral leasing. 5.14 Section 5.14 Parks, Forests, and Public Property NATIONAL PARK SERVICE, DEPARTMENT OF THE INTERIOR COMMERCIAL AND PRIVATE OPERATIONS § 5.14 Prospecting, mining, and mineral leasing... mineral leasing laws are prohibited in park areas except as authorized by law....

  15. 36 CFR 5.14 - Prospecting, mining, and mineral leasing.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-07-01

    ... mineral leasing. 5.14 Section 5.14 Parks, Forests, and Public Property NATIONAL PARK SERVICE, DEPARTMENT OF THE INTERIOR COMMERCIAL AND PRIVATE OPERATIONS § 5.14 Prospecting, mining, and mineral leasing... mineral leasing laws are prohibited in park areas except as authorized by law....

  16. 36 CFR 5.14 - Prospecting, mining, and mineral leasing.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-07-01

    ... mineral leasing. 5.14 Section 5.14 Parks, Forests, and Public Property NATIONAL PARK SERVICE, DEPARTMENT OF THE INTERIOR COMMERCIAL AND PRIVATE OPERATIONS § 5.14 Prospecting, mining, and mineral leasing... mineral leasing laws are prohibited in park areas except as authorized by law....

  17. 36 CFR 5.14 - Prospecting, mining, and mineral leasing.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-07-01

    ... mineral leasing. 5.14 Section 5.14 Parks, Forests, and Public Property NATIONAL PARK SERVICE, DEPARTMENT OF THE INTERIOR COMMERCIAL AND PRIVATE OPERATIONS § 5.14 Prospecting, mining, and mineral leasing... mineral leasing laws are prohibited in park areas except as authorized by law....

  18. 36 CFR 5.14 - Prospecting, mining, and mineral leasing.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-07-01

    ... mineral leasing. 5.14 Section 5.14 Parks, Forests, and Public Property NATIONAL PARK SERVICE, DEPARTMENT OF THE INTERIOR COMMERCIAL AND PRIVATE OPERATIONS § 5.14 Prospecting, mining, and mineral leasing... mineral leasing laws are prohibited in park areas except as authorized by law....

  19. Iowa State Mining and Mineral Resources Research Institute

    SciTech Connect

    Not Available

    1991-08-01

    During 1990--1991, the Iowa State Mining and Mineral Resources Research Institute (ISMMRRI) has worked diligently to further the objectives of the Mineral Institute Program. About 70% of our Allotment Grant funding goes toward research and education of graduate students within the participating departments of the university. It is our goal to encourage graduate students in diverse fields such as agronomy, engineering, geology, landscape architecture, and many others to pursue a career in mining- and mineral-related fields by preparing them to either enter the private or public sectors. During the 1990 calendar year, ISMMRRI granted research assistantships to 17 graduate students to perform research in topics relating to mineral exploration, characterization and processing, extractive metallurgy, mining engineering, fuel science, mineral waste management, and mined-land reclamation. Research areas include the following: Fluid-inclusion studies on fluorspar mineral deposits in an actively mined region; Geochemical modeling of gold and gold-telluride deposits; Characterization of coal particles for surface-based beneficiation; Impact of surface mining and reclamation of a gypsum deposit area on the surrounding community; Stress-strain response of fine coal particles during transport and storage; Recovery of metal values from mining wastes using bioleaching; Coal beneficiation utilizing triboelectric charging in a fast fluidized bed; and Mathematical modeling of breakage for optimum sizing during crushing of rock.

  20. Iowa State Mining and Mineral Resources Research Institute

    SciTech Connect

    Not Available

    1992-08-01

    During the past year, the Iowa State Mining and Mineral Resources Research Institute has worked diligently to further the objectives of the Mineral Institute Program (ISMMRRI). The majority of our Allotment Grant funding goes toward research and education of graduate students within the participating departments of the university. It is our goal to encourage graduate students in diverse fields such as agronomy, engineering, geology, landscape architecture, and many others to pursue a career in mining- and mineral-related fields by preparing them to either enter the private or public sectors. During the 1991--1992 academic year, ISMMRRI granted research assistantships to 12 graduate students to perform research in topics relating to mineral exploration, extractive metallurgy, characterization and processing, mining engineering, fuel science, mineral waste management, mineral handling, and mineral-energy utilization. Research areas include the following: Geochemical modeling of gold and gold-telluride deposits; Study of shale strength to predict and reduce roof falls in mines; Characterization of the combustion performance of chemically-cleaned coal; Predicting the performance of coal cleaning by selective agglomeration; Temperature sensitive surfactants for surface-based coal cleaning; Conversion of sulfur-dioxide wastes to hydrochloric acid; Evaluating the mechanical properties of coal filter cake; Recovery of metal values from mining wastesusing bioleaching; Coal beneficiation utilizing triboelectric charging in a fast fluidized bed; and Improved impact crushing of limestone.

  1. Sulfide mineral oxidation and subsequent reactive transport of oxidation products in mine tailings impoundments: A numerical model

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Wunderly, M. D.; Blowes, D. W.; Frind, E. O.; Ptacek, C. J.

    1996-10-01

    A versatile numerical model that couples oxygen diffusion and sulfide-mineral oxidation (PYROX) has been developed to simulate the oxidation of pyrite in the vadose zone of mine tailings. A shrinking-core oxidation model and a finite element numerical scheme are used to simulate the transport of oxygen and oxidation of pyrite grains. The rate of pyrite oxidation is assumed to be limited by the transport of oxygen to the reaction site. The model determines the spatially variable bulk diffusion coefficient for oxygen on the basis of moisture content, porosity, and temperature, all of which are variable input parameters. The model PYROX has been coupled to an existing reactive transport model (MINTRAN), which uses a finite element scheme for transport of contaminants and MINTEQA2 to solve for the equilibrium geochemistry. The reactions described by MINTRAN are subject to the local equilibrium assumption. The resulting model, MINTOX, is capable of simulating tailings impoundments where the oxidation of pyrite or pyrrhotite is causing acidic drainage and where acid neutralization and attenuation of dissolved metals can be attributed to equilibrium reactions. Because MINTOX uses realistic boundary conditions and hydrogeological properties, the potential benefits of various remediation schemes, such as moisture-retaining covers, can be quantitatively evaluated.

  2. Iowa State Mining and Mineral Resources Research Institute

    SciTech Connect

    Not Available

    1990-08-01

    This final report describes the activities of the Iowa State Mining and Mineral Resources Research Institute (ISMMRRI) at Iowa State University for the period July 1, 1989, to June 30, 1990. Activities include research in mining- and mineral-related areas, education and training of scientists and engineers in these fields, administration of the Institute, and cooperative interactions with industry, government agencies, and other research centers. During this period, ISMMRRI has supported research efforts to: (1) Investigate methods of leaching zinc from sphalerite-containing ores. (2) Study the geochemistry and geology of an Archean gold deposit and of a gold-telluride deposit. (3) Enchance how-quality aggregates for use in construction. (4) Pre-clean coal by triboelectric charging in a fluidized-bed. (5) Characterize the crystal/grain alignment during processing of yttrium-barium-copper-perovskite (1-2-3) superconductors. (5) Study the fluid inclusion properties of a fluorite district. (6) Study the impacts of surface mining on community planning. (7) Assess the hydrophobicity of coal and pyrite for beneficiation. (8) Investigate the use of photoacoustic absorption spectroscopy for monitoring unburnt carbon in the exhaust gas from coal-fired boilers. The education and training program continued within the interdepartmental graduate minor in mineral resources includes courses in such areas as mining methods, mineral processing, industrial minerals, extractive metallurgy, coal science and technology, and reclamation of mined land. In addition, ISMMRRI hosted the 3rd International Conference on Processing and Utilization of High-Sulfur Coals in Ames, Iowa. The Institute continues to interact with industry in order to foster increased cooperation between academia and the mining and mineral community.

  3. Iowa State Mining and Mineral Resources Research Institute

    SciTech Connect

    Not Available

    1990-01-01

    This semi-annual report describes the activities of the Iowa State Mining and Mineral Resources Research Institute (ISMMRRI) at Iowa State University, Ames, Iowa, funded by the US Department of Interior, Bureau of Mines, for the period of July 1, 1989 to December 31, 1989. Nine graduate research projects and one undergraduate project are described in the areas of extractive metallurgy, mineral processing, characterization and exploration, and fuel science. Although the graduate students are associated with several different academic departments and are pursuing master's and doctoral degrees in their respective disciplines, they are also all minoring in Mineral Resources. In addition, ISMMRRI hosted the Third International Conference on Processing and Utilization of High-Sulfur Coals, November 14--16, 1989, held in Ames, Iowa. 12 refs., 4 figs., 4 tabs.

  4. The fourteenth international symposium on mine planning and equipment selection (MPES) 2005 and the fifth international conference on computer applications in the minerals industry (CAMI) 2005

    SciTech Connect

    Singhal, R.J.; Fytas, K.; Chiwetelu, C.

    2005-07-01

    The proceedings contain 122 papers on mine planning, equipment selection, and computer applications in the mining and minerals industry. Presentations cover surface and underground mining, development, coal mining, oil sands mining, risk analysis, productivity, computer modelling, and waste treatment. Selected papers have been abstracted for the Coal Abstracts database.

  5. Mineralogy and Geochemical Processes of Carbonate Mineral-rich Sulfide Mine Tailings, Zimapan, Mexico

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    McClure, R. J.; Deng, Y.; Loeppert, R.; Herbert, B. E.; Carrillo, R.; Gonzalez, C.

    2009-12-01

    Mining for silver, lead, zinc, and copper in Zimapan, Hidalgo State, Mexico has been ongoing since 1576. High concentrations of heavy metals have been found in several mine tailing heaps in the Zimapan area, with concentrations of arsenic observed as high as 28,690 mg/kg and levels of Pb as high as 2772 mg/kg. Unsecured tailings heaps and associated acid mine drainage has presented tremendous problems to revegetation, water quality, and dust emission control in the Zimapan area. Although acid mine drainage problems related to weathering of sulfide minerals have been extensively studied and are well known, the weathering products of sulfides in areas with a significant presence of carbonate minerals and their effect on the mobility of heavy metals warrant further study. Carbonate minerals are expected to neutralize sulfuric acid produced from weathering of sulfide minerals, however, in the Zimapan area localized areas of pH as low as 1.8 were observed within carbonate mineral-rich tailing heaps. The objectives of this study are to characterize (1) the heavy metal-containing sulfide minerals in the initial tailing materials, (2) the intermediate oxidation products of sulfide minerals within the carbonate-rich tailings, (3) chemical species of heavy metals within pH gradients between 1.8 and 8.2, the approximate natural pH of limestone, and (4) the mobility of soluble and colloidal heavy metals and arsenic within the carbonate-rich tailings. Representative mine tailings and their intermediate oxidation products have been sampled from the Zimapan area. Mineralogical characterization will be conducted with X-ray diffraction, infrared spectroscopy, electron microscopes and microprobes, and chemical methods. Chemical species will be extracted by selective dissolution methods. Preliminary results have identified calcite as the dominant mineral in the tailing heaps with a pH of 7, suggesting non-equilibrium with the acidic weathering products. Other minerals identified in

  6. Alteration and vein mineralization, Ladwig uranium mine, Jefferson County, Colorado

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Wallace, Alan R.

    1979-01-01

    Uranium ore at the Ladwig mine, Jefferson County, Colo., occurs in steeply dipping, northwest-striking faults and related fractures with a carbonate-adularia assemblage that forms in altered wallrocks and fills veins. The faults occur between large intrusive pegmatites and garnetiferous gneisses of Precambrian age, and were reactivated as the result of the early Paleocene uplift of the Front Range foothills. Mineralization in the deposit includes both wallrock alteration and vein filling. Alteration was intense but local, and chiefly involved the carbonatization of mafic minerals in the wallrocks. Felsic minerals in the wallrocks are relatively unaltered. The veins are filled with an adularia-pitchblende-carbonate assemblage with minor related sulfides and coffinite. Many of the iron-bearing carbonates in both the alteration and vein assemblages have been altered to hematite. The mineralization and alteration are believed to have formed in response to initially high amounts of CO2 and the subsequent release of dissolved CO2 by boiling or effervescence. Uranium, carried in a dicarbonate complex, was precipitated directly as pitchblende when the CO2 was released. The expulsion of H+ during boiling created a net oxidizing environment which oxidized the iron-bearing carbonates. Late stage calcite and sulfides were deposited in existing voids in the veins.

  7. Mineral mining installation

    SciTech Connect

    Eggenstein, F.; Plester, K.

    1980-10-14

    A mineral mining installation comprises a longwall structure, such as a conveyor or a winning installation, and a roof support assembly constituted by a plurality of roof support units positioned side-by-side. At least some of the roof support units are provided with hydraulic bracing rams for bracing the longwall structure longitudinally. Each bracing ram is pivotally connected between the longwall structure and the floor sill of a respective roof support unit. Each ram is connected to its floor sill by connection means constituted by a bracket slidably mounted on that floor sill for movement towards, and away from, the longwall structure. Means are provided for securing each of the brackets to its floor sill in any one of a plurality of positions.

  8. Acid Mine Drainage and Metal Sulfate Minerals in the Shasta Mining District, California

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Livingston, J. D.; Murphy, W. M.; Miller, R. M.; Ayars, E. J.

    2005-12-01

    Metal sulfate minerals were collected at four surface water drainage sites during September and October of 2004 in the Shasta Mining District, southern Klamath Mountains, Shasta County, California and analyzed by X-ray fluorescence, atomic absorption spectroscopy, and X-ray diffraction to determine elements present, quantities of Fe, Cu, and Zn, and mineralogy. The Shasta Mining District produced major quantities of Cu, Zn, and pyrite (S) with minor amounts of Au, Ag, and Fe from massive sulfide bodies (Kinkel et al., 1956). Three study sites are located on Iron Mountain and one study site is at Bully Hill. Although mining occurred during a period of just over 100 years, it is estimated that acid mine drainage (AMD) will continue from Iron Mountain for over 3,200 years (Nordstrom and Alpers, 1998). AMD at the study sites produces blooms of metal sulfates during California's Mediterranean climate summer. The minerals readily dissolve in the "first flush" of seasonal rain creating runoff water of low pH with high amounts of dissolved metals (Bayless and Olyphant, 1993; Jambor et al., 2000). Data were examined for mineralogical changes in time and space and for zoning of minerals on a scale of centimeters. Sulfate mineral samples are complex with some samples composed of over a dozen different minerals. Site 1 is located on Spring Creek downstream from the Iron Mountain superfund remediation site, so levels of Fe, Cu, and Zn in the sulfates at this site are lower than at the other sites. Two site 1 samples from the same location taken a month apart show Ca, Fe, Cu, Sr, Y, and Sn, and the first sample also has detectable Br. The metal sulfates identified from the first visit are celestine, cesanite, chessexite, hectorfloresite, and ungemachite, and the mineralogy of the second visit is bilinite, epsomite, millosevichite, and anhydrite. The Fe bearing sulfate mineral during the first visit is ungemachite, but bilinite was the Fe bearing mineral at the time of the second

  9. Radon exposure, cigarette smoking, and other mining experience in the beaverlodge uranium miners cohort

    SciTech Connect

    L'Abbe, K.A.; Howe, G.R.; Burch, J.D.; Miller, A.B.; Abbatt, J.; Band, P.; Choi, W.; Du, J.; Feather, J.; Gallagher, R. )

    1991-04-01

    A nested case-control study within the Beaverlodge Uranium Miners Cohort was undertaken to assess any possible contribution of confounding by smoking and other mining experience to the risk estimate derived from the original cohort study. Next of kin have been interviewed for 46 lung cancer cases and 95 controls enrolled in the Beaverlodge Uranium Miners Cohort Study who died between 1950 and 1980. Confounding by cigarette smoking and other mining experience appears unlikely to have contributed to the relative risk coefficient for exposure to Rn decay products derived in the parent study. Data for smoking and exposure to Rn decay products are consistent with a multiplicative model, although considerable caution must be applied to this interpretation.

  10. Injury experience in nonmetallic mineral mining (except stone and coal), 1991

    SciTech Connect

    Not Available

    1993-10-01

    This Mine Safety and Health Administration (MSHA) informational report reviews in detail the occupational injury and illness experience of nonmetallic mineral mining (except stone and coal) in the United States for 1991. Data reported by operators of mining establishments concerning work injuries are summarized by work location, accident classification, part of body injured, nature of injury, occupation, and principal type of mineral. Related information on employment, worktime, and operating activity also is presented. Data reported by independent contractors performing certain work at mining locations are depicted separately in this report. For ease of comparison with other metal and nonmetallic mineral mining industries and with coal mining, summary reference tabulations are included at the end of both the operator and the contractor sections of this report.

  11. Injury experience in nonmetallic mineral mining (except stone and coal), 1989

    SciTech Connect

    Not Available

    1990-01-01

    This Mine Safety and Health Administration (MSHA) informational report reviews in detail the occupational injury and illness experience of nonmetallic mineral mining (except stone and coal) in the United States for 1989. Data reported by operators of mining establishments concerning work injuries are summarized by work location, accident classification, part of body injured, nature of injury, occupation, and principal type of mineral. Related information on employment, worktime, and operating activity also is presented. Data reported by independent contractors performing certain work at mining locations are depicted separately in this report. For ease of comparison with other metal and nonmetallic mineral mining industries and with coal mining, summary reference tabulations are included at the end of both the operator and the contractor sections of this report. 3 figs., 46 tabs.

  12. Injury experience in nonmetallic mineral mining (except stone and coal), 1992

    SciTech Connect

    Reich, R.B; Hugler, E.C.

    1994-05-01

    This Mine Safety and Health Administration (MSHA) informational report reviews in detail the occupational injury and illness experience of nonmetallic mineral mining (except stone and coal) in the United States for 1992. Data reported by operators of mining establishments concerning work injuries are summarized by work location, accident classification, part of body injured, nature of injury, occupation, and principal type of mineral. Related information on employment, worktime, and operating activity also is presented. Data reported by independent contractors performing certain work at mining locations are depicted separately in this report. For ease of comparison with other metal and nonmetallic mineral mining industries and with coal mining, summary reference tabulations are included at the end of both the operator and the contractor sections of this report.

  13. 77 FR 57111 - Agency Information Collection Activities: Comment Request for the Mine, Development, and Mineral...

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2012-09-17

    ..., Development, and Mineral Exploration Supplement (1 Form) AGENCY: U.S. Geological Survey (USGS), Interior... data for nonfuel mineral commodities. This information will be published as an Annual Report for use by... Number: 9-4000-A. Title: Mine, Development, and Mineral Exploration Supplement. Type of...

  14. Iowa State Mining and Mineral Resources Research Institute. Final report, July 1, 1990--June 30, 1991

    SciTech Connect

    Not Available

    1991-08-01

    During 1990--1991, the Iowa State Mining and Mineral Resources Research Institute (ISMMRRI) has worked diligently to further the objectives of the Mineral Institute Program. About 70% of our Allotment Grant funding goes toward research and education of graduate students within the participating departments of the university. It is our goal to encourage graduate students in diverse fields such as agronomy, engineering, geology, landscape architecture, and many others to pursue a career in mining- and mineral-related fields by preparing them to either enter the private or public sectors. During the 1990 calendar year, ISMMRRI granted research assistantships to 17 graduate students to perform research in topics relating to mineral exploration, characterization and processing, extractive metallurgy, mining engineering, fuel science, mineral waste management, and mined-land reclamation. Research areas include the following: Fluid-inclusion studies on fluorspar mineral deposits in an actively mined region; Geochemical modeling of gold and gold-telluride deposits; Characterization of coal particles for surface-based beneficiation; Impact of surface mining and reclamation of a gypsum deposit area on the surrounding community; Stress-strain response of fine coal particles during transport and storage; Recovery of metal values from mining wastes using bioleaching; Coal beneficiation utilizing triboelectric charging in a fast fluidized bed; and Mathematical modeling of breakage for optimum sizing during crushing of rock.

  15. Fine Milling and Mechanochemical Activation of Mine Wastes for Enhanced CO2 Mineral Carbonation

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Hitch, M.; Li, J.; Dipple, G. M.

    2013-12-01

    Mechanical activation is an effective method to enhancing the physical architecture of mineral grains for mineral carbonation and CO2 sequestration. The advantage of this level of comminution is the disruption of the mineral structure and increase its reactivity. This paper discusses mechanochemical activation of whole rock tailings and compares three grinding methods (stirred, planetary and vibratory mills). Physical characteristics influencing CO2 mineral carbonation were measured using gas adsorption, infrared spectroscopy (FTIR) scanning electron microscopy (SEM), X-ray diffraction (XRD), and thermal gravity analysis (TGA). Results to date have indicated that indeed the mechanochemical activation leads to microstructure, structural and chemical changes of mixtures during high-energy milling. Direct aqueous mineral carbonation helped guide the author to the most effective mineral preparation method. Finally, Reitvelt analysis was used for quantitative analysis of the carbonate product. It was found that the activation mode controls the physio-chemical efficacy of the mine waste particle and was responsible for the differences in carbonate conversion.

  16. Iowa State Mining and Mineral Resources Research Institute. Final report, July 1, 1991--June 30, 1992

    SciTech Connect

    Not Available

    1992-08-01

    During the past year, the Iowa State Mining and Mineral Resources Research Institute has worked diligently to further the objectives of the Mineral Institute Program (ISMMRRI). The majority of our Allotment Grant funding goes toward research and education of graduate students within the participating departments of the university. It is our goal to encourage graduate students in diverse fields such as agronomy, engineering, geology, landscape architecture, and many others to pursue a career in mining- and mineral-related fields by preparing them to either enter the private or public sectors. During the 1991--1992 academic year, ISMMRRI granted research assistantships to 12 graduate students to perform research in topics relating to mineral exploration, extractive metallurgy, characterization and processing, mining engineering, fuel science, mineral waste management, mineral handling, and mineral-energy utilization. Research areas include the following: Geochemical modeling of gold and gold-telluride deposits; Study of shale strength to predict and reduce roof falls in mines; Characterization of the combustion performance of chemically-cleaned coal; Predicting the performance of coal cleaning by selective agglomeration; Temperature sensitive surfactants for surface-based coal cleaning; Conversion of sulfur-dioxide wastes to hydrochloric acid; Evaluating the mechanical properties of coal filter cake; Recovery of metal values from mining wastesusing bioleaching; Coal beneficiation utilizing triboelectric charging in a fast fluidized bed; and Improved impact crushing of limestone.

  17. Injury experience in metallic mineral mining, 1992

    SciTech Connect

    Not Available

    1994-05-01

    This Mine Safety and Health Administration (MSHA) informational report reviews in detail the occupational injury and illness experience of metallic mineral mining in the United States for 1992. Data reported by operators of mining establishments concerning work injuries are summarized by work location, accident classification, part of body injured, nature of injury, occupation, and principal type of mineral. Related information on employment, worktime, and operating activity also is presented. Data reported by independent contractors performing certain work at mining locations are depicted separately in this report. For ease of comparison with other metal and nonmetallic mineral mining industries and with coal mining, summary reference tabulations are included at the end of both the operator and the contractor sections of this report.

  18. Injury experience in metallic mineral mining, 1991

    SciTech Connect

    Not Available

    1993-10-01

    This Mine Safety and Health Administration (MSHA) informational report reviews in detail the occupational injury and illness experience of metallic mineral mining in the United States for 1991. Data reported by operators of mining establishments concerning work injuries are summarized by work location, accident classification, part of body injured, nature of injury, occupation, and principal type of mineral. Related information on employment, worktime, and operating activity also is presented. Data reported by independent contractors performing certain work at mining locations are depicted separately in this report. For ease of comparison with other metal and nonmetallic mineral mining industries and with coal mining, summary reference tabulations are included at the end of both the operator and the contractor sections of this report.

  19. Injury experience in metallic mineral mining, 1989

    SciTech Connect

    Not Available

    1990-01-01

    This Mine Safety and Health Administration (MSHA) informational report reviews in detail the occupational injury and illness experience of metallic mineral mining in the the United States for 1989. Data reported by operators of mining establishments concerning work injuries are summarized by work location, accident classification, part of body injured, nature of injury, occupation, and principal type of mineral. Related information on employment, worktime, and operating activity also is presented. Data reported by independent contractors performing certain work at mining locations are depicted separately in this report. For ease of comparison with other metal and nonmetallic mineral mining industries and with coal mining, summary reference tabulations are included at the end of both the operator and the contractor sections of this report. 3 figs., 46 tabs.

  20. The role of conflict minerals, artisanal mining, and informal trading networks in African intrastate and regional conflicts

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Chirico, Peter G.; Malpeli, Katherine C.

    2014-01-01

    The relationship between natural resources and armed conflict gained public and political attention in the 1990s, when it became evident that the mining and trading of diamonds were connected with brutal rebellions in several African nations. Easily extracted resources such as alluvial diamonds and gold have been and continue to be exploited by rebel groups to fund their activities. Artisanal and small-scale miners operating under a quasi-legal status often mine these mineral deposits. While many African countries have legalized artisanal mining and established flow chains through which production is intended to travel, informal trading networks frequently emerge in which miners seek to evade taxes and fees by selling to unauthorized buyers. These networks have the potential to become international in scope, with actors operating in multiple countries. The lack of government control over the artisanal mining sector and the prominence of informal trade networks can have severe social, political, and economic consequences. In the past, mineral extraction fuelled violent civil wars in Sierra Leone, Liberia, and Angola, and it continues to do so today in several other countries. The significant influence of the informal network that surrounds artisanal mining is therefore an important security concern that can extend across borders and have far-reaching impacts.

  1. The Philippine mining industry: status and trends in mineral resources development

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Domingo, Edwin G.

    The mining industry sector is a major backbone of the Philippine economy. The long history of the industry has been much affected by the vicissitudes of the international market, as well as other domestic factors. With the adoption of the 1986 Constitution, the concept of awarding mineral rights has been drastically changed from leasehold to a system of contracts for various modes of production. Such changes have, as expected, temporarily unsettled the industry. The preponderance of small-scale mining, the growing public awareness on the environment, increasing labor and energy costs are concerns which should be addressed. Amidst all these, and in the framework of very stiff competition in the region for investments, new thrusts and directions, without compromising general stability, are urgently required for the overall development not only of the industry but for the whole country.

  2. [Studies of radioactivity in the ores and mineral products].

    PubMed

    Brovtsyn, A K

    2004-01-01

    Mineral ores and products made of them were studied by gamma-spectrophotometry. Regularities of radionuclide content in ores and products were found. A possibility of deactivation of ores and mineral products by the technology of aerohydrodynamic concentration was shown.

  3. Calcioaravaipaite: A new mineral and associated lead fluoride minerals from the Grand Reef mine, Graham County, Arizona

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Kampf, A.R.; Foord, E.E.

    1996-01-01

    The Grand Reef mine in southeastern Arizona, best known to collectors for superb crystals of linarite, is also the type locality far a unique suite of lead fluoride minerals. Grandreefite, pseudograndreefite, laurelite, aravaipaite, and artroeite have been found nowhere else; added to this group is calcioaravaipaite, described here for the first time.

  4. Mercury contamination in agricultural soils from abandoned metal mines classified by geology and mineralization.

    PubMed

    Kim, Han Sik; Jung, Myung Chae

    2012-01-01

    This survey aimed to compare mercury concentrations in soils related to geology and mineralization types of mines. A total of 16,386 surface soils (0~15 cm in depth) were taken from agricultural lands near 343 abandoned mines (within 2 km from each mine) and analyzed for Hg by AAS with a hydride-generation device. To meaningfully compare mercury levels in soils with geology and mineralization types, three subclassification criteria were adapted: (1) five mineralization types, (2) four valuable ore mineral types, and (3) four parent rock types. The average concentration of Hg in all soils was 0.204 mg kg(-1) with a range of 0.002-24.07 mg kg(-1). Based on the mineralization types, average Hg concentrations (mg kg(-1)) in the soils decreased in the order of pegmatite (0.250) > hydrothermal vein (0.208) > hydrothermal replacement (0.166) > skarn (0.121) > sedimentary deposits (0.045). In terms of the valuable ore mineral types, the concentrations decreased in the order of Au-Ag-base metal mines ≈ base metal mines > Au-Ag mines > Sn-W-Mo-Fe-Mn mines. For parent rock types, similar concentrations were found in the soils derived from sedimentary rocks and metamorphic rocks followed by heterogeneous rocks with igneous and metamorphic processes. Furthermore, farmland soils contained relatively higher Hg levels than paddy soils. Therefore, it can be concluded that soils in Au, Ag, and base metal mines derived from a hydrothermal vein type of metamorphic rocks and pegmatite deposits contained relatively higher concentrations of mercury in the surface environment.

  5. Mercury contamination in agricultural soils from abandoned metal mines classified by geology and mineralization.

    PubMed

    Kim, Han Sik; Jung, Myung Chae

    2012-01-01

    This survey aimed to compare mercury concentrations in soils related to geology and mineralization types of mines. A total of 16,386 surface soils (0~15 cm in depth) were taken from agricultural lands near 343 abandoned mines (within 2 km from each mine) and analyzed for Hg by AAS with a hydride-generation device. To meaningfully compare mercury levels in soils with geology and mineralization types, three subclassification criteria were adapted: (1) five mineralization types, (2) four valuable ore mineral types, and (3) four parent rock types. The average concentration of Hg in all soils was 0.204 mg kg(-1) with a range of 0.002-24.07 mg kg(-1). Based on the mineralization types, average Hg concentrations (mg kg(-1)) in the soils decreased in the order of pegmatite (0.250) > hydrothermal vein (0.208) > hydrothermal replacement (0.166) > skarn (0.121) > sedimentary deposits (0.045). In terms of the valuable ore mineral types, the concentrations decreased in the order of Au-Ag-base metal mines ≈ base metal mines > Au-Ag mines > Sn-W-Mo-Fe-Mn mines. For parent rock types, similar concentrations were found in the soils derived from sedimentary rocks and metamorphic rocks followed by heterogeneous rocks with igneous and metamorphic processes. Furthermore, farmland soils contained relatively higher Hg levels than paddy soils. Therefore, it can be concluded that soils in Au, Ag, and base metal mines derived from a hydrothermal vein type of metamorphic rocks and pegmatite deposits contained relatively higher concentrations of mercury in the surface environment. PMID:21814815

  6. 25 CFR 215.23a - Suspension of operations and production on leases for minerals other than oil and gas.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-04-01

    ... minerals other than oil and gas. 215.23a Section 215.23a Indians BUREAU OF INDIAN AFFAIRS, DEPARTMENT OF THE INTERIOR ENERGY AND MINERALS LEAD AND ZINC MINING OPERATIONS AND LEASES, QUAPAW AGENCY § 215.23a Suspension of operations and production on leases for minerals other than oil and gas. The provisions...

  7. Mineral Mapping with Imaging Spectroscopy: The Ray Mine, AZ

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Clark, Roger N.; Vance, J. Sam; Livo, K. Eric; Green, Robert O.

    1998-01-01

    Mineral maps generated for the Ray Mine, Arizona were analyzed to determine if imaging spectroscopy can provide accurate information for environmental management of active and abandoned mine regions. The Ray Mine, owned by the ASARCO Corporation, covers an area of 5700 acres and is situated in Pinal County, Arizona about 70 miles north of Tucson near Hayden, Arizona. This open-pit mine has been a major source of copper since 1911, producing an estimated 4.5 million tons of copper since its inception. Until 1955 mining was accomplished by underground block caving and shrinkage stope methods. (excavation by working in stepped series usually employed in a vertical or steeply inclined orebody) In 1955, the mine was completely converted to open pit method mining with the bulk of the production from sulfide ore using recovery by concentrating and smelting. Beginning in 1969 a significant production contribution has been from the leaching and solvent extraction-electrowinnowing method of silicate and oxide ores. Published reserves in the deposit as of 1992 are 1.1 billion tons at 0.6 percent copper. The Environmental Protection Agency, in conjunction with ASARCO, and NASA/JPL obtained AVIRIS data over the mine in 1997 as part of the EPA Advanced Measurement Initiative (AMI) (Tom Mace, Principal Investigator). This AVIRIS data set is being used to compare and contrast the accuracy and environmental monitoring capabilities of remote sensing technologies: visible-near-IR imaging spectroscopy, multispectral visible and, near-IR sensors, thermal instruments, and radar platforms. The goal of this effort is to determine if these various technologies provide useful information for envirorunental management of active and abandoned mine sites in the arid western United States. This paper focuses on the analysis of AVIRIS data for assessing the impact of the Ray Mine on Mineral Creek. Mineral Creek flows to the Gila River. This paper discusses our preliminary AVIRIS mineral mapping

  8. Geology and Mineral Resources of the North Absaroka Wilderness and Vicinity, Park County, Wyoming, with Sections on Mineralization of the Sunlight Mining Region and Geology and Mineralization of the Cooke City Mining District, and a Section on Aeromagnetic Survey

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Nelson, Willis H.; Prostka, Harold J.; Williams, Frank E.; Elliott, James E.; Peterson, Donald L.

    1980-01-01

    SUMMARY The North Absaroka Wilderness is approximately 560 square miles (1,450 km 2 ) of rugged scenic mountainous terrain that adjoins the eastern boundary of Yellowstone National Park in northwestern Wyoming. The area was studied during 1970, 1971, and 1972 by personnel of the U. S. Geological Survey and the U. S. Bureau of Mines to evaluate its mineral-resource potential as required by the Wilderness Act of 1964. This evaluation is based on a search of the literature courthouse and production records, geologic field mapping, field inspection of claims and prospects, analyses of bedrock and stream-sediment samples, and an aeromagnetic survey. The North Absaroka Wilderness is underlain almost entirely by andesitic and basaltic volcanic rocks of Eocene age. These volcanics rest on deformed sedimentary rocks of Paleozoic and, locally, of Mesozoic age that are exposed at places along the northern and eastern edges of the wilderness. Dikes and other igneous intrusive bodies cut both the volcanic and sedimentary rocks. A nearly flat detachment fault, the Heart Mountain fault, and a related steep break-away fault have displaced middle and upper Paleozoic rocks and some of the older part of the volcanic sequence to the southeast. A much greater thickness of volcanic rocks was found to be involved in Heart Mountain faulting than had previously been recognized; however, most of the volcanic rocks and many of the intrusives were emplaced after Heart Mountain faulting. Local folding and high-angle faulting in mid-Eocene time have deformed all but the youngest part of the volcanic sequence in the southeastern part of the wilderness. This deformation is interpreted as the last pulse of Laramide orogeny. The results of this study indicate that the mineral-resource potential of the wilderness is minimal. Bentonite, petroleum, low-quality coal, and localized deposits of uranium and chromite have been produced in the surrounding region from rocks that underlie the volcanic rocks

  9. 43 CFR 3814.1 - Mineral reservation in entry and patent; mining and removal of reserved deposits; bonds.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-10-01

    ...; mining and removal of reserved deposits; bonds. 3814.1 Section 3814.1 Public Lands: Interior Regulations... Homestead Act § 3814.1 Mineral reservation in entry and patent; mining and removal of reserved deposits... caused to the value of the land for grazing by such prospecting for, mining, or removal of...

  10. (Mining and mineral-related research). Final report, October 1, 1982-September 30, 1983

    SciTech Connect

    Not Available

    1983-12-01

    An industrial process was developed to recover iron ore from discarded power plant fly ash based on magnetic separation and caustic leachings. An electrowinning method was developed for copper using a fluidized bed electrochemical reactor. A method was improved to test rock strength in underground mine workings. A patentable safety device was developed to test directly shear components on the inside walls of underground mines using pulse velocity measurement of induced fractures. The thermal behavior of minerals commonly associated with US coals was studied kinetically using heating-stage microscopy. A mathematical model was formulated to monitor and predict the transport of fugitive dust from a surface mine environment.

  11. An epidemiological study of salt miners in diesel and nondiesel mines

    SciTech Connect

    Gamble, J.; Jones, W.; Hudak, J.

    1983-01-01

    A cross-sectional study of 5 NaCl mines and 259 miners addressed the following questions: 1) Is there an association of increased respiratory symptoms, radiographic findings, and reduced pulmonary function with exposure to nitrogen dioxide (NO2) and/or respirable particulate (RP) among these miners. 2) Is there increased morbidity of these miners compared to other working populations. Personal samples of NO2 and respirable particulate for jobs in each mine were used to estimate cumulative exposure. NO2 is used as a surrogate measure of diesel exposure. Cough was associated with age and smoking, dyspnea with age; neither symptom was associated with exposure (years worked, estimated cumulative NO2 or RP exposure). Phlegm was associated with age, smoking, and exposure. Reduced pulmonary function (FVC, FEV1, peak, flow, FEF50, FEF75) showed no association with exposure. There was one case of small rounded and one case of small irregular opacities; pneumoconiosis was not analyzed further. Compared to underground coal miners, above ground coal miners, potash miners, and nonmining workers, the study population after adjustment for age and smoking generally showed no increased prevalence of cough, phlegm, dyspnea, or obstruction (FEV1/FVC less than 0.7). Obstruction in younger salt miners and phlegm in older salt miners was elevated compared to nonmining workers. Mean predicted pulmonary function was reduced 2-4% for FEV1 and FVC, 7-13% for FEF50, and 18-22% for FEF75 below all comparison populations.

  12. 25 CFR 215.23a - Suspension of operations and production on leases for minerals other than oil and gas.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-04-01

    ... 25 Indians 1 2011-04-01 2011-04-01 false Suspension of operations and production on leases for... THE INTERIOR ENERGY AND MINERALS LEAD AND ZINC MINING OPERATIONS AND LEASES, QUAPAW AGENCY § 215.23a Suspension of operations and production on leases for minerals other than oil and gas. The provisions...

  13. 78 FR 16863 - Agency Information Collection Activities: Comment Request for the Mine, Development, and Mineral...

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2013-03-19

    ... FR 57111) announcing that we would submit this ICR to OMB for approval and soliciting comments. The..., Development, and Mineral Exploration Supplement (1 Form) AGENCY: U.S. Geological Survey (USGS), Interior... extension of the currently approved paperwork requirements for the Mine, Development, and...

  14. PubMedMiner: Mining and Visualizing MeSH-based Associations in PubMed

    PubMed Central

    Zhang, Yucan; Sarkar, Indra Neil; Chen, Elizabeth S.

    2014-01-01

    The exponential growth of biomedical literature provides the opportunity to develop approaches for facilitating the identification of possible relationships between biomedical concepts. Indexing by Medical Subject Headings (MeSH) represent high-quality summaries of much of this literature that can be used to support hypothesis generation and knowledge discovery tasks using techniques such as association rule mining. Based on a survey of literature mining tools, a tool implemented using Ruby and R – PubMedMiner – was developed in this study for mining and visualizing MeSH-based associations for a set of MEDLINE articles. To demonstrate PubMedMiner’s functionality, a case study was conducted that focused on identifying and comparing comorbidities for asthma in children and adults. Relative to the tools surveyed, the initial results suggest that PubMedMiner provides complementary functionality for summarizing and comparing topics as well as identifying potentially new knowledge. PMID:25954472

  15. Standard for metal/nonmetal mining and metal mineral processing facilities. 2004 ed.

    SciTech Connect

    2004-07-01

    This standard addresses the protection of diesel-powered equipment and the storage and handling of flammable and combustible liquids at these specialized sites. The 2004 edition consolidates requirements from NFPA 122 and 121 : Standard on Fire Protection for Self-Propelled and Mobile Surface Mining Equipment. Major changes include a new chapter on fire protection of surface metal mineral processing plants. The Standard is also revised to emphasize the use of a fire risk assessment when determining fire protection criteria. Chapter headings are: Administration; Referenced publications; Definitions; General; Fire risk assessment and risk reduction; Fire detection and suppression equipment; Fire protection for diesel-powered equipment in underground mines; Transfer of flammable or combustible liquids in underground mines; Flammable liquid storage in underground mines; Combustible liquid storage in underground mines; Fire suppression for flammable or combustible liquid storage areas in underground mines; Fire protection of surface mobile and self-propelled equipment; and Fire protection of surface metal mineral processing plants. 3 annexes.

  16. Overall requirements for an advanced underground coal extraction system. [environment effects, miner health and safety, production cost, and coal conservation

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Goldsmith, M.; Lavin, M. L.

    1980-01-01

    Underground mining systems suitable for coal seams expoitable in the year 2000 are examined with particular relevance to the resources of Central Appalachia. Requirements for such systems may be summarized as follows: (1) production cost; (2)miner safety; (3) miner health; (4) environmental impact; and (5) coal conservation. No significant trade offs between production cost and other performance indices were found.

  17. SkyMine Carbon Mineralization Pilot Project

    SciTech Connect

    Christenson, Norm; Walters, Jerel

    2014-12-31

    This Topical Report addresses accomplishments achieved during Phase 2b of the SkyMine® Carbon Mineralization Pilot Project. The primary objectives of this project are to design, construct, and operate a system to capture CO2 from a slipstream of flue gas from a commercial coal-fired cement kiln, convert that CO2 to products having commercial value (i.e., beneficial use), show the economic viability of the CO2 capture and conversion process, and thereby advance the technology to the point of readiness for commercial scale demonstration and deployment. The overall process is carbon negative, resulting in mineralization of CO2 that would otherwise be released into the atmosphere. The project will also substantiate market opportunities for the technology by sales of chemicals into existing markets, and identify opportunities to improve technology performance and reduce costs at the commercial scale. The project is being conducted in two phases. The primary objectives of Phase 1 were to evaluate proven SkyMine® process chemistry for commercial pilot-scale operation and complete the preliminary design for the pilot plant to be built and operated in Phase 2, complete a NEPA evaluation, and develop a comprehensive carbon life cycle analysis. The objective of Phase 2b was to build the pilot plant to be operated and tested in Phase 2c.

  18. VCF-Miner: GUI-based application for mining variants and annotations stored in VCF files.

    PubMed

    Hart, Steven N; Duffy, Patrick; Quest, Daniel J; Hossain, Asif; Meiners, Mike A; Kocher, Jean-Pierre

    2016-03-01

    Next-generation sequencing platforms are widely used to discover variants associated with disease. The processing of sequencing data involves read alignment, variant calling, variant annotation and variant filtering. The standard file format to hold variant calls is the variant call format (VCF) file. According to the format specifications, any arbitrary annotation can be added to the VCF file for downstream processing. However, most downstream analysis programs disregard annotations already present in the VCF and re-annotate variants using the annotation provided by that particular program. This precludes investigators who have collected information on variants from literature or other sources from including these annotations in the filtering and mining of variants. We have developed VCF-Miner, a graphical user interface-based stand-alone tool, to mine variants and annotation stored in the VCF. Powered by a MongoDB database engine, VCF-Miner enables the stepwise trimming of non-relevant variants. The grouping feature implemented in VCF-Miner can be used to identify somatic variants by contrasting variants in tumor and in normal samples or to identify recessive/dominant variants in family studies. It is not limited to human data, but can also be extended to include non-diploid organisms. It also supports copy number or any other variant type supported by the VCF specification. VCF-Miner can be used on a personal computer or large institutional servers and is freely available for download from http://bioinformaticstools.mayo.edu/research/vcf-miner/. PMID:26210358

  19. VCF-Miner: GUI-based application for mining variants and annotations stored in VCF files

    PubMed Central

    Hart, Steven N.; Duffy, Patrick; Quest, Daniel J.; Hossain, Asif; Meiners, Mike A

    2016-01-01

    Next-generation sequencing platforms are widely used to discover variants associated with disease. The processing of sequencing data involves read alignment, variant calling, variant annotation and variant filtering. The standard file format to hold variant calls is the variant call format (VCF) file. According to the format specifications, any arbitrary annotation can be added to the VCF file for downstream processing. However, most downstream analysis programs disregard annotations already present in the VCF and re-annotate variants using the annotation provided by that particular program. This precludes investigators who have collected information on variants from literature or other sources from including these annotations in the filtering and mining of variants. We have developed VCF-Miner, a graphical user interface-based stand-alone tool, to mine variants and annotation stored in the VCF. Powered by a MongoDB database engine, VCF-Miner enables the stepwise trimming of non-relevant variants. The grouping feature implemented in VCF-Miner can be used to identify somatic variants by contrasting variants in tumor and in normal samples or to identify recessive/dominant variants in family studies. It is not limited to human data, but can also be extended to include non-diploid organisms. It also supports copy number or any other variant type supported by the VCF specification. VCF-Miner can be used on a personal computer or large institutional servers and is freely available for download from http://bioinformaticstools.mayo.edu/research/vcf-miner/. PMID:26210358

  20. Weathering of sulfidic shale and copper mine waste: Secondary minerals and metal cycling in Great Smoky Mountains National Park, Tennessee, and North Carolina, USA

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Hammarstrom, J.M.; Seal, R.R.; Meier, A.L.; Jackson, J.C.

    2003-01-01

    Metal cycling via physical and chemical weathering of discrete sources (copper mines) and regional (non-point) sources (sulfide-rich shale) is evaluated by examining the mineralogy and chemistry of weathering products in Great Smoky Mountains National Park, Tennessee, and North Carolina, USA. The elements in copper mine waste, secondary minerals, stream sediments, and waters that are most likely to have negative impacts on aquatic ecosystems are aluminum, copper, zinc, and arsenic because these elements locally exceed toxicity guidelines for surface waters or for stream sediments. Acid-mine drainage has not developed in streams draining inactive copper mines. Acid-rock drainage and chemical weathering processes that accompany debris flows or human disturbances of sulfidic rocks are comparable to processes that develop acid-mine drainage elsewhere. Despite the high rainfall in the mountain range, sheltered areas and intermittent dry spells provide local venues for development of secondary weathering products that can impact aquatic ecosystems.

  1. Chronic Bronchitis in Miners and Non-miners: An Epidemiological Survey of a Community in the Gold-mining Area in the Transvaal1

    PubMed Central

    Sluis-Cremer, G. K.; Walters, L. G.; Sichel, H. S.

    1967-01-01

    An epidemiological survey to determine the prevalence of chronic bronchitis in a mixed mining and non-mining population of Carletonville on the Witwatersrand is described. Eight hundred and twenty-seven men over the age of 35 years were investigated. Chronic bronchitis is shown to significantly more common in miners than in non-miners for every age and smoking category with the exception of the non-smoker no significant difference exists in the prevalence of chronic bronchitis between the mining and non-mining groups. Smoking habits were found to have overwhelming effects on the prevalence of chronic bronchitis in both groups. It is suggested that a synergistic interplay of smoking and general underground aerial pollution (rather than dust inhalation alone) is responsible for the excess prevalence of chronic bronchitis in the miner who smokes. PMID:6017135

  2. Questa Baseline and Pre-Mining Ground-Water Quality Investigation. 13. Mineral Microscopy and Chemistry of Mined and Unmined Porphyry Molybdenum Mineralization Along the Red River, New Mexico: Implications for Ground- and Surface-Water Quality

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Plumlee, Geoff; Lowers, Heather; Ludington, Steve; Koenig, Alan; Briggs, Paul

    2005-01-01

    This report is one in a series presenting results of an interdisciplinary U.S. Geological Survey (USGS) study of ground-water quality in the lower Red River watershed prior to open-pit and underground molybdenite mining at Molycorp's Questa mine. The stretch of the Red River watershed that extends from just upstream of the town of Red River to just above the town of Questa includes several mineralized areas in addition to the one mined by Molycorp. Natural erosion and weathering of pyrite-rich rocks in the mineralized areas has created a series of erosional scars along this stretch of the Red River that contribute acidic waters, as well as mineralized alluvial material and sediments, to the river. The overall goal of the USGS study is to infer the pre-mining ground-water quality at the Molycorp mine site. An integrated geologic, hydrologic, and geochemical model for ground water in the mineralized but unmined Straight Creek drainage is being used as an analogue for the geologic, geochemical, and hydrologic conditions that influenced ground-water quality and quantity at the mine site prior to mining. This report summarizes results of reconnaissance mineralogical and chemical characterization studies of rock samples collected from the various scars and the Molycorp open pit, and of drill cuttings or drill core from bedrock beneath the scars and adjacent debris fans.

  3. Electromagnetic system for detection and localization of the miners caught by accident in mine

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Pronenko, Vira; Dudkin, Fedir

    2016-04-01

    It is well known that the profession of a miner is one of the most dangerous in the world. Among the main causes of the people death in the underground coal mining enterprises is their untimely alerting of the accident, as well as the lack of information for the rescuers about the actual location of the miners after the accident. As world practice shows, the electromagnetic (EM) systems for the search and detection of people across a massive layer of rock are the most effective. Such systems are under development almost half a century in many countries dealing with mine industry. However, substantial progress related to the localization of personnel at a distance at least of 20-30 meters through the rock is not reached. In an emergency situation (failure or destruction of underground infrastructure), personnel search behind and beneath of obstruction should be provided urgently. But none of the standard technologies (RFID, DECT, WiFi, emitting cable), which use the stationary technical devices in mines, do not provide notification of people caught by accident location. The only technology that provides guaranteed delivery of messages about the accident to the mine personnel, regardless of their location and under any destruction in the mine, is low-frequency radio technology able to operate through the thickness of rocks. From the general theoretical considerations, it is clear that the miners localization system requires solving the inverse problem of the magnetic field source coordinates determining using the data of 3-component magnetic field measurements. A fundamentally new approach, based on the measurement of the magnetic field of the miner's responder beacon by two fixed and spaced three-component magnetic field receivers and solution of the inverse problem using the results of the magnetic field measurement, was proposed. As a result, the concept of the equipment for miners beacon search and localization implementation (MILES - miner's location emergency

  4. SkyMine Carbon Mineralization Pilot Project

    SciTech Connect

    Joe Jones; Clive Barton; Mark Clayton; Al Yablonsky; David Legere

    2010-09-30

    This Topical Report addresses accomplishments achieved during Phase 1 of the SkyMine{reg_sign} Carbon Mineralization Pilot Project. The primary objectives of this project are to design, construct, and operate a system to capture CO{sub 2} from a slipstream of flue gas from a commercial coal-fired cement kiln, convert that CO{sub 2} to products having commercial value (i.e., beneficial use), show the economic viability of the CO{sub 2} capture and conversion process, and thereby advance the technology to a point of readiness for commercial scale demonstration and proliferation. The project will also substantiate market opportunities for the technology by sales of chemicals into existing markets, and identify opportunities to improve technology performance and reduce costs at commercial scale. The primary objectives of Phase 1 of the project were to elaborate proven SkyMine{reg_sign} process chemistry to commercial pilot-scale operation and complete the preliminary design ('Reference Plant Design') for the pilot plant to be built and operated in Phase 2. Additionally, during Phase 1, information necessary to inform a DOE determination regarding NEPA requirements for the project was developed, and a comprehensive carbon lifecycle analysis was completed. These items were included in the formal application for funding under Phase 2. All Phase 1 objectives were successfully met on schedule and within budget.

  5. Microbially mediated carbon mineralization: Geoengineering a carbon-neutral mine

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Power, I. M.; McCutcheon, J.; Harrison, A. L.; Wilson, S. A.; Dipple, G. M.; Southam, G.

    2013-12-01

    Ultramafic and mafic mine tailings are a potentially valuable feedstock for carbon mineralization, affording the mining industry an opportunity to completely offset their carbon emissions. Passive carbon mineralization has previously been documented at the abandoned Clinton Creek asbestos mine, and the active Diavik diamond mine and Mount Keith nickel mine, yet the majority of tailings remain unreacted. Examples of microbe-carbonate interactions at each mine suggest that biological pathways could be harnessed to promote carbon mineralization. In suitable environmental conditions, microbes can mediate geochemical processes to accelerate mineral dissolution, increase the supply of carbon dioxide (CO2), and induce carbonate precipitation, all of which may accelerate carbon mineralization. Tailings mineralogy and the availability of a CO2 point source are key considerations in designing tailings storage facilities (TSF) for optimizing carbon mineralization. We evaluate the efficacy of acceleration strategies including bioleaching, biologically induced carbonate precipitation, and heterotrophic oxidation of waste organics, as well as abiotic strategies including enhancing passive carbonation through modifying tailings management practices and use of CO2 point sources (Fig. 1). With the aim of developing carbon-neutral mines, implementation of carbon mineralization strategies into TSF design will be driven by economic incentives and public pressure for environmental sustainability in the mining industry. Figure 1. Schematic illustrating geoengineered scenarios for carbon mineralization of ultramafic mine tailings. Scenarios A and B are based on non-point and point sources of CO2, respectively.

  6. Opportunities for membrane technologies in the treatment of mining and mineral process streams and effluents

    SciTech Connect

    Awadalla, F.T.; Kumar, A. )

    1994-06-01

    The membrane separation technologies of microfiltration, ultrafiltration, nanofiltration, and reverse osmosis are suitable for treating many dilute streams and effluents generated in mining and mineral processing. Membrane technologies are capable of treating these dilute streams in order to produce clean permeate water for recycle and a concentrate that can potentially be used for valuable metals recovery. Membrane technologies can be utilized alone, or in combination with other techniques as a polishing step, in these separation processes. A review of potential applications of membranes for the treatment of different process streams and effluents for water recycling and pollution control is given here. Although membranes may not be optimum in all applications, these technologies are recognized in the mining sector for the many potential advantages they can provide. 59 refs.

  7. Aquatic ecosystems in Central Colorado are influenced by mineral forming processes and historical mining

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Schmidt, T.S.; Church, S.E.; Clements, W.H.; Mitchell, K.A.; Fey, D. L.; Wanty, R.B.; Verplanck, P.L.; San, Juan C.A.; Klein, T.L.; deWitt, E.H.; Rockwell, B.W.

    2009-01-01

    Stream water and sediment toxicity to aquatic insects were quantified from central Colorado catchments to distinguish the effect of geologic processes which result in high background metals concentrations from historical mining. Our sampling design targeted small catchments underlain by rocks of a single lithology, which allowed the development of biological and geochemical baselines without the complication of multiple rock types exposed in the catchment. By accounting for geologic sources of metals to the environment, we were able to distinguish between the environmental effects caused by mining and the weathering of different mineralized areas. Elevated metal concentrations in water and sediment were not restricted to mined catchments. Impairment of aquatic communities also occurred in unmined catchments influenced by hydrothermal alteration. Hydrothermal alteration style, deposit type, and mining were important determinants of water and sediment quality and aquatic community structure. Weathering of unmined porphyry Cu-Mo occurrences resulted in water (median toxic unit (TU) = 108) and sediment quality (TU = 1.9) that exceeded concentrations thought to be safe for aquatic ecosystems (TU = 1). Metalsensitive aquatic insects were virtually absent from streams draining catchments with porphyry Cu-Mo occurrences (1.1 individuals/0.1 m2 ). However, water and sediment quality (TU = 0.1, 0.5 water and sediment, respectively) and presence of metalsensitive aquatic insects (204 individuals/0.1 m2 ) for unmined polymetallic vein occurrences were indistinguishable from that for unmined and unaltered streams (TU = 0.1, 0.5 water and sediment, respectively; 201 individuals/0.1 m2 ). In catchments with mined quartz-sericite-pyrite altered polymetallic vein deposits, water (TU = 8.4) and sediment quality (TU = 3.1) were degraded and more toxic to aquatic insects (36 individuals/0.1 m2 ) than water (TU = 0.4) and sediment quality (TU = 1.7) from mined propylitically altered

  8. Annotated bibliography of environmentally relevant investigations of uranium mining and milling in the Grants Mineral Belt, northwestern New Mexico

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Otton, James K.

    2011-01-01

    Studies of the natural environment in the Grants Mineral Belt in northwestern New Mexico have been conducted since the 1930s; however, few such investigations predate uranium mining and milling operations, which began in the early 1950s. This report provides an annotated bibliography of reports that describe the hydrology and geochemistry of groundwaters and surface waters and the geochemistry of soils and sediments in the Grants Mineral Belt and contiguous areas. The reports referenced and discussed provide a large volume of information about the environmental conditions in the area after mining started. Data presented in many of these studies, if evaluated carefully, may provide much basic information about the baseline conditions that existed over large parts of the Grants Mineral Belt prior to mining. Other data may provide information that can direct new work in efforts to discriminate between baseline conditions and the effects of the mining and milling on the natural environment.

  9. U.S. mineral dependence—Statistical compilation of U.S. and world mineral production, consumption, and trade, 1990–2010

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Barry, James J.; Matos, Grecia R.; Menzie, W. David

    2013-01-01

    This report provides insight into the dependence of the United States on foreign supply to meet the country’s mineral needs. When determining vulnerabilities to the U.S. supply, it is not enough to look solely at the mining source for each mineral to determine the potential impact that a supply disruption might have on the Nation’s economy. The tables that accompany this report help to illustrate the importance not only of the mining and processing of minerals but also the exporting countries and end uses. Understanding the total risks and costs of supply disruptions along the supply chain are beyond the scope of this report. However, this overview of mineral production, consumption, and trade highlights the importance of understanding what is happening at each point along the supply chain.

  10. Recent developments in coal mining technology and their impact on miners' health.

    PubMed

    Taylor, L D; Thakur, P C

    1993-01-01

    Advances in technology have significantly reduced the long-term health risks associated with underground coal mining. While the potential risks include exposure to hazardous substances and noise, the reduction of respirable dust in the workplace has been emphasized here because of the greater probability of exposure and the well-documented consequences. Since enactment of the Mine Health and Safety Act of 1969, great strides have been made in reducing worker exposure to respirable dust. As production rates continue to increase, particularly in longwall sections, continued advances in dust control technology will be required. These advances will be needed to meet existing, and perhaps even more stringent future, exposure limits. Mechanization has resulted in a significant reduction in exposure to hazards while increasing productivity. Use of remotely controlled equipment is also increasing rapidly, and efforts are underway to develop completely automated mining systems. These automated systems may further reduce the risk of health impairment due to the underground working environment.

  11. On the mineral characteristics and geochemistry of the Florida phosphate of Four Corners and Hardee County mines

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Baghdady, Ashraf R.; Howari, Fares M.; Al-Wakeel, Mohamed I.

    2016-08-01

    The Florida phosphate deposits in Four Corners and Hardee County mines are composed mainly of phosphate minerals and quartz in addition to subordinate proportions of feldspars, dolomite, calcite, gypsum, kaolinite, attapulgite and montmorillonite. These phosphorites contain three structurally different types of mudclasts: massive mudclasts, mudclasts with concentric structure and mudclasts consisting of agglomerates of apatite microparticles. The latter are represented by particles resembling phosphatized fossil bacteria associated with microbial filaments, and hollow apatite particles having surfacial coatings and connected to microbial filaments. The Florida phosphate particles are reworked and vary in mineral composition, color and shape. They are composed of a mixture of well-crystalline species including carbonate fluorapatite (francolite), carbonate apatite and fluorapatite. The color variation of the phosphate particles is related to difference in mineral composition, extent of diagenetic effects and reworking. The light-colored mudclasts are characterized by the presence of carbonate apatite and aluminum hydroxide phosphate minerals, whereas the dark mudclasts are rich in iron aluminum hydroxide phosphate minerals. The Florida phosphorites are suggested to be formed partially by authigenetic precipitation, replacement of the sea floor carbonate and diatomite, and microbial processes. With respect to elemental geochemistry, the analyzed particles contain small percentages of sulfur and iron which are related to the occurrence of pyrite. Traces of silica and alumina are recorded which may be attributed to the diagenetic. Some of the tested particles are relatively rich in phosphorous, fluorine, calcium, and magnesium, while poor in silicon, potassium and sulfur. Whereas, the bioclasts (especially teeth) are relatively rich in calcium, phosphorous and fluorine while poor in silicon, aluminum, magnesium and potassium. Hence, the microchemical analyses revealed

  12. Mining geothermal resources in the Salton Sea KGRA: products and values

    SciTech Connect

    Schilling, J.R.

    1984-12-01

    Exploration for and production of geothermal resources closely parallels mining ventures. The winning of energy from geothermal resources is mining steam, or in other cases mining the resource to upgrade secondary (binary) fluid streams. The techniques and expertise of those familiar with mining, the turning of a resource to a reserve for beneficial use, are necessary to enable production from which the benefits of geothermal resources may be realized. There is no better identified resource illustrating these observations than the high temperature and highly mineralized Salton Sea KGRA in the Imperial Valley of California. A review of the development history of this resource together with the successes and failures evident today reveals a lack of cooperation among the industrial segments necessary for its successful development.

  13. Municipal and industrial waste product utilization for bauxite mine reclamation

    SciTech Connect

    Clark, M.D.

    1986-01-01

    Laboratory and field studies were conducted on acidic bauxite mine soil to compare the effectiveness of fly ash and brown lime to ag-lime for pH and soluble salt control. After 3 additions (109 mt/ha) of liming materials, ag-lime and fly ash were superior to brown lime for controlling mine soil acidity over the three year period. All liming materials were equally effective in controlling soil salinity. Rye, wheat, and bermudagrass were grown sequentially from 1982 to 1984. Nitrogen treatments in the field consisted of the addition of anaerobically digested sewage sludge (50 mt/ha) and (424 kg/ha) commercial inorganic nitrogen fertilizer. Nitrogen mineralization characteristics of sewage sludge were compared to inorganic N fertilizer by measuring decomposition in the laboratory and ground cover establishment and dry matter production in the field. Field results indicated that inorganic N and sludge were equally effective in ground cover establishment and the production of dry matter for rye, wheat and bermudagrass in 1983. Forage tissues were analyzed for 16 trace elements (As, B, Ca, Cd, Cu, Fe, K, Mg, Mn, Mo, Na, Ni, P, Pb, Se, and Zn). Results were compared between lime and nitrogen treatments for each grass crop and harvest time. Fly ash generally increased B content in forage tissue compared to the other lime materials. Wheat accumulated the highest amount. Tissue concentrations of (As, Cd, Cu, Fe, Mn, Ni, Pb, Se, and Zn) were sufficiently low enough to not be detrimental to grazing animals or the human food chain. Overall, levels of N, P, K, Ca, and Mg were sufficient to satisfy nutrient requirements for grazing animals.

  14. Mineralogy and geochemistry of efflorescent minerals on mine tailings and their potential impact on water chemistry.

    PubMed

    Grover, B P C; Johnson, R H; Billing, D G; Weiersbye, I M G; Tutu, H

    2016-04-01

    In the gold mining Witwatersrand Basin of South Africa, efflorescent mineral crusts are a common occurrence on and nearby tailings dumps during the dry season. The crusts are readily soluble and generate acidic, metal- and sulphate-rich solutions on dissolution. In this study, the metal content of efflorescent crusts at an abandoned gold mine tailings dump was used to characterise surface and groundwater discharges from the site. Geochemical modelling of the pH of the solution resulting from the dissolution of the crusts was used to better understand the crusts' potential impact on water chemistry. The study involved two approaches: (i) conducting leaching experiments on oxidised and unoxidised tailings using artificial rainwater and dilute sulphuric acid and correlating the composition of crusts to these leachates and (ii) modelling the dissolution of the crusts in order to gain insight into their mineralogy and their potential impact on receiving waters. The findings suggested that there were two chemically distinct discharges from the site, namely an aluminium- and magnesium-rich surface water plume and an iron-rich groundwater plume. The first plume was observed to originate from the oxidised tailings following leaching with rainwater while the second plume originated from the underlying unoxidised tailings with leaching by sulphuric acid. Both groups of minerals forming from the respective plumes were found to significantly lower the pH of the receiving water with simulations of their dissolution found to be within 0.2 pH units of experimental values. It was observed that metals in a low abundance within the crust (for example, iron) had a stronger influence on the pH of the resulting solutions than metals in a greater abundance (aluminium or magnesium). Techniques such as powder X-ray diffraction (PXRD) and in situ mineral determination techniques such as remote sensing can effectively determine the dominant mineralogy. However, the minerals or metals

  15. Mineralogy and geochemistry of efflorescent minerals on mine tailings and their potential impact on water chemistry.

    PubMed

    Grover, B P C; Johnson, R H; Billing, D G; Weiersbye, I M G; Tutu, H

    2016-04-01

    In the gold mining Witwatersrand Basin of South Africa, efflorescent mineral crusts are a common occurrence on and nearby tailings dumps during the dry season. The crusts are readily soluble and generate acidic, metal- and sulphate-rich solutions on dissolution. In this study, the metal content of efflorescent crusts at an abandoned gold mine tailings dump was used to characterise surface and groundwater discharges from the site. Geochemical modelling of the pH of the solution resulting from the dissolution of the crusts was used to better understand the crusts' potential impact on water chemistry. The study involved two approaches: (i) conducting leaching experiments on oxidised and unoxidised tailings using artificial rainwater and dilute sulphuric acid and correlating the composition of crusts to these leachates and (ii) modelling the dissolution of the crusts in order to gain insight into their mineralogy and their potential impact on receiving waters. The findings suggested that there were two chemically distinct discharges from the site, namely an aluminium- and magnesium-rich surface water plume and an iron-rich groundwater plume. The first plume was observed to originate from the oxidised tailings following leaching with rainwater while the second plume originated from the underlying unoxidised tailings with leaching by sulphuric acid. Both groups of minerals forming from the respective plumes were found to significantly lower the pH of the receiving water with simulations of their dissolution found to be within 0.2 pH units of experimental values. It was observed that metals in a low abundance within the crust (for example, iron) had a stronger influence on the pH of the resulting solutions than metals in a greater abundance (aluminium or magnesium). Techniques such as powder X-ray diffraction (PXRD) and in situ mineral determination techniques such as remote sensing can effectively determine the dominant mineralogy. However, the minerals or metals

  16. Mineral Carbonation Employing Ultramafic Mine Waste

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Southam, G.; McCutcheon, J.; Power, I. M.; Harrison, A. L.; Wilson, S. A.; Dipple, G. M.

    2014-12-01

    Carbonate minerals are an important, stable carbon sink being investigated as a strategy to sequester CO2 produced by human activity. A natural playa (Atlin, BC, CAN) that has demonstrated the ability to microbially-accelerate hydromagnesite formation was used as an experimental model. Growth of microbial mats from Atlin, in a 10 m long flow-through bioreactor catalysed hydromagnesite precipitation under 'natural' conditions. To enhance mineral carbonation, chrysotile from the Clinton Creek Asbestos Mine (YT, CAN) was used as a target substrate for sulphuric acid leaching, releasing as much as 94% of the magnesium into solution via chemical weathering. This magnesium-rich 'feedstock' was used to examine the ability of the microbialites to enhance carbonate mineral precipitation using only atmospheric CO2 as the carbon source. The phototrophic consortium catalysed the precipitation of platy hydromagnesite [Mg5(CO3)4(OH)2·4H2O] accompanied by magnesite [MgCO3], aragonite [CaCO3], and minor dypingite [Mg5(CO3)4(OH)2·5H2O]. Scanning Electron Microscopy-Energy Dispersive Spectroscopy indicated that cell exteriors and extracellular polymeric substances (EPS) served as nucleation sites for carbonate precipitation. In many cases, entire cyanobacteria filaments were entombed in magnesium carbonate coatings, which appeared to contain a framework of EPS. Cell coatings were composed of small crystals, which intuitively resulted from rapid crystal nucleation. Excess nutrient addition generated eutrophic conditions in the bioreactor, resulting in the growth of a pellicle that sealed the bioreactor contents from the atmosphere. The resulting anaerobic conditions induced fermentation and subsequent acid generation, which in turn caused a drop in pH to circumneutral values and a reduction in carbonate precipitation. Monitoring of the water chemistry conditions indicated that a high pH (> 9.4), and relatively high concentrations of magnesium (> 3000 ppm), compared with the natural

  17. GIS-technologies for integrated assessment of the productive mining areas

    SciTech Connect

    Zamaraev, R.Y.; Oparin, V.N.; Popov, S.E.; Potapov, V.P.; Pyastunovich,O.L.

    2008-05-15

    The paper describes the bases of a new application of GIS-technologies for integrated assessment and comparison of the productive mining areas, involving a wide range of mining and technological factors, considering mineral properties, mineral occurrence conditions and geographical advantages of a mineral deposit location. The model capabilities are exemplified by a comparison of technological characteristics of coals, transportation and power supply infrastructure of the productive mining areas at the Kuznetsk Coal Basin.

  18. U-Pb isotope systematics and age of uranium mineralization, Midnite mine, Washington.

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Ludwig, K. R.; Nash, J.T.; Naeser, C.W.

    1981-01-01

    Uranium ores at the Midnite mine, near Spokane, Washington, occur in phyllites and calcsilicates of the Proterozoic Togo Formation, near the margins of an anomalously uraniferous, porphyritic quartz monzonite of Late Cretaceous age. The present geometry of the ore zones is tabular, with the thickest zones above depressions in the pluton-country rock contact. Analyses of high-grade ores from the mine define a 207 Pb/ 204 Pb- 235 U/ 204 Pb isochron indicating an age of mineralization of 51.0 + or - 0.5 m.y. This age coincides with a time of regional volcanic activity (Sanpoil Volcanics), shallow intrusive activity, erosion, and faulting. U-Th-Pb isotopic ages of zircons from the porphyritic quartz monzonite in the mine indicate an age of about 75 m.y., hence the present orebodies were formed about 24 m.y. after its intrusion. The 51-m.y. time of mineralization probably represents a period of mobilization and redeposition of uranium by supergene ground waters, perhaps aided by mild heating and ground preparation and preserved by a capping of newly accumulated, impermeable volcanic rocks. It seems most likely that the initial concentration of uranium occurred about 75 m.y. ago, probably from relatively mild hydrothermal fluids in the contact-metamorphic aureole of the U-rich porphyritic quartz monzonite.Pitchblende, coffinitc, pyrite, marcasite, and hisingerite are the most common minerals in the uranium-bearing veinlets, with minor sphalerite and chalcopyrite. Coffinitc with associated marcasite is paragenetically later than pitchblende, though textural and isotopic evidence suggests no large difference in the times of pitchblende and colfinite formation.The U-Pb isotope systematics of total ores and of pitchblende-coffinite and pyrite-marcasite separates show that whereas open system behavior for U and Pb is essentially negligible for large (200-500 g) ore samples, Pb migration has occurred on a scale of 1 to 10 mm (out of pitchblende and coffinite and into pyrite

  19. ASSESSING AND MANAGING MERCURY FROM HISTORIC AND CURRENT MINING ACTIVITIES

    EPA Science Inventory

    Mining activities in the US (not counting coal) produce between one and two billion tons of mine waste annually. Since many of the ore mines involve sulfide minerals, the production of acid mine drainage (AMD) is a common problem from these abandoned mine sites. The combination o...

  20. Transformations of nitrogen and carbon in entrenched biosolids at a reclaimed mineral sands mining site.

    PubMed

    Kostyanovsky, K I; Evanylo, G K; Lasley, K K; Shang, C; Sukkariyah, B F; Daniels, W L

    2011-01-01

    Biosolids deep-row incorporation (DRI) provides high levels of nutrients to the reclamation sites; however, additions of N in excess of the vegetation requirements can potentially impair water quality. The effects of anaerobically digested (AD) and lime stabilized (LS) DRI biosolids and inorganic N fertilizer were compared on C and N transformations and transport at a reclaimed mineral sands mining site. Biosolids were applied at 213 and 426 Mg AD biosolids ha(-1) and 328 and 656 Mg LS biosolids ha)(-1) (dry mass), and inorganic N fertilizer was applied at 0 (control) and 504 kg N ha-(-1) yr(-1). Zero tension lysimeters were installed to collect leachate for determination of vertical N transport, and the biosolids seams were analyzed for N and C transformations after 28 mo aging. The leachijng masses from the DRI biosolids treatments were 139 to 291 kg ha(-1) NO3-N, 61 to 243 kg ha(-1) NH4-N, and 61 to 269 kg ha(-1) organic N, while the fertilizer treatment did not differ from the control. Aged biosolids analysis showed that total N lost over the course of 2 yr was 15.2 Mg ha(-1) and 10.9 Mg ha(-1) for LS and AD biosolids, respectively, which was roughly 50% of the N applied. Organic C losses were 81 Mg ha(-1) and 33 Mg ha(-1) for LS and AD biosolids, respectively. Our results indicated that entrenchment of biosolids in coarse-textured media should not be used as a mined land reclamation technique because the anaerobic conditions required to limit mineralization and nitrification cannot be maintained in such permeable soils. PMID:21488494

  1. Transformations of nitrogen and carbon in entrenched biosolids at a reclaimed mineral sands mining site.

    PubMed

    Kostyanovsky, K I; Evanylo, G K; Lasley, K K; Shang, C; Sukkariyah, B F; Daniels, W L

    2011-01-01

    Biosolids deep-row incorporation (DRI) provides high levels of nutrients to the reclamation sites; however, additions of N in excess of the vegetation requirements can potentially impair water quality. The effects of anaerobically digested (AD) and lime stabilized (LS) DRI biosolids and inorganic N fertilizer were compared on C and N transformations and transport at a reclaimed mineral sands mining site. Biosolids were applied at 213 and 426 Mg AD biosolids ha(-1) and 328 and 656 Mg LS biosolids ha)(-1) (dry mass), and inorganic N fertilizer was applied at 0 (control) and 504 kg N ha-(-1) yr(-1). Zero tension lysimeters were installed to collect leachate for determination of vertical N transport, and the biosolids seams were analyzed for N and C transformations after 28 mo aging. The leachijng masses from the DRI biosolids treatments were 139 to 291 kg ha(-1) NO3-N, 61 to 243 kg ha(-1) NH4-N, and 61 to 269 kg ha(-1) organic N, while the fertilizer treatment did not differ from the control. Aged biosolids analysis showed that total N lost over the course of 2 yr was 15.2 Mg ha(-1) and 10.9 Mg ha(-1) for LS and AD biosolids, respectively, which was roughly 50% of the N applied. Organic C losses were 81 Mg ha(-1) and 33 Mg ha(-1) for LS and AD biosolids, respectively. Our results indicated that entrenchment of biosolids in coarse-textured media should not be used as a mined land reclamation technique because the anaerobic conditions required to limit mineralization and nitrification cannot be maintained in such permeable soils.

  2. Natural and mining-related sources of dissolved minerals during low flow in the Upper Animas River Basin, southwestern Colorado

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Wright, Winfield G.

    1997-01-01

    As part of the Clean Water Act of 1972 (Public Law 92-500), all States are required to establish water-quality standards for every river basin in the State. During 1994, the Colorado Department of Public Health and Environment proposed to the Colorado Water Quality Control Commission (CWQCC) an aquatic-life standard of 225 µg/L (micrograms per liter) for the dissolved-zinc concentration in the Animas River downstream from Silverton (fig.1). The CWQCC delayed implementation of this water-quality standard until further information was collected and a plan for the cleanup of abandoned mines was developed. Dissolved-zinc concentrations in this section of the river ranged from about 270 µg/L during high flow, when rainfall and snowmelt runoff dilute the dissolved minerals in the river (U.S. Geological Survey, 1996, p. 431), to 960 µg/L (Colorado Department of Public Health and Environment, written commun., 1996) during low flow (such as late summer and middle winter when natural springs and drainage from mines are the main sources for the streams). Mining sites in the basin were developed between about 1872 and the 1940's, with only a few mines operated until the early 1990's. For local governments, mining sites represent part of the Nation's heritage, tourists are attracted to the historic mining sites, and governments are obligated to protect the historic mining sites according to the National Historic Preservation Act (Public Law 89-665). In the context of this fact sheet, the term "natural sources of dissolved minerals" refers to springs and streams where no effect from mining were determined. "Mining-related sources of dissolved minerals" are assumed to be: (1 ) Water draining from mines , and (2) water seeping from mine-waste dump pile where the waste piles were saturated by water draining from mines. Although rainfall and snowmelt runoff from mine-waste piles might affect water quality in streams, work described in this fact sheet was done during low

  3. Sustainable mineral resources management: from regional mineral resources exploration to spatial contamination risk assessment of mining

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Jordan, Gyozo

    2009-07-01

    Wide-spread environmental contamination associated with historic mining in Europe has triggered social responses to improve related environmental legislation, the environmental assessment and management methods for the mining industry. Mining has some unique features such as natural background contamination associated with mineral deposits, industrial activities and contamination in the three-dimensional subsurface space, problem of long-term remediation after mine closure, problem of secondary contaminated areas around mine sites, land use conflicts and abandoned mines. These problems require special tools to address the complexity of the environmental problems of mining-related contamination. The objective of this paper is to show how regional mineral resources mapping has developed into the spatial contamination risk assessment of mining and how geological knowledge can be transferred to environmental assessment of mines. The paper provides a state-of-the-art review of the spatial mine inventory, hazard, impact and risk assessment and ranking methods developed by national and international efforts in Europe. It is concluded that geological knowledge on mineral resources exploration is essential and should be used for the environmental contamination assessment of mines. Also, sufficient methodological experience, knowledge and documented results are available, but harmonisation of these methods is still required for the efficient spatial environmental assessment of mine contamination.

  4. Solubility relationships of aluminium and iron minerals associated with acid mine drainage

    SciTech Connect

    Sullivan, P.J.; Yelton, J.L. ); Reddy, K.J. )

    1988-06-01

    The ability to properly manage the oxidation of pyritic minerals and associated acid mine drainage is dependent upon understanding the chemistry of the disposal environment. One accepted disposal method is placing pyritic-containing materials in the groundwater environment. The objective of this study was to examine solubility relationships of Al and Fe minerals associated with pyritic waste disposed in a low leaching aerobic saturated environment. Two eastern oil shales were used in this oxidizing equilibration study, a New Albany Shale (unweathered, 4.6 percent pyrite), and a Chattanooga Shale (weathered, 1.5 percent pyrite). Oil shale samples were equilibrated with distilled-deionized water from 1 to 180 d with a 1:1 solid-to-solution ratio. The suspensions were filtered and the clear filtrates were analyzed for total cations and anions. Ion activities were calculated from total concentrations. Below pH 6.0, depending upon SO{sub 4}{sup 2{minus}} activity, Al{sup 3+} solubility was controlled by AlOHSO{sub 4} (solid phase) for both shales. The results of this study indicate that below pH 6.0, Al{sup 3+} and Fe{sup 3+} solubilities, are limited by basic Al and Fe sulfate solid phases (AlOHSO{sub 4(s)} and FeHSO{sub 4(s)}). The results from this study further indicate that the acidity in oil shale waters is produced from the hydrolysis of Al{sup 3+} and Fe{sup 3+} activities in solution. These results indicate a fundamental change in the stoichiometric equations used to predict acidity from iron sulfide oxidation. The results of this study also indicate that water quality predictions associated with acid mine drainage can be based on fundamental thermodynamic relationships. As a result, waste management decisions can be based on waste-specific/site test methods.

  5. "Farming Miners" or "Mining Farmers"?: Diamond Mining and Rural Development in Post-Conflict Sierra Leone

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Maconachie, Roy; Binns, Tony

    2007-01-01

    Sierra Leone is currently emerging from a brutal civil war that lasted most of the 1990s, and now has the dubious distinction of being ranked among the world's poorest countries. As thousands of displaced people move back to their villages, a large proportion of the predominantly farm-based rural population are growing food crops for the first…

  6. Mineral zoning and gold occurrence in the Fortuna skarn mine, Nambija district, Ecuador

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Markowski, Agnès; Vallance, Jean; Chiaradia, Massimo; Fontboté, Lluìs

    2006-07-01

    The Fortuna oxidized gold skarn deposit is located in the northern part of the Nambija gold district, southern Ecuador. It has been subdivided into four mineralized sites, covering a distance of 1 km, which are named from north to south: Cuerpo 3, Mine 1, Mine 2, and Southern Sector. Massive skarn bodies occur in K-Na metasomatized volcanic and volcaniclastic rocks of the Triassic Piuntza unit. They appear to result from selective replacement of volcaniclastic rocks. Very minor presence of bioclast relicts suggests the presence of subordinate limestone. Endoskarn type alteration with development of Na-rich plagioclase, K-feldspar, epidote, actinolite, anhedral pyroxene, and titanite affects a quartz-diorite porphyritic intrusion which crops out below the skarn bodies in Mine 2 and the Southern Sector. Endoskarn alteration in the intrusion grades into a K-feldspar ± biotite ± magnetite assemblage (K-alteration), suggesting that skarn formation is directly related to the quartz-diorite porphyritic intrusion, the latter being probably emplaced between 141 and 146 Ma. The massive skarn bodies were subdivided into a dominant brown garnet skarn, a distal green pyroxene-epidote skarn, and two quartz-rich varieties, a blue-green garnet skarn and light green pyroxene-garnet skarn, which occur as patches and small bodies within the former skarn types. The proximal massive brown garnet skarn zone is centered on two 060° trending faults in Mine 2, where the highest gold grades (5-10 g/t) were observed. It grades into a distal green pyroxene-epidote skarn zone to the North (Cuerpo 3). Granditic garnet shows iron enrichment from the proximal to the distal zone. Diopsidic pyroxene exhibits iron and manganese enrichment from proximal to distal zones. The retrograde stage is weakly developed and consists mainly of mineral phases filling centimeter-wide veins, vugs, and interstices between garnet and pyroxene grains. The main filling mineral is quartz, followed by K

  7. 30 CFR 1210.201 - How do I submit Form MMS-4430, Solid Minerals Production and Royalty Report?

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-07-01

    ... Production and Royalty Report? 1210.201 Section 1210.201 Mineral Resources OFFICE OF SURFACE MINING...) Instructions for completing and submitting Form MMS-4430 are available on our Internet reporting web site or... web site unless you meet the conditions in paragraph (c)(2). We will provide written instructions...

  8. Treatment of antimony mine drainage: challenges and opportunities with special emphasis on mineral adsorption and sulfate reducing bacteria.

    PubMed

    Li, Yongchao; Hu, Xiaoxian; Ren, Bozhi

    2016-01-01

    The present article summarizes antimony mine distribution, antimony mine drainage generation and environmental impacts, and critically analyses the remediation approach with special emphasis on iron oxidizing bacteria and sulfate reducing bacteria. Most recent research focuses on readily available low-cost adsorbents, such as minerals, wastes, and biosorbents. It is found that iron oxides prepared by chemical methods present superior adsorption ability for Sb(III) and Sb(V). However, this process is more costly and iron oxide activity can be inhibited by plenty of sulfate in antimony mine drainage. In the presence of sulfate reducing bacteria, sulfate can be reduced to sulfide and form Sb(2)S(3) precipitates. However, dissolved oxygen and lack of nutrient source in antimony mine drainage inhibit sulfate reducing bacteria activity. Biogenetic iron oxide minerals from iron corrosion by iron-oxidizing bacteria may prove promising for antimony adsorption, while the micro-environment generated from iron corrosion by iron oxidizing bacteria may provide better growth conditions for symbiotic sulfate reducing bacteria. Finally, based on biogenetic iron oxide adsorption and sulfate reducing bacteria followed by precipitation, the paper suggests an alternative treatment for antimony mine drainage that deserves exploration. PMID:27148704

  9. Treatment of antimony mine drainage: challenges and opportunities with special emphasis on mineral adsorption and sulfate reducing bacteria.

    PubMed

    Li, Yongchao; Hu, Xiaoxian; Ren, Bozhi

    2016-01-01

    The present article summarizes antimony mine distribution, antimony mine drainage generation and environmental impacts, and critically analyses the remediation approach with special emphasis on iron oxidizing bacteria and sulfate reducing bacteria. Most recent research focuses on readily available low-cost adsorbents, such as minerals, wastes, and biosorbents. It is found that iron oxides prepared by chemical methods present superior adsorption ability for Sb(III) and Sb(V). However, this process is more costly and iron oxide activity can be inhibited by plenty of sulfate in antimony mine drainage. In the presence of sulfate reducing bacteria, sulfate can be reduced to sulfide and form Sb(2)S(3) precipitates. However, dissolved oxygen and lack of nutrient source in antimony mine drainage inhibit sulfate reducing bacteria activity. Biogenetic iron oxide minerals from iron corrosion by iron-oxidizing bacteria may prove promising for antimony adsorption, while the micro-environment generated from iron corrosion by iron oxidizing bacteria may provide better growth conditions for symbiotic sulfate reducing bacteria. Finally, based on biogenetic iron oxide adsorption and sulfate reducing bacteria followed by precipitation, the paper suggests an alternative treatment for antimony mine drainage that deserves exploration.

  10. Mining and Minerals Technical Advisory Committee on Curriculum Development. Job Clusters, Competencies and Task Analysis.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Northern Montana Coll., Havre. Montana Center for Vocational Education, Research, Curriculum and Personnel Development.

    This skills inventory for mining occupations was developed by a technical committee in Montana to assist in the development of model curricula and to address state labor market needs. The committee included employers from the mining industry, members of trade and professional associations, and educators. The validated task list and defined job…

  11. Mineral Physicochemistry based Geoscience Products for Mapping the Earth's Surface and Subsurface

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Laukamp, C.; Cudahy, T.; Caccetta, M.; Haest, M.; Rodger, A.; Western Australian Centre of Excellence3D Mineral Mapping

    2011-12-01

    Mineral maps derived from remotes sensing data can be used to address geological questions about mineral systems important for exploration and mining. This paper focuses on the application of geoscience-tuned multi- and hyperspectral sensors (e.g. ASTER, HyMap) and the methods to routinely create meaningful higher level geoscience products from these data sets. The vision is a 3D mineral map of the earth's surface and subsurface. Understanding the physicochemistry of rock forming minerals and the related diagnostic absorption features in the visible, near, mid and far infrared is a key for mineral mapping. For this, reflectance spectra obtained with lab based visible and infrared spectroscopic (VIRS) instruments (e.g. Bruker Hemisphere Vertex 70) are compared to various remote and proximal sensing techniques. Calibration of the various sensor types is a major challenge with any such comparisons. The spectral resolution of the respective instruments and the band positions are two of the main factors governing the ability to identify mineral groups or mineral species and compositions of those. The routine processing method employed by the Western Australian Centre of Excellence for 3D Mineral Mapping (http://c3dmm.csiro.au) is a multiple feature extraction method (MFEM). This method targets mineral specific absorption features rather than relying on spectral libraries or the need to find pure endmembers. The principle behind MFEM allows us to easily compare hyperspectral surface and subsurface data, laying the foundation for a seamless and accurate 3-dimensional mineral map. The advantage of VIRS techniques for geoscientific applications is the ability to deliver quantitative mineral information over multiple scales. For example, C3DMM is working towards a suite of ASTER-derived maps covering the Australian continent, scheduled for publication in 2012. A suite of higher level geoscience products of Western Australia (e.g. AlOH group abundance and composition) are now

  12. Mineral phases and mobility of trace metals in white aluminum precipitates found in acid mine drainage.

    PubMed

    Kim, Yeongkyoo

    2015-01-01

    The white aluminum precipitates (S1,S2,S4-1,S4-2) collected at three different locations affected by acid mine and rock drainage were studied to characterize the mineral phases and mobility of trace metals. Chemical analysis, XRD, SEM, NMR, and sequential extraction method were mainly used. XRD data showed that most white aluminum precipitates are amorphous with small amount of gypsum, which was also confirmed by SEM. The (27)Al MAS NMR spectra provide more detailed information on the local environments of aluminum in those samples. The samples collected at two locations (S3, and S4-1 and S4-2) contain 4-coordinated aluminum, suggesting that the samples contain a significant amount of amorphous phase from Al13-tridecamer. Chemical data of calcium and sulfur with (27)Al MAS NMR spectra suggest that the relative amounts of amorphous phase from Al13-tridecamer, hydrobasaluminite, aluminum hydroxide, and gypsum are different for each sample. Different amount of amorphous phase from Al13-tridecamer in those samples are probably caused by the different geochemical conditions and hydrolysis by aging in water. Sequential extraction results show that water soluble fraction and sorbed and exchangeable fraction of trace metals in sample collected as suspended particles (S1) are higher than other samples, and can affect the ecological system in waters by releasing aluminum and trace metals. These results suggest that careful characterization of white aluminum precipitates is needed to estimate the environmental effects of those precipitates in acid mine drainage. PMID:25213794

  13. Paleomagnetic and mineral magnetic constraints on Zn-Pb ore genesis in the Pend Oreille Mine, Metaline district, Washington, USA

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Pannalal, S.J.; Symons, David T. A.; Leach, D.L.

    2007-01-01

    Zinc-lead mineralization in the Metaline mining district of northeastern Washington, USA, is hosted by the Cambrian Metaline Formation and is classified into Yellowhead-type (YO) and Josephine-type (JO) ore based on texture and mineralogy. Paleomagnetic results are reported for four Cambrian Metaline Formation sites, one Ordovician Ledbetter slate site, 12 YO and 13 JO (including two breccia sites) mineralization sites in the Pend Oreille Mine, and eight sites from the nearby Cretaceous Kaniksu granite batholith. Thermal and alternating field step demagnetization, saturation isothermal remanence analysis, and synthetic specimen tests show that the remanence in the host carbonates and Zn-Pb mineralization is carried mostly by pseudosingle (PSD) to single domain (SD) pyrrhotite and mostly by PSD to SD magnetite in the Kaniksu granite. Based on thermomagnetic measurements, sphalerite and galena concentrates and tailings from the mine's mill contain hexagonal and monoclimc pyrrhotite. The postfolding characteristic remanent magnetization (ChRM), known thermal data, and paleoarc method of dating suggest that the Zn-Pb mineralization carries a primary chemical remanent magnetization (CRM), and Metaline Formation carbonates a secondary CRM that were acquired during the Middle Jurassic (166 ??6 Ma) during the waning stages of the Nevadan orogeny. A paleomagnetic breccia test favours a solution-collapse origin for the Josephine breccia. Finally, the Kaniksu paleopole is concordant with the North American Cretaceous reference paleopole, suggesting the Kootenay terrane has not been rotated since emplacement of the batholith at ???94 Ma. ?? 2007 NRC Canada.

  14. Assessment of the geoavailability of trace elements from minerals in mine wastes: analytical techniques and assessment of selected copper minerals

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Driscoll, Rhonda; Hageman, Phillip L.; Benzel, William M.; Diehl, Sharon F.; Adams, David T.; Morman, Suzette; Choate, LaDonna M.

    2012-01-01

    In this study, four randomly selected copper-bearing minerals were examined—azurite, malachite, bornite, and chalcopyrite. The objectives were to examine and enumerate the crystalline and chemical properties of each of the minerals, to determine which, if any, of the Cu-bearing minerals might adversely affect systems biota, and to provide a multi-procedure reference. Laboratory work included use of computational software for quantifying crystalline and amorphous material and optical and electron imaging instruments to model and project crystalline structures. Chemical weathering, human fluid, and enzyme simulation studies were also conducted. The analyses were conducted systematically: X-ray diffraction and microanalytical studies followed by a series of chemical, bio-leaching, and toxicity experiments.

  15. Nitrogen mineralization in production agriculture

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Understanding the effects of N management and how it relates to the N cycle in soil ecosystems is essential to determining N availability. This manuscript describes the importance of N mineralization to production agriculture and introduces a special issue on “N Mineralization in Production Agricult...

  16. Laser cladding of tungsten carbides (Spherotene ®) hardfacing alloys for the mining and mineral industry

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Amado, J. M.; Tobar, M. J.; Alvarez, J. C.; Lamas, J.; Yáñez, A.

    2009-03-01

    The abrasive nature of the mechanical processes involved in mining and mineral industry often causes significant wear to the associated equipment and derives non-negligible economic costs. One of the possible strategies to improve the wear resistance of the various components is the deposition of hardfacing layers on the bulk parts. The use of high power lasers for hardfacing (laser cladding) has attracted a great attention in the last decade as an alternative to other more standard methods (arc welding, oxy-fuel gas welding, thermal spraying). In laser cladding the hardfacing material is used in powder form. For high hardness applications Ni-, Co- or Fe-based alloys containing hard phase carbides at different ratios are commonly used. Tungsten carbides (WC) can provide coating hardness well above 1000 HV (Vickers). In this respect, commercially available WC powders normally contain spherical micro-particles consisting of crushed WC agglomerates. Some years ago, Spherotene ® powders consisting of spherical-fused monocrystaline WC particles, being extremely hard, between 1800 and 3000 HV, were patented. Very recently, mixtures of Ni-based alloy with Spherotene powders optimized for laser processing were presented (Technolase ®). These mixtures have been used in our study. Laser cladding tests with these powders were performed on low carbon steel (C25) substrates, and results in terms of microstructure and hardness will be discussed.

  17. Mines and mineral processing facilities in the vicinity of the March 11, 2011, earthquake in northern Honshu, Japan

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Menzie, W. David; Baker, Michael S.; Bleiwas, Donald I.; Kuo, Chin

    2011-01-01

    U.S. Geological Survey data indicate that the area affected by the March 11, 2011, magnitude 9.0 earthquake and associated tsunami is home to nine cement plants, eight iodine plants, four iron and steel plants, four limestone mines, three copper refineries, two gold refineries, two lead refineries, two zinc refineries, one titanium dioxide plant, and one titanium sponge processing facility. These facilities have the capacity to produce the following percentages of the world's nonfuel mineral production: 25 percent of iodine, 10 percent of titanium sponge (metal), 3 percent of refined zinc, 2.5 percent of refined copper, and 1.4 percent of steel. In addition, the nine cement plants contribute about one-third of Japan's cement annual production. The iodine is a byproduct from production of natural gas at the Miniami Kanto gas field, east of Tokyo in Chiba Prefecture. Japan is the world's second leading (after Chile) producer of iodine, which is processed in seven nearby facilities.

  18. The Archveyor{trademark} mining system: Automated high wall mining, a precursor to improved safety, productivity, and cost underground

    SciTech Connect

    Sawarynski, T.J.

    1996-12-31

    Arch Mineral Corporation has an automated high wall miner called the Archveyor {trademark}. In production since 1992, it uses just two employees to operate the system. They consistently produce 91 metric tons per eight-hour employer-shift with peaks nearing 226 metric tons. The system uses a modified Joy 12CM miner cutting 3.7 meters. That loads into a 219 meter long continuous haulage Archveyor{trademark}. It discharges into a loadout vehicle that elevates the coal to load haul trucks. This technology can be adapted to mine over 305 meters into the high wall. Any continuous miner can be used to suit conditions. It is programmed to sump, shear down, sump, and shear up in a continuous cycle. It advances a set distance before the Archveyor{trademark} moves up behind it. The Archveyor{trademark} has a flight conveyor 838 mm wide used to tram and convey. Lift cylinders raise it off the ground to convey. To tram, the cylinders retract, dropping the Archveyor{trademark} to the ground. That places the full length of the return side or bottom of the flight conveyor in contract with the floor to tram in either direction. Programmable logic controllers are used with a gyroscope, gamma detectors, and inclinometers to keep on-heading and in-seam. Critical system functions are monitored and displayed for the operator. Safety, lower costs, and higher productivity drive the effort to use the Archveyor{trademark} technology underground. Arch Technology is assembling and preparing to install an underground system in the third quarter of 1996.

  19. Summaries of important areas for mineral investment and production opportunities of nonfuel minerals in Afghanistan

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Peters, Stephen G.; King, Trude V.V.; Mack, Thomas J.; Chornack, Michael P.

    2011-01-01

    The U.S. Geological Survey (USGS) and the U.S. Department of Defense Task Force for Business and Stability Operations (TFBSO) entered into an agreement with the Afghanistan Geological Survey to study and assess the fuel and nonfuel mineral resources of Afghanistan from October 2009 to September 2011 so that these resources could be economically extracted to expand the economy of Afghanistan. This report summarizes the results of joint studies on 24 important areas of interest (AOIs) of nonfuel mineral resources that were identified for mineral investment and production opportunities in Afghanistan. This report is supported by digital data and archival and non-USGS reports on each AOI, and these data are available from the Afghanistan Geological Survey Data Center in Kabul (http://mom.gov.af/en/ and http://www.bgs.ac.uk/afghanminerals/) and for viewing and download on the USGS public Web site and in a separate viewer at http://mapdss2.er.usgs.gov/.

  20. AN ELECTROMAGNETIC PNEUMO CAPSULE SYSTEM FOR CONVEYING MINERALS AND MINE WASTES

    SciTech Connect

    Henry Liu; Charles W. Lenau

    2005-03-01

    The purpose of this project is to investigate the technical and economic feasibility of using a new and advanced pneumatic capsule pipeline (PCP) system for transporting minerals and mine wastes. The new system is different from conventional PCPs in two main respects: (1) it uses linear induction motors (LIMs) instead of blowers (fans) at the inlet of the pipeline to drive (pump) the capsules and the air through the pipeline; and (2) the capsules in the PCP have steel wheels running on steel rails as opposed to capsules in conventional systems, which use wheels with rubber tires running inside a pipe without rail. The advantage of using LIM pump instead of blower is that the former is non-intrusive and hence does not block the passage of capsules, enabling the system to run continuously without having to make the capsules bypass the pump. This not only simplifies the system but also enables the system to achieve much larger cargo throughput than that of PCPs using blowers, and use of LIMs as booster pumps which enables the system to have any length or to be used for transporting cargoes over practically any distance, say even one thousand kilometers or miles. An advantage of using steel wheels rolling on steel rails instead of using rubber tires rolling inside a pipeline is that the rolling friction coefficient and hence the use of energy is greatly reduced from that of conventional PCP systems. Moreover, rails enable easy control of capsule motion, such as switching capsules to a branch line by using railroad switching equipment. The advanced PCP system studied under this project uses rectangular conduits instead of circular pipe, having cross-sectional areas of 1 m by 1 m approximately. The system can be used for various transportation distances, and it can transport up to 50 million tonnes (metric tons) of cargo annually--the throughput of the largest mines in the world. Both an aboveground and an underground system were investigated and compared. The technical

  1. Major and trace element composition of copiapite-group minerals and coexisting water from the Richmond mine, Iron Mountain, California

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Jamieson, H.E.; Robinson, C.; Alpers, C.N.; McCleskey, R.B.; Nordstrom, D.K.; Peterson, Ronald C.

    2005-01-01

    Copiapite-group minerals of the general formula AR4 (SO4)6(OH)2??nH2O, where A is predominantly Mg, Fe2+, or 0.67Al3+, R is predominantly Fe3+, and n is typically 20, are among several secondary hydrous Fe sulfates occurring in the inactive mine workings of the massive sulfide deposit at Iron Mountain, CA, a USEPA Superfund site that produces extremely acidic drainage. Samples of copiapite-group minerals, some with coexisting water, were collected from the Richmond mine. Approximately 200 mL of brownish pore water with a pH of -0.9 were extracted through centrifugation from a 10-L sample of moist copiapite-group minerals taken from pyritic muck piles. The pore water is extremely rich in ferric iron (Fe3+=149 g L-1, FeT=162 g L-1 and has a density of 1.52 g mL-1. The composition of the pore water is interpreted in the context of published phase relations in the Fe2O3- SO3-H2O system and previous work on the chemistry of extremely acid mine waters and associated minerals in the Richmond mine. Two distinct members of the copiapite mineral group were identified in the samples with coexisting water: (1) abundant magnesiocopiapite consisting of platy crystals 10 to 50 ??m and (2) minor aluminocopiapite present as smaller platy crystals that form spheroidal aggregates. The average composition (n=5) of the magnesiocopiapite is (Mg0.90Fe0.172+ Zn0.02Cu0.01)???1.10(Fe3.833+Al0.09)???3.92(SO4) 6.00(OH)1.96??20H2O. Bulk compositions determined by digestion and wet-chemical analysis are consistent with the microanalytical results. These results suggest that magnesiocopiapite is the least soluble member of the copiapite group under the prevailing conditions. Micro-PIXE analysis indicates that the copiapite-group minerals in this sample sequester Zn (average 1420 ppm), with lesser amounts of Cu (average 270 ppm) and As (average 64 ppm). ?? 2004 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  2. Microbially Accelerated Carbonate Mineral Precipitation as a Strategy for in Situ Carbon Sequestration and Rehabilitation of Asbestos Mine Sites.

    PubMed

    McCutcheon, Jenine; Wilson, Siobhan A; Southam, Gordon

    2016-02-01

    A microbially accelerated process for the precipitation of carbonate minerals was implemented in a sample of serpentinite mine tailings collected from the abandoned Woodsreef Asbestos Mine in New South Wales, Australia as a strategy to sequester atmospheric CO2 while also stabilizing the tailings. Tailings were leached using sulfuric acid in reaction columns and subsequently inoculated with an alkalinity-generating cyanobacteria-dominated microbial consortium that was enriched from pit waters at the Woodsreef Mine. Leaching conditions that dissolved 14% of the magnesium from the serpentinite tailings while maintaining circumneutral pH (1800 ppm, pH 6.3) were employed in the experiment. The mineralogy, water chemistry, and microbial colonization of the columns were characterized following the experiment. Micro-X-ray diffraction was used to identify carbonate precipitates as dypingite [Mg5(CO3)4(OH)2·5H2O] and hydromagnesite [Mg5(CO3)4(OH)2·4H2O] with minor nesquehonite (MgCO3·3H2O). Scanning electron microscopy revealed that carbonate mineral precipitates form directly on the filamentous cyanobacteria. These findings demonstrate the ability of these organisms to generate localized supersaturating microenvironments of high concentrations of adsorbed magnesium and photosynthetically generated carbonate ions while also acting as nucleation sites for carbonate precipitation. This study is the first step toward implementing in situ carbon sequestration in serpentinite mine tailings via microbial carbonate precipitation reactions.

  3. Microbially Accelerated Carbonate Mineral Precipitation as a Strategy for in Situ Carbon Sequestration and Rehabilitation of Asbestos Mine Sites.

    PubMed

    McCutcheon, Jenine; Wilson, Siobhan A; Southam, Gordon

    2016-02-01

    A microbially accelerated process for the precipitation of carbonate minerals was implemented in a sample of serpentinite mine tailings collected from the abandoned Woodsreef Asbestos Mine in New South Wales, Australia as a strategy to sequester atmospheric CO2 while also stabilizing the tailings. Tailings were leached using sulfuric acid in reaction columns and subsequently inoculated with an alkalinity-generating cyanobacteria-dominated microbial consortium that was enriched from pit waters at the Woodsreef Mine. Leaching conditions that dissolved 14% of the magnesium from the serpentinite tailings while maintaining circumneutral pH (1800 ppm, pH 6.3) were employed in the experiment. The mineralogy, water chemistry, and microbial colonization of the columns were characterized following the experiment. Micro-X-ray diffraction was used to identify carbonate precipitates as dypingite [Mg5(CO3)4(OH)2·5H2O] and hydromagnesite [Mg5(CO3)4(OH)2·4H2O] with minor nesquehonite (MgCO3·3H2O). Scanning electron microscopy revealed that carbonate mineral precipitates form directly on the filamentous cyanobacteria. These findings demonstrate the ability of these organisms to generate localized supersaturating microenvironments of high concentrations of adsorbed magnesium and photosynthetically generated carbonate ions while also acting as nucleation sites for carbonate precipitation. This study is the first step toward implementing in situ carbon sequestration in serpentinite mine tailings via microbial carbonate precipitation reactions. PMID:26720600

  4. Impact of epidermal leaf mining by the aspen leaf miner (Phyllocnistis populiella) on the growth, physiology, and leaf longevity of quaking aspen.

    PubMed

    Wagner, Diane; DeFoliart, Linda; Doak, Patricia; Schneiderheinze, Jenny

    2008-08-01

    The aspen leaf miner, Phyllocnistis populiella, feeds on the contents of epidermal cells on both top (adaxial) and bottom (abaxial) surfaces of quaking aspen leaves, leaving the photosynthetic tissue of the mesophyll intact. This type of feeding is taxonomically restricted to a small subset of leaf mining insects but can cause widespread plant damage during outbreaks. We studied the effect of epidermal mining on aspen growth and physiology during an outbreak of P. populiella in the boreal forest of interior Alaska. Experimental reduction of leaf miner density across two sites and 3 years significantly increased annual aspen growth rates relative to naturally mined controls. Leaf mining damage was negatively related to leaf longevity. Leaves with heavy mining damage abscised 4 weeks earlier, on average, than leaves with minimal mining damage. Mining damage to the top and bottom surfaces of leaves had different effects on physiology. Mining on the top surface of the leaf had no significant effect on photosynthesis or conductance and was unrelated to leaf stable C isotope ratio (delta(13)C). Mining damage to the bottom leaf surface, where stomata are located, had significant negative effects on net photosynthesis and water vapor conductance. Percent bottom mining was positively related to leaf delta(13)C. Taken together, the data suggest that the primary mechanism for the reduction of photosynthesis by epidermal leaf mining by P. populiella is the failure of stomata to open normally on bottom-mined leaves.

  5. Ore-microscopic and geochemical characteristics of gold-tellurides-sulfide mineralization in the Macassa Gold Mine, Abitibi Belt, Canada

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Tesfaye, G.

    1992-01-01

    The Macassa Gold Mine is the only operational mine (Lac-Minerals Ltd., Macassa Division) of seven original gold producers in the Kirkland Lake camp of northern Ontario, Canada. The gold deposit is in Archaean volcanic and sedimentary rocks which have been intruded by a composite syenite stock. The mineralization has taken place in two stages. The first stage is not gold bearing but involves pyritization and concomitant development of titanium phase minerals (leucoxene, rutile) and hematite. It is mainly associated with carbonatization, silicification and hematitization marked by Ba, Sr and Rb enrichment. In contrast to this, the quartz vein-type mineralization is associated mainly with later silicification and enrichment with tellurium, lead, silver, gold and copper. It is relatively depleted in Sr, Ba and Rb. The ore mineralogical assemblages in the second stage include pyrite, chalcopyrite, petzite, altaite and native gold. Geochemical and petrographic evidence indicate that the reddened wall rocks (hematitized) and reddened fragments are neither related with nor contain any gold. Therefore, hematitization and the presence of barium, in this case in K-feldspars, could not be considered as the sole evidence to suggest a magmatic oxidizing fluid model for the genesis of Macassa gold deposit. Regarding the metals transport, tellurides and thiocomplexes are considered as the important carriers of gold and silver. Hence, fugacity of tellurium and sulphur controlled the precipitation of gold in the Macassa gold deposit.

  6. Minerals yearbook, 1983. Volume 1. Metals and minerals

    SciTech Connect

    Not Available

    1984-01-01

    This volume of the Minerals Yearbook, covering metals and minerals, contains 73 commodity or commodity group chapters with data on approximately 90 minerals that were obtained as a result of the mineral information gathering activities of the Bureau of Mines. In addition, the volume contains a chapter on mining and quarrying trends and a statistical summary.

  7. Minerals yearbook, 1982. volume 1. metals and minerals

    SciTech Connect

    Not Available

    1984-01-01

    This volume of the Minerals Yearbook, covering metals and minerals, contains 73 commodity or commodity group chapters with data on approximately 90 minerals that were obtained as a result of the mineral information gathering activities of the Bureau of Mines. In addition, the volume contains a chapter on mining and quarrying trends and a statistical summary.

  8. Alkali feldspar dissolution and secondary mineral precipitation in batch systems: 3. Saturation states of product minerals and reaction paths

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Zhu, Chen; Lu, Peng

    2009-06-01

    In order to evaluate the complex interplay between dissolution and precipitation reaction kinetics, we examined the hypothesis of partial equilibria between secondary mineral products and aqueous solutions in feldspar-water systems. Speciation and solubility geochemical modeling was used to compute the saturation indices (SI) for product minerals in batch feldspar dissolution experiments at elevated temperatures and pressures and to trace the reaction paths on activity-activity diagrams. The modeling results demonstrated: (1) the experimental aqueous solutions were supersaturated with respect to product minerals for almost the entire duration of the experiments; (2) the aqueous solution chemistry did not evolve along the phase boundaries but crossed the phase boundaries at oblique angles; and (3) the earlier precipitated product minerals did not dissolve but continued to precipitate even after the solution chemistry had evolved into the stability fields of minerals lower in the paragenesis sequence. These three lines of evidence signify that product mineral precipitation is a slow kinetic process and partial equilibria between aqueous solution and product minerals were not held. In contrast, the experimental evidences are consistent with the hypothesis of strong coupling of mineral dissolution/precipitation kinetics [e.g., Zhu C., Blum A. E. and Veblen D. R. (2004a) Feldspar dissolution rates and clay precipitation in the Navajo aquifer at Black Mesa, Arizona, USA. In Water-Rock Interaction (eds. R. B. Wanty and R. R. I. Seal). A.A. Balkema, Saratoga Springs, New York. pp. 895-899]. In all batch experiments examined, the time of congruent feldspar dissolution was short and supersaturation with respect to the product minerals was reached within a short period of time. The experimental system progressed from a dissolution driven regime to a precipitation limited regime in a short order. The results of this study suggest a complex feedback between dissolution and

  9. Minerals Yearbook, centennial edition 1981. Volume I. Metals and minerals

    SciTech Connect

    Not Available

    1983-01-01

    This edition of the Minerals Yearbook Marks the centennial of the first annual publication of comprehensive mineral industry statistics by the Federal Government. This volume of the Minerals Yearbook, covering metals and minerals, contains 71 commodity or commodity group chapters with data on approximately 90 minerals that were obtained as a result of the mineral information gathering activities of the Bureau of Mines. In addition, the volume contains a chapter on mining and quarrying trends and a statistical summary.

  10. Nutrient and dissolved organic carbon removal from water using mining and metallurgical by-products.

    PubMed

    Wendling, Laura A; Douglas, Grant B; Coleman, Shandel; Yuan, Zheng

    2012-05-15

    Excess nutrient input to water bodies frequently results in algal blooms and development of oxygen deficient conditions. Mining or metallurgical by-products can potentially be utilised as filtration media within water treatment systems such as constructed wetlands, permeable reactive barriers, or drain liners. These materials may offer a cost-effective solution for the removal of nutrients and dissolved organic carbon (DOC) from natural waters. This study investigated steel-making, alumina refining (red mud and red sand) and heavy mineral processing by-products, as well as the low-cost mineral-based material calcined magnesia, in laboratory column trials. Influent water and column effluents were analysed for pH and flow rate, alkalinity, nutrient species and DOC, and a range of major cations and anions. In general, by-products with high Ca or Mg, and to a lesser extent those with high Fe content, were well-suited to nutrient and DOC removal from water. Of the individual materials examined, the heavy mineral processing residue neutralised used acid (NUA) exhibited the highest sorption capacity for P, and removed the greatest proportions of all N species and DOC from influent water. In general, NUA and mixtures containing NUA, particularly those with calcined magnesia or red mud/red sand were the most effective in removing nutrients and DOC from influent water. Post-treatment effluents from columns containing NUA and NUA/steel-making by-product, NUA/red sand and NUA/calcined magnesia mixtures exhibited large reductions in DOC, P and N concentrations and exhibited a shift in nutrient ratios away from potential N- and Si-limitation and towards potential P-limitation. If employed as part of a large-scale water treatment scheme, use of these mining and metallurgical by-products for nutrient removal could result in reduced algal biomass and improved water quality. Identification and effective implementation of mining by-products or blends thereof in constructed wetlands

  11. 43 CFR 3830.11 - Which minerals are locatable under the General Mining Law?

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-10-01

    ... 43 Public Lands: Interior 2 2013-10-01 2013-10-01 false Which minerals are locatable under the... (Continued) BUREAU OF LAND MANAGEMENT, DEPARTMENT OF THE INTERIOR MINERALS MANAGEMENT (3000) LOCATING, RECORDING, AND MAINTAINING MINING CLAIMS OR SITES; GENERAL PROVISIONS Mining Law Minerals § 3830.11...

  12. 43 CFR 3830.11 - Which minerals are locatable under the General Mining Law?

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-10-01

    ... 43 Public Lands: Interior 2 2012-10-01 2012-10-01 false Which minerals are locatable under the... (Continued) BUREAU OF LAND MANAGEMENT, DEPARTMENT OF THE INTERIOR MINERALS MANAGEMENT (3000) LOCATING, RECORDING, AND MAINTAINING MINING CLAIMS OR SITES; GENERAL PROVISIONS Mining Law Minerals § 3830.11...

  13. 43 CFR 3830.11 - Which minerals are locatable under the General Mining Law?

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-10-01

    ... 43 Public Lands: Interior 2 2011-10-01 2011-10-01 false Which minerals are locatable under the... (Continued) BUREAU OF LAND MANAGEMENT, DEPARTMENT OF THE INTERIOR MINERALS MANAGEMENT (3000) LOCATING, RECORDING, AND MAINTAINING MINING CLAIMS OR SITES; GENERAL PROVISIONS Mining Law Minerals § 3830.11...

  14. 43 CFR 3830.11 - Which minerals are locatable under the General Mining Law?

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-10-01

    ... 43 Public Lands: Interior 2 2014-10-01 2014-10-01 false Which minerals are locatable under the... (Continued) BUREAU OF LAND MANAGEMENT, DEPARTMENT OF THE INTERIOR MINERALS MANAGEMENT (3000) LOCATING, RECORDING, AND MAINTAINING MINING CLAIMS OR SITES; GENERAL PROVISIONS Mining Law Minerals § 3830.11...

  15. Minerals Yearbook, 1988. Volume 1. Metals and minerals

    SciTech Connect

    Not Available

    1990-01-01

    Volume I of the 1988 Minerals Yearbook, covering metals and minerals, contains 79 commodity or commodity group chapters with data on approximately 90 minerals that were obtained as a result of the mineral information gathering activities of the U.S. Bureau of Mines. In addition, the volume contains chapters on mining and quarrying trends and on the statistical surveying methods used by the Bureau of Mines and a statistical summary.

  16. The composition of coexisting jarosite-group minerals and water from the Richmond mine, Iron Mountain, California

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Jamieson, H.E.; Robinson, C.; Alpers, C.N.; Nordstrom, D.K.; Poustovetov, A.; Lowers, H.A.

    2005-01-01

    Jarosite-group minerals accumulate in the form of stalactites and fine-grained mud on massive pyrite in the D drift of the Richmond mine, Iron Mountain, California. Water samples were collected by placing beakers under the dripping stalactites and by extracting pore water from the mud using a centrifuge. The water is rich in Fe3+ and SO42-, with a pH of approximately 2.1, which is significantly higher than the extremely acidic waters found elsewhere in the mine. Electron-microprobe analysis and X-ray mapping indicate that the small crystals (<10 ??m in diameter) are compositionally zoned with respect to Na and K, and include hydronium jarosite corresponding to the formula (H3O)0.6K0.3 Na0.1Fe3+3 (SO4)2(OH)6. The proton-microprobe analyses indicate that the jarosite-group minerals contain significant amounts of As, Pb and Zn, and minor levels of Bi, Rb, Sb, Se, Sn and Sr. Speciation modeling indicates that the drip waters are supersaturated with respect to jarosite-group minerals. The expected range in composition of jarosite-group solid-solution in equilibrium with the pore water extracted from the mud was found to be consistent with the observed range in composition.

  17. Assessing Water Management of Mining Effluent Using Temporal and Spatial Hydrologic Analyses: The Case of QIT Madagascar Minerals

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Hoagland, N. E.

    2013-12-01

    Associated with the commencement of any water-intensive mining operation is the formation of a set of policies, standards, and sampling protocols that guide the management of all water resources connected to the mining facility, surrounding environment, and affected communities. This study explores the interface between corporate water management and hydrologic methods by evaluating changes in water quality over the course of the mining cycle at QIT Madagascar Minerals (QMM) in Tolagnaro, Madagascar. Sampling and lab research of processed water were conducted following established QMM procedures and then analyzed in conjunction with the complete QMM water quality database. Water quality was analyzed spatially to exhibit how processed water changes as it moves throughout the mining cycle before release into the environment. Graphical representation of the spatial changes in various parameters exhibit deterioration in water quality relative to the source, improvement in quality before being released as effluent, and natural remediation by wetlands before discharge into the Mandromondromotra River. In addition, water quality parameters were evaluated temporally, using data supplied by QMM's Service de l'Eau et Déchets. Yearly and monthly comparisons of hydrological parameters highlight data gaps, the effects of seasonality, and the evolution of water quality monitoring at QMM. Technical evaluation of processed water as it flows through the mining system provides insight into how water monitoring and management can best be adapted at the corporate level to prevent negative impacts on the environment. Water quality data for various parameters from April 2013 at each of the sampling locations. The graphs highlight spatial changes in parameters as water moves from the sources (WD90, Paddock 3), to sites on the mine (500M, Basmin, SCC2), to release points (WMC703, WMC803), to discharge points into the MMM River.

  18. GE-Miner: integration of cluster ensemble and text mining for comprehensive gene expression analysis.

    PubMed

    Hu, Xiaohua

    2006-01-01

    Generating high quality gene clusters and identifying the underlying biological mechanism of the gene clusters are the important goals of clustering gene expression analysis. Based on this consideration, we design and develop a unified system Gene Expression Miner (GE-Miner) by integrating cluster ensemble, text clustering and multidocument summarisation and provide an environment for comprehensive gene expression data analysis. Experimental results demonstrate that our systems can obtain high quality clusters and provide concise and informative textual summary for the gene clusters.

  19. Minerals yearbook, 1984. Volume 1. Metals and minerals

    SciTech Connect

    Not Available

    1985-01-01

    The volume of the Minerals Yearbook, covering metals and minerals, contains 72 commodity or commodity group chapters with data on approximately 90 minerals that were obtained as a result of the mineral information gathering activities of the Bureau of Mines. In addition, the volume contains a chapter on mining and quarrying trends, a chapter discussing the statistical surveying methods used by the Bureau of Mines, and a statistical summary.

  20. Minerals yearbook, 1985. Volume 1. Metals and minerals

    SciTech Connect

    Not Available

    1987-01-01

    This volume of the 1985 Minerals Yearbook, covering metals and minerals, contains 72 commodity or commodity group chapters with data on approximately 90 minerals that were obtained as a result of the mineral information gathering activities of the Bureau of Mines. In addition, the volume contains a chapter on mining and quarrying trends, a chapter discussing the statistical surveying methods used by the Bureau of Mines, and a statistical summary.

  1. Ultra-fine grinding and mechanical activation of mine waste rock using a high-speed stirred mill for mineral carbonation

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Li, Jia-jie; Hitch, Michael

    2015-10-01

    CO2 sequestration by mineral carbonation can permanently store CO2 and mitigate climate change. However, the cost and reaction rate of mineral carbonation must be balanced to be viable for industrial applications. In this study, it was attempted to reduce the carbonation costs by using mine waste rock as a feed stock and to enhance the reaction rate using wet mechanical activation as a pre-treatment method. Slurry rheological properties, particle size distribution, specific surface area, crystallinity, and CO2 sequestration reaction efficiency of the initial and mechanically activated mine waste rock and olivine were characterized. The results show that serpentine acts as a catalyst, increasing the slurry yield stress, assisting new surface formation, and hindering the size reduction and structure amorphization. Mechanically activated mine waste rock exhibits a higher carbonation conversion than olivine with equal specific milling energy input. The use of a high-speed stirred mill may render the mineral carbonation suitable for mining industrial practice.

  2. O-miner: an integrative platform for automated analysis and mining of -omics data.

    PubMed

    Cutts, Rosalind J; Dayem Ullah, Abu Z; Sangaralingam, Ajanthah; Gadaleta, Emanuela; Lemoine, Nicholas R; Chelala, Claude

    2012-07-01

    High-throughput profiling has generated massive amounts of data across basic, clinical and translational research fields. However, open source comprehensive web tools for analysing data obtained from different platforms and technologies are still lacking. To fill this gap and the unmet computational needs of ongoing research projects, we developed O-miner, a rapid, comprehensive, efficient web tool that covers all the steps required for the analysis of both transcriptomic and genomic data starting from raw image files through in-depth bioinformatics analysis and annotation to biological knowledge extraction. O-miner was developed from a biologist end-user perspective. Hence, it is as simple to use as possible within the confines of the complexity of the data being analysed. It provides a strong analytical suite able to overlay and harness large, complicated, raw and heterogeneous sets of profiles with biological/clinical data. Biologists can use O-miner to analyse and integrate different types of data and annotations to build knowledge of relevant altered mechanisms and pathways in order to identify and prioritize novel targets for further biological validation. Here we describe the analytical workflows currently available using O-miner and present examples of use. O-miner is freely available at www.o-miner.org.

  3. Small mine size is associated with lung function abnormality and pneumoconiosis among underground coal miners in Kentucky, Virginia and West Virginia

    PubMed Central

    Blackley, David J; Halldin, Cara N; Wang, Mei Lin; Laney, A Scott

    2015-01-01

    Objectives To describe the prevalence of lung function abnormality and coal workers’ pneumoconiosis (CWP) by mine size among underground coal miners in Kentucky, Virginia and West Virginia. Methods During 2005–2012, 4491 miners completed spirometry and chest radiography as part of a health surveillance programme. Spirometry was interpreted according to American Thoracic Society and European Respiratory Society guidelines, and radiography per International Labour Office standards. Prevalence ratios (PR) were calculated for abnormal spirometry (obstructive, restrictive or mixed pattern using lower limits of normal derived from National Health and Nutrition Examination Survey (NHANES) III) and CWP among workers from small mines (≤50 miners) compared with those from large mines. Results Among 3771 eligible miners, those from small mines were more likely to have abnormal spirometry (18.5% vs 13.8%, p<0.01), CWP (10.8% vs 5.2%, p<0.01) and progressive massive fibrosis (2.4% vs 1.1%, p<0.01). In regression analysis, working in a small mine was associated with 37% higher prevalence of abnormal spirometry (PR 1.37, 95% CI 1.16 to 1.61) and 2.1 times higher prevalence of CWP (95% CI 1.68 to 2.70). Conclusions More than one in four of these miners had evidence of CWP, abnormal lung function or both. Although 96% of miners in the study have worked exclusively under dust regulations implemented following the 1969 Federal Coal Mine Safety and Health Act, we observed high rates of respiratory disease including severe cases. The current approach to dust control and provision of safe work conditions for central Appalachian underground coal miners is not adequate to protect them from adverse respiratory health effects. PMID:25052085

  4. Mineral surveys by the Geological Survey and the Bureau of Mines of Bureau of Land Management Wilderness Study Areas

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Beikman, Helen M.; Hinkle, Margaret E.; Frieders, Twila; Marcus, Susan M.; Edward, James R.

    1983-01-01

    The Federal Land Policy and Management Act of 1976 instructed the Bureau of Land Management (BLM) to review all public lands under its jurisdiction and to determine their suitability or nonsuitability for wilderness designation. As part of this process, the Geological Survey and the Bureau of Mines conduct mineral surveys of areas for which a preliminary determination of wilderness suitability has been made. The BLM has completed its wilderness inventory phase and has found that 23.2 million acres deserve further study for wilderness consideration. These 23.2 million acres of wilderness study areas include 1 million acres of natural and primitive areas (Instant Study Areas), 5.7 million acres in the California Desert Conservation Area, and 16.5 million acres in other wilderness study areas. Mineral surveys on all areas recommended for wilderness will be completed by 1990.

  5. Effects of modified atmosphere on crop productivity and mineral content

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Chagvardieff, P.; Dimon, B.; Souleimanov, A.; Massimino, D.; Le Bras, S.; Péan, M.; Louche-Teissandier, D.

    1997-01-01

    Wheat, potato, pea and tomato crops were cultivated from seeding to harvest in a controlled and confined growth chamber at elevated CO_2 concentration (3700 muL.L^-1) to examine the effects on biomass production and edible part yields. Different responses to high CO_2 were recorded, ranging from a decline in productivity for wheat, to slight stimulation for potatoes, moderate increase for tomatoes, and very large enhancement for pea. Mineral content in wheat and pea seeds was not greatly modified by the elevated CO_2. Short-term experiments (17 d) were conducted on potato at high (3700 muL.L^-1) and very high (20,000 muL.L^-1) CO_2 concentration and/or low O_2 partial pressure (~ 20,600 muL.L^-1 or 2 kPa). Low O_2 was more effective than high CO_2 in total biomass accumulation, but development was affected: Low O_2 inhibited tuberization, while high CO_2 significantly increased production of tubers.

  6. Mapping Mineralization in the Monitor Pass Mining District

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Shoffner, J. D.; Calvin, W. M.

    2007-12-01

    The Leviathan Mine, located in the Monitor Pass mining district in Alpine county California, was previously an open pit sulfur mine that supplied a nearby operation in Yerington, Nevada with sulfur for copper oxide leaching. The area was first mined underground in the mid 1800s and by the 1950s became an open pit operation. A decade later, the sulfur became uneconomic to extract, leaving the company bankrupt. By the 1980s, the EPA had declared Leviathan Mine a Superfund site due to acid mine drainage into Leviathan creek. Remediation continues today, but high sulfur soils and the potential for acid generation is abundant in the Monitor Pass area. This discovery of iron sulfate on Mars motivated the acquisition of airborne and spaceborne data similar to datasets available for Mars. In addition, high spatial resolution mineral mapping could help identify high priority remediation targets within the mine site. Low resolution (30m per pixel) spaceborne data from ALI and ASTER sensors were combined into a 13-filter dataset to locate areas of interest and as an overview of the area. Initial results were promising, showing evidence for iron oxides and clay mineralization, with some areas suggesting sulfates. The combination of thermal infrared and shortwave infrared datasets optimizes the potential for mineral identification. Therefore, we planned dual hyperspectral acquitions. SEBASS thermal data (7-15μm) at 2m per pixel was acquired on July 16, 2007. ProSpecTIR V-S (0.43- 2.45μm) was acquired on August 17, 2007, also at 2m per pixel. Field spectra were collected concurrently with the SpecTIR flight. The high resolution data will be used to confirm and refine the findings from spaceborne results and be presented at the meeting.

  7. AMBIENT CARBONATION of MINING RESIDUES: Understanding the Mechanisms and Optimization of Direct Carbon Dioxide Mineral Sequestration

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Assima, G. P.; Larachi, F.; Molson, J. W.; Beaudoin, G.

    2013-12-01

    The huge amounts (GTs) of ultramafic mining residues (UMRs) produced by mining activities around the world and accumulated in multi-square-kilometer stockpiles are stimulating a vivid interest regarding their possible use as a stable and permanent sink for CO2. Virtually costless and often found crushed and / or ground, UMRs are being considered as ideal candidates for atmospheric CO2 mitigation. The present work, therefore, explores the potential of several UMRs available in Quebec (Thetford Mines, Asbestos, Nunavik, Amos, Otish Mountains), for carbonation under ambient conditions, as a cost-effective alternative to remove low-concentration CO2 from the atmosphere and alleviate global warming. Several experimental reactors have been built to specifically simulate various climatic changes at the laboratory scale. The impact of various environmental conditions to which the residues are subjected to in their storage location, including temperature variations, precipitation, flooding, drought, changing water saturation, oxygen gradient and CO2 diffusion have been thoroughly studied. Dry and heavy-rain periods are unsuitable for efficient CO2 sequestration. Low liquid saturation within UMRs pores favors carbonation by combining fast percolation of gaseous CO2, rapid dissemination of CO2 dissolved species and creation of highly reactive sites throughout the mining residue pile. Partly saturated samples were also found to exhibit lower gaseous CO2 breakthrough times across the mining residues. Warm periods significantly accelerate the rate of CO2 uptake as compared to cold periods, which, in contrast are characterized by heat generation levels that could possibly be exploited by low temperature geothermal systems. A temperature rise from 10 to 40 °C was accompanied by a ten-fold increase in initial reaction rate. The carbonation reaction caused a rise in UMRs temperature up to 4.9°C during experiments at a 10°C. The presence of oxygen in the reaction medium induces

  8. Mines, prospects, and mineral sites, wilderness and RARE II areas, White Mountain National Forest, New Hampshire

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Gazdik, G. C.; Harris, Gazdik; Welsh, R. A.; Girol, V. P.

    1988-01-01

    The areas investigated are located in the White Mountain National Forest in Coos, Grafton, and Carroll Counties, New Hampshire. Personnel from the U.S. Bureau of Mines conducted field reconnaissance of the westernmost areas, Kinsman Mountain, Mt. Wolf-Gordon Pond, Jobildunk, and Carr Mountain, in the fall of 1980. Field reconnaissance of the eastern areas, Great Gulf, Presidential Range-Dry River, Dartmouth Range, Pemigewasset and Wild River was conducted in the spring of 1981. A total of 237 rock and 103 panned-concentrate samples were collected during the investigations. Reconnaissance radiometric ground surveys were conducted at selected locations.

  9. Data set of world phosphate mines, deposits, and occurrences: Part A. geologic data; Part B. location and mineral economic data

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Chernoff, Carlotta B.; Orris, G.J.

    2002-01-01

    An inventory of more than 1,600 world phosphate mines, deposits, and occurrences was compiled from smaller data sets collected as part of multiple research efforts by Carlotta Chernoff, University of Arizona, and Greta Orris, U.S. Geological Survey. These data have been utilized during studies of black shale depositional environments and to construct phosphate deposit models. The compiled data have been edited for consistency and additional location information has been added where possible. The database of compiled phosphate information is being released in two sections; the geologic data in one section and the location and mineral economic data in the second. This report, U.S. Geological Survey Open-File Report 02–156–A, contains the geologic data and is best used with the complimentary data contained in Open-File Report 02–156–B. U.S. Geological Survey Open-File Report 02–156–B contains commodity data, location and analytical data, a variety of mineral economic data, reference information, and pointers to related records in the U.S. Geological Survey National mineral databases—MASMILS and MRDS.

  10. The Mine Safety and Health Administration's criterion threshold value policy increases miners' risk of pneumoconiosis

    SciTech Connect

    Weeks, J.L.

    2006-06-15

    Background The Mine Safety and Health Administration (MSHA) proposes to issue citations for non-compliance with the exposure limit for respirable coal mine dust when measured exposure exceeds the exposure limit with a 'high degree of confidence.' This criterion threshold value (CTV) is derived from the sampling and analytical error of the measurement method. This policy is based on a combination of statistical and legal reasoning: the one-tailed 95% confidence limit of the sampling method, the apparent principle of due process and a standard of proof analogous to 'beyond a reasonable doubt.' This policy raises the effective exposure limit, it is contrary to the precautionary principle, it is not a fair sharing of the burden of uncertainty, and it employs an inappropriate standard of proof. Its own advisory committee and NIOSH have advised against this policy. For longwall mining sections, it results in a failure to issue citations for approximately 36% of the measured values that exceed the statutory exposure limit. Citations for non-compliance with the respirable dust standard should be issued for any measure exposure that exceeds the exposure limit.

  11. Calc-silicate alteration and sulfide mineralization, San Martin mine, Zacatecas, Mexico

    SciTech Connect

    Rubin, J.N.; Kyle, J.R.; Olivares, R.

    1985-01-01

    The San Martin skarn deposit was formed by intrusion of the 46 Ma Cerro de la Gloria quartz monzonite stock into the Middle Cretaceous Cuesta del Cura limestone. Ensuing hydrothermal alteration produced a metamorphic aureole consisting of calc-silicate minerals and economic concentrations of Cu, Zn, and Ag. Ore bodies are centered around several large veins that roughly parallel the intrusive contact; mineralized endoskarn is locally developed. Cu and Ag decrease with increasing distance from the intrusive contact, and correlate inversely with Pb and Zn horizontally. Cu, Zn, Pb, and Fe increase with depth. Initial metasomatism produced andraditic garnet with lesser hedenbergitic clinopyroxene, along with substantial intercrystalline pore space which was subsequently filled with sulfides. Lower temperature calc-silicates include wollastonite, epidote, chlorite, and tremolite. Metallic minerals show a paragenetic sequence of early arsenopyrite, molybdenite, pyrrhotite, bornite, and chalcopyrite; intermediate sphalerite, chalcopyrite, tetrahedrite, and galena; and late native silver, pyrite, and stibnite. Fluorite, calcite, and minor quartz postdate prograde skarn development. Hydrothermal fluid circulation was controlled by pre-intrusion Laramide deformation and probably was enhanced by intrusion-related fracturing. The intrusive contact and the veins represent the major channels for fluid migration, with local controls affected by layers of impermeable shale and chert. Fluid inclusion data suggest that early mineralizing fluids were dominantly magmatic, with the meteoric component increasing with time.

  12. Assessing the influence of reacting pyrite and carbonate minerals on the geochemistry of drainage in the Coeur d'Alene mining district

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Balistrieri, L.S.; Box, S.E.; Bookstrom, A.A.; Ikramuddin, M.

    1999-01-01

    The relative abundance of minerals that react to generate or consume acid in mineralized areas is critical in determining the quality of water draining from such areas. This work examines the fundamental reactions that influence the pH and composition of drainage from mine adits and tailings piles. We construct triangle diagrams that predict stoichiometric relationships between concentrations of dissolved SO4 dissolved Ca and Mg, and either alkalinity or acidity by considering reactions involving the oxidation of pyrite, dissolution of carbonate minerals, and precipitation of iron oxide and iron hydroxysulfate minerals. Drainage data from the Coeur d'Alene mining district are used to test our stoichiometric approach. Comparisons between theoretical predictions and drainage data indicate that the range of pH values in the mining district is due to reacting pyrite to carbonate mineral ratios that range from near 0/1 to 1/1. Calcite and ankerite are the dominant carbonate minerals that buffer the acid produced during pyrite oxidation and ferrihydrite or schwertmannite precipitation.The relative abundance of minerals that react to generate or consume acid in mineralized areas is critical in determining the quality of water draining from such areas. This work examines the fundamental reactions that influence the pH and composition of drainage from mine adits and tailings piles. We construct triangle diagrams that predict stoichiometric relationships between concentrations of dissolved SO4, dissolved Ca and Mg, and either alkalinity or acidity by considering reactions involving the oxidation of pyrite, dissolution of carbonate minerals, and precipitation of iron oxide and iron hydroxysulfate minerals. Drainage data from the Coeur d'Alene mining district are used to test our stoichiometric approach. Comparisons between theoretical predictions and drainage data indicate that the range of pH values in the mining district is due to reacting pyrite to carbonate mineral ratios

  13. Extracellular Enzyme Production and Synthetic Lignin Mineralization by Ceriporiopsis subvermispora

    PubMed Central

    Rüttimann-Johnson, Carmen; Salas, Loreto; Vicuña, Rafael; Kirk, T. Kent

    1993-01-01

    The ability of the white rot fungus Ceriporiopsis subvermispora to mineralize 14C-synthetic lignin was studied under different culture conditions, and the levels of two extracellular enzymes were monitored. The highest mineralization rates (28% after 28 days) were obtained in cultures containing a growth-limiting amount of nitrogen source (1.0 mM ammonium tartrate); under this condition, the levels of manganese peroxidase (MnP) and laccase present in the culture supernatant solutions were very low compared with cultures containing 10 mM of the nitrogen source. In contrast, cultures containing a limiting concentration of the carbon source (0.1% glucose) showed low levels of both enzymes and also very low mineralization rates compared with cultures containing 1% glucose. Cultures containing 11 ppm of Mn(II) showed a higher rate of mineralization than those containing 0.3 or 40 ppm of this cation. Levels of MnP and laccase were higher when 40 ppm of Mn(II) was used. Mineralization rates were slightly higher in cultures flushed daily with oxygen, whereas laccase levels were lower and MnP levels were approximately the same as in cultures maintained under an air atmosphere. The presence of 0.4 mM veratryl alcohol reduced both mineralization rates and MnP levels, without affecting laccase levels. Lignin peroxidase activity was not detected under any condition. Addition of purified lignin peroxidase to the cultures in the presence or absence of veratryl alcohol did not enhance mineralization rates significantly. PMID:16348955

  14. Monitoring CO2 Sequestration by Mineral Carbonation in Mine Tailings at Thetford Mines, Quebec, Canada

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Lechat, K.; Lemieux, J. M.; Molson, J. W. H.; Beaudoin, G.; Hebert, R.

    2014-12-01

    Mineral carbonation is considered a permanent option to capture and store atmospheric CO2. This reaction occurs naturally under ambient conditions in ultramafic mining and milling waste. In the region of Thetford Mines, Quebec, chrysotile mining has produced approximately 0.8 Gt of magnesium-rich milling waste, which mainly consists of poorly sorted ultramafic rock fragments (< 10 cm) and chrysotile fibers. To quantify the amount of CO2 that can be captured in the mine wastes of Thetford Mines, two experimental pilot-scale tailings cells were constructed and instrumented for measuring soil temperature, volumetric water content, gas pressure and gas composition, with ambient conditions recorded by an autonomous meteorological station. The cells were monitored for water geochemistry, carbon content and mineralogy, with the objective to better understand the mineral carbonation processes under natural conditions and to propose a conceptual model for mineral carbonation at the pilot scale. To validate this model, numerical simulations with the MIN3P reactive transport code have been carried out. The chemical composition of the cell leachate (pH > 10, Mg from 85 to 140 mg.L-1, and high total alkalinity from 260 to 300 mg.L-1 CaCO3) is consistent with active CO2 mineralization reactions within the cell. SEM analyses show precipitation of dypingite with a lamellar texture and cemented grain surfaces. The milling waste contains up to 1.2% C, which indicates CO2 sequestration by mineral carbonation. Measured CO2 concentrations in the interstitial air are also ten times lower than in the atmosphere. Analysis of seasonal variations in fluid flow and heat transfer (essentially by thermal conduction) shows that molecular diffusion is the main process for CO2 supply within the experimental cells. These observations have helped develop a conceptual model for mineral carbonation in the wastes and were used to calibrate the reactive transport model.

  15. Mining and engineering natural-product biosynthetic pathways.

    PubMed

    Wilkinson, Barrie; Micklefield, Jason

    2007-07-01

    Natural products continue to fulfill an important role in the development of therapeutic agents. In addition, with the advent of chemical genetics and high-throughput screening platforms, these molecules have become increasingly valuable as tools for interrogating fundamental aspects of biological systems. To access the vast portion of natural-product structural diversity that remains unexploited for these and other applications, genome mining and microbial metagenomic approaches are proving particularly powerful. When these are coupled with recombineering and related genetic tools, large biosynthetic gene clusters that remain intractable or cryptic in the native host can be more efficiently cloned and expressed in a suitable heterologous system. For lead optimization and the further structural diversification of natural-product libraries, combinatorial biosynthetic engineering has also become indispensable. However, our ability to rationally redesign biosynthetic pathways is often limited by our lack of understanding of the structure, dynamics and interplay between the many enzymes involved in complex biosynthetic pathways. Despite this, recent structures of fatty acid synthases should allow a more accurate prediction of the likely architecture of related polyketide synthase and nonribosomal peptide synthetase multienzymes. PMID:17576425

  16. A dozen miners perish in W.Va. mine explosion

    SciTech Connect

    2006-01-15

    A report is given of the mine explosion which occurred at the Sago mine in Upshur County, WV, leaving 13 coal miners trapped underground. Only one of the 13 was found alive. The cause of the explosion might have been the miners' equipment igniting trapped methane. Early reports blamed a lightning strike. 2 photos.

  17. 78 FR 29780 - Fees for Testing, Evaluation, and Approval of Mining Products

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2013-05-21

    ... Safety and Health Administration Fees for Testing, Evaluation, and Approval of Mining Products AGENCY...) contains new authority for 30 CFR part 5, Fees for testing, evaluation, and approval of mining products; it allows MSHA to collect fees up to $2,499,000 for the testing, evaluation, and approval of certain...

  18. Iron-mineral accretion from acid mine drainage and its application in passive treatment

    PubMed Central

    Florence, K.; Sapsford, D.J.; Johnson, D.B.; Kay, C.M.; Wolkersdorfer, C.

    2016-01-01

    ABSTRACT This study demonstrates substantial removal of iron (Fe) from acid mine drainage (pH ≈3) in a passive vertical flow reactor (VFR) with an equivalent footprint of 154 m2 per L/s mine water and residence times of >23 h. Average Fe removal rate was 67% with a high of 85% over the 10-month trial. The fraction of Fe passing a 0.22 µm filter (referred to here as Fe-filt) was seen to be removed in the VFR even when Fe(II) was absent, indicating that the contribution of microbial Fe(II) oxidation and precipitation was not the dominant removal mechanism in the VFR. Removal rates of Fe-filt in the VFR were up to 70% in residence times as low as 8 h compared with laboratory experiments where much smaller changes in Fe-filt were observed over 60 h. Centrifugation indicated that 80–90% of the influent Fe had particle sizes <35 nm. Together with analyses and geochemical modelling, this suggests that the Fe-filt fraction exists as either truly aqueous (but oversaturated) Fe(III) or nanoparticulate Fe(III) and that this metastability persists. When the water was contacted with VFR sludge, the Fe-filt fraction was destabilized, leading to an appreciably higher removal of this fraction. Heterogeneous precipitation and/or aggregation of nanoparticulate Fe(III) precipitates are considered predominant removal mechanisms. Microbial analyses of the mine water revealed the abundance of extracellular polymeric substance-generating Fe-oxidizing bacterium ‘Ferrovum myxofaciens’, which may aid the removal of iron and explain the unusual appearance and physical properties of the sludge. PMID:26675674

  19. MegaMiner: A Tool for Lead Identification Through Text Mining Using Chemoinformatics Tools and Cloud Computing Environment.

    PubMed

    Karthikeyan, Muthukumarasamy; Pandit, Yogesh; Pandit, Deepak; Vyas, Renu

    2015-01-01

    Virtual screening is an indispensable tool to cope with the massive amount of data being tossed by the high throughput omics technologies. With the objective of enhancing the automation capability of virtual screening process a robust portal termed MegaMiner has been built using the cloud computing platform wherein the user submits a text query and directly accesses the proposed lead molecules along with their drug-like, lead-like and docking scores. Textual chemical structural data representation is fraught with ambiguity in the absence of a global identifier. We have used a combination of statistical models, chemical dictionary and regular expression for building a disease specific dictionary. To demonstrate the effectiveness of this approach, a case study on malaria has been carried out in the present work. MegaMiner offered superior results compared to other text mining search engines, as established by F score analysis. A single query term 'malaria' in the portlet led to retrieval of related PubMed records, protein classes, drug classes and 8000 scaffolds which were internally processed and filtered to suggest new molecules as potential anti-malarials. The results obtained were validated by docking the virtual molecules into relevant protein targets. It is hoped that MegaMiner will serve as an indispensable tool for not only identifying hidden relationships between various biological and chemical entities but also for building better corpus and ontologies. PMID:26138567

  20. MegaMiner: A Tool for Lead Identification Through Text Mining Using Chemoinformatics Tools and Cloud Computing Environment.

    PubMed

    Karthikeyan, Muthukumarasamy; Pandit, Yogesh; Pandit, Deepak; Vyas, Renu

    2015-01-01

    Virtual screening is an indispensable tool to cope with the massive amount of data being tossed by the high throughput omics technologies. With the objective of enhancing the automation capability of virtual screening process a robust portal termed MegaMiner has been built using the cloud computing platform wherein the user submits a text query and directly accesses the proposed lead molecules along with their drug-like, lead-like and docking scores. Textual chemical structural data representation is fraught with ambiguity in the absence of a global identifier. We have used a combination of statistical models, chemical dictionary and regular expression for building a disease specific dictionary. To demonstrate the effectiveness of this approach, a case study on malaria has been carried out in the present work. MegaMiner offered superior results compared to other text mining search engines, as established by F score analysis. A single query term 'malaria' in the portlet led to retrieval of related PubMed records, protein classes, drug classes and 8000 scaffolds which were internally processed and filtered to suggest new molecules as potential anti-malarials. The results obtained were validated by docking the virtual molecules into relevant protein targets. It is hoped that MegaMiner will serve as an indispensable tool for not only identifying hidden relationships between various biological and chemical entities but also for building better corpus and ontologies.

  1. Applications of multi-season hyperspectral remote sensing for acid mine water characterization and mapping of secondary iron minerals associated with acid mine drainage

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Davies, Gwendolyn E.

    Acid mine drainage (AMD) resulting from the oxidation of sulfides in mine waste is a major environmental issue facing the mining industry today. Open pit mines, tailings ponds, ore stockpiles, and waste rock dumps can all be significant sources of pollution, primarily heavy metals. These large mining-induced footprints are often located across vast geographic expanses and are difficult to access. With the continuing advancement of imaging satellites, remote sensing may provide a useful monitoring tool for pit lake water quality and the rapid assessment of abandoned mine sites. This study explored the applications of laboratory spectroscopy and multi-season hyperspectral remote sensing for environmental monitoring of mine waste environments. Laboratory spectral experiments were first performed on acid mine waters and synthetic ferric iron solutions to identify and isolate the unique spectral properties of mine waters. These spectral characterizations were then applied to airborne hyperspectral imagery for identification of poor water quality in AMD ponds at the Leviathan Mine Superfund site, CA. Finally, imagery varying in temporal and spatial resolutions were used to identify changes in mineralogy over weathering overburden piles and on dry AMD pond liner surfaces at the Leviathan Mine. Results show the utility of hyperspectral remote sensing for monitoring a diverse range of surfaces associated with AMD.

  2. Topographic Maps and Coal Mining.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Raitz, Karl B.

    1984-01-01

    Geography teachers can illustrate the patterns associated with mineral fuel production, especially coal, by using United States Geological Survey topographic maps, which are illustrated by symbols that indicate mine-related features, such as shafts and tailings. Map reading exercises are presented; an interpretative map key that can facilitate…

  3. Minerals yearbook 1977. Volume I. Metals and minerals

    SciTech Connect

    Not Available

    1980-01-01

    This report contains chapters on virtually all metallic and nonmetallic mineral commodities important to the domestic economy. In addition, it includes a general review chapter on the mineral industries, a chapter on mining and quarrying trends, and a statistical summary.

  4. The Mechanization of Mining.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Marovelli, Robert L.; Karhnak, John M.

    1982-01-01

    Mechanization of mining is explained in terms of its effect on the mining of coal, focusing on, among others, types of mining, productivity, machinery, benefits to retired miners, fatality rate in underground coal mines, and output of U.S. mining industry. (Author/JN)

  5. Mesozoic Magmatism and Base-Metal Mineralization in the Fortymile Mining District, Eastern Alaska - Initial Results of Petrographic, Geochemical, and Isotopic Studies in the Mount Veta Area

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Dusel-Bacon, Cynthia; Slack, John F.; Aleinikoff, John N.; Mortensen, James K.

    2009-01-01

    We present here the initial results of a petrographic, geochemical, and isotopic study of Mesozoic intrusive rocks and spatially associated Zn-Pb-Ag-Cu-Au prospects in the Fortymile mining district in the southern Eagle quadrangle, Alaska. Analyzed samples include mineralized and unmineralized drill core from 2006 and 2007 exploration by Full Metal Minerals, USA, Inc., at the Little Whiteman (LWM) and Fish prospects, and other mineralized and plutonic samples collected within the mining district is part of the USGS study. Three new ion microprobe U-Pb zircon ages are: 210 +- 3 Ma for quartz diorite from LWM, 187 +- 3 Ma for quartz monzonite from Fish, and 70.5 +- 1.1 Ma for altered rhyolite porphyry from Fish. We also present 11 published and unpublished Mesozoic thermal ionization mass spectrometric U-Pb zircon and titanite ages and whole-rock geochemical data for the Mesozoic plutonic rocks. Late Triassic and Early Jurassic plutons generally have intermediate compositions and are slightly foliated, consistent with synkinematic intrusion. Several Early Jurassic plutons contain magmatic epidote, indicating emplacement of the host plutons at mesozonal crustal depths of greater than 15 km. Trace-element geochemical data indicate an arc origin for the granitoids, with an increase in the crustal component with time. Preliminary study of drill core from the LWM Zn-Pb-Cu-Ag prospect supports a carbonate-replacement model of mineralization. LWM massive sulfides consist of sphalerite, galena, and minor pyrite and chalcopyrite, in a gangue of calcite and lesser quartz; silver resides in Sb-As-Ag sulfosalts and pyrargyrite, and probably in submicroscopic inclusions within galena. Whole-rock analyses of LWM drill cores also show elevated In, an important metal in high-technology products. Hypogene mineralized rocks at Fish, below the secondary Zn-rich zone, are associated with a carbonate host and also may be of replacement origin, or alternatively, may be a magnetite

  6. Biogenic catalysis in sulphide minerals' weathering processes and acid mine drainage genesis.

    PubMed

    Kušnierová, Mária; Praščáková, Mária; Nowak, Anna K; Gorazda, Katarzyna; Wzorek, Zbigniew

    2014-01-01

    Bioleaching and biogenesis are the main outputs from a large group of environmental processes participating in the natural material cycle, used in raw materials processing. Bio-oxidation reactions are the main basis for bioleaching procedures, often participating in parallel leaching processes. During the leaching processes of polycomponent sulphide substrates, the factor of process selection also plays an important role, being in direct relation to the electric properties and galvanic effect occurring between the individual components of the leaching substrate. This work gives a summary of the results of a research focused on the possibilities of using biotechnological procedures for treatment of Slovak sulphide ores. The object of the research is extraction of valuable metals, undesirable admixtures and degradation of crystal lattice of sulphides for subsequent chemical leaching processing of precious metals. The results of experiments on the existence of biogenic processes in situ on waste dumps from exploitation containing residual sulphides are also presented. The processes result in acid mine drainage water generation. These waters are strongly mineralised (over 48 g/L) and of low pH; that is why they are very caustic. The arsenic content (2.558 mg/L) in outflowing waters from old mines is high and over the limits set by the law. PMID:24445359

  7. 76 FR 12648 - Lowering Miners' Exposure to Respirable Coal Mine Dust, Including Continuous Personal Dust Monitors

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2011-03-08

    ...' Exposure to Respirable Coal Mine Dust, Including Continuous Personal Dust Monitors AGENCY: Mine Safety and... Continuous Personal Dust Monitors. The proposed rule would improve health protections for coal miners by... Occupational Exposure to Respirable Coal Mine Dust, the National Institute for Occupational Safety and...

  8. 75 FR 69617 - Lowering Miners' Exposure to Respirable Coal Mine Dust, Including Continuous Personal Dust Monitors

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2010-11-15

    ... addressing Lowering Miners' Exposure to Respirable Coal Mine Dust, Including Continuous Personal Dust Monitors. The proposed rule was published on October 19, 2010 (75 FR 64412) and is available on MSHA's Web...' Exposure to Respirable Coal Mine Dust, Including Continuous Personal Dust Monitors AGENCY: Mine Safety...

  9. Solutions for Arsenic Control in Mining Processes and Extractive Industry

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Neitola, Raisa; Korhonen, Tero; Backnäs, Soile; Turunen, Kaisa; Kaartinen, Tommi; Laine-Ylijoki, Jutta; Wahlström, Margareta; Venho, Antti; Ahoranta, Sarita; Nissilä, Marika; Puhakka, Jaakko

    2015-04-01

    In mining, quarrying and industrial minerals production arsenic is a common element, thus creating a challenge in mining processes. This project aimed to develop solutions to control and remove As-compounds in materials and effluents of beneficiation processes and other mining operations. Focus was on various technologies e.g. traditional mineral processing, bioprocessing, water treatment, as well as various materials such as gold ores and concentrates, industrial by-products, and mine waters. The results of suggest that by novel mineral processing and proper water treatment methods the amount of As-compounds in tailings and effluents can be reduced to levels that satisfy the regulations concerning mining waste management. According to the environmental research, mining activities tend to increase the proportion of potentially mobile and available elements in soil. The effect of mining activity on geogenic contamination needs to be considered in risk assessment.

  10. Second powerful bounce at Utah mine kills three rescuers trying to reach six trapped miners

    SciTech Connect

    2007-09-15

    The article reports on rescue operations at Crandall Canyon Mine in Energy Country, Utah, where coal miners were trapped on 6 August by a large cave-in. The miners, who were carrying out retreat mining, were believed to be 1,500 ft deep and 4 miles from the portal. Rescue efforts involved drilling several boreholes and injecting compressed air into the mine. A significant bounce occurred on 17 August killing three rescue workers. 1 photo.

  11. Radon Dosimetry and Monitoring in Mines

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Pineau, J. F.

    The following sections are included: * Introduction * The Atmosphere in Underground Mines * Origin of the radioactivity of the atmosphere in underground mines * Main characteristics of the atmosphere of mines * Temperature * Relative humidity * Particle size distribution of the aerosols * Volume concentration of radon * Age of the ventilation air * Volume concentration of radon decay products * Volume concentration of long-lived aerosols (LLA) * Order of magnitude of the volume concentrations to be measured * Dosimetry: Application to Miners * Dosimetry of miners in France * Integrated dosimetry system * Measuring head * Unit for the detection and measurement of exposure to potential alpha energy * Treatment and reading of the detector films * Expression of the results * Other examples of operational dosimetry * Use of closed passive dosimeters for the dosimetry of miners * Monitoring of Physical Parameters of the Atmospheres * Qualification of non-uranium mines * Monitoring of the environment of mining sites * Optimisation of radiation protection using the dosimetric data * Concluding Remarks * References

  12. Thermodynamic data for modeling acid mine drainage problems: compilation and estimation of data for selected soluble iron-sulfate minerals

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Hemingway, Bruch S.; Seal, Robert R., II; Chou, I-Ming

    2002-01-01

    Enthalpy of formation, Gibbs energy of formation, and entropy values have been compiled from the literature for the hydrated ferrous sulfate minerals melanterite, rozenite, and szomolnokite, and a variety of other hydrated sulfate compounds. On the basis of this compilation, it appears that there is no evidence for an excess enthalpy of mixing for sulfate-H2O systems, except for the first H2O molecule of crystallization. The enthalpy and Gibbs energy of formation of each H2O molecule of crystallization, except the first, in the iron(II) sulfate - H2O system is -295.15 and -238.0 kJ?mol-1, respectively. The absence of an excess enthalpy of mixing is used as the basis for estimating thermodynamic values for a variety of ferrous, ferric, and mixed-valence sulfate salts of relevance to acid-mine drainage systems.

  13. Minerals yearbook, 1993. Volume 1. Metals and minerals. Annual report

    SciTech Connect

    1993-12-31

    This edition of the Mineral Yearbook discusses the performance of the worlwide minerals and materials industry during 1993 and provides background information to assist in interpreting that performance. Volume 1, Metals and Minerals, contains chapters on virtually all metallic and industrial mineral commodities important to the U.S. economy. A chapter on survey methods with a statistical summary of nonfuel minerals, and a chapters on trends in mining and quarrying in the metals and industrial mineral industries are also included.

  14. State Taxation of Mineral Deposits and Production. Rural Development Research Report No. 2.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Stinson, Thomas F.

    Alternative methods for taxing the mineral industry at the State level include four types of taxes: the ad valorem tax, severance tax, gross production tax, and net production tax. An ad valorem tax is a property tax levied on a mineral deposit's assessed value and due whether the deposit is being worked or not. The severance tax is usually an…

  15. Quantifying the link between crop production and mined groundwater irrigation in China.

    PubMed

    Grogan, Danielle S; Zhang, Fan; Prusevich, Alexander; Lammers, Richard B; Wisser, Dominik; Glidden, Stanley; Li, Changsheng; Frolking, Steve

    2015-04-01

    In response to increasing demand for food, Chinese agriculture has both expanded and intensified over the past several decades. Irrigation has played a key role in increasing crop production, and groundwater is now an important source of irrigation water. Groundwater abstraction in excess of recharge (which we use here to estimate groundwater mining) has resulted in declining groundwater levels and could eventually restrict groundwater availability. In this study we used a hydrological model, WBMplus, in conjunction with a process based crop growth model, DNDC, to evaluate Chinese agriculture's recent dependence upon mined groundwater, and to quantify mined groundwater-dependent crop production across a domain that includes variation in climate, crop choice, and management practices. This methodology allowed for the direct attribution of crop production to irrigation water from rivers and reservoirs, shallow (renewable) groundwater, and mined groundwater. Simulating 20 years of weather variability and circa year 2000 crop areas, we found that mined groundwater fulfilled 20%-49% of gross irrigation water demand, assuming all demand was met. Mined groundwater accounted for 15%-27% of national total crop production. There was high spatial variability across China in irrigation water demand and crop production derived from mined groundwater. We find that climate variability and mined groundwater demand do not operate independently; rather, years in which irrigation water demand is high due to the relatively hot and dry climate also experience limited surface water supplies and therefore have less surface water with which to meet that high irrigation water demand. PMID:25544335

  16. Structurally controlled volcanism and contrasting types of mineralization, Tuscarora mining district and vicinity, Nevada

    SciTech Connect

    Wright, B.A. ); Boden, D.R.; Struhsacker, E.M.

    1993-04-01

    The Tuscarora district lies within an Eocene volcanic field that covers [approximately]800 km[sup 2] in the northern Tuscarora Mountains in northwest Elko County. Geologic mapping of [approximately]100 km[sup 2] at Tuscarora and vicinity and new K-Ar age determinations reveal a complex, rapidly evolving volcanic history. Volcanism began with construction of a poorly preserved andesitic stratovolcano(s) at 42+ Ma. Subsequently, the 7- by 10-km Mt. Blitzen graben developed between 41--42 Ma. The graben filled with the tuff of Mt. Blitzen. Graben subsidence occurred along NE to ENE and NNW to NW faults, and a variety of dikes and plugs, including the 39.8-Ma Mt. Neva granodiorite, locally intruded the bounding faults. Rocks of the graben strike NE, dip moderately to steeply, and are cut by penecontemporaneous NE-striking dikes, indicating that the graben formed in response to NW-SE-directed extension. Collapse of the rhyolitic Big Cottonwood Canyon caldera truncated the northern part of the Mt. Blitzen graben between 40.6 and 41.0 Ma. Rocks of the Mt. Blitzen graben range from silicic andesite to rhyodacite, whereas rocks of the Big Cottonwood Canyon caldera are rhyolite and high-silica rhyolite. Mineralization at Tuscarora occurs near the southeast margin of the Mt. Blitzen graben and mainly as quartz-adularia veins filling ENE, N, and NW faults. New K-Ar analyses on adularia from the Dexter and Grand Prize veins yield ages of 38.9 and 39.9 Ma, respectively. Although closely developed in space and time, the Ag-rich, base-metal-bearing mineralization, characterized by the Grand Prize vein, and the Au-rich, base-metal-poor Dexter vein zone likely represent separate, unrelated hydrothermal events. In general, alteration in the district, as observed in outcrops and drill-hole cuttings, changes from fault or fracture controlled in the north to more pervasive in the Dexter pit area and eastward under pediment.

  17. 30 CFR 49.13 - Alternative mine rescue capability for small and remote mines.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-07-01

    ..., DEPARTMENT OF LABOR EDUCATION AND TRAINING MINE RESCUE TEAMS Mine Rescue Teams for Underground Coal Mines... the operator as to the number of miners willing to serve on a mine rescue team; (8) The...

  18. Geochemical investigations and interim recommendations for priority abandoned mine sites on U.S.D.A. Forest Service lands, Mineral Creek watershed, San Juan County, Colorado

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Nash, J.T.

    1999-01-01

    Field observations, sampling of mine dumps and mine drainage waters, and laboratory studies of dump materials have been made at mining areas deemed to be on public lands administered by the USDA Forest Service in the Mineral Creek watershed. Results of chemical analyses of dump materials, leachates of those materials, and of surface waters draining mines or dumps provide indications of where acid is generated or consumed, and what metals are mobilized below mines or dumps. Information on 25 sites is reviewed and reclamation priorities are ranked into four classes (high, medium, low priority, or no work required). The western side of the upper Animas watershed (the Mineral Creek watershed) has a history of mining and prospecting for about 130 years. The intensity of miningrelated disturbance is higher than in most parts of the San Juan Mountains region, but actually is much less than the eastern half of the watershed (US BLM lands) and none of the mines moved millions of tons of rock and ore as in some of the eastern mines. The majority of the roughly one thousand mining sites on the USFS lands are very small (less than 100 tons or 70 cubic yards of dump material), are more than 2 miles from a major stream, or are so inaccessible as to prohibit reclamation. Twenty five sites have been considered by others to have significant size and potential for significant environmental degradation. These most significant mining areas were evaluated by multiple criteria, including tendency to generate acid or liberate toxic metals, observed acidic pH or dead vegetation (?kill zones?) below dumps or adits, potential mobility of metals, and likelihood of transport into streams of the watershed. In the author?s opinion, no single measurable parameter, such as metal concentration, is reliable for ranking significance or feasibility of reclamation. Rather, subjective estimates are required to evaluate combinations of, or interactions among, several parameters. The most subjective

  19. Exposure to asbestiform minerals and radiographic chest abnormalities in a talc mining region of upstate New York

    SciTech Connect

    Fitzgerald, E.F.; Stark, A.D.; Vianna, N.; Hwang, S.A. )

    1991-05-01

    A radiologist in New York reported a high prevalence of pulmonary fibrosis in St. Lawrence and Jefferson counties. The New York State Department of Health responded by conducting a case history study of radiographic abnormalities found in the lung parenchyma and pleura of residents in Lawrence and Jefferson counties, where tremolitic talc has been mined for many years. During a 1-y period, all radiographs from 6 hospitals in the region were reviewed. A B-reader confirmed that 355 of 9,442 patients who were at least 40 y of age (3.8%) had a relevant abnormality; 60% of them reported occupational exposure to asbestiform minerals, and another 15% had a chest condition or injury that could have accounted for the abnormal radiograph. The results should be interpreted cautiously, but there was no evidence of widespread radiographic abnormalities resulting from ambient dust exposure. The data, however, support earlier studies that indicate that talc miners and millers experience excess parenchymal fibrosis and pleural changes. The data also suggest that individuals in the paper industry and construction trades may be at risk.

  20. The Economics of Mineral Byproducts and Coproducts.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Wilkenson, T.

    1983-01-01

    In the minerals industries, joint products are a normal occurrence in many production systems, and byproducts are often crucial to the viability of mining operations. A contrast was seen between the relatively free market in cabmium with volatile prices and a producer-controlled market in germanium with greater price stability. (IS)

  1. star Miner: A suit of classifiers for spatial, temporal, ancillary, and remote sensing data mining

    SciTech Connect

    Vatsavai, Raju; Shekhar, Shashi; Burk, Thomas E; Bhaduri, Budhendra L

    2008-01-01

    Thematic classification of multi-spectral remotely sensed imagery for large geographic regions requires complex algorithms and feature selection techniques. Traditional statistical classifiers rely exclusively on spectral characteristics, but thematic classes are often spectrally overlapping. The spectral response distributions of thematic classes are dependent on many factors including terrain, slope, aspect, soil type, and atmospheric conditions present during the image acquisition. With the availability of geo-spatial databases, it is possible to exploit the knowledge derived from these ancillary geo-spatial databases to improve the classification accuracies. However, it is not easy to incorporate this additional knowledge into traditional statistical classification methods. On the other hand, knowledge-based and neural network classifiers can readily incorporate these spatial databases, but these systems are often complex to train and their accuracy is only slightly better than statistical classifiers. In this paper we present a new suit of classifiers developed through NASA funding, which addresses many of these problems and provide a framework for mining multi-spectral and temporal remote sensing images guided by geo-spatial databases.

  2. 43 CFR 3814.1 - Mineral reservation in entry and patent; mining and removal of reserved deposits; bonds.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-10-01

    ... MANAGEMENT (3000) LANDS AND MINERALS SUBJECT TO LOCATION Disposal of Reserved Minerals Under the Stockraising... subject to disposal by the United States in accordance with the provisions of the coal and mineral land laws in force at the time of such disposal. (b) Said section 9 also provides that any person...

  3. 43 CFR 3814.1 - Mineral reservation in entry and patent; mining and removal of reserved deposits; bonds.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-10-01

    ... MANAGEMENT (3000) LANDS AND MINERALS SUBJECT TO LOCATION Disposal of Reserved Minerals Under the Stockraising... subject to disposal by the United States in accordance with the provisions of the coal and mineral land laws in force at the time of such disposal. (b) Said section 9 also provides that any person...

  4. 43 CFR 3814.1 - Mineral reservation in entry and patent; mining and removal of reserved deposits; bonds.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-10-01

    ... MANAGEMENT (3000) LANDS AND MINERALS SUBJECT TO LOCATION Disposal of Reserved Minerals Under the Stockraising... subject to disposal by the United States in accordance with the provisions of the coal and mineral land laws in force at the time of such disposal. (b) Said section 9 also provides that any person...

  5. Evolution of the Creede Caldera and its relation to mineralization in the Creede mining district, Colorado

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Barton, Paul B.; Rye, Robert O.; Bethke, Philip M.

    2000-01-01

    At 25 Ma a major epithermal silver and base metal deposit formed in rhyolitic welded tuff near Creede, Colorado. Nearly 24000 metric tons of silver, appreciable lead, and small amounts of zinc, copper, and gold, have been produced from large, crustified veins under Bachelor and Bulldog Mountains north and northwest of Creede. Prior geologic, hydrologic, and stable-isotope studies showed that ore deposition was associated with the mixing and boiling of waters from diverse sources and suggester that a critical part of the ore-forming fluid may have originated within the ancient lake and sediments of the lacustrine Creede Formation that filled the Creede caldera. Two drill holes that sampled the heretofore hidden lower half of the Creede Formation are the focus of this book. The Creede caldera formed at 26.9 Ma within a high constructional plateau of silicic ashflows that covered and were sporadically interlayed with, intermediate lavas and lahars from large stratovolcanoes. The Creede caldera lake had an inflow evaporation balance that did not permit rapid filling to create a brim-full deep lake. Thus salts were evaporatively concentrated; but, with the exception of possible gypsum, no evaporite minerals preserved. Cool springs deposited travertine as mounds and contributed to limestone interlaminations within the sediment. The lake bottom was anoxic, and bacterial reduction of sulfate led to extreme sulfur isotopic fractionation in diagenetic pyrite. The caldera gradually resurged, converting the initial equant lake into an arcuate moat. Resurgent doming, alluvial fans, lacustrine sediments, ashfalls, and lava domes displaced water, lifted the lake so that it overlapped what later became the southern edge of the mineralized are, and eventually filled the basin. At 25.1 Ma an unseen pluton intruded beneath the northen part of the Creede district and created a convecting olume that drew in brine from the Creede caldera fill, meteotic water from highlands to the north

  6. A Closed Network Queue Model of Underground Coal Mining Production, Failure, and Repair

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Lohman, G. M.

    1978-01-01

    Underground coal mining system production, failures, and repair cycles were mathematically modeled as a closed network of two queues in series. The model was designed to better understand the technological constraints on availability of current underground mining systems, and to develop guidelines for estimating the availability of advanced mining systems and their associated needs for spares as well as production and maintenance personnel. It was found that: mine performance is theoretically limited by the maintainability ratio, significant gains in availability appear possible by means of small improvements in the time between failures the number of crews and sections should be properly balanced for any given maintainability ratio, and main haulage systems closest to the mine mouth require the most attention to reliability.

  7. Distribution of Cu, Co, As, and Fe in mine waste, sediment, soil, and water in and around mineral deposits and mines of the Idaho Cobalt Belt, USA

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Gray, John E.; Eppinger, Robert G.

    2012-01-01

    The distribution of Cu, Co, As and Fe was studied downstream from mines and deposits in the Idaho Cobalt Belt (ICB), the largest Co resource in the USA. To evaluate potential contamination in ecosystems in the ICB, mine waste, stream sediment, soil, and water were collected and analyzed for Cu, Co, As and Fe in this area. Concentrations of Cu in mine waste and stream sediment collected proximal to mines in the ICB ranged from 390 to 19,000 μg/g, exceeding the USEPA target clean-up level and the probable effect concentration (PEC) for Cu of 149 μg/g in sediment; PEC is the concentration above which harmful effects are likely in sediment dwelling organisms. In addition concentrations of Cu in mine runoff and stream water collected proximal to mines were highly elevated in the ICB and exceeded the USEPA chronic criterion for aquatic organisms of 6.3 μg/L (at a water hardness of 50 mg/L) and an LC50 concentration for rainbow trout of 14 μg/L for Cu in water. Concentrations of Co in mine waste and stream sediment collected proximal to mines varied from 14 to 7400 μg/g and were highly elevated above regional background concentrations, and generally exceeded the USEPA target clean-up level of 80 μg/g for Co in sediment. Concentrations of Co in water were as high as in 75,000 μg/L in the ICB, exceeding an LC50 of 346 μg/L for rainbow trout for Co in water by as much as two orders of magnitude, likely indicating an adverse effect on trout. Mine waste and stream sediment collected in the ICB also contained highly elevated As concentrations that varied from 26 to 17,000 μg/g, most of which exceeded the PEC of 33 μg/g and the USEPA target clean-up level of 35 μg/g for As in sediment. Conversely, most water samples had As concentrations that were below the 150 μg/L chronic criterion for protection of aquatic organisms and the USEPA target clean-up level of 14 μg/L. There is abundant Fe oxide in streams in the ICB and several samples of mine runoff and stream water

  8. 30 CFR 49.3 - Alternative mine rescue capability for small and remote mines.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-07-01

    ... 30 Mineral Resources 1 2013-07-01 2013-07-01 false Alternative mine rescue capability for small and remote mines. 49.3 Section 49.3 Mineral Resources MINE SAFETY AND HEALTH ADMINISTRATION, DEPARTMENT OF LABOR EDUCATION AND TRAINING MINE RESCUE TEAMS Mine Rescue Teams for Underground Metal...

  9. 30 CFR 49.3 - Alternative mine rescue capability for small and remote mines.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-07-01

    ... 30 Mineral Resources 1 2014-07-01 2014-07-01 false Alternative mine rescue capability for small and remote mines. 49.3 Section 49.3 Mineral Resources MINE SAFETY AND HEALTH ADMINISTRATION, DEPARTMENT OF LABOR EDUCATION AND TRAINING MINE RESCUE TEAMS Mine Rescue Teams for Underground Metal...

  10. 30 CFR 49.3 - Alternative mine rescue capability for small and remote mines.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-07-01

    ... 30 Mineral Resources 1 2012-07-01 2012-07-01 false Alternative mine rescue capability for small and remote mines. 49.3 Section 49.3 Mineral Resources MINE SAFETY AND HEALTH ADMINISTRATION, DEPARTMENT OF LABOR EDUCATION AND TRAINING MINE RESCUE TEAMS Mine Rescue Teams for Underground Metal...

  11. 30 CFR 49.13 - Alternative mine rescue capability for small and remote mines.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-07-01

    ... 30 Mineral Resources 1 2014-07-01 2014-07-01 false Alternative mine rescue capability for small and remote mines. 49.13 Section 49.13 Mineral Resources MINE SAFETY AND HEALTH ADMINISTRATION, DEPARTMENT OF LABOR EDUCATION AND TRAINING MINE RESCUE TEAMS Mine Rescue Teams for Underground Coal...

  12. 30 CFR 49.13 - Alternative mine rescue capability for small and remote mines.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-07-01

    ... 30 Mineral Resources 1 2013-07-01 2013-07-01 false Alternative mine rescue capability for small and remote mines. 49.13 Section 49.13 Mineral Resources MINE SAFETY AND HEALTH ADMINISTRATION, DEPARTMENT OF LABOR EDUCATION AND TRAINING MINE RESCUE TEAMS Mine Rescue Teams for Underground Coal...

  13. 30 CFR 49.13 - Alternative mine rescue capability for small and remote mines.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-07-01

    ... 30 Mineral Resources 1 2012-07-01 2012-07-01 false Alternative mine rescue capability for small and remote mines. 49.13 Section 49.13 Mineral Resources MINE SAFETY AND HEALTH ADMINISTRATION, DEPARTMENT OF LABOR EDUCATION AND TRAINING MINE RESCUE TEAMS Mine Rescue Teams for Underground Coal...

  14. Minerals yearbook, 1993. Volume 1. Metals and minerals. Annual report

    SciTech Connect

    1993-12-31

    This edition of the Minerals Yearbook discusses the performance of the worldwide minerals and materials industry during 1993 and provides background information to assist in interpreting that performance. It contains chapters on virtually all metallic and industrial mineral commodities important to the U.S. economy. A chapter on survey methods with a statistical summary of nonfuel minerals, and a chapter on trends in mining and quarrying in the metals and industrial mineral industries are also included.

  15. Minerals yearbook, 1994. Volume 1. Metals and minerals. Annual report

    SciTech Connect

    1994-12-31

    The edition of the Minerals Yearbook discusses the performance of the worldwide minerals and materials industry during 1994 and provides background information to assist in interpreting that performance. The volume I, Metals and Minerals, contains chapters on virtually all metallic and industrial mineral commodities important to the U.S. economy. The volume also contains chapters on Survey Methods, a Statistical Summary of Nonfuel Minerals, and Trends in Mining and Quarrying.

  16. Miners' Misconceptions of Flow Distribution Within Circuits as a Factor Influencing Underground Mining Accidents.

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Passaro, Perry David

    Misconceptions can be thought of as naive approaches to problem solving that are perceptually appealing but incorrect and inconsistent with scientific evidence (Piaget, 1929). One type of misconception involves flow distributions within circuits. This concept is important because miners' conceptual errors about flow distribution changes within complex circuits may be in part responsible for fatal mine disasters. Based on the theory that misconceptions of flow distribution changes within circuits were responsible for underground mine disasters involving mine ventilation circuits, a series of studies was undertaken with mining engineering students, professional mining engineers, as well as mine foremen, mine supervisors, mine rescue members, mine maintenance personnel, mining researchers and working miners to identify these conceptual errors and errors in mine ventilation procedures. Results indicate that misconceptions of flow distribution changes within circuits exist in over 70 percent of the subjects sampled. It is assumed that these misconceptions of flow distribution changes within circuits result in errors of judgment when miners are faced with inferring and changing ventilation arrangements when two or more mine sections are connected. Furthermore, it is assumed that these misconceptions are pervasive in the mining industry and may be responsible for at least two mine ventilation disasters. The findings of this study are consistent with Piaget's (1929) model of figurative and operative knowledge. This model states that misconceptions are in part due to a lack of knowledge of dynamic transformations and how to apply content information. Recommendations for future research include the development of an interactive expert system for training miners with ventilation arrangements. Such a system would meet the educational recommendations made by Piaget (1973b) by involving a hands-on approach that allows discovery, interaction, the opportunity to make mistakes and

  17. Industrial Minerals.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Brady, Lawrence L.

    1983-01-01

    Discusses trends in and factors related to the production of industrial minerals during 1982, indicating that, as 1981 marked a downturn in production of industrial minerals, 1982 continued the trend with temporary and permanent cutbacks in mine and plant production. Includes highlights of several conferences/conference papers in this field.…

  18. Hydrogeochemical processes governing the origin, transport and fate of major and trace elements from mine wastes and mineralized rock to surface waters

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Nordstrom, D. Kirk

    2011-01-01

    Mobility of potential or actual contaminants from mining and mineral processing activities depends on (1) occurrence: is the mineral source of the contaminant actually present? (2) abundance: is the mineral present in sufficient quantity to make a difference? (3) reactivity: what are the energetics, rates, and mechanisms of sorption and mineral dissolution and precipitation relative to the flow rate of the water? and (4) hydrology: what are the main flow paths for contaminated water? Estimates of relative proportions of minerals dissolved and precipitated can be made with mass-balance calculations if minerals and water compositions along a flow path are known. Combined with discharge, these mass-balance estimates quantify the actual weathering rate of pyrite mineralization in the environment and compare reasonably well with laboratory rates of pyrite oxidation except when large quantities of soluble salts and evaporated mine waters have accumulated underground. Quantitative mineralogy with trace-element compositions can substantially improve the identification of source minerals for specific trace elements through mass balances. Post-dissolution sorption and precipitation (attenuation) reactions depend on the chemical behavior of each element, solution composition and pH, aqueous speciation, temperature, and contact-time with mineral surfaces. For example, little metal attenuation occurs in waters of low pH (2, and redox-sensitive oxyanions (As, Sb, Se, Mo, Cr, V). Once dissolved, metal and metalloid concentrations are strongly affected by redox conditions and pH. Iron is the most reactive because it is rapidly oxidized by bacteria and archaea and Fe(III) hydrolyzes and precipitates at low pH (1–3) which is related directly to its first hydrolysis constant, pK1 = 2.2. Several insoluble sulfate minerals precipitate at low pH including anglesite, barite, jarosite, alunite and basaluminite. Aluminum hydrolyzes near pH 5 (pK1 = 5.0) and provides buffering and removal

  19. The mineral base and productive capacities of metals and non-metals of Kosovo

    SciTech Connect

    Rizaj, M.; Beqiri, E.; McBow, I.; O'Brien, E.Z.; Kongoli, F.

    2008-08-15

    All historical periods of Kosovo - Ilirik, Roman, Medieval, Turkish, and former Yugoslavian - are linked with the intensive development of mining and metallurgy. This activity influenced and still is influencing the overall position of Kosovo as a country. For example, according to a 2006 World Bank report as well as other studies, Kosovo has potential lignite resources (geological reserves) of about 1.5 billion tonnes, which are ranked fifth in the world in importance. Other significant Kosovan mineral resources include lead, zinc, gold, silver, bauxite, and uranium, and rare metals accompanying those minerals, including indium, cadmium, thallium, gallium, and bismuth. These rare metals are of particular importance in developing advanced industrial technologies. Kosovo also has reserves of high-quality non-metals, including magnesite, quartz grit, bentonite, argil, talc, and asbestos. No database exists for these non-metal reserves, and further research and studies are needed.

  20. Controls on bacterial and archaeal community structure and greenhouse gas production in natural, mined, and restored Canadian peatlands

    PubMed Central

    Basiliko, Nathan; Henry, Kevin; Gupta, Varun; Moore, Tim R.; Driscoll, Brian T.; Dunfield, Peter F.

    2013-01-01

    Northern peatlands are important global C reservoirs, largely because of their slow rates of microbial C mineralization. Particularly in sites that are heavily influenced by anthropogenic disturbances, there is scant information about microbial ecology and whether or not microbial community structure influences greenhouse gas production. This work characterized communities of bacteria and archaea using terminal restriction fragment length polymorphism (T-RFLP) and sequence analysis of 16S rRNA and functional genes across eight natural, mined, or restored peatlands in two locations in eastern Canada. Correlations were explored among chemical properties of peat, bacterial and archaeal community structure, and carbon dioxide (CO2) and methane (CH4) production rates under oxic and anoxic conditions. Bacteria and archaea similar to those found in other peat soil environments were detected. In contrast to other reports, methanogen diversity was low in our study, with only 2 groups of known or suspected methanogens. Although mining and restoration affected substrate availability and microbial activity, these land-uses did not consistently affect bacterial or archaeal community composition. In fact, larger differences were observed between the two locations and between oxic and anoxic peat samples than between natural, mined, and restored sites, with anoxic samples characterized by less detectable bacterial diversity and stronger dominance by members of the phylum Acidobacteria. There were also no apparent strong linkages between prokaryote community structure and CH4 or CO2 production, suggesting that different organisms exhibit functional redundancy and/or that the same taxa function at very different rates when exposed to different peat substrates. In contrast to other earlier work focusing on fungal communities across similar mined and restored peatlands, bacterial and archaeal communities appeared to be more resistant or resilient to peat substrate changes brought

  1. Determination of mineral oil and white petrolatum ratios in ointment products by capillary gas chromatography

    SciTech Connect

    Gavlick, W.K.; Ohlemeier, L.A.

    1994-12-31

    The determination of mineral oil and white petrolatum ratios in ointment products is important due to regulatory and formulation concerns. A capillary gas chromatographic method utilizing on-column temperature programmed injection and flame ionization detection has been developed to characterize mineral oil and white petrolatum raw materials. Once the raw materials have been characterized, the method can then be used to estimate the ratios of mineral oil and white petrolatum in the ointment product. Chromatographic method development work along with the final chromatographic conditions will be presented. Chromatograms of raw material and final formulation sample analyses demonstrate the utility of the method.

  2. Bioavailability and Chronic Toxicity of Metal Sulfide Minerals to Benthic Marine Invertebrates: Implications for Deep Sea Exploration, Mining and Tailings Disposal.

    PubMed

    Simpson, Stuart L; Spadaro, David A

    2016-04-01

    The exploration and proposed mining of sulfide massive deposits in deep-sea environments and increased use deep-sea tailings placement (DSTP) in coastal zones has highlighted the need to better understand the fate and effects of mine-derived materials in marine environments. Metal sulfide ores contain high concentrations of metal(loid)s, of which a large portion exist in highly mineralized or sulfidised forms and are predicted to exhibit low bioavailability. In this study, sediments were spiked with a range of natural sulfide minerals (including chalcopyrite, chalcocite, galena, sphalerite) to assess the bioavailability and toxicity to benthic invertebrates (bivalve survival and amphipod survival and reproduction). The metal sulfide phases were considerably less bioavailable than metal contaminants introduced to sediment in dissolved forms, or in urban estuarine sediments contaminated with mixtures of metal(loid)s. Compared to total concentrations, the dilute-acid extractable metal(loid) (AEM) concentrations, which are intended to represent the more oxidized and labile forms, were more effective for predicting the toxicity of the sulfide mineral contaminated sediments. The study indicates that sediment quality guidelines based on AEM concentrations provide a useful tool for assessing and monitoring the risk posed by sediments impacted by mine-derived materials in marine environments.

  3. Bioavailability and Chronic Toxicity of Metal Sulfide Minerals to Benthic Marine Invertebrates: Implications for Deep Sea Exploration, Mining and Tailings Disposal.

    PubMed

    Simpson, Stuart L; Spadaro, David A

    2016-04-01

    The exploration and proposed mining of sulfide massive deposits in deep-sea environments and increased use deep-sea tailings placement (DSTP) in coastal zones has highlighted the need to better understand the fate and effects of mine-derived materials in marine environments. Metal sulfide ores contain high concentrations of metal(loid)s, of which a large portion exist in highly mineralized or sulfidised forms and are predicted to exhibit low bioavailability. In this study, sediments were spiked with a range of natural sulfide minerals (including chalcopyrite, chalcocite, galena, sphalerite) to assess the bioavailability and toxicity to benthic invertebrates (bivalve survival and amphipod survival and reproduction). The metal sulfide phases were considerably less bioavailable than metal contaminants introduced to sediment in dissolved forms, or in urban estuarine sediments contaminated with mixtures of metal(loid)s. Compared to total concentrations, the dilute-acid extractable metal(loid) (AEM) concentrations, which are intended to represent the more oxidized and labile forms, were more effective for predicting the toxicity of the sulfide mineral contaminated sediments. The study indicates that sediment quality guidelines based on AEM concentrations provide a useful tool for assessing and monitoring the risk posed by sediments impacted by mine-derived materials in marine environments. PMID:26937684

  4. Alchemy and mining: metallogenesis and prospecting in early mining books.

    PubMed

    Dym, Warren Alexander

    2008-11-01

    Historians have assumed that alchemy had a close association with mining, but exactly how and why miners were interested in alchemy remains unclear. This paper argues that alchemical theory began to be synthesised with classical and Christian theories of the earth in mining books after 1500, and served an important practical function. The theory of metals that mining officials addressed spoke of mineral vapours (Witterungen) that left visible markings on the earth's surface. The prospector searched for mineral ore in part by studying these indications. Mineral vapours also explained the functioning of the dowsing rod, which prospectors applied to the discovery of ore. Historians of early chemistry and mining have claimed that mining had a modernising influence by stripping alchemy of its theoretical component, but this paper shows something quite to the contrary: mining officials may have been sceptical of the possibility of artificial transmutation, but they were interested in a theory of the earth that could translate into prospecting knowledge. PMID:19244711

  5. Alchemy and mining: metallogenesis and prospecting in early mining books.

    PubMed

    Dym, Warren Alexander

    2008-11-01

    Historians have assumed that alchemy had a close association with mining, but exactly how and why miners were interested in alchemy remains unclear. This paper argues that alchemical theory began to be synthesised with classical and Christian theories of the earth in mining books after 1500, and served an important practical function. The theory of metals that mining officials addressed spoke of mineral vapours (Witterungen) that left visible markings on the earth's surface. The prospector searched for mineral ore in part by studying these indications. Mineral vapours also explained the functioning of the dowsing rod, which prospectors applied to the discovery of ore. Historians of early chemistry and mining have claimed that mining had a modernising influence by stripping alchemy of its theoretical component, but this paper shows something quite to the contrary: mining officials may have been sceptical of the possibility of artificial transmutation, but they were interested in a theory of the earth that could translate into prospecting knowledge.

  6. UNDERGROUNG PLACEMENT OF COAL PROCESSING WASTE AND COAL COMBUSTION BY-PRODUCTS BASED PASTE BACKFILL FOR ENHANCED MINING ECONOMICS

    SciTech Connect

    Y.P. Chugh; D. Biswas; D. Deb

    2002-06-01

    This project has successfully demonstrated that the extraction ratio in a room-and-pillar panel at an Illinois mine can be increased from the current value of approximately 56% to about 64%, with backfilling done from the surface upon completion of all mining activities. This was achieved without significant ground control problems due to the increased extraction ratio. The mined-out areas were backfilled from the surface with gob, coal combustion by-products (CCBs), and fine coal processing waste (FCPW)-based paste backfill containing 65%-70% solids to minimize short-term and long-term surface deformations risk. This concept has the potential to increase mine productivity, reduce mining costs, manage large volumes of CCBs beneficially, and improve the miner's health, safety, and environment. Two injection holes were drilled over the demonstration panel to inject the paste backfill. Backfilling was started on August 11, 1999 through the first borehole. About 9,293 tons of paste backfill were injected through this borehole with a maximum flow distance of 300-ft underground. On September 27, 2000, backfilling operation was resumed through the second borehole with a mixture of F ash and FBC ash. A high-speed auger mixer (new technology) was used to mix solids with water. About 6,000 tons of paste backfill were injected underground through this hole. Underground backfilling using the ''Groutnet'' flow model was simulated. Studies indicate that grout flow over 300-foot distance is possible. Approximately 13,000 tons of grout may be pumped through a single hole. The effect of backfilling on the stability of the mine workings was analyzed using SIUPANEL.3D computer program and further verified using finite element analysis techniques. Stiffness of the backfill mix is most critical for enhancing the stability of mine workings. Mine openings do not have to be completely backfilled to enhance their stability. Backfill height of about 50% of the seam height is adequate to

  7. Increased Lung Cancer Mortality in Taconite Mining: The Potential for Disease from Elongate Mineral Particle Exposure.

    PubMed

    Mandel, Jeffrey H; Ramachandran, Gurumurthy; Alexander, Bruce H

    2016-02-15

    Taconite mining involves potential exposure to non-asbestiform amphibole mineral fiber. More recent studies have demonstrated increased mortality from respiratory cancers and heart disease among workers in the taconite industry. This finding is not consistent with recent exposure assessment findings, nor is the toxicology of this mineral suggestive of neoplastic disease. The understanding of respiratory disease in taconite mining is hampered by the lack of exposure data to asbestiform mineral fibers that occurred in the 1950s and 1960s. Other industries with similar mineral exposure have not demonstrated definitive associations with respiratory cancer, although non-malignant respiratory disease is a consistent finding in epidemiological studies.

  8. Petrology and textural evolution of granites associated with tin and rare-metals mineralization at the Pitinga mine, Amazonas, Brazil

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Lenharo, Sara Lais Rahal; Pollard, Peter J.; Born, Helmut

    2003-01-01

    The Água Boa and Madeira igneous complexes at the Pitinga mine were emplaced into acid volcanic rocks of the Paleoproterozoic Iricoumé Group, and host major tin, rare-metal (Zr, Nb, Ta, Y, REE) and cryolite mineralization. The igneous complexes are elongate NE-SW and each is composed of three major facies that, in order of emplacement, include porphyritic and equigranular rapakivi granite and biotite granite in both igneous complexes, followed by topaz granite in the Água Boa igneous complex (ABIC) and albite granite in the Madeira igneous complex (MIC). Rapakivi, porphyritic and granophyric textures observed in the granites are interpreted to reflect multiple stages of crystallization at different pressures (depths). Decompression during ascent shifted the magmas into the plagioclase stability field, causing partial resorption of quartz, with subsequent growth at lower pressure. Fluid saturation and separation probably occurred after final emplacement at shallow levels. Temperature and pressure estimates based on phase relations and zircon concentrations range from a maximum of 930 °C and 5 kbar for the rapakivi granites to below 650 °C and 1 kbar for the peralkaline albite granite. This suggests initial crystallization of early intrusive phases at around 15 km depth, with final emplacement of more volatile-rich crystal-mush at a depth of 0.5-1 km. Accessory minerals, including zircon, thorite, monazite, columbite-tantalite, cassiterite, bastnaesite and xenotime are present in almost all facies of the Água Boa and Madeira igneous complexes, attesting to the highly evolved character of the magmas. The presence of magnetite and/or primary cassiterite indicate crystallization under oxidizing conditions above the NNO buffer. The evolutionary sequence and Nd isotope characteristics ( TDM=2.2-2.4 Ga) of the Pitinga granites are similar to those of other Proterozoic rapakivi granites. However, petrographic, geochemical and Nd isotopic data ( ɛNd initial=-2.1 to +0

  9. 30 CFR 1210.201 - How do I submit Form MMS-4430, Solid Minerals Production and Royalty Report?

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-07-01

    ... defined by the U.S. Small Business Administration (13 CFR 121.201) and you have no computer, no plans to... 30 Mineral Resources 3 2012-07-01 2012-07-01 false How do I submit Form MMS-4430, Solid Minerals... Reports-Solid Minerals § 1210.201 How do I submit Form MMS-4430, Solid Minerals Production and...

  10. 30 CFR 1210.201 - How do I submit Form ONRR-4430, Solid Minerals Production and Royalty Report?

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-07-01

    ... defined by the U.S. Small Business Administration (13 CFR 121.201) and you have no computer, no plans to... 30 Mineral Resources 3 2014-07-01 2014-07-01 false How do I submit Form ONRR-4430, Solid Minerals... Reports-Solid Minerals § 1210.201 How do I submit Form ONRR-4430, Solid Minerals Production and...

  11. 30 CFR 1210.201 - How do I submit Form ONRR-4430, Solid Minerals Production and Royalty Report?

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-07-01

    ... defined by the U.S. Small Business Administration (13 CFR 121.201) and you have no computer, no plans to... 30 Mineral Resources 3 2013-07-01 2013-07-01 false How do I submit Form ONRR-4430, Solid Minerals... Reports-Solid Minerals § 1210.201 How do I submit Form ONRR-4430, Solid Minerals Production and...

  12. Economical Recovery of By-products in the Mining Industry

    SciTech Connect

    Berry, J.B.

    2001-12-05

    The U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Office of Industrial Technologies, Mining Industry of the Future Program, works with the mining industry to further the industry's advances toward environmental and economic goals. Two of these goals are (1) responsible emission and by-product management and (2) low-cost and efficient production (DOE 1998). DOE formed an alliance with the National Mining Association (NMA) to strengthen the basis for research projects conducted to benefit the mining industry. NMA and industry representatives actively participate in this alliance by evaluating project proposals and by recommending research project selection to DOE. Similarly, the National Research Council (NRC) has recently and independently recommended research and technology development opportunities in the mining industry (NRC 2001). The Oak Ridge National Laboratory (ORNL) and Colorado School of Mines engineers conducted one such project for DOE regarding by -product recovery from mining process residue. The results of this project include this report on mining industry process residue and waste with opportunity for by-product recovery. The U.S. mineral processing industry produces over 30,000,000 metric tons per year of process residue and waste that may contain hazardous species as well as valuable by-products. This study evaluates the copper, lead, and zinc commodity sectors which generate between 23,300,000 and 24,000,000 metric tons per year. The distribution of residual elements in process residues and wastes varies over wide ranges* because of variations in the original ore content as it is extracted from the earth's crust. In the earth's crust, the elements of interest to mining fall into two general geochemical classifications, lithophiles and chalcophiles** (Cox 1997). Groups of elements are almost always present together in a given geochemical classification, but the relative amounts of each element are unique to a particular ore body. This paper generally describes

  13. 30 CFR 72.620 - Drill dust control at surface mines and surface areas of underground mines.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-07-01

    ... 30 Mineral Resources 1 2012-07-01 2012-07-01 false Drill dust control at surface mines and surface areas of underground mines. 72.620 Section 72.620 Mineral Resources MINE SAFETY AND HEALTH ADMINISTRATION, DEPARTMENT OF LABOR COAL MINE SAFETY AND HEALTH HEALTH STANDARDS FOR COAL MINES Miscellaneous § 72.620 Drill dust control at surface mines...

  14. Minerals Yearbook, 1989. Volume i. Metals and Minerals

    SciTech Connect

    Not Available

    1989-01-01

    The edition of the Minerals Yearbook discusses the performance of the worldwide mineral industry during 1989 and provides background information to assist in interpreting that performance. Volume I, Metals and Minerals, contains chapters on virtually all metallic and industrial mineral commodities important to the U.S. economy. A chapter on advanced materials also has been added to the Minerals Yearbook series beginning with the 1989 volume. In addition, a chapter on survey methods used in data collection with a statistical summary of nonfuel minerals and a chapter on trends in mining and quarrying in the metals and industrial mineral industries are included.

  15. Geochemistry, mineralization, structure, and permeability of a normal-fault zone, Casino mine, Alligator Ridge district, north central Nevada

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Hammond, K. Jill; Evans, James P.

    2003-05-01

    We examine the geochemical signature and structure of the Keno fault zone to test its impact on the flow of ore-mineralizing fluids, and use the mined exposures to evaluate structures and processes associated with normal fault development. The fault is a moderately dipping normal-fault zone in siltstone and silty limestone with 55-100 m of dip-slip displacement in north-central Nevada. Across-strike exposures up to 180 m long, 65 m of down-dip exposure and 350 m of along-strike exposure allow us to determine how faults, fractures, and fluids interact within mixed-lithology carbonate-dominated sedimentary rocks. The fault changes character along strike from a single clay-rich slip plane 10-20 mm thick at the northern exposure to numerous hydrocarbon-bearing, calcite-filled, nearly vertical slip planes in a zone 15 m wide at the southern exposure. The hanging wall and footwall are intensely fractured but fracture densities do not vary markedly with distance from the fault. Fault slip varies from pure dip-slip to nearly pure strike-slip, which suggests that either slip orientations may vary on faults in single slip events, or stress variations over the history of the fault caused slip vector variations. Whole-rock major, minor, and trace element analyses indicate that Au, Sb, and As are in general associated with the fault zone, suggesting that Au- and silica-bearing fluids migrated along the fault to replace carbonate in the footwall and adjacent hanging wall rocks. Subsequent fault slip was associated with barite and calcite and hydrocarbon-bearing fluids deposited at the southern end of the fault. No correlation exists at the meter or tens of meter scale between mineralization patterns and fracture density. We suggest that the fault was a combined conduit-barrier system in which the fault provides a critical connection between the fluid sources and fractures that formed before and during faulting. During the waning stages of deposit formation, the fault behaved as

  16. Biotesting as a Method of Evaluating Waste Hazard in Metallic Mineral Mining

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Lugovaya, Y. R.; Orlova, K. N.; Litovkin, S. V.; Malchik, A. G.; Gaydamak, M. A.

    2016-04-01

    As the result of identifying content of each chemical element it has been revealed that metallic mineral wastes have a considerable amount of valuable useful metals. Thus, large-tonnage inorganic wastes are considered to be an additional raw source of metal production. This paper highlights the necessity of supplementary biotesting metallic mineral wastes in order to bring into correlation with corresponding hazard classes and facilitate efficient recycling of these wastes in future. It has been found out that determined in this way waste class can be dumped or used after recycling. It has been also indicated that mill tailings are to be stored according to contained metals without messing up dissimilar metal-containing wastes. After winning metals these wastes are similar to the group of inorganic non-metallic wastes and can be used in building material production, for filling mined-out spaces, in road construction etc.

  17. SEASAT economic assessment. Volume 4: Ocean mining case study and generalization. [economic benefits of SEASAT satellites for mineral exploration

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    1975-01-01

    The results of a study of the weather sensitive features of near shore and deep water ocean mining industries are described. Problems with the evaluation of economic benefits for the deep water ocean mining industry are attributed to the relative immaturity and highly proprietary nature of the industry. Case studies on the gold industry, diamond industry, tin industry and sand and gravel industry are cited.

  18. Use of animal waste and flue gas desulfurized gypsum to improve forage production on reclaimed mine soil in Mississippi

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Reclaimed mine soils amended with flue gas desulfurized (FGD) gypsum may tolerate higher levels of animal manure, and would therefore be more productive in the long-term. Studies were conducted in respread soil during the first year of land reclamation at Red Hills Mine, a surface lignite mine in no...

  19. 77 FR 3223 - National Emissions Standards for Hazardous Air Pollutants: Mineral Wool Production and Wool...

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2012-01-23

    ...-3224] [FR Doc No: 2012-1222] ENVIRONMENTAL PROTECTION AGENCY 40 CFR Part 63 [EPA-HQ-OAR-2010-1042; FRL... Production and Wool Fiberglass Manufacturing AGENCY: Environmental Protection Agency (EPA). ACTION: Proposed...: Mineral Wool Production and Wool Fiberglass Manufacturing.'' The EPA was asked to hold a public...

  20. Mineral resources accounting: A technique formonitoring the Philippine mining industry for sustainable development

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Santos, Teodoro M.; Zaratan, May L.

    Mining which extracts exhaustible mineral resources has been condemned by certain sectors as promoting social inequity and underdevelopment. This is so because once a tonne of copper, say, is mined it is forever lost to the future generation. Such perception translates into policies that are usually disadvantageous or even hostile to the industry. Despite this adverse criticism, recent developments in natural resources accounting indicate that mining can truly contribute to the sustainable economic development of a society. True worth of mining in economic development can be assessed and monitored on a continuing basis through an appropriate system of natural accounts (SNA). If the industry is found deficient, such SNA can also point out how the industry can be made to constribute to sustainable growth. The prevailing SNA is criticized as having failed to capture the adverse effects on the welfare of society of producing a nonrenewable resource such as minerals. For instance, the production of copper for a particular year registers an increase in gross national product equivalent to its monetary value. However, the concomitant depletion of the country's natural wealth due to such production is nowhere recorded in the SNA. This faulty accounting gives rise to policies that result in nonsustainable economic growth. In order to address the preceding problem, this paper presents an accounting formula applicable to any nonrenewable resource whereby revenue is decomposed into income and capital components. To achieve sustainable economic growth, it states that the capital component must be invested to generate future incomes. However, investments need not be confined to the same sector. Application of the accounting scheme to the Philippine copper and gold sectors during the 1980-1990 period leads to the following conclusions: (a) by and large, gold and copper mining operations have indeed contributed positively to national income, contrary to allegations of certain

  1. Current practices and issues for placement of coal combustion by-products in mine settings

    SciTech Connect

    Hassett, D.J.; Daly, D.J.; Pflughoeft-Hassett, D.F.

    1999-07-01

    The placement of coal combustion by-products (CCBs) in mine settings is viewed quite differently by various stakeholders. A summary of key research on placement of CCBs in mine settings is presented. A limited survey of current practices for placement of CCBs in surface mine settings was performed by the Energy and Environmental Research Center (EERC), and the results are summarized. The survey provides a brief comparison of eastern and western practices as reported by appropriate state agencies. This document also discussed the importance and impact of valid scientific information and citizen groups on the perception of regulating entities that have responsibility for approving practices related to placement of CCBs in mine settings.

  2. 30 CFR 49.3 - Alternative mine rescue capability for small and remote mines.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-07-01

    ..., DEPARTMENT OF LABOR EDUCATION AND TRAINING MINE RESCUE TEAMS § 49.3 Alternative mine rescue capability for... statement by the operator as to the number of miners willing to serve on a mine rescue team; (8)...

  3. Chemical composition and minerals in pyrite ash of an abandoned sulphuric acid production plant.

    PubMed

    Oliveira, Marcos L S; Ward, Colin R; Izquierdo, Maria; Sampaio, Carlos H; de Brum, Irineu A S; Kautzmann, Rubens M; Sabedot, Sydney; Querol, Xavier; Silva, Luis F O

    2012-07-15

    The extraction of sulphur produces a hematite-rich waste, known as roasted pyrite ash, which contains significant amounts of environmentally sensitive elements in variable concentrations and modes of occurrence. Whilst the mineralogy of roasted pyrite ash associated with iron or copper mining has been studied, as this is the main source of sulphur worldwide, the mineralogy, and more importantly, the characterization of submicron, ultrafine and nanoparticles, in coal-derived roasted pyrite ash remain to be resolved. In this work we provide essential data on the chemical composition and nanomineralogical assemblage of roasted pyrite ash. XRD, HR-TEM and FE-SEM were used to identify a large variety of minerals of anthropogenic origin. These phases result from highly complex chemical reactions occurring during the processing of coal pyrite of southern Brazil for sulphur extraction and further manufacture of sulphuric acid. Iron-rich submicron, ultrafine and nanoparticles within the ash may contain high proportions of toxic elements such as As, Se, U, among others. A number of elements, such as As, Cr, Cu, Co, La, Mn, Ni, Pb, Sb, Se, Sr, Ti, Zn, and Zr, were found to be present in individual nanoparticles and submicron, ultrafine and nanominerals (e.g. oxides, sulphates, clays) in concentrations of up to 5%. The study of nanominerals in roasted pyrite ash from coal rejects is important to develop an understanding on the nature of this by-product, and to assess the interaction between emitted nanominerals, ultra-fine particles, and atmospheric gases, rain or body fluids, and thus to evaluate the environmental and health impacts of pyrite ash materials.

  4. Minor and trace-elements in apiary products from a historical mining district (Les Malines, France).

    PubMed

    Losfeld, Guillaume; Saunier, Jean-Baptiste; Grison, Claude

    2014-03-01

    The trace-elements (TE) contents of honey, royal-jelly and beeswax from a historical Zn-Pb mining district have been investigated to assess potential contamination. In spite of high levels of heavy metal (As, Cd, Tl, Pb) in wastes left after mining stopped, apiary products appear to be relatively free of TE contamination. For honey, the following average levels (±standard error) were observed: Zn 571±440μgkg(-1), Pb 26±20μgkg(-1), Tl 13±10μgkg(-1), Cd 7±6μgkg(-1) and As 3±4μg.kg(-1). These results bring additional data to the potential impact of brownfields left after mining on apiary products. They also bring new data to assess potential risks linked with honey consumption and discuss legal TE contents in honey and other food products from apiaries.

  5. Mortality patterns of rock and slag mineral wool production workers: an epidemiological and environmental study.

    PubMed Central

    Robinson, C F; Dement, J M; Ness, G O; Waxweiler, R J

    1982-01-01

    An epidemiological and environmental study of rock and slag mineral wool production workers was undertaken at a plant that has been in operation since the early 1900s. Size characteristics of fibres produced by each process at the plant and data from industrial hygiene surveys were used to evaluate current and past exposures. These data suggest that the average historical airborne fibre concentration probably did not exceed 2.5 fibres/cc before 1935 and 1.0 fibre/cc after 1935. A retrospective cohort mortality study was designed to assess mortality patterns. Detailed occupational histories were compiled on all plant employees. All jobs in the plant were assigned to one of eight potential exposure categories to assess the extent and severity of mineral wool exposure and the effect of other significant exposures on employee mortality. Findings included an increase in the number of deaths due to cancer of the digestive system and non-malignant respiratory disease among workers who had over 20 years' exposure to mineral wool or who had survived 20 years since their first exposure to mineral wool. These findings are not inconsistent with those of Enterline's (Symposium on Biological Effects of Mineral Fibres, Lyon, France, September 1979) in the Thermal Insulation Manufacturers' Association's mortality study of men employed in four mineral wool plants. PMID:6279138

  6. Rehabilitation of semi-arid coal mine spoil bank soils with mine residues and farm organic by-products

    SciTech Connect

    Salazar, M.; Bosch-Serra, A.; Estudillos, G.; Poch, R.M.

    2009-07-01

    A method of rehabilitating coal mine soils was studied under the conditions of a semi-arid climate, lack of topsoil but availability of farm by-products in NE Spain. The objectives of the research were to assess a new method in order to achieve a suitable substrate for the establishment of native vegetation, to evaluate environmental impacts associated with the reclamation process, and to determine the time necessary to integrate the treated area into the surrounding environment. Eight plots (10 x 35 m{sup 2}) were established in September 1997. Substrate combinations of two types of mine spoil (coal dust and coarse-sized material), two levels of pig slurry (39 and 94 Mg ha{sup -1}dry-wt), and cereal straw (0 and 15 Mg ha{sup -1}) were applied. Monitoring of select physical and chemical soil properties and vegetation characteristics was performed from 1997 until 2005. The bulk density and the saturated hydraulic conductivity measured did not limit plant development and water availability. Initial substrate salinity (1.37 S m{sup -1}) decreased with time and in the long term did not limit plant colonization to salinity-adapted species. Initial nitrate concentration was 298 mg kg{sup -1}, but was reduced significantly to acceptable values in 3 years (55 mg kg{sup -1}) and the measured pH (7.6) was maintained at the level of initial spoil values. Vegetation cover reached up to 90%. In the treated area, spontaneous vegetation cover (15 to 70%) colonized the nonsown areas widely. In the medium term, vegetation cover tended to be higher in plots with a thicker layer of coal dust material and the higher slurry rate. Soil rehabilitation and environmental reintegration, taking into account soil and vegetation indicators, was possible in the studied area with low cost inputs using residual materials from mining activities and animal husbandry by-products.

  7. 30 CFR 819.19 - Auger mining: Backfilling and grading.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-07-01

    ... 30 Mineral Resources 3 2012-07-01 2012-07-01 false Auger mining: Backfilling and grading. 819.19 Section 819.19 Mineral Resources OFFICE OF SURFACE MINING RECLAMATION AND ENFORCEMENT, DEPARTMENT OF THE... MINING § 819.19 Auger mining: Backfilling and grading. (a) General. Auger mining shall be conducted...

  8. 30 CFR 819.19 - Auger mining: Backfilling and grading.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-07-01

    ... 30 Mineral Resources 3 2010-07-01 2010-07-01 false Auger mining: Backfilling and grading. 819.19 Section 819.19 Mineral Resources OFFICE OF SURFACE MINING RECLAMATION AND ENFORCEMENT, DEPARTMENT OF THE... MINING § 819.19 Auger mining: Backfilling and grading. (a) General. Auger mining shall be conducted...

  9. 30 CFR 819.19 - Auger mining: Backfilling and grading.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-07-01

    ... 30 Mineral Resources 3 2011-07-01 2011-07-01 false Auger mining: Backfilling and grading. 819.19 Section 819.19 Mineral Resources OFFICE OF SURFACE MINING RECLAMATION AND ENFORCEMENT, DEPARTMENT OF THE... MINING § 819.19 Auger mining: Backfilling and grading. (a) General. Auger mining shall be conducted...

  10. 30 CFR 819.19 - Auger mining: Backfilling and grading.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-07-01

    ... 30 Mineral Resources 3 2013-07-01 2013-07-01 false Auger mining: Backfilling and grading. 819.19 Section 819.19 Mineral Resources OFFICE OF SURFACE MINING RECLAMATION AND ENFORCEMENT, DEPARTMENT OF THE... MINING § 819.19 Auger mining: Backfilling and grading. (a) General. Auger mining shall be conducted...

  11. 30 CFR 819.19 - Auger mining: Backfilling and grading.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-07-01

    ... 30 Mineral Resources 3 2014-07-01 2014-07-01 false Auger mining: Backfilling and grading. 819.19 Section 819.19 Mineral Resources OFFICE OF SURFACE MINING RECLAMATION AND ENFORCEMENT, DEPARTMENT OF THE... MINING § 819.19 Auger mining: Backfilling and grading. (a) General. Auger mining shall be conducted...

  12. Ecosystem Health in Mineralized Terrane-Data from Podiform Chromite (Chinese Camp Mining District, California), Quartz Alunite (Castle Peak and Masonic Mining Districts, Nevada/California), and Mo/Cu Porphyry (Battle Mountain Mining District, Nevada) Deposits

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Blecker, Steve W.; Stillings, Lisa L.; Amacher, Michael C.; Ippolito, James A.; DeCrappeo, Nicole M.

    2010-01-01

    The myriad definitions of soil/ecosystem quality or health are often driven by ecosystem and management concerns, and they typically focus on the ability of the soil to provide functions relating to biological productivity and/or environmental quality. A variety of attempts have been made to create indices that quantify the complexities of soil quality and provide a means of evaluating the impact of various natural and anthropogenic disturbances. Though not without their limitations, indices can improve our understanding of the controls behind ecosystem processes and allow for the distillation of information to help link scientific and management communities. In terrestrial systems, indices were initially developed and modified for agroecosystems; however, the number of studies implementing such indices in nonagricultural systems is growing. Soil quality indices (SQIs) are typically composed of biological (and sometimes physical and chemical) parameters that attempt to reduce the complexity of a system into a metric of a soil's ability to carry out one or more functions. The indicators utilized in SQIs can be as varied as the studies themselves, reflecting the complexity of the soil and ecosystems in which they function. Regardless, effective soil quality indicators should correlate well with soil or ecosystem processes, integrate those properties and processes, and be relevant to management practices. Commonly applied biological indicators include measures associated with soil microbial activity or function (for example, carbon and nitrogen mineralization, respiration, microbial biomass, enzyme activity. Cost, accessibility, ease of interpretation, and presence of existing data often dictate indicator selection given the number of available measures. We employed a large number of soil biological, chemical, and physical measures, along with measures of vegetation cover, density, and productivity, in order to test the utility and sensitivity of these measures within

  13. Carbon dioxide sequestration by direct mineral carbonation: process mineralogy of feed and products

    SciTech Connect

    O'Connor, William K.; Dahlin, David C.; Rush, G.E.; Dahlin, Cheryl L.; Collins, W. Keith

    2001-01-01

    Direct mineral carbonation has been investigated as a process to convert gaseous CO2 into a geologically stable final form. The process utilizes a slurry of water, with bicarbonate and salt additions, mixed with a mineral reactant, such as olivine (Mg2SiO4) or serpentine [Mg3Si2O5(OH)4]. Carbon dioxide is dissolved into this slurry, resulting in dissolution of the mineral and precipitation of magnesium carbonate (MgCO3). Optimum results have been achieved using heat pretreated serpentine feed material and high partial pressure of CO2 (PCO2). Specific conditions include: 155?C; PCO2=185 atm; 15% solids. Under these conditions, 78% conversion of the silicate to the carbonate was achieved in 30 minutes. Process mineralogy has been utilized to characterize the feed and process products, and interpret the mineral dissolution and carbonate precipitation reaction paths.

  14. Underground mining and deep geologic disposal - Two compatible and complementary activities

    SciTech Connect

    Rempe, N.T.

    1995-12-31

    Active and mature underground mining districts offer conditions favorable to deep geologic disposal because their geology is known in more detail, the feasibility of underground excavations has already been demonstrated, mining leaves distinctive footprints and records that alert subsequent generations to the anthropogenic alterations of the underground environment, and subsequent exploration and production proceeds with great care and accuracy to locate and generally to avoid old mine workings. Compatibility of mining with deep geologic waste disposal has been proven by decades of experience with safe storage and disposal in former mines and in the mined-out areas of still active mining operations. Mineral extraction around an intended repository reduces the incentive for future disturbance. Incidental features of mineral exploration and extraction such as lost circulation zones, allochthonous backfill, and permanent surface markers can deter future intrusion into a repository. Thus exploration and production of mineral resources should be compatible with, and complementary to, deep geologic waste disposal.

  15. Vegetation successfully prevents oxidization of sulfide minerals in mine tailings.

    PubMed

    Li, Yang; Sun, Qingye; Zhan, Jing; Yang, Yang; Wang, Dan

    2016-07-15

    The oxidization of metal sulfide in tailings causes acid mine drainage. However, it remains unclear whether vegetation prevents the oxidization of metal sulfides. The oxidization characteristics and microbial indices of the tailings in the presence of various plant species were investigated to explore the effects of vegetation on the oxidization of sulfide minerals in tailings. The pH, reducing sulfur, free iron oxides (Fed), chemical oxygen consumption (COC) and biological oxygen consumption (BOC) were measured. Key iron- and sulfur-oxidizing bacteria (Acidithiobacillus spp., Leptospirillum spp. and Thiobacillus spp.) were quantified using real-time PCR. The results indicate that vegetation growing on tailings can effectively prevent the oxidization of sulfide minerals in tailings. A higher pH and reducing-sulfur content and lower Fed were observed in the 0-30 cm depth interval in the presence of vegetation compared to bare tailings (BT). The COC gradually decreased with depth in all of the soil profiles; specifically, the COC rapidly decreased in the 10-20 cm interval in the presence of vegetation but gradually decreased in the BT profiles. Imperata cylindrica (IC) and Chrysopogon zizanoides (CZ) profiles contained the highest BOC in the 10-20 cm interval. The abundance of key iron- and sulfur-oxidizing bacteria in the vegetated tailings were significantly lower than in the BT; in particular, IC was associated with the lowest iron- and sulfur-oxidizing bacterial abundance. In conclusion, vegetation successfully prevented the oxidization of sulfide minerals in the tailings, and Imperata cylindrica is the most effective in reducing the number of iron- and sulfur-oxidizing bacteria and helped to prevent the oxidization of sulfide minerals in the long term.

  16. U.S. Geological Survey Minerals Yearbook—Metals and Minerals

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    ,

    2016-01-01

    This edition of the U.S. Geological Survey (USGS) Minerals Yearbook discusses the performance of the worldwide minerals and materials industries during 2012 and provides background information to assist in interpreting that performance. Content of the individual Minerals Yearbook volumes follows:• Volume I, Metals and Minerals, contains chapters about virtually all metallic and industrial mineral commodities important to the U.S. economy. Chapters on survey methods, summary statistics for domestic nonfuel minerals, and trends in mining and quarrying in the metals and industrial mineral industries in the United States are also included.• Volume II, Area Reports: Domestic, contains a chapter on the mineral industry of each of the 50 States and Puerto Rico and the Administered Islands. This volume also has chapters on survey methods and summary statistics of domestic nonfuel minerals.• Volume III, Area Reports: International, is published as four separate reports. These regional reports contain the latest available minerals data on more than 180 foreign countries and discuss the importance of minerals to the economies of these nations and the United States. Each report begins with an overview of the region’s mineral industries during the year. It continues with individual country chapters that examine the mining, refining, processing, and use of minerals in each country of the region and how each country’s mineral industry relates to U.S. industry. Most chapters include production tables and industry structure tables, information about Government policies and programs that affect the country’s mineral industry, and an outlook section.The USGS continually strives to improve the value of its publications to users. Constructive comments and suggestions by readers of the Minerals Yearbook are welcomed.

  17. Characterization of U ore from a roll-front U deposit: Implications of dominant U-Ti mineral for ore genesis and post solution-mining U immobilization

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Brown, S. T.; Basu, A.; Christensen, J. N.; Reimus, P. W.; Heikoop, J. M.; WoldeGabriel, G. W.; Hartmann, M.; DePaolo, D. J.

    2015-12-01

    Reductive immobilization of dissolved U(VI) is an important process that gives rise to roll-front U deposits as well as offers a remediation strategy after in situ recovery (ISR) mining of roll-fronts by oxidative dissolution of the U ore. About 25% of the global and over 90% of all U resources in the United States consist of roll-front deposits. Accordingly, ~50% of global U mining and almost all current U mining in the United States is ISR mining. Therefore, it is important to identify the U immobilization pathways for an improved understanding of the U ore genesis and postmining U(VI) remediation. Here, we characterize (XRD, XRF, SEM/EDS, QEMSCAN) the U ore from a roll-front U deposit and sediments downgradient of the ore from an ISR site at Rosita, TX, USA. The dominant U mineral in Rosita U ore is brannerite (nominally U4+Ti2O6, up to 0.032 wt%), followed by coffinite and U-oxides. The U mineralized sand is composed of quartz (41-53%), calcite (15-30%), plagioclase (11-19%), microcline (2-9%), clinoptilolite (0.5-7%) with minor amounts of pyrite/marcasite (2-7%) and clays/micas (1-4%), and very little organic C (<0.1%). Ore zone samples contain minor amounts (<2%) of hematite, V-oxides/V-Ti-Fe-oxides and sulfidized Fe-Ti oxides with variable Fe, Ti and S ratios locally hosting low levels of U. The dominant sulfide mineral is marcasite. We observe a complex relationship between U-Ti minerals and sulfide/silicate phases where U minerals occur as inclusions, irregularly developed veins or intergrowths. Except for the U concentrations, the downgradient sediments are compositionally similar to the ore and contain abundant smectite/illite (7-45%). The predominance of brannerite implies direct reduction of U(VI) on surfaces of reduced Fe-Ti oxides as a major ore-forming mechanism. Our results reveal an as yet unidentified mechanism of ore genesis that differs from the current model that presupposes the sulfidized Fe-Ti oxides as the main reductant of U

  18. 30 CFR 210.201 - How do I submit Form MMS-4430, Solid Minerals Production and Royalty Report?

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-07-01

    ....S. Small Business Administration (13 CFR 121.201) and you have no computer, no plans to purchase a... 30 Mineral Resources 2 2010-07-01 2010-07-01 false How do I submit Form MMS-4430, Solid Minerals..., DEPARTMENT OF THE INTERIOR MINERALS REVENUE MANAGEMENT FORMS AND REPORTS Production and Royalty...

  19. Mineral composition of pulp and production of the yellow passion fruit with organic and conventional fertilizers.

    PubMed

    Pacheco, Anália Lúcia Vieira; Pagliarini, Mateus Francisco; de Freitas, Gilberto Bernardo; Santos, Ricardo Henrique Silva; Serrão, José Eduardo; Zanuncio, José Cola

    2017-02-15

    The use of organic foods has been increased in the world. Organic fertilizers, like cattle manure, have emerged as an important component of the organic system production. The production, mass, size, and mineral composition of passion fruit pulp were evaluated when treated with a mineral fertilizer (control) (MIN) or cattle manure at a single dose equivalent to potassium fertilizer (ORG) or double dose (2×ORG). The production and the numbers of fruits of plants treated with MIN and 2×ORG was higher than with ORG. The level of nitrogen (N), phosphorus (P), zinc (Zn), iron (Fe), and copper (Cu) in the fruit pulp was similar with all three fertilizers, but the calcium (Ca) and magnesium (Mg) was higher with ORG and 2×ORG. The number and weight of the fruits of passion fruit treated with 2×ORG were similar to those with MIN fertilizer, but they contained more Ca and Mg.

  20. Mineral composition of pulp and production of the yellow passion fruit with organic and conventional fertilizers.

    PubMed

    Pacheco, Anália Lúcia Vieira; Pagliarini, Mateus Francisco; de Freitas, Gilberto Bernardo; Santos, Ricardo Henrique Silva; Serrão, José Eduardo; Zanuncio, José Cola

    2017-02-15

    The use of organic foods has been increased in the world. Organic fertilizers, like cattle manure, have emerged as an important component of the organic system production. The production, mass, size, and mineral composition of passion fruit pulp were evaluated when treated with a mineral fertilizer (control) (MIN) or cattle manure at a single dose equivalent to potassium fertilizer (ORG) or double dose (2×ORG). The production and the numbers of fruits of plants treated with MIN and 2×ORG was higher than with ORG. The level of nitrogen (N), phosphorus (P), zinc (Zn), iron (Fe), and copper (Cu) in the fruit pulp was similar with all three fertilizers, but the calcium (Ca) and magnesium (Mg) was higher with ORG and 2×ORG. The number and weight of the fruits of passion fruit treated with 2×ORG were similar to those with MIN fertilizer, but they contained more Ca and Mg. PMID:27664654

  1. To build a mine: Prospect to product

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Gertsch, Richard E.

    The terrestrial definition of ore is a quantity of earth materials containing a mineral that can be extracted at a profit. While a space-based resource-gathering operation may well be driven by other motives, such an operation should have the most favorable cost-benefit ratio possible. To this end, principles and procedures already tested by the stringent requirements of the profit motive should guide the selection, design, construction, and operation of a space-based mine. Proceeding from project initiation to a fully operational mine requires several interacting and overlapping steps, which are designed to facilitate the decision process and insure economic viability. The steps to achieve a fully operational mine are outlined. Presuming that the approach to developing nonterrestrial resources will parallel that for developing mineral resources on Earth, we can speculate on some of the problems associated with developing lunar and asteroidal resources. The baseline for our study group was a small lunar mine and oxygen extraction facility. The development of this facility is described in accordance with the steps outlined.

  2. To build a mine: Prospect to product

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Gertsch, Richard E.

    1992-01-01

    The terrestrial definition of ore is a quantity of earth materials containing a mineral that can be extracted at a profit. While a space-based resource-gathering operation may well be driven by other motives, such an operation should have the most favorable cost-benefit ratio possible. To this end, principles and procedures already tested by the stringent requirements of the profit motive should guide the selection, design, construction, and operation of a space-based mine. Proceeding from project initiation to a fully operational mine requires several interacting and overlapping steps, which are designed to facilitate the decision process and insure economic viability. The steps to achieve a fully operational mine are outlined. Presuming that the approach to developing nonterrestrial resources will parallel that for developing mineral resources on Earth, we can speculate on some of the problems associated with developing lunar and asteroidal resources. The baseline for our study group was a small lunar mine and oxygen extraction facility. The development of this facility is described in accordance with the steps outlined.

  3. The relationship between various exposure metrics for elongate mineral particles (EMP) in the taconite mining and processing industry.

    PubMed

    Hwang, Jooyeon; Ramachandran, Gurumurthy; Raynor, Peter C; Alexander, Bruce H; Mandel, Jeffrey H

    2014-01-01

    Different dimensions of elongate mineral particles (EMP) have been proposed as being relevant to respiratory health end-points such as mesothelioma and lung cancer. In this article, a methodology for converting personal EMP exposures measured using the National Institute for Occupational Safety and Health (NIOSH) 7400/7402 methods to exposures based on other size-based definitions has been proposed and illustrated. Area monitoring for EMP in the taconite mines in Minnesota's Mesabi Iron Range was conducted using a Micro Orifice Uniform Deposit Impactor (MOUDI) size-fractionating sampler. EMP on stages of the MOUDI were counted and sized according to each EMP definition using an indirect-transfer transmission electron microscopy (ISO Method 13794). EMP were identified using energy-dispersive x-ray and electron diffraction analysis. Conversion factors between the EMP counts based on different definitions were estimated using (1) a linear regression model across all locations and (2) a location-specific ratio of the count based on each EMP definition to the NIOSH 7400/7402 count. The highest fractions of EMP concentrations were found for EMP that were 1-3 μm in length and 0.2-0.5 μm in width. Therefore, the current standard NIOSH Method 7400, which only counts EMP >5 μm in length and ≥ 3 in aspect ratio, may underestimate amphibole EMP exposures. At the same time, there was a high degree of correlation between the exposures estimated according to the different size-based metrics. Therefore, the various dimensional definitions probably do not result in different dose-response relationships in epidemiological analyses. Given the high degree of correlation between the various metrics, a result consistent with prior research, a more reasonable metric might be the measurement of all EMP irrespective of size. [Supplementary materials are available for this article. Go to the publisher's online edition of Journal of Occupational and Environmental Hygiene for the

  4. 75 FR 82074 - Fee Adjustment for Testing, Evaluation, and Approval of Mining Products

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2010-12-29

    ... years. MSHA's existing fee schedule, revised December 24, 2008 (73 FR 79195) became effective January 1... Safety and Health Administration Fee Adjustment for Testing, Evaluation, and Approval of Mining Products...: This notice describes MSHA's revised fee schedule for testing, evaluating, and approving...

  5. Design of a beneficial product for newborn calves by combining Lactobacilli, minerals, and vitamins.

    PubMed

    Maldonado, Natalia Cecilia; Silva de Ruiz, Clara; Nader-Macías, María Elena Fátima

    2016-10-01

    Diarrhea is one of the most frequent diseases affecting newborn calves in intensive systems. Several strategies were proposed to protect and improve health, such as probiotics. This work was directed to design a product containing freeze-dried bacteria, vitamins, and minerals, as well as to optimize conditions with lyoprotectors, combine strains and add vitamins, minerals, and inulin to the product. The lyoprotectors were milk, milk-whey, and actose, and products were stored for 6 months at 4°C. Combined bacteria were freeze-dried in milk and the final products were added with minerals, vitamins, and insulin. The viable cells were determined by the plate count assay and antibiotic profiles to differentiate strains. Lactobacillus johnsonii CRL1693, L. murinus CRL1695, L. mucosae CRL1696, L. salivarius CRL1702, L. amylovorus CRL1697, and Enterococcus faecium CRL1703 were evaluated. The optimal conditions were different for each strain. Milk and milk whey maintained the viability during the process and storage after 6 months for most of the strains, except for L. johnsonii. Lactose did not improve cell's recovery. L. murinus was viable for 6 months in all the conditions, with similar results in enterococci. In strains combined before freeze-dried, the viability decreased deeply, showing that one-step process with bacteria mixtures, vitamins, and minerals were not adequate. Freeze-dried resistance depends on each strain and must be lyophilized individually. PMID:26675304

  6. Design of a beneficial product for newborn calves by combining Lactobacilli, minerals, and vitamins.

    PubMed

    Maldonado, Natalia Cecilia; Silva de Ruiz, Clara; Nader-Macías, María Elena Fátima

    2016-10-01

    Diarrhea is one of the most frequent diseases affecting newborn calves in intensive systems. Several strategies were proposed to protect and improve health, such as probiotics. This work was directed to design a product containing freeze-dried bacteria, vitamins, and minerals, as well as to optimize conditions with lyoprotectors, combine strains and add vitamins, minerals, and inulin to the product. The lyoprotectors were milk, milk-whey, and actose, and products were stored for 6 months at 4°C. Combined bacteria were freeze-dried in milk and the final products were added with minerals, vitamins, and insulin. The viable cells were determined by the plate count assay and antibiotic profiles to differentiate strains. Lactobacillus johnsonii CRL1693, L. murinus CRL1695, L. mucosae CRL1696, L. salivarius CRL1702, L. amylovorus CRL1697, and Enterococcus faecium CRL1703 were evaluated. The optimal conditions were different for each strain. Milk and milk whey maintained the viability during the process and storage after 6 months for most of the strains, except for L. johnsonii. Lactose did not improve cell's recovery. L. murinus was viable for 6 months in all the conditions, with similar results in enterococci. In strains combined before freeze-dried, the viability decreased deeply, showing that one-step process with bacteria mixtures, vitamins, and minerals were not adequate. Freeze-dried resistance depends on each strain and must be lyophilized individually.

  7. Mercury from mineral deposits and potential environmental impact

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Rytuba, J.J.

    2003-01-01

    Mercury deposits are globally distributed in 26 mercury mineral belts. Three types of mercury deposits occur in these belts: silica-carbonate, hot-spring, and Almaden. Mercury is also produced as a by-product from several types of gold-silver and massive sulfide deposits, which account for 5% of the world's production. Other types of mineral deposits can be enriched in mercury and mercury phases present are dependent on deposit type. During processing of mercury ores, secondary mercury phases form and accumulate in mine wastes. These phases are more soluble than cinnabar, the primary ore mineral, and cause mercury deposits to impact the environment more so than other types of ore deposits enriched in mercury. Release and transport of mercury from mine wastes occur primarily as mercury-enriched particles and colloids. Production from mercury deposits has decreased because of environmental concerns, but by-product production from other mercury-enriched mineral deposits remains important.

  8. Lunar resource evaluation and mine site selection

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Bence, A. Edward

    1992-01-01

    Two scenarios in this evaluation of lunar mineral resources and the selection of possible mining and processing sites are considered. The first scenario assumes that no new surface or near-surface data will be available before site selection (presumably one of the Apollo sites). The second scenario assumes that additional surface geology data will have been obtained by a lunar orbiter mission, an unmanned sample return mission (or missions), and followup manned missions. Regardless of the scenario, once a potentially favorable mine site has been identified, a minimum amount of fundamental data is needed to assess the resources at that site and to evaluate its suitability for mining and downstream processing. Since much of the required data depends on the target mineral(s), information on the resource, its beneficiation, and the refining, smelting, and fabricating processes must be factored into the evaluation. The annual capacity and producing lifetime of the mine and its associated processing plant must be estimated before the resource reserves can be assessed. The available market for the product largely determines the capacity and lifetime of the mine. The Apollo 17 site is described as a possible mining site. The use of new sites is briefly addressed.

  9. 30 CFR 72.620 - Drill dust control at surface mines and surface areas of underground mines.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-07-01

    ... § 72.620 Drill dust control at surface mines and surface areas of underground mines. Holes shall be... 30 Mineral Resources 1 2011-07-01 2011-07-01 false Drill dust control at surface mines and surface areas of underground mines. 72.620 Section 72.620 Mineral Resources MINE SAFETY AND...

  10. 30 CFR 72.620 - Drill dust control at surface mines and surface areas of underground mines.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-07-01

    ... § 72.620 Drill dust control at surface mines and surface areas of underground mines. Holes shall be... 30 Mineral Resources 1 2010-07-01 2010-07-01 false Drill dust control at surface mines and surface areas of underground mines. 72.620 Section 72.620 Mineral Resources MINE SAFETY AND...

  11. 30 CFR 72.620 - Drill dust control at surface mines and surface areas of underground mines.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-07-01

    ... 30 Mineral Resources 1 2013-07-01 2013-07-01 false Drill dust control at surface mines and surface areas of underground mines. 72.620 Section 72.620 Mineral Resources MINE SAFETY AND HEALTH... § 72.620 Drill dust control at surface mines and surface areas of underground mines. Holes shall...

  12. 30 CFR 72.620 - Drill dust control at surface mines and surface areas of underground mines.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-07-01

    ... 30 Mineral Resources 1 2014-07-01 2014-07-01 false Drill dust control at surface mines and surface areas of underground mines. 72.620 Section 72.620 Mineral Resources MINE SAFETY AND HEALTH... § 72.620 Drill dust control at surface mines and surface areas of underground mines. Holes shall...

  13. Stand characteristics and productivity potential of Indiana surface mines reclaimed under SMCRA

    SciTech Connect

    Groninger, J.W.; Fillmore, S.D.; Rathfon, R.A.

    2006-06-15

    The Surface Mining Control and Reclamation Act of 1977 (SMCRA) addresses a wide range of environmental concerns. However, its impacts on forest stand development and productive potential have only recently been investigated. We surveyed the vegetation and forest productivity on 22 surface mine sites throughout the coal-bearing region of Indiana that were reclaimed to forest cover under the provisions of SMCRA 7-14 years prior to sampling. Black locust (Robinia pseudoacacia) and green ash (Fraxinus pennsylvanica) were the most widely occurring tree species. Tall fescue and goldenrod were the most widely occurring nonarborescent species. Median site index (base age 50 for black oak) was 30 ft. Although satisfying forest cover stocking requirements for bond release, these reclaimed surface mines almost always displayed a level of productivity far below those of native forests typical of this region. Reclamation techniques differing from those used on these study sites are needed to restore forest productivity to surface-mined lands while still complying with SMCRA.

  14. Petrogenesis and emplacement of the TTG and K-rich granites at the Buzwagi gold mine, northern Tanzania: Implications for the timing of gold mineralization

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Manya, Shukrani

    2016-07-01

    18 Ma, some 40 Ma years after the emplacement of TTG at 2713 ± 8 Ma. The timing of the Buzwagi mine granitic magmatism falls within the peak crustal growth period in the northern part of the Archaean Tanzania Craton. Gold mineralization at the Buzwagi mine is hosted in quartz veins that are within strongly sheared and hydrothermally altered K-granites in which silica and sericite alterations and sulphides (mainly pyrite and chalcopyrite although chalcocite is also present) are important. The Buzwagi gold deposit is thus a typical Archaean orogenic deposit whose mineralization is hydrothermally and structurally controlled and the abundance of sulphides, silica and sericite alteration assemblages suggests that the deposition conditions were reducing and acidic in nature. Owing to its epigenetic nature, it can be inferred that the maximum age of deposition of gold at the Buzwagi mine is ~ 2674 Ma; which is more or less the same age inferred for the Golden Pride mine (~ 2680 Ma) both of which are found in the Nzega greenstone belt.

  15. "Once a Miner, Always a Miner": Poverty and Livelihood Diversification in Akwatia, Ghana

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Hilson, Gavin

    2010-01-01

    This paper offers an alternative viewpoint on why people choose to engage in artisanal mining--the low tech mineral extraction and processing of mainly precious metals and stones--for extended periods in sub-Saharan Africa. Drawing upon experiences from Akwatia, Ghana's epicentre of diamond production since the mid-1920s, the analysis challenges…

  16. A Look into Miners' Health in Prevailing Ambience of Underground Coal Mine Environment

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Dey, N. C.; Pal, S.

    2012-04-01

    Environmental factors such as noise, vibration, illumination, humidity, temperature and air velocity, etc. do play a major role on the health, comfort and efficient performance of underground coal miners at work. Ergonomics can help to promote health, efficiency and well being of miners and to make best use of their capabilities within the ambit of underground coal mine environment. Adequate work stretch and work-rest scheduling have to be determined for every category of miners from work physiology point of view so as to keep better health of the miners in general and to have their maximum efficiency at work in particular.

  17. Characterization of the sulphate mineral coquimbite, a secondary iron sulphate from Javier Ortega mine, Lucanas Province, Peru - Using infrared, Raman spectroscopy and thermogravimetry

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Frost, Ray L.; Gobac, Željka Žigovečki; López, Andrés; Xi, Yunfei; Scholz, Ricardo; Lana, Cristiano; Lima, Rosa Malena Fernandes

    2014-04-01

    The mineral coquimbite has been analysed using a range of techniques including SEM with EDX, thermal analytical techniques and Raman and infrared spectroscopy. The mineral originated from the Javier Ortega mine, Lucanas Province, Peru. The chemical formula was determined as ()∑2.00()3·9HO. Thermal analysis showed a total mass loss of ˜73.4% on heating to 1000 °C. A mass loss of 30.43% at 641.4 °C is attributed to the loss of SO3. Observed Raman and infrared bands were assigned to the stretching and bending vibrations of sulphate tetrahedra, aluminium oxide/hydroxide octahedra, water molecules and hydroxyl ions. The Raman spectrum shows well resolved bands at 2994, 3176, 3327, 3422 and 3580 cm-1 attributed to water stretching vibrations. Vibrational spectroscopy combined with thermal analysis provides insight into the structure of coquimbite.

  18. Modeling the interaction of mine brines with chloride minerals of potassium-magnesium deposits

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Fetisov, V. V.

    2016-03-01

    The article is devoted to study of dynamics of saturation degree of suprasalt brines with respect to major chloride minerals of salt strata in the initial phase of an accident related to discontinuity of waterproof stratum in the mine of the Verkhnekamskoe salt deposit (Berezniki-3 mine, 1986). Physicochemical modeling has showed that the brines discharged into mine are in equilibrium with halite during all period of observation. At the same time, their degree of saturation with respect to sylvite and carnallite regularly decreases with the increase in inflow of the suprasalt Cl-Na brines. The initial stage of suprasalt brine penetration into mine is characterized by an increase in the saturation degree with respect to the considered chloride minerals, which is showed on the chart presented in the article. However, there are brines oversaturated with respect to halite, which occurs over a brief period. In contrast to the mine brines of different genesis being in equilibrium or close to equilibrium with sylvite, saturation index (SI) for this mineral decreases in the suprasalt brine. This allows one to recommend the use of this parameter in the study of the mine brines to timely detect suprasalt brines entering the mine.

  19. National Strategic and Critical Minerals Production Act of 2012

    THOMAS, 112th Congress

    Rep. Amodei, Mark E. [R-NV-2

    2012-04-19

    07/16/2012 Received in the Senate and Read twice and referred to the Committee on Energy and Natural Resources. (All Actions) Tracker: This bill has the status Passed HouseHere are the steps for Status of Legislation:

  20. National Strategic and Critical Minerals Production Act of 2013

    THOMAS, 113th Congress

    Rep. Amodei, Mark E. [R-NV-2

    2013-02-15

    09/19/2013 Received in the Senate and Read twice and referred to the Committee on Energy and Natural Resources. (All Actions) Tracker: This bill has the status Passed HouseHere are the steps for Status of Legislation:

  1. 43 CFR 3601.14 - When can BLM dispose of mineral materials from unpatented mining claims?

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-10-01

    .... If the mining claimant refuses to sign a waiver, BLM will make sure that disposal of the mineral...) MINERAL MATERIALS DISPOSAL Mineral Materials Disposal; General Provisions Limitations on Disposal of...) BLM may dispose of mineral materials from unpatented mining claims if disposal does not endanger...

  2. 43 CFR 3601.14 - When can BLM dispose of mineral materials from unpatented mining claims?

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-10-01

    .... If the mining claimant refuses to sign a waiver, BLM will make sure that disposal of the mineral...) MINERAL MATERIALS DISPOSAL Mineral Materials Disposal; General Provisions Limitations on Disposal of...) BLM may dispose of mineral materials from unpatented mining claims if disposal does not endanger...

  3. 43 CFR 3601.14 - When can BLM dispose of mineral materials from unpatented mining claims?

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-10-01

    .... If the mining claimant refuses to sign a waiver, BLM will make sure that disposal of the mineral...) MINERAL MATERIALS DISPOSAL Mineral Materials Disposal; General Provisions Limitations on Disposal of...) BLM may dispose of mineral materials from unpatented mining claims if disposal does not endanger...

  4. 43 CFR 3601.14 - When can BLM dispose of mineral materials from unpatented mining claims?

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-10-01

    .... If the mining claimant refuses to sign a waiver, BLM will make sure that disposal of the mineral...) MINERAL MATERIALS DISPOSAL Mineral Materials Disposal; General Provisions Limitations on Disposal of...) BLM may dispose of mineral materials from unpatented mining claims if disposal does not endanger...

  5. New Mexico's energy resources '81. Annual report of Bureau of Geology in the Mining and Minerals Division of New Mexico Energy and Minerals Department

    SciTech Connect

    Arnold, E.C.; Hill, J.M.

    1981-09-03

    Although production of U/sub 3/O/sub 8/ declined only slightly in 1980, New Mexico's share of domestic production has declined from 48% in 1976 to 35% in 1980. Production projections indicate a continued decline in 1981 and lower production until at least 1984. New Mexico has 41% of total domestic reserves producible in the $50-per-lb cost category. In keeping with the anticipated steady depletion of reserves, production of crude oil in New Mexico was 69.9 million bls, a 6.3% decline in production from 1979. Condensate production of 5.4 million bbls in 1980, however, represented an increase of 7% from 1979 production. Although natural gas production was the lowest since 1970 and declined by 2.6% from 1979 production, 1980 was the 15th year that production exceeded 1 trillion cu ft. Despite declines in production, the valuation of oil and gas production has increased significantly with oil sales doubling from the previous year and gas sales increasing by $409 million because of higher prices. Reserves have been estimated to be 959 million bbls of crude oil and 17.667 trillion cu ft of natural gas. Production of 19.5 million short tons of coal in 1980 represented a 33% increase over 1979 production and an increase of 157% since 1970. Coal resources in New Mexico are estimated to be 180.79 billion short tons, and production is projected to incease to 39.61 million tons in 1985 and 67.53 million tons in 1990. The most notable developments in geothermal energy have been in technical advances in drilling, testing, and applications, especially in the area of hot dry rock systems. The US Bureau of Land Management has issued 113 geothermal leases that remain active. Recent geothermal exploration activity has been detailed for 21 companies.

  6. Map showing locations of mines, prospects, and patented mining claims, and classification of mineral deposits in the Silver City 7 1/2-minute Quadrangle, Black Hills, South Dakota

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    DeWitt, Ed; Buscher, David; Wilson, A.B.; Johnson, Thomas

    1988-01-01

    This map is one in a set of 26 maps (see index map) at 1:24,000 scale of the Black Hills region of South Dakota and Wyoming om which are shown a geologic classification of mines, a bibliography of mineral deposits, and locations of active and inactive mines, prospects, and patented mining claims. Some of these maps are published as U. S. Geological Survey Miscellaneous Field Studies Maps (MF series) and some as U.S. Geological Survey Open-File Reports (QF series); see index map. An earlier unpublished version of this set of maps was the data base from which plate 4 (scale 1:250,000) of DeWitt and others (1986) was compiled. Subsequent to that publication, the set has been revised and updated, and prospects and patented claims have been added. These revised and more detailed 1:24,000-scale maps should be used for the equivalent areas of plate 4 of DeWitt and others (1986).

  7. Spectral reflectance properties (0.4-2.5 um) of secondary Fe-oxide, Fe-hydroxide, and Fe-sulfate-hydrate minerals associated with sulfide-bearing mine waste

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Crowley, J.K.; Williams, D.E.; Hammarstrom1, J.M.; Piatak, N.; Mars, J.C.; Chou, I-Ming

    2006-01-01

    Fifteen Fe-oxide, Fe-hydroxide, and Fe-sulphate-hydrate mineral species commonly associated with sulphide bearing mine wastes were characterized by using X-ray powder diffraction and scanning electron microscope methods. Diffuse reflectance spectra of the samples show diagnostic absorption features related to electronic processes involving ferric and/or ferrous iron, and to vibrational processes involving water and hydroxyl ions. Such spectral features enable field and remote sensing based studies of the mineral distributions. Because secondary minerals are sensitive indicators of pH, Eh, relative humidity, and other environmental conditions, spectral mapping of these minerals promises to have important applications to mine waste remediation studies. This report releases digital (ascii) spectra (spectral_data_files.zip) of the fifteen mineral samples to facilitate usage of the data with spectral libraries and spectral analysis software. The spectral data are provided in a two-column format listing wavelength (in micrometers) and reflectance, respectively.

  8. Spectral reflectance properties (0.4-2.5 μm) of secondary Fe-oxide, Fe-hydroxide, and Fe-sulphate-hydrate minerals associated with sulphide-bearing mine wastes

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Crowley, J.K.; Williams, D.E.; Hammarstrom, J.M.; Piatak, N.; Chou, I.-Ming; Mars, J.C.

    2003-01-01

    Diffuse reflectance spectra of 15 mineral species commonly associated with sulphide-bearing mine wastes show diagnostic absorption bands related to electronic processes involving ferric and/or ferrous iron, and to vibrational processes involving water and hydroxyl. Many of these absorption bands are relatively broad and overlapping; however, spectral analysis methods, including continuum removal and derivative analysis, permit most of the minerals to be distinguished. Key spectral differences between the minerals are illustrated in a series of plots showing major absorption band centres and other spectral feature positions. Because secondary iron minerals are sensitive indicators of pH, Eh, relative humidity, and other environmental conditions, spectral mapping of mineral distributions promises to have important application to mine waste remediation studies.

  9. 26 CFR 1.614-3 - Rules relating to separate operating mineral interests in the case of mines.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-04-01

    ... 26 Internal Revenue 7 2010-04-01 2010-04-01 true Rules relating to separate operating mineral....614-3 Rules relating to separate operating mineral interests in the case of mines. (a) Election to aggregate separate operating mineral interests—(1) General rule. Except in the case of oil and gas wells,...

  10. Web search and data mining of natural products and their bioactivities in PubChem

    PubMed Central

    Ming, Hao; Tiejun, Cheng; Yanli, Wang; Stephen, Bryant H.

    2013-01-01

    Natural products, as major resources for drug discovery historically, are gaining more attentions recently due to the advancement in genomic sequencing and other technologies, which makes them attractive and amenable to drug candidate screening. Collecting and mining the bioactivity information of natural products are extremely important for accelerating drug development process by reducing cost. Lately, a number of publicly accessible databases have been established to facilitate the access to the chemical biology data for small molecules including natural products. Thus, it is imperative for scientists in related fields to exploit these resources in order to expedite their researches on natural products as drug leads/candidates for disease treatment. PubChem, as a public database, contains large amounts of natural products associated with bioactivity data. In this review, we introduce the information system provided at PubChem, and systematically describe the applications for a set of PubChem web services for rapid data retrieval, analysis, and downloading of natural products. We hope this work can serve as a starting point for the researchers to perform data mining on natural products using PubChem. PMID:24363665

  11. Effect of application of fluidized bed combustion residue to reclaimed mine pastures on forage yield, composition, animal performance, and mineral status

    SciTech Connect

    Smedley, K.O.

    1985-01-01

    Reclaimed surface mined soils in Appalachia are typically infertile and must be amended for optimum vegetative growth. Fluidized bed combustion residue (FBCR) has high levels of Ca, S, Zn, Fe, and Al, and 50% of the neutralizing capacity of limestone. Three treatments were applied to three capacity of limestone. Three treatments were applied to three replicated 0.81 ha reclaimed mine pastures: (A) control (no amendment), (B) 6760 kg FBCR/ha, and (C) 3380 kg limestone/ha. Based on forage availability, six steers were rotationally grazed on pastures receiving each treatment. Steers were weighed and blood samples collected at 14-d intervals and all animals were sacrificed for tissue sampling at the end of the 114-d trial. B and C increased soil pH above control levels. Forage yield and steer gain were not significantly affected by treatment. Forage samples collected during the trial indicated that B and C amendments elevated forage ash, Ca, Mg, S, Cu, and Ca:P ratio and depressed cellulose and NDF. The forage sampled the following spring was lower in hemicellulose, Zn, Mn and Ni; and higher in ash, Ca, S, the Ca:P ratio in the B and C pastures. Mean serum mineral levels of steers were not affected by pasture treatment. The blood packed cell volume was higher in cattle grazing pastures. Liver levels of Fe, Mn, Ni, and Na and bile levels of Mn were depressed in cattle grazing B and C and serum was at deficiency levels and was not detectable in bile, regardless of treatment. Kidney levels of Ca, Mg and P were higher, hair Zn was higher, rib Cr and long bone Cd levels were lower in animals grazing the pastures. This study suggests that FBCR amendment enhances nutrient quality of forage and minerals status of animals at least as well as limestone application to acidic reclaimed mine pastures.

  12. Improving mine safety technology and training in the U.S. recommendations of the Mine Safety Technology and Training Commission

    SciTech Connect

    Grayson, R. Larry

    2008-09-15

    The key issues studied focused on underground coal mining and included (1) prevention of explosions in sealed areas, (2) better emergency preparedness and response, (3) improvement of miners' ability to escape, (4) better protection of miners before and after a fire or explosion, (5) improved provision of oxygen, and (6) development and implementation of more robust post-incident communication. The U.S. Congress passed the Mine Improvement and New Emergency Response Act of 2006, which mandated new laws to address the issues. Concurrent with investigations and congressional deliberations, the National Mining Association formed the independent Mine Safety Technology and Training Commission to study the state-of-the-art relative to technology and training that could address the vulnerabilities exposed by the mine disasters. As discussed, the report outlined persistent vulnerabilities linked with significant hazards in underground coal mines, and made recommendations to provide a path for addressing them. Overall the commission report made 75 recommendations in the areas of risk-based design and management, communications technology, emergency response and mine rescue procedures, training for preparedness, and escape and protection strategies. In its deliberations, the commission importantly noted that mine safety in the U.S. needs to follow a new paradigm for ensuring mine safety and developing a culture of prevention that supports safe production at the business core. In the commission's viewpoint, the bottom line in protecting coal miners is not only adopting a culture of prevention but also systematically pursuing mitigation of significant risks. 4 refs., 2 figs.

  13. Herbaceous vegetation productivity, persistence, and metals uptake on a biosolids-amended mine soil

    SciTech Connect

    Evanylo, G.K.; Abaye, A.O.; Dundas, C.; Zipper, C.E.; Lemus, R.; Sukkariyah, B.; Rockett, J.

    2005-10-01

    The selection of plant species is critical for the successful establishment and long-term maintenance of vegetation on reclaimed surface mined soils. A study was conducted to assess the capability of 16 forage grass and legume species in monocultures and mixes to establish and thrive on a reclaimed Appalachian surface mine amended with biosolids. The 0.15-ha coarse-textured, rocky, non-acid forming mined site was prepared for planting by grading to a 2% slope and amending sandstone overburden materials with a mixture of composted and dewatered, anaerobically digested biosolids at a rate of 368 Mg ha{sup -1} (dry weight). The high rate of biosolids applied provided favorable soil chemical properties but could not overcome physical property limitations due to shallow undeveloped soil perched atop a compacted soil layer at 25 cm depth. The plant species whose persistence and biomass production were the greatest after a decade or more of establishment (i.e., switchgrass, sericea lespedeza, reed canarygrass, tall fescue, and crownvetch) shared the physiological and reproductive characteristics of low fertility requirements, drought and moisture tolerance, and propagation by rhizome and/or stolons. Of these five species, two (tall fescue and sericea lespedeza) are or have been seeded commonly on Appalachian coal surface mines, and often dominate abandoned pasture sites. Despite the high rates of heavy metal-bearing biosolids applied to the soil, plant uptake of Cd, Cu, Ni, and Zn were well within critical concentrations more than a decade after establishment of the vegetation.

  14. Effect of weathering product assemblages on Pb bioaccessibility in mine waste: implications for risk management.

    PubMed

    Palumbo-Roe, Barbara; Wragg, Joanna; Cave, Mark R; Wagner, Doris

    2013-11-01

    General assessments of orebody types and associated mine wastes with regard to their environmental signature and human health hazards are needed to help in managing present and historical mine waste facilities. Bioaccessibility tests and mineralogical analysis were carried out on mine waste from a systematic sampling of mine sites from the Central Wales orefield, UK. The bioaccessible Pb widely ranged from 270 to 20,300 mg/kg (mean 7,250 mg/kg, median 4,890 mg/kg), and the bioaccessible fraction from 4.53 to >100% (mean 33.2%, median 32.2%), with significant (p=0.001) differences among the mine sites. This implies sensitivity of bioaccessibility to site-specific conditions and suggests caution in the use of models to assess human health impacts generalised on the basis of the mineral deposit type. Mineralogical similarities of the oxidation products of primary galena provided a better control over the observed Pb bioaccessibility range. The higher Pb bioaccessibility (%) was related to samples containing cerussite, irrespective of the presence of other Pb minerals in the mineral assemblage; lower Pb bioaccessibility resulted where anglesite was the main Pb mineral phase and cerussite was absent. A solubility diagram for the various Pb minerals in the waste was derived using PHREEQC model, and the experimental Pb concentrations, measured in the simulated gastric solution, were compared with the equilibrium modelling results. For samples containing cerussite, the model well predicted the soluble Pb concentrations measured in the gastric solution, indicative of the carbonate mineral phase control on the Pb in solution for these samples and little kinetic control on the dissolution of cerussite. On the contrary, most mine waste samples containing dominant anglesite and or plumbojarosite (no cerussite) had lower solution Pb values, falling at or below the anglesite and plumbojarosite solubility equilibrium concentrations, implying kinetic or textural factors hindering

  15. CAERs's mine mapping program and Kentucky's mine mapping initiative

    SciTech Connect

    Hiett, J.

    2007-07-01

    Since 1884 the Kentucky Department of Mines and Minerals (KDMM now OMSL) has had a mine mapping function as it relates to mine safety. The CAER's Mine Mapping Program has provided this service to that agency since 1972. The program has been in continuous operation under the current staff and management over that period. Functions include operating the Mine Map Repository/Mine Map Information Center of the OMSL; and receiving and processing all annual coal mine license maps, old maps, and related data. The Kentucky Mine Mapping Initiative's goal is to ensure that every underground and surface mine map in Kentucky is located, digitized and online. The Kentucky mine mapping website plays a vital role in the safety of Kentuckians. The purpose of the web service is to make available electronic maps of mined out areas and approximately 32,000 engineering drawings of operating or closed mines that are located in the state. Future phases of the project will include the archival scanning of all submitted mine maps; the recovery from outside sources of maps that were destroyed in a 1948 fire; and the development of further technology to process maps and related data. 7 photos.

  16. Novel insect leaf-mining after the end-Cretaceous extinction and the demise of cretaceous leaf miners, Great Plains, USA.

    PubMed

    Donovan, Michael P; Wilf, Peter; Labandeira, Conrad C; Johnson, Kirk R; Peppe, Daniel J

    2014-01-01

    Plant and associated insect-damage diversity in the western U.S.A. decreased significantly at the Cretaceous-Paleogene (K-Pg) boundary and remained low until the late Paleocene. However, the Mexican Hat locality (ca. 65 Ma) in southeastern Montana, with a typical, low-diversity flora, uniquely exhibits high damage diversity on nearly all its host plants, when compared to all known local and regional early Paleocene sites. The same plant species show minimal damage elsewhere during the early Paleocene. We asked whether the high insect damage diversity at Mexican Hat was more likely related to the survival of Cretaceous insects from refugia or to an influx of novel Paleocene taxa. We compared damage on 1073 leaf fossils from Mexican Hat to over 9000 terminal Cretaceous leaf fossils from the Hell Creek Formation of nearby southwestern North Dakota and to over 9000 Paleocene leaf fossils from the Fort Union Formation in North Dakota, Montana, and Wyoming. We described the entire insect-feeding ichnofauna at Mexican Hat and focused our analysis on leaf mines because they are typically host-specialized and preserve a number of diagnostic morphological characters. Nine mine damage types attributable to three of the four orders of leaf-mining insects are found at Mexican Hat, six of them so far unique to the site. We found no evidence linking any of the diverse Hell Creek mines with those found at Mexican Hat, nor for the survival of any Cretaceous leaf miners over the K-Pg boundary regionally, even on well-sampled, surviving plant families. Overall, our results strongly relate the high damage diversity on the depauperate Mexican Hat flora to an influx of novel insect herbivores during the early Paleocene, possibly caused by a transient warming event and range expansion, and indicate drastic extinction rather than survivorship of Cretaceous insect taxa from refugia.

  17. Novel Insect Leaf-Mining after the End-Cretaceous Extinction and the Demise of Cretaceous Leaf Miners, Great Plains, USA

    PubMed Central

    Donovan, Michael P.; Wilf, Peter; Labandeira, Conrad C.; Johnson, Kirk R.; Peppe, Daniel J.

    2014-01-01

    Plant and associated insect-damage diversity in the western U.S.A. decreased significantly at the Cretaceous-Paleogene (K-Pg) boundary and remained low until the late Paleocene. However, the Mexican Hat locality (ca. 65 Ma) in southeastern Montana, with a typical, low-diversity flora, uniquely exhibits high damage diversity on nearly all its host plants, when compared to all known local and regional early Paleocene sites. The same plant species show minimal damage elsewhere during the early Paleocene. We asked whether the high insect damage diversity at Mexican Hat was more likely related to the survival of Cretaceous insects from refugia or to an influx of novel Paleocene taxa. We compared damage on 1073 leaf fossils from Mexican Hat to over 9000 terminal Cretaceous leaf fossils from the Hell Creek Formation of nearby southwestern North Dakota and to over 9000 Paleocene leaf fossils from the Fort Union Formation in North Dakota, Montana, and Wyoming. We described the entire insect-feeding ichnofauna at Mexican Hat and focused our analysis on leaf mines because they are typically host-specialized and preserve a number of diagnostic morphological characters. Nine mine damage types attributable to three of the four orders of leaf-mining insects are found at Mexican Hat, six of them so far unique to the site. We found no evidence linking any of the diverse Hell Creek mines with those found at Mexican Hat, nor for the survival of any Cretaceous leaf miners over the K-Pg boundary regionally, even on well-sampled, surviving plant families. Overall, our results strongly relate the high damage diversity on the depauperate Mexican Hat flora to an influx of novel insect herbivores during the early Paleocene, possibly caused by a transient warming event and range expansion, and indicate drastic extinction rather than survivorship of Cretaceous insect taxa from refugia. PMID:25058404

  18. Novel insect leaf-mining after the end-Cretaceous extinction and the demise of cretaceous leaf miners, Great Plains, USA.

    PubMed

    Donovan, Michael P; Wilf, Peter; Labandeira, Conrad C; Johnson, Kirk R; Peppe, Daniel J

    2014-01-01

    Plant and associated insect-damage diversity in the western U.S.A. decreased significantly at the Cretaceous-Paleogene (K-Pg) boundary and remained low until the late Paleocene. However, the Mexican Hat locality (ca. 65 Ma) in southeastern Montana, with a typical, low-diversity flora, uniquely exhibits high damage diversity on nearly all its host plants, when compared to all known local and regional early Paleocene sites. The same plant species show minimal damage elsewhere during the early Paleocene. We asked whether the high insect damage diversity at Mexican Hat was more likely related to the survival of Cretaceous insects from refugia or to an influx of novel Paleocene taxa. We compared damage on 1073 leaf fossils from Mexican Hat to over 9000 terminal Cretaceous leaf fossils from the Hell Creek Formation of nearby southwestern North Dakota and to over 9000 Paleocene leaf fossils from the Fort Union Formation in North Dakota, Montana, and Wyoming. We described the entire insect-feeding ichnofauna at Mexican Hat and focused our analysis on leaf mines because they are typically host-specialized and preserve a number of diagnostic morphological characters. Nine mine damage types attributable to three of the four orders of leaf-mining insects are found at Mexican Hat, six of them so far unique to the site. We found no evidence linking any of the diverse Hell Creek mines with those found at Mexican Hat, nor for the survival of any Cretaceous leaf miners over the K-Pg boundary regionally, even on well-sampled, surviving plant families. Overall, our results strongly relate the high damage diversity on the depauperate Mexican Hat flora to an influx of novel insect herbivores during the early Paleocene, possibly caused by a transient warming event and range expansion, and indicate drastic extinction rather than survivorship of Cretaceous insect taxa from refugia. PMID:25058404

  19. 30 CFR 50.30 - Preparation and submission of MSHA Form 7000-2-Quarterly Employment and Coal Production Report.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-07-01

    ...-Quarterly Employment and Coal Production Report. 50.30 Section 50.30 Mineral Resources MINE SAFETY AND HEALTH ADMINISTRATION, DEPARTMENT OF LABOR ACCIDENTS, INJURIES, ILLNESSES, EMPLOYMENT, AND PRODUCTION IN MINES NOTIFICATION, INVESTIGATION, REPORTS AND RECORDS OF ACCIDENTS, INJURIES, ILLNESSES,...

  20. 25 CFR 215.25 - Other minerals and deep-lying lead and zinc minerals.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-04-01

    ... 25 Indians 1 2011-04-01 2011-04-01 false Other minerals and deep-lying lead and zinc minerals. 215... LEAD AND ZINC MINING OPERATIONS AND LEASES, QUAPAW AGENCY § 215.25 Other minerals and deep-lying lead and zinc minerals. Except as provided in § 215.6(b), leases on Quapaw Indian lands, for...

  1. 25 CFR 215.25 - Other minerals and deep-lying lead and zinc minerals.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-04-01

    ... 25 Indians 1 2014-04-01 2014-04-01 false Other minerals and deep-lying lead and zinc minerals. 215... LEAD AND ZINC MINING OPERATIONS AND LEASES, QUAPAW AGENCY § 215.25 Other minerals and deep-lying lead and zinc minerals. Except as provided in § 215.6(b), leases on Quapaw Indian lands, for...

  2. 25 CFR 215.25 - Other minerals and deep-lying lead and zinc minerals.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-04-01

    ... 25 Indians 1 2013-04-01 2013-04-01 false Other minerals and deep-lying lead and zinc minerals. 215... LEAD AND ZINC MINING OPERATIONS AND LEASES, QUAPAW AGENCY § 215.25 Other minerals and deep-lying lead and zinc minerals. Except as provided in § 215.6(b), leases on Quapaw Indian lands, for...

  3. 25 CFR 215.25 - Other minerals and deep-lying lead and zinc minerals.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-04-01

    ... 25 Indians 1 2012-04-01 2011-04-01 true Other minerals and deep-lying lead and zinc minerals. 215... LEAD AND ZINC MINING OPERATIONS AND LEASES, QUAPAW AGENCY § 215.25 Other minerals and deep-lying lead and zinc minerals. Except as provided in § 215.6(b), leases on Quapaw Indian lands, for...

  4. 25 CFR 215.25 - Other minerals and deep-lying lead and zinc minerals.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-04-01

    ... 25 Indians 1 2010-04-01 2010-04-01 false Other minerals and deep-lying lead and zinc minerals. 215... LEAD AND ZINC MINING OPERATIONS AND LEASES, QUAPAW AGENCY § 215.25 Other minerals and deep-lying lead and zinc minerals. Except as provided in § 215.6(b), leases on Quapaw Indian lands, for...

  5. Summaries and data packages of important areas for mineral investment and production opportunities in Afghanistan

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Peters, Stephen G.

    2011-01-01

    The U.S. Geological Survey (USGS) of the Department of the Interior and the Task Force for Business and Stability Operations (TFBSO) of the Department of Defense entered into an agreement to study and assess the fuel and nonfuel mineral resources of Afghanistan from October 2009 through September 2011. The work resulted in a report that summarizes new results and interpretations on 24 important Areas of Interest (AOIs) of nonfuel mineral resources that were identified for mineral investment and production opportunities inAfghanistan (Peters and others, 2011). The report is supported by digital data in the form of geographic information system (GIS) databases and by archival and non-USGS reports on each AOI. The data packages contain from 20 to 50 digital layers of data, such as geology, geophysics, and hyperspectral and remotely sensed imagery. Existing reports and maps are mainly from the Afghanistan Geological Survey (AGS) archive and are Soviet-era (1960s and 1970s) reports. These data are available from the AGS Data Center in Kabul (http://mom.gov.af/en; http://www.bgs.ac.uk/afghanminerals/) and also are available for viewing and download from the USGS public Web site (http://afghanistan.cr.usgs.gov/) and from a separate viewer at http://mapdss2.er.usgs.gov.

  6. Mining Mineral Aggregates in Urban Areas.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Thomson, Robert D.

    This study can be used in a geographic research methods course to show how nearest-neighbor analysis and regression analysis can be used to study various aspects of land use. An analysis of the sand, gravel, and crushed stone industry in three urban areas of Pennsylvania, Massachusetts, and Florida illustrates the locational problems faced by…

  7. A data mining approach to finding relationships between reservoir properties and oil production for CHOPS

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Cai, Yongxiang; Wang, Xin; Hu, Kezhen; Dong, Mingzhe

    2014-12-01

    Cold heavy oil production with sand (CHOPS) is a primary oil extraction process for heavy crude oil and reservoir properties are key factors that contribute to the effectiveness of CHOPS. However, identification of the key reservoir properties and quantification of the relationships between the reservoir properties and the oil production are still challenging tasks. In this paper, we propose the use of a data mining approach for finding quantitative relationships between various reservoir properties and oil production for CHOPS. The approach includes four steps: firstly, a set of reservoir properties are identified to describe reservoir characteristics through a petrophysical analysis. In addition to common parameters, such as porosity and permeability, two new parameters - a fluid mobility factor and the maximum inscribed rectangular of net pay (MIRNP) - are proposed. Secondly, three new parameters to describe the production performance of wells are proposed: the peak value, effective life cycle and effective yield. Next, the fuzzy ranking method is used to rank the importance of the identified reservoir properties in terms of oil production. Finally, association rule mining is used to obtain quantitative relationships between reservoir property variables and the production performance of wells. The proposed methods have been applied for 118 wells in the Sparky Formation of the Lloydminster heavy oil field in Alberta. The result shows that the production performance of wells in the area could be described and predicted by using the found quantitative relations.

  8. 30 CFR 49.3 - Alternative mine rescue capability for small and remote mines.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-07-01

    ... operator evaluating the usefulness of additional refuge chambers to supplement those which may exist; (7) A... when miners are underground; and (9) Other relevant information about the operator's mine which may be... plan (with appropriate MSHA mine emergency telephone numbers) at the mine for the miners'...

  9. Minerals yearbook, 1992. Volume 1. Metals and minerals. Annual report

    SciTech Connect

    Not Available

    1992-01-01

    This edition of the Minerals Yearbook discusses the performance of the worldwide mineral and materials industry during 1992 and provides background information to assist in interpreting that performance. Content of the individual Yearbook volumes follows: Volume I, Metals and Minerals, contains chapters on virtually all metallic and industrial mineral commodities important to the U.S. economy. Chapters on advanced materials, nonrenewable organic materials, and nonferrous metals recycling also were added to the Minerals Yearbook series beginning with the 1989, 1990, and 1991 volumes, respectively. A new chapter on materials recycling has been initiated in this 1992 volume. In addition, a chapter on survey methods used in data collection with a statistical summary of nonfuel minerals and a chapter on trends in mining and quarrying in the metals and industrial mineral industries are included.

  10. Minerals yearbook, 1991. Volume 1. Metals and minerals. Annual report

    SciTech Connect

    1991-12-31

    This edition of the Mineral Yearbook discusses the performance of the worlwide minerals and materials industry during 1991 and provides background information to assist in interpreting that performance. Volume 1, Metals and Mineral, contains chapters on virtually all metallic and industrial mineral commodities important to the U.S. economy. Chapters on advanced materials and nonrenewable organic materials also were added to the Minerals Yearbook series beginning with the 1989 and 1990 volumes, respectively. A new chapter on nonferrous metals recycling has been initiated in this 1991 volume. In addition, a chapter on survey methods used in data collection with a statistical summary of nonfuel minerals and a chapter on trends in mining and quarrying in the metals and industrial mineral industries are included.

  11. Ore-microscopic and geochemical characteristics of gold-bearing sulfide minerals, El Sid Gold mine, Eastern Desert, Egypt

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    El-Bouseily, A. M.; El-Dahhar, M. A.; Arslan, A. I.

    1985-07-01

    Gold deposits at El Sid are confined to hydrothermal quartz veins which contain pyrite, arsenopyrite, sphalerite and galena. These veins occur at the contact between granite and serpentinite and extend into the serpentinite through a thick zone of graphite schist. Gold occurs in the mineralized zone either as free gold in quartz gangue or dissolved in the sulfide minerals. Ore-microscopic study revealed that Au-bearing sulfides were deposited in two successive stages with early pyrite and arsenopyrite followed by sphalerite and galena. Gold was deposited during both stages, largely intergrown with sphalerite and filling microfractures in pyrite and arsenopyrite. Spectrochemical analyses of separated pyrite, arsenopyrite, sphalerite and galena showed that these sulfides have similar average Au contents. Pyrite is relatively depleted in Ag and Te. This suggests that native gold was deposited in the early stage of mineralization. Arsenopyrite and galena show relatively high concentrations of Te. They are also respectively rich in Au and Ag. Tellurides are, thus, expected to be deposited together with arsenopyrite and galena.

  12. Airflow obstruction and mining

    SciTech Connect

    Stenton, S.C.; Hendrick, D.J. )

    1993-01-01

    Bronchitis and emphysema have long been described as diseases of miners, but the precise contribution of occupational exposures to coal and other mine dusts in causing these disorders, as opposed to cofactors such as social class, environmental pollution, and cigarette smoking, has not been fully defined. Epidemiologic studies have attempted, with varying degrees of success, to determine the incidence and severity of chronic obstructive pulmonary diseases in miners as compared to the general population. The results from these studies, and those in other nonmining industries with dust exposures, are examined. 98 refs.

  13. Mines, prospects, and occurrences of nonmetallic mineral commodities in the Greenville 1 degree by 2 degrees Quadrangle, South Carolina, Georgia, and North Carolina

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    D'Agostino, John P.; O'Connor, Bruce J.; Zupan, Alan J.W.; Maybin, Arthur H.

    1994-01-01

    Mines, prospects, and occurrences of nonmetal mineral commodities in the Greenville 1° x 2° quadrangle are tabulated in this report. There are 488 symbols representing 579 mines, prospects, and occurrences located in the quadrangle. There are 379 symbols used for 466 features in Georgia, 106 symbols for 110 features in South Carolina, and 3 symbols for 3 features in North Carolina. The table lists, in consecutive orders for each county (fig. 1), the map number of each feature, which correlates and locates the item on the accompanying Greenville 1° x 2° quadrangle map. Also listed are the known name of the feature; the 7.5 topographic map on which the commodity site is located; the Transverse Mercator (UTM) northing and easting grid coordinates from the appropriate 7.5’ topographic map; the commodity; remarks; and references. Some locations are known, but many sites are not verified and their locations are only approximate. Reference are listed in References Cited and referred to by number to save space. The generalized tectonic framework for the quadrangle is shown in figure 2.

  14. The Black Lake (Quebec, Canada) mineral carbonation experimental station: CO2 capture in mine waste

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Beaudoin, G.; Constantin, M.; Duchesne, J.; Dupuis, C.; Entrazi, A.; Gras, A.; Huot, F.; Fortier, R.; Hebert, R.; Larachi, F.; Lechat, K.; Lemieux, J. M.; Molson, J. W. H.; Maldague, X.; Therrien, R.; Assima, G. P.

    2014-12-01

    Passive mineral carbonation of chrysotile mining and milling waste was discovered at the Black Lake mine, southern Québec, 10 years ago. Indurated crusts were found at the surface and within waste piles where mineral and rock fragments are cemented by hydrated magnesium carbonates. A long-term research program has yielded significant insight into the process of CO2 capture from the atmosphere, and how it can be implemented during mining operations. Laboratory experiments show that the waste mineralogy is crucial, brucite being more reactive than serpentine. Partial water saturation, circa 40%, is also critical to dissolve magnesium from minerals, and transport aqueous CO2 to precipitation sites. Grain armoring by iron oxidation induced by dissolved oxygen prevents further reaction. Two experimental cells constructed with milling waste and fitted with various monitoring probes (T, H2O content, leachate) and gas sampling ports, have been monitored for more than 3 years, along with environmental conditions. The interstitial gas in the cells remains depleted in CO2 indicating continuous capture of ambient atmospheric CO2 at rates faster than advection to reaction sites. The energy released by the exothermic mineral carbonation reactions has been observed both in laboratory experiments (up to 4 °C) and in the field. Warm air, depleted to 10 ppmv CO2, vents at the surface of the waste piles, indicating reaction with atmospheric CO2 deep inside the piles. A thermal anomaly, detected by airborne infrared and coincident with a known venting area, was selected for locating a 100 m deep borehole fitted with sensor arrays to monitor active mineral carbonation within the pile. The borehole has intersected areas where mineral carbonation has indurated the milling waste. The borehole will be monitored for the next 3 years to better understand the mineral carbonation process, and its potential to yield recoverable geothermal energy in mining environments.

  15. The importance of water transit time and mineral dissolution kinetics for the flux of weathering products

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Erlandsson, Martin; Bishop, Kevin; Köhler, Stephan; Amvrosiadi, Nino

    2016-04-01

    Soil mineral weathering is one of the major sources of base cations (BC), which play a dual role for a forest ecosystem; they function both as plant nutrients, and for buffering against acidification of catchment runoff. On a long-term basis, the soil weathering rates will determine the highest sustainable forest productivity without causing acidification. It is believed that the hydrologic residence time play a key role in determining weathering rates on a landscape scale. In this study, we investigate the significance of the water transit residence time (WTT) distribution for the transport of base cations to catchment runoff. By modelling hillslope flowpaths with different transit times, using the geochemical computing code PHREEQC, we demonstrate how in-stream dynamics as exemplified by elemental ratios can be explained by mineral dissolution kinetics and equilibria. Specifically, we hypothesize that equilibrium of plagioclase regulates the delivery of base cations and silica to catchment runoff. These patters can be seen in field data from 10 years of sampling from a nested-catchment, where the Na+/BC and the Si/BC-ratios vary systematically with WTT on both a temporal and a spatial scale. This behavior has implications for the total transport of products from mineral dissolution to catchment runoff. As the water entering the stream is a mixture of water with different transit times, the composition of stream water will not only be dependent on the average WTT, but also on the shape of the WTT distribution. For the base cations associated with minerals that becomes supersaturated or with precipitating secondary phases within the range of WTT, i.e. Na+ and K+, the tails of "old water" of the WRT-distribution will not contribute to any extra transport of these elements. Finally, we use the derived relationships to estimate the transport of weathering products from a forested hillslope, given the modelled WRT distribution.

  16. What was the groundwater quality before mining in a mineralized region? Lessons from the Questa Project

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Nordstrom, D.K.

    2008-01-01

    The U.S. Geological Survey, in cooperation with the New Mexico Environment Department and supported by Molycorp, Inc (currently Chevron Minerals), has completed a 5-year investigation (2001-2006) to determine the pre-mining ground-water quality at Molycorp's Questa molybdenum mine in northern New Mexico. Current mine-site ground waters are often contaminated with mine-waste leachates and no data exists on premining ground-water quality so that pre-mining conditions must be inferred. Ground-water quality undisturbed by mining is often worse than New Mexico standards and data are needed to help establish closure requirements. The key to determining pre-mining conditions was to study the hydrogeochemistry of a proximal natural analog site, the Straight Creek catchment. Main rock types exposed to weathering include a Tertiary andesite and the Tertiary Amalia tuff (rhyolitic composition), both hydrothermally altered to various degrees. Two types of ground water are common in mineralized areas, acidic ground waters in alluvial debris fans with pH 3-4 and bedrock ground waters with pH 6-8. Siderite, ferrihydrite, rhodochrosite, amorphous to microcrystalline Al(OH)3, calcite, gypsum, barite, and amorphous silica mineral solubilities control concentrations of Fe(II), Fe(III), Mn(II), Al, Ca, Ba, and SiO2, depending on pH and solution composition. Concentrations at low pH are governed by element abundance and mineral weathering rates. Concentrations of Zn and Cd range from detection up to about 10 and 0.05 mg/L, respectively, and are derived primarily from sphalerite dissolution. Concentrations of Ni and Co range from detection up to 1 and 0.4 mg/L, respectively, and are derived primarily from pyrite dissolution. Concentrations of Ca and SO4 are derived from secondary gypsum dissolution and weathering of calcite and pyrite. Metal:sulfate concentration ratios are relatively constant for acidic waters, suggesting consistent weathering rates, independent of catchment. These

  17. MARINE MINERAL RESOURCES - AN UPDATE AND INTRODUCTION.

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Cruickshank, Michael J.; Siapno, William

    1985-01-01

    This article briefly traces the status of marine minerals development, and it describes papers presented in this special issue on the subject. Subjects covered include types of deposits, marine mining in Canada, Manganese nodules, metalliferous sulfides as seabed minerals, metallurgical processes for reducing sulfide minerals, U. S. phosphate industry, construction materials and placers, and industry problems.

  18. Predicting long-term carbon mineralization and trace gas production from thawing permafrost of Northeast Siberia.

    PubMed

    Knoblauch, Christian; Beer, Christian; Sosnin, Alexander; Wagner, Dirk; Pfeiffer, Eva-Maria

    2013-04-01

    The currently observed Arctic warming will increase permafrost degradation followed by mineralization of formerly frozen organic matter to carbon dioxide (CO2 ) and methane (CH4 ). Despite increasing awareness of permafrost carbon vulnerability, the potential long-term formation of trace gases from thawing permafrost remains unclear. The objective of the current study is to quantify the potential long-term release of trace gases from permafrost organic matter. Therefore, Holocene and Pleistocene permafrost deposits were sampled in the Lena River Delta, Northeast Siberia. The sampled permafrost contained between 0.6% and 12.4% organic carbon. CO2 and CH4 production was measured for 1200 days in aerobic and anaerobic incubations at 4 °C. The derived fluxes were used to estimate parameters of a two pool carbon degradation model. Total CO2 production was similar in Holocene permafrost (1.3 ± 0.8 mg CO2 -C gdw(-1) aerobically, 0.25 ± 0.13 mg CO2 -C gdw(-1) anaerobically) as in 34 000-42 000-year-old Pleistocene permafrost (1.6 ± 1.2 mg CO2 -C gdw(-1) aerobically, 0.26 ± 0.10 mg CO2 -C gdw(-1) anaerobically). The main predictor for carbon mineralization was the content of organic matter. Anaerobic conditions strongly reduced carbon mineralization since only 25% of aerobically mineralized carbon was released as CO2 and CH4 in the absence of oxygen. CH4 production was low or absent in most of the Pleistocene permafrost and always started after a significant delay. After 1200 days on average 3.1% of initial carbon was mineralized to CO2 under aerobic conditions while without oxygen 0.55% were released as CO2 and 0.28% as CH4 . The calibrated carbon degradation model predicted cumulative CO2 production over a period of 100 years accounting for 15.1% (aerobic) and 1.8% (anaerobic) of initial organic carbon, which is significantly less than recent estimates. The multiyear time series from the incubation experiments helps to more reliably constrain projections of future

  19. Vitamins and Minerals

    MedlinePlus

    ... I Help a Friend Who Cuts? Vitamins and Minerals KidsHealth > For Teens > Vitamins and Minerals Print A ... of a good thing? What Are Vitamins and Minerals? Vitamins and minerals make people's bodies work properly. ...

  20. Method for the production of mineral wool and iron from serpentine ore

    DOEpatents

    O'Connor, William K.; Rush, Gilbert E.; Soltau, Glen F.

    2011-10-11

    Magnesium silicate mineral wools having a relatively high liquidus temperature of at least about 1400.degree. C. and to methods for the production thereof are provided. The methods of the present invention comprise melting a magnesium silicate feedstock (e.g., comprising a serpentine or olivine ore) having a liquidus temperature of at least about 1400.degree. C. to form a molten magnesium silicate, and subsequently fiberizing the molten magnesium silicate to produce a magnesium silicate mineral wool. In one embodiment, the magnesium silicate feedstock contains iron oxide (e.g., up to about 12% by weight). Preferably, the melting is performed in the presence of a reducing agent to produce an iron alloy, which can be separated from the molten ore. Useful magnesium silicate feedstocks include, without limitation, serpentine and olivine ores. Optionally, silicon dioxide can be added to the feedstock to lower the liquidus temperature thereof.

  1. Mineral transformations and Zn, Pb, As, Cd mobility in soils developed on Zn non-sulfide mining wastes near Olkusz, S Poland

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Jerzykowska, Irena; Michalik, Marek

    2014-05-01

    To estimate the degree of threat posed by heavy metals and other environmentally harmful elements it is necessary to determine forms in which these elements occur and their stability in the weathering environment. The aim of this work was to (1) describe mineral transformations occurring in soils developed on Zn non-sulfide mining wastes near Olkusz (S Poland), (2) identify forms of occurrence of Zn, Pb, As, Cd; and (3) predict potential mobility of these elements. Studied samples come from soil profiles developed on four dumps after mining of non-sulfide Zn ores from the end of the XIX century until 1985. Two types of approaches were used: mineralogical methods (optical and electron microscopy with in situ elemental analysis, X-ray diffraction) and geochemical methods (selective sequential extraction and bulk elemental analysis). Zn in studied samples is present in smithsonite or hemimorphite, Zn aluminosilicates (smectite and kaolinite groups) and absorbed on Fe-oxide. The largest amounts of Pb is encountered in Mn-oxides and less in cerrusite, Fe-oxides and dolomite. As dominates as the ions absorbed on goethite and Cd as an impurity in carbonates, silicates and Zn-aluminosilicates, and in the form of exchangeable ions. Most important mineral transformations due to weathering observed in the samples are dissolution of dolomite, goethite, smithsonite, hemimorphite and precipitation of Zn-aluminosilicates, Mn-oxides and secondary Fe-oxides. The study has shown that Cd occurring in the form of exchangeable ions, potentially available to living organisms, pose the greatest threat to the environment. Cd is the most mobile in surface horizons of the soils developed on the oxidized ores dumps. Zn and Pb can be released from their forms in the event of a change of pH of the environment to a more acidic and As in case of changing conditions to more reductive.

  2. Revised CRISM spectral parameters and summary products based on the currently detected mineral diversity on Mars

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Viviano-Beck, Christina E.; Seelos, Frank P.; Murchie, Scott L.; Kahn, Eliezer G.; Seelos, Kimberley D.; Taylor, Howard W.; Taylor, Kelly; Ehlmann, Bethany L.; Wisemann, Sandra M.; Mustard, John F.; Morgan, M. Frank

    2014-06-01

    The investigation of hyperspectral data from the Mars Reconnaissance Orbiter Compact Reconnaissance Imaging Spectrometer for Mars (CRISM) and the Observatoire pour la Minéralogie, L'Eau, les Glaces et l'Activitié (OMEGA) on Mars Express has revealed an increasingly diverse suite of minerals present on the Martian surface. A revised set of 60 spectral parameters derived from corrected spectral reflectance at key wavelengths in CRISM targeted observations and designed to capture the known diversity of surface mineralogy on Mars is presented here as "summary products." Some of the summary products have strong heritage to OMEGA spectral parameter calculations; this paper also presents newly derived parameters that highlight locations with more recently discovered spectral signatures. Type locations for the diversity of currently identified mineral spectral signatures have been compiled into a library presented in this work. Our analysis indicates that the revised set of summary products captures the known spectral diversity of the surface, and successfully highlights and differentiates between locations with differing spectral signatures. The revised spectral parameter calculations and related products provide a useful tool for scientific interpretation and for future mission landing site selection and operations.

  3. Using remote sensing techniques and field-based structural analysis to explore new gold and associated mineral sites around Al-Hajar mine, Asir terrane, Arabian Shield

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Sonbul, Abdullah R.; El-Shafei, Mohamed K.; Bishta, Adel Z.

    2016-05-01

    Modern earth resource satellites provide huge amounts of digital imagery at different resolutions. These satellite imageries are considered one of the most significant sources of data for mineral exploration. Image processing techniques were applied to the exposed rocks around the Al-Aqiq area of the Asir terrane in the southern part of the Arabian Shield. The area under study has two sub-parallel N-S trending metamorphic belts of green-schist facies. The first belt is located southeast of Al-Aqiq, where the Al-Hajar Gold Mine is situated. It is essentially composed of metavolcanics and metasedimentary rocks, and it is intruded by different plutonic rocks of primarily diorite, syenite and porphyritic granite. The second belt is located northwest of Al-Aqiq, and it is composed of metavolcanics and metasedimentary rocks and is intruded by granite bodies. The current study aimed to distinguish the lithological units, detect and map the alteration zones, and extract the major fault lineaments around the Al-Hajar gold prospect. Digital satellite imageries, including Landsat 7 ETM + multispectral and panchromatic and SPOT-5 were used in addition to field verification. Areas with similar spectral signatures to the prospect were identified in the nearby metamorphic belt; it was considered as a target area and was inspected in the field. The relationships between the alteration zones, the mineral deposits and the structural elements were used to locate the ore-bearing zones in the subsurface. The metasedimentary units of the target area showed a dextral-ductile shearing top-to-the-north and the presence of dominant mineralized quartz vein-system. The area to the north of the Al-Hajar prospect showed also sub-parallel shear zones along which different types of alterations were detected. Field-based criteria such as hydrothermal breccia, jasper, iron gossans and porphyritic granite strongly indicate the presence of porphyry-type ore deposits in Al-Hajar metamorphic belt that

  4. Isolation and characterisation of mineral-oxidising "Acidibacillus" spp. from mine sites and geothermal environments in different global locations.

    PubMed

    Holanda, Roseanne; Hedrich, Sabrina; Ňancucheo, Ivan; Oliveira, Guilherme; Grail, Barry M; Johnson, D Barrie

    2016-09-01

    Eight strains of acidophilic bacteria, isolated from mine-impacted and geothermal sites from different parts of the world, were shown to form a distinct clade (proposed genus "Acidibacillus") within the phylum Firmicutes, well separated from the acidophilic genera Sulfobacillus and Alicyclobacillus. Two of the strains (both isolated from sites in Yellowstone National Park, USA) were moderate thermophiles that oxidised both ferrous iron and elemental sulphur, while the other six were mesophiles that also oxidised ferrous iron, but not sulphur. All eight isolates reduced ferric iron to varying degrees. The two groups shared <95% similarity of their 16S rRNA genes and were therefore considered to be distinct species: "Acidibacillus sulfuroxidans" (moderately thermophilic isolates) and "Acidibacillus ferrooxidans" (mesophilic isolates). Both species were obligate heterotrophs; none of the eight strains grew in the absence of organic carbon. "Acidibacillus" spp. were generally highly tolerant of elevated concentrations of cationic transition metals, though "A. sulfuroxidans" strains were more sensitive to some (e.g. nickel and zinc) than those of "A. ferrooxidans". Initial annotation of the genomes of two strains of "A. ferrooxidans" revealed the presence of genes (cbbL) involved in the RuBisCO pathway for CO2 assimilation and iron oxidation (rus), though with relatively low sequence identities. PMID:27154030

  5. Isolation and characterisation of mineral-oxidising "Acidibacillus" spp. from mine sites and geothermal environments in different global locations.

    PubMed

    Holanda, Roseanne; Hedrich, Sabrina; Ňancucheo, Ivan; Oliveira, Guilherme; Grail, Barry M; Johnson, D Barrie

    2016-09-01

    Eight strains of acidophilic bacteria, isolated from mine-impacted and geothermal sites from different parts of the world, were shown to form a distinct clade (proposed genus "Acidibacillus") within the phylum Firmicutes, well separated from the acidophilic genera Sulfobacillus and Alicyclobacillus. Two of the strains (both isolated from sites in Yellowstone National Park, USA) were moderate thermophiles that oxidised both ferrous iron and elemental sulphur, while the other six were mesophiles that also oxidised ferrous iron, but not sulphur. All eight isolates reduced ferric iron to varying degrees. The two groups shared <95% similarity of their 16S rRNA genes and were therefore considered to be distinct species: "Acidibacillus sulfuroxidans" (moderately thermophilic isolates) and "Acidibacillus ferrooxidans" (mesophilic isolates). Both species were obligate heterotrophs; none of the eight strains grew in the absence of organic carbon. "Acidibacillus" spp. were generally highly tolerant of elevated concentrations of cationic transition metals, though "A. sulfuroxidans" strains were more sensitive to some (e.g. nickel and zinc) than those of "A. ferrooxidans". Initial annotation of the genomes of two strains of "A. ferrooxidans" revealed the presence of genes (cbbL) involved in the RuBisCO pathway for CO2 assimilation and iron oxidation (rus), though with relatively low sequence identities.

  6. Identification of mineral composition and weathering product of tuff using reflectance spectroscopy

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Hyun, C.; Park, H.

    2009-12-01

    spectral reflectance of each constituent. Unmixing of mineral composition and their weathering products of blocks and matrixes in tuff were conducted and the ratio of mineral composition was calculated for each specimen. This study was supported by National Research Institute of Cultural Heritage (project title: Development on Evaluation Technology for Weathering Degree of Stone Cultural Properties, project no.: 09B011Y-00150-2009).

  7. Geology and porphyry copper-type alteration-mineralization of igneous rocks at the Christmas Mine, Gila County, Arizona

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Koski, Randolph A.

    1979-01-01

    The Christmas copper deposit, located in southern Gila County, Arizona, is part of the major porphyry copper province of southwestern North America. Although Christmas is known for skarn deposits in Paleozoic carbonate rocks, ore-grade porphyry-type copper mineralization also occurs in a composite granodioritic intrusive complex and adjacent mafic volcanic country rocks. This study considers the nature, distribution, and genesis of alteration-mineralization in the igneous rock environment at Christmas. At the southeast end of the Dripping Spring Mountains, the Pennsylvanian Naco Limestone is unconformably overlain by the Cretaceous Williamson Canyon Volcanics, a westward-thinning sequence of basaltic volcanic breccia and lava flows, and subordinate clastic sedimentary rocks. Paleozoic and Mesozoic strata are intruded by Laramide-age dikes, sills, and small stocks of hornblende andesite porphyry and hornblende rhyodacite porphyry, and the mineralized Christmas intrusive complex. Rocks of the elongate Christmas stock, intruded along an east-northeast-trending fracture zone, are grouped into early, veined quartz diorite (Dark Phase), biotite granodiorite porphyry (Light Phase), and granodiorite; and late, unveined dacite porphyry and granodiorite porphyry. Biotite rhyodacite porphyry dikes extending east and west from the vicinity of the stock are probably coeval with biotite granodiorite porphyry. Accumulated normal displacement of approximately 1 km along the northwest-trending Christmas-Joker fault system has juxtaposed contrasting levels (lower, intrusive-carbonate rock environment and upper, intrusive-volcanic rock environment) within the porphyry copper system. K-Ar age determinations and whole-rock chemical analyses of the major intrusive rock types indicate that Laramide calc-alkaline magmatism and ore deposition at Christmas evolved over an extended period from within the Late Cretaceous (~75-80 m.y. ago) to early Paleocene (~63-61 m.y. ago). The sequence of

  8. The mineral sector and economic development in Ghana: A computable general equilibrium analysis

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Addy, Samuel N.

    A computable general equilibrium model (CGE) model is formulated for conducting mineral policy analysis in the context of national economic development for Ghana. The model, called GHANAMIN, places strong emphasis on production, trade, and investment. It can be used to examine both micro and macro economic impacts of policies associated with mineral investment, taxation, and terms of trade changes, as well as mineral sector performance impacts due to technological change or the discovery of new deposits. Its economywide structure enables the study of broader development policy with a focus on individual or multiple sectors, simultaneously. After going through a period of contraction for about two decades, mining in Ghana has rebounded significantly and is currently the main foreign exchange earner. Gold alone contributed 44.7 percent of 1994 total export earnings. GHANAMIN is used to investigate the economywide impacts of mineral tax policies, world market mineral prices changes, mining investment, and increased mineral exports. It is also used for identifying key sectors for economic development. Various simulations were undertaken with the following results: Recently implemented mineral tax policies are welfare increasing, but have an accompanying decrease in the output of other export sectors. World mineral price rises stimulate an increase in real GDP; however, this increase is less than real GDP decreases associated with price declines. Investment in the non-gold mining sector increases real GDP more than investment in gold mining, because of the former's stronger linkages to the rest of the economy. Increased mineral exports are very beneficial to the overall economy. Foreign direct investment (FDI) in mining increases welfare more so than domestic capital, which is very limited. Mining investment and the increased mineral exports since 1986 have contributed significantly to the country's economic recovery, with gold mining accounting for 95 percent of the

  9. Proceedings of the 15. annual national meeting of the American Society for Surface Mining and Reclamation. Mining -- Gateway to the future

    SciTech Connect

    Throgmorton, D.; Nawrot, J.; Mead, J.; Galetovic, J.; Joseph, W.

    1998-12-31

    The 124 papers of these proceedings are arranged under the following topical sections: Minerals education; Hydrology--Characterization and monitoring; Tailings--Reclamation; Reforestation; Mine drainage--Biogeochemical processes; Mine drainage--Treatment, general; Mine drainage--Passive treatment, wetlands; Mine drainage--Prediction and monitoring; Acid soils--Reclamation practices; Wildlife and fisheries habitat; Subsidence--Engineering practices and environmental effects; OSM acid forming materials mini workshops; RUSLE--Erosion prediction techniques on mined construction and reclaimed lands; IDNR wetlands technology transfer program; Mine planning and postmining land use; Vegetation establishment--Principles and practices; Vegetation establishment--Warm season grasses; Coal combustion by-products--General; Coal combustion by-products--Mine drainage treatment; and Prime farmland reclamation and mine soils management. Papers within scope have been processed separately for inclusion on the data base.

  10. The mineral industry of Ethiopia: present conditions and future prospects

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Assefa, Getaneh

    Despite a record of mineral activity that dates back to Biblical times and the occurrence of a wide variety of minerals, as well as continuing efforts to discover major ore deposits, Ethiopia's mineral resources ahve remained of minor importance in the world economy. Mineral production in the last 20 years, for example, forms less than 1% of the estimated GDP. Well known minerals andmineral products available in the country in commercial quantities are: gold, platinum, manganese ore, natural agas, clays and clay products, feldspars, gypsum and anhydrite, slat, lime, limestone, cement, sand, structural and crushed stones, marble, mineral water and pumice. There are also vast reserves of water and geothermal power. Recently discovered deposits (over the last 20 years), with major reserves that may attain an important role in mineral production in the future, include potash salts, copper ore and diatomites. Minerals which are known to occur in Ethiopia, but of which supplies are deficient, or which have not yet been proved to exist in economic quantities are: nickel, iron, chromium, mineral fuels (oil, coal and uranium), sulphur, asbesttos, mica, talc, barytes, fluorites, borates, soda-ash, phosphates, wolframite, abrasives (garnet), molybdenite and vanadium. Within the last few years there has been an increasing appreciation of the economic significance of a mineral industry and a definite attempt to foster it. Mineral ownership is vested in the state are cotnrolled by the MInistry of Mines, Energy and Water Resources. The law relating to foreign investment in mines is liberal. The plans for the future have to provide for detailed and intensive exploration of the country's mineral resources, manufacture and fabrication.

  11. Mars surface weathering products and spectral analogs: Palagonites and synthetic iron minerals

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Golden, D. C.; Ming, D. W.; Morris, R. V.; Lauer, H. V., Jr.

    1992-01-01

    There are several hypotheses regarding the formation of Martian surface fines. These surface fines are thought to be products of weathering processes occurring on Mars. Four major weathering environments of igneous rocks on Mars have been proposed; (1) impact induced hydrothermal alterations; (2) subpermafrost igneous intrusion; (3) solid-gas surface reactions; and (4) subaerial igneous intrusion over permafrost. Although one or more of these processes may be important on the Martian surface, one factor in common for all these processes is the reaction of solid or molten basalt with water (solid, liquid, or gas). These proposed processes, with the exception of solid-gas surface reactions, are transient processes. The most likely product of transient hydrothermal processes are layer silicates, zeolites, hydrous iron oxides and palagonites. The long-term instability of hydrous clay minerals under present Martian conditions has been predicted; however, the persistence of such minerals due to slow kinetics of dehydration, or entrapment in permafrost, where the activity of water is high, can not be excluded. Anhydrous oxides of iron (e.g., hematite and maghemite) are thought to be stable under present Martian surface conditions. Oxidative weathering of sulfide minerals associated with Martian basalts has been proposed. Weathering of sulfide minerals leads to a potentially acidic permafrost and the formation of Fe(3) oxides and sulfates. Weathering of basalts under acidic conditions may lead to the formation of kaolinite through metastable halloysite and metahalloysite. Kaolinite, if present, is thought to be a thermodynamically stable phase at the Martian surface. Fine materials on Mars are important in that they influence the surface spectral properties; these fines are globally distributed on Mars by the dust storms and this fraction will have the highest surface area which should act as a sink for most of the absorbed volatiles near the surface of Mars. Therefore

  12. Isolation of novel microalgae from acid mine drainage and its potential application for biodiesel production.

    PubMed

    Yun, Hyun-Shik; Lee, Hongkyun; Park, Young-Tae; Ji, Min-Kyu; Kabra, Akhil N; Jeon, Chung; Jeon, Byong-Hun; Choi, Jaeyoung

    2014-08-01

    Microalgae were selected and isolated from acid mine drainage in order to find microalgae species which could be cultivated in low pH condition. In the present investigation, 30 microalgae were isolated from ten locations of acid mine drainage in South Korea. Four microalgae were selected based on their growth rate, morphology, and identified as strains of KGE1, KGE3, KGE4, and KGE7. The dry biomass of microalgae species ranged between 1 and 2 g L(-1) after 21 days of cultivation. The growth kinetics of microalgae was well described by logistic growth model. Among these, KGE7 has the highest biomass production (2.05 ± 0.35 g L(-1)), lipid productivity (0.82 ± 0.14 g L(-1)), and C16-C18 fatty acid contents (97.6 %). These results suggest that Scenedesmus sp. KGE 7 can be utilized for biodiesel production based on its high biomass and lipid productivity.

  13. Tectonic conditions of hydrothermal polymetallic vein-type mineralization, Sainte Marie-aux-Mines, France

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Hafeznia, Y.; Bourlange, S.; Ohnenstetter, M.

    2012-04-01

    The Sainte-Marie-aux-Mines (SMM) mines host one of the most famous and oldest silver deposits in Europe. The SMM district is located in the central part of the Vosges mountains, France, within gneiss and granites of the Moldanubian zone. The SMM district includes the Neuenberg E-W vein-type Cu-Ag-As/Pb-Zn deposit and the Altenberg N-S vein-type Pb-Zn-Ag deposit. Deposition of the SMM hydrothermal mineralization occurred under a brittle tectonic regime that might be connected to neo-Variscan and/or post-Variscan tectonics, in a similar way as the polymetallic vein deposits of the Black Forest, Germany. A structural study was done in the Neuenberg area, in the vicinity of the Saint-Jacques vein, and within the Gabe Gottes mine, considering the orientation, extent, chronology and density of faults as well as the nature of the infilling minerals. In the Gabe-Gottes mine, the Saint-Jacques vein comprises multiple successive, sub-parallel subvertical veinlets with gangue minerals, mostly carbonates and quartz, and metal-bearing phases, sulfides and sulfosalts. The veinlets are 2 to 50 cm thick and strike N80° to N110°, the earlier veins slightly dipping towards the north, and the latest one, to the south. Seven systems of faults were identified, which may be classified into three major groups formed respectively before, during and after the main stage of ore deposition: a) Pre-mineralization faults - These consist of sinistral NE-SW strike-slip faults, and NW-SE and NE-SW steeply dipping normal faults. These could be related to Carboniferous events considering their relationships with the granitoid intrusives present in the mine area (Brézouard leucogranite ~329 Ma), and the extensional tectonics developed during exhumation processes. b) Faults associated with the main ore-deposition - These faults could be related to late-Hercynian processes from compressional to extensional tectonic regimes. Mineralization controlling faults consist of dextral and sinistral E

  14. Comparative mineral mapping in the Colorado Mineral Belt using AVIRIS and ASTER remote sensing data

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Rockwell, Barnaby W.

    2013-01-01

    This report presents results of interpretation of spectral remote sensing data covering the eastern Colorado Mineral Belt in central Colorado, USA, acquired by the Airborne Visible/Infrared Imaging Spectrometer (AVIRIS) and Advanced Spaceborne Thermal Emission and Reflection Radiometer (ASTER) sensors. This study was part of a multidisciplinary mapping and data integration project at the U.S. Geological Survey that focused on long-term resource planning by land-managing entities in Colorado. The map products were designed primarily for the regional mapping and characterization of exposed surface mineralogy, including that related to hydrothermal alteration and supergene weathering of pyritic rocks. Alteration type was modeled from identified minerals based on standard definitions of alteration mineral assemblages. Vegetation was identified using the ASTER data and subdivided based on per-pixel chlorophyll content (depth of 0.68 micrometer absorption band) and dryness (fit and depth of leaf biochemical absorptions in the shortwave infrared spectral region). The vegetation results can be used to estimate the abundance of fire fuels at the time of data acquisition (2002 and 2003). The AVIRIS- and ASTER-derived mineral mapping results can be readily compared using the toggleable layers in the GeoPDF file, and by using the provided GIS-ready raster datasets. The results relating to mineral occurrence and distribution were an important source of data for studies documenting the effects of mining and un-mined, altered rocks on aquatic ecosystems at the watershed level. These studies demonstrated a high correlation between metal concentrations in streams and the presence of hydrothermal alteration and (or) pyritic mine waste as determined by analysis of the map products presented herein. The mineral mapping results were also used to delineate permissive areas for various mineral deposit types.

  15. Official Methods for the Determination of Minerals and Trace Elements in Infant Formula and Milk Products: A Review.

    PubMed

    Poitevin, Eric

    2016-01-01

    The minerals and trace elements that account for about 4% of total human body mass serve as materials and regulators in numerous biological activities in body structure building. Infant formula and milk products are important sources of endogenic and added minerals and trace elements and hence, must comply with regulatory as well as nutritional and safety requirements. In addition, reliable analytical data are necessary to support product content and innovation, health claims, or declaration and specific safety issues. Adequate analytical platforms and methods must be implemented to demonstrate both the compliance and safety assessment of all declared and regulated minerals and trace elements, especially trace-element contaminant surveillance. The first part of this paper presents general information on the mineral composition of infant formula and milk products and their regulatory status. In the second part, a survey describes the main techniques and related current official methods determining minerals and trace elements in infant formula and milk products applied for by various international organizations (AOAC INTERNATIONAL, the International Organization for Standardization, the International Dairy Federation, and the European Committe for Standardization). The third part summarizes method officialization activities by Stakeholder Panels on Infant Formula and Adult Nutritionals and Stakeholder Panel on Strategic Food Analytical Methods. The final part covers a general discussion focusing on analytical gaps and future trends in inorganic analysis that have been applied for in infant formula and milk-based products. PMID:26821839

  16. Official Methods for the Determination of Minerals and Trace Elements in Infant Formula and Milk Products: A Review.

    PubMed

    Poitevin, Eric

    2016-01-01

    The minerals and trace elements that account for about 4% of total human body mass serve as materials and regulators in numerous biological activities in body structure building. Infant formula and milk products are important sources of endogenic and added minerals and trace elements and hence, must comply with regulatory as well as nutritional and safety requirements. In addition, reliable analytical data are necessary to support product content and innovation, health claims, or declaration and specific safety issues. Adequate analytical platforms and methods must be implemented to demonstrate both the compliance and safety assessment of all declared and regulated minerals and trace elements, especially trace-element contaminant surveillance. The first part of this paper presents general information on the mineral composition of infant formula and milk products and their regulatory status. In the second part, a survey describes the main techniques and related current official methods determining minerals and trace elements in infant formula and milk products applied for by various international organizations (AOAC INTERNATIONAL, the International Organization for Standardization, the International Dairy Federation, and the European Committe for Standardization). The third part summarizes method officialization activities by Stakeholder Panels on Infant Formula and Adult Nutritionals and Stakeholder Panel on Strategic Food Analytical Methods. The final part covers a general discussion focusing on analytical gaps and future trends in inorganic analysis that have been applied for in infant formula and milk-based products.

  17. Spectral-IP Characteristics of Bacterial Activity on Sulfide Mineral Surfaces: Implications for Detection and Environmental Impact Assessment of Acid Mine Drainage.

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Blackmore, S. R.; Southam, G.; Katsube, J.

    2004-12-01

    Spectral induced polarization (IP) measurements were carried out, over a frequency range of 1.0-106 Hz, on pyrite crystal surfaces colonized by thiobacilli at different growth stages and in `sedimentary systems' with different pyrite-quartz ratios. The purpose was to determine if these varied pyrite-bacteria conditions are reflected in the spectral-IP responses and whether IP, as a geophysical tool, is able to detect and assess the potential for acid mine drainage due to bacterial activity. The study used an Acidithiobacillus ferrooxidans subspecies, isolated from the Kam Kotia mine tailings, Timmins, Ontario, using limiting dilutions in 9K buffer medium (pH 3; (NH4)2SO4, 0.4 g; K2HPO4, 0.1 g; MgSO47H2O, 0.1 g) supplemented with 3.3 g/L of filter sterilized FeSO47H2O as their energy source. Duplicate syringe columns experiments were prepared using varying concentrations of acid-washed silica and/or pyrite (simulating either disseminated or stratified pyritic ore) and colonized with thiobacilli. All columns were maintained under saturating conditions with circumneutral 9K buffer. Each column began with an acidic pH and became more alkaline over the 2-month experiment, typically ending close to the circumneutral pH of the media. The spectral-IP measurements responded directly to bacterial activity, i.e., changes in impedance were observed in all samples. Samples that contained bacteria were higher in impedance (with significant differences observed between frequencies of 10-100000Hz). Over time, scanning electron microscopy revealed increases in the bacterial corrosion surface area, bacterial ferric-sulfate encasement, the number of bacteria colonies and abundance of ferric precipitates. Bacterially induced mineralization was observed as patches in all systems. In the disseminated and stratified environments, the patches covered 8-10% of the grains, predominantly along the fractured mineral edges. In the `massive' 100% pyrite systems, bacteria-mineral patches covered

  18. Mining and mendacity, or how to keep a toxic product in the marketplace.

    PubMed

    McCulloch, Jock

    2005-01-01

    The corruption of medical evidence about the hazards of asbestos began with the Canadian mines. Quebec at one time boasted ten of the 13 mines in Canada. Work conditions in the mines were harsh, and the mills were full of airborne fiber. Given the size of the industry, the Quebec mines were where occupational asbestosis should first have been identified, but research at the mines was done in company towns, where clinics were staffed by company doctors. Since the late 1920s U.S. parent companies and their Canadian subsidiaries have maintained that there is little if any disease among mine workers. Asbestosis in textile workers, they have claimed, has been due to the conditions in that industry and not the inherent dangers of asbestos. That fiction continues to shape the discourse about the usefulness of asbestos.

  19. Geochemical modeling of the influence of silicate mineral alteration on alkalinity production and carbonate precipitation

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Herda, Gerhard; Kraemer, Stephan M.; Gier, Susanne; Meister, Patrick

    2016-04-01

    High CO2 partial pressure (pCO2) in deep rock reservoirs causes acidification of the porefluid. Such conditions occur during injection and subsurface storage of CO2 (to prevent the release of greenhouse gas) but also naturally in zones of strong methanogenic microbial activity in organic matter-rich ocean margin sediments. The acidic fluids are corrosive to carbonates and bear the risk of leakage of CO2 gas to the surface. Porefluid acidification may be moderated by processes that increase the alkalinity, i.e. that produce weak acid anions capable of buffering the acidification imposed by the CO2. Often, alkalinity increases as a result of anaerobic microbial activity, such as anaerobic oxidation of methane. However, on a long term the alteration of silicates, in particular, clay minerals, may be a more efficient mechanism of alkalinity production. Under altered temperature, pressure and porefluid composition at depth, clay minerals may change to thermodynamically more stable states, thereby increasing the alkalinity of the porefluid by partial leaching of Mg-(OH)2 and Ca-(OH)2 (e.g. Wallmann et al., 2008; Mavromatis et al., 2014). This alteration may even be enhanced by a high pCO2. Thus, silicate alteration can be essential for a long-term stabilization of volatile CO2 in the form of bicarbonate or may even induce precipitation of carbonate minerals, but these processes are not fully understood yet. The goal of this study is to simulate the alkalinity effect of silicate alteration under diagenetic conditions and high pCO2 by geochemical modeling. We are using the program PHREEQC (Parkhurst and Appelo, 2013) to generate high rock/fluid ratio characteristics for deep subsurface rock reservoirs. Since we are interested in the long-term evolution of diagenetic processes, over millions of years, we do not consider kinetics but calculate the theoretically possible equilibrium conditions. In a first step we are calculating the saturation state of different clay minerals

  20. 43 CFR 3873.3 - Non-mineral entry of residue of subdivisions invaded by mining claims.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-10-01

    ... Public Lands (Continued) BUREAU OF LAND MANAGEMENT, DEPARTMENT OF THE INTERIOR MINERALS MANAGEMENT (3000) ADVERSE CLAIMS, PROTESTS AND CONFLICTS Segregation § 3873.3 Non-mineral entry of residue of subdivisions... approve the application (if otherwise regular), exclusive of the conflict with the mining claims. (b)...

  1. 238U, and its decay products, in grasses from an abandoned uranium mine

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Childs, Edgar; Maskall, John; Millward, Geoffrey

    2016-04-01

    Bioaccumulation of radioactive contaminants by plants is of concern particularly where the sward is an essential part of the diet of ruminants. The abandoned South Terras uranium mine, south west England, had primary deposits of uraninite (UO2) and pitchblende (U3O8), which contained up to 30% uranium. When the mine was active uranium and radium were extracted but following closure it was abandoned without remediation. Waste rock and gangue, consisting of inefficiently processed minerals, were spread around the site, including a field where ruminants are grazed. Here we report the activity concentrations of 238U, 235U 214,210Pb, and the concentrations of selected metals in the soils, roots and leaves of grasses taken from the contaminated field. Soil samples were collected at the surface, and at 30 cm depth, using an auger along a 10-point transect in the field from the foot of a waste heap. Whole, individual grass plants were removed with a spade, ensuring that their roots were intact. The soils and roots and grass leaves were freeze-dried. Activity concentrations of the radionuclides were determined by gamma spectroscopy, following 30 days incubation for development of secular equilibrium. Dried soils, roots and grasses were also digested in aqua regia and the concentrations of elements determined by ICP techniques. Maximum activity concentrations of 238U, 235U, 214Pb and 210Pb surface soils were 63,300, 4,510, 23,300 and 49,400 Bq kg‑1, respectively. The mean 238U:235U ratio was 11.8 ± 1.8, an order of magnitude lower than the natural value of 138, indicating disequilibrium within the decay chain due to mineral processing. Radionuclides in the roots had 5 times lower concentration and only grass leaves in the vicinity of the waste heap had measureable values. The mean soil to root transfer factor for 238U was 36%, the mean root to leaf was 3% and overall only 0.7% of 238U was transferred from the soil to the leaves. The roots contained 0.8% iron, possibly as

  2. 238U, and its decay products, in grasses from an abandoned uranium mine

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Childs, Edgar; Maskall, John; Millward, Geoffrey

    2016-04-01

    Bioaccumulation of radioactive contaminants by plants is of concern particularly where the sward is an essential part of the diet of ruminants. The abandoned South Terras uranium mine, south west England, had primary deposits of uraninite (UO2) and pitchblende (U3O8), which contained up to 30% uranium. When the mine was active uranium and radium were extracted but following closure it was abandoned without remediation. Waste rock and gangue, consisting of inefficiently processed minerals, were spread around the site, including a field where ruminants are grazed. Here we report the activity concentrations of 238U, 235U 214,210Pb, and the concentrations of selected metals in the soils, roots and leaves of grasses taken from the contaminated field. Soil samples were collected at the surface, and at 30 cm depth, using an auger along a 10-point transect in the field from the foot of a waste heap. Whole, individual grass plants were removed with a spade, ensuring that their roots were intact. The soils and roots and grass leaves were freeze-dried. Activity concentrations of the radionuclides were determined by gamma spectroscopy, following 30 days incubation for development of secular equilibrium. Dried soils, roots and grasses were also digested in aqua regia and the concentrations of elements determined by ICP techniques. Maximum activity concentrations of 238U, 235U, 214Pb and 210Pb surface soils were 63,300, 4,510, 23,300 and 49,400 Bq kg-1, respectively. The mean 238U:235U ratio was 11.8 ± 1.8, an order of magnitude lower than the natural value of 138, indicating disequilibrium within the decay chain due to mineral processing. Radionuclides in the roots had 5 times lower concentration and only grass leaves in the vicinity of the waste heap had measureable values. The mean soil to root transfer factor for 238U was 36%, the mean root to leaf was 3% and overall only 0.7% of 238U was transferred from the soil to the leaves. The roots contained 0.8% iron, possibly as

  3. Restoring Sustainable Forests on Appalachian Mined Lands for Wood Products, Renewable Energy, Carbon Sequestration, and Other Ecosystems Services

    SciTech Connect

    James A. Burger; J. Galbraith; T. Fox; G. Amacher; J. Sullivan; C. Zipper

    2006-04-30

    The overall purpose of this project is to evaluate the biological and economic feasibility of restoring high-quality forests on mined land, and to measure carbon sequestration and wood production benefits that would be achieved from forest restoration procedures. During this quarter we worked on methodologies for analyzing carbon in mine soils. A unique property of mine soils is the presence of coal and carboniferous rock particles that are present in mine soils in various sizes, quantities, and qualities. There is no existing method in the literature that may be of use for quantitative estimation of soil organic carbon (SOC) in mine soils that can successfully differentiate between pedogenic and geogenic carbon forms. In this report we present a detailed description of a 16-step method for measuring SOC in mine soils designed for and tested on a total of 30 different mine soil mixtures representing a wide spectrum of mine soils in the hard-rock region of the Appalachian coalfield. The proposed method is a combination of chemical procedure for carbonates removal, a thermal procedure for pedogenic C removal, and elemental C analysis procedure at 900 C. Our methodology provides a means to correct for the carbon loss from the more volatile constituents of coal fragments in the mine soil samples and another correction factor for the protected organic matter that can also remain unoxidized following thermal pretreatment. The correction factors for coal and soil material-specific SOM were based on carbon content loss from coal and SOM determined by a parallel thermal oxidation analysis of pure ground coal fragments retrieved from the same mined site as the soil samples and of coal-free soil rock fragments of sandstone and siltstone origin.

  4. RESTORING SUSTAINABLE FORESTS ON APPALACHIAN MINED LANDS FOR WOOD PRODUCTS, RENEWABLE ENERGY, CARBON SEQUESTRATION, AND OTHER ECOSYSTEM SERVICES

    SciTech Connect

    Jonathan Aggett

    2003-12-15

    The overall purpose of this project is to evaluate the biological and economic feasibility of restoring high-quality forests on mined land, and to measure carbon sequestration and wood production benefits that would be achieved from forest restoration procedures. In this segment of work, our goal was to review methods for estimating tree survival, growth, yield and value of forests growing on surface mined land in the eastern coalfields of the USA, and to determine the extent to which carbon sequestration is influenced by these factors. Public Law 95-87, the Surface Mining Control and Reclamation Act of 1977 (SMCRA), mandates that mined land be reclaimed in a fashion that renders the land at least as productive after mining as it was before mining. In the central Appalachian region, where prime farmland and economic development opportunities for mined land are scarce, the most practical land use choices are hayland/pasture, wildlife habitat, or forest land. Since 1977, the majority of mined land has been reclaimed as hayland/pasture or wildlife habitat, which is less expensive to reclaim than forest land, since there are no tree planting costs. As a result, there are now hundreds of thousands of hectares of grasslands and scrublands in various stages of natural succession located throughout otherwise forested mountains in the U.S. A literature review was done to develop the basis for an economic feasibility study of a range of land-use conversion scenarios. Procedures were developed for both mixed hardwoods and white pine under a set of low product prices and under a set of high product prices. Economic feasibility is based on land expectation values. Further, our review shows that three types of incentive schemes might be important: (1) lump sum payment at planting (and equivalent series of annual payments); (2) revenue incentive at harvest; and (3) benefit based on carbon volume.

  5. Blasting with used oil/diesel blend at Echo Bay Minerals -- McCoy/Cove Mine

    SciTech Connect

    Zadra, S.L.

    1996-12-31

    In May, 1994, Echo Bay Minerals -- McCoy/Cove Mine petitioned for approval to recycle used oil for manufacturing ANFO. Recycling oil in this way will result in a cost savings for the minesite as well as having a positive environmental affect. The petition has met the approval of the Bureau of Land Management, the Nevada Department of Environmental Protection, and has received tentative approval from the Mine Safety and Health Administration. This paper discusses the issues raised by governmental agencies, site specific design parameters, and construction aspects of the facility. Standard operating procedures of the facility are also discussed.

  6. Mercury residues and productivity in osprey and grebes from a mine-dominated ecosystem.

    PubMed

    Anderson, Daniel W; Suchanek, Thomas H; Eagles-Smith, Collin A; Cahill, Thomas M

    2008-12-01

    Mercury (Hg) and reproduction and status of Western and Clark's Grebes (Aechmophorus sp.) and Osprey (Pandion haliaetus) were studied from 1992 through 2001 and then less intensely through 2006 at Clear Lake, California, USA. Remediation to reduce Hg loading from the Sulphur Bank Mercury Mine was initiated in 1992. Mercury in grebe feathers declined monotonically from approximately 23 mg/kg dry mass (DM) in 1967-1969 to 1 mg/kg in 2003, but then increased to 7 mg/kg in 2004-2006. Mercury in Osprey feathers varied similarly, with mean values of 20 mg/kg DM in 1992, declining to a low of 2 mg/kg in 1998, but increasing to 23 mg/kg in 2003, and 12 mg/kg in 2006. Mercury in Osprey feathers at our reference site (Eagle Lake, California) remained low (1-8 ppm) throughout the entire period, 1992-2003. Grebe productivity at Clear Lake improved from approximately 0.1 to 0.5 fledged young per adult during the latter part of the study when human disturbance was prevented. At that period in time, improved productivity did not differ from our reference site at Eagle Lake. Human disturbance, however, as a co-factor made it impossible to evaluate statistically subtle Hg effects on grebe productivity at Clear Lake. Osprey reproduced sufficiently to maintain increasing breeding numbers from 1992 to 2006. Mercury in Clear Lake water, sediments, invertebrates, and fish did not decline from 1992 to 2003, but a shift in trophic structure induced by an introduced planktivorous fish species may have caused significant alterations in Hg concentrations in several species of prey fishes that may have produced concomitant changes in Osprey and grebe Hg exposure. The temporary declines observed in grebe and Osprey feather residues in the late 1990s, with coincidental improvements in reproductive performance, however, could not be attributed to remediation at the mine site.

  7. Radio-Ecological Situation in the Area of the Priargun Production Mining and Chemical Association - 13522

    SciTech Connect

    Semenova, M.P.; Seregin, V.A.; Kiselev, S.M.; Titov, A.V.; Zhuravleva, L.A.; Marenny, A.M.

    2013-07-01

    'The Priargun Production Mining and Chemical Association' (hereinafter referred to as PPMCA) is a diversified mining company which, in addition to underground mining of uranium ore, carries out refining of such ores in hydrometallurgical process to produce natural uranium oxide. The PPMCA facilities are sources of radiation and chemical contamination of the environment in the areas of their location. In order to establish the strategy and develop criteria for the site remediation, independent radiation hygienic monitoring is being carried out over some years. In particular, this monitoring includes determination of concentration of the main dose-forming nuclides in the environmental media. The subjects of research include: soil, grass and local foodstuff (milk and potato), as well as media of open ponds (water, bottom sediments, water vegetation). We also measured the radon activity concentration inside surface workshops and auxiliaries. We determined the specific activity of the following natural radionuclides: U-238, Th-232, K-40, Ra-226. The researches performed showed that in soil, vegetation, groundwater and local foods sampled in the vicinity of the uranium mines, there is a significant excess of {sup 226}Ra and {sup 232}Th content compared to areas outside the zone of influence of uranium mining. The ecological and hygienic situation is as follows: - at health protection zone (HPZ) gamma dose rate outdoors varies within 0.11 to 5.4 μSv/h (The mean value in the reference (background) settlement (Soktui-Molozan village) is 0.14 μSv/h); - gamma dose rate in workshops within HPZ varies over the range 0.14 - 4.3 μSv/h. - the specific activity of natural radionuclides in soil at HPZ reaches 12800 Bq/kg and 510 Bq/kg for Ra-226 and Th-232, respectively. - beyond HPZ the elevated values for {sup 226}Ra have been registered near Lantsovo Lake - 430 Bq/kg; - the radon activity concentration in workshops within HPZ varies over the range 22 - 10800 Bq/m{sup 3}. The

  8. Carbonate-mineral/water interactions in sulfide-rich mine tailings

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Al, Tom A.; Martin, Chris J.; Blowes, David W.

    2000-12-01

    The chemical composition and mineralogy of coatings on carbonate minerals from mine tailings have been studied using aqueous geochemical methods, Time-of-Flight Laser-Ionization Mass Spectrometry (TOF-LIMS) and Transmission Electron Microscopy (TEM). The goal is to study major and trace element partitioning between the aqueous and solid phase, and to infer mechanisms that control the concentrations of elements in the pore water of sulfide-rich mine tailings. Pore-water samples and carbonate-mineral grains were collected from four geochemically distinct zones within the tailings. Oxidation of sulfide minerals near the surface results in a large range in pore-water pH (3.85 to 6.98) and aqueous concentrations of metals and sulfate. With increasing depth in the tailings, mineral-water interactions lead to increasing pH, and decreasing concentrations of metals and sulfate. Calculated mineral saturation indices, trends in the abundance of Ca, Fe, Mg and Mn in TOF-LIMS profiles through the secondary coatings, and electron diffraction patterns obtained from the coatings, suggest that precipitation/dissolution of jarosite-group minerals, gypsum, goethite, akaganéite, amorphous Fe oxyhydroxides and siderite control the aqueous Ca, Fe, Na, K and SO 4 concentrations. The occurrence of secondary coatings on primary minerals is widespread, and reactions with the secondary minerals, rather than the primary mineral substrate, probably represent the principal controls on trace-element distributions in the pore water. The data indicate that adsorption, surface-complexation and co-precipitation reactions are important controls on the concentrations of trace elements in the pore water. The occurrence of siderite coatings on the surface of ankerite grains suggests that Fe-bearing dolomite-structure carbonate minerals dissolve incongruently. This corroborates inferences made by previous workers that solubility differences between calcite and siderite lead to calcite dissolution and

  9. ASEAN Mineral Database and Information System (AMDIS)

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Okubo, Y.; Ohno, T.; Bandibas, J. C.; Wakita, K.; Oki, Y.; Takahashi, Y.

    2014-12-01

    AMDIS has lunched officially since the Fourth ASEAN Ministerial Meeting on Minerals on 28 November 2013. In cooperation with Geological Survey of Japan, the web-based GIS was developed using Free and Open Source Software (FOSS) and the Open Geospatial Consortium (OGC) standards. The system is composed of the local databases and the centralized GIS. The local databases created and updated using the centralized GIS are accessible from the portal site. The system introduces distinct advantages over traditional GIS. Those are a global reach, a large number of users, better cross-platform capability, charge free for users, charge free for provider, easy to use, and unified updates. Raising transparency of mineral information to mining companies and to the public, AMDIS shows that mineral resources are abundant throughout the ASEAN region; however, there are many datum vacancies. We understand that such problems occur because of insufficient governance of mineral resources. Mineral governance we refer to is a concept that enforces and maximizes the capacity and systems of government institutions that manages minerals sector. The elements of mineral governance include a) strengthening of information infrastructure facility, b) technological and legal capacities of state-owned mining companies to fully-engage with mining sponsors, c) government-led management of mining projects by supporting the project implementation units, d) government capacity in mineral management such as the control and monitoring of mining operations, and e) facilitation of regional and local development plans and its implementation with the private sector.

  10. 76 FR 25277 - Lowering Miners' Exposure to Respirable Coal Mine Dust, Including Continuous Personal Dust Monitors

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2011-05-04

    ... FR 64412), MSHA published a proposed rule, Lowering Miners' Exposure to Respirable Coal Mine Dust... the proposed rule. The proposal was published on October 19, 2010 (75 FR 64412). DATES: All comments...' Exposure to Respirable Coal Mine Dust, Including Continuous Personal Dust Monitors AGENCY: Mine Safety...

  11. Distributed communications and control network for robotic mining

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Schiffbauer, William H.

    1989-01-01

    The application of robotics to coal mining machines is one approach pursued to increase productivity while providing enhanced safety for the coal miner. Toward that end, a network composed of microcontrollers, computers, expert systems, real time operating systems, and a variety of program languages are being integrated that will act as the backbone for intelligent machine operation. Actual mining machines, including a few customized ones, have been given telerobotic semiautonomous capabilities by applying the described network. Control devices, intelligent sensors and computers onboard these machines are showing promise of achieving improved mining productivity and safety benefits. Current research using these machines involves navigation, multiple machine interaction, machine diagnostics, mineral detection, and graphical machine representation. Guidance sensors and systems employed include: sonar, laser rangers, gyroscopes, magnetometers, clinometers, and accelerometers. Information on the network of hardware/software and its implementation on mining machines are presented. Anticipated coal production operations using the network are discussed. A parallelism is also drawn between the direction of present day underground coal mining research to how the lunar soil (regolith) may be mined. A conceptual lunar mining operation that employs a distributed communication and control network is detailed.

  12. Minerals

    MedlinePlus

    Minerals are important for your body to stay healthy. Your body uses minerals for many different jobs, including building bones, making ... regulating your heartbeat. There are two kinds of minerals: macrominerals and trace minerals. Macrominerals are minerals your ...

  13. Stable isotopes and iron oxide mineral products as markers of chemodenitrification.

    PubMed

    Jones, L Camille; Peters, Brian; Lezama Pacheco, Juan S; Casciotti, Karen L; Fendorf, Scott

    2015-03-17

    When oxygen is limiting in soils and sediments, microorganisms utilize nitrate (NO3-) in respiration--through the process of denitrification--leading to the production of dinitrogen (N2) gas and trace amounts of nitrous (N2O) and nitric (NO) oxides. A chemical pathway involving reaction of ferrous iron (Fe2+) with nitrite (NO2-), an intermediate in the denitrification pathway, can also result in production of N2O. We examine the chemical reduction of NO2- by Fe(II)--chemodenitrification--in anoxic batch incubations at neutral pH. Aqueous Fe2+ and NO2- reacted rapidly, producing N2O and generating Fe(III) (hydr)oxide mineral products. Lepidocrotite and goethite, identified by synchrotron X-ray diffraction (XRD) and extended X-ray absorption fine structure (EXAFS) spectroscopy, were produced from initially aqueous reactants, with two-line ferrihydrite increasing in abundance later in the reaction sequence. Based on the similarity of apparent rate constants with different mineral catalysts, we propose that the chemodenitrification rate is insensitive to the type of Fe(III) (hydr)oxide. With stable isotope measurements, we reveal a narrow range of isotopic fractionation during NO2- reduction to N2O. The location of N isotopes in the linear N2O molecule, known as site preference, was also constrained to a signature range. The coexistence of Fe(III) (hydr)oxide, characteristic 15N and 18O fractionation, and N2O site preference may be used in combination to qualitatively distinguish between abiotic and biogenically emitted N2O--a finding important for determining N2O sources in natural systems.

  14. Exploration and Mining Roadmap

    SciTech Connect

    none,

    2002-09-01

    This Exploration and Mining Technology Roadmap represents the third roadmap for the Mining Industry of the Future. It is based upon the results of the Exploration and Mining Roadmap Workshop held May 10 ñ 11, 2001.

  15. Divalent minerals decrease micellarization and uptake of carotenoids and digestion products into Caco-2 cells.

    PubMed

    Biehler, Eric; Hoffmann, Lucien; Krause, Elmar; Bohn, Torsten

    2011-10-01

    Carotenoids are lipophilic, dietary antioxidants with the potential to prevent chronic and age-related diseases. Prior to their availability for physiological functions, carotenoids require micellarization and intestinal uptake, both constituting marginally understood processes. Based on an in vitro digestion model coupled to Caco-2 cells, we assessed the effect of dietary abundant divalent ions on spinach-derived carotenoid micellarization and cellular uptake: Ca and Mg ranging from 7.5 to 25 mmol/L in the digesta and Zn and Fe ranging from 3.8 to 12.5 mmol/L. Both micellarization and uptake were significantly inhibited by minerals in a concentration-dependent manner, with stronger effects for Fe and Zn compared to Ca and Mg. Compared to controls (no mineral addition), fractional micellarization and uptake were decreased to the greatest extent (to 22.5 and 5.0%, respectively; P < 0.001) by 12.5 mmol/L Fe. Effects of Mg were of the least magnitude; at 25 mmol/L, only uptake was decreased significantly to 69.2% of the control value (P < 0.001). Total cellular carotenoid uptake from test meals decreased similarly compared to micellarization; however, decreased β-carotene micellarization was counterbalanced by improved fractional cellular uptakes from the micelles for all ions. Compared to controls, fractional β-carotene uptake from the micelles was greater in samples digested in the presence of Fe, Ca, and Zn, by up to 5-10 times at the highest concentrations of each ion (P < 0.001). Like for the above carotenoids, a high cellular uptake of the epoxycarotenoid conversion products neochrome (from neoxanthin) and luteoxanthin+auroxanthin (from violaxanthin) was also observed. The present results indicate that divalent ions may inhibit carotenoid micellarization and uptake.

  16. Trace metal contamination of mineral spring water in an historical mining area in regional Victoria, Australia

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Martin, Rachael; Dowling, Kim

    2013-11-01

    Significant global consumption of spring and mineral water is fuelled by perceived therapeutic and medicinal qualities, cultural habits and taste. The Central Victorian Mineral Springs Region, Australia comprises approximately 100 naturally effervescent, cold, high CO2 content springs with distinctive tastes linked to a specific spring or pump. The area has a rich settlement history. It was first settled by miners in the 1840s closely followed by the first commercial operations of a health resort 1895. The landscape is clearly affected by gold mining with geographically proximal mine waste, mullock heaps or tailings. Repeated mineral springs sampling since 1985 has revealed elevated arsenic concentrations. In 1985 an arsenic concentration five times the current Australian Drinking Water Guideline was recorded at a popular tourist spring site. Recent sampling and analyses have confirmed elevated levels of heavy metals/metalloids, with higher concentrations occurring during periods of low rainfall. Despite the elevated levels, mineral water source points remain accessible to the public with some springs actively promoting the therapeutic benefits of the waters. In light of our analysis, the risk to consumers (some of whom are likely to be negatively health-affected or health-compromised) needs to be considered with a view to appropriate and verified analyses made available to the public.

  17. Carbon dioxide sequestration by direct mineral carbonation: process mineralogy of feed and products

    SciTech Connect

    O'Connor, William K.; Dahlin, David C.; Rush, G.E.; Dahlin, Cheryl L.; Collins, W. Keith

    2002-05-01

    Direct mineral carbonation was investigated as a process to convert gaseous CO[2] into a geologically stable final form. The process utilizes a slurry of water, with bicarbonate and salt additions, mixed with a mineral reactant, such as olivine (Mg[2]SiO[4]) or serpentine [Mg[3]Si[2]O[5](OH)[4

  18. Anaerobic digestion of paunch in a CSTR for renewable energy production and nutrient mineralization

    SciTech Connect

    Nkemka, Valentine Nkongndem; Marchbank, Douglas H.; Hao, Xiying

    2015-09-15

    Highlights: • Anaerobic digestion and nutrient mineralization of paunch in a CSTR. • Low CH{sub 4} yield and high CH{sub 4} productivity was obtained at an OLR of 2.8 g VS L{sup −1} day{sup −1.} • Post-digestion of the digestate resulted in a CH{sub 4} yield of 0.067 L g{sup −1} VS. • Post-digestion is recommended for further digestate stabilization. - Abstract: A laboratory study investigated the anaerobic digestion of paunch in a continuous stirred tank reactor (CSTR) for the recovery of biogas and mineralization of nutrients. At an organic loading rate (OLR) of 2.8 g VS L{sup −1} day{sup −1} with a 30-day hydraulic retention time (HRT), a CH{sub 4} yield of 0.213 L g{sup −1} VS and CH{sub 4} production rate of 0.600 L L{sup −1} day{sup −1} were obtained. Post-anaerobic digestion of the effluent from the CSTR for 30 days at 40 °C recovered 0.067 L g{sup −1} VS as CH{sub 4}, which was 21% of the batch CH{sub 4} potential. Post-digestion of the effluent from the digestate obtained at this OLR is needed to meet the stable effluent criteria. Furthermore, low levels of soluble ions such as K{sup +}, Ca{sup 2+} and Mg{sup 2+} were found in the liquid fraction of the digestate and the remainder could have been retained in the solid digestate fraction. This study demonstrates the potential of biogas production from paunch in providing renewable energy. In addition, recovery of plant nutrients in the digestate is important for a sustainable agricultural system.

  19. Effects of daidzein and kiwifruit on bone mineral density and equol production in ovariectomised rats.

    PubMed

    Tousen, Yuko; Wolber, Frances M; Chua, Wei-Hang; Tadaishi, Miki; Ishimi, Yoshiko; Kruger, Marlena C

    2014-05-01

    In this study, we investigated the synergistic effects of daidzein (Dz) and kiwifruit on bone and equol production in ovariectomised (OVX) rats. Female Sprague-Dawley rats were randomly assigned to one of five groups: sham operated, OVX control, OVX fed 0.1% Dz-supplemented diet (OVX + Dz), OVX fed 0.1% Dz and green kiwifruit (GRK)-supplemented diet (OVX + Dz + GRK) and OVX fed 0.1% Dz and gold kiwifruit (GOK)-supplemented diet (OVX + Dz + GOK). There were no significant differences in whole body and femur bone mineral density (BMD) among groups at week 8. BMD in the OVX group significantly decreased at week 8; however, BMD in the OVX + Dz + GRK was not significantly different from baseline in the end of the study. However, supplementation with kiwifruit did not affect urinary equol concentrations, urinary ratios of equol to Dz and the composition of caecal microbiota. These results suggest that the combination of Dz and GRK may slightly reduce bone loss caused by oestrogen deficiency but does not affect equol production.

  20. Rocks and Minerals.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Naturescope, 1987

    1987-01-01

    Provides background information on rocks and minerals, including the unique characteristics of each. Teaching activities on rock-hunting and identification, mineral configurations, mystery minerals, and growing crystals are provided. Reproducible worksheets are included for two of the activities. (TW)

  1. 2,4,6-Trinitrotoluene mineralization and bacterial production rates of natural microbial assemblages from coastal sediments.

    PubMed

    Montgomery, Michael T; Coffin, Richard B; Boyd, Thomas J; Smith, Joseph P; Walker, Shelby E; Osburn, Christopher L

    2011-12-01

    The nitrogenous energetic constituent, 2,4,6-Trinitrotoluene (TNT), is widely reported to be resistant to bacterial mineralization (conversion to CO(2)); however, these studies primarily involve bacterial isolates from freshwater where bacterial production is typically limited by phosphorus. This study involved six surveys of coastal waters adjacent to three biome types: temperate broadleaf, northern coniferous, and tropical. Capacity to catabolize and mineralize TNT ring carbon to CO(2) was a common feature of natural sediment assemblages from these coastal environments (ranging to 270+/-38 μg C kg(-1) d(-1)). More importantly, these mineralization rates comprised a significant proportion of total heterotrophic production. The finding that most natural assemblages surveyed from these ecosystems can mineralize TNT ring carbon to CO(2) is consistent with recent reports that assemblage components can incorporate TNT ring carbon into bacterial biomass. These data counter the widely held contention that TNT is recalcitrant to bacterial catabolism of the ring carbon in natural environments.

  2. New Minerals and Science.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Birch, William D.

    1997-01-01

    Defines geodiversity, compares it to biodiversity, and discusses the mineral classification system. Charts the discovery of new minerals in Australia over time and focuses on uses of these minerals in technological advances. (DDR)

  3. The legality of designating a union representative as the miners` walkaround representative at a non-unionized mine

    SciTech Connect

    1996-10-01

    Reflecting the need for miner participation in maintaining safe conditions in the nation`s mines, current federal law gives miners at each mining operation the right to appoint a representative to accompany federal inspectors on periodic mine inspections. The Federal Mine Safety and Health Act (Mine Act) grants the miners the right to choose this {open_quotes}walkaround{close_quotes} representative, and provides that the walkaround representative shall be given an opportunity to accompany a federal agent during an inspection of a mine for the purposes of aiding the inspection. The issue of the propriety of a non-employee union walkaround representative at a non-union mine was recently addressed in Kerr-McGee Coal Corp. v. Federal Mine Safety & Health Review Commission (Kerr-McGee) and Thunder Basin Coal Co. v. Federal Mine Safety & Health Review Commission (Thunder Basin). This Note is devoted to a discussion of Kerr-McGee and Thunder Basin. However, it is important to first briefly review the provision of the federal statutes that give rise to the controversy. The Note then explains how the statutes were interpreted by the Kerr-McGee and Thunder Basin courts. A reading of the two decisions makes it apparent that any group of employees of a non-unionized mine are free to select a non-employee union agent as their walkaround representative. Finally, the Note discusses the ramifications of the conclusions reached in Kerr-McGee and Thunder Basin on the future duties and behavior of mine operators, organized labor, and those designated as walkaround representatives.

  4. Herbaceous vegetation productivity, persistence, and metals uptake on a biosolids-amended mine soil.

    PubMed

    Evanylo, G K; Abaye, A O; Dundas, C; Zipper, C E; Lemus, R; Sukkariyah, B; Rockett, J

    2005-01-01

    The selection of plant species is critical for the successful establishment and long-term maintenance of vegetation on reclaimed surface mined soils. A study was conducted to assess the capability of 16 forage grass and legume species in monocultures and mixes to establish and thrive on a reclaimed Appalachian surface mine amended with biosolids. The 0.15-ha coarse-textured, rocky, non-acid forming mined site was prepared for planting by grading to a 2% slope and amending sandstone overburden materials with a mixture of composted and dewatered, anaerobically digested biosolids at a rate of 368 Mg ha(-1) (dry weight). Tall fescue (Festuca arundinacea Schreb.), orchardgrass (Dactylis glomerata L.), switchgrass (Panicum virgatum L.), caucasian bluestem (Bothriochloa caucasia L.), reed canarygrass (Phalaris arundinacea L.), ladino clover (Trifolium repens L.), birdsfoot trefoil (Lotus corniculatus L.), crownvetch (Coronilla varia L.), alfalfa (Medicago sativa L.), common sericea lespedeza and AULotan sericea lespedeza (Lespedeza cuneata L.), tall fescue-ladino clover, tall fescue-alfalfa, orchardgrass-birdsfoot trefoil, switchgrass-AULotan, and an herbaceous species mix intended for planting on reforested sites consisting of foxtail millet [Setaria italica (L.) Beauv.], perennial ryegrass (Lolium perenne L.), redtop (Agrostis alba L.), kobe lespedeza (Kummerowia striata L.), appalow lespedeza (Lespedeza cuneata L.), and birdsfoot trefoil were established between spring 1990 and 1991. Vegetative biomass and/or persistence were assessed in 1996, 1997, 1998, 2000, 2001, and 2002. The high rate of biosolids applied provided favorable soil chemical properties but could not overcome physical property limitations due to shallow undeveloped soil perched atop a compacted soil layer at 25 cm depth. The plant species whose persistence and biomass production were the greatest after a decade or more of establishment (i.e., switchgrass, sericea lespedeza, reed canarygrass, tall

  5. Mining and the carbon cycle

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Wilson, S. A.; Dipple, G. M.; Raudsepp, M.

    2006-12-01

    We document fixation of the greenhouse gas carbon dioxide (CO2) in tailings from active and abandoned mining operations. The hydrated magnesium carbonate minerals nesquehonite, hydromagnesite, dypingite, and lansfordite form during processing and weathering of ultramafic mine tailings. The rate of silicate dissolution is greatly accelerated in the tailings environment as a direct result of the reduction in grain size, and corresponding increase in reactive surface area, afforded by mining and milling. Once CO2 has been incorporated into the crystal structure of a mineral, it is potentially trapped on a geologic timescale. We use stable and radiogenic isotope tracers to assess the sources of carbon bound in minerals. Potential carbon reservoirs include atmospheric, bedrock, and industrial sources. Using isotopic tracers, we are able to distinguish between these reservoirs to identify which minerals are hosts for atmospheric and industrial CO2. Quantitative phase analysis with X-ray powder-diffraction data is used to determine the modal abundance of mineral hosts for trapped CO2 and to provide an estimate of the amount of CO2 stored in tailings. By combining tracer studies with quantitative phase analysis, we are able to accurately assess the role that mineral processing and accelerated weathering play in reducing the greenhouse gas content of the atmosphere.

  6. Sustainable rehabilitation of mining waste and acid mine drainage using geochemistry, mine type, mineralogy, texture, ore extraction and climate knowledge.

    PubMed

    Anawar, Hossain Md

    2015-08-01

    The oxidative dissolution of sulfidic minerals releases the extremely acidic leachate, sulfate and potentially toxic elements e.g., As, Ag, Cd, Cr, Cu, Hg, Ni, Pb, Sb, Th, U, Zn, etc. from different mine tailings and waste dumps. For the sustainable rehabilitation and disposal of mining waste, the sources and mechanisms of contaminant generation, fate and transport of contaminants should be clearly understood. Therefore, this study has provided a critical review on (1) recent insights in mechanisms of oxidation of sulfidic minerals, (2) environmental contamination by mining waste, and (3) remediation and rehabilitation techniques, and (4) then developed the GEMTEC conceptual model/guide [(bio)-geochemistry-mine type-mineralogy- geological texture-ore extraction process-climatic knowledge)] to provide the new scientific approach and knowledge for remediation of mining wastes and acid mine drainage. This study has suggested the pre-mining geological, geochemical, mineralogical and microtextural characterization of different mineral deposits, and post-mining studies of ore extraction processes, physical, geochemical, mineralogical and microbial reactions, natural attenuation and effect of climate change for sustainable rehabilitation of mining waste. All components of this model should be considered for effective and integrated management of mining waste and acid mine drainage.

  7. Prolonged triboluminescence in clays and other minerals

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Lahav, N.; Coyne, L. M.; Lawless, J. G.

    1982-01-01

    Samples of various clays and minerals were ground or fractured and monitored with a liquid scintillation spectrometer in order to obtain triboluminescent decay curves. Kaolinite samples displayed several million counts/min after grinding, with a surface area emission estimated at tens of billions of photons/sq cm of surface. The photon production rates varied with the origin of the sample, and kaolinite continually yielded higher production rates than bentonite. The addition of water to the samples slightly increased the count rate of emitted light, while the addition of the fluorescent molecule substance tryptofan significantly enhanced the count rate. Freezing smears of kaolinite and montmorillonite in liquid nitrogen and in a salt ice mixture also induced triboluminescence in the montmorillonite. A possible connection between powdery triboluminescent materials formed in mining industries and respiratory disorders among miners is suggested.

  8. Criminalistic identification of PGM-containing products of mining and metallurgical companies.

    PubMed

    Perelygin, Alexander; Kuchkin, Alexander; Kharkov, Nikolay; Moskvina, Tatyana

    2008-01-15

    In early 1990 s some organized criminal groups started to develop a new field of illegal business, which involved thefts of intermediary products from mining and metal-producing plants in Russia and in the south of Africa. Since local sulfide copper/nickel ores contain certain concentrations of precious and platinum group metals (PGMs), the intermediary products recovered at different stages of metallurgical transformation of these ores are materials of high commercial value. Illicit transportation and refining of these materials in Western Europe and North America has evolved into a large-scale business, where a lot of unlawful revenues are being laundered. The most important tasks in combating this organized crime are as follows: to establish the facts when some PGM-containing semi-products had been received at certain refineries; to carry out the identification of these semi-products; and to prove that these semi-products had been produced by a certain company. As a rule, it is not difficult to establish the identity of a "clean product". However, when a material is a mix of several semi-products or a mix of some semi-product with masking substances, the identification of individual components becomes an extremely complicated task. The purpose of developing the "complex procedure for establishing the nature and source of origin of precious metal-bearing products of mining and metallurgical operations" was to make possible the identification of complex mixes comprised of various metallurgical semi-products. In the complex procedure that we have developed to characterize dispersed materials, distribution of particles by their elemental composition (the so-called "pseudophase" composition) was used instead of mineralogical composition. To determine the "pseudophase" composition by the method of scanning electron microscopy with X-ray spectral microanalysis (SEM-EDX), a representative sample of material containing not less than 1000 particles was analyzed. All

  9. Criminalistic identification of PGM-containing products of mining and metallurgical companies.

    PubMed

    Perelygin, Alexander; Kuchkin, Alexander; Kharkov, Nikolay; Moskvina, Tatyana

    2008-01-15

    In early 1990 s some organized criminal groups started to develop a new field of illegal business, which involved thefts of intermediary products from mining and metal-producing plants in Russia and in the south of Africa. Since local sulfide copper/nickel ores contain certain concentrations of precious and platinum group metals (PGMs), the intermediary products recovered at different stages of metallurgical transformation of these ores are materials of high commercial value. Illicit transportation and refining of these materials in Western Europe and North America has evolved into a large-scale business, where a lot of unlawful revenues are being laundered. The most important tasks in combating this organized crime are as follows: to establish the facts when some PGM-containing semi-products had been received at certain refineries; to carry out the identification of these semi-products; and to prove that these semi-products had been produced by a certain company. As a rule, it is not difficult to establish the identity of a "clean product". However, when a material is a mix of several semi-products or a mix of some semi-product with masking substances, the identification of individual components becomes an extremely complicated task. The purpose of developing the "complex procedure for establishing the nature and source of origin of precious metal-bearing products of mining and metallurgical operations" was to make possible the identification of complex mixes comprised of various metallurgical semi-products. In the complex procedure that we have developed to characterize dispersed materials, distribution of particles by their elemental composition (the so-called "pseudophase" composition) was used instead of mineralogical composition. To determine the "pseudophase" composition by the method of scanning electron microscopy with X-ray spectral microanalysis (SEM-EDX), a representative sample of material containing not less than 1000 particles was analyzed. All

  10. Effects of a long-acting, trace mineral, reticulorumen bolus on range cow productivity and trace mineral profiles.

    PubMed

    Sprinkle, J E; Cuneo, S P; Frederick, H M; Enns, R M; Schafer, D W; Carstens, G E; Daugherty, S B; Noon, T H; Rickert, B M; Reggiardo, C

    2006-06-01

    The objectives were to determine if strategic supplementation of range cows with a long-acting (6 mo), trace mineral, reticulorumen bolus containing Cu, Se, and Co would: (1) increase cow BCS and BW, and calf birth, weaning, and postweaning weights, or weight per day of age (WDA); (2) increase liver concentrations of Cu or Zn in cows, or blood Se, Cu, or Zn concentrations in cows and calves; and (3) vary by cow breed for any of these response variables. There were 192 control and 144 bolused Composite cows (C; 25% Hereford, Angus, Gelbevieh, and Senepol or Barzona); 236 control and 158 bolused Hereford (H) cows; and 208 control and 149 bolused Brahman cross (B) cows used in a 3-yr experiment. Cows were weighed and scored for body condition in January, May, and September, and all bolused cows received boluses in January. Each year, from among the 3 breed groups a subset of 15 control and 15 bolused cows (n = 90) had samples obtained in January and May for liver Cu and Zn, blood Se, and serum Cu and Zn. As for cows, blood and serum from the calves of these cows were sampled each year in May and September for Cu, Se, and Zn. There was a significant breed x year x treatment interaction (P = 0.001) for cow weight loss from January to May. Calf WDA, weaning, and postweaning weights did not differ (P > 0.40) between bolused and control cows, but there was a significant (P = 0.022) breed x year x treatment interaction for birth weight. Liver Cu was deficient (< 75 ppm; P < 0.001) in control cows and adequate (< 75 to 90 ppm) for bolused cows. Liver Cu differed by year (P < 0.001). Blood Se was adequate (< 0.1 ppm) for all cows except in January 2001 and 2002. There was no difference (P > 0.50) in blood Se between treatment groups in January, but bolused cows had greater (P < 0.01) blood Se in May. Breed differences for blood Se concentrations existed for bolused cows, with B having greater (P < 0.05) blood Se than either C or H cows. Breed differences also existed for

  11. Land application of sugar beet by-products: effects on nitrogen mineralization and crop yields.

    PubMed

    Kumar, Kuldip; Rosen, Carl J; Gupta, Satish C; McNearney, Matthew

    2009-01-01

    Land application of food processing wastes has become an acceptable practice because of the nutrient value of the wastes and potential cost savings in their disposal. Spoiled beets and pulp are among the main by-products generated by the sugar beet (Beta vulgaris L.) processing industry. Farmers commonly land apply these by-products at rates >224 Mg ha(-1) on a fresh weight basis. However, information on nutrient release in soils treated with these by-products and their subsequent impacts on crop yield is lacking. Field studies were conducted to determine the effects of sugar beet by-product application on N release and crop yields over two growing seasons. Treatments in the first year were two rates (224 and 448 Mg ha(-1) fresh weight) of pulp and spoiled beets and a nonfertilized control. In the second year after by-product application, the control treatment was fertilized with N fertilizer and an additional treatment was added as a nonfertilized control in buffer areas. Wheat (Triticum aestivum L.) was grown in the year of by-product application and sugar beet in the subsequent year. By-product treatments caused a significant reduction in wheat grain yield compared with the control. This was due to a decline in N availability as a result of immobilization. Based on microplots receiving 15N labeled beets, wheat took up <1% of spoiled beet-N (approximately 4.7 kg ha(-1)) during the year of by-product application. In the second cropping year, sugar beet root yields were significantly higher in the fertilized control and by-product treatments than the nonfertilized control. The lack of significant difference in sugar beet yield between the fertilized control and by-product treatments was likely due to the greater availability of N in the second year. Labeled 15N data also showed that the sugar beet crop recovered a 17% of sugar beet-N, an equivalent of 86 kg N ha(-1), during the second cropping year. There was no difference in sugar beet root yield, N uptake, or

  12. What's weathering? Mineralogy and field leach studies in mine waste, Leadville and Montezuma mining districts, Colorado

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Diehl, S.F.; Hageman, Phil L.; Smith, Kathleen S.

    2006-01-01

    Weathering is important in the development of rock fabrics that control porosity in mine-waste materials, and in turn, porosity affects metal transport through and from mine-waste piles into watersheds. Mine-waste piles are dynamic physical and chemical systems as evidenced by remnant Fe-oxide boxwork structures after sulfide minerals, development of alteration rinds and etch pits on grains, and precipitation of secondary minerals under low temperature conditions. These microscale changes in the mine-waste materials are the result of partial to total dissolution of sulfide and other minerals. Mine-waste materials from the Dinero, Lower Chatauqua, and Saints John sites, Leadville and Montezuma mining districts, Colorado, exhibit rock fabrics that indicate that weathering products, e.g., Fe oxyhydroxides, jarosite, and clays, have been transported in suspension through the waste piles and deposited in voids and as coatings on rock fragments. Microscale characterization of weathered, partially dissolved minerals lends insight into the source of leachable metals in these mine-waste sites. Mineralogic studies show that galena in the Lower Chatauqua waste is enriched in Ag. Qualitative and semiquantitative microanalysis of weathered, altered galena grains from all three sites show that the Ag-bearing galena is more susceptible to dissolution. It is not surprising, then, that solutions experimentally leached from Lower Chatauqua waste are higher in Pb (2310 ppb) compared to leachates from the Dinero (31 ppb) and Saints John (1360 ppb) wastes. The mobility of metals is increased at acidic pH. Using the USGS Field Leach Test protocol, leachate derived from the Dinero waste has a pH of 3 and high concentrations of Al (443 ppb), Fe (441 ppb), and Zn (7970 ppb). Leachate from Sts. John tailings has a pH about 4 and high concentrations of Mn (1520 ppb), Zn (2240 ppb), and Pb (1360 ppb). Leachate from the Lower Chatauqua waste has an intermediate pH of 5, but in addition to the

  13. Effective Conveyor Belt Inspection for Improved Mining Productivity

    SciTech Connect

    David LaRose

    2006-07-01

    This document details progress on the project ''Effective Conveyor Belt Inspection for Improved Mining Productivity'' during the period from November 15, 2005 to May 14, 2006. Highlights include significant improvements in the accuracy and reliability of computer-vision based vulcanized splice detection, deployment of the vulcanized splice detection algorithms for daily use in two working mines, and successful demonstration of an early prototype of a Smart-Camera based system for on-site mechanical splice detection in coal mine installations.

  14. Effect of Natural Mineral on Methane Production and Process Stability During Semi-Continuous Mono-Digestion of Maize Straw.

    PubMed

    González-Suárez, A; Pereda-Reyes, I; Pozzi, E; da Silva, A José; Oliva-Merencio, D; Zaiat, M

    2016-04-01

    The effect of natural mineral on the mono-digestion of maize straw was evaluated in continuously stirred tank reactors (CSTRs) at 38 °C. Different strategies of mineral addition were studied. The organic loading rate (OLR) was varied from 0.5 to 2.5 g volatile solid (VS) L(-1) d(-1). A daily addition of 1 g mineral L(-1) in reactor 2 (R2) diminished the methane production by about 11 % with respect to the initial phase. However, after a gradual addition of mineral, an average methane yield of 257 NmL CH4 g VS(-1) was reached and the methane production was enhanced by 30 % with regard to R1. An increase in the frequency of mineral addition did not enhance the methane production. The archaeal community was more sensitive to the mineral than the bacterial population whose similarity stayed high between R1 and R2. Significant difference in methane yield was found for both reactors throughout the operation.

  15. 43 CFR 3833.20 - Amending mining claims and sites.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-10-01

    ... 43 Public Lands: Interior 2 2011-10-01 2011-10-01 false Amending mining claims and sites. 3833.20... MANAGEMENT, DEPARTMENT OF THE INTERIOR MINERALS MANAGEMENT (3000) RECORDING MINING CLAIMS AND SITES Amending Mining Claims and Sites § 3833.20 Amending mining claims and sites....

  16. 43 CFR 3833.20 - Amending mining claims and sites.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-10-01

    ... 43 Public Lands: Interior 2 2012-10-01 2012-10-01 false Amending mining claims and sites. 3833.20... MANAGEMENT, DEPARTMENT OF THE INTERIOR MINERALS MANAGEMENT (3000) RECORDING MINING CLAIMS AND SITES Amending Mining Claims and Sites § 3833.20 Amending mining claims and sites....

  17. 43 CFR 3833.20 - Amending mining claims and sites.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-10-01

    ... 43 Public Lands: Interior 2 2013-10-01 2013-10-01 false Amending mining claims and sites. 3833.20... MANAGEMENT, DEPARTMENT OF THE INTERIOR MINERALS MANAGEMENT (3000) RECORDING MINING CLAIMS AND SITES Amending Mining Claims and Sites § 3833.20 Amending mining claims and sites....

  18. 43 CFR 3833.20 - Amending mining claims and sites.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-10-01

    ... 43 Public Lands: Interior 2 2014-10-01 2014-10-01 false Amending mining claims and sites. 3833.20... MANAGEMENT, DEPARTMENT OF THE INTERIOR MINERALS MANAGEMENT (3000) RECORDING MINING CLAIMS AND SITES Amending Mining Claims and Sites § 3833.20 Amending mining claims and sites....

  19. Effect of soil depth and topographic position on plant productivity and community development on 28-year old reclaimed mine lands

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Reclamation research has shifted from short- to long-term assessment of mine land reclamation management strategies, wherein previously established study sites are revisited. In this study, we assessed long-term (28 yr) relations among re-established plant communities (production and diversity), re...

  20. Discovery of novel phosphonate natural products and their biosynthetic pathways by large-scale genome mining

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Genome mining has revolutionized the field of natural products, providing hope that new antibiotics can be discovered in time before all remainders are rendered useless against multidrug resistant pathogens. While this approach has been successful in academic settings focused on small collections or...

  1. Potential of castor bean (Ricinus communis L.) for phytoremediation of mine tailings and oil production.

    PubMed

    Ruiz Olivares, Alejandro; Carrillo-González, Rogelio; González-Chávez, Ma del Carmen A; Soto Hernández, Ramón Marcos

    2013-01-15

    Bioenergy production combined with phytoremediation has been suggested to help in solving two critical world problems: the gradual reduction of fossil fuels and soil contamination. The aim of this research was to investigate the potential for the use of Ricinus communis L. (castor oil plant) as an energy crop and plant species to remediate metal-polluted sites. This study was performed in mine tailings containing high concentrations of Cu, Zn, Mn, Pb and Cd. Physico-chemical characterization, total, DTPA-extractable and water-soluble metals in rhizospheric tailings heap samples were carried. Metal concentrations in plant tissues and translocation factors (TFs) were also determined. The Ricinus seed-oil content was high between 41 and 64%, seeds from San Francisco site 6 had the highest oil content, while these from site 7 had the lowest. No trend between oil yield vs seed origin site was observed. Seed-oil content was negatively correlated with root concentration of Cu, Zn, Pb and Cd, but no correlation was observed with the extractable-metals. According to its shoot metal concentrations and TFs, castor bean is not a metal accumulator plant. This primary colonizing plant is well suited to cope with the local toxic conditions and can be useful for the stabilization of these residues, and for then decreasing metal bioavailability, dispersion and human health risks on these barren tailings heaps and in the surrounding area. Our work is the first report regarding combined oil production and a phytostabilization role for Ricinus plants in metal mine tailings and may give a new value to suitable metal-polluted areas.

  2. Utilization of coal mine methane for methanol and SCP production. Topical report, May 5, 1995--March 4, 1996

    SciTech Connect

    1998-12-31

    The feasibility of utilizing a biological process to reduce methane emissions from coal mines and to produce valuable single cell protein (SCP) and/or methanol as a product has been demonstrated. The quantities of coal mine methane from vent gas, gob wells, premining wells and abandoned mines have been determined in order to define the potential for utilizing mine gases as a resource. It is estimated that 300 MMCFD of methane is produced in the United States at a typical concentration of 0.2-0.6 percent in ventilation air. Of this total, almost 20 percent is produced from the four Jim Walter Resources (JWR) mines, which are located in very gassy coal seams. Worldwide vent gas production is estimated at 1 BCFD. Gob gas methane production in the U.S. is estimated to be 38 MMCFD. Very little gob gas is produced outside the U.S. In addition, it is estimated that abandoned mines may generate as much as 90 MMCFD of methane. In order to make a significant impact on coal mine methane emissions, technology which is able to utilize dilute vent gases as a resource must be developed. Purification of the methane from the vent gases would be very expensive and impractical. Therefore, the process application must be able to use a dilute methane stream. Biological conversion of this dilute methane (as well as the more concentrated gob gases) to produce single cell protein (SCP) and/or methanol has been demonstrated in the Bioengineering Resources, Inc. (BRI) laboratories. SCP is used as an animal feed supplement, which commands a high price, about $0.11 per pound.

  3. 43 CFR 3832.20 - Lode and placer mining claims.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-10-01

    ... 43 Public Lands: Interior 2 2011-10-01 2011-10-01 false Lode and placer mining claims. 3832.20... MANAGEMENT, DEPARTMENT OF THE INTERIOR MINERALS MANAGEMENT (3000) LOCATING MINING CLAIMS OR SITES Types of Mining Claims § 3832.20 Lode and placer mining claims....

  4. 43 CFR 3832.20 - Lode and placer mining claims.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-10-01

    ... 43 Public Lands: Interior 2 2013-10-01 2013-10-01 false Lode and placer mining claims. 3832.20... MANAGEMENT, DEPARTMENT OF THE INTERIOR MINERALS MANAGEMENT (3000) LOCATING MINING CLAIMS OR SITES Types of Mining Claims § 3832.20 Lode and placer mining claims....

  5. 43 CFR 3832.20 - Lode and placer mining claims.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-10-01

    ... 43 Public Lands: Interior 2 2014-10-01 2014-10-01 false Lode and placer mining claims. 3832.20... MANAGEMENT, DEPARTMENT OF THE INTERIOR MINERALS MANAGEMENT (3000) LOCATING MINING CLAIMS OR SITES Types of Mining Claims § 3832.20 Lode and placer mining claims....

  6. 43 CFR 3832.20 - Lode and placer mining claims.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-10-01

    ... 43 Public Lands: Interior 2 2012-10-01 2012-10-01 false Lode and placer mining claims. 3832.20... MANAGEMENT, DEPARTMENT OF THE INTERIOR MINERALS MANAGEMENT (3000) LOCATING MINING CLAIMS OR SITES Types of Mining Claims § 3832.20 Lode and placer mining claims....

  7. The geology and mineral deposits of part of the western half of the Hailey 1 degree x 2 degrees quadrangle, Idaho; with sections on the Neal mining district and the Dixie mining district

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Bennett, Earl H.

    2001-01-01

    Rocks in the western half of the Hailey 1 ?? 2 ? quadrangle of south-central Idaho include various units of the Atlanta lobe of the Idaho batholith (biotite granodiorite to two-mica granite) of Cretaceous age and plutons and dikes of Tertiary (Eocene to Miocene) age that intrude the batholith. Eocene plutonic rocks consist of a bimodal suite of anorogenic granite and tonalite-granodiorite and hypabyssal rhyolite and rhyodacite dikes. Rocks of the Eocene Challis Volcanics are scarce in the map area but are widespread to the east. Rhyolite ash flows of the Miocene Idavada Volcanics and basalt of the Snake River Plain crop out in the southern part of the area. Lacustrine rocks of probable Eocene to Holocene age are present in the vicinity of Anderson Ranch Reservoir. Quaternary basalts and gravels are widespread on the South Fork of the Boise River, and alluvial deposits are common along active drainages. Metasedimentary rocks of unknown age crop out on House Mountain, Chimney Peak, and on the ridges east of Anderson Ranch Reservoir. Older structures in the Idaho batholith include a major fault beneath House Mountain that may be a decollement for one of the large thrust sheets in eastern Idaho or part of an extensional core complex. The southern part of the Atlanta lobe of the Idaho batholith is cut by northeast-striking faults (parallel with the Trans-Challis fault system) that are related to Eocene extension and by northwest-oriented faults that formed during basin and range extension in the Miocene. The basin and range faults have prominent scarps typical of basin and range topography. The combination of northeast and northwest faults has broken the batholith into a series of rhomboid blocks. Some of these northeast and northwest faults are older structures that were reactivated in the Eocene or Miocene, as indicated by Ar 40 /Ar 39 dates on mineralized rock contained in some of the structures. The Idaho batholith and associated rocks in the map area host several

  8. SURVEY OF ASBESTOS-RELATED DISEASES IN TRADES AND MINING OCCUPATIONS AND IN FACTORY AND MINING COMMUNITIES AS A MEANS OF PREDICTING HEALTH RISKS OF NONOCCUPATIONAL EXPOSURE TO FIBROUS MINERALS.

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Ross, Malcolm; ,

    1984-01-01

    A review based on 36 published epidemiological studies is given of disease patterns that have developed among industrial workers, miners, and millers who had been exposed to dusts of one or more of the commercial asbestos minerals or to dusts from minerals perceived to be asbestos-like. Health data are also reviewed for individuals exposed to asbestos dusts in nonoccupational settings. From the published reports it is clear that there are very significant differences in the health effects of the several asbestos or asbestos-like minerals.

  9. Debilitating Lung Disease Among Surface Coal Miners With No Underground Mining Tenure

    PubMed Central

    Halldin, Cara N.; Reed, William R.; Joy, Gerald J.; Colinet, Jay F.; Rider, James P.; Petsonk, Edward L.; Abraham, Jerrold L.; Wolfe, Anita L.; Storey, Eileen; Laney, A. Scott

    2015-01-01

    Objective To characterize exposure histories and respiratory disease among surface coal miners identified with progressive massive fibrosis from a 2010 to 2011 pneumoconiosis survey. Methods Job history, tenure, and radiograph interpretations were verified. Previous radiographs were reviewed when available. Telephone follow-up sought additional work and medical history information. Results Among eight miners who worked as drill operators or blasters for most of their tenure (median, 35.5 years), two reported poor dust control practices, working in visible dust clouds as recently as 2012. Chest radiographs progressed to progressive massive fibrosis in as few as 11 years. One miner’s lung biopsy demonstrated fibrosis and interstitial accumulation of macrophages containing abundant silica, aluminum silicate, and titanium dust particles. Conclusions Overexposure to respirable silica resulted in progressive massive fibrosis among current surface coal miners with no underground mining tenure. Inadequate dust control during drilling/blasting is likely an important etiologic factor. PMID:25563541

  10. Solar photo-Fenton treatment of carbofuran: analysis of mineralization, toxicity, and organic by-products.

    PubMed

    Lopez-Alvarez, Blady; Torres-Palma, Ricardo A; Ferraro, Franklin; Peñuela, Gustavo

    2012-01-01

    The degradation of the pesticide carbofuran (CBF) using solar photo-Fenton treatment, at both the laboratory and the pilot scale, was evaluated. At the laboratory scale, in a suntest reactor, the Fe(2+) concentration and H(2)O(2) concentration were evaluated and optimized using the surface response methodology and the Pareto diagram. Under optimal conditions experiments were performed to evaluate the evolution of the substrate removal, oxidation, subsequent mineralization, toxicity and the formation of chloride ions during the treatment. The analysis and evolution of five CBF by-products as well as several control and reactivity tests at the density functional theory level were used to depict a general scheme of the main degradation pathway of CBF via the photo-Fenton system. Finally, at the pilot scale, a sample of the commercial CBF product Furadan was eliminated after 420 min by the photo-Fenton system using direct sunlight. Under these conditions, after 900 min 89% of toxicity (1/E(50) on Vibrio fischeri bacteria), 97% of chemical oxygen demand, and 90% of dissolved organic carbon were removed. PMID:22871012

  11. 30 CFR 49.13 - Alternative mine rescue capability for small and remote mines.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-07-01

    ... the usefulness of additional refuge chambers to supplement those which may exist; (7) A statement by... underground; and (9) Other relevant information about the operator's mine which may be requested by the... appropriate MSHA mine emergency telephone numbers) at the mine for the miners' information. Where a...

  12. Microbially mediated mineral carbonation: roles of phototrophy and heterotrophy.

    PubMed

    Power, Ian M; Wilson, Siobhan A; Small, Darcy P; Dipple, Gregory M; Wan, Wankei; Southam, Gordon

    2011-10-15

    Ultramafic mine tailings from the Diavik Diamond Mine, Canada and the Mount Keith Nickel Mine, Western Australia are valuable feedstocks for sequestering CO₂ via mineral carbonation. In microcosm experiments, tailings were leached using various dilute acids to produce subsaline solutions at circumneutral pH that were inoculated with a phototrophic consortium that is able to induce carbonate precipitation. Geochemical modeling of the experimental solutions indicates that up to 2.5% and 16.7% of the annual emissions for Diavik and Mount Keith mines, respectively, could be sequestered as carbonate minerals and phototrophic biomass. CO₂ sequestration rates are mainly limited by cation availability and the uptake of CO₂. Abundant carbonate mineral precipitation occurred when heterotrophic oxidation of acetate acted as an alternative pathway for CO₂ delivery. These experiments highlight the importance of heterotrophy in producing sufficient DIC concentrations while phototrophy causes alkalinization of waters and produces biomass (fatty acids = 7.6 wt.%), a potential feedstock for biofuel production. Tailings storage facilities could be redesigned to promote CO₂ sequestration by directing leachate waters from tailings piles into specially designed ponds where carbonate precipitation would be mediated by both chemical and biological processes, thereby storing carbon in stable carbonate minerals and potentially valuable biomass. PMID:21879741

  13. Anaerobic digestion of paunch in a CSTR for renewable energy production and nutrient mineralization.

    PubMed

    Nkemka, Valentine Nkongndem; Marchbank, Douglas H; Hao, Xiying

    2015-09-01

    A laboratory study investigated the anaerobic digestion of paunch in a continuous stirred tank reactor (CSTR) for the recovery of biogas and mineralization of nutrients. At an organic loading rate (OLR) of 2.8gVSL(-1)day(-1) with a 30-day hydraulic retention time (HRT), a CH4 yield of 0.213Lg(-1)VS and CH4 production rate of 0.600LL(-1)day(-1) were obtained. Post-anaerobic digestion of the effluent from the CSTR for 30days at 40°C recovered 0.067Lg(-1)VS as CH4, which was 21% of the batch CH4 potential. Post-digestion of the effluent from the digestate obtained at this OLR is needed to meet the stable effluent criteria. Furthermore, low levels of soluble ions such as K(+), Ca(2+) and Mg(2+) were found in the liquid fraction of the digestate and the remainder could have been retained in the solid digestate fraction. This study demonstrates the potential of biogas production from paunch in providing renewable energy. In addition, recovery of plant nutrients in the digestate is important for a sustainable agricultural system.

  14. Anaerobic digestion of paunch in a CSTR for renewable energy production and nutrient mineralization.

    PubMed

    Nkemka, Valentine Nkongndem; Marchbank, Douglas H; Hao, Xiying

    2015-09-01

    A laboratory study investigated the anaerobic digestion of paunch in a continuous stirred tank reactor (CSTR) for the recovery of biogas and mineralization of nutrients. At an organic loading rate (OLR) of 2.8gVSL(-1)day(-1) with a 30-day hydraulic retention time (HRT), a CH4 yield of 0.213Lg(-1)VS and CH4 production rate of 0.600LL(-1)day(-1) were obtained. Post-anaerobic digestion of the effluent from the CSTR for 30days at 40°C recovered 0.067Lg(-1)VS as CH4, which was 21% of the batch CH4 potential. Post-digestion of the effluent from the digestate obtained at this OLR is needed to meet the stable effluent criteria. Furthermore, low levels of soluble ions such as K(+), Ca(2+) and Mg(2+) were found in the liquid fraction of the digestate and the remainder could have been retained in the solid digestate fraction. This study demonstrates the potential of biogas production from paunch in providing renewable energy. In addition, recovery of plant nutrients in the digestate is important for a sustainable agricultural system. PMID:26037058

  15. The mineral treasure that almost got away: Re-evaluating yesterday's mine waste

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Högdahl, K.; Jonsson, E.; Troll, V.; Majka, J.

    2012-04-01

    Rare metals and semi-metals such as In, Ga, Se, Te and rare earth elements (REE) are increasing in demand for use in "new" and "green" technology. Yet, before the end of the 20th century the applications and thus the markets for these elements were limited. In many mines, the exploration paradigms and current knowledge as well as contemporary analytical methodology likely resulted in minerals hosting these metals to end up as waste, that is, on the mine dumps. In other cases, they were identified, but considered as mineralogical "exotica". Even extremely well-known and traditionally valuable metals such as gold went undetected on the dumps in some mine fields. This is due to a combination of factors such as that the deposits were "of the wrong type", assays were expensive, and suitable laboratory capacity sparse. This implies that in many regions, this old mine waste is a potential resource for several sought-after metals and semi-metals, including the ones increasingly used in modern high-tech applications. Admittedly, many older dumps and dump fields host only minor to moderate total amounts of material, but in todaýs society - increasingly focused on sustainability and related needs for recycling - this is likely to become an asset. In Sweden, many mine dumps date back hundreds of years or more as mining has been documented to go back at least 1000 years. Before the 20th century, only a single or, at best, a couple of metals were extracted from any given mine. Due to modern development in analytical techniques, the concentrations of trace elements, including highly sought-after metals and semi-metals can be obtained at moderate costs today. The presence of variable amounts of precious and rare elements along with the main ore commodity has now been documented in several cases. A recently started project in the classic, Palaeoproterozoic Bergslagen ore province in central Sweden is aimed at resolving the potential for finding and utilising these "unknown

  16. Company sells mine by-products

    SciTech Connect

    Chironis, N.P.

    1982-11-01

    An Ohio operator replaced 2 draglines with teams of wheel loaders and trucks, leading to easier reclamation logistics but requiring more precise control. Selling by-products of coal mining, such as limestone and fireclay, has proven profitable for Waterloo Coal Co. After blasting, the overburden is ripped with a Caterpillar 700-hp D10 tractor which significantly reduces blasting costs. Concludes that the truck/loader system is the best way to strip overburden while simultaneously complying with reclamation requirements of current regulations. Soil is analyzed and treated with lime and fertilizer before the planting of cover material and then permanent grasses to prepare the land for agricultural use.

  17. Natural products for chronic cough: Text mining the East Asian historical literature for future therapeutics.

    PubMed

    Shergis, Johannah Linda; Wu, Lei; May, Brian H; Zhang, Anthony Lin; Guo, Xinfeng; Lu, Chuanjian; Xue, Charlie Changli

    2015-08-01

    Chronic cough is a significant health burden. Patients experience variable benefits from over the counter and prescribed products, but there is an unmet need to provide more effective treatments. Natural products have been used to treat cough and some plant compounds such as pseudoephedrine from ephedra and codeine from opium poppy have been developed into drugs. Text mining historical literature may offer new insight for future therapeutic development. We identified natural products used in the East Asian historical literature to treat chronic cough. Evaluation of the historical literature revealed 331 natural products used to treat chronic cough. Products included plants, minerals and animal substances. These natural products were found in 75 different books published between AD 363 and 1911. Of the 331 products, the 10 most frequently and continually used products were examined, taking into consideration findings from contemporary experimental studies. The natural products identified are promising and offer new directions in therapeutic development for treating chronic cough.

  18. Natural products for chronic cough: Text mining the East Asian historical literature for future therapeutics.

    PubMed

    Shergis, Johannah Linda; Wu, Lei; May, Brian H; Zhang, Anthony Lin; Guo, Xinfeng; Lu, Chuanjian; Xue, Charlie Changli

    2015-08-01

    Chronic cough is a significant health burden. Patients experience variable benefits from over the counter and prescribed products, but there is an unmet need to provide more effective treatments. Natural products have been used to treat cough and some plant compounds such as pseudoephedrine from ephedra and codeine from opium poppy have been developed into drugs. Text mining historical literature may offer new insight for future therapeutic development. We identified natural products used in the East Asian historical literature to treat chronic cough. Evaluation of the historical literature revealed 331 natural products used to treat chronic cough. Products included plants, minerals and animal substances. These natural products were found in 75 different books published between AD 363 and 1911. Of the 331 products, the 10 most frequently and continually used products were examined, taking into consideration findings from contemporary experimental studies. The natural products identified are promising and offer new directions in therapeutic development for treating chronic cough. PMID:25901012

  19. Chemical weathering on Mars - Thermodynamic stabilities of primary minerals /and their alteration products/ from mafic igneous rocks

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Gooding, J. L.

    1978-01-01

    Chemical weathering on Mars is examined theoretically from the standpoint of thermodynamic equilibrium between primary rock-forming minerals and the atmospheric gases O2, H2O, and CO2. The primary minerals considered are those common to mafic igneous rocks and include olivine, pyroxene, plagioclase, magnetite, troilite, pyrrhotite, and apatite. The importance of kinetics and reaction mechanisms in controlling possible weathering processes on Mars is discussed within the limits of currently available data, and the possible influence of liquid water on Martian weathering processes is evaluated where appropriate. For gas-solid weathering of mafic igneous rocks at the Martian surface, it is concluded that upon attainment of thermodynamic equilibrium: (1) oxides and carbonates should dominate the mineral assemblage of weathering products; (2) hematite rather than goethite should be the stable mineral form of Fe (III); (3) FeSO4 or FeSO4.H2O could be the stable weathering product of iron sulfides in the absence of liquid water; and (4) kaolinite is apparently the only clay mineral that should be thermodynamically stable over all ranges of temperature and water-vapor abundance at the Martian surface.

  20. Comprehensive assessment of exposures to elongate mineral particles in the taconite mining industry.

    PubMed

    Hwang, Jooyeon; Ramachandran, Gurumurthy; Raynor, Peter C; Alexander, Bruce H; Mandel, Jeffrey H

    2013-10-01

    Since the 1970s, concerns have been raised about elevated rates of mesothelioma in the vicinity of the taconite mines in the Mesabi Iron Range. However, insufficient quantitative exposure data have hampered investigations of the relationship between cumulative exposures to elongate mineral particles (EMP) in taconite dust and adverse health effects. Specifically, no research on exposure to taconite dust, which includes EMP, has been conducted since 1990. This article describes a comprehensive assessment of present-day exposures to total and amphibole EMP in the taconite mining industry. Similar exposure groups (SEGs) were established to assess present-day exposure levels and buttress the sparse historical data. Personal samples were collected to assess the present-day levels of worker exposures to EMP at six mines in the Mesabi Iron Range. The samples were analyzed using National Institute for Occupational Safety and Health (NIOSH) methods 7400 and 7402. For many SEGs in several mines, the exposure levels of total EMP were higher than the NIOSH Recommended Exposure Limit (REL). However, the total EMP classification includes not only the asbestiform EMP and their non-asbestiform mineral analogs but also other minerals because the NIOSH 7400 cannot differentiate between these. The concentrations of amphibole EMP were well controlled across all mines and were much lower than the concentrations of total EMP, indicating that amphibole EMP are not major components of taconite EMP. The levels are also well below the NIOSH REL of 0.1 EMP cc(-1). Two different approaches were used to evaluate the variability of exposure between SEGs, between workers, and within workers. The related constructs of contrast and homogeneity were calculated to characterize the SEGs. Contrast, which is a ratio of between-SEG variability to the sum of between-SEG and between-worker variability, provides an overall measure of whether there are distinctions between the SEGs. Homogeneity, which is

  1. RESTORING SUSTAINABLE FORESTS ON APPALACHIAN MINED LANDS FOR WOOD PRODUCTS, RENEWABLE ENERGY, CARBON SEQUESTRATION, AND OTHER ECOSYSTEM SERVICES

    SciTech Connect

    J. Burger; J. Galbraith; T. Fox; G. Amacher; J. Sullivan; C. Zipper

    2004-06-04

    The overall purpose of this project is to evaluate the biological and economic feasibility of restoring high-quality forests on mined land, and to measure carbon sequestration and wood production benefits that would be achieved from forest restoration procedures. In this quarterly report, we present a preliminary comparison of the carbon sequestration potential of forests growing on 14 mined sites in a seven-state region in the Midwestern and Eastern Coalfields. Carbon contents of these forests were compared to adjacent forests on non-mined land. The study was installed as a 3 x 3 factorial in a random complete block design with three replications at each location. The treatments include three forest types (white pine, hybrid poplar, mixed hardwood) and three silvicultural regimes (competition control, competition control plus tillage, competition control plus tillage plus fertilization). Each individual treatment plot is 0.5 acres. Each block of nine plots requires 4.5 acres, and the complete installation at each site requires 13.5 acres. The plots at all three locations have been installed and the plot corners marked with PVC stakes. GPS coordinates of each plot have been collected. Soil samples were collected from each plot to characterize the sites prior to treatment. Analysis of soil samples was completed and these data are being used to prepare fertilizer prescriptions. Fertilizer prescripts will be developed for each site. Fertilizer will be applied during the second quarter 2004. Data are included as appendices in this report. As part of our economic analysis of mined land reforestation, we focused on the implications of a shift in reforestation burden from the landowner to the mine operator. Results suggest that the reforestation of mined lands as part of the mining operation creates a viable and profitable forest enterprise for landowners with greater potential for carbon sequestration.

  2. [Soil nitrogen mineralization and primary productivity in Rhododendron aureum community of snowpacks in alpine tundra of Changbai Mountain].

    PubMed

    Zhang, Guo-chun; Liu, Qi-jing; Xu, Qian-qian; Liu, Yan

    2010-09-01

    Based on continuous observation of soil temperature and in situ incubation, this paper studied the effects of snow packs on soil temperature, soil nitrogen (N) mineralization, and primary productivity of Rhododendron aureum community alpine tundra in Changbai Mountain. During the snow-covered period of non-growth season (from last October to early May), test soil had an increasing N content, and accumulated sufficient mineralized N for plant growth in the coming year. The soil under snow packs in snow-covered period had a mean temperature -3.0 degrees C, and its N mineralization was more vigorous, with available N increased by 3.88 g x m(-2); while the soil with no snowpack had a mean temperature -7.5 degrees C, and the available N only increased by 1.21 g x m(-2). During growth season (from mid May to late August), soil N content decreased. In autumn when plants stopped growing, soil available N content tended to increase. In winter, the soil temperature under snowpacks kept at around 0 degrees C or a little lower, which promoted soil N mineralization, while that with no snowpack was in a frozen status. The difference in soil N mineralization was the key factor resulting in the higher primary productivity of snowpack Rh. aureum community and the driving force for the spatial variation of vegetation. PMID:21265136

  3. Major element, trace element, nutrient, and radionuclide mobility in a mining by-product-amended soil.

    PubMed

    Douglas, G; Adeney, J; Johnston, K; Wendling, L; Coleman, S

    2012-01-01

    This study investigates the use of a mineral processing by-product, neutralized used acid (NUA), primarily composed of gypsum and Fe-oxyhydroxide, as a soil amendment. A 1489-d turf farm field trial assessed nutrient, trace element, and radionuclide mobility of a soil amended with ∼5% by mass to a depth of 15 cm of NUA. Average PO-P fluxes collected as subsoil leachates were 0.7 and 26.6 kg ha yr for NUA-amended and control sites, respectively, equating to a 97% reduction in PO-P loss after 434 kg P ha was applied. Total nitrogen fluxes in NUA-amended soil leachates were similarly reduced by 82%. Incorporation of NUA conferred major changes in leachate geochemistry with a diverse suite of trace elements depleted within NUA-amended leachates. Gypsum dissolution from NUA resulted in an increase from under- to oversaturation of the soil leachates for a range of Fe- and Ca-minerals including calcite and ferrihydrite, many of which have a well-documented ability to assimilate PO-P and trace elements. Isotopic analysis indicated little Pb addition from NUA. Both Sr and Nd isotope results revealed that NUA and added fertilizer became an important source of Ca to leachate and turf biomass. The NUA-amended soils retained a range of U-Th series radionuclides, with little evidence of transfer to soil leachate or turf biomass. Calculated radioactivity dose rates indicate only a small increment due to NUA amendment. With increased nutrient, trace element, and solute retention, and increased productivity, a range of potential agronomic benefits may be conferred by NUA amendment of soils, in addition to the potential to limit offsite nutrient loss and eutrophication. PMID:23128739

  4. Unravelling a 'miner's myth' that environmental contamination in mining towns is naturally occurring.

    PubMed

    Kristensen, Louise Jane; Taylor, Mark Patrick

    2016-08-01

    Australia has a long history of metal mining and smelting. Extraction and processing have resulted in elevated levels of toxic metals surrounding mining operations, which have adverse health effects, particularly to children. Resource companies, government agencies and employees often construct 'myths' to down play potential exposure risks and responsibility arising from operating emissions. Typical statements include: contaminants are naturally occurring, the wind blows emissions away from residential areas, contaminants are not bioavailable, or the problem is a legacy issue and not related to current operations. Evidence from mining and smelting towns shows that such 'myths' are exactly that. In mining towns, the default and primary defence against contamination is that elevated metals in adjacent urban environments are from the erosion and weathering of the ore bodies over millennia-hence 'naturally occurring'. Not only is this a difficult argument to unravel from an evidence-based perspective, but also it causes confusion and delays remediation work, hindering efforts to reduce harmful exposures to children. An example of this situation is from Broken Hill, New South Wales, home to one of the world's largest lead-zinc-silver ore body, which has been mined continuously for over 130 years. Environmental metal concentration and lead isotopic data from soil samples collected from across Broken Hill are used to establish the nature and timing of lead contamination. We use multiple lines of evidence to unravel a 'miner's myth' by evaluating current soil metal concentrations and lead isotopic compositions, geological data, historical environmental assessments and old photographic evidence to assess the impacts from early smelting along with mining to the surface soils in the city. PMID:26919836

  5. Unravelling a 'miner's myth' that environmental contamination in mining towns is naturally occurring.

    PubMed

    Kristensen, Louise Jane; Taylor, Mark Patrick

    2016-08-01

    Australia has a long history of metal mining and smelting. Extraction and processing have resulted in elevated levels of toxic metals surrounding mining operations, which have adverse health effects, particularly to children. Resource companies, government agencies and employees often construct 'myths' to down play potential exposure risks and responsibility arising from operating emissions. Typical statements include: contaminants are naturally occurring, the wind blows emissions away from residential areas, contaminants are not bioavailable, or the problem is a legacy issue and not related to current operations. Evidence from mining and smelting towns shows that such 'myths' are exactly that. In mining towns, the default and primary defence against contamination is that elevated metals in adjacent urban environments are from the erosion and weathering of the ore bodies over millennia-hence 'naturally occurring'. Not only is this a difficult argument to unravel from an evidence-based perspective, but also it causes confusion and delays remediation work, hindering efforts to reduce harmful exposures to children. An example of this situation is from Broken Hill, New South Wales, home to one of the world's largest lead-zinc-silver ore body, which has been mined continuously for over 130 years. Environmental metal concentration and lead isotopic data from soil samples collected from across Broken Hill are used to establish the nature and timing of lead contamination. We use multiple lines of evidence to unravel a 'miner's myth' by evaluating current soil metal concentrations and lead isotopic compositions, geological data, historical environmental assessments and old photographic evidence to assess the impacts from early smelting along with mining to the surface soils in the city.

  6. Recent trends in Cuba's mining and petroleum industries

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Wacaster, Susan; Baker, Michael S.; Soto-Viruet, Yadira; Textoris, Steven D.

    2015-01-01

    The Report is Temporarily UnavailableIn response to recent diplomatic developments between Cuba and the United States, the National Minerals Information Center compiled available information on the mineral industries of Cuba. This fact sheet highlights a new map and table that identify mines, mineral processing facilities, and petroleum facilities as well as information on location, operational status, and ownership. It also addresses the current status of known mineral industry projects, historical developments, and trends of the Cuban economy with an emphasis on mineral industries, and the supply and demand for Cuba’s mineral resources.In 2013, Cuba was estimated to be among the world’s top ten producers of cobalt and nickel, which are the country’s leading exports. Cuba’s current crude oil and associated natural gas production from onshore and shallow water coastal reservoirs is approximately 50,000 barrels per day of liquids and about 20,000 barrels per day oil equivalent of natural gas. In 2013, the value of mining and quarrying activities accounted for 0.6 percent of Cuba’s gross domestic product (GDP), compared with 1.4 percent in 2000. The value of production from Cuba’s industrial manufacturing sector increased by 88 percent between 1993 and 2013 whereas the sector’s share in the GDP decreased by about 3 percent during the same time period reflecting economic growth in other sectors of the economy.

  7. Effect of mine wastewater on nutrient removal and lipid production by a green microalga Micratinium reisseri from concentrated municipal wastewater.

    PubMed

    Ji, Min-Kyu; Kabra, Akhil N; Salama, El-Sayed; Roh, Hyun-Seog; Kim, Jung Rae; Lee, Dae Sung; Jeon, Byong-Hun

    2014-04-01

    Effect of mine wastewater on the nutrient removal efficiency of a green microalga Micratinium reisseri from concentrated municipal wastewater (CMW) with simultaneous lipid production was investigated. Different dilution ratios (1-10%) of CMW either with mine wastewater (MWF) or mine wastewater without Fe (MWOF) were used. M. reisseri showed the highest growth (0.8gL(-1)) and nutrient uptake (35.9mgTNL(-1) and 5.4mgTPL(-1)) at 3% MWF ([Fe]tot=6.7mgL(-1)), and the highest lipid productivity (10.4mgL(-1)day(-1)) at 5% MWF ([Fe]tot=11.2mgL(-1)) after 15days. CMW supported the algal autoflocculation due to formation of phosphate, calcium and magnesium precipitates at a high suspension pH. Fatty acid methyl ester analysis revealed that the microalgal lipids possessed 79-82% of C16/C18 fatty acids. Application of mine wastewater improved the nutrient removal efficiency, growth and lipid productivity of M. reisseri cultivated in CMW.

  8. Mining Properties in Oregon that were Involved in the DMA, DMEA, OME Mineral Exploration Programs, 1950-1974

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Kiilsgaard, Thor H.

    1998-01-01

    Introduction This report and accompanying map (Plate 1) presents information on the Defense Minerals Administration (DMA), Defense Minerals Exploration Administration (DMEA), and Office of Minerals Exploration (OME) mineral exploration programs in Oregon. Under these programs, the federal government participated in the exploration costs for certain strategic and critical minerals. Federal funds for mineral exploration under the programs were available from 1950 to 1974, although limited funds for OME administrative work were continued until 1979. The report reviews the three programs, associated regulations, administrative procedures, and operational techniques. It also describes the various types of informative reports on individual mining properties generated by the programs, lists properties in Oregon that were involved in the different exploration programs, and advises on the location of compiled information that resulted from the work.

  9. Mining Properties in Washington that were involved in the DMA, DMEA, OME Mineral Exploration Programs, 1950-1974

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Kiilsgaard, Thor H.

    1998-01-01

    Introduction This report and accompanying map (Plate 1) presents information on the Defense Minerals Administration (DMA), Defense Minerals Exploration Administration (DMEA), and Office of Minerals Exploration (OME) mineral exploration programs in Washington. Under these programs, the federal government participated in the exploration costs for certain strategic and critical minerals. Federal funds for mineral exploration under the programs were available from 1950 to 1974, although limited funds for OME administrative work were continued until 1979. The report reviews the three programs, associated regulations, administrative procedures, and operational techniques. It also describes the various types of informative reports generated by the programs, lists mining properties in Washington that were involved in the exploration programs, and advises on location of compiled exploration information that resulted from the work.

  10. Conflict minerals in the compute sector: estimating extent of tin, tantalum, tungsten, and gold use in ICT products.

    PubMed

    Fitzpatrick, Colin; Olivetti, Elsa; Miller, Reed; Roth, Richard; Kirchain, Randolph

    2015-01-20

    Recent legislation has focused attention on the supply chains of tin, tungsten, tantalum, and gold (3TG), specifically those originating from the eastern part of the Democratic Republic of Congo. The unique properties of these so-called “conflict minerals” lead to their use in many products, ranging from medical devices to industrial cutting tools. This paper calculates per product use of 3TG in several information, communication, and technology (ICT) products such as desktops, servers, laptops, smart phones, and tablets. By scaling up individual product estimates to global shipment figures, this work estimates the influence of the ICT sector on 3TG mining in covered countries. The model estimates the upper bound of tin, tungsten, tantalum, and gold use within ICT products to be 2%, 0.1%, 15%, and 3% of the 2013 market share, respectively. This result is projected into the future (2018) based on the anticipated increase in ICT device production.

  11. Conflict minerals in the compute sector: estimating extent of tin, tantalum, tungsten, and gold use in ICT products.

    PubMed

    Fitzpatrick, Colin; Olivetti, Elsa; Miller, Reed; Roth, Richard; Kirchain, Randolph

    2015-01-20

    Recent legislation has focused attention on the supply chains of tin, tungsten, tantalum, and gold (3TG), specifically those originating from the eastern part of the Democratic Republic of Congo. The unique properties of these so-called “conflict minerals” lead to their use in many products, ranging from medical devices to industrial cutting tools. This paper calculates per product use of 3TG in several information, communication, and technology (ICT) products such as desktops, servers, laptops, smart phones, and tablets. By scaling up individual product estimates to global shipment figures, this work estimates the influence of the ICT sector on 3TG mining in covered countries. The model estimates the upper bound of tin, tungsten, tantalum, and gold use within ICT products to be 2%, 0.1%, 15%, and 3% of the 2013 market share, respectively. This result is projected into the future (2018) based on the anticipated increase in ICT device production. PMID:25453363

  12. 30 CFR 57.22229 - Weekly testing (I-A, III, and V-A mines).

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-07-01

    ... 30 Mineral Resources 1 2012-07-01 2012-07-01 false Weekly testing (I-A, III, and V-A mines). 57.22229 Section 57.22229 Mineral Resources MINE SAFETY AND HEALTH ADMINISTRATION, DEPARTMENT OF LABOR METAL AND NONMETAL MINE SAFETY AND HEALTH SAFETY AND HEALTH STANDARDS-UNDERGROUND METAL AND NONMETAL MINES Safety Standards for Methane in Metal...

  13. 30 CFR 57.22229 - Weekly testing (I-A, III, and V-A mines).

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-07-01

    ... 30 Mineral Resources 1 2013-07-01 2013-07-01 false Weekly testing (I-A, III, and V-A mines). 57.22229 Section 57.22229 Mineral Resources MINE SAFETY AND HEALTH ADMINISTRATION, DEPARTMENT OF LABOR METAL AND NONMETAL MINE SAFETY AND HEALTH SAFETY AND HEALTH STANDARDS-UNDERGROUND METAL AND NONMETAL MINES Safety Standards for Methane in Metal...

  14. 30 CFR 57.22105 - Smoking and open flames (IV mines).

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-07-01

    ... 30 Mineral Resources 1 2013-07-01 2013-07-01 false Smoking and open flames (IV mines). 57.22105 Section 57.22105 Mineral Resources MINE SAFETY AND HEALTH ADMINISTRATION, DEPARTMENT OF LABOR METAL AND NONMETAL MINE SAFETY AND HEALTH SAFETY AND HEALTH STANDARDS-UNDERGROUND METAL AND NONMETAL MINES...

  15. 30 CFR 57.22105 - Smoking and open flames (IV mines).

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-07-01

    ... 30 Mineral Resources 1 2010-07-01 2010-07-01 false Smoking and open flames (IV mines). 57.22105 Section 57.22105 Mineral Resources MINE SAFETY AND HEALTH ADMINISTRATION, DEPARTMENT OF LABOR METAL AND NONMETAL MINE SAFETY AND HEALTH SAFETY AND HEALTH STANDARDS-UNDERGROUND METAL AND NONMETAL MINES...

  16. 30 CFR 57.22105 - Smoking and open flames (IV mines).

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-07-01

    ... 30 Mineral Resources 1 2014-07-01 2014-07-01 false Smoking and open flames (IV mines). 57.22105 Section 57.22105 Mineral Resources MINE SAFETY AND HEALTH ADMINISTRATION, DEPARTMENT OF LABOR METAL AND NONMETAL MINE SAFETY AND HEALTH SAFETY AND HEALTH STANDARDS-UNDERGROUND METAL AND NONMETAL MINES...

  17. 30 CFR 57.22105 - Smoking and open flames (IV mines).

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-07-01

    ... 30 Mineral Resources 1 2011-07-01 2011-07-01 false Smoking and open flames (IV mines). 57.22105 Section 57.22105 Mineral Resources MINE SAFETY AND HEALTH ADMINISTRATION, DEPARTMENT OF LABOR METAL AND NONMETAL MINE SAFETY AND HEALTH SAFETY AND HEALTH STANDARDS-UNDERGROUND METAL AND NONMETAL MINES...

  18. 30 CFR 57.22105 - Smoking and open flames (IV mines).

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-07-01

    ... 30 Mineral Resources 1 2012-07-01 2012-07-01 false Smoking and open flames (IV mines). 57.22105 Section 57.22105 Mineral Resources MINE SAFETY AND HEALTH ADMINISTRATION, DEPARTMENT OF LABOR METAL AND NONMETAL MINE SAFETY AND HEALTH SAFETY AND HEALTH STANDARDS-UNDERGROUND METAL AND NONMETAL MINES...

  19. Mineral phases and metals in baghouse dust from secondary aluminum production

    EPA Science Inventory

    Baghouse dust (BHD) is a solid waste generated by air pollution control systems during secondary aluminum processing (SAP). Management and disposal of BHD can be challenging in the U.S. and elsewhere. In this study, the mineral phases, metal content and metal leachability of 78...

  20. Effect of selenium treatment on biomass production and mineral content in common bean varieties

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    The mineral selenium is important to human health. The goal of the research was to evaluate common bean cultivars for their responses to and abilities to accumulate selenium. The experimental design was completely randomized and the treatments consisted of control (in modified Hoagland and Arnon's s...

  1. Genome Mining for Ribosomally Synthesized Natural Products

    PubMed Central

    Velásquez, Juan E.; van der Donk, Wilfred

    2011-01-01

    In recent years, the number of known peptide natural products that are synthesized via the ribosomal pathway has rapidly grown. Taking advantage of sequence homology among genes encoding precursor peptides or biosynthetic proteins, in silico mining of genomes combined with molecular biology approaches has guided the discovery of a large number of new ribosomal natural products, including lantipeptides, cyanobactins, linear thiazole/oxazole-containing peptides, microviridins, lasso peptides, amatoxins, cyclotides, and conopeptides. In this review, we describe the strategies used for the identification of these ribosomally-synthesized and posttranslationally modified peptides (RiPPs) and the structures of newly identified compounds. The increasing number of chemical entities and their remarkable structural and functional diversity may lead to novel pharmaceutical applications. PMID:21095156

  2. Mining death: Cancer among America`s uranium miners

    SciTech Connect

    Ball, H.

    1995-10-01

    The approach the author takes in this book is that American uranium miners suffered unnecessary severe, often fatal, health problems because of their exposure to radiation. More than half the book reprints a 1986 report from the Committee on Energy and Commerce titled `America`s Nuclear Guinea Pigs: three Decades of Radiation Experiments on U.S. Citizens.` The book continues well documented history of the nuclear era.

  3. Production of arthropod pests and vectors in coal-strip-mine ponds

    SciTech Connect

    Pickard, E.

    1982-01-01

    The objective was to determine the species of aquatic arthropod pests, mainly mosquitoes, that were breeding in abandoned coal strip mine ponds, their population densities, and whether these breeding sites would serve as foci for annoyance to surrounding human populations. Nine study ponds were selected in Marion County, Alabama, on the basis of age since formation, with a total of three test ponds in each of three age categories: 1 year old, 5 years old, and 10 years old. These ponds were observed for five successive years; thus, data obtained from surveys depict successional changes in aquatic insect and plant species composition over a period of 14 successive years. Mosquito larvae of four genera including eight species were collected from the strip ponds. Mosquito production was not detected until ponds were at least two years old, and ponds five years old and older were the most productive for mosquitoes. Mosquito production in all ponds was sparse and restricted to narrow vegetated areas along shallow marginal shelves, and the level of mosquito activity was not sufficient to cause severe annoyance to surrounding communities. There was a paucity of insects of medical importance in benthic samples in the nine study ponds; only three genera of public health importance were collected, which consisted of Palpomyia, Chrysops, and Tabanus. Water chemistry of all ponds studied provided very favorable conditions for supporting various fauna and flora. Data obtained during the 5-year study showed no significant change in the pH of the water in the nine study ponds as they increased in age. The dissolved oxygen content of the water in the ponds varied widely with pond age and seasonal changes, ranging from 9.1 to 14.1 ppM.

  4. 30 CFR 57.22229 - Weekly testing (I-A, III, and V-A mines).

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-07-01

    ... 30 Mineral Resources 1 2010-07-01 2010-07-01 false Weekly testing (I-A, III, and V-A mines). 57.22229 Section 57.22229 Mineral Resources MINE SAFETY AND HEALTH ADMINISTRATION, DEPARTMENT OF LABOR...-A, III, and V-A mines). (a) The mine atmosphere shall be tested for methane and carbon monoxide...

  5. 30 CFR 57.22229 - Weekly testing (I-A, III, and V-A mines).

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-07-01

    ... 30 Mineral Resources 1 2014-07-01 2014-07-01 false Weekly testing (I-A, III, and V-A mines). 57.22229 Section 57.22229 Mineral Resources MINE SAFETY AND HEALTH ADMINISTRATION, DEPARTMENT OF LABOR...-A, III, and V-A mines). (a) The mine atmosphere shall be tested for methane and carbon monoxide...

  6. 30 CFR 57.22229 - Weekly testing (I-A, III, and V-A mines).

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-07-01

    ... 30 Mineral Resources 1 2011-07-01 2011-07-01 false Weekly testing (I-A, III, and V-A mines). 57.22229 Section 57.22229 Mineral Resources MINE SAFETY AND HEALTH ADMINISTRATION, DEPARTMENT OF LABOR...-A, III, and V-A mines). (a) The mine atmosphere shall be tested for methane and carbon monoxide...

  7. 30 CFR 75.1504 - Mine emergency evacuation training and drills.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-07-01

    ... 30 Mineral Resources 1 2013-07-01 2013-07-01 false Mine emergency evacuation training and drills....1504 Mine emergency evacuation training and drills. Each operator of an underground coal mine shall conduct mine emergency evacuation training and drills and require all miners to participate. (a)...

  8. 30 CFR 75.1504 - Mine emergency evacuation training and drills.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-07-01

    ... 30 Mineral Resources 1 2012-07-01 2012-07-01 false Mine emergency evacuation training and drills....1504 Mine emergency evacuation training and drills. Each operator of an underground coal mine shall conduct mine emergency evacuation training and drills and require all miners to participate. (a)...

  9. 30 CFR 75.1504 - Mine emergency evacuation training and drills.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-07-01

    ... 30 Mineral Resources 1 2014-07-01 2014-07-01 false Mine emergency evacuation training and drills....1504 Mine emergency evacuation training and drills. Each operator of an underground coal mine shall conduct mine emergency evacuation training and drills and require all miners to participate. (a)...

  10. 30 CFR 75.1504 - Mine emergency evacuation training and drills.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-07-01

    ... 30 Mineral Resources 1 2011-07-01 2011-07-01 false Mine emergency evacuation training and drills....1504 Mine emergency evacuation training and drills. Each operator of an underground coal mine shall conduct mine emergency evacuation training and drills and require all miners to participate. (a)...

  11. 30 CFR 75.1504 - Mine emergency evacuation training and drills.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-07-01

    ... 30 Mineral Resources 1 2010-07-01 2010-07-01 false Mine emergency evacuation training and drills....1504 Mine emergency evacuation training and drills. Each operator of an underground coal mine shall conduct mine emergency evacuation training and drills and require all miners to participate. (a)...

  12. Integrating Steel Production with Mineral Carbon Sequestration

    SciTech Connect

    Klaus Lackner; Paul Doby; Tuncel Yegulalp; Samuel Krevor; Christopher Graves

    2008-05-01

    The objectives of the project were (i) to develop a combination iron oxide production and carbon sequestration plant that will use serpentine ores as the source of iron and the extraction tailings as the storage element for CO2 disposal, (ii) the identification of locations within the US where this process may be implemented and (iii) to create a standardized process to characterize the serpentine deposits in terms of carbon disposal capacity and iron and steel production capacity. The first objective was not accomplished. The research failed to identify a technique to accelerate direct aqueous mineral carbonation, the limiting step in the integration of steel production and carbon sequestration. Objective (ii) was accomplished. It was found that the sequestration potential of the ultramafic resource surfaces in the US and Puerto Rico is approximately 4,647 Gt of CO2 or over 500 years of current US production of CO2. Lastly, a computer model was developed to investigate the impact of various system parameters (recoveries and efficiencies and capacities of different system components) and serpentinite quality as well as incorporation of CO2 from sources outside the steel industry.

  13. Risk assessment of mineral and heavy metal content of selected tea products from the Ghanaian market.

    PubMed

    Nkansah, Marian Asantewah; Opoku, Francis; Ackumey, Abiathar Abraham

    2016-06-01

    Food consumption is the most likely route of human exposure to metals. Tea (Camellia sinensis L.) is among the most widely consumed non-alcoholic beverages. Concentrations of heavy metals and minerals in tea from 15 different brands in Kumasi, Ghana were measured to assess the health risk associated with their consumption. The mineral and metal contents (Fe, Cu, Zn, Pb, As, Cd) were analyzed using atomic absorption spectrophotometer (Z-8100 polarized Zeeman). The results revealed that the mean concentrations were in the order: Ca > Fe > As > Cd > Zn > Pb. The average contents of Ca, Fe, Zn, Pb, Cd, and As in the samples were 94.08, 6.15, 0.20, 0.16, 0.36, and 1.66 mg/kg, respectively. All the minerals and heavy metals were below the maximum permissible limits stipulated by the World Health Organization (WHO) and US Pharmacopeia (USP). Metal-to-metal correlation indicated strong correlations between As/Zn, Cd/Zn, Cd/As, and Pb/As pairs. Factor analysis demonstrated a clear separation between minerals, grouped on one side, and heavy metals, clustered on another side. Both the target hazard quotient (THQ) and hazard index (HI) levels in green tea were far below 1, suggesting that consumption of green tea should pose no potential risk to human health. However, carcinogenic risk levels for arsenic were high; R > 10(-6). The results showed that residents in Kumasi consume tea could be at risk from exposure to these heavy metals and minerals.

  14. Risk assessment of mineral and heavy metal content of selected tea products from the Ghanaian market.

    PubMed

    Nkansah, Marian Asantewah; Opoku, Francis; Ackumey, Abiathar Abraham

    2016-06-01

    Food consumption is the most likely route of human exposure to metals. Tea (Camellia sinensis L.) is among the most widely consumed non-alcoholic beverages. Concentrations of heavy metals and minerals in tea from 15 different brands in Kumasi, Ghana were measured to assess the health risk associated with their consumption. The mineral and metal contents (Fe, Cu, Zn, Pb, As, Cd) were analyzed using atomic absorption spectrophotometer (Z-8100 polarized Zeeman). The results revealed that the mean concentrations were in the order: Ca > Fe > As > Cd > Zn > Pb. The average contents of Ca, Fe, Zn, Pb, Cd, and As in the samples were 94.08, 6.15, 0.20, 0.16, 0.36, and 1.66 mg/kg, respectively. All the minerals and heavy metals were below the maximum permissible limits stipulated by the World Health Organization (WHO) and US Pharmacopeia (USP). Metal-to-metal correlation indicated strong correlations between As/Zn, Cd/Zn, Cd/As, and Pb/As pairs. Factor analysis demonstrated a clear separation between minerals, grouped on one side, and heavy metals, clustered on another side. Both the target hazard quotient (THQ) and hazard index (HI) levels in green tea were far below 1, suggesting that consumption of green tea should pose no potential risk to human health. However, carcinogenic risk levels for arsenic were high; R > 10(-6). The results showed that residents in Kumasi consume tea could be at risk from exposure to these heavy metals and minerals. PMID:27154053

  15. 30 CFR 75.501-3 - New openings; mines above water table and never classed gassy.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-07-01

    ... 30 Mineral Resources 1 2012-07-01 2012-07-01 false New openings; mines above water table and never classed gassy. 75.501-3 Section 75.501-3 Mineral Resources MINE SAFETY AND HEALTH ADMINISTRATION, DEPARTMENT OF LABOR COAL MINE SAFETY AND HEALTH MANDATORY SAFETY STANDARDS-UNDERGROUND COAL MINES Electrical Equipment-General § 75.501-3 New...

  16. 30 CFR 18.53 - High-voltage longwall mining systems.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-07-01

    ... 30 Mineral Resources 1 2010-07-01 2010-07-01 false High-voltage longwall mining systems. 18.53..., EVALUATION, AND APPROVAL OF MINING PRODUCTS ELECTRIC MOTOR-DRIVEN MINE EQUIPMENT AND ACCESSORIES Construction and Design Requirements § 18.53 High-voltage longwall mining systems. (a) In each high-voltage...

  17. 30 CFR 18.53 - High-voltage longwall mining systems.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-07-01

    ... 30 Mineral Resources 1 2012-07-01 2012-07-01 false High-voltage longwall mining systems. 18.53..., EVALUATION, AND APPROVAL OF MINING PRODUCTS ELECTRIC MOTOR-DRIVEN MINE EQUIPMENT AND ACCESSORIES Construction and Design Requirements § 18.53 High-voltage longwall mining systems. (a) In each high-voltage...

  18. 30 CFR 18.53 - High-voltage longwall mining systems.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-07-01

    ... 30 Mineral Resources 1 2014-07-01 2014-07-01 false High-voltage longwall mining systems. 18.53..., EVALUATION, AND APPROVAL OF MINING PRODUCTS ELECTRIC MOTOR-DRIVEN MINE EQUIPMENT AND ACCESSORIES Construction and Design Requirements § 18.53 High-voltage longwall mining systems. (a) In each high-voltage...

  19. 30 CFR 18.53 - High-voltage longwall mining systems.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-07-01

    ... 30 Mineral Resources 1 2011-07-01 2011-07-01 false High-voltage longwall mining systems. 18.53..., EVALUATION, AND APPROVAL OF MINING PRODUCTS ELECTRIC MOTOR-DRIVEN MINE EQUIPMENT AND ACCESSORIES Construction and Design Requirements § 18.53 High-voltage longwall mining systems. (a) In each high-voltage...

  20. 30 CFR 18.53 - High-voltage longwall mining systems.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-07-01

    ... 30 Mineral Resources 1 2013-07-01 2013-07-01 false High-voltage longwall mining systems. 18.53..., EVALUATION, AND APPROVAL OF MINING PRODUCTS ELECTRIC MOTOR-DRIVEN MINE EQUIPMENT AND ACCESSORIES Construction and Design Requirements § 18.53 High-voltage longwall mining systems. (a) In each high-voltage...

  1. Potential precious and strategic metals as by-products of uranium mineralized breccia pipes in northern Arizona

    SciTech Connect

    Wenrich, K.J.; Silberman, M.L.

    1984-07-01

    The development of caves within the Mississippian Redwall Limestone, accompanied by later upward stoping of overlying Paleozoic and Triassic rock, resulted in the formation of breccia pipes. Despite the depressed uranium market, some of these pipes are presently being mined for uranium. No brecciated rock within pipes has been observed above its normal stratigraphic position, nor is any volcanic rock associated in space or time with these pipes. Mineralized rock transects any strata from the Redwall Limestone to the Triassic Chinle Formation. Over 400 collapse structures, believed to represent breccia pipes (many with exposed breccia), have been mapped. Those with gamma radiation exceeding 2.5 times background (57 pipes) have been sampled (155 samples). Of these oxidized surface samples collected solely on the basis of radioactivity, 30% have Ag exceeding 10 ppm, some with up to 1150 ppm. Two samples of brecciated, oxidized sandstone with radioactivity exceeding 20 and 40 times background from this adit, and another sample of hematite-, malachite-, and chalcocite-impregnated sandstone from a higher level adit contained high concentrations of Au, Hg, Cd, and W, along with many elements commonly anomalous in mineralized breccia pipes from northern Arizona: Ag, As, Co, Cu, Mo, Ni, and Pb. The potential for economic recovery from breccia pipes of elements other than U, such as Ag, Au, Co, and Ni, should not be ignored as their concentrations are even more enhanced in unoxidized samples.

  2. ARTMAP neural networks for information fusion and data mining: map production and target recognition methodologies.

    PubMed

    Parsons, Olga; Carpenter, Gail A

    2003-09-01

    The Sensor Exploitation Group of MIT Lincoln Laboratory incorporated an early version of the ARTMAP neural network as the recognition engine of a hierarchical system for fusion and data mining of registered geospatial images. The Lincoln Lab system has been successfully fielded, but is limited to target/non-target identifications and does not produce whole maps. Procedures defined here extend these capabilities by means of a mapping method that learns to identify and distribute arbitrarily many target classes. This new spatial data mining system is designed particularly to cope with the highly skewed class distributions of typical mapping problems. Specification of canonical algorithms and a benchmark testbed has enabled the evaluation of candidate recognition networks as well as pre- and post-processing and feature selection options. The resulting mapping methodology sets a standard for a variety of spatial data mining tasks. In particular, training pixels are drawn from a region that is spatially distinct from the mapped region, which could feature an output class mix that is substantially different from that of the training set. The system recognition component, default ARTMAP, with its fully specified set of canonical parameter values, has become the a priori system of choice among this family of neural networks for a wide variety of applications.

  3. Iron-binding characterization and polysaccharide production by Klebsiella oxytoca strain isolated from mine acid drainage

    PubMed Central

    Baldi, F; Marchetto, D; Battistel, D; Daniele, S; Faleri, C; De Castro, C; Lanzetta, R

    2009-01-01

    Aims: To investigate Klebsiella oxytoca strain BAS-10 growth on ferric citrate under anaerobic conditions for exopolysaccharide (EPS) production and localization on cell followed by the purification and the EPS determination of the iron-binding stability constant to EPS or biotechnological applications. Methods and Results: Klebsiella oxytoca ferments ferric citrate under anaerobic conditions and produces a ferric hydrogel, whereas ferrous ions were formed in solution. During growth, cells precipitate and a hydrogel formation was observed: the organic material was constituted of an EPS bound to Fe(III) ions, this was found by chemical analyses of the iron species and transmission electron microscopy of the cell cultures. Iron binding to EPS was studied by cyclic voltammetric measurements, either directly on the hydrogel or in an aqueous solutions containing Fe(III)-citrate and purified Fe(III)-EPS. From the voltammetric data, the stability constant for the Fe(III)-EPS complex can be assumed to have values of approx. 1012–1013. It was estimated that this is higher than for the Fe(III)-citrate complex. Conclusions: The production of Fe(III)-EPS under anaerobic conditions is a strategy for the strain to survive in mine drainages and other acidic conditions. This physiological feature can be used to produce large amounts of valuable Fe(III)-EPS, starting from a low cost substrate such as Fe(III)-citrate. Significant and Impact of the Study: The data herein demonstrates that an interesting metal-binding molecule can be produced as a novel catalyst for a variety of potential applications and the EPS itself is a valuable source for rhamnose purification. PMID:19508299

  4. Shift in Global Tantalum Mine Production, 2000–2014

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Bleiwas, Donald I.; Papp, John F.; Yager, Thomas R.

    2015-12-10

    One of the activities of the U.S. Geological Survey National Minerals Information Center (USGS-NMIC) is to analyze global supply chains and characterize major components of mineral and material flows from ore extraction through processing to first tier products. These analyses support the core mission of the USGS-NMIC as the Federal entity responsible for the collection, analysis, and dissemination of objective, unbiased, factual information on minerals essential to the U.S. economy and national security.

  5. Bureau of mines cost estimating system handbook (in two parts). 1. Surface and underground mining

    SciTech Connect

    Not Available

    1987-01-01

    The handbook provides a convenient costing procedure based on the summation of the costs for unit processes required in any particular mining or mineral processing operation. The costing handbook consists of a series of costing sections, each corresponding to a specific mining unit process. Contained within each section is the methodology to estimate either the capital or operating cost for that unit process. The unit process sections may be used to generate, in January 1984 dollars, costs through the use of either costing curves or formulae representing the prevailing technology. Coverage for surface mining includes dredging, quarrying, strip mining, and open pit mining. The underground mining includes individual development sections for drifting, raising, shaft sinking, stope development, various mining methods, underground mine haulage, general plant, and underground mine administrative cost.

  6. Remediation of abandoned mines using coal combustion by-products

    SciTech Connect

    Bulusu, S.; Aydilek, A.H.; Petzrick, P.; Guynn, R.

    2005-08-01

    Acid mine drainage (AMD) is a phenomenon that occurs when pyrite that is present in abandoned coal mines comes in contact with oxygen and water, which results in the formation of sulfuric acid and iron hydroxide. Grouting of an abandoned mine with alkaline materials provides a permanent reduction in acid production. This study investigates the success of coal combustion by-product (CCB)-based grout mixtures in reducing AMD. The laboratory phase included testing of grouts with different proportions of Class F fly ash, flue gas desulfurization by-product, fluidized bed combustion by-product, and quicklime, for slump, modified flow, bleed, and strength. Then the selected optimal grout mixture was injected into the Frazee mine, located in Western Maryland. Pre- and post-injection water quality data were collected to assess the long-term success of the grouting operation by analyzing mine water, surface water, and groundwater. Overall, the results indicated that CCB-based grouts can control the acid mine drainage. However, the mechanical properties of the grout are highly critical for the construction phase, and long-term monitoring is essential for evaluating the effectiveness of the grouting process.

  7. Interaction of mining activities and aquatic environment: A review from Greek mine sites.

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Vasileiou, Eleni; Kallioras, Andreas

    2016-04-01

    In Greece a significant amount of mineral and ore deposits have been recorded accompanied by large industrial interest and a long mining history. Today many active and/or abandoned mine sites are scattered within the country; while mining activities take place in different sites for exploiting various deposits (clay, limestone, slate, gypsum, kaolin, mixed sulphide ores (lead, zinc, olivine, pozzolan, quartz lignite, nickel, magnesite, aluminum, bauxite, gold, marbles etc). The most prominent recent ones are: (i) the lignite exploitation that is extended in the area of Ptolemais (Western Macedonia) and Megalopolis (Central Peloponnese); and (ii) the major bauxite deposits located in central Greece within the Parnassos-Ghiona geotectonic zone and on Euboea Island. In the latter area, significant ores of magnesite were exploited and mixed sulphide ores. Centuries of intensive mining exploitation and metallurgical treatment of lead-silver deposits in Greece, have also resulted in significant abandoned sites, such as the one in Lavrion. Mining activities in Lavrio, were initiated in ancient times and continued until the 1980s, resulting in the production of significant waste stockpiles deposited in the area, crucial for the local water resources. Ιn many mining sites, environmental pressures are also recorded after the mine closure to the aquatic environment, as the surface waters flow through waste dump areas and contaminated soils. This paper aims to the geospatial visualization of the mining activities in Greece, in connection to their negative (surface- and/or ground-water pollution; overpumping due to extensive dewatering practices) or positive (enhanced groundwater recharge; pit lakes, improvement of water budget in the catchment scale) impacts on local water resources.

  8. Water Quality and Geochemical Modeling of Water at an Abandoned Coal Mine Reclaimed With Coal Combustion By-Products

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Haefner, Ralph J.

    2002-01-01

    An abandoned coal mine in eastern Ohio was reclaimed with 125 tons per acre of pressurized fluidized bed combustion (PFBC) by-product. Water quality at the site (known as the Fleming site) was monitored for 7 years after reclamation; samples included water from soil-suction lysimeters (interstitial water), wells, and spring sites established downgradient of the application area. This report presents a summary of data collected at the Fleming site during the period September 1994 through June 2001. Additionally, results of geochemical modeling are included in this report to evaluate the potential fate of elements derived from the PFBC by-product. Chemical analyses of samples of interstitial waters within the PFBC by-product application area indicated elevated levels of pH and specific conductance and elevated concentrations of boron, calcium, chloride, fluoride, magnesium, potassium, strontium, and sulfate compared to water samples collected in a control area where traditional reclamation methods were used. Magnesium-to-calcium (Mg:Ca) mole ratios and sulfur-isotope ratios were used to trace the PFBC by-product leachate and showed that little, if any, leachate reached ground water. Concentrations of most constituents in interstitial waters in the application-area decreased during the seven sampling rounds and approached background concentrations observed in the control area; however, median pH in the application area remained above 6, indicating that some acid-neutralizing capacity was still present. Although notable changes in water quality were observed in interstitial waters during the study period, quality of ground water and spring water remained poor. Water from the Fleming site was not potable, given exceedances of primary and secondary Maximum Contaminant Levels (MCLs) for inorganic constituents in drinking water set by the U.S. Environmental Protection Agency. Only fluoride and sulfate, which were found in higher concentrations in application

  9. RESTORING SUSTAINABLE FORESTS ON APPALACHIAN MINED LANDS FOR WOOD PRODUCTS, RENEWABLE ENERGY, CARBON SEQUESTRATION, AND OTHER ECOSYSTEM SERVICES

    SciTech Connect

    James A. Burger; J. Galbraith; T. Fox; G. Amacher; J. Sullivan; C. Zipper

    2005-02-15

    The overall purpose of this project is to evaluate the biological and economic feasibility of restoring high-quality forests on mined land, and to measure carbon sequestration and wood production benefits that would be achieved from forest restoration procedures. During the reporting period (October-December 2004) we completed the validation of a forest productivity classification model for mined land. A coefficient of determination (R{sup 2}) of 0.68 confirms the model's ability to predict SI based on a selection of mine soil properties. To determine carbon sequestration under different forest management scenarios, a field study was installed as a 3 x 3 factorial in a random complete block design with three replications at each of three locations, Ohio (Figure 1), West Virginia (Figure 2), and Virginia (Figure 3). The treatments included three forest types (white pine, hybrid poplar, mixed hardwood) and three silvicultural regimes (competition control, competition control plus tillage, competition control plus tillage plus fertilization). For hybrid poplar, total plant biomass differences increased significantly with the intensity of silvicultural input. Root, stem, and foliage biomass also increased with the level of silvicultural intensity. Financial feasibility analyses of reforestation on mined lands previously reclaimed to grassland have been completed for conversion to white pine and mixed hardwood species. Examination of potential policy instruments for promoting financial feasibility also have been completed, including lump sum payments at time of conversion, annual payments through the life of the stand, and payments based on carbon sequestration that provide both minimal profitability and fully offset initial reforestation outlays. We have compiled a database containing mine permit information obtained from permitting agencies in Virginia, West Virginia, Pennsylvania, Ohio, and Kentucky. Due to differences and irregularities in permitting procedures

  10. 76 FR 2617 - Lowering Miners' Exposure to Respirable Coal Mine Dust, Including Continuous Personal Dust Monitors

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2011-01-14

    ... From the Federal Register Online via the Government Publishing Office DEPARTMENT OF LABOR Mine...' Exposure to Respirable Coal Mine Dust, Including Continuous Personal Dust Monitors AGENCY: Mine Safety and.... SUMMARY: The Mine Safety and Health Administration (MSHA) is extending the comment period on the...

  11. Diamonds: Exploration, mines and marketing

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Read, George H.; Janse, A. J. A. (Bram)

    2009-11-01

    The beauty, value and mystique of exceptional quality diamonds such as the 603 carat Lesotho Promise, recovered from the Letseng Mine in 2006, help to drive a multi-billion dollar diamond exploration, mining and marketing industry that operates in some 45 countries across the globe. Five countries, Botswana, Russia, Canada, South Africa and Angola account for 83% by value and 65% by weight of annual diamond production, which is mainly produced by four major companies, De Beers, Alrosa, Rio Tinto and BHP Billiton (BHPB), which together account for 78% by value and 72% by weight of annual diamond production for 2007. During the last twelve years 16 new diamond mines commenced production and 4 re-opened. In addition, 11 projects are in advanced evaluation and may begin operations within the next five years. Exploration for diamondiferous kimberlites was still energetic up to the last quarter of 2008 with most work carried out in Canada, Angola, Democratic Republic of the Congo (DRC) and Botswana. Many kimberlites were discovered but no new economic deposits were outlined as a result of this work, except for the discovery and possible development of the Bunder project by Rio Tinto in India. Exploration methods have benefitted greatly from improved techniques of high resolution geophysical aerial surveying, new research into the geochemistry of indicator minerals and further insights into the formation of diamonds and the relation to tectonic/structural events in the crust and mantle. Recent trends in diamond marketing indicate that prices for rough diamonds and polished goods were still rising up to the last quarter of 2008 and subsequently abruptly sank in line with the worldwide financial crisis. Most analysts predict that prices will rise again in the long term as the gap between supply and demand will widen because no new economic diamond discoveries have been made recently. The disparity between high rough and polished prices and low share prices of publicly

  12. Direct electrolytic dissolution of silicate minerals for air CO2 mitigation and carbon-negative H2 production.

    PubMed

    Rau, Greg H; Carroll, Susan A; Bourcier, William L; Singleton, Michael J; Smith, Megan M; Aines, Roger D

    2013-06-18

    We experimentally demonstrate the direct coupling of silicate mineral dissolution with saline water electrolysis and H2 production to effect significant air CO2 absorption, chemical conversion, and storage in solution. In particular, we observed as much as a 10(5)-fold increase in OH(-) concentration (pH increase of up to 5.3 units) relative to experimental controls following the electrolysis of 0.25 M Na2SO4 solutions when the anode was encased in powdered silicate mineral, either wollastonite or an ultramafic mineral. After electrolysis, full equilibration of the alkalized solution with air led to a significant pH reduction and as much as a 45-fold increase in dissolved inorganic carbon concentration. This demonstrated significant spontaneous air CO2 capture, chemical conversion, and storage as a bicarbonate, predominantly as NaHCO3. The excess OH(-) initially formed in these experiments apparently resulted via neutralization of the anolyte acid, H2SO4, by reaction with the base mineral silicate at the anode, producing mineral sulfate and silica. This allowed the NaOH, normally generated at the cathode, to go unneutralized and to accumulate in the bulk electrolyte, ultimately reacting with atmospheric CO2 to form dissolved bicarbonate. Using nongrid or nonpeak renewable electricity, optimized systems at large scale might allow relatively high-capacity, energy-efficient (<300 kJ/mol of CO2 captured), and inexpensive (<$100 per tonne of CO2 mitigated) removal of excess air CO2 with production of carbon-negative H2. Furthermore, when added to the ocean, the produced hydroxide and/or (bi)carbonate could be useful in reducing sea-to-air CO2 emissions and in neutralizing or offsetting the effects of ongoing ocean acidification. PMID:23729814

  13. Direct electrolytic dissolution of silicate minerals for air CO2 mitigation and carbon-negative H2 production

    PubMed Central

    Rau, Greg H.; Carroll, Susan A.; Bourcier, William L.; Singleton, Michael J.; Smith, Megan M.; Aines, Roger D.

    2013-01-01

    We experimentally demonstrate the direct coupling of silicate mineral dissolution with saline water electrolysis and H2 production to effect significant air CO2 absorption, chemical conversion, and storage in solution. In particular, we observed as much as a 105-fold increase in OH− concentration (pH increase of up to 5.3 units) relative to experimental controls following the electrolysis of 0.25 M Na2SO4 solutions when the anode was encased in powdered silicate mineral, either wollastonite or an ultramafic mineral. After electrolysis, full equilibration of the alkalized solution with air led to a significant pH reduction and as much as a 45-fold increase in dissolved inorganic carbon concentration. This demonstrated significant spontaneous air CO2 capture, chemical conversion, and storage as a bicarbonate, predominantly as NaHCO3. The excess OH− initially formed in these experiments apparently resulted via neutralization of the anolyte acid, H2SO4, by reaction with the base mineral silicate at the anode, producing mineral sulfate and silica. This allowed the NaOH, normally generated at the cathode, to go unneutralized and to accumulate in the bulk electrolyte, ultimately reacting with atmospheric CO2 to form dissolved bicarbonate. Using nongrid or nonpeak renewable electricity, optimized systems at large scale might allow relatively high-capacity, energy-efficient (<300 kJ/mol of CO2 captured), and inexpensive (<$100 per tonne of CO2 mitigated) removal of excess air CO2 with production of carbon-negative H2. Furthermore, when added to the ocean, the produced hydroxide and/or (bi)carbonate could be useful in reducing sea-to-air CO2 emissions and in neutralizing or offsetting the effects of ongoing ocean acidification. PMID:23729814

  14. Direct electrolytic dissolution of silicate minerals for air CO2 mitigation and carbon-negative H2 production.

    PubMed

    Rau, Greg H; Carroll, Susan A; Bourcier, William L; Singleton, Michael J; Smith, Megan M; Aines, Roger D

    2013-06-18

    We experimentally demonstrate the direct coupling of silicate mineral dissolution with saline water electrolysis and H2 production to effect significant air CO2 absorption, chemical conversion, and storage in solution. In particular, we observed as much as a 10(5)-fold increase in OH(-) concentration (pH increase of up to 5.3 units) relative to experimental controls following the electrolysis of 0.25 M Na2SO4 solutions when the anode was encased in powdered silicate mineral, either wollastonite or an ultramafic mineral. After electrolysis, full equilibration of the alkalized solution with air led to a significant pH reduction and as much as a 45-fold increase in dissolved inorganic carbon concentration. This demonstrated significant spontaneous air CO2 capture, chemical conversion, and storage as a bicarbonate, predominantly as NaHCO3. The excess OH(-) initially formed in these experiments apparently resulted via neutralization of the anolyte acid, H2SO4, by reaction with the base mineral silicate at the anode, producing mineral sulfate and silica. This allowed the NaOH, normally generated at the cathode, to go unneutralized and to accumulate in the bulk electrolyte, ultimately reacting with atmospheric CO2 to form dissolved bicarbonate. Using nongrid or nonpeak renewable electricity, optimized systems at large scale might allow relatively high-capacity, energy-efficient (<300 kJ/mol of CO2 captured), and inexpensive (<$100 per tonne of CO2 mitigated) removal of excess air CO2 with production of carbon-negative H2. Furthermore, when added to the ocean, the produced hydroxide and/or (bi)carbonate could be useful in reducing sea-to-air CO2 emissions and in neutralizing or offsetting the effects of ongoing ocean acidification.

  15. The role of gluconate production by Pseudomonas spp. in the mineralization and bioavailability of calcium-phytate to Nicotiana tabacum.

    PubMed

    Giles, Courtney D; Hsu, Pei-Chun Lisa; Richardson, Alan E; Hurst, Mark R H; Hill, Jane E

    2015-12-01

    Organic phosphorus (P) is abundant in most soils but is largely unavailable to plants. Pseudomonas spp. can improve the availability of P to plants through the production of phytases and organic anions. Gluconate is a major component of Pseudomonas organic anion production and may therefore play an important role in the mineralization of insoluble organic P forms such as calcium-phytate (CaIHP). Organic anion and phytase production was characterized in 2 Pseudomonas spp. soil isolates (CCAR59, Ha200) and an isogenic mutant of strain Ha200, which lacked a functional glucose dehydrogenase (Gcd) gene (strain Ha200 gcd::Tn5B8). Wild-type and mutant strains of Pseudomonas spp. were evaluated for their ability to solubilize and hydrolyze CaIHP and to promote the growth and assimilation of P by tobacco plants. Gluconate, 2-keto-gluconate, pyruvate, ascorbate, acetate, and formate were detected in Pseudomonas spp. supernatants. Wild-type pseudomonads containing a functional gcd could produce gluconate and mineralize CaIHP, whereas the isogenic mutant could not. Inoculation with Pseudomonas improved the bioavailability of CaIHP to tobacco plants, but there was no difference in plant growth response due to Gcd function. Gcd function is required for the mineralization of CaIHP in vitro; however, further studies will be needed to quantify the relative contribution of specific organic anions such as gluconate to plant growth promotion by soil pseudomonads.

  16. Virtual libraries of tetrapyrrole macrocycles. Combinatorics, isomers, product distributions, and data mining.

    PubMed

    Taniguchi, Masahiko; Du, Hai; Lindsey, Jonathan S

    2011-09-26

    A software program (PorphyrinViLiGe) has been developed to enumerate the type and relative amounts of substituted tetrapyrrole macrocycles in a virtual library formed by one of four different classes of reactions. The classes include (1) 4-fold reaction of n disubstituted heterocycles (e.g., pyrroles or diiminoisoindolines) to form β-substituted porphyrins, β-substituted tetraazaporphyrins, or α- or β-substituted phthalocyanines; (2) combination of m aminoketones and n diones to form m × n pyrroles, which upon 4-fold reaction give β-substituted porphyrins; (3) derivatization of an 8-point tetrapyrrole scaffold with n reagents, and (4) 4-fold reaction of n aldehydes and pyrrole to form meso-substituted porphyrins. The program accommodates variable ratios of reactants, reversible or irreversible reaction (reaction classes 1 and 2), and degenerate modes of formation. Pólya's theorem (for enumeration of cyclic entities) has also been implemented and provides validation for reaction classes 3 and 4. The output includes the number and identity of distinct reaction-accessible substituent combinations, the number and identity of isomers thereof, and the theoretical mass spectrum. Provisions for data mining enable assessment of the number of products having a chosen pattern of substituents. Examples include derivatization of an octa-substituted phthalocyanine with eight reagents to afford a library of 2,099,728 members (yet only 6435 distinct substituent combinations) and reversible reaction of six distinct disubstituted pyrroles to afford 2649 members (yet only 126 distinct substituent combinations). In general, libraries of substituted tetrapyrrole macrocycles occupy a synthetically accessible region of chemical space that is rich in isomers (>99% or 95% for the two examples, respectively).

  17. Virtual libraries of tetrapyrrole macrocycles. Combinatorics, isomers, product distributions, and data mining.

    PubMed

    Taniguchi, Masahiko; Du, Hai; Lindsey, Jonathan S

    2011-09-26

    A software program (PorphyrinViLiGe) has been developed to enumerate the type and relative amounts of substituted tetrapyrrole macrocycles in a virtual library formed by one of four different classes of reactions. The classes include (1) 4-fold reaction of n disubstituted heterocycles (e.g., pyrroles or diiminoisoindolines) to form β-substituted porphyrins, β-substituted tetraazaporphyrins, or α- or β-substituted phthalocyanines; (2) combination of m aminoketones and n diones to form m × n pyrroles, which upon 4-fold reaction give β-substituted porphyrins; (3) derivatization of an 8-point tetrapyrrole scaffold with n reagents, and (4) 4-fold reaction of n aldehydes and pyrrole to form meso-substituted porphyrins. The program accommodates variable ratios of reactants, reversible or irreversible reaction (reaction classes 1 and 2), and degenerate modes of formation. Pólya's theorem (for enumeration of cyclic entities) has also been implemented and provides validation for reaction classes 3 and 4. The output includes the number and identity of distinct reaction-accessible substituent combinations, the number and identity of isomers thereof, and the theoretical mass spectrum. Provisions for data mining enable assessment of the number of products having a chosen pattern of substituents. Examples include derivatization of an octa-substituted phthalocyanine with eight reagents to afford a library of 2,099,728 members (yet only 6435 distinct substituent combinations) and reversible reaction of six distinct disubstituted pyrroles to afford 2649 members (yet only 126 distinct substituent combinations). In general, libraries of substituted tetrapyrrole macrocycles occupy a synthetically accessible region of chemical space that is rich in isomers (>99% or 95% for the two examples, respectively). PMID:21866949

  18. 77 FR 8288 - State's Mine Health and Safety Grants

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2012-02-14

    ... Safety and Health Administration State's Mine Health and Safety Grants AGENCY: Mine Safety and Health... healthy workplaces for U.S. miners. The final amount of each individual grant will be determined by the formula in Section 503(h) of the Federal Mine Safety and Health Act of 1977 (30 U.S.C. 953(h)) and...

  19. Effective Conveyer Belt Inspection for Improved Mining Productivity

    SciTech Connect

    David LaRose

    2006-11-14

    This document details progress on the project ''Effective Conveyor Belt Inspection for Improved Mining Productivity'' during the period from May 15, 2006 to November 14, 2006. Progress during this period includes significant advances in development of a Smart Camera based prototype system for on-site mechanical splice detection, and continued deployment of both the mechanical splice detection system and the vulcanized splice detection system in area coal mines.

  20. Enumeration of Thiobacilli within pH-Neutral and Acidic Mine Tailings and Their Role in the Development of Secondary Mineral Soil

    PubMed Central

    Southam, G.; Beveridge, T. J.

    1992-01-01

    The Lemoine tailings of Chibougamau, Quebec, Canada, were deposited as a pH-neutral mineral conglomerate consisting of aluminum-silicates, iron-aluminum-silicates, pyrite, chalcopyrite, and sphalerite. These tailings are colonized by an active population of Thiobacillus ferrooxidans which is localized to an acid zone occupying 40% of the tailings' surface. This population peaked at 7 × 108 most probable number per gram of tailings during July and August 1990 and extended to a depth of 40 cm from the surface. Examination of samples over this depth profile by transmission electron microscopy and electron dispersive spectroscopy revealed a microbially mediated mineral transition from sulfides (below 40 cm) to chlorides and phosphates (at the surface). Silicate minerals were unaltered by microbial action. Transmission electron microscopy showed a tight association between Thiobacillus species and the sulfide minerals, which helps account for their prominence in tailings environments. Accurate enumeration of T. ferrooxidans from tailings required the disruption of their bonding to the mineral interface. Vortexing of a 10% aqueous suspension of the tailings material prior to most-probable-number analysis best facilitated this release. Even though heavy metals were highly mobile under acidic conditions at the Lemoine tailings, it was evident by transmission electron microscopy and electron dispersive spectroscopy that they were being immobilized as bona fide fine-grain minerals containing iron, copper, chlorine, phosphorus, and oxygen on bacterial surfaces and exopolymers. This biomineralization increased with increasing bacterial numbers and was most evident in the upper 3 cm of the acidic zone. Images PMID:16348721

  1. Premium Fuel Production From Mining and Timber Waste Using Advanced Separation and Pelletizing Technologies

    SciTech Connect

    Honaker, R. Q.; Taulbee, D.; Parekh, B. K.; Tao, D.

    2005-12-05

    The Commonwealth of Kentucky is one of the leading states in the production of both coal and timber. As a result of mining and processing coal, an estimated 3 million tons of fine coal are disposed annually to waste-slurry impoundments with an additional 500 million tons stored at a number of disposal sites around the state due to past practices. Likewise, the Kentucky timber industry discards nearly 35,000 tons of sawdust on the production site due to unfavorable economics of transporting the material to industrial boilers for use as a fuel. With an average heating value of 6,700 Btu/lb, the monetary value of the energy disposed in the form of sawdust is approximately $490,000 annually. Since the two industries are typically in close proximity, one promising avenue is to selectively recover and dewater the fine-coal particles and then briquette them with sawdust to produce a high-value fuel. The benefits are i) a premium fuel product that is low in moisture and can be handled, transported, and utilized in existing infrastructure, thereby avoiding significant additional capital investment and ii) a reduction in the amount of fine-waste material produced by the two industries that must now be disposed at a significant financial and environmental price. As such, the goal of this project was to evaluate the feasibility of producing a premium fuel with a heating value greater than 10,000 Btu/lb from waste materials generated by the coal and timber industries. Laboratory and pilot-scale testing of the briquetting process indicated that the goal was successfully achieved. Low-ash briquettes containing 5% to 10% sawdust were produced with energy values that were well in excess of 12,000 Btu/lb. A major economic hurdle associated with commercially briquetting coal is binder cost. Approximately fifty binder formulations, both with and without lime, were subjected to an extensive laboratory evaluation to assess their relative technical and economical effectiveness as binding

  2. 43 CFR 3835.17 - What additional requirements must I fulfill to obtain a small miner waiver for my mining claims...

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-10-01

    ... fulfill to obtain a small miner waiver for my mining claims or sites on National Park System lands? 3835... waiver for my mining claims or sites on National Park System lands? (a) Before performing assessment work on National Park System lands, you must submit and obtain the National Park Service (NPS)'s...

  3. 43 CFR 3835.17 - What additional requirements must I fulfill to obtain a small miner waiver for my mining claims...

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-10-01

    ... fulfill to obtain a small miner waiver for my mining claims or sites on National Park System lands? 3835... waiver for my mining claims or sites on National Park System lands? (a) Before performing assessment work on National Park System lands, you must submit and obtain the National Park Service (NPS)'s...

  4. 43 CFR 3835.17 - What additional requirements must I fulfill to obtain a small miner waiver for my mining claims...

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-10-01

    ... fulfill to obtain a small miner waiver for my mining claims or sites on National Park System lands? 3835... waiver for my mining claims or sites on National Park System lands? (a) Before performing assessment work on National Park System lands, you must submit and obtain the National Park Service (NPS)'s...

  5. 43 CFR 3835.17 - What additional requirements must I fulfill to obtain a small miner waiver for my mining claims...

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-10-01

    ... fulfill to obtain a small miner waiver for my mining claims or sites on National Park System lands? 3835... waiver for my mining claims or sites on National Park System lands? (a) Before performing assessment work on National Park System lands, you must submit and obtain the National Park Service (NPS)'s...

  6. Mine drainage and surface mine reclamation. Volume II. Mine reclamation, abandoned mine lands and policy issues

    SciTech Connect

    Not Available

    1988-01-01

    Mine waste and mine reclamation are topics of major interest to the mining industry, the government and the general public. This publication and its companion volume are the proceedings of a conference held in Pittsburgh, April 19-21, 1988. There were nine sessions (50 papers) that dealt with the geochemistry, hydrology and problems of mine waste and mine water, especially acid mine drainage. These comprise Volume 1. The nine sessions (43 papers) that dealt with reclamation and restoration of disturbed lands, as well as related policy issues, are included in volume 2. Volume 2 also contains the ten papers that pertained to control of subsidence and mine fires at abandoned mines. Poster session presentations are, in general, represented by abstracts; these have been placed in the back of both volumes.

  7. Mine drainage and surface mine reclamation. Volume I. Mine water and mine waste

    SciTech Connect

    Not Available

    1988-01-01

    Mine waste and mine reclamation are topics of major interest to the mining industry, the government and the general public. This publication and its companion volume are the proceedings of a conference held in Pittsburgh, April 19-21, 1988. There were nine sessions (50 papers) that dealt with the geochemistry, hydrology and problems of mine waste and mine water, especially acid mine drainage. These comprise Volume 1. The nine sessions (43 papers) that dealt with reclamation and restoration of disturbed lands, as well as related policy issues, are included in volume 2. Volume 2 also contains the ten papers that pertained to control of subsidence and mine fires at abandoned mines. Poster session presentations are, in general, represented by abstracts; these have been placed in the back of both volumes.

  8. 43 CFR 3815.2 - Prospecting and mining.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-10-01

    ... 43 Public Lands: Interior 2 2013-10-01 2013-10-01 false Prospecting and mining. 3815.2 Section... Mineral Locations in Stock Driveway Withdrawals § 3815.2 Prospecting and mining. All prospecting and mining operations shall be conducted in such manner as to cause no interference with the use of...

  9. 43 CFR 3815.2 - Prospecting and mining.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-10-01

    ... 43 Public Lands: Interior 2 2012-10-01 2012-10-01 false Prospecting and mining. 3815.2 Section... Mineral Locations in Stock Driveway Withdrawals § 3815.2 Prospecting and mining. All prospecting and mining operations shall be conducted in such manner as to cause no interference with the use of...

  10. 43 CFR 3815.2 - Prospecting and mining.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-10-01

    ... 43 Public Lands: Interior 2 2011-10-01 2011-10-01 false Prospecting and mining. 3815.2 Section... Mineral Locations in Stock Driveway Withdrawals § 3815.2 Prospecting and mining. All prospecting and mining operations shall be conducted in such manner as to cause no interference with the use of...

  11. 43 CFR 3815.2 - Prospecting and mining.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-10-01

    ... 43 Public Lands: Interior 2 2014-10-01 2014-10-01 false Prospecting and mining. 3815.2 Section... Mineral Locations in Stock Driveway Withdrawals § 3815.2 Prospecting and mining. All prospecting and mining operations shall be conducted in such manner as to cause no interference with the use of...

  12. RESTORING SUSTAINABLE FORESTS ON APPALACHIAN MINED LANDS FOR WOOD PRODUCTS, RENEWABLE ENERGY, CARBON SEQUESTRATION, AND OTHER ECOSYSTEM SERVICES

    SciTech Connect

    J. Burger; J. Galbraith; T. Fox; G. Amacher; J. Sullivan; C. Zipper

    2004-08-04

    The overall purpose of this project is to evaluate the biological and economic feasibility of restoring high-quality forests on mined land, and to measure carbon sequestration and wood production benefits that would be achieved from forest restoration procedures. We are currently estimating the acreage of lands in VA, WV, KY, OH, and PA mined under SMCRA and reclaimed to non-forested post-mining land uses that are not currently under active management, and therefore can be considered as available for carbon sequestration. To determine actual sequestration under different forest management scenarios, a field study was installed as a 3 x 3 factorial in a random complete block design with three replications at each of three locations, Ohio, West Virginia, and Virginia. The treatments included three forest types (white pine, hybrid poplar, mixed hardwood) and three silvicultural regimes (competition control, competition control plus tillage, competition control plus tillage plus fertilization). Each individual treatment plot is 0.5 acres. Each block of nine plots requires 4.5 acres, and the complete installation at each site requires 13.5 acres. The plots at all three locations have been installed and the plot corners marked with PVC stakes. GPS coordinates of each plot have been collected. Soil samples were collected from each plot to characterize the sites prior to treatment. Baseline soil carbon was determined for each of the eighty-one plots. Fertility analysis of soil samples was completed and these data were used to prepare fertilizer prescriptions and the pre-designated plots were fertilized. We also evaluated economic-based policy instruments that are designed to mitigate the reforestation burden borne by the owner of reclaimed mined land. Results suggest that although profitability of reforestation of these previously reclaimed mine lands may be achievable on better sites under lower interest rates, substantial payments would be required to reach

  13. Domestic uranium mining and milling

    SciTech Connect

    Not Available

    1983-01-01

    A field hearing was held in Riverton, Wyoming on the erosion of the state's uranium industry as production and capital investment have declined and inventories have continued to rise because of a shift to foreign suppliers. The result has been serious unemployment in Wyoming and a decline in uranium mines from 5400 in 1980 to the present 1200. The seven witnesses spoke for the mining industry and state and federal government. Among the issues raised were mining regulations and the cancellation of nuclear rejects which have impacted the health of the industry. Additional statements and a report supplied for the record follow their testimony. (DCK)

  14. Mine-to-Mill Optimization of Aggregate Production

    SciTech Connect

    Greg Adel; Toni Kojovic; Darren Thornton

    2006-06-01

    Mine-to-Mill optimization is a total systems approach to the reduction of energy and cost in mining and mineral processing operations. Developed at the Julius Krutschnitt Mineral Research Centre (JKMRC) in Queensland, Australia, the Mine-to-Mill approach attempts to minimize energy consumption through the optimization of all steps in the size reduction process. The approach involves sampling and modeling of blasting and processing, followed by computer simulation to optimize the operation and develop alternatives. The most promising alternatives are implemented, and sampling is conducted to quantify energy savings. In the current project, the primary objective is to adapt the JKMRC Mine-to-Mill technology to the aggregates industry. The second phase of this project is being carried out at the Pittsboro Quarry located south of Chapel Hill, North Carolina. This quarry is owned by 3M Corporation and operated by Luck Stone. Based on lessons learned from the first phase work, long-term monitoring ({approx} three months) of all quarry operations is being carried out to minimize the impact of geological changes during the mining process. To date, the blasting and processing operations have been audited and modeled, the long-term monitoring of current Luck Stone practice has been completed, and a modified blasting approach has been implemented based on the results of simulations using JKSimBlast and JKSimPlant. The modified blasting approach is expected to increase the primary throughput by 15% and the secondary throughput by approximately 6%, with an overall specific energy reduction of around 1%. Long-term monitoring is currently underway to evaluate the impact the modified blasting approach. This report summarizes the current status of work at the Pittsboro Quarry.

  15. 30 CFR 817.87 - Coal mine waste: Burning and burned waste utilization.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-07-01

    ... 30 Mineral Resources 3 2013-07-01 2013-07-01 false Coal mine waste: Burning and burned waste...-UNDERGROUND MINING ACTIVITIES § 817.87 Coal mine waste: Burning and burned waste utilization. (a) Coal mine... extinguishing operations. (b) No burning or unburned coal mine waste shall be removed from a permitted...

  16. 30 CFR 816.87 - Coal mine waste: Burning and burned waste utilization.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-07-01

    ... 30 Mineral Resources 3 2013-07-01 2013-07-01 false Coal mine waste: Burning and burned waste...-SURFACE MINING ACTIVITIES § 816.87 Coal mine waste: Burning and burned waste utilization. (a) Coal mine... extinguishing operations. (b) No burning or burned coal mine waste shall be removed from a permitted...

  17. 30 CFR 817.87 - Coal mine waste: Burning and burned waste utilization.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-07-01

    ... 30 Mineral Resources 3 2014-07-01 2014-07-01 false Coal mine waste: Burning and burned waste...-UNDERGROUND MINING ACTIVITIES § 817.87 Coal mine waste: Burning and burned waste utilization. (a) Coal mine... extinguishing operations. (b) No burning or unburned coal mine waste shall be removed from a permitted...

  18. 30 CFR 817.87 - Coal mine waste: Burning and burned waste utilization.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-07-01

    ... 30 Mineral Resources 3 2010-07-01 2010-07-01 false Coal mine waste: Burning and burned waste...-UNDERGROUND MINING ACTIVITIES § 817.87 Coal mine waste: Burning and burned waste utilization. (a) Coal mine... extinguishing operations. (b) No burning or unburned coal mine waste shall be removed from a permitted...

  19. 30 CFR 816.87 - Coal mine waste: Burning and burned waste utilization.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-07-01

    ... 30 Mineral Resources 3 2014-07-01 2014-07-01 false Coal mine waste: Burning and burned waste...-SURFACE MINING ACTIVITIES § 816.87 Coal mine waste: Burning and burned waste utilization. (a) Coal mine... extinguishing operations. (b) No burning or burned coal mine waste shall be removed from a permitted...

  20. 30 CFR 816.87 - Coal mine waste: Burning and burned waste utilization.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-07-01

    ... 30 Mineral Resources 3 2010-07-01 2010-07-01 false Coal mine waste: Burning and burned waste...-SURFACE MINING ACTIVITIES § 816.87 Coal mine waste: Burning and burned waste utilization. (a) Coal mine... extinguishing operations. (b) No burning or burned coal mine waste shall be removed from a permitted...

  1. 43 CFR 3737.1 - Mining claim and millsite use.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-10-01

    ... 43 Public Lands: Interior 2 2011-10-01 2011-10-01 false Mining claim and millsite use. 3737.1... MANAGEMENT, DEPARTMENT OF THE INTERIOR MINERALS MANAGEMENT (3000) PUBLIC LAW 359; MINING IN POWERSITE WITHDRAWALS: GENERAL Use § 3737.1 Mining claim and millsite use. (a) The Act in section 6 provides as...

  2. 43 CFR 3737.1 - Mining claim and millsite use.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-10-01

    ... 43 Public Lands: Interior 2 2013-10-01 2013-10-01 false Mining claim and millsite use. 3737.1... MANAGEMENT, DEPARTMENT OF THE INTERIOR MINERALS MANAGEMENT (3000) PUBLIC LAW 359; MINING IN POWERSITE WITHDRAWALS: GENERAL Use § 3737.1 Mining claim and millsite use. (a) The Act in section 6 provides as...

  3. 43 CFR 3737.1 - Mining claim and millsite use.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-10-01

    ... 43 Public Lands: Interior 2 2012-10-01 2012-10-01 false Mining claim and millsite use. 3737.1... MANAGEMENT, DEPARTMENT OF THE INTERIOR MINERALS MANAGEMENT (3000) PUBLIC LAW 359; MINING IN POWERSITE WITHDRAWALS: GENERAL Use § 3737.1 Mining claim and millsite use. (a) The Act in section 6 provides as...

  4. 43 CFR 3737.1 - Mining claim and millsite use.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-10-01

    ... 43 Public Lands: Interior 2 2014-10-01 2014-10-01 false Mining claim and millsite use. 3737.1... MANAGEMENT, DEPARTMENT OF THE INTERIOR MINERALS MANAGEMENT (3000) PUBLIC LAW 359; MINING IN POWERSITE WITHDRAWALS: GENERAL Use § 3737.1 Mining claim and millsite use. (a) The Act in section 6 provides as...

  5. Restoring Sustainable Forests on Appalachian Mined Lands for Wood Products, Renewable Energy, Carbon Sequestration, and Other Ecosystem Services

    SciTech Connect

    James A. Burger; J. Galbraith; T. Fox; G. Amacher; J. Sullivan; C. Zipper

    2005-12-01

    The overall purpose of this project is to evaluate the biological and economic feasibility of restoring high-quality forests on mined land, and to measure carbon sequestration and wood production benefits that would be achieved from forest restoration procedures. We are currently estimating the acreage of lands in Virginia, West Virginia, Kentucky, Ohio, and Pennsylvania mined under SMCRA and reclaimed to non-forested post-mining land uses that are not currently under active management, and therefore can be considered as available for carbon sequestration. To determine actual sequestration under different forest management scenarios, a field study was installed as a 3 x 3 factorial in a random complete block design with three replications at each of three locations, one each in Ohio, West Virginia, and Virginia. The treatments included three forest types (white pine, hybrid poplar, mixed hardwood) and three silvicultural regimes (competition control, competition control plus tillage, competition control plus tillage plus fertilization). Each individual treatment plot is 0.5 acres. Each block of nine plots is 4.5 acres, and the complete installation at each site is 13.5 acres. Regression models of chemical and physical soil properties were created in order to estimate the SOC content down the soil profile. Soil organic carbon concentration and volumetric percent of the fines decreased exponentially down the soil profile. The results indicated that one-third of the total SOC content on mined lands was found in the surface 0-13 cm soil layer, and more than two-thirds of it was located in the 0-53 cm soil profile. A relative estimate of soil density may be best in broad-scale mine soil mapping since actual D{sub b} values are often inaccurate and difficult to obtain in rocky mine soils. Carbon sequestration potential is also a function of silvicultural practices used for reforestation success. Weed control plus tillage may be the optimum treatment for hardwoods and

  6. Mine-to-Mill Optimization of Aggregate Production

    SciTech Connect

    Greg Adel; Toni Kojovic; Darren Thornton

    2006-09-30

    Mine-to-Mill optimization is a total systems approach to the reduction of energy and cost in mining and processing. Developed at the Julius Krutschnitt Mineral Research Center in Queensland, Australia, the Mine-to-Mill approach attempts to minimize energy consumption through optimization of all steps in the size reduction process. The approach involves sampling and modeling of blasting and processing, followed by computer simulation to optimize the operation and develop alternatives. The most promising alternatives are implemented, and sampling is conducted to quantify benefits. In the current project, the primary objective was to adapt Mine-to-Mill technology to the aggregates industry. The first phase of this work was carried out at the Bealeton Quarry near Fredericksburg, Virginia. The second phase was carried out at the Pittsboro Quarry south of Chapel Hill, North Carolina. Both quarries are operated by Luck Stone Corporation of Richmond, Virginia. As a result of the work, several conclusions can be drawn from the project which should assist DOE in assessing the applicability of the Mine-to-Mill approach to the aggregates industry. 1. Implementation of MTM guidelines at Pittsboro has resulted in tangible improvements in productivity. It is clear that MTM guidelines represent an energy savings of around 5% (primary and secondary) and an overall energy savings of 1%. This 1-5% energy savings is also consistent with simulated results for Bealeton had side-by-side shots used to evaluate the technology been carried out in the same rockmass. 2. Luck Stone clearly runs their operations at a high standard. Hence the percentage improvement realized in this project may represent the lower end of what might be expected overall in the aggregates industry. 3. Variability in ore types across both Bealeton and Pittsboro suggests a 2:1 difference in hardness which contradicts the misconception that quarry rock is homogenous. Therefore, the idea of comparing side-by-side blasts

  7. RESTORING SUSTAINABLE FORESTS ON APPALACHIAN MINED LANDS FOR WOOD PRODUCTS, RENEWABLE ENERGY, CARBON SEQUESTRATION, AND OTHER ECOSYSTEM SERVICES

    SciTech Connect

    Dr. James A. Burger

    2002-02-04

    This is the first quarterly Technical Report for the period October-December, 2003. A kick-off meeting was held with NETL administrators and scientists at Morgantown, WV, on December 2, 2002. The purpose of this project is to evaluate the biological and economic feasibility of restoring high-quality forests on mined land, and to measure carbon sequestration and wood production benefits that would be achieved from forest restoration procedures. During this first quarterly reporting period, five Graduate Research Assistants were recruited, an MOA was drafted between Virginia Tech and three industry cooperators, preliminary field locations for controlled studies were located, and a preliminary analysis of a carbon inventory of forest sites on mined land was made.

  8. Data Mining and Analysis

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Samms, Kevin O.

    2015-01-01

    The Data Mining project seeks to bring the capability of data visualization to NASA anomaly and problem reporting systems for the purpose of improving data trending, evaluations, and analyses. Currently NASA systems are tailored to meet the specific needs of its organizations. This tailoring has led to a variety of nomenclatures and levels of annotation for procedures, parts, and anomalies making difficult the realization of the common causes for anomalies. Making significant observations and realizing the connection between these causes without a common way to view large data sets is difficult to impossible. In the first phase of the Data Mining project a portal was created to present a common visualization of normalized sensitive data to customers with the appropriate security access. The tool of the visualization itself was also developed and fine-tuned. In the second phase of the project we took on the difficult task of searching and analyzing the target data set for common causes between anomalies. In the final part of the second phase we have learned more about how much of the analysis work will be the job of the Data Mining team, how to perform that work, and how that work may be used by different customers in different ways. In this paper I detail how our perspective has changed after gaining more insight into how the customers wish to interact with the output and how that has changed the product.

  9. Solid by-products of coal combustion: Fly ash as a source of industrial minerals

    SciTech Connect

    Bhagwat, S.B.; Rapp, D.M.; Bukowski, J.M.

    1996-12-31

    Fly ash is one of the most important by-products of coal combustion. It is a complex mix of cenospheres, reactive glasses, magnetite and carbon, in addition to minor quantities of other minerals. Fly ash components are determined by the type of coal, the combustion technology, material collection system and the temperature of combustion. The changing mix of coal burned in power plants is increasingly making the fly ash characteristics independent of the locally mined coal. Fly ash is thus becoming a raw material independent of the existence of a local coal mining industry. Currently, about 65 million tons of fly ash are generated annually in the United States. This is equivalent to the crushed stone production of such highly industrialized states as Illinois. Only about twenty percent of the total fly ash are currently used, mostly in low value applications such as road building materials and concrete additions. The fly ash currently represents an environmental and financial liability to electric utilities. The increasingly competitive and boundaryless electricity market in the US increases the incentive to look at fly ash in terms of its individual components and recognize their potential as industrial minerals in the production of value added materials. For example, zeolites and other adsorbents could be produced from reactive glasses, magnetite could be used in pigments and ferrite manufacture, activated carbon could serve in pollution control and cenospheres could be used to make lightweight ceramics. If one begins to look at fly ash as a source of industrial minerals and not as a waste product, this change in perspective could turn a financial and environmental liability into an economic opportunity.

  10. 30 CFR 50.30 - Preparation and submission of MSHA Form 7000-2-Quarterly Employment and Coal Production Report.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-07-01

    ...-Quarterly Employment and Coal Production Report. 50.30 Section 50.30 Mineral Resources MINE SAFETY AND..., AND COAL PRODUCTION IN MINES Quarterly Employment and Coal Production Report § 50.30 Preparation and submission of MSHA Form 7000-2—Quarterly Employment and Coal Production Report. (a) Each operator of a...

  11. Intercomparison of radon and decay product measurements in an underground mine and EPA radon laboratory: A study organized by the IAEA International Radon Metrology Programme

    SciTech Connect

    Budd, G.; Hopper, R.; Braganza, E.; Ronca-Battista, M.; Steinhaeusler, F.; Stegner, P.

    1998-11-01

    The International Atomic Energy Agency (IAEA) in Vienna and the European Union (EU) in Bruxelles formed the International Radon Metrology Programme. The IRMP is designed to assess and foster the improvement of radon and decay product measurements that are made around the world. Within the framework of the IRMP, the U.S. Environmental Protection Agency Radiation and Indoor Environments National Laboratory (EPA) in Las Vegas, Nevada, organized jointly with the U.S. Bureau of Mines an international intercomparison exercise at a former uranium mine (Twilight Mine, Colorado) and the EPA Radon Laboratory. The main objective of this exercise was to compare radon and radon decay product instruments under both well-controlled as well as widely fluctuating exposure conditions. The laboratory exposures occurred under relatively steady radon and decay product conditions, with a moderate equilibrium ratio, while the conditions in the mine fluctuated greatly and the equilibrium ratio was low. An additional purpose of the exercise was to provide a forum for manufacturers and measurement organizations worldwise to exchange information and plan improvements in their operations and calibration programs. Altogether 19 organizations from seven countries intercomparing 32 different radon and radon decay product instruments participated in this exercise. This paper summarizes the results from the analysis of the experimental data obtained in the Bureau of Mines Twilight Mine in July of 1994, as well as the results from the EPA Radon laboratory in August of 1994.

  12. Risks associated with the mining of Pb-Zn minerals in some parts of the Southern Benue trough, Nigeria.

    PubMed

    Igwe, Ogbonnaya; Adepehin, Ekundayo Joseph; Iwuanyanwu, Chukwuemeka; Una, Chuku Okoro

    2014-06-01

    The environmental effects of the mining of lead-zinc mineralization in Enyigba area, Southern Benue trough were examined. The samples used for this study were obtained from abandoned mine sites, mine tailings, streams, hand-dug wells, mine pond and borehole. Collected samples were subjected to X-ray fluorescence, X-ray diffraction analyses, atomic absorption spectrometry and permeability tests. These were done using standard laboratory equipment and procedures. The concentrations of heavy metals present in analysed water samples fall below the world health organizations' (WHO) acceptable limits. Conversely, the soil, mine tailings and stream sediments indicate appreciable pollution level by some potential toxic metals (PTMs). Consequently, the habitual use of these soils for construction purpose by inhabitants has possible health hazards. The shaly lithology underlying the area is increasingly affected by weathering and lateritization, thus improving its permeability and the easiness with which PTMs can be conducted to the water table by leachate. Regular monitoring assessment is recommended to ensure adherence of miners operating in the area to existing environmental laws. PMID:24577621

  13. Risks associated with the mining of Pb-Zn minerals in some parts of the Southern Benue trough, Nigeria.

    PubMed

    Igwe, Ogbonnaya; Adepehin, Ekundayo Joseph; Iwuanyanwu, Chukwuemeka; Una, Chuku Okoro

    2014-06-01

    The environmental effects of the mining of lead-zinc mineralization in Enyigba area, Southern Benue trough were examined. The samples used for this study were obtained from abandoned mine sites, mine tailings, streams, hand-dug wells, mine pond and borehole. Collected samples were subjected to X-ray fluorescence, X-ray diffraction analyses, atomic absorption spectrometry and permeability tests. These were done using standard laboratory equipment and procedures. The concentrations of heavy metals present in analysed water samples fall below the world health organizations' (WHO) acceptable limits. Conversely, the soil, mine tailings and stream sediments indicate appreciable pollution level by some potential toxic metals (PTMs). Consequently, the habitual use of these soils for construction purpose by inhabitants has possible health hazards. The shaly lithology underlying the area is increasingly affected by weathering and lateritization, thus improving its permeability and the easiness with which PTMs can be conducted to the water table by leachate. Regular monitoring assessment is recommended to ensure adherence of miners operating in the area to existing environmental laws.

  14. Restoring Sustainable Forests on Appalachian Mined Lands for Wood Products, Renewable Energy, Carbon Sequestration, and Other Ecosystem Services

    SciTech Connect

    Burger, James A

    2005-07-20

    The overall purpose of this project is to evaluate the biological and economic feasibility of restoring high-quality forests on mined land, and to measure carbon sequestration and wood production benefits that would be achieved from forest restoration procedures. We are currently estimating the acreage of lands in Virginia, West Virginia, Kentucky, Ohio, and Pennsylvania mined under SMCRA and reclaimed to non-forested post-mining land uses that are not currently under active management, and therefore can be considered as available for carbon sequestration. To determine actual sequestration under different forest management scenarios, a field study was installed as a 3 x 3 factorial in a random complete block design with three replications at each of three locations, one each in Ohio, West Virginia, and Virginia. The treatments included three forest types (white pine, hybrid poplar, mixed hardwood) and three silvicultural regimes (competition control, competition control plus tillage, competition control plus tillage plus fertilization). Each individual treatment plot is 0.5 acres. Each block of nine plots is 4.5 acres, and the complete installation at each site is 13.5 acres. During the reporting period we determined that by grinding the soil samples to a finer particle size of less than 250 μm (sieve No. 60), the effect of mine soil coal particle size on the extent to which these particles will be oxidized during the thermal treatment of the carbon partitioning procedure will be eliminated, thus making the procedure more accurate and precise. In the second phase of the carbon sequestration project, we focused our attention on determining the sample size required for carbon accounting on grassland mined fields in order to achieve a desired accuracy and precision of the final soil organic carbon (SOC) estimate. A mine land site quality classification scheme was developed and some field-testing of the methods of implementation was completed. The classification model

  15. 43 CFR 3483.6 - Special logical mining unit rules.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-10-01

    ... 43 Public Lands: Interior 2 2012-10-01 2012-10-01 false Special logical mining unit rules. 3483.6... MANAGEMENT, DEPARTMENT OF THE INTERIOR MINERALS MANAGEMENT (3000) COAL EXPLORATION AND MINING OPERATIONS RULES Diligence Requirements § 3483.6 Special logical mining unit rules. (a) Production anywhere...

  16. 43 CFR 3483.6 - Special logical mining unit rules.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-10-01

    ... 43 Public Lands: Interior 2 2014-10-01 2014-10-01 false Special logical mining unit rules. 3483.6... MANAGEMENT, DEPARTMENT OF THE INTERIOR MINERALS MANAGEMENT (3000) COAL EXPLORATION AND MINING OPERATIONS RULES Diligence Requirements § 3483.6 Special logical mining unit rules. (a) Production anywhere...

  17. 43 CFR 3483.6 - Special logical mining unit rules.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-10-01

    ... 43 Public Lands: Interior 2 2011-10-01 2011-10-01 false Special logical mining unit rules. 3483.6... MANAGEMENT, DEPARTMENT OF THE INTERIOR MINERALS MANAGEMENT (3000) COAL EXPLORATION AND MINING OPERATIONS RULES Diligence Requirements § 3483.6 Special logical mining unit rules. (a) Production anywhere...

  18. 43 CFR 3483.6 - Special logical mining unit rules.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-10-01

    ... 43 Public Lands: Interior 2 2013-10-01 2013-10-01 false Special logical mining unit rules. 3483.6... MANAGEMENT, DEPARTMENT OF THE INTERIOR MINERALS MANAGEMENT (3000) COAL EXPLORATION AND MINING OPERATIONS RULES Diligence Requirements § 3483.6 Special logical mining unit rules. (a) Production anywhere...

  19. Analysis of Improved Government Geological Map Information for Mineral Exploration: Incorporating Efficiency, Productivity, Effectiveness, and Risk Considerations

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Bernknopf, R.L.; Wein, A.M.; St-Onge, M. R.; Lucas, S.B.

    2007-01-01

    This bulletin/professional paper focuses on the value of geoscientific information and knowledge, as provided in published government bedrock geological maps, to the mineral exploration sector. An economic model is developed that uses an attribute- ranking approach to convert geological maps into domains of mineral favourability. Information about known deposits in these (or analogous) favourability domains allow the calculation of exploration search statistics that provide input into measures of exploration efficiency, productivity, effectiveness, risk, and cost stemming from the use of the published geological maps. Two case studies, the Flin Flon Belt (Manitoba and Saskatchewan) and the south Baffin Island area (Nunavut), demonstrate that updated, finer resolution maps can be used to identify more exploration campaign options, and campaigns thats are more efficient, more effective, and less risky than old, coarser resolution maps when used as a guide for mineral exploration. The Flin Flon Belt study illustrates that an updated, coarser resolution bedrock map enables improved mineral exploration efficiency, productivity, and effectiveness by locating 60% more targets and supporting an exploration campaign that is 44% more efficient. Refining the map resolution provides an additional 17% reduction in search effort across all favourable domains and a 55% reduction in search effort in the most favourable domain. The south Baffin Island case study projects a 40% increase in expected targets and a 27% reduction in search effort when the updated, finer resolution map is used in lieu of the old, coarser resolution map. On southern Baffin Island, the economic value of the up dated map ranges from CAN$2.28 million to CAN$15.21 million, which can be compared to the CAN$1.86 million that it cost to produce the map (a multiplier effect of up to eight).

  20. Clay minerals on Mars: Riotinto mining district (Huelva, Spain) as Earth analogue for acidic alteration pathways

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Mavris, C.; Cuadros, J.; Bishop, J. L.; Nieto, J. M.; Michalski, J. R.

    2015-12-01

    Combined satellite and in-situ measurements of Mars surface have detected mineral assemblages indicating processes for which Earth analogues exist. Among them, aluminous clay-sulfate assemblages have been observed, which suggest alteration by acidic fluids. The Riotinto mining district (SW Spain) provides an Earth analogue site for such Martian processes. The parent rocks belong to an Upper Palaeozoic (Late Famennian-Tournaisian) volcano-sedimentary complex including siliciclastic sediments and mafic and felsic volcanics, all of which underwent hydrothermal alteration. The oxidation of an extensive pyrite-rich orebody provided mild to extreme acidic fluxes that leached the surrounding rocks for over 20 million years. The mineral assemblages are strongly dependent on their acidic alteration intensity. The observed mineralogical parageneses and leaching conditions for our sites at Riotinto are consistent with three alteration sequences: i) Mild: containing a range of clay minerals from vermiculite to kaolinite, with a wide variety of crystal order and mixed-layering; ii) Intermediate: containing smectite to kaolinite with jarosite-group phases; iii) Advanced: containing kaolinite, jarosite-group phases, and iron oxides. Our findings suggest that, even within this general scheme, the specific alteration pathways can be different.

  1. 30 CFR 75.373 - Reopening mines.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-07-01

    ... 30 Mineral Resources 1 2010-07-01 2010-07-01 false Reopening mines. 75.373 Section 75.373 Mineral Resources MINE SAFETY AND HEALTH ADMINISTRATION, DEPARTMENT OF LABOR COAL MINE SAFETY AND HEALTH MANDATORY SAFETY STANDARDS-UNDERGROUND COAL MINES Ventilation § 75.373 Reopening mines. After a mine is...

  2. 30 CFR 75.373 - Reopening mines.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-07-01

    ... 30 Mineral Resources 1 2012-07-01 2012-07-01 false Reopening mines. 75.373 Section 75.373 Mineral Resources MINE SAFETY AND HEALTH ADMINISTRATION, DEPARTMENT OF LABOR COAL MINE SAFETY AND HEALTH MANDATORY SAFETY STANDARDS-UNDERGROUND COAL MINES Ventilation § 75.373 Reopening mines. After a mine is...

  3. 30 CFR 75.373 - Reopening mines.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-07-01

    ... 30 Mineral Resources 1 2011-07-01 2011-07-01 false Reopening mines. 75.373 Section 75.373 Mineral Resources MINE SAFETY AND HEALTH ADMINISTRATION, DEPARTMENT OF LABOR COAL MINE SAFETY AND HEALTH MANDATORY SAFETY STANDARDS-UNDERGROUND COAL MINES Ventilation § 75.373 Reopening mines. After a mine is...

  4. 30 CFR 75.373 - Reopening mines.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-07-01

    ... 30 Mineral Resources 1 2013-07-01 2013-07-01 false Reopening mines. 75.373 Section 75.373 Mineral Resources MINE SAFETY AND HEALTH ADMINISTRATION, DEPARTMENT OF LABOR COAL MINE SAFETY AND HEALTH MANDATORY SAFETY STANDARDS-UNDERGROUND COAL MINES Ventilation § 75.373 Reopening mines. After a mine is...

  5. 30 CFR 75.373 - Reopening mines.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-07-01

    ... 30 Mineral Resources 1 2014-07-01 2014-07-01 false Reopening mines. 75.373 Section 75.373 Mineral Resources MINE SAFETY AND HEALTH ADMINISTRATION, DEPARTMENT OF LABOR COAL MINE SAFETY AND HEALTH MANDATORY SAFETY STANDARDS-UNDERGROUND COAL MINES Ventilation § 75.373 Reopening mines. After a mine is...

  6. "Supergreen" Renewables: Integration of Mineral Weathering Into Renewable Energy Production for Air CO2 Removal and Storage as Ocean Alkalinity

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Rau, G. H.; Carroll, S.; Ren, Z. J.

    2015-12-01

    Excess planetary CO2 and accompanying ocean acidification are naturally mitigated on geologic time scales via mineral weathering. Here, CO2 acidifies the hydrosphere, which then slowly reacts with silicate and carbonate minerals to produce dissolved bicarbonates that are ultimately delivered to the ocean. This alkalinity not only provides long-term sequestration of the excess atmospheric carbon, but it also chemically counters the effects of ocean acidification by stabilizing or raising pH and carbonate saturation state, thus helping rebalance ocean chemistry and preserving marine ecosystems. Recent research has demonstrated ways of greatly accelerating this process by its integration into energy systems. Specifically, it has been shown (1) that some 80% of the CO2 in a waste gas stream can be spontaneously converted to stable, seawater mineral bicarbonate in the presence of a common carbonate mineral - limestone. This can allow removal of CO2 from biomass combustion and bio-energy production while generating beneficial ocean alkalinity, providing a potentially cheaper and more environmentally friendly negative-CO2-emissions alternative to BECCS. It has also been demonstrated that strong acids anodically produced in a standard saline water electrolysis cell in the formation of H2 can be reacted with carbonate or silicate minerals to generate strong base solutions. These solutions are highly absorptive of air CO2, converting it to mineral bicarbonate in solution. When such electrochemical cells are powered by non-fossil energy (e.g. electricity from wind, solar, tidal, biomass, geothermal, etc. energy sources), the system generates H2 that is strongly CO2-emissions-negative, while producing beneficial marine alkalinity (2-4). The preceding systems therefore point the way toward renewable energy production that, when tightly coupled to geochemical mitigation of CO2 and formation of natural ocean "antacids", forms a high capacity, negative-CO2-emissions, "supergreen

  7. RESTORING SUSTAINABLE FORESTS ON APPALACHIAN MINED LANDS FOR WOOD PRODUCTS, RENEWABLE ENERGY, CARBON SEQUESTRATION, AND OTHER ECOSYSTEM SERVICES

    SciTech Connect

    James A. Burger; J. Galbraith; T. Fox; G. Amacher; J. Sullivan; C. Zipper

    2005-06-08

    The overall purpose of this project is to evaluate the biological and economic feasibility of restoring high-quality forests on mined land, and to measure carbon sequestration and wood production benefits that would be achieved from forest restoration procedures. We are currently estimating the acreage of lands in VA, WV, KY, OH, and PA mined under SMCRA and reclaimed to non-forested post-mining land uses that are not currently under active management, and therefore can be considered as available for carbon sequestration. To determine actual sequestration under different forest management scenarios, a field study was installed as a 3 x 3 factorial in a random complete block design with three replications at each of three locations, Ohio, West Virginia, and Virginia. The treatments included three forest types (white pine, hybrid poplar, mixed hardwood) and three silvicultural regimes (competition control, competition control plus tillage, competition control plus tillage plus fertilization). Each individual treatment plot is 0.5 acres. Each block of nine plots is 4.5 acres, and the complete installation at each site is 13.5 acres. During the reporting period we compiled and evaluated all soil properties measured on the study sites. Statistical analysis of the properties was conducted, and first year survival and growth of white pine, hybrid poplars, and native hardwoods was assessed. Hardwood species survived better at all sites than white pine or hybrid poplar. Hardwood survival across treatments was 80%, 85%, and 50% for sites in Virginia, West Virginia, and Ohio, respectively, while white pine survival was 27%, 41%, and 58%, and hybrid poplar survival was 37%, 41%, and 72% for the same sites, respectively. Hybrid poplar height and diameter growth were superior to those of the other species tested, with the height growth of this species reaching 126.6cm after one year in the most intensive treatment at the site in Virginia. To determine carbon in soils on these

  8. Cobalt mineral exploration and supply from 1995 through 2013

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Wilburn, David R.

    2011-01-01

    The global mining industry has invested a large amount of capital in mineral exploration and development over the past 15 years in an effort to ensure that sufficient resources are available to meet future increases in demand for minerals. Exploration data have been used to identify specific sites where this investment has led to a significant contribution in global mineral supply of cobalt or where a significant increase in cobalt production capacity is anticipated in the next 5 years. This report provides an overview of the cobalt industry, factors affecting mineral supply, and circumstances surrounding the development, or lack thereof, of key mineral properties with the potential to affect mineral supply. Of the 48 sites with an effective production capacity of at least 1,000 metric tons per year of cobalt considered for this study, 3 producing sites underwent significant expansion during the study period, 10 exploration sites commenced production from 1995 through 2008, and 16 sites were expected to begin production by 2013 if planned development schedules are met. Cobalt supply is influenced by economic, environmental, political, and technological factors affecting exploration for and production of copper, nickel, and other metals as well as factors affecting the cobalt industry. Cobalt-rich nickel laterite deposits were discovered and developed in Australia and the South Pacific and improvements in laterite processing technology took place during the 1990s and early in the first decade of the 21st century when mining of copper-cobalt deposits in Congo (Kinshasa) was restricted because of regional conflict and lack of investment in that country's mining sector. There was also increased exploration for and greater importance placed on cobalt as a byproduct of nickel mining in Australia and Canada. The emergence of China as a major refined cobalt producer and consumer since 2007 has changed the pattern of demand for cobalt, particularly from Africa and

  9. Vitamins, Minerals, and Mood

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Kaplan, Bonnie J.; Crawford, Susan G.; Field, Catherine J.; Simpson, J. Steven A.

    2007-01-01

    In this article, the authors explore the breadth and depth of published research linking dietary vitamins and minerals (micronutrients) to mood. Since the 1920s, there have been many studies on individual vitamins (especially B vitamins and Vitamins C, D, and E), minerals (calcium, chromium, iron, magnesium, zinc, and selenium), and vitamin-like…

  10. The Video Collaborative Localization of a Miner's Lamp Based on Wireless Multimedia Sensor Networks for Underground Coal Mines.

    PubMed

    You, Kaiming; Yang, Wei; Han, Ruisong

    2015-01-01

    Based on wireless multimedia sensor networks (WMSNs) deployed in an underground coal mine, a miner's lamp video collaborative localization algorithm was proposed to locate miners in the scene of insufficient illumination and bifurcated structures of underground tunnels. In bifurcation area, several camera nodes are deployed along the longitudinal direction of tunnels, forming a collaborative cluster in wireless way to monitor and locate miners in underground tunnels. Cap-lamps are regarded as the feature of miners in the scene of insufficient illumination of underground tunnels, which means that miners can be identified by detecting their cap-lamps. A miner's lamp will project mapping points on the imaging plane of collaborative cameras and the coordinates of mapping points are calculated by collaborative cameras. Then, multiple straight lines between the positions of collaborative cameras and their corresponding mapping points are established. To find the three-dimension (3D) coordinate location of the miner's lamp a least square method is proposed to get the optimal intersection of the multiple straight lines. Tests were carried out both in a corridor and a realistic scenario of underground tunnel, which show that the proposed miner's lamp video collaborative localization algorithm has good effectiveness, robustness and localization accuracy in real world conditions of underground tunnels. PMID:26426023

  11. Production of arthropod pests and vectors in coal strip mine ponds. Program report

    SciTech Connect

    Pickard, E.

    1981-06-01

    The objective of this study was to determine what species of medically important arthropods, particularly mosquitoes, are breeding in coal strip mine ponds, to what extent, and whether these breeding sites will serve as a focus of annoyance or a potential outbreak center of arthropod-borne diseases to surrounding communities. Pond age was compared with physical and chemical characteristics of the water and associated vegetation communities. Various sampling techniques were used to determine the composition and density of all life stages of the aquatic insect fauna.

  12. Belt fires and mine escape problems

    SciTech Connect

    Kovac, J.G.; Lazzara, C.P.; Kravitz, J.H.

    1996-12-31

    A conveyor belt fire in an underground coal mine is a serious threat to life and property. About 30% of the reportable underground coal mine fires from 1988 through 1992 occurred in belt entries. In one instance, a fire started in the drive area of a belt line, spread rapidly, and resulted in seating of the entire mine. Large-scale studies conducted by the U.S. Bureau of Mines in an aboveground fire gallery at Lake Lynn Laboratory clearly show the hazards of conveyor belt fires. Mine conveyor belt formulations which passed the current Federal acceptance test for fire-resistant betting were completely consumed by propagating fires or propagated flame, with flame spread rates ranging from 0.3 to 9 m/min. High downstream temperatures and large quantities of smoke and toxic gases, such as carbon monoxide, were generated as the belting burned. The smoke and gases can be spread by the mine`s ventilation system and can create significant problems for miners in the process of evacuation, such as reduction in visibility and incapacitation. In the aftermath of a belt fire, the atmosphere inside of the mine can become smoke filled or unbreathable, forcing miners to evacuate while wearing Self-Contained Self-Rescuers (SCSR`s), Sometimes there is confusion about how to regard the rated duration of an MSHA/NIOSH-approved 60-min. SCSR, especially when an SCSR is used in a way which takes it outside of the test conditions under which it was approved. As examples, for a mine escape that takes a miner from the deepest point of penetration in the mine to the surface: How long will a 60-min. SCSR actually last? and How many SCSR`s will a miner need? To answer these kinds of questions, in-mine data being gathered on escape times, distance and heart rates using miners escaping on foot and under oxygen. A model will be developed and validated which predicts how much oxygen is actually needed for a mine escape, and compares oxygen consumption bare faced versus wearing an SCSR.

  13. Effect of an acid mine drainage effluent on phytoplankton biomass and primary production at Britannia Beach, Howe Sound, British Columbia.

    PubMed

    Levings, C D; Varela, D E; Mehlenbacher, N M; Barry, K L; Piercey, G E; Guo, M; Harrison, P J

    2005-12-01

    We investigated the effect of acid mine drainage (AMD) from an abandoned copper mine at Britannia Beach (Howe Sound, BC, Canada) on primary productivity and chlorophyll a levels in the receiving waters of Howe Sound before, during, and after freshet from the Squamish River. Elevated concentrations of copper (integrated average through the water column >0.050 mgl(-1)) in nearshore waters indicated that under some conditions a small gyre near the mouth of Britannia Creek may have retained the AMD from Britannia Creek and from a 30-m deep water outfall close to shore. Regression and correlation analyses indicated that copper negatively affected primary productivity during April (pre-freshet) and November (post-freshet). Negative effects of copper on primary productivity were not supported statistically for July (freshet), possibly because of additional effects such as turbidity from the Squamish River. Depth-integrated average and surface chlorophyll a were correlated to copper concentrations in April. During this short study we demonstrated that copper concentrations from the AMD discharge can negatively affect both primary productivity and the standing stock of primary producers in Howe Sound. PMID:16038945

  14. Lineaments and Mineral Occurrences in Pennsylvania

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Mcmurtry, G. J.; Petersen, G. W. (Principal Investigator); Kowalik, W. S.; Gold, D. P.

    1975-01-01

    The author has identified the following significant results. A conservative lineament map of Pennsylvania interpreted from ERTS-1 channel 7 (infrared) imagery and Skylab photography was compared with the distribution of known metallic mines and mineral occurrences. Of 383 known mineral occurrences, 116 show a geographical association to 1 km wide lineaments, another 24 lie at the intersection of two lineaments, and one lies at the intersection of three lineaments. The Perkiomen Creek lineament in the Triassic Basin is associated with 9 Cu-Fe occurrences. Six Pb-Zn occurrences are associated with the Tyrone-Mount Union lineament. Thirteen other lineaments are associated with 3, 4, or 5 mineral occurrences each.

  15. Bioweathering of Kupferschiefer black shale (Fore-Sudetic Monocline, SW Poland) by indigenous bacteria: implication for dissolution and precipitation of minerals in deep underground mine.

    PubMed

    Matlakowska, Renata; Skłodowska, Aleksandra; Nejbert, Krzysztof

    2012-07-01

    The Upper Permian polymetallic, organic-rich Kupferschiefer black shale in the Fore-Sudetic Monocline is acknowledged to be one of the largest Cu-Ag deposits in the world. Here we report the results of the first study of bioweathering of this sedimentary rock by indigenous heterotrophic bacteria. Experiments were performed under laboratory conditions, employing both petrological and microbiological methods, which permitted the monitoring and visualization of geomicrobiological processes. The results demonstrate that bacteria play a prominent role in the weathering of black shale and in the biogeochemical cycles of elements occurring in this rock. It was shown that bacteria directly interact with black shale organic matter to produce a widespread biofilm on the Kupferschiefer shale surface. As a result of bacterial activity, the formation of pits, bioweathering of ore and rock-forming minerals, the mobilization of elements and secondary mineral precipitation were observed. The chemistry of the secondary minerals unequivocally demonstrates the mobilization of elements from minerals comprising Kupferschiefer. The redistribution of P, Al, Si, Ca, Mg, K, Fe, S, Cu and Pb was confirmed. The presence of bacterial outer membrane vesicles on the surface of black shale was observed for the first time. Biomineralization reactions occurred in both the membrane vesicles and the bacterial cells.

  16. 30 CFR 870.22 - Maintaining required production records.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-07-01

    ... 30 Mineral Resources 3 2013-07-01 2013-07-01 false Maintaining required production records. 870.22 Section 870.22 Mineral Resources OFFICE OF SURFACE MINING RECLAMATION AND ENFORCEMENT, DEPARTMENT OF THE INTERIOR ABANDONED MINE LAND RECLAMATION ABANDONED MINE RECLAMATION FUND-FEE COLLECTION AND COAL...

  17. 30 CFR 870.22 - Maintaining required production records.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-07-01

    ... 30 Mineral Resources 3 2014-07-01 2014-07-01 false Maintaining required production records. 870.22 Section 870.22 Mineral Resources OFFICE OF SURFACE MINING RECLAMATION AND ENFORCEMENT, DEPARTMENT OF THE INTERIOR ABANDONED MINE LAND RECLAMATION ABANDONED MINE RECLAMATION FUND-FEE COLLECTION AND COAL...

  18. 30 CFR 870.22 - Maintaining required production records.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-07-01

    ... 30 Mineral Resources 3 2012-07-01 2012-07-01 false Maintaining required production records. 870.22 Section 870.22 Mineral Resources OFFICE OF SURFACE MINING RECLAMATION AND ENFORCEMENT, DEPARTMENT OF THE INTERIOR ABANDONED MINE LAND RECLAMATION ABANDONED MINE RECLAMATION FUND-FEE COLLECTION AND COAL...

  19. Safety regulation and firm size: effects of the Coal Mine Health and Safety Act of 1969

    SciTech Connect

    Neumann, G.R.; Nelson, J.P.

    1982-10-01

    The Coal Mine Health and Safety Act of 1969 has contributed to the decline in mine productivity, which must be weighed against safer working conditions for the miners. There may be some overstatement of the benefits if only fatalities are considered, however, because there was an increase in non-fatal accidents after 1970. Safety regulations have forced the closure of some small mines and raised some questions about the tradeoffs necessary when work safety reduces competition. A review of pertinent legislation, a hedonic wage-differential model, and the effects of union wage policy are applied to these questions. 4 tables. (DCK)

  20. Psycho-social aspects of productivity in underground coal mining

    SciTech Connect

    Akin, G.

    1981-10-01

    This report presents the results of an investigation into the psycho-social aspects of productivity in underground coal mining. Chapter 1 reviews the status of the literature on labor productivity changes. Chapter 2 is an introduction to current concepts and research on psycho-social factors in productivity, with a survey of experiments in productivity improvement presented in Chapter 3. Chapter 4 discusses the impact of the introduction of new technology on the social system and the way that it accomplishes production. Chapter 5 presents a clinical study of a coal mining operation, and develops a model of how production is actually accomplished by workers at the coal face. Implications and recommendations for new technology design, implementation and ongoing management are presented in Chapter 6.

  1. Heavy oil mining technical and economic analysis

    SciTech Connect

    Lyman, T.J.; Piper, E.M.; Riddell, A.W.

    1984-04-01

    U.S. Department of Energy studies have indicated that the United States has produced only about one-third of its estimated reserves of heavy oil, primarily because this oil is unrecoverable by conventional production methods. One technology that shows promise for recovering these reserves is oil mining. Of three fundamental mining methods, surface extractive mining, underground extractive mining and underground mining for access, the surface extractive mining and underground mining for access methods appear to be technically feasible for oil recovery. Two heavy oil reservoirs are used as the basis for an economic evaluation of the two technically feasible mining methods. These two reservoirs were selected from an extensive list of heavy oil reservoirs in the United States based on a favorable combination of physical characteristics including depth, net pay thickness, oil saturation in barrels per acre, reservoir area, and total estimated reserves.

  2. Mines, prospects, and occurrences of metallic (excluding gold), pegmatite, and rare-earth mineral commodities in the Greenville 1 degree by 2 degrees Quadrangle, South Carolina, Georgia, and North Carolina

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    D'Agostino, John P.; Zupan, Alan Jon; Maybin, Arthur H.; Abrams, Charlotte E.; German, Jerry M.

    1994-01-01

    All of the known mines, prospects, and occurrences of metallic (excluding gold, pegmatite, and rare-earth mineral commodities for the Greenville 1° x 2° quadrangle are tabulated in this report. The table lists, in consecutive order for each county (fig. 1), the map number of each item, which correlates and locates the item on the accompanying Greenville 1° x 2° quadrangle map. The known name of the feature; the 7.5' topographic map on the which the commodity site is located; the Universal Transverse Mercator (UTM) northing and easting grid coordinates from the appropriate 7.5' topographic map; the commodity; remarks; and references are also listed. Some locations are known, but many sites are not verified and their locations are only approximate. References are listed in References Cited and referred to by number to save space.

  3. Advances in life cycle assessment and emergy evaluation with case studies in gold mining and pineapple production

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Ingwersen, Wesley W.

    Life cycle assessment (LCA) is an internationally standardized framework for assessing the environmental impacts of products that is rapidly evolving to improve understanding and quantification of how complex product systems depend upon and affect the environment. This dissertation contributes to that evolution through the development of new methods for measuring impacts, estimating the uncertainty of impacts, and measuring ranges of environmental performance, with a focus on product systems in non-OECD countries that have not been well characterized. The integration of a measure of total energy use, emergy, is demonstrated in an LCA of gold from the Yanacocha mine in Peru in the second chapter. A model for estimating the accuracy of emergy results is proposed in the following chapter. The fourth chapter presents a template for LCA-based quantification of the range of environmental performance for tropical agricultural products using the example of fresh pineapple production for export in Costa Rica that can be used to create product labels with environmental information. The final chapter synthesizes how each methodological contribution will together improve the science of measuring product environmental performance.

  4. Parathyroid hormone 1 receptor is essential to induce FGF23 production and maintain systemic mineral ion homeostasis.

    PubMed

    Fan, Yi; Bi, Ruiye; Densmore, Michael J; Sato, Tadatoshi; Kobayashi, Tatsuya; Yuan, Quan; Zhou, Xuedong; Erben, Reinhold G; Lanske, Beate

    2016-01-01

    Parathyroid-hormone-type 1 receptor (PTH1R) is extensively expressed in key regulatory organs for systemic mineral ion homeostasis, including kidney and bone. We investigated the bone-specific functions of PTH1R in modulating mineral ion homeostasis by generating a novel mouse model in which PTH1R is ablated in the limb mesenchyme using Prx1Cre transgenic mice. Such ablation decreased FGF23 protein and serum levels by 50%, despite normal Fgf23 mRNA levels in long bones. Circulating calcium and PTH levels were unchanged, but inorganic phosphate and 1,25(OH)2D3 levels were significantly decreased and accompanied by elevated urinary calcium and phosphate wasting. Key renal genes for balancing mineral ion homeostasis, calbindinD28k, Klotho, and Napi2a were suppressed by 30-40%. Intermittent hPTH(1-34) injections increased Fgf23 mRNA (7.3-fold), Nurr1 mRNA (3.1-fold), and serum intact-FGF23 (1.6-fold) in controls, but failed to induce Fgf23, Nurr1 mRNA, or intact FGF23 production in mutants. Moreover, a significant elevation in serum C-terminal-FGF23 levels (4-fold) was detected in both genotypes. PTH markedly downregulated Galnt3 expression (2.7-fold) in controls but not in mutants. These results demonstrate the pivotal role of PTH1R in long bones to regulate systemic mineral ion homeostasis and the direct induction of FGF23 by PTH1R signaling.

  5. Relationship between the geological and working parameters in high productivity longwalls in underground competitive coal mining of very thick seams

    SciTech Connect

    Torano, J.; Rivas, J.M.; Rodriguez, R.; Diego, I.; Pelegry, A.

    2005-07-01

    Carbonar S.A. is using a high productivity long panel to mine a coal seam that is over 4 meters thick in some places. The equipment comprises a double drum shearer and a powered roof support. Seam thickness, close joint state, and roof load over the support were measured, in situ. Data were collected on both cross and longitudinal sections of the panel. The data are interpreted and related to the longwall advance. The data are being processed using fuzzy logic methods. The results will be applied to remote control automation using virtual reality tools. 7 refs., 27 figs.

  6. Coupling primary production and terrestrial runoff to ocean acidification and carbonate mineral suppression in the eastern Bering Sea

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Mathis, Jeremy T.; Cross, Jessica N.; Bates, Nicholas R.

    2011-02-01

    Water column pH and carbonate mineral saturation states were calculated from dissolved inorganic carbon (DIC) and total alkalinity data collected over the eastern Bering Sea shelf in the spring and summer of 2008. The saturation states (Ω) of the two most important carbonate minerals, calcite (Ωcalcite) and aragonite (Ωaragonite) were strongly coupled to terrestrial runoff from the Yukon and Kuskokwim rivers, primary production in the surface waters, and remineralization of organic matter at depth over the shelf. In spring, before ice melt occurred, pH over the shelf was largely confined to a range of 7.9-8.1 and Ωcalcite and Ωaragonite ranged from 1.5 to 3.0 and 0.8 to 2.0, respectively. At the stations closest to river outflows, aragonite was undersaturated in the water column from the surface to the bottom. During the summer sea ice retreat, high rates of primary production consumed DIC in the mixed layer, which increased pH and Ωcalcite and Ωaragonite. However, Ωcalcite and Ωaragonite decreased by ˜0.3 in the bottom waters over the middle and outer shelf. Over the northern shelf, where export production is highest, Ωaragonite decreased by ˜0.35 and became highly undersaturated. The observed suppression and undersaturation of Ωcalcite and Ωaragonite in the eastern Bering Sea are correlated with anthropogenic carbon dioxide uptake into the ocean and will likely be exacerbated under business-as-usual emission scenarios. Therefore, ocean acidification could threaten some benthic and pelagic calcifying organisms across the Bering Sea shelf in the coming decades.

  7. 30 CFR 57.22401 - Underground retorts (I-A and I-B mines).

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-07-01

    ... 30 Mineral Resources 1 2014-07-01 2014-07-01 false Underground retorts (I-A and I-B mines). 57.22401 Section 57.22401 Mineral Resources MINE SAFETY AND HEALTH ADMINISTRATION, DEPARTMENT OF LABOR METAL AND NONMETAL MINE SAFETY AND HEALTH SAFETY AND HEALTH STANDARDS-UNDERGROUND METAL AND...

  8. 30 CFR 57.22401 - Underground retorts (I-A and I-B mines).

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-07-01

    ... 30 Mineral Resources 1 2012-07-01 2012-07-01 false Underground retorts (I-A and I-B mines). 57.22401 Section 57.22401 Mineral Resources MINE SAFETY AND HEALTH ADMINISTRATION, DEPARTMENT OF LABOR METAL AND NONMETAL MINE SAFETY AND HEALTH SAFETY AND HEALTH STANDARDS-UNDERGROUND METAL AND...

  9. 30 CFR 57.22401 - Underground retorts (I-A and I-B mines).

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-07-01

    ... 30 Mineral Resources 1 2013-07-01 2013-07-01 false Underground retorts (I-A and I-B mines). 57.22401 Section 57.22401 Mineral Resources MINE SAFETY AND HEALTH ADMINISTRATION, DEPARTMENT OF LABOR METAL AND NONMETAL MINE SAFETY AND HEALTH SAFETY AND HEALTH STANDARDS-UNDERGROUND METAL AND...

  10. 30 CFR 57.22401 - Underground retorts (I-A and I-B mines).

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-07-01

    ... 30 Mineral Resources 1 2011-07-01 2011-07-01 false Underground retorts (I-A and I-B mines). 57.22401 Section 57.22401 Mineral Resources MINE SAFETY AND HEALTH ADMINISTRATION, DEPARTMENT OF LABOR METAL AND NONMETAL MINE SAFETY AND HEALTH SAFETY AND HEALTH STANDARDS-UNDERGROUND METAL AND...

  11. 30 CFR 57.22401 - Underground retorts (I-A and I-B mines).

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-07-01

    ... 30 Mineral Resources 1 2010-07-01 2010-07-01 false Underground retorts (I-A and I-B mines). 57.22401 Section 57.22401 Mineral Resources MINE SAFETY AND HEALTH ADMINISTRATION, DEPARTMENT OF LABOR METAL AND NONMETAL MINE SAFETY AND HEALTH SAFETY AND HEALTH STANDARDS-UNDERGROUND METAL AND...

  12. 30 CFR 57.18028 - Mine emergency and self-rescuer training.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-07-01

    ... 30 Mineral Resources 1 2012-07-01 2012-07-01 false Mine emergency and self-rescuer training. 57.18028 Section 57.18028 Mineral Resources MINE SAFETY AND HEALTH ADMINISTRATION, DEPARTMENT OF LABOR METAL AND NONMETAL MINE SAFETY AND HEALTH SAFETY AND HEALTH STANDARDS-UNDERGROUND METAL AND...

  13. 30 CFR 57.18028 - Mine emergency and self-rescuer training.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-07-01

    ... 30 Mineral Resources 1 2014-07-01 2014-07-01 false Mine emergency and self-rescuer training. 57.18028 Section 57.18028 Mineral Resources MINE SAFETY AND HEALTH ADMINISTRATION, DEPARTMENT OF LABOR METAL AND NONMETAL MINE SAFETY AND HEALTH SAFETY AND HEALTH STANDARDS-UNDERGROUND METAL AND...

  14. 30 CFR 57.18028 - Mine emergency and self-rescuer training.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-07-01

    ... 30 Mineral Resources 1 2013-07-01 2013-07-01 false Mine emergency and self-rescuer training. 57.18028 Section 57.18028 Mineral Resources MINE SAFETY AND HEALTH ADMINISTRATION, DEPARTMENT OF LABOR METAL AND NONMETAL MINE SAFETY AND HEALTH SAFETY AND HEALTH STANDARDS-UNDERGROUND METAL AND...

  15. Monitoring genotoxic exposure in uranium mines

    SciTech Connect

    Sram, R.J.; Vesela, D.; Vesely, D.

    1993-10-01

    Recent data from deep uranium mines in Czechoslovakia indicated that miners are exposed to other mutagenic factors in addition to radon daughter products. Mycotoxins were identified as a possible source of mutagens in these mines. Mycotoxins were examined in 38 samples from mines and in throat swabs taken from 116 miners and 78 controls. The following mycotoxins were identified from mines samples: aflatoxins B{sub 1} and G1, citrinin, citreoviridin, mycophenolic acid, and sterigmatocystin. Some mold strains isolated from mines and throat swabs were investigated for mutagenic activity by the SOS chromotest and Salmonella assay with strains TA100 and TA98. Mutagenicity was observed, especially with metabolic activation in citro. These data suggest that mycotoxins produced by molds in uranium mines are a new genotoxic factor im uranium miners. 17 refs., 4 tabs.

  16. 30 CFR 1206.106 - What are my responsibilities to place production into marketable condition and to market production?

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-07-01

    ... 30 Mineral Resources 3 2011-07-01 2011-07-01 false What are my responsibilities to place production into marketable condition and to market production? 1206.106 Section 1206.106 Mineral Resources OFFICE OF SURFACE MINING RECLAMATION AND ENFORCEMENT, DEPARTMENT OF THE INTERIOR Natural...

  17. Geomorphic controls on mineral weathering, elemental transport, and production of mineral surface area in a schist bedrock weathering profile, Piedmont Pennsylvania