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Sample records for minimal important change

  1. Determining minimally important change thresholds for the Seizure Severity Questionnaire (SSQ).

    PubMed

    Cramer, Joyce A; de la Loge, Christine; Brabant, Yves; Borghs, Simon

    2014-02-01

    The Seizure Severity Questionnaire (SSQ) was developed to evaluate changes in seizure severity and bothersomeness. Determination of a threshold value reflecting meaningful patient benefit on the SSQ would improve clinical interpretation of scale results. The objective of this analysis was to define a minimally important change (MIC) threshold for the SSQ, using data from patients with treatment-resistant partial-onset seizures from two clinical trials (N=776). Minimally important change thresholds were calculated using standard anchor-based methods, with the Patient Global Impression of Change (PGIC) score as the anchor with the categories of 'much improved,' 'minimally improved,' 'much worsened,' and 'minimally worsened' combined. The calculated MIC thresholds (range: 0.34 to 0.50) suggest that a 0.48-point change in the SSQ total score reflects a clinically meaningful change in seizure severity from the patients' perspective.

  2. Determination of minimal clinically important change in early and advanced Parkinson's disease.

    PubMed

    Hauser, Robert A; Auinger, Peggy

    2011-04-01

    Two common primary efficacy outcome measures in Parkinson's disease (PD) are change in Unified Parkinson's Disease Rating Scale (UPDRS) scores in early PD and change in "off" time in patients with motor fluctuations. Defining the minimal clinically important change (MCIC) in these outcome measures is important to interpret the clinical relevance of changes observed in clinical trials and other situations. We analyzed data from 2 multicenter, placebo-controlled, randomized clinical trials of rasagiline; TEMPO studied 404 early PD subjects, and PRESTO studied 472 levodopa-treated subjects with motor fluctuations. An anchor-based approach using clinical global impression of improvement (CGI-I) was used to determine MCIC for UPDRS scores and daily "off" time. MCIC was defined as mean change in actively treated subjects rated minimally improved on CGI-I. Receiver operating characteristic (ROC) curves defined optimal cutoffs discriminating between changed and unchanged subjects. MCIC for improvement in total UPDRS score (parts I-III) in early PD was determined to be -3.5 points based on mean scores and -3.0 points based on ROC curves. In addition, we found an MCIC for reduction in "off" time of 1.0 hours as defined by mean reduction in "off" time in active treated subjects self-rated as minimally improved on CGI-I minus mean reduction in "off" time in placebo-treated subjects self-rated as unchanged (1.9-0.9 hours). We hypothesize that many methodological factors can influence determination of the MCIC, and a range of values is likely to emerge from multiple studies.

  3. Minimal change disease

    MedlinePlus

    ... seen under a very powerful microscope called an electron microscope. Minimal change disease is the most common ... biopsy and examination of the tissue with an electron microscope can show signs of minimal change disease.

  4. [Minimal Change Esophagitis].

    PubMed

    Ryu, Han Seung; Choi, Suck Chei

    2016-01-25

    Gastroesophageal reflux disease (GERD) is defined as a condition which develops when the reflux of gastric contents causes troublesome symptoms and long-term complications. GERD can be divided into erosive reflux disease and non-erosive reflux disease based on endoscopic findings defined by the presence of mucosal break. The Los Angeles classification excludes minimal changes as an evidence of reflux esophagitis because of poor interobserver agreement. In the Asian literature, minimal changes are considered as one of the endoscopic findings of reflux esophagitis, but the clinical significance is still controversial. Minimal change esophagitis is recognized quite frequently among patients with GERD and many endoscopists recognize such findings in their clinical practice. This review is intended to clarify the definition of minimal change esophagitis and their histology, interobserver agreement, and symptom association with GERD.

  5. Sensitivity to Change and Minimal Important Differences of the LupusQoL in Patients With Systemic Lupus Erythematosus

    PubMed Central

    McElhone, Kathleen; Abbott, Janice; Sutton, Chris; Mullen, Montana; Lanyon, Peter; Rahman, Anisur; Yee, Chee‐Seng; Akil, Mohammed; Bruce, Ian N.; Ahmad, Yasmeen; Gordon, Caroline

    2016-01-01

    Objective As a health‐related quality of life (HRQOL) measure, the LupusQoL is a reliable and valid measure for adults with systemic lupus erythematosus (SLE). This study evaluates the responsiveness and minimal important differences (MIDs) for the 8 LupusQoL domains. Methods Patients experiencing a flare were recruited from 9 UK centers. At each of the 10 monthly visits, HRQOL (LupusQoL, Short Form 36 health survey [SF‐36]), global rating of change (GRC), and disease activity using the British Isles Lupus Assessment Group 2004 index were assessed. The responsiveness of the LupusQoL and the SF‐36 was evaluated primarily when patients reported an improvement or deterioration on the GRC scale and additionally with changes in physician‐reported disease activity. MIDs were estimated as mean changes when minimal change was reported on the GRC scale. Results A total of 101 patients were recruited. For all LupusQoL domains, mean HRQOL worsened when patients reported deterioration and improved when patients reported an improvement in GRC; SF‐36 domains showed comparable responsiveness. Improvement in some domains of the LupusQoL/SF‐36 was observed with a decrease in disease activity, but when disease activity worsened, there was no significant change. LupusQoL MID estimates for deterioration ranged from −2.4 to −8.7, and for improvement from 3.5 to 7.3; for the SF‐36, the same MID estimates were −2.0 to −11.1 and 2.8 to 10.9, respectively. Conclusion All LupusQoL domains are sensitive to change with patient‐reported deterioration or improvement in health status. For disease activity, some LupusQoL domains showed responsiveness when there was improvement but none for deterioration. LupusQoL items were derived from SLE patients and provide the advantage of disease‐specific domains, important to the patients, not captured by the SF‐36. PMID:26816223

  6. Minimally Important Differences and Change Across Time in Patients Treated Surgically and Non-Surgically for Full-Thickness Rotator Cuff Tears

    PubMed Central

    Miller, Bruce S.; Robbins, Christopher; Gagnier, Joel Joseph

    2016-01-01

    Objectives: The minimally important difference (MID) is the smallest change in an outcome measure that is perceived by patients as beneficial. The MIDs for the ASES and WORC scores have not been established in a homogenous population of patients with rotator cuff tears. The objective of the present study was to establish the MIDs for patients with known cuff tears who were treated both surgically and non-surgically, and to compare the MIDs over time. Methods: We included 209 subjects with known full-thickness rotator cuff tears who were followed prospectively for two years. The WORC and ASES scores were collected at baseline, 4, 8, 16, 32, and 48 weeks, 1 year and 2 years. At the final follow-up point patients filled out an end-of-study form which included questions regarding change in their condition after treatment. Results: For those that indicated being minimally better, the change from baseline for the ASES score was -20.57 (-2.94 to -38.20) and for the WORC was 418.60 (70.39 to 766.81); both indicated improvement in outcomes. When converted to the percentage change score the WORC change represented 19.93%. The plots of these new MID values for the ASES and WORC indicate that not only does the operative group improve more than the non-operative group but it does so to an extent that is greater than the MID. The non-operative group also improved across time, but the magnitude did not exceed the MID for either the WORC or the ASES. Conclusion: We found that the ASES and the WORC MIDs in patients with rotator cuff tears is different from that previously reported, and that the operative group change was greater than the non-operative group change. This information will directly improve our ability to: (1) Determine when patients with RCTs are changing in a meaningful manner; (2) Accurately power clinical studies using these outcome measures; (3) Make more informed choices of treatments in these patients. This is the first study to report MIDs for the ASES and WORC

  7. Introducing the Concept of the Minimally Important Difference to Determine a Clinically Relevant Change on Patient-Reported Outcome Measures in Patients with Intermittent Claudication

    SciTech Connect

    Conijn, Anne P.; Jonkers, Wilma; Rouwet, Ellen V.; Vahl, Anco C.; Reekers, Jim A.; Koelemay, Mark J. W.

    2015-10-15

    PurposeThe minimally important difference (MID) represents the smallest change in score on patient-reported outcome measures that is relevant to patients. The aim of this study was to introduce the MID for the Vascular Quality of Life Questionnaire (VascuQol) and the walking impairment questionnaire (WIQ) for patients with intermittent claudication (IC).MethodsIn this multicenter study, we recruited 294 patients with IC between July and October 2012. Patients completed the VascuQol, with scores ranging from 1 to 7 (worst to best), and the WIQ, with scores ranging from 0 to 1 (worst to best) at first visit and after 4 months follow-up. In addition, patients answered an anchor-question rating their health status compared to baseline, as being improved, unchanged, or deteriorated. The MID for improvement and deterioration was calculated by an anchor-based approach, and determined with the upper and lower limits of the 95 % confidence interval of the mean change of the group who had not changed according to the anchor-question.ResultsFor the MID analyses of the VascuQol and WIQ, 163 and 134 patients were included, respectively. The MID values for the VascuQol (mean baseline score 4.25) were 0.87 for improvement and 0.23 for deterioration. For the WIQ (mean baseline score 0.39), we found MID values of 0.11 and −0.03 for improvement and deterioration, respectively.ConclusionIn this study, we calculated the MID for the VascuQol and the WIQ. Applying these MID facilitates better interpretation of treatment outcomes and can help to set treatment goals for individual care.

  8. Minimal change disease: a CD80 podocytopathy?

    PubMed

    Ishimoto, Takuji; Shimada, Michiko; Araya, Carlos E; Huskey, Janna; Garin, Eduardo H; Johnson, Richard J

    2011-07-01

    Minimal change disease is the most common nephrotic syndrome in children. Although the etiology of minimal change disease remains to be elucidated, it has been postulated that it is the result of a circulating T-cell factor that causes podocyte cytoskeleton disorganization leading to increased glomerular capillary permeability and/or changes in glomerular basement membrane heparan sulfate glycosaminoglycans resulting in proteinuria. Minimal change disease has been associated with allergies and Hodgkin disease. Consistent with these associations, a role for interleukin-13 with minimal change disease has been proposed. Furthermore, studies evaluating podocytes also have evolved. Recently, increased expression of CD80 (also termed B7-1) on podocytes was identified as a mechanism for proteinuria. CD80 is inhibited by binding to CTLA-4, which is expressed on regulatory T cells. Recently, we showed that urinary CD80 is increased in minimal change disease patients and limited studies have suggested that it is not commonly present in the urine of patients with other glomerular diseases. Interleukin-13 or microbial products via Toll-like receptors could be factors that induce CD80 expression on podocytes. CTLA-4 appears to regulate CD80 expression in podocytes, and to be altered in minimal change disease patients. These findings lead us to suggest that proteinuria in minimal change disease is caused by persistent CD80 expression in podocytes, possibly initiated by stimulation of these cells by antigens or cytokines.

  9. Using ROC Curves to Choose Minimally Important Change Thresholds when Sensitivity and Specificity Are Valued Equally: The Forgotten Lesson of Pythagoras. Theoretical Considerations and an Example Application of Change in Health Status

    PubMed Central

    Froud, Robert; Abel, Gary

    2014-01-01

    Background Receiver Operator Characteristic (ROC) curves are being used to identify Minimally Important Change (MIC) thresholds on scales that measure a change in health status. In quasi-continuous patient reported outcome measures, such as those that measure changes in chronic diseases with variable clinical trajectories, sensitivity and specificity are often valued equally. Notwithstanding methodologists agreeing that these should be valued equally, different approaches have been taken to estimating MIC thresholds using ROC curves. Aims and objectives We aimed to compare the different approaches used with a new approach, exploring the extent to which the methods choose different thresholds, and considering the effect of differences on conclusions in responder analyses. Methods Using graphical methods, hypothetical data, and data from a large randomised controlled trial of manual therapy for low back pain, we compared two existing approaches with a new approach that is based on the addition of the sums of squares of 1-sensitivity and 1-specificity. Results There can be divergence in the thresholds chosen by different estimators. The cut-point selected by different estimators is dependent on the relationship between the cut-points in ROC space and the different contours described by the estimators. In particular, asymmetry and the number of possible cut-points affects threshold selection. Conclusion Choice of MIC estimator is important. Different methods for choosing cut-points can lead to materially different MIC thresholds and thus affect results of responder analyses and trial conclusions. An estimator based on the smallest sum of squares of 1-sensitivity and 1-specificity is preferable when sensitivity and specificity are valued equally. Unlike other methods currently in use, the cut-point chosen by the sum of squares method always and efficiently chooses the cut-point closest to the top-left corner of ROC space, regardless of the shape of the ROC curve. PMID

  10. Cultural change and support of waste minimization

    SciTech Connect

    Boylan, M.S.

    1991-12-31

    The process of bringing a subject like pollution prevention to top of mind awareness, where designed to prevent waste becomes part of business as usual, is called cultural change. With Department of Energy orders and management waste minimization commitment statements on file, the REAL work is just beginning at the Idaho National Engineering Laboratory (INEL); shaping the attitudes of 11,000+ employees. The difficulties of such a task are daunting. The 890 square mile INEL site and in-town support offices mean a huge diversity of employee jobs and waste streams; from cafeteria and auto maintenance wastes to high-level nuclear waste casks. INEL is pursuing a three component cultural change strategy: training, publicity, and public outreach. To meet the intent of DOE orders, all INEL employees are slated to receive pollution prevention orientation training. More technical training is given to targeted groups like purchasing and design engineering. To keep newly learned pollution prevention concepts top-of-mind, extensive site-wide publicity is being developed and conducted, culminating in the April Pollution Prevention Awareness Week coinciding with Earth Day 1992. Finally, news of INEL pollution prevention successes is shared with the public to increase their overall environmental awareness and their knowledge of INEL activities. An important added benefit is the sense of pride the program instills in INEL employees to have their successes displayed so publicly.

  11. Minimal-change disease secondary to etanercept.

    PubMed

    Koya, Mariko; Pichler, Raimund; Jefferson, J Ashley

    2012-10-01

    Etanercept is a soluble tumor necrosis factor alpha (TNFα) receptor which is widely used in the treatment of rheumatoid arthritis, psoriasis and other autoimmune inflammatory disorders. It is known for its relative lack of nephrotoxicity; however, there are reports on the development of nephrotic syndrome associated with the treatment with TNFα antagonists. Here, we describe a patient with psoriasis who developed biopsy-proven minimal-change disease (MCD) shortly after initiating etanercept. Our case is unique in that the MCD resolved after discontinuation of this medication, notably without the use of corticosteroids, strongly suggesting a drug-related phenomenon.

  12. Minimal change glomerulopathy in a cat.

    PubMed

    Backlund, Brianna; Cianciolo, Rachel E; Cook, Audrey K; Clubb, Fred J; Lees, George E

    2011-04-01

    A 6-year-old domestic shorthair male castrated cat was evaluated for sudden onset of vomiting and anorexia. A diagnosis of hypereosinophilic syndrome (HES) was made, and the cat was treated with imatinib mesylate. The cat had an initial clinical improvement with the normalization of the peripheral eosinophil count. After approximately 8 weeks of treatment, lethargy and anorexia recurred despite the normal eosinophil count and a significant proteinuric nephropathy was identified. Treatment with imatinib was discontinued. Ultrasound guided renal biopsies exhibited histologic, ultrastructural, and immunostaining changes indicative of a minimal change glomerulopathy (MCG) which has not previously been reported in the literature in a cat. The proteinuria and HES initially improved while the cat was treated with more traditional medications; however, both the problems persisted for 30 months that the cat was followed subsequently. Previous studies demonstrating the safety and efficacy of imatinib in cats do not report any glomerular injury or significant adverse drug reactions, and the exact cause of this cat's proteinuric nephropathy is uncertain. Nonetheless, the possibility of an adverse drug reaction causing proteinuria should be considered when initiating treatment with imatinib in a cat. PMID:21414552

  13. The minimal important difference of exercise tests in severe COPD.

    PubMed

    Puhan, M A; Chandra, D; Mosenifar, Z; Ries, A; Make, B; Hansel, N N; Wise, R A; Sciurba, F

    2011-04-01

    Our aim was to determine the minimal important difference (MID) for 6-min walk distance (6MWD) and maximal cycle exercise capacity (MCEC) in patients with severe chronic obstructive pulmonary disease (COPD). 1,218 patients enrolled in the National Emphysema Treatment Trial completed exercise tests before and after 4-6 weeks of pre-trial rehabilitation, and 6 months after randomisation to surgery or medical care. The St George's Respiratory Questionnaire (domain and total scores) and University of California San Diego Shortness of Breath Questionnaire (total score) served as anchors for anchor-based MID estimates. In order to calculate distribution-based estimates, we used the standard error of measurement, Cohen's effect size and the empirical rule effect size. Anchor-based estimates for the 6MWD were 18.9 m (95% CI 18.1-20.1 m), 24.2 m (95% CI 23.4-25.4 m), 24.6 m (95% CI 23.4-25.7 m) and 26.4 m (95% CI 25.4-27.4 m), which were similar to distribution-based MID estimates of 25.7, 26.8 and 30.6 m. For MCEC, anchor-based estimates for the MID were 2.2 W (95% CI 2.0-2.4 W), 3.2 W (95% CI 3.0-3.4 W), 3.2 W (95% CI 3.0-3.4 W) and 3.3 W (95% CI 3.0-3.5 W), while distribution-based estimates were 5.3 and 5.5 W. We suggest a MID of 26 ± 2 m for 6MWD and 4 ± 1 W for MCEC for patients with severe COPD.

  14. Minimal Clinically Important Difference on Parkinson's Disease Sleep Scale 2nd Version.

    PubMed

    Horváth, Krisztina; Aschermann, Zsuzsanna; Ács, Péter; Deli, Gabriella; Janszky, József; Komoly, Sámuel; Karádi, Kázmér; Kovács, Márton; Makkos, Attila; Faludi, Béla; Kovács, Norbert

    2015-01-01

    Background and Aims. The aim of the present study was to determine the estimates of minimal clinically important difference for Parkinson's Disease Sleep Scale 2nd version (PDSS-2) total score and dimensions. Methods. The subject population consisted of 413 PD patients. At baseline, MDS-UPDRS, Hoehn-Yahr Scale, Mattis Dementia Rating Scale, and PDSS-2 were assessed. Nine months later the PDSS-2 was reevaluated with the Patient-Reported Global Impression Improvement Scale. Both anchor-based techniques (within patients' score change method and sensitivity- and specificity-based method by receiver operating characteristic analysis) and distribution-based approaches (effect size calculations) were utilized to determine the magnitude of minimal clinically important difference. Results. According to our results, any improvements larger than -3.44 points or worsening larger than 2.07 points can represent clinically important changes for the patients. These thresholds have the effect size of 0.21 and -0.21, respectively. Conclusions. Minimal clinically important differences are the smallest change of scores that are subjectively meaningful to patients. Studies using the PDSS-2 as outcome measure should utilize the threshold of -3.44 points for detecting improvement or the threshold of 2.07 points for observing worsening.

  15. Minimal change disease onset observed after bevacizumab administration.

    PubMed

    Hanna, Ramy M; Lopez, Eduardo; Wilson, James; Barathan, Shrinath; Cohen, Arthur H

    2016-04-01

    This is a report of a patient with minimal change disease (MCD) onset after bevacizumab administration. A 72-year-old man with inoperable Grade 3 astrocytoma was treated with a combination of temozolomide and the vascular endothelial growth factor monoclonal antibody bevacizumab. After two biweekly treatments, he developed nephrotic syndrome. Despite cessation of bevacizumab, his renal function deteriorated and a renal biopsy disclosed MCD. Thereafter, he was started on high-dose oral prednisone and renal function immediately improved. Within weeks, the nephrotic syndrome resolved. Although rare, biologic agents can cause various glomerulopathies that can have important therapeutic implications. MCD should be considered in patients who develop nephrotic syndrome while exposed to antiangiogenic agents.

  16. Minimal pathologic changes of the lung and asbestos exposure

    SciTech Connect

    Bellis, D.; Andrion, A.; Delsedime, L.; Mollo, F.

    1989-02-01

    A group of 199 autopsy subjects was investigated for minimal pathologic pulmonary changes possibly resulting from asbestos exposure. According to the standards proposed by the Pneumoconiosis Committee of the College of American Pathologists, features consistent with asbestosis grade 1 (AG1) include findings of bilateral pleural plaques, high concentrations of asbestos bodies (ABs) in digested lung tissue, and a history of occupational risk. Similar changes without evidence of ABs on histologic section and referred to as small airway lesions (SALs) present a less well-correlated association. In this study, SALs showed significant differences when compared with the features observed in subjects without possible asbestos-related pulmonary fibrotic changes. Minimal bronchioloalveolar fibrotic changes with concomitant presence of ABs can be considered a mild pneumoconiotic lesion (AG1), and SALs may be regarded as an additional indicator of asbestos exposure.

  17. [Cerebral venous thrombosis in minimal change nephrotic syndrome].

    PubMed

    Hirata, M; Kuroda, M; Koni, I

    1999-06-01

    A 46-year old man presented with an eight-day history of edema and was found to be nephrotic, with a plasma albumin level of 1.1 g/dl and urine protein excretion of 13.3 g/24 hrs. The level of plasma creatinine was normal at 1.0 mg/dl. A finding of renal biopsy was consistent with minimal change glomerulopathy. On the 6th hospital day, he suddenly developed a severe headache and was noted to have bilateral papilledema. Lumbar puncture revealed an opening pressure of 250 mm of water. Magnetic resonance venography showed an irregular flow in the superior sagittal sinus and right transverse sinus, a finding consistent with thrombus. The diagnosis of cerebral venous thrombosis was made, and the patient was given both Warfarin 2 mg/day and prednisolone 60 mg/day. A complete recovery from nephrotic syndrome was achieved within eight weeks. Nephrotic syndrome causes a hypercoagulable state, leading to both venous and arterial thrombosis. The most common clinical features are renal vein thrombosis, femoral vein thrombosis, and pulmonary embolism, however, cerebral venous sinus thrombosis is rare in patients with nephrotic syndrome. It is important to be aware of this complication, since prompt treatment with anticoagulation and control of nephrotic syndrome can lead to a successful outcome.

  18. Cell biology and genetics of minimal change disease.

    PubMed

    Saleem, Moin A; Kobayashi, Yasuko

    2016-01-01

    Minimal change disease (MCD) is an important cause of nephrotic syndrome and is characterized by massive proteinuria and hypoalbuminemia, resulting in edema and hypercholesterolemia. The podocyte plays a key role in filtration and its disruption results in a dramatic loss of function leading to proteinuria. Immunologic disturbance has been suggested in the pathogenesis of MCD. Because of its clinical features, such as recurrent relapse/remission course, steroid response in most patients, and rare familial cases, a genetic defect has been thought to be less likely in MCD. Recent progress in whole-exome sequencing reveals pathogenic mutations in familial cases in steroid-sensitive nephrotic syndrome (SSNS) and sheds light on possible mechanisms and key molecules in podocytes in MCD. On the other hand, in the majority of cases, the existence of circulating permeability factors has been implicated along with T lymphocyte dysfunction. Observations of benefit with rituximab added B cell involvement to the disease. Animal models are unsatisfactory, and the humanized mouse may be a good model that well reflects MCD pathophysiology to investigate suggested "T cell dysfunction" directly related to podocytes in vivo. Several candidate circulating factors and their effects on podocytes have been proposed but are still not sufficient to explain whole mechanisms and clinical features in MCD. Another circulating factor disease is focal segmental glomerulosclerosis (FSGS), and it is not clear if this is a distinct entity, or on the same spectrum, implicating the same circulating factor(s). These patients are mostly steroid resistant and often have a rapid relapse after transplantation. In clinical practice, predicting relapse or disease activity and response to steroids is important and is an area where novel biomarkers can be developed based on our growing knowledge of podocyte signaling pathways. In this review, we discuss recent findings in genetics and podocyte biology in MCD.

  19. Cell biology and genetics of minimal change disease

    PubMed Central

    Saleem, Moin A.; Kobayashi, Yasuko

    2016-01-01

    Minimal change disease (MCD) is an important cause of nephrotic syndrome and is characterized by massive proteinuria and hypoalbuminemia, resulting in edema and hypercholesterolemia. The podocyte plays a key role in filtration and its disruption results in a dramatic loss of function leading to proteinuria. Immunologic disturbance has been suggested in the pathogenesis of MCD. Because of its clinical features, such as recurrent relapse/remission course, steroid response in most patients, and rare familial cases, a genetic defect has been thought to be less likely in MCD. Recent progress in whole-exome sequencing reveals pathogenic mutations in familial cases in steroid-sensitive nephrotic syndrome (SSNS) and sheds light on possible mechanisms and key molecules in podocytes in MCD. On the other hand, in the majority of cases, the existence of circulating permeability factors has been implicated along with T lymphocyte dysfunction. Observations of benefit with rituximab added B cell involvement to the disease. Animal models are unsatisfactory, and the humanized mouse may be a good model that well reflects MCD pathophysiology to investigate suggested “T cell dysfunction” directly related to podocytes in vivo. Several candidate circulating factors and their effects on podocytes have been proposed but are still not sufficient to explain whole mechanisms and clinical features in MCD. Another circulating factor disease is focal segmental glomerulosclerosis (FSGS), and it is not clear if this is a distinct entity, or on the same spectrum, implicating the same circulating factor(s). These patients are mostly steroid resistant and often have a rapid relapse after transplantation. In clinical practice, predicting relapse or disease activity and response to steroids is important and is an area where novel biomarkers can be developed based on our growing knowledge of podocyte signaling pathways. In this review, we discuss recent findings in genetics and podocyte biology in

  20. Cerebral infarction in patient with minimal change nephrotic syndrome

    PubMed Central

    Babu, A.; Boddana, P.; Robson, S.; Ludeman, L.

    2013-01-01

    We report a case of 68-year-old Caucasian man who presented with cerebral infarcts secondary to arterial thrombosis associated with nephrotic syndrome. His initial presentation included edema of legs, left hemiparesis, and right-sided cerebellar signs. Investigations with computed tomography and magnetic resonance imaging of brain showed multiple cerebral infarcts in middle cerebral and posterior cerebral artery territory. Blood and urine investigations also showed impaired renal function, hypercholesterolemia, hypoalbuminaemia, and nephrotic range proteinuria. Renal biopsy showed minimal change disease. Cerebral infarcts were treated with antiplatelet agents and nephrotic syndrome was treated with high dose steroids. Patient responded well to the treatment and is all well till date. PMID:23580806

  1. Sagittal sinus thrombosis in adult minimal change nephrotic syndrome.

    PubMed

    Urch, C; Pusey, C D

    1996-02-01

    Nephrotic syndrome causes a hypercoagulable state, leading to both venous and arterial thrombosis. The mechanisms are as yet unclear, but numerous alterations in coagulant and anti-coagulant factors have been reported [Llach et al. 1985, Harris and Ismail 1994]. The most common clinical features in adults are renal vein thrombosis, femoral vein thrombosis and pulmonary embolism, although thrombosis in numerous other arterial and venous sites has been described [Cameron 1984, Llach et al. 1985]. Intracranial thrombosis is rare, although in adult nephrotic syndrome arterial thrombosis is well recognized [Fuh et al. 1991]. We report a patient with minimal change nephrotic syndrome who developed venous sinus thrombosis detected by magnetic resonance (MR) scanning.

  2. Minimal important difference of the 6-minute walk distance in lung cancer.

    PubMed

    Granger, Catherine L; Holland, Anne E; Gordon, Ian R; Denehy, Linda

    2015-05-01

    The 6-minute walk distance (6MWD) is one of the most commonly used measures of functional capacity in lung cancer, however, the minimal important difference (MID) has not been established. The aims of this exploratory study are, in lung cancer, to estimate (1) the MID of the 6MWD and (2) relationship between 6MWD, demographic and disease-related factors. Fifty-six participants with stage I-IV lung cancer completed the 6MWD prior to treatment and 10 weeks later. No exercise intervention occurred. Additional measures included European Organization for Research and Treatment of Cancer questionnaire (EORTC-QLQ-C30) and questionnaires assessing function, physical activity and symptoms. MID was calculated using anchor- and distribution-based methods. The mean 6MWD decline in participants classed as deteriorated was 60 m compared with 16 m in participants classed as not-deteriorated (p = 0.01). The receiver operating curve indicated a cut-off value for clinically relevant change to be 42 m (95% confidence interval (CI) 6-75) (area under curve = 0.66, 95% CI 0.51-0.81) or a 9.5% change. Distribution-based methods indicated an MID between 22 m (95% CI 18-26) and 32 m (95% CI 20-42). Higher 6MWD correlated with better function (r = -0.42, p = 0.001), physical activity (r = 0.56, p < 0.005) and dyspnoea (r = -0.44, p = 0.001). The MID for deterioration of the 6MWD in lung cancer is estimated to be between 22 m and 42 m or a change of 9.5%. PMID:25749346

  3. Rituximab in adult minimal change disease and focal segmental glomerulosclerosis.

    PubMed

    Kronbichler, Andreas; Bruchfeld, Annette

    2014-01-01

    Treatment of nephrotic syndrome due to minimal change disease and focal segmental glomerulosclerosis remains a challenge since steroid dependence, steroid resistance and a relapsing disease course exhibits a high cumulative steroid dosage. The necessity of using alternative steroid-sparing immunosuppressive agents with potential toxic side effects also restricts their long-term use. Rituximab, a monoclonal antibody targeting CD20, has been increasingly used in the therapy of difficult-to-treat nephrotic syndrome. A clinical response has been shown for patients with steroid-dependent or frequently relapsing nephrotic syndrome, whereas the benefit seems to be limited in steroid-resistant patients, especially those with underlying focal segmental glomerulosclerosis. No potentially life-threatening adverse events have been observed in the treatment of adult minimal change disease and focal segmental glomerulosclerosis following rituximab administration. Since most reports are retrospective and evidence of efficacy is derived from small case series, more prospective trials in a controlled, randomized manner are highly desirable to delineate the use of rituximab or other B cell-depleting agents in steroid-dependent, frequently relapsing or steroid-resistant patients.

  4. Achieving a minimally important difference in physical function during pediatric inpatient rehabilitation.

    PubMed

    Dumas, Helene M; Haley, Stephen M; Ludlow, Larry H

    2008-09-01

    Our objectives were to examine the proportion of children who achieved a minimally important difference (MID) in physical function during inpatient rehabilitation and to identify factors related to achievement of MID. For a consecutive series of 452 inpatient admissions to a pediatric rehabilitation hospital in the northeastern United States, change scores were calculated by subtracting Pediatric Evaluation of Disability Inventory (PEDI) self-care and mobility functional skills and caregiver assistance admission scores from discharge scores and then evaluated for MID. Logistic regression analyses were used to determine the contributions of demographic and clinical variables as predictors of MID for each PEDI scale. More than 55% of the children achieved MID. The highest proportion of children achieving MID was in mobility functional skills (78%) and caregiver assistance (67%). Children who were older at admission (>10 years) had a greater chance of achieving MID on all scales. In addition, associated with achieving MID were longer length of stay, lower admission PEDI score, and a diagnosis of brain injury. More than half of all children admitted achieved MID in physical function. In this pediatric inpatient rehabilitation center, older children with brain injury who have low functional abilities at admission, and are able to extend their length of stay for a safe, planned discharge are most likely to achieve MID. Identifying children who are most likely to make functional progress can help program administrators and clinicians set realistic functional goals and expectations for an episode of inpatient care.

  5. Minimal change disease: A case report of an unusual relationship.

    PubMed

    Edrees, Fahad; Black, Robert M; Leb, Laszlo; Rennke, Helmut

    2016-01-01

    Kidney injury associated with lymphoproliferative disorders is rare, and the exact pathogenetic mechanisms behind it are still poorly understood. Glomerular involvement presenting as a nephrotic syndrome has been reported, usually secondary to membranoproliferative glomerulonephritis. We report a case of a 63-year-old male who presented with bilateral leg swelling due to nephrotic syndrome and acute kidney injury. A kidney biopsy showed minimal change disease with light chain deposition; however, no circulating light chains were present. This prompted a bone marrow biopsy, which showed chronic lymphocytic leukemia (CLL) with deposition of the same kappa monoclonal light chains. Three cycles of rituximab and methylprednisolone resulted in remission of both CLL and nephrotic syndrome, without recurrence during a three-year follow-up.

  6. Minimal change disease: a variant of lupus nephritis.

    PubMed

    Moysés-Neto, Miguel; Costa, Roberto S; Rodrigues, Fernanda F; Vieira Neto, Osvaldo M; Reis, Marlene A; Louzada Júnior, Paulo; Romão, Elen A; Dantas, Márcio

    2011-02-01

    Some patients with systemic lupus erythematosus (SLE) present with nephrotic syndrome due to minimal change disease (MCD). Histopathological diagnosis of patients with SLE and nephrotic-range proteinuria has shown that these patients present with diffuse proliferative glomerulonephritis and membranous glomerulonephritis, World Health Organization (WHO) classes IV and V, respectively, more frequently than the other classes. In the present study, we reported a case of nephrotic syndrome and renal biopsy-proven MCD associated with SLE. A complete remission occurred after steroid treatment, which was followed by a relapse 15 months later with a concomitant reactivation of SLE. A second biopsy showed WHO class IIb lupus nephritis. Prednisone treatment was restarted, and the patient went into complete remission again. The association of MCD and SLE may not be a coincidence, and MCD should be considered as an associated SLE nephropathy.

  7. Minimal-Change Disease Secondary to Borrelia burgdorferi Infection

    PubMed Central

    Kwiatkowska, Ewa; Gołembiewska, Edyta; Ciechanowski, Kazimierz; Kędzierska, Karolina

    2012-01-01

    Lyme borreliosis is a chronic illness caused by tick-transmitted spirochete Borrelia burgdorferi. Borreliosis can be extremely threatening if it is not diagnosed and treated in early stages. Kidneys are not typically involved in the disease. However, in infected dogs, Lyme nephritis is present in 5–10% of cases. It is associated with rapidly progressing renal failure. Histopathological examination shows mesangial proliferative glomerulonephritis with diffuse tubular necrosis, (Dambach et al. (1997)). In available literature, there were reports of human's glomerulonephritis associated with Borrelia burgdorferi infection. These cases refer to membranous and mesangial proliferative glomerulonephritis (Kirmizis and Chatzidimitriou (2010), Zachäus (2008), and Kirmizis et al. (2004)). In this paper, we present the case of minimal-change disease (MCD) as a result of Borrelia burgdorferi infection. PMID:24527240

  8. Lithium-Induced Minimal Change Disease and Acute Kidney Injury

    PubMed Central

    Tandon, Parul; Wong, Natalie; Zaltzman, Jeffrey S

    2015-01-01

    Context: Lithium carbonate is a psychiatric medication commonly used in the treatment of bipolar disorder. It has been implicated in inducing nephrogenic diabetes inspidus, chronic tubulointerstitial nephropathy, and acute tubular necrosis. We describe a case of lithium-induced minimal change disease (MCD) and acute kidney injury (AKI). Case Report: A 32-year-old female with a medical history of bipolar disorder treated with chronic lithium therapy presented with anasarca, fatigue, and tremors. Work-up revealed supra-therapeutic lithium levels, hypoalbuminemia, and significant proteinuria. The patient was treated conservatively with fluids and discontinuation of lithium therapy. Subsequently, she developed significant AKI and persistent proteinuria. She underwent a renal biopsy that demonstrated effacement of podocyte foot processes consistent with lithium-induced MCD. This was treated with corticosteroids, which decreased the proteinuria and resolved all the patient's symptoms. Conclusion: Lithium-induced MCD is a rare disease that affects patients of all ages. It is often associated with therapeutic lithium and is typically resolved with discontinuation of lithium. In some cases, concurrent AKI may result due to vascular obstruction from hyperalbuminuria and associated renal interstitial edema. Corticosteroids may be needed to reduce the proteinuria and prevent progression to chronic kidney disease. As such, patients on lithium therapy may benefit from monitoring of glomerular function via urinalysis to prevent the onset of nephrotic syndrome. PMID:26258081

  9. Pathogenesis of minimal change nephrotic syndrome: an immunological concept

    PubMed Central

    Kim, Seong Heon; Park, Se Jin; Han, Kyoung Hee; Kronbichler, Andreas; Saleem, Moin A.; Oh, Jun; Lim, Beom Jin

    2016-01-01

    Idiopathic nephrotic syndrome (INS) in children is characterized by massive proteinuria and hypoalbuminemia. Minimal change nephrotic syndrome (MCNS) is the most common form of INS in children. The pathogenesis of MCNS still remains unclear, however, several hypotheses have been recently proposed. For several decades, MCNS has been considered a T-cell disorder, which causes the impairment of the glomerular filtration barrier with the release of different circulating factors. Increased levels of several cytokines are also suggested. Recently, a "two-hit" theory was proposed that included the induction of CD80 (B7-1) and regulatory T-cell (Treg) dysfunction, with or without impaired autoregulatory functions of the podocyte. In contrast to the well-established involvement of T cells, the role of B cells has not been clearly identified. However, B-cell biology has recently gained more attention, because rituximab (a monoclonal antibody directed against CD20-bearing cells) demonstrated a very good therapeutic response in the treatment of childhood and adult MCNS. Here, we discuss recent insights into the pathogenesis of MCNS in children. PMID:27279884

  10. Health status instruments for patients with COPD in pulmonary rehabilitation: defining a minimal clinically important difference

    PubMed Central

    Alma, Harma; de Jong, Corina; Jelusic, Danijel; Wittmann, Michael; Schuler, Michael; Blok, Bertine Flokstra-de; Kocks, Janwillem; Schultz, Konrad; Molen, Thys van der

    2016-01-01

    The minimal clinically important difference (MCID) defines to what extent change on a health status instrument is clinically relevant, which aids scientists and physicians in measuring therapy effects. This is the first study that aimed to establish the MCID of the Clinical chronic obstructive pulmonary disease (COPD) Questionnaire (CCQ), the COPD Assessment Test (CAT) and the St George’s Respiratory Questionnaire (SGRQ) in the same pulmonary rehabilitation population using multiple approaches. In total, 451 COPD patients participated in a 3-week Pulmonary Rehabilitation (PR) programme (58 years, 65% male, 43 pack-years, GOLD stage II/III/IV 50/39/11%). Techniques used to assess the MCID were anchor-based approaches, including patient-referencing, criterion-referencing and questionnaire-referencing, and the distribution-based methods standard error of measurement (SEM), 1.96SEM and half standard deviation (0.5s.d.). Patient- and criterion-referencing led to MCID estimates of 0.56 and 0.62 (CCQ); 3.12 and 2.96 (CAT); and 8.40 and 9.28 (SGRQ). Questionnaire-referencing suggested MCID ranges of 0.28–0.61 (CCQ), 1.46–3.08 (CAT) and 6.86–9.47 (SGRQ). The SEM, 1.96SEM and 0.5s.d. were 0.29, 0.56 and 0.46 (CCQ); 3.28, 6.43 and 2.80 (CAT); 5.20, 10.19 and 6.06 (SGRQ). Pooled estimates were 0.52 (CCQ), 3.29 (CAT) and 7.91 (SGRQ) for improvement. MCID estimates differed depending on the method used. Pooled estimates suggest clinically relevant improvements needing to exceed 0.40 on the CCQ, 3.00 on the CAT and 7.00 on the SGRQ for moderate to very severe COPD patients. The MCIDs of the CAT and SGRQ in the literature might be too low, leading to overestimation of treatment effects for patients with COPD. PMID:27597571

  11. Health status instruments for patients with COPD in pulmonary rehabilitation: defining a minimal clinically important difference.

    PubMed

    Alma, Harma; de Jong, Corina; Jelusic, Danijel; Wittmann, Michael; Schuler, Michael; Blok, Bertine Flokstra-de; Kocks, Janwillem; Schultz, Konrad; Molen, Thys van der

    2016-01-01

    The minimal clinically important difference (MCID) defines to what extent change on a health status instrument is clinically relevant, which aids scientists and physicians in measuring therapy effects. This is the first study that aimed to establish the MCID of the Clinical chronic obstructive pulmonary disease (COPD) Questionnaire (CCQ), the COPD Assessment Test (CAT) and the St George's Respiratory Questionnaire (SGRQ) in the same pulmonary rehabilitation population using multiple approaches. In total, 451 COPD patients participated in a 3-week Pulmonary Rehabilitation (PR) programme (58 years, 65% male, 43 pack-years, GOLD stage II/III/IV 50/39/11%). Techniques used to assess the MCID were anchor-based approaches, including patient-referencing, criterion-referencing and questionnaire-referencing, and the distribution-based methods standard error of measurement (SEM), 1.96SEM and half standard deviation (0.5s.d.). Patient- and criterion-referencing led to MCID estimates of 0.56 and 0.62 (CCQ); 3.12 and 2.96 (CAT); and 8.40 and 9.28 (SGRQ). Questionnaire-referencing suggested MCID ranges of 0.28-0.61 (CCQ), 1.46-3.08 (CAT) and 6.86-9.47 (SGRQ). The SEM, 1.96SEM and 0.5s.d. were 0.29, 0.56 and 0.46 (CCQ); 3.28, 6.43 and 2.80 (CAT); 5.20, 10.19 and 6.06 (SGRQ). Pooled estimates were 0.52 (CCQ), 3.29 (CAT) and 7.91 (SGRQ) for improvement. MCID estimates differed depending on the method used. Pooled estimates suggest clinically relevant improvements needing to exceed 0.40 on the CCQ, 3.00 on the CAT and 7.00 on the SGRQ for moderate to very severe COPD patients. The MCIDs of the CAT and SGRQ in the literature might be too low, leading to overestimation of treatment effects for patients with COPD. PMID:27597571

  12. Health status instruments for patients with COPD in pulmonary rehabilitation: defining a minimal clinically important difference.

    PubMed

    Alma, Harma; de Jong, Corina; Jelusic, Danijel; Wittmann, Michael; Schuler, Michael; Blok, Bertine Flokstra-de; Kocks, Janwillem; Schultz, Konrad; Molen, Thys van der

    2016-01-01

    The minimal clinically important difference (MCID) defines to what extent change on a health status instrument is clinically relevant, which aids scientists and physicians in measuring therapy effects. This is the first study that aimed to establish the MCID of the Clinical chronic obstructive pulmonary disease (COPD) Questionnaire (CCQ), the COPD Assessment Test (CAT) and the St George's Respiratory Questionnaire (SGRQ) in the same pulmonary rehabilitation population using multiple approaches. In total, 451 COPD patients participated in a 3-week Pulmonary Rehabilitation (PR) programme (58 years, 65% male, 43 pack-years, GOLD stage II/III/IV 50/39/11%). Techniques used to assess the MCID were anchor-based approaches, including patient-referencing, criterion-referencing and questionnaire-referencing, and the distribution-based methods standard error of measurement (SEM), 1.96SEM and half standard deviation (0.5s.d.). Patient- and criterion-referencing led to MCID estimates of 0.56 and 0.62 (CCQ); 3.12 and 2.96 (CAT); and 8.40 and 9.28 (SGRQ). Questionnaire-referencing suggested MCID ranges of 0.28-0.61 (CCQ), 1.46-3.08 (CAT) and 6.86-9.47 (SGRQ). The SEM, 1.96SEM and 0.5s.d. were 0.29, 0.56 and 0.46 (CCQ); 3.28, 6.43 and 2.80 (CAT); 5.20, 10.19 and 6.06 (SGRQ). Pooled estimates were 0.52 (CCQ), 3.29 (CAT) and 7.91 (SGRQ) for improvement. MCID estimates differed depending on the method used. Pooled estimates suggest clinically relevant improvements needing to exceed 0.40 on the CCQ, 3.00 on the CAT and 7.00 on the SGRQ for moderate to very severe COPD patients. The MCIDs of the CAT and SGRQ in the literature might be too low, leading to overestimation of treatment effects for patients with COPD.

  13. Minimal important differences of the SRS-22 Patient Questionnaire following surgical treatment of idiopathic scoliosis.

    PubMed

    Bagó, Juan; Pérez-Grueso, Francisco J S; Les, Esther; Hernández, Pablo; Pellisé, Ferran

    2009-12-01

    The responsiveness of an instrument measuring health-related quality of life is an important indication of its construct validity. The SRS-22 Patient Questionnaire has become the most widely used patient-reported outcome instrument in the clinical evaluation of patients with idiopathic scoliosis. The responsiveness of the SRS-22 following surgical treatment in patients with idiopathic scoliosis has not been fully assessed. The aim of this study is to evaluate this factor by calculating the minimal important differences (MIDs) of the SRS-22 Questionnaire. The study included 91 patients with idiopathic scoliosis (77 females and 14 males), who underwent surgical treatment; mean age at the time of surgery was 18.1 years. Patients completed the SRS-22 questionnaire before surgery and at a follow-up visit (mean follow-up, 45.6 months). At follow-up, patients rated their overall situation as related to before surgery with a four-point Likert scale: 1-Worse, 2-Same, 3-Better, 4-Much Better. This evaluation represented the global perceived effect (GPE) and served as the anchor criterion for calculating the MID. MIDs were calculated using two approaches. The anchor-based MID (MID-A) was defined as the mean preoperative/follow-up difference in SRS-22 scores in the group of patients who stated they were much better than before surgery (GPE = 4). Using the same anchor criterion, the optimal cut-off value able to identify patients that had clearly improved was determined on a receiver operating characteristic (ROC) curve. In addition, the distribution-based MID (MID-D) was calculated by the standard error of measurement method. The MID-As found for the different subscales and the sum score were: pain 0.6, function 0.3, image 1.3, mental health 0.3, average sum score 0.6, and raw sum score 13.1. The cut-off values on the ROC curve were: pain 0.2, function 0.0, image 1.6, mental health 0.4, average sum score 0.4, and raw sum score 10. The MID-Ds were: pain 0.6, function 0.8, image

  14. Minimal-change disease as a paraneoplastic syndrome in a patient with ovarian carcinoma.

    PubMed

    González-Fontal, Guido R; Restrepo, Juan G; Henao-Martínez, Andrés F

    2011-12-01

    Minimal-change disease (MCD) is an exceptional paraneoplastic presentation. We are describing the case of an ovarian paraneoplastic nephrotic syndrome. The kidney biopsy was consistent with MCD. Steroids and immunosuppressive therapy were given with no change in the nephrotic-range proteinuria. A complete resolution of the nephrotic syndrome was soon observed with improvement of her clinical condition after five cycles of chemotherapy with paclitaxel and carboplatin and tumor-debulking surgery. Ovarian carcinoma paraneoplastic nephrotic syndrome secondary to MCD is an extremely rare event, which is important to recognize since it is responsive to the standard chemotherapy.

  15. Minimal backside surface changes observed in retrieved acetabular liners.

    PubMed

    Akbari, Abtin; Roy, Marcel E; Whiteside, Leo A; Katerberg, Brian J; Schnettgoecke, Daniel J

    2011-08-01

    Modular polyethylene liners offer versatility in total hip arthroplasty, but the locking mechanism may allow micromotion and backside wear. We evaluated the backside surface of 56 retrieved acetabular liners (mean 5.54 years in vivo, range 0.003-13.1 years) to determine whether damage correlated with liner age in vivo, patient factors associated with higher activity, and polyethylene quality. Half of the liners exhibited minimal damage, half exhibited no damage and none exhibited severe damage. Backside damage significantly correlated only to liner age in vivo. Ten of the 28 liners revised for osteolysis exhibited no backside damage, but the osteolytic cysts were peripheral and did not originate from screw holes. The results suggest that modular polyethylene liners in a porous titanium-coated shell with screw holes can be designed such that clinically significant backside wear is minimal. PMID:20875939

  16. PUBLISHER'S ANNOUNCEMENT: Important changes for 2008

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    2008-01-01

    This issue, the first of 2008, sees a new innovation for Journal of Physics G: Nuclear and Particle Physics (J. Phys. G). J. Phys. G has moved from page numbering to an article numbering system, which offers important advantages to our authors. It increases flexibility and speeds up the publication process as papers in different issues or subject sections can now be published online as soon as they are ready, without having to wait for a whole issue or section to be allocated page numbers. The bibliographic citation style will therefore change for articles published from now on. Articles should be referenced using the six-digit article number in place of a page number. Please note that this number must include any leading zeros. For example: Smith J et al 2008 J. Phys. G: Nucl. Part. Phys. 35 015045 If you have any questions or comments about our new scheme, please contact us at http://jphysg@iop.org J. Phys. G Publishing Team

  17. The IWQOL-Kids(©): establishing minimal clinically important difference scores and test-retest reliability.

    PubMed

    Modi, Avani C; Zeller, Meg H

    2011-06-01

    This study presents additional psychometric testing of the Impact of Weight on Quality of Life-Kids (IWQOL-Kids) with aims to establish distribution-based minimal clinically important difference scores (MCIDs) and evaluate test-retest reliability. Participants (N=263) represent a pooled sample of treatment-seeking obese adolescents (aged 11-19 years) from four large studies examining health-related quality of life (HRQOL) and psychosocial outcomes (Mz(BMI)=2.6 ± 0.4; M(age)=15.1 ± 1.9; 64% female; 51% Black, 46% White). Adolescents completed the IWQOL-Kids©. Standard errors of measurement, which represent the MCID for each scale, were: Physical Comfort=8.8; Body Esteem=7.7; Social Life=8.1; Family Relations=6.2; Total QOL =4.8. Test-retest reliabilities ranged from 0.75-0.88. These data provide further support for the excellent psychometric properties of the IWQOL-Kids. In addition, preliminary MCIDs for IWQOL-Kids scales have now been established, which can be used in clinical trials.

  18. Minimal important difference after hand surgery: a prospective assessment for DASH, MHQ, and SF-12

    PubMed Central

    Maia, Maurício Vieira de Pádua; de Moraes, Vinícius Ynoe; dos Santos, João Baptista Gomes; Faloppa, Flávio; Belloti, João Carlos

    2016-01-01

    Introduction: Minimal important difference (MID) score is an important measure for surgical clinical research and impacts on treatment decisions. Our approach considered patient satisfaction as the relevant anchor criteria. The aims of this study were: determine after surgery MID for three relevant questionnaires: Disabilities of the Arm, Shoulder and Hand (DASH), Michigan Hand Questionnaire (MHQ), and Short Form 12 (SF-12); and assess the correlation between these scores and patient reported satisfaction. Methods: Adult patients where surgery was indicated for any hand/wrist conditions. Study was conducted in a teaching hospital, São Paulo, Brazil. Participants responded to DASH, SF-12, MHQ, and a Likert satisfaction scale before and three months after a procedure. Satisfaction was considered as the anchor for determining MID after a procedure. The correlation between satisfaction and the instruments were measured. Two statistical approaches were utilized for determining MIDs and were used for consistency and generalizability purposes. For MID determination, receiver operating curves were utilized and MID cut-offs were followed by sensitivity and specificity measures. Results: Fifty patients were included with no follow-up losses. MID for DASH was 18.8 and 15.4. MID for MHQ was 14.7 for both approaches. Data from SF-12 was not reliable after statistical analyses and demonstrated poor correlation with patient satisfaction. MID for DASH and MHQ were found and demonstrated larger standards than literature-reported patients when surgery was not the main intervention. DASH and MHQ had moderate correlation with patient reported satisfaction. SF-12 MID was not reliable and had poor correlation to patient satisfaction. These data suggests that ambulatory hand surgery patients may have greater expectations regarding improvement than other patients. PMID:27716460

  19. USE OF THE MINIMAL CLINICALLY IMPORTANT DIFFERENCE (MCID) FOR EVALUATING TREATMENT OUTCOMES WITH TMJMD PATIENTS: A PRELIMINARY STUDY1

    PubMed Central

    Ingram, Megan; Choi, Yun Hee; Chiu, Chung-Yi; Haggard, Rob; Dougall, Angela Liegey; Buschang, Peter; Gatchel, Robert J.

    2012-01-01

    Temporomandibular joint and muscle disorder (TMJMD) is one of the most prevalent types of musculoskeletal disorders. The major goal of the study was to more objectively quantify clinically meaningful relief for TMJMD treatment outcomes by using the new metric of minimal clinically important difference (MCID). Pre- to post-treatment changes on a number of self-report measures were evaluated in a cohort of 101 acute TMJMD patients. An anchor-based MCID approach was employed, with an objective chewing performance measure serving as the clinical outcome of interest. Using a Receiver Operating Curve analysis, it was found that the Physical Component Scale (PCS) of the SF-36 was the most robust self-report measure to use as the MCID in a TMJMD patient population. PMID:22919263

  20. Minimally important differences for Patient Reported Outcomes Measurement Information System pain interference for individuals with back pain

    PubMed Central

    Amtmann, Dagmar; Kim, Jiseon; Chung, Hyewon; Askew, Robert L; Park, Ryoungsun; Cook, Karon F

    2016-01-01

    Background The minimally important difference (MID) refers to the smallest change that is sufficiently meaningful to carry implications for patients’ care. MIDs are necessary to guide the interpretation of scores. This study estimated MID for the Patient Reported Outcomes Measurement Information System (PROMIS) pain interference (PI). Methods Study instruments were administered to 414 people who participated in two studies that included treatment with low back pain (LBP; n=218) or depression (n=196). Participants with LBP received epidural steroid injections and participants with depression received antidepressants, psychotherapy, or both. MIDs were estimated for the changes in LBP. MIDs were included only if a priori criteria were met (ie, sample size ≥10, Spearman correlation ≥0.3 between anchor measures and PROMIS-PI scores, and effect size range =0.2–0.8). The interquartile range (IQR) of MID estimates was calculated. Results The IQR ranged from 3.5 to 5.5 points. The lower bound estimate of the IQR (3.5) was greater than mean of standard error of measurement (SEM) both at time 1 (SEM =2.3) and at time 2 (SEM =2.5), indicating that the estimate of MID exceeded measurement error. Conclusion Based on our results, researchers and clinicians using PROMIS-PI can assume that change of 3.5 to 5.5 points in comparisons of mean PROMIS-PI scores of people with LBP can be considered meaningful. PMID:27175093

  1. Segmentation of Arteries in Minimally Invasive Surgery Using Change Detection

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Akbari, Hamed; Kosugi, Yukio; Kojima, Kazuyuki

    In laparoscopic surgery, the lack of tactile sensation and 3D visual feedback make it difficult to identify the position of a blood vessel intraoperatively. An unintentional partial tear or complete rupture of a blood vessel may result in a serious complication; moreover, if the surgeon cannot manage this situation, open surgery will be necessary. Differentiation of arteries from veins and other structures and the ability to independently detect them has a variety of applications in surgical procedures involving the head, neck, lung, heart, abdomen, and extremities. We have used the artery's pulsatile movement to detect and differentiate arteries from veins. The algorithm for change detection in this study uses edge detection for unsupervised image registration. Changed regions are identified by subtracting the systolic and diastolic images. As a post-processing step, region properties, including color average, area, major and minor axis lengths, perimeter, and solidity, are used as inputs of the LVQ (Learning Vector Quantization) network. The output results in two object classes: arteries and non-artery regions. After post-processing, arteries can be detected in the laparoscopic field. The registration method used here is evaluated in comparison with other linear and nonlinear elastic methods. The performance of this method is evaluated for the detection of arteries in several laparoscopic surgeries on an animal model and on eleven human patients. The performance evaluation criteria are based on false negative and false positive rates. This algorithm is able to detect artery regions, even in cases where the arteries are obscured by other tissues.

  2. Minimally important difference of the Treatment Satisfaction with Medicines Questionnaire (SATMED-Q)

    PubMed Central

    2011-01-01

    Background A previous study has documented the reliability and validity of the Treatment Satisfaction with Medicines Questionnaire (SATMED-Q) in exploring patient satisfaction with medicines for chronic health conditions in routine medical practice, but the minimally important difference (MID) of this tool is as yet unknown. The objective of this research was to estimate the MID for the SATMED-Q total score and six constituent domains. Methods The sample of patients (456 subjects, mean age 59 years, 53% male) used for testing psychometric properties was also used to assess MID. Item #14 of the Treatment Satisfaction Questionnaire for Medication (TSQM) was used as an anchor reference since it directly explores satisfaction with medicine on a 7-point ordinal scale (from extremely satisfied to extremely dissatisfied, with a neutral category). Patients were classified into four categories according to responses to this item (extremely satisfied/dissatisfied, very satisfied/dissatisfied, satisfied/dissatisfied, neither satisfied nor dissatisfied (neutral), and calculations were made for the total score and each domain of the SATMED-Q using standardised scores. The mean absolute differences in total score (and domains) between the neutral category and the satisfied/dissatisfied category were considered to be the MID. Effect sizes (ES) were also computed. Results The MID for the total score was 13.4 (ES = 0.91), while the domain values ranged from 10.3 (medical care domain, ES = 0.43) to 20.6 (impact on daily living, ES = 0.85). Mean differences in satisfaction (as measured by the total SATMED-Q score and domain scores) using the levels of satisfaction established by item #14 were significantly different, with F values ranging from 12.2 to 88.8 (p < 0.001 in all cases). Conclusion The SATMED-Q was demonstrated to be responsive to different levels of patient satisfaction with therapy in chronically ill subjects. The MID obtained was 13.4 points for the overall normalised

  3. 78 FR 62417 - Import Administration; Change of Agency Name

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2013-10-22

    ... International Trade Administration 19 CFR Parts 351, 354, and 356 RIN 0625-AA97 Import Administration; Change of Agency Name AGENCY: Import Administration, International Trade Administration, Commerce. ACTION: Final...), through internal department organizational orders, changed the name of ``Import Administration''...

  4. Minimal change disease in association with fire coral (Millepora species) exposure.

    PubMed

    Prasad, G V Ramesh; Vincent, Lloyd; Hamilton, Robert; Lim, Ki

    2006-01-01

    Numerous agents have been associated with minimal change disease. We describe a previously unreported association in a 45-year-old white woman of scuba diving exposure to fire coral (Millepora species) that was followed by the development of nephrotic syndrome, acute renal failure, pulmonary edema, and intubation. The renal biopsy specimen was consistent with minimal change disease. Institution of corticosteroid therapy resulted in symptomatic improvement and resolution of proteinuria. Physicians, particularly those in scuba-diving areas, should consider minimal change disease in exposed patients with proteinuria because a prompt diagnostic and therapeutic approach may potentially limit complications.

  5. [Kimura's disease: an unrecognized cause of adult-onset nephrotic syndrome with minimal change disease].

    PubMed

    Shehwaro, N; Langlois, A-L; Gueutin, V; Debchi, L; Charlotte, F; Rouvier, P; Rottembourg, J; Izzedine, H

    2014-02-01

    Kimura's disease (KD) is an angiolymphoid proliferative disorder of soft tissue with eosinophilia, with a predilection for head and neck regions in young Oriental men. Kidney disease is thought to be rare in KD. About a case of adult-onset nephrotic syndrome with minimal change disease, we comment Kimura's disease and its associated kidney damage. Kimura disease should be suspected and included in the diagnosis of adult-onset nephrotic syndrome with minimal change disease.

  6. 50 CFR 14.32 - Permits to import or export wildlife at nondesignated port to minimize deterioration or loss.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-10-01

    ... 50 Wildlife and Fisheries 1 2010-10-01 2010-10-01 false Permits to import or export wildlife at nondesignated port to minimize deterioration or loss. 14.32 Section 14.32 Wildlife and Fisheries UNITED STATES FISH AND WILDLIFE SERVICE, DEPARTMENT OF THE INTERIOR TAKING, POSSESSION, TRANSPORTATION,...

  7. 50 CFR 14.32 - Permits to import or export wildlife at nondesignated port to minimize deterioration or loss.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-10-01

    ... 50 Wildlife and Fisheries 1 2014-10-01 2014-10-01 false Permits to import or export wildlife at nondesignated port to minimize deterioration or loss. 14.32 Section 14.32 Wildlife and Fisheries UNITED STATES FISH AND WILDLIFE SERVICE, DEPARTMENT OF THE INTERIOR TAKING, POSSESSION, TRANSPORTATION,...

  8. 50 CFR 14.32 - Permits to import or export wildlife at nondesignated port to minimize deterioration or loss.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-10-01

    ... 50 Wildlife and Fisheries 1 2013-10-01 2013-10-01 false Permits to import or export wildlife at nondesignated port to minimize deterioration or loss. 14.32 Section 14.32 Wildlife and Fisheries UNITED STATES FISH AND WILDLIFE SERVICE, DEPARTMENT OF THE INTERIOR TAKING, POSSESSION, TRANSPORTATION,...

  9. 50 CFR 14.32 - Permits to import or export wildlife at nondesignated port to minimize deterioration or loss.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-10-01

    ... 50 Wildlife and Fisheries 1 2012-10-01 2012-10-01 false Permits to import or export wildlife at nondesignated port to minimize deterioration or loss. 14.32 Section 14.32 Wildlife and Fisheries UNITED STATES FISH AND WILDLIFE SERVICE, DEPARTMENT OF THE INTERIOR TAKING, POSSESSION, TRANSPORTATION,...

  10. 50 CFR 14.32 - Permits to import or export wildlife at nondesignated port to minimize deterioration or loss.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-10-01

    ... 50 Wildlife and Fisheries 1 2011-10-01 2011-10-01 false Permits to import or export wildlife at nondesignated port to minimize deterioration or loss. 14.32 Section 14.32 Wildlife and Fisheries UNITED STATES FISH AND WILDLIFE SERVICE, DEPARTMENT OF THE INTERIOR TAKING, POSSESSION, TRANSPORTATION,...

  11. Defining the Minimal Important Difference for the Visual Analogue Scale Assessing Dyspnea in Patients with Malignant Pleural Effusions

    PubMed Central

    Mishra, Eleanor K.; Corcoran, John P.; Hallifax, Robert J.; Stradling, John; Maskell, Nicholas A.; Rahman, Najib M.

    2015-01-01

    Background The minimal important difference (MID) is essential for interpreting the results of randomised controlled trials (RCTs). Despite a number of RCTs in patients with malignant pleural effusions (MPEs) which use the visual analogue scale for dyspnea (VASD) as an outcome measure, the MID has not been established. Methods Patients with suspected MPE undergoing a pleural procedure recorded their baseline VASD and their post-procedure VASD (24 hours after the pleural drainage), and in parallel assessed their breathlessness on a 7 point Likert scale. Findings The mean decrease in VASD in patients with a MPE reporting a ‘small but just worthwhile decrease’ in their dyspnea (i.e. equivalent to the MID) was 19mm (95% CI 14-24mm). The mean drainage volume required to produce a change in VASD of 19mm was 760ml. Interpretation The mean MID for the VASD in patients with a MPE undergoing a pleural procedure is 19mm (95% CI 14-24mm). Thus choosing an improvement of 19mm in the VASD would be justifiable in the design and analysis of future MPE studies. PMID:25874452

  12. Defining the minimal clinically important difference (MCID) of the Heinrichs-carpenter quality of life scale (QLS).

    PubMed

    Falissard, Bruno; Sapin, Christophe; Loze, Jean-Yves; Landsberg, Wally; Hansen, Karina

    2016-06-01

    To determine the Minimal Clinically Important Difference (MCID) of the Heinrichs-Carpenter Quality of Life Scale (QLS). Data from the "Schizophrenia Trial of Aripiprazole" (STAR) study were used in this analysis. The MCID value of the QLS total score was estimated using the anchor-based method. These findings were substantiated/validated by comparing the MCID estimate to other measurements collected in the study. Half of the patients (49%) showed improvement in Clinical Global Impressions of Severity (CGI-S) during the trial. The estimated MCID of the QLS total score was 5.30 (standard error: 2.60; 95% confidence interval: [0.16; 10.43]; p < 0.05). Patients were divided into two groups: "QLS improvers" (QLS total score increased ≥ six points) and "non-improvers". The QLS improvers had significantly better effectiveness and reported significantly higher levels of preference for their current medications. There was a statistically significant difference between the two groups in the change in two of the four domains of QLS; "Interpersonal relations" and "Intrapsychic foundations" domains during the study. These findings support the value of the estimated MCID for the QLS and may be a useful tool in evaluating antipsychotic treatment effects and improving long-term patient outcomes in schizophrenia. Copyright © 2015 John Wiley & Sons, Ltd.

  13. High prevalence of gastroesophageal reflux disease with minimal mucosal change in asthmatic patients.

    PubMed

    Shimizu, Yasuo; Dobashi, Kunio; Kobayashi, Setsuo; Ohki, Ichiro; Tokushima, Masahiko; Kusano, Motoyasu; Kawamura, Osamu; Shimoyama, Yasuyuki; Utsugi, Mitsuyoshi; Mori, Masatomo

    2006-08-01

    It is known that the prevalence of gastroesophageal reflux disease (GERD) in asthmatic patients is high. Although an endoscopic diagnosis of GERD based on the established Los Angeles (LA) classification requires the detection of erosive mucosal breaks, there are patients with GERD who have prominent erythema of the esophageal membrane without erosive mucosal breaks. Non-erosive mucosal change denotes the minimal change of the discoloring type of reflux esophagitis. This study was undertaken to determine the prevalence of GERD in asthmatic patients using the LA classification with the inclusion of minimal change, compared to the prevalence determined using the established LA classification without minimal change. The presence of GERD in asthmatic patients (n = 78), non-asthmatic disease control patients (n = 56), and healthy subjects (n = 150) was evaluated by endoscopic examination. The frequency of GERD in asthmatic patients based on the LA classification with minimal change was higher (54/78, 69.2%) than in asthmatic patients based on the LA classification without minimal change (37/78, 47.4%) (p < 0.05). The prevalence of GERD in asthmatic patients (69.2%) was higher than that in disease control patients (17/56, 30.4%) and healthy subjects (27/150, 18.0%) based on the LA classification with minimum change. These data indicate that asthmatic patients have a high frequency of GERD. In addition, without the inclusion of minimum change to the diagnosis of GERD, the prevalence of GERD appears to be underestimated in asthmatic patients. Therefore, physicians should carefully observe asthmatic patients with minimal change on endoscopy.

  14. Nephrotic syndrome of minimal change disease following exposure to mercury-containing skin-lightening cream.

    PubMed

    Zhang, Lin; Liu, Fuyou; Peng, Youming; Sun, Lin; Chen, Chunguo

    2014-01-01

    A 28-year-old female suffered from nephrotic syndrome after a long-term use of mercury-containing, skin-lightening cream. The blood and urinary mercury content of this patient increased with use. Renal biopsy showed minimal change disease. Her symptoms were relieved 6 months after discontinuing use of the cream and receiving sodium dimercaptosulfonate and glucocorticosteroid treatments. Proteinuria disappeared, and blood and urinary mercury levels returned to normal. Previous reports of nephrotic syndrome caused by mercury-containing, skin-lightening creams have mostly been identified as be.ing due to membranous nephropathy. Minimal change disease has been reported in a few case reports published in the English language. Here we report a case of nephrotic syndrome with minimal change disease following exposure to a mercury-containing, skin-lightening cream. We also reviewed relevant published reports to summarize clinical features and treatments and to explore the possible mechanisms involved.

  15. The meaning of it all: evaluating knowledge of Minimal Clinically Important Difference (MCID) among chiropractic students

    PubMed Central

    Wates, Rebecca J.; Woodruff, Ike; Pfefer, Mark T.

    2016-01-01

    Introduction: Patient-reported outcome measures are frequently used to monitor patient progress during chiropractic care, yet student interns utilizing such assessments are unfamiliar with what magnitude of change (MCID) is considered beneficial to the patient. Objective: This work seeks to determine chiropractic intern knowledge of MCID. Methods: A five-item survey was administered to 104 chiropractic student interns. Results: Nearly one-third of the interns correctly defined the MCID acronym, and approximately one-third of the interns knew at least one MCID value for the outcome assessments in the EHR. Surprisingly, 20% of the interns reported knowledge of at least one MCID value, but answered incorrectly pertaining to the MCID acronym. Conclusion: Student interns value patient perception, but have limited knowledge of MCID values. Addressing this gap will improve their understanding of patient progress and inform their treatment decisions both in the outpatient clinic and in their practices following graduation. PMID:27713580

  16. Rituximab is an efficient and safe treatment in adults with steroid-dependent minimal change disease.

    PubMed

    Munyentwali, Helene; Bouachi, Khedidja; Audard, Vincent; Remy, Philippe; Lang, Philippe; Mojaat, Rachid; Deschênes, Georges; Ronco, Pierre M; Plaisier, Emmanuelle M; Dahan, Karine Y

    2013-03-01

    Development of steroid dependency in patients with nephrotic syndrome may require a long-term multi-drug therapy at risk of drug toxicity and renal failure. Rituximab treatment reduces the steroid dosage and the need for immunosuppressive therapy in pediatric patients. Here we retrospectively analyze the efficacy and safety of rituximab in adult patients with steroid-dependent minimal change disease. To do this, we analyzed the outcome of all adult patients treated with rituximab for steroid-dependent minimal change nephrotic syndrome over a mean follow-up of 29.5 months (range 5.1-82 months). Seventeen patients with steroid-dependent or frequently relapsing minimal change nephrotic syndrome, unresponsive to several immunosuppressive medications, were treated with rituximab. Eleven patients had no relapses after rituximab infusion (mean follow-up 26.7 months, range 5.1-82 months) and nine of them were able to come off all other immunosuppressive drugs and steroids during follow-up. Six patients relapsed at least once after a mean time of 11.9 months (mean follow-up 34.5 months, range 16.9-50.1 months), but their immunosuppressive drug treatment could be stopped or markedly reduced during this time. No adverse events were recorded. Thus, rituximab is efficient and safe in adult patients suffering from severe steroid-dependent minimal change disease. Prospective randomized trials are needed to confirm this study.

  17. Changes in private alcohol importation after alcohol tax reductions and import allowance increases in Denmark.

    PubMed

    Grittner, Ulrike; Bloomfield, Kim

    2009-01-01

    AIMS: This paper examines changes in alcohol import in Denmark between 2003 and 2006, after the excise tax on spirits in Denmark was lowered by 45% on October 1, 2003 and travellers' allowances for alcohol import were increased on January1, 2004. Additionally, the paper seeks to develop a profile of alcohol importers and analyse the relation between the distance to the German border and import behaviour, as Germany is the main alcohol import country for Denmark. DATA: Cross-sectional and panel data from Denmark, from 2003 to 2006, were analyzed. Samples were collected by telephone interviews, using random digit dialing. RESULTS: While the percentage of people who imported alcohol fell over time, the amount of alcohol purchased rose for those who did import. Distance to the German border was inversely related to the likelihood of importing and the level of imported amounts. Heavy drinkers and those with higher incomes were more likely to import, and heavy drinkers imported higher amounts than moderate drinkers or abstainers. CONCLUSION: Distance of residence from the German border, socio-economic status and drinking behaviour are related to private alcohol import in Denmark. Policy changes resulted in a shift to fewer people importing higher amounts of alcohol so that the overall import level did not change substantially.

  18. Why is there resistance to change and how can it be minimized?

    PubMed

    Somani, S M; Galle, B W; Roberts, A W

    1981-12-01

    The ability to implement change, as an administrative skill, is essential in effectively promoting progressive pharmacy practice. Often, pharmacy managers want to implement change but do not know how to approach the process without encountering much resistance from the staff. There are various sources of resistance that need to be recognized, including lack of trust, inaccurate or incomplete information, and potential loss. A pharmacy manager can take different approaches to minimize this resistance, depending on the organization and his or her management style. A pharmacy manager can use the techniques cited to turn the uncertainties of change into established gains and employee commitment.

  19. Why is there resistance to change and how can it be minimized?

    PubMed

    Somani, S M; Galle, B W; Roberts, A W

    1981-12-01

    The ability to implement change, as an administrative skill, is essential in effectively promoting progressive pharmacy practice. Often, pharmacy managers want to implement change but do not know how to approach the process without encountering much resistance from the staff. There are various sources of resistance that need to be recognized, including lack of trust, inaccurate or incomplete information, and potential loss. A pharmacy manager can take different approaches to minimize this resistance, depending on the organization and his or her management style. A pharmacy manager can use the techniques cited to turn the uncertainties of change into established gains and employee commitment. PMID:10253504

  20. Renal manifestations of human brucellosis: First report of minimal change disease.

    PubMed

    Sabanis, Nikolaos; Gavriilaki, Eleni; Paschou, Eleni; Tsotsiou, Eleni; Kalaitzoglou, Asterios; Kavlakoudis, Christos; Vasileiou, Sotirios

    2016-05-01

    Human brucellosis is considered a great example of the complexity of clinical manifestations possibly affecting multiple organs or systems. Renal manifestations of human brucellosis have been documented in few case reports and one case series. Herein, we present a case of Nephrotic syndrome (NS) due to minimal change disease in the course of acute brucellosis. A 53-year-old male farmer was admitted to our department with acute brucellosis and NS. Renal biopsy revealed minimal change disease. Combined treatment with prednisone (1 mg/kg), rifampicin (600 mg/day), and doxycycline (200 mg/day) was initiated. Complete remission of NS was achieved at the end of the fourth week. One year later, the patient remained in complete remission of NS without any sign of relapse of brucellosis.

  1. 78 FR 69288 - Import Administration; Change of Agency Name

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2013-11-19

    ...Effective October 1, 2013, the Department of Commerce (Department), through internal department organizational orders, changed the name of ``Import Administration'' to ``Enforcement and Compliance.'' Consistent with this action, this rule makes appropriate conforming changes in part 400 of title 15 of the Code of Federal Regulations. The rule also sets forth a Savings Provision that preserves,......

  2. Regulatory T cells and minimal change nephropathy: in the midst of a complex network.

    PubMed

    Bertelli, R; Bonanni, A; Di Donato, A; Cioni, M; Ravani, P; Ghiggeri, G M

    2016-02-01

    Minimal change nephrosis (MCN) is an important cause of morbidity in children. In spite of successful therapies having been developed in the last three decades, most aspects related to pathogenesis still remain poorly defined. Evolution in basic immunology and results deriving from animal models of the disease suggest a complex interaction of factors and cells starting from activation of innate immunity and continuing with antigen presentation. Oxidants, CD80 and CD40/CD40L have probably a relevant role at the start. Studies in animal models and in human beings also suggest the possibility that the same molecules (i.e. CD80, CD40) are expressed by podocytes under inflammatory stimuli, representing a direct potential mechanism for proteinuria. B and T cells could play a relevant role this contest. Implication of B cells is suggested indirectly by studies utilizing anti-CD20 monoclonal antibodies as the main therapy. The role of regulatory T cells (Tregs ) is supported mainly by results in animal models of nephrotic syndrome (i.e. adriamycin, puromycin, lipopolysaccharide), showing a protective effect of direct Treg infusion or stimulation by interleukin 2 (IL-2). Limited studies have also shown reduced amounts of circulating Tregs in patients with active MCN cells. The route from bench to bedside would be reduced if results from animal models were confirmed in human pathology. The expansion of Tregs with recombinant IL-2 and new anti-CD20 monoclonal antibodies is the beginning. Blocking antigen-presenting cells with cytotoxic T lymphocyte antigen (CTLA-4)-Ig fusion molecules inhibiting CD80 and/or with blockers of CD40-CD40 ligand interaction represent potential new approaches. The hope is that evolution in therapies of MCN could fill a gap lasting 30 years.

  3. Weight change among people randomized to minimal intervention control groups in weight loss trials

    PubMed Central

    Johns, David J.; Hartmann‐Boyce, Jamie; Jebb, Susan A.; Aveyard, Paul

    2016-01-01

    Objective Evidence on the effectiveness of behavioral weight management programs often comes from uncontrolled program evaluations. These frequently make the assumption that, without intervention, people will gain weight. The aim of this study was to use data from minimal intervention control groups in randomized controlled trials to examine the evidence for this assumption and the effect of frequency of weighing on weight change. Methods Data were extracted from minimal intervention control arms in a systematic review of multicomponent behavioral weight management programs. Two reviewers classified control arms into three categories based on intensity of minimal intervention and calculated 12‐month mean weight change using baseline observation carried forward. Meta‐regression was conducted in STATA v12. Results Thirty studies met the inclusion criteria, twenty‐nine of which had usable data, representing 5,963 participants allocated to control arms. Control arms were categorized according to intensity, as offering leaflets only, a single session of advice, or more than one session of advice from someone without specialist skills in supporting weight loss. Mean weight change at 12 months across all categories was −0.8 kg (95% CI −1.1 to −0.4). In an unadjusted model, increasing intensity by moving up a category was associated with an additional weight loss of −0.53 kg (95% CI −0.96 to −0.09). Also in an unadjusted model, each additional weigh‐in was associated with a weight change of −0.42 kg (95% CI −0.81 to −0.03). However, when both variables were placed in the same model, neither intervention category nor number of weigh‐ins was associated with weight change. Conclusions Uncontrolled evaluations of weight loss programs should assume that, in the absence of intervention, their population would weigh up to a kilogram on average less than baseline at the end of the first year of follow‐up. PMID:27028279

  4. Minimal time change detection algorithm for reconfigurable control system and application to aerospace

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Kim, Sungwan

    1994-01-01

    System parameters should be tracked on-line to build a reconfigurable control system even though there exists an abrupt change. For this purpose, a new performance index that we are studying is the speed of adaptation- how quickly does the system determine that a change has occurred? In this paper, a new, robust algorithm that is optimized to minimize the time delay in detecting a change for fixed false alarm probability is proposed. Simulation results for the aircraft lateral motion with a known or unknown change in control gain matrices, in the presence of doublet input, indicate that the algorithm works fairly well. One of its distinguishing properties is that detection delay of this algorithm is superior to that of Whiteness Test.

  5. IgM nephropathy: is it closer to minimal change disease or to focal segmental glomerulosclerosis?

    PubMed

    Brugnano, R; Del Sordo, R; Covarelli, C; Gnappi, E; Pasquali, S

    2016-08-01

    Immunoglobulin (Ig)M nephropathy (IgMN), known since 1978, is a very controversial clinicopathological entity characterized by IgM diffuse deposits in the mesangium at immunofluorescence whereas light microscop identifies minimal glomerular lesion, hypercellularity and expansion of the mesangium or sclerotic focal, segmental lesion. Clinically, it is a nephrotic syndrome, especially in pediatric patients, or asymptomatic proteinuria and/or isolated hematuria. These characteristics narrowly define IgMN between minimal change disease and focal segmental glomerulosclerosis, so it is not often recognized as a separate pathology. Homogeneous epidemiologic, pathogenetic, clinical or histological data are not available. Recent research on the pathogenetic role of mesangial IgM has, however, renewed interest in IgMN and naturally the controversies.

  6. Successfully Treated Femoral Artery Thrombosis in a Patient with Minimal Change Nephrotic Syndrome

    PubMed Central

    Lee, Ji Kyoung; Baek, Moon Seong; Mok, Young Mi; Kim, Sung-Ai; Lim, Beom Jin; Lee, Ji Eun

    2013-01-01

    In contrast to widely recognized venous thrombotic complications, peripheral arterial thrombosis as a complication of nephrotic syndrome, especially without preceding iatrogenic venous puncture, corticosteroid treatment, or coagulation factor abnormalities, has rarely been reported in adult female patients. We report the case of a 39-year-old woman who presented with pain in the right lower leg accompanied by minimal change nephrotic syndrome. Lower-extremity angiography showed total occlusion of the right superficial femoral artery. Thrombectomy was performed with a balloon catheter, and the thrombi were successfully aspirated. Our experience indicates that even if few traditional risk factors for atherosclerosis are identified, a high index of suspicion and aggressive treatment of arterial thrombosis in adult nephrotic syndrome are crucial to minimize serious ischemic injuries. PMID:23678479

  7. How important are changes in body weight for mass perception?

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Ross, Helen E.

    It is often assumed that weight judgements depend primarily on the effort experienced in lifting an object against a 1-G force. Changes in effort and in other weight-cues certainly alter apparent heaviness; but there is a tendency towards mass-constancy when such changes are unrelated to mass. Under water or altered G, both the observer's body and other objects change their effective weight: the change in the former probably provides a cue to the latter. Mass-constancy increases with opportunity for adaptation to the change, leaving a negative aftereffect on return to normal circumstances. The discrimination of weight or mass also deteriorates with sudden changes in arm weight, just as it does with other types of maladaptation and with a reduction in sensory cues. The relative importance of arm weight and other factors has not been precisely measured, but experiments in prolonged spaceflight should help to elucidate the issue.

  8. Complete Remission of Minimal Change Disease Following an Improvement of Lung Mycobacterium avium Infection.

    PubMed

    Yamashiro, Aoi; Uchida, Takahiro; Ito, Seigo; Oshima, Naoki; Oda, Takashi; Kumagai, Hiroo

    2016-01-01

    A 46-year-old woman suddenly developed peripheral edema. Her massive proteinuria, hypoproteinemia, and renal biopsy findings yielded the diagnosis of minimal change disease (MCD). In addition, lung Mycobacterium avium infection was diagnosed according to a positive culture of her bronchoalveolar lavage fluid. The lung lesion was improved by anti-nontuberculous mycobacteria therapy. Surprisingly, her proteinuria also gradually decreased and she attained complete remission of MCD without any immunosuppressive therapy. She has subsequently remained in complete remission. We herein report an interesting case of MCD with lung Mycobacterium avium infection, suggesting a causal relationship among infection, immune system abnormality, and MCD/nephrotic syndrome.

  9. A Case of Nephrotic Syndrome With Minimal-Change Disease and Waldenstrom's Macroglobulinemia.

    PubMed

    Grabe, Darren W; Li, Bo; Haqqie, Syed S

    2013-12-01

    Kidney disease is a rare complication of Waldenstrom's macroglobulinemia. We report a case of nephrotic syndrome and minimal change disease in a patient with biopsy proven Waldenstrom's macroglobulinemia. The patient presented with over 12 grams of proteinuria and was successfully treated with oral prednisone over the course of 4 weeks. Repeat serum protein electrophoresis as well as serum immunoelectrophoresis revealed no paraproteins, urine analysis was negative for protein or blood by dipstick and spot urine protein was 9 mg/dL with creatinine of 101 mg/dL at time of last office visit. This case illustrates the successful treatment with corticosteroids alone with prolonged complete remission.

  10. Complete Remission of Minimal Change Disease Following an Improvement of Lung Mycobacterium avium Infection.

    PubMed

    Yamashiro, Aoi; Uchida, Takahiro; Ito, Seigo; Oshima, Naoki; Oda, Takashi; Kumagai, Hiroo

    2016-01-01

    A 46-year-old woman suddenly developed peripheral edema. Her massive proteinuria, hypoproteinemia, and renal biopsy findings yielded the diagnosis of minimal change disease (MCD). In addition, lung Mycobacterium avium infection was diagnosed according to a positive culture of her bronchoalveolar lavage fluid. The lung lesion was improved by anti-nontuberculous mycobacteria therapy. Surprisingly, her proteinuria also gradually decreased and she attained complete remission of MCD without any immunosuppressive therapy. She has subsequently remained in complete remission. We herein report an interesting case of MCD with lung Mycobacterium avium infection, suggesting a causal relationship among infection, immune system abnormality, and MCD/nephrotic syndrome. PMID:27629965

  11. The minimal important difference of the King's Brief Interstitial Lung Disease Questionnaire (K-BILD) and forced vital capacity in interstitial lung disease.

    PubMed

    Patel, Amit S; Siegert, Richard J; Keir, Gregory J; Bajwah, Sabrina; Barker, Richard D; Maher, Toby M; Renzoni, Elisabetta A; Wells, Athol U; Higginson, Irene J; Birring, Surinder S

    2013-09-01

    Health status and forced vital capacity (FVC) are widely used outcome measures of interstitial lung disease (ILD) but there is a paucity of studies reporting the minimal clinically meaningful change in these parameters. A study was undertaken to assess the minimal important difference (MID) of an ILD specific health status questionnaire, the King's Brief ILD questionnaire (K-BILD) and that of FVC in a range of ILDs. 57 patients with ILD (17 idiopathic pulmonary fibrosis; IPF) completed the K-BILD (score range 0-100) at 2 separate clinic visits. Patients underwent spirometry at both visits. The MID was determined by a range of distribution methods (Standard error of mean: SEM and 0.3× Effect size: ES) and anchor based methods (objective: FVC and subjective: global rating of change questionnaires, GRCQ). The MID was derived by calculating an average of all methods. Health status was reduced at baseline in all patients, mean (SD) K-BILD total score 62(23). The average MID for K-BILD total score incorporating all methods was an 8 unit change (range 6-10). The average MID for FVC was a 6% change of baseline (range 4-7%). The K-BILD is a responsive patient reported outcome measure for patients with ILD. It can potentially be used to assess patients in the clinic and evaluate the response to therapy. The MID of the K-BILD total score is 8 units. The MID for FVC for a range of ILDs was 6%, similar to that reported recently for patients with IPF. Our findings will facilitate the clinical interpretation of health status and FVC data in ILD.

  12. Importance of preoperative marking for minithoracotomy and for internal thoracic artery harvesting in minimally invasive direct coronary artery bypass grafting.

    PubMed

    Hirata, N; Ohtake, S; Sawa, Y; Yoshitatsu, M; Kato, H; Ohkubo, N; Matsuda, H

    2000-01-01

    Minimally invasive direct coronary artery bypass has the potential to cause an anastomotic failure because of a limited exposure of the operative field and the difficulty of internal thoracic artery harvesting. In the present study, the importance of preoperative marking for an accurate minithoracotomy location and a successful internal thoracic artery harvest was assessed. A paperclip was placed on the left nipple and a chest X-ray was performed in the supine position. By aligning the position of the paperclip to the location of the left anterior descending coronary artery from a coronary arteriogram frontal view, the intercostal space for the minithoracotomy was thus determined. Marking the incisional intercostal space during preoperative left internal thoracic arteriography revealed the number and location of the internal thoracic artery branches at the beginning of the harvest. This preoperative marking technique allowed for a more adequate exposure of the operative field and an easier internal thoracic artery harvest which therefore contributed to an improvement in the operative results.

  13. Asymmetry of Neuronal Combinatorial Codes Arises from Minimizing Synaptic Weight Change.

    PubMed

    Leibold, Christian; Monsalve-Mercado, Mauro M

    2016-08-01

    Synaptic change is a costly resource, particularly for brain structures that have a high demand of synaptic plasticity. For example, building memories of object positions requires efficient use of plasticity resources since objects can easily change their location in space and yet we can memorize object locations. But how should a neural circuit ideally be set up to integrate two input streams (object location and identity) in case the overall synaptic changes should be minimized during ongoing learning? This letter provides a theoretical framework on how the two input pathways should ideally be specified. Generally the model predicts that the information-rich pathway should be plastic and encoded sparsely, whereas the pathway conveying less information should be encoded densely and undergo learning only if a neuronal representation of a novel object has to be established. As an example, we consider hippocampal area CA1, which combines place and object information. The model thereby provides a normative account of hippocampal rate remapping, that is, modulations of place field activity by changes of local cues. It may as well be applicable to other brain areas (such as neocortical layer V) that learn combinatorial codes from multiple input streams. PMID:27348595

  14. Minimal change disease in graft versus host disease: a podocyte response to the graft?

    PubMed

    Huskey, Janna; Rivard, Chris; Myint, Han; Lucia, Scott; Smith, Maxwell; Shimada, Michiko; Ishimoto, Takuji; Araya, Carlos; Garin, Eduardo H; Johnson, Richard J

    2013-12-01

    Nephrotic syndrome is a rare complication of hematopoietic cell transplantation. It has been suggested that nephrotic syndrome may represent a limited form of graft-versus-host disease although the pathological link between these two entities remains unclear. In this paper, we report a case of a 61-year-old female who underwent nonmyeloablative allogenic stem cell transplantation for T-cell prolymphocytic leukemia and subsequently developed biopsy proven minimal change disease shortly after cessation of her immunosuppression therapy. Urinary CD80 was markedly elevated during active disease and disappeared following corticosteroid-induced remission. We hypothesize that alloreactive donor T cells target the kidney and induce podocyte expression of CD80 that results in proteinuria from limited 'graft versus host' disease.

  15. Rifampicin-induced minimal change disease is improved after cessation of rifampicin without steroid therapy.

    PubMed

    Park, Dong Hyuk; Lee, Sul A; Jeong, Hyeon Joo; Yoo, Tae-Hyun; Kang, Shin-Wook; Oh, Hyung Jung

    2015-03-01

    There are several reports to demonstrate that rifampicin, a major anti-tuberculosis agent, is associated with some adverse renal effects, with a few cases of rifampicin-induced minimal change disease (MCD). In the present case, a 68-year-old female presented with nausea, vomiting, foamy urine, general weakness and edema. She had been taking rifampicin for 4 weeks due to pleural tuberculosis. The patient had no proteinuria before the anti-tuberculosis agents were started, but urine tests upon admission showed heavy proteinuria with a 24-h urinary protein of 9.2 g/day, and serum creatinine, albumin, and total cholesterol levels were 1.36 mg/dL, 2.40 g/dL, and 283 mg/dL, respectively. MCD was diagnosed, and the patient achieved complete remission after cessation of rifampicin without undergoing steroid therapy.

  16. Minimal change disease: an unusual presentation of marginal zone MALT lymphoma.

    PubMed

    Inayat, Faisal; Law, Jason K; Myers-Gurevitch, Patricia M; Seshan, Surya V; Perlman, Alan S

    2016-03-01

    Minimal change disease (MCD) in association with low-grade extra-nodal marginal zone B-cell lymphoma (MZL) of mucosa-associated lymphoid tissue (MALT) (MALT lymphoma) is a rare clinicopathologic entity. We report a 68-year-old male who presented with nephrotic range proteinuria as the first manifestation of underlying MZL, confirmed with standard set of investigations. Being a steroid non-responder, he was treated with rituximab demonstrating a marked response with resolution of proteinuria. However, he relapsed after 3 months. Upon relapse, a combination of rituximab and bendamustine (R-Benda) was initiated achieving sustained resolution of proteinuria. No additional treatment was administered and the proteinuria has remained in remission for over a year.

  17. [Minimal-change disease with mesangial IgA deposits associated with Sjogren syndrome].

    PubMed

    Mon, C; Sánchez Hernández, R; Fernández Reyes, M J; Estébanez, C; Ortiz, M; Alvarez-Ude, F; Mampaso, F

    2002-01-01

    Sjögren's syndrome may be accompanied by a dysregulation of IgA system implying the presence of increased serum polymeric IgA or circulating immune complexes and their consequent deposition within the kidney. In this context IgA nephropathy may only represent one of the complications brought by IgA deposition. Glomerular involvement and primary Sjögren's syndrome has been described previously only in isolated case reports, membranous nephropathy and membranoproliferative glomerulonephritis have been reported. We have not found any case of minimal change disease and glomerular IgA deposition associated with Sjögren's syndrome. In this patient nephrotic syndrome was related to serum increase of CA 19-9; this association has been reported in only three previous cases.

  18. Managing Obesity in Pregnancy: A Change in Focus from Harm Minimization to Prevention.

    PubMed

    Grivell, Rosalie M; O'Brien, Cecelia M; Dodd, Jodie M

    2016-03-01

    Obesity represents a significant global health problem, contributing to the overall burden of disease worldwide and a 30% increase in cost of health care provision. Over 50% of women who enter pregnancy are classified as overweight or obese resulting in short and long term effects on maternal and child health outcomes.There is a substantial amount of literature focusing on interventions in the antenatal period have been associated with modest changes in weight gain during pregnancy. There has been little effect on clinical pregnancy and birth outcomes.The article discusses the evidence supporting the shift from harm minimization via antenatal intervention, to one of prevention by targeting the time prior to conception to optimize maternal weight. PMID:27144372

  19. White sponge naevus with minimal clinical and histological changes: report of three cases.

    PubMed

    Lucchese, Alberta; Favia, Gianfranco

    2006-05-01

    White sponge naevus (WSN) is a rare autosomal dominant disorder that predominantly affects non-cornified stratified squamous epithelia: oral mucosa, oesophagus, anogenital area. It has been shown to be related to keratin defects, because of mutations in the genes encoding mucosal-specific keratins K4 and K13. We illustrate three cases diagnosed as WSN, following the clinical and histological criteria, with unusual appearance. They presented with minimal clinical and histological changes that could be misleading in the diagnosis. The patients showed diffuse irregular plaques with a range of presentations from white to rose coloured mucosae involving the entire oral cavity. In one case the lesion was also present in the vaginal area. The histological findings included epithelial thickening, parakeratosis and extensive vacuolization of the suprabasal keratinocytes, confirming WSN diagnosis. Clinical presentation and histopathology of WSN are discussed in relation to the differential diagnosis of other oral leukokeratoses. PMID:16630298

  20. Sustained complete remission of steroid- and cyclophosphamide-resistant minimal-change disease with a single course of rituximab therapy.

    PubMed

    Janardan, Jyotsna; Ooi, Khai; Menahem, Solomon

    2014-06-01

    We report a case of steroid- and cyclophosphamide-resistant nephrotic syndrome secondary to minimal-change disease occurring in an otherwise healthy 19-year-old female, responding rapidly to two doses of rituximab therapy. Complete disease remission has been sustained up to last follow-up (32 months) despite CD19 recovery. Literature review suggests emerging evidence that rituximab may have a role to play in recurrent and/or refractory minimal-change disease.

  1. Biochemical and microbial changes during the storage of minimally processed cantaloupe.

    PubMed

    Lamikanra, O; Chen, J C; Banks, D; Hunter, P A

    2000-12-01

    The effect of storage time on pH, titratable acidity, degrees Brix, organic acids, sugars, amino acids, and color of minimally processed cantaloupe melon (Cucumis melo L. var. reticulatus Naud. cv. Mission) was determined at 4 degrees C and 20 degrees C. Changes in most of the biochemical parameters with storage time were relatively slow at the lower temperature. At 20 degrees C, a 17% loss in soluble solids and a 2-fold increase in acidity occurred after 2 days. Organic acid content also increased considerably with time at this temperature as a result of the production of lactic acid. Oxalic, citric, malic, and succinic acids were the organic acids, and glucose, fructose, and sucrose were the sugars present in the freshly cut cantaloupe. Malic acid concentration decreased concurrently with lactic acid production indicating the possible involvement of anaerobic malo-lactic fermentation along with sugar utilization by lactic acid bacteria. The effect of storage on microbial growth was determined at 4, 10, and 20 degrees C. Gram-negative stained rods grew at a slower rate at 4 degrees C and 10 degrees C than the Gram-positive mesophilic bacteria that dominated microorganism growth at 20 degrees C. Eighteen amino acids were identified in fresh cantaloupe: aspartic acid, glutamic acid, asparagine, serine, glutamine, glycine, histidine, arginine, threonine, alanine, proline, tyrosine, valine, methionine, isoleucine, leucine, phenyl alanine, and lysine. The dominant amino acids were aspartic acid, glutamic acid, arginine, and alanine. Total amino acid content decreased rapidly at 20 degrees C, but only a slight decrease occurred at 4 degrees C after prolonged storage. Changes in lightness (L), chroma, and hue at both temperatures indicate the absence of browning reactions. The results indicate the potential use of lactic acid and lactic acid bacteria as quality control markers in minimally processed fruits. PMID:11141266

  2. Estimating heart shift and morphological changes during minimally invasive cardiac interventions

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Linte, Cristian A.; Carias, Mathew; Cho, Daniel S.; Pace, Danielle F.; Moore, John; Wedlake, Chris; Bainbridge, Daniel; Kiaii, Bob; Peters, Terry M.

    2010-02-01

    Image-guided interventions rely on the common assumption that pre-operative information can depict intraoperative morphology with sufficient accuracy. Nevertheless, in the context of minimally invasive cardiac therapy delivery, this assumption loses ground; the heart is a soft-tissue organ prone to changes induced during access to the heart and especially intracardiac targets. In addition to its clinical value for cardiac interventional guidance and assistance with the image- and model-to-patient registration, here we show how ultrasound imaging may be used to estimate changes in the heart position and morphology of structures of interest at different stages in the procedure. Using a magnetically tracked 2D transesophageal echocardiography transducer, we acquired in vivo images of the heart at different stages during the procedural workflow of common minimally invasive cardiac procedures, including robot-assisted coronary artery bypass grafting, mitral valve replacement/repair, or modelenhanced US-guided intracardiac interventions, all in the coordinate system of the tracking system. Anatomical features of interest (mitral and aortic valves) used to register the pre-operative anatomical models to the intraoperative coordinate frame were identified from each dataset. This information allowed us to identify the global position of the heart and also characterize the valvular structures at various peri-operative stages, in terms of their orientation, size, and geometry. Based on these results, we can estimate the differences between the preand intra-operative anatomical features, their effect on the model-to-subject registration, and also identify the need to update or optimize any pre-operative surgical plan to better suit the intra-operative procedure workflow.

  3. Conformational Transitions and Glycation of Serum Albumin in Patients with Minimal-Change Glomerulopathy

    PubMed Central

    Hong, Sae Yong; Lee, Eun Young; Yang, Jong Oh; Kim, Tae Yeong; Kim, Eun Hee; Cheong, Mi Young; Kim, Soo Hyun; Cheong, Chae Joon

    2004-01-01

    Background There has been a lack of study on the structural changes of serum albumin in patients with minimal change disease (MCD). To determine whether glycation and/or conformational transitions of albumin are involved in the pathogenesis of albuminuria, nine patients with MCD were enrolled in a prospective follow-up study for comparison of these parameters in serum albumin during the remission and relapse of nephrotic syndrome. Methods Circular dichroism measurements were made with purified albumin. Ellipticities at each wavelength were transformed to mean residue ellipticity. Monosaccharide composition was analyzed by high-pH anion-exchange chromatography with pulsed amperometric detection. Results There was no difference in the proportions of α-helix, β-conformation, and β-turn of albumin between the sera of control patients and those with nephrotic syndrome. However, the proportion of the random configuration was slightly higher in the plasma albumin of patients in relapse than in those in remission. The proportion of the random configuration was lower in the albumin of the serum than in the urine of patients with nephrotic syndrome, but there was no difference in the proportions of α-helix, β-conformation, and β-turn of albumin between their plasma and urine. Conclusion Our results suggest that conformational changes in albumin are involved in albuminuria in patients with MCD. PMID:15481604

  4. Minimal change of thermal continentality in Slovakia within the period 1961-2013

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Vilček, Jozef; Škvarenina, Jaroslav; Vido, Jaroslav; Nalevanková, Paulína; Kandrík, Radoslav; Škvareninová, Jana

    2016-08-01

    Thermal continentality plays an important role not only in the basic characterisation of the climate in particular regions but also in the phytogeographic distribution of plants and ecosystem formation. Due to ongoing climate change, questions surrounding the changes of thermal continentality are very relevant. Therefore, the aim of this study is to investigate the characteristics of thermal continentality and its temporal changes in the Slovak Republic between the years of 1961 and 2013. The study was carried out on several meteorological stations selected in respect to the geographical and geomorphological heterogeneity of Slovakia. Our results show that the continentality of Slovakia increased in the period 1961 to 2013; however, this trend is not significant. These non-significant trends are confirmed at all the stations. Nevertheless, it is necessary to be aware of this signal, especially because these changes could cause changes in ecosystem formation in future.

  5. Is there an association of hepatitis B virus infection with minimal change disease of nephrotic syndrome? A clinical observational report.

    PubMed

    Zhou, Tian-Biao; Jiang, Zong-Pei

    2015-04-01

    The rate of hepatitis B virus (HBV) infection is high in the Chinese population, and the implications of HBV infection are widely recognized, and membranous nephropathy is the most common renal lesion to be associated with HBV infection. Minimal change disease (MCD) is one of the most important histopathological characteristics in patients with nephrotic syndrome. There is no any study to report that HBV infection is associated with the etiology of MCD. Herein, we report four MCD patients with HBV infection and speculate that there is an association of HBV infection with the pathological type of MCD. In this study, we also reported the treatment schedule for these four MCD patients, and found that the anti-virus alone and combination of anti-virus with immunosuppressive agent could obtain a benefit for MCD patients with HBV infection. However, a well-designed study should be performed to confirm this association.

  6. Effective treatment with rituximab for the maintenance of remission in frequently relapsing minimal change disease

    PubMed Central

    Shendi, Ali M.; Salama, Alan D.; Khosravi, Maryam; Connolly, John O.; Trompeter, Richard

    2016-01-01

    Abstract Aim Treatment of frequently relapsing or steroid‐dependent minimal change disease (MCD) in children and adults remains challenging. Glucocorticoids and/or other immunosuppressive agents are the mainstay of treatment, but patients often experience toxicity from prolonged exposure and may either become treatment dependent and/or resistant. Increasing evidence suggests that rituximab (RTX) can be a useful alternative to standard immunosuppression and allow withdrawal of maintenance immunosuppressants; however, data on optimal treatment regimens, long‐term efficacy and safety are still limited. Methods We undertook a prospective study of RTX to allow immunosuppression minimization in 15 young adults with frequently relapsing or steroid‐dependent, biopsy‐proven MCD. All patients were in remission at the start of treatment and on a calcineurin inhibitor. Two doses of RTX (1 gr) were given 6 months apart. A subset of patients also received an additional dose 12 months later, in order to examine the benefit of re‐treatment. Biochemical and clinical parameters were monitored over an extended follow‐up period of up to 43 months. Results Median steroid‐free survival after RTX was 25 months (range 4–34). Mean relapse frequency decreased from 2.60 ± 0.28 to 0.4 ± 0.19 (P < 0.001) after RTX. Seven relapses occurred, five of which (71%) when CD19 counts were greater than 100 µ. Immunoglobulin levels remained unchanged, and no major side effects were observed throughout the follow‐up period. Conclusions Rituximab therapy is effective at maintaining prolonged steroid‐free remission and reducing relapse frequency in this group of patients. Our study lends further support for the role of RTX in the treatment of patients with frequently relapsing or steroid‐dependent MCD. PMID:26860320

  7. [New insight in pathogenesis of podocyte disfunction in minimal change disease].

    PubMed

    Liu, Shanshan; Chen, Jianghua

    2016-03-01

    Minimal change disease (MCD) is a common pathological type of nephrotic syndrome. Its main histology is the fusion of podocyte foot process. The pathogenesis of MCD is not clear, but previously it was thought to be related to immune mechanism. In recent years more studies show that podocyte injury is the key link in the pathogenesis of MCD. In MCD mouse model and human kidney tissues, the expressions of podocyte slit membrane protein-nephrin and podocin, skeleton protein-synaptopodin are decreased, and the expression of synaptopodin is correlated with the response to hormone therapy. In addition, newest studies focused on another two potocyte associated proteins, CD80 and Angiopoietin-like-4. CD80, a T cell stimulating molecule, is expressed in potocyte. Kappa B gene sequences can be activated by external microbes, antigens through acting potocytes, which can induce the upregulation of CD80 expression, cytoskeletal protein damage and the glomerular filtration rate changes, resulting in proteinuria. Angiopoietin-like-4 can be expressed in normal potocytes, but over-expression of angiopoietin-like-4 may injure the GBM charge barrier and induce the foot process fusion, leading to MCD. However, further studies on the factors inducing CD80 and Angiopoietin-like-4 expression, and the interaction between glomerular basement membrane and the two proteins are needed. Based on the mechanism of MCD, NF-kappa B inhibitors and sialylation therapy would be a novel non-immune therapy for MCD.

  8. How to do it: importance of left atrial side retraction in robotic and minimally invasive mitral valve surgery.

    PubMed

    Ishikawa, Norihiko; Sun, You Su; Nifong, L Wiley; Watanabe, Go; Chitwood, W Randolph

    2008-01-01

    A customized transthoracic atrial retractor was previously developed for robotic and minimally invasive mitral valve surgery, but it has sometimes failed to provide sufficient exposure of the mitral valve because some atrial tissues push away the operative field from the right side. This report describes 3 new atrial side retractors (the foldaway retractor, the spoon retractor, and the wired retractor) and their use in performing robotic mitral valve repair in fresh frozen human cadavers. These retractors provided exceptional and consistent exposure of the left atrium in robotic and minimally invasive mitral valve surgery in human cadavers without causing traumatic injury, and these retractors should be useful in live patients because they will be used in arrested hearts.

  9. Changing pattern of imported cutaneous leishmaniasis in the Netherlands.

    PubMed

    Zeegelaar, J E; Steketee, W H; van Thiel, P P A M; Wetsteyn, J C F M; Kager, P A; Faber, W R

    2005-01-01

    Cutaneous leishmaniasis (CL) in western countries seems to be appearing more frequently. Our aim was to determine if there has been a shift in countries where CL is acquired and whether the incidence has changed, and to assess current diagnostic procedures and treatment modalities. In a retrospective study medical records of patients with the diagnosis of CL at the Departments of Tropical Dermatology and Tropical Medicine, Academic Medical Center, Amsterdam, the Netherlands, from 1990 to 2000 were analysed. CL was diagnosed in 78 patients. The majority was acquired in Belize, Surinam, French Guyana and Bolivia. Giemsa stains were positive for the parasite in impression smears from 43% and in biopsies from 71%. Seventy-eight per cent of cases were culture-positive and 89% were PCR-positive. Sixty-two patients were treated systemically: pentavalent antimony (32), pentamidine isetionate (11), itraconazole (19), and 13 locally, the majority with a combination of cryosurgery and intralesional pentavalent antimony. Imported CL is becoming more frequent, with South and Middle American countries being important sources of infection. Multiple tests, of which PCR is the most sensitive, are required to confirm the diagnosis. Systemic treatment was given to the majority of the patients.

  10. Change in Water Cycle- Important Issue on Climate Earth System

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Singh, Pratik

    Change in Water Cycle- Important Issue on Climate Earth System PRATIK KUMAR SINGH1 1BALDEVRAM MIRDHA INSTITUTE OF TECHNOLOGY,JAIPUR (RAJASTHAN) ,INDIA Water is everywhere on Earth and is the only known substance that can naturally exist as a gas, liquid, and solid within the relatively small range of air temperatures and pressures found at the Earth's surface.Changes in the hydrological cycle as a consequence of climate and land use drivers are expected to play a central role in governing a vast range of environmental impacts.Earth's climate will undergo changes in response to natural variability, including solar variability, and to increasing concentrations of green house gases and aerosols.Further more, agreement is widespread that these changes may profoundly affect atmospheric water vapor concentrations, clouds and precipitation patterns.As we know that ,a warmer climate, directly leading to increased evaporation, may well accelerate the hydrological cycle, resulting in an increase in the amount of moisture circulating through the atmosphere.The Changing Water Cycle programmer will develop an integrated, quantitative understanding of the changes taking place in the global water cycle, involving all components of the earth system, improving predictions for the next few decades of regional precipitation, evapotranspiration, soil moisture, hydrological storage and fluxes.The hydrological cycle involves evaporation, transpiration, condensation, precipitation, and runoff. NASA's Aqua satellite will monitor many aspects of the role of water in the Earth's systems, and will do so at spatial and temporal scales appropriate to foster a more detailed understanding of each of the processes that contribute to the hydrological cycle. These data and the analyses of them will nurture the development and refinement of hydrological process models and a corresponding improvement in regional and global climate models, with a direct anticipated benefit of more accurate weather and

  11. Minimizing impacts of land use change on ecosystem services using multi-criteria heuristic analysis.

    PubMed

    Keller, Arturo A; Fournier, Eric; Fox, Jessica

    2015-06-01

    Development of natural landscapes to support human activities impacts the capacity of the landscape to provide ecosystem services. Typically, several ecosystem services are impacted at a single development site and various footprint scenarios are possible, thus a multi-criteria analysis is needed. Restoration potential should also be considered for the area surrounding the permanent impact site. The primary objective of this research was to develop a heuristic approach to analyze multiple criteria (e.g. impacts to various ecosystem services) in a spatial configuration with many potential development sites. The approach was to: (1) quantify the magnitude of terrestrial ecosystem service (biodiversity, carbon sequestration, nutrient and sediment retention, and pollination) impacts associated with a suite of land use change scenarios using the InVEST model; (2) normalize results across categories of ecosystem services to allow cross-service comparison; (3) apply the multi-criteria heuristic algorithm to select sites with the least impact to ecosystem services, including a spatial criterion (separation between sites). As a case study, the multi-criteria impact minimization algorithm was applied to InVEST output to select 25 potential development sites out of 204 possible locations (selected by other criteria) within a 24,000 ha property. This study advanced a generally applicable spatial multi-criteria approach for 1) considering many land use footprint scenarios, 2) balancing impact decisions across a suite of ecosystem services, and 3) determining the restoration potential of ecosystem services after impacts.

  12. Urinary fibrinogen and renal tubulointerstitial fibrinogen deposition: Discriminating between primary FSGS and minimal change disease.

    PubMed

    Wang, Yu; Zheng, Chunxia; Xu, Feng; Liu, Zhihong

    2016-09-23

    Primary focal segmental glomerulosclerosis (FSGS) and minimal change disease (MCD) are common types of primary glomerular disease; they share numerous clinical and pathological similarities but have different treatment regimens and prognoses. It is therefore necessary to distinguish between them and to explore the mechanism underlying their differences. Fibrinogen is reportedly involved in podocyte damage and in renal fibrosis in vitro and in animal models of kidney disease. We thus tested urinary fibrinogen, serum fibrinogen, and renal fibrinogen deposition levels in a cohort comprising 50 patients with FSGS and 40 patients with MCD. Our results suggested that urinary fibrinogen and renal interstitial fibrinogen deposition levels were significantly higher in the FSGS patients than in the MCD patients, while serum fibrinogen levels did not differ between the groups. Receiver operating characteristic (ROC) curve analysis showed an excellent diagnostic ability for urinary fibrinogen and a fair diagnostic ability for tubulointerstitial fibrinogen deposition in differentiating FSGS from MCD. Additionally, we found that urinary fibrinogen levels were positively correlated with the 24-h urine protein levels in patients with FSGS but not in patients with MCD. In conclusion, urinary fibrinogen and renal interstitial fibrinogen deposition is elevated in primary FSGS compared to MCD, which may be relevant to both diagnosis and pathogenesis.

  13. A Unique Cause of Proteinuria in Pregnancy: Class II Lupus Nephritis with Concomitant Minimal Change Disease

    PubMed Central

    Kunjal, Ryan; Adam-Eldien, Rabie; Makary, Raafat; Jo-Hoy, Francois; Heilig, Charles W.

    2016-01-01

    We report the case of a 22-year-old African American female who presented to another facility for routine follow-up in the 34th week of pregnancy with lower extremity swelling and nephrotic-range proteinuria. Although she was normotensive, it was initially thought that she had preeclampsia. She was monitored carefully and delivery was induced at 37 weeks of gestation. She was transferred to our hospital, where she was diagnosed with systemic lupus erythematosus (SLE) based on clinical and laboratory criteria. Renal biopsy revealed a surprising finding of minimal change disease (MCD) concomitant with class II lupus nephritis (LN). She was managed with pulses and then tapering doses of steroid therapy with dramatic resolution of the nephrotic syndrome. This case demonstrates not only the rare de novo occurrence of SLE in pregnancy, but the unique finding of MCD coexisting with class II LN. We propose that altered T cell activity may be the link between these seemingly distinct entities. PMID:27781205

  14. Minimizing impacts of land use change on ecosystem services using multi-criteria heuristic analysis.

    PubMed

    Keller, Arturo A; Fournier, Eric; Fox, Jessica

    2015-06-01

    Development of natural landscapes to support human activities impacts the capacity of the landscape to provide ecosystem services. Typically, several ecosystem services are impacted at a single development site and various footprint scenarios are possible, thus a multi-criteria analysis is needed. Restoration potential should also be considered for the area surrounding the permanent impact site. The primary objective of this research was to develop a heuristic approach to analyze multiple criteria (e.g. impacts to various ecosystem services) in a spatial configuration with many potential development sites. The approach was to: (1) quantify the magnitude of terrestrial ecosystem service (biodiversity, carbon sequestration, nutrient and sediment retention, and pollination) impacts associated with a suite of land use change scenarios using the InVEST model; (2) normalize results across categories of ecosystem services to allow cross-service comparison; (3) apply the multi-criteria heuristic algorithm to select sites with the least impact to ecosystem services, including a spatial criterion (separation between sites). As a case study, the multi-criteria impact minimization algorithm was applied to InVEST output to select 25 potential development sites out of 204 possible locations (selected by other criteria) within a 24,000 ha property. This study advanced a generally applicable spatial multi-criteria approach for 1) considering many land use footprint scenarios, 2) balancing impact decisions across a suite of ecosystem services, and 3) determining the restoration potential of ecosystem services after impacts. PMID:25794964

  15. Seasonal Relapsing Minimal Change Disease: A Novel Strategy for Avoiding Long-Term Immunosuppression

    PubMed Central

    Lawrence, Christopher; Cook, H. Terry; Lightstone, Liz

    2012-01-01

    Background We describe the case of a young woman with seasonal allergic rhinitis who presented with signs of a lower respiratory tract infection, acute renal impairment and the nephrotic syndrome, demonstrated on biopsy to be due to minimal change disease (MCD) with acute tubular injury. Following initiation of high-dose corticosteroids, her respiratory symptoms and renal impairment improved, and the nephrotic syndrome went rapidly into remission, but relapsed, off treatment, in a seasonal fashion. Management In view of significant side effects related to corticosteroids, relapses were treated with the calcineurin inhibitor tacrolimus with excellent effect, but the patient was keen to avoid the complications of medium-term immunosuppression and so the drug was weaned early. She relapsed for the second time, whilst off tacrolimus, at the same time of year as at her initial presentation. In subsequent years we have successfully managed this patient with seasonal relapsing MCD with seasonal prophylactic tacrolimus therapy. Discussion We discuss the natural history of MCD and treatment options and demonstrate the utility of a clear understanding of the natural history of the condition in order to predict disease relapse and tailor therapy to the individual patient. PMID:23197964

  16. The paucity of minimal change disease in adolescents with primary nephrotic syndrome.

    PubMed

    Baqi, N; Singh, A; Balachandra, S; Ahmad, H; Nicastri, A; Kytinski, S; Homel, P; Tejani, A

    1998-02-01

    Data are sparse regarding the histological lesions associated with the primary nephrotic syndrome in adolescents. To our knowledge there are only two published articles that have specifically addressed the histopathological lesions that typify idiopathic nephrotic syndrome in the adolescent population. We reviewed our experience from the last 14 years of children between the ages of 12 and 18 years who were referred to our center for the evaluation of the nephrotic syndrome. A total of 29 adolescents met the inclusion criteria for this review. All patients were biopsied prior to the initiation of treatment. The sex ratio consisted of 52% males and 48% females and the racial breakdown was largely African-American, with 83% black adolescents, 7% Hispanic, and 10% Caucasian patients. Minimal change nephrotic syndrome (MCNS), the predominant lesion of children at an early age, was noted in only 20% of patients. The majority of patients (55.2%) had focal segmental glomerulosclerosis (FSGS); 7% had IgM nephropathy and 3.5% had diffuse mesangial hypercellularity. Only 7% of biopsied adolescents had membranoproliferative glomerulonephritis. Our results indicate that the most common lesion in this predominantly African-American patient population is FSGS, with only a small number showing MCNS. Thus, in our experience derived from a racially mixed population, adolescents with the nephrotic syndrome are less likely to have MCNS than younger children.

  17. Changes in sleep architecture and quality in minimal hepatic encephalopathy patients and relationship to psychological dysfunction

    PubMed Central

    Liu, Changyun; Zhou, Jianguang; Yang, Xuedong; Lv, Jiao; Shi, Yunxing; Zeng, Xiaohong

    2015-01-01

    Objectives: We examined changes in sleep quality and architecture in patients with minimal hepatic encephalopathy (MHE) and the impacts of sleep disruption on patient physical and psychological health. Methods: Ninety-eight MHE patients were examined by polysomnography (PSG) and the Pittsburg sleep quality inventory (PSQI). In addition, patients completed the SAS, SDS, and SCL-90 to examine the relationship between sleep quality and psychological health. Results: Mean relative durations of Stage 1 and Stage 2, sleep latency, microarousal frequency, and total sleep time (TST) were all lower in MHE patients compared to healthy controls (P<0.05 for all). Similarly, SWS and REM stage durations, REM latency, sleep maintenance rate, and sleep efficiency were lower than controls (P<0.01 for all). Mean PSQI scores were lower in MHE patients. Total SAS, SDS, and SCL-90 scores, as well as all SCL-90 subscores, were significantly higher in the MHE group (P<0.05), indicating significant psychological dysfunction. Longer SWS, longer REM, and lower microarousal frequency were associated with improved sleep quality (P<0.05), while shorter SWS and REM led to dyssomnia and daytime functional disturbance (P<0.05, P<0.01). Longer REM latency and higher microarousal frequency were associated with higher PSQI scores (P<0.05, P<0.01), while longer SWS, longer REM, and higher sleep maintenance rate were associated with lower PSQI scores (P<0.05, P<0.01). Finally, total PSQI score and sleep efficiency subscore were positively correlated with total SCL-90 and most SCL-90 subscores (P<0.05). Conclusions: MHE patients suffer from multiple subjective dyssomnias and changes in sleep architecture that are strongly correlated with psychological dysfunction. PMID:26885103

  18. Cyclosporin A treatment in children with minimal change nephrotic syndrome and focal segmental glomerulosclerosis.

    PubMed

    Brodehl, J; Brandis, M; Helmchen, U; Hoyer, P F; Burghard, R; Ehrich, J H; Zimmerhackl, R B; Klein, W; Wonigeit, K

    1988-11-15

    In a pilot study 23 children with nephrotic syndrome were treated with cyclosporin A (Cs) for 6-45 months. 8 children suffered from steroid dependent minimal change nephrotic syndrome (MCNS) and had experienced at least one course with cytotoxic drugs, but had relapsed thereafter. 2 children had diabetes mellitus type I with nephrotic syndrome and 13 children had steroid resistant focal segmental glomerulosclerosis (FSGS). Cs was started with 100 mg/m2/day in two doses and increased stepwise to obtain a Cs whole blood trough level of 200-400 ng/ml. In steroid dependent MCNS treatment with Cs reduced relapse rate significantly, and prednisone therapy could be stopped completely. After discontinuation of Cs, relapses reoccurred as frequently as before. Renal function remained unimpaired despite repeated Cs treatment courses up to 38 months. In cases of nephrotic syndrome with diabetes type I Cs treatment led to complete remission without changing the insulin requirement. However, after discontinuation of Cs relapses reoccurred. In steroid resistant FSGS 6 children benefited from Cs treatment: 4 went into complete remission, 2 into partial remission. The 2 children with complete remission relapsed but remained Cs responsive. The remaining 7 children with FSGS did not respond to Cs but continued the course of their disease, with two patients rapidly progressing to terminal renal failure. Side-effects of Cs treatment were mild. It is concluded that Cs is an effective agent in steroid dependent MCNS and can be used as an alternative drug in specific cases like steroid toxicity or diabetes mellitus. In steroid resistant FSGS a trial with Cs seems to be warranted since some cases do respond favorably. To avoid nephrotoxicity treatment with Cs should always be monitored closely by determination of blood levels and renal function.

  19. Minimal detectable change for mobility and patient-reported tools in people with osteoarthritis awaiting arthroplasty

    PubMed Central

    2014-01-01

    Background Thoughtful use of assessment tools to monitor disease requires an understanding of clinimetric properties. These properties are often under-reported and, thus, potentially overlooked in the clinic. This study aimed to determine the minimal detectable change (MDC) and coefficient of variation per cent (CV%) for tools commonly used to assess the symptomatic and functional severity of knee and hip osteoarthritis. Methods We performed a test-retest study on 136 people awaiting knee or hip arthroplasty at one of two hospitals. The MDC95 (the range over which the difference [change] for 95% of patients is expected to lie) and the coefficient of variation per cent (CV%) for the visual analogue scale (VAS) for joint pain, the six-minute walk test (6MWT), the timed up-and-go (TUG) test, the Knee Injury and Osteoarthritis Outcome Score (KOOS) and the Hip Disability and Osteoarthritis Outcome Score (HOOS) subscales were calculated. Results Knee cohort (n = 75) - The MDC95 and CV% values were as follows: VAS 2.8 cm, 15%; 6MWT 79 m, 8%; TUG +/-36.7%, 13%; KOOS pain 20.2, 19%; KOOS symptoms 24.1, 22%; KOOS activities of daily living 20.8, 17%; KOOS quality of life 26.6, 44. Hip cohort (n = 61) - The MDC95 and CV% values were as follows: VAS 3.3 cm, 17%; 6MWT 81.5 m, 9%; TUG +/-44.6%, 16%; HOOS pain 21.6, 22%; HOOS symptoms 22.7, 19%; HOOS activities of daily living 17.7, 17%; HOOS quality of life 24.4, 43%. Conclusions Distinguishing real change from error is difficult in people with severe osteoarthritis. The 6MWT demonstrates the smallest measurement error amongst a range of tools commonly used to assess disease severity, thus, has the capacity to detect the smallest real change above measurement error in everyday clinical practice. PMID:25015083

  20. Change in Water Cycle- Important Issue on Climate Earth System

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Singh, Pratik

    Change in Water Cycle- Important Issue on Climate Earth System PRATIK KUMAR SINGH1 1BALDEVRAM MIRDHA INSTITUTE OF TECHNOLOGY,JAIPUR (RAJASTHAN) ,INDIA Water is everywhere on Earth and is the only known substance that can naturally exist as a gas, liquid, and solid within the relatively small range of air temperatures and pressures found at the Earth's surface.Changes in the hydrological cycle as a consequence of climate and land use drivers are expected to play a central role in governing a vast range of environmental impacts.Earth's climate will undergo changes in response to natural variability, including solar variability, and to increasing concentrations of green house gases and aerosols.Further more, agreement is widespread that these changes may profoundly affect atmospheric water vapor concentrations, clouds and precipitation patterns.As we know that ,a warmer climate, directly leading to increased evaporation, may well accelerate the hydrological cycle, resulting in an increase in the amount of moisture circulating through the atmosphere.The Changing Water Cycle programmer will develop an integrated, quantitative understanding of the changes taking place in the global water cycle, involving all components of the earth system, improving predictions for the next few decades of regional precipitation, evapotranspiration, soil moisture, hydrological storage and fluxes.The hydrological cycle involves evaporation, transpiration, condensation, precipitation, and runoff. NASA's Aqua satellite will monitor many aspects of the role of water in the Earth's systems, and will do so at spatial and temporal scales appropriate to foster a more detailed understanding of each of the processes that contribute to the hydrological cycle. These data and the analyses of them will nurture the development and refinement of hydrological process models and a corresponding improvement in regional and global climate models, with a direct anticipated benefit of more accurate weather and

  1. Predictors of Relapse in Adult-Onset Nephrotic Minimal Change Disease

    PubMed Central

    Lee, Hajeong; Yoo, Kyung Don; Oh, Yun Kyu; Kim, Dong Ki; Oh, Kook-Hwan; Joo, Kwon Wook; Kim, Yon Su; Ahn, Curie; Han, Jin Suk; Lim, Chun Soo

    2016-01-01

    Abstract Minimal change disease (MCD) is a well-known benign primary glomerulonephritis because of its distinct rare tendency to progress to end-stage renal disease. However, factors associated with relapse in adults are not well known. We aimed to identify predictors of relapse in adult-onset MCD patients. A retrospective cohort of 195 patients with adult-onset primary MCD with nephritic syndrome and disease onset between 1979 and 2013 was followed up for >12 months. The number of relapses was counted and predictors of relapse were analyzed. A total of 195 patients were included. Median age at diagnosis was 38 years (IQR, 23–53 years) and 113 (57.9%) were men. During 81 months (IQR, 44–153 months) of follow-up, 92% of patients achieved remission after initial treatment. However, only 60 (32.8%) did not experience a relapse and 11 patients failed to remit. Among the remaining 124 patients, 65 experienced a relapse once or twice and 59 experienced a relapse more than twice. Younger onset age, increased severity of nephrotic features such as lower serum albumin levels and higher cholesterol level were associated with relapse. Interestingly, the grade of mesangial proliferation was lower in patients who experienced a relapse. Initial combined treatment with corticosteroids (CS) and cyclophosphamide reduced the number of relapses. In addition, patients with shorter treatment duration tended to experience relapse more often. Multivariate analysis showed that younger onset age, combined mesangial proliferation, initial treatment regimen, and treatment duration were independent risk factors for relapse. Progression to end-stage renal disease was developed in only a patient. In conclusion, more than two-thirds of adult-onset nephrotic MCD patients experienced relapse, although their renal progression was rare. Younger onset age, CS without cyclophosphamide treatment, and shorter treatment duration were independent risk factors for relapse in adult-onset MCD patients

  2. Predictors of Relapse in Adult-Onset Nephrotic Minimal Change Disease.

    PubMed

    Lee, Hajeong; Yoo, Kyung Don; Oh, Yun Kyu; Kim, Dong Ki; Oh, Kook-Hwan; Joo, Kwon Wook; Kim, Yon Su; Ahn, Curie; Han, Jin Suk; Lim, Chun Soo

    2016-03-01

    Minimal change disease (MCD) is a well-known benign primary glomerulonephritis because of its distinct rare tendency to progress to end-stage renal disease. However, factors associated with relapse in adults are not well known. We aimed to identify predictors of relapse in adult-onset MCD patients.A retrospective cohort of 195 patients with adult-onset primary MCD with nephritic syndrome and disease onset between 1979 and 2013 was followed up for >12 months. The number of relapses was counted and predictors of relapse were analyzed.A total of 195 patients were included. Median age at diagnosis was 38 years (IQR, 23-53 years) and 113 (57.9%) were men. During 81 months (IQR, 44-153 months) of follow-up, 92% of patients achieved remission after initial treatment. However, only 60 (32.8%) did not experience a relapse and 11 patients failed to remit. Among the remaining 124 patients, 65 experienced a relapse once or twice and 59 experienced a relapse more than twice. Younger onset age, increased severity of nephrotic features such as lower serum albumin levels and higher cholesterol level were associated with relapse. Interestingly, the grade of mesangial proliferation was lower in patients who experienced a relapse. Initial combined treatment with corticosteroids (CS) and cyclophosphamide reduced the number of relapses. In addition, patients with shorter treatment duration tended to experience relapse more often. Multivariate analysis showed that younger onset age, combined mesangial proliferation, initial treatment regimen, and treatment duration were independent risk factors for relapse. Progression to end-stage renal disease was developed in only a patient.In conclusion, more than two-thirds of adult-onset nephrotic MCD patients experienced relapse, although their renal progression was rare. Younger onset age, CS without cyclophosphamide treatment, and shorter treatment duration were independent risk factors for relapse in adult-onset MCD patients.

  3. Validity, Responsiveness, Minimal Detectable Change, and Minimal Clinically Important Change of the Pediatric Motor Activity Log in Children with Cerebral Palsy

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Lin, Keh-chung; Chen, Hui-fang; Chen, Chia-ling; Wang, Tien-ni; Wu, Ching-yi; Hsieh, Yu-wei; Wu, Li-ling

    2012-01-01

    This study examined criterion-related validity and clinimetric properties of the Pediatric Motor Activity Log (PMAL) in children with cerebral palsy. Study participants were 41 children (age range: 28-113 months) and their parents. Criterion-related validity was evaluated by the associations between the PMAL and criterion measures at baseline and…

  4. MINIMALLY INVASIVE SURGERY FOR GASTRIC CANCER: TIME TO CHANGE THE PARADIGM

    PubMed Central

    BARCHI, Leandro Cardoso; JACOB, Carlos Eduardos; BRESCIANI, Cláudio José Caldas; YAGI, Osmar Kenji; MUCERINO, Donato Roberto; LOPASSO, Fábio Pinatel; MESTER, Marcelo; RIBEIRO-JÚNIOR, Ulysses; DIAS, André Roncon; RAMOS, Marcus Fernando Kodama Pertille; CECCONELLO, Ivan; ZILBERSTEIN, Bruno

    2016-01-01

    ABSTRACT Introduction: Minimally invasive surgery widely used to treat benign disorders of the digestive system, has become the focus of intense study in recent years in the field of surgical oncology. Since then, the experience with this kind of approach has grown, aiming to provide the same oncological outcomes and survival to conventional surgery. Regarding gastric cancer, surgery is still considered the only curative treatment, considering the extent of resection and lymphadenectomy performed. Conventional surgery remains the main modality performed worldwide. Notwithstanding, the role of the minimally invasive access is yet to be clarified. Objective: To evaluate and summarize the current status of minimally invasive resection of gastric cancer. Methods: A literature review was performed using Medline/PubMed, Cochrane Library and SciELO with the following headings: gastric cancer, minimally invasive surgery, robotic gastrectomy, laparoscopic gastrectomy, stomach cancer. The language used for the research was English. Results: 28 articles were considered, including randomized controlled trials, meta-analyzes, prospective and retrospective cohort studies. Conclusion: Minimally invasive gastrectomy may be considered as a technical option in the treatment of early gastric cancer. As for advanced cancer, recent studies have demonstrated the safety and feasibility of the laparoscopic approach. Robotic gastrectomy will probably improve outcomes obtained with laparoscopy. However, high cost is still a barrier to its use on a large scale. PMID:27438040

  5. Detection of activated parietal epithelial cells on the glomerular tuft distinguishes early focal segmental glomerulosclerosis from minimal change disease.

    PubMed

    Smeets, Bart; Stucker, Fabien; Wetzels, Jack; Brocheriou, Isabelle; Ronco, Pierre; Gröne, Hermann-Josef; D'Agati, Vivette; Fogo, Agnes B; van Kuppevelt, Toin H; Fischer, Hans-Peter; Boor, Peter; Floege, Jürgen; Ostendorf, Tammo; Moeller, Marcus J

    2014-12-01

    In rodents, parietal epithelial cells (PECs) migrating onto the glomerular tuft participate in the formation of focal segmental glomerulosclerosis (FSGS) lesions. We investigated whether immunohistologic detection of PEC markers in the initial biopsies of human patients with first manifestation of idiopathic nephrotic syndrome with no immune complexes can improve the sensitivity to detect sclerotic lesions compared with standard methods. Ninety-five renal biopsies were stained for claudin-1 (PEC marker), CD44 (activated PECs), and LKIV69 (PEC matrix); 38 had been diagnosed as early primary FSGS and 57 as minimal change disease. PEC markers were detected on the tuft in 87% of the biopsies of patients diagnosed as primary FSGS. PEC markers were detected in FSGS lesions from the earliest stages of disease. In minimal change disease, no PEC activation was observed by immunohistology. However, in 25% of biopsies originally diagnosed as minimal change disease the presence of small lesions indicative of a sclerosing process were detected, which were undetectable on standard periodic acid-Schiff staining, even though only a single histologic section for each PEC marker was evaluated. Staining for LKIV69 detected lesions with the highest sensitivity. Two novel PEC markers A-kinase anchor protein 12 and annexin A3 exhibited similar sensitivity. In summary, detection of PECs on the glomerular tuft by immunostaining improves the differentiation between minimal change disease and primary FSGS and may serve to guide clinical decision making.

  6. Minimal change disease caused by exposure to mercury-containing skin lightening cream: a report of 4 cases.

    PubMed

    Tang, Hon-Lok; Mak, Yuen-Fun; Chu, Kwok-Hong; Lee, William; Fung, Samuel Kaâ Shun; Chan, Thomas Yan-Keung; Tong, Kwok-Lung

    2013-04-01

    Mercury is a known cause of nephrotic syndrome and the underlying renal pathology in most of the reported cases was membranous nephropathy. We describe here 4 cases of minimal change disease following exposure to mercury-containing skin lightening cream for 2 - 6 months. The mercury content of the facial creams was very high (7,420 - 30,000 parts per million). All patients were female and presented with nephrotic syndrome and heavy proteinuria (8.35 - 20.69 g/d). The blood and urine mercury levels were 26 - 129 nmol/l and 316 - 2,521 nmol/d, respectively. Renal biopsy revealed minimal change disease (MCD) in all patients. The use of cosmetic cream was stopped and chelation therapy with D-penicillamine was given. Two patients were also given steroids. The time for blood mercury level to normalize was 1 - 7 months, whereas it took longer for urine mercury level to normalize (9 - 16 months). All patients had complete remission of proteinuria and the time to normalization of proteinuria was 1 - 9 months. Mercury-containing skin lightening cream is hazardous because skin absorption of mercury can cause minimal change disease. The public should be warned of the danger of using such products. In patients presenting with nephrotic syndrome, a detailed history should be taken, including the use of skin lightening cream. With regard to renal pathology, apart from membranous nephropathy, minimal change disease should be included as another pathological entity caused by mercury exposure or intoxication.

  7. Importance of dispersal routes that minimize open-ocean movement to the genetic structure of island populations.

    PubMed

    Harradine, E L; Andrew, M E; Thomas, J W; How, R A; Schmitt, L H; Spencer, P B S

    2015-12-01

    Islands present a unique scenario in conservation biology, offering refuge yet imposing limitations on insular populations. The Kimberley region of northwestern Australia has more than 2500 islands that have recently come into focus as substantial conservation resources. It is therefore of great interest for managers to understand the driving forces of genetic structure of species within these island archipelagos. We used the ubiquitous bar-shouldered skink (Ctenotus inornatus) as a model species to represent the influence of landscape factors on genetic structure across the Kimberley islands. On 41 islands and 4 mainland locations in a remote area of Australia, we genotyped individuals across 18 nuclear (microsatellite) markers. Measures of genetic differentiation and diversity were used in two complementary analyses. We used circuit theory and Mantel tests to examine the influence of the landscape matrix on population connectivity and linear regression and model selection based on Akaike's information criterion to investigate landscape controls on genetic diversity. Genetic differentiation between islands was best predicted with circuit-theory models that accounted for the large difference in resistance to dispersal between land and ocean. In contrast, straight-line distances were unrelated to either resistance distances or genetic differentiation. Instead, connectivity was determined by island-hopping routes that allow organisms to minimize the distance of difficult ocean passages. Island populations of C. inornatus retained varying degrees of genetic diversity (NA = 1.83 - 7.39), but it was greatest on islands closer to the mainland, in terms of resistance-distance units. In contrast, genetic diversity was unrelated to island size. Our results highlight the potential for islands to contribute to both theoretical and applied conservation, provide strong evidence of the driving forces of population structure within undisturbed landscapes, and identify the islands

  8. Importance of dispersal routes that minimize open-ocean movement to the genetic structure of island populations.

    PubMed

    Harradine, E L; Andrew, M E; Thomas, J W; How, R A; Schmitt, L H; Spencer, P B S

    2015-12-01

    Islands present a unique scenario in conservation biology, offering refuge yet imposing limitations on insular populations. The Kimberley region of northwestern Australia has more than 2500 islands that have recently come into focus as substantial conservation resources. It is therefore of great interest for managers to understand the driving forces of genetic structure of species within these island archipelagos. We used the ubiquitous bar-shouldered skink (Ctenotus inornatus) as a model species to represent the influence of landscape factors on genetic structure across the Kimberley islands. On 41 islands and 4 mainland locations in a remote area of Australia, we genotyped individuals across 18 nuclear (microsatellite) markers. Measures of genetic differentiation and diversity were used in two complementary analyses. We used circuit theory and Mantel tests to examine the influence of the landscape matrix on population connectivity and linear regression and model selection based on Akaike's information criterion to investigate landscape controls on genetic diversity. Genetic differentiation between islands was best predicted with circuit-theory models that accounted for the large difference in resistance to dispersal between land and ocean. In contrast, straight-line distances were unrelated to either resistance distances or genetic differentiation. Instead, connectivity was determined by island-hopping routes that allow organisms to minimize the distance of difficult ocean passages. Island populations of C. inornatus retained varying degrees of genetic diversity (NA = 1.83 - 7.39), but it was greatest on islands closer to the mainland, in terms of resistance-distance units. In contrast, genetic diversity was unrelated to island size. Our results highlight the potential for islands to contribute to both theoretical and applied conservation, provide strong evidence of the driving forces of population structure within undisturbed landscapes, and identify the islands

  9. When change happens: computer assistance and image guidance for minimally invasive therapy.

    PubMed

    Linte, Cristian A; Yaniv, Ziv

    2014-01-01

    Computer-assisted interventions are medical procedures that rely on image guidance and computer-based systems to provide visualisation and navigation information to the clinician, when direct vision of the sites or targets to be treated is not available, during minimally invasive procedures. Recent advances in medical image acquisition and processing, accompanied by technological breakthroughs in image fusion, visualisation and display have accelerated the adoption of minimally invasive approaches for a variety of medical procedures. This Letter is intended to serve as a brief overview of available image guidance and computer-assisted technology in the context of popular minimally invasive applications, while outlining some of the limitations and challenges in the transition from laboratory to clinical care.

  10. Importance of coastal change variables in determining vulnerability to sea- and lake-level change

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Pendleton, E.A.; Thieler, E.R.; Williams, S.J.

    2010-01-01

    In 2001, the U.S. Geological Survey began conducting scientific assessments of coastal vulnerability to potential future sea- and lake-level changes in 22 National Park Service sea- and lakeshore units. Coastal park units chosen for the assessment included a variety of geological and physical settings along the U.S. Atlantic, Pacific, Gulf of Mexico, Gulf of Alaska, Caribbean, and Great Lakes shorelines. This research is motivated by the need to understand and anticipate coastal changes caused by accelerating sea-level rise, as well as lake-level changes caused by climate change, over the next century. The goal of these assessments is to provide information that can be used to make long-term (decade to century) management decisions. Here we analyze the results of coastal vulnerability assessments for several coastal national park units. Index-based assessments quantify the likelihood that physical changes may occur based on analysis of the following variables: tidal range, ice cover, wave height, coastal slope, historical shoreline change rate, geomorphology, and historical rate of relative sea- or lake-level change. This approach seeks to combine a coastal system's susceptibility to change with its natural ability to adapt to changing environmental conditions, and it provides a measure of the system's potential vulnerability to the effects of sea- or lake-level change. Assessments for 22 park units are combined to evaluate relationships among the variables used to derive the index. Results indicate that Atlantic and Gulf of Mexico parks have the highest vulnerability rankings relative to other park regions. A principal component analysis reveals that 99% of the index variability can be explained by four variables: geomorphology, regional coastal slope, water-level change rate, and mean significant wave height. Tidal range, ice cover, and historical shoreline change are not as important when the index is evaluated at large spatial scales (thousands of kilometers

  11. Developing neonatal minimally invasive surgery: Innovation, techniques, and helping an industry to change.

    PubMed

    Rothenberg, Steven S

    2015-02-01

    The field of minimally invasive surgery (MIS) in neonates and infants is a relatively new field, evolving over the last 20years. This has required the development of not only new techniques but new instruments. The process has resulted in a unique partnership between pediatric minimally invasive surgeons and industry, as both groups have struggled to find the right mix of need, technical viability, and economic sustainability. The results have spawned a new generation of MIS instrumentation that not only enables the neonatal MIS surgeon but also leads the way in the field of mini-laparoscopy in children and adults.

  12. [DSM-5: important changes in the field of addictive diseases].

    PubMed

    Heinz, A; Friedel, E

    2014-05-01

    There are two major changes in the Diagnostic and Statistical Manual of Mental Disorders (DSM-5) concerning the field of addiction. Firstly, the previous distinction between abuse and dependence has been abolished and both disorders are now subsumed under the category addiction and related disorders. Secondly, pathological gambling has now been included in the section of addiction with slight changes in diagnostic criteria. Both changes have major implications for the definition and conceptualization of what we call a psychiatric "disease" or "disorder", which have also been addressed in the introductory statement of DSM-5. Concerning the category of abuse that is now part of substance use disorders, there is a concern that a well-defined disorder ("dependence") is now mixed with a less well-defined syndrome ("abuse"). The inclusion of non-substance, behavioral addictions poses the danger of pathologizing a wide range of human behavior in future revisions of the classification. Both concerns are further addressed in this article.

  13. Approvals, Submission, and Important Labeling Changes for US Marketed Pharmaceuticals

    PubMed Central

    Baker, Danial E.

    2015-01-01

    This monthly feature will help readers keep current on new drugs, new indications, dosage forms, and safety-related changes in labeling or use. Efforts have been made to ensure the accuracy of this information; however, if there are any questions, please let me know at danial.baker@wsu.edu. PMID:26405328

  14. Approvals, Submission, and Important Labeling Changes for US Marketed Pharmaceuticals

    PubMed Central

    Baker, Danial E.

    2013-01-01

    This monthly feature will help readers keep current on new drugs, new indications, dosage forms, and safety-related changes in labeling or use. Efforts have been made to ensure the accuracy of this information; however, if there are any questions, please let me know at bakerdan@wsu.edu. PMID:24421525

  15. Approvals, Submission, and Important Labeling Changes for US Marketed Pharmaceuticals

    PubMed Central

    Baker, Danial E.

    2013-01-01

    This monthly feature will help readers keep current on new drugs, new indications, dosage forms, and safety-related changes in labeling or use. Efforts have been made to ensure the accuracy of this information; however, if there are any questions, please let me know at bakerdan@wsu.edu. PMID:24421469

  16. Approvals, Submission, and Important Labeling Changes for US Marketed Pharmaceuticals

    PubMed Central

    Baker, Danial E.

    2013-01-01

    This monthly feature will help readers keep current on new drugs, new indications, dosage forms, and safety-related changes in labeling or use. Efforts have been made to ensure the accuracy of this information; however, if there are any questions, please let me know at bakerdan@wsu.edu. PMID:24421484

  17. Approvals, Submission, and Important Labeling Changes for US Marketed Pharmaceuticals

    PubMed Central

    Baker, Danial E.

    2014-01-01

    This monthly feature will help readers keep current on new drugs, new indications, dosage forms, and safety-related changes in labeling or use. Efforts have been made to ensure the accuracy of this information; however, if there are any questions, please let me know at danial.baker@wsu.edu. PMID:25477570

  18. Approvals, Submission, and Important Labeling Changes for US Marketed Pharmaceuticals

    PubMed Central

    Baker, Danial E.

    2015-01-01

    This monthly feature will help readers keep current on new drugs, new indications, dosage forms, and safety-related changes in labeling or use. Efforts have been made to ensure the accuracy of this information; however, if there are any questions, please let me know at danial.baker@wsu.edu. PMID:25717211

  19. Approvals, Submission, and Important Labeling Changes for US Marketed Pharmaceuticals

    PubMed Central

    Baker, Danial E.

    2013-01-01

    This monthly feature will help readers keep current on new drugs, new indications, dosage forms, and safety-related changes in labeling or use. Efforts have been made to ensure the accuracy of this information; however, if there are any questions, please let me know at bakerdan@wsu.edu. PMID:24421539

  20. Approvals, Submission, and Important Labeling Changes for US Marketed Pharmaceuticals

    PubMed Central

    Baker, Danial E.

    2015-01-01

    This monthly feature will help readers keep current on new drugs, new indications, dosage forms, and safety-related changes in labeling or use. Efforts have been made to ensure the accuracy of this information; however, if there are any questions, please let me know at danial.baker@wsu.edu. PMID:26823622

  1. Approvals, Submission, and Important Labeling Changes for US Marketed Pharmaceuticals

    PubMed Central

    Baker, Danial E.

    2015-01-01

    This monthly feature will help readers keep current on new drugs, new indications, dosage forms, and safety-related changes in labeling or use. Efforts have been made to ensure the accuracy of this information; however, if there are any questions, please let me know at danial.baker@wsu.edu. PMID:26448675

  2. Approvals, Submission, and Important Labeling Changes for US Marketed Pharmaceuticals

    PubMed Central

    Baker, Danial E.

    2015-01-01

    This monthly feature will help readers keep current on new drugs, new indications, dosage forms, and safety-related changes in labeling or use. Efforts have been made to ensure the accuracy of this information; however, if there are any questions, please let me know at danial.baker@wsu.edu. PMID:26405346

  3. Approvals, Submission, and Important Labeling Changes for US Marketed Pharmaceuticals

    PubMed Central

    Baker, Danial E.

    2014-01-01

    This monthly feature will help readers keep current on new drugs, new indications, dosage forms, and safety-related changes in labeling or use. Efforts have been made to ensure the accuracy of this information; however, if there are any questions, please let me know at danial.baker@wsu.edu. PMID:25673896

  4. Approvals, Submission, and Important Labeling Changes for US Marketed Pharmaceuticals

    PubMed Central

    Baker, Danial E.

    2013-01-01

    This monthly feature will help readers keep current on new drugs, new indications, dosage forms, and safety-related changes in labeling or use. Efforts have been made to ensure the accuracy of this information; however, if there are any questions, please let me know at bakerdan@wsu.edu. PMID:24421513

  5. Approvals, Submission, and Important Labeling Changes for US Marketed Pharmaceuticals

    PubMed Central

    Baker, Danial E.

    2014-01-01

    Abstract This monthly feature will help readers keep current on new drugs, new indications, dosage forms, and safety-related changes in labeling or use. Efforts have been made to ensure the accuracy of this information; however, if there are any questions, please let me know at danial.baker@wsu.edu. PMID:25477602

  6. Approvals, Submission, and Important Labeling Changes for US Marketed Pharmaceuticals

    PubMed Central

    2014-01-01

    This monthly feature will help readers keep current on new drugs, new indications, dosage forms, and safety-related changes in labeling or use. Efforts have been made to ensure the accuracy of this information; however, if there are any questions, please let me know at danial.baker@wsu.edu. PMID:24715749

  7. Approvals, Submission, and Important Labeling Changes for US Marketed Pharmaceuticals

    PubMed Central

    Baker, Danial E.

    2014-01-01

    This monthly feature will help readers keep current on new drugs, new indications, dosage forms, and safety-related changes in labeling or use. Efforts have been made to ensure the accuracy of this information; however, if there are any questions, please let me know at danial.baker@wsu.edu. PMID:24421565

  8. Approvals, Submission, and Important Labeling Changes for US Marketed Pharmaceuticals.

    PubMed

    Baker, Danial E

    2013-02-01

    This monthly feature will help readers keep current on new drugs, new indications, dosage forms, and safety-related changes in labeling or use. Efforts have been made to ensure the accuracy of this information; however, if there are any questions, please let me know at bakerdan@wsu.edu. PMID:24421453

  9. Approvals, Submission, and Important Labeling Changes for US Marketed Pharmaceuticals.

    PubMed

    Baker, Danial E

    2013-11-01

    This monthly feature will help readers keep current on new drugs, new indications, dosage forms, and safety-related changes in labeling or use. Efforts have been made to ensure the accuracy of this information; however, if there are any questions, please let me know at danial.baker@wsu.edu. PMID:24421440

  10. Approvals, Submission, and Important Labeling Changes for US Marketed Pharmaceuticals.

    PubMed

    Baker, Danial E

    2013-03-01

    This monthly feature will help readers keep current on new drugs, new indications, dosage forms, and safety-related changes in labeling or use. Efforts have been made to ensure the accuracy of this information; however, if there are any questions, please let me know at bakerdan@wsu.edu. PMID:24421469

  11. Approvals, Submission, and Important Labeling Changes for US Marketed Pharmaceuticals.

    PubMed

    Baker, Danial E

    2013-04-01

    This monthly feature will help readers keep current on new drugs, new indications, dosage forms, and safety-related changes in labeling or use. Efforts have been made to ensure the accuracy of this information; however, if there are any questions, please let me know at bakerdan@wsu.edu. PMID:24421484

  12. Approvals, Submission, and Important Labeling Changes for US Marketed Pharmaceuticals.

    PubMed

    Baker, Danial E

    2013-12-01

    This monthly feature will help readers keep current on new drugs, new indications, dosage forms, and safety-related changes in labeling or use. Efforts have been made to ensure the accuracy of this information; however, if there are any questions, please let me know at danial.baker@wsu.edu. PMID:24474838

  13. Approvals, Submission, and Important Labeling Changes for US Marketed Pharmaceuticals.

    PubMed

    Baker, Danial E

    2013-09-01

    This monthly feature will help readers keep current on new drugs, new indications, dosage forms, and safety-related changes in labeling or use. Efforts have been made to ensure the accuracy of this information; however, if there are any questions, please let me know at bakerdan@wsu.edu. PMID:24421539

  14. Approvals, Submission, and Important Labeling Changes for US Marketed Pharmaceuticals.

    PubMed

    Baker, Danial E

    2013-10-01

    This monthly feature will help readers keep current on new drugs, new indications, dosage forms, and safety-related changes in labeling or use. Efforts have been made to ensure the accuracy of this information; however, if there are any questions, please let me know at danial.baker@wsu.edu. PMID:24421552

  15. Approvals, Submission, and Important Labeling Changes for US Marketed Pharmaceuticals.

    PubMed

    Baker, Danial E

    2013-06-01

    This monthly feature will help readers keep current on new drugs, new indications, dosage forms, and safety-related changes in labeling or use. Efforts have been made to ensure the accuracy of this information; however, if there are any questions, please let me know at bakerdan@wsu.edu. PMID:24421513

  16. Approvals, Submission, and Important Labeling Changes for US Marketed Pharmaceuticals.

    PubMed

    Baker, Danial E

    2013-07-01

    This monthly feature will help readers keep current on new drugs, new indications, dosage forms, and safety-related changes in labeling or use. Efforts have been made to ensure the accuracy of this information; however, if there are any questions, please let me know at bakerdan@wsu.edu. PMID:24421525

  17. Approvals, Submission, and Important Labeling Changes for US Marketed Pharmaceuticals.

    PubMed

    Baker, Danial E

    2013-01-01

    This monthly feature will help readers keep current on new drugs, new indications, dosage forms, and safety-related changes in labeling or use. Efforts have been made to ensure the accuracy of this information; however, if there are any questions, please let me know at bakerdan@wsu.edu. PMID:24421424

  18. Approvals, Submission, and Important Labeling Changes for US Marketed Pharmaceuticals.

    PubMed

    Baker, Danial E

    2013-05-01

    This monthly feature will help readers keep current on new drugs, new indications, dosage forms, and safety-related changes in labeling or use. Efforts have been made to ensure the accuracy of this information; however, if there are any questions, please let me know at bakerdan@wsu.edu. PMID:24421499

  19. Approvals, Submission, and Important Labeling Changes for US Marketed Pharmaceuticals.

    PubMed

    Baker, Danial E

    2014-12-01

    This monthly feature will help readers keep current on new drugs, new indications, dosage forms, and safety-related changes in labeling or use. Efforts have been made to ensure the accuracy of this information; however, if there are any questions, please let me know at danial.baker@wsu.edu. PMID:25673896

  20. Approvals, Submission, and Important Labeling Changes for US Marketed Pharmaceuticals.

    PubMed

    Baker, Danial E

    2015-09-01

    This monthly feature will help readers keep current on new drugs, new indications, dosage forms, and safety-related changes in labeling or use. Efforts have been made to ensure the accuracy of this information; however, if there are any questions, please let me know at danial.baker@wsu.edu. PMID:26823622

  1. Approvals, Submission, and Important Labeling Changes for US Marketed Pharmaceuticals.

    PubMed

    Baker, Danial E

    2015-10-01

    This monthly feature will help readers keep current on new drugs, new indications, dosage forms, and safety-related changes in labeling or use. Efforts have been made to ensure the accuracy of this information; however, if there are any questions, please let me know at danial.baker@wsu.edu. PMID:26912923

  2. Approvals, Submission, and Important Labeling Changes for US Marketed Pharmaceuticals

    PubMed Central

    Baker, Danial E.

    2014-01-01

    This monthly feature will help readers keep current on new drugs, new indications, dosage forms, and safety-related changes in labeling or use. Efforts have been made to ensure the accuracy of this information; however, if there are any questions, please let me know at danial.baker@wsu.edu. PMID:25477618

  3. Approvals, Submission, and Important Labeling Changes for US Marketed Pharmaceuticals

    PubMed Central

    Baker, Danial E.

    2015-01-01

    This monthly feature will help readers keep current on new drugs, new indications, dosage forms, and safety-related changes in labeling or use. Efforts have been made to ensure the accuracy of this information; however, if there are any questions, please let me know at danial.baker@wsu.edu. PMID:26912923

  4. Therapeutic variability in adult minimal change disease and focal segmental glomerulosclerosis

    PubMed Central

    Fernandez-Juarez, Gema; Villacorta, Javier; Ruiz-Roso, Gloria; Panizo, Nayara; Martinez-Marín, Isabel; Marco, Helena; Arrizabalaga, Pilar; Díaz, Montserrat; Perez-Gómez, Vanessa; Vaca, Marco; Rodríguez, Eva; Cobelo, Carmen; Fernandez, Loreto; Avila, Ana; Praga, Manuel; Quereda, Carlos; Ortiz, Alberto

    2016-01-01

    Background Variability in the management of glomerulonephritis may negatively impact efficacy and safety. However, there are little/no data on actual variability in the treatment of minimal change disease (MCD)/focal segmental glomerulosclerosis (FSGS) in adults. We assessed Spanish practice patterns for the management of adult nephrotic syndrome due to MCD or FSGS. The absence of reasonably good evidence on treatment for a disease often increases the variability substantially. Identification of evidence–practice gaps is the first necessary step in the knowledge-to-action cyclical process. We aim to analyse the real clinical practice in adults in hospitals in Spain and compare this with the recently released Kidney Disease: Improving Global Outcomes clinical practice guideline for glomerulonephritis. Methods Participating centres were required to include all adult patients (age >18 years) with a biopsy-proven diagnosis of MCD or FSGS from 2007 to 2011. Exclusion criteria included the diagnosis of secondary nephropathy. Results We studied 119 Caucasian patients with biopsy-proven MCD (n = 71) or FSGS (n = 48) from 13 Spanish hospitals. Of these patients, 102 received immunosuppressive treatment and 17 conservative treatment. The initial treatment was steroids, except in one patient in which mycophenolate mofetil was used. In all patients, the steroids were given as a single daily dose. The mean duration of steroid treatment at initial high doses was 8.7 ± 13.2 weeks and the mean global duration was 38 ± 32 weeks. The duration of initial high-dose steroids was <4 weeks in 41% of patients and >16 weeks in 10.5% of patients. We did find a weak and negative correlation between the duration of whole steroid treatment in the first episode and the number of the later relapses (r = −0.24, P = 0.023). There were 98 relapses and they were more frequent in MCD than in FSGs patients (2.10 ± 1.6 versus 1.56 ± 1.2; P = 0.09). The chosen treatment was mainly steroids (95

  5. Ice sheets play important role in climate change

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Clark, Peter U.; MacAyeal, Douglas R.; Andrews, John T.; Bartlein, Patrick J.

    Ice sheets once were viewed as passive elements in the climate system enslaved to orbitally generated variations in solar radiation. Today, modeling results and new geologic records suggest that ice sheets actively participated in late-Pleistocene climate change, amplifying or driving significant variability at millennial as well as orbital timescales. Although large changes in global ice volume were ultimately caused by orbital variations (the Milankovitch hypothesis), once in existence, the former ice sheets behaved dynamically and strongly influenced regional and perhaps even global climate by altering atmospheric and oceanic circulation and temperature.Experiments with General Circulation Models (GCMs) yielded the first inklings of ice sheets' climatic significance. Manabe and Broccoli [1985], for example, found that the topographic and albedo effects of ice sheets alone explain much of the Northern Hemisphere cooling identified in paleoclimatic records of the last glacial maximum (˜21 ka).

  6. The effect of an exercise program on change in curve in adolescents with minimal idiopathic scoliosis. A preliminary study.

    PubMed

    Stone, B; Beekman, C; Hall, V; Guess, V; Brooks, H L

    1979-06-01

    Forty-two adolescents with minimal idiopathic scoliosis, who had been on an exercise program for 9 to 15 months, were evaluated to determine the influence of exercise on change in their curvatures. A difference of 4 degrees or greater between initial and final curve measurements was considered to be a change. Five percent of the curves increased, 74% remained the same, and 21% decreased. Change in curvature for these patients was also compared with that of a matched retrospective group of adolescents with scoliosis who had not had the exercise program. No significant difference in change in curve between the two groups was found. For patients who had been on the exercise program, there was no significant relationship between change in curve and extent of physical activity or between change in curve and exercise recall, correct performance, or frequency. Limitations in the study design and possible explanations for the results are discussed.

  7. An unexpected presentation: minimal change disease in an adult with treatment-naïve hepatitis C.

    PubMed

    Stokes, Audrey L; Alhamad, Tarek; Abendroth, Catherine S; Farag, Hosam A; Verma, Navin

    2013-12-01

    Minimal change disease is the most common glomerular disease affecting children; its prevalence among adults, however, is eclipsed by other glomerular pathologies. Each of these diseases has a number of classic associations, such as membranoproliferative glomerulonephritis with hepatitis C. We report the case of a middle-aged African-American male who presented with the nephrotic syndrome and acute renal failure and was concomitantly diagnosed with a new hepatitis C infection. He also had a history of urethral strictures with potential reflux nephropathy, which--in combination with his African-American race--also made focal segmental glomerulosclerosis a diagnostic possibility. Full laboratory evaluation did not distinguish the cause of his massive proteinuria; subsequent renal biopsy ultimately revealed minimal change disease. A full course of high-dose steroids eventually reduced his proteinuria, after which his renal failure resolved as well without need for hemodialysis.

  8. [Possible changes in energy-minimizer mechanisms of locomotion due to chronic low back pain - a literature review].

    PubMed

    de Carvalho, Alberito Rodrigo; Andrade, Alexandro; Peyré-Tartaruga, Leonardo Alexandre

    2015-01-01

    One goal of the locomotion is to move the body in the space at the most economical way possible. However, little is known about the mechanical and energetic aspects of locomotion that are affected by low back pain. And in case of occurring some damage, little is known about how the mechanical and energetic characteristics of the locomotion are manifested in functional activities, especially with respect to the energy-minimizer mechanisms during locomotion. This study aimed: a) to describe the main energy-minimizer mechanisms of locomotion; b) to check if there are signs of damage on the mechanical and energetic characteristics of the locomotion due to chronic low back pain (CLBP) which may endanger the energy-minimizer mechanisms. This study is characterized as a narrative literature review. The main theory that explains the minimization of energy expenditure during the locomotion is the inverted pendulum mechanism, by which the energy-minimizer mechanism converts kinetic energy into potential energy of the center of mass and vice-versa during the step. This mechanism is strongly influenced by spatio-temporal gait (locomotion) parameters such as step length and preferred walking speed, which, in turn, may be severely altered in patients with chronic low back pain. However, much remains to be understood about the effects of chronic low back pain on the individual's ability to practice an economic locomotion, because functional impairment may compromise the mechanical and energetic characteristics of this type of gait, making it more costly. Thus, there are indications that such changes may compromise the functional energy-minimizer mechanisms. PMID:25440708

  9. [Possible changes in energy-minimizer mechanisms of locomotion due to chronic low back pain - a literature review].

    PubMed

    de Carvalho, Alberito Rodrigo; Andrade, Alexandro; Peyré-Tartaruga, Leonardo Alexandre

    2015-01-01

    One goal of the locomotion is to move the body in the space at the most economical way possible. However, little is known about the mechanical and energetic aspects of locomotion that are affected by low back pain. And in case of occurring some damage, little is known about how the mechanical and energetic characteristics of the locomotion are manifested in functional activities, especially with respect to the energy-minimizer mechanisms during locomotion. This study aimed: a) to describe the main energy-minimizer mechanisms of locomotion; b) to check if there are signs of damage on the mechanical and energetic characteristics of the locomotion due to chronic low back pain (CLBP) which may endanger the energy-minimizer mechanisms. This study is characterized as a narrative literature review. The main theory that explains the minimization of energy expenditure during the locomotion is the inverted pendulum mechanism, by which the energy-minimizer mechanism converts kinetic energy into potential energy of the center of mass and vice-versa during the step. This mechanism is strongly influenced by spatio-temporal gait (locomotion) parameters such as step length and preferred walking speed, which, in turn, may be severely altered in patients with chronic low back pain. However, much remains to be understood about the effects of chronic low back pain on the individual's ability to practice an economic locomotion, because functional impairment may compromise the mechanical and energetic characteristics of this type of gait, making it more costly. Thus, there are indications that such changes may compromise the functional energy-minimizer mechanisms.

  10. Important change in service for international Eos delivery

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Treby, Jill

    2012-01-01

    In direct response to member feedback about delays in delivery time and an overwhelming preference to read Eos online, print issues of Eos will no longer be mailed to members who have a delivery address outside the United States, effective with the 10 January 2012 issue. Our international members will continue to have access to the Eos electronic edition as well as recently introduced Web-only content. In addition, members who no longer receive a print copy of Eos will receive weekly e-alerts telling them when the newest issue is available online (several days before the cover date). Members with a mailing address in the United States also have the choice to opt out of the printed copy. Not only will this change allow us to better serve the needs of our international members, but also the cost savings will permit AGU to significantly increase investment in the other programs, products, and services that members value.

  11. Importance of impacts scenarios for the adaptation of agriculture to climate change

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Zullo, J.; Macedo, C.; Pinto, H. S.; Assad, E. D.; Koga Vicente, A.

    2012-12-01

    The great possibility that the climate is already changing, and the most drastic way possible, increases the challenge of agricultural engineering, especially in environmentally vulnerable areas and in regions where agriculture has a high economic and social importance. Knowledge of potential impacts that may be caused by changes in water and thermal regimes in coming decades is increasingly strategic, as they allow the development of techniques to adapt agriculture to climate change and therefore minimizes the risk of undesirable impacts, for example, in food and nutritional security. Thus, the main objective of this paper is to describe a way to generate impacts scenarios caused by anomalies of precipitation and temperature in the definition of climate risk zoning of an agricultural crop very important in the tropics, such as the sugar cane, especially in central-southern Brazil, which is one of its main world producers. A key point here is the choice of the climate model to be used, considering that 23 different models were used in the fourth IPCC report published in 2007. The number and range of available models requires the definition of criteria for choosing the most suitable for the preparation of the impacts scenarios. One way proposed and used in this work is based on the definition of two groups of models according to 27 technical attributes of them. The clustering of 23 models in two groups, with a model representing each group (UKMO_HadCM3 and MIROC3.2_medres), assists the generation and comparison of impacts scenarios, making them more representative and useful. Another important aspect in the generation of impacts scenarios is the estimate of the relative importance of the anomalies of precipitation and temperature, which are the most commonly used. To assess the relative importance of the anomalies are generated scenarios considering an anomaly at a time and both together. The impacts scenarios for a high emission of greenhouse gases (A2), from 2010

  12. 76 FR 30550 - Federal Management Regulation; Change in Consumer Price Index Minimal Value

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2011-05-26

    ... From the Federal Register Online via the Government Publishing Office GENERAL SERVICES ADMINISTRATION 41 CFR Part 102-42 RIN 3090-AJ12 Federal Management Regulation; Change in Consumer Price Index..., to reflect changes in the Consumer Price Index for the immediately preceding 3-year period....

  13. Suppression of protein inactivation during freezing by minimizing pH changes using ionic cryoprotectants.

    PubMed

    Krausková, Ľubica; Procházková, Jitka; Klašková, Martina; Filipová, Lenka; Chaloupková, Radka; Malý, Stanislav; Damborský, Jiří; Heger, Dominik

    2016-07-25

    Freezing and lyophilization are often used for stabilization of biomolecules; however, this sometimes results in partial degradation and loss of biological function in these molecules. In this study we examined the effect of freezing-induced acidity changes on denaturation of the model enzyme haloalkane dehalogenase under various experimental conditions. The effective local pH of frozen solutions is shown to be the key causal factor in protein stability. To preserve the activity of frozen-thawed enzymes, acidity changes were prevented by the addition of an ionic cryoprotectant, a compound which counteracts pH changes during freezing due to selective incorporation of its ions into the ice. This approach resulted in complete recovery of enzyme activity after multiple freeze-thaw cycles. We propose the utilization of ionic cryoprotectants as a new and effective cryopreservation method in research laboratories as well as in industrial processes. PMID:27224008

  14. [The catamnesis of patients with the minimal change nephrotic syndrome--lipoid nephrosis].

    PubMed

    Papaian, A V; Savenkova, N D; Val'kovich, E I

    1990-01-01

    A catamnestic study was made of 188 patients suffering from the nephrotic syndrome with minimum changes (NSMC) in order to examine the characteristic features of its course and outcome. The patients' age ranged from 3 to 26 years, with the disease standing being from 1 to 22 years. The authors explored the anamnestic and clinico-laboratory data together with the morphological findings (in 6.9% of cases). Estimated the results of the treatment. Described the NSMC outcome in 188 children.

  15. Designing for Change: Minimizing the Impact of Changing Requirements in the Later Stages of a Spaceflight Software Project

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Allen, B. Danette

    1998-01-01

    In the traditional 'waterfall' model of the software project life cycle, the Requirements Phase ends and flows into the Design Phase, which ends and flows into the Development Phase. Unfortunately, the process rarely, if ever, works so smoothly in practice. Instead, software developers often receive new requirements, or modifications to the original requirements, well after the earlier project phases have been completed. In particular, projects with shorter than ideal schedules are highly susceptible to frequent requirements changes, as the software requirements analysis phase is often forced to begin before the overall system requirements and top-level design are complete. This results in later modifications to the software requirements, even though the software design and development phases may be complete. Requirements changes received in the later stages of a software project inevitably lead to modification of existing developed software. Presented here is a series of software design techniques that can greatly reduce the impact of last-minute requirements changes. These techniques were successfully used to add built-in flexibility to two complex software systems in which the requirements were expected to (and did) change frequently. These large, real-time systems were developed at NASA Langley Research Center (LaRC) to test and control the Lidar In-Space Technology Experiment (LITE) instrument which flew aboard the space shuttle Discovery as the primary payload on the STS-64 mission.

  16. Favorable locations for piezo actuators in plates with good control effectiveness and minimal change in system dynamics

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Dhuri, K. D.; Seshu, P.

    2007-12-01

    Placement and sizing of piezo actuators is normally based on control effectiveness. However, retrofitting of piezoelectric actuators alters the inherent stiffness/mass properties of the parent structure. In rotating structures, the additional mass due to piezo patches contributes to the centrifugal stiffening force. The parent structure is originally designed to have a certain natural frequency spectrum in relation to the disturbance excitation. In the event of failure of the active system, the dynamics of the structure with piezos (now rendered passive) will therefore become significant. Thus it will be helpful to determine locations for mounting piezo patches based on minimal natural frequency change yet with good control authority. In this study, a finite element based procedure for plate structures is presented. Favorable locations for mounting piezos based on minimal natural frequency changes are iteratively evolved from an initial configuration wherein the whole plate is covered with piezos. A modal controllability approach has been used for finding piezo mounting locations from a good controllability perspective. The procedure is demonstrated for simply supported square, swept-back, circular and rotating rectangular plates considering the first four modes.

  17. Prognostic consequences of borderline dysnatremia: pay attention to minimal serum sodium change

    PubMed Central

    2013-01-01

    Introduction To assess the prevalence of dysnatremia, including borderline changes in serum sodium concentration, and to estimate the impact of these dysnatremia on mortality after adjustment for confounders. Methods Observational study on a prospective database fed by 13 intensive care units (ICUs). Unselected patients with ICU stay longer than 48 h were enrolled over a 14-year period were included in this study. Mild to severe hyponatremia were defined as serum sodium concentration < 135, < 130, and < 125 mmol/L respectively. Mild to severe hypernatremia were defined as serum sodium concentration > 145, > 150, and > 155 mmol/L respectively. Borderline hyponatremia and hypernatremia were defined as serum sodium concentration between 135 and 137 mmol/L or 143 and 145 respectively. Results A total of 11,125 patients were included in this study. Among these patients, 3,047 (27.4%) had mild to severe hyponatremia at ICU admission, 2,258 (20.3%) had borderline hyponatremia at ICU admission, 1,078 (9.7%) had borderline hypernatremia and 877 (7.9%) had mild to severe hypernatremia. After adjustment for confounder, both moderate and severe hyponatremia (subdistribution hazard ratio (sHR) 1.82, 95% CI 1.002 to 1.395 and 1.27, 95% CI 1.01 to 1.60 respectively) were associated with day-30 mortality. Similarly, mild, moderate and severe hypernatremia (sHR 1.34, 95% CI 1.14 to 1.57; 1.51, 95% CI 1.15 to 1.99; and 2.64, 95% CI 2.00 to 3.81 respectively) were independently associated with day-30 mortality. Conclusions One-third of critically ill patients had a mild to moderate dysnatremia at ICU admission. Dysnatremia, including mild changes in serum sodium concentration, is an independent risk factor for hospital mortality and should not be neglected. PMID:23336363

  18. Minimal changes in hypothalamic temperature accompany microwave-induced alteration of thermoregulatory behavior

    SciTech Connect

    Adair, E.R.; Adams, B.W.; Akel, G.M.

    1984-01-01

    This study probed the mechanisms underlying microwave-induced alterations of thermoregulatory behavior. Adult male squirrel monkeys (Saimiri sciureus), trained to regulate the temperature of their immediate environment (Ta) behaviorally, were chronically implanted with Teflon reentrant tubes in the medical preoptic/anterior hypothalamic area (PO/AH), the brainstem region considered to control normal thermoregulatory processes. A Vitek temperature probe inserted into the tube measured PO/AH temperature continuously while changes in thermoregulatory behavior were induced by either brief (10-min) or prolonged (2.5-h) unilateral exposures to planewave 2,450-MHz continuous wave (CW) microwaves (E polarization). Power densities explored ranged from 4 to 20 mW/cm2 (rate of energy absorption (SAR) . 0.05 (W/kg)/cm2)). Rectal temperature and four representative skin temperatures were also monitored, as was the Ta selected by the animal. When the power density was high enough to induce a monkey to select a cooler Ta (8 mW/cm2 and above), PO/AH temperature rose approximately 0.3 degrees C but seldom more. Lower power densities usually produced smaller increases in PO/AH temperature and no reliable change in thermoregulatory behavior. Rectal temperature remained constant while PO/AH temperature rose only 0.2-0.3 degrees C during 2.5-h exposures at 20 mW/cm2 because the Ta selected was 2-3 degrees C cooler than normally preferred. Sometimes PO/AH temperature increments greater than 0.3 degrees C were recorded, but they always accompanied inadequate thermoregulatory behavior. Thus, a PO/AH temperature rise of 0.2-0.3 degrees C, accompanying microwave exposure, appears to be necessary and sufficient to alter thermoregulatory behavior, which ensures in turn that no greater temperature excursions occur in this hypothalamic thermoregulatory center.

  19. Minimizing the cost of keeping options open for conservation in a changing climate.

    PubMed

    Mills, Morena; Nicol, Sam; Wells, Jessie A; Lahoz-Monfort, José J; Wintle, Brendan; Bode, Michael; Wardrop, Martin; Walshe, Terry; Probert, William J M; Runge, Michael C; Possingham, Hugh P; Madden, Eve McDonald

    2014-06-01

    Policy documents advocate that managers should keep their options open while planning to protect coastal ecosystems from climate-change impacts. However, the actual costs and benefits of maintaining flexibility remain largely unexplored, and alternative approaches for decision making under uncertainty may lead to better joint outcomes for conservation and other societal goals. For example, keeping options open for coastal ecosystems incurs opportunity costs for developers. We devised a decision framework that integrates these costs and benefits with probabilistic forecasts for the extent of sea-level rise to find a balance between coastal ecosystem protection and moderate coastal development. Here, we suggest that instead of keeping their options open managers should incorporate uncertain sea-level rise predictions into a decision-making framework that evaluates the benefits and costs of conservation and development. In our example, based on plausible scenarios for sea-level rise and assuming a risk-neutral decision maker, we found that substantial development could be accommodated with negligible loss of environmental assets. Characterization of the Pareto efficiency of conservation and development outcomes provides valuable insight into the intensity of trade-offs between development and conservation. However, additional work is required to improve understanding of the consequences of alternative spatial plans and the value judgments and risk preferences of decision makers and stakeholders.

  20. Prediction of hemodynamic changes towards PEEP titrations at different volemic levels using a minimal cardiovascular model.

    PubMed

    Starfinger, C; Chase, J G; Hann, C E; Shaw, G M; Lambert, P; Smith, B W; Sloth, E; Larsson, A; Andreassen, S; Rees, S

    2008-08-01

    A cardiovascular system model and parameter identification method have previously been validated for porcine experiments of induced pulmonary embolism and positive end-expiratory pressure (PEEP) titrations, accurately tracking all the main hemodynamic trends. In this research, the model and parameter identification process are further validated by predicting the effect of intervention. An overall population-specific rule linking specific model parameters to increases in PEEP is formulated to predict the hemodynamic effects on arterial pressure, pulmonary artery pressure and stroke volume. Hemodynamic changes are predicted for an increase from 0 to 10 cm H(2)O with median absolute percentage errors less than 7% (systolic pressures) and 13% (stroke volume). For an increase from 10 to 20 cm H(2)O median absolute percentage errors are less than 11% (systolic pressures) and 17% (stroke volume). These results validate the general applicability of such a rule, which is not pig-specific, but holds over for all analyzed pigs. This rule enables physiological simulation and prediction of patient response. Overall, the prediction accuracy achieved represents a further clinical validation of these models, methods and overall approach to cardiovascular diagnosis and therapy guidance.

  1. Minimizing the cost of keeping options open for conservation in a changing climate

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Mills, Morena; Nicol, Samuel; Wells, Jessie A.; Lahoz-Monfort, José J.; Wintle, Brendan; Bode, Michael; Wardrop, Martin; Walshe, Terry; Probert, William J. M.; Runge, Michael C.; Possingham, Hugh P.; McDonald Madden, Eve

    2014-01-01

    Policy documents advocate that managers should keep their options open while planning to protect coastal ecosystems from climate-change impacts. However, the actual costs and benefits of maintaining flexibility remain largely unexplored, and alternative approaches for decision making under uncertainty may lead to better joint outcomes for conservation and other societal goals. For example, keeping options open for coastal ecosystems incurs opportunity costs for developers. We devised a decision framework that integrates these costs and benefits with probabilistic forecasts for the extent of sea-level rise to find a balance between coastal ecosystem protection and moderate coastal development. Here, we suggest that instead of keeping their options open managers should incorporate uncertain sea-level rise predictions into a decision-making framework that evaluates the benefits and costs of conservation and development. In our example, based on plausible scenarios for sea-level rise and assuming a risk-neutral decision maker, we found that substantial development could be accommodated with negligible loss of environmental assets. Characterization of the Pareto efficiency of conservation and development outcomes provides valuable insight into the intensity of trade-offs between development and conservation. However, additional work is required to improve understanding of the consequences of alternative spatial plans and the value judgments and risk preferences of decision makers and stakeholders.

  2. Structures of minimal catalytic fragments of topoisomerase V reveals conformational changes relevant for DNA binding.

    PubMed

    Rajan, Rakhi; Taneja, Bhupesh; Mondragón, Alfonso

    2010-07-14

    Topoisomerase V is an archaeal type I topoisomerase that is unique among topoisomerases due to presence of both topoisomerase and DNA repair activities in the same protein. It is organized as an N-terminal topoisomerase domain followed by 24 tandem helix-hairpin-helix (HhH) motifs. Structural studies have shown that the active site is buried by the (HhH) motifs. Here we show that the N-terminal domain can relax DNA in the absence of any HhH motifs and that the HhH motifs are required for stable protein-DNA complex formation. Crystal structures of various topoisomerase V fragments show changes in the relative orientation of the domains mediated by a long bent linker helix, and these movements are essential for the DNA to enter the active site. Phosphate ions bound to the protein near the active site helped model DNA in the topoisomerase domain and show how topoisomerase V may interact with DNA. PMID:20637419

  3. Changes in the colon microbiota and intestinal cytokine gene expression following minimal intestinal surgery

    PubMed Central

    Lapthorne, Susan; Bines, Julie E; Fouhy, Fiona; Dellios, Nicole L; Wilson, Guineva; Thomas, Sarah L; Scurr, Michelle; Stanton, Catherine; Cotter, Paul D; Pereira-Fantini, Prue M

    2015-01-01

    AIM: To investigate the impact of minor abdominal surgery on the caecal microbial population and on markers of gut inflammation. METHODS: Four week old piglets were randomly allocated to a no-surgery “control” group (n = 6) or a “transection surgery” group (n = 5). During the transection surgery procedure, a conventional midline incision of the lower abdominal wall was made and the small intestine was transected at a site 225 cm proximal to the ileocaecal valve, a 2 cm segment was removed and the intestine was re-anastomosed. Piglets received a polymeric infant formula diet throughout the study period and were sacrificed at two weeks post-surgery. Clinical outcomes including weight, stool consistency and presence of stool fat globules were monitored. High throughput DNA sequencing of colonic content was used to detect surgery-related disturbances in microbial composition at phylum, family and genus level. Diversity and richness estimates were calculated for the control and minor surgery groups. As disturbances in the gut microbial community are linked to inflammation we compared the gene expression of key inflammatory cytokines (TNF, IL1B, IL18, IL12, IL8, IL6 and IL10) in ileum, terminal ileum and colon mucosal extracts obtained from control and abdominal surgery groups at two weeks post-surgery. RESULTS: Changes in the relative abundance of bacterial species at family and genus level were confined to bacterial members of the Proteobacteria and Bacteroidetes phyla. Family level compositional shifts included a reduction in the relative abundance of Enterobacteriaceae (22.95 ± 5.27 vs 2.07 ± 0.72, P < 0.01), Bacteroidaceae (2.54 ± 0.56 vs 0.86 ± 0.43, P < 0.05) and Rhodospirillaceae (0.40 ± 0.14 vs 0.00 ± 0.00, P < 0.05) following transection surgery. Similarly, at the genus level, changes associated with transection surgery were restricted to members of the Proteobacteria and Bacteroidetes phyla and included decreased relative abundance of

  4. Twins Bed Rest Project: LBNP/Exercise Minimizes Changes in Lean Leg Mass, Strength and Endurance

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Amorim, Fabiano T.; Schneider, Suzanne M.; Lee, Stuart M. C.; Boda, Wanda L.; Watenpaugh, Donald E.; Hargens, Alan R.

    2006-01-01

    Decreases in muscle strength and endurance frequently are observed in non-weightbearing conditions such as bed rest (BR), spaceflight or limb immobilization. Purpose: Ow purpose was to determine if supine treadmill exercise against simulated gravity, by application of lower body negative pressure (LBNP), prevents loss of lean leg mass, strength and endurance during 30 d of 6deg head-down bed rest (BR). Methods: Fifteen pairs of monozygous twins (8 male, 7 female pairs; 26+/-4 yrs; 170+/-12 cm; 62.6+/-11.3 kg; mean+/-SD) were subjects in the present study. One sibling of each pair of twins was randomly assigned to either an exercise (EX) or non-exercise (CON) group. The EX twin walked/jogged on a vertical treadmill within LBNP chamber 6 d/wk using a 40-min interval exercise protocol at 40-80% of pre-BR VO(sub 2peak). LBNP was adjusted individually for each subject such that footward force was between 1.0 and 1.2 times body weight (-53+/-5 mmHg LBNP). The CON twin performed no exercise during BR. Subjects performed isokinetic knee (60 and 120deg/s) and ankle (60deg/s) testing to assess strength and endurance (End) before and after BR. They also had their lean leg mass (L(sub mass)) evaluated by DEXA before and after BR. Results: Changes in peak torque (T(sub pk)) were smaller for flexion (flex) than for extension (ext) after BR and did not differ between groups. The CON group had larger decreases (P<0.05) in L(sub mass), knee and ankle ext T(sub pk), and knee ext End.

  5. Ion-mediated flow changes suppressed by minimal calcium presence in xylem sap in Chrysanthemum and Prunus laurocerasus.

    PubMed

    van Ieperen, Wim; van Gelder, Annie

    2006-01-01

    After the discovery of ion-mediated changes in xylem hydraulic resistance a few years ago, a number of research papers were published that related ion-mediated flow changes in the xylem to various aspects of whole plant functioning and evolutionary diversification of vascular cells. Ion-mediated changes in xylem hydraulic resistance are commonly quantified as the percentile change in hydraulic resistance, relative to the hydraulic resistance measured using a reference fluid, usually (ultra) pure deionized water. In this research the impact was investigated of the complete absence of all ions in deionized water compared with reference fluids containing a minimal amount of free calcium on the quantification of ion-mediated flow changes in stem segments of Chrysanthemum (Dendranthemaxgrandiflorum Tzvelev) and Prunus L. (Prunus laurocerasus L.). The addition of 10 mM KCl to deionized water significantly increased flow rate in Chrysanthemum (17-24%) and Prunus L. (16%). The addition of 1 mM CaCl(2) to the reference fluid reduced this KCl-mediated increase in flow rate to 1-2% in both species. 1 mM Ca(2+) is within the lower range of Ca(2+)-concentrations normally measured in xylem sap of many plant species, and three times lower than the original Ca(2+)-concentration measured in the xylem sap of Chrysanthemum plants used for the present measurements. The present results indicate that the complete removal of cations from the xylem fluid with deionized water causes the major part of the ion-mediated flow change previously reported in the xylem of plants. It is concluded that the use of deionized water as a reference fluid should be avoided. Earlier proposed relationships between ion-mediated changes and water flow in xylem of plants should be re-evaluated if they were based on deionized water as the reference fluid.

  6. Minimizing cardiac surgery risks in a Hepatitis C patient: Changing surgical strategy after evaluation by modern imaging technologies.

    PubMed

    Kur, Felix; Beiras-Fernandez, Andres; Oberhoffer, Martin; Nikolaou, Konstantin; Vicol, Calin; Reichart, Bruno

    2009-08-01

    Minimizing operative risks for the surgical team in infectious patients is crucial. We report on a patient suffering from Hepatitis C undergoing re-operative aortic valve and ascending aorta replacement for aortic aneurysm and paravalvular leakage due to recurrent endocarditis of a Smeloff-Cutter aortic ball prosthesis. Preoperative multi-slice computed tomography and real-time three-dimensional echocardiography proved helpful in changing operative strategy by detecting a previously unknown aortic aneurysm, assessing its extent, and demonstrating the close proximity of the right coronary artery, right ventricle, and the aortic aneurysm to the sternum. Thus, cardiopulmonary bypass was instituted via the femoral vessels, instead of conventionally. Location, morphology, and extent of the paravalvular defect could also be assessed.

  7. THE RELIABILITY, MINIMAL DETECTABLE CHANGE AND CONSTRUCT VALIDITY OF A CLINICAL MEASUREMENT FOR IDENTIFYING POSTERIOR SHOULDER TIGHTNESS

    PubMed Central

    Kolber, Morey J.

    2010-01-01

    Purpose/Background: Posterior shoulder tightness (PST) has been implicated in the etiology of numerous shoulder disorders. Therefore, clinicians and researchers must have a reliable and valid method for quantifying PST. The purpose of this study was to investigate the interrater reliability, minimal detectable change at the 90% confidence interval (MDC90) and construct validity of an inclinometric measurement designed to quantify PST. Methods: Two investigators each performed sidelying PST measurements on the non-dominant shoulder of 45 asymptomatic participants in a blinded repeated measures design. Upon completion of the PST measurements, one rater assessed active internal and external rotation for the validity component of the investigation. Results: Interrater reliability using an intraclass correlation coefficient (ICC) model 2,k was good (ICC 5 0.90). The MDC90 indicated that a change of greater than or equal to 9 degrees would be required to be 90% certain that a change in the measurement would not be the result of inter-trial variability or measurement error. Construct validity was evaluated using active internal rotation for convergence and external rotation for discrimination. Construct validity was supported by a good to excellent relationship between PST and internal rotation (r 5 0.88) and by an inverse relationship between PST and external rotation (r 5 20.07). Conclusion: The sidelying procedure described in this investigation appears to be a reliable and valid means for quantifying PST when strict measurement protocols are adhered to. An advantage of this procedure lies in the ability to control scapular position to ensure motion is limited to the glenohumeral joint. Moreover, the use of inclinometry provides an absolute angle of tightness that may be used for intersubject comparison, documenting change, and to determine reference values. Clinicians and researchers should consider the MDC values presented when interpreting change values during

  8. THE 6-MINUTE WALK TEST AND OTHER CLINICAL ENDPOINTS IN DUCHENNE MUSCULAR DYSTROPHY: RELIABILITY, CONCURRENT VALIDITY, AND MINIMAL CLINICALLY IMPORTANT DIFFERENCES FROM A MULTICENTER STUDY

    PubMed Central

    McDonald, Craig M; Henricson, Erik K; Abresch, R Ted; Florence, Julaine; Eagle, Michelle; Gappmaier, Eduard; Glanzman, Allan M; Spiegel, Robert; Barth, Jay; Elfring, Gary; Reha, Allen; Peltz, Stuart W

    2013-01-01

    Introduction: An international clinical trial enrolled 174 ambulatory males ≥5 years old with nonsense mutation Duchenne muscular dystrophy (nmDMD). Pretreatment data provide insight into reliability, concurrent validity, and minimal clinically important differences (MCIDs) of the 6-minute walk test (6MWT) and other endpoints. Methods: Screening and baseline evaluations included the 6-minute walk distance (6MWD), timed function tests (TFTs), quantitative strength by myometry, the PedsQL, heart rate–determined energy expenditure index, and other exploratory endpoints. Results: The 6MWT proved feasible and reliable in a multicenter context. Concurrent validity with other endpoints was excellent. The MCID for 6MWD was 28.5 and 31.7 meters based on 2 statistical distribution methods. Conclusions: The ratio of MCID to baseline mean is lower for 6MWD than for other endpoints. The 6MWD is an optimal primary endpoint for Duchenne muscular dystrophy (DMD) clinical trials that are focused therapeutically on preservation of ambulation and slowing of disease progression. Muscle Nerve 48: 357–368, 2013 PMID:23674289

  9. Urinary messenger RNA of the receptor activator of NF-kappaB could be used to differentiate between minimal change disease and membranous nephropathy.

    PubMed

    Liu, Shuangxin; Mei, Ping; Shi, Wei; Zhang, Bin; Li, Sijia; Liang, Xinling; Ye, Zhiming; Xu, Lixia; Ma, Jianchao; Li, Zhilian; Zhang, Li; Wang, Wenjian; Wang, Liping; Li, Rizhao; Feng, Zhonglin; Dong, Wei; Tao, Yiming

    2014-11-01

    Podocyte damage and loss together have an important role in the pathogenesis and progression of glomerulonephritis. Glomerulonephritis patients and healthy controls were enrolled in this study. Biochemical, clinical and experimental procedures included measurement of total urinary protein, renal biopsy and gene expression analysis of the receptor activator of NF-kappaB (RANK). The urinary mRNA levels of RANK were significantly higher in the glomerulonephritis group compared to the controls. The urinary RANK level of glomerular subtypes was correlated significantly with proteinuria. The calculated area of RANK mRNA levels under the curve was 0.61 for minimal change disease (MCD), 0.97 for membranous nephropathy (MN), 0.65 for IgA nephropathy (IgAN), 0.70 for lupus nephritis (LN) and 0.70 for focal segmental glomerulosclerosis (FSGS). The urinary mRNA of RANK might be used to differentiate histologic subtypes of glomerulonephritis, particularly between MCD and MN.

  10. General Education Reform as Organizational Change: The Importance of Integrating Cultural and Structural Change

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Awbrey, Susan M.

    2005-01-01

    General education reform is one of the most difficult challenges facing higher education institutions because general education is embedded in organizational culture. This paper examines the reform of general education as a process of organizational change and illustrates how deeper, more sustainable reform may be achieved by integrating cultural…

  11. Nephrotic Syndrome without Hematuria due to Infection-Related Glomerulonephritis Mimicking Minimal-Change Disease in a Child.

    PubMed

    Iwafuchi, Yoichi; Morioka, Tetsuo; Morita, Takashi; Watanabe, Kanako; Oyama, Yuko; Narita, Ichiei

    2016-01-01

    Nephrotic syndrome without hematuria due to infection-related glomerulonephritis is uncommon. The present report describes a case of nephrotic syndrome due to infection-related glomerulonephritis without hematuria and hypertension in an older child. A 14-year-old boy was referred to our hospital because of a 5-day history of fever, nausea, weight gain and recent leg edema without hypertension. Laboratory data showed nephrotic-range proteinuria, hypoalbuminemia, mild hypocomplementemia and acute renal injury without hematuria. Although, due to the clinical presentation, minimal-change nephrotic syndrome was mostly suspected, a renal biopsy showed endocapillary hypercellularity mainly of mononuclear cells with segmental mesangiolytic changes. Fine granular IgG and C3 deposits were noted by an immunofluorescent study; many relatively small electron-dense deposits were observed electron-microscopically. These findings led to the diagnosis of nephrotic syndrome due to infection-related endocapillary proliferative glomerulonephritis, although the causative organism of his nephritis was not detected. He recovered with rest and dietary cure. When we examine an acute nephrotic child, infection-related glomerulonephritis should be considered as the differential diagnosis to avoid unnecessary use of corticosteroids.

  12. Nephrotic Syndrome without Hematuria due to Infection-Related Glomerulonephritis Mimicking Minimal-Change Disease in a Child

    PubMed Central

    Iwafuchi, Yoichi; Morioka, Tetsuo; Morita, Takashi; Watanabe, Kanako; Oyama, Yuko; Narita, Ichiei

    2016-01-01

    Nephrotic syndrome without hematuria due to infection-related glomerulonephritis is uncommon. The present report describes a case of nephrotic syndrome due to infection-related glomerulonephritis without hematuria and hypertension in an older child. A 14-year-old boy was referred to our hospital because of a 5-day history of fever, nausea, weight gain and recent leg edema without hypertension. Laboratory data showed nephrotic-range proteinuria, hypoalbuminemia, mild hypocomplementemia and acute renal injury without hematuria. Although, due to the clinical presentation, minimal-change nephrotic syndrome was mostly suspected, a renal biopsy showed endocapillary hypercellularity mainly of mononuclear cells with segmental mesangiolytic changes. Fine granular IgG and C3 deposits were noted by an immunofluorescent study; many relatively small electron-dense deposits were observed electron-microscopically. These findings led to the diagnosis of nephrotic syndrome due to infection-related endocapillary proliferative glomerulonephritis, although the causative organism of his nephritis was not detected. He recovered with rest and dietary cure. When we examine an acute nephrotic child, infection-related glomerulonephritis should be considered as the differential diagnosis to avoid unnecessary use of corticosteroids. PMID:26889476

  13. Nephrotic Syndrome without Hematuria due to Infection-Related Glomerulonephritis Mimicking Minimal-Change Disease in a Child.

    PubMed

    Iwafuchi, Yoichi; Morioka, Tetsuo; Morita, Takashi; Watanabe, Kanako; Oyama, Yuko; Narita, Ichiei

    2016-01-01

    Nephrotic syndrome without hematuria due to infection-related glomerulonephritis is uncommon. The present report describes a case of nephrotic syndrome due to infection-related glomerulonephritis without hematuria and hypertension in an older child. A 14-year-old boy was referred to our hospital because of a 5-day history of fever, nausea, weight gain and recent leg edema without hypertension. Laboratory data showed nephrotic-range proteinuria, hypoalbuminemia, mild hypocomplementemia and acute renal injury without hematuria. Although, due to the clinical presentation, minimal-change nephrotic syndrome was mostly suspected, a renal biopsy showed endocapillary hypercellularity mainly of mononuclear cells with segmental mesangiolytic changes. Fine granular IgG and C3 deposits were noted by an immunofluorescent study; many relatively small electron-dense deposits were observed electron-microscopically. These findings led to the diagnosis of nephrotic syndrome due to infection-related endocapillary proliferative glomerulonephritis, although the causative organism of his nephritis was not detected. He recovered with rest and dietary cure. When we examine an acute nephrotic child, infection-related glomerulonephritis should be considered as the differential diagnosis to avoid unnecessary use of corticosteroids. PMID:26889476

  14. Minimal Change Disease as a Secondary and Reversible Event of a Renal Transplant Case with Systemic Lupus Erythematosus.

    PubMed

    Gkrouzman, Elena; Kirou, Kyriakos A; Seshan, Surya V; Chevalier, James M

    2015-01-01

    Secondary causes of minimal change disease (MCD) account for a minority of cases compared to its primary or idiopathic form and provide ground for consideration of common mechanisms of pathogenesis. In this paper we report a case of a 27-year-old Latina woman, a renal transplant recipient with systemic lupus erythematosus (SLE), who developed nephrotic range proteinuria 6 months after transplantation. The patient had recurrent acute renal failure and multiple biopsies were consistent with MCD. However, she lacked any other features of the typical nephrotic syndrome. An angiogram revealed a right external iliac vein stenosis in the region of renal vein anastomosis, which when restored resulted in normalization of creatinine and relief from proteinuria. We report a rare case of MCD developing secondary to iliac vein stenosis in a renal transplant recipient with SLE. Additionally we suggest that, in the event of biopsy-proven MCD presenting as an atypical nephrotic syndrome, alternative or secondary, potentially reversible, causes should be considered and explored.

  15. Minimal change nephrotic syndrome associated with non-Hodgkin lymphoid disorders: a retrospective study of 18 cases.

    PubMed

    Kofman, Tomek; Zhang, Shao-Yu; Copie-Bergman, Christiane; Moktefi, Anissa; Raimbourg, Quentin; Francois, Hélène; Karras, Alexandre; Plaisier, Emmanuelle; Painchart, Bernard; Favre, Guillaume; Bertrand, Dominique; Gyan, Emmanuel; Souid, Marc; Roos-Weil, Damien; Desvaux, Dominique; Grimbert, Philippe; Haioun, Corinne; Lang, Philippe; Sahali, Djillali; Audard, Vincent

    2014-11-01

    Few studies have examined the occurrence of minimal change nephrotic syndrome (MCNS) in patients with non-Hodgkin lymphoma (NHL). We report here a series of 18 patients with MCNS occurring among 13,992 new cases of NHL. We analyzed the clinical and pathologic characteristics of this association, along with the response of patients to treatment, to determine if this association relies on a particular disorder. The most frequent NHLs associated with MCNS were Waldenström macroglobulinemia (33.3%), marginal zone B-cell lymphoma (27.8%), and chronic lymphocytic leukemia (22.2%). Other lymphoproliferative disorders included multiple myeloma, mantle cell lymphoma, and peripheral T-cell lymphoma. In 4 patients MCNS occurred before NHL (mean delay, 15 mo), in 10 patients the disorders occurred simultaneously, and in 4 patients MCNS was diagnosed after NHL (mean delay, 25 mo). Circulating monoclonal immunoglobulins were present in 11 patients. A nontumoral interstitial infiltrate was present in renal biopsy specimens from 3 patients without significant renal impairment. Acute kidney injury resulting from tubular lesions or renal hypoperfusion was present in 6 patients. MCNS relapse occurred more frequently in patients treated exclusively by steroid therapy (77.8%) than in those receiving steroids associated with chemotherapy (25%). In conclusion, MCNS occurs preferentially in NHL originating from B cells and requires an aggressive therapeutic approach to reduce the risk of MCNS relapse.

  16. Electroencephalographic Changes Associated with Antinociceptive Actions of Lidocaine, Ketamine, Meloxicam, and Morphine Administration in Minimally Anaesthetized Dogs

    PubMed Central

    Hui Cheng, Chen; Meng, Goh Yong; Fakurazi, Sharida; Kaka, Asmatullah; Behan, Atique Ahmed

    2015-01-01

    Effects of ketamine and lidocaine on electroencephalographic (EEG) changes were evaluated in minimally anaesthetized dogs, subjected to electric stimulus. Six dogs were subjected to six treatments in a crossover design with a washout period of one week. Dogs were subjected to intravenous boluses of lidocaine 2 mg/kg, ketamine 3 mg/kg, meloxicam 0.2 mg/kg, morphine 0.2 mg/kg and loading doses of lidocaine 2 mg/kg followed by continuous rate infusion (CRI) of 50 and 100 mcg/kg/min, and ketamine 3 mg/kg followed by CRI of 10 and 50 mcg/kg/min. Electroencephalogram was recorded during electrical stimulation prior to any drug treatment (before treatment) and during electrical stimulation following treatment with the drugs (after treatment) under anaesthesia. Anaesthesia was induced with propofol and maintained with halothane at a stable concentration between 0.85 and 0.95%. Pretreatment median frequency was evidently increased (P < 0.05) for all treatment groups. Lidocaine, ketamine, and morphine depressed the median frequency resulting from the posttreatment stimulation. The depression of median frequency suggested evident antinociceptive effects of these treatments in dogs. It is therefore concluded that lidocaine and ketamine can be used in the analgesic protocol for the postoperative pain management in dogs. PMID:25695060

  17. Case series: CTLA4-IgG1 therapy in minimal change disease and focal segmental glomerulosclerosis

    PubMed Central

    Garin, Eduardo H.; Reiser, Jochen; Cara-Fuentes, Gabriel; Wei, Changli; Matar, Dany; Wang, Heiman; Alachkar, Nada; Johnson, Richard J.

    2014-01-01

    Background Minimal Change Disease (MCD) in relapse is associated with increased podocyte CD80 expression and elevated urinary CD80 excretion, whereas focal segmental glomerulosclerosis (FSGS) has mild or absent CD80 podocyte expression and normal urinary CD80 excretion. Methods One patient with MCD, one patient with primary FSGS and three patients with recurrent FSGS after transplantation received CD80 blocking antibodies (abatacept or belatacept). Urinary CD80 and CTLA-4 were measured by ELISA. Glomeruli were stained for CD80. Results After abatacept, urinary CD80 became undetectable with concomitant transient resolution of proteinuria in the MCD patient. In contrast, proteinuria remained unchanged after abatacept or belatacept therapy in one patient with primary FSGS and in two recurrent FSGS subjects despite the presence of mild CD80 glomerular expression but normal urinary CD80 excretion. One patient with recurrent FSGS after transplantation had elevated urinary CD80 excretion immediately after surgery which fell spontaneously before abatacept. After Abatacept, his proteinuria remained unchanged for 5 days despite normal urinary CD80 excretion. Conclusion These observations are consistent with a role of podocyte CD80 in the development of proteinuria in MCD. In contrast, CD80 may not play a role in recurrent FSGS since urinary CD80 is only increased transiently after surgery and normalization of urinary CD80 did not result in resolution of proteinuria. PMID:25239302

  18. Minimal Change Disease as a Secondary and Reversible Event of a Renal Transplant Case with Systemic Lupus Erythematosus

    PubMed Central

    Gkrouzman, Elena; Kirou, Kyriakos A.; Seshan, Surya V.; Chevalier, James M.

    2015-01-01

    Secondary causes of minimal change disease (MCD) account for a minority of cases compared to its primary or idiopathic form and provide ground for consideration of common mechanisms of pathogenesis. In this paper we report a case of a 27-year-old Latina woman, a renal transplant recipient with systemic lupus erythematosus (SLE), who developed nephrotic range proteinuria 6 months after transplantation. The patient had recurrent acute renal failure and multiple biopsies were consistent with MCD. However, she lacked any other features of the typical nephrotic syndrome. An angiogram revealed a right external iliac vein stenosis in the region of renal vein anastomosis, which when restored resulted in normalization of creatinine and relief from proteinuria. We report a rare case of MCD developing secondary to iliac vein stenosis in a renal transplant recipient with SLE. Additionally we suggest that, in the event of biopsy-proven MCD presenting as an atypical nephrotic syndrome, alternative or secondary, potentially reversible, causes should be considered and explored. PMID:26351598

  19. Angiopoietin-Like-4, a Potential Target of Tacrolimus, Predicts Earlier Podocyte Injury in Minimal Change Disease.

    PubMed

    Li, Jian-Si; Chen, Xiao; Peng, Lei; Wei, Shi-Yao; Zhao, Shi-Lei; Diao, Tian-Tian; He, Yi-Xin; Liu, Fang; Wei, Qiu-Ju; Zhang, Qing-Fang; Li, Bing

    2015-01-01

    Podocyte injury plays central roles in proteinuria and kidney dysfunction, therefore, identifying specific biomarker to evaluate earlier podocyte injury is highly desirable. Podocyte-secreted angiopoietin-like-4 (Angptl4) mediates proteinuria in different types of podocytopathy. In the present study, we established an experimental minimal change disease (MCD) rat model, induced by adriamycin (ADR) and resulted in definite podocyte injury, to identify the dynamic changes in Angptl4 expression. We also investigated the direct effects of tacrolimus on Angptl4 and podocyte repair. We determined that the glomerular Angptl4 expression was rapidly upregulated and reached a peak earlier than desmin, an injured podocyte marker, in the ADR rats. Furthermore, this upregulation occurred prior to heavy proteinuria and was accompanied by increased urinary Angptl4. We observed that the Angptl4 upregulation occurred only when podocyte was mainly damaged since we didn't observe little Angptl4 upregulation in MsPGN patients. In addition, we observed the glomerular Angptl4 mainly located in injured podocytes rather than normal podocytes. Moreover, we found that tacrolimus treatment significantly promoted podocyte repair and reduced glomerular and urinary Angptl4 expression at an earlier stage with a significant serum Angptl4 upregulation. And similar results were confirmed in MCD patients. In conclusion, this study represents the first investigation to demonstrate that Angptl4 can predict podocyte injury at earlier stages in MCD and the identification of earlier podocyte injury biomarkers could facilitate the prompt diagnosis and treatment of patients with podocytopathy, as well as determination of the prognosis and treatment efficacy in these diseases.

  20. Name Changes in Medically Important Fungi and Their Implications for Clinical Practice

    PubMed Central

    de Hoog, G. Sybren; Chaturvedi, Vishnu; Denning, David W.; Dyer, Paul S.; Frisvad, Jens Christian; Geiser, David; Gräser, Yvonne; Guarro, Josep; Haase, Gerhard; Kwon-Chung, Kyung-Joo; Meyer, Wieland; Pitt, John I.; Samson, Robert A.; Tintelnot, Kathrin; Vitale, Roxana G.; Walsh, Thomas J.

    2014-01-01

    Recent changes in the Fungal Code of Nomenclature and developments in molecular phylogeny are about to lead to dramatic changes in the naming of medically important molds and yeasts. In this article, we present a widely supported and simple proposal to prevent unnecessary nomenclatural instability. PMID:25297326

  1. Determining the importance of model calibration for forecasting absolute/relative changes in streamflow from LULC and climate changes

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Niraula, Rewati; Meixner, Thomas; Norman, Laura M.

    2015-01-01

    Land use/land cover (LULC) and climate changes are important drivers of change in streamflow. Assessing the impact of LULC and climate changes on streamflow is typically done with a calibrated and validated watershed model. However, there is a debate on the degree of calibration required. The objective of this study was to quantify the variation in estimated relative and absolute changes in streamflow associated with LULC and climate changes with different calibration approaches. The Soil and Water Assessment Tool (SWAT) was applied in an uncalibrated (UC), single outlet calibrated (OC), and spatially-calibrated (SC) mode to compare the relative and absolute changes in streamflow at 14 gaging stations within the Santa Cruz River Watershed in southern Arizona, USA. For this purpose, the effect of 3 LULC, 3 precipitation (P), and 3 temperature (T) scenarios were tested individually. For the validation period, Percent Bias (PBIAS) values were >100% with the UC model for all gages, the values were between 0% and 100% with the OC model and within 20% with the SC model. Changes in streamflow predicted with the UC and OC models were compared with those of the SC model. This approach implicitly assumes that the SC model is “ideal”. Results indicated that the magnitude of both absolute and relative changes in streamflow due to LULC predicted with the UC and OC results were different than those of the SC model. The magnitude of absolute changes predicted with the UC and SC models due to climate change (both P and T) were also significantly different, but were not different for OC and SC models. Results clearly indicated that relative changes due to climate change predicted with the UC and OC were not significantly different than that predicted with the SC models. This result suggests that it is important to calibrate the model spatially to analyze the effect of LULC change but not as important for analyzing the relative change in streamflow due to climate change. This

  2. Public Perception of Climate Change: The Importance of Knowledge and Cultural Worldviews.

    PubMed

    Shi, Jing; Visschers, Vivianne H M; Siegrist, Michael

    2015-12-01

    The importance of knowledge for lay people's climate change concerns has been questioned in recent years, as it had been suggested that cultural values are stronger predictors of concern about climate change than knowledge. Studies that simultaneously measured knowledge related to climate change and cultural values have, however, been missing. We conducted a mail survey in the German-speaking part of Switzerland (N = 1,065). Results suggested that cultural worldviews and climate-related knowledge were significantly related with people's concern about climate change. Also, cultural worldviews and climate-relevant knowledge appeared important for people's willingness to change behaviors and to accept climate change policies. In addition, different types of knowledge were found to have different impacts on people's concern about climate change, their willingness to change behaviors, and their acceptance of policies about climate change. Specifically, causal knowledge significantly increased concern about climate change and willingness to support climate-friendly policies. We therefore concluded that risk communication should focus on causal knowledge, provided this knowledge does not threaten cultural values.

  3. Public Perception of Climate Change: The Importance of Knowledge and Cultural Worldviews.

    PubMed

    Shi, Jing; Visschers, Vivianne H M; Siegrist, Michael

    2015-12-01

    The importance of knowledge for lay people's climate change concerns has been questioned in recent years, as it had been suggested that cultural values are stronger predictors of concern about climate change than knowledge. Studies that simultaneously measured knowledge related to climate change and cultural values have, however, been missing. We conducted a mail survey in the German-speaking part of Switzerland (N = 1,065). Results suggested that cultural worldviews and climate-related knowledge were significantly related with people's concern about climate change. Also, cultural worldviews and climate-relevant knowledge appeared important for people's willingness to change behaviors and to accept climate change policies. In addition, different types of knowledge were found to have different impacts on people's concern about climate change, their willingness to change behaviors, and their acceptance of policies about climate change. Specifically, causal knowledge significantly increased concern about climate change and willingness to support climate-friendly policies. We therefore concluded that risk communication should focus on causal knowledge, provided this knowledge does not threaten cultural values. PMID:26033253

  4. Comparison of Glomerular Transcriptome Profiles of Adult-Onset Steroid Sensitive Focal Segmental Glomerulosclerosis and Minimal Change Disease

    PubMed Central

    Ren, Hong; Liu, Jian; Zhang, Weijia; Wei, Chengguo; Xu, Jing; Zhang, Wen; Li, Xiao; Wang, Weiming; Lv, Danfeng; He, John Cijiang; Chen, Nan

    2015-01-01

    Objective To search for biomarkers to differentiate primary focal segmental glomerulosclerosis (FSGS) and minimal change disease (MCD). Methods We isolated glomeruli from kidney biopsies of 6 patients with adult-onset steroid sensitiveFSGS and 5 patients with MCD, and compared the profiles of glomerular transcriptomes between the two groups of patients using microarray analysis. Results Analysis of differential expressed genes (DEGs) revealed that up-regulated DEGs in FSGS patients compared with MCD patients were primarily involved in spermatogenesis, gamete generation, regulation of muscle contraction, response to unfolded protein, cell proliferation and skeletal system development. The down-regulated DEGs were primarily related to metabolic process, intracellular transport, oxidation/reduction andestablishment of intracellular localization. We validated the expression of the top 6 up-regulated and top 6 down-regulated DEGs using real-time PCR. Membrane metallo-endopeptidase (MME) is a down-regulated gene that was previously identified as a key gene for kidney development. Immunostaining confirmed that the protein expression of MME decreased significantly in FSGS kidneys compared with MCD kidneys. Conclusions This report was the first study to examine transcriptomes in Chinese patients with various glomerular diseases. Expressions of MME both in RNA and protein level decreased significantly in glomeruli of FSGS kidneys compared with MCD kidneys. Our data suggested that MME might play a role in the normal physiological function of podocytes and a decrease in MME expression might be related to podocyte injury. We also identified genes and pathways specific for FSGS versus MCD, and our data could help identify potential new biomarkers for the differential diagnosis between these two diseases. PMID:26536600

  5. Ecosystem response to climatic change: the importance of the cold season.

    PubMed

    Bokhorst, Stef; Bjerke, Jarle W; Tømmervik, Hans; Preece, Catherine; Phoenix, Gareth K

    2012-01-01

    Winter climate and snow cover are the important drivers of plant community development in polar regions. However, the impacts of changing winter climate and associated changes in snow regime have received much less attention than changes during summer. Here, we synthesize the results from studies on the impacts of extreme winter weather events on polar heathland and lichen communities. Dwarf shrubs, mosses and soil arthropods were negatively impacted by extreme warming events while lichens showed variable responses to changes in extreme winter weather events. Snow mould formation underneath the snow may contribute to spatial heterogeneity in plant growth, arthropod communities and carbon cycling. Winter snow cover and depth will drive the reported impacts of winter climate change and add to spatial patterns in vegetation heterogeneity. The challenges ahead lie in obtaining better predictions on the snow patterns across the landscape and how these will be altered due to winter climate change.

  6. Role of media and peers on body change strategies among adult men: is body size important?

    PubMed

    McCabe, Marita P; McGreevy, Shauna J

    2011-01-01

    There has been limited previous research that has examined the role of sociocultural influences on body change strategies among adult men. The current study investigated the role of specific types of messages (encouragement, teasing and modelling) from peers and the media on the strategies to change weight among adult men. Differences were evaluated between 526 men aged from 18 to 60 years from three groups (normal weight, overweight and obese) on body image, body change strategies and messages about their body received from peers and the media. Men were primarily drawn from United States, Australia and Europe. Results showed that messages received by men regarding losing weight or increasing muscle size differed according to weight. Body image and media messages were the strongest predictors of losing weight, whereas body image importance and messages from peers were the strongest predictors of increasing muscles. These findings highlight the importance of sociocultural influences on body change strategies among adult males.

  7. Nephrotic syndrome; is rituximab the light at the end of the tunnel in the treatment of adult steroid-dependent minimal change disease and focal segmental glomerulosclerosis?

    PubMed

    Kronbichler, Andreas; Mayer, Gert

    2014-01-01

    Implication for health policy/practice/research/medical education: Reports on patients with steroid-dependent nephrotic syndrome and underlying minimal change disease or focal segmental glomerulosclerosis have shown promising results. There is a strong need for more trials conducted in a prospective, controlled manner to clearly recommend rituximab therapy in this indication on a regular basis.

  8. A patient with minimal change disease and acute focal tubulointerstitial nephritis due to traditional medicine: a case report and small literature review.

    PubMed

    Lee, Keun-Hyeun; Jeong, Han-Sol; Rhee, Harin

    2014-01-01

    Gongjin-dan (GJD) is a traditional formula that is widely used in Korea and China, and it has been used from 1345 AD in China to improve the circulation between the kidneys and the heart and to prevent all diseases. However, its adverse effects have not yet been reported. We present a patient with minimal change disease and focal tubulointerstitial nephritis associated with GJD. A 72-year-old man visited the clinic for generalized edema 20 days after starting GJD. His serum albumin level was low and nephrotic-range proteinuria was detected. A kidney biopsy showed minimal change disease and acute tubulointerstitial nephritis. After stopping GJD, a spontaneous complete remission was achieved. We discuss the possible pathogenesis of GJD-induced minimal change disease and review the adverse effects of GJD's ingredients and traditional Chinese medicines that can induce proteinuria. We report a new adverse effect of GJD, which might induce increased IL-13 production and an allergic response, leading to minimal change disease and focal tubulointerstitial nephritis.

  9. Hope and Climate Change: The Importance of Hope for Environmental Engagement among Young People

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Ojala, Maria

    2012-01-01

    Although many young people think climate change is an important societal issue, studies indicate that pessimism is quite common. Finding ways to instill hope could therefore be seen as vital. However, is hope positively related to engagement or is it only a sign of illusory optimism? The aim of the study was to explore if hope concerning climate…

  10. Short-Term Changes in Plans to Drink and Importance of Positive and Negative Alcohol Consequences

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Patrick, Megan E.; Maggs, Jennifer L.

    2008-01-01

    Experienced consequences predicted short-term changes in alcohol use plans and perceptions of the importance of alcohol-related consequences. Participants were 176 traditionally aged first-year university students who completed a 10-week telephone diary study (total weeks=1735). In multi-level models, men and students who experienced more positive…

  11. Change in Moral Outlook Is an Important Topic of Environmental Education

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Suohua, Li

    2004-01-01

    It is a common recognition that humankind is facing an ecological environmental crisis. In order to protect the ecological system, to protect nature and thus to safeguard the continued existence of humankind, not only technological, economic, and managerial measures are needed, but more importantly, a change must take place in people's thinking so…

  12. New insight into the pathogenesis of minimal change nephrotic syndrome: Role of the persistence of respiratory tract virus in immune disorders.

    PubMed

    Zhang, Hui; Wang, Zheng; Dong, Liqun; Guo, Yannan; Wu, Jin; Zhai, Songhui

    2016-07-01

    The pathogenesis of minimal change nephrotic syndrome (MCNS) is a complex clinical problem which, unfortunately, has been in need of significant breakthroughs for decades. Improved understanding of the mechanisms is important to develop effective treatment strategies. To our knowledge, the pathogenesis of MCNS is multifactorial, involving both intrinsic and extrinsic factors, reasonable to be regarded as a "long chain" cascade reaction. Current studies implicating that the disease could probably be caused by immune disorders, however, have focused merely on the middle or terminal of this "long chain". It remains unclear what really triggers the immune disorders. It is noteworthy that the close association of respiratory tract infection with the occurrence, relapse and aggravation of nephrotic syndrome has been confirmed for over two decades. Derived from what we demonstrated in earlier studies, that the persistence of respiratory tract virus may contribute to the onset and development of MCNS, this review summarizes current evidence investigating the possible mechanisms of viral persistence, and discusses the role of viral persistence in the pathogenesis of MCNS. The key point is: whether the persistence of respiratory tract virus results in immune disorders. The available evidence under review also highlight the fact that the background of genetic susceptibility to the disease was found in many patients, which could be triggered by extrinsic factors, e.g. by the infection of respiratory tract virus.

  13. Dangerous climate change and the importance of adaptation for the Arctic's Inuit population

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Ford, James D.

    2009-04-01

    The Arctic's climate is changing rapidly, to the extent that 'dangerous' climate change as defined by the United Nations Framework on Climate Change might already be occurring. These changes are having implications for the Arctic's Inuit population and are being exacerbated by the dependence of Inuit on biophysical resources for livelihoods and the low socio-economic-health status of many northern communities. Given the nature of current climate change and projections of a rapidly warming Arctic, climate policy assumes a particular importance for Inuit regions. This paper argues that efforts to stabilize and reduce greenhouse gas emissions are urgent if we are to avoid runaway climate change in the Arctic, but unlikely to prevent changes which will be dangerous for Inuit. In this context, a new policy discourse on climate change is required for Arctic regions—one that focuses on adaptation. The paper demonstrates that states with Inuit populations and the international community in general has obligations to assist Inuit to adapt to climate change through international human rights and climate change treaties. However, the adaptation deficit, in terms of what we know and what we need to know to facilitate successful adaptation, is particularly large in an Arctic context and limiting the ability to develop response options. Moreover, adaptation as an option of response to climate change is still marginal in policy negotiations and Inuit political actors have been slow to argue the need for adaptation assistance. A new focus on adaptation in both policy negotiations and scientific research is needed to enhance Inuit resilience and reduce vulnerability in a rapidly changing climate.

  14. Importance of the glucocorticoid stress response in a changing world: theory, hypotheses and perspectives.

    PubMed

    Angelier, Frédéric; Wingfield, John C

    2013-09-01

    In this perspective paper, we emphasize the importance that integrative mechanisms, and especially the GC (glucocorticoid) stress response, can play in the ability of vertebrates to cope with ongoing global change. The GC stress response is an essential mediator of allostasis (i.e., the responses of an organism to a perturbation) that aims at maintaining stability (homeostasis) despite changing conditions. The GC stress response is a complex mechanism that depends on several physiological components and aims at promoting immediate survival at the expense of other life-history components (e.g., reproduction) when a labile perturbation factor (LPF) occurs. Importantly, this mechanism is somewhat flexible and its degree of activation can be adjusted to the fitness costs and benefits that result from the GC stress response. Therefore, this GC stress response mediates life-history decisions and is involved in the regulation of important life-history trade-offs. By inducing abrupt and rapid changes in the regime of LPFs, we believe that global change can affect the efficiency of the GC stress response to maintain homeostasis and to appropriately regulate these trades-offs. This dysfunction may result in an important mismatch between new LPFs and the associated GC stress response and, thus, in the inability of vertebrates to cope with a changing world. In that context, it is essential to better understand how the GC stress response can be adjusted to new LPFs through micro-evolution, phenotypic plasticity and phenotypic flexibility (habituation and sensitization). This paper sets up a theoretical framework, hypotheses and new perspectives that will allow testing and better understanding how the GC stress response can help or constrain individuals, populations and species to adjust to ongoing global change.

  15. The importance of phylogeny to the study of phenological response to global climate change.

    PubMed

    Davis, Charles C; Willis, Charles G; Primack, Richard B; Miller-Rushing, Abraham J

    2010-10-12

    Climate change has resulted in major changes in the phenology--i.e. the timing of seasonal activities, such as flowering and bird migration--of some species but not others. These differential responses have been shown to result in ecological mismatches that can have negative fitness consequences. However, the ways in which climate change has shaped changes in biodiversity within and across communities are not well understood. Here, we build on our previous results that established a link between plant species' phenological response to climate change and a phylogenetic bias in species' decline in the eastern United States. We extend a similar approach to plant and bird communities in the United States and the UK that further demonstrates that climate change has differentially impacted species based on their phylogenetic relatedness and shared phenological responses. In plants, phenological responses to climate change are often shared among closely related species (i.e. clades), even between geographically disjunct communities. And in some cases, this has resulted in a phylogenetically biased pattern of non-native species success. In birds, the pattern of decline is phylogenetically biased but is not solely explained by phenological response, which suggests that other traits may better explain this pattern. These results illustrate the ways in which phylogenetic thinking can aid in making generalizations of practical importance and enhance efforts to predict species' responses to future climate change.

  16. Estimating the Importance of Private Adaptation to Climate Change in Agriculture: A Review of Empirical Methods

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Moore, F.; Burke, M.

    2015-12-01

    A wide range of studies using a variety of methods strongly suggest that climate change will have a negative impact on agricultural production in many areas. Farmers though should be able to learn about a changing climate and to adjust what they grow and how they grow it in order to reduce these negative impacts. However, it remains unclear how effective these private (autonomous) adaptations will be, or how quickly they will be adopted. Constraining the uncertainty on this adaptation is important for understanding the impacts of climate change on agriculture. Here we review a number of empirical methods that have been proposed for understanding the rate and effectiveness of private adaptation to climate change. We compare these methods using data on agricultural yields in the United States and western Europe.

  17. The Importance of Contexts in Strategies of Environmental Organizations with Regard to Climate Change

    PubMed

    Pleune

    1997-09-01

    / The purpose of the study was to investigate the extent to which strategies of environmental organizations depend on contexts. I examined this dependence by analyzing the strategies of five environmental organizations in the Netherlands with regard to climate change. These strategies were investigated over time and compared with the strategies these organizations had used in relation to ozone depletion and acidification. The results indicate that several of the organizations changed their strategies with respect to climate change over time. Furthermore, different strategies were used simultaneously in relation to the three problems. The findings suggest that strategies concerning climate change were to a considerable extent determined by the dominant framing of the problem in society. This framing was defined mainly by actors other than environmental organizations. The initial framing of climate change as a CO2 problem, which brought the issue into the energy debate, as well as the more general definition of the problem in the late 1980s as a greenhouse problem, were very important for determining the strategies of the organizations. It can be concluded that strategies of Dutch environmental organizations with regard to climate change were strongly dependent on the context.KEY WORDS: Environmental organization; Strategy; Climate change; Man-nature relationship; Problem definition; Context

  18. Global environmental change effects on ecosystems: the importance of land-use legacies.

    PubMed

    Perring, Michael P; De Frenne, Pieter; Baeten, Lander; Maes, Sybryn L; Depauw, Leen; Blondeel, Haben; Carón, María M; Verheyen, Kris

    2016-04-01

    One of the major challenges in ecology is to predict how multiple global environmental changes will affect future ecosystem patterns (e.g. plant community composition) and processes (e.g. nutrient cycling). Here, we highlight arguments for the necessary inclusion of land-use legacies in this endeavour. Alterations in resources and conditions engendered by previous land use, together with influences on plant community processes such as dispersal, selection, drift and speciation, have steered communities and ecosystem functions onto trajectories of change. These trajectories may be modulated by contemporary environmental changes such as climate warming and nitrogen deposition. We performed a literature review which suggests that these potential interactions have rarely been investigated. This crucial oversight is potentially due to an assumption that knowledge of the contemporary state allows accurate projection into the future. Lessons from other complex dynamic systems, and the recent recognition of the importance of previous conditions in explaining contemporary and future ecosystem properties, demand the testing of this assumption. Vegetation resurvey databases across gradients of land use and environmental change, complemented by rigorous experiments, offer a means to test for interactions between land-use legacies and multiple environmental changes. Implementing these tests in the context of a trait-based framework will allow biologists to synthesize compositional and functional ecosystem responses. This will further our understanding of the importance of land-use legacies in determining future ecosystem properties, and soundly inform conservation and restoration management actions. PMID:26546049

  19. Global environmental change effects on ecosystems: the importance of land-use legacies.

    PubMed

    Perring, Michael P; De Frenne, Pieter; Baeten, Lander; Maes, Sybryn L; Depauw, Leen; Blondeel, Haben; Carón, María M; Verheyen, Kris

    2016-04-01

    One of the major challenges in ecology is to predict how multiple global environmental changes will affect future ecosystem patterns (e.g. plant community composition) and processes (e.g. nutrient cycling). Here, we highlight arguments for the necessary inclusion of land-use legacies in this endeavour. Alterations in resources and conditions engendered by previous land use, together with influences on plant community processes such as dispersal, selection, drift and speciation, have steered communities and ecosystem functions onto trajectories of change. These trajectories may be modulated by contemporary environmental changes such as climate warming and nitrogen deposition. We performed a literature review which suggests that these potential interactions have rarely been investigated. This crucial oversight is potentially due to an assumption that knowledge of the contemporary state allows accurate projection into the future. Lessons from other complex dynamic systems, and the recent recognition of the importance of previous conditions in explaining contemporary and future ecosystem properties, demand the testing of this assumption. Vegetation resurvey databases across gradients of land use and environmental change, complemented by rigorous experiments, offer a means to test for interactions between land-use legacies and multiple environmental changes. Implementing these tests in the context of a trait-based framework will allow biologists to synthesize compositional and functional ecosystem responses. This will further our understanding of the importance of land-use legacies in determining future ecosystem properties, and soundly inform conservation and restoration management actions.

  20. Update: US oil-import market. 1982 top 7 suppliers to US import market: how their shares changed since 1973

    SciTech Connect

    Not Available

    1983-03-09

    This issue updates the Energy Detente 7/09/82, which tracked US oil imports since the Arab Oil Embargo. Since then, the phrase oil glut became common even among cautious market analysts as many exporters, hard-pressed for petrodollars, produced much more than the market was prepared to absorb. To examine how the US import market has adjusted to this continued buyers market, the top seven suppliers of 1982 are tracked backwards through time. A graph shows the 1982 reversal of Mexico's and Saudi Arabia's positions in this market. The three main reasons for Mexico's strong present position in the US market are: crude costs and corresponding refined value; proximity to US refining centers; and strategic importance of Mexico's economic stability through oil sales. Interviews with various US refiners and other market observers confirm that these elements will persist during 1983, regardless of significant price cuts among OPEC and other producers. It is believed that the profitability of running heavy Maya crude in sophisticated plants will continue to look optimistic, and that Mexican crude sales to the Strategic Petroleum Reserve implies US government interest in Mexico's economic recovery, and in its stability in the light of civil wars being waged in Central America. This issue presents the Energy Detente (1) fuel price/tax series and (2) industrial fuel prices for March 1983 for countries of the Eastern Hemisphere. 6 figures, 8 tables.

  1. Importance of choosing a change of support model for global reserves estimation

    SciTech Connect

    Lantuejoul, C.

    1988-11-01

    The practical problem considered here is: how can block distribution in an ore body be forecast from sample data. The task is arduous because information yielded by samples is too often insufficient to allow an accurate evaluation of blocks. In practice, necessary additional information is obtained via a model. Choosing that model is crucial; the value of results reflects the model, i.e., its adequacy to represent reality. In this paper, the importance of choosing the change of support model is illustrated with simulations and practical examples (especially deposits with a skewed sample distribution and a large spike at the origin). An attempt to quantify this importance is made also.

  2. Greenland during the last interglacial: the relative importance of insolation and oceanic changes

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Pedersen, Rasmus A.; Langen, Peter L.; Vinther, Bo M.

    2016-09-01

    Insolation changes during the Eemian (the last interglacial period, 129 000-116 000 years before present) resulted in warmer than present conditions in the Arctic region. The NEEM ice core record suggests warming of 8 ± 4 K in northwestern Greenland based on stable water isotopes. Here we use general circulation model experiments to investigate the causes of the Eemian warming in Greenland. Simulations of the atmospheric response to combinations of Eemian insolation and preindustrial oceanic conditions and vice versa are used to disentangle the impacts of the insolation change and the related changes in sea surface temperatures and sea ice conditions. The changed oceanic conditions cause warming throughout the year, prolonging the impact of the summertime insolation increase. Consequently, the oceanic conditions cause an annual mean warming of 2 K at the NEEM site, whereas the insolation alone causes an insignificant change. Taking the precipitation changes into account, however, the insolation and oceanic changes cause more comparable increases in the precipitation-weighted temperature, implying that both contributions are important for the ice core record at the NEEM site. The simulated Eemian precipitation-weighted warming of 2.4 K at the NEEM site is low compared to the ice core reconstruction, partially due to missing feedbacks related to ice sheet changes and an extensive sea ice cover. Surface mass balance calculations with an energy balance model further indicate that the combination of temperature and precipitation anomalies leads to potential mass loss in the north and southwestern parts of the ice sheet. The oceanic conditions favor increased accumulation in the southeast, while the insolation appears to be the dominant cause of the expected ice sheet reduction. Consequently, the Eemian is not a suitable analogue for future ice sheet changes.

  3. The importance of chill rate when characterising colour change of lamb meat during retail display.

    PubMed

    Jacob, R H; Thomson, K L

    2012-02-01

    An experiment was conducted to compare the effect of two chilling rates (Con and Fast) on colour change of lamb meat during simulated retail display. Measurements were made on 3 muscles; LD (m. longisimuss dorsi), SM (m semimembranosus) and ST (m. semitendinous). Meat samples from 32 Merino crossbred lambs were vacuum packed and stored for 5 days at 2 °C, then cut and overwrapped in polyvinyl chloride film on black polystyrene trays, stored in a display cabinet at 4 °C with lights on and measured twice daily for 4 days, using a Hunterlab minilab 45/20L D65, aperture 10°. Sarcomere length was shorter, shear force higher and colour change greater in meat from the Fast treatment compared to the Con treatment. Colour differences between treatments were likely due to oxygenation (bloom) as well as oxidation effects. Chill rate is important when characterising colour change during display and should be considered in measurement protocols.

  4. Bilateral Achilles Tendon Ruptures Associated With Ciprofloxacin Use in the Setting of Minimal Change Disease: Case Report and Review of the Literature.

    PubMed

    Kawtharani, Firas; Masrouha, Karim Z; Afeiche, Nadim

    2016-01-01

    Fluoroquinolones are widely used antibiotics; however, numerous side effects have been reported in published studies, including a spectrum of tendinopathies, affecting numerous anatomic sites. Several risk factors have been identified, including advanced age (>60 years), corticosteroid use, renal failure or dialysis, female sex, and nonobesity. We present the case of an elderly male with minimal change disease treated with glucocorticoids and acute kidney injury, who sustained spontaneous nontraumatic bilateral Achilles tendon tears 4 days after initiating ciprofloxacin.

  5. Minimizing casualties in biological and chemical threats (war and terrorism): the importance of information to the public in a prevention program.

    PubMed

    Noy, Shabtai

    2004-01-01

    The most effective means of defending against biological or chemical warfare, whether in war or as a result of terror, is the use of primary prevention. The main goal of such a prevention program is to minimize the human loss by reducing the number of casualties (fatalities, physical wounds, and psychological injury). A secondary objective is to prevent the widespread sense of helplessness in the general population. These two aims complement each other. The more the public is active in defending itself, rather than viewing itself as helpless, the lesser the expected number of casualties of any kind. In order to achieve these two goals, educating the civilian population about risk factors and pointing out appropriate defensive strategies is critical. In the absence of an effective prevention program and active participation by the public, there is a high risk for massive numbers of physical and psychological casualties. An essential ingredient of any preventive program, which ultimately may determine the success or failure of all other protective actions, is early, gradual dissemination of information and guidance to the public, so that citizens can become active participants in the program. The public needs to be given information concerning the nature of the threat and effective methods of coping with it, should an unconventional attack occur. Lack of such adaptive behavior (such as wearing protective gear) is likely to bring about vast numbers of physical and psychological casualties. These large numbers may burden the medical, political, and public safety systems beyond their ability to manage. Failure to provide reasonable prevention and effective interventions can lead to a destruction of the social and emotional fabric of individuals and the society. Furthermore, inadequate preparation, education, and communication can result in the development of damaging mistrust of the political and military leadership, disintegration of social and political structures

  6. Minimal Reduplication

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Kirchner, Jesse Saba

    2010-01-01

    This dissertation introduces Minimal Reduplication, a new theory and framework within generative grammar for analyzing reduplication in human language. I argue that reduplication is an emergent property in multiple components of the grammar. In particular, reduplication occurs independently in the phonology and syntax components, and in both cases…

  7. The importance of climate change and nitrogen use efficiency for future nitrous oxide emissions from agriculture

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Kanter, David R.; Zhang, Xin; Mauzerall, Denise L.; Malyshev, Sergey; Shevliakova, Elena

    2016-09-01

    Nitrous oxide (N2O) is an important greenhouse gas and ozone depleting substance. Previous projections of agricultural N2O (the dominant anthropogenic source) show emissions changing in tandem, or at a faster rate than changes in nitrogen (N) consumption. However, recent studies suggest that the carbon dioxide (CO2) fertilization effect may increase plant N uptake, which could decrease soil N losses and dampen increases in N2O. To evaluate this hypothesis at a global scale, we use a process-based land model with a coupled carbon-nitrogen cycle to examine how changes in climatic factors, land-use, and N application rates could affect agricultural N2O emissions by 2050. Assuming little improvement in N use efficiency (NUE), the model projects a 24%–31% increase in global agricultural N2O emissions by 2040–2050 depending on the climate scenario—a relatively moderate increase compared to the projected increases in N inputs (42%–44%) and previously published emissions projections (38%–75%). This occurs largely because the CO2 fertilization effect enhances plant N uptake in several regions, which subsequently dampens N2O emissions. And yet, improvements in NUE could still deliver important environmental benefits by 2050: equivalent to 10 Pg CO2 equivalent and 0.6 Tg ozone depletion potential.

  8. The changing brain: Neuroscience and the enduring import of everyday experience

    PubMed Central

    Martin, Paul; Cunningham-Burley, Sarah

    2015-01-01

    Discourses of ‘neuroplasticity’ have become increasingly apparent in the neurosciences and wider society. These connect with broader narratives about the ‘changing brain’ throughout the life-course. Here, we explore their presence in the talk of a range of publics. Their presence is indicative of how novel neuroscience is accepted, or not, by our participants. In particular, we suggest that any acceptance of the science relates to their personal and/or professional experiences of change (to their own or others’ subjectivities) rather than to some intrinsic and widely-held significance of scientific concepts per se. Accordingly, we also submit that it is in part through the congruence of some neuroscientific claims to everyday experiences and perspectives that the former are rendered legible and salient. In this respect, ‘lay’ knowledge has considerable import for the wider cultural authorisation of that of ‘experts’. PMID:24598481

  9. The changing brain: Neuroscience and the enduring import of everyday experience.

    PubMed

    Pickersgill, Martyn; Martin, Paul; Cunningham-Burley, Sarah

    2015-10-01

    Discourses of 'neuroplasticity' have become increasingly apparent in the neurosciences and wider society. These connect with broader narratives about the 'changing brain' throughout the life-course. Here, we explore their presence in the talk of a range of publics. Their presence is indicative of how novel neuroscience is accepted, or not, by our participants. In particular, we suggest that any acceptance of the science relates to their personal and/or professional experiences of change (to their own or others' subjectivities) rather than to some intrinsic and widely-held significance of scientific concepts per se. Accordingly, we also submit that it is in part through the congruence of some neuroscientific claims to everyday experiences and perspectives that the former are rendered legible and salient. In this respect, 'lay' knowledge has considerable import for the wider cultural authorisation of that of 'experts'.

  10. Ongoing change of site conditions important for sustainable forest management planning

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Bidló, András; Horváth, Adrienn; Gulyás, Krisztina; Gálos, Borbála

    2016-04-01

    Observed tree mortality of the last decades has shown that the vulnerable forest ecosystems are especially affected by the recurrent, long lasting droughts, heat waves and their consequences. From all site conditions climate is changing the fastest, in this way it can be the largest threatening factor in the 21st century. Beyond climate, soil characteristics are playing an important influencing role. Until now, silvicultural technologies and species preferences of many countries are prescribed by binding regulation based on climate conditions that are assumed to be constant over time. Therefore the aim of our research was to investigate the ongoing and projected change of site conditions that are considered to be of primary importance in terms of tree species selection. For a case study region in Hungary (Keszthely Mountains, near to Lake Balaton) long-term climate tendencies have been determined for the period 1961-2100, as well as a detailed soil sample analysis has been carried out including ~100 sites. Results show a 0.5 degree increase of temperature and a 6-7 % decrease of the precipitation amount for the summer months in the last decades. For the future, significant warming and drying of summers is expected. Decrease of the summer precipitation sum can exceed 25 % until the end of the century, probability of extreme hot days may increase. These tendencies together with the unfavourable soil conditions and biotic damages can be the reason of the ongoing forest dieback. One of the characteristic soil type of the region is rendzina with a thin topsoil layer and an unfavourable water holding capacity. These properties are limiting the amount of available water for plants, especially in case of intense precipitation events. Black pine stands planted on rendzinas after many years of grazing; therefore erosion may have played a significant role. Not only microclimate conditions but also soil types show a large diversity within a relatively small distance. However

  11. Version changes in medical software: proposing minimal requirements for release notes and a version number convention - an operators' point of view.

    PubMed

    Ahlbrandt, Janko; Bott, Constantin; Moll, Peter; Naziyok, Tolga; Majeed, Raphael W; Röhrig, Rainer

    2015-01-01

    Medical software--like any other software--is susceptible to errors. To avoid false system behaviour or attenuate its consequences, system operators need to know about changes in the software. The goal of this proposal is to define terms and minimum requirements regarding documentation for a version change from the operator's point of view, especially in the domain of medical software or software as a medical device (SaMD). The results are a classification of version changes (Upgrade: breaks support for a rollback to a prior version, Major Update: either substantial configuration or user education needed, Minor Update: minor configuration or user information needed, Patch: collection of (small) changes that require neither configuration nor user information.). Additionally, minimal requirements for release notes are determined and a document structure recommended.

  12. Is climate an important driver of post-European vegetation change in the Eastern United States?

    PubMed

    Nowacki, Gregory J; Abrams, Marc D

    2015-01-01

    Many ecological phenomena combine to direct vegetation trends over time, with climate and disturbance playing prominent roles. To help decipher their relative importance during Euro-American times, we employed a unique approach whereby tree species/genera were partitioned into temperature, shade tolerance, and pyrogenicity classes and applied to comparative tree-census data. Our megadata analysis of 190 datasets determined the relative impacts of climate vs. altered disturbance regimes for various biomes across the eastern United States. As the Euro-American period (ca. 1500 to today) spans two major climatic periods, from Little Ice Age to the Anthropocene, vegetation changes consistent with warming were expected. In most cases, however, European disturbance overrode regional climate, but in a manner that varied across the Tension Zone Line. To the north, intensive and expansive early European disturbance resulted in the ubiquitous loss of conifers and large increases of Acer, Populus, and Quercus in northern hardwoods, whereas to the south, these disturbances perpetuated the dominance of Quercus in central hardwoods. Acer increases and associated mesophication in Quercus-Pinus systems were delayed until mid 20th century fire suppression. This led to significant warm to cool shifts in temperature class where cool-adapted Acer saccharum increased and temperature neutral changes where warm-adapted Acer rubrum increased. In both cases, these shifts were attributed to fire suppression rather than climate change. Because mesophication is ongoing, eastern US forests formed during the catastrophic disturbance era followed by fire suppression will remain in climate disequilibrium into the foreseeable future. Overall, the results of our study suggest that altered disturbance regimes rather than climate had the greatest influence on vegetation composition and dynamics in the eastern United States over multiple centuries. Land-use change often trumped or negated the impacts

  13. Is climate an important driver of post-European vegetation change in the Eastern United States?

    PubMed

    Nowacki, Gregory J; Abrams, Marc D

    2015-01-01

    Many ecological phenomena combine to direct vegetation trends over time, with climate and disturbance playing prominent roles. To help decipher their relative importance during Euro-American times, we employed a unique approach whereby tree species/genera were partitioned into temperature, shade tolerance, and pyrogenicity classes and applied to comparative tree-census data. Our megadata analysis of 190 datasets determined the relative impacts of climate vs. altered disturbance regimes for various biomes across the eastern United States. As the Euro-American period (ca. 1500 to today) spans two major climatic periods, from Little Ice Age to the Anthropocene, vegetation changes consistent with warming were expected. In most cases, however, European disturbance overrode regional climate, but in a manner that varied across the Tension Zone Line. To the north, intensive and expansive early European disturbance resulted in the ubiquitous loss of conifers and large increases of Acer, Populus, and Quercus in northern hardwoods, whereas to the south, these disturbances perpetuated the dominance of Quercus in central hardwoods. Acer increases and associated mesophication in Quercus-Pinus systems were delayed until mid 20th century fire suppression. This led to significant warm to cool shifts in temperature class where cool-adapted Acer saccharum increased and temperature neutral changes where warm-adapted Acer rubrum increased. In both cases, these shifts were attributed to fire suppression rather than climate change. Because mesophication is ongoing, eastern US forests formed during the catastrophic disturbance era followed by fire suppression will remain in climate disequilibrium into the foreseeable future. Overall, the results of our study suggest that altered disturbance regimes rather than climate had the greatest influence on vegetation composition and dynamics in the eastern United States over multiple centuries. Land-use change often trumped or negated the impacts

  14. Minimally Invasive Valve Surgery

    PubMed Central

    Pope, Nicolas H.; Ailawadi, Gorav

    2014-01-01

    Cardiac valve surgery is life saving for many patients. The advent of minimally invasive surgical techniques has historically allowed for improvement in both post-operative convalescence and important clinical outcomes. The development of minimally invasive cardiac valve repair and replacement surgery over the past decade is poised to revolutionize the care of cardiac valve patients. Here, we present a review of the history and current trends in minimally invasive aortic and mitral valve repair and replacement, including the development of sutureless bioprosthetic valves. PMID:24797148

  15. Implementing climate change mitigation in health services: the importance of context.

    PubMed

    Desmond, Sharon

    2016-10-01

    Academic interest in strategies to reduce the impact of health services on climate change is quickening. Research has largely focused on local innovations with little consideration of the contextual and systemic elements that influence sustainable development across health systems. A realistic framework specifically to guide decision-making by health care providers is still needed. To address this deficit, the literature is explored in relation to health services and climate change mitigation strategies, and the contextual factors that influence efforts to mitigate climate effects in health service delivery environments are highlighted. A conceptual framework is proposed that offers a model for the pursuit of sustainable development practice in health services. A set of propositions is advanced to provide a systems approach to assist decision-making by decoding the challenges faced in implementing sustainable health services. This has important implications for health care providers, funders and legislators since the financial, policy and regulatory environment of health care, along with its leadership and models of care generally conflict with carbon literacy and climate change mitigation strategies.

  16. Implementing climate change mitigation in health services: the importance of context.

    PubMed

    Desmond, Sharon

    2016-10-01

    Academic interest in strategies to reduce the impact of health services on climate change is quickening. Research has largely focused on local innovations with little consideration of the contextual and systemic elements that influence sustainable development across health systems. A realistic framework specifically to guide decision-making by health care providers is still needed. To address this deficit, the literature is explored in relation to health services and climate change mitigation strategies, and the contextual factors that influence efforts to mitigate climate effects in health service delivery environments are highlighted. A conceptual framework is proposed that offers a model for the pursuit of sustainable development practice in health services. A set of propositions is advanced to provide a systems approach to assist decision-making by decoding the challenges faced in implementing sustainable health services. This has important implications for health care providers, funders and legislators since the financial, policy and regulatory environment of health care, along with its leadership and models of care generally conflict with carbon literacy and climate change mitigation strategies. PMID:27095136

  17. Is the 1-minute sit-to-stand test a good tool for the evaluation of the impact of pulmonary rehabilitation? Determination of the minimal important difference in COPD

    PubMed Central

    Vaidya, Trija; de Bisschop, Claire; Beaumont, Marc; Ouksel, Hakima; Jean, Véronique; Dessables, François; Chambellan, Arnaud

    2016-01-01

    Background The 1-minute sit-to-stand (STS) test could be valuable to assess the level of exercise tolerance in chronic obstructive pulmonary disease (COPD). There is a need to provide the minimal important difference (MID) of this test in pulmonary rehabilitation (PR). Methods COPD patients undergoing the 1-minute STS test before PR were included. The test was performed at baseline and the end of PR, as well as the 6-minute walk test, and the quadriceps maximum voluntary contraction (QMVC). Home and community-based programs were conducted as recommended. Responsiveness to PR was determined by the difference in the 1-minute STS test between baseline and the end of PR. The MID was evaluated using distribution and anchor-based methods. Results Forty-eight COPD patients were included. At baseline, the significant predictors of the number of 1-minute STS repetitions were the 6-minute walk distance (6MWD) (r=0.574; P<10−3), age (r=−0.453; P=0.001), being on long-term oxygen treatment (r=−0.454; P=0.017), and the QMVC (r=0.424; P=0.031). The multivariate analysis explained 75.8% of the variance of 1-minute STS repetitions. The improvement of the 1-minute STS repetitions at the end of PR was 3.8±4.2 (P<10−3). It was mainly correlated with the change in QMVC (r=0.572; P=0.004) and 6MWD (r=0.428; P=0.006). Using the distribution-based analysis, an MID of 1.9 (standard error of measurement method) or 3.1 (standard deviation method) was found. With the 6MWD as anchor, the receiver operating characteristic curve identified the MID for the change in 1-minute STS repetitions at 2.5 (sensibility: 80%, specificity: 60%) with area under curve of 0.716. Conclusion The 1-minute STS test is simple and sensitive to measure the efficiency of PR. An improvement of at least three repetitions is consistent with physical benefits after PR. PMID:27799759

  18. Quantifying area changes of internationally important wetlands due to water consumption in LCA.

    PubMed

    Verones, Francesca; Pfister, Stephan; Hellweg, Stefanie

    2013-09-01

    Wetlands harbor diverse species assemblages but are among the world's most threatened ecosystems. Half of their global area was lost during the last century. No approach currently exists in life cycle impact assessment that acknowledges the vulnerability and importance of wetlands globally and provides fate factors for water consumption. We use data from 1184 inland wetlands, all designated as sites of international importance under the Ramsar Convention, to develop regionalized fate factors (FF) for consumptive water use. FFs quantify the change of wetland area caused per m(3)/yr water consumed. We distinguish between surface water-fed and groundwater-fed wetlands and develop FFs for surface water and groundwater consumption. FFs vary over 8 (surface water-fed) and 6 (groundwater-fed) orders of magnitude as a function of the site characteristics, showing the importance of local conditions. Largest FFs for surface water-fed wetlands generally occur in hyper-arid zones and smallest in humid zones, highlighting the dependency on available surface water flows. FFs for groundwater-fed wetlands depend on hydrogeological conditions and vary largely with the total amount of water consumed from the aquifer. Our FFs translate water consumption into wetland area loss and thus become compatible with life cycle assessment methodologies of land use.

  19. Evolutionary changes of the importance of olfaction in cetaceans based on the olfactory marker protein gene.

    PubMed

    Kishida, Takushi; Thewissen, J G M

    2012-01-25

    Odontocetes and mysticetes are two extant suborders of cetaceans. It is reported that the former have no sense of olfaction, while the latter can smell in air. To explain the ecological reason why mysticetes still retain their sense of smell, two hypotheses have been proposed - the echolocation-priority hypothesis, which assumes that the acquisition of echolocation causes the reduction of the importance of olfaction, and the filter-feeder hypothesis, which assumes that olfactory ability is important for filter-feeders to locate their prey because clouds of plankton give off a peculiar odor. The olfactory marker protein (OMP) is almost exclusively expressed in vertebrate olfactory receptor neurons, and is considered to play important roles in olfactory systems. In this study, full-length open reading frames of OMP genes were identified in 6 cetacean species and we analyzed the nonsynonymous to synonymous substitution rate ratio based on the maximum likelihood method. The evolutionary changes of the selective pressures on OMP genes did fit better to the filter-feeder hypothesis than to the echolocation-priority hypothesis. In addition, no pseudogenization mutations are found in all five odontocetes OMP genes investigated in this study. It may suggest that OMP retains some function even in 'anosmic' odontocetes.

  20. Mutations M287L and Q266I in the Glycine Receptor α1 Subunit Change Sensitivity to Volatile Anesthetics in Oocytes and Neurons, but Not the Minimal Alveolar Concentration in Knockin Mice

    PubMed Central

    Borghese, Cecilia M.; Xiong, Wei; Oh, S. Irene; Ho, Angel; Mihic, S. John; Zhang, Li; Lovinger, David M.; Homanics, Gregg E.; Eger, Edmond I; Harris, R. Adron

    2012-01-01

    Background Volatile anesthetics (VAs) alter the function of key central nervous system proteins but it is not clear which, if any, of these targets mediates the immobility produced by VAs in the face of noxious stimulation. A leading candidate is the glycine receptor, a ligand-gated ion channel important for spinal physiology. VAs variously enhance such function, and blockade of spinal GlyRs with strychnine affects the minimal alveolar concentration (an anesthetic EC50) in proportion to the degree of enhancement. Methods We produced single amino acid mutations into the glycine receptorα1 subunit that increased (M287L, third transmembrane region) or decreased (Q266I, second transmembrane region) sensitivity to isoflurane in recombinant receptors, and introduced such receptors into mice. The resulting knockin mice presented impaired glycinergic transmission, but heterozygous animals survived to adulthood, and we determined the effect of isoflurane on glycine-evoked responses of brain stem neurons from the knockin mice, and the minimal alveolar concentration for isoflurane and other VAs in the immature and mature knockin mice. Results Studies of glycine-evoked currents in brain stem neurons from knock-in mice confirmed the changes seen with recombinant receptors. No increases in the minimal alveolar concentration were found in knockin mice, but the minimal alveolar concentration for isoflurane and enflurane (but not halothane) decreased in 2-week-old Q266I mice. This change is opposite to the one expected for a mutation that decreases the sensitivity to volatile anesthetics. Conclusion Taken together, these results indicate that glycine receptors containing the α1 subunit are not likely to be crucial for the action of isoflurane and other VAs. PMID:22885675

  1. The importance of vegetation change in the prediction of future tropical cyclone flood statistics

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Irish, J. L.; Resio, D.; Bilskie, M. V.; Hagen, S. C.; Weiss, R.

    2015-12-01

    Global sea level rise is a near certainty over the next century (e.g., Stocker et al. 2013 [IPCC] and references therein). With sea level rise, coastal topography and land cover (hereafter "landscape") is expected to change and tropical cyclone flood hazard is expected to accelerate (e.g., Irish et al. 2010 [Ocean Eng], Woodruff et al. 2013 [Nature], Bilskie et al. 2014 [Geophys Res Lett], Ferreira et al. 2014 [Coast Eng], Passeri et al. 2015 [Nat Hazards]). Yet, the relative importance of sea-level rise induced landscape change on future tropical cyclone flood hazard assessment is not known. In this paper, idealized scenarios are used to evaluate the relative impact of one class of landscape change on future tropical cyclone extreme-value statistics in back-barrier regions: sea level rise induced vegetation migration and loss. The joint probability method with optimal sampling (JPM-OS) (Resio et al. 2009 [Nat Hazards]) with idealized surge response functions (e.g., Irish et al. 2009 [Nat Hazards]) is used to quantify the present-day and future flood hazard under various sea level rise scenarios. Results are evaluated in terms of their impact on the flood statistics (a) when projected flood elevations are included directly in the JPM analysis (Figure 1) and (b) when represented as additional uncertainty within the JPM integral (Resio et al. 2013 [Nat Hazards]), i.e., as random error. Findings are expected to aid in determining the level of effort required to reasonably account for future landscape change in hazard assessments, namely in determining when such processes are sufficiently captured by added uncertainty and when sea level rise induced vegetation changes must be considered dynamically, via detailed modeling initiatives. Acknowledgements: This material is based upon work supported by the National Science Foundation under Grant No. CMMI-1206271 and by the National Sea Grant College Program of the U.S. Department of Commerce's National Oceanic and

  2. Radiologist-initiated double reading of abdominal CT: retrospective analysis of the clinical importance of changes to radiology reports

    PubMed Central

    Andersen, Jack Gunnar; Stokke, Mali Victoria; Tennstrand, Anne Lise; Aamodt, Rolf; Heggelund, Thomas; Dahl, Fredrik A; Sandbæk, Gunnar; Hurlen, Petter

    2016-01-01

    Background Misinterpretation of radiological examinations is an important contributing factor to diagnostic errors. Consultant radiologists in Norwegian hospitals frequently request second reads by colleagues in real time. Our objective was to estimate the frequency of clinically important changes to radiology reports produced by these prospectively obtained double readings. Methods We retrospectively compared the preliminary and final reports from 1071 consecutive double-read abdominal CT examinations of surgical patients at five public hospitals in Norway. Experienced gastrointestinal surgeons rated the clinical importance of changes from the preliminary to final report. The severity of the radiological findings in clinically important changes was classified as increased, unchanged or decreased. Results Changes were classified as clinically important in 146 of 1071 reports (14%). Changes to 3 reports (0.3%) were critical (demanding immediate action), 35 (3%) were major (implying a change in treatment) and 108 (10%) were intermediate (requiring further investigations). The severity of the radiological findings was increased in 118 (81%) of the clinically important changes. Important changes were made less frequently when abdominal radiologists were first readers, more frequently when they were second readers, and more frequently to urgent examinations. Conclusion A 14% rate of clinically important changes made during double reading may justify quality assurance of radiological interpretation. Using expert second readers and a targeted selection of urgent cases and radiologists reading outside their specialty may increase the yield of discrepant cases. PMID:27013638

  3. Age-Related Changes in Dynamic Postural Control and Attentional Demands are Minimally Affected by Local Muscle Fatigue

    PubMed Central

    Remaud, Anthony; Thuong-Cong, Cécile; Bilodeau, Martin

    2016-01-01

    Normal aging results in alterations in the visual, vestibular and somtaosensory systems, which in turn modify the control of balance. Muscle fatigue may exacerbate these age-related changes in sensory and motor functions, and also increase the attentional demands associated with dynamic postural control. The purpose of this study was to investigate the effect of aging on dynamic postural control and posture-related attentional demands before and after a plantar flexor fatigue protocol. Participants (young adults: n = 15; healthy seniors: n = 13) performed a dynamic postural task along the antero-posterior (AP) and the medio-lateral (ML) axes, with and without the addition of a simple reaction time (RT) task. The dynamic postural task consisted in following a moving circle on a computer screen with the representation of the center of pressure (COP). This protocol was repeated before and after a fatigue task where ankle plantar flexor muscles were targeted. The mean COP-target distance and the mean COP velocity were calculated for each trial. Cross-correlation analyses between the COP and target displacements were also performed. RTs were recorded during dual-task trials. Results showed that while young adults adopted an anticipatory control mode to move their COP as close as possible to the target center, seniors adopted a reactive control mode, lagging behind the target center. This resulted in longer COP-target distance and higher COP velocity in the latter group. Concurrently, RT increased more in seniors when switching from static stance to dynamic postural conditions, suggesting potential alterations in the central nervous system (CNS) functions. Finally, plantar flexor muscle fatigue and dual-tasking had only minor effects on dynamic postural control of both young adults and seniors. Future studies should investigate why the fatigue-induced changes in quiet standing postural control do not seem to transfer to dynamic balance tasks. PMID:26834626

  4. Minimal cosmography

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Piazza, Federico; Schücker, Thomas

    2016-04-01

    The minimal requirement for cosmography—a non-dynamical description of the universe—is a prescription for calculating null geodesics, and time-like geodesics as a function of their proper time. In this paper, we consider the most general linear connection compatible with homogeneity and isotropy, but not necessarily with a metric. A light-cone structure is assigned by choosing a set of geodesics representing light rays. This defines a "scale factor" and a local notion of distance, as that travelled by light in a given proper time interval. We find that the velocities and relativistic energies of free-falling bodies decrease in time as a consequence of cosmic expansion, but at a rate that can be different than that dictated by the usual metric framework. By extrapolating this behavior to photons' redshift, we find that the latter is in principle independent of the "scale factor". Interestingly, redshift-distance relations and other standard geometric observables are modified in this extended framework, in a way that could be experimentally tested. An extremely tight constraint on the model, however, is represented by the blackbody-ness of the cosmic microwave background. Finally, as a check, we also consider the effects of a non-metric connection in a different set-up, namely, that of a static, spherically symmetric spacetime.

  5. Interface Psychology: Touchscreens Change Attribute Importance, Decision Criteria, and Behavior in Online Choice.

    PubMed

    Brasel, S Adam; Gips, James

    2015-09-01

    As the rise of tablets and smartphones move the dominant interface for digital content from mouse or trackpad to direct touchscreen interaction, work is needed to explore the role of interfaces in shaping psychological reactions to online content. This research explores the role of direct-touch interfaces in product search and choice, and isolates the touch element from other form factor changes such as screen size. Results from an experimental study using a travel recommendation Web site show that a direct-touch interface (vs. a more traditional mouse interface) increases the number of alternatives searched, and biases evaluations toward tangible attributes such as décor and furniture over intangible attributes such as WiFi and employee demeanor. Direct-touch interfaces also elevate the importance of internal and subjective satisfaction metrics such as instinct over external and objective metrics such as reviews, which in turn increases anticipated satisfaction metrics. Findings suggest that interfaces can strongly affect how online content is explored, perceived, remembered, and acted on, and further work in interface psychology could be as fruitful as research exploring the content itself. PMID:26348814

  6. Interface Psychology: Touchscreens Change Attribute Importance, Decision Criteria, and Behavior in Online Choice

    PubMed Central

    Gips, James

    2015-01-01

    Abstract As the rise of tablets and smartphones move the dominant interface for digital content from mouse or trackpad to direct touchscreen interaction, work is needed to explore the role of interfaces in shaping psychological reactions to online content. This research explores the role of direct-touch interfaces in product search and choice, and isolates the touch element from other form factor changes such as screen size. Results from an experimental study using a travel recommendation Web site show that a direct-touch interface (vs. a more traditional mouse interface) increases the number of alternatives searched, and biases evaluations toward tangible attributes such as décor and furniture over intangible attributes such as WiFi and employee demeanor. Direct-touch interfaces also elevate the importance of internal and subjective satisfaction metrics such as instinct over external and objective metrics such as reviews, which in turn increases anticipated satisfaction metrics. Findings suggest that interfaces can strongly affect how online content is explored, perceived, remembered, and acted on, and further work in interface psychology could be as fruitful as research exploring the content itself. PMID:26348814

  7. Internal recycling of respired CO2 may be important for plant functioning under changing climate regimes

    PubMed Central

    Bloemen, Jasper; Anne McGuire, Mary; Aubrey, Doug P; Teskey, Robert O; Steppe, Kathy

    2013-01-01

    Recent studies have provided evidence of a large flux of root-respired CO2 in the transpiration stream of trees. In our study, we investigated the potential impact of this internal CO2 transport on aboveground carbon assimilation and CO2 efflux. To trace the transport of root-respired CO2, we infused a 13C label at the stem base of field-grown Populus deltoides Bartr. ex. Marsh trees. The 13C label was transported to the top of the stem and throughout the crown via the transpiration stream. Up to 17% of the 13C label was assimilated by chlorophyll-containing tissues. Our results provide evidence of a mechanism for recycling respired CO2 within trees. Such a mechanism may have important implications for how plants cope with predicted increases in intensity and frequency of droughts. Here, we speculate on the potential significance of this recycling mechanism within the context of plant responses to climate change and plants currently inhabiting arid environments. PMID:24398440

  8. Importance of nicotinamide dose on blood pressure changes in mice and humans

    SciTech Connect

    Horsman, M.R.; Christensen, K.L.; Overgaard, J. )

    1994-06-15

    The importance of nicotinamide dose on inducing blood pressure changes in mice and humans was investigated. Blood pressure measurements in human volunteers were made using an inflated cuff procedure after oral ingestion of 3 or 6 g nicotinamide. Animal blood pressure measurements were performed in fully awake nonanesthetized female CDF1 mice, 24 h after cannulation of the carotid artery. In humans, the average ([+-] 1 SE) resting systolic and diastolic pressures were 122.8 mmHg ([+-] 2.5) and 80.6 mmHg ([+-] 2.1), respectively. They were unchanged during the first 3 h after ingestion of either 3 g or 6 g nicotinamide. The resting value ([+-] 1 SE) in mice was 115.1 mmHg ([+-] 4.0) and this was significantly reduced following intraperitoneal injection of 400-1000 mg/kg nicotinamide. This decrease was maximal within 15-30 min after injection and was linearly dependent on drug dose. At doses of 200 mg/kg or less, no significant effect on blood pressure was observed. Doses between 100-200 mg/kg in mice are known to be equivalent to 6 g in man and can also produce maximal radiosensitization in murine tumors. The results, therefore, not only show that the mouse and human data are entirely consistent, but also suggest that nicotinamide-induced decreases in blood pressure are not necessary for radiosensitization. 29 refs., 3 figs.

  9. Interface Psychology: Touchscreens Change Attribute Importance, Decision Criteria, and Behavior in Online Choice.

    PubMed

    Brasel, S Adam; Gips, James

    2015-09-01

    As the rise of tablets and smartphones move the dominant interface for digital content from mouse or trackpad to direct touchscreen interaction, work is needed to explore the role of interfaces in shaping psychological reactions to online content. This research explores the role of direct-touch interfaces in product search and choice, and isolates the touch element from other form factor changes such as screen size. Results from an experimental study using a travel recommendation Web site show that a direct-touch interface (vs. a more traditional mouse interface) increases the number of alternatives searched, and biases evaluations toward tangible attributes such as décor and furniture over intangible attributes such as WiFi and employee demeanor. Direct-touch interfaces also elevate the importance of internal and subjective satisfaction metrics such as instinct over external and objective metrics such as reviews, which in turn increases anticipated satisfaction metrics. Findings suggest that interfaces can strongly affect how online content is explored, perceived, remembered, and acted on, and further work in interface psychology could be as fruitful as research exploring the content itself.

  10. Changes in the referent body location and configuration may underlie human gait, as confirmed by findings of multi-muscle activity minimizations and phase resetting.

    PubMed

    Feldman, Anatol G; Krasovsky, Tal; Baniña, Melanie C; Lamontagne, Anouk; Levin, Mindy F

    2011-04-01

    Locomotion is presumably guided by feed-forward shifts in the referent body location in the desired direction in the environment. We propose that the difference between the actual and the referent body locations is transmitted to neurons that virtually diminish this difference by appropriately changing the referent body configuration, i.e. the body posture at which muscles reach their recruitment thresholds. Muscles are activated depending on the gap between the actual and the referent body configurations resulting in a step being made to minimize this gap. This hypothesis implies that the actual and the referent leg configurations can match each other at certain phases of the gait cycle, resulting in minimization of leg muscle activity. We found several leg configurations at which EMG minima occurred, both during forward and backward gait. It was also found that the set of limb configurations associated with EMG minima can be changed by modifying the pattern of forward and backward gait. Our hypothesis predicts that, in response to perturbations of gait, the rate of shifts in the referent body location can temporarily be changed to avoid falling. The rate influences the phase of rhythmic limb movements during gait. Therefore, following the change in the rate of the referent body location, the whole gait pattern, for all four limbs, will irreversibly be shifted in time (long-lasting and global phase resetting) with only transient changes in the gait speed, swing and stance timing and cycle duration. Aside from transient changes in the duration of the swing and/or stance phase in response to perturbation, few previous studies have documented long-lasting and global phase resetting of human gait in response to perturbation. Such resetting was a robust finding in our study. By confirming the notion that feed-forward changes in the referent body location and configuration underlie human locomotion, this study solves the classical problem in the relationship between

  11. Response of a sludge-minimizing lab-scale BNR reactor when the operation is changed to real primary effluent from synthetic wastewater.

    PubMed

    Huang, Pei; Goel, Ramesh

    2015-09-15

    The activated sludge process is the most widely used treatment method for municipal wastewater. However, the excessive amount of biomass generated during the process is a major drawback. Earlier studies using the activated sludge process running in a biomass fasting and feasting mode demonstrated both nutrient removal and a minimization of biomass production. However, these studies were conducted using synthetic wastewater. In this study, we report findings from a lab-scale sludge-minimizing biological nutrient removing (BNR) reactor when its operation was changed from synthetic to real wastewater (primary effluent). Two lab-scale sequencing batch reactors, one in sludge minimization mode (hereafter called modified-SBR), and the other in conventional activated sludge mode (referred as control-SBR), were operated for more than 300 days. Both reactors were started and operated with synthetic feed. Gradually the feed to both reactors was changed to 100% primary effluent collected from a local full-scale wastewater treatment plant. Irrespective of the feed composition, more than 98% NH3-N removal was recorded in both SBRs. However, while 89% of the total dissolved phosphorus was removed from the 100% synthetic feed, only 80% of the total dissolved phosphorus was removed from the 100% primary effluent in both SBRs. The overall observed sludge reduction in the modified-SBR as compared to the control-SBR also decreased from 65% to 39% when the feed was changed from 100% synthetic to 100% primary effluent. The specific oxygen uptake rate for the modified-SBR was 80% higher than that for the control-SBR when the SBRs were fed with primary effluent wastewater. The modified-SBR showed a greater diversity of ammonia-oxidizing bacteria (AOBs) with synthetic wastewater as well as during the transition period than the control-SBR. Yet when the reactors were running on 100% real wastewater, only Nitrosomonas europaea/eutropha were identified in both SBRs. The nitrite

  12. Quantitative evaluation of light scattering intensities of the crystalline lens for radiation related minimal change in interventional radiologists: a cross-sectional pilot study

    PubMed Central

    Abe, Toshi; Furui, Shigeru; Sasaki, Hiroshi; Sakamoto, Yasuo; Suzuki, Shigeru; Ishitake, Tatsuya; Terasaki, Kinuyo; Kohtake, Hiroshi; Norbash, Alexander M.; Behrman, Richard H.; Hayabuchi, Naofumi

    2013-01-01

    To evaluate low-dose X-ray radiation effects on the eye by measuring the amount of light scattering in specific regions of the lens, we compared exposed subjects (interventional radiologists) with unexposed subjects (employees of medical service companies), as a pilot study. According to numerous exclusionary rules, subjects with confounding variables contributing to cataract formation were excluded. Left eye examinations were performed on 68 exposed subjects and 171 unexposed subjects. The eye examinations consisted of an initial screening examination, followed by Scheimpflug imaging of the lens using an anterior eye segment analysis system. The subjects were assessed for the quantity of light scattering intensities found in each of the six layers of the lens. Multiple stepwise regression analyses were performed with the stepwise regression for six variables: age, radiation exposure, smoking, drinking, wearing glasses and workplace. In addition, an age-matched comparison between exposed and unexposed subjects was performed. Minimal increased light scattering intensity in the posterior subcapsular region showed statistical significance. Our results indicate that occupational radiation exposure in interventional radiologists may affect the posterior subcapsular region of the lens. Since by its very nature this retrospective study had many limitations, further well-designed studies concerning minimal radiation-related lens changes should be carried out in a low-dose exposure group. PMID:23143743

  13. AO/NAO Response to Climate Change. 2; Relative Importance of Low- and High-Latitude Temperature Changes

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Rind, D.; Perlwitz, J.; Lonergan, P.; Lerner, J.

    2005-01-01

    Using a variety of GCM experiments with various versions of the GISS model, we investigate how different aspects of tropospheric climate changes affect the extratropical Arctic Oscillation (AO)/North Atlantic Oscillation (NAO) circulation indices. The results show that low altitude changes in the extratropical latitudinal temperature gradient can have a strong impact on eddy forcing of the extratropical zonal wind, in the sense that when this latitudinal temperature gradient increases, it helps force a more negative AO/NAO phase. In addition, local conditions at high latitudes can stabilize/destabilize the atmosphere, inducing negative/positive phase changes. To the extent that there is not a large temperature change in the tropical upper troposphere (either through reduced tropical sensitivity at the surface, or limited transport of this change to high levels), the changes in the low level temperature gradient can provide the dominate influence on the extratropical circulation, so that planetary wave meridional refraction and eddy angular momentum transport changes become uncorrelated with potential vorticity transports. In particular, the climate change that produces the most positive NAO phase change would have substantial warming in the tropical upper troposphere over the Pacific Ocean, with high latitude warming in the North Atlantic. An increase in positive phase of these circulation indices is still more likely than not, but it will depend on the degree of tropical and high latitude temperature response and the transport of low level warming into the upper troposphere. These are aspects that currently differ among the models used for predicting the effects of global warning, contributing to the lack of consensus of future changes in the AO/NAO.

  14. A replicated climate change field experiment reveals rapid evolutionary response in an ecologically important soil invertebrate.

    PubMed

    Bataillon, Thomas; Galtier, Nicolas; Bernard, Aurelien; Cryer, Nicolai; Faivre, Nicolas; Santoni, Sylvain; Severac, Dany; Mikkelsen, Teis N; Larsen, Klaus S; Beier, Claus; Sørensen, Jesper G; Holmstrup, Martin; Ehlers, Bodil K

    2016-07-01

    Whether species can respond evolutionarily to current climate change is crucial for the persistence of many species. Yet, very few studies have examined genetic responses to climate change in manipulated experiments carried out in natural field conditions. We examined the evolutionary response to climate change in a common annelid worm using a controlled replicated experiment where climatic conditions were manipulated in a natural setting. Analyzing the transcribed genome of 15 local populations, we found that about 12% of the genetic polymorphisms exhibit differences in allele frequencies associated to changes in soil temperature and soil moisture. This shows an evolutionary response to realistic climate change happening over short-time scale, and calls for incorporating evolution into models predicting future response of species to climate change. It also shows that designed climate change experiments coupled with genome sequencing offer great potential to test for the occurrence (or lack) of an evolutionary response. PMID:27109012

  15. Interactions of Climate Change and Nitrogen Management for Optimizing Crop Productivity and Food Security while Minimizing Nitrogen Pollution and Greenhouse Gas Emissions

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Davidson, E. A.; Suddick, E. C.

    2012-12-01

    Producing food, transportation, and energy for seven billion people has led to huge increases in use of synthetic nitrogen (N) fertilizers and fossil fuels, resulting in large releases of N as air and water pollution. In its numerous chemical forms, N plays a critical role in all aspects of climate change, including mitigation, adaptation, and impacts. Here we report on a multi-authored, interdisciplinary technical report on climate-nitrogen interactions submitted to the US National Climate Assessment as part of a Research Coordination Network activity. Management of the N cycle not only affects emissions of nitrous oxide (N2O) and nitrogen oxides (NOX), but also impacts carbon dioxide (CO2) and methane (CH4), through effects on carbon cycling processes in forests and soils and the effects on atmospheric reactions of ozone (O3) and CH4. While some of these direct and indirect N effects have a short-term cooling effect, the warming effects of N2O dominate at long time scales. The challenges of mitigating N2O emissions are substantially different from those for CO2 and CH4, because N is essential for food production, and over 80% of anthropogenic N2O emissions are from the agricultural sector. On one hand, improved agricultural nutrient management can confer some adaptive capacity of crops to climatic variability, but, on the other hand, increased climatic variability will render the task more difficult to manage nutrients for the optimization of crop productivity while minimizing N losses to the environment. Higher air temperatures will result in a "climate penalty" for air quality mitigation efforts, because larger NOX emissions reductions will be needed to achieve the same reductions of O3 pollution under higher temperatures, thus imposing further challenges to avoid harmful impacts on human health and crop productivity. Changes in river discharge, due to summer drought and to extreme precipitation events, will affect the transport of N from agricultural fields to

  16. Relative importance of glacier contributions to streamflow in a changing climate

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    The role of glaciers and snow in climate change-affected runoff is evaluated by taking into account the carryover of runoff and of unmelted snow from one hydrological year to another. This water balance is computed for the present climate and for future climates with changed temperatures and precip...

  17. Pathogenic marine microbes influence the effects of climate change on a commercially important tropical bivalve.

    PubMed

    Turner, Lucy M; Alsterberg, Christian; Turner, Andrew D; Girisha, S K; Rai, Ashwin; Havenhand, Jonathan N; Venugopal, M N; Karunasagar, Indrani; Godhe, Anna

    2016-08-31

    There is growing evidence that climate change will increase the prevalence of toxic algae and harmful bacteria, which can accumulate in marine bivalves. However, we know little about any possible interactions between exposure to these microorganisms and the effects of climate change on bivalve health, or about how this may affect the bivalve toxin-pathogen load. In mesocosm experiments, mussels, Perna viridis, were subjected to simulated climate change (warming and/or hyposalinity) and exposed to harmful bacteria and/or toxin-producing dinoflagellates. We found significant interactions between climate change and these microbes on metabolic and/or immunobiological function and toxin-pathogen load in mussels. Surprisingly, however, these effects were virtually eliminated when mussels were exposed to both harmful microorganisms simultaneously. This study is the first to examine the effects of climate change on determining mussel toxin-pathogen load in an ecologically relevant, multi-trophic context. The results may have considerable implications for seafood safety.

  18. The Employee Survey: An Important Tool for Changing the Culture of an Organization

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Drapeau, Suzanne

    2004-01-01

    A regularly administered employee opinion survey is an important institutional outcomes measurement tool. It can provide robust benchmarks and standards for a whole range of dimensions of a healthy workplace. This kind of survey should also be a critically important component of the process of engaging employees in the development of the…

  19. The importance of considering shifts in seasonal changes in discharges when prediciting future phosphorus loads in streams

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    In this work, we hypothesize that phosphorus (P) concentrations in streams vary seasonally and with streamflow and that it is important to incorporate this variation when predicting changes in P loading associated with climate change. Our study area includes 14 watersheds with a range of land uses t...

  20. Minimally invasive periodontal therapy.

    PubMed

    Dannan, Aous

    2011-10-01

    Minimally invasive dentistry is a concept that preserves dentition and supporting structures. However, minimally invasive procedures in periodontal treatment are supposed to be limited within periodontal surgery, the aim of which is to represent alternative approaches developed to allow less extensive manipulation of surrounding tissues than conventional procedures, while accomplishing the same objectives. In this review, the concept of minimally invasive periodontal surgery (MIPS) is firstly explained. An electronic search for all studies regarding efficacy and effectiveness of MIPS between 2001 and 2009 was conducted. For this purpose, suitable key words from Medical Subject Headings on PubMed were used to extract the required studies. All studies are demonstrated and important results are concluded. Preliminary data from case cohorts and from many studies reveal that the microsurgical access flap, in terms of MIPS, has a high potential to seal the healing wound from the contaminated oral environment by achieving and maintaining primary closure. Soft tissues are mostly preserved and minimal gingival recession is observed, an important feature to meet the demands of the patient and the clinician in the esthetic zone. However, although the potential efficacy of MIPS in the treatment of deep intrabony defects has been proved, larger studies are required to confirm and extend the reported positive preliminary outcomes.

  1. Toward clinical applications of health status measures: sensitivity of scales to clinically important changes.

    PubMed

    Deyo, R A; Inui, T S

    1984-08-01

    While the validity and reliability of many newer health status instruments have been reported, few data are available regarding the sensitivity of these instruments to clinically discernible changes in patient status. We studied this feature of the Sickness Impact Profile (SIP) in a group of patients with rheumatoid arthritis, comparing it with more traditional measures of functional status (the American Rheumatism Association (ARA) functional classification and a patient self-rating scale). Four different approaches were devised to measure "sensitivity to clinical change." These involved comparisons of functional score changes with clinical changes in patient status which were independently agreed upon by both clinician and patient, and also comparisons with several clinical disease severity indicators. When applied to groups of patients, the SIP and the patient self-rating scale were modestly superior to the ARA scale, but neither the SIP nor the self-rating scale was clearly superior to the other. For considering individual patients, all of the scales were relatively insensitive, and predictive accuracy for clinically estimated change was low. New strategies for assessing sensitivity to small changes should be developed and applied to health status and functional scales. Attention to this characteristic should allow refinement of existing scales and may enhance their clinical usefulness.

  2. Structural changes in the minimal spanning tree and the hierarchical network in the Korean stock market around the global financial crisis

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Nobi, Ashadun; Maeng, Seong Eun; Ha, Gyeong Gyun; Lee, Jae Woo

    2015-04-01

    This paper considers stock prices in the Korean stock market during the 2008 global financial crisis by focusing on three time periods: before, during, and after the crisis. Complex networks are extracted from cross-correlation coefficients between the normalized logarithmic return of the stock price time series of firms. The minimal spanning trees (MSTs) and the hierarchical network (HN) are generated from cross-correlation coefficients. Before and after the crisis, securities firms are located at the center of the MST. During the crisis, however, the center of the MST changes to a firm in heavy industry and construction. During the crisis, the MST shrinks in comparison to that before and that after the crisis. This topological change in the MST during the crisis reflects a distinct effect of the global financial crisis. The cophenetic correlation coefficient increases during the crisis, indicating an increase in the hierarchical structure during in this period. When crisis hits the market, firms behave synchronously, and their correlations are higher than those during a normal period.

  3. Pathogenic marine microbes influence the effects of climate change on a commercially important tropical bivalve

    PubMed Central

    Turner, Lucy M.; Alsterberg, Christian; Turner, Andrew D.; Girisha, S. K.; Rai, Ashwin; Havenhand, Jonathan N.; Venugopal, M. N.; Karunasagar, Indrani; Godhe, Anna

    2016-01-01

    There is growing evidence that climate change will increase the prevalence of toxic algae and harmful bacteria, which can accumulate in marine bivalves. However, we know little about any possible interactions between exposure to these microorganisms and the effects of climate change on bivalve health, or about how this may affect the bivalve toxin-pathogen load. In mesocosm experiments, mussels, Perna viridis, were subjected to simulated climate change (warming and/or hyposalinity) and exposed to harmful bacteria and/or toxin-producing dinoflagellates. We found significant interactions between climate change and these microbes on metabolic and/or immunobiological function and toxin-pathogen load in mussels. Surprisingly, however, these effects were virtually eliminated when mussels were exposed to both harmful microorganisms simultaneously. This study is the first to examine the effects of climate change on determining mussel toxin-pathogen load in an ecologically relevant, multi-trophic context. The results may have considerable implications for seafood safety. PMID:27576351

  4. The importance of land cover change across urban-rural typologies for climate modeling.

    PubMed

    Vargo, Jason; Habeeb, Dana; Stone, Brian

    2013-01-15

    Land cover changes affect local surface energy balances by changing the amount of solar energy reflected, the magnitude and duration over which absorbed energy is released as heat, and the amount of energy that is diverted to non-heating fluxes through evaporation. However, such local influences often are only crudely included in climate modeling exercises, if at all. A better understanding of local land conversion dynamics can serve to inform inputs for climate models and increase the role for land use planning in climate management policy. Here we present a new approach for projecting and incorporating metropolitan land cover change into mesoscale climate and other environmental assessment models. Our results demonstrate the relative contributions of different land development patterns to land cover change and conversion and suggest that regional growth management strategies serving to increase settlement densities over time can have a significant influence on the rate of deforestation per unit of population growth. Employing the approach presented herein, the impacts of land conversion on climate change and on parallel environmental systems and services, such as ground water recharge, habitat provision, and food production, may all be investigated more closely and managed through land use planning.

  5. Pathogenic marine microbes influence the effects of climate change on a commercially important tropical bivalve.

    PubMed

    Turner, Lucy M; Alsterberg, Christian; Turner, Andrew D; Girisha, S K; Rai, Ashwin; Havenhand, Jonathan N; Venugopal, M N; Karunasagar, Indrani; Godhe, Anna

    2016-01-01

    There is growing evidence that climate change will increase the prevalence of toxic algae and harmful bacteria, which can accumulate in marine bivalves. However, we know little about any possible interactions between exposure to these microorganisms and the effects of climate change on bivalve health, or about how this may affect the bivalve toxin-pathogen load. In mesocosm experiments, mussels, Perna viridis, were subjected to simulated climate change (warming and/or hyposalinity) and exposed to harmful bacteria and/or toxin-producing dinoflagellates. We found significant interactions between climate change and these microbes on metabolic and/or immunobiological function and toxin-pathogen load in mussels. Surprisingly, however, these effects were virtually eliminated when mussels were exposed to both harmful microorganisms simultaneously. This study is the first to examine the effects of climate change on determining mussel toxin-pathogen load in an ecologically relevant, multi-trophic context. The results may have considerable implications for seafood safety. PMID:27576351

  6. The ten most important changes in psychiatry since World War II.

    PubMed

    Micale, Mark S

    2014-12-01

    Writing the recent history of a subject is notoriously difficult because of the lack of perspective and impartiality. One way to gain insight and understanding into the recent past of a discipline of knowledge is to consult directly the living practitioners who actually experienced first-hand the major changing circumstances in the discipline during the period under study. This article seeks to explore the most significant changes occurring in Western, and especially American, psychiatry from the end of World War II up to the present by interrogating a representative selection of psychiatrists and psychologists about the subject. Over a three-year period, the author surveyed approximately 200 mental health experts on their perceptions of change in the world of psychiatric theory and practice during this enormously eventful 70-year period. After presenting the survey results, the article then attempts to analyse the answers that the author did (and did not) obtain from his poll-taking subjects. PMID:25395447

  7. The ten most important changes in psychiatry since World War II.

    PubMed

    Micale, Mark S

    2014-12-01

    Writing the recent history of a subject is notoriously difficult because of the lack of perspective and impartiality. One way to gain insight and understanding into the recent past of a discipline of knowledge is to consult directly the living practitioners who actually experienced first-hand the major changing circumstances in the discipline during the period under study. This article seeks to explore the most significant changes occurring in Western, and especially American, psychiatry from the end of World War II up to the present by interrogating a representative selection of psychiatrists and psychologists about the subject. Over a three-year period, the author surveyed approximately 200 mental health experts on their perceptions of change in the world of psychiatric theory and practice during this enormously eventful 70-year period. After presenting the survey results, the article then attempts to analyse the answers that the author did (and did not) obtain from his poll-taking subjects.

  8. Effects of lipid environment on the conformational changes of an ABC importer.

    PubMed

    Rice, Austin J; Alvarez, Frances J D; Davidson, Amy L; Pinkett, Heather W

    2014-01-01

    In order to shuttle substrates across the lipid bilayer, membrane proteins undergo a series of conformation changes that are influenced by protein structure, ligands, and the lipid environment. To test the effect of lipid on conformation change of the ABC transporter MolBC, EPR studies were conducted in lipids and detergents of variable composition. In both a detergent and lipid environment, MolBC underwent the same general conformation changes as detected by site-directed EPR spectroscopy. However, differences in activity and the details of the EPR analysis indicate conformational rigidity that is dependent on the lipid environment. From these observations, we conclude that native-like lipid mixtures provide the transporter with greater activity and conformational flexibility as well as technical advantages such as reconstitution efficiency and protein stability.

  9. Abrupt Holocene climate change as an important factor for human migration in West Greenland

    PubMed Central

    D’Andrea, William J.; Huang, Yongsong; Fritz, Sherilyn C.; Anderson, N. John

    2011-01-01

    West Greenland has had multiple episodes of human colonization and cultural transitions over the past 4,500 y. However, the explanations for these large-scale human migrations are varied, including climatic factors, resistance to adaptation, economic marginalization, mercantile exploration, and hostile neighborhood interactions. Evaluating the potential role of climate change is complicated by the lack of quantitative paleoclimate reconstructions near settlement areas and by the relative stability of Holocene temperature derived from ice cores atop the Greenland ice sheet. Here we present high-resolution records of temperature over the past 5,600 y based on alkenone unsaturation in sediments of two lakes in West Greenland. We find that major temperature changes in the past 4,500 y occurred abruptly (within decades), and were coeval in timing with the archaeological records of settlement and abandonment of the Saqqaq, Dorset, and Norse cultures, which suggests that abrupt temperature changes profoundly impacted human civilization in the region. Temperature variations in West Greenland display an antiphased relationship to temperature changes in Ireland over centennial to millennial timescales, resembling the interannual to multidecadal temperature seesaw associated with the North Atlantic Oscillation. PMID:21628586

  10. Relative Importance of Mass and Volume Changes to Global Sea Level Rise

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Jevrejeva, S.; Moore, J.; Grinsted, A.

    2008-12-01

    Sea level is an integrated indicator of climate variability, reflecting changes in the dynamic and thermodynamic in atmosphere, ocean and cryosphere. The rate of sea level rise and its causes is a topic of active debate. We examine the relationship between 50 year long records of global sea level (GSL) calculated from 1023 tide gauge stations and global ocean heat content (GOHC), glacier and ice sheet melting. The lack of consistent correlation between changes in GOHC and GSL during the period 1955-2003 argues against GOHC being the dominant factor in GSL as is often thought. We provide clear evidence of the substantial and increasing role in GSL from the eustatic component (47 per cent) compared with the contribution from increasing heat content (25 per cent), suggesting that the primary role is being played by the melting glaciers and ice sheets. There remains about 23 per cent of GSL rise unaccounted for by the best estimates of both eustatic and thermosteric effects. This fraction also exhibits large variability that is not readily associated with known causes of sea level variability. The most likely explanation of this unknown fraction is underestimated melting, climate- driven changes in terrestrial storage components and decadal time scale variability in global water cycle. This argues for a concerted effort to quantify changes in these reservoirs.

  11. Insect Infestations Linked to Shifts in Microclimate: Important Climate Change Implications

    SciTech Connect

    Classen, Aimee T; Hart, Stephen C; Whitham, Thomas G; Cobb, Neil S; Koch, George W

    2005-01-01

    Changes in vegetation due to drought-influenced herbivory may influence microclimate in ecosystems. In combination with studies of insect resistant and susceptible trees, we used long-term herbivore removal experiments with two herbivores of pinon (Pinus edulis Endelm.) to test the general hypothesis that herbivore alteration of plant architecture affects soil microclimate, a major driver of ecosystem-level processes. The pinon needle scale (Matsucoccus acalyptus, Herbert) attacks needles of juvenile trees causing them to develop an open crown. In contrast, the stem-boring moth (Dioryctria albovittella Hulst.) kills the terminal shoots of mature trees, causing the crown to develop a dense form. Our studies focused on how the microclimate effects of these architectural changes are likely to accumulate over time. Three patterns emerged: (1) scale herbivory reduced leaf area index (LAI) of susceptible trees by 39%, whereas moths had no effect on LAI; (2) scale herbivory increased soil moisture and temperature beneath susceptible trees by 35 and 26%, respectively, whereas moths had no effect; and (3) scale and moth herbivory decreased crown interception of precipitation by 51 and 29%, respectively. From these results, we conclude: (1) the magnitude of scale effects on soil moisture and temperature is large, similar to global change scenarios, and sufficient to drive changes in ecosystem processes. (2) The larger sizes of moth-susceptible trees apparently buffered them from most microclimate effects of herbivory, despite marked changes in crown architecture. (3) The phenotypic expression of susceptibility or resistance to scale insects extends beyond plant-herbivore interactions to the physical environment.

  12. 78 FR 72570 - Import Administration; Change of Agency Name for Instruments and Apparatus for Educational and...

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2013-12-03

    ... Name for Instruments and Apparatus for Educational and Scientific Institutions AGENCY: Import... final form. List of Subjects 15 CFR Part 301 Instruments and apparatus for educational and scientific institutions. 15 CFR Part 303 Watches, Watch movements and jewelry program. PART 301--INSTRUMENTS AND...

  13. The Importance of Autonomous Regulation for Students' Successful Translation of Intentions into Behavior Change via Planning

    PubMed Central

    Cao, Dian Sheng; Lippke, Sonia; Liu, Wei

    2011-01-01

    Physical activity has a high prevention potential in adolescents. This study investigated the relations between physical activity and intention, autonomous regulation, and planning. We hypothesized that planning mediates the relationship between intention and behavior and that this mediation should depend on the level of autonomous regulation. Stratified randomization sampling method was administered to assemble a sample of N = 534 students among two schools in China. To test the hypothesis, autonomous regulation, intention, and physical activity were assessed at baseline as well as planning and follow-up physical activity four weeks after the pretest. A moderated mediation model confirmed that planning mediated the intention-behavior relation with the effect of planning being moderated by autonomous regulation. Study results demonstrated that autonomous regulation facilitated the translation of intention into behavior change via planning. To promote physical activity among adolescents, interventions targeting planning and autonomous regulation might facilitate successful translation of intentions into behavior change. PMID:21991441

  14. Niche construction is an important component of a science of intentional change.

    PubMed

    O'Brien, Michael J

    2014-08-01

    Wilson and colleagues are correct that a modern theory of evolution must go beyond reliance on natural selection. Niche-construction theory, although it does not ignore selection, emphasizes the capacity of organisms to modify environmental states, often in a manner that suits their genotypes. Such matches are the dynamic products of a two-way process that involves organisms both responding to "problems" posed by their environments through selection and setting themselves new problems by changing environments through niche construction. PMID:25162877

  15. Niche construction is an important component of a science of intentional change.

    PubMed

    O'Brien, Michael J

    2014-08-01

    Wilson and colleagues are correct that a modern theory of evolution must go beyond reliance on natural selection. Niche-construction theory, although it does not ignore selection, emphasizes the capacity of organisms to modify environmental states, often in a manner that suits their genotypes. Such matches are the dynamic products of a two-way process that involves organisms both responding to "problems" posed by their environments through selection and setting themselves new problems by changing environments through niche construction.

  16. Climate remains an important driver of post-European vegetation change in the eastern United States

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Neil Pederson,; Anthony W. D’Amato,; James M. Dyer,; Foster, David R.; Goldblum, David; Hart, Justin L.; Hessl, Amy E.; Iverson, Louis R.; Jackson, Stephen T.; Martin-Benito, Dario; McCarthy, Brian C.; McEwan, Ryan W.; Mladenoff, David J.; Parker, Albert J.; Shuman, Bryan; Williams, John W.

    2014-01-01

    The influence of climate on forest change during the past century in the eastern United States was evaluated in a recent paper (Nowacki & Abrams, 2014) that centers on an increase in ‘highly competitive mesophytic hardwoods’ (Nowacki & Abrams, 2008) and a concomitant decrease in the more xerophytic Quercus species. Nowacki & Abrams (2014) concluded that climate change has not contributed significantly to observed changes in forest composition. However, the authors restrict their focus to a single element of climate: increasing temperature since the end of the Little Ice Age ca. 150 years ago. In their study, species were binned into four classifications (e.g., Acer saccharum – ‘cool-adapted’, Acer rubrum – ‘warm-adapted’) based on average annual temperature within each species range in the United States, reducing the multifaceted character of climate into a single, categorical measure. The broad temperature classes not only veil the many biologically relevant aspects of temperature (e.g., seasonal and extreme temperatures) but they may also mask other influences, both climatic (e.g., moisture sensitivity) and nonclimatic (e.g., competition).

  17. Adaptation pathways of global wheat production: Importance of strategic adaptation to climate change

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Tanaka, Akemi; Takahashi, Kiyoshi; Masutomi, Yuji; Hanasaki, Naota; Hijioka, Yasuaki; Shiogama, Hideo; Yamanaka, Yasuhiro

    2015-09-01

    Agricultural adaptation is necessary to reduce the negative impacts of climate change on crop yields and to maintain food production. However, few studies have assessed the course of adaptation along with the progress of climate change in each of the current major food producing countries. Adaptation pathways, which describe the temporal sequences of adaptations, are helpful for illustrating the timing and intensity of the adaptation required. Here we present adaptation pathways in the current major wheat-producing countries, based on sequential introduction of the minimum adaptation measures necessary to maintain current wheat yields through the 21st century. We considered two adaptation options: (i) expanding irrigation infrastructure; and (ii) switching crop varieties and developing new heat-tolerant varieties. We find that the adaptation pathways differ markedly among the countries. The adaptation pathways are sensitive to both the climate model uncertainty and natural variability of the climate system, and the degree of sensitivity differs among countries. Finally, the negative impacts of climate change could be moderated by implementing adaptations steadily according to forecasts of the necessary future adaptations, as compared to missing the appropriate timing to implement adaptations.

  18. Adaptation pathways of global wheat production: Importance of strategic adaptation to climate change.

    PubMed

    Tanaka, Akemi; Takahashi, Kiyoshi; Masutomi, Yuji; Hanasaki, Naota; Hijioka, Yasuaki; Shiogama, Hideo; Yamanaka, Yasuhiro

    2015-09-16

    Agricultural adaptation is necessary to reduce the negative impacts of climate change on crop yields and to maintain food production. However, few studies have assessed the course of adaptation along with the progress of climate change in each of the current major food producing countries. Adaptation pathways, which describe the temporal sequences of adaptations, are helpful for illustrating the timing and intensity of the adaptation required. Here we present adaptation pathways in the current major wheat-producing countries, based on sequential introduction of the minimum adaptation measures necessary to maintain current wheat yields through the 21st century. We considered two adaptation options: (i) expanding irrigation infrastructure; and (ii) switching crop varieties and developing new heat-tolerant varieties. We find that the adaptation pathways differ markedly among the countries. The adaptation pathways are sensitive to both the climate model uncertainty and natural variability of the climate system, and the degree of sensitivity differs among countries. Finally, the negative impacts of climate change could be moderated by implementing adaptations steadily according to forecasts of the necessary future adaptations, as compared to missing the appropriate timing to implement adaptations.

  19. Molecular changes in hepatic metabolism and transport in cirrhosis and their functional importance

    PubMed Central

    Dietrich, Christoph G; Götze, Oliver; Geier, Andreas

    2016-01-01

    Liver cirrhosis is the common endpoint of many hepatic diseases and represents a relevant risk for liver failure and hepatocellular carcinoma. The progress of liver fibrosis and cirrhosis is accompanied by deteriorating liver function. This review summarizes the regulatory and functional changes in phase I and phase II metabolic enzymes as well as transport proteins and provides an overview regarding lipid and glucose metabolism in cirrhotic patients. Interestingly, phase I enzymes are generally downregulated transcriptionally, while phase II enzymes are mostly preserved transcriptionally but are reduced in their function. Transport proteins are regulated in a specific way that resembles the molecular changes observed in obstructive cholestasis. Lipid and glucose metabolism are characterized by insulin resistance and catabolism, leading to the disturbance of energy expenditure and wasting. Possible non-invasive tests, especially breath tests, for components of liver metabolism are discussed. The heterogeneity and complexity of changes in hepatic metabolism complicate the assessment of liver function in individual patients. Additionally, studies in humans are rare, and species differences preclude the transferability of data from rodents to humans. In clinical practice, some established global scores or criteria form the basis for the functional evaluation of patients with liver cirrhosis, but difficult treatment decisions such as selection for transplantation or resection require further research regarding the application of existing non-invasive tests and the development of more specific tests. PMID:26755861

  20. A minimally invasive approach to spleen histopathology in dogs: A new method for follow-up studies of spleen changes in the course of Leishmania infantum infection.

    PubMed

    Santos, Silvana Ornelas; Fontes, Jonathan L M; Laranjeira, Daniela F; Vassallo, José; Barrouin-Melo, Stella Maria; Dos-Santos, Washington L C

    2016-10-01

    Severe forms of zoonotic visceral leishmaniosis (ZVL) are associated with disruption of the spleen structure. However, the study of spleen histology requires splenectomy or necropsy. In this work, we present a minimally invasive cell-block technique for studying spleen tissue histology in dogs with ZVL. We examined 13 dogs with and seven dogs without Leishmania infantum infection. The dogs with Leishmania infection had a lower frequency of lymphoid follicles (2/13, Fisher's test, P<0.02) and a higher density of plasma cells (score 3, Fisher's test, P<0.02) than uninfected dogs (5/7 exhibiting lymphoid follicles and a plasma cell score of 1). The dogs with Leishmania infection also presented with granulomas (8/13) and infected macrophages (5/13). These differences in the histological presentations of spleen tissue from infected and uninfected dogs corresponded to changes observed in conventional histology. Hence, the cell-block technique described here may be used in the follow-up care and study of dogs with ZVL and other diseases in both clinical practice and research. PMID:27638124

  1. A minimally invasive approach to spleen histopathology in dogs: A new method for follow-up studies of spleen changes in the course of Leishmania infantum infection.

    PubMed

    Santos, Silvana Ornelas; Fontes, Jonathan L M; Laranjeira, Daniela F; Vassallo, José; Barrouin-Melo, Stella Maria; Dos-Santos, Washington L C

    2016-10-01

    Severe forms of zoonotic visceral leishmaniosis (ZVL) are associated with disruption of the spleen structure. However, the study of spleen histology requires splenectomy or necropsy. In this work, we present a minimally invasive cell-block technique for studying spleen tissue histology in dogs with ZVL. We examined 13 dogs with and seven dogs without Leishmania infantum infection. The dogs with Leishmania infection had a lower frequency of lymphoid follicles (2/13, Fisher's test, P<0.02) and a higher density of plasma cells (score 3, Fisher's test, P<0.02) than uninfected dogs (5/7 exhibiting lymphoid follicles and a plasma cell score of 1). The dogs with Leishmania infection also presented with granulomas (8/13) and infected macrophages (5/13). These differences in the histological presentations of spleen tissue from infected and uninfected dogs corresponded to changes observed in conventional histology. Hence, the cell-block technique described here may be used in the follow-up care and study of dogs with ZVL and other diseases in both clinical practice and research.

  2. Intra-Rater Reliability and Minimal Detectable Change of Vertical Ground Reaction Force Measurement during Gait and Half-Squat Tasks on Healthy Male Adults

    PubMed Central

    Fairus, Fariza Zainudin; Joseph, Leonard Henry; Omar, Baharudin; Ahmad, Johan; Sulaiman, Riza

    2016-01-01

    Background The understanding of vertical ground reaction force (VGRF) during walking and half-squatting is necessary and commonly utilised during the rehabilitation period. The purpose of this study was to establish measurement reproducibility of VGRF that reports the minimal detectable changes (MDC) during walking and half-squatting activity among healthy male adults. Methods 14 male adults of average age, 24.88 (5.24) years old, were enlisted in this study. The VGRF was assessed using the force plates which were embedded into a customised walking platform. Participants were required to carry out three trials of gait and half-squat. Each participant completed the two measurements within a day, approximately four hours apart. Results Measurements of VGRF between sessions presented an excellent VGRF data for walking (ICC Left = 0.88, ICC Right = 0.89). High reliability of VGRF was also noted during the half-squat activity (ICC Left = 0.95, ICC Right = 0.90). The standard errors of measurement (SEM) of VGRF during the walking and half-squat activity are less than 8.35 Nm/kg and 4.67 Nm/kg for the gait and half-squat task respectively. Conclusion The equipment set-up and measurement procedure used to quantify VGRF during walking and half-squatting among healthy males displayed excellent reliability. Researcher should consider using this method to measure the VGRF during functional performance assessment. PMID:27547111

  3. Catchment Sensitivity to Changing Climate Conditions: The Importance of Landscape Characteristics

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Teutschbein, Claudia; Karlsen, Reinert; Grabs, Thomas; Laudon, Hjalmar; Bishop, Kevin

    2015-04-01

    The scientific literature is full of studies analyzing future climate change impacts on hydrology with focus on individual catchments. We recently found, however, that hydrologic behavior and specific discharge vary considerably even in neighboring and rather similar catchments under current climate conditions and that these variations are related to landscape characteristics. Therefore we hypothesize that these landscape characteristics also play a fundamental role for the sensitivity of a catchment to changing climate conditions. We analyzed the hydrological response of 14 partially nested catchments in Northern Sweden with slightly different topography, land cover, size and geology. Current (1981-2010) and future (2061-2090) streamflows were simulated with the hydrological model HBV light based on 15 regional climate model projections that were bias-corrected with a distribution-mapping approach. Our simulations revealed that - in a future climate- the total annual streamflow will be higher, spring flood peaks will occur earlier and decrease considerably, whereas winter base flows will more than double. These changes are somewhat expected and mainly triggered by a projected increase in winter temperature, which leads to less snow accumulation on the ground. However, our results also show that there is a large variability amongst these catchments in their hydrological response to the same future climate conditions. We identified wetlands, lakes, peat soils and higher elevations as factors that had a stronger effect on spring floods, whereas catchments dominated by forests, steeper slopes and till soils showed stronger responses in winter base flows and total annual streamflow. Therefore, our results suggest that the sensitivity of catchments to future climate conditions is strongly linked to landscape characteristics and also depends on the streamflow characteristic as well as season analyzed.

  4. Climate induced changes in high-elevation lake chemistry and the importance of sulfide weathering

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Mast, A.; Holland-Sears, A.

    2009-12-01

    Despite downward trends in precipitation sulfate concentrations across Colorado, high-elevation lakes in several wilderness areas in the region show sharp increases in lake-water sulfate concentrations during 1985-2008. Similar increases in sulfate concentrations have been reported for numerous alpine lakes in Europe, which have been attributed to enhanced weathering rates, increased biological activity, and/or melting of permanent ice features caused by increasing air temperatures. Analysis of climate records from Colorado SNOTEL stations shows increases in annual air temperature of 0.43 to 0.93 °C per decade over most mountainous areas suggesting climate also may be a factor for the Colorado lakes. Sulfur isotopic data for a subset of lakes reveals that sulfate is largely derived from the weathering of pyrite, which is associated with hydrothermally altered and mineralized bedrock. Unlike the weathering of silicate minerals, pyrite breakdown is largely dependent on oxygen availability and can be accelerated by fluctuating groundwater levels, which enhance exposure of mineralized rock to oxygen as water levels decline. We suggest that during warmer, drier years the water table declines enhancing pyrite oxidation and build up of soluble salts in the unsaturated zone. During the subsequent snowmelt, these salts are flushed from soils and sediments resulting in increased solute concentrations in lakes. If climate change in mountainous areas results in increased summer warming or a greater frequency of drought years, then the magnitude of sulfate export from mineralized watersheds may continue to increase. Because pyrite is often associated with other base-metal sulfides and its breakdown generates acidity, climate changes could result in increased acidity and trace metal concentrations in surface water to levels where impacts on aquatic life may become evident. Futhermore, climate change may act to decrease critical loads in these mineralized watersheds unlike the

  5. Carbon cycling under 300 years of land use change: importance of the secondary vegetation sink

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Shevliakova, Elena; Pacala, Stephen W.; Malyshev, Sergey; Hurtt, George C.; Milly, P.C.D.; Caspersen, John P.; Sentman, Lori T.; Fisk, Justin P.; Wirth, Christian; Crevoisier, Cyril

    2009-01-01

    We have developed a dynamic land model (LM3V) able to simulate ecosystem dynamics and exchanges of water, energy, and CO2 between land and atmosphere. LM3V is specifically designed to address the consequences of land use and land management changes including cropland and pasture dynamics, shifting cultivation, logging, fire, and resulting patterns of secondary regrowth. Here we analyze the behavior of LM3V, forced with the output from the Geophysical Fluid Dynamics Laboratory (GFDL) atmospheric model AM2, observed precipitation data, and four historic scenarios of land use change for 1700-2000. Our analysis suggests a net terrestrial carbon source due to land use activities from 1.1 to 1.3 GtC/a during the 1990s, where the range is due to the difference in the historic cropland distribution. This magnitude is substantially smaller than previous estimates from other models, largely due to our estimates of a secondary vegetation sink of 0.35 to 0.6 GtC/a in the 1990s and decelerating agricultural land clearing since the 1960s. For the 1990s, our estimates for the pastures' carbon flux vary from a source of 0.37 to a sink of 0.15 GtC/a, and for the croplands our model shows a carbon source of 0.6 to 0.9 GtC/a. Our process-based model suggests a smaller net deforestation source than earlier bookkeeping models because it accounts for decelerated net conversion of primary forest to agriculture and for stronger secondary vegetation regrowth in tropical regions. The overall uncertainty is likely to be higher than the range reported here because of uncertainty in the biomass recovery under changing ambient conditions, including atmospheric CO2 concentration, nutrients availability, and climate. Copyright 2009 by the American Geophysical Union.

  6. Permafrost thaw and wildfire: Equally important drivers of boreal tree cover changes in the Taiga Plains, Canada

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Helbig, M.; Pappas, C.; Sonnentag, O.

    2016-02-01

    Boreal forests cover vast areas of the permafrost zones of North America, and changes in their composition and structure can lead to pronounced impacts on the regional and global climate. We partition the variation in regional boreal tree cover changes between 2000 and 2014 across the Taiga Plains, Canada, into its main causes: permafrost thaw, wildfire disturbance, and postfire regrowth. Moderate Resolution Imaging Spectroradiometer Percent Tree Cover (PTC) data are used in combination with maps of historic fires, and permafrost and drainage characteristics. We find that permafrost thaw is equally important as fire history to explain PTC changes. At the southern margin of the permafrost zone, PTC loss due to permafrost thaw outweighs PTC gain from postfire regrowth. These findings emphasize the importance of permafrost thaw in controlling regional boreal forest changes over the last decade, which may become more pronounced with rising air temperatures and accelerated permafrost thaw.

  7. The importance of warm season warming to western U.S. streamflow changes

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Das, T.; Pierce, D.W.; Cayan, D.R.; Vano, J.A.; Lettenmaier, D.P.

    2011-01-01

    Warm season climate warming will be a key driver of annual streamflow changes in four major river basins of the western U.S., as shown by hydrological model simulations using fixed precipitation and idealized seasonal temperature changes based on climate projections with SRES A2 forcing. Warm season (April-September) warming reduces streamflow throughout the year; streamflow declines both immediately and in the subsequent cool season. Cool season (October-March) warming, by contrast, increases streamflow immediately, partially compensating for streamflow reductions during the subsequent warm season. A uniform warm season warming of 3C drives a wide range of annual flow declines across the basins: 13.3%, 7.2%, 1.8%, and 3.6% in the Colorado, Columbia, Northern and Southern Sierra basins, respectively. The same warming applied during the cool season gives annual declines of only 3.5%, 1.7%, 2.1%, and 3.1%, respectively. Copyright 2011 by the American Geophysical Union.

  8. Tracking a medically important spider: climate change, ecological niche modeling, and the brown recluse (Loxosceles reclusa).

    PubMed

    Saupe, Erin E; Papes, Monica; Selden, Paul A; Vetter, Richard S

    2011-01-01

    Most spiders use venom to paralyze their prey and are commonly feared for their potential to cause injury to humans. In North America, one species in particular, Loxosceles reclusa (brown recluse spider, Sicariidae), causes the majority of necrotic wounds induced by the Araneae. However, its distributional limitations are poorly understood and, as a result, medical professionals routinely misdiagnose brown recluse bites outside endemic areas, confusing putative spider bites for other serious conditions. To address the issue of brown recluse distribution, we employ ecological niche modeling to investigate the present and future distributional potential of this species. We delineate range boundaries and demonstrate that under future climate change scenarios, the spider's distribution may expand northward, invading previously unaffected regions of the USA. At present, the spider's range is centered in the USA, from Kansas east to Kentucky and from southern Iowa south to Louisiana. Newly influenced areas may include parts of Nebraska, Minnesota, Wisconsin, Michigan, South Dakota, Ohio, and Pennsylvania. These results illustrate a potential negative consequence of climate change on humans and will aid medical professionals in proper bite identification/treatment, potentially reducing bite misdiagnoses. PMID:21464985

  9. Tracking a Medically Important Spider: Climate Change, Ecological Niche Modeling, and the Brown Recluse (Loxosceles reclusa)

    PubMed Central

    Saupe, Erin E.; Papes, Monica; Selden, Paul A.; Vetter, Richard S.

    2011-01-01

    Most spiders use venom to paralyze their prey and are commonly feared for their potential to cause injury to humans. In North America, one species in particular, Loxosceles reclusa (brown recluse spider, Sicariidae), causes the majority of necrotic wounds induced by the Araneae. However, its distributional limitations are poorly understood and, as a result, medical professionals routinely misdiagnose brown recluse bites outside endemic areas, confusing putative spider bites for other serious conditions. To address the issue of brown recluse distribution, we employ ecological niche modeling to investigate the present and future distributional potential of this species. We delineate range boundaries and demonstrate that under future climate change scenarios, the spider's distribution may expand northward, invading previously unaffected regions of the USA. At present, the spider's range is centered in the USA, from Kansas east to Kentucky and from southern Iowa south to Louisiana. Newly influenced areas may include parts of Nebraska, Minnesota, Wisconsin, Michigan, South Dakota, Ohio, and Pennsylvania. These results illustrate a potential negative consequence of climate change on humans and will aid medical professionals in proper bite identification/treatment, potentially reducing bite misdiagnoses. PMID:21464985

  10. Changes in mitochondrial function are pivotal in neurodegenerative and psychiatric disorders: How important is BDNF?

    PubMed Central

    Markham, A; Bains, R; Franklin, P; Spedding, M

    2014-01-01

    The brain is at the very limit of its energy supply and has evolved specific means of adapting function to energy supply, of which mitochondria form a crucial link. Neurotrophic and inflammatory processes may not only have opposite effects on neuroplasticity, but also involve opposite effects on mitochondrial oxidative phosphorylation and glycolytic processes, respectively, modulated by stress and glucocorticoids, which also have marked effects on mood. Neurodegenerative processes show marked disorders in oxidative metabolism in key brain areas, sometimes decades before symptoms appear (Parkinson's and Alzheimer's diseases). We argue that brain-derived neurotrophic factor couples activity to changes in respiratory efficiency and these effects may be opposed by inflammatory cytokines, a key factor in neurodegenerative processes. Linked Articles This article is part of a themed issue on Mitochondrial Pharmacology: Energy, Injury & Beyond. To view the other articles in this issue visit http://dx.doi.org/10.1111/bph.2014.171.issue-8 PMID:24720259

  11. Bridging the Partisan Divide Over Climate Change: Messenger is as Important as the Message

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Cater, M.

    2014-12-01

    In the United States, fewer than one-third of Republicans believe that climate change is driven significantly by burning fossil fuels. This despite unprecedented worldwide scientific consensus that it is. Over 13,000 peer reviewed scientific papers affirm it. Twenty-four deny it. Yet the Republican "disbelief" persists in part because of ideological bubbles that, according to analysis by the Marquette Law School, are deeper and more geographically based than ever before. More and more Americans are living in politically one-sided counties, with 51% of voters in the 2012 presidential race living in a county that was "partisan" - or 10 points redder or bluer than the U.S. as a whole. One in five lived in a county that was "extreme" - or 20 points redder or bluer than the country. With mainstream media contracting, opinion media exploding and the Internet increasingly giving us only what we want to hear, ideological bubbles are becoming more isolated and insulated than ever. Dan Kahan at Yale has discovered that these bubbles - the values and groups that hold them - have a greater impact on our perception of certain issues than scientific understanding. In fact, the more individuals become scientifically literate, the more they tend to use that information to confirm the view of their group. So the more conservative and more knowledgeable you are about climate change, the less convinced you will be that it is a problem. Countless scientific studies confirm people rely on those they trust. And conversely, they reject information coming from those they do not. To bridge the partisan divide, and break the ideological barriers to climate science, trusted leaders within conservative circles must engage and speak out. The conservative leaders I work with have transcended their ideological boundaries, understand the science largely because they have learned from people they trust, recognize the risk and have identified solutions that protect their conservative values.

  12. Prospective Changes in Body Image Dissatisfaction among Adolescent Bariatric Patients: The Importance of Body Size Estimation

    PubMed Central

    Ratcliff, M.B.; Eshleman, K.E.; Reiter-Purtill, J.; Zeller, M.H.

    2011-01-01

    Background Body image dissatisfaction (BID) is pervasive among patients presenting for bariatric surgery but significantly improves post-operatively. These findings are based primarily on studies of adults. Objective The objective of this study was to examine changes in BID among adolescents with extreme obesity from baseline/preoperative to 6 and 12 months following bariatric surgery using body size estimation. Setting Pediatric Medical Center. Methods BID was prospectively assessed among 16 adolescent bariatric patients (Mage=16.3±1.2, MBMI=66.2±12.0, 67% female) using a standard visual/perceptual measure [i.e., Stunkard Figure Rating Scale. Participants identified Current and Ideal body size, with a discrepancy score (Current – Ideal) indicating BID. Body size estimation ratings were compared to attitudinal (i.e., IWQOL-Kids: Body Esteem and Self-Perception Profile for Adolescents: Physical Appearance) body image scores, BMI (kg/m2), and Total weight-related quality of life (WRQOL). Results There was a significant reduction in Current body size (7.9 to 6.4, p<.001) from baseline to 6 months but not from 6 to 12 months. Current body size was related to BMI and %EWL but not attitudinal body image at each time point. Smaller Discrepancy (Current – Ideal) was associated with higher Total WRQOL (r=−0.68), with a trend towards significance for Body Esteem (r=−0.65) at 12 months. Conclusions Adolescents undergoing bariatric surgery experience significantly decreased BID within the first 12 months post-surgery, with the most substantial change between baseline and 6 months. Post-operative WRQOL is more closely associated to body size discrepancy than current body size. PMID:22154271

  13. The changing distribution of a major surgical procedure across hospitals: were supply shifts and disequilibrium important?

    PubMed

    Friedman, B; Elixhauser, A

    1995-01-01

    This paper describes and analyzes the changing distribution across hospitals in the U.S. of total hip replacement surgery (THR) for the period 1980-1987. THR is one of the most costly single procedures contributing to health care expenses. Also, the use of THR exhibits a particularly high degree of geographic variation. Recent research pointed to shifts in demand as one plausible economic explanation for increasing use of THR. This paper questions whether shifts in supply may have been large enough to explain changes in patient mix and the relationship of patient mix to the number of procedures performed at a particular hospital. In addition, the relationship between total use of THR and the local availability of orthopaedic surgeons as well as the average allowable Medicare fee for standardized physician services is analyzed. These relationships might yield evidence to support a scenario of induced demand beyond the optimum for patients' welfare, or evidence of supply increase within a disequilibrium scenario. This study, using data for all THR patients in a large sample of hospitals, tends to reject the formulation of a market with independent supply and demand shifts where the supply shifts were the dominant forces. Hospitals with a larger number of THRs performed did not see a higher percentage of older, sicker, and lower income patients. It was more likely that demand shifts generated increases in capacity for surgical services. Moreover, there was little evidence for a persistent disequilibrium and only weak evidence for inducement. Also, we found little evidence that hospitals responded to financial incentives inherent in the Medicare payment system after 1983 to select among THR candidates in favour of those with below average expected cost. We did observe increased concentration over time of THR procedures in facilities with high volume--suggesting plausible demand shifts towards hospitals with a priori quality and cost advantages or who obtained those

  14. Are climate and land cover changes in East Asia important factors for dust emission variability in the past 30 years?

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Chow, R. M. K.; Tai, A. P. K.; Ridley, D. A.; Kok, J. F.

    2015-12-01

    Mineral dust is important for climate because it alters the radiation budget, both directly by scattering sunlight and indirectly by influencing cloud processes. Studies have shown that the variability of dust emission is greatly affected by local wind speeds and land surface characteristics. Globally, land cover change is mainly driven by vegetation changes that modify the dust sources, which can be represented by changes in leaf area index (LAI), and its effect on East Asian dust emission under the backdrop of changing wind patterns has yet to be quantified. Here we present a study to investigate how climate and land cover changes might have modified dust emission in East Asia during 1982-2010 using the GEOS-Chem chemical transport model. New developments include a dynamic geomorphology-dependent dust emission scheme and better representation of vegetation effect on surface roughness and threshold wind speed. We also implement subgrid wind variability to reduce the resolution dependence of the model. The bias of modeled total aerosol optical depth (AOD) relative to observations is reduced from about -86% to -14%, mostly due to the inclusion of subgrid wind variability, but up to 10% of the emission improvements stem from the revised vegetation dependence. Simulations suggest that about 45 Tg, ~9% of the global dust emission, is from East Asia in spring. Sensitivity studies with changing historical LAI vs. surface wind show that climate variability might be a more important factor than land cover change contributing to dust emission variability and trends over the past 30 years.

  15. Quantitative assessment of the importance of phenotypic plasticity in adaptation to climate change in wild bird populations.

    PubMed

    Vedder, Oscar; Bouwhuis, Sandra; Sheldon, Ben C

    2013-07-01

    Predictions about the fate of species or populations under climate change scenarios typically neglect adaptive evolution and phenotypic plasticity, the two major mechanisms by which organisms can adapt to changing local conditions. As a consequence, we have little understanding of the scope for organisms to track changing environments by in situ adaptation. Here, we use a detailed individual-specific long-term population study of great tits (Parus major) breeding in Wytham Woods, Oxford, UK to parameterise a mechanistic model and thus directly estimate the rate of environmental change to which in situ adaptation is possible. Using the effect of changes in early spring temperature on temporal synchrony between birds and a critical food resource, we focus in particular on the contribution of phenotypic plasticity to population persistence. Despite using conservative estimates for evolutionary and reproductive potential, our results suggest little risk of population extinction under projected local temperature change; however, this conclusion relies heavily on the extent to which phenotypic plasticity tracks the changing environment. Extrapolating the model to a broad range of life histories in birds suggests that the importance of phenotypic plasticity for adjustment to projected rates of temperature change increases with slower life histories, owing to lower evolutionary potential. Understanding the determinants and constraints on phenotypic plasticity in natural populations is thus crucial for characterising the risks that rapidly changing environments pose for the persistence of such populations.

  16. Rapid Morphological Change in the Masticatory Structures of an Important Ecosystem Service Provider.

    PubMed

    Doudna, John W; Danielson, Brent J

    2015-01-01

    Humans have altered the biotic and abiotic environmental conditions of most organisms. In some cases, such as intensive agriculture, an organism's entire ecosystem is converted to novel conditions. Thus, it is striking that some species continue to thrive under such conditions. The prairie deer mouse (Peromyscus maniculatus bairdii) is an example of such an organism, and so we sought to understand what role evolutionary adaptation played in the success of this species, with particular interest in adaptations to novel foods. In order to understand the evolutionary history of this species' masticatory structures, we examined the maxilla, zygomatic plate, and mandible of historic specimens collected prior to 1910 to specimens collected in 2012 and 2013. We found that mandibles, zygomatic plates, and maxilla have all changed significantly since 1910, and that morphological development has shifted significantly. We present compelling evidence that these differences are due to natural selection as a response to a novel and ubiquitous food source, waste grain (corn, Zea mays and soybean, Glycine max). PMID:26061880

  17. Rapid Morphological Change in the Masticatory Structures of an Important Ecosystem Service Provider

    PubMed Central

    Doudna, John W.; Danielson, Brent J.

    2015-01-01

    Humans have altered the biotic and abiotic environmental conditions of most organisms. In some cases, such as intensive agriculture, an organism’s entire ecosystem is converted to novel conditions. Thus, it is striking that some species continue to thrive under such conditions. The prairie deer mouse (Peromyscus maniculatus bairdii) is an example of such an organism, and so we sought to understand what role evolutionary adaptation played in the success of this species, with particular interest in adaptations to novel foods. In order to understand the evolutionary history of this species’ masticatory structures, we examined the maxilla, zygomatic plate, and mandible of historic specimens collected prior to 1910 to specimens collected in 2012 and 2013. We found that mandibles, zygomatic plates, and maxilla have all changed significantly since 1910, and that morphological development has shifted significantly. We present compelling evidence that these differences are due to natural selection as a response to a novel and ubiquitous food source, waste grain (corn, Zea mays and soybean, Glycine max). PMID:26061880

  18. Rapid Morphological Change in the Masticatory Structures of an Important Ecosystem Service Provider.

    PubMed

    Doudna, John W; Danielson, Brent J

    2015-01-01

    Humans have altered the biotic and abiotic environmental conditions of most organisms. In some cases, such as intensive agriculture, an organism's entire ecosystem is converted to novel conditions. Thus, it is striking that some species continue to thrive under such conditions. The prairie deer mouse (Peromyscus maniculatus bairdii) is an example of such an organism, and so we sought to understand what role evolutionary adaptation played in the success of this species, with particular interest in adaptations to novel foods. In order to understand the evolutionary history of this species' masticatory structures, we examined the maxilla, zygomatic plate, and mandible of historic specimens collected prior to 1910 to specimens collected in 2012 and 2013. We found that mandibles, zygomatic plates, and maxilla have all changed significantly since 1910, and that morphological development has shifted significantly. We present compelling evidence that these differences are due to natural selection as a response to a novel and ubiquitous food source, waste grain (corn, Zea mays and soybean, Glycine max).

  19. Changes in Heart Rate Variability after Coronary Artery Bypass Grafting and Clinical Importance of These Findings

    PubMed Central

    Lakusic, Nenad; Mahovic, Darija; Cerkez Habek, Jasna; Novak, Miroslav; Cerovec, Dusko

    2015-01-01

    Heart rate variability is a physiological feature indicating the influence of the autonomic nervous system on the heart rate. Association of the reduced heart rate variability due to myocardial infarction and the increased postinfarction mortality was first described more than thirty years ago. Many studies have unequivocally demonstrated that coronary artery bypass grafting surgery generally leads to significant reduction in heart rate variability, which is even more pronounced than after myocardial infarction. Pathophysiologically, however, the mechanisms of heart rate variability reduction associated with acute myocardial infarction and coronary artery bypass grafting are different. Generally, heart rate variability gradually recovers to the preoperative values within six months of the procedure. Unlike the reduced heart rate variability in patients having sustained myocardial infarction, a finding of reduced heart rate variability after coronary artery bypass surgery is not considered relevant in predicting mortality. Current knowledge about changes in heart rate variability in coronary patients and clinical relevance of such a finding in patients undergoing coronary artery bypass grafting are presented. PMID:26078960

  20. Permafrost and Climate Change in Nunavik and Nunatsiavut: Importance for Municipal and Transportation Infrastructures

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Lemay, M.; Allard, M.

    2011-12-01

    Permafrost degradation is seriously affecting the natural environment. The landscape is changing through thermokarst that takes place mostly in the discontinuous permafrost zone and through increased active layer depth and more frequent slope processes in the continuous zone. Northern residents are affected as vegetation, water bodies and soil drainage are greatly modified, which has an impact on resources traditionally available for humans such as berries that are shaded in the understory of shrubs that expand in thermokarst hollows. The modern built environment is particularly affected. Essential transportation infrastructures are being studied and adaptive solutions are sought, applied and tested. To protect and optimize the major investments required for extensive housing and construction, the urban planning of communities calls upon better permafrost maps and prediction of permafrost behavior. Final permafrost degradation around 0°C appears to be in great part under the influence of unfrozen water contents and heat brought at the thawing interface by groundwater. This process is also effective in accelerating localized thawing under human infrastructures. Collection and organization of permafrost information in geographic information systems (GIS) allows the integration of essential knowledge and provide very useful tools for sharing information with stakeholders and communities, for establishing diagnostics of situations and for supporting multidisciplinary decision making for land use planning. The principal adaptive measures lie in adapting foundations types to mapped permafrost conditions to ensure a prolonged service life of buildings.

  1. Surface chemical changes of atmospheric pressure plasma treated rabbit fibres important for felting process

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Štěpánová, Vlasta; Slavíček, Pavel; Stupavská, Monika; Jurmanová, Jana; Černák, Mirko

    2015-11-01

    We introduce the atmospheric pressure plasma treatment as a suitable procedure for in-line industrial application of rabbit fibres pre-treatment. Changes of rabbit fibre properties due to the plasma treatment were studied in order to develop new technology of plasma-based treatment before felting. Diffuse Coplanar Surface Barrier Discharge (DCSBD) in ambient air at atmospheric pressure was used for plasma treatment. Scanning electron microscopy was used for determination of the fibres morphology before and after plasma treatment. X-ray photoelectron spectroscopy and attenuated total reflectance-Fourier transform infrared spectroscopy were used for evaluation of reactive groups. The concentration of carbon decreased and conversely the concentration of nitrogen and oxygen increased after plasma treatment. Aging effect of plasma treated fibres was also investigated. Using Washburn method the significant increase of fibres wettability was observed after plasma treatment. New approach of pre-treatment of fibres before felting using plasma was developed. Plasma treatment of fibres at atmospheric pressure can replace the chemical method which consists of application of strong acids on fibres.

  2. Are Changes in the Mean or Variability of Climate Signals More Important for Long-Term Stochastic Growth Rate?

    PubMed Central

    García-Carreras, Bernardo; Reuman, Daniel C.

    2013-01-01

    Population dynamics are affected by changes in both the mean and standard deviation of climate, e.g., changes in average temperature are likely to affect populations, but so are changes in the strength of year-to-year temperature variability. The impacts of increases in average temperature are extensively researched, while the impacts of changes in climate variability are less studied. Is the greater attention given to changes in mean environment justified? To help answer this question we developed a simple population model, explicitly linked to an environmental process. We used the model to compare the sensitivities of a population's long-term stochastic growth rate, a measure of fitness, to changes in the mean and standard deviation of the environment. Results are interpreted in light of a comparative analysis of the relative magnitudes of change in means and standard deviations of biologically relevant climate variables in the United States. Results show that changes in the variability of the environment can be more important for many populations. Changes in mean conditions are likely to have a greater impact than changes in variability on populations far from their ideal environment, for example, populations near species range boundaries and potentially of conservation concern. Populations near range centres and close to their ideal environment are more likely to be affected by changes in variability. Among pest and insect disease vectors, as well as species of commercial value, populations likely to be of greatest economic and public health significance are those near species range centers, living in a near-ideal environment for the species. Observed changes in the variability of climate variables may benefit these populations. PMID:23691131

  3. The Importance of Consensus Information in Acceptance of Climate Change (Invited)

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Cook, J.; Lewandowsky, S.

    2013-12-01

    In recent years, public perception of the scientific consensus on human-caused global warming has been disturbingly low, in contrast to the overwhelming level of agreement among climate scientists and in peer-reviewed research. The misperception is partly cultural, with a significant link between perceived consensus and political ideology, and partly informational with all cultural groups exhibiting the misperception to varying degrees. This universal 'consensus gap' is in large part due to a persistent and focused misinformation campaign casting doubt on the consensus, dating back as early as the 1980s. Opponents of climate action have long recognized that perception of scientific consensus is linked to support for climate policy, a link only acknowledged by social scientists in the last few years. How do we counter the all-too-effective misinformation campaign? Psychological research tells us that a crucial aspect of effective refutations is an alternative narrative. In this case, an important counter-narrative to the consensus story is the strategy to perpetuate the impression of ongoing scientific debate. I will also present recent research into the effect that consensus information has on climate beliefs of Australians and Americans. For both groups, the consensus message significantly increased beliefs about human-caused global warming and outperformed interventions that feature evidence or scientists' expertise. For the Australian sample, consensus information partially neutralised the biasing influence of ideology. However, for Americans, a backfire effect (reduced climate belief) was observed for a small minority holding strong conservative views. A psychological model employing Bayesian Networks indicates that a key element to the backfire effect is conspiratorial thinking, consistent with other research finding a link between rejection of climate science and conspiratorial ideation. Thus when presented to a general audience, consensus information has an

  4. Prediction of changes in important physical parameters during composting of separated animal slurry solid fractions.

    PubMed

    Chowdhury, Md Albarune; de Neergaard, Andreas; Jensen, Lars Stoumann

    2014-01-01

    Solid-liquid separation of animal slurry, with solid fractions used for composting, has gained interest recently. However, efficient composting of separated animal slurry solid fractions (SSFs) requires a better understanding of the process dynamics in terms of important physical parameters and their interacting physical relationships in the composting matrix. Here we monitored moisture content, bulk density, particle density and air-filled porosity (AFP) during composting of SSF collected from four commercially available solid-liquid separators. Composting was performed in laboratory-scale reactors for 30 days (d) under forced aeration and measurements were conducted on the solid samples at the beginning of composting and at 10-d intervals during composting. The results suggest that differences in initial physical properties of SSF influence the development of compost maximum temperatures (40-70 degreeC). Depending on SSF, total wet mass and volume losses (expressed as % of initial value) were up to 37% and 34%, respectively. After 30 d of composting, relative losses of total solids varied from 17.9% to 21.7% and of volatile solids (VS) from 21.3% to 27.5%, depending on SSF. VS losses in all composts showed different dynamics as described by the first-order kinetic equation. The estimated component particle density of 1441 kg m-3 for VS and 2625 kg m-3 for fixed solids can be used to improve estimates of AFP for SSF within the range tested. The linear relationship between wet bulk density and AFP reported by previous researchers held true for SSF.

  5. Lichens and weathering: importance for soil formation, nutrient cycling and adaptation to environmental change

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Purvis, O. W.; Convey, P.; Flowerdew, M. J.; Peat, H. J.; Najorka, J.

    2012-04-01

    Lichens comprise ca. 6% of the Earth's terrestrial vegetation, and are dominant in certain polar ecosystems, being primary colonists of rocks where they play a major role in the biogeochemical cycling of elements and contribute to soil formation. We present an historical overview of studies in the Antarctic, leading to recent collection opportunities on Signy Island providing new material to investigate how biodiversity has responded to regional and rapid environmental change. Mountainous, with an ice cap, glaciers, rugged topography, and a complex geology and pedology, Signy Island includes a wide range of terrestrial habitats. A small, inconspicuous lichen, Acarospora cf. badiofusca, was discovered colonizing iron-stained quartz mica schists on the lower slope of Manhaul Rocks, a recently exposed nunatak on the McLeod Glacier, Signy Island, maritime Antarctic. Thallus colour ranged from rust to paler orange and green. Many lichens are colourful, mostly due to the presence of secondary metabolites which are of fungal origin. In some cases colour may reflect chemical coordination reactions involving lichen biomass components and dissolved cations which can lead to metal complex and mineral formation. By far the greatest research effort into characterizing elements and minerals associated with lichens concerns those occurring beneath them, research driven partly from a desire to understand weathering processes. This study, for the first time in the maritime Antarctic, addressed the hypothesis that colour reflects element localization, and examined substance localization within lichen tissues and considered responses to stress. Methods utilised include macrophotography, X-Ray Diffraction with a position sensitive detector (PSD), Scanning Electron Microscopy in back-scattered and ED modes and electron probe microanalysis for the elements Fe, C and Si and by using a third generation variable pressure secondary detector employed as a panchromatic cathodoluminescence

  6. The importance of considering shifts in seasonal changes in discharges when predicting future phosphorus loads in streams

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    LaBeau, Meredith B.; Mayer, Alex S.; Griffis, Veronica; Watkins, David Jr.; Robertson, Dale; Gyawali, Rabi

    2015-01-01

    In this work, we hypothesize that phosphorus (P) concentrations in streams vary seasonally and with streamflow and that it is important to incorporate this variation when predicting changes in P loading associated with climate change. Our study area includes 14 watersheds with a range of land uses throughout the U.S. Great Lakes Basin. We develop annual seasonal load-discharge regression models for each watershed and apply these models with simulated discharges generated for future climate scenarios to simulate future P loading patterns for two periods: 2046–2065 and 2081–2100. We utilize output from the Coupled Model Intercomparison Project phase 3 downscaled climate change projections that are input into the Large Basin Runoff Model to generate future discharge scenarios, which are in turn used as inputs to the seasonal P load regression models. In almost all cases, the seasonal load-discharge models match observed loads better than the annual models. Results using the seasonal models show that the concurrence of nonlinearity in the load-discharge model and changes in high discharges in the spring months leads to the most significant changes in P loading for selected tributaries under future climate projections. These results emphasize the importance of using seasonal models to understand the effects of future climate change on nutrient loads.

  7. The test–retest reliability and minimal detectable change of spatial and temporal gait variability during usual over-ground walking for younger and older adults✩

    PubMed Central

    Almarwani, Maha; Perera, Subashan; VanSwearingen, Jessie M.; Sparto, Patrick J.; Brach, Jennifer S.

    2016-01-01

    Gait variability is a marker of gait performance and future mobility status in older adults. Reliability of gait variability has been examined mainly in community dwelling older adults who are likely to fluctuate over time. The purpose of this study was to compare test–retest reliability and determine minimal detectable change (MDC) of spatial and temporal gait variability in younger and older adults. Forty younger (mean age = 26.6 ± 6.0 years) and 46 older adults (mean age = 78.1 ± 6.2 years) were included in the study. Gait characteristics were measured twice, approximately 1 week apart, using a computerized walkway (GaitMat II). Participants completed 4 passes on the GaitMat II at their self-selected walking speed. Test-retest reliability was calculated using Intra-class correlation coefficients (ICCs(2,1)), 95% limits of agreement (95% LoA) in conjunction with Bland-Altman plots, relative limits of agreement (LoA%) and standard error of measurement (SEM). The MDC at 90% and 95% level were also calculated. ICCs of gait variability ranged 0.26–0.65 in younger and 0.28–0.74 in older adults. The LoA% and SEM were consistently higher (i.e. less reliable) for all gait variables in older compared to younger adults except SEM for step width. The MDC was consistently larger for all gait variables in older compared to younger adults except step width. ICCs were of limited utility due to restricted ranges in younger adults. Based on absolute reliability measures and MDC, younger had greater test–retest reliability and smaller MDC of spatial and temporal gait variability compared to older adults. PMID:27004639

  8. Esophagectomy - minimally invasive

    MedlinePlus

    Minimally invasive esophagectomy; Robotic esophagectomy; Removal of the esophagus - minimally invasive; Achalasia - esophagectomy; Barrett esophagus - esophagectomy; Esophageal cancer - esophagectomy - laparoscopic; Cancer of the ...

  9. Adaptation Planning to Minimize Damage to Road Infrastructure from Rising Groundwater Associated with Climate Change and Sea Level Rise in Coastal New Hampshire

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Knott, J. F.; Jacobs, J. M.; Daniel, J.; Kirshen, P. H.

    2015-12-01

    Coastal communities with high population density and infrastructure close to the shoreline are vulnerable to the effects of climate change and sea level rise (SLR). In the northeast, annual precipitation has increased by more than 10-percent in the last 100 years and is projected to increase further in the future. In addition, sea level in coastal New Hampshire is projected to rise 1.2 to 2.0 meters by the year 2100 (New Hampshire Coastal Risks and Hazards Commission). Climate change vulnerability and adaptation studies have primarily focused on surface water flooding from SLR; however, little attention has been given to rising waters from beneath the ground surface. Groundwater in many coastal communities will rise with rising sea level which will likely have important consequences for water quality, the structural integrity of foundations and infrastructure, and the health of natural ecosystems in the coastal zone. In this study, we have constructed a regional groundwater flow model of coastal New Hampshire to investigate the effect of various climate change and SLR scenarios on groundwater levels, focusing on impacts to road infrastructure. Using LiDAR datasets and downscaled global climate predictions, we determined that the interaction of several hydrogeological factors resulted in distinct spatial patterns of groundwater rise that were not evident from simple models linking SLR and terrain. Furthermore, by loosely coupling the groundwater model to a hydraulic model for pavement systems, we were able to identify sections of roadways that will have compromised pavement performance due to rising groundwater intersecting the sublayers of these roadways. Our findings broadly suggest that adaptation strategies designed to counter the effects of climate change and SLR in coastal communities must consider potential damage from rising groundwater in addition to surface water impacts not only immediately along the coast but also at significant distances inland.

  10. Important changes in microwave scattering properties of young snow-covered sea ice as indicated from dielectric modelling

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Drinkwater, M. R.

    1988-01-01

    Winter measurements of the properties of young snow-covered fast ice are input into a mixture model to calculate the complex dielectric constant. Large changes in the electromagnetic properties of the medium occur over the 46 day period of measurements. This early evolution of the surface is shown to have an important impact upon predicted radar backscattering properties at GHz frequencies. This has consequences for the unambiguous identification of young ice forms from synthetic aperture or side-looking airborne radar images.

  11. Importance of change appraisal for employee well-being during organizational restructuring: findings from the Finnish paper industry's extensive transition.

    PubMed

    Pahkin, Krista; Nielsen, Karina; Väänänen, Ari; Mattila-Holappa, Pauliina; Leppänen, Anneli; Koskinen, Aki

    2014-01-01

    The global recession has forced the Finnish forest industry to carry out major restructuring activities. Employees have faced different kinds of restructuring, mainly aimed at reducing staff and production. Many studies have shown the negative consequences of restructuring on employee well-being by using negative, ill-health indicators. Our aim is to examine the extent to which change appraisal influences both the negative and positive aspects of work-related well-being among employees who continue working in the organization after the restructuring process. We also examine the role of different actors (top management, immediate supervisor, employees themselves) in how the change is appraised. The study investigated blue-collar employees working in the Finnish forest industry during a period of extensive transition (2008-2009). All six participating factories underwent restructuring between baseline and the follow-up survey (n=369). After adjustment for gender, age and baseline well-being, negative change appraisal increased the risk of experiencing more stress and less work enjoyment. Negative change appraisals thus also damaged the positive, motivational aspects of employee well-being. The results showed the importance of offering employees the opportunity to participate in the planning of changes related to their work as regards positive change appraisal.

  12. The importance of being coupled: Stable states, transitions and responses to changing forcings in tidal bio-morphodynamics (Invited)

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Marani, M.; D'Alpaos, A.; da Lio, C.; Carniello, L.; Lanzoni, S.; Rinaldo, A.

    2009-12-01

    Changes in relative sea level, nutrient and sediment loading, and ecological characteristics expose tidal landforms and ecosystems to responses which may or may not be reversible. Predicting such responses is important in view of the ecological, cultural and socio-economic importance of endangered tidal environments worldwide. Here we develop a point model of the joint evolution of tidal landforms and biota including the dynamics of intertidal vegetation, benthic microbial assemblages, erosional and depositional processes, local and general hydrodynamics, and relative sea-level change. Alternative stable states and punctuated equilibrium dynamics emerge, characterized by possible sudden transitions of the system, governed by vegetation type, disturbances of the benthic biofilm, sediment availability and marine transgressions or regressions. Multiple equilibria are the result of the interplay of erosion, deposition and biostabilization. They highlight the importance of the coupling between biological and sediment transport processes in determining the evolution of a tidal system as a whole. Hysteretic switches between stable states may arise because of differences in the threshold values of relative sea level rise inducing transitions from vegetated to unvegetated equilibria and viceversa.

  13. Minimally invasive mediastinal surgery

    PubMed Central

    Melfi, Franca M. A.; Mussi, Alfredo

    2016-01-01

    In the past, mediastinal surgery was associated with the necessity of a maximum exposure, which was accomplished through various approaches. In the early 1990s, many surgical fields, including thoracic surgery, observed the development of minimally invasive techniques. These included video-assisted thoracic surgery (VATS), which confers clear advantages over an open approach, such as less trauma, short hospital stay, increased cosmetic results and preservation of lung function. However, VATS is associated with several disadvantages. For this reason, it is not routinely performed for resection of mediastinal mass lesions, especially those located in the anterior mediastinum, a tiny and remote space that contains vital structures at risk of injury. Robotic systems can overcome the limits of VATS, offering three-dimensional (3D) vision and wristed instrumentations, and are being increasingly used. With regards to thymectomy for myasthenia gravis (MG), unilateral and bilateral VATS approaches have demonstrated good long-term neurologic results with low complication rates. Nevertheless, some authors still advocate the necessity of maximum exposure, especially when considering the distribution of normal and ectopic thymic tissue. In recent studies, the robotic approach has shown to provide similar neurological outcomes when compared to transsternal and VATS approaches, and is associated with a low morbidity. Importantly, through a unilateral robotic technique, it is possible to dissect and remove at least the same amount of mediastinal fat tissue. Preliminary results on early-stage thymomatous disease indicated that minimally invasive approaches are safe and feasible, with a low rate of pleural recurrence, underlining the necessity of a “no-touch” technique. However, especially for thymomatous disease characterized by an indolent nature, further studies with long follow-up period are necessary in order to assess oncologic and neurologic results through minimally

  14. Each life stage matters: the importance of assessing the response to climate change over the complete life cycle in butterflies.

    PubMed

    Radchuk, Viktoriia; Turlure, Camille; Schtickzelle, Nicolas

    2013-01-01

    As ectothermic organisms, butterflies have widely been used as models to explore the predicted impacts of climate change. However, most studies explore only one life stage; to our best knowledge, none have integrated the impact of temperature on the vital rates of all life stages for a species of conservation concern. Besides, most population viability analysis models for butterflies are based on yearly population growth rate, precluding the implementation and assessment of important climate change scenarios, where climate change occurs mainly, or differently, during some seasons. Here, we used a combination of laboratory and field experiments to quantify the impact of temperature on all life stages of a vulnerable glacial relict butterfly. Next, we integrated these impacts into an overall population response using a deterministic periodic matrix model and explored the impact of several climate change scenarios. Temperature positively affected egg, pre-diapause larva and pupal survival, and the number of eggs laid by a female; only the survival of overwintering larva was negatively affected by an increase in temperature. Despite the positive impact of warming on many life stages, population viability was reduced under all scenarios, with predictions of much shorter times to extinction than under the baseline (current temperature situation) scenario. Indeed, model predictions were the most sensitive to changes in survival of overwintering larva, the only stage negatively affected by warming. A proper consideration of every stage of the life cycle is important when designing conservation guidelines in the light of climate change. This is in line with the resource-based habitat view, which explicitly refers to the habitat as a collection of resources needed for all life stages of the species. We, therefore, encourage adopting a resource-based habitat view for population viability analysis and development of conservation guidelines for butterflies, and more generally

  15. Quantifying the importance of plant functional diversity for ecosystem functioning and resilience under scenarios of climate change (Invited)

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Pavlick, R.; Drewry, D.; Kleidon, A.

    2013-12-01

    Dynamic Global Vegetation Models (DGVMs) typically employ only a small set of Plant Functional Types (PFTs) to represent the vast diversity of observed vegetation forms and functioning. There is growing evidence, however, that this abstraction may not adequately represent the observed variation in plant functional traits, which is thought to play an important role for many ecosystem functions and for ecosystem resilience to environmental change. The geographic distribution of PFTs in these models is also often based on empirical relationships between present-day climate and vegetation patterns. Projections of future climate change, however, point toward the possibility of novel regional climates, which could lead to no-analog vegetation compositions incompatible with the PFT paradigm. Here, we present results from the Jena Diversity-DGVM (JeDi-DGVM), a novel traits-based vegetation model, which simulates a large number of hypothetical plant growth strategies constrained by functional tradeoffs, thereby allowing for a more flexible temporal and spatial representation of the terrestrial biosphere. We run two sets of model experiments forced with the latest bias-corrected climate change scenarios from several different global climate models. In the first set, we simulate a diverse biosphere using a large number of plant growth strategies, allowing the modelled ecosystems to adapt through emergent changes in ecosystem composition. We then aggregate the surviving growth strategies from the first set of diverse simulations to a small number of biome-averaged growth strategies, recreating something akin to PFTs. We use this smaller set of PFT-like growth strategies to represent a sparse or low-diversity biosphere in the second set of model experiments. We quantify the importance of functional diversity by comparing key metrics of ecosystem functioning across the two sets of simulations. The results reveal the implications of using the common PFT vegetation modelling

  16. Detecting temporal change in freshwater fisheries surveys: statistical power and the important linkages between management questions and monitoring objectives

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Wagner, Tyler; Irwin, Brian J.; James R. Bence,; Daniel B. Hayes,

    2016-01-01

    Monitoring to detect temporal trends in biological and habitat indices is a critical component of fisheries management. Thus, it is important that management objectives are linked to monitoring objectives. This linkage requires a definition of what constitutes a management-relevant “temporal trend.” It is also important to develop expectations for the amount of time required to detect a trend (i.e., statistical power) and for choosing an appropriate statistical model for analysis. We provide an overview of temporal trends commonly encountered in fisheries management, review published studies that evaluated statistical power of long-term trend detection, and illustrate dynamic linear models in a Bayesian context, as an additional analytical approach focused on shorter term change. We show that monitoring programs generally have low statistical power for detecting linear temporal trends and argue that often management should be focused on different definitions of trends, some of which can be better addressed by alternative analytical approaches.

  17. [Minimal invasive implantology].

    PubMed

    Bruck, N; Zagury, A; Nahlieli, O

    2015-07-01

    Endoscopic surgery has changed the philosophy and practice of modern surgery in all aspects of medicine. It gave rise to minimally invasive surgery procedures based on the ability to visualize and to operate via small channels. In maxillofacial surgery, our ability to see clearly the surgical field opened an entirely new world of exploration, as conditions that were once almost impossible to control and whose outcome was uncertain can be now predictably managed. in this article we will descripe the advantage of using the oral endoscope during the dental implantology procedure, and we will describe a unique implant which enable us in combination with the oral endoscope to create a maxillary sinus lift with out the need of the major surgery with all of its risks and complication.

  18. Disentangling the relative importance of changes in climate and land-use intensity in driving recent bird population trends.

    PubMed

    Eglington, Sarah M; Pearce-Higgins, James W

    2012-01-01

    Threats to biodiversity resulting from habitat destruction and deterioration have been documented for many species, whilst climate change is regarded as increasingly impacting upon species' distribution and abundance. However, few studies have disentangled the relative importance of these two drivers in causing recent population declines. We quantify the relative importance of both processes by modelling annual variation in population growth of 18 farmland bird species in the UK as a function of measures of land-use intensity and weather. Modelled together, both had similar explanatory power in accounting for annual fluctuations in population growth. When these models were used to retrodict population trends for each species as a function of annual variation in land-use intensity and weather combined, and separately, retrodictions incorporating land-use intensity were more closely linked to observed population trends than retrodictions based only on weather, and closely matched the UK farmland bird index from 1970 onwards. Despite more stable land-use intensity in recent years, climate change (inferred from weather trends) has not overtaken land-use intensity as the dominant driver of bird populations.

  19. Disentangling the relative importance of changes in climate and land-use intensity in driving recent bird population trends.

    PubMed

    Eglington, Sarah M; Pearce-Higgins, James W

    2012-01-01

    Threats to biodiversity resulting from habitat destruction and deterioration have been documented for many species, whilst climate change is regarded as increasingly impacting upon species' distribution and abundance. However, few studies have disentangled the relative importance of these two drivers in causing recent population declines. We quantify the relative importance of both processes by modelling annual variation in population growth of 18 farmland bird species in the UK as a function of measures of land-use intensity and weather. Modelled together, both had similar explanatory power in accounting for annual fluctuations in population growth. When these models were used to retrodict population trends for each species as a function of annual variation in land-use intensity and weather combined, and separately, retrodictions incorporating land-use intensity were more closely linked to observed population trends than retrodictions based only on weather, and closely matched the UK farmland bird index from 1970 onwards. Despite more stable land-use intensity in recent years, climate change (inferred from weather trends) has not overtaken land-use intensity as the dominant driver of bird populations. PMID:22479304

  20. Minimally invasive dentistry: a review and update.

    PubMed

    Brostek, Andrew M; Bochenek, Andrew J; Walsh, Laurence J

    2006-06-01

    The term "Minimal Invasive (MI) Dentistry" can best be defined as the management of caries with a biological approach, rather than with a traditional (surgical) operative dentistry approach. Where operative dentistry is required, this is now carried out in the most conservative manner with minimal destruction of tooth structure. This new approach to caries management changes the emphasis from diagnosing carious lesions as cavities (and a repeating cycle of restorations), to one of diagnosing the oral ecological imbalance and effecting biological changes in the biofilm. The goal of MI is to stop the disease process and then to restore lost tooth structure and function, maximizing the healing potential of the tooth. The thought process which underpins this new minimal invasive approach can be organized into three main categories: (1) Recognize, which means identify patient caries risk, (2) Remineralize, which means prevent caries and reverse non-cavitated caries, and (3) Repair, which means control caries activity, maximize healing and repair the damage. The disease of dental caries is not just demineralization, but a process of repeated demineralization cycles caused by an imbalance in the ecological and chemical equilibrium of the biofilm /tooth interface (the ecological plaque hypothesis). Dietary and lifestyle patterns, especially carbohydrate frequency, water intake and smoking, play an important role in changing the biofilm ecology and pathogenicity. Tools for chairside assessment of saliva and plaque, allow risk to be assessed and patient compliance monitored. The remineralizing properties of saliva can be enhanced using materials which release biologically available calcium, phosphate and fluoride ions (CPP-ACP and CPP-ACFP). Use of biocides can also alter the pathogenic properties of plaque. Use of these MI treatment protocols, can repair early lesions and improve patient understanding and compliance. This review article introduces some of the key concepts

  1. Changing seasonality and phenological responses of free-living male arctic ground squirrels: the importance of sex.

    PubMed

    Sheriff, Michael J; Richter, Melanie M; Buck, C Loren; Barnes, Brian M

    2013-08-19

    Many studies have addressed the effects of climate change on species as a whole; however, few have examined the possibility of sex-specific differences. To understand better the impact that changing patterns of snow-cover have on an important resident Arctic mammal, we investigated the long-term (13 years) phenology of hibernating male arctic ground squirrels living at two nearby sites in northern Alaska that experience significantly different snow-cover regimes. Previously, we demonstrated that snow-cover influences the timing of phenological events in females. Our results here suggest that the end of heterothermy in males is influenced by soil temperature and an endogenous circannual clock, but timing of male emergence from hibernation is influenced by the timing of female emergence. Males at both sites, Atigun and Toolik, end heterothermy on the same date in spring, but remain in their burrows while undergoing reproductive maturation. However, at Atigun, where snowmelt and female emergence occur relatively early, males emerge 8 days earlier than those at Toolik, maintaining a 12-day period between male and female emergence found at each site, but reducing the pre-emergence euthermic period that is critical for reproductive maturation. This sensitivity in timing of male emergence to female emergence will need to be matched by phase shifts in the circannual clock and responsiveness to environmental factors that time the end of heterothermy, if synchrony in reproductive readiness between the sexes is to be preserved in a rapidly changing climate. PMID:23836786

  2. Methylome analysis reveals an important role for epigenetic changes in the regulation of the Arabidopsis response to phosphate starvation

    PubMed Central

    Yong-Villalobos, Lenin; González-Morales, Sandra Isabel; Wrobel, Kazimierz; Gutiérrez-Alanis, Dolores; Cervantes-Peréz, Sergio Alan; Hayano-Kanashiro, Corina; Oropeza-Aburto, Araceli; Cruz-Ramírez, Alfredo; Martínez, Octavio; Herrera-Estrella, Luis

    2015-01-01

    Phosphate (Pi) availability is a significant limiting factor for plant growth and productivity in both natural and agricultural systems. To cope with such limiting conditions, plants have evolved a myriad of developmental and biochemical strategies to enhance the efficiency of Pi acquisition and assimilation to avoid nutrient starvation. In the past decade, these responses have been studied in detail at the level of gene expression; however, the possible epigenetic components modulating plant Pi starvation responses have not been thoroughly investigated. Here, we report that an extensive remodeling of global DNA methylation occurs in Arabidopsis plants exposed to low Pi availability, and in many instances, this effect is related to changes in gene expression. Modifications in methylation patterns within genic regions were often associated with transcriptional activation or repression, revealing the important role of dynamic methylation changes in modulating the expression of genes in response to Pi starvation. Moreover, Arabidopsis mutants affected in DNA methylation showed that changes in DNA methylation patterns are required for the accurate regulation of a number of Pi-starvation–responsive genes and that DNA methylation is necessary to establish proper morphological and physiological phosphate starvation responses. PMID:26668375

  3. LLNL Waste Minimization Program Plan

    SciTech Connect

    Not Available

    1990-02-14

    This document is the February 14, 1990 version of the LLNL Waste Minimization Program Plan (WMPP). The Waste Minimization Policy field has undergone continuous changes since its formal inception in the 1984 HSWA legislation. The first LLNL WMPP, Revision A, is dated March 1985. A series of informal revision were made on approximately a semi-annual basis. This Revision 2 is the third formal issuance of the WMPP document. EPA has issued a proposed new policy statement on source reduction and recycling. This policy reflects a preventative strategy to reduce or eliminate the generation of environmentally-harmful pollutants which may be released to the air, land surface, water, or ground water. In accordance with this new policy new guidance to hazardous waste generators on the elements of a Waste Minimization Program was issued. In response to these policies, DOE has revised and issued implementation guidance for DOE Order 5400.1, Waste Minimization Plan and Waste Reduction reporting of DOE Hazardous, Radioactive, and Radioactive Mixed Wastes, final draft January 1990. This WMPP is formatted to meet the current DOE guidance outlines. The current WMPP will be revised to reflect all of these proposed changes when guidelines are established. Updates, changes and revisions to the overall LLNL WMPP will be made as appropriate to reflect ever-changing regulatory requirements. 3 figs., 4 tabs.

  4. Importing a change in diet: the proposed food safety law of 2010 and the possible impact on importers and international trade.

    PubMed

    May, Shannon G

    2010-01-01

    The current combination of widespread consumer alarm about foodborne illness outbreaks and industry concern about profitability has encouraged Congress, for the first time in many years, to consider major food safety reform. The House of Representatives has already passed its version of reform, the Food Safety Enhancement Act of 2009. The Senate appears ready to pass its bill, the FDA Food Safety Modernization Act. Both bills will subject firms in the food industry to a number of new requirements and will considerably increase Food and Drug Administration's (FDA's) enforcement authority. This article addresses how the passage of major food safety reform in 2010 will potentially affect food importation into the United States, by using the Food Safety Enhancement Act of 2009, the bill passed in the House, as a model for what food safety reform will entail. Under the bill, food facilities and importers will have to register yearly with FDA and pay a fee. Customs brokers will also have to register with FDA. FDA will have the authority to subject certain foods to a certification requirement for obtaining entry into the United States. Food facilities will be required to evaluate hazards and implement preventive controls and food safety plans. FDA will establish mandatory performance standards and produce standards. Specific foods identified by FDA will be subject to traceability requirements. FDA will follow a mandatory risk-based inspection schedule, will have far greater access to records, and will have the authority to enforce mandatory recalls. U.S. trading partners may take issue with the substantial burdens placed on those importing food into the United States and may consider bringing a challenge against the United States claiming that the new food safety legislation violates World Trade Organization obligations.

  5. Temporal changes in secondary production of a population of the subtidal sand snail Umbonium costatum in Hakodate Bay, northern Japan: importance of annual change in age structure

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Noda, Takashi

    1997-05-01

    Year-to-year changes in age structure, biomass ( B), annual secondary production ( P) and {P}/{overlineB} ratio are described of a population of the subtidal snail Umbonium costatum in Hakodate Bay, northern Japan, during a 6-y period (1982-1988). Population structure and values of biomass and production were highly variable from year to year; the ranges of the annual mean biomass, annual production and {P}/{overlineB} ratio were 3.71-9.22 g dry tissue m -2, 1.01-4.92 g dry tissue m -2 y -1 and 0.13-1.33 y -1 respectively. Change in the age structure was the most important single factor affecting temporal changes in annual production in this population. The annual production of the population was high when young individuals, which have a small body size and high growth rate, dominated the population. While annual {P}/{overlineB} ratios in 1983 and 1984 fell within the range of values reported for various other gastropods, those in 1985, 1986, 1987 and 1988 were markedly lower, if the relation between the population {P}/{overlineB} ratio and life span is taken into account. This demonstrates that production estimates from annual biomass and life-span values may lead to incorrect results in a recruitment-limited population.

  6. Rheological properties of concentrated skim milk: importance of soluble minerals in the changes in viscosity during storage.

    PubMed

    Bienvenue, A; Jiménez-Flores, R; Singh, H

    2003-12-01

    Properties of condensed milks prior to spray drying dictate to a large extent the functionality of the resulting milk powder. Rheological properties of concentrated skim milk, with total solids content of 45% but different mineral content, were studied as a function of shear rate and storage time at 50 degrees C. These milks are proposed as a model to study the effects of minerals on rheology and age gellation of condensed milk prior to drying. During storage of the concentrated milk, the apparent viscosity, particularly after 4 h, increased markedly at all shear rates studied. The yield stress also increased steeply after 4 h of storage at 50 degrees C. The changes in apparent viscosity of concentrated milk stored for up to 4 h were largely reversible under high shear, but irreversible in samples stored for longer time. The appearance of yield stress suggested the presence of reversible flocculation arising from weak attraction between casein micelles, with a transition from reversible to irreversible aggregation during storage. Particle size analysis confirmed irreversible aggregation and fusion of casein micelles during storage. Gradual reduction of mineral content of concentrated milks resulted in a marked decrease in the apparent viscosity and casein micelle aggregation during storage, while addition of minerals to milk had the opposite effect. The results demonstrated that the soluble mineral content is very important in controlling the storage-induced changes in the rheology of concentrated milks.

  7. Depressive-like behavior observed with a minimal loss of locus coeruleus (LC) neurons following administration of 6-hydroxydopamine is associated with electrophysiological changes and reversed with precursors of norepinephrine.

    PubMed

    Szot, Patricia; Franklin, Allyn; Miguelez, Cristina; Wang, Yangqing; Vidaurrazaga, Igor; Ugedo, Luisa; Sikkema, Carl; Wilkinson, Charles W; Raskind, Murray A

    2016-02-01

    Depression is a common co-morbid condition most often observed in subjects with mild cognitive impairment (MCI) and during the early stages of Alzheimer's disease (AD). Dysfunction of the central noradrenergic nervous system is an important component in depression. In AD, locus coeruleus (LC) noradrenergic neurons are significantly reduced pathologically and the reduction of LC neurons is hypothesized to begin very early in the progression of the disorder; however, it is not known if dysfunction of the noradrenergic system due to early LC neuronal loss is involved in mediating depression in early AD. Therefore, the purpose of this study was to determine in an animal model if a loss of noradrenergic LC neurons results in depressive-like behavior. The LC noradrenergic neuronal population was reduced by the bilateral administration of the neurotoxin 6-hydroxydopamine (6-OHDA) directly into the LC. Forced swim test (FST) was performed three weeks after the administration of 6-OHDA (5, 10 and 14 μg/μl), animals administered the 5 μg/μl of 6-OHDA demonstrated a significant increase in immobility, indicating depressive-like behavior. This increase in immobility at the 5 μg/μl dose was observed with a minimal loss of LC noradrenergic neurons as compared to LC neuronal loss observed at 10 and 14 μg/μl dose. A significant positive correlation between the number of surviving LC neurons after 6-OHDA and FST immobile time was observed, suggesting that in animals with a minimal loss of LC neurons (or a greater number of surviving LC neurons) following 6-OHDA demonstrated depressive-like behavior. As the 6-OHDA-induced loss of LC neurons is increased, the time spent immobile is reduced. Depressive-like behavior was also observed with the 5 μg/μl dose of 6-OHDA with a second behavior test, sucrose consumption. FST increased immobility following 6-OHDA (5 μg/μl) was reversed by the administration of a single dose of L-1-3-4-dihydroxyphenylalanine (DOPA) or l-threo-3

  8. The Hemophore HasA from Yersinia pestis (HasAyp) Coordinates Hemin with a Single Residue, Tyr75, and with Minimal Conformational Change

    PubMed Central

    Kumar, Ritesh; Lovell, Scott; Matsumura, Hirotoshi; Battaile, Kevin P.; Moënne-Loccoz, Pierre; Rivera, Mario

    2015-01-01

    Hemophores from Serratia marcescens (HasAsm) and Pseudomonas aeruginosa (HasAp) bind hemin between two loops, which harbor the axial ligands H32 and Y75. Hemin binding to the Y75 loop triggers closing of the H32 loop and enables binding of H32. Because Yersinia pestis HasA (HasAyp) presents a Gln at position 32, we determined the structures of apo-and holo-HasAyp. Surprisingly, the Q32 loop in apo-HasAyp is already in the closed conformation but no residue from the Q32 loop binds hemin in holo-HasAyp. In agreement with the minimal reorganization between the apo-and holo-structures, the hemin on-rate is too fast to detect by conventional stopped-flow measurements. PMID:23578210

  9. Response of plant tundra communities to changes in abiotic and biotic environments: Importance of the temporal dimension

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Saccone, P.; Virtanen, R.

    2015-12-01

    Understanding of ecosystem response to changing environment have been improved by the convergence of observational and experimental approaches that allow disentangling mechanisms involved and large scale subsequent patterns. However, such approaches often face context-dependence of underlying processes, and a major challenge of community ecology is to deepen our understanding of this context-dependency for reliable upscaling. Here we used the results from several transplant experiments of heath communities in the Northern Fennoscandian during the last two decades to investigate the relative importance of abiotic and biotic drivers and the plant functional response. The plant community composition of blocks of heath vegetation from diverse origins transplanted in contrasted abiotic and biotic conditions was monitored from 6 to 23 years depending on the design. Considering both abiotic severity and biotic environment, the transplantation along altitudinal gradient constituted major habitat perturbation, in particular for communities from the mountain tundra vulnerable to strong functional shift. In addition, the joint effects of multiple drivers associated to grazing pressure and abiotic micro heterogeneity resulted in divergent community in the long-term. However, the different factors operated on different temporal scales. The vegetation depending on their origin and functional type also showed contrasted patterns from immediate and transient response to strong biological inertia. Our results reveal the potential for alternative response of plant communities depending on the interplay between the multiple drivers and the functional attributes of the vegetation. This interplay should drive plant communities toward divergent alternative states, but our ability to extrapolate longer-term trajectories from partial dynamics is challenged by the temporal differences in drivers pressure and plant response. The responses to manipulation appear as successional processes and

  10. Pins and needles: minimally invasive office techniques for facial rejuvenation.

    PubMed

    Maas, Corey S; Bapna, Sumit

    2009-11-01

    The desire for minimally invasive facial rejuvenation has continued to increase from the perspective of both the patients and injectors. For successful rejuvenation, it is important to understand the anatomic changes of the aging face as well as the properties of available neuromodulators and soft tissue fillers. The injector should be knowledgeable of the advantages and disadvantages of each product. Patient selection, perhaps, plays the largest role in success, choosing patients that would truly benefit from and have reasonable expectations for minimally invasive techniques. Unsatisfactory outcomes can be limited by meticulous injection technique and well thought out treatment plans.

  11. Enough with the Westerlies: the potential importance of deep Southern Ocean convection in past and present changes

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Galbraith, E. D.; de Lavergne, C.; Palter, J. B.; Marinov, I.; Bernardello, R.

    2013-12-01

    The Southern Westerlies clearly play a central role in global climate, raising dense water from the ocean interior to the surface, and controlling the formation of intermediate and mode waters. But ventilation of the deep ocean, which is important for heat and carbon exchange, is not directly controlled by the Westerlies: rather, ventilation occurs following the production of dense waters through heat and freshwater exchange at the surface. Today, this occurs only in isolated pockets on the Antarctic shelf, where cold and relatively salty waters are produced. In contrast, from 1974-1976, a vast polynya in the Weddell Sea was observed to form a direct conduit to depths of 3000 m. At the time, this mode of Antarctic Bottom Water production rivalled the formation rate of dense water on the shelf, but it has not recurred since. An analysis of global coupled models in the CMIP5 archive shows that deep Southern Ocean convection, though common among models, is remarkably sensitive to anthropogenic climate warming, due to its impact on the surface freshwater budget, and ceases under climate warming. Historical salinity observations confirm a surface freshening trend in the Southern Ocean since the 1960s, that would have strengthened the pycnocline. We suggest that the absence of deep convection since 1976 may be a previously-unrecognized impact of anthropogenic warming. In addition, model simulations show that deep convection is sensitive to Earth's orbital parameters, suggesting that variability in deep convection may have accompanied natural climate change during the Holocene and before. Thus, past variability in deep Southern Ocean convection is arguably at least as important as shifting Westerlies in influencing deep overturning.

  12. Perception of floods as an important aspect of quality of life and territorial changes in flood areas

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Klemešová, Kamila; Andráško, Ivan

    2014-05-01

    The quality of life in many municipalities in the Czech Republic is affected by coming floods. Since 1997 when a great part of Moravia was affected by an extreme flood situation, much closer attention is paid to floods and flood protection. Flood management is based, besides others, on European flood legislation but it still does not reflect the social perception of flood situations as a common part of the evaluation of flood risk. However, this very perception strongly influences future implementation of flood measures, territorial and social development of the municipality and indirectly the quality of life in the municipality. One of the main problems in flood issue is the financing of anti-flood measures. In view of the fact that financial resources in environmental sphere are limited, preventive anti-flood measures, that can eliminate the impacts of future floods and are not so expensive, assume more importance. Such kind of measures is often suggested for local needs. The necessity to research the social perception of flood in this context is supported by some studies pointing out a still insufficient use of preventive anti-flood measures in the Czech Republic in spite of several extreme floods in the past 20 years. This paper aims at presenting the results of a research which has been done in a model area affected by floods. The aim of this research was to point out the main factors that influence the life in the municipality after flood (including suggested anti-flood measures) and the possibilities and willingness of the inhabitants to change them. The research results have subsequently been supplemented with the same evaluation by the members of local administrations who are important players in post-flood development of the municipality and in dealings with citizens about the suggested anti-flood measures.

  13. Introduction. Antarctic ecology from genes to ecosystems: the impact of climate change and the importance of scale

    PubMed Central

    Clarke, Andrew; Johnston, Nadine M; Murphy, Eugene J; Rogers, Alex D

    2006-01-01

    Antarctica offers a unique natural laboratory for undertaking fundamental research on the relationship between climate, evolutionary processes and molecular adaptation. The fragmentation of Gondwana and the development of wide-scale glaciation have resulted in major episodes of extinction and vicariance, as well as driving adaptation to an extreme environment. On shorter time-scales, glacial cycles have resulted in shifts in distribution, range fragmentation and allopatric speciation, and the Antarctic Peninsula is currently experiencing among the most rapid climatic warming on the planet. The recent revolution in molecular techniques has provided a suite of innovative and powerful tools to explore the consequences of these changes, and these are now providing novel insights into evolutionary and ecological processes in Antarctica. In addition, the increasing use of remotely sensed data is providing a large-scale view of the system that allows these processes to be set in a wider spatial context. In these two volumes, we collect a wide range of papers exploring these themes, concentrating on recent advances and emphasizing the importance of spatial and temporal scale in understanding ecological and evolutionary processes in Antarctica. PMID:17405205

  14. Genetic alterations for increased coumarin production lead to metabolic changes in the medicinally important Pelargonium sidoides DC (Geraniaceae).

    PubMed

    Colling, J; Groenewald, J-H; Makunga, N P

    2010-11-01

    The medicinal plant Pelargonium sidoides is fast becoming threatened due to the overharvest of its tubers from the wild to produce a phytopharmaceutical for treating respiratory infections. The action of the coumarins is implicated in the efficacy of the commercial herbal extract with the highly oxygenated coumarins exhibiting the best anti-bacterial and anti-viral activity. Through this work we aimed at exploring the metabolic effects of Agrobacterium rhizogenes transformation. After confirmation of transgenesis using PCR amplification of the rol A (320 bp), rol B (400 bp) and rol C (600 bp) genes, metabolite profiles indicated a high level of variability between the different transgenic clones but these had more compounds compared to non-transgenic control cultures. This was represented by a two- to four-fold increase in detected metabolites in transgenic clones. We quantified several commercially important coumarins, flavonoids and phenolic acids. One of the clones had six out of nine of these metabolites. Overall, the concentration of these metabolites of interest were significantly changed in transgenic root cultures, for instance shikimic acid was recorded at the highest level in clone A4T-A. Production of key metabolites at significantly higher concentrations due to transgenesis and positive anti-bacterial activity exhibited by transgenic roots lends support to the idea of developing these clones as an alternative source that will allow for sustainable access to economically valuable secondary compounds of P. sidoides.

  15. What is the importance of climate model bias when projecting the impacts of climate change on land surface processes?

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Liu, M.; Rajagopalan, K.; Chung, S. H.; Jiang, X.; Harrison, J.; Nergui, T.; Guenther, A.; Miller, C.; Reyes, J.; Tague, C.; Choate, J.; Salathé, E. P.; Stöckle, C. O.; Adam, J. C.

    2014-05-01

    from dry lands, and HJ-Andrews's ET between BC and NBC data. Even though BC post-processing has no significant impacts on most of the studied variables when taking PNW as a whole, their effects have large spatial variations and some local areas are substantially influenced. In addition, there are months during which BC and NBC post-processing produces significant differences in projected changes, such as summer runoff. Factor-controlled simulations indicate that BC post-processing of precipitation and temperature both substantially contribute to these differences at regional scales. We conclude that there are trade-offs between using BC climate data for offline CCI studies versus directly modeled climate data. These trade-offs should be considered when designing integrated modeling frameworks for specific applications; for example, BC may be more important when considering impacts on reservoir operations in mountainous watersheds than when investigating impacts on biogenic emissions and air quality, for which VOCs are a primary indicator.

  16. What is the importance of climate model bias when projecting the impacts of climate change on land surface processes?

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Liu, M.; Rajagopalan, K.; Chung, S. H.; Jiang, X.; Harrison, J.; Nergui, T.; Guenther, A.; Miller, C.; Reyes, J.; Tague, C.; Choate, J.; Salathé, E. P.; Stöckle, C. O.; Adam, J. C.

    2013-11-01

    differences rise from projected SWE, crop yield from dry lands, and HJ Andrews's ET between BC and NBC data. Even though BC post-processing has no significant impacts on most of the studied variables when taking PNW as a whole, their effects have large spatial variations and some local areas are substantially influenced. In addition, there are months during which BC and NBC post-processing produces significant differences in projected changes, such as summer runoff. Factor-controlled simulations indicate that BC post-processing of precipitation and temperature both substantially contribute to these differences at region scales. We conclude that there are trade-offs between using BC climate data for offline CCI studies vs. direct modeled climate data. These trade-offs should be considered when designing integrated modeling frameworks for specific applications; e.g., BC may be more important when considering impacts on reservoir operations in mountainous watersheds than when investigating impacts on biogenic emissions and air quality (where VOCs are a primary indicator).

  17. What is the importance of climate model bias when projecting the impacts of climate change on land surface processes?

    SciTech Connect

    Liu, M. L.; Rajagopalan, K.; Chung, S. H.; Jiang, X.; Harrison, J. H.; Nergui, T.; Guenther, Alex B.; Miller, C.; Reyes, J.; Tague, C. L.; Choate, J. S.; Salathe, E.; Stockle, Claudio O.; Adam, J. C.

    2014-05-16

    , significant differences rise from projected SWE, crop yield from dry lands, and HJ Andrews’s ET between BC and NBC data. Even though BC post-processing has no significant impacts on most of the studied variables when taking PNW as a whole, their effects have large spatial variations and some local areas are substantially influenced. In addition, there are months during which BC and NBC post-processing produces significant differences in projected changes, such as summer runoff. Factor-controlled simulations indicate that BC post-processing of precipitation and temperature both substantially contribute to these differences at region scales. We conclude that there are trade-offs between using BC climate data for offline CCI studies vs. direct modeled climate data. These trade-offs should be considered when designing integrated modeling frameworks for specific applications; e.g., BC may be more important when considering impacts on reservoir operations in mountainous watersheds than when investigating impacts on biogenic emissions and air quality (where VOCs are a primary indicator).

  18. Biochemical evidence for minimal vegetation change in peatlands of the West Siberian Lowland during the Medieval Climate Anomaly and Little Ice Age

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Philben, Michael; Kaiser, Karl; Benner, Ronald

    2014-05-01

    Peatland vegetation is controlled primarily by the depth of the water table, making peat paleovegetation a useful climate archive. We applied a biochemical approach to quantitatively estimate the plant sources of peat carbon based on (1) neutral sugar compositions of Sphagnum, vascular plants, and lichens and (2) lignin phenol compositions of vascular plants. We used these biochemical indices to characterize vegetation change over the last 2000 years in four peat cores from the West Siberian Lowland (Russia) to investigate climate change during the Medieval Climate Anomaly and Little Ice Age. The vegetation was dominated by Sphagnum in all four cores, but was punctuated by several rapid but transient transitions to vascular plant dominance in the two cores from the southern West Siberian Lowland (<60°N latitude). Lichen contributions were evident at the end of the Medieval Climate Anomaly and during the Little Ice Age in the two cores from northern West Siberian Lowland (>60°N), possibly indicating permafrost development. However, there was no evidence for sustained vegetation change in response to either climatic event in cores from southern West Siberian Lowland. This suggests that these climatic events were relatively mild in the southern West Siberian Lowland, although the sensitivity of bog plant communities to climate change remains poorly understood.

  19. Conserved Patterns in Backbone Torsional Changes Allow For Single Base Flipping from Duplex DNA with Minimal Distortion of the Double Helix

    PubMed Central

    Banavali, Nilesh K.; Huang, Niu; MacKerell, Alexander D.

    2008-01-01

    Base flipping is a structural mechanism common to many DNA processing and repair enzymes. Changes in the local backbone torsions that occur during base flipping and the effect of environment on their behavior are of particular interest in understanding different base flipping mechanisms. In the present study, structures sampled during umbrella sampling molecular dynamics (MD) simulations of base flipping in aqueous and protein-bound environments, carried out with two different MD simulation strategies, are analyzed to find the most significant phosphodiester backbone distortions in the vicinity of the flipping base. Torsional sampling on the 5′ side of the flipping base during flipping through the major groove show similarities to the torsional sampling on the 3′ side during flipping through the minor groove and vice versa. In differing environments, this behavior varies only marginally. These compensating torsional changes in the DNA backbone on 5′ and 3′ sides of the flipping base limit overall distortion of the DNA double helix during single base flipping. Rotameric intermediate states observed during base flipping are identified and postulated to be metastable states implicated in both large-scale structural changes and functional effects of chemical modifications in DNA. PMID:16771353

  20. Seasonal change in body length of important small copepods and relationship with environmental factors in Jiaozhou Bay, China

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Sun, Xiaohong; Sun, Song; Li, Chaolun; Wang, Minxiao

    2012-05-01

    Differences among species in prosome length and in species' response to environmental factors do exist. Therefore, it is useful to examine prosome length for different copepod species in variable environments. Seasonal variations in prosome length of four small copepods and their copepodite stages in the Jiaozhou Bay were compared and the relative influence of temperature, salinity, and chlorophyll concentration were examined. Two peaks were found in the mean prosome length of Paracalanus parvus (in early winter and May). For Acartia bifilosa, the maximum values of all copepodites occurred mainly from February to April, and decreased to the bottom in July. Prosome length of Acartia pacifica peaked when it first appeared in June, then reached to the minimum in July. Parvocalanus crassirostris only appeared from late summer to autumn and the mean prosome length showed no clear changes. Correlations of adult prosome length with environmental factors were evaluated. For the four species, temperature was negatively correlated to prosome length except for P. crassirostris. But the different species varied markedly in their responds to temperature. A. bifilosa showed a more definite trend of size variation with temperature than P. parvus and A. pacifica. Correlations of prosome length with salinity were significantly positive for almost all the small copepods. The relationship between chlorophyll concentration and prosome length was complicated for these copepods, but for P. parvus, chlorophyll concentration was also an important affecting factor. Furthermore, investigation needs to be done on food quality for some copepod. These results are essential to estimate the biomass and the production, and to understand these small copepods' population dynamics in this human-affected bay.

  1. Minimizing Shortness of Breath

    MedlinePlus

    ... Top Doctors in the Nation Departments & Divisions Home Health Insights Stress & Relaxation Breathing and Relaxation Minimizing Shortness of Breath ... Management Assess Your Stress Coping Strategies Identifying ... & Programs Health Insights Doctors & Departments Research & Science Education & Training Make ...

  2. Minimal model for Brownian vortexes.

    PubMed

    Sun, Bo; Grier, David G; Grosberg, Alexander Y

    2010-08-01

    A Brownian vortex is a noise-driven machine that uses thermal fluctuations to extract a steady-state flow of work from a static force field. Its operation is characterized by loops in a probability current whose topology and direction can change with changes in temperature. We present discrete three- and four-state minimal models for Brownian vortexes that can be solved exactly with a master-equation formalism. These models elucidate conditions required for flux reversal in Brownian vortexes and provide insights into their thermodynamic efficiency through the rate of entropy production. PMID:20866791

  3. The Importance of Affective Containment during Unwelcome Educational Change: The Curious Incident of the Deer Hut Fire

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Dale, Di; James, Chris

    2015-01-01

    Educational change can call up a range of feelings that can pose a number of problems for those experiencing and/or organizing it. This article analyses the processes of educational change from a psychodynamic standpoint. In particular it explores affective containment, which enables feelings to be fully experienced and to be used productively. an…

  4. An investigation of the physiology and potential role of components of the deep ocean bacterial community (of the NE Atlantic) by enrichments carried out under minimal environmental change

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Egan, Simon T.; McCarthy, David M.; Patching, John W.; Fleming, Gerard T. A.

    2012-03-01

    Samples of deep-ocean water (3170 m) taken from the Rockall Trough (North-East Atlantic) were incubated for one-month at atmospheric and in-situ pressure (31 MPa), at 4 °C and in the absence and presence of added nutrients. Prokaryotic abundance (direct cell counts) increased by at least 28-fold in enrichments without added nutrients. However, the magnitude of increase in abundance was less for incubations carried out at in-situ pressure (131-181-fold) than those incubations at surface pressure (163-1714-fold increase in abundance). Changes in the prokaryotic community profile as a result of one-month incubation were measured by means of Denaturing Gel Electrophoresis (DGGE) of extracted 16S rDNA. The profiles of post-incubation samples incubated at in-situ pressure were separated from all other profiles as were those of unpressurised samples with added nutrients. The behaviour (fitness) of individual community members (Operational Taxonomic Units: OTUs) was determined on the basis of change in relative DGGE band intensities between pre- and post-incubation samples. Of twenty-one OTUs examined, six were fitter when incubated in the presence of added nutrients and at in-situ pressure and one of these was advantaged when grown in the absence of added nutrients and at in-situ pressure. These represented autochthonous and active members of the deep-ocean prokaryotic community. In contrast, seven OTUs were disadvantaged when grown under in-situ pressure and were indicative surface-derived allochtonous microorganisms. A further two OTUs came to dominance in incubations with added nutrients (pressurised and unpressurised) and similar to the previous category were probably surface-derived microorganisms. A single OTU showed characteristics of piezophilic and oliogrophic behaviour and four OTUs were disadvantaged under all incubation conditions examined. The twenty-one DGGE bands were sequenced and the bacterial communities were dominated by Gamma proteobactria and to a

  5. The minimal scenario of leptogenesis

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Blanchet, Steve; Di Bari, Pasquale

    2012-12-01

    We review the main features and results of thermal leptogenesis within the type I seesaw mechanism, the minimal extension of the Standard Model explaining neutrino masses and mixing. After presenting the simplest approach, the vanilla scenario, we discuss various important developments of recent years, such as the inclusion of lepton and heavy neutrino flavour effects, a description beyond a hierarchical heavy neutrino mass spectrum and an improved kinetic description within the density matrix and the closed-time-path formalisms. We also discuss how leptogenesis can ultimately represent an important phenomenological tool to test the seesaw mechanism and the underlying model of new physics.

  6. Use of mild irradiation doses to control pathogenic bacteria on meat trimmings for production of patties aiming at provoking minimal changes in quality attributes.

    PubMed

    Xavier, Ma de la Paz; Dauber, Cecilia; Mussio, Paula; Delgado, Enrique; Maquieira, Ana; Soria, Alejandra; Curuchet, Ana; Márquez, Rosa; Méndez, Carlos; López, Tomás

    2014-11-01

    The objectives of the present work were to assess the use of moderate doses of gamma irradiation (2 to 5 kGy) and to reduce the risk of pathogen presence without altering the quality attributes of bovine trimmings and of patties made of irradiated trimmings. Microbiological indicators (coliforms, Pseudomonas spp and mesophilic aerobic counts), physicochemical indicators (pH, color and tiobarbituric acid) and sensory changes were evaluated during storage. 5 kGy irradiation doses slightly increased off flavors in patties. Two pathogenic markers (Listeria monocytogenes and Escherichia coli O157:H7) were inoculated at high or low loads to trimming samples which were subsequently irradiated and lethality curves were obtained. Provided that using irradiation doses ≤2.5 kGy are used, reductions of 2 log CFU/g of L. monocytogenes and 5 log CFU/g of E. coli O157:H7 are expected. It seems reasonable to suppose that irradiation can be successfully employed to improve the safety of frozen trimmings when initial pathogenic bacteria burdens are not extremely high. PMID:25042241

  7. Minimally invasive surgery. Future developments.

    PubMed

    Wickham, J E

    1994-01-15

    The rapid development of minimally invasive surgery means that there will be fundamental changes in interventional treatment. Technological advances will allow new minimally invasive procedures to be developed. Application of robotics will allow some procedures to be done automatically, and coupling of slave robotic instruments with virtual reality images will allow surgeons to perform operations by remote control. Miniature motors and instruments designed by microengineering could be introduced into body cavities to perform operations that are currently impossible. New materials will allow changes in instrument construction, such as use of memory metals to make heat activated scissors or forceps. With the reduced trauma associated with minimally invasive surgery, fewer operations will require long hospital stays. Traditional surgical wards will become largely redundant, and hospitals will need to cope with increased through-put of patients. Operating theatres will have to be equipped with complex high technology equipment, and hospital staff will need to be trained to manage it. Conventional nursing care will be carried out more in the community. Many traditional specialties will be merged, and surgical training will need fundamental revision to ensure that surgeons are competent to carry out the new procedures. PMID:8312776

  8. Coupled changes in sand grain size and sand transport driven by changes in the upstream supply of sand in the Colorado River: relative importance of changes in bed-sand grain size and bed-sand area

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Topping, D.J.; Rubin, D.M.; Melis, T.S.

    2007-01-01

    Sand transport in the Colorado River in Marble and Grand canyons was naturally limited by the upstream supply of sand. Prior to the 1963 closure of Glen Canyon Dam, the river exhibited the following four effects of sand supply limitation: (1) hysteresis in sediment concentration, (2) hysteresis in sediment grain size coupled to the hysteresis in sediment concentration, (3) production of inversely graded flood deposits, and (4) development or modification of a lag between the time of a flood peak and the time of either maximum or minimum (depending on reach geometry) bed elevation. Construction and operation of the dam has enhanced the degree to which the first two of these four effects are evident, and has not affected the degree to which the last two effects of sand supply limitation are evident in the Colorado River in Marble and Grand canyons. The first three of the effects involve coupled changes in suspended-sand concentration and grain size that are controlled by changes in the upstream supply of sand. During tributary floods, sand on the bed of the Colorado River fines; this causes the suspended sand to fine and the suspended-sand concentration to increase, even when the discharge of water remains constant. Subsequently, the bed is winnowed of finer sand, the suspended sand coarsens, and the suspended-sand concentration decreases independently of discharge. Also associated with these changes in sand supply are changes in the fraction of the bed that is covered by sand. Thus, suspended-sand concentration in the Colorado River is likely regulated by both changes in the bed-sand grain size and changes in the bed-sand area. A physically based flow and suspended-sediment transport model is developed, tested, and applied to data from the Colorado River to evaluate the relative importance of changes in the bed-sand grain size and changes in the bed-sand area in regulating suspended-sand concentration. Although the model was developed using approximations for steady

  9. Minimally invasive procedures

    PubMed Central

    Baltayiannis, Nikolaos; Michail, Chandrinos; Lazaridis, George; Anagnostopoulos, Dimitrios; Baka, Sofia; Mpoukovinas, Ioannis; Karavasilis, Vasilis; Lampaki, Sofia; Papaiwannou, Antonis; Karavergou, Anastasia; Kioumis, Ioannis; Pitsiou, Georgia; Katsikogiannis, Nikolaos; Tsakiridis, Kosmas; Rapti, Aggeliki; Trakada, Georgia; Zissimopoulos, Athanasios; Zarogoulidis, Konstantinos

    2015-01-01

    Minimally invasive procedures, which include laparoscopic surgery, use state-of-the-art technology to reduce the damage to human tissue when performing surgery. Minimally invasive procedures require small “ports” from which the surgeon inserts thin tubes called trocars. Carbon dioxide gas may be used to inflate the area, creating a space between the internal organs and the skin. Then a miniature camera (usually a laparoscope or endoscope) is placed through one of the trocars so the surgical team can view the procedure as a magnified image on video monitors in the operating room. Specialized equipment is inserted through the trocars based on the type of surgery. There are some advanced minimally invasive surgical procedures that can be performed almost exclusively through a single point of entry—meaning only one small incision, like the “uniport” video-assisted thoracoscopic surgery (VATS). Not only do these procedures usually provide equivalent outcomes to traditional “open” surgery (which sometimes require a large incision), but minimally invasive procedures (using small incisions) may offer significant benefits as well: (I) faster recovery; (II) the patient remains for less days hospitalized; (III) less scarring and (IV) less pain. In our current mini review we will present the minimally invasive procedures for thoracic surgery. PMID:25861610

  10. Minimal Change in the Cytoplasmic Calcium Dynamics in Striatal GABAergic Neurons of a DYT1 Dystonia Knock-In Mouse Model

    PubMed Central

    Iwabuchi, Sadahiro; Koh, Jin-Young; Wang, Kai; Ho, K. W. David; Harata, N. Charles

    2013-01-01

    DYT1 dystonia is the most common hereditary form of primary torsion dystonia. This autosomal-dominant disorder is characterized by involuntary muscle contractions that cause sustained twisting and repetitive movements. It is caused by an in-frame deletion in the TOR1A gene, leading to the deletion of a glutamic acid residue in the torsinA protein. Heterozygous knock-in mice, which reproduce the genetic mutation in human patients, have abnormalities in synaptic transmission at the principal GABAergic neurons in the striatum, a brain structure that is involved in the execution and modulation of motor activity. However, whether this mutation affects the excitability of striatal GABAergic neurons has not been investigated in this animal model. Here, we examined the excitability of cultured striatal neurons obtained from heterozygous knock-in mice, using calcium imaging as indirect readout. Immunofluorescence revealed that more than 97% of these neurons are positive for a marker of GABAergic neurons, and that more than 92% are also positive for a marker of medium spiny neurons, indicating that these are mixed cultures of mostly medium spiny neurons and a few (~5%) GABAergic interneurons. When these neurons were depolarized by field stimulation, the calcium concentration in the dendrites increased rapidly and then decayed slowly. The amplitudes of calcium transients were larger in heterozygous neurons than in wild-type neurons, resulting in ~15% increase in cumulative calcium transients during a train of stimuli. However, there was no change in other parameters of calcium dynamics. Given that calcium dynamics reflect neuronal excitability, these results suggest that the mutation only slightly increases the excitability of striatal GABAergic neurons in DYT1 dystonia. PMID:24260480

  11. Predicting the impacts of climate change on animal distributions: the importance of local adaptation and species' traits

    SciTech Connect

    HELLMANN, J. J.; LOBO, N. F.

    2011-12-20

    The geographic range limits of many species are strongly affected by climate and are expected to change under global warming. For species that are able to track changing climate over broad geographic areas, we expect to see shifts in species distributions toward the poles and away from the equator. A number of ecological and evolutionary factors, however, could restrict this shifting or redistribution under climate change. These factors include restricted habitat availability, restricted capacity for or barriers to movement, or reduced abundance of colonists due the perturbation effect of climate change. This research project examined the last of these constraints - that climate change could perturb local conditions to which populations are adapted, reducing the likelihood that a species will shift its distribution by diminishing the number of potential colonists. In the most extreme cases, species ranges could collapse over a broad geographic area with no poleward migration and an increased risk of species extinction. Changes in individual species ranges are the processes that drive larger phenomena such as changes in land cover, ecosystem type, and even changes in carbon cycling. For example, consider the poleward range shift and population outbreaks of the mountain pine beetle that has decimated millions of acres of Douglas fir trees in the western US and Canada. Standing dead trees cause forest fires and release vast quantities of carbon to the atmosphere. The beetle likely shifted its range because it is not locally adapted across its range, and it appears to be limited by winter low temperatures that have steadily increased in the last decades. To understand range and abundance changes like the pine beetle, we must reveal the extent of adaptive variation across species ranges - and the physiological basis of that adaptation - to know if other species will change as readily as the pine beetle. Ecologists tend to assume that range shifts are the dominant

  12. 75 FR 27225 - Hass Avocados from Mexico; Importation into the Commonwealth of Puerto Rico and Other Changes

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2010-05-14

    ... Federal Register (69 FR 69749-69722, Docket No. 03-022-5) and effective on January 31, 2005, we amended....). List of Subjects in 7 CFR Part 319 Coffee, Cotton, Fruits, Imports, Logs, Nursery stock, Plant...

  13. 78 FR 77353 - Import Administration; Change of Agency Name for Supplies for Use in Emergency Relief Work

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2013-12-23

    ... for Supplies for Use in Emergency Relief Work AGENCY: Import Administration, Commerce. ACTION: Final... 358 PART 358--SUPPLIES FOR USE IN EMERGENCY RELIEF WORK 0 1. The authority citation for part...

  14. Spatial and temporal analysis of textural and biochemical changes of imported avocado cv. Hass during fruit ripening.

    PubMed

    Landahl, Sandra; Meyer, Marjolaine Dorothée; Terry, Leon Alexander

    2009-08-12

    The ripeness degree of climacteric fruits, such as avocado ( Persea americana Mill.), can be correlated with rheological properties. However, there remains little information on not only the postharvest changes in texture of avocado fruit from different origins but also the spatial variation within fruit. In addition, the relationship between changes in texture and composition of fatty acids and major nonstructural carbohydrates (NSCs) of fruit tissue during ripening is unknown. The texture of different horizontally cut slices from individual fruits within a consignment was measured during ripening using a previously unreported technique. The composition of fatty acids and NSCs in fruit mesocarp tissue was determined. The composition of fatty acids and oil and dry matter contents varied significantly according to origin. Significant changes in texture, mannoheptulose and perseitol contents, and linoleic acid percentage were found in avocado fruit flesh during ripening. Spatial variation within fruit was detected in both textural and biochemical characteristics.

  15. Minimally invasive training in urologic oncology.

    PubMed

    Liu, Jen-Jane; Gonzalgo, Mark L

    2011-11-01

    Use of minimally invasive surgical (MIS) techniques continues to expand in the field of urologic oncology; however, proficiency in these techniques is subject to a learning curve. Current training paradigms have incorporated MIS, but in a non-standardized fashion. Residency work-hour restrictions and ethical concerns may influence efforts to deliver adequate training during a defined residency period. Post-residency fellowships or mini-courses may help urologists gain proficiency in these skills, but are time-consuming and may not provide adequate exposure. Surgical simulation with dry labs and augmentation with virtual reality are important adjuncts to operative training for MIS. The urologic oncologist must be familiar with open and MIS techniques to effectively treat cancer in the least morbid way possible and adapt to the ever-changing field of MIS with dynamic training paradigms. PMID:22155873

  16. Minimally invasive training in urologic oncology.

    PubMed

    Liu, Jen-Jane; Gonzalgo, Mark L

    2011-11-01

    Use of minimally invasive surgical (MIS) techniques continues to expand in the field of urologic oncology; however, proficiency in these techniques is subject to a learning curve. Current training paradigms have incorporated MIS, but in a non-standardized fashion. Residency work-hour restrictions and ethical concerns may influence efforts to deliver adequate training during a defined residency period. Post-residency fellowships or mini-courses may help urologists gain proficiency in these skills, but are time-consuming and may not provide adequate exposure. Surgical simulation with dry labs and augmentation with virtual reality are important adjuncts to operative training for MIS. The urologic oncologist must be familiar with open and MIS techniques to effectively treat cancer in the least morbid way possible and adapt to the ever-changing field of MIS with dynamic training paradigms.

  17. Ways To Minimize Bullying.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Mueller, Mary Ellen; Parisi, Mary Joy

    This report delineates a series of interventions aimed at minimizing incidences of bullying in a suburban elementary school. The social services staff was scheduled to initiate an anti-bullying incentive in fall 2001 due to the increased occurrences of bullying during the prior year. The target population consisted of third- and fourth-grade…

  18. Minimizing Promotion Trauma.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Darling, LuAnn W.; McGrath, Loraine

    1983-01-01

    Nursing administrators can minimize promotion trauma and its unnecessary cost by building awareness of the transition process, clarifying roles and expectations, and attending to the promoted employee's needs. This article will help nursing administrators develop a concept of manager care combined with programs for orientation of new managers,…

  19. Periodic minimal surfaces

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Mackay, Alan L.

    1985-04-01

    A minimal surface is one for which, like a soap film with the same pressure on each side, the mean curvature is zero and, thus, is one where the two principal curvatures are equal and opposite at every point. For every closed circuit in the surface, the area is a minimum. Schwarz1 and Neovius2 showed that elements of such surfaces could be put together to give surfaces periodic in three dimensions. These periodic minimal surfaces are geometrical invariants, as are the regular polyhedra, but the former are curved. Minimal surfaces are appropriate for the description of various structures where internal surfaces are prominent and seek to adopt a minimum area or a zero mean curvature subject to their topology; thus they merit more complete numerical characterization. There seem to be at least 18 such surfaces3, with various symmetries and topologies, related to the crystallographic space groups. Recently, glyceryl mono-oleate (GMO) was shown by Longley and McIntosh4 to take the shape of the F-surface. The structure postulated is shown here to be in good agreement with an analysis of the fundamental geometry of periodic minimal surfaces.

  20. Minimally invasive pancreatic surgery.

    PubMed

    Yiannakopoulou, E

    2015-12-01

    Minimally invasive pancreatic surgery is feasible and safe. Laparoscopic distal pancreatectomy should be widely adopted for benign lesions of the pancreas. Laparoscopic pancreaticoduodenectomy, although technically demanding, in the setting of pancreatic ductal adenocarcinoma has a number of advantages including shorter hospital stay, faster recovery, allowing patients to recover in a timelier manner and pursue adjuvant treatment options. Furthermore, it seems that progression-free survival is longer in patients undergoing laparoscopic pancreaticoduodenectomy in comparison with those undergoing open pancreaticoduodenectomy. Minimally invasive middle pancreatectomy seems appropriate for benign or borderline tumors of the neck of the pancreas. Technological advances including intraoperative ultrasound and intraoperative fluorescence imaging systems are expected to facilitate the wide adoption of minimally invasive pancreatic surgery. Although, the oncological outcome seems similar with that of open surgery, there are still concerns, as the majority of relevant evidence comes from retrospective studies. Large multicenter randomized studies comparing laparoscopic with open pancreatectomy as well as robotic assisted with both open and laparoscopic approaches are needed. Robotic approach could be possibly shown to be less invasive than conventional laparoscopic approach through the less traumatic intra-abdominal handling of tissues. In addition, robotic approach could enable the wide adoption of the technique by surgeon who is not that trained in advanced laparoscopic surgery. A putative clinical benefit of minimally invasive pancreatic surgery could be the attenuated surgical stress response leading to reduced morbidity and mortality as well as lack of the detrimental immunosuppressive effect especially for the oncological patients. PMID:26530291

  1. When Are Teachers Motivated to Work beyond Retirement Age? The Importance of Support, Change of Work Role and Money

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Bal, P. Matthijs; Visser, Michel S.

    2011-01-01

    This article investigates the factors influencing the motivation to continue working after retirement among a sample of Dutch teachers. Based on previous research, it was proposed that teachers will be motivated to work after their legal retirement age when organizational support, possibilities to change work roles and financial needs are high.…

  2. Minimally legally invasive dentistry.

    PubMed

    Lam, R

    2014-12-01

    One disadvantage of the rapid advances in modern dentistry is that treatment options have never been more varied or confusing. Compounded by a more educated population greatly assisted by online information in an increasingly litigious society, a major concern in recent times is increased litigation against health practitioners. The manner in which courts handle disputes is ambiguous and what is considered fair or just may not be reflected in the judicial process. Although legal decisions in Australia follow a doctrine of precedent, the law is not static and is often reflected by community sentiment. In medical litigation, this has seen the rejection of the Bolam principle with a preference towards greater patient rights. Recent court decisions may change the practice of dentistry and it is important that the clinician is not caught unaware. The aim of this article is to discuss legal issues that are pertinent to the practice of modern dentistry through an analysis of legal cases that have shaped health law. Through these discussions, the importance of continuing professional development, professional association and informed consent will be realized as a means to limit the legal complications of dental practice.

  3. It is possible to classify non-erosive reflux disease (NERD) patients into endoscopically normal groups and minimal change groups by subjective symptoms and responsiveness to rabeprazole -- a report from a study with Japanese patients.

    PubMed

    Kusano, Motoyasu; Shirai, Naohito; Yamaguchi, Kanako; Hongo, Michio; Chiba, Tsutomu; Kinoshita, Yoshikazu

    2008-12-01

    The hypothesis that non-erosive reflux disease (NERD) patients comprise various subgroups is gaining popularity. This study was conducted to investigate the possibility of categorizing NERD patients according to symptom types and response to acid-suppressive drug rabeprazole (RPZ) 10 mg/day. NERD patients were classified as grade N (endoscopically normal), M (minimal change), or erosive GERD, and answered a 51-item, yes-or-no questionnaire pre and post-treatment. Compared to erosive GERD, clear differences existed in pretreatment prevalence of symptoms and responsiveness to RPZ in grades N and M; the results suggested stomachaches (especially at night) were significant symptoms in grade N and dysmotility-like symptoms like bloated stomach were significant in grade M while gastroesophageal reflux symptoms were significant in erosive GERD. Clinical significance of classifying NERD was indicated from different symptoms and responsiveness to PPI. PMID:18465242

  4. It Is Developmental Me, Not Generation Me: Developmental Changes Are More Important Than Generational Changes in Narcissism—Commentary on Trzesniewski & Donnellan (2010)

    PubMed Central

    Roberts, Brent W.; Edmonds, Grant; Grijalva, Emily

    2011-01-01

    In this article, we make two points about the ongoing debate concerning the purported increase in narcissistic tendencies in college students over the last 30 years. First, we show that when new data on narcissism are folded into preexisting meta-analytic data, there is no increase in narcissism in college students over the last few decades. Second, we show, in contrast, that age changes in narcissism are both replicable and comparatively large in comparison to generational changes in narcissism. This leads to the conclusion that every generation is Generation Me, as every generation of younger people are more narcissistic than their elders. PMID:21243122

  5. The Importance of Change: Contextualizing Natural and Anthropogenic Hydrologic Variability in terms of agricultural and sectorial economies in India

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Ponce de Leon Barido, D.; Nelson, H.; Thatikonda, S.; Smith, R.; Roe, T.; Foufoula, E.

    2012-12-01

    Freshwater availability and human prosperity are intricately connected. In many parts of the world however, water demands exceed the renewable water supply and groundwater resources are depleted at an alarming rate. Such is the case in India, especially in its agriculturally intensive regions of Punjab and Telagana where most of the country's rice and wheat is produced. Punjab (Northwest India; deep alluvial aquifers), and Telangana (Central India; shallow bedrock aquifers), with vastly different natural resource endowments (water and hydrogeology) and economic structures, present an exemplary case study for depicting the linkages that exist between hydrological variability, climate change adaptation, and regional sectorial economies. We focus our study on precipitation variability and key parameters that can explain how the Indian monsoon has been evolving over time: total and monthly monsoon rainfall, the frequency and length of dry spells, the spatial distribution of rainfall, and the frequency and intensity of extreme events. Using a social accounting matrix (SAM) to describe the sector composition and structure of the Punjab, Telengana and the rest of India, we evaluate the economic implications of variability, adaptation, and policy changes, via a general equilibrium framework. Hydrologic variability and change is given context as "water shocks" are translated to economic consequences allowing to study scenarios and trade-offs.

  6. Principle of minimal work fluctuations

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Xiao, Gaoyang; Gong, Jiangbin

    2015-08-01

    Understanding and manipulating work fluctuations in microscale and nanoscale systems are of both fundamental and practical interest. For example, in considering the Jarzynski equality =e-β Δ F , a change in the fluctuations of e-β W may impact how rapidly the statistical average of e-β W converges towards the theoretical value e-β Δ F, where W is the work, β is the inverse temperature, and Δ F is the free energy difference between two equilibrium states. Motivated by our previous study aiming at the suppression of work fluctuations, here we obtain a principle of minimal work fluctuations. In brief, adiabatic processes as treated in quantum and classical adiabatic theorems yield the minimal fluctuations in e-β W. In the quantum domain, if a system initially prepared at thermal equilibrium is subjected to a work protocol but isolated from a bath during the time evolution, then a quantum adiabatic process without energy level crossing (or an assisted adiabatic process reaching the same final states as in a conventional adiabatic process) yields the minimal fluctuations in e-β W, where W is the quantum work defined by two energy measurements at the beginning and at the end of the process. In the classical domain where the classical work protocol is realizable by an adiabatic process, then the classical adiabatic process also yields the minimal fluctuations in e-β W. Numerical experiments based on a Landau-Zener process confirm our theory in the quantum domain, and our theory in the classical domain explains our previous numerical findings regarding the suppression of classical work fluctuations [G. Y. Xiao and J. B. Gong, Phys. Rev. E 90, 052132 (2014), 10.1103/PhysRevE.90.052132].

  7. Principle of minimal work fluctuations.

    PubMed

    Xiao, Gaoyang; Gong, Jiangbin

    2015-08-01

    Understanding and manipulating work fluctuations in microscale and nanoscale systems are of both fundamental and practical interest. For example, in considering the Jarzynski equality 〈e-βW〉=e-βΔF, a change in the fluctuations of e-βW may impact how rapidly the statistical average of e-βW converges towards the theoretical value e-βΔF, where W is the work, β is the inverse temperature, and ΔF is the free energy difference between two equilibrium states. Motivated by our previous study aiming at the suppression of work fluctuations, here we obtain a principle of minimal work fluctuations. In brief, adiabatic processes as treated in quantum and classical adiabatic theorems yield the minimal fluctuations in e-βW. In the quantum domain, if a system initially prepared at thermal equilibrium is subjected to a work protocol but isolated from a bath during the time evolution, then a quantum adiabatic process without energy level crossing (or an assisted adiabatic process reaching the same final states as in a conventional adiabatic process) yields the minimal fluctuations in e-βW, where W is the quantum work defined by two energy measurements at the beginning and at the end of the process. In the classical domain where the classical work protocol is realizable by an adiabatic process, then the classical adiabatic process also yields the minimal fluctuations in e-βW. Numerical experiments based on a Landau-Zener process confirm our theory in the quantum domain, and our theory in the classical domain explains our previous numerical findings regarding the suppression of classical work fluctuations [G. Y. Xiao and J. B. Gong, Phys. Rev. E 90, 052132 (2014)].

  8. Discrete Minimal Surface Algebras

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Arnlind, Joakim; Hoppe, Jens

    2010-05-01

    We consider discrete minimal surface algebras (DMSA) as generalized noncommutative analogues of minimal surfaces in higher dimensional spheres. These algebras appear naturally in membrane theory, where sequences of their representations are used as a regularization. After showing that the defining relations of the algebra are consistent, and that one can compute a basis of the enveloping algebra, we give several explicit examples of DMSAs in terms of subsets of sln (any semi-simple Lie algebra providing a trivial example by itself). A special class of DMSAs are Yang-Mills algebras. The representation graph is introduced to study representations of DMSAs of dimension d ≤ 4, and properties of representations are related to properties of graphs. The representation graph of a tensor product is (generically) the Cartesian product of the corresponding graphs. We provide explicit examples of irreducible representations and, for coinciding eigenvalues, classify all the unitary representations of the corresponding algebras.

  9. Opening the mind to close it: considering a message in light of important values increases message processing and later resistance to change.

    PubMed

    Blankenship, Kevin L; Wegener, Duane T

    2008-02-01

    Past research showed that considering a persuasive message in light of important rather than unimportant values creates attitudes that resist later attack. The traditional explanation is that the attitudes come to express the value or that a cognitive link between the value and attitude enhances resistance. However, the current research showed that another explanation is plausible. Similar to other sources of involvement, considering important rather than unimportant values increases processing of the message considered in light of those values. This occurs when the values are identified as normatively high or low in importance and when the perceived importance differs across participants for the same values. The increase in processing creates resistance to later attacks, and unlike past research, individual-level measures of initial amount of processing mediate value importance effects on later resistance to change. Important values motivate processing because they increase personal involvement with the issue, rather than creating attitudes that represent or express core values.

  10. Longitudinal Changes in Functioning and Disability in Patients with Disorders of Consciousness: The Importance of Environmental Factors

    PubMed Central

    Willems, Michelle; Sattin, Davide; Vingerhoets, Ad J.J.M.; Leonardi, Matilde

    2015-01-01

    Disorders of consciousness are neurological conditions associated with low levels of functioning which pose a serious challenge to public health systems. The current study aimed to examine longitudinal changes in functioning in patients with disorders of consciousness and to identify associated biopsychosocial factors using the International Classification of Functioning, Disability, and Health. An Italian sample of 248 patients was assessed longitudinally. Differences in relative variability (an index of change that controls for baseline levels) between acute and chronic patients and predictors of relative variability in “Activities & Participation” were examined. Results showed that there were subgroups of patients whose functioning improved over time. The number of problems in “Activities & Participation” decreased in acute patients over time, whereas in chronic patients, an increase was found. The significant difference in relative variability for the environmental factor “support and relationships” reflects the increase in facilitators in acute patients, whereas the number of facilitators in chronic patients remained unchanged over time. Age at event, time from event, and relative variability in “Environmental Factors” were significant predictors of relative variability in “Activities & Participation”. It is of clinical relevance that patients with disorders of consciousness are kept in a supportive and facilitative environment, in order to prevent a decline in their functioning. Moreover, caregivers should receive tailored support in order to enhance and facilitate appropriate care of patients with disorders of consciousness. PMID:25837348

  11. Changes in partial pressures of respiratory gases during submerged voluntary breath hold across odontocetes: is body mass important?

    PubMed

    Noren, S R; Williams, T M; Ramirez, K; Boehm, J; Glenn, M; Cornell, L

    2012-02-01

    Odontocetes have an exceptional range in body mass spanning 10(3) kg across species. Because, size influences oxygen utilization and carbon dioxide production rates in mammals, this lineage likely displays an extraordinary variation in oxygen store management compared to other marine mammal groups. To examine this, we measured changes in the partial pressures of respiratory gases ([Formula: see text], [Formula: see text]), pH, and lactate in the blood during voluntary, quiescent, submerged breath holds in Pacific white-sided dolphins (Lagenorhynchus obliquidens), bottlenose dolphins (Tursiops truncatus), and a killer whale (Orcinus orca) representing a mass range of 96-3,850 kg. These measurements provided an empirical determination of the effect of body size on the variability in blood biochemistry during breath hold and experimentally determined aerobic dive limits (ADL) within one taxonomic group (odontocetes). For the species in this study, maximum voluntary breath-hold duration was positively correlated with body mass, ranging from 3.5 min in white-sided dolphins to 13.3 min for the killer whale. Variation in breath-hold duration was associated with differences in the rate of change for [Formula: see text] throughout breath hold; [Formula: see text] decreased twice as fast for the two smaller species (-0.6 mmHg O(2) min(-1)) compared to the largest species (-0.3 mmHg O(2) min(-1)). In contrast, the rate of increase in [Formula: see text] during breath hold was similar across species. These results demonstrate that large body size in odontocetes facilitates increased aerobic breath-hold capacity as mediated by decreased mass-specific metabolic rates (rates of change in [Formula: see text] served as a proxy for oxygen utilization). Indeed the experimentally determined 5 min ADL for bottlenose dolphins was surpassed by the 13.3 min maximum breath hold of the killer whale, which did not end in a rise in lactate. Rather, breath hold ended voluntarily as respiratory

  12. Adopting a new philosophy: minimal invasion.

    PubMed

    Whitehouse, Joseph A

    2006-06-01

    Dentistry is a dynamic profession with new trends evolving. Minimally invasive dentistry is becoming not just a concept but a way of practicing. Creative people are finding ways, materials, and technology that enable patients to experience less hard-tissue or soft-tissue removal, improved prevention and maintenance, and increased attention to a philosophy of "less is more." The World Congress of Minimally Invasive Dentistry was formed to facilitate the sharing of these new concepts. The members embrace change, and dentistry offers the constant opportunity for such. As the standard of care moves toward minimally invasive dentistry, patients will benefit. PMID:16792118

  13. Minimally Invasive Cardiovascular Surgery: Incisions and Approaches

    PubMed Central

    Langer, Nathaniel B.; Argenziano, Michael

    2016-01-01

    Throughout the modern era of cardiac surgery, most operations have been performed via median sternotomy with cardiopulmonary bypass. This paradigm is changing, however, as cardiovascular surgery is increasingly adopting minimally invasive techniques. Advances in patient evaluation, instrumentation, and operative technique have allowed surgeons to perform a wide variety of complex operations through smaller incisions and, in some cases, without cardiopulmonary bypass. With patients desiring less invasive operations and the literature supporting decreased blood loss, shorter hospital length of stay, improved postoperative pain, and better cosmesis, minimally invasive cardiac surgery should be widely practiced. Here, we review the incisions and approaches currently used in minimally invasive cardiovascular surgery. PMID:27127555

  14. Importance of long-term monitoring for detecting environmental change: lessons from a lowland river in south east England

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Burt, T. P.; Howden, N. J. K.; Worrall, F.; Whelan, M. J.

    2008-11-01

    Rising nitrate concentrations in rivers and groundwater in regions with intensive agriculture have been of concern for several decades. Long records of nitrate concentration are rare; in the UK, few pre-date 1974. Records from the River Stour from 1937 are analysed using moving-windows to explore the effects of window width on trend detection and process inference. Nitrate concentrations rose sharply from the late 1950s in response to widespread ploughing of grassland, but have fallen since the early 1980s, suggesting that widespread nitrogen control measures, which were introduced after the start of the downward trend, may not be the principal driver for recent change. Short windows (5 years) are too noisy; longer windows (10, 15 and 30 years) identify signals (i.e. trends) more reliably. Since system response times can be of the order of 20 30 years, management decisions made on shorter data sets (even up to 15 years) could be misleading.

  15. Importance of long-term monitoring for detecting environmental change: lessons from a lowland river in south east England

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Burt, T. P.; Howden, N. J. K.; Worrall, F.; Whelan, M. J.

    2008-06-01

    Rising nitrate concentrations in rivers and groundwater in regions with intensive agriculture have been of concern for several decades. Long records of nitrate concentration are rare; in the UK, few pre-date 1974. Records from the River Stour from 1937 are analysed using "moving-windows", to explore the effects of window width on trend detection and process inference. Nitrate concentrations rose sharply from the late 1950s in response to widespread ploughing of grassland, but have fallen since the early 1980s, suggesting that widespread nitrogen control measures, which were introduced after the start of the downward trend, may not be the principal driver for recent change. Short windows (5 years) are too noisy; longer windows (10, 15 and 30 years) identify signals (i.e. trends) more reliably. Since system response times can be of the order of 20-30 years, management decisions made on shorter data sets (even up to 15 years) could be misleading.

  16. The changing epidemiology of oral diseases in the elderly, their growing importance for care and how they can be managed.

    PubMed

    Batchelor, Paul

    2015-11-01

    This article provides an overview of the changing epidemiology of oral diseases and the impacts for the population. Considerable improvements have occurred in oral health, and many more people are retaining teeth for longer. However, the conditions of teeth and mouth are varied, and all older people are at risk of future oral disease. With the increased prevalence of other more general health conditions, the risks of poor oral health are increasing. Poor oral health gives rise to considerable problems that impact both on an individual's well-being and qualities of life as well as increasing the risks of general health issues. To ensure that the risks of such adverse impacts are minimised, a more collaborative approach involving all care workers is required, addressing the determinants of health and ensuring that better care management arrangements for older people are developed. PMID:26504122

  17. Maintaining a clear line of sight through regional climate change analysis: the importance of distinguishing knowledge and data

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Whetton, P.

    2014-12-01

    Developing, or choosing, appropriate climate projections for use in a particular context is challenging. To help with this, it is useful to distinguish between two types of climate projection information. First there is scientific knowledge about the range of plausible climate change. Such knowledge can synthesise a range of relevant evidence, may convey messages in qualitative terms only, and may also have attached confidence (e.g. as in IPCC assessments).This knowledge can be used in context setting but may also be sufficient information for qualitative impact applications aimed at narrative development. Secondly, there are projection data sets tailored for use in technical risk assessments. Although these two products draw on similar source material (primarily global and regional climate model output), the information they can contain about future climate can be quite different. Often in meeting user needs, only a subset of the range of plausible future climate is considered in application-ready products. This may be due to user needs for downscaled information which comes from limited models, or their need to work with a small number of multivariate scenarios which are best provided by the outputs of single climate models. In the push to create sophisticated datasets that meet demanding technical needs, the larger perspective of representativeness can go by the wayside, and there is a risk that data users will tacitly believe their data are representative of future change when in fact they may not be. Thus a key challenge for risk assessment is for projection providers and users to work in unison to ensure that the two aspects of knowledge and data are as harmonised as possible. These concepts will be illustrated using projection products from the Australian context, including a range of new national climate projection products developed recently to support applications in natural resources management planning.

  18. Cannabinoid mitigation of neuronal morphological change important to development and learning: insight from a zebra finch model of psychopharmacology.

    PubMed

    Soderstrom, Ken; Gilbert, Marcoita T

    2013-03-19

    Normal CNS development proceeds through late-postnatal stages of adolescent development. The activity-dependence of this development underscores the significance of CNS-active drug exposure prior to completion of brain maturation. Exogenous modulation of signaling important in regulating normal development is of particular concern. This mini-review presents a summary of the accumulated behavioral, physiological and biochemical evidence supporting such a key regulatory role for endocannabinoid signaling during late-postnatal CNS development. Our focus is on the data obtained using a unique zebra finch model of developmental psychopharmacology. This animal has allowed investigation of neuronal morphological effects essential to establishment and maintenance of neural circuitry, including processes related to synaptogenesis and dendritic spine dynamics. Altered neurophysiology that follows exogenous cannabinoid exposure during adolescent development has the potential to persistently alter cognition, learning and memory.

  19. Growth inhibition, turgor maintenance, and changes in yield threshold after cessation of solute import in pea epicotyls

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Schmalstig, J. G.; Cosgrove, D. J.

    1988-01-01

    The dependence of stem elongation on solute import was investigated in etiolated pea seedlings (Pisum sativum L. var Alaska) by excising the cotyledons. Stem elongation was inhibited by 60% within 5 hours of excision. Dry weight accumulation into the growing region stopped and osmotic pressure of the cell sap declined by 0.14 megapascal over 5 hours. Attempts to assay phloem transport via ethylenediaminetetraacetate-enhanced exudation from cut stems revealed no effect of cotyledon excision, indicating that the technique measured artifactual leakage from cells. Despite the drop in cell osmotic pressure, turgor pressure (measured directly via a pressure probe) did not decline. Turgor maintenance is postulated to occur via uptake of solutes from the free space, thereby maintaining the osmotic pressure difference across the cell membrane. Cell wall properties were measured by the pressure-block stress relaxation technique. Results indicate that growth inhibition after cotyledon excision was mediated primarily via an increase in the wall yield threshold.

  20. Estimating changes in heat energy stored within a column of wetland surface water and factors controlling their importance in the surface energy budget

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Shoemaker, W.B.; Sumner, D.M.; Castillo, A.

    2005-01-01

    [1] Changes in heat energy stored within a column of wetland surface water can be a considerable component of the surface energy budget, an attribute that is demonstrated by comparing changes in stored heat energy to net radiation at seven sites in the wetland areas of southern Florida, including the Everglades. The magnitude of changes in stored heat energy approached the magnitude of net radiation more often during the winter dry season than during the summer wet season. Furthermore, the magnitude of changes in stored heat energy in wetland surface water generally decreased as surface energy budgets were upscaled temporally. A new method was developed to estimate changes in stored heat energy that overcomes an important data limitation, namely, the limited spatial and temporal availability of water temperature measurements. The new method is instead based on readily available air temperature measurements and relies on the convolution of air temperature changes with a regression-defined transfer function to estimate changes in water temperature. The convolution-computed water temperature changes are used with water depths and heat capacity to estimate changes in stored heat energy within the Everglades wetland areas. These results likely can be adapted to other humid subtropical wetlands characterized by open water, saw grass, and rush vegetation type communities. Copyright 2005 by the American Geophysical Union.

  1. The importance of radiocarbon dates and tephra for developing chronologies of Holocene environmental changes from lake sediments, North Far East

    DOE PAGES

    Lozhkin, Anatoly V.; Brown, Thomas A.; Anderson, Patricia M.; Glushkova, Olga Yu; Melekestsev, Ivan V.

    2016-08-12

    One problem with developing continuous chronologies of paleoenvironmental change in northern areas of the Far East using 14C is the low organic content in lake sediments. However, Holocene age-models can be supplemented by widespread tephra deposits reported in the Magadan region. The best documented of these tephras has been correlated to the KO tephra from southern Kamchatka dated to 7600 BP. Though a key chronostratigraphic marker, no detailed compendium of the distribution of this tephra and its associated 14C dates has been available from sites in the northern Far East. We provide such a summary. Known locally as the Elikchanmore » tephra, lake cores indicate an ash fall that extended ~1800 km north of the Kamchatkan caldera with a ~500 km wide trajectory in the Magadan region. Other Holocene tephras preserved in lake sediments have poorer age control and possibly date to ~2500 BP, ~2700 BP and ~6000 BP. These ashes seem to be restricted to coastal or near-coastal sites. Finally, a single record of a ~25,000 BP tephra has also been documented ~100 km to the northeast of Magadan.« less

  2. Important aroma compounds in freshly ground wholemeal and white wheat flour-identification and quantitative changes during sourdough fermentation.

    PubMed

    Czerny, Michael; Schieberle, Peter

    2002-11-01

    An investigation on the odor-active compounds of wholemeal (WWF) and white wheat flour (WF 550) by aroma extract dilution analysis (AEDA) and by quantitative studies using stable isotope dilution assays (SIDA) revealed a significant number of odor-active compounds, such as (E)-2-nonenal, (E,Z)- and (E,E)-2,4-decadienal, (E)-4,5-epoxy-(E)-2-decenal, 3-hydroxy-4,5-dimethyl-2(5H)-furanone, and vanillin, with high odor activities in both wheat flours. The amounts and, consequently, the aroma potencies of vanillin, (E,E)-2,4-decadienal, and 3-(methylthio)propanal were much higher in the WWF than in the WF 550 samples. Fermentation of suspensions of both flours with lactic acid bacteria did not generate new odorants; however, many compounds, such as acetic acid or 3-methylbutanal, were increased, whereas aldehydes (formed from the degradation of unsaturated fatty acids) were decreased. Comparing the odorant concentrations present before and after fermentation gave evidence that the main influence of the microorganisms on sourdough aroma is to either enhance or decrease specific volatiles already present in the flour. A comparison with literature data indicated that most of these odorants are also important for the bread crumb aroma present after baking of the dough.

  3. Early Changes in Gene Expression Induced by Tobacco Smoke: Evidence for the Importance of Estrogen within Lung Tissue

    PubMed Central

    Meireles, Sibele I.; Esteves, Gustavo H.; Hirata, Roberto; Peri, Suraj; Devarajan, Karthik; Slifker, Michael; Mosier, Stacy L.; Peng, Jing; Vadhanam, Manicka V.; Hurst, Harrell E.; Neves, E. Jordao; Reis, Luiz F.; Gairola, C. Gary; Gupta, Ramesh C.; Clapper, Margie L.

    2010-01-01

    Lung cancer is the leading cause of cancer deaths in the U.S., surpassing breast cancer as the primary cause of cancer-related mortality in women. The goal of the present study was to identify early molecular changes in the lung induced by exposure to tobacco smoke and thus identify potential targets for chemoprevention. Female A/J mice were exposed to either tobacco smoke or HEPA-filtered air via a whole-body exposure chamber (6 h/day; 5 days/wk for 3, 8 and 20 wk). Gene expression profiles of lung tissue from control and smoke-exposed animals were established using a 15 K cDNA microarray. Cytochrome P450 1b1 (Cyp1b1), a Phase I enzyme involved in both the metabolism of xenobiotics and the 4-hydroxylation of 17β-estradiol, was modulated to the greatest extent following smoke exposure. A panel of 10 genes was found to be differentially expressed in control and smoke-exposed lung tissue at 3, 8 and 20 wk (P < 0.001). The interaction network of these differentially expressed genes revealed new pathways modulated by short-term smoke exposure including estrogen metabolism. In addition, 17β-estradiol was detected within murine lung tissue by gas chromatography coupled mass spectrometry and immunohistochemistry. Identification of the early molecular events that contribute to lung tumor formation is anticipated to lead to the development of promising targeted chemopreventive therapies. In conclusion, the presence of 17β-estradiol within lung tissue when combined with the modulation of Cyp1b1 and other estrogen metabolism genes by tobacco smoke provides novel insight into a possible role for estrogens in lung cancer. PMID:20515954

  4. The ZOOM minimization package

    SciTech Connect

    Fischler, Mark S.; Sachs, D.; /Fermilab

    2004-11-01

    A new object-oriented Minimization package is available for distribution in the same manner as CLHEP. This package, designed for use in HEP applications, has all the capabilities of Minuit, but is a re-write from scratch, adhering to modern C++ design principles. A primary goal of this package is extensibility in several directions, so that its capabilities can be kept fresh with as little maintenance effort as possible. This package is distinguished by the priority that was assigned to C++ design issues, and the focus on producing an extensible system that will resist becoming obsolete.

  5. Minimally refined biomass fuel

    DOEpatents

    Pearson, Richard K.; Hirschfeld, Tomas B.

    1984-01-01

    A minimally refined fluid composition, suitable as a fuel mixture and derived from biomass material, is comprised of one or more water-soluble carbohydrates such as sucrose, one or more alcohols having less than four carbons, and water. The carbohydrate provides the fuel source; water solubilizes the carbohydrates; and the alcohol aids in the combustion of the carbohydrate and reduces the vicosity of the carbohydrate/water solution. Because less energy is required to obtain the carbohydrate from the raw biomass than alcohol, an overall energy savings is realized compared to fuels employing alcohol as the primary fuel.

  6. Minimal E6 unification

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Susič, Vasja

    2016-06-01

    A realistic model in the class of renormalizable supersymmetric E6 Grand Unified Theories is constructed. Its matter sector consists of 3 × 27 representations, while the Higgs sector is 27 +27 ¯+35 1'+35 1' ¯+78 . An analytic solution for a Standard Model vacuum is found and the Yukawa sector analyzed. It is argued that if one considers the increased predictability due to only two symmetric Yukawa matrices in this model, it can be considered a minimal SUSY E6 model with this type of matter sector. This contribution is based on Ref. [1].

  7. Evaluating the Effects of Climate Change on Water Supplies and Operations: How Important are Feedbacks between Groundwater and Surface Water Use and Management?

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Ferguson, I. M.; Hanson, R. T.; Boyce, S. E.; Llewellyn, D.

    2015-12-01

    subsequent changes in baseflow and seepage, can significantly exacerbate the direct effects of climate change on surface water. These results, while limited to a simple test case, underscore the importance of accounting for the coupled response of surface-water and groundwater management in climate change analyses.

  8. Logarithmic superconformal minimal models

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Pearce, Paul A.; Rasmussen, Jørgen; Tartaglia, Elena

    2014-05-01

    The higher fusion level logarithmic minimal models {\\cal LM}(P,P';n) have recently been constructed as the diagonal GKO cosets {(A_1^{(1)})_k\\oplus (A_1^ {(1)})_n}/ {(A_1^{(1)})_{k+n}} where n ≥ 1 is an integer fusion level and k = nP/(P‧- P) - 2 is a fractional level. For n = 1, these are the well-studied logarithmic minimal models {\\cal LM}(P,P')\\equiv {\\cal LM}(P,P';1). For n ≥ 2, we argue that these critical theories are realized on the lattice by n × n fusion of the n = 1 models. We study the critical fused lattice models {\\cal LM}(p,p')_{n\\times n} within a lattice approach and focus our study on the n = 2 models. We call these logarithmic superconformal minimal models {\\cal LSM}(p,p')\\equiv {\\cal LM}(P,P';2) where P = |2p - p‧|, P‧ = p‧ and p, p‧ are coprime. These models share the central charges c=c^{P,P';2}=\\frac {3}{2}\\big (1-{2(P'-P)^2}/{P P'}\\big ) of the rational superconformal minimal models {\\cal SM}(P,P'). Lattice realizations of these theories are constructed by fusing 2 × 2 blocks of the elementary face operators of the n = 1 logarithmic minimal models {\\cal LM}(p,p'). Algebraically, this entails the fused planar Temperley-Lieb algebra which is a spin-1 Birman-Murakami-Wenzl tangle algebra with loop fugacity β2 = [x]3 = x2 + 1 + x-2 and twist ω = x4 where x = eiλ and λ = (p‧- p)π/p‧. The first two members of this n = 2 series are superconformal dense polymers {\\cal LSM}(2,3) with c=-\\frac {5}{2}, β2 = 0 and superconformal percolation {\\cal LSM}(3,4) with c = 0, β2 = 1. We calculate the bulk and boundary free energies analytically. By numerically studying finite-size conformal spectra on the strip with appropriate boundary conditions, we argue that, in the continuum scaling limit, these lattice models are associated with the logarithmic superconformal models {\\cal LM}(P,P';2). For system size N, we propose finitized Kac character formulae of the form q^{-{c^{P,P';2}}/{24}+\\Delta ^{P,P';2} _{r

  9. Next-to-minimal SOFTSUSY

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Allanach, B. C.; Athron, P.; Tunstall, Lewis C.; Voigt, A.; Williams, A. G.

    2014-09-01

    renormalisation group equations must be consistent with boundary conditions on supersymmetry breaking parameters, as well as on the weak-scale boundary condition on gauge couplings, Yukawa couplings and the Higgs potential parameters. Solution method: Nested iterative algorithm and numerical minimisation of the Higgs potential. Reasons for new version: Major extension to include the next-to-minimal supersymmetric standard model. Summary of revisions: Added additional supersymmetric and supersymmetry breaking parameters associated with the additional gauge singlet. Electroweak symmetry breaking conditions are significantly changed in the next-to-minimal mode, and some sparticle mixing changes. An interface to NMSSMTools has also been included. Some of the object structure has also changed, and the command line interface has been made more user friendly. Restrictions: SOFTSUSY will provide a solution only in the perturbative regime and it assumes that all couplings of the model are real (i.e. CP-conserving). If the parameter point under investigation is non-physical for some reason (for example because the electroweak potential does not have an acceptable minimum), SOFTSUSY returns an error message. Running time: A few seconds per parameter point.

  10. Minimizing fan energy costs

    SciTech Connect

    Monroe, R.C.

    1985-05-27

    Minimizing fan energy costs and maximizing fan efficiency is the subject of this paper. Blade design itself can cause poor flow distribution and inefficiency. A basic design criterion is that a blade should produce uniform flow over the entire plane of the fan. Also an inherent problem with the axial fan is swirl -- the tangential deflection of exit-flow caused by the effect of torque. Swirl can be prevented with an inexpensive hub component. Basic efficiency can be checked by means of the fan's performance curve. Generally, fewer blades translate into higher axial-fan efficiency. A crowded inboard area creates hub turbulence which lessens efficiency. Whether the pitch of fan blades is fixed or variable also affects energy consumption. Power savings of 50% per year or more can be realized by replacing fixed-pitch, continuously operating fans with fans whose blade pitch or speed is automatically varied.

  11. Transanal Minimally Invasive Surgery

    PubMed Central

    deBeche-Adams, Teresa; Nassif, George

    2015-01-01

    Transanal minimally invasive surgery (TAMIS) was first described in 2010 as a crossover between single-incision laparoscopic surgery and transanal endoscopic microsurgery (TEM) to allow access to the proximal and mid-rectum for resection of benign and early-stage malignant rectal lesions. The TAMIS technique can also be used for noncurative intent surgery of more advanced lesions in patients who are not candidates for radical surgery. Proper workup and staging should be done before surgical decision-making. In addition to the TAMIS port, instrumentation and set up include readily available equipment found in most operating suites. TAMIS has proven its usefulness in a wide range of applications outside of local excision, including repair of rectourethral fistula, removal of rectal foreign body, control of rectal hemorrhage, and as an adjunct in total mesorectal excision for rectal cancer. TAMIS is an easily accessible, technically feasible, and cost-effective alternative to TEM. PMID:26491410

  12. Testing the impact of virus importation rates and future climate change on dengue activity in Malaysia using a mechanistic entomology and disease model.

    PubMed

    Williams, C R; Gill, B S; Mincham, G; Mohd Zaki, A H; Abdullah, N; Mahiyuddin, W R W; Ahmad, R; Shahar, M K; Harley, D; Viennet, E; Azil, A; Kamaluddin, A

    2015-10-01

    We aimed to reparameterize and validate an existing dengue model, comprising an entomological component (CIMSiM) and a disease component (DENSiM) for application in Malaysia. With the model we aimed to measure the effect of importation rate on dengue incidence, and to determine the potential impact of moderate climate change (a 1 °C temperature increase) on dengue activity. Dengue models (comprising CIMSiM and DENSiM) were reparameterized for a simulated Malaysian village of 10 000 people, and validated against monthly dengue case data from the district of Petaling Jaya in the state of Selangor. Simulations were also performed for 2008-2012 for variable virus importation rates (ranging from 1 to 25 per week) and dengue incidence determined. Dengue incidence in the period 2010-2012 was modelled, twice, with observed daily weather and with a 1 °C increase, the latter to simulate moderate climate change. Strong concordance between simulated and observed monthly dengue cases was observed (up to r = 0·72). There was a linear relationship between importation and incidence. However, a doubling of dengue importation did not equate to a doubling of dengue activity. The largest individual dengue outbreak was observed with the lowest dengue importation rate. Moderate climate change resulted in an overall decrease in dengue activity over a 3-year period, linked to high human seroprevalence early on in the simulation. Our results suggest that moderate reductions in importation with control programmes may not reduce the frequency of large outbreaks. Moderate increases in temperature do not necessarily lead to greater dengue incidence. PMID:25591942

  13. Testing the impact of virus importation rates and future climate change on dengue activity in Malaysia using a mechanistic entomology and disease model.

    PubMed

    Williams, C R; Gill, B S; Mincham, G; Mohd Zaki, A H; Abdullah, N; Mahiyuddin, W R W; Ahmad, R; Shahar, M K; Harley, D; Viennet, E; Azil, A; Kamaluddin, A

    2015-10-01

    We aimed to reparameterize and validate an existing dengue model, comprising an entomological component (CIMSiM) and a disease component (DENSiM) for application in Malaysia. With the model we aimed to measure the effect of importation rate on dengue incidence, and to determine the potential impact of moderate climate change (a 1 °C temperature increase) on dengue activity. Dengue models (comprising CIMSiM and DENSiM) were reparameterized for a simulated Malaysian village of 10 000 people, and validated against monthly dengue case data from the district of Petaling Jaya in the state of Selangor. Simulations were also performed for 2008-2012 for variable virus importation rates (ranging from 1 to 25 per week) and dengue incidence determined. Dengue incidence in the period 2010-2012 was modelled, twice, with observed daily weather and with a 1 °C increase, the latter to simulate moderate climate change. Strong concordance between simulated and observed monthly dengue cases was observed (up to r = 0·72). There was a linear relationship between importation and incidence. However, a doubling of dengue importation did not equate to a doubling of dengue activity. The largest individual dengue outbreak was observed with the lowest dengue importation rate. Moderate climate change resulted in an overall decrease in dengue activity over a 3-year period, linked to high human seroprevalence early on in the simulation. Our results suggest that moderate reductions in importation with control programmes may not reduce the frequency of large outbreaks. Moderate increases in temperature do not necessarily lead to greater dengue incidence.

  14. [Minimally invasive breast surgery].

    PubMed

    Mátrai, Zoltán; Gulyás, Gusztáv; Kunos, Csaba; Sávolt, Akos; Farkas, Emil; Szollár, András; Kásler, Miklós

    2014-02-01

    Due to the development in medical science and industrial technology, minimally invasive procedures have appeared in the surgery of benign and malignant breast diseases. In general , such interventions result in significantly reduced breast and chest wall scars, shorter hospitalization and less pain, but they require specific, expensive devices, longer surgical time compared to open surgery. Furthermore, indications or oncological safety have not been established yet. It is quite likely, that minimally invasive surgical procedures with high-tech devices - similar to other surgical subspecialties -, will gradually become popular and it may form part of routine breast surgery even. Vacuum-assisted core biopsy with a therapeutic indication is suitable for the removal of benign fibroadenomas leaving behind an almost invisible scar, while endoscopically assisted skin-sparing and nipple-sparing mastectomy, axillary staging and reconstruction with latissimus dorsi muscle flap are all feasible through the same short axillary incision. Endoscopic techniques are also suitable for the diagnostics and treatment of intracapsular complications of implant-based breast reconstructions (intracapsular fluid, implant rupture, capsular contracture) and for the biopsy of intracapsular lesions with uncertain pathology. Perception of the role of radiofrequency ablation of breast tumors requires further hands-on experience, but it is likely that it can serve as a replacement of surgical removal in a portion of primary tumors in the future due to the development in functional imaging and anticancer drugs. With the reduction of the price of ductoscopes routine examination of the ductal branch system, guided microdochectomy and targeted surgical removal of terminal ducto-lobular units or a "sick lobe" as an anatomical unit may become feasible. The paper presents the experience of the authors and provides a literature review, for the first time in Hungarian language on the subject. Orv. Hetil

  15. Minimally invasive parathyroid surgery

    PubMed Central

    Noureldine, Salem I.; Gooi, Zhen

    2015-01-01

    Traditionally, bilateral cervical exploration for localization of all four parathyroid glands and removal of any that are grossly enlarged has been the standard surgical treatment for primary hyperparathyroidism (PHPT). With the advances in preoperative localization studies and greater public demand for less invasive procedures, novel targeted, minimally invasive techniques to the parathyroid glands have been described and practiced over the past 2 decades. Minimally invasive parathyroidectomy (MIP) can be done either through the standard Kocher incision, a smaller midline incision, with video assistance (purely endoscopic and video-assisted techniques), or through an ectopically placed, extracervical, incision. In current practice, once PHPT is diagnosed, preoperative evaluation using high-resolution radiographic imaging to localize the offending parathyroid gland is essential if MIP is to be considered. The imaging study results suggest where the surgeon should begin the focused procedure and serve as a road map to allow tailoring of an efficient, imaging-guided dissection while eliminating the unnecessary dissection of multiple glands or a bilateral exploration. Intraoperative parathyroid hormone (IOPTH) levels may be measured during the procedure, or a gamma probe used during radioguided parathyroidectomy, to ascertain that the correct gland has been excised and that no other hyperfunctional tissue is present. MIP has many advantages over the traditional bilateral, four-gland exploration. MIP can be performed using local anesthesia, requires less operative time, results in fewer complications, and offers an improved cosmetic result and greater patient satisfaction. Additional advantages of MIP are earlier hospital discharge and decreased overall associated costs. This article aims to address the considerations for accomplishing MIP, including the role of preoperative imaging studies, intraoperative adjuncts, and surgical techniques. PMID:26425454

  16. Analysis of lipid flow on minimal surfaces

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Bahmani, Fatemeh; Christenson, Joel; Rangamani, Padmini

    2016-03-01

    Interaction between the bilayer shape and surface flow is important for capturing the flow of lipids in many biological membranes. Recent microscopy evidence has shown that minimal surfaces (planes, catenoids, and helicoids) occur often in cellular membranes. In this study, we explore lipid flow in these geometries using a `stream function' formulation for viscoelastic lipid bilayers. Using this formulation, we derive two-dimensional lipid flow equations for the commonly occurring minimal surfaces in lipid bilayers. We show that for three minimal surfaces (planes, catenoids, and helicoids), the surface flow equations satisfy Stokes flow equations. In helicoids and catenoids, we show that the tangential velocity field is a Killing vector field. Thus, our analysis provides fundamental insight into the flow patterns of lipids on intracellular organelle membranes that are characterized by fixed shapes reminiscent of minimal surfaces.

  17. Importance of Change Appraisal for Employee Well-being during Organizational Restructuring: Findings from the Finnish Paper Industry’s Extensive Transition

    PubMed Central

    PAHKIN, Krista; NIELSEN, Karina; VÄÄNÄNEN, Ari; MATTILA-HOLAPPA, Pauliina; LEPPÄNEN, Anneli; KOSKINEN, Aki

    2014-01-01

    The global recession has forced the Finnish forest industry to carry out major restructuring activities. Employees have faced different kinds of restructuring, mainly aimed at reducing staff and production. Many studies have shown the negative consequences of restructuring on employee well-being by using negative, ill-health indicators. Our aim is to examine the extent to which change appraisal influences both the negative and positive aspects of work-related well-being among employees who continue working in the organization after the restructuring process. We also examine the role of different actors (top management, immediate supervisor, employees themselves) in how the change is appraised. The study investigated blue-collar employees working in the Finnish forest industry during a period of extensive transition (2008–2009). All six participating factories underwent restructuring between baseline and the follow-up survey (n=369). After adjustment for gender, age and baseline well-being, negative change appraisal increased the risk of experiencing more stress and less work enjoyment. Negative change appraisals thus also damaged the positive, motivational aspects of employee well-being. The results showed the importance of offering employees the opportunity to participate in the planning of changes related to their work as regards positive change appraisal. PMID:24975107

  18. [MINIMALLY INVASIVE AORTIC VALVE REPLACEMENT].

    PubMed

    Tabata, Minoru

    2016-03-01

    Minimally invasive aortic valve replacement (MIAVR) is defined as aortic valve replacement avoiding full sternotomy. Common approaches include a partial sternotomy right thoracotomy, and a parasternal approach. MIAVR has been shown to have advantages over conventional AVR such as shorter length of stay and smaller amount of blood transfusion and better cosmesis. However, it is also known to have disadvantages such as longer cardiopulmonary bypass and aortic cross-clamp times and potential complications related to peripheral cannulation. Appropriate patient selection is very important. Since the procedure is more complex than conventional AVR, more intensive teamwork in the operating room is essential. Additionally, a team approach during postoperative management is critical to maximize the benefits of MIAVR.

  19. A summary of the evidence for the change in European distribution of phlebotomine sand flies (Diptera: Psychodidae) of public health importance.

    PubMed

    Medlock, Jolyon M; Hansford, Kayleigh M; Van Bortel, Wim; Zeller, Herve; Alten, Bulent

    2014-06-01

    The phlebotomine sand flies (Diptera: Psychodidae, Phlebotominae) are vectors of several infectious pathogens. The presence of a sand fly vector is considered to be a risk factor for the emergence of leishmaniasis in temperate Europe. Hence, the occurrence of phlebotomine sand flies and any changes in their distribution is important in determining the potential change in distribution of leishmaniasis in Europe. Therefore, published evidence for a changing distribution of the important phlebotomine sand fly vectors of leishmaniasis and phlebovirus infection in Europe is reviewed. This paper presents evidence of an increasing risk of establishment by sand fly species, especially for the Atlantic Coast and inland parts of Germany, Switzerland, and Austria. In addition to detection in potentially appropriate areas, the findings show areas of potential future establishment of the species. The most important and urgent necessity within the community of entomologists working on phlebotomines is the need to record the extremes of distribution of each species and obtain data on their regional presence/absence along with increased sharing of the data throughout European projects.

  20. A summary of the evidence for the change in European distribution of phlebotomine sand flies (Diptera: Psychodidae) of public health importance.

    PubMed

    Medlock, Jolyon M; Hansford, Kayleigh M; Van Bortel, Wim; Zeller, Herve; Alten, Bulent

    2014-06-01

    The phlebotomine sand flies (Diptera: Psychodidae, Phlebotominae) are vectors of several infectious pathogens. The presence of a sand fly vector is considered to be a risk factor for the emergence of leishmaniasis in temperate Europe. Hence, the occurrence of phlebotomine sand flies and any changes in their distribution is important in determining the potential change in distribution of leishmaniasis in Europe. Therefore, published evidence for a changing distribution of the important phlebotomine sand fly vectors of leishmaniasis and phlebovirus infection in Europe is reviewed. This paper presents evidence of an increasing risk of establishment by sand fly species, especially for the Atlantic Coast and inland parts of Germany, Switzerland, and Austria. In addition to detection in potentially appropriate areas, the findings show areas of potential future establishment of the species. The most important and urgent necessity within the community of entomologists working on phlebotomines is the need to record the extremes of distribution of each species and obtain data on their regional presence/absence along with increased sharing of the data throughout European projects. PMID:24820558

  1. The Harmonic Oscillator in the Classical Limit of a Minimal-Length Scenario

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Quintela, T. S.; Fabris, J. C.; Nogueira, J. A.

    2016-09-01

    In this work, we explicitly solve the problem of the harmonic oscillator in the classical limit of a minimal-length scenario. We show that (i) the motion equation of the oscillator is not linear anymore because the presence of a minimal length introduces an anarmonic term and (ii) its motion is described by a Jacobi sine elliptic function. Therefore, the motion is periodic with the same amplitude and with the new period depending on the minimal length. This result (the change in the period of oscillation) is very important since it enables us to find in a quite simple way the most relevant effect of the presence of a minimal length and consequently traces of the Planck-scale physics. We show applications of our results in spectroscopy and gravity.

  2. A minimal lentivirus Tat.

    PubMed Central

    Derse, D; Carvalho, M; Carroll, R; Peterlin, B M

    1991-01-01

    Transcriptional regulatory mechanisms found in lentiviruses employ RNA enhancer elements called trans-activation responsive (TAR) elements. These nascent RNA stem-loops are cis-acting targets of virally encoded Tat effectors. Interactions between Tat and TAR increase the processivity of transcription complexes and lead to efficient copying of viral genomes. To study essential elements of this trans activation, peptide motifs from Tats of two distantly related lentiviruses, equine infectious anemia virus (EIAV) and human immunodeficiency virus type 1 (HIV-1), were fused to the coat protein of bacteriophage R17 and tested on the long terminal repeat of EIAV, where TAR was replaced by the R17 operator, the target of the coat protein. This independent RNA-tethering mechanism mapped activation domains of Tats from HIV-1 and EIAV to 47 and 15 amino acids and RNA-binding domains to 10 and 26 amino acids, respectively. Thus, a minimal lentivirus Tat consists of 25 amino acids, of which 15 modify viral transcription and 10 bind to the target RNA stem-loop. Images PMID:1658392

  3. Minimally Invasive Dentistry

    MedlinePlus

    ... repair the damage created by the demineralization process. Fluoride plays a very important role in remineralization. Air abrasion: When a tooth cannot be remineralized and decay is present, your ...

  4. Superpower nuclear minimalism

    SciTech Connect

    Graben, E.K.

    1992-01-01

    During the Cold War, the United States and the Soviet Union competed in building weapons -- now it seems like America and Russia are competing to get rid of them the fastest. The lengthy process of formal arms control has been replaced by exchanges of unilateral force reductions and proposals for reciprocal reductions not necessarily codified by treaty. Should superpower nuclear strategies change along with force postures President Bush has yet to make a formal pronouncement on post-Cold War American nuclear strategy, and it is uncertain if the Soviet/Russian doctrine of reasonable sufficiency formulated in the Gorbachev era actually heralds a change in strategy. Some of the provisions in the most recent round of unilateral proposals put forth by Presidents Bush and Yeltsin in January 1992 are compatible with a change in strategy. Whether such a change has actually occurred remains to be seen. With the end of the Cold War and the breakup of the Soviet Union, the strategic environment has fundamentally changed, so it would seem logical to reexamine strategy as well. There are two main schools of nuclear strategic thought: a maximalist school, mutual assured destruction (MAD) which emphasizes counterforce superiority and nuclear war- fighting capability, and a MAD-plus school, which emphasizes survivability of an assured destruction capability along with the ability to deliver small, limited nuclear attacks in the event that conflict occurs. The MAD-plus strategy is based on an attempt to conventionalize nuclear weapons which is unrealistic.

  5. Minimal movement zoom lens.

    PubMed

    Schwiegerling, Jim; Paleta-Toxqui, Carmen

    2009-04-01

    We make a novel telescope design using a pair of Alvarez lenses. Previous examples using these types of lenses were single elements used just to provide a change in power. Consequently, the location of the object and/or image plane must move. In this effort, we combine two elements to form a telescope. In this manner, we can fix the location of the object and image plane and simply change magnification. We describe the shapes of the Alvarez lenses used, as well as the advantages, the disadvantages, and the differences between a telescope using Alvarez lenses and a traditional telescope. PMID:19340148

  6. Bacterial Stressors in Minimally Processed Food

    PubMed Central

    Capozzi, Vittorio; Fiocco, Daniela; Amodio, Maria Luisa; Gallone, Anna; Spano, Giuseppe

    2009-01-01

    Stress responses are of particular importance to microorganisms, because their habitats are subjected to continual changes in temperature, osmotic pressure, and nutrients availability. Stressors (and stress factors), may be of chemical, physical, or biological nature. While stress to microorganisms is frequently caused by the surrounding environment, the growth of microbial cells on its own may also result in induction of some kinds of stress such as starvation and acidity. During production of fresh-cut produce, cumulative mild processing steps are employed, to control the growth of microorganisms. Pathogens on plant surfaces are already stressed and stress may be increased during the multiple mild processing steps, potentially leading to very hardy bacteria geared towards enhanced survival. Cross-protection can occur because the overlapping stress responses enable bacteria exposed to one stress to become resistant to another stress. A number of stresses have been shown to induce cross protection, including heat, cold, acid and osmotic stress. Among other factors, adaptation to heat stress appears to provide bacterial cells with more pronounced cross protection against several other stresses. Understanding how pathogens sense and respond to mild stresses is essential in order to design safe and effective minimal processing regimes. PMID:19742126

  7. Humane accomplishment of physicians and the philosophy of minimally-invasive and noninvasive medicine: A perspective.

    PubMed

    Ling, Bin; Lang, Jinghe

    2015-11-01

    The highest realm in clinical medicine is the harmonious unity of medical sciences and the humanistic spirit. Given that the beauty of human nature resides in humanity, a competent medical practitioner should be a sage that personifies the rigorous scientific spirit and the humanity. It is essential for a medical practitioner to learn to seek answers to medical inquiries at the philosophical level. Important as it is to study the organs, the cells and the functions of the body, medical practitioners need to be well-versed in the utmost beauty of mankind. The central tenet of minimally-invasive therapeutic medicine is to minimize harm to patients while effectively managing the lesion. The radical changes brought about by minimally-invasive technologies, exemplified by the non-invasive high intensity focused ultrasound (HIFU) surgery, are to change the face of traditional surgery.

  8. Chilling-Mediated DNA Methylation Changes during Dormancy and Its Release Reveal the Importance of Epigenetic Regulation during Winter Dormancy in Apple (Malus x domestica Borkh.)

    PubMed Central

    Kumar, Gulshan; Rattan, Usha Kumari; Singh, Anil Kumar

    2016-01-01

    Winter dormancy is a well known mechanism adopted by temperate plants, to mitigate the chilling temperature of winters. However, acquisition of sufficient chilling during winter dormancy ensures the normal phenological traits in subsequent growing period. Thus, low temperature appears to play crucial roles in growth and development of temperate plants. Apple, being an important temperate fruit crop, also requires sufficient chilling to release winter dormancy and normal phenological traits, which are often associated with yield and quality of fruits. DNA cytosine methylation is one of the important epigenetic modifications which remarkably affect the gene expression during various developmental and adaptive processes. In present study, methylation sensitive amplified polymorphism was employed to assess the changes in cytosine methylation during dormancy, active growth and fruit set in apple, under differential chilling conditions. Under high chill conditions, total methylation was decreased from 27.2% in dormant bud to 21.0% in fruit set stage, while no significant reduction was found under low chill conditions. Moreover, the demethylation was found to be decreased, while methylation increased from dormant bud to fruit set stage under low chill as compared to high chill conditions. In addition, RNA-Seq analysis showed high expression of DNA methyltransferases and histone methyltransferases during dormancy and fruit set, and low expression of DNA glcosylases during active growth under low chill conditions, which was in accordance with changes in methylation patterns. The RNA-Seq data of 47 genes associated with MSAP fragments involved in cellular metabolism, stress response, antioxidant system and transcriptional regulation showed correlation between methylation and their expression. Similarly, bisulfite sequencing and qRT-PCR analysis of selected genes also showed correlation between gene body methylation and gene expression. Moreover, significant association

  9. Chilling-Mediated DNA Methylation Changes during Dormancy and Its Release Reveal the Importance of Epigenetic Regulation during Winter Dormancy in Apple (Malus x domestica Borkh.).

    PubMed

    Kumar, Gulshan; Rattan, Usha Kumari; Singh, Anil Kumar

    2016-01-01

    Winter dormancy is a well known mechanism adopted by temperate plants, to mitigate the chilling temperature of winters. However, acquisition of sufficient chilling during winter dormancy ensures the normal phenological traits in subsequent growing period. Thus, low temperature appears to play crucial roles in growth and development of temperate plants. Apple, being an important temperate fruit crop, also requires sufficient chilling to release winter dormancy and normal phenological traits, which are often associated with yield and quality of fruits. DNA cytosine methylation is one of the important epigenetic modifications which remarkably affect the gene expression during various developmental and adaptive processes. In present study, methylation sensitive amplified polymorphism was employed to assess the changes in cytosine methylation during dormancy, active growth and fruit set in apple, under differential chilling conditions. Under high chill conditions, total methylation was decreased from 27.2% in dormant bud to 21.0% in fruit set stage, while no significant reduction was found under low chill conditions. Moreover, the demethylation was found to be decreased, while methylation increased from dormant bud to fruit set stage under low chill as compared to high chill conditions. In addition, RNA-Seq analysis showed high expression of DNA methyltransferases and histone methyltransferases during dormancy and fruit set, and low expression of DNA glcosylases during active growth under low chill conditions, which was in accordance with changes in methylation patterns. The RNA-Seq data of 47 genes associated with MSAP fragments involved in cellular metabolism, stress response, antioxidant system and transcriptional regulation showed correlation between methylation and their expression. Similarly, bisulfite sequencing and qRT-PCR analysis of selected genes also showed correlation between gene body methylation and gene expression. Moreover, significant association

  10. Minimally invasive procedures on the lumbar spine

    PubMed Central

    Skovrlj, Branko; Gilligan, Jeffrey; Cutler, Holt S; Qureshi, Sheeraz A

    2015-01-01

    Degenerative disease of the lumbar spine is a common and increasingly prevalent condition that is often implicated as the primary reason for chronic low back pain and the leading cause of disability in the western world. Surgical management of lumbar degenerative disease has historically been approached by way of open surgical procedures aimed at decompressing and/or stabilizing the lumbar spine. Advances in technology and surgical instrumentation have led to minimally invasive surgical techniques being developed and increasingly used in the treatment of lumbar degenerative disease. Compared to the traditional open spine surgery, minimally invasive techniques require smaller incisions and decrease approach-related morbidity by avoiding muscle crush injury by self-retaining retractors, preventing the disruption of tendon attachment sites of important muscles at the spinous processes, using known anatomic neurovascular and muscle planes, and minimizing collateral soft-tissue injury by limiting the width of the surgical corridor. The theoretical benefits of minimally invasive surgery over traditional open surgery include reduced blood loss, decreased postoperative pain and narcotics use, shorter hospital length of stay, faster recover and quicker return to work and normal activity. This paper describes the different minimally invasive techniques that are currently available for the treatment of degenerative disease of the lumbar spine. PMID:25610845

  11. Guidelines for mixed waste minimization

    SciTech Connect

    Owens, C.

    1992-02-01

    Currently, there is no commercial mixed waste disposal available in the United States. Storage and treatment for commercial mixed waste is limited. Host States and compacts region officials are encouraging their mixed waste generators to minimize their mixed wastes because of management limitations. This document provides a guide to mixed waste minimization.

  12. Influenza SIRS with Minimal Pneumonitis

    PubMed Central

    Erramilli, Shruti; Mannam, Praveen; Manthous, Constantine A.

    2016-01-01

    Although systemic inflammatory response syndrome (SIRS) is a known complication of severe influenza pneumonia, it has been reported very rarely in patients with minimal parenchymal lung disease. We here report a case of severe SIRS, anasarca, and marked vascular phenomena with minimal or no pneumonitis. This case highlights that viruses, including influenza, may cause vascular dysregulation causing SIRS, even without substantial visceral organ involvement.

  13. Ecological Change, Sliding Baselines and the Importance of Historical Data: Lessons from Combing Observational and Quantitative Data on a Temperate Reef Over 70 Years

    PubMed Central

    Gatti, Giulia; Bianchi, Carlo Nike; Parravicini, Valeriano; Rovere, Alessio; Peirano, Andrea; Montefalcone, Monica; Massa, Francesco; Morri, Carla

    2015-01-01

    Understanding the effects of environmental change on ecosystems requires the identification of baselines that may act as reference conditions. However, the continuous change of these references challenges our ability to define the true natural status of ecosystems. The so-called sliding baseline syndrome can be overcome through the analysis of quantitative time series, which are, however, extremely rare. Here we show how combining historical quantitative data with descriptive ‘naturalistic’ information arranged in a chronological chain allows highlighting long-term trends and can be used to inform present conservation schemes. We analysed the long-term change of a coralligenous reef, a marine habitat endemic to the Mediterranean Sea. The coralligenous assemblages of Mesco Reef (Ligurian Sea, NW Mediterranean) have been studied, although discontinuously, since 1937 thus making available both detailed descriptive information and scanty quantitative data: while the former was useful to understand the natural history of the ecosystem, the analysis of the latter was of paramount importance to provide a formal measure of change over time. Epibenthic assemblages remained comparatively stable until the 1990s, when species replacement, invasion by alien algae, and biotic homogenisation occurred within few years, leading to a new and completely different ecosystem state. The shift experienced by the coralligenous assemblages of Mesco Reef was probably induced by a combination of seawater warming and local human pressures, the latter mainly resulting in increased water turbidity; in turn, cumulative stress may have favoured the establishment of alien species. This study showed that the combined analysis of quantitative and descriptive historical data represent a precious knowledge to understand ecosystem trends over time and provide help to identify baselines for ecological management. PMID:25714413

  14. Ecological change, sliding baselines and the importance of historical data: lessons from Combining [corrected] observational and quantitative data on a temperate reef over 70 years.

    PubMed

    Gatti, Giulia; Bianchi, Carlo Nike; Parravicini, Valeriano; Rovere, Alessio; Peirano, Andrea; Montefalcone, Monica; Massa, Francesco; Morri, Carla

    2015-01-01

    Understanding the effects of environmental change on ecosystems requires the identification of baselines that may act as reference conditions. However, the continuous change of these references challenges our ability to define the true natural status of ecosystems. The so-called sliding baseline syndrome can be overcome through the analysis of quantitative time series, which are, however, extremely rare. Here we show how combining historical quantitative data with descriptive 'naturalistic' information arranged in a chronological chain allows highlighting long-term trends and can be used to inform present conservation schemes. We analysed the long-term change of a coralligenous reef, a marine habitat endemic to the Mediterranean Sea. The coralligenous assemblages of Mesco Reef (Ligurian Sea, NW Mediterranean) have been studied, although discontinuously, since 1937 thus making available both detailed descriptive information and scanty quantitative data: while the former was useful to understand the natural history of the ecosystem, the analysis of the latter was of paramount importance to provide a formal measure of change over time. Epibenthic assemblages remained comparatively stable until the 1990s, when species replacement, invasion by alien algae, and biotic homogenisation occurred within few years, leading to a new and completely different ecosystem state. The shift experienced by the coralligenous assemblages of Mesco Reef was probably induced by a combination of seawater warming and local human pressures, the latter mainly resulting in increased water turbidity; in turn, cumulative stress may have favoured the establishment of alien species. This study showed that the combined analysis of quantitative and descriptive historical data represent a precious knowledge to understand ecosystem trends over time and provide help to identify baselines for ecological management. PMID:25714413

  15. [Significance of Minimal Residual Disease in Chronic Lymphocytic Leukemia].

    PubMed

    Doubek, M

    2015-01-01

    Newly introduced highly effective treatment options increase the importance of minimal residual disease measurement in chronic lymphocytic leukemia. Minimal residual disease is gaining interest mainly as a predictive marker; however, clinical significance of minimal residual dis-ease in chronic lymphocytic leukemia in many different situations remains unresolved. Factors with a possible impact on the clinical significance of minimal residual disease are as follows: technique for minimal residual disease quantification, treatment regimen, peripheral blood vs. bone marrow analysis or time -point for sampling. Highly sensitive methods now available to evaluate minimal residual disease can detect a single chronic lymphocytic leukemia cell in 10(-4)- 10(-5) leukocytes using either allele -specific oligonucleotide polymerase chain reaction or multicolor flow cytometry. Minimal residual disease quantification as a surrogate marker to assess treatment efficacy in routine hematological practice has to be further evaluated.

  16. Waste minimization handbook, Volume 1

    SciTech Connect

    Boing, L.E.; Coffey, M.J.

    1995-12-01

    This technical guide presents various methods used by industry to minimize low-level radioactive waste (LLW) generated during decommissioning and decontamination (D and D) activities. Such activities generate significant amounts of LLW during their operations. Waste minimization refers to any measure, procedure, or technique that reduces the amount of waste generated during a specific operation or project. Preventive waste minimization techniques implemented when a project is initiated can significantly reduce waste. Techniques implemented during decontamination activities reduce the cost of decommissioning. The application of waste minimization techniques is not limited to D and D activities; it is also useful during any phase of a facility`s life cycle. This compendium will be supplemented with a second volume of abstracts of hundreds of papers related to minimizing low-level nuclear waste. This second volume is expected to be released in late 1996.

  17. The Sand Seas of northern China: Important sinks and sources of global sediment fluxes and their changing roles during different climate conditions of Late Quaternary

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Yang, X.

    2014-12-01

    Although the occurrence of aeolian sands in sedimentary sequences has been widely used as indicators of desert formation or proxies of desert climate, one should be aware that accumulation of aeolian sands does occur along river channels, in lake shores not necessarily associated with arid environment. Our ongoing geomorphological and paleoenvironmental studies in the deserts of northern China reconfirm that formation of sand seas is dependent on not only erodibility (arising from bare surface due to aridity) and wind power but more importantly sand availability related to sediment cycles under interactions between fluvial, lacustrine and aeolian processes. Here we present our ongoing geomorphological and paleoclimatic research on the Late Quaternary landscape and climatic changes in the Taklamkan Desert of northwestern China, the largest sand sea of China in arid zone, and in the Hunshandake Sandy Land at the east part of the Asian mid-latitude desert belt under semiarid climate. We find out that the occurrence of tall sand dunes in the over 300,000 km2 large Taklamakan Sand Sea is closely related to the sites of intensive fluvial sedimentation and convergence zone of surface winds. In the case of Hunshandake, the dunes (although much smaller) mainly occur along the shorelines of the former lake basins, and sediment sources are generally limited because of open hydrological systems in the south and east portions of this desert. The sedimentological and geomorphological records suggest that the climate has changed between arid and less-arid conditions in both of these deserts during Late Quaternary. Under wetter conditions the Taklamakan acts as an important sink of sediments brought by rivers with headwaters in the Tibetan Plateau and Tianshan, while under more arid conditions it acts as an important global sediment source whose dust is transported not only to East Asia and Pacific but also to Greenland ice via westerlies. The Hunshandake has the same pattern of

  18. Light, temperature, and leaf nitrogen distribution in the tropical rain forest of Biosphere 2 and their importance in the mathematical models for global environmental changes

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Tohda, Motofumi

    1997-01-01

    As the environmental changes occur throughout the world in rapid rate, we need to have further understandings for our planet. Since the ecosystems are so complex, it is almost impossible for us to integrate every factor. However, mathematical models are powerful tools which can be used to simulate those ecosystems with limited data. In this project, I collected light intensity, canopy leaf temperature and Air Handler (AHU) temperature, and nitrogen concentration in the leaves for different profiles in the rainforest mesocosm. These data will later be put into mathematical models such as "big-leaf" and "sun/shade" models to determine how these factors will affect CO2 exchange in the rainforest. As rainforests are diminishing from our planet and their existence is very important for all living things on earth, it is necessary for us to learn more about the unique system of rainforests and how we can co-exist rather than destroy.

  19. The minimal autopoietic unit.

    PubMed

    Luisi, Pier Luigi

    2014-12-01

    It is argued that closed, cell-like compartments, may have existed in prebiotic time, showing a simplified metabolism which was bringing about a primitive form of stationary state- a kind of homeostasis. The autopoietic primitive cell can be taken as an example and there are preliminary experimental data supporting the possible existence of this primitive form of cell activity. The genetic code permits, among other things, the continuous self-reproduction of proteins; enzymic proteins permit the synthesis of nucleic acids, and in this way there is a perfect recycling between the two most important classes of biopolymers in our life. On the other hand, the genetic code is a complex machinery, which cannot be posed at the very early time of the origin of life. And the question then arises, whether some form of alternative beginning, prior to the genetic code, would have been possible: and this is the core of the question asked. Is something with the flavor of early life conceivable, prior to the genetic code? My answer is positive, although I am too well aware that the term "conceivable" does not mean that this something is easily to be performed experimentally. To illustrate my answer, I would first go back to the operational description of cellular life as given by the theory of autopoiesis. Accordingly, a living cell is an open system capable of self-maintenance, due to a process of internal self-regeneration of the components, all within a boundary which is itself product from within. This is a universal code, valid not only for a cell, but for any living macroscopic entity, as no living system exists on Earth which does not obey this principle. In this definition (or better operational description) there is no mention of DNA or genetic code. I added in that definition the term "open system"-which is not present in the primary literature (Varela, et al., 1974) to make clear that every living system is indeed an open system-without this addition, it may seem that

  20. Online hydrologic tool to minimize phosphorus loading from agriculture

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Archibald, J. A.; Mullen, M.; Berry, C.; Stedman, R.; Walter, M. T.

    2013-12-01

    Excess phosphorus (P) from agriculture is an important water contaminant in freshwater systems, and can lead to eutrophication and other water quality problems. Because sources of P from agriculture are diffuse, it is important to facilitate farm-level changes that can be widely implemented at minimal cost to the farmers. Phosphorus in runoff can be reduced if farmers refrain from fertilizing vulnerable areas of their fields when large run-off events are predicted. We have developed an online mapping tool to highlight areas of the landscape that are predicted to generate runoff and potentially contribute nonpoint source contaminants to receiving waters in real-time, as well as for a three day forecast period. Future work will focus on quantifying the uncertainties in the tool, and understanding the social factors involved in use of the tool in the Owasco Lake watershed in NY.

  1. The minimal autopoietic unit.

    PubMed

    Luisi, Pier Luigi

    2014-12-01

    It is argued that closed, cell-like compartments, may have existed in prebiotic time, showing a simplified metabolism which was bringing about a primitive form of stationary state- a kind of homeostasis. The autopoietic primitive cell can be taken as an example and there are preliminary experimental data supporting the possible existence of this primitive form of cell activity. The genetic code permits, among other things, the continuous self-reproduction of proteins; enzymic proteins permit the synthesis of nucleic acids, and in this way there is a perfect recycling between the two most important classes of biopolymers in our life. On the other hand, the genetic code is a complex machinery, which cannot be posed at the very early time of the origin of life. And the question then arises, whether some form of alternative beginning, prior to the genetic code, would have been possible: and this is the core of the question asked. Is something with the flavor of early life conceivable, prior to the genetic code? My answer is positive, although I am too well aware that the term "conceivable" does not mean that this something is easily to be performed experimentally. To illustrate my answer, I would first go back to the operational description of cellular life as given by the theory of autopoiesis. Accordingly, a living cell is an open system capable of self-maintenance, due to a process of internal self-regeneration of the components, all within a boundary which is itself product from within. This is a universal code, valid not only for a cell, but for any living macroscopic entity, as no living system exists on Earth which does not obey this principle. In this definition (or better operational description) there is no mention of DNA or genetic code. I added in that definition the term "open system"-which is not present in the primary literature (Varela, et al., 1974) to make clear that every living system is indeed an open system-without this addition, it may seem that

  2. Influenza SIRS with Minimal Pneumonitis

    PubMed Central

    Erramilli, Shruti; Mannam, Praveen; Manthous, Constantine A.

    2016-01-01

    Although systemic inflammatory response syndrome (SIRS) is a known complication of severe influenza pneumonia, it has been reported very rarely in patients with minimal parenchymal lung disease. We here report a case of severe SIRS, anasarca, and marked vascular phenomena with minimal or no pneumonitis. This case highlights that viruses, including influenza, may cause vascular dysregulation causing SIRS, even without substantial visceral organ involvement. PMID:27630988

  3. Influenza SIRS with Minimal Pneumonitis.

    PubMed

    Erramilli, Shruti; Mannam, Praveen; Manthous, Constantine A

    2016-01-01

    Although systemic inflammatory response syndrome (SIRS) is a known complication of severe influenza pneumonia, it has been reported very rarely in patients with minimal parenchymal lung disease. We here report a case of severe SIRS, anasarca, and marked vascular phenomena with minimal or no pneumonitis. This case highlights that viruses, including influenza, may cause vascular dysregulation causing SIRS, even without substantial visceral organ involvement. PMID:27630988

  4. Minimal mass size of a stable {sup 3}He cluster

    SciTech Connect

    Guardiola, R.; Navarro, J.

    2005-03-01

    The minimal number of {sup 3}He atoms required to form a bound cluster has been estimated by means of a diffusion Monte Carlo procedure within the fixed-node approximation. Several importance sampling wave functions have been employed in order to consider different shell-model configurations. The resulting upper bound for the minimal number is 32 atoms.

  5. Pancreatic cancer: Open or minimally invasive surgery?

    PubMed

    Zhang, Yu-Hua; Zhang, Cheng-Wu; Hu, Zhi-Ming; Hong, De-Fei

    2016-08-28

    Pancreatic duct adenocarcinoma is one of the most fatal malignancies, with R0 resection remaining the most important part of treatment of this malignancy. However, pancreatectomy is believed to be one of the most challenging procedures and R0 resection remains the only chance for patients with pancreatic cancer to have a good prognosis. Some surgeons have tried minimally invasive pancreatic surgery, but the short- and long-term outcomes of pancreatic malignancy remain controversial between open and minimally invasive procedures. We collected comparative data about minimally invasive and open pancreatic surgery. The available evidence suggests that minimally invasive pancreaticoduodenectomy (MIPD) is as safe and feasible as open PD (OPD), and shows some benefit, such as less intraoperative blood loss and shorter postoperative hospital stay. Despite the limited evidence for MIPD in pancreatic cancer, most of the available data show that the short-term oncological adequacy is similar between MIPD and OPD. Some surgical techniques, including superior mesenteric artery-first approach and laparoscopic pancreatoduodenectomy with major vein resection, are believed to improve the rate of R0 resection. Laparoscopic distal pancreatectomy is less technically demanding and is accepted in more pancreatic centers. It is technically safe and feasible and has similar short-term oncological prognosis compared with open distal pancreatectomy. PMID:27621576

  6. Pancreatic cancer: Open or minimally invasive surgery?

    PubMed Central

    Zhang, Yu-Hua; Zhang, Cheng-Wu; Hu, Zhi-Ming; Hong, De-Fei

    2016-01-01

    Pancreatic duct adenocarcinoma is one of the most fatal malignancies, with R0 resection remaining the most important part of treatment of this malignancy. However, pancreatectomy is believed to be one of the most challenging procedures and R0 resection remains the only chance for patients with pancreatic cancer to have a good prognosis. Some surgeons have tried minimally invasive pancreatic surgery, but the short- and long-term outcomes of pancreatic malignancy remain controversial between open and minimally invasive procedures. We collected comparative data about minimally invasive and open pancreatic surgery. The available evidence suggests that minimally invasive pancreaticoduodenectomy (MIPD) is as safe and feasible as open PD (OPD), and shows some benefit, such as less intraoperative blood loss and shorter postoperative hospital stay. Despite the limited evidence for MIPD in pancreatic cancer, most of the available data show that the short-term oncological adequacy is similar between MIPD and OPD. Some surgical techniques, including superior mesenteric artery-first approach and laparoscopic pancreatoduodenectomy with major vein resection, are believed to improve the rate of R0 resection. Laparoscopic distal pancreatectomy is less technically demanding and is accepted in more pancreatic centers. It is technically safe and feasible and has similar short-term oncological prognosis compared with open distal pancreatectomy. PMID:27621576

  7. Pancreatic cancer: Open or minimally invasive surgery?

    PubMed Central

    Zhang, Yu-Hua; Zhang, Cheng-Wu; Hu, Zhi-Ming; Hong, De-Fei

    2016-01-01

    Pancreatic duct adenocarcinoma is one of the most fatal malignancies, with R0 resection remaining the most important part of treatment of this malignancy. However, pancreatectomy is believed to be one of the most challenging procedures and R0 resection remains the only chance for patients with pancreatic cancer to have a good prognosis. Some surgeons have tried minimally invasive pancreatic surgery, but the short- and long-term outcomes of pancreatic malignancy remain controversial between open and minimally invasive procedures. We collected comparative data about minimally invasive and open pancreatic surgery. The available evidence suggests that minimally invasive pancreaticoduodenectomy (MIPD) is as safe and feasible as open PD (OPD), and shows some benefit, such as less intraoperative blood loss and shorter postoperative hospital stay. Despite the limited evidence for MIPD in pancreatic cancer, most of the available data show that the short-term oncological adequacy is similar between MIPD and OPD. Some surgical techniques, including superior mesenteric artery-first approach and laparoscopic pancreatoduodenectomy with major vein resection, are believed to improve the rate of R0 resection. Laparoscopic distal pancreatectomy is less technically demanding and is accepted in more pancreatic centers. It is technically safe and feasible and has similar short-term oncological prognosis compared with open distal pancreatectomy.

  8. Importance of plasticity and local adaptation for coping with changing salinity in coastal areas: a test case with barnacles in the Baltic Sea

    PubMed Central

    2014-01-01

    Background Salinity plays an important role in shaping coastal marine communities. Near-future climate predictions indicate that salinity will decrease in many shallow coastal areas due to increased precipitation; however, few studies have addressed this issue. The ability of ecosystems to cope with future changes will depend on species’ capacities to acclimatise or adapt to new environmental conditions. Here, we investigated the effects of a strong salinity gradient (the Baltic Sea system – Baltic, Kattegat, Skagerrak) on plasticity and adaptations in the euryhaline barnacle Balanus improvisus. We used a common-garden approach, where multiple batches of newly settled barnacles from each of three different geographical areas along the Skagerrak-Baltic salinity gradient were exposed to corresponding native salinities (6, 15 and 30 PSU), and phenotypic traits including mortality, growth, shell strength, condition index and reproductive maturity were recorded. Results We found that B. improvisus was highly euryhaline, but had highest growth and reproductive maturity at intermediate salinities. We also found that low salinity had negative effects on other fitness-related traits including initial growth and shell strength, although mortality was also lowest in low salinity. Overall, differences between populations in most measured traits were weak, indicating little local adaptation to salinity. Nonetheless, we observed some population-specific responses – notably that populations from high salinity grew stronger shells in their native salinity compared to the other populations, possibly indicating adaptation to differences in local predation pressure. Conclusions Our study shows that B. improvisus is an example of a true brackish-water species, and that plastic responses are more likely than evolutionary tracking in coping with future changes in coastal salinity. PMID:25038588

  9. The importance of record length in estimating the magnitude of climatic changes: an example using 175 years of lake ice-out dates in New England

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Hodgkins, Glenn A.

    2013-01-01

    Many studies have shown that lake ice-out (break-up) dates in the Northern Hemisphere are useful indicators of late winter/early spring climate change. Trends in lake ice-out dates in New England, USA, were analyzed for 25, 50, 75, 100, 125, 150, and 175 year periods ending in 2008. More than 100 years of ice-out data were available for 19 of the 28 lakes in this study. The magnitude of trends over time depends on the length of the period considered. For the recent 25-year period, there was a mix of earlier and later ice-out dates. Lake ice-outs during the last 50 years became earlier by 1.8 days/decade (median change for all lakes with adequate data). This is a much higher rate than for longer historical periods; ice-outs became earlier by 0.6 days/decade during the last 75 years, 0.4 days/ decade during the last 100 years, and 0.6 days/decade during the last 125 years. The significance of trends was assessed under the assumption of serial independence of historical ice-out dates and under the assumption of short and long term persistence. Hypolimnion dissolved oxygen (DO) levels are an important factor in lake eutrophication and coldwater fish survival. Based on historical data available at three lakes, 32 to 46 % of the interannual variability of late summer hypolimnion DO levels was related to ice-out dates; earlier ice-outs were associated with lower DO levels.

  10. Conformational changes of the bacterial type I ATP-binding cassette importer HisQMP2 at distinct steps of the catalytic cycle.

    PubMed

    Heuveling, Johanna; Frochaux, Violette; Ziomkowska, Joanna; Wawrzinek, Robert; Wessig, Pablo; Herrmann, Andreas; Schneider, Erwin

    2014-01-01

    Prokaryotic solute binding protein-dependent ATP-binding cassette import systems are divided into type I and type II and mechanistic differences in the transport process going along with this classification are under intensive investigation. Little is known about the conformational dynamics during the catalytic cycle especially concerning the transmembrane domains. The type I transporter for positively charged amino acids from Salmonella enterica serovar Typhimurium (LAO-HisQMP2) was studied by limited proteolysis in detergent solution in the absence and presence of co-factors including ATP, ADP, LAO/arginine, and Mg(2+) ions. Stable peptide fragments could be obtained and differentially susceptible cleavage sites were determined by mass spectrometry as Lys-258 in the nucleotide-binding subunit, HisP, and Arg-217/Arg-218 in the transmembrane subunit, HisQ. In contrast, transmembrane subunit HisM was gradually degraded but no stable fragment could be detected. HisP and HisQ were equally resistant under pre- and post-hydrolysis conditions in the presence of arginine-loaded solute-binding protein LAO and ATP/ADP. Some protection was also observed with LAO/arginine alone, thus reflecting binding to the transporter in the apo-state and transmembrane signaling. Comparable digestion patterns were obtained with the transporter reconstituted into proteoliposomes and nanodiscs. Fluorescence lifetime spectroscopy confirmed the change of HisQ(R218) to a more apolar microenvironment upon ATP binding and hydrolysis. Limited proteolysis was subsequently used as a tool to study the consequences of mutations on the transport cycle. Together, our data suggest similar conformational changes during the transport cycle as described for the maltose ABC transporter of Escherichia coli, despite distinct structural differences between both systems.

  11. The importance of public sector health facility-level data for monitoring changes in maternal mortality risks among communities: the case of pakistan.

    PubMed

    Jain, Anrudh K; Sathar, Zeba; Salim, Momina; Shah, Zakir Hussain

    2013-09-01

    This paper illustrates the importance of monitoring health facility-level information to monitor changes in maternal mortality risks. The annual facility-level maternal mortality ratios (MMRs), complications to live births ratios and case fatality ratios (CFRs) were computed from data recorded during 2007 and 2009 in 31 upgraded public sector health facilities across Pakistan. The facility-level MMR declined by about 18%; both the number of Caesarean sections and the episodes of complications as a percentage of live births increased; and CFR based on Caesarean sections and episodes of complications declined by 29% and 37%, respectively. The observed increases in the proportion of women with complications among those who come to these facilities point to a reduction in the delay in reaching facilities (first and second delays; Thaddeus & Maine, 1994); the decrease in CFRs points to improvements in treating obstetric complications and a reduction in the delay in receiving treatment once at facilities (the third delay). These findings point to a decline in maternal mortality risks among communities served by these facilities. A system of woman-level data collection instituted at health facilities with comprehensive emergency obstetric care is essential to monitor changes in the effects of any reduction in the three delays and any improvement in quality of care or the effectiveness of treating pregnancy-related complications among women reaching these facilities. Such a system of information gathering at these health facilities would also help policymakers and programme mangers to measure and improve the effectiveness of safe-motherhood initiatives and to monitor progress being made toward achieving the fifth Millennium Development Goal.

  12. Neonatal exposure to PFOS and PFOA in mice results in changes in proteins which are important for neuronal growth and synaptogenesis in the developing brain.

    PubMed

    Johansson, Niclas; Eriksson, Per; Viberg, Henrik

    2009-04-01

    Perfluorooctane sulfonate (PFOS) and perfluorooctanoic acid (PFOA) belong to the family of perfluorinated compounds. They are used in industrial and consumer applications, e.g., clothing fabrics, carpets, and food packaging. PFOS and PFOA are present in the environment and are found in dust and human milk, which implies that newborns and toddlers can be directly exposed to these agents during brain development. Recently, we reported that PFOS and PFOA can cause neurobehavioral defects and changes in the cholinergic system, in the adult animal, when given directly to neonatal mice, and thereby showing similarities with other investigated persistent organic pollutants, such as dichloro-diphenyl-trichloroethan, polychlorinated biphenyls, and polybrominated diphenyl ethers (PBDEs). In recent studies, we have also seen that highly brominated PBDEs can affect the levels of proteins that are important for neuronal growth and synaptogenesis in the neonatal mouse brain. The present study shows that a single oral dose of either 21 micromol PFOS or PFOA/kg body weight (11.3 or 8.70 mg), given directly to the neonatal mice on postnatal day 10, significantly increased the levels of CaMKII, GAP-43, and synaptophysin in the hippocampus of the neonatal mouse. Both compounds significantly increased the levels of synaptophysin and tau in cerebral cortex, and PFOA also increased the levels of tau in hippocampus. These proteins are important for normal brain development, and altered levels of these proteins during a critical period of the brain growth spurts could be one of the mechanisms behind earlier reported behavioral defects. PMID:19211617

  13. Minimal but non-minimal inflation and electroweak symmetry breaking

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Marzola, Luca; Racioppi, Antonio

    2016-10-01

    We consider the most minimal scale invariant extension of the standard model that allows for successful radiative electroweak symmetry breaking and inflation. The framework involves an extra scalar singlet, that plays the rôle of the inflaton, and is compatibile with current experimental bounds owing to the non-minimal coupling of the latter to gravity. This inflationary scenario predicts a very low tensor-to-scalar ratio r ≈ 10‑3, typical of Higgs-inflation models, but in contrast yields a scalar spectral index ns simeq 0.97 which departs from the Starobinsky limit. We briefly discuss the collider phenomenology of the framework.

  14. Rice Genotype Differences in Tolerance of Zinc-Deficient Soils: Evidence for the Importance of Root-Induced Changes in the Rhizosphere

    PubMed Central

    Mori, Asako; Kirk, Guy J. D.; Lee, Jae-Sung; Morete, Mark J.; Nanda, Amrit K.; Johnson-Beebout, Sarah E.; Wissuwa, Matthias

    2016-01-01

    Zinc (Zn) deficiency is a major constraint to rice production and Zn is also often deficient in humans with rice-based diets. Efforts to breed more Zn-efficient rice are constrained by poor understanding of the mechanisms of tolerance to deficiency. Here we assess the contributions of root growth and root Zn uptake efficiency, and we seek to explain the results in terms of specific mechanisms. We made a field experiment in a highly Zn-deficient rice soil in the Philippines with deficiency-tolerant and -sensitive genotypes, and measured growth, Zn uptake and root development. We also measured the effect of planting density. Tolerant genotypes produced more crown roots per plant and had greater uptake rates per unit root surface area; the latter was at least as important as root number to overall tolerance. Tolerant and sensitive genotypes took up more Zn per plant at greater planting densities. The greater uptake per unit root surface area, and the planting density effect can only be explained by root-induced changes in the rhizosphere, either solubilizing Zn, or neutralizing a toxin that impedes Zn uptake (possibly HCO3− or Fe2+), or both. Traits for these and crown root number are potential breeding targets. PMID:26793198

  15. Ultrastructural changes induced by benzo(a)pyrene in sea bass (Dicentrarchus labrax) liver and intestine: Importance of the intoxication route

    SciTech Connect

    Lemaire, P.; Lafaurie, M. ); Berhaut, J. ); Lemaire-Gony, S. )

    1992-02-01

    The ultrastructural effects of benzo(a)pyrene (BaP) on sea bass (Dicentrarchus labrax) liver and intestine were studied after experimental intoxication by two different routes: intraperitoneal injection and force-feeding. In both hepatocytes and enterocytes, the main structural perturbations concerned a large development of both rough and smooth endoplasmic reticulum and a great increase in the number of vacuoles and lysosomes in BaP-treated fish. After 17 days of contamination, some nuclear changes were observed, indicating the high reactivity of BaP metabolites which form covalent adducts with DNA and the long-term toxicity of this compound. However, in the intestine, after force-feeding intoxication, more perturbations were seen, particularly concerning the mitochondria. Both organs were altered in a different way with respect to the intoxication route. In BaP intraperitoneal injected fish, the liver was the first injured organ and presented heavier injuries than intestine. In force-feeding treated fish, the intestinal epithelium was the first concerned tissue and it was highly modified after BaP intoxication. The importance of the intoxication pathway in the effects of BaP on liver and intestine was discussed with special reference to their role in BaP uptake, metabolism, and distribution in the organism.

  16. Rice Genotype Differences in Tolerance of Zinc-Deficient Soils: Evidence for the Importance of Root-Induced Changes in the Rhizosphere.

    PubMed

    Mori, Asako; Kirk, Guy J D; Lee, Jae-Sung; Morete, Mark J; Nanda, Amrit K; Johnson-Beebout, Sarah E; Wissuwa, Matthias

    2015-01-01

    Zinc (Zn) deficiency is a major constraint to rice production and Zn is also often deficient in humans with rice-based diets. Efforts to breed more Zn-efficient rice are constrained by poor understanding of the mechanisms of tolerance to deficiency. Here we assess the contributions of root growth and root Zn uptake efficiency, and we seek to explain the results in terms of specific mechanisms. We made a field experiment in a highly Zn-deficient rice soil in the Philippines with deficiency-tolerant and -sensitive genotypes, and measured growth, Zn uptake and root development. We also measured the effect of planting density. Tolerant genotypes produced more crown roots per plant and had greater uptake rates per unit root surface area; the latter was at least as important as root number to overall tolerance. Tolerant and sensitive genotypes took up more Zn per plant at greater planting densities. The greater uptake per unit root surface area, and the planting density effect can only be explained by root-induced changes in the rhizosphere, either solubilizing Zn, or neutralizing a toxin that impedes Zn uptake (possibly [Formula: see text] or Fe(2+)), or both. Traits for these and crown root number are potential breeding targets. PMID:26793198

  17. The importance of campaign saliency as a predictor of attitude and behavior change: A pilot evaluation of social marketing campaign Fat Talk Free Week.

    PubMed

    Garnett, Bernice Raveche; Buelow, Robert; Franko, Debra L; Becker, Carolyn; Rodgers, Rachel F; Austin, S Bryn

    2014-01-01

    Fat Talk Free Week (FTFW), a social marketing campaign designed to decrease self-disparaging talk about body and weight, has not yet been evaluated. We conducted a theory-informed pilot evaluation of FTFW with two college samples using a pre- and posttest design. Aligned with the central tenets of the Elaboration Likelihood Model (ELM), we investigated the importance of FTFW saliency as a predictor of fat talk behavior change. Our analytic sample consisted of 118 female participants (83% of original sample). Approximately 76% of the sample was non-Hispanic White, 14% Asian, and 8% Hispanic. At baseline, more than 50% of respondents reported engaging in frequent self fat talk; at posttest, this number dropped to 34% of respondents. Multivariable regression models supported campaign saliency as the single strongest predictor of a decrease in self fat talk. Our results support the social diffusion of campaign messages among shared communities, as we found significant decreases in fat talk among campaign attenders and nonattenders. FTFW may be a promising short-term health communication campaign to reduce fat talk, as campaign messages are salient among university women and may encourage interpersonal communication.

  18. The importance of campaign saliency as a predictor of attitude and behavior change: A pilot evaluation of social marketing campaign Fat Talk Free Week.

    PubMed

    Garnett, Bernice Raveche; Buelow, Robert; Franko, Debra L; Becker, Carolyn; Rodgers, Rachel F; Austin, S Bryn

    2014-01-01

    Fat Talk Free Week (FTFW), a social marketing campaign designed to decrease self-disparaging talk about body and weight, has not yet been evaluated. We conducted a theory-informed pilot evaluation of FTFW with two college samples using a pre- and posttest design. Aligned with the central tenets of the Elaboration Likelihood Model (ELM), we investigated the importance of FTFW saliency as a predictor of fat talk behavior change. Our analytic sample consisted of 118 female participants (83% of original sample). Approximately 76% of the sample was non-Hispanic White, 14% Asian, and 8% Hispanic. At baseline, more than 50% of respondents reported engaging in frequent self fat talk; at posttest, this number dropped to 34% of respondents. Multivariable regression models supported campaign saliency as the single strongest predictor of a decrease in self fat talk. Our results support the social diffusion of campaign messages among shared communities, as we found significant decreases in fat talk among campaign attenders and nonattenders. FTFW may be a promising short-term health communication campaign to reduce fat talk, as campaign messages are salient among university women and may encourage interpersonal communication. PMID:24359343

  19. [Development, terminology, principles, and controversies in minimally invasive knee arthroplasty].

    PubMed

    Hofmann, S; Pietsch, M

    2007-12-01

    Minimally invasive total knee arthroplasty is a logical and further improvement of the good results achieved with minimally invasive unicondylar knee arthroplasty. The terminology for minimally invasive surgery (MIS) is confusing and comparison of different techniques is therefore difficult. A simple separation between less invasive and minimally invasive techniques will be presented. Besides the approach, minimally invasive surgical principles are very important. MIS in total knee arthroplasty is discussed very controversially at the moment. The preliminary results of these new techniques are very promising. Up to now there is much more feeling then knowing. Important questions (risk-benefit analysis, which technique for which patient and surgeon, education and cost-effectiveness) must be addressed by the proponents of this MIS technique. Step by step learning of these new techniques (evolution instead of revolution) in specific education centres is strongly recommended. Ultimately, patients and surgeons will have to decide whether these new techniques will only be a modern trend or represent the future.

  20. Minimizing nonadiabaticities in optical-lattice loading

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Dolfi, Michele; Kantian, Adrian; Bauer, Bela; Troyer, Matthias

    2015-03-01

    In the quest to reach lower temperatures of ultracold gases in optical-lattice experiments, nonadiabaticities during lattice loading represent one of the limiting factors that prevent the same low temperatures being reached as in experiments without lattices. Simulating the loading of a bosonic quantum gas into a one-dimensional optical lattice with and without a trap, we find that the redistribution of atomic density inside a global confining potential is by far the dominant source of heating. Based on these results we propose adjusting the trapping potential during loading to minimize changes to the density distribution. Our simulations confirm that a very simple linear interpolation of the trapping potential during loading already significantly decreases the heating of a quantum gas, and we discuss how loading protocols minimizing density redistributions can be designed.

  1. Perceived Reactions of Elementary School Students to Changes in School Lunches after Implementation of the United States Department of Agriculture's New Meals Standards: Minimal Backlash, but Rural and Socioeconomic Disparities Exist

    PubMed Central

    Chaloupka, Frank J.

    2014-01-01

    Abstract Background: Updated standards for meals sold through the USDA's National School Lunch Program took effect at the beginning of the 2012–2013 school year. The current study assessed the perceptions of school staff regarding student reactions to these changes in school lunches and how perceptions varied across schools. Methods: Mailback surveys were gathered from administrators and food service staff at a nationally representative sample of 557 US public elementary schools in the second half of the 2012–2013 school year. Results: Half of the respondents (56.4%) agreed that students complained about the meals at first, but 70% agreed that students like the new lunches. Perceived student complaints were significantly higher among respondents from rural schools (n=184) than from urban (n=127) or suburban (n=171) schools. Respondents at rural schools also were more likely to report that they perceived that fewer students were purchasing the meals and that students were consuming less of the meals than during the previous year. Perceived student complaints were higher at schools not offering regular (i.e., higher-fat) pizza. Respondents at socioeconomically disadvantaged schools (>66% of students eligible for free/reduced-priced meals) perceived that more students were buying lunch and that students were eating more of the meal than in the previous year. Conclusions: Perceptions of school personnel suggest reasonable acceptance of school lunches subsequent to revisions. Given the importance of offering healthful foods at school, the revised USDA meals standards are a promising strategy to improve the diets of children. PMID:25045934

  2. The Domain I-Domain III Linker Plays an Important Role in the Fusogenic Conformational Change of the Alphavirus Membrane Fusion Protein▿

    PubMed Central

    Zheng, Yan; Sánchez-San Martín, Claudia; Qin, Zhao-ling; Kielian, Margaret

    2011-01-01

    The alphavirus Semliki Forest virus (SFV) infects cells through a low-pH-dependent membrane fusion reaction mediated by the virus fusion protein E1. Acidic pH initiates a series of E1 conformational changes that culminate in membrane fusion and include dissociation of the E1/E2 heterodimer, insertion of the E1 fusion loop into the target membrane, and refolding of E1 to a stable trimeric hairpin conformation. A highly conserved histidine (H3) on the E1 protein was previously shown to promote low-pH-dependent E1 refolding. An SFV mutant with an alanine substitution at this position (H3A) has a lower pH threshold and reduced efficiency of virus fusion and E1 trimer formation than wild-type SFV. Here we addressed the mechanism by which H3 promotes E1 refolding and membrane fusion. We identified E1 mutations that rescue the H3A defect. These revertants implicated a network of interactions that connect the domain I-domain III (DI-DIII) linker region with the E1 core trimer, including H3. In support of the importance of these interactions, mutation of residues in the network resulted in more acidic pH thresholds and reduced efficiencies of membrane fusion. In vitro studies of truncated E1 proteins demonstrated that the DI-DIII linker was required for production of a stable E1 core trimer on target membranes. Together, our results suggest a critical and previously unidentified role for the DI-DIII linker region during the low-pH-dependent refolding of E1 that drives membrane fusion. PMID:21543498

  3. Disruption of both chloroplastic and cytosolic FBPase genes results in a dwarf phenotype and important starch and metabolite changes in Arabidopsis thaliana.

    PubMed

    Rojas-González, José A; Soto-Súarez, Mauricio; García-Díaz, Ángel; Romero-Puertas, María C; Sandalio, Luisa M; Mérida, Ángel; Thormählen, Ina; Geigenberger, Peter; Serrato, Antonio J; Sahrawy, Mariam

    2015-05-01

    In this study, evidence is provided for the role of fructose-1,6-bisphosphatases (FBPases) in plant development and carbohydrate synthesis and distribution by analysing two Arabidopsis thaliana T-DNA knockout mutant lines, cyfbp and cfbp1, and one double mutant cyfbp cfbp1 which affect each FBPase isoform, cytosolic and chloroplastic, respectively. cyFBP is involved in sucrose synthesis, whilst cFBP1 is a key enzyme in the Calvin-Benson cycle. In addition to the smaller rosette size and lower rate of photosynthesis, the lack of cFBP1 in the mutants cfbp1 and cyfbp cfbp1 leads to a lower content of soluble sugars, less starch accumulation, and a greater superoxide dismutase (SOD) activity. The mutants also had some developmental alterations, including stomatal opening defects and increased numbers of root vascular layers. Complementation also confirmed that the mutant phenotypes were caused by disruption of the cFBP1 gene. cyfbp mutant plants without cyFBP showed a higher starch content in the chloroplasts, but this did not greatly affect the phenotype. Notably, the sucrose content in cyfbp was close to that found in the wild type. The cyfbp cfbp1 double mutant displayed features of both parental lines but had the cfbp1 phenotype. All the mutants accumulated fructose-1,6-bisphosphate and triose-phosphate during the light period. These results prove that while the lack of cFBP1 induces important changes in a wide range of metabolites such as amino acids, sugars, and organic acids, the lack of cyFBP activity in Arabidopsis essentially provokes a carbon metabolism imbalance which does not compromise the viability of the double mutant cyfbp cfbp1.

  4. Disruption of both chloroplastic and cytosolic FBPase genes results in a dwarf phenotype and important starch and metabolite changes in Arabidopsis thaliana

    PubMed Central

    Rojas-González, José A.; Soto-Súarez, Mauricio; García-Díaz, Ángel; Romero-Puertas, María C.; Sandalio, Luisa M.; Mérida, Ángel; Thormählen, Ina; Geigenberger, Peter; Serrato, Antonio J.; Sahrawy, Mariam

    2015-01-01

    In this study, evidence is provided for the role of fructose-1,6-bisphosphatases (FBPases) in plant development and carbohydrate synthesis and distribution by analysing two Arabidopsis thaliana T-DNA knockout mutant lines, cyfbp and cfbp1, and one double mutant cyfbp cfbp1 which affect each FBPase isoform, cytosolic and chloroplastic, respectively. cyFBP is involved in sucrose synthesis, whilst cFBP1 is a key enzyme in the Calvin–Benson cycle. In addition to the smaller rosette size and lower rate of photosynthesis, the lack of cFBP1 in the mutants cfbp1 and cyfbp cfbp1 leads to a lower content of soluble sugars, less starch accumulation, and a greater superoxide dismutase (SOD) activity. The mutants also had some developmental alterations, including stomatal opening defects and increased numbers of root vascular layers. Complementation also confirmed that the mutant phenotypes were caused by disruption of the cFBP1 gene. cyfbp mutant plants without cyFBP showed a higher starch content in the chloroplasts, but this did not greatly affect the phenotype. Notably, the sucrose content in cyfbp was close to that found in the wild type. The cyfbp cfbp1 double mutant displayed features of both parental lines but had the cfbp1 phenotype. All the mutants accumulated fructose-1,6-bisphosphate and triose-phosphate during the light period. These results prove that while the lack of cFBP1 induces important changes in a wide range of metabolites such as amino acids, sugars, and organic acids, the lack of cyFBP activity in Arabidopsis essentially provokes a carbon metabolism imbalance which does not compromise the viability of the double mutant cyfbp cfbp1. PMID:25743161

  5. Disruption of both chloroplastic and cytosolic FBPase genes results in a dwarf phenotype and important starch and metabolite changes in Arabidopsis thaliana.

    PubMed

    Rojas-González, José A; Soto-Súarez, Mauricio; García-Díaz, Ángel; Romero-Puertas, María C; Sandalio, Luisa M; Mérida, Ángel; Thormählen, Ina; Geigenberger, Peter; Serrato, Antonio J; Sahrawy, Mariam

    2015-05-01

    In this study, evidence is provided for the role of fructose-1,6-bisphosphatases (FBPases) in plant development and carbohydrate synthesis and distribution by analysing two Arabidopsis thaliana T-DNA knockout mutant lines, cyfbp and cfbp1, and one double mutant cyfbp cfbp1 which affect each FBPase isoform, cytosolic and chloroplastic, respectively. cyFBP is involved in sucrose synthesis, whilst cFBP1 is a key enzyme in the Calvin-Benson cycle. In addition to the smaller rosette size and lower rate of photosynthesis, the lack of cFBP1 in the mutants cfbp1 and cyfbp cfbp1 leads to a lower content of soluble sugars, less starch accumulation, and a greater superoxide dismutase (SOD) activity. The mutants also had some developmental alterations, including stomatal opening defects and increased numbers of root vascular layers. Complementation also confirmed that the mutant phenotypes were caused by disruption of the cFBP1 gene. cyfbp mutant plants without cyFBP showed a higher starch content in the chloroplasts, but this did not greatly affect the phenotype. Notably, the sucrose content in cyfbp was close to that found in the wild type. The cyfbp cfbp1 double mutant displayed features of both parental lines but had the cfbp1 phenotype. All the mutants accumulated fructose-1,6-bisphosphate and triose-phosphate during the light period. These results prove that while the lack of cFBP1 induces important changes in a wide range of metabolites such as amino acids, sugars, and organic acids, the lack of cyFBP activity in Arabidopsis essentially provokes a carbon metabolism imbalance which does not compromise the viability of the double mutant cyfbp cfbp1. PMID:25743161

  6. Rationally reduced libraries for combinatorial pathway optimization minimizing experimental effort

    PubMed Central

    Jeschek, Markus; Gerngross, Daniel; Panke, Sven

    2016-01-01

    Rational flux design in metabolic engineering approaches remains difficult since important pathway information is frequently not available. Therefore empirical methods are applied that randomly change absolute and relative pathway enzyme levels and subsequently screen for variants with improved performance. However, screening is often limited on the analytical side, generating a strong incentive to construct small but smart libraries. Here we introduce RedLibs (Reduced Libraries), an algorithm that allows for the rational design of smart combinatorial libraries for pathway optimization thereby minimizing the use of experimental resources. We demonstrate the utility of RedLibs for the design of ribosome-binding site libraries by in silico and in vivo screening with fluorescent proteins and perform a simple two-step optimization of the product selectivity in the branched multistep pathway for violacein biosynthesis, indicating a general applicability for the algorithm and the proposed heuristics. We expect that RedLibs will substantially simplify the refactoring of synthetic metabolic pathways. PMID:27029461

  7. Rationally reduced libraries for combinatorial pathway optimization minimizing experimental effort.

    PubMed

    Jeschek, Markus; Gerngross, Daniel; Panke, Sven

    2016-01-01

    Rational flux design in metabolic engineering approaches remains difficult since important pathway information is frequently not available. Therefore empirical methods are applied that randomly change absolute and relative pathway enzyme levels and subsequently screen for variants with improved performance. However, screening is often limited on the analytical side, generating a strong incentive to construct small but smart libraries. Here we introduce RedLibs (Reduced Libraries), an algorithm that allows for the rational design of smart combinatorial libraries for pathway optimization thereby minimizing the use of experimental resources. We demonstrate the utility of RedLibs for the design of ribosome-binding site libraries by in silico and in vivo screening with fluorescent proteins and perform a simple two-step optimization of the product selectivity in the branched multistep pathway for violacein biosynthesis, indicating a general applicability for the algorithm and the proposed heuristics. We expect that RedLibs will substantially simplify the refactoring of synthetic metabolic pathways. PMID:27029461

  8. Rationally reduced libraries for combinatorial pathway optimization minimizing experimental effort.

    PubMed

    Jeschek, Markus; Gerngross, Daniel; Panke, Sven

    2016-01-01

    Rational flux design in metabolic engineering approaches remains difficult since important pathway information is frequently not available. Therefore empirical methods are applied that randomly change absolute and relative pathway enzyme levels and subsequently screen for variants with improved performance. However, screening is often limited on the analytical side, generating a strong incentive to construct small but smart libraries. Here we introduce RedLibs (Reduced Libraries), an algorithm that allows for the rational design of smart combinatorial libraries for pathway optimization thereby minimizing the use of experimental resources. We demonstrate the utility of RedLibs for the design of ribosome-binding site libraries by in silico and in vivo screening with fluorescent proteins and perform a simple two-step optimization of the product selectivity in the branched multistep pathway for violacein biosynthesis, indicating a general applicability for the algorithm and the proposed heuristics. We expect that RedLibs will substantially simplify the refactoring of synthetic metabolic pathways.

  9. Minimally invasive aortic valve surgery

    PubMed Central

    Castrovinci, Sebastiano; Emmanuel, Sam; Moscarelli, Marco; Murana, Giacomo; Caccamo, Giuseppa; Bertolino, Emanuela Clara; Nasso, Giuseppe; Speziale, Giuseppe; Fattouch, Khalil

    2016-01-01

    Aortic valve disease is a prevalent disorder that affects approximately 2% of the general adult population. Surgical aortic valve replacement is the gold standard treatment for symptomatic patients. This treatment has demonstrably proven to be both safe and effective. Over the last few decades, in an attempt to reduce surgical trauma, different minimally invasive approaches for aortic valve replacement have been developed and are now being increasingly utilized. A narrative review of the literature was carried out to describe the surgical techniques for minimally invasive aortic valve surgery and report the results from different experienced centers. Minimally invasive aortic valve replacement is associated with low perioperative morbidity, mortality and a low conversion rate to full sternotomy. Long-term survival appears to be at least comparable to that reported for conventional full sternotomy. Minimally invasive aortic valve surgery, either with a partial upper sternotomy or a right anterior minithoracotomy provides early- and long-term benefits. Given these benefits, it may be considered the standard of care for isolated aortic valve disease. PMID:27582764

  10. Minimally invasive aortic valve surgery.

    PubMed

    Castrovinci, Sebastiano; Emmanuel, Sam; Moscarelli, Marco; Murana, Giacomo; Caccamo, Giuseppa; Bertolino, Emanuela Clara; Nasso, Giuseppe; Speziale, Giuseppe; Fattouch, Khalil

    2016-09-01

    Aortic valve disease is a prevalent disorder that affects approximately 2% of the general adult population. Surgical aortic valve replacement is the gold standard treatment for symptomatic patients. This treatment has demonstrably proven to be both safe and effective. Over the last few decades, in an attempt to reduce surgical trauma, different minimally invasive approaches for aortic valve replacement have been developed and are now being increasingly utilized. A narrative review of the literature was carried out to describe the surgical techniques for minimally invasive aortic valve surgery and report the results from different experienced centers. Minimally invasive aortic valve replacement is associated with low perioperative morbidity, mortality and a low conversion rate to full sternotomy. Long-term survival appears to be at least comparable to that reported for conventional full sternotomy. Minimally invasive aortic valve surgery, either with a partial upper sternotomy or a right anterior minithoracotomy provides early- and long-term benefits. Given these benefits, it may be considered the standard of care for isolated aortic valve disease. PMID:27582764

  11. What is minimally invasive dentistry?

    PubMed

    Ericson, Dan

    2004-01-01

    Minimally Invasive Dentistry is the application of "a systematic respect for the original tissue." This implies that the dental profession recognizes that an artifact is of less biological value than the original healthy tissue. Minimally invasive dentistry is a concept that can embrace all aspects of the profession. The common delineator is tissue preservation, preferably by preventing disease from occurring and intercepting its progress, but also removing and replacing with as little tissue loss as possible. It does not suggest that we make small fillings to restore incipient lesions or surgically remove impacted third molars without symptoms as routine procedures. The introduction of predictable adhesive technologies has led to a giant leap in interest in minimally invasive dentistry. The concept bridges the traditional gap between prevention and surgical procedures, which is just what dentistry needs today. The evidence-base for survival of restorations clearly indicates that restoring teeth is a temporary palliative measure that is doomed to fail if the disease that caused the condition is not addressed properly. Today, the means, motives and opportunities for minimally invasive dentistry are at hand, but incentives are definitely lacking. Patients and third parties seem to be convinced that the only things that count are replacements. Namely, they are prepared to pay for a filling but not for a procedure that can help avoid having one.

  12. A Defense of Semantic Minimalism

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Kim, Su

    2012-01-01

    Semantic Minimalism is a position about the semantic content of declarative sentences, i.e., the content that is determined entirely by syntax. It is defined by the following two points: "Point 1": The semantic content is a complete/truth-conditional proposition. "Point 2": The semantic content is useful to a theory of…

  13. Assembly of a minimal protocell

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Rasmussen, Steen

    2007-03-01

    What is minimal life, how can we make it, and how can it be useful? We present experimental and computational results towards bridging nonliving and living matter, which results in life that is different and much simpler than contemporary life. A simple yet tightly coupled catalytic cooperation between genes, metabolism, and container forms the design underpinnings of our protocell, which is a minimal self-replicating molecular machine. Experimentally, we have recently demonstrated this coupling by having an informational molecule (8-oxoguanine) catalytically control the light driven metabolic (Ru-bpy based) production of container materials (fatty acids). This is a significant milestone towards assembling a minimal self-replicating molecular machine. Recent theoretical investigations indicate that coordinated exponential component growth should naturally emerge as a result from such a catalytic coupling between the main protocellular components. A 3-D dissipative particle simulation (DPD) study of the full protocell life-cycle exposes a number of anticipated systemic issues associated with the remaining experimental challenges for the implementation of the minimal protocell. Finally we outline how more general self-replicating materials could be useful.

  14. Minimizing Glovebox Glove Breaches, Part III: Deriving Service Lifetimes

    SciTech Connect

    Cournoyer, M.E.; Wilson, K.V.; Maestas, M.M.; Schreiber, S.

    2006-07-01

    At the Los Alamos Plutonium Facility, various isotopes of plutonium along with other actinides are handled in a glove box environment. Weapons-grade plutonium consists mainly in Pu-239. Pu-238 is another isotope used for heat sources. The Pu-238 is more aggressive regarding gloves due to its higher alpha-emitting characteristic ({approx}300 times more active than Pu-239), which modifies the change-out intervals for gloves. Optimization of the change-out intervals for gloves is fundamental since Nuclear Materials Technology (NMT) Division generates approximately 4 m{sup 3}/yr of TRU waste from the disposal of glovebox gloves. To reduce the number of glovebox glove failures, the NMT Division pro-actively investigates processes and procedures that minimize glove failures. Aging studies have been conducted that correlate changes in mechanical (physical) properties with degradation chemistry. This present work derives glovebox glove change intervals based on mechanical data of thermally aged Hypalon{sup R}, and Butasol{sup R} glove samples. Information from this study represent an important baseline in gauging the acceptable standards for polymeric gloves used in a laboratory glovebox environment and will be used later to account for possible presence of dose-rate or synergistic effects in 'combined-environment'. In addition, excursions of contaminants into the operator's breathing zone and excess exposure to the radiological sources associated with unplanned breaches in the glovebox are reduced. (authors)

  15. Microbial life detection with minimal assumptions

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Kounaves, Samuel P.; Noll, Rebecca A.; Buehler, Martin G.; Hecht, Michael H.; Lankford, Kurt; West, Steven J.

    2002-02-01

    To produce definitive and unambiguous results, any life detection experiment must make minimal assumptions about the nature of extraterrestrial life. The only criteria that fits this definition is the ability to reproduce and in the process create a disequilibrium in the chemical and redox environment. The Life Detection Array (LIDA), an instrument proposed for the 2007 NASA Mars Scout Mission, and in the future for the Jovian moons, enables such an experiment. LIDA responds to minute biogenic chemical and physical changes in two identical 'growth' chambers. The sensitivity is provided by two differentially monitored electrochemical sensor arrays. Growth in one of the chambers alters the chemistry and ionic properties and results in a signal. This life detection system makes minimal assumptions; that after addition of water the microorganism replicates and in the process will produce small changes in its immediate surroundings by consuming, metabolizing, and excreting a number of molecules and/or ionic species. The experiment begins by placing an homogenized split-sample of soil or water into each chamber, adding water if soil, sterilizing via high temperature, and equilibrating. In the absence of any microorganism in either chamber, no signal will be detected. The inoculation of one chamber with even a few microorganisms which reproduce, will create a sufficient disequilibrium in the system (compared to the control) to be detectable. Replication of the experiment and positive results would lead to a definitive conclusion of biologically induced changes. The split sample and the nanogram inoculation eliminates chemistry as a causal agent.

  16. [Minimally-invasive therapy of urinary stones].

    PubMed

    Knoll, T; Trojan, L; Haecker, A; Michel, M S; Köhrmann, K U; Alken, P

    2003-09-01

    Open surgery was the standard therapy for urinary calculi up to about 30 years ago. This changed upon introduction of extracorporeal shockwave lithotripsy (ESWL) in 1980, a procedure that is now the primary therapy for 70 % of the patients in western countries. Simultaneously, endourological procedures like ureterorenoscopy (URS) and percutaneous nephrolithotripsy (PCNL) have been improved, and now, modern small diameter and highly efficient instruments offer an ideal alternative to shockwave lithotripsy. Today, minimally-invasive stone treatment has replaced open stone surgery almost completely. This article introduces ESWL, URS and PCNL and discusses indications, outcomes and limitations.

  17. Temperature-Transformed ``Minimal Coupling'': Magnetofluid Unification

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Mahajan, S. M.

    2003-01-01

    The dynamics of a relativistic, hot charged fluid is expressed in terms of a hybrid magnetofluid field which unifies the electromagnetic field with an appropriately defined but analogous flow field. The unification is affected by a well-defined prescription that allows the derivation of the equations of motion of a plasma embedded in an electromagnetic field from the field-free equations. The relationship of this prescription with the minimal coupling prescription of particle dynamics is discussed; the changes brought about by the plasma temperature are highlighted. A few consequences of the unification are worked out.

  18. Minimal polar swimmer at low Reynolds number.

    PubMed

    Pandey, Ankita; Simha, R Aditi

    2012-06-01

    We propose a minimal model for a polar swimmer, consisting of two spheres connected by a rigid slender arm, at low Reynolds number. The propulsive velocity for the proposed model is the maximum for any swimming cycle with the same variations in its two degrees of freedom and its displacement in a cycle is achieved entirely in one step. The stroke averaged flow field generated by the contractile swimmer at large distances is found to be dipolar. In addition, the changing radius of one of the spheres generates the field of a potential doublet centered at its initial position.

  19. Beyond the minimal top partner decay

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Serra, Javi

    2015-09-01

    Light top partners are the prime sign of naturalness in composite Higgs models. We explore here the possibility of non-standard top partner phenomenology. We show that even in the simplest extension of the minimal composite Higgs model, featuring an extra singlet pseudo Nambu-Goldstone boson, the branching ratios of the top partners into standard channels can be significantly altered, with no substantial change in the generated Higgs potential. Together with the variety of possible final states from the decay of the pseudo-scalar singlet, this motivates more extensive analyses in the search for the top partners.

  20. Minimally invasive porcelain veneers: indications for a conservative esthetic dentistry treatment modality.

    PubMed

    Strassler, Howard E

    2007-11-01

    Patients have many restorative options for changing the appearance of their teeth. The most conservative restorative treatments for changing the appearance of teeth include tooth bleaching, direct composite resin veneers, and porcelain veneers. Patients seeking esthetic treatment should undergo a comprehensive clinical examination that includes an esthetic evaluation. When selecting a conservative treatment modality, the use of minimally invasive or no-preparation porcelain veneers should be considered. As with any treatment decision, the indications and contraindications must be considered before a definitive treatment plan is made. Long-term research has demonstrated a 94% survival rate for minimally invasive porcelain veneers. While conservation of tooth structure is important, so is selecting the right treatment modality for each patient based on clinical findings.

  1. The Importance of Protein-Protein Interactions on the pH-Induced Conformational Changes of Bovine Serum Albumin: A Small-Angle X-Ray Scattering Study

    PubMed Central

    Barbosa, Leandro R.S.; Ortore, Maria Grazia; Spinozzi, Francesco; Mariani, Paolo; Bernstorff, Sigrid; Itri, Rosangela

    2010-01-01

    Abstract The combined effects of concentration and pH on the conformational states of bovine serum albumin (BSA) are investigated by small-angle x-ray scattering. Serum albumins, at physiological conditions, are found at concentrations of ∼35–45 mg/mL (42 mg/mL in the case of humans). In this work, BSA at three different concentrations (10, 25, and 50 mg/mL) and pH values (2.0–9.0) have been studied. Data were analyzed by means of the Global Fitting procedure, with the protein form factor calculated from human serum albumin (HSA) crystallographic structure and the interference function described, considering repulsive and attractive interaction potentials within a random phase approximation. Small-angle x-ray scattering data show that BSA maintains its native state from pH 4.0 up to 9.0 at all investigated concentrations. A pH-dependence of the absolute net protein charge is shown and the charge number per BSA is quantified to 10(2), 8(1), 13(2), 20(2), and 26(2) for pH values 4.0, 5.4, 7.0, 8.0, and 9.0, respectively. The attractive potential diminishes as BSA concentration increases. The coexistence of monomers and dimers is observed at 50 mg/mL and pH 5.4, near the BSA isoelectric point. Samples at pH 2.0 show a different behavior, because BSA overall shape changes as a function of concentration. At 10 mg/mL, BSA is partially unfolded and a strong repulsive protein-protein interaction occurs due to the high amount of exposed charge. At 25 and 50 mg/mL, BSA undergoes some re-folding, which likely results in a molten-globule state. This work concludes by confirming that the protein concentration plays an important role on the pH-unfolded BSA state, due to a delicate compromise between interaction forces and crowding effects. PMID:20085727

  2. New algorithms for the minimal form'' problem

    SciTech Connect

    Oliveira, J.S.; Cook, G.O. Jr. ); Purtill, M.R. . Center for Communications Research)

    1991-12-20

    It is widely appreciated that large-scale algebraic computation (performing computer algebra operations on large symbolic expressions) places very significant demands upon existing computer algebra systems. Because of this, parallel versions of many important algorithms have been successfully sought, and clever techniques have been found for improving the speed of the algebraic simplification process. In addition, some attention has been given to the issue of restructuring large expressions, or transforming them into minimal forms.'' By minimal form,'' we mean that form of an expression that involves a minimum number of operations in the sense that no simple transformation on the expression leads to a form involving fewer operations. Unfortunately, the progress that has been achieved to date on this very hard problem is not adequate for the very significant demands of large computer algebra problems. In response to this situation, we have developed some efficient algorithms for constructing minimal forms.'' In this paper, the multi-stage algorithm in which these new algorithms operate is defined and the features of these algorithms are developed. In a companion paper, we introduce the core algebra engine of a new tool that provides the algebraic framework required for the implementation of these new algorithms.

  3. Minimizing the Fluid Used to Induce Fracturing

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Boyle, E. J.

    2015-12-01

    The less fluid injected to induce fracturing means less fluid needing to be produced before gas is produced. One method is to inject as fast as possible until the desired fracture length is obtained. Presented is an alternative injection strategy derived by applying optimal system control theory to the macroscopic mass balance. The picture is that the fracture is constant in aperture, fluid is injected at a controlled rate at the near end, and the fracture unzips at the far end until the desired length is obtained. The velocity of the fluid is governed by Darcy's law with larger permeability for flow along the fracture length. Fracture growth is monitored through micro-seismicity. Since the fluid is assumed to be incompressible, the rate at which fluid is injected is balanced by rate of fracture growth and rate of loss to bounding rock. Minimizing injected fluid loss to the bounding rock is the same as minimizing total injected fluid How to change the injection rate so as to minimize the total injected fluid is a problem in optimal control. For a given total length, the variation of the injected rate is determined by variations in overall time needed to obtain the desired fracture length, the length at any time, and the rate at which the fracture is growing at that time. Optimal control theory leads to a boundary condition and an ordinary differential equation in time whose solution is an injection protocol that minimizes the fluid used under the stated assumptions. That method is to monitor the rate at which the square of the fracture length is growing and adjust the injection rate proportionately.

  4. Changes.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Weikel, William J.

    1999-01-01

    The author, founding editor of the American Mental Health Counselors Association (AMHC) Journal, now the Journal of Mental Health Counseling, examines some of the changes that have taken place in the profession over the past 20 years. Special emphasis is given to the visionary excellence that set the "AMHCA Agenda" over 20 years ago. (Author)

  5. Anaesthesia for minimally invasive surgery

    PubMed Central

    Dec, Marta

    2015-01-01

    Minimally invasive surgery (MIS) is rising in popularity. It offers well-known benefits to the patient. However, restricted access to the surgical site and gas insufflation into the body cavities may result in severe complications. From the anaesthetic point of view MIS poses unique challenges associated with creation of pneumoperitoneum, carbon dioxide absorption, specific positioning and monitoring a patient to whom the anaesthetist has often restricted access, in a poorly lit environment. Moreover, with refinement of surgical procedures and growing experience the anaesthetist is presented with patients from high-risk groups (obese, elderly, with advanced cardiac and respiratory disease) who once were deemed unsuitable for the laparoscopic technique. Anaesthetic management is aimed at getting the patient safely through the procedure, minimizing the specific risks arising from laparoscopy and the patient's coexisting medical problems, ensuring quick recovery and a relatively pain-free postoperative course with early return to normal function. PMID:26865885

  6. Minimal universal quantum heat machine.

    PubMed

    Gelbwaser-Klimovsky, D; Alicki, R; Kurizki, G

    2013-01-01

    In traditional thermodynamics the Carnot cycle yields the ideal performance bound of heat engines and refrigerators. We propose and analyze a minimal model of a heat machine that can play a similar role in quantum regimes. The minimal model consists of a single two-level system with periodically modulated energy splitting that is permanently, weakly, coupled to two spectrally separated heat baths at different temperatures. The equation of motion allows us to compute the stationary power and heat currents in the machine consistent with the second law of thermodynamics. This dual-purpose machine can act as either an engine or a refrigerator (heat pump) depending on the modulation rate. In both modes of operation, the maximal Carnot efficiency is reached at zero power. We study the conditions for finite-time optimal performance for several variants of the model. Possible realizations of the model are discussed.

  7. Optimal time-points for minimal residual disease monitoring change on the basis of the method used in patients with acute myeloid leukemia who underwent allogeneic stem cell transplantation: a comparison between multiparameter flow cytometry and Wilms' tumor 1 expression.

    PubMed

    Rossi, Giovanni; Carella, Angelo Michele; Minervini, Maria Marta; di Nardo, Francesco; Waure, Chiara de; Greco, Michele Mario; Merla, Emanuela; Cillis, Giovanni Pio de; Di Renzo, Nicola; Melpignano, Angela; Capalbo, Silvana; Palumbo, Gaetano; Pisapia, Giovanni; Cascavilla, Nicola

    2015-02-01

    Minimal residual disease (MRD) of 30 adult AML patients was monitored by multiparameter flow cytometry (MFC) and WT1 expression before and after allogeneic stem cell transplantation (allo-SCT). Diagnostic performance of pre-transplant MRD measured by MFC was higher than that obtained by WT1 expression. Comparable results were displayed at day +30 post-transplant, while better values by WT1 compared to MFC were found at day +90. Positive MRD by MFC predicted a shorter disease free survival (DFS) before and 1 month after transplant (p=0.006 and p=0.005), while only high WT1 levels at 1 month from the transplant significantly impacted on DFS (p=0.010). Our results support the idea that MRD monitoring by MFC should be suggested before and 30 days after the transplant, while WT1 expression should be preferred after this procedure. The assessment of MRD at day +30 from allo-SCT is recommended as post transplant check-point for the predictive role displayed, independently of the method used.

  8. The mutual importance of anthropogenically and climate-induced changes in global vegetation cover for future land carbon emissions in the MPI-ESM CMIP5 simulations

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Schneck, R.; Reick, C. H.; Pongratz, J.; Gayler, V.

    2015-10-01

    Based on the Max Planck Institute Earth System Model simulations for the Coupled Model Intercomparison Project Phase 5 and on simulations with the submodel Cbalone we disentangle the influence of natural and anthropogenic vegetation changes on land carbon emissions for the years 1850 until 2300. According to our simulations, climate-induced changes in distribution and productivity of natural vegetation strongly mitigates future carbon (C) emissions from anthropogenic land-use and land cover change (LULCC). Depending on the assumed scenario, the accumulated carbon emissions until the year 2100 are reduced between 22 and 49% and until 2300 between 45 and 261%. The carbon storage due to climate-induced vegetation change is generally stronger under the presence of LULCC. This is because the natural vegetation change can reestablish highly productive extratropical forests that are lost due to LULCC. After stopping anthropogenic vegetation changes in the year 2100 the refilling of depleted C pools on formerly transformed land takes (dependent on the scenario) time scales of centuries.

  9. Jerk Minimization Method for Vibration Control in Buildings

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Abatan, Ayo O.; Yao, Leummim

    1997-01-01

    In many vibration minimization control problems for high rise buildings subject to strong earthquake loads, the emphasis has been on a combination of minimizing the displacement, the velocity and the acceleration of the motion of the building. In most cases, the accelerations that are involved are not necessarily large but the change in them (jerk) are abrupt. These changes in magnitude or direction are responsible for most building damage and also create discomfort like motion sickness for inhabitants of these structures because of the element of surprise. We propose a method of minimizing also the jerk which is the sudden change in acceleration or the derivative of the acceleration using classical linear quadratic optimal controls. This was done through the introduction of a quadratic performance index involving the cost due to the jerk; a special change of variable; and using the jerk as a control variable. The values of the optimal control are obtained using the Riccati equation.

  10. A minimally invasive approach for a compromised treatment plan.

    PubMed

    Maibaum, Wayne W

    2016-01-01

    A primary goal in dentistry is the execution of appropriate treatment plans that are minimally invasive and maintainable. However, it is sometimes necessary to repair existing dental restorations or revise treatment plans to accommodate changes in a patient's condition. In the present case, a patient who was satisfied with a removable partial overdenture lost a critical abutment tooth. A creative, minimally invasive approach enabled the patient to keep his existing partial prosthesis and avoid the need for a full reconstruction or complete denture.

  11. Seasonal species interactions minimize the impact of species turnover on the likelihood of community persistence.

    PubMed

    Saavedra, Serguei; Rohr, Rudolf P; Fortuna, Miguel A; Selva, Nuria; Bascompte, Jordi

    2016-04-01

    Many of the observed species interactions embedded in ecological communities are not permanent, but are characterized by temporal changes that are observed along with abiotic and biotic variations. While work has been done describing and quantifying these changes, little is known about their consequences for species coexistence. Here, we investigate the extent to which changes of species composition impact the likelihood of persistence of the predator-prey community in the highly seasonal Białowieza Primeval Forest (northeast Poland), and the extent to which seasonal changes of species interactions (predator diet) modulate the expected impact. This likelihood is estimated extending recent developments on the study of structural stability in ecological communities. We find that the observed species turnover strongly varies the likelihood of community persistence between summer and winter. Importantly, we demonstrate that the observed seasonal interaction changes minimize the variation in the likelihood of persistence associated with species turnover across the year. We find that these community dynamics can be explained as the coupling of individual species to their environment by minimizing both the variation in persistence conditions and the interaction changes between seasons. Our results provide a homeostatic explanation for seasonal species interactions and suggest that monitoring the association of interactions changes with the level of variation in community dynamics can provide a good indicator of the response of species to environmental pressures. PMID:27220203

  12. Minimally invasive surgery for thyroid eye disease.

    PubMed

    Naik, Milind Neilkant; Nair, Akshay Gopinathan; Gupta, Adit; Kamal, Saurabh

    2015-11-01

    Thyroid eye disease (TED) can affect the eye in myriad ways: proptosis, strabismus, eyelid retraction, optic neuropathy, soft tissue changes around the eye and an unstable ocular surface. TED consists of two phases: active, and inactive. The active phase of TED is limited to a period of 12-18 months and is mainly managed medically with immunosuppression. The residual structural changes due to the resultant fibrosis are usually addressed with surgery, the mainstay of which is orbital decompression. These surgeries are performed during the inactive phase. The surgical rehabilitation of TED has evolved over the years: not only the surgical techniques, but also the concepts, and the surgical tools available. The indications for decompression surgery have also expanded in the recent past. This article discusses the technological and conceptual advances of minimally invasive surgery for TED that decrease complications and speed up recovery. Current surgical techniques offer predictable, consistent results with better esthetics.

  13. Minimally invasive surgical management of benign breast lesions

    PubMed Central

    Lakoma, Anna

    2014-01-01

    Benign breast disease is common among women, and when symptomatic, definitive surgical management is preferred by both clinicians and patients. Given the nonmalignant nature of these lesions, an important factor in treatment is cosmesis. Novel minimally invasive techniques for breast lesions are rapidly emerging and demonstrate good efficacy, safety and cosmesis. This review will describe minimally invasive techniques of breast lesions via surgical and percutaneous approaches and discuss the outcomes, advantages and limitations for each. Based on promising initial results, the future standard of care for benign breast lesions may focus on one or more of these minimally invasive techniques. PMID:25083508

  14. Minimally Invasive Suturectomy and Postoperative Helmet Therapy : Advantages and Limitations

    PubMed Central

    Chong, Sangjoon; Wang, Kyu-Chang; Phi, Ji Hoon; Lee, Ji Yeoun

    2016-01-01

    Various operative techniques are available for the treatment of craniosynostosis. The patient's age at presentation is one of the most important factors in the determination of the surgical modality. Minimally invasive suturectomy and postoperative helmet therapy may be performed for relatively young infants, whose age is younger than 6 months. It relies upon the potential for rapid brain growth in this age group. Its minimal invasiveness is also advantageous. In this article, we review the advantages and limitations of minimally invasive suturectomy followed by helmet therapy for the treatment of craniosynostosis. PMID:27226853

  15. Safeguards and pitfalls in minimally invasive mitral valve surgery.

    PubMed

    Czesla, Markus; Götte, Julia; Weimar, Timo; Ruttkay, Tamas; Doll, Nicolas

    2013-11-01

    Minimally invasive mitral valve surgery has been established in many institutions worldwide. Appropriate indications and patient selection for this procedure must be based on a thorough understanding of its limitations and specific pitfalls. Particular risks can be minimized with careful attention to detail when planning and performing the surgery. The following chapter offers a stepwise description of the procedure; we point out particular advantages, discuss our rationale for certain steps, as well as focus on potential dangers of minimally invasive mitral valve surgery. Several graphics have also been provided to illustrate our approach and demonstrate important structural and anatomical concepts of the mitral valve apparatus.

  16. The importance of dietary change for men diagnosed with and at risk of prostate cancer: a multi-centre interview study with men, their partners and health professionals

    PubMed Central

    2014-01-01

    Background The diagnosis of prostate cancer (PC) can provide a trigger for dietary change, and there is evidence that healthier diets may improve quality of life and clinical outcomes. However, men’s views about dietary change in PC survivorship are largely unknown. This multi-centre qualitative interview study explored men’s views about dietary change in PC survivorship, to better understand motivations for, and barriers to, achieving desired changes. The role of radical and active surveillance treatments on dietary change and the influence of men’s partners were examined. Focus groups also evaluated stakeholder opinion, including healthcare professionals, about the provision of dietary advice to PC patients. Methods A multi-centre interview study explored views about diet and motivations for, and barriers to, dietary change in men at elevated risk or diagnosed with PC following prostate specific antigen (PSA) testing. 58 men and 11 partners were interviewed. Interviews and focus groups were undertaken with 11 healthcare professionals, 5 patients and 4 partners to evaluate stakeholders’ opinions about the feasibility and acceptability of providing dietary advice to PC patients. Data were analysed using methods of constant comparison and thematic analysis. Results Over half of diagnosed men reported making dietary changes, primarily to promote general or prostate health or facilitate coping, despite their uncertainty about diet-PC links. Interest in dietary advice was high. Information needs varied depending on treatment received, with men on active surveillance more frequently modifying their diet and regarding this as an adjunct therapy. Men considered their partners integral to implementing changes. Provision of dietary advice to men diagnosed with PC was considered by healthcare professionals and men to be feasible and appropriate in the context of a holistic ‘care package’. Conclusions Many men make positive dietary changes after PC diagnosis

  17. Utilization of biocatalysts in cellulose waste minimization

    SciTech Connect

    Woodward, J.; Evans, B.R.

    1996-09-01

    Cellulose, a polymer of glucose, is the principal component of biomass and, therefore, a major source of waste that is either buried or burned. Examples of biomass waste include agricultural crop residues, forestry products, and municipal wastes. Recycling of this waste is important for energy conservation as well as waste minimization and there is some probability that in the future biomass could become a major energy source and replace fossil fuels that are currently used for fuels and chemicals production. It has been estimated that in the United States, between 100-450 million dry tons of agricultural waste are produced annually, approximately 6 million dry tons of animal waste, and of the 190 million tons of municipal solid waste (MSW) generated annually, approximately two-thirds is cellulosic in nature and over one-third is paper waste. Interestingly, more than 70% of MSW is landfilled or burned, however landfill space is becoming increasingly scarce. On a smaller scale, important cellulosic products such as cellulose acetate also present waste problems; an estimated 43 thousand tons of cellulose ester waste are generated annually in the United States. Biocatalysts could be used in cellulose waste minimization and this chapter describes their characteristics and potential in bioconversion and bioremediation processes.

  18. On the importance of controlling for effort in analysis of count survey data: Modeling population change from Christmas Bird Count data

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Link, W.A.; Sauer, J.R.; Helbig, Andreas J.; Flade, Martin

    1999-01-01

    Count survey data are commonly used for estimating temporal and spatial patterns of population change. Since count surveys are not censuses, counts can be influenced by 'nuisance factors' related to the probability of detecting animals but unrelated to the actual population size. The effects of systematic changes in these factors can be confounded with patterns of population change. Thus, valid analysis of count survey data requires the identification of nuisance factors and flexible models for their effects. We illustrate using data from the Christmas Bird Count (CBC), a midwinter survey of bird populations in North America. CBC survey effort has substantially increased in recent years, suggesting that unadjusted counts may overstate population growth (or understate declines). We describe a flexible family of models for the effect of effort, that includes models in which increasing effort leads to diminishing returns in terms of the number of birds counted.

  19. [Minimally invasive iridocorneal angle surgery].

    PubMed

    Jordan, J F

    2012-07-01

    The classical filtration surgery with trabeculectomy or drainage of chamber fluid with episcleral implants is the most effective method for permanent reduction of intraocular pressure to lower and normal levels. Even though both operative procedures are well-established the high efficiency of the method causes potentially dangerous intraoperative as well as interoperative complications with a frequency which cannot be ignored. In the past this led to a search for low complication alternatives with non-penetrating glaucoma surgery (NPGS) and the search is still continuing. Trabecular meshwork surgery in particular with continuous development of new operation techniques steered the focus to a complication-poor and minimally invasive, gonioscopic glaucoma surgery.

  20. Radiometric calibration by rank minimization.

    PubMed

    Lee, Joon-Young; Matsushita, Yasuyuki; Shi, Boxin; Kweon, In So; Ikeuchi, Katsushi

    2013-01-01

    We present a robust radiometric calibration framework that capitalizes on the transform invariant low-rank structure in the various types of observations, such as sensor irradiances recorded from a static scene with different exposure times, or linear structure of irradiance color mixtures around edges. We show that various radiometric calibration problems can be treated in a principled framework that uses a rank minimization approach. This framework provides a principled way of solving radiometric calibration problems in various settings. The proposed approach is evaluated using both simulation and real-world datasets and shows superior performance to previous approaches.

  1. Minimizing medical litigation, part 2.

    PubMed

    Harold, Tan Keng Boon

    2006-01-01

    Provider-patient disputes are inevitable in the healthcare sector. Healthcare providers and regulators should recognize this and plan opportunities to enforce alternative dispute resolution (ADR) a early as possible in the care delivery process. Negotiation is often the main dispute resolution method used by local healthcare providers, failing which litigation would usually follow. The role of mediation in resolving malpractice disputes has been minimal. Healthcare providers, administrators, and regulators should therefore look toward a post-event communication-cum-mediation framework as the key national strategy to resolving malpractice disputes. PMID:16711089

  2. Dynamics of the Bianchi I model with non-minimally coupled scalar field near the singularity

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Hrycyna, Orest; Szydłowski, Marek

    2013-02-01

    Dynamical systems methods are used to study evolution of Bianchi I model with a scalar field. We show that inclusion of non-minimal coupling term between the scalar field and the curvature changes evolution of the model compared with the minimally coupled case. In the model with non-minimally coupled scalar field there is a new type of singularity dominated by the non-minimal coupling term. We examine the impact of non-minimal coupling on the anisotropy evolution and demonstrate the existence of its minimal value in the generic case.

  3. Minimizing travel claims cost with minimal-spanning tree model

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Jamalluddin, Mohd Helmi; Jaafar, Mohd Azrul; Amran, Mohd Iskandar; Ainul, Mohd Sharizal; Hamid, Aqmar; Mansor, Zafirah Mohd; Nopiah, Zulkifli Mohd

    2014-06-01

    Travel demand necessitates a big expenditure in spending, as has been proven by the National Audit Department (NAD). Every year the auditing process is carried out throughout the country involving official travel claims. This study focuses on the use of the Spanning Tree model to determine the shortest path to minimize the cost of the NAD's official travel claims. The objective is to study the possibility of running a network based in the Kluang District Health Office to eight Rural Clinics in Johor state using the Spanning Tree model applications for optimizing travelling distances and make recommendations to the senior management of the Audit Department to analyze travelling details before an audit is conducted. Result of this study reveals that there were claims of savings of up to 47.4% of the original claims, over the course of the travel distance.

  4. Annual Waste Minimization Summary Report

    SciTech Connect

    Alfred J. Karns

    2007-01-01

    This report summarizes the waste minimization efforts undertaken by National Security Technologies, LLC (NSTec), for the U. S. Department of Energy (DOE) National Nuclear Security Administration Nevada Site Office (NNSA/NSO), during CY06. This report was developed in accordance with the requirements of the Nevada Test Site (NTS) Resource Conservation and Recovery Act (RCRA) Permit (No. NEV HW0021) and as clarified in a letter dated April 21, 1995, from Paul Liebendorfer of the Nevada Division of Environmental Protection to Donald Elle of the DOE, Nevada Operations Office. The NNSA/NSO Pollution Prevention (P2) Program establishes a process to reduce the volume and toxicity of waste generated by the NNSA/NSO and ensures that proposed methods of treatment, storage, and/or disposal of waste minimize potential threats to human health and the environment. The following information provides an overview of the P2 Program, major P2 accomplishments during the reporting year, a comparison of the current year waste generation to prior years, and a description of efforts undertaken during the year to reduce the volume and toxicity of waste generated by the NNSA/NSO.

  5. Less minimal supersymmetric standard model

    SciTech Connect

    de Gouvea, Andre; Friedland, Alexander; Murayama, Hitoshi

    1998-03-28

    Most of the phenomenological studies of supersymmetry have been carried out using the so-called minimal supergravity scenario, where one assumes a universal scalar mass, gaugino mass, and trilinear coupling at M{sub GUT}. Even though this is a useful simplifying assumption for phenomenological analyses, it is rather too restrictive to accommodate a large variety of phenomenological possibilities. It predicts, among other things, that the lightest supersymmetric particle (LSP) is an almost pure B-ino, and that the {mu}-parameter is larger than the masses of the SU(2){sub L} and U(1){sub Y} gauginos. We extend the minimal supergravity framework by introducing one extra parameter: the Fayet'Iliopoulos D-term for the hypercharge U(1), D{sub Y}. Allowing for this extra parameter, we find a much more diverse phenomenology, where the LSP is {tilde {nu}}{sub {tau}}, {tilde {tau}} or a neutralino with a large higgsino content. We discuss the relevance of the different possibilities to collider signatures. The same type of extension can be done to models with the gauge mediation of supersymmetry breaking. We argue that it is not wise to impose cosmological constraints on the parameter space.

  6. The importance of phenology for the evaluation of impact of climate change on growth of boreal, temperate and Mediterranean forests ecosystems: an overview.

    PubMed

    Kramer, K; Leinonen, I; Loustau, D

    2000-08-01

    An overview is presented of the phenological models relevant for boreal coniferous, temperate-zone deciduous and Mediterranean coniferous forest ecosystems. The phenology of the boreal forests is mainly driven by temperature, affecting the timing of the start of the growing season and thereby its duration, and the level of frost hardiness and thereby the reduction of foliage area and photosynthetic capacity by severe frost events. The phenology of temperate-zone forests is also mainly driven by temperature. Since temperate-zone forests are mostly mixed-species deciduous forests, differences in phenological response may affect competition between tree species. The phenology of Mediterranean coniferous forests is mainly driven by water availability, affecting the development of leaf area, rather than the timing of phenological events. These phenological models were subsequently coupled to the process-based forest model FORGRO to evaluate the effect of different climate change scenarios on growth. The results indicate that the phenology of each of the forest types significantly affects the growth response to a given climate change scenario. The absolute responses presented in this study should, however, be used with caution as there are still uncertainties in the phenological models, the growth models, the parameter values obtained and the climate change scenarios used. Future research should attempt to reduce these uncertainties. It is recommended that phenological models that describe the mechanisms by which seasonality in climatic drivers affects the phenological aspects of trees should be developed and carefully tested. Only by using such models may we make an assessment of the impact of climate change on the functioning and productivity of different forest ecosystems.

  7. Molecular determinants of macrophage tropism and viral persistence: importance of single amino acid changes in the polymerase and glycoprotein of lymphocytic choriomeningitis virus.

    PubMed Central

    Matloubian, M; Kolhekar, S R; Somasundaram, T; Ahmed, R

    1993-01-01

    This study documents that the immunosuppressive lymphocytic choriomeningitis virus (LCMV) variant, clone 13, shows a specific predilection for enhanced infection of macrophages both in vitro and in vivo and that single amino acid changes in the viral polymerase and glycoprotein are responsible for macrophage tropism. The growth difference seen between variant clone 13 and the parental Armstrong strain was specific for macrophages, since both clone 13 and Armstrong grew equally well in fibroblasts and neither isolate infected lymphocytes efficiently. Complete sequencing of the clone 13 genome, along with genetic analysis, showed that a single amino acid change in the polymerase (K-->Q at position 1079) was the major determinant of virus yield in macrophages. This was proven unequivocally by comparing the sequences of parental and reassortant viruses, which were identical at all loci except for the single mutation in the polymerase gene. This finding was further strengthened by showing that reversion at this site back to lysine (Q-->K) resulted in loss of macrophage tropism. In addition, an independently derived macrophage-tropic variant of LCMV, clone 28b, had a K-->N mutation at the same position. Thus, these results show that substitution of the positively charged amino acid K with a neutral amino acid (either Q or N) at residue 1079 of the polymerase resulted in enhanced viral replication in macrophages. In addition to the polymerase change, a mutation in the glycoprotein was also associated with macrophage tropism. This single amino acid change in the glycoprotein (F-->L at position 260) did not affect virus yield per macrophage but was critical in determining the number of macrophages infected. Our previous studies have shown that the same two mutations in the polymerase and glycoprotein are essential for establishing a chronic infection in adult mice. Since the same mutations confer macrophage tropism and ability to persist in vivo, these studies provide

  8. The importance of sea-ice area biases in 21st century multi-model projections of Antarctic net precipitation and temperature and their relative change

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Bracegirdle, T.

    2015-12-01

    Climate models exhibit large biases in sea ice area (SIA) in their historical simulations. This study has explored the impacts of these biases on multi-model uncertainty in CMIP5 ensemble projections of 21st century change in Antarctic surface temperature, net precipitation and SIA. The analysis is based on time slice climatologies in the RCP8.5 future scenario (2070-2099) and historical (1970-1999) simulations across 37 different CMIP5 models. Projected changes in net precipitation, temperature and SIA are found to be strongly associated with simulated historical mean SIA (e.g. cross-model correlations of r = 0.77, 0.70 and -0.86, respectively). Furthermore, historical SIA bias is found to have a large impact on the simulated ratio between net precipitation response and temperature response. This ratio is smaller in models with smaller-than-observed historical SIA. These findings are particularly relevant to quantifying and reducing model uncertainty in projections of Antarctic surface mass balance and associated contributions to sea level change.

  9. Navy Shipboard Hazardous Material Minimization Program

    SciTech Connect

    Bieberich, M.J.; Robinson, P.; Chastain, B.

    1994-12-31

    The use of hazardous (and potentially hazardous) materials in shipboard cleaning applications has proliferated as new systems and equipments have entered the fleet to reside alongside existing equipments. With the growing environmental awareness (and additional, more restrictive regulations) at all levels/echelon commands of the DoD, the Navy has initiated a proactive program to undertake the minimization/elimination of these hazardous materials in order to eliminate HMs at the source. This paper will focus on the current Shipboard Hazardous Materials Minimization Program initiatives including the identification of authorized HM currently used onboard, identification of potential substitute materials for HM replacement, identification of new cleaning technologies and processes/procedures, and identification of technical documents which will require revision to eliminate the procurement of HMs into the federal supply system. Also discussed will be the anticipated path required to implement the changes into the fleet and automated decision processes (substitution algorithm) currently employed. The paper will also present the most recent technologies identified for approval or additional testing and analysis including: supercritical CO{sub 2} cleaning, high pressure blasting (H{sub 2}O + baking soda), aqueous and semi-aqueous cleaning materials and processes, solvent replacements and dedicated parts washing systems with internal filtering capabilities, automated software for solvent/cleaning process substitute selection. Along with these technological advances, data availability (from on-line databases and CDROM Database libraries) will be identified and discussed.

  10. Check dam sediments: an important indicator of the effects of environmental changes on soil erosion in the Loess Plateau in China.

    PubMed

    Wang, Yafeng; Chen, Liding; Fu, Bojie; Lü, Yihe

    2014-07-01

    Check dam sediments document the process of soil erosion for a watershed. The main objectives of this research are as follows: first, to determine whether the sediments trapped in check dams can provide useful information about local erosion and the environment, and second, to obtain the extent to which they can be stratigraphically interpreted and correlated to the land use history of an area controlled by check dams. Particle size and the concentration of (137)Cs in sediments are the indicators used to study the effects of environmental changes on soil erosion in the Loess Plateau, China. A total of 216 soil samples were collected from four sediment profile cores at the Yangjuangou watershed check dam constructed in 1955 and fully silted with sediments by 1965. The results indicated that (137)Cs dating and sediment particle size can characterize the sediment deposition process. Silt makes up more than 50 % of the sediment; both the clay and silt sediment fractions decrease gradually in the upstream direction. The sediment profiles are characterized by three depositional layers. These layers suggest changes in the land use. The top layer showed tillage disturbance, with moderate sediments and new soil mixed from 0 to 20 cm. A transition stage from wetlands (characterized by vegetation such as bulrush) to cropland is inferred from sediments at depths of 20-85 cm. Below 85 cm, sedimentary layering is obvious and there is no tillage disturbance. At the downstream site, A0, the average rate of sediment deposition from 1958 to 1963 was approximately 6,125.4 t year(-1) km(-2). Because of their high time resolution, check dam sediments indicate the effects of environmental changes on soil erosion, and they can provide a multiyear record of the soil erosion evolution at the local scale in the middle reaches of the Yellow River.

  11. Minimal unitary (covariant) scattering theory

    SciTech Connect

    Lindesay, J.V.; Markevich, A.

    1983-06-01

    In the minimal three particle equations developed by Lindesay the two body input amplitude was an on shell relativistic generalization of the non-relativistic scattering model characterized by a single mass parameter ..mu.. which in the two body (m + m) system looks like an s-channel bound state (..mu.. < 2m) or virtual state (..mu.. > 2m). Using this driving term in covariant Faddeev equations generates a rich covariant and unitary three particle dynamics. However, the simplest way of writing the relativisitic generalization of the Faddeev equations can take the on shell Mandelstam parameter s = 4(q/sup 2/ + m/sup 2/), in terms of which the two particle input is expressed, to negative values in the range of integration required by the dynamics. This problem was met in the original treatment by multiplying the two particle input amplitude by THETA(s). This paper provides what we hope to be a more direct way of meeting the problem.

  12. A minimally invasive smile enhancement.

    PubMed

    Peck, Fred H

    2014-01-01

    Minimally invasive dentistry refers to a wide variety of dental treatments. On the restorative aspect of dental procedures, direct resin bonding can be a very conservative treatment option for the patient. When tooth structure does not need to be removed, the patient benefits. Proper treatment planning is essential to determine how conservative the restorative treatment will be. This article describes the diagnosis, treatment options, and procedural techniques in the restoration of 4 maxillary anterior teeth with direct composite resin. The procedural steps are reviewed with regard to placing the composite and the variety of colors needed to ensure a natural result. Finishing and polishing of the composite are critical to ending with a natural looking dentition that the patient will be pleased with for many years.

  13. Strategies to Minimize Antibiotic Resistance

    PubMed Central

    Lee, Chang-Ro; Cho, Ill Hwan; Jeong, Byeong Chul; Lee, Sang Hee

    2013-01-01

    Antibiotic resistance can be reduced by using antibiotics prudently based on guidelines of antimicrobial stewardship programs (ASPs) and various data such as pharmacokinetic (PK) and pharmacodynamic (PD) properties of antibiotics, diagnostic testing, antimicrobial susceptibility testing (AST), clinical response, and effects on the microbiota, as well as by new antibiotic developments. The controlled use of antibiotics in food animals is another cornerstone among efforts to reduce antibiotic resistance. All major resistance-control strategies recommend education for patients, children (e.g., through schools and day care), the public, and relevant healthcare professionals (e.g., primary-care physicians, pharmacists, and medical students) regarding unique features of bacterial infections and antibiotics, prudent antibiotic prescribing as a positive construct, and personal hygiene (e.g., handwashing). The problem of antibiotic resistance can be minimized only by concerted efforts of all members of society for ensuring the continued efficiency of antibiotics. PMID:24036486

  14. Minimally packed phases in holography

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Donos, Aristomenis; Gauntlett, Jerome P.

    2016-03-01

    We numerically construct asymptotically AdS black brane solutions of D = 4 Einstein-Maxwell theory coupled to a pseudoscalar. The solutions are holographically dual to d = 3 CFTs at finite chemical potential and in a constant magnetic field, which spontaneously break translation invariance leading to the spontaneous formation of abelian and momentum magnetisation currents flowing around the plaquettes of a periodic Bravais lattice. We analyse the three-dimensional moduli space of lattice solutions, which are generically oblique, and show, for a specific value of the magnetic field, that the free energy is minimised by the triangular lattice, associated with minimal packing of circles in the plane. We show that the average stress tensor for the thermodynamically preferred phase is that of a perfect fluid and that this result applies more generally to spontaneously generated periodic phases. The triangular structure persists at low temperatures indicating the existence of novel crystalline ground states.

  15. Waste minimization in chrome plating

    SciTech Connect

    Scheuer, J.; Walter, K.; Nastasi, M.

    1996-09-01

    This is the final report of a one year laboratory directed research and development project at the Los Alamos National Laboratory (LANL). Traditional wet chemical electroplating techniques utilize toxic materials and pose environmental hazards in the disposal of primary baths and waste waters. Pollutants include metals and nonmetals, such as oil, grease, phosphates, and toxic and organic compounds. This project is focused on development of plasma source ion implantation (PSII), a novel and cost-effective surface modification technique, to minimize and ultimately eliminate waste generated in chrome plating. We are collaborating with and industrial partner to design material systems, utilize the PSII processes in existing Los Alamos experimental facilities, and analyze both material and performance characteristics.

  16. Non-minimal Inflationary Attractors

    SciTech Connect

    Kallosh, Renata; Linde, Andrei E-mail: alinde@stanford.edu

    2013-10-01

    Recently we identified a new class of (super)conformally invariant theories which allow inflation even if the scalar potential is very steep in terms of the original conformal variables. Observational predictions of a broad class of such theories are nearly model-independent. In this paper we consider generalized versions of these models where the inflaton has a non-minimal coupling to gravity with a negative parameter ξ different from its conformal value -1/6. We show that these models exhibit attractor behavior. With even a slight increase of |ξ| from |ξ| = 0, predictions of these models for n{sub s} and r rapidly converge to their universal model-independent values corresponding to conformal coupling ξ = −1/6. These values of n{sub s} and r practically coincide with the corresponding values in the limit ξ → −∞.

  17. A Simulation Study on the Importance of Size‐related Changes in Leaf Morphology and Physiology for Carbon Gain in an Epiphytic Bromeliad

    PubMed Central

    ZOTZ, GERHARD; REICHLING, PETER; VALLADARES, FERNANDO

    2002-01-01

    This study addresses the question of how size‐related changes in leaf morphology and physiology influence light absorption and carbon gain of the epiphytic bromeliad Vriesea sanguinolenta. A geometrically based computer model, Y‐plant, was used for the three‐dimensional reconstruction of entire plants and for calculation of whole plant light interception and carbon gain. Plants of different sizes were reconstructed, and morphological and physiological attributes of young and old leaves, and small and large plants were combined to examine the individual effects of each factor on light absorption and carbon gain of the plant. The influence of phyllotaxis on light absorption was also explored. Departure of measured divergence angles between successive leaves from the ideal 137·5° slightly decreased light absorption. The only morphological parameter that consistently changed with plant size was leaf shape: larger plants produced more slender foliage, which substantially reduced self‐shading. Nevertheless, self‐shading increased with plant size. While the maximum rate of net CO2 uptake of leaves increased linearly with plant size by a factor of two from the smallest to the largest individual, the potential plant carbon gain (based on total foliage area) showed a curvilinear relationship, but with similar numerical variation. We conclude that leaf physiology has a greater impact on plant carbon gain than leaf and plant morphology in this epiphytic bromeliad. PMID:12324266

  18. Functional importance of avian seed dispersers changes in response to human-induced forest edges in tropical seed-dispersal networks.

    PubMed

    Saavedra, Francisco; Hensen, Isabell; Beck, Stephan G; Böhning-Gaese, Katrin; Lippok, Denis; Töpfer, Till; Schleuning, Matthias

    2014-11-01

    Although seed-dispersal networks are increasingly used to infer the functioning of ecosystems, few studies have investigated the link between the properties of these networks and the ecosystem function of seed dispersal by animals. We investigate how frugivore communities and seed dispersal change with habitat disturbance and test whether relationships between morphological traits and functional roles of seed dispersers change in response to human-induced forest edges. We recorded interaction frequencies between fleshy fruited plants and frugivorous bird species in tropical montane forests in the Bolivian Andes and recorded functional bird traits (body mass, gape width and wing tip length) associated with quantitative (seed-removal rate) and qualitative (seed-deposition pattern) components of seed-dispersal effectiveness. We found that the abundance and richness of frugivorous birds were higher at forest edges. More fruits were removed and dispersed seeds were less clustered at edges than in the interior. Additionally, functional and interaction diversity were higher at edges than in the interior, but functional and interaction evenness did not differ. Interaction strength of bird species increased with body mass, gape width and wing tip length in the forest interior, but was not related to bird morphologies at forest edges. Our study suggests that increases in functional and interaction diversity and an even distribution of interaction strength across bird morphologies lead to enhanced quantity and tentatively enhanced quality of seed dispersal. It also suggests that the effects of species traits on ecosystem functions can vary along small-scale gradients of human disturbance.

  19. Effects of Holocene climate change on mercury deposition in Elk Lake, Minnesota: The importance of eolain transport in the mercury cycle

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Cannon, W.F.; Dean, W.E.; Bullock, J.H.

    2003-01-01

    Sediments in Elk Lake, Minnesota, consist of 10,400 varve layers that provide a precise chronology for Holocene fluctuations in climate and biota recorded in the strata. Progressively greater concentrations and accumulation rates of mercury since ca. A.D. 1875 reflect deposition of anthropogenic mercury additions to the atmosphere. Within the Holocene record are numerous short intervals in which mercury concentrations and accumulation rates exceed the modern values. The highest mercury concentrations formed ca. 8 ka, coincident with a rapid change from cool, moist conditions to warm, dry conditions. A related change in flora from pine forest to prairie caused destruction of organic forest soils and the release of mercury that had been sequestered in them, resulting in a short- lived pulse of mercury to the lake. Accumulation rates of mercury were highest during the 4 k.y. mid-Holocene dry interval and show a correlation with periods of rapid deposition of eolian dust. The mercury was probably bound to wind-borne mineral particles, which were derived from an unidentified mercury-rich source region west of Elk Lake.

  20. Waste minimization in analytical methods

    SciTech Connect

    Green, D.W.; Smith, L.L.; Crain, J.S.; Boparai, A.S.; Kiely, J.T.; Yaeger, J.S. Schilling, J.B.

    1995-05-01

    The US Department of Energy (DOE) will require a large number of waste characterizations over a multi-year period to accomplish the Department`s goals in environmental restoration and waste management. Estimates vary, but two million analyses annually are expected. The waste generated by the analytical procedures used for characterizations is a significant source of new DOE waste. Success in reducing the volume of secondary waste and the costs of handling this waste would significantly decrease the overall cost of this DOE program. Selection of appropriate analytical methods depends on the intended use of the resultant data. It is not always necessary to use a high-powered analytical method, typically at higher cost, to obtain data needed to make decisions about waste management. Indeed, for samples taken from some heterogeneous systems, the meaning of high accuracy becomes clouded if the data generated are intended to measure a property of this system. Among the factors to be considered in selecting the analytical method are the lower limit of detection, accuracy, turnaround time, cost, reproducibility (precision), interferences, and simplicity. Occasionally, there must be tradeoffs among these factors to achieve the multiple goals of a characterization program. The purpose of the work described here is to add waste minimization to the list of characteristics to be considered. In this paper the authors present results of modifying analytical methods for waste characterization to reduce both the cost of analysis and volume of secondary wastes. Although tradeoffs may be required to minimize waste while still generating data of acceptable quality for the decision-making process, they have data demonstrating that wastes can be reduced in some cases without sacrificing accuracy or precision.

  1. Osmosis in a minimal model system.

    PubMed

    Lion, Thomas W; Allen, Rosalind J

    2012-12-28

    Osmosis is one of the most important physical phenomena in living and soft matter systems. While the thermodynamics of osmosis is well understood, the underlying microscopic dynamical mechanisms remain the subject of discussion. Unravelling these mechanisms is a prerequisite for understanding osmosis in non-equilibrium systems. Here, we investigate the microscopic basis of osmosis, in a system at equilibrium, using molecular dynamics simulations of a minimal model in which repulsive solute and solvent particles differ only in their interactions with an external potential. For this system, we can derive a simple virial-like relation for the osmotic pressure. Our simulations support an intuitive picture in which the solvent concentration gradient, at osmotic equilibrium, arises from the balance between an outward force, caused by the increased total density in the solution, and an inward diffusive flux caused by the decreased solvent density in the solution. While more complex effects may occur in other osmotic systems, our results suggest that they are not required for a minimal picture of the dynamic mechanisms underlying osmosis.

  2. Osmosis in a minimal model system.

    PubMed

    Lion, Thomas W; Allen, Rosalind J

    2012-12-28

    Osmosis is one of the most important physical phenomena in living and soft matter systems. While the thermodynamics of osmosis is well understood, the underlying microscopic dynamical mechanisms remain the subject of discussion. Unravelling these mechanisms is a prerequisite for understanding osmosis in non-equilibrium systems. Here, we investigate the microscopic basis of osmosis, in a system at equilibrium, using molecular dynamics simulations of a minimal model in which repulsive solute and solvent particles differ only in their interactions with an external potential. For this system, we can derive a simple virial-like relation for the osmotic pressure. Our simulations support an intuitive picture in which the solvent concentration gradient, at osmotic equilibrium, arises from the balance between an outward force, caused by the increased total density in the solution, and an inward diffusive flux caused by the decreased solvent density in the solution. While more complex effects may occur in other osmotic systems, our results suggest that they are not required for a minimal picture of the dynamic mechanisms underlying osmosis. PMID:23277960

  3. Osmosis in a minimal model system

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Lion, Thomas W.; Allen, Rosalind J.

    2012-12-01

    Osmosis is one of the most important physical phenomena in living and soft matter systems. While the thermodynamics of osmosis is well understood, the underlying microscopic dynamical mechanisms remain the subject of discussion. Unravelling these mechanisms is a prerequisite for understanding osmosis in non-equilibrium systems. Here, we investigate the microscopic basis of osmosis, in a system at equilibrium, using molecular dynamics simulations of a minimal model in which repulsive solute and solvent particles differ only in their interactions with an external potential. For this system, we can derive a simple virial-like relation for the osmotic pressure. Our simulations support an intuitive picture in which the solvent concentration gradient, at osmotic equilibrium, arises from the balance between an outward force, caused by the increased total density in the solution, and an inward diffusive flux caused by the decreased solvent density in the solution. While more complex effects may occur in other osmotic systems, our results suggest that they are not required for a minimal picture of the dynamic mechanisms underlying osmosis.

  4. Future agriculture with minimized phosphorus losses to waters: Research needs and direction.

    PubMed

    Sharpley, Andrew N; Bergström, Lars; Aronsson, Helena; Bechmann, Marianne; Bolster, Carl H; Börling, Katarina; Djodjic, Faruk; Jarvie, Helen P; Schoumans, Oscar F; Stamm, Christian; Tonderski, Karin S; Ulén, Barbro; Uusitalo, Risto; Withers, Paul J A

    2015-03-01

    The series of papers in this issue of AMBIO represent technical presentations made at the 7th International Phosphorus Workshop (IPW7), held in September, 2013 in Uppsala, Sweden. At that meeting, the 150 delegates were involved in round table discussions on major, predetermined themes facing the management of agricultural phosphorus (P) for optimum production goals with minimal water quality impairment. The six themes were (1) P management in a changing world; (2) transport pathways of P from soil to water; (3) monitoring, modeling, and communication; (4) importance of manure and agricultural production systems for P management; (5) identification of appropriate mitigation measures for reduction of P loss; and (6) implementation of mitigation strategies to reduce P loss. This paper details the major challenges and research needs that were identified for each theme and identifies a future roadmap for catchment management that cost-effectively minimizes P loss from agricultural activities.

  5. Nitrogen-Fixing Nodules Are an Important Source of Reduced Sulfur, Which Triggers Global Changes in Sulfur Metabolism in Lotus japonicus.

    PubMed

    Kalloniati, Chrysanthi; Krompas, Panagiotis; Karalias, Georgios; Udvardi, Michael K; Rennenberg, Heinz; Herschbach, Cornelia; Flemetakis, Emmanouil

    2015-09-01

    We combined transcriptomic and biochemical approaches to study rhizobial and plant sulfur (S) metabolism in nitrogen (N) fixing nodules (Fix(+)) of Lotus japonicus, as well as the link of S-metabolism to symbiotic nitrogen fixation and the effect of nodules on whole-plant S-partitioning and metabolism. Our data reveal that N-fixing nodules are thiol-rich organs. Their high adenosine 5'-phosphosulfate reductase activity and strong (35)S-flux into cysteine and its metabolites, in combination with the transcriptional upregulation of several rhizobial and plant genes involved in S-assimilation, highlight the function of nodules as an important site of S-assimilation. The higher thiol content observed in nonsymbiotic organs of N-fixing plants in comparison to uninoculated plants could not be attributed to local biosynthesis, indicating that nodules are an important source of reduced S for the plant, which triggers whole-plant reprogramming of S-metabolism. Enhanced thiol biosynthesis in nodules and their impact on the whole-plant S-economy are dampened in plants nodulated by Fix(-) mutant rhizobia, which in most respects metabolically resemble uninoculated plants, indicating a strong interdependency between N-fixation and S-assimilation.

  6. Nitrogen-Fixing Nodules Are an Important Source of Reduced Sulfur, Which Triggers Global Changes in Sulfur Metabolism in Lotus japonicus.

    PubMed

    Kalloniati, Chrysanthi; Krompas, Panagiotis; Karalias, Georgios; Udvardi, Michael K; Rennenberg, Heinz; Herschbach, Cornelia; Flemetakis, Emmanouil

    2015-09-01

    We combined transcriptomic and biochemical approaches to study rhizobial and plant sulfur (S) metabolism in nitrogen (N) fixing nodules (Fix(+)) of Lotus japonicus, as well as the link of S-metabolism to symbiotic nitrogen fixation and the effect of nodules on whole-plant S-partitioning and metabolism. Our data reveal that N-fixing nodules are thiol-rich organs. Their high adenosine 5'-phosphosulfate reductase activity and strong (35)S-flux into cysteine and its metabolites, in combination with the transcriptional upregulation of several rhizobial and plant genes involved in S-assimilation, highlight the function of nodules as an important site of S-assimilation. The higher thiol content observed in nonsymbiotic organs of N-fixing plants in comparison to uninoculated plants could not be attributed to local biosynthesis, indicating that nodules are an important source of reduced S for the plant, which triggers whole-plant reprogramming of S-metabolism. Enhanced thiol biosynthesis in nodules and their impact on the whole-plant S-economy are dampened in plants nodulated by Fix(-) mutant rhizobia, which in most respects metabolically resemble uninoculated plants, indicating a strong interdependency between N-fixation and S-assimilation. PMID:26296963

  7. Nitrogen-Fixing Nodules Are an Important Source of Reduced Sulfur, Which Triggers Global Changes in Sulfur Metabolism in Lotus japonicus

    PubMed Central

    Kalloniati, Chrysanthi; Krompas, Panagiotis; Udvardi, Michael K.; Flemetakis, Emmanouil

    2015-01-01

    We combined transcriptomic and biochemical approaches to study rhizobial and plant sulfur (S) metabolism in nitrogen (N) fixing nodules (Fix+) of Lotus japonicus, as well as the link of S-metabolism to symbiotic nitrogen fixation and the effect of nodules on whole-plant S-partitioning and metabolism. Our data reveal that N-fixing nodules are thiol-rich organs. Their high adenosine 5′-phosphosulfate reductase activity and strong 35S-flux into cysteine and its metabolites, in combination with the transcriptional upregulation of several rhizobial and plant genes involved in S-assimilation, highlight the function of nodules as an important site of S-assimilation. The higher thiol content observed in nonsymbiotic organs of N-fixing plants in comparison to uninoculated plants could not be attributed to local biosynthesis, indicating that nodules are an important source of reduced S for the plant, which triggers whole-plant reprogramming of S-metabolism. Enhanced thiol biosynthesis in nodules and their impact on the whole-plant S-economy are dampened in plants nodulated by Fix− mutant rhizobia, which in most respects metabolically resemble uninoculated plants, indicating a strong interdependency between N-fixation and S-assimilation. PMID:26296963

  8. Global change-type drought-induced tree mortality: vapor pressure deficit is more important than temperature per se in causing decline in tree health

    PubMed Central

    Eamus, Derek; Boulain, Nicolas; Cleverly, James; Breshears, David D

    2013-01-01

    Abstract Drought-induced tree mortality is occurring across all forested continents and is expected to increase worldwide during the coming century. Regional-scale forest die-off influences terrestrial albedo, carbon and water budgets, and land-surface energy partitioning. Although increased temperatures during drought are widely identified as a critical contributor to exacerbated tree mortality associated with “global-change-type drought”, corresponding changes in vapor pressure deficit (D) have rarely been considered explicitly and have not been disaggregated from that of temperature per se. Here, we apply a detailed mechanistic soil–plant–atmosphere model to examine the impacts of drought, increased air temperature (+2°C or +5°C), and increased vapor pressure deficit (D; +1 kPa or +2.5 kPa), singly and in combination, on net primary productivity (NPP) and transpiration and forest responses, especially soil moisture content, leaf water potential, and stomatal conductance. We show that increased D exerts a larger detrimental effect on transpiration and NPP, than increased temperature alone, with or without the imposition of a 3-month drought. Combined with drought, the effect of increased D on NPP was substantially larger than that of drought plus increased temperature. Thus, the number of days when NPP was zero across the 2-year simulation was 13 or 14 days in the control and increased temperature scenarios, but increased to approximately 200 days when D was increased. Drought alone increased the number of days of zero NPP to 88, but drought plus increased temperature did not increase the number of days. In contrast, drought and increased D resulted in the number of days when NPP = 0 increasing to 235 (+1 kPa) or 304 days (+2.5 kPa). We conclude that correct identification of the causes of global change-type mortality events requires explicit consideration of the influence of D as well as its interaction with drought and temperature. This study

  9. Global change-type drought-induced tree mortality: vapor pressure deficit is more important than temperature per se in causing decline in tree health.

    PubMed

    Eamus, Derek; Boulain, Nicolas; Cleverly, James; Breshears, David D

    2013-08-01

    Drought-induced tree mortality is occurring across all forested continents and is expected to increase worldwide during the coming century. Regional-scale forest die-off influences terrestrial albedo, carbon and water budgets, and land-surface energy partitioning. Although increased temperatures during drought are widely identified as a critical contributor to exacerbated tree mortality associated with "global-change-type drought", corresponding changes in vapor pressure deficit (D) have rarely been considered explicitly and have not been disaggregated from that of temperature per se. Here, we apply a detailed mechanistic soil-plant-atmosphere model to examine the impacts of drought, increased air temperature (+2°C or +5°C), and increased vapor pressure deficit (D; +1 kPa or +2.5 kPa), singly and in combination, on net primary productivity (NPP) and transpiration and forest responses, especially soil moisture content, leaf water potential, and stomatal conductance. We show that increased D exerts a larger detrimental effect on transpiration and NPP, than increased temperature alone, with or without the imposition of a 3-month drought. Combined with drought, the effect of increased D on NPP was substantially larger than that of drought plus increased temperature. Thus, the number of days when NPP was zero across the 2-year simulation was 13 or 14 days in the control and increased temperature scenarios, but increased to approximately 200 days when D was increased. Drought alone increased the number of days of zero NPP to 88, but drought plus increased temperature did not increase the number of days. In contrast, drought and increased D resulted in the number of days when NPP = 0 increasing to 235 (+1 kPa) or 304 days (+2.5 kPa). We conclude that correct identification of the causes of global change-type mortality events requires explicit consideration of the influence of D as well as its interaction with drought and temperature. This study disaggregates

  10. Minimal Increase Network Coding for Dynamic Networks.

    PubMed

    Zhang, Guoyin; Fan, Xu; Wu, Yanxia

    2016-01-01

    Because of the mobility, computing power and changeable topology of dynamic networks, it is difficult for random linear network coding (RLNC) in static networks to satisfy the requirements of dynamic networks. To alleviate this problem, a minimal increase network coding (MINC) algorithm is proposed. By identifying the nonzero elements of an encoding vector, it selects blocks to be encoded on the basis of relationship between the nonzero elements that the controls changes in the degrees of the blocks; then, the encoding time is shortened in a dynamic network. The results of simulations show that, compared with existing encoding algorithms, the MINC algorithm provides reduced computational complexity of encoding and an increased probability of delivery. PMID:26867211

  11. Minimally disruptive schedule repair for MCM missions

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Molineaux, Matthew; Auslander, Bryan; Moore, Philip G.; Gupta, Kalyan M.

    2015-05-01

    Mine countermeasures (MCM) missions entail planning and operations in very dynamic and uncertain operating environments, which pose considerable risk to personnel and equipment. Frequent schedule repairs are needed that consider the latest operating conditions to keep mission on target. Presently no decision support tools are available for the challenging task of MCM mission rescheduling. To address this capability gap, we have developed the CARPE system to assist operation planners. CARPE constantly monitors the operational environment for changes and recommends alternative repaired schedules in response. It includes a novel schedule repair algorithm called Case-Based Local Schedule Repair (CLOSR) that automatically repairs broken schedules while satisfying the requirement of minimal operational disruption. It uses a case-based approach to represent repair strategies and apply them to new situations. Evaluation of CLOSR on simulated MCM operations demonstrates the effectiveness of case-based strategy. Schedule repairs are generated rapidly, ensure the elimination of all mines, and achieve required levels of clearance.

  12. Minimal Increase Network Coding for Dynamic Networks.

    PubMed

    Zhang, Guoyin; Fan, Xu; Wu, Yanxia

    2016-01-01

    Because of the mobility, computing power and changeable topology of dynamic networks, it is difficult for random linear network coding (RLNC) in static networks to satisfy the requirements of dynamic networks. To alleviate this problem, a minimal increase network coding (MINC) algorithm is proposed. By identifying the nonzero elements of an encoding vector, it selects blocks to be encoded on the basis of relationship between the nonzero elements that the controls changes in the degrees of the blocks; then, the encoding time is shortened in a dynamic network. The results of simulations show that, compared with existing encoding algorithms, the MINC algorithm provides reduced computational complexity of encoding and an increased probability of delivery.

  13. Minimal Increase Network Coding for Dynamic Networks

    PubMed Central

    Wu, Yanxia

    2016-01-01

    Because of the mobility, computing power and changeable topology of dynamic networks, it is difficult for random linear network coding (RLNC) in static networks to satisfy the requirements of dynamic networks. To alleviate this problem, a minimal increase network coding (MINC) algorithm is proposed. By identifying the nonzero elements of an encoding vector, it selects blocks to be encoded on the basis of relationship between the nonzero elements that the controls changes in the degrees of the blocks; then, the encoding time is shortened in a dynamic network. The results of simulations show that, compared with existing encoding algorithms, the MINC algorithm provides reduced computational complexity of encoding and an increased probability of delivery. PMID:26867211

  14. Functional importance of avian seed dispersers changes in response to human-induced forest edges in tropical seed-dispersal networks.

    PubMed

    Saavedra, Francisco; Hensen, Isabell; Beck, Stephan G; Böhning-Gaese, Katrin; Lippok, Denis; Töpfer, Till; Schleuning, Matthias

    2014-11-01

    Although seed-dispersal networks are increasingly used to infer the functioning of ecosystems, few studies have investigated the link between the properties of these networks and the ecosystem function of seed dispersal by animals. We investigate how frugivore communities and seed dispersal change with habitat disturbance and test whether relationships between morphological traits and functional roles of seed dispersers change in response to human-induced forest edges. We recorded interaction frequencies between fleshy fruited plants and frugivorous bird species in tropical montane forests in the Bolivian Andes and recorded functional bird traits (body mass, gape width and wing tip length) associated with quantitative (seed-removal rate) and qualitative (seed-deposition pattern) components of seed-dispersal effectiveness. We found that the abundance and richness of frugivorous birds were higher at forest edges. More fruits were removed and dispersed seeds were less clustered at edges than in the interior. Additionally, functional and interaction diversity were higher at edges than in the interior, but functional and interaction evenness did not differ. Interaction strength of bird species increased with body mass, gape width and wing tip length in the forest interior, but was not related to bird morphologies at forest edges. Our study suggests that increases in functional and interaction diversity and an even distribution of interaction strength across bird morphologies lead to enhanced quantity and tentatively enhanced quality of seed dispersal. It also suggests that the effects of species traits on ecosystem functions can vary along small-scale gradients of human disturbance. PMID:25182931

  15. Epidemiologic aspects of neural tube defects in the United States: changing concepts and their importance for screening and prenatal diagnostic programs

    SciTech Connect

    Sever, L.E.; Strassburg, M.A.

    1983-09-01

    This report considers several major epidemiologic aspects of neural tube defects (NTDs). After examining briefly the approaches and goals of epidemiology the traditional epidemiologic concepts of NTDs are reviewed and new interpretations of the epidemiology of these defects is suggested. Three major topics are addressed: (1) that much of our knowledge of the epidemiology of the NTDs comes from areas or periods of high rates of occurrence and that generalizations based on these data may not be applicable to low incidence situations; (2) that the etiology of these defects is multifactorial, involving interaction between genetic and nongenetic factors which may differ in their relative importance between populations; and (3) that anencephalus and spina bifida may be more epidemiologically and etiologically distinct than is usually appreciated. A final consideration deals with some recent contributions of epidemiology to screening and prenatal diagnosis programs.

  16. Constraints on grip-selection: minimizing awkwardness.

    PubMed

    Fischman, M G

    1998-02-01

    In picking up and manipulating an object, the selection of an initial grip (overhand versus underhand) often depends on how comfortable the hand and arm will be at the end of the movement. This effect has been called "end-state comfort" and seems to be an important constraint in grip-selection. The present experiment further explored this effect by selecting a task that would ensure a comfortable ending position regardless of the initial choice of grip. 206 undergraduates picked up a cardboard paper-towel roll from a horizontal position and placed one end down on a table. Analysis showed a clear preference for the overhand grip, as 78% of the participants chose this grip. In addition, more women preferred the overhand grip than men. The findings indicate that people may be sensitive to minimizing awkwardness in both terminal and initial positions. PMID:9530757

  17. Minimal residual disease in acute promyelocytic leukemia.

    PubMed

    Weil, S C

    2000-03-01

    In the last decade our understanding of acute promyelocytic leukemia (APL) has advanced tremendously. The recognition of all-trans retinoic acid (ATRA) as a powerful therapeutic agent paralleled the cloning of the t(15;17) breakpoint. RtPCR for the PML-RARA hybrid mRNA has become the hallmark of molecular diagnosis and molecular monitoring in APL. Current techniques are useful in predicting complete remission and a possible cure in many patients who repeatedly test negative by PCR. Standardizing techniques and improving the sensitivity of the assay are important. Doing this in a way so that clinically relevant minimal residual disease can be distinguished from "indolent disease" remains among the future challenges in APL. PMID:10702899

  18. The Minimal Energetic Requirement of Sustained Awareness after Brain Injury.

    PubMed

    Stender, Johan; Mortensen, Kristian Nygaard; Thibaut, Aurore; Darkner, Sune; Laureys, Steven; Gjedde, Albert; Kupers, Ron

    2016-06-01

    Differentiation of the minimally conscious state (MCS) and the unresponsive wakefulness syndrome (UWS) is a persistent clinical challenge [1]. Based on positron emission tomography (PET) studies with [(18)F]-fluorodeoxyglucose (FDG) during sleep and anesthesia, the global cerebral metabolic rate of glucose has been proposed as an indicator of consciousness [2, 3]. Likewise, FDG-PET may contribute to the clinical diagnosis of disorders of consciousness (DOCs) [4, 5]. However, current methods are non-quantitative and have important drawbacks deriving from visually guided assessment of relative changes in brain metabolism [4]. We here used FDG-PET to measure resting state brain glucose metabolism in 131 DOC patients to identify objective quantitative metabolic indicators and predictors of awareness. Quantitation of images was performed by normalizing to extracerebral tissue. We show that 42% of normal cortical activity represents the minimal energetic requirement for the presence of conscious awareness. Overall, the cerebral metabolic rate accounted for the current level, or imminent return, of awareness in 94% of the patient population, suggesting a global energetic threshold effect, associated with the reemergence of consciousness after brain injury. Our data further revealed that regional variations relative to the global resting metabolic level reflect preservation of specific cognitive or sensory modules, such as vision and language comprehension. These findings provide a simple and objective metabolic marker of consciousness, which can readily be implemented clinically. The direct correlation between brain metabolism and behavior further suggests that DOCs can fundamentally be understood as pathological neuroenergetic conditions and provide a unifying physiological basis for these syndromes. PMID:27238279

  19. The Minimal Energetic Requirement of Sustained Awareness after Brain Injury.

    PubMed

    Stender, Johan; Mortensen, Kristian Nygaard; Thibaut, Aurore; Darkner, Sune; Laureys, Steven; Gjedde, Albert; Kupers, Ron

    2016-06-01

    Differentiation of the minimally conscious state (MCS) and the unresponsive wakefulness syndrome (UWS) is a persistent clinical challenge [1]. Based on positron emission tomography (PET) studies with [(18)F]-fluorodeoxyglucose (FDG) during sleep and anesthesia, the global cerebral metabolic rate of glucose has been proposed as an indicator of consciousness [2, 3]. Likewise, FDG-PET may contribute to the clinical diagnosis of disorders of consciousness (DOCs) [4, 5]. However, current methods are non-quantitative and have important drawbacks deriving from visually guided assessment of relative changes in brain metabolism [4]. We here used FDG-PET to measure resting state brain glucose metabolism in 131 DOC patients to identify objective quantitative metabolic indicators and predictors of awareness. Quantitation of images was performed by normalizing to extracerebral tissue. We show that 42% of normal cortical activity represents the minimal energetic requirement for the presence of conscious awareness. Overall, the cerebral metabolic rate accounted for the current level, or imminent return, of awareness in 94% of the patient population, suggesting a global energetic threshold effect, associated with the reemergence of consciousness after brain injury. Our data further revealed that regional variations relative to the global resting metabolic level reflect preservation of specific cognitive or sensory modules, such as vision and language comprehension. These findings provide a simple and objective metabolic marker of consciousness, which can readily be implemented clinically. The direct correlation between brain metabolism and behavior further suggests that DOCs can fundamentally be understood as pathological neuroenergetic conditions and provide a unifying physiological basis for these syndromes.

  20. Mini-Med School Planning Guide

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    National Institutes of Health, Office of Science Education, 2008

    2008-01-01

    Mini-Med Schools are public education programs now offered by more than 70 medical schools, universities, research institutions, and hospitals across the nation. There are even Mini-Med Schools in Ireland, Malta, and Canada! The program is typically a lecture series that meets once a week and provides "mini-med students" information on some of the…