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Sample records for minimal important change

  1. Minimal Pairs: Minimal Importance?

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Brown, Adam

    1995-01-01

    This article argues that minimal pairs do not merit as much attention as they receive in pronunciation instruction. There are other aspects of pronunciation that are of greater importance, and there are other ways of teaching vowel and consonant pronunciation. (13 references) (VWL)

  2. Validity, responsiveness, minimal detectable change, and minimal clinically important change of Pediatric Balance Scale in children with cerebral palsy.

    PubMed

    Chen, Chia-ling; Shen, I-hsuan; Chen, Chung-yao; Wu, Ching-yi; Liu, Wen-yu; Chung, Chia-ying

    2013-03-01

    This study examined criterion-related validity and clinimetric properties of the pediatric balance scale (PBS) in children with cerebral palsy (CP). Forty-five children with CP (age range: 19-77 months) and their parents participated in this study. At baseline and at follow up, Pearson correlation coefficients were used to determine criterion-related validity by analyzing the correlation between the PBS, including PBS-static, PBS-dynamic, and PBS-total, and criterion measures, including the Gross Motor Function Measure-66 items (GMFM-66) and Functional Independence Measures for Children (WeeFIM). Responsiveness was examined by paired t test and by standardized response mean (SRM). The minimal detectable change (MDC) was analyzed at the 90% confidence level, and the minimal clinically important differences (MCID) was estimated by anchor-based and distribution-based approaches. The PBS with GMFM-66 and WeeFIM showed fair-to-excellent concurrent validity at pretreatment and follow up and predictive validity. The SRM values of all PBS scales were 0.75. For the PBS-static, PBS-dynamic, and PBS-total, the MDC(90) values were 0.79, 0.96, and 1.59, and the MCID ranges were 1.47-2.92, 2.23-2.92, and 3.66-5.83, respectively. Improvement of at least MDC values on the PBS can be considered a true change, not measurement error. A mean change must exceed the MCID range on PBS to be considered clinically important change. Therefore, all PBS scales were moderately responsive to change. Clinicians and researchers can use these clinimetric data for PBS to determine if a change score represents a true or clinically meaningful effect at posttreatment and follow up.

  3. Minimum detectable and minimal clinically important changes for pain in patients with nonspecific neck pain

    PubMed Central

    Kovacs, Francisco M; Abraira, Víctor; Royuela, Ana; Corcoll, Josep; Alegre, Luis; Tomás, Miquel; Mir, María Antonia; Cano, Alejandra; Muriel, Alfonso; Zamora, Javier; del Real, María Teresa Gil; Gestoso, Mario; Mufraggi, Nicole

    2008-01-01

    Background The minimal detectable change (MDC) and the minimal clinically important changes (MCIC) have been explored for nonspecific low back pain patients and are similar across different cultural settings. No data on MDC and MCIC for pain severity are available for neck pain patients. The objectives of this study were to estimate MDC and MCIC for pain severity in subacute and chronic neck pain (NP) patients, to assess if MDC and MCIC values are influenced by baseline values and to explore if they are different in the subset of patients reporting referred pain, and in subacute versus chronic patients. Methods Subacute and chronic patients treated in routine clinical practice of the Spanish National Health Service for neck pain, with or without pain referred to the arm, and a pain severity ≥ 3 points on a pain intensity number rating scale (PI-NRS), were included in this study. Patients' own "global perceived effect" over a 3 month period was used as the external criterion. The minimal detectable change (MDC) was estimated by means of the standard error of measurement in patients who self-assess as unchanged. MCIC were estimated by the mean value of change score in patients who self-assess as improved (mean change score, MCS), and by the optimal cutoff point in receiver operating characteristics curves (ROC). The effect on MDC and MCIC of initial scores, duration of pain, and existence of referred pain were assessed. Results 658 patients were included, 487 of them with referred pain. MDC was 4.0 PI-NRS points for neck pain in the entire sample, 4.2 for neck pain in patients who also had referred pain, and 6.2 for referred pain. MCS was 4.1 and ROC was 1.5 for referred and for neck pain, both in the entire sample and in patients who also complained of referred pain. ROC was lower (0.5 PI-NRS points) for subacute than for chronic patients (1.5 points). MCS was higher for patients with more intense baseline pain, ranging from 2.4 to 4.9 PI-NRS for neck pain and

  4. Validity, responsiveness, minimal detectable change, and minimal clinically important change of the Pediatric Motor Activity Log in children with cerebral palsy.

    PubMed

    Lin, Keh-chung; Chen, Hui-fang; Chen, Chia-ling; Wang, Tien-ni; Wu, Ching-yi; Hsieh, Yu-wei; Wu, Li-ling

    2012-01-01

    This study examined criterion-related validity and clinimetric properties of the Pediatric Motor Activity Log (PMAL) in children with cerebral palsy. Study participants were 41 children (age range: 28-113 months) and their parents. Criterion-related validity was evaluated by the associations between the PMAL and criterion measures at baseline and posttreatment, including the self-care, mobility, and cognition subscale, the total performance of the Functional Independence Measure in children (WeeFIM), and the grasping and visual-motor integration of the Peabody Developmental Motor Scales. Pearson correlation coefficients were calculated. Responsiveness was examined using the paired t test and the standardized response mean, the minimal detectable change was captured at the 90% confidence level, and the minimal clinically important change was estimated using anchor-based and distribution-based approaches. The PMAL-QOM showed fair concurrent validity at pretreatment and posttreatment and predictive validity, whereas the PMAL-AOU had fair concurrent validity at posttreatment only. The PMAL-AOU and PMAL-QOM were both markedly responsive to change after treatment. Improvement of at least 0.67 points on the PMAL-AOU and 0.66 points on the PMAL-QOM can be considered as a true change, not measurement error. A mean change has to exceed the range of 0.39-0.94 on the PMAL-AOU and the range of 0.38-0.74 on the PMAL-QOM to be regarded as clinically important change.

  5. Minimal change disease

    MedlinePlus

    ... seen under a very powerful microscope called an electron microscope. Minimal change disease is the most common ... biopsy and examination of the tissue with an electron microscope can show signs of minimal change disease.

  6. Sensitivity to Change and Minimal Important Differences of the LupusQoL in Patients With Systemic Lupus Erythematosus

    PubMed Central

    McElhone, Kathleen; Abbott, Janice; Sutton, Chris; Mullen, Montana; Lanyon, Peter; Rahman, Anisur; Yee, Chee‐Seng; Akil, Mohammed; Bruce, Ian N.; Ahmad, Yasmeen; Gordon, Caroline

    2016-01-01

    Objective As a health‐related quality of life (HRQOL) measure, the LupusQoL is a reliable and valid measure for adults with systemic lupus erythematosus (SLE). This study evaluates the responsiveness and minimal important differences (MIDs) for the 8 LupusQoL domains. Methods Patients experiencing a flare were recruited from 9 UK centers. At each of the 10 monthly visits, HRQOL (LupusQoL, Short Form 36 health survey [SF‐36]), global rating of change (GRC), and disease activity using the British Isles Lupus Assessment Group 2004 index were assessed. The responsiveness of the LupusQoL and the SF‐36 was evaluated primarily when patients reported an improvement or deterioration on the GRC scale and additionally with changes in physician‐reported disease activity. MIDs were estimated as mean changes when minimal change was reported on the GRC scale. Results A total of 101 patients were recruited. For all LupusQoL domains, mean HRQOL worsened when patients reported deterioration and improved when patients reported an improvement in GRC; SF‐36 domains showed comparable responsiveness. Improvement in some domains of the LupusQoL/SF‐36 was observed with a decrease in disease activity, but when disease activity worsened, there was no significant change. LupusQoL MID estimates for deterioration ranged from −2.4 to −8.7, and for improvement from 3.5 to 7.3; for the SF‐36, the same MID estimates were −2.0 to −11.1 and 2.8 to 10.9, respectively. Conclusion All LupusQoL domains are sensitive to change with patient‐reported deterioration or improvement in health status. For disease activity, some LupusQoL domains showed responsiveness when there was improvement but none for deterioration. LupusQoL items were derived from SLE patients and provide the advantage of disease‐specific domains, important to the patients, not captured by the SF‐36. PMID:26816223

  7. Minimally Important Differences and Change Across Time in Patients Treated Surgically and Non-Surgically for Full-Thickness Rotator Cuff Tears

    PubMed Central

    Miller, Bruce S.; Robbins, Christopher; Gagnier, Joel Joseph

    2016-01-01

    Objectives: The minimally important difference (MID) is the smallest change in an outcome measure that is perceived by patients as beneficial. The MIDs for the ASES and WORC scores have not been established in a homogenous population of patients with rotator cuff tears. The objective of the present study was to establish the MIDs for patients with known cuff tears who were treated both surgically and non-surgically, and to compare the MIDs over time. Methods: We included 209 subjects with known full-thickness rotator cuff tears who were followed prospectively for two years. The WORC and ASES scores were collected at baseline, 4, 8, 16, 32, and 48 weeks, 1 year and 2 years. At the final follow-up point patients filled out an end-of-study form which included questions regarding change in their condition after treatment. Results: For those that indicated being minimally better, the change from baseline for the ASES score was -20.57 (-2.94 to -38.20) and for the WORC was 418.60 (70.39 to 766.81); both indicated improvement in outcomes. When converted to the percentage change score the WORC change represented 19.93%. The plots of these new MID values for the ASES and WORC indicate that not only does the operative group improve more than the non-operative group but it does so to an extent that is greater than the MID. The non-operative group also improved across time, but the magnitude did not exceed the MID for either the WORC or the ASES. Conclusion: We found that the ASES and the WORC MIDs in patients with rotator cuff tears is different from that previously reported, and that the operative group change was greater than the non-operative group change. This information will directly improve our ability to: (1) Determine when patients with RCTs are changing in a meaningful manner; (2) Accurately power clinical studies using these outcome measures; (3) Make more informed choices of treatments in these patients. This is the first study to report MIDs for the ASES and WORC

  8. Introducing the Concept of the Minimally Important Difference to Determine a Clinically Relevant Change on Patient-Reported Outcome Measures in Patients with Intermittent Claudication

    SciTech Connect

    Conijn, Anne P.; Jonkers, Wilma; Rouwet, Ellen V.; Vahl, Anco C.; Reekers, Jim A.; Koelemay, Mark J. W.

    2015-10-15

    PurposeThe minimally important difference (MID) represents the smallest change in score on patient-reported outcome measures that is relevant to patients. The aim of this study was to introduce the MID for the Vascular Quality of Life Questionnaire (VascuQol) and the walking impairment questionnaire (WIQ) for patients with intermittent claudication (IC).MethodsIn this multicenter study, we recruited 294 patients with IC between July and October 2012. Patients completed the VascuQol, with scores ranging from 1 to 7 (worst to best), and the WIQ, with scores ranging from 0 to 1 (worst to best) at first visit and after 4 months follow-up. In addition, patients answered an anchor-question rating their health status compared to baseline, as being improved, unchanged, or deteriorated. The MID for improvement and deterioration was calculated by an anchor-based approach, and determined with the upper and lower limits of the 95 % confidence interval of the mean change of the group who had not changed according to the anchor-question.ResultsFor the MID analyses of the VascuQol and WIQ, 163 and 134 patients were included, respectively. The MID values for the VascuQol (mean baseline score 4.25) were 0.87 for improvement and 0.23 for deterioration. For the WIQ (mean baseline score 0.39), we found MID values of 0.11 and −0.03 for improvement and deterioration, respectively.ConclusionIn this study, we calculated the MID for the VascuQol and the WIQ. Applying these MID facilitates better interpretation of treatment outcomes and can help to set treatment goals for individual care.

  9. Cultural change and support of waste minimization

    SciTech Connect

    Boylan, M.S.

    1991-12-31

    The process of bringing a subject like pollution prevention to top of mind awareness, where designed to prevent waste becomes part of business as usual, is called cultural change. With Department of Energy orders and management waste minimization commitment statements on file, the REAL work is just beginning at the Idaho National Engineering Laboratory (INEL); shaping the attitudes of 11,000+ employees. The difficulties of such a task are daunting. The 890 square mile INEL site and in-town support offices mean a huge diversity of employee jobs and waste streams; from cafeteria and auto maintenance wastes to high-level nuclear waste casks. INEL is pursuing a three component cultural change strategy: training, publicity, and public outreach. To meet the intent of DOE orders, all INEL employees are slated to receive pollution prevention orientation training. More technical training is given to targeted groups like purchasing and design engineering. To keep newly learned pollution prevention concepts top-of-mind, extensive site-wide publicity is being developed and conducted, culminating in the April Pollution Prevention Awareness Week coinciding with Earth Day 1992. Finally, news of INEL pollution prevention successes is shared with the public to increase their overall environmental awareness and their knowledge of INEL activities. An important added benefit is the sense of pride the program instills in INEL employees to have their successes displayed so publicly.

  10. [Clinical importance and diagnostic methods of minimal hepatic encephalopathy].

    PubMed

    Stawicka, Agnieszka; Zbrzeźniak, Justyna; Świderska, Aleksandra; Kilisińska, Natalia; Świderska, Magdalena; Jaroszewicz, Jerzy; Flisiak, Robert

    2016-02-01

    Minimal hepatic encephalopathy (MHE) encompasses a number of neuropsychological and neurophysiological disorders in patients suffering from liver cirrhosis, who do not display abnormalities during a medical interview or physical examination. A negative influence of MHE on the quality of life of patients suffering from liver cirrhosis was confirmed, which include retardation of ability of operating motor vehicles and disruption of multiple health-related areas, as well as functioning in the society. The data on frequency of traffic offences and accidents amongst patients diagnosed with MHE in comparison to patients diagnosed with liver cirrhosis without MHE, as well as healthy persons is alarming. Those patients are unaware of their disorder and retardation of their ability to operate vehicles, therefore it is of utmost importance to define this group. The term minimal hepatic encephalopathy (formerly "subclinical" encephalopathy) erroneously suggested the unnecessity of diagnostic and therapeutic procedures in patients with liver cirrhosis. Diagnosing MHE is an important predictive factor for occurrence of overt encephalopathy - more than 50% of patients with this diagnosis develop overt encephalopathy during a period of 30 months after. Early diagnosing MHE gives a chance to implement proper treatment which can be a prevention of overt encephalopathy. Due to continuing lack of clinical research there exist no commonly agreed-upon standards for definition, diagnostics, classification and treatment of hepatic encephalopathy. This article introduces the newest findings regarding the importance of MHE, scientific recommendations and provides detailed descriptions of the most valuable diagnostic methods.

  11. Minimal clinically important difference--exacerbations of COPD.

    PubMed

    Calverley, Peter M A

    2005-03-01

    Exacerbations of COPD are now recognised as being important events in the natural history of the condition and become more frequent as the disease worsens. Defining a minimum clinically important difference in exacerbation rate is fraught with difficulty. There is substantial between and within subject differences in the occurrence of these events that makes an individual evaluation of their importance problematic. At present, the most widely used definition of an exacerbation identifies an episode where the patient seeks medical help rather than a predefined change in one or more symptoms. Despite these problems, intervention studies with bronchodilator drugs, inhaled corticosteroids, and pulmonary rehabilitation appear to reduce the frequency of exacerbation events. In patients with an FEV1 below 50% predicted there is reasonable consistency about the magnitude of change and a 4-unit improvement in the St George's Respiratory Questionnaire is commonly associated with a 20-25% reduction in the reported number of exacerbations. Individual studies vary depending upon the recruitment protocol. Patients who experience symptomatic benefit may be those in whom a clinically important change in exacerbations occurs but this concept requires testing prospectively. Existing methodologies for estimating clinically important differences are hard to apply with a binary outcome like this, and more work will be needed to develop a robust approach for dealing with this important clinical variable.

  12. The minimal important difference of exercise tests in severe COPD.

    PubMed

    Puhan, M A; Chandra, D; Mosenifar, Z; Ries, A; Make, B; Hansel, N N; Wise, R A; Sciurba, F

    2011-04-01

    Our aim was to determine the minimal important difference (MID) for 6-min walk distance (6MWD) and maximal cycle exercise capacity (MCEC) in patients with severe chronic obstructive pulmonary disease (COPD). 1,218 patients enrolled in the National Emphysema Treatment Trial completed exercise tests before and after 4-6 weeks of pre-trial rehabilitation, and 6 months after randomisation to surgery or medical care. The St George's Respiratory Questionnaire (domain and total scores) and University of California San Diego Shortness of Breath Questionnaire (total score) served as anchors for anchor-based MID estimates. In order to calculate distribution-based estimates, we used the standard error of measurement, Cohen's effect size and the empirical rule effect size. Anchor-based estimates for the 6MWD were 18.9 m (95% CI 18.1-20.1 m), 24.2 m (95% CI 23.4-25.4 m), 24.6 m (95% CI 23.4-25.7 m) and 26.4 m (95% CI 25.4-27.4 m), which were similar to distribution-based MID estimates of 25.7, 26.8 and 30.6 m. For MCEC, anchor-based estimates for the MID were 2.2 W (95% CI 2.0-2.4 W), 3.2 W (95% CI 3.0-3.4 W), 3.2 W (95% CI 3.0-3.4 W) and 3.3 W (95% CI 3.0-3.5 W), while distribution-based estimates were 5.3 and 5.5 W. We suggest a MID of 26 ± 2 m for 6MWD and 4 ± 1 W for MCEC for patients with severe COPD.

  13. Minimal Clinically Important Differences of Three Patient-Rated Outcomes Instruments

    PubMed Central

    Sorensen, Amelia; Howard, Daniel; Hui Tan, Wen; Ketchersid, Jeffrey; Calfee, Ryan P.

    2013-01-01

    Purpose Patient-rated instruments are increasingly used to measure orthopaedic outcomes. However, the clinical relevance of modest score changes on such instruments is often unclear. This study was designed to define the minimal clinically important differences (MCID) of the Disabilities of the Arm, Shoulder, and Hand (DASH), QuickDASH, and Patient Rated Wrist Evaluation (PRWE) for atraumatic conditions of the hand, wrist, and forearm. Methods One hundred two patients undergoing nonoperative treatment for isolated tendonitis, arthritis, or nerve compression syndromes from the forearm to the hand were analyzed prospectively. Patients completed the DASH, Quick DASH (subset of DASH), and PRWE at enrollment, 2 weeks (n=78 used in analysis), and 4 weeks (n=24 used in analysis) after initiating treatment by telephone. Patients reporting clinical improvement each contributed a single data point categorized as no change (n=41), minimal improvement (n=30), or marked improvement (n=31) via a validated anchor-based approach. The minimal clinically important difference was calculated as the mean change score for each outcome measure in the minimal improvement group. Results The MCID (95%CI) for the DASH was 10 (5-15). The MCID for the Quick DASH was 14 (9-20). The MCID was 14 (8-20) for the PRWE. MCID values were significantly different from changes in these outcome measures at times of either no change or marked improvement. MCID values positively correlated with baseline outcome measure scores to a greater degree than final outcome measure scores. Discussion Longitudinal changes on the DASH of 10 points, the Quick DASH of 14 points, and the PRWE of 14 points represent minimal clinically important changes. We recommend application of these MCID values for group-level analysis when conducting research and interpreting data examining groups of patients as opposed to assessing individual patients. These MCID values may provide a basis for sample size calculations for future

  14. Minimal Clinically Important Difference on Parkinson's Disease Sleep Scale 2nd Version

    PubMed Central

    Horváth, Krisztina; Aschermann, Zsuzsanna; Ács, Péter; Deli, Gabriella; Janszky, József; Komoly, Sámuel; Karádi, Kázmér; Kovács, Márton; Makkos, Attila; Faludi, Béla; Kovács, Norbert

    2015-01-01

    Background and Aims. The aim of the present study was to determine the estimates of minimal clinically important difference for Parkinson's Disease Sleep Scale 2nd version (PDSS-2) total score and dimensions. Methods. The subject population consisted of 413 PD patients. At baseline, MDS-UPDRS, Hoehn-Yahr Scale, Mattis Dementia Rating Scale, and PDSS-2 were assessed. Nine months later the PDSS-2 was reevaluated with the Patient-Reported Global Impression Improvement Scale. Both anchor-based techniques (within patients' score change method and sensitivity- and specificity-based method by receiver operating characteristic analysis) and distribution-based approaches (effect size calculations) were utilized to determine the magnitude of minimal clinically important difference. Results. According to our results, any improvements larger than −3.44 points or worsening larger than 2.07 points can represent clinically important changes for the patients. These thresholds have the effect size of 0.21 and −0.21, respectively. Conclusions. Minimal clinically important differences are the smallest change of scores that are subjectively meaningful to patients. Studies using the PDSS-2 as outcome measure should utilize the threshold of −3.44 points for detecting improvement or the threshold of 2.07 points for observing worsening. PMID:26539303

  15. Important changes for 2013 Important changes for 2013

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Quin, Sarah

    2013-02-01

    Journal of Geophysics and Engineering has moved from sequential page numbering to an article numbering system, offering important advantages and flexibility by speeding up the publication process. Papers in different issues or sections can be published online as soon as they are ready, without having to wait for a whole issue or section to be allocated page numbers. The bibliographic citation will change slightly. Articles should be referenced using the six-digit article number in place of a page number, and this number must include any leading zeros. For instance, from this issue: M Gorjian et al 2013 J. Geophys. Eng. 10 015001 Articles will continue to be published online in advance of the print edition.

  16. Minimal Clinically Important Worsening on the Progressive Supranuclear Palsy Rating Scale

    PubMed Central

    Hewer, Sarah; Varley, Sue; Boxer, Adam L.; Paul, Eldho; Williams, David R

    2016-01-01

    Structured Abstract Introduction Despite the widespread use of the PSP rating scale it is not known what change in this scale is meaningful for patients. Methods We analyzed data from a large clinical trial in PSP-Richardson’s syndrome (AL-108-231) to calculate minimal clinically important worsening. This was defined as the difference in mean change of PSP rating scale in subjects rated ‘a little worse’ and those rated ‘unchanged’ on the Clinicians’ Global Impression of Change Scale. A multivariate analysis using logistic regression assessed the relationship between clinical worsening, PSP rating scale, depression and activities of daily living. Results The minimal clinically important worsening on the PSP rating scale was 5.7 points, corresponding to the mean decline over six months in the trial. Changes in activities of daily living and PSP rating scale were significantly associated with clinical worsening. Conclusion Clinically meaningful change is measurable on the PSP rating scale over six months. PMID:27324431

  17. PUBLISHER'S ANNOUNCEMENT: Important changes for 2008 Important changes for 2008

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Quin, Sarah

    2008-01-01

    As a result of reviewing several aspects of IOP journal content, both in print and online, we have made some changes for 2008, some of which benefit Journal of Physics D: Applied Physics. Article numbering In common with many other IOP journals, Journal of Physics D: Applied Physics has moved from sequential page numbering to an article numbering system which offers greater flexibility for faster publication of articles. The bibliographic citation will change slightly. Articles should be referenced using the six-digit article number in place of a page number, and this number must include any leading zeros. For instance: Surname X and Surname Y 2008 J. Phys. D: Appl. Phys. 41 015203 Faster online publication Articles will continue to be published on the web in advance of the print edition but the introduction of article numbering makes it possible to achieve more frequent online publication while retaining the established grouping of articles into subject sections, which was not possible with the former page numbering system. We now expect to publish a new batch of articles each week, instead of every two weeks as previously, with a consequent reduction in our already rapid publication time. A new look and feel Journal of Physics D: Applied Physics has changed from European A4 format to a slightly smaller size which is closer to US Letter format, and we have taken the opportunity to refresh the cover in order to modernize the typography and create a consistent look and feel across our range of publications. If you have any questions or comments about any of these changes, please contact us at jphysd@iop.org

  18. EDITORIAL: Important changes for 2008

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    SAME ADDRESS--> Isabelle Auffret-Babak,

  1. Minimal pathologic changes of the lung and asbestos exposure

    SciTech Connect

    Bellis, D.; Andrion, A.; Delsedime, L.; Mollo, F.

    1989-02-01

    A group of 199 autopsy subjects was investigated for minimal pathologic pulmonary changes possibly resulting from asbestos exposure. According to the standards proposed by the Pneumoconiosis Committee of the College of American Pathologists, features consistent with asbestosis grade 1 (AG1) include findings of bilateral pleural plaques, high concentrations of asbestos bodies (ABs) in digested lung tissue, and a history of occupational risk. Similar changes without evidence of ABs on histologic section and referred to as small airway lesions (SALs) present a less well-correlated association. In this study, SALs showed significant differences when compared with the features observed in subjects without possible asbestos-related pulmonary fibrotic changes. Minimal bronchioloalveolar fibrotic changes with concomitant presence of ABs can be considered a mild pneumoconiotic lesion (AG1), and SALs may be regarded as an additional indicator of asbestos exposure.

  2. Minimal clinically important difference in Parkinson's disease as assessed in pivotal trials of pramipexole extended release.

    PubMed

    Hauser, Robert A; Gordon, Mark Forrest; Mizuno, Yoshikuni; Poewe, Werner; Barone, Paolo; Schapira, Anthony H; Rascol, Olivier; Debieuvre, Catherine; Fräßdorf, Mandy

    2014-01-01

    Background. The minimal clinically important difference (MCID) is the smallest change in an outcome measure that is meaningful for patients. Objectives. To calculate the MCID for Unified Parkinson's Disease Rating Scale (UPDRS) scores in early Parkinson's disease (EPD) and for UPDRS scores and "OFF" time in advanced Parkinson's disease (APD). Methods. We analyzed data from two pivotal, double-blind, parallel-group trials of pramipexole ER that included pramipexole immediate release (IR) as an active comparator. We calculated MCID as the mean change in subjects who received active treatment and rated themselves "a little better" on patient global impression of improvement (PGI-I) minus the mean change in subjects who received placebo and rated themselves unchanged. Results. MCIDs in EPD (pramipexole ER, pramipexole IR) for UPDRS II were -1.8 and -2.0, for UPDRS III -6.2 and -6.1, and for UPDRS II + III -8.0 and -8.1. MCIDs in APD for UPDRS II were -1.8 and -2.3, for UPDRS III -5.2 and -6.5, and for UPDRS II + III -7.1 and -8.8. MCID for "OFF" time (pramipexole ER, pramipexole IR) was -1.0 and -1.3 hours. Conclusions. A range of MCIDs is emerging in the PD literature that provides the basis for power calculations and interpretation of clinical trials.

  3. Asthma Symptom Utility Index: Reliability, validity, responsiveness and the minimal important difference in adult asthma patients

    PubMed Central

    Bime, Christian; Wei, Christine Y.; Holbrook, Janet T.; Sockrider, Marianna M.; Revicki, Dennis A.; Wise, Robert A.

    2012-01-01

    Background The evaluation of asthma symptoms is a core outcome measure in asthma clinical research. The Asthma Symptom Utility Index (ASUI) was developed to assess frequency and severity of asthma symptoms. The psychometric properties of the ASUI are not well characterized and a minimal important difference (MID) is not established. Objectives We assessed the reliability, validity, and responsiveness to change of the ASUI in a population of adult asthma patients. We also sought to determine the MID for the ASUI. Methods Adult asthma patients (n = 1648) from two previously completed multicenter randomized trials were included. Demographic information, spirometry, ASUI scores, and other asthma questionnaire scores were obtained at baseline and during follow-up visits. Participants also kept a daily asthma diary. Results Internal consistency reliability of the ASUI was 0.74 (Cronbach’s alpha). Test-retest reliability was 0.76 (intra-class correlation). Construct validity was demonstrated by significant correlations between ASUI scores and Asthma Control Questionnaire (ACQ) scores (Spearman correlation r = −0.79, 95% CI [−0.85, −0.75], P<0.001) and Mini Asthma Quality of Life Questionnaire (Mini AQLQ) scores (r = 0.59, 95% CI [0.51, 0.61], P<0.001). Responsiveness to change was demonstrated, with significant differences between mean changes in ASUI score across groups of participants differing by 10% in the percent predicted FEV1 (P<0.001), and by 0.5 points in ACQ score (P < 0.001). Anchor-based methods and statistical methods support an MID for the ASUI of 0.09 points. Conclusions The ASUI is reliable, valid, and responsive to changes in asthma control over time. The MID of the ASUI (range of scores 0–1) is 0.09. PMID:23026499

  4. Responsiveness and minimal clinically important difference for pain and disability instruments in low back pain patients

    PubMed Central

    Lauridsen, Henrik H; Hartvigsen, Jan; Manniche, Claus; Korsholm, Lars; Grunnet-Nilsson, Niels

    2006-01-01

    Background The choice of an evaluative instrument has been hampered by the lack of head-to-head comparisons of responsiveness and the minimal clinically important difference (MCID) in subpopulations of low back pain (LBP). The objective of this study was to concurrently compare responsiveness and MCID for commonly used pain scales and functional instruments in four subpopulations of LBP patients. Methods The Danish versions of the Oswestry Disability Index (ODI), the 23-item Roland Morris Disability Questionnaire (RMQ), the physical function and bodily pain subscales of the SF36, the Low Back Pain Rating Scale (LBPRS) and a numerical rating scale for pain (0–10) were completed by 191 patients from the primary and secondary sectors of the Danish health care system. Clinical change was estimated using a 7-point transition question and a numeric rating scale for importance. Responsiveness was operationalised using standardardised response mean (SRM), area under the receiver operating characteristic curve (ROC), and cut-point analysis. Subpopulation analyses were carried out on primary and secondary sector patients with LBP only or leg pain +/- LBP. Results RMQ was the most responsive instrument in primary and secondary sector patients with LBP only (SRM = 0.5–1.4; ROC = 0.75–0.94) whereas ODI and RMQ showed almost similar responsiveness in primary and secondary sector patients with leg pain (ODI: SRM = 0.4–0.9; ROC = 0.76–0.89; RMQ: SRM = 0.3–0.9; ROC = 0.72–0.88). In improved patients, the RMQ was more responsive in primary and secondary sector patients and LBP only patients (SRM = 1.3–1.7) while the RMQ and ODI were equally responsive in leg pain patients (SRM = 1.3 and 1.2 respectively). All pain measures demonstrated almost equal responsiveness. The MCID increased with increasing baseline score in primary sector and LBP only patients but was only marginally affected by patient entry point and pain location. The MCID of the percentage change score

  5. Estimating Minimally Important Differences for Two Vision-Specific Quality of Life Measures

    PubMed Central

    Gillespie, Brenda W.; Musch, David C.; Niziol, Leslie M.; Janz, Nancy K.

    2014-01-01

    Purpose. To estimate minimally important differences (MIDs) for the Visual Activities Questionnaire (VAQ) and the National Eye Institute-Visual Function Questionnaire (NEI-VFQ). Methods. A total of 607 subjects with newly-diagnosed open-angle glaucoma (OAG) was enrolled in the Collaborative Initial Glaucoma Treatment Study (CIGTS) and randomized to initial treatment with medications or surgery. Subjects underwent an ophthalmic examination and telephone-administered quality of life (QOL) interview before randomization and every six months thereafter. The VAQ and NEI-VFQ were used to assess participants' perceptions of their visual function. Clinical measures included the mean deviation (MD) from Humphrey 24-2 full threshold visual field (VF) testing, and best-corrected visual acuity (VA) measured using the Early Treatment Diabetic Retinopathy Study (ETDRS) protocol. Anchor-based (using MD and VA) and distribution-based methods were used to estimate MIDs. Results. Anchor-based cross-sectional analyses at 66 months follow-up found a 10-letter increment in better eye VA corresponded to MIDs of 5.2 units for VAQ and 3.8 units for NEI-VFQ total scores. A 3-dB increment in the better eye MD yielded MIDs of 2.6 and 2.3 units for the same two questionnaires. In longitudinal analyses, MIDs for the VAQ were 3.2 units for a 10-letter change of VA and 3.4 units for a 3-dB change in the MD. Distribution-based MIDs were larger. Conclusions. A range of MIDs for the VAQ (2.6–6.5 units) and NEI-VFQ (2.3–3.8 units) was found. Although similar in magnitude, MIDs were sensitive to the MID estimation method, the anchor chosen, and differences between questionnaires. (ClinicalTrials.gov number, NCT00000149.) PMID:24906863

  6. Minimal Clinically Important Difference of Carpal Tunnel Release in Diabetic and Non-Diabetic Patients

    PubMed Central

    Ozer, Kagan; Malay, Sunitha; Toker, Serdar; Chung, Kevin C.

    2016-01-01

    Background Establishing minimally clinically important difference (MCID) for patient-reported outcomes questionnaires is essential in outcomes research to evaluate patients’ perspective of treatment effectiveness. We aim to determine (MCID) after carpal tunnel release in diabetic and non-diabetic patients using the Boston Carpal Tunnel Questionnaire (BCTQ). Methods We prospectively evaluated 114 patients (87 non-diabetic, 27 diabetic) undergoing carpal tunnel release. In addition to standard history and physical examination, we obtained preoperative electrodiagnostic studies to confirm Carpal Tunnel Syndrome (CTS). The BCTQ was administered before and after the surgery at 3 and 6 months. Patients were asked about their level of satisfaction at the final follow-up period. We applied the receiver operating characteristic (ROC) curve approach to determine the MCID of symptom and function severity scales of the questionnaire. We used patient satisfaction as the reference standard to compare against the standardized change in scores after surgery for the 2 groups. Results For both diabetic and non-diabetic patients, symptom and function severity scales showed large effect size of >0.8 at 3 and 6 months after the surgery. At 6 months after surgery to be satisfied, diabetic patients required an MCID of 1.55 and 2.05 points for symptom and function scales, whereas non-diabetic patients required 1.45 and 1.6 points, respectively. Conclusion Diabetic patients needed a greater improvement in BCTQ score to be satisfied on functional and symptom severity scales than non-diabetic patients. Overall diabetic patients had less improvement in BCTQ final scores compared to non-diabetics. PMID:23416439

  7. Health status instruments for patients with COPD in pulmonary rehabilitation: defining a minimal clinically important difference

    PubMed Central

    Alma, Harma; de Jong, Corina; Jelusic, Danijel; Wittmann, Michael; Schuler, Michael; Blok, Bertine Flokstra-de; Kocks, Janwillem; Schultz, Konrad; Molen, Thys van der

    2016-01-01

    The minimal clinically important difference (MCID) defines to what extent change on a health status instrument is clinically relevant, which aids scientists and physicians in measuring therapy effects. This is the first study that aimed to establish the MCID of the Clinical chronic obstructive pulmonary disease (COPD) Questionnaire (CCQ), the COPD Assessment Test (CAT) and the St George’s Respiratory Questionnaire (SGRQ) in the same pulmonary rehabilitation population using multiple approaches. In total, 451 COPD patients participated in a 3-week Pulmonary Rehabilitation (PR) programme (58 years, 65% male, 43 pack-years, GOLD stage II/III/IV 50/39/11%). Techniques used to assess the MCID were anchor-based approaches, including patient-referencing, criterion-referencing and questionnaire-referencing, and the distribution-based methods standard error of measurement (SEM), 1.96SEM and half standard deviation (0.5s.d.). Patient- and criterion-referencing led to MCID estimates of 0.56 and 0.62 (CCQ); 3.12 and 2.96 (CAT); and 8.40 and 9.28 (SGRQ). Questionnaire-referencing suggested MCID ranges of 0.28–0.61 (CCQ), 1.46–3.08 (CAT) and 6.86–9.47 (SGRQ). The SEM, 1.96SEM and 0.5s.d. were 0.29, 0.56 and 0.46 (CCQ); 3.28, 6.43 and 2.80 (CAT); 5.20, 10.19 and 6.06 (SGRQ). Pooled estimates were 0.52 (CCQ), 3.29 (CAT) and 7.91 (SGRQ) for improvement. MCID estimates differed depending on the method used. Pooled estimates suggest clinically relevant improvements needing to exceed 0.40 on the CCQ, 3.00 on the CAT and 7.00 on the SGRQ for moderate to very severe COPD patients. The MCIDs of the CAT and SGRQ in the literature might be too low, leading to overestimation of treatment effects for patients with COPD. PMID:27597571

  8. Health status instruments for patients with COPD in pulmonary rehabilitation: defining a minimal clinically important difference.

    PubMed

    Alma, Harma; de Jong, Corina; Jelusic, Danijel; Wittmann, Michael; Schuler, Michael; Flokstra-de Blok, Bertine; Kocks, Janwillem; Schultz, Konrad; van der Molen, Thys

    2016-09-01

    The minimal clinically important difference (MCID) defines to what extent change on a health status instrument is clinically relevant, which aids scientists and physicians in measuring therapy effects. This is the first study that aimed to establish the MCID of the Clinical chronic obstructive pulmonary disease (COPD) Questionnaire (CCQ), the COPD Assessment Test (CAT) and the St George's Respiratory Questionnaire (SGRQ) in the same pulmonary rehabilitation population using multiple approaches. In total, 451 COPD patients participated in a 3-week Pulmonary Rehabilitation (PR) programme (58 years, 65% male, 43 pack-years, GOLD stage II/III/IV 50/39/11%). Techniques used to assess the MCID were anchor-based approaches, including patient-referencing, criterion-referencing and questionnaire-referencing, and the distribution-based methods standard error of measurement (SEM), 1.96SEM and half standard deviation (0.5s.d.). Patient- and criterion-referencing led to MCID estimates of 0.56 and 0.62 (CCQ); 3.12 and 2.96 (CAT); and 8.40 and 9.28 (SGRQ). Questionnaire-referencing suggested MCID ranges of 0.28-0.61 (CCQ), 1.46-3.08 (CAT) and 6.86-9.47 (SGRQ). The SEM, 1.96SEM and 0.5s.d. were 0.29, 0.56 and 0.46 (CCQ); 3.28, 6.43 and 2.80 (CAT); 5.20, 10.19 and 6.06 (SGRQ). Pooled estimates were 0.52 (CCQ), 3.29 (CAT) and 7.91 (SGRQ) for improvement. MCID estimates differed depending on the method used. Pooled estimates suggest clinically relevant improvements needing to exceed 0.40 on the CCQ, 3.00 on the CAT and 7.00 on the SGRQ for moderate to very severe COPD patients. The MCIDs of the CAT and SGRQ in the literature might be too low, leading to overestimation of treatment effects for patients with COPD.

  9. PUBLISHER'S ANNOUNCEMENT: Important changes for 2008

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    2008-02-01

    As a result of reviewing several aspects of our content, both in print and online, we have made some changes for 2008. These changes are described below. Article numbering Inverse Problems has moved from sequential page numbering to an article numbering system, offering important advantages and flexibility by speeding up the publication process. Articles in different issues or sections can be published online as soon as they are ready, without having to wait for a whole issue or section to be allocated page numbers. The bibliographic citation will change slightly. Articles should be referenced using the six-digit article number in place of a page number, and this number must include any leading zeros. For instance: Surname X and Surname Y 2008 Inverse Problems 24 015001 Articles will continue to be published on the web in advance of the print edition. A new look and feel We have taken the opportunity to refresh the design of Inverse Problems' cover in order to modernise the typography and create a consistent look and feel across IOP Publishing's range of publications. We hope you like the new cover. If you have any questions or comments about any of these changes, please contact us at ip@iop.org Kate Watt Publisher, Inverse Problems

  10. Minimal-change disease as a paraneoplastic syndrome in a patient with ovarian carcinoma.

    PubMed

    González-Fontal, Guido R; Restrepo, Juan G; Henao-Martínez, Andrés F

    2011-12-01

    Minimal-change disease (MCD) is an exceptional paraneoplastic presentation. We are describing the case of an ovarian paraneoplastic nephrotic syndrome. The kidney biopsy was consistent with MCD. Steroids and immunosuppressive therapy were given with no change in the nephrotic-range proteinuria. A complete resolution of the nephrotic syndrome was soon observed with improvement of her clinical condition after five cycles of chemotherapy with paclitaxel and carboplatin and tumor-debulking surgery. Ovarian carcinoma paraneoplastic nephrotic syndrome secondary to MCD is an extremely rare event, which is important to recognize since it is responsive to the standard chemotherapy.

  11. Minimal important difference after hand surgery: a prospective assessment for DASH, MHQ, and SF-12

    PubMed Central

    Maia, Maurício Vieira de Pádua; de Moraes, Vinícius Ynoe; dos Santos, João Baptista Gomes; Faloppa, Flávio; Belloti, João Carlos

    2016-01-01

    Introduction: Minimal important difference (MID) score is an important measure for surgical clinical research and impacts on treatment decisions. Our approach considered patient satisfaction as the relevant anchor criteria. The aims of this study were: determine after surgery MID for three relevant questionnaires: Disabilities of the Arm, Shoulder and Hand (DASH), Michigan Hand Questionnaire (MHQ), and Short Form 12 (SF-12); and assess the correlation between these scores and patient reported satisfaction. Methods: Adult patients where surgery was indicated for any hand/wrist conditions. Study was conducted in a teaching hospital, São Paulo, Brazil. Participants responded to DASH, SF-12, MHQ, and a Likert satisfaction scale before and three months after a procedure. Satisfaction was considered as the anchor for determining MID after a procedure. The correlation between satisfaction and the instruments were measured. Two statistical approaches were utilized for determining MIDs and were used for consistency and generalizability purposes. For MID determination, receiver operating curves were utilized and MID cut-offs were followed by sensitivity and specificity measures. Results: Fifty patients were included with no follow-up losses. MID for DASH was 18.8 and 15.4. MID for MHQ was 14.7 for both approaches. Data from SF-12 was not reliable after statistical analyses and demonstrated poor correlation with patient satisfaction. MID for DASH and MHQ were found and demonstrated larger standards than literature-reported patients when surgery was not the main intervention. DASH and MHQ had moderate correlation with patient reported satisfaction. SF-12 MID was not reliable and had poor correlation to patient satisfaction. These data suggests that ambulatory hand surgery patients may have greater expectations regarding improvement than other patients. PMID:27716460

  12. USE OF THE MINIMAL CLINICALLY IMPORTANT DIFFERENCE (MCID) FOR EVALUATING TREATMENT OUTCOMES WITH TMJMD PATIENTS: A PRELIMINARY STUDY1

    PubMed Central

    Ingram, Megan; Choi, Yun Hee; Chiu, Chung-Yi; Haggard, Rob; Dougall, Angela Liegey; Buschang, Peter; Gatchel, Robert J.

    2012-01-01

    Temporomandibular joint and muscle disorder (TMJMD) is one of the most prevalent types of musculoskeletal disorders. The major goal of the study was to more objectively quantify clinically meaningful relief for TMJMD treatment outcomes by using the new metric of minimal clinically important difference (MCID). Pre- to post-treatment changes on a number of self-report measures were evaluated in a cohort of 101 acute TMJMD patients. An anchor-based MCID approach was employed, with an objective chewing performance measure serving as the clinical outcome of interest. Using a Receiver Operating Curve analysis, it was found that the Physical Component Scale (PCS) of the SF-36 was the most robust self-report measure to use as the MCID in a TMJMD patient population. PMID:22919263

  13. Determining the Minimally Important Difference in the Clinical Disease Activity Index For Improvement and Worsening in Early Rheumatoid Arthritis

    PubMed Central

    Curtis, JR; Yang, S; Chen, L; Pope, JE; Keystone, EC; Haraoui, B; Boire, G; Thorne, JC; Tin, D; Hitchon, CA; Bingham, CO; Bykerk, VP

    2015-01-01

    Background Simplified measures to quantify rheumatoid arthritis (RA) disease activity are increasingly used. The minimally clinically important differences (MCID) for some measures, such as the clinical disease activity index (CDAI), have not been well-defined in real-world clinic settings, especially for early RA patients with low/moderate disease activity. Methods Data from Canadian Early Arthritis Cohort patients were used to examine absolute change in CDAI in the first year after enrollment, stratified by disease activity. MCID cutpoints were derived to optimize the sum of sensitivity and specificity versus the gold standard of patient self-reported improvement or worsening. Specificity, positive predictive value and negative predictive values were calculated against patient self-reported improvement (gold standard) and for change in pain, HAQ and DAS28 improvement. Discrimination was examined using area under receiver operator curves (ROC). Similar methods were used to evaluate MCIDs for worsening for patients who achieved low disease activity. Results A total of 578 patients (mean (SD) age 54.1 (15.3) years; 75% women, median (IQR) disease duration 5.3 (3.3, 8.0) months) contributed 1169 visit pairs to the improvement analysis. The MCID cutpoints for improvement were 12 (patients starting in high disease activity, CDAI>22), 6 (moderate, CDAI 10–22), and 1 (low disease activity, CDAI <10). Performance characteristics were acceptable using these cutpoints for pain, HAQ, and DAS28. The MCID for CDAI worsening among patients who achieved low disease activity was 2 units. Conclusions These minimally important absolute differences in CDAI can be used to evaluate improvement and worsening and increase the utility of CDAI in clinical practice. PMID:25988705

  14. Minimally important differences for Patient Reported Outcomes Measurement Information System pain interference for individuals with back pain

    PubMed Central

    Amtmann, Dagmar; Kim, Jiseon; Chung, Hyewon; Askew, Robert L; Park, Ryoungsun; Cook, Karon F

    2016-01-01

    Background The minimally important difference (MID) refers to the smallest change that is sufficiently meaningful to carry implications for patients’ care. MIDs are necessary to guide the interpretation of scores. This study estimated MID for the Patient Reported Outcomes Measurement Information System (PROMIS) pain interference (PI). Methods Study instruments were administered to 414 people who participated in two studies that included treatment with low back pain (LBP; n=218) or depression (n=196). Participants with LBP received epidural steroid injections and participants with depression received antidepressants, psychotherapy, or both. MIDs were estimated for the changes in LBP. MIDs were included only if a priori criteria were met (ie, sample size ≥10, Spearman correlation ≥0.3 between anchor measures and PROMIS-PI scores, and effect size range =0.2–0.8). The interquartile range (IQR) of MID estimates was calculated. Results The IQR ranged from 3.5 to 5.5 points. The lower bound estimate of the IQR (3.5) was greater than mean of standard error of measurement (SEM) both at time 1 (SEM =2.3) and at time 2 (SEM =2.5), indicating that the estimate of MID exceeded measurement error. Conclusion Based on our results, researchers and clinicians using PROMIS-PI can assume that change of 3.5 to 5.5 points in comparisons of mean PROMIS-PI scores of people with LBP can be considered meaningful. PMID:27175093

  15. Technology Assessment of Selected Hazardous Waste Minimization Process Changes

    DTIC Science & Technology

    1988-03-01

    million of this goes to reduction practices. Use of manufacturing waste reduction practices, such as changing raw materials, operational procedures, or...cadmium oxide (CdO) in a sodium cyanide (NaCN) solution. Sodium hydroxide (NaOH) and sodium carbonate (Na 2 C02 ) are formed by functions within and...incineration and industrial processes lead to vaporization of cadmium into the atmosphere, where it oxidizes quickly to produce cadmium oxide . Atmospheric

  16. PUBLISHER'S ANNOUNCEMENT: Important changes for 2008

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Bedrock, Claire

    2008-01-01

    Having reviewed several aspects of IOP journal content, both in print and online, we have made some changes for 2008, some of which affect Semiconductor Science and Technology. Article numbering In common with many other IOP journals, Semiconductor Science and Technology has moved from sequential page numbering to an article numbering system. Articles will continue to be published on the web in advance of the print edition. The bibliographic citation will change slightly. Articles should be referenced using the six-digit article number in place of a page number, and this number must include any leading zeros. For instance: Surname X and Surname Y 2008 Semicond. Sci. Technol. 18 015003 A new look and feel Semiconductor Science and Technology has changed from European A4 format to a slightly smaller size, closer to US Letter format, and we have taken the opportunity to refresh the cover, in order to modernise the typography, and create a consistent look and feel across our range of publications. If you have any questions or comments about any of these changes, please contact us at sst@iop.org

  17. Minimally important difference of the Treatment Satisfaction with Medicines Questionnaire (SATMED-Q)

    PubMed Central

    2011-01-01

    Background A previous study has documented the reliability and validity of the Treatment Satisfaction with Medicines Questionnaire (SATMED-Q) in exploring patient satisfaction with medicines for chronic health conditions in routine medical practice, but the minimally important difference (MID) of this tool is as yet unknown. The objective of this research was to estimate the MID for the SATMED-Q total score and six constituent domains. Methods The sample of patients (456 subjects, mean age 59 years, 53% male) used for testing psychometric properties was also used to assess MID. Item #14 of the Treatment Satisfaction Questionnaire for Medication (TSQM) was used as an anchor reference since it directly explores satisfaction with medicine on a 7-point ordinal scale (from extremely satisfied to extremely dissatisfied, with a neutral category). Patients were classified into four categories according to responses to this item (extremely satisfied/dissatisfied, very satisfied/dissatisfied, satisfied/dissatisfied, neither satisfied nor dissatisfied (neutral), and calculations were made for the total score and each domain of the SATMED-Q using standardised scores. The mean absolute differences in total score (and domains) between the neutral category and the satisfied/dissatisfied category were considered to be the MID. Effect sizes (ES) were also computed. Results The MID for the total score was 13.4 (ES = 0.91), while the domain values ranged from 10.3 (medical care domain, ES = 0.43) to 20.6 (impact on daily living, ES = 0.85). Mean differences in satisfaction (as measured by the total SATMED-Q score and domain scores) using the levels of satisfaction established by item #14 were significantly different, with F values ranging from 12.2 to 88.8 (p < 0.001 in all cases). Conclusion The SATMED-Q was demonstrated to be responsive to different levels of patient satisfaction with therapy in chronically ill subjects. The MID obtained was 13.4 points for the overall normalised

  18. Segmentation of Arteries in Minimally Invasive Surgery Using Change Detection

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Akbari, Hamed; Kosugi, Yukio; Kojima, Kazuyuki

    In laparoscopic surgery, the lack of tactile sensation and 3D visual feedback make it difficult to identify the position of a blood vessel intraoperatively. An unintentional partial tear or complete rupture of a blood vessel may result in a serious complication; moreover, if the surgeon cannot manage this situation, open surgery will be necessary. Differentiation of arteries from veins and other structures and the ability to independently detect them has a variety of applications in surgical procedures involving the head, neck, lung, heart, abdomen, and extremities. We have used the artery's pulsatile movement to detect and differentiate arteries from veins. The algorithm for change detection in this study uses edge detection for unsupervised image registration. Changed regions are identified by subtracting the systolic and diastolic images. As a post-processing step, region properties, including color average, area, major and minor axis lengths, perimeter, and solidity, are used as inputs of the LVQ (Learning Vector Quantization) network. The output results in two object classes: arteries and non-artery regions. After post-processing, arteries can be detected in the laparoscopic field. The registration method used here is evaluated in comparison with other linear and nonlinear elastic methods. The performance of this method is evaluated for the detection of arteries in several laparoscopic surgeries on an animal model and on eleven human patients. The performance evaluation criteria are based on false negative and false positive rates. This algorithm is able to detect artery regions, even in cases where the arteries are obscured by other tissues.

  19. Curriculum change: the importance of team role.

    PubMed

    Broomfield, D; Bligh, J

    1997-03-01

    This paper describes a study examining aspects of team role in the management of curriculum change. The Belbin Team Role Self-Perception Inventory was completed by 25 members (83%) of a faculty curriculum development team. Overall the group showed a preference for the implementer and shaper roles, whilst the completer-finisher role was relatively weakly represented, ranking fifth out of eight possible roles. Older and more senior team members favoured the co-ordinator role, whilst younger and more junior members favoured the team-worker and completer-finisher roles. Some implications of these findings are discussed in the light of the current trend for widespread change in undergraduate medical curricula and the challenges faced by medical schools in a resource constrained environment.

  20. Validity, Responsiveness, Minimal Detectable Change, and Minimal Clinically Important Change of "Pediatric Balance Scale" in Children with Cerebral Palsy

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Chen, Chia-ling; Shen, I-hsuan; Chen, Chung-yao; Wu, Ching-yi; Liu, Wen-Yu; Chung, Chia-ying

    2013-01-01

    This study examined criterion-related validity and clinimetric properties of the pediatric balance scale ("PBS") in children with cerebral palsy (CP). Forty-five children with CP (age range: 19-77 months) and their parents participated in this study. At baseline and at follow up, Pearson correlation coefficients were used to determine…

  1. [Kimura's disease: an unrecognized cause of adult-onset nephrotic syndrome with minimal change disease].

    PubMed

    Shehwaro, N; Langlois, A-L; Gueutin, V; Debchi, L; Charlotte, F; Rouvier, P; Rottembourg, J; Izzedine, H

    2014-02-01

    Kimura's disease (KD) is an angiolymphoid proliferative disorder of soft tissue with eosinophilia, with a predilection for head and neck regions in young Oriental men. Kidney disease is thought to be rare in KD. About a case of adult-onset nephrotic syndrome with minimal change disease, we comment Kimura's disease and its associated kidney damage. Kimura disease should be suspected and included in the diagnosis of adult-onset nephrotic syndrome with minimal change disease.

  2. 50 CFR 14.32 - Permits to import or export wildlife at nondesignated port to minimize deterioration or loss.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-10-01

    ... 50 Wildlife and Fisheries 1 2010-10-01 2010-10-01 false Permits to import or export wildlife at nondesignated port to minimize deterioration or loss. 14.32 Section 14.32 Wildlife and Fisheries UNITED STATES FISH AND WILDLIFE SERVICE, DEPARTMENT OF THE INTERIOR TAKING, POSSESSION, TRANSPORTATION,...

  3. 50 CFR 14.32 - Permits to import or export wildlife at nondesignated port to minimize deterioration or loss.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-10-01

    ... 50 Wildlife and Fisheries 1 2012-10-01 2012-10-01 false Permits to import or export wildlife at nondesignated port to minimize deterioration or loss. 14.32 Section 14.32 Wildlife and Fisheries UNITED STATES FISH AND WILDLIFE SERVICE, DEPARTMENT OF THE INTERIOR TAKING, POSSESSION, TRANSPORTATION,...

  4. 50 CFR 14.32 - Permits to import or export wildlife at nondesignated port to minimize deterioration or loss.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-10-01

    ... 50 Wildlife and Fisheries 1 2013-10-01 2013-10-01 false Permits to import or export wildlife at nondesignated port to minimize deterioration or loss. 14.32 Section 14.32 Wildlife and Fisheries UNITED STATES FISH AND WILDLIFE SERVICE, DEPARTMENT OF THE INTERIOR TAKING, POSSESSION, TRANSPORTATION,...

  5. 50 CFR 14.32 - Permits to import or export wildlife at nondesignated port to minimize deterioration or loss.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-10-01

    ... 50 Wildlife and Fisheries 1 2014-10-01 2014-10-01 false Permits to import or export wildlife at nondesignated port to minimize deterioration or loss. 14.32 Section 14.32 Wildlife and Fisheries UNITED STATES FISH AND WILDLIFE SERVICE, DEPARTMENT OF THE INTERIOR TAKING, POSSESSION, TRANSPORTATION,...

  6. 50 CFR 14.32 - Permits to import or export wildlife at nondesignated port to minimize deterioration or loss.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-10-01

    ... 50 Wildlife and Fisheries 1 2011-10-01 2011-10-01 false Permits to import or export wildlife at nondesignated port to minimize deterioration or loss. 14.32 Section 14.32 Wildlife and Fisheries UNITED STATES FISH AND WILDLIFE SERVICE, DEPARTMENT OF THE INTERIOR TAKING, POSSESSION, TRANSPORTATION,...

  7. Importance of shield design in minimizing radioactive-material inventory in tokamaks

    SciTech Connect

    Jung, J.; Abdou, M.

    1980-01-01

    An optimization study is carried out for the outboard bulk shielding of the STARFIRE reactor. The optimization criteria used include: (1) reactor accessibility shortly after shutdown; (2) minimization of high-level long-term induced activation; and (3) radiation protection of reactor components. It is shown that with a 1.1 m-thick shield, the biological dose inside the reactor room decreases to approx. 1.5 mrem/h within 24 h after shutdown. It is also shown that more than 90% of the total mass of the radioactive material inventory in STARFIRE has a high potential for recycling within 30 to 50 yr after component replacement or reactor decommissioning.

  8. Communication growth in minimally verbal children with ASD: The importance of interaction.

    PubMed

    DiStefano, Charlotte; Shih, Wendy; Kaiser, Ann; Landa, Rebecca; Kasari, Connie

    2016-10-01

    Little is known about language development in children with Autism Spectrum Disorders (ASD) who remain minimally verbal past age 5. While there is evidence that children can develop language after age 5, we lack detailed information. Studies of this population generally focus on discrete language skills without addressing broader social-communication abilities. As communication and social deficits are both inherent to ASD, an examination of not only what language skills are acquired, but how those skills are used in interactions is relevant. Research in typical development has examined how communication interchanges (unbroken back-and-forth exchanges around a unified purpose) develop, which can be used as a framework for studying minimally verbal children. This study examined the interchange use by 55 children with ASD over the course of a 6-month play and engagement-based communication intervention. Half of the children received intervention sessions that also incorporated a speech-generating device (SGD). Interchanges were coded by: frequency, length, function, and initiator (child or adult). Results indicated that children initiated a large proportion of interchanges and this proportion increased over time. The average length and number of interchanges increased over time, with children in the SGD group showing even greater growth. Finally, children's total number of interchanges at baseline was positively associated with their spoken language gains over the course of intervention. This study supports the crucial relationship between social engagement and expressive language development, and highlights the need to include sustained communication interchanges as a target for intervention with this population. Autism Res 2016, 9: 1093-1102. © 2016 International Society for Autism Research, Wiley Periodicals, Inc.

  9. A stopping theoretic approach to minimal time detection of system parameter change

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Mazumdar, Ravi R.

    1986-01-01

    The problem of minimal time detection of abrupt parameter changes in linear stochastic systems considered. The problem is posed as an optimal stopping problem for the detection in change of the induced probability measure. Under the assumption of a prior distribution for the time of change (or disruption) a stopping rule is given which minimizes the average detection delay when there is knowledge of the new measure after the change. When the new induced measure is unknown, a stopping rule is given, based only on the noisy observations and is shown to be better than the a priori knowlege of the disruption time.

  10. Minimal promoter systems reveal the importance of conserved residues in the B-finger of human transcription factor IIB.

    PubMed

    Thompson, Nancy E; Glaser, Bryan T; Foley, Katherine M; Burton, Zachary F; Burgess, Richard R

    2009-09-11

    The "B-finger" of transcription factor IIB (TFIIB) is highly conserved and believed to play a role in the initiation process. We performed alanine substitutions across the B-finger of human TFIIB, made change-of-charge mutations in selected residues, and substituted the B-finger sequence from other organisms. Mutant proteins were examined in two minimal promoter systems (containing only RNA polymerase II, TATA-binding protein, and TFIIB) and in a complex system, using TFIIB-immunodepleted HeLa cell nuclear extract (NE). Mutations in conserved residues located on the sides of the B-finger had the greatest effect on activity in both minimal promoter systems, with mutations in residues Glu-51 and Arg-66 eliminating activity. The double change-of-charge mutant (E51R:R66E) did not show activity in either minimal promoter system. Mutations in the nonconserved residues at the tip of the B-finger did not significantly affect activity. However, all of the mutations in the B-finger showed at least 25% activity in the HeLa cell NE. Chimeric proteins, containing B-finger sequences from species with conserved residues on the side of the B-finger, showed wild-type activity in a minimal promoter system and in the HeLa cell NE. However, chimeric proteins whose sequence showed divergence on the sides of the B-finger had reduced activity. Transcription factor IIF (TFIIF) partially restored activity of the inactive mutants in the minimal promoter system, suggesting that TFIIF in HeLa cell NE helps to rescue the inactive mutations by interacting with either the B-finger or another component of the initiation complex that is influenced by the B-finger.

  11. The meaning of it all: evaluating knowledge of Minimal Clinically Important Difference (MCID) among chiropractic students

    PubMed Central

    Wates, Rebecca J.; Woodruff, Ike; Pfefer, Mark T.

    2016-01-01

    Introduction: Patient-reported outcome measures are frequently used to monitor patient progress during chiropractic care, yet student interns utilizing such assessments are unfamiliar with what magnitude of change (MCID) is considered beneficial to the patient. Objective: This work seeks to determine chiropractic intern knowledge of MCID. Methods: A five-item survey was administered to 104 chiropractic student interns. Results: Nearly one-third of the interns correctly defined the MCID acronym, and approximately one-third of the interns knew at least one MCID value for the outcome assessments in the EHR. Surprisingly, 20% of the interns reported knowledge of at least one MCID value, but answered incorrectly pertaining to the MCID acronym. Conclusion: Student interns value patient perception, but have limited knowledge of MCID values. Addressing this gap will improve their understanding of patient progress and inform their treatment decisions both in the outpatient clinic and in their practices following graduation. PMID:27713580

  12. The importance of cognitive errors in diagnosis and strategies to minimize them.

    PubMed

    Croskerry, Pat

    2003-08-01

    In the area of patient safety, recent attention has focused on diagnostic error. The reduction of diagnostic error is an important goal because of its associated morbidity and potential preventability. A critical subset of diagnostic errors arises through cognitive errors, especially those associated with failures in perception, failed heuristics, and biases; collectively, these have been referred to as cognitive dispositions to respond (CDRs). Historically, models of decision-making have given insufficient attention to the contribution of such biases, and there has been a prevailing pessimism against improving cognitive performance through debiasing techniques. Recent work has catalogued the major cognitive biases in medicine; the author lists these and describes a number of strategies for reducing them ("cognitive debiasing"). Principle among them is metacognition, a reflective approach to problem solving that involves stepping back from the immediate problem to examine and reflect on the thinking process. Further research effort should be directed at a full and complete description and analysis of CDRs in the context of medicine and the development of techniques for avoiding their associated adverse outcomes. Considerable potential exists for reducing cognitive diagnostic errors with this approach. The author provides an extensive list of CDRs and a list of strategies to reduce diagnostic errors.

  13. Clinically important change in quality of life in epilepsy

    PubMed Central

    Wiebe, S; Matijevic, S; Eliasziw, M; Derry, P

    2002-01-01

    Background: Health related quality of life (HRQOL) is increasingly recognised as an important outcome in epilepsy. However, interpretation of HRQOL data is difficult because there is no agreement on what constitutes a clinically important change in the scores of the various instruments. Objectives: To determine the minimum clinically important change, and small, medium, and large changes, in broadly used epilepsy specific and generic HRQOL instruments. Methods: Patients with difficult to control focal epilepsy (n = 136) completed the QOLIE-89, QOLIE-31, SF-36, and HUI-III questionnaires twice, six months apart. Patient centred estimates of minimum important change, and of small, medium, and large change, were assessed on self administered 15 point global rating scales. Using regression analysis, the change in each HRQOL instrument that corresponded to the various categories of change determined by patients was obtained. The results were validated in a subgroup of patients tested at baseline and at nine months. Results: The minimum important change was 10.1 for QOLIE-89, 11.8 for QOLIE-31, 4.6 for SF-36 MCS, 3.0 for SF-36 physical composite score, and 0.15 for HUI-III. All instruments differentiated between no change and minimum important change with precision, and QOLIE-89 and QOLIE-31 also distinguished accurately between minimum important change and medium or large change. Baseline HRQOL scores and the type of treatment (surgical or medical) had no impact on any of the estimates, and the results were replicated in the validation sample. Conclusions: These estimates of minimum important change, and small, medium, and large changes, in four HRQOL instruments in patients with epilepsy are robust and can distinguish accurately among different levels of change. The estimates allow for categorisation of patients into various levels of change in HRQOL, and will be of use in assessing the effect of interventions in individual patients. PMID:12122166

  14. Why is there resistance to change and how can it be minimized?

    PubMed

    Somani, S M; Galle, B W; Roberts, A W

    1981-12-01

    The ability to implement change, as an administrative skill, is essential in effectively promoting progressive pharmacy practice. Often, pharmacy managers want to implement change but do not know how to approach the process without encountering much resistance from the staff. There are various sources of resistance that need to be recognized, including lack of trust, inaccurate or incomplete information, and potential loss. A pharmacy manager can take different approaches to minimize this resistance, depending on the organization and his or her management style. A pharmacy manager can use the techniques cited to turn the uncertainties of change into established gains and employee commitment.

  15. Renal manifestations of human brucellosis: First report of minimal change disease.

    PubMed

    Sabanis, Nikolaos; Gavriilaki, Eleni; Paschou, Eleni; Tsotsiou, Eleni; Kalaitzoglou, Asterios; Kavlakoudis, Christos; Vasileiou, Sotirios

    2016-05-01

    Human brucellosis is considered a great example of the complexity of clinical manifestations possibly affecting multiple organs or systems. Renal manifestations of human brucellosis have been documented in few case reports and one case series. Herein, we present a case of Nephrotic syndrome (NS) due to minimal change disease in the course of acute brucellosis. A 53-year-old male farmer was admitted to our department with acute brucellosis and NS. Renal biopsy revealed minimal change disease. Combined treatment with prednisone (1 mg/kg), rifampicin (600 mg/day), and doxycycline (200 mg/day) was initiated. Complete remission of NS was achieved at the end of the fourth week. One year later, the patient remained in complete remission of NS without any sign of relapse of brucellosis.

  16. 78 FR 69288 - Import Administration; Change of Agency Name

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2013-11-19

    ... internal department organizational orders, changed the name of ``Import Administration'' to ``Enforcement... any references to Import Administration in any document or other communication shall be deemed to be... Department of Commerce, through internal Department Organizational Order 10-3 (effective September 18,...

  17. 78 FR 62417 - Import Administration; Change of Agency Name

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2013-10-22

    ...), through internal department organizational orders, changed the name of ``Import Administration'' to... references to Import Administration in any document or other communication shall be deemed to be references... the decision by the Department, through internal Department Organizational Orders 10-3...

  18. Phenotypic changes in acute myeloid leukaemia: implications in the detection of minimal residual disease.

    PubMed Central

    Macedo, A; San Miguel, J F; Vidriales, M B; López-Berges, M C; García-Marcos, M A; Gonzalez, M; Landolfi, C; Orfão, A

    1996-01-01

    AIM: To explore the role of phenotypic changes as possible limiting factors in the immunological detection of minimal residual disease in patients with acute myeloid leukaemia (AML). METHODS: 20 relapses were evaluated, with special attention to changes in the criteria used for the definition of a phenotype as "aberrant". In all cases the same monoclonal antibody and fluorochrome were used at diagnosis and in relapse. RESULTS: Six out of the 16 patients showed aberrant phenotypes at diagnosis. At relapse, no changes in the aberrant phenotypes were detected in most of the patients; nevertheless, in two of the four patients with asynchronous antigen expression this aberration disappeared at relapse. At diagnosis in both cases there were already small blast cell subpopulations showing the phenotype of leukaemic cells at relapse. Ten out of the 16 cases analysed showed significant changes in the expression of at least one of the markers analysed. CONCLUSIONS: At relapse in AML the "leukaemic phenotypes" usually remained unaltered, while other phenotypic features--not relevant for distinguishing leukaemic blast cells among normal progenitors--changed frequently; however, they were not a major limitation in the immunological detection of minimal residual disease. PMID:8666678

  19. Weight change among people randomized to minimal intervention control groups in weight loss trials

    PubMed Central

    Johns, David J.; Hartmann‐Boyce, Jamie; Jebb, Susan A.; Aveyard, Paul

    2016-01-01

    Objective Evidence on the effectiveness of behavioral weight management programs often comes from uncontrolled program evaluations. These frequently make the assumption that, without intervention, people will gain weight. The aim of this study was to use data from minimal intervention control groups in randomized controlled trials to examine the evidence for this assumption and the effect of frequency of weighing on weight change. Methods Data were extracted from minimal intervention control arms in a systematic review of multicomponent behavioral weight management programs. Two reviewers classified control arms into three categories based on intensity of minimal intervention and calculated 12‐month mean weight change using baseline observation carried forward. Meta‐regression was conducted in STATA v12. Results Thirty studies met the inclusion criteria, twenty‐nine of which had usable data, representing 5,963 participants allocated to control arms. Control arms were categorized according to intensity, as offering leaflets only, a single session of advice, or more than one session of advice from someone without specialist skills in supporting weight loss. Mean weight change at 12 months across all categories was −0.8 kg (95% CI −1.1 to −0.4). In an unadjusted model, increasing intensity by moving up a category was associated with an additional weight loss of −0.53 kg (95% CI −0.96 to −0.09). Also in an unadjusted model, each additional weigh‐in was associated with a weight change of −0.42 kg (95% CI −0.81 to −0.03). However, when both variables were placed in the same model, neither intervention category nor number of weigh‐ins was associated with weight change. Conclusions Uncontrolled evaluations of weight loss programs should assume that, in the absence of intervention, their population would weigh up to a kilogram on average less than baseline at the end of the first year of follow‐up. PMID:27028279

  20. Minimal Change Nephrotic Syndrome Which Was Most Likely Caused by Chronic Sinusitis.

    PubMed

    Iwatani, Hirotsugu; Mori, Daisuke; Yamamoto, Satoko; Nakano, Chikako; Yamamoto, Ryohei; Masumura, Chisako; Shikina, Takashi; Imai, Takao; Inohara, Hidenori; Rakugi, Hiromi; Isaka, Yoshitaka

    2015-01-01

    A 33-year-old Japanese man was admitted with severe edema, and a renal biopsy confirmed minimal change nephrotic syndrome (MCNS). CT revealed his severe chronic sinusitis, and he first received antimicrobial therapy, which resulted in decreased proteinuria. The surgical operation for sinusitis resulted in the complete disappearance of proteinuria without corticosteroid or immunosuppressant therapy within one week. MCNS may be triggered by infection, but there are no previously reported cases of MCNS that is completely remitted by infection control alone. Therefore, we herein report the first case of MCNS that attained complete remission following therapy for chronic sinusitis alone, which suggests a strong etiology of chronic sinusitis for MCNS.

  1. Flavor-changing Higgs decays in grand unification with minimal flavor violation

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Baek, Seungwon; Tandean, Jusak

    2016-12-01

    We consider the flavor-changing decays of the Higgs boson in a grand unified theory framework which is based on the SU(5) gauge group and implements the principle of minimal flavor violation. This allows us to explore the possibility of connecting the tentative hint of the Higgs decay h→ μ τ recently reported in the CMS experiment to potential new physics in the quark sector. We look at different simple scenarios with minimal flavor violation in this context and how they are subject to various empirical restrictions. In one specific case, the relative strengths of the flavor-changing leptonic Higgs couplings are determined mainly by the known quark mixing parameters and masses, and a branching fraction B(h→ μ τ )˜ 1% is achievable without the couplings being incompatible with the relevant constraints. Upcoming data on the Higgs leptonic decays and searches for the μ → eγ decay with improved precision can offer further tests on this scenario.

  2. How Desert Storm changed U. S. oil imports

    SciTech Connect

    Not Available

    1992-04-30

    During the past two years, US petroleum imports shrank because of economic recession. There were significant changes in the shares of the shrunken pie because of the Persian Gulf War. This issue of Energy Detente compares US crude and refined product imports by hemisphere and by country during 1991 and 1989. These trends are likely to be reversed for short and long term reasons discussed inside. US dependence on Western Hemisphere countries increased by 0.6%, Venezuela accounting for 17% more imports in 1991 than 1989 and Canada and Mexico 11% and 4% more, respectively. This issue also presents the following: (1) the ED Refining Netback Data Series for the US Gulf and West Coasts, Rotterdam, and Singapore as of April 10, 1992; and (2) the ED Fuel Price/Tax Series for countries of the Eastern Hemisphere, April 1992 Edition.

  3. The reaction of serpins with proteinases involves important enthalpy changes.

    PubMed

    Boudier, C; Bieth, J G

    2001-08-21

    When active serpins are proteolytically inactivated in a substrate-like reaction, they undergo an important structural transition with a resultant increase in their conformational stability. We have used microcalorimetry to show that this conformational alteration is accompanied by an important enthalpy change. For instance, the cleavage of alpha(1)-proteinase inhibitor by Pseudomonas aeruginosa elastase, Staphylococcus aureus V8 proteinase, or papain and that of antithrombin by leukocyte elastase are characterized by large enthalpy changes (DeltaH = -53 to -63 kcal mol(-1)). The former reaction also has a large and negative heat capacity (DeltaC(p)() = -566 cal K(-1) mol(-1)). In contrast, serpins release significantly less heat when they act as proteinase inhibitors. For example, the inhibition of pancreatic elastase, leukocyte elastase, and pancreatic chymotrypsin by alpha(1)-proteinase inhibitor and that of pancreatic trypsin and coagulation factor Xa by antithrombin are accompanied by a DeltaH of -20 to -31 kcal mol(-1). We observe no heat release upon proteolytic cleavage of inactive serpins or following inhibition of serine proteinases by canonical inhibitors or upon acylation of chymotrypsin by N-trans-cinnamoylimidazole. We suggest that part of the large enthalpy change that occurs during the structural transition of serpins is used to stabilize the proteinase in its inactive state.

  4. Biochemical and microbial changes during the storage of minimally processed cantaloupe.

    PubMed

    Lamikanra, O; Chen, J C; Banks, D; Hunter, P A

    2000-12-01

    The effect of storage time on pH, titratable acidity, degrees Brix, organic acids, sugars, amino acids, and color of minimally processed cantaloupe melon (Cucumis melo L. var. reticulatus Naud. cv. Mission) was determined at 4 degrees C and 20 degrees C. Changes in most of the biochemical parameters with storage time were relatively slow at the lower temperature. At 20 degrees C, a 17% loss in soluble solids and a 2-fold increase in acidity occurred after 2 days. Organic acid content also increased considerably with time at this temperature as a result of the production of lactic acid. Oxalic, citric, malic, and succinic acids were the organic acids, and glucose, fructose, and sucrose were the sugars present in the freshly cut cantaloupe. Malic acid concentration decreased concurrently with lactic acid production indicating the possible involvement of anaerobic malo-lactic fermentation along with sugar utilization by lactic acid bacteria. The effect of storage on microbial growth was determined at 4, 10, and 20 degrees C. Gram-negative stained rods grew at a slower rate at 4 degrees C and 10 degrees C than the Gram-positive mesophilic bacteria that dominated microorganism growth at 20 degrees C. Eighteen amino acids were identified in fresh cantaloupe: aspartic acid, glutamic acid, asparagine, serine, glutamine, glycine, histidine, arginine, threonine, alanine, proline, tyrosine, valine, methionine, isoleucine, leucine, phenyl alanine, and lysine. The dominant amino acids were aspartic acid, glutamic acid, arginine, and alanine. Total amino acid content decreased rapidly at 20 degrees C, but only a slight decrease occurred at 4 degrees C after prolonged storage. Changes in lightness (L), chroma, and hue at both temperatures indicate the absence of browning reactions. The results indicate the potential use of lactic acid and lactic acid bacteria as quality control markers in minimally processed fruits.

  5. Reliability and minimal detectable change of the weight-bearing lunge test: A systematic review.

    PubMed

    Powden, Cameron J; Hoch, Johanna M; Hoch, Matthew C

    2015-08-01

    Ankle dorsiflexion range of motion (DROM) is often a point of emphasis during the rehabilitation of lower extremity pathologies. With the growing popularity of weight-bearing DROM assessments, several versions of the weight-bearing lunge (WBLT) test have been developed and numerous reliability studies have been conducted. The purpose of this systematic review was to critically appraise and synthesize the studies which examined the reliability and responsiveness of the WBLT to assess DROM. A systematic search of PubMed and EBSCO Host databases from inception to September 2014 was conducted to identify studies whose primary aim was assessing the reliability of the WBLT. The Quality Appraisal of Reliability Studies assessment tool was utilized to determine the quality of included studies. Relative reliability was examined through intraclass correlation coefficients (ICC) and responsiveness was evaluated through minimal detectable change (MDC). A total of 12 studies met the eligibility criteria and were included. Nine included studies assessed inter-clinician reliability and 12 included studies assessed intra-clinician reliability. There was strong evidence that inter-clinician reliability (ICC = 0.80-0.99) as well as intra-clinician reliability (ICC = 0.65-0.99) of the WBLT is good. Additionally, average MDC scores of 4.6° or 1.6 cm for inter-clinician and 4.7° or 1.9 cm for intra-clinician were found, indicating the minimal change in DROM needed to be outside the error of the WBLT. This systematic review determined that the WBLT, regardless of method, can be used clinically to assess DROM as it provides consistent results between one or more clinicians and demonstrates reasonable responsiveness.

  6. Alveolar dimensional changes relevant to implant placement after minimally traumatic tooth extraction with primary closure.

    PubMed

    Carranza, Nelson; Bonta, Hernan; Gualtieri, Ariel F; Rojas, Mariana A; Galli, Federico G; Caride, Facundo

    2016-09-01

    The purpose of this study is to evaluate the dimensional changes that occur in the alveolar ridge after minimally traumatic tooth extraction by means of computed tomography (CT), with special focus on the portion of bone supporting the gingival zenith. Twenty subjects with indication for singlerooted tooth extraction and preserved alveolar walls were selected for this study. After a minimally traumatic extraction, two CT scans were performed; the first within 24 hours postextraction (TC1) and the second 6 months (TC2) later. A radiographic guide with a radiopaque marker was used to obtain references that enabled accurate measurements over time, in both vertical and horizontal directions. The bone crest immediately apical to the gingival zenith was identified and termed "osseous zenith". The displacement of the osseous zenith in horizontal and vertical direction was analyzed and correlated with several alveolar anatomical variables with the aim of identifying possible predictors for bone remodeling. Dimensional changes that occur in postextraction sockets within a 6month period showed significant vertical and horizontal displacement of the osseous zenith (p<0.001). Mean vertical resorption was 2.1 ± 1.7 mm, with a median of 1.9 mm and a range of 0.2 to 7.5 mm. Mean horizontal resorption was 1.8 ± 0.8 mm with a median of 1.7 mm and a range of 0.6 to 4.4 mm. However, no correlation was found between the width of the facial alveolar crest and the displacement of the osseous zenith. The results of the present study showed that if the width of the facial crest at the apicalcoronal midpoint is less than 0.7 mm, a high degree of displacement of the osseous zenith (> 3 mm) should be expected. The present study suggests that the width of the alveolar crest at its midlevel, rather than crestal width, may be correlated with the displacement of the osseous zenith.

  7. Estimating heart shift and morphological changes during minimally invasive cardiac interventions

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Linte, Cristian A.; Carias, Mathew; Cho, Daniel S.; Pace, Danielle F.; Moore, John; Wedlake, Chris; Bainbridge, Daniel; Kiaii, Bob; Peters, Terry M.

    2010-02-01

    Image-guided interventions rely on the common assumption that pre-operative information can depict intraoperative morphology with sufficient accuracy. Nevertheless, in the context of minimally invasive cardiac therapy delivery, this assumption loses ground; the heart is a soft-tissue organ prone to changes induced during access to the heart and especially intracardiac targets. In addition to its clinical value for cardiac interventional guidance and assistance with the image- and model-to-patient registration, here we show how ultrasound imaging may be used to estimate changes in the heart position and morphology of structures of interest at different stages in the procedure. Using a magnetically tracked 2D transesophageal echocardiography transducer, we acquired in vivo images of the heart at different stages during the procedural workflow of common minimally invasive cardiac procedures, including robot-assisted coronary artery bypass grafting, mitral valve replacement/repair, or modelenhanced US-guided intracardiac interventions, all in the coordinate system of the tracking system. Anatomical features of interest (mitral and aortic valves) used to register the pre-operative anatomical models to the intraoperative coordinate frame were identified from each dataset. This information allowed us to identify the global position of the heart and also characterize the valvular structures at various peri-operative stages, in terms of their orientation, size, and geometry. Based on these results, we can estimate the differences between the preand intra-operative anatomical features, their effect on the model-to-subject registration, and also identify the need to update or optimize any pre-operative surgical plan to better suit the intra-operative procedure workflow.

  8. A better prediction of conformational changes of proteins using minimally connected network models

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Ahmadi Toussi, Cyrus; Soheilifard, Reza

    2016-12-01

    Elastic network models have recently been used for studying low-frequency collective motions of proteins. These models simplify the complexity that arises from normal mode analysis by considering a simplified potential involving a few parameters. Two common parameters in most of the elastic network models are cutoff radius and force constant. Although the latter has been studied extensively and even elaborate new models were introduced, for the former usually an ad-hoc cutoff radius is considered. Moreover, the quality of the network models is usually assessed by evaluating their prediction against experimental B-factors. In this work, we consider various common elastic network models with different cutoff radii and assess them by their ability to predict conformational changes of proteins in complexes from unbound to bound state. This prediction is performed by perturbing the unbound structure using a number of low-frequency normal modes of its network model to optimally fit the bound structure. We evaluated a dataset of 30 proteins with distinct unbound and bound structures using this criterion. The results showed that, opposed to the common calibration process based on B-factors, a meaningful relationship exists between the quality of the prediction and model parameters. It was shown that the cutoff radius has a major role in this prediction and minimally connected network models, which use the shortest cutoff radius for which the network is stable, give the best results. It was also shown that by considering the first ten normal modes, the conformational changes can be predicted by about 25 percent. Hence, the evaluation process was extended to the case of considering the contribution of all normal modes in the prediction. The results indicated that minimally connected network models are superior, despite their simplicity, when any number of modes are considered in the prediction.

  9. Change in condylar position in posterior bending osteotomy minimizing condylar torque in BSSRO for facial asymmetry.

    PubMed

    Yang, Hoon Joo; Hwang, Soon Jung

    2014-06-01

    During the correction of an asymmetric mandible with sagittal split ramus osteotomy (SSRO), bony interference between the proximal and distal segments inevitably occurs. This results in positional change of the condyle. In order to avoid this, a posterior bending osteotomy (PBO) has been introduced. This is an additional vertical osteotomy posterior to the second molar after SSRO. To investigate the change in condylar position after SSRO with PBO, 22 patients with facial asymmetry were enrolled and divided into two groups based on the surgical method used to remove the bony interference after SSRO: PBO (n = 13) and the grinding method (n = 9). Each group was subdivided into large and small bony interference groups by estimating the volume of bony interference with simulation surgery. Condylar displacement was evaluated by three-dimensional superimposition and the amount of condylar displacement was calculated. The positional changes of the condyles were variable in each patient. When comparing patients with large bony interference in the PBO and grinding groups, the condyles were significantly inwardly rotated in the grinding group (p < 0.05). The grinding method can be used to remove small bony interferences with tolerable condylar torque. However, PBO would be beneficial in correcting large bony interferences while minimizing condylar torque.

  10. Minimal change of thermal continentality in Slovakia within the period 1961-2013

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Vilček, Jozef; Škvarenina, Jaroslav; Vido, Jaroslav; Nalevanková, Paulína; Kandrík, Radoslav; Škvareninová, Jana

    2016-08-01

    Thermal continentality plays an important role not only in the basic characterisation of the climate in particular regions but also in the phytogeographic distribution of plants and ecosystem formation. Due to ongoing climate change, questions surrounding the changes of thermal continentality are very relevant. Therefore, the aim of this study is to investigate the characteristics of thermal continentality and its temporal changes in the Slovak Republic between the years of 1961 and 2013. The study was carried out on several meteorological stations selected in respect to the geographical and geomorphological heterogeneity of Slovakia. Our results show that the continentality of Slovakia increased in the period 1961 to 2013; however, this trend is not significant. These non-significant trends are confirmed at all the stations. Nevertheless, it is necessary to be aware of this signal, especially because these changes could cause changes in ecosystem formation in future.

  11. Effective treatment with rituximab for the maintenance of remission in frequently relapsing minimal change disease

    PubMed Central

    Shendi, Ali M.; Salama, Alan D.; Khosravi, Maryam; Connolly, John O.; Trompeter, Richard

    2016-01-01

    Abstract Aim Treatment of frequently relapsing or steroid‐dependent minimal change disease (MCD) in children and adults remains challenging. Glucocorticoids and/or other immunosuppressive agents are the mainstay of treatment, but patients often experience toxicity from prolonged exposure and may either become treatment dependent and/or resistant. Increasing evidence suggests that rituximab (RTX) can be a useful alternative to standard immunosuppression and allow withdrawal of maintenance immunosuppressants; however, data on optimal treatment regimens, long‐term efficacy and safety are still limited. Methods We undertook a prospective study of RTX to allow immunosuppression minimization in 15 young adults with frequently relapsing or steroid‐dependent, biopsy‐proven MCD. All patients were in remission at the start of treatment and on a calcineurin inhibitor. Two doses of RTX (1 gr) were given 6 months apart. A subset of patients also received an additional dose 12 months later, in order to examine the benefit of re‐treatment. Biochemical and clinical parameters were monitored over an extended follow‐up period of up to 43 months. Results Median steroid‐free survival after RTX was 25 months (range 4–34). Mean relapse frequency decreased from 2.60 ± 0.28 to 0.4 ± 0.19 (P < 0.001) after RTX. Seven relapses occurred, five of which (71%) when CD19 counts were greater than 100 µ. Immunoglobulin levels remained unchanged, and no major side effects were observed throughout the follow‐up period. Conclusions Rituximab therapy is effective at maintaining prolonged steroid‐free remission and reducing relapse frequency in this group of patients. Our study lends further support for the role of RTX in the treatment of patients with frequently relapsing or steroid‐dependent MCD. PMID:26860320

  12. A Unique Cause of Proteinuria in Pregnancy: Class II Lupus Nephritis with Concomitant Minimal Change Disease

    PubMed Central

    Kunjal, Ryan; Adam-Eldien, Rabie; Makary, Raafat; Jo-Hoy, Francois; Heilig, Charles W.

    2016-01-01

    We report the case of a 22-year-old African American female who presented to another facility for routine follow-up in the 34th week of pregnancy with lower extremity swelling and nephrotic-range proteinuria. Although she was normotensive, it was initially thought that she had preeclampsia. She was monitored carefully and delivery was induced at 37 weeks of gestation. She was transferred to our hospital, where she was diagnosed with systemic lupus erythematosus (SLE) based on clinical and laboratory criteria. Renal biopsy revealed a surprising finding of minimal change disease (MCD) concomitant with class II lupus nephritis (LN). She was managed with pulses and then tapering doses of steroid therapy with dramatic resolution of the nephrotic syndrome. This case demonstrates not only the rare de novo occurrence of SLE in pregnancy, but the unique finding of MCD coexisting with class II LN. We propose that altered T cell activity may be the link between these seemingly distinct entities. PMID:27781205

  13. Minimizing impacts of land use change on ecosystem services using multi-criteria heuristic analysis.

    PubMed

    Keller, Arturo A; Fournier, Eric; Fox, Jessica

    2015-06-01

    Development of natural landscapes to support human activities impacts the capacity of the landscape to provide ecosystem services. Typically, several ecosystem services are impacted at a single development site and various footprint scenarios are possible, thus a multi-criteria analysis is needed. Restoration potential should also be considered for the area surrounding the permanent impact site. The primary objective of this research was to develop a heuristic approach to analyze multiple criteria (e.g. impacts to various ecosystem services) in a spatial configuration with many potential development sites. The approach was to: (1) quantify the magnitude of terrestrial ecosystem service (biodiversity, carbon sequestration, nutrient and sediment retention, and pollination) impacts associated with a suite of land use change scenarios using the InVEST model; (2) normalize results across categories of ecosystem services to allow cross-service comparison; (3) apply the multi-criteria heuristic algorithm to select sites with the least impact to ecosystem services, including a spatial criterion (separation between sites). As a case study, the multi-criteria impact minimization algorithm was applied to InVEST output to select 25 potential development sites out of 204 possible locations (selected by other criteria) within a 24,000 ha property. This study advanced a generally applicable spatial multi-criteria approach for 1) considering many land use footprint scenarios, 2) balancing impact decisions across a suite of ecosystem services, and 3) determining the restoration potential of ecosystem services after impacts.

  14. [A case of AKI-caused minimal change nephrotic syndrome with concomitant pleuritis].

    PubMed

    Watanabe, Renya; Abe, Yasuhiro; Sasaki, Masaru; Hamauchi, Aki; Yasunaga, Tomoe; Kurata, Satoshi; Yasuno, Tetsuhiko; Ito, Kenji; Sasatomi, Yoshie; Hisano, Satoshi; Nakashima, Hitoshi

    2016-01-01

    A twenty-year-old man complaining of chest pain was diagnosed as nephrotic syndrome complicated with pleural effusion and ascites. Despite treatment with antibiotics, his fever and high inflammatory reaction persisted. After hospitalization, his urine volume decreased and renal function had deteriorated. As he was suffering from dyspnea, hemodialysis was performed together with chest drainage. His pleural effusion was exudative, and IVIG treatment was added to the antibiotic treatment. He was diagnosed as suspected developed minimal change nephrotic syndrome (MCNS) and administered prednisolone intravenously. His renal function ameliorated as a result of this treatment, enabling him to withdraw from hemodialysis. Inflammatory reaction gradually decreased and his general condition improved. The result of a renal biopsy examination carried out after the hemodialysis treatment confirmed MCNS, which suggested that MCNS had induced acute kidney injury (AKI) atypically in this case. Generally AKI is not induced by MCNS in youth, but it may occur under severe inflammatory conditions. Physicians should be aware that MCNS in young patients may lead to the development of AKI requiring hemodialysis treatment.

  15. Minimal changes of thyroid axis activity influence brain functions in young females affected by subclinical hypothyroidism.

    PubMed

    Menicucci, D; Sebastiani, L; Comparini, A; Pingitore, A; Ghelarducci, B; L'Abbate, A; Iervasi, G; Gemignani, A

    2013-03-01

    There is evidence of an association between thyroid hormones (TH) alterations and mental dysfunctions related to procedural and working memory functions, but the physiological link between these domains is still under debate, also for the presence of age as a confounding factor. Thus, we investigated the TH tuning of cerebral functions in young females affected by the borderline condition of subclinical hypothyroidism (SH) and in euthyroid females of the same age. The experiment consisted in the characterization of the affective state and cognitive abilities of the subjects by means of specific neuropsychological questionnaires, and of brain activity (EEG) in resting state and during the passive viewing of emotional video-clips. We found that SH had i) increased anxiety for Physical Danger; ii) better scores for both Mental Control and no-working-memory-related functions; iii) association between anxiety for Physical Danger and fT4 levels. Thus, in young adults, SH increases inward attention and paradoxically improves some cognitive functions. In addition, self-assessed questionnaires showed that SH had a greater susceptibility to unpleasant emotional stimulation. As for EEG data, SH compared to controls showed: i) reduction of alpha activity and of gamma left lateralization in resting state; ii) increased, and lateralized to the right, beta2 activity during stimulations. Both results indicated that SH have higher levels of arousal and greater susceptibility to negative emotion than controls. In conclusion, our study indicates that minimal changes in TH levels produce subtle but well-defined mental changes, thus encouraging further studies for the prediction of pathology evolution.

  16. Change in Water Cycle- Important Issue on Climate Earth System

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Singh, Pratik

    Change in Water Cycle- Important Issue on Climate Earth System PRATIK KUMAR SINGH1 1BALDEVRAM MIRDHA INSTITUTE OF TECHNOLOGY,JAIPUR (RAJASTHAN) ,INDIA Water is everywhere on Earth and is the only known substance that can naturally exist as a gas, liquid, and solid within the relatively small range of air temperatures and pressures found at the Earth's surface.Changes in the hydrological cycle as a consequence of climate and land use drivers are expected to play a central role in governing a vast range of environmental impacts.Earth's climate will undergo changes in response to natural variability, including solar variability, and to increasing concentrations of green house gases and aerosols.Further more, agreement is widespread that these changes may profoundly affect atmospheric water vapor concentrations, clouds and precipitation patterns.As we know that ,a warmer climate, directly leading to increased evaporation, may well accelerate the hydrological cycle, resulting in an increase in the amount of moisture circulating through the atmosphere.The Changing Water Cycle programmer will develop an integrated, quantitative understanding of the changes taking place in the global water cycle, involving all components of the earth system, improving predictions for the next few decades of regional precipitation, evapotranspiration, soil moisture, hydrological storage and fluxes.The hydrological cycle involves evaporation, transpiration, condensation, precipitation, and runoff. NASA's Aqua satellite will monitor many aspects of the role of water in the Earth's systems, and will do so at spatial and temporal scales appropriate to foster a more detailed understanding of each of the processes that contribute to the hydrological cycle. These data and the analyses of them will nurture the development and refinement of hydrological process models and a corresponding improvement in regional and global climate models, with a direct anticipated benefit of more accurate weather and

  17. Validity, Responsiveness, Minimal Detectable Change, and Minimal Clinically Important Change of the Pediatric Motor Activity Log in Children with Cerebral Palsy

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Lin, Keh-chung; Chen, Hui-fang; Chen, Chia-ling; Wang, Tien-ni; Wu, Ching-yi; Hsieh, Yu-wei; Wu, Li-ling

    2012-01-01

    This study examined criterion-related validity and clinimetric properties of the Pediatric Motor Activity Log (PMAL) in children with cerebral palsy. Study participants were 41 children (age range: 28-113 months) and their parents. Criterion-related validity was evaluated by the associations between the PMAL and criterion measures at baseline and…

  18. Importance of dispersal routes that minimize open-ocean movement to the genetic structure of island populations.

    PubMed

    Harradine, E L; Andrew, M E; Thomas, J W; How, R A; Schmitt, L H; Spencer, P B S

    2015-12-01

    Islands present a unique scenario in conservation biology, offering refuge yet imposing limitations on insular populations. The Kimberley region of northwestern Australia has more than 2500 islands that have recently come into focus as substantial conservation resources. It is therefore of great interest for managers to understand the driving forces of genetic structure of species within these island archipelagos. We used the ubiquitous bar-shouldered skink (Ctenotus inornatus) as a model species to represent the influence of landscape factors on genetic structure across the Kimberley islands. On 41 islands and 4 mainland locations in a remote area of Australia, we genotyped individuals across 18 nuclear (microsatellite) markers. Measures of genetic differentiation and diversity were used in two complementary analyses. We used circuit theory and Mantel tests to examine the influence of the landscape matrix on population connectivity and linear regression and model selection based on Akaike's information criterion to investigate landscape controls on genetic diversity. Genetic differentiation between islands was best predicted with circuit-theory models that accounted for the large difference in resistance to dispersal between land and ocean. In contrast, straight-line distances were unrelated to either resistance distances or genetic differentiation. Instead, connectivity was determined by island-hopping routes that allow organisms to minimize the distance of difficult ocean passages. Island populations of C. inornatus retained varying degrees of genetic diversity (NA = 1.83 - 7.39), but it was greatest on islands closer to the mainland, in terms of resistance-distance units. In contrast, genetic diversity was unrelated to island size. Our results highlight the potential for islands to contribute to both theoretical and applied conservation, provide strong evidence of the driving forces of population structure within undisturbed landscapes, and identify the islands

  19. 9 CFR 94.19 - Restrictions on importation from BSE minimal-risk regions of meat and edible products from...

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-01-01

    ... than meat (excluding gelatin that meets the conditions of § 94.18(c), milk, and milk products), from... requirements established by the U.S. Food and Drug Administration at 21 CFR 589.2000. (f) Gelatin other than that allowed importation under § 94.18(c). The gelatin is derived from: (1) The bones of...

  20. 9 CFR 94.19 - Restrictions on importation from BSE minimal-risk regions of meat and edible products from...

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-01-01

    ... gelatin that meets the conditions of § 94.18(c), milk, and milk products), from bovines, sheep, or goats... requirements established by the U.S. Food and Drug Administration at 21 CFR 589.2000. (f) Gelatin other than that allowed importation under § 94.18(c). The gelatin is derived from: (1) The bones of...

  1. 9 CFR 94.19 - Restrictions on importation from BSE minimal-risk regions of meat and edible products from...

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-01-01

    ... gelatin that meets the conditions of § 94.18(c), milk, and milk products), from bovines, sheep, or goats... requirements established by the U.S. Food and Drug Administration at 21 CFR 589.2000. (f) Gelatin other than that allowed importation under § 94.18(c). The gelatin is derived from: (1) The bones of...

  2. 9 CFR 94.19 - Restrictions on importation from BSE minimal-risk regions of meat and edible products from...

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-01-01

    ... gelatin that meets the conditions of § 94.18(c), milk, and milk products), from bovines, sheep, or goats... requirements established by the U.S. Food and Drug Administration at 21 CFR 589.2000. (f) Gelatin other than that allowed importation under § 94.18(c). The gelatin is derived from: (1) The bones of...

  3. Importance of coastal change variables in determining vulnerability to sea- and lake-level change

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Pendleton, E.A.; Thieler, E.R.; Williams, S.J.

    2010-01-01

    In 2001, the U.S. Geological Survey began conducting scientific assessments of coastal vulnerability to potential future sea- and lake-level changes in 22 National Park Service sea- and lakeshore units. Coastal park units chosen for the assessment included a variety of geological and physical settings along the U.S. Atlantic, Pacific, Gulf of Mexico, Gulf of Alaska, Caribbean, and Great Lakes shorelines. This research is motivated by the need to understand and anticipate coastal changes caused by accelerating sea-level rise, as well as lake-level changes caused by climate change, over the next century. The goal of these assessments is to provide information that can be used to make long-term (decade to century) management decisions. Here we analyze the results of coastal vulnerability assessments for several coastal national park units. Index-based assessments quantify the likelihood that physical changes may occur based on analysis of the following variables: tidal range, ice cover, wave height, coastal slope, historical shoreline change rate, geomorphology, and historical rate of relative sea- or lake-level change. This approach seeks to combine a coastal system's susceptibility to change with its natural ability to adapt to changing environmental conditions, and it provides a measure of the system's potential vulnerability to the effects of sea- or lake-level change. Assessments for 22 park units are combined to evaluate relationships among the variables used to derive the index. Results indicate that Atlantic and Gulf of Mexico parks have the highest vulnerability rankings relative to other park regions. A principal component analysis reveals that 99% of the index variability can be explained by four variables: geomorphology, regional coastal slope, water-level change rate, and mean significant wave height. Tidal range, ice cover, and historical shoreline change are not as important when the index is evaluated at large spatial scales (thousands of kilometers

  4. Network rewiring is an important mechanism of gene essentiality change

    PubMed Central

    Kim, Jinho; Kim, Inhae; Han, Seong Kyu; Bowie, James U.; Kim, Sanguk

    2012-01-01

    Gene essentiality changes are crucial for organismal evolution. However, it is unclear how essentiality of orthologs varies across species. We investigated the underlying mechanism of gene essentiality changes between yeast and mouse based on the framework of network evolution and comparative genomic analysis. We found that yeast nonessential genes become essential in mouse when their network connections rapidly increase through engagement in protein complexes. The increased interactions allowed the previously nonessential genes to become members of vital pathways. By accounting for changes in gene essentiality, we firmly reestablished the centrality-lethality rule, which proposed the relationship of essential genes and network hubs. Furthermore, we discovered that the number of connections associated with essential and non-essential genes depends on whether they were essential in ancestral species. Our study describes for the first time how network evolution occurs to change gene essentiality. PMID:23198090

  5. [DSM-5: important changes in the field of addictive diseases].

    PubMed

    Heinz, A; Friedel, E

    2014-05-01

    There are two major changes in the Diagnostic and Statistical Manual of Mental Disorders (DSM-5) concerning the field of addiction. Firstly, the previous distinction between abuse and dependence has been abolished and both disorders are now subsumed under the category addiction and related disorders. Secondly, pathological gambling has now been included in the section of addiction with slight changes in diagnostic criteria. Both changes have major implications for the definition and conceptualization of what we call a psychiatric "disease" or "disorder", which have also been addressed in the introductory statement of DSM-5. Concerning the category of abuse that is now part of substance use disorders, there is a concern that a well-defined disorder ("dependence") is now mixed with a less well-defined syndrome ("abuse"). The inclusion of non-substance, behavioral addictions poses the danger of pathologizing a wide range of human behavior in future revisions of the classification. Both concerns are further addressed in this article.

  6. Approvals, Submission, and Important Labeling Changes for US Marketed Pharmaceuticals

    PubMed Central

    Baker, Danial E.

    2013-01-01

    This monthly feature will help readers keep current on new drugs, new indications, dosage forms, and safety-related changes in labeling or use. Efforts have been made to ensure the accuracy of this information; however, if there are any questions, please let me know at bakerdan@wsu.edu. PMID:24421469

  7. Approvals, Submission, and Important Labeling Changes for US Marketed Pharmaceuticals

    PubMed Central

    Baker, Danial E.

    2015-01-01

    This monthly feature will help readers keep current on new drugs, new indications, dosage forms, and safety-related changes in labeling or use. Efforts have been made to ensure the accuracy of this information; however, if there are any questions, please let me know at danial.baker@wsu.edu. PMID:26823622

  8. Approvals, Submission, and Important Labeling Changes for US Marketed Pharmaceuticals

    PubMed Central

    Baker, Danial E.

    2014-01-01

    This monthly feature will help readers keep current on new drugs, new indications, dosage forms, and safety-related changes in labeling or use. Efforts have been made to ensure the accuracy of this information; however, if there are any questions, please let me know at danial.baker@wsu.edu. PMID:25477570

  9. Approvals, Submission, and Important Labeling Changes for US Marketed Pharmaceuticals

    PubMed Central

    Baker, Danial E.

    2015-01-01

    This monthly feature will help readers keep current on new drugs, new indications, dosage forms, and safety-related changes in labeling or use. Efforts have been made to ensure the accuracy of this information; however, if there are any questions, please let me know at danial.baker@wsu.edu. PMID:25717211

  10. Approvals, Submission, and Important Labeling Changes for US Marketed Pharmaceuticals

    PubMed Central

    Baker, Danial E.

    2013-01-01

    This monthly feature will help readers keep current on new drugs, new indications, dosage forms, and safety-related changes in labeling or use. Efforts have been made to ensure the accuracy of this information; however, if there are any questions, please let me know at bakerdan@wsu.edu. PMID:24421539

  11. Approvals, Submission, and Important Labeling Changes for US Marketed Pharmaceuticals

    PubMed Central

    Baker, Danial E.

    2013-01-01

    This monthly feature will help readers keep current on new drugs, new indications, dosage forms, and safety-related changes in labeling or use. Efforts have been made to ensure the accuracy of this information; however, if there are any questions, please let me know at bakerdan@wsu.edu. PMID:24421513

  12. Approvals, Submission, and Important Labeling Changes for US Marketed Pharmaceuticals

    PubMed Central

    Baker, Danial E.

    2015-01-01

    This monthly feature will help readers keep current on new drugs, new indications, dosage forms, and safety-related changes in labeling or use. Efforts have been made to ensure the accuracy of this information; however, if there are any questions, please let me know at danial.baker@wsu.edu. PMID:26912923

  13. Approvals, Submission, and Important Labeling Changes for US Marketed Pharmaceuticals

    PubMed Central

    Baker, Danial E.

    2014-01-01

    This monthly feature will help readers keep current on new drugs, new indications, dosage forms, and safety-related changes in labeling or use. Efforts have been made to ensure the accuracy of this information; however, if there are any questions, please let me know at danial.baker@wsu.edu. PMID:25477618

  14. Approvals, Submission, and Important Labeling Changes for US Marketed Pharmaceuticals

    PubMed Central

    Baker, Danial E.

    2015-01-01

    This monthly feature will help readers keep current on new drugs, new indications, dosage forms, and safety-related changes in labeling or use. Efforts have been made to ensure the accuracy of this information; however, if there are any questions, please let me know at danial.baker@wsu.edu. PMID:27729682

  15. Approvals, Submission, and Important Labeling Changes for US Marketed Pharmaceuticals

    PubMed Central

    Baker, Danial E.

    2014-01-01

    This monthly feature will help readers keep current on new drugs, new indications, dosage forms, and safety-related changes in labeling or use. Efforts have been made to ensure the accuracy of this information; however, if there are any questions, please let me know at danial.baker@wsu.edu. PMID:24421565

  16. Approvals, Submission, and Important Labeling Changes for US Marketed Pharmaceuticals

    PubMed Central

    Baker, Danial E.

    2015-01-01

    This monthly feature will help readers keep current on new drugs, new indications, dosage forms, and safety-related changes in labeling or use. Efforts have been made to ensure the accuracy of this information; however, if there are any questions, please let me know at danial.baker@wsu.edu. PMID:26405328

  17. Approvals, Submission, and Important Labeling Changes for US Marketed Pharmaceuticals

    PubMed Central

    2014-01-01

    This monthly feature will help readers keep current on new drugs, new indications, dosage forms, and safety-related changes in labeling or use. Efforts have been made to ensure the accuracy of this information; however, if there are any questions, please let me know at danial.baker@wsu.edu. PMID:24623873

  18. Approvals, Submission, and Important Labeling Changes for US Marketed Pharmaceuticals

    PubMed Central

    Baker, Danial E.

    2015-01-01

    This monthly feature will help readers keep current on new drugs, new indications, dosage forms, and safety-related changes in labeling or use. Efforts have been made to ensure the accuracy of this information; however, if there are any questions, please let me know at danial.baker@wsu.edu. PMID:26405346

  19. Approvals, Submission, and Important Labeling Changes for US Marketed Pharmaceuticals

    PubMed Central

    Baker, Danial E.

    2015-01-01

    This monthly feature will help readers keep current on new drugs, new indications, dosage forms, and safety-related changes in labeling or use. Efforts have been made to ensure the accuracy of this information; however, if there are any questions, please let me know at danial.baker@wsu.edu. PMID:26448675

  20. Ice sheets play important role in climate change

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Clark, Peter U.; MacAyeal, Douglas R.; Andrews, John T.; Bartlein, Patrick J.

    Ice sheets once were viewed as passive elements in the climate system enslaved to orbitally generated variations in solar radiation. Today, modeling results and new geologic records suggest that ice sheets actively participated in late-Pleistocene climate change, amplifying or driving significant variability at millennial as well as orbital timescales. Although large changes in global ice volume were ultimately caused by orbital variations (the Milankovitch hypothesis), once in existence, the former ice sheets behaved dynamically and strongly influenced regional and perhaps even global climate by altering atmospheric and oceanic circulation and temperature.Experiments with General Circulation Models (GCMs) yielded the first inklings of ice sheets' climatic significance. Manabe and Broccoli [1985], for example, found that the topographic and albedo effects of ice sheets alone explain much of the Northern Hemisphere cooling identified in paleoclimatic records of the last glacial maximum (˜21 ka).

  1. Therapeutic variability in adult minimal change disease and focal segmental glomerulosclerosis

    PubMed Central

    Fernandez-Juarez, Gema; Villacorta, Javier; Ruiz-Roso, Gloria; Panizo, Nayara; Martinez-Marín, Isabel; Marco, Helena; Arrizabalaga, Pilar; Díaz, Montserrat; Perez-Gómez, Vanessa; Vaca, Marco; Rodríguez, Eva; Cobelo, Carmen; Fernandez, Loreto; Avila, Ana; Praga, Manuel; Quereda, Carlos; Ortiz, Alberto

    2016-01-01

    Background Variability in the management of glomerulonephritis may negatively impact efficacy and safety. However, there are little/no data on actual variability in the treatment of minimal change disease (MCD)/focal segmental glomerulosclerosis (FSGS) in adults. We assessed Spanish practice patterns for the management of adult nephrotic syndrome due to MCD or FSGS. The absence of reasonably good evidence on treatment for a disease often increases the variability substantially. Identification of evidence–practice gaps is the first necessary step in the knowledge-to-action cyclical process. We aim to analyse the real clinical practice in adults in hospitals in Spain and compare this with the recently released Kidney Disease: Improving Global Outcomes clinical practice guideline for glomerulonephritis. Methods Participating centres were required to include all adult patients (age >18 years) with a biopsy-proven diagnosis of MCD or FSGS from 2007 to 2011. Exclusion criteria included the diagnosis of secondary nephropathy. Results We studied 119 Caucasian patients with biopsy-proven MCD (n = 71) or FSGS (n = 48) from 13 Spanish hospitals. Of these patients, 102 received immunosuppressive treatment and 17 conservative treatment. The initial treatment was steroids, except in one patient in which mycophenolate mofetil was used. In all patients, the steroids were given as a single daily dose. The mean duration of steroid treatment at initial high doses was 8.7 ± 13.2 weeks and the mean global duration was 38 ± 32 weeks. The duration of initial high-dose steroids was <4 weeks in 41% of patients and >16 weeks in 10.5% of patients. We did find a weak and negative correlation between the duration of whole steroid treatment in the first episode and the number of the later relapses (r = −0.24, P = 0.023). There were 98 relapses and they were more frequent in MCD than in FSGs patients (2.10 ± 1.6 versus 1.56 ± 1.2; P = 0.09). The chosen treatment was mainly steroids (95

  2. [Possible changes in energy-minimizer mechanisms of locomotion due to chronic low back pain - a literature review].

    PubMed

    de Carvalho, Alberito Rodrigo; Andrade, Alexandro; Peyré-Tartaruga, Leonardo Alexandre

    2015-01-01

    One goal of the locomotion is to move the body in the space at the most economical way possible. However, little is known about the mechanical and energetic aspects of locomotion that are affected by low back pain. And in case of occurring some damage, little is known about how the mechanical and energetic characteristics of the locomotion are manifested in functional activities, especially with respect to the energy-minimizer mechanisms during locomotion. This study aimed: a) to describe the main energy-minimizer mechanisms of locomotion; b) to check if there are signs of damage on the mechanical and energetic characteristics of the locomotion due to chronic low back pain (CLBP) which may endanger the energy-minimizer mechanisms. This study is characterized as a narrative literature review. The main theory that explains the minimization of energy expenditure during the locomotion is the inverted pendulum mechanism, by which the energy-minimizer mechanism converts kinetic energy into potential energy of the center of mass and vice-versa during the step. This mechanism is strongly influenced by spatio-temporal gait (locomotion) parameters such as step length and preferred walking speed, which, in turn, may be severely altered in patients with chronic low back pain. However, much remains to be understood about the effects of chronic low back pain on the individual's ability to practice an economic locomotion, because functional impairment may compromise the mechanical and energetic characteristics of this type of gait, making it more costly. Thus, there are indications that such changes may compromise the functional energy-minimizer mechanisms.

  3. Importance of impacts scenarios for the adaptation of agriculture to climate change

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Zullo, J.; Macedo, C.; Pinto, H. S.; Assad, E. D.; Koga Vicente, A.

    2012-12-01

    The great possibility that the climate is already changing, and the most drastic way possible, increases the challenge of agricultural engineering, especially in environmentally vulnerable areas and in regions where agriculture has a high economic and social importance. Knowledge of potential impacts that may be caused by changes in water and thermal regimes in coming decades is increasingly strategic, as they allow the development of techniques to adapt agriculture to climate change and therefore minimizes the risk of undesirable impacts, for example, in food and nutritional security. Thus, the main objective of this paper is to describe a way to generate impacts scenarios caused by anomalies of precipitation and temperature in the definition of climate risk zoning of an agricultural crop very important in the tropics, such as the sugar cane, especially in central-southern Brazil, which is one of its main world producers. A key point here is the choice of the climate model to be used, considering that 23 different models were used in the fourth IPCC report published in 2007. The number and range of available models requires the definition of criteria for choosing the most suitable for the preparation of the impacts scenarios. One way proposed and used in this work is based on the definition of two groups of models according to 27 technical attributes of them. The clustering of 23 models in two groups, with a model representing each group (UKMO_HadCM3 and MIROC3.2_medres), assists the generation and comparison of impacts scenarios, making them more representative and useful. Another important aspect in the generation of impacts scenarios is the estimate of the relative importance of the anomalies of precipitation and temperature, which are the most commonly used. To assess the relative importance of the anomalies are generated scenarios considering an anomaly at a time and both together. The impacts scenarios for a high emission of greenhouse gases (A2), from 2010

  4. Serial Tc-99m MAG3 renography evaluating the recovery of acute kidney injury associated with minimal change nephrotic syndrome.

    PubMed

    Kanazawa, Hidenori; Kotoda, Atsushi; Akimoto, Tetsu; Shinozaki, Takeshi; Inoue, Makoto; Sugimoto, Hideharu; Kusano, Eiji

    2013-01-01

    Acute kidney injury (AKI) is a well-recognized complication of minimal change nephrotic syndrome (MCNS). Previous reports support the concept that AKI associated with MCNS is reversible; however, information regarding the hemodynamic basis of AKI in MCNS is insufficient. We herein describe a case of AKI in a man with MCNS. In this case, monitoring the longitudinal changes in renal perfusion using serial Tc-99m-MAG3 renal scanning was beneficial for evaluating the pathophysiological background associated with the development of AKI. The potential impact of serial renal scanning in MCNS patients with AKI will also be discussed.

  5. The quality of spine surgery from the patient's perspective: part 2. Minimal clinically important difference for improvement and deterioration as measured with the Core Outcome Measures Index.

    PubMed

    Mannion, A F; Porchet, F; Kleinstück, F S; Lattig, F; Jeszenszky, D; Bartanusz, V; Dvorak, J; Grob, D

    2009-08-01

    The Core Outcome Measures Index (COMI) is a reliable and valid instrument for assessing multidimensional outcome in spine surgery. The minimal clinically important score-difference (MCID) for improvement (MCID(imp)) was determined in one of the original research studies validating the instrument, but has never been confirmed in routine clinical practice. Further, the MCID for deterioration (MCID(det)) has never been investigated; indeed, this needs very large sample sizes to obtain sufficient cases with worsening. This study examined the MCIDs of the COMI in routine clinical practice. All patients undergoing surgery in our Spine Center since February 2004 were asked to complete the COMI before and 12 months after surgery. The COMI has one question each on back (neck) pain intensity, leg/buttock (arm/shoulder) pain intensity, function, symptom-specific well-being, general quality of life, work disability, and social disability, scored as a 0-10 index. At follow-up, patients also rated the global effectiveness of surgery, on a 5-point Likert scale. This was used as the external criterion ("anchor") in receiver operating characteristics (ROC) analyses to derive cut-off scores for individual improvement and deterioration. Twelve-month follow-up questionnaires were returned by 3,056 (92%) patients. The group mean COMI score change for patients declaring that the "operation helped" was a reduction of 3.1 points; the corresponding value for those whom it "did not help" was a reduction of 0.5 points. The group MCID(imp) was hence 2.6 points reduction; the corresponding group MCID(det) was 1.2 points increase (0.5 minus -0.7). The area under the ROC curve was 0.88 for MCID(imp) and 0.89 for MCID(det) (both P < 0.0001), indicating that the COMI had good discriminative ability. The cut-offs for individual improvement and deterioration, respectively, were > or =2.2 points decrease (sensitivity 81%, specificity 83%) and > or =0.3 points increase (sensitivity 83%, specificity 88

  6. 76 FR 30550 - Federal Management Regulation; Change in Consumer Price Index Minimal Value

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2011-05-26

    ... ADMINISTRATION 41 CFR Part 102-42 RIN 3090-AJ12 Federal Management Regulation; Change in Consumer Price Index..., to reflect changes in the Consumer Price Index for the immediately preceding 3-year period. The... INFORMATION CONTACT: Mr. Robert Holcombe, Director, Asset Management Policy Division...

  7. Changes in the regional homogeneity of resting-state brain activity in minimal hepatic encephalopathy.

    PubMed

    Chen, Hua-Jun; Zhu, Xi-Qi; Yang, Ming; Liu, Bin; Zhang, Yi; Wang, Yu; Teng, Gao-Jun

    2012-01-17

    Resting-state functional magnetic resonance imaging (fMRI) has facilitated the study of spontaneous brain activity by measuring low-frequency oscillations in blood-oxygen-level-dependent signals. Analyses of regional homogeneity (ReHo), which reflects the local synchrony of neural activity, have been used to reveal the mechanisms underlying the brain dysfunction in various neuropsychiatric diseases. However, it is not known whether the ReHo is altered in cirrhotic patients with minimal hepatic encephalopathy (MHE). We recruited 18 healthy controls and 18 patients with MHE. The ReHo was calculated to assess the strength of the local signal synchrony. Compared with the healthy controls, the patients with MHE had significantly decreased ReHo in the cuneus and adjacent precuneus, and left inferior parietal lobe, whereas the regions showing increased ReHo in patients with MHE included the left parahippocampal gyrus, right cerebellar vermis, and bilateral anterior cerebellar lobes. We found a positive correlation between the mean ReHo in the cuneus and adjacent precuneus and the score on the digit-symbol test in the patient group. In conclusion, the analysis of the regional homogeneity of resting-state brain activity may provide additional information with respect to a clinical definition of MHE.

  8. Changes of minimal erythema dose after water and salt water baths.

    PubMed

    Gambichler, T; Schröpl, F

    1998-01-01

    Knowledge about the influence of salt water baths on UV irradiation, especially balneophototherapy, is incomplete. The aim of this study was to investigate the influence of various concentrated salt solutions on the minimal erythema dose (MED). We determined the MEDdry (UVB) in 24 healthy, previously UV unexposed subjects on the inner forearm. Subjects were divided randomly into two groups of 12. Subsequently, the MEDwet was assessed on each forearm after 30 min tap water or 5% salt water bath (group A), respectively, or after 30 min 10% or 20% salt water bath (group B), respectively. Compared with the MEDdry, a significantly decreased MEDwet, was observed after all exposures (group A==>F = 18.94; P < 0.001; group B==>F = 11.73; P < 0.006). A maximal relative decrease in MEDdry of about 51.4% was observed after the 10% salt water bath. The 5% salt solution caused a modest relative decrease in MEDwet of 23.4%. We observed a markedly increased photosensitivity to UVB after all exposures, without a linear correlation between the MED and the salt water concentration. A determination of MED during balneophototherapy should be carried out after bathing in order to reduce the cumulative UV dose and to prevent acute photodamage.

  9. Minimal Change Nephrotic Syndrome Sequentially Complicated by Acute Kidney Injury and Painful Skin Ulcers due to Calciphylaxis

    PubMed Central

    Sato, Ryuta; Akimoto, Tetsu; Imai, Toshimi; Nakagawa, Saki; Okada, Mari; Miki, Atsushi; Takeda, Shinichi; Yamamoto, Hisashi; Saito, Osamu; Muto, Shigeaki; Kusano, Eiji; Nagata, Daisuke

    2016-01-01

    Calciphylaxis is rare cutaneous manifestation associated with painful skin ulceration and necrosis. It primarily occurs in patients with end-stage chronic kidney disease. In this report, we would like to show our experience with a male patient presenting with minimal change nephrotic syndrome that was sequentially complicated by acute kidney injury and painful ulcerative cutaneous lesions due to calciphylaxis. There seemed to be several contributing factors, including a disturbance of the patient's mineral metabolism and the systemic use of glucocorticoids and warfarin. Various concerns regarding the diagnostic and therapeutic conundrums that were encountered in the present case are also discussed. PMID:27853075

  10. Changes in total ascorbic acid and carotenoids in minimally processed irradiated Arugula (Eruca sativa Mill) stored under refrigeration

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Nunes, Tatiana Pacheco; Martins, Cecília Geraldes; Faria, Adelia Ferreira; Bíscola, Vanessa; de Oliveira Souza, Kátia Leani; Mercadante, Adriana Zerlotti; Cordenunsi, Beatriz Rosana; Landgraf, Mariza

    2013-09-01

    This work investigated the effects of irradiation (0, 1 and 2 kGy) on the content of bioactive compounds such as vitamin C and carotenoids with provitamin A activity in arugula during the storage at 5±1 °C for up to 13 and 16 days, respectively. The vitamin C content decreased in non-irradiated as well as irradiated (1 and 2 kGy) samples during the storage period. On the other hand, no significant change in the content of carotenoids with provitamin A activity was observed after irradiation or storage period. Thus, the irradiation had minimal detrimental effects on the contents of carotenoids in arugula.

  11. Minimal evidence for consistent changes in maize DNA methylation patterns following environmental stress

    PubMed Central

    Eichten, Steven R.; Springer, Nathan M.

    2015-01-01

    DNA methylation is a chromatin modification that is sometimes associated with epigenetic regulation of gene expression. As DNA methylation can be reversible at some loci, it is possible that methylation patterns may change within an organism that is subjected to environmental stress. In order to assess the effects of abiotic stress on DNA methylation patterns in maize (Zea mays), seeding plants were subjected to heat, cold, and UV stress treatments. Tissue was later collected from individual adult plants that had been subjected to stress or control treatments and used to perform DNA methylation profiling to determine whether there were consistent changes in DNA methylation triggered by specific stress treatments. DNA methylation profiling was performed by immunoprecipitation of methylated DNA followed by microarray hybridization to allow for quantitative estimates of DNA methylation abundance throughout the low-copy portion of the maize genome. By comparing the DNA methylation profiles of each individual plant to the average of the control plants it was possible to identify regions of the genome with variable DNA methylation. However, we did not find evidence of consistent DNA methylation changes resulting from the stress treatments used in this study. Instead, the data suggest that there is a low-rate of stochastic variation that is present in both control and stressed plants. PMID:25999972

  12. MINIMAL LIMB VOLUME CHANGE HAS A SIGNIFICANT IMPACT ON BREAST CANCER SURVIVORS

    PubMed Central

    Cormier, J.N.; Xing, Y.; Zaniletti, I.; Askew, R.L.; Stewart, B.R.; Armer, J.M.

    2010-01-01

    We sought to define the incidence, risk factors, symptoms, and quality of life (QOL) outcomes associated with various degrees of postoperative limb volume change (LVC). A prospective cohort study was performed obtaining serial limb volume measurements using a perometer on 269 women undergoing surgery for breast cancer. Four groups were created based on maximum LVC: none <5.0%, mild 5.0–9.9%, moderate 10.0–14.9%, and severe 15.0%. Symptoms and QOL were assessed. 81 (30.1%), 70 (26.0%), and 14 (5.2%) women developed mild, moderate, and severe LVC, respectively. Increases in body mass index (p<0.001) and post-operative complications (p=0.002) were associated with increasing LVC. Lower QOL scores were associated with a moderate LVC (OR=3.72, 95% CI, 1.29–10.73, p=0.015) and postoperative infections (OR=5.04, 95% CI, 1.73–14.70, p=0.003). LVC at 5.0% occurs in up to 61.3% of breast cancer survivors and is associated with a significant increase in symptoms and a change in reported quality of life. PMID:20218084

  13. Climate change inferred from borehole temperatures: minimal "snow effect" from North America

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Bartlett, M. G.; Harris, R. N.; Chapman, D. S.

    2004-05-01

    Borehole temperature-depth profiles contain information about surface ground temperature histories over time scales of several centuries and in particular prior to the widespread availability of surface air temperature records [Huang et al, Nature, 2000; Harris and Chapman, GRL, 2001]. Borehole-based reconstructions on the regional and hemispheric scale yield significantly different magnitudes of warming in the past 500 years when compared to proxy-based reconstructions. Borehole reconstructions suggest that the Northern Hemisphere warming has been about 1.1 ° C while proxy methods indicate warming closer to 0.7 ° C [Mann et al, Nature, 1999]. One suggested reconciliation of borehole and proxy reconstructions is that long-term variations in seasonal snow cover may bias the borehole record. A spurious long-term warming signal relative to SAT trends could be introduced by alteration of the duration or onset of seasonal snow cover over the course of decades or longer. We have developed a "snow effect" model that predicts transient warming or cooling of the surface ground temperature due to changes in the onset, duration, and depth of snow events [Bartlett et al, in review]. We use our model to compute the response of ground temperatures at the regional scale to seasonal snow cover of the past century in North America. Snow and air temperature data used in the model come from the United States Historical Climatology Network (NOAA-NCDC NDP-070) and the Canadian Daily Climatic Dataset (CDCD). Results indicate that variations in snow onset and duration have had the greatest influence in Central North America, leading to ground warming on the order of 0.1-0.2 ° C / 100 yrs in this region relative to SAT trends. Other regions within North America have experienced negligible effects over the past century. We conclude that the magnitude of the snow effect in North America is insufficient to reconcile completely regional borehole and proxy reconstructions of climate change

  14. Designing for Change: Minimizing the Impact of Changing Requirements in the Later Stages of a Spaceflight Software Project

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Allen, B. Danette

    1998-01-01

    In the traditional 'waterfall' model of the software project life cycle, the Requirements Phase ends and flows into the Design Phase, which ends and flows into the Development Phase. Unfortunately, the process rarely, if ever, works so smoothly in practice. Instead, software developers often receive new requirements, or modifications to the original requirements, well after the earlier project phases have been completed. In particular, projects with shorter than ideal schedules are highly susceptible to frequent requirements changes, as the software requirements analysis phase is often forced to begin before the overall system requirements and top-level design are complete. This results in later modifications to the software requirements, even though the software design and development phases may be complete. Requirements changes received in the later stages of a software project inevitably lead to modification of existing developed software. Presented here is a series of software design techniques that can greatly reduce the impact of last-minute requirements changes. These techniques were successfully used to add built-in flexibility to two complex software systems in which the requirements were expected to (and did) change frequently. These large, real-time systems were developed at NASA Langley Research Center (LaRC) to test and control the Lidar In-Space Technology Experiment (LITE) instrument which flew aboard the space shuttle Discovery as the primary payload on the STS-64 mission.

  15. Prognostic consequences of borderline dysnatremia: pay attention to minimal serum sodium change

    PubMed Central

    2013-01-01

    Introduction To assess the prevalence of dysnatremia, including borderline changes in serum sodium concentration, and to estimate the impact of these dysnatremia on mortality after adjustment for confounders. Methods Observational study on a prospective database fed by 13 intensive care units (ICUs). Unselected patients with ICU stay longer than 48 h were enrolled over a 14-year period were included in this study. Mild to severe hyponatremia were defined as serum sodium concentration < 135, < 130, and < 125 mmol/L respectively. Mild to severe hypernatremia were defined as serum sodium concentration > 145, > 150, and > 155 mmol/L respectively. Borderline hyponatremia and hypernatremia were defined as serum sodium concentration between 135 and 137 mmol/L or 143 and 145 respectively. Results A total of 11,125 patients were included in this study. Among these patients, 3,047 (27.4%) had mild to severe hyponatremia at ICU admission, 2,258 (20.3%) had borderline hyponatremia at ICU admission, 1,078 (9.7%) had borderline hypernatremia and 877 (7.9%) had mild to severe hypernatremia. After adjustment for confounder, both moderate and severe hyponatremia (subdistribution hazard ratio (sHR) 1.82, 95% CI 1.002 to 1.395 and 1.27, 95% CI 1.01 to 1.60 respectively) were associated with day-30 mortality. Similarly, mild, moderate and severe hypernatremia (sHR 1.34, 95% CI 1.14 to 1.57; 1.51, 95% CI 1.15 to 1.99; and 2.64, 95% CI 2.00 to 3.81 respectively) were independently associated with day-30 mortality. Conclusions One-third of critically ill patients had a mild to moderate dysnatremia at ICU admission. Dysnatremia, including mild changes in serum sodium concentration, is an independent risk factor for hospital mortality and should not be neglected. PMID:23336363

  16. Structures of minimal catalytic fragments of topoisomerase V reveals conformational changes relevant for DNA binding.

    PubMed

    Rajan, Rakhi; Taneja, Bhupesh; Mondragón, Alfonso

    2010-07-14

    Topoisomerase V is an archaeal type I topoisomerase that is unique among topoisomerases due to presence of both topoisomerase and DNA repair activities in the same protein. It is organized as an N-terminal topoisomerase domain followed by 24 tandem helix-hairpin-helix (HhH) motifs. Structural studies have shown that the active site is buried by the (HhH) motifs. Here we show that the N-terminal domain can relax DNA in the absence of any HhH motifs and that the HhH motifs are required for stable protein-DNA complex formation. Crystal structures of various topoisomerase V fragments show changes in the relative orientation of the domains mediated by a long bent linker helix, and these movements are essential for the DNA to enter the active site. Phosphate ions bound to the protein near the active site helped model DNA in the topoisomerase domain and show how topoisomerase V may interact with DNA.

  17. Structures of Minimal Catalytic Fragments of Topoisomerase V Reveals Conformational Changes Relevant for DNA Binding

    SciTech Connect

    Rajan, Rakhi; Taneja, Bhupesh; Mondragón, Alfonso

    2010-12-03

    Topoisomerase V is an archaeal type I topoisomerase that is unique among topoisomerases due to presence of both topoisomerase and DNA repair activities in the same protein. It is organized as an N-terminal topoisomerase domain followed by 24 tandem helix-hairpin-helix (HhH) motifs. Structural studies have shown that the active site is buried by the (HhH) motifs. Here we show that the N-terminal domain can relax DNA in the absence of any HhH motifs and that the HhH motifs are required for stable protein-DNA complex formation. Crystal structures of various topoisomerase V fragments show changes in the relative orientation of the domains mediated by a long bent linker helix, and these movements are essential for the DNA to enter the active site. Phosphate ions bound to the protein near the active site helped model DNA in the topoisomerase domain and show how topoisomerase V may interact with DNA.

  18. Minimizing the cost of keeping options open for conservation in a changing climate

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Mills, Morena; Nicol, Samuel; Wells, Jessie A.; Lahoz-Monfort, José J.; Wintle, Brendan; Bode, Michael; Wardrop, Martin; Walshe, Terry; Probert, William J. M.; Runge, Michael C.; Possingham, Hugh P.; McDonald Madden, Eve

    2014-01-01

    Policy documents advocate that managers should keep their options open while planning to protect coastal ecosystems from climate-change impacts. However, the actual costs and benefits of maintaining flexibility remain largely unexplored, and alternative approaches for decision making under uncertainty may lead to better joint outcomes for conservation and other societal goals. For example, keeping options open for coastal ecosystems incurs opportunity costs for developers. We devised a decision framework that integrates these costs and benefits with probabilistic forecasts for the extent of sea-level rise to find a balance between coastal ecosystem protection and moderate coastal development. Here, we suggest that instead of keeping their options open managers should incorporate uncertain sea-level rise predictions into a decision-making framework that evaluates the benefits and costs of conservation and development. In our example, based on plausible scenarios for sea-level rise and assuming a risk-neutral decision maker, we found that substantial development could be accommodated with negligible loss of environmental assets. Characterization of the Pareto efficiency of conservation and development outcomes provides valuable insight into the intensity of trade-offs between development and conservation. However, additional work is required to improve understanding of the consequences of alternative spatial plans and the value judgments and risk preferences of decision makers and stakeholders.

  19. Minimizing the cost of keeping options open for conservation in a changing climate.

    PubMed

    Mills, Morena; Nicol, Sam; Wells, Jessie A; Lahoz-Monfort, José J; Wintle, Brendan; Bode, Michael; Wardrop, Martin; Walshe, Terry; Probert, William J M; Runge, Michael C; Possingham, Hugh P; Madden, Eve McDonald

    2014-06-01

    Policy documents advocate that managers should keep their options open while planning to protect coastal ecosystems from climate-change impacts. However, the actual costs and benefits of maintaining flexibility remain largely unexplored, and alternative approaches for decision making under uncertainty may lead to better joint outcomes for conservation and other societal goals. For example, keeping options open for coastal ecosystems incurs opportunity costs for developers. We devised a decision framework that integrates these costs and benefits with probabilistic forecasts for the extent of sea-level rise to find a balance between coastal ecosystem protection and moderate coastal development. Here, we suggest that instead of keeping their options open managers should incorporate uncertain sea-level rise predictions into a decision-making framework that evaluates the benefits and costs of conservation and development. In our example, based on plausible scenarios for sea-level rise and assuming a risk-neutral decision maker, we found that substantial development could be accommodated with negligible loss of environmental assets. Characterization of the Pareto efficiency of conservation and development outcomes provides valuable insight into the intensity of trade-offs between development and conservation. However, additional work is required to improve understanding of the consequences of alternative spatial plans and the value judgments and risk preferences of decision makers and stakeholders.

  20. Twins Bed Rest Project: LBNP/Exercise Minimizes Changes in Lean Leg Mass, Strength and Endurance

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Amorim, Fabiano T.; Schneider, Suzanne M.; Lee, Stuart M. C.; Boda, Wanda L.; Watenpaugh, Donald E.; Hargens, Alan R.

    2006-01-01

    Decreases in muscle strength and endurance frequently are observed in non-weightbearing conditions such as bed rest (BR), spaceflight or limb immobilization. Purpose: Ow purpose was to determine if supine treadmill exercise against simulated gravity, by application of lower body negative pressure (LBNP), prevents loss of lean leg mass, strength and endurance during 30 d of 6deg head-down bed rest (BR). Methods: Fifteen pairs of monozygous twins (8 male, 7 female pairs; 26+/-4 yrs; 170+/-12 cm; 62.6+/-11.3 kg; mean+/-SD) were subjects in the present study. One sibling of each pair of twins was randomly assigned to either an exercise (EX) or non-exercise (CON) group. The EX twin walked/jogged on a vertical treadmill within LBNP chamber 6 d/wk using a 40-min interval exercise protocol at 40-80% of pre-BR VO(sub 2peak). LBNP was adjusted individually for each subject such that footward force was between 1.0 and 1.2 times body weight (-53+/-5 mmHg LBNP). The CON twin performed no exercise during BR. Subjects performed isokinetic knee (60 and 120deg/s) and ankle (60deg/s) testing to assess strength and endurance (End) before and after BR. They also had their lean leg mass (L(sub mass)) evaluated by DEXA before and after BR. Results: Changes in peak torque (T(sub pk)) were smaller for flexion (flex) than for extension (ext) after BR and did not differ between groups. The CON group had larger decreases (P<0.05) in L(sub mass), knee and ankle ext T(sub pk), and knee ext End.

  1. Echocardiographic Evaluation of Changes in Cardiac Hemodynamics and Loading Conditions after Transthoracic Minimally Invasive Device Closure of Atrial Septal Defect

    PubMed Central

    Cao, Hua; Zhang, Gui-Can; Chen, Liang-Wan; Hu, Yun-Nan

    2015-01-01

    Purpose To evaluate transthoracic minimally invasive device closure of atrial septal defects by performing transthoracic echocardiography to measure changes in cardiac hemodynamics and loading conditions. Methods Between January 2012 and December 2012, we performed transthoracic minimally invasive device closure of atrial septal defects in 95 patients with secundum atrial septal defects (ASD), and performed transthoracic echocardiography to measure blood flow velocities at the tricuspid valve orifice and at the pulmonary valve orifice, sizes of the left and right atria and ventricles, right ventricular fractional area change, right ventricular Tei index, three-dimensional right ventricular ejection fraction, tricuspid annular plane systolic excursion and left ventricular ejection fractions before the procedure and 1 week, 3 months, and 1 year post-procedure. Results Varying degrees of improvement were observed post-procedure at later time points. The maximum blood flow velocity at the pulmonary valve orifice, mean flow velocity, velocity-time integral, and A peak and E peak blood flow velocity at the tricuspid valve orifice decreased significantly post-procedure (P<0.05). In 3 months and 1 year’s follow-up, the inner diameter of the middle portion of the pulmonary artery, and diameters of the right atrium and right ventricle decreased significantly post-procedure (P<0.05). The diameters of the left atrium and left ventricle increased after the procedure (P<0.05). One week after the procedure, the right ventricular fractional area change, three-dimensional right ventricular ejection fraction, right ventricular Tei index and tricuspid annular plane systolic excursion had significantly reduced compared with the preoperative data (P<0.05). While these four parameters were still decreased at the 3 months and at 1 year’s follow-up, but the differences were not statistically significant compared with the 1 week’s postoperative data (P>0.05). One week post

  2. THE 6-MINUTE WALK TEST AND OTHER CLINICAL ENDPOINTS IN DUCHENNE MUSCULAR DYSTROPHY: RELIABILITY, CONCURRENT VALIDITY, AND MINIMAL CLINICALLY IMPORTANT DIFFERENCES FROM A MULTICENTER STUDY

    PubMed Central

    McDonald, Craig M; Henricson, Erik K; Abresch, R Ted; Florence, Julaine; Eagle, Michelle; Gappmaier, Eduard; Glanzman, Allan M; Spiegel, Robert; Barth, Jay; Elfring, Gary; Reha, Allen; Peltz, Stuart W

    2013-01-01

    Introduction: An international clinical trial enrolled 174 ambulatory males ≥5 years old with nonsense mutation Duchenne muscular dystrophy (nmDMD). Pretreatment data provide insight into reliability, concurrent validity, and minimal clinically important differences (MCIDs) of the 6-minute walk test (6MWT) and other endpoints. Methods: Screening and baseline evaluations included the 6-minute walk distance (6MWD), timed function tests (TFTs), quantitative strength by myometry, the PedsQL, heart rate–determined energy expenditure index, and other exploratory endpoints. Results: The 6MWT proved feasible and reliable in a multicenter context. Concurrent validity with other endpoints was excellent. The MCID for 6MWD was 28.5 and 31.7 meters based on 2 statistical distribution methods. Conclusions: The ratio of MCID to baseline mean is lower for 6MWD than for other endpoints. The 6MWD is an optimal primary endpoint for Duchenne muscular dystrophy (DMD) clinical trials that are focused therapeutically on preservation of ambulation and slowing of disease progression. Muscle Nerve 48: 357–368, 2013 PMID:23674289

  3. THE RELIABILITY, MINIMAL DETECTABLE CHANGE AND CONSTRUCT VALIDITY OF A CLINICAL MEASUREMENT FOR IDENTIFYING POSTERIOR SHOULDER TIGHTNESS

    PubMed Central

    Kolber, Morey J.

    2010-01-01

    Purpose/Background: Posterior shoulder tightness (PST) has been implicated in the etiology of numerous shoulder disorders. Therefore, clinicians and researchers must have a reliable and valid method for quantifying PST. The purpose of this study was to investigate the interrater reliability, minimal detectable change at the 90% confidence interval (MDC90) and construct validity of an inclinometric measurement designed to quantify PST. Methods: Two investigators each performed sidelying PST measurements on the non-dominant shoulder of 45 asymptomatic participants in a blinded repeated measures design. Upon completion of the PST measurements, one rater assessed active internal and external rotation for the validity component of the investigation. Results: Interrater reliability using an intraclass correlation coefficient (ICC) model 2,k was good (ICC 5 0.90). The MDC90 indicated that a change of greater than or equal to 9 degrees would be required to be 90% certain that a change in the measurement would not be the result of inter-trial variability or measurement error. Construct validity was evaluated using active internal rotation for convergence and external rotation for discrimination. Construct validity was supported by a good to excellent relationship between PST and internal rotation (r 5 0.88) and by an inverse relationship between PST and external rotation (r 5 20.07). Conclusion: The sidelying procedure described in this investigation appears to be a reliable and valid means for quantifying PST when strict measurement protocols are adhered to. An advantage of this procedure lies in the ability to control scapular position to ensure motion is limited to the glenohumeral joint. Moreover, the use of inclinometry provides an absolute angle of tightness that may be used for intersubject comparison, documenting change, and to determine reference values. Clinicians and researchers should consider the MDC values presented when interpreting change values during

  4. Effects of minimal exercise and cognitive behavior modification on adherence, emotion change, self-image, and physical change in obese women.

    PubMed

    Annesi, J J

    2000-08-01

    The present investigation tested a 12-wk. treatment protocol which employed low intensity cardiovascular and resistance exercise as well as cognitive-behavior modification on 13 obese, previously sedentary women. Separate analyses were conducted on program maintenance, emotional change, and physiological change. Although self motivation was lower in the treatment group than in the control group (n=35), measures of exercise maintenance were significantly higher. Analyses within the treatment group only indicated significant improvements in measures of State Anxiety, Depression, Anger, Fatigue, Tension, and Vigor, also Health Evaluation, Body Area Satisfaction, and heightened Overweight Preoccupation, over the 12 weeks. Their feelings after individual bouts of exercise indicated significantly increased Positive Engagement, Revitalization, and Tranquility, and reduced Physical Exhaustion. Maximum volume of oxygen uptake (VO2max) significantly increased (2nd to 10th percentile), but not resting heart rate. No significant correlation was found between cardiorespiratory change and change in scores on depression and anxiety. No significant association was found between physiological change and change in body image. Preliminary evaluation of the minimal exercise treatment was given. The need to replicate findings with larger and different samples was emphasized.

  5. The effect of minimal dietary changes with raisins in NAFLD patients with non-significant fibrosis: a randomized controlled intervention.

    PubMed

    Kaliora, Andriana C; Kokkinos, Alexander; Diolintzi, Anastacia; Stoupaki, Maria; Gioxari, Aristea; Kanellos, Panagiotis T; Dedoussis, George V Z; Vlachogiannakos, Jiannis; Revenas, Constantinos; Ladas, Spiros D; Karathanos, Vaios T

    2016-11-09

    Aiming at investigating the potential effect of minimal dietary changes in NAFLD patients with non-significant fibrosis, 55 patients with NAFLD were enrolled in a randomized controlled clinical trial. Patients were assigned into two isocaloric dietary treatment groups for 24 weeks: (a) nutritional counseling (Control arm, N = 27), (b) nutritional counseling with currants included (two fruit servings, 36 g per day), substituting snacks of similar caloric content (Currant arm, N = 28). Clinical tests, anthropometrics, inflammatory and oxidative stress markers were conducted pre- and post-intervention. A total of 50 patients completed the trial. Significant differences between the two arms post-intervention were observed in fasting glucose and in IL-6 levels, these being significantly decreased only in Currant patients. Body weight, BMI, HbA1c, CRP and EUS values decreased in both arms, differences being insignificant between the two arms post-intervention. Participants in the Currant arm had significantly reduced total body fat, WC and trunk fat. Ultrasound scanning improved significantly in patients snacking currants daily. Also, volunteers enrolled in the Currant arm showed a reduced intake of saturated fatty acids. Because BW regulation has been officially recognised as a treatment approach in NAFLD an additional analysis was repeated in patients adhering to this. Post-intervention, the decrease in IL-6 and in fasting glucose was significantly higher in Currant patients who lost BW compared to their counterparts in the Control arm. Conclusively, minimal modifications in snacking choices, such as the inclusion of dried grapes in diet, are beneficial in NAFLD patients with non-significant fibrosis.

  6. Test-retest reliability and the minimal detectable change for achilles tendon length: a panoramic ultrasound assessment.

    PubMed

    Ryan, Eric D; Rosenberg, Joseph G; Scharville, Michael J; Sobolewski, Eric J; Thompson, Brennan J; King, Gilbert E

    2013-12-01

    The purpose of the present study was to examine test-retest reliability and minimal detectable change (MDC) values for Achilles tendon (AT) length determined using panoramic ultrasound (US) imaging. Seventeen men (age = 21.0 ± 2.3 y) visited the laboratory on two separate days, where AT length was examined along the mid-longitudinal axis of the right lower leg with a portable B-mode panoramic US device. These measures were found to have acceptable reliability with intra-class correlation coefficient (ICC) and standard error of measurement (SEM) values of 0.954 and 4.43 mm (SEM% of the mean = 2.37%), respectively. In addition, the MDC for the panoramic US assessment of AT length was 12.27 mm (MDC% of the mean = 6.57%). These findings suggest that panoramic US imaging is a reliable technique for detection of clinically relevant changes in AT length and may therefore be a practical and time-efficient clinical tool for future studies examining AT length in vivo.

  7. Change of ascending reticular activating system with recovery from vegetative state to minimally conscious state in a stroke patient

    PubMed Central

    Jang, Sung Ho; Chang, Chul Hoon; Jung, Young Jin; Seo, You Sung

    2016-01-01

    Abstract Rationale: We report on a stroke patient who showed change of the ascending reticular activating system (ARAS) concurrent with recovery from a vegetative state (VS) to a minimally conscious state (MCS), which was demonstrated on diffusion tensor tractography (DTT). Patient concerns: A 59-year-old male patient underwent CT-guided stereotactic drainage 3 times for management of intracerebral hemorrhage and intraventricular hemorrhage. Diagnosis: After 4 months from onset, when starting rehabilitation, the patient showed impaired consciousness, with a Glasgow Coma Scale (GCS) score of 6 and a Coma Recovery Scale-Revised score of 2. At 10 months after onset, his GCS score had recovered to 11 with a GRS-R score of 20, and he was able to perform rock–scissors–paper using his right hand according to verbal command. Interventions: On 10-month DTT, marked increased neural connectivity of the thalamic intralaminar nucleus (ILN) to the cerebral cortex was observed in both prefrontal cortexes and the right thalamus compared with 4-month DTT. However, no significant change was observed in the lower dorsal ARAS between the pontine reticular formation (PRF) and the thalamic ILN. In addition, the reconstructed lower ventral ARAS between the PRF and hypothalamus had disappeared in both hemispheres on 10-month DTT. Outcomes: Change of the ARAS was demonstrated in a stroke patient who showed recovery from a VS to an MCS. Lessons: It appeared that the prefrontal cortex and thalamus, which showed increased neural connectivity, contributed to recovery from a VS to an MCS in this patient. PMID:27930506

  8. Conformational changes in the selectivity filter of the open-state KcsA channel: an energy minimization study.

    PubMed

    Miloshevsky, Gennady V; Jordan, Peter C

    2008-10-01

    Potassium channels switch between closed and open conformations and selectively conduct K(+) ions. There are at least two gates. The TM2 bundle at the intracellular site is the primary gate of KcsA, and rearrangements at the selectivity filter (SF) act as the second gate. The SF blocks ion flow via an inactivation process similar to C-type inactivation of voltage-gated K(+) channels. We recently generated the open-state conformation of the KcsA channel. We found no major, possibly inactivating, structural changes in the SF associated with this massive inner-pore rearrangement, which suggests that the gates might act independently. Here we energy-minimize the open state of wild-type and mutant KcsA, validating in silico structures of energy-minimized SFs by comparison with crystallographic structures, and use these data to gain insight into how mutation, ion depletion, and K(+) to Na(+) substitution influence SF conformation. Both E71 or D80 protonations/mutations and the presence/absence of protein-buried water molecule(s) modify the H-bonding network stabilizing the P-loops, spawning numerous SF conformations. We find that the inactivated state corresponds to conformations with a partially unoccupied or an entirely empty SF. These structures, involving modifications in all four P-loops, are stabilized by H-bonds between amide H and carbonyl O atoms from adjacent P-loops, which block ion passage. The inner portions of the P-loops are more rigid than the outer parts. Changes are localized to the outer binding sites, with innermost site S4 persisting in the inactivated state. Strong binding by Na(+) locally contracts the SF around Na(+), releasing ligands that do not participate in Na(+) coordination, and occluding the permeation pathway. K(+) selectivity primarily appears to arise from the inability of the SF to completely dehydrate Na(+) ions due to basic structural differences between liquid water and the "quasi-liquid" SF matrix.

  9. Tubular B7-1 expression parallels proteinuria levels, but not clinical outcomes in adult minimal change disease patients

    PubMed Central

    Lee, Sung Woo; Baek, Seon Ha; Paik, Jin Ho; Kim, Sejoong; Na, Ki Young; Chae, Dong-Wan; Chin, Ho Jun

    2017-01-01

    B7-1 is thought to play a pathogenic role in minimal-change disease (MCD). Recently, however, doubts have arisen regarding the role of B7-1 expression in MCD. Therefore, we aimed to identify the presence and clinical significance of B7-1 expression in MCD patients. The study participants included 28 adult MCD patients for whom kidney specimens were available. The intensity of B7-1 expression was assessed by two independent specialists. We analysed the association between the intensity of B7-1 expression and clinicopathological variables. No B7-1 expression in the glomeruli was observed in any of the 28 patients. Unexpectedly, however, 75.0% of the patients exhibited tubular B7-1 expression, with 35.7% demonstrating weak positive expressions and 39.3% demonstrating strong positive expressions. The level of proteinuria significantly increased as the intensity of tubular B7-1 expression increased. We also found trends of increasing blood urea nitrogen and serum creatinine levels with increased intensity of tubular B7-1 expression. However, we could not observe definite differences in long- and short-term clinical outcomes depending on the intensity of tubular B7-1 expression. In conclusion, B7-1 was expressed in renal tubular cells but not in glomeruli in adult MCD patients. The intensity of tubular B7-1 expression paralleled proteinuria levels, but not clinical outcomes. PMID:28150736

  10. Electroencephalographic Changes Associated with Antinociceptive Actions of Lidocaine, Ketamine, Meloxicam, and Morphine Administration in Minimally Anaesthetized Dogs

    PubMed Central

    Hui Cheng, Chen; Meng, Goh Yong; Fakurazi, Sharida; Kaka, Asmatullah; Behan, Atique Ahmed

    2015-01-01

    Effects of ketamine and lidocaine on electroencephalographic (EEG) changes were evaluated in minimally anaesthetized dogs, subjected to electric stimulus. Six dogs were subjected to six treatments in a crossover design with a washout period of one week. Dogs were subjected to intravenous boluses of lidocaine 2 mg/kg, ketamine 3 mg/kg, meloxicam 0.2 mg/kg, morphine 0.2 mg/kg and loading doses of lidocaine 2 mg/kg followed by continuous rate infusion (CRI) of 50 and 100 mcg/kg/min, and ketamine 3 mg/kg followed by CRI of 10 and 50 mcg/kg/min. Electroencephalogram was recorded during electrical stimulation prior to any drug treatment (before treatment) and during electrical stimulation following treatment with the drugs (after treatment) under anaesthesia. Anaesthesia was induced with propofol and maintained with halothane at a stable concentration between 0.85 and 0.95%. Pretreatment median frequency was evidently increased (P < 0.05) for all treatment groups. Lidocaine, ketamine, and morphine depressed the median frequency resulting from the posttreatment stimulation. The depression of median frequency suggested evident antinociceptive effects of these treatments in dogs. It is therefore concluded that lidocaine and ketamine can be used in the analgesic protocol for the postoperative pain management in dogs. PMID:25695060

  11. Reliability, Concurrent Validity, and Minimal Detectable Change for iPhone Goniometer App in Assessing Knee Range of Motion.

    PubMed

    Mehta, Saurabh P; Barker, Katherine; Bowman, Brett; Galloway, Heather; Oliashirazi, Nicole; Oliashirazi, Ali

    2016-11-28

    Much of the published works assessing the reliability of smartphone goniometer apps (SG) have poor generalizability since the reliability was assessed in healthy subjects. No research has established the values for standard error of measurement (SEM) or minimal detectable change (MDC) which have greater clinical utility to contextualize the range of motion (ROM) assessed using the SG. This research examined the test-retest reproducibility, concurrent validity, SEM, and MDC values for the iPhone goniometer app (i-Goni; June Software Inc., v.1.1, San Francisco, CA) in assessing knee ROM in patients with knee osteoarthritis or those after total knee replacement. A total of 60 participants underwent data collection which included the assessment of active knee ROM using the i-Goni and the universal goniometer (UG; EZ Read Jamar Goniometer, Patterson Medical, Warrenville, IL), knee muscle strength, and assessment of pain and lower extremity disability using quadruple numeric pain rating scale (Q-NPRS) and lower extremity functional scale (LEFS), respectively. Intraclass correlation coefficients (ICCs) were calculated to assess the reproducibility of the knee ROM assessed using the i-Goni and UG. Bland and Altman technique examined the agreement between these knee ROM. The SEM and MDC values were calculated for i-Goni assessed knee ROM to characterize the error in a single score and the index of true change, respectively. Pearson correlation coefficient examined concurrent relationships between the i-Goni and other measures. The ICC values for the knee flexion/extension ROM were superior for i-Goni (0.97/0.94) compared with the UG (0.95/0.87). The SEM values were smaller for i-Goni assessed knee flexion/extension (2.72/1.18 degrees) compared with UG assessed knee flexion/extension (3.41/1.62 degrees). Similarly, the MDC values were smaller for both these ROM for the i-Goni (6.3 and 2.72 degrees) suggesting smaller change required to infer true change in knee ROM. The i

  12. Name Changes in Medically Important Fungi and Their Implications for Clinical Practice

    PubMed Central

    de Hoog, G. Sybren; Chaturvedi, Vishnu; Denning, David W.; Dyer, Paul S.; Frisvad, Jens Christian; Geiser, David; Gräser, Yvonne; Guarro, Josep; Haase, Gerhard; Kwon-Chung, Kyung-Joo; Meyer, Wieland; Pitt, John I.; Samson, Robert A.; Tintelnot, Kathrin; Vitale, Roxana G.; Walsh, Thomas J.

    2014-01-01

    Recent changes in the Fungal Code of Nomenclature and developments in molecular phylogeny are about to lead to dramatic changes in the naming of medically important molds and yeasts. In this article, we present a widely supported and simple proposal to prevent unnecessary nomenclatural instability. PMID:25297326

  13. Determining the importance of model calibration for forecasting absolute/relative changes in streamflow from LULC and climate changes

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Niraula, Rewati; Meixner, Thomas; Norman, Laura M.

    2015-01-01

    Land use/land cover (LULC) and climate changes are important drivers of change in streamflow. Assessing the impact of LULC and climate changes on streamflow is typically done with a calibrated and validated watershed model. However, there is a debate on the degree of calibration required. The objective of this study was to quantify the variation in estimated relative and absolute changes in streamflow associated with LULC and climate changes with different calibration approaches. The Soil and Water Assessment Tool (SWAT) was applied in an uncalibrated (UC), single outlet calibrated (OC), and spatially-calibrated (SC) mode to compare the relative and absolute changes in streamflow at 14 gaging stations within the Santa Cruz River Watershed in southern Arizona, USA. For this purpose, the effect of 3 LULC, 3 precipitation (P), and 3 temperature (T) scenarios were tested individually. For the validation period, Percent Bias (PBIAS) values were >100% with the UC model for all gages, the values were between 0% and 100% with the OC model and within 20% with the SC model. Changes in streamflow predicted with the UC and OC models were compared with those of the SC model. This approach implicitly assumes that the SC model is “ideal”. Results indicated that the magnitude of both absolute and relative changes in streamflow due to LULC predicted with the UC and OC results were different than those of the SC model. The magnitude of absolute changes predicted with the UC and SC models due to climate change (both P and T) were also significantly different, but were not different for OC and SC models. Results clearly indicated that relative changes due to climate change predicted with the UC and OC were not significantly different than that predicted with the SC models. This result suggests that it is important to calibrate the model spatially to analyze the effect of LULC change but not as important for analyzing the relative change in streamflow due to climate change. This

  14. Nephrotic syndrome due to minimal change disease secondary to spider bite: clinico-pathological case of a non-described complication of latrodectism

    PubMed Central

    Enos, Daniel; Moreira, José Luis; Alvaredo, Fátima; Oddó, David

    2017-01-01

    Abstract The patient was an 18-year-old man who developed nephrotic syndrome after a ‘wheat spider’ bite (Latrodectus mactans). Due to this atypical manifestation of latrodectism, a renal biopsy was performed showing minimal change disease. The nephrotic syndrome subsided after 1 week without specific treatment. This self-limited evolution suggests that the mechanism of podocyte damage was temporary and potentially mediated by a secondary mechanism of hypersensitivity or direct effect of the α-latrotoxin. The patient did not show signs of relapse in subsequent checkup. This is the first reported case of nephrotic syndrome due to a minimal change lesion secondary to latrodectism.

  15. Nephrotic syndrome due to minimal change disease secondary to spider bite: clinico-pathological case of a non-described complication of latrodectism.

    PubMed

    Méndez, Gonzalo P; Enos, Daniel; Moreira, José Luis; Alvaredo, Fátima; Oddó, David

    2017-04-01

    The patient was an 18-year-old man who developed nephrotic syndrome after a 'wheat spider' bite (Latrodectus mactans). Due to this atypical manifestation of latrodectism, a renal biopsy was performed showing minimal change disease. The nephrotic syndrome subsided after 1 week without specific treatment. This self-limited evolution suggests that the mechanism of podocyte damage was temporary and potentially mediated by a secondary mechanism of hypersensitivity or direct effect of the α-latrotoxin. The patient did not show signs of relapse in subsequent checkup. This is the first reported case of nephrotic syndrome due to a minimal change lesion secondary to latrodectism.

  16. Public Perception of Climate Change: The Importance of Knowledge and Cultural Worldviews.

    PubMed

    Shi, Jing; Visschers, Vivianne H M; Siegrist, Michael

    2015-12-01

    The importance of knowledge for lay people's climate change concerns has been questioned in recent years, as it had been suggested that cultural values are stronger predictors of concern about climate change than knowledge. Studies that simultaneously measured knowledge related to climate change and cultural values have, however, been missing. We conducted a mail survey in the German-speaking part of Switzerland (N = 1,065). Results suggested that cultural worldviews and climate-related knowledge were significantly related with people's concern about climate change. Also, cultural worldviews and climate-relevant knowledge appeared important for people's willingness to change behaviors and to accept climate change policies. In addition, different types of knowledge were found to have different impacts on people's concern about climate change, their willingness to change behaviors, and their acceptance of policies about climate change. Specifically, causal knowledge significantly increased concern about climate change and willingness to support climate-friendly policies. We therefore concluded that risk communication should focus on causal knowledge, provided this knowledge does not threaten cultural values.

  17. WHICH CRIMINOGENIC NEED CHANGES ARE MOST IMPORTANT IN PROMOTING DESISTANCE FROM CRIME AND SUBSTANCE USE?

    PubMed Central

    WOODITCH, ALESE; TANG, LIANSHENG LARRY; TAXMAN, FAYE S.

    2014-01-01

    Andrews and Bonta identified the following criminogenic needs as important to reducing offending: substance use, antisocial cognition, antisocial associates, family and marital relations, employment, and leisure and recreational activities. This study examines dynamic criminogenic need changes across a 12-month period and identifies which need changes are the best predictors of criminal offending and illicit drug use among a sample of drug-involved probationers who participated in an intervention (N = 251). Probationers had significant changes in several need areas, and treatment participation moderated some changes. Probationers who had reductions in criminally involved family members they associate with, improved work performance, and decreased alcohol use had the greatest reductions in offending. Those who increased time spent engaged in leisure and recreational activities were less likely to self-report subsequent drug use. These findings suggest that certain dynamic need changes may be more important than others, and designing interventions to impact these needs might improve outcomes. PMID:24910480

  18. [Landscape changes of ecotone of temperate and sub-tropical zone and its ecological importance].

    PubMed

    Hou, X

    2001-04-01

    The change process of ecotone of temperate and subtropical zone and its effect on development, transformation and permeation of chinese agriculture and techniques were discussed in this paper from the viewpoint of landscape ecology. In historical time, the boundary of the ecotone changed northward and southward as climate changed, which changed southward 1-2 latitude in cold period and northward 1-2 latitude in warm period. The ecotone had an obvious environment diversity and strong sensibility, and played important role as a landscape conduit and barrier in aspects of chinese agricultural heterogeneous permeation and heterogeneity creation of agricultural techniques and cultures.

  19. Personality and social change: individual differences, life path, and importance attributed to the women's movement.

    PubMed

    Agronick, G S; Duncan, L E

    1998-06-01

    This article identifies antecedent characteristics of individuals who found the women's movement important and then shows how finding it important was associated with personality change. Eighty-six women provided personality and life data as college seniors in 1958 or 1960, prior to the onset of the women's movement, and in 1981, after the movement gained momentum. A combination of openness, ambition, and dissatisfaction, as assessed by California Psychological Inventory (CPI; H. Gough, 1957/1966) in college, and subsequent life path from ages 28 to 43 significantly predicted importance attributed to the women's movement (IWM). On CPI scales, IWM was associated with significant increases on scales including Dominance, Self-Acceptance, Empathy, Psychological Mindedness, and Achievement via Independence. Correlates of IWM with self-reported feelings at ages 33 and 43 and observer-based personality ratings at age 43 supplemented analyses of personality change. Findings support the utility of examining the impact of social change on personality.

  20. Role of media and peers on body change strategies among adult men: is body size important?

    PubMed

    McCabe, Marita P; McGreevy, Shauna J

    2011-01-01

    There has been limited previous research that has examined the role of sociocultural influences on body change strategies among adult men. The current study investigated the role of specific types of messages (encouragement, teasing and modelling) from peers and the media on the strategies to change weight among adult men. Differences were evaluated between 526 men aged from 18 to 60 years from three groups (normal weight, overweight and obese) on body image, body change strategies and messages about their body received from peers and the media. Men were primarily drawn from United States, Australia and Europe. Results showed that messages received by men regarding losing weight or increasing muscle size differed according to weight. Body image and media messages were the strongest predictors of losing weight, whereas body image importance and messages from peers were the strongest predictors of increasing muscles. These findings highlight the importance of sociocultural influences on body change strategies among adult males.

  1. Taxonomic update on proposed nomenclature and classification changes for bacteria of medical importance, 2016.

    PubMed

    Janda, J Michael

    2017-02-13

    A key aspect of medical, public health, and diagnostic microbiology laboratories is the accurate identification and rapid reporting and communication to medical staff regarding patients with infectious agents of clinical importance. Microbial taxonomy in the age of molecular diagnostics and phylogenetics creates changes in taxonomy at a logarithmic rate further complicating this process. This update focuses on the description of new species and classification changes proposed in 2016.

  2. Nitrogen deposition mediates the effects and importance of chance in changing biodiversity.

    PubMed

    Zhang, Ximei; Liu, Wei; Bai, Yongfei; Zhang, Guangming; Han, Xingguo

    2011-01-01

    Nitrogen deposition is changing biodiversity on Earth. We need to understand the underlying mechanisms to conserve biodiversity better. Both selection and chance are potential mechanisms, and they may operate concurrently. Then, what are the respective effects of selection and chance, what is their relative importance and how do they change with increasing nitrogen deposition rate? Here, we performed a 6-year nitrogen addition experiment (0-28 g N/m(2) /year) in a typical steppe ecosystem of Inner Mongolia to investigate the community structure of plants, bacteria and ammonia-oxidizing Archaea (AOA). We developed an experimentally based calculation method to first separate the structural variations between plots into the effects of selection (S) and chance (C), and then calculate their relative importance. Our results showed that as nitrogen addition rate increased, S for both plants and bacteria increased, but C for plants first increased and then decreased, and C for bacteria also increased; meanwhile, both S and C for AOA changed nonlinearly. As nitrogen addition rate increased, the importance of chance decreased on the whole for all these communities, but it decreased nonlinearly for plants and bacteria, with a local increase at certain intermediate rates. At all treatments, the importance of chance was <0.5 for plants, but >0.5 for AOA. These results demonstrated that nitrogen deposition changed biodiversity by mediating the effects and importance of chance, implicating different strategies should be adopted in conserving biodiversity according to nitrogen deposition rate and community properties.

  3. What's a Good Job? The Importance of Employment Relationships. CPRN Study. Changing Employment Relationships Series.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Lowe, Graham S.; Schellenberg, Grant

    The Changing Employment Relationships Project examined the importance of good employment relationships for workers, employers, and public policy. A nationally representative sample of 2,500 employed Canadians was surveyed, and 8 focus groups were conducted. The research findings were analyzed to explain the multidimensional nature of the…

  4. Change in Moral Outlook Is an Important Topic of Environmental Education

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Suohua, Li

    2004-01-01

    It is a common recognition that humankind is facing an ecological environmental crisis. In order to protect the ecological system, to protect nature and thus to safeguard the continued existence of humankind, not only technological, economic, and managerial measures are needed, but more importantly, a change must take place in people's thinking so…

  5. Hope and Climate Change: The Importance of Hope for Environmental Engagement among Young People

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Ojala, Maria

    2012-01-01

    Although many young people think climate change is an important societal issue, studies indicate that pessimism is quite common. Finding ways to instill hope could therefore be seen as vital. However, is hope positively related to engagement or is it only a sign of illusory optimism? The aim of the study was to explore if hope concerning climate…

  6. The Changing Importance of White Women's Economic Prospects for Assortative Mating

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Sweeney, Megan M.; Cancian, Maria

    2004-01-01

    Given recent changes in the labor force participation and economic standing of women, we ask whether a woman's position in the labor market has become a more important determinant of her position in the marriage market. Unlike much prior research on trends over time in assortative mating, we take an individual-level approach to the analysis and…

  7. Dangerous climate change and the importance of adaptation for the Arctic's Inuit population

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Ford, James D.

    2009-04-01

    The Arctic's climate is changing rapidly, to the extent that 'dangerous' climate change as defined by the United Nations Framework on Climate Change might already be occurring. These changes are having implications for the Arctic's Inuit population and are being exacerbated by the dependence of Inuit on biophysical resources for livelihoods and the low socio-economic-health status of many northern communities. Given the nature of current climate change and projections of a rapidly warming Arctic, climate policy assumes a particular importance for Inuit regions. This paper argues that efforts to stabilize and reduce greenhouse gas emissions are urgent if we are to avoid runaway climate change in the Arctic, but unlikely to prevent changes which will be dangerous for Inuit. In this context, a new policy discourse on climate change is required for Arctic regions—one that focuses on adaptation. The paper demonstrates that states with Inuit populations and the international community in general has obligations to assist Inuit to adapt to climate change through international human rights and climate change treaties. However, the adaptation deficit, in terms of what we know and what we need to know to facilitate successful adaptation, is particularly large in an Arctic context and limiting the ability to develop response options. Moreover, adaptation as an option of response to climate change is still marginal in policy negotiations and Inuit political actors have been slow to argue the need for adaptation assistance. A new focus on adaptation in both policy negotiations and scientific research is needed to enhance Inuit resilience and reduce vulnerability in a rapidly changing climate.

  8. Functional load and the lexicon: Evidence that syntactic category and frequency relationships in minimal lemma pairs predict the loss of phoneme contrasts in language change.

    PubMed

    Wedel, Andrew; Jackson, Scott; Kaplan, Abby

    2013-09-01

    All languages use individually meaningless, contrastive categories in combination to create distinct words. Despite their central role in communication, these "phoneme" contrasts can be lost over the course of language change. The century-old functional load hypothesis proposes that loss of a phoneme contrast will be inhibited in relation to the work that it does in distinguishing words. In a previous work we showed for the first time that a simple measure of functional load does significantly predict patterns of contrast loss within a diverse set of languages: the more minimal word pairs that a phoneme contrast distinguishes, the less likely those phonemes are to have merged over the course of language change. Here, we examine several lexical properties that are predicted to influence the uncertainty between word pairs in usage. We present evidence that (a) the lemma rather than surface-form count of minimal pairs is more predictive of merger; (b) the count of minimal lemma pairs that share a syntactic category is a stronger predictor of merger than the count of those with divergent syntactic categories, and (c) that the count of minimal lemma pairs with members of similar frequency is a stronger predictor of merger than that of those with more divergent frequencies. These findings support the broad hypothesis that properties of individual utterances influence long-term language change, and are consistent with findings suggesting that phonetic cues are modulated in response to lexical uncertainty within utterances.

  9. Estimating the Importance of Private Adaptation to Climate Change in Agriculture: A Review of Empirical Methods

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Moore, F.; Burke, M.

    2015-12-01

    A wide range of studies using a variety of methods strongly suggest that climate change will have a negative impact on agricultural production in many areas. Farmers though should be able to learn about a changing climate and to adjust what they grow and how they grow it in order to reduce these negative impacts. However, it remains unclear how effective these private (autonomous) adaptations will be, or how quickly they will be adopted. Constraining the uncertainty on this adaptation is important for understanding the impacts of climate change on agriculture. Here we review a number of empirical methods that have been proposed for understanding the rate and effectiveness of private adaptation to climate change. We compare these methods using data on agricultural yields in the United States and western Europe.

  10. Short-term changes in plans to drink and importance of positive and negative alcohol consequences.

    PubMed

    Patrick, Megan E; Maggs, Jennifer L

    2008-06-01

    Experienced consequences predicted short-term changes in alcohol use plans and perceptions of the importance of alcohol-related consequences. Participants were 176 traditionally aged first-year university students who completed a 10-week telephone diary study (total weeks=1735). In multi-level models, men and students who experienced more positive and negative consequences on average planned to drink more and rated avoiding negative consequences as less important. Students who experienced more positive consequences rated them as more important (between-person analyses). Following weeks of experiencing relatively more positive drinking consequences, students planned to drink more and rated experiencing positive consequences as more important for the subsequent week (within-person analyses). Challenges for intervening in the ongoing formation of anticipatory cognitions regarding alcohol use are discussed.

  11. Global environmental change effects on ecosystems: the importance of land-use legacies.

    PubMed

    Perring, Michael P; De Frenne, Pieter; Baeten, Lander; Maes, Sybryn L; Depauw, Leen; Blondeel, Haben; Carón, María M; Verheyen, Kris

    2016-04-01

    One of the major challenges in ecology is to predict how multiple global environmental changes will affect future ecosystem patterns (e.g. plant community composition) and processes (e.g. nutrient cycling). Here, we highlight arguments for the necessary inclusion of land-use legacies in this endeavour. Alterations in resources and conditions engendered by previous land use, together with influences on plant community processes such as dispersal, selection, drift and speciation, have steered communities and ecosystem functions onto trajectories of change. These trajectories may be modulated by contemporary environmental changes such as climate warming and nitrogen deposition. We performed a literature review which suggests that these potential interactions have rarely been investigated. This crucial oversight is potentially due to an assumption that knowledge of the contemporary state allows accurate projection into the future. Lessons from other complex dynamic systems, and the recent recognition of the importance of previous conditions in explaining contemporary and future ecosystem properties, demand the testing of this assumption. Vegetation resurvey databases across gradients of land use and environmental change, complemented by rigorous experiments, offer a means to test for interactions between land-use legacies and multiple environmental changes. Implementing these tests in the context of a trait-based framework will allow biologists to synthesize compositional and functional ecosystem responses. This will further our understanding of the importance of land-use legacies in determining future ecosystem properties, and soundly inform conservation and restoration management actions.

  12. Importance of choosing a change of support model for global reserves estimation

    SciTech Connect

    Lantuejoul, C.

    1988-11-01

    The practical problem considered here is: how can block distribution in an ore body be forecast from sample data. The task is arduous because information yielded by samples is too often insufficient to allow an accurate evaluation of blocks. In practice, necessary additional information is obtained via a model. Choosing that model is crucial; the value of results reflects the model, i.e., its adequacy to represent reality. In this paper, the importance of choosing the change of support model is illustrated with simulations and practical examples (especially deposits with a skewed sample distribution and a large spike at the origin). An attempt to quantify this importance is made also.

  13. Greenland during the last interglacial: the relative importance of insolation and oceanic changes

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Pedersen, Rasmus A.; Langen, Peter L.; Vinther, Bo M.

    2016-09-01

    Insolation changes during the Eemian (the last interglacial period, 129 000-116 000 years before present) resulted in warmer than present conditions in the Arctic region. The NEEM ice core record suggests warming of 8 ± 4 K in northwestern Greenland based on stable water isotopes. Here we use general circulation model experiments to investigate the causes of the Eemian warming in Greenland. Simulations of the atmospheric response to combinations of Eemian insolation and preindustrial oceanic conditions and vice versa are used to disentangle the impacts of the insolation change and the related changes in sea surface temperatures and sea ice conditions. The changed oceanic conditions cause warming throughout the year, prolonging the impact of the summertime insolation increase. Consequently, the oceanic conditions cause an annual mean warming of 2 K at the NEEM site, whereas the insolation alone causes an insignificant change. Taking the precipitation changes into account, however, the insolation and oceanic changes cause more comparable increases in the precipitation-weighted temperature, implying that both contributions are important for the ice core record at the NEEM site. The simulated Eemian precipitation-weighted warming of 2.4 K at the NEEM site is low compared to the ice core reconstruction, partially due to missing feedbacks related to ice sheet changes and an extensive sea ice cover. Surface mass balance calculations with an energy balance model further indicate that the combination of temperature and precipitation anomalies leads to potential mass loss in the north and southwestern parts of the ice sheet. The oceanic conditions favor increased accumulation in the southeast, while the insolation appears to be the dominant cause of the expected ice sheet reduction. Consequently, the Eemian is not a suitable analogue for future ice sheet changes.

  14. Determining the Importance of Calibration for Predicting Relative Changes in Streamflow from Land Use/Cover Changes

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Niraula, R.; Meixner, T.; Norman, L. M.

    2012-12-01

    Human-induced land use/cover (LULC) change and climate change can have significant impacts on water quantity and quality. Prediction of impacts due to anticipated LULC and climate change on water in arid and semi-arid regions are crucial to understand due to scarce water resources. Watershed models are often used to analyze the effects of land use/cover and climate change on water resources, commonly in terms of relative changes; and provide important information for decision making. These models are often calibrated and validated with available data which can be time consuming and sometimes even very difficult. The objective of this study is to quantify the variation of estimated relative changes in streamflow associated with LULC with uncalibrated, single outlet calibrated and spatially-calibrated watershed model. Soil and Water Assessment Tool (SWAT) was applied in an uncalibrated, single outlet calibrated, and spatially-calibrated (at 7 USGS stream-gaging stations) mode to compare and quantify the relative change in terms of magnitude and direction of flow in a 9000 km2 semi-arid Santa Cruz watershed on the border of southern Arizona, United States, and northern Sonora, Mexico. While the average annual precipitation over the whole watershed is approximately 430 mm, the average annual discharge ranges between 0.17 and 2.64 m3/s. The effect due to three LULC scenarios, where urbanization is expected to increase from ~12% in 1999 to range of 35-40% in 2050 was analyzed. For the 7 USGS stations, all 3 calibration scenarios demonstrated an increase in predicted flow but magnitude of predicted change varied. The uncalibrated model predicted the increase from 4% to 15%, the single-outlet calibrated model predicted between 5% and 105%, and the spatially-calibrated model predicted the increase to be between 4% and 170%. While the results were similar between uncalibrated and single outlet calibration at some stations, the results were more similar to single outlet and

  15. Minimizing casualties in biological and chemical threats (war and terrorism): the importance of information to the public in a prevention program.

    PubMed

    Noy, Shabtai

    2004-01-01

    The most effective means of defending against biological or chemical warfare, whether in war or as a result of terror, is the use of primary prevention. The main goal of such a prevention program is to minimize the human loss by reducing the number of casualties (fatalities, physical wounds, and psychological injury). A secondary objective is to prevent the widespread sense of helplessness in the general population. These two aims complement each other. The more the public is active in defending itself, rather than viewing itself as helpless, the lesser the expected number of casualties of any kind. In order to achieve these two goals, educating the civilian population about risk factors and pointing out appropriate defensive strategies is critical. In the absence of an effective prevention program and active participation by the public, there is a high risk for massive numbers of physical and psychological casualties. An essential ingredient of any preventive program, which ultimately may determine the success or failure of all other protective actions, is early, gradual dissemination of information and guidance to the public, so that citizens can become active participants in the program. The public needs to be given information concerning the nature of the threat and effective methods of coping with it, should an unconventional attack occur. Lack of such adaptive behavior (such as wearing protective gear) is likely to bring about vast numbers of physical and psychological casualties. These large numbers may burden the medical, political, and public safety systems beyond their ability to manage. Failure to provide reasonable prevention and effective interventions can lead to a destruction of the social and emotional fabric of individuals and the society. Furthermore, inadequate preparation, education, and communication can result in the development of damaging mistrust of the political and military leadership, disintegration of social and political structures

  16. The importance of chill rate when characterising colour change of lamb meat during retail display.

    PubMed

    Jacob, R H; Thomson, K L

    2012-02-01

    An experiment was conducted to compare the effect of two chilling rates (Con and Fast) on colour change of lamb meat during simulated retail display. Measurements were made on 3 muscles; LD (m. longisimuss dorsi), SM (m semimembranosus) and ST (m. semitendinous). Meat samples from 32 Merino crossbred lambs were vacuum packed and stored for 5 days at 2 °C, then cut and overwrapped in polyvinyl chloride film on black polystyrene trays, stored in a display cabinet at 4 °C with lights on and measured twice daily for 4 days, using a Hunterlab minilab 45/20L D65, aperture 10°. Sarcomere length was shorter, shear force higher and colour change greater in meat from the Fast treatment compared to the Con treatment. Colour differences between treatments were likely due to oxygenation (bloom) as well as oxidation effects. Chill rate is important when characterising colour change during display and should be considered in measurement protocols.

  17. Minimal Reduplication

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Kirchner, Jesse Saba

    2010-01-01

    This dissertation introduces Minimal Reduplication, a new theory and framework within generative grammar for analyzing reduplication in human language. I argue that reduplication is an emergent property in multiple components of the grammar. In particular, reduplication occurs independently in the phonology and syntax components, and in both cases…

  18. The importance of employee participation and perceptions of changes in procedures in a teamworking intervention.

    PubMed

    Nielsen, Karina; Randall, Raymond

    2012-04-01

    The powerful positive results of implementing teamwork are not always achieved. It has been suggested that attempts to implement theories regarding teamwork do not always lead to those theories being put into practice, and as a result positive outcomes are not always found. The participation of employees in the development and implementation of an intervention may help to ensure that changes take place. In this longitudinal study (N = 583) of teamwork implementation in Denmark we examined the links between pre-intervention working conditions and well-being, levels of participation in planning and implementation, employees' reports of changes in procedures, and intervention outcomes. Pre-intervention levels of autonomy and job satisfaction predicted the degree of employee participation in the planning and implementation of the intervention. Pre-intervention well-being and social support were linked directly to the degree to which employees reported changes in existing work practices concerning teamwork. In addition, participation and changes in work procedures were significantly associated with post-intervention autonomy, social support and well-being. The results indicate that employee participation in intervention processes is crucial in what appears to be an important association with perceived changes in procedures and, therefore, in intervention outcomes.

  19. Statistically and clinically important change of pain scores in patients with myogenous temporomandibular disorders.

    PubMed

    van Grootel, Robert J; van der Glas, Hilbert W

    2009-05-01

    A within-patient change in pain score after treatment is statistically 'reliable' when it exceeds the smallest detectable difference (SDD). The aims of the present study were (i) to determine SDD for scoring pain behavior on a 0-5 point adjectival scale, and (ii) to explore the relationship between SDD, clinically important difference (CID) and effect size (ES) following treatment of known efficacy, and to compare these parameters of pain behavior with those of VAS-scores of pain intensity [van Grootel RJ, van der Bilt A, van der Glas HW. Long-term reliable change of pain scores in individual myogenous TMD patients. Eur J Pain 2007;11:635-43]. SDD was determined using duplicate scores on pain behavior from a pre-treatment diary that was completed by 118 patients with myogenous temporomandibular disorders (TMD). CID was determined as the mean change in score following treatment, and Cohen's ES as the ratio between mean change and SD of baseline values. The SDDs were 2-3 units (40-60% of the scale range) for test-retest intervals of 1-13 days. CID was 1.13 units (22.6%) and ES was 1.38. The normalized SDD and CID values and ES were similar for VAS-scores of pain intensity, i.e., 38-49% (SDD), 24.2% (CID) and 1.09 (ES). Because reliable change (change>SDD) exceeds CID, the responsiveness of scoring of pain variables is low for detecting CID. The finding of ES values that are larger than 0.5 (ES for patients with chronic degenerative diseases [Norman GR, Sloan JA, Wyrwich KW. Interpretation of changes in health-related quality of life. The remarkable universality of half a standard deviation. Med Care 2003;41:582-92]) suggests that for myogenous TMD (chronic pain not caused by somatic disease and with a large chance on recovery following treatment), there are higher expectations of what constitutes important change.

  20. The importance of climate change and nitrogen use efficiency for future nitrous oxide emissions from agriculture

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Kanter, David R.; Zhang, Xin; Mauzerall, Denise L.; Malyshev, Sergey; Shevliakova, Elena

    2016-09-01

    Nitrous oxide (N2O) is an important greenhouse gas and ozone depleting substance. Previous projections of agricultural N2O (the dominant anthropogenic source) show emissions changing in tandem, or at a faster rate than changes in nitrogen (N) consumption. However, recent studies suggest that the carbon dioxide (CO2) fertilization effect may increase plant N uptake, which could decrease soil N losses and dampen increases in N2O. To evaluate this hypothesis at a global scale, we use a process-based land model with a coupled carbon-nitrogen cycle to examine how changes in climatic factors, land-use, and N application rates could affect agricultural N2O emissions by 2050. Assuming little improvement in N use efficiency (NUE), the model projects a 24%-31% increase in global agricultural N2O emissions by 2040-2050 depending on the climate scenario—a relatively moderate increase compared to the projected increases in N inputs (42%-44%) and previously published emissions projections (38%-75%). This occurs largely because the CO2 fertilization effect enhances plant N uptake in several regions, which subsequently dampens N2O emissions. And yet, improvements in NUE could still deliver important environmental benefits by 2050: equivalent to 10 Pg CO2 equivalent and 0.6 Tg ozone depletion potential.

  1. Complexities in the attribution of trends: disentangling drivers of change and the importance of metadata

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Harrigan, Shaun; Murphy, Conor; Hall, Julia; Wilby, Rob

    2013-04-01

    The cause of trends detected in hydrological monitoring networks is rarely rigorously explored. Without the known driver(s) of change, information obtained from a trend analysis is of limited benefit in a planning and adaptation policy perspective. Here, using the Boyne catchment in Ireland as a case study, a more in-depth examination of both external and internal drivers of change is undertaken. A widely cited paper on this catchment reported a statistically significant step change in the mid 1970s and linked the cause of increased river flow post 1975 to a change in the North Atlantic Oscillation at that time. A detailed historic and metadata analysis suggested a more complex interplay of multiple drivers internally within the catchment. Most notably, an extensive arterial drainage scheme that was undertaken during the period 1969-86. In order to eliminate the influence of arterial drainage on river flow a model based approached was employed. River flow data from the pre-drainage period along with meteorological data was used to calibrate conceptual rainfall runoff models in order to reconstruct continuous flow series spanning the pre- and post-drainage eras. Model parameter and structure uncertainties were explored via three conceptually and structurally diverse models. A trend analysis was applied to both the recorded and simulated time series. To assess the impact of arterial drainage on trend direction and magnitude the Mann-Kendall and Theil-Sen Approach was utilised while step changes were assessed using the Rodionov Regime Shift Index. Results show that when the influence of arterial drainage is removed the previously detected change, attributed to a change in the North Atlantic Oscillation, was no longer present. It is therefore important to explore and understand better the causes of changes of river flow at the catchment scale. While detailed metadata assessments are time consuming and elimination of artificial changes difficult, these results show that

  2. The changing brain: Neuroscience and the enduring import of everyday experience.

    PubMed

    Pickersgill, Martyn; Martin, Paul; Cunningham-Burley, Sarah

    2015-10-01

    Discourses of 'neuroplasticity' have become increasingly apparent in the neurosciences and wider society. These connect with broader narratives about the 'changing brain' throughout the life-course. Here, we explore their presence in the talk of a range of publics. Their presence is indicative of how novel neuroscience is accepted, or not, by our participants. In particular, we suggest that any acceptance of the science relates to their personal and/or professional experiences of change (to their own or others' subjectivities) rather than to some intrinsic and widely-held significance of scientific concepts per se. Accordingly, we also submit that it is in part through the congruence of some neuroscientific claims to everyday experiences and perspectives that the former are rendered legible and salient. In this respect, 'lay' knowledge has considerable import for the wider cultural authorisation of that of 'experts'.

  3. The changing brain: Neuroscience and the enduring import of everyday experience

    PubMed Central

    Martin, Paul; Cunningham-Burley, Sarah

    2015-01-01

    Discourses of ‘neuroplasticity’ have become increasingly apparent in the neurosciences and wider society. These connect with broader narratives about the ‘changing brain’ throughout the life-course. Here, we explore their presence in the talk of a range of publics. Their presence is indicative of how novel neuroscience is accepted, or not, by our participants. In particular, we suggest that any acceptance of the science relates to their personal and/or professional experiences of change (to their own or others’ subjectivities) rather than to some intrinsic and widely-held significance of scientific concepts per se. Accordingly, we also submit that it is in part through the congruence of some neuroscientific claims to everyday experiences and perspectives that the former are rendered legible and salient. In this respect, ‘lay’ knowledge has considerable import for the wider cultural authorisation of that of ‘experts’. PMID:24598481

  4. Ongoing change of site conditions important for sustainable forest management planning

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Bidló, András; Horváth, Adrienn; Gulyás, Krisztina; Gálos, Borbála

    2016-04-01

    Observed tree mortality of the last decades has shown that the vulnerable forest ecosystems are especially affected by the recurrent, long lasting droughts, heat waves and their consequences. From all site conditions climate is changing the fastest, in this way it can be the largest threatening factor in the 21st century. Beyond climate, soil characteristics are playing an important influencing role. Until now, silvicultural technologies and species preferences of many countries are prescribed by binding regulation based on climate conditions that are assumed to be constant over time. Therefore the aim of our research was to investigate the ongoing and projected change of site conditions that are considered to be of primary importance in terms of tree species selection. For a case study region in Hungary (Keszthely Mountains, near to Lake Balaton) long-term climate tendencies have been determined for the period 1961-2100, as well as a detailed soil sample analysis has been carried out including ~100 sites. Results show a 0.5 degree increase of temperature and a 6-7 % decrease of the precipitation amount for the summer months in the last decades. For the future, significant warming and drying of summers is expected. Decrease of the summer precipitation sum can exceed 25 % until the end of the century, probability of extreme hot days may increase. These tendencies together with the unfavourable soil conditions and biotic damages can be the reason of the ongoing forest dieback. One of the characteristic soil type of the region is rendzina with a thin topsoil layer and an unfavourable water holding capacity. These properties are limiting the amount of available water for plants, especially in case of intense precipitation events. Black pine stands planted on rendzinas after many years of grazing; therefore erosion may have played a significant role. Not only microclimate conditions but also soil types show a large diversity within a relatively small distance. However

  5. Version changes in medical software: proposing minimal requirements for release notes and a version number convention - an operators' point of view.

    PubMed

    Ahlbrandt, Janko; Bott, Constantin; Moll, Peter; Naziyok, Tolga; Majeed, Raphael W; Röhrig, Rainer

    2015-01-01

    Medical software--like any other software--is susceptible to errors. To avoid false system behaviour or attenuate its consequences, system operators need to know about changes in the software. The goal of this proposal is to define terms and minimum requirements regarding documentation for a version change from the operator's point of view, especially in the domain of medical software or software as a medical device (SaMD). The results are a classification of version changes (Upgrade: breaks support for a rollback to a prior version, Major Update: either substantial configuration or user education needed, Minor Update: minor configuration or user information needed, Patch: collection of (small) changes that require neither configuration nor user information.). Additionally, minimal requirements for release notes are determined and a document structure recommended.

  6. Is climate an important driver of post-European vegetation change in the Eastern United States?

    PubMed

    Nowacki, Gregory J; Abrams, Marc D

    2015-01-01

    Many ecological phenomena combine to direct vegetation trends over time, with climate and disturbance playing prominent roles. To help decipher their relative importance during Euro-American times, we employed a unique approach whereby tree species/genera were partitioned into temperature, shade tolerance, and pyrogenicity classes and applied to comparative tree-census data. Our megadata analysis of 190 datasets determined the relative impacts of climate vs. altered disturbance regimes for various biomes across the eastern United States. As the Euro-American period (ca. 1500 to today) spans two major climatic periods, from Little Ice Age to the Anthropocene, vegetation changes consistent with warming were expected. In most cases, however, European disturbance overrode regional climate, but in a manner that varied across the Tension Zone Line. To the north, intensive and expansive early European disturbance resulted in the ubiquitous loss of conifers and large increases of Acer, Populus, and Quercus in northern hardwoods, whereas to the south, these disturbances perpetuated the dominance of Quercus in central hardwoods. Acer increases and associated mesophication in Quercus-Pinus systems were delayed until mid 20th century fire suppression. This led to significant warm to cool shifts in temperature class where cool-adapted Acer saccharum increased and temperature neutral changes where warm-adapted Acer rubrum increased. In both cases, these shifts were attributed to fire suppression rather than climate change. Because mesophication is ongoing, eastern US forests formed during the catastrophic disturbance era followed by fire suppression will remain in climate disequilibrium into the foreseeable future. Overall, the results of our study suggest that altered disturbance regimes rather than climate had the greatest influence on vegetation composition and dynamics in the eastern United States over multiple centuries. Land-use change often trumped or negated the impacts

  7. The importance to chondrocyte differentiation of changes in expression of the multiple inositol polyphosphate phosphatase.

    PubMed

    Hidaka, Kiyoshi; Kanematsu, Takashi; Caffrey, James J; Takeuchi, Hiroshi; Shears, Stephen B; Hirata, Masato

    2003-11-01

    It is important to both physiological and pathological osteogenesis to understand the significance of changes in gene expression in growth-plate chondrocytes that transit between the proliferative and hypertrophic states. MINPP is one such gene of interest. The Minpp protein dephosphorylates highly phosphorylated inositol signaling molecules InsP(5) and InsP(6). We show here that the ATDC5 chondrocyte progenitor cell line can recapitulate developmentally specific changes in MINPP expression previously only seen in longitudinal bone growth plates-both an initial 2-3-fold increase and a subsequent decrease back to initial levels during transition to hypertrophy. The increase in MINPP expression was accompanied by a 40% decrease in InsP(6) levels in ATDC5 cells. However, InsP(5) levels were not modified. Furthermore, throughout the hypertrophic phase, during which MINPP expression decreased, there were no alterations in InsP(5) and InsP(6) levels. We also created an ATDC5 line that stably overexpressed Minpp at 2-fold higher levels than in wild-type cells. This had no significant effect upon cellular levels of InsP(5) and InsP(6). Thus, substantial changes in MINPP expression can occur without a net effect upon InsP(5) and InsP(6) turnover in vivo. On the other hand, Minpp-overexpressing cells showed impaired chondrogenesis. We noted that the expression of alkaline phosphatase activity was inversely correlated with the expression of MINPP. The ATDC5 cells that overexpress Minpp failed to show an insulin-dependent increase in alkaline phosphatase levels, which presumably affects phosphate balance [J. Biol. Chem. 276 (2001) 33995], and may be the reason cellular differentiation was impaired. In any case, we conclude that Minpp is important to chondrocyte differentiation, but in a manner that is, surprisingly, independent of inositol polyphosphate turnover.

  8. Is the 1-minute sit-to-stand test a good tool for the evaluation of the impact of pulmonary rehabilitation? Determination of the minimal important difference in COPD

    PubMed Central

    Vaidya, Trija; de Bisschop, Claire; Beaumont, Marc; Ouksel, Hakima; Jean, Véronique; Dessables, François; Chambellan, Arnaud

    2016-01-01

    Background The 1-minute sit-to-stand (STS) test could be valuable to assess the level of exercise tolerance in chronic obstructive pulmonary disease (COPD). There is a need to provide the minimal important difference (MID) of this test in pulmonary rehabilitation (PR). Methods COPD patients undergoing the 1-minute STS test before PR were included. The test was performed at baseline and the end of PR, as well as the 6-minute walk test, and the quadriceps maximum voluntary contraction (QMVC). Home and community-based programs were conducted as recommended. Responsiveness to PR was determined by the difference in the 1-minute STS test between baseline and the end of PR. The MID was evaluated using distribution and anchor-based methods. Results Forty-eight COPD patients were included. At baseline, the significant predictors of the number of 1-minute STS repetitions were the 6-minute walk distance (6MWD) (r=0.574; P<10−3), age (r=−0.453; P=0.001), being on long-term oxygen treatment (r=−0.454; P=0.017), and the QMVC (r=0.424; P=0.031). The multivariate analysis explained 75.8% of the variance of 1-minute STS repetitions. The improvement of the 1-minute STS repetitions at the end of PR was 3.8±4.2 (P<10−3). It was mainly correlated with the change in QMVC (r=0.572; P=0.004) and 6MWD (r=0.428; P=0.006). Using the distribution-based analysis, an MID of 1.9 (standard error of measurement method) or 3.1 (standard deviation method) was found. With the 6MWD as anchor, the receiver operating characteristic curve identified the MID for the change in 1-minute STS repetitions at 2.5 (sensibility: 80%, specificity: 60%) with area under curve of 0.716. Conclusion The 1-minute STS test is simple and sensitive to measure the efficiency of PR. An improvement of at least three repetitions is consistent with physical benefits after PR. PMID:27799759

  9. Quantifying area changes of internationally important wetlands due to water consumption in LCA.

    PubMed

    Verones, Francesca; Pfister, Stephan; Hellweg, Stefanie

    2013-09-03

    Wetlands harbor diverse species assemblages but are among the world's most threatened ecosystems. Half of their global area was lost during the last century. No approach currently exists in life cycle impact assessment that acknowledges the vulnerability and importance of wetlands globally and provides fate factors for water consumption. We use data from 1184 inland wetlands, all designated as sites of international importance under the Ramsar Convention, to develop regionalized fate factors (FF) for consumptive water use. FFs quantify the change of wetland area caused per m(3)/yr water consumed. We distinguish between surface water-fed and groundwater-fed wetlands and develop FFs for surface water and groundwater consumption. FFs vary over 8 (surface water-fed) and 6 (groundwater-fed) orders of magnitude as a function of the site characteristics, showing the importance of local conditions. Largest FFs for surface water-fed wetlands generally occur in hyper-arid zones and smallest in humid zones, highlighting the dependency on available surface water flows. FFs for groundwater-fed wetlands depend on hydrogeological conditions and vary largely with the total amount of water consumed from the aquifer. Our FFs translate water consumption into wetland area loss and thus become compatible with life cycle assessment methodologies of land use.

  10. Maternal weight change between 1 and 2 years postpartum: the importance of 1 year weight retention.

    PubMed

    Lipsky, Leah M; Strawderman, Myla S; Olson, Christine M

    2012-07-01

    Pregnancy weight gain may lead to long-term increases in maternal BMI for some women. The objective of this study was to examine maternal body weight change 1y-2y postpartum, and to compare classifications of 2y weight retention with and without accounting for 1y-2y weight gain. Early pregnancy body weight (EPW, first trimester) was measured or imputed, and follow-up measures obtained before delivery, 1 year postpartum (1y) and 2 years postpartum (2y) in an observational cohort study of women seeking prenatal care in several counties in upstate New York (n = 413). Baseline height was measured; demographic and behavioral data were obtained from questionnaires and medical records. Associations of 1y-2y weight change (kg) and 1y-2y weight gain (≥2.25 kg) with anthropometric, socioeconomic, and behavioral variables were evaluated using linear and logistic regressions. While mean ± SE 1y-2y weight change was 0.009 ± 4.6 kg, 1y-2y weight gain (≥2.25 kg) was common (n = 108, 26%). Odds of weight gain 1y-2y were higher for overweight (OR(adj) = 2.63, CI(95%) = 1.43-4.82) and obese (OR(adj) = 2.93, CI(95%) = 1.62-5.27) women than for women with BMI <25. Two year weight retention (2y-EPW ≥2.25 kg) was misclassified in 38% (n = 37) of women when 1y-2y weight gain was ignored. One year weight retention (1YWR) (1y-EPW) was negatively related to 1y-2y weight change (β(adj) ± SE = -0.28 ± 0.04, P < 0.001) and weight gain (≥2.25 kg) (OR(adj) = 0.91, CI(95%) = 0.87-0.95). Relations between 1y weight retention and 1y-2y weight change were attenuated for women with higher early pregnancy BMI. Weight change 1y-2y was predicted primarily by an inverse relation with 1y weight retention. The high frequency of weight gain has important implications for classification of postpartum weight retention.

  11. Spinal Cord Stimulation for Vegetative State and Minimally Conscious State: Changes in Consciousness Level and Motor Function.

    PubMed

    Yamamoto, Takamitsu; Watanabe, Mitsuru; Obuchi, Toshiki; Kobayashi, Kazutaka; Oshima, Hideki; Fukaya, Chikashi; Yoshino, Atsuo

    2017-01-01

    Twenty-one vegetative state (VS) patients and 10 minimally conscious state (MCS) patients were treated by spinal cord stimulation (SCS) following an electrophysiological evaluation 3 months or more after the onset of brain injury.A flexible four-contact cylindrical electrode was inserted into the epidural space of the cervical vertebrae, and placed at cervical levels C2-C4. Five-hertz stimulation was applied for 5 min every 30 min during the daytime at an intensity that produced muscle twitches of the upper extremities.Both the fifth wave in the auditory brainstem response (ABR) and N20 in the somatosensory evoked potential (SEP) were detected in 8 of the 21 VS patients and 9 of the 10 MCS patients. Of the 3 VS patients and 7 MCS patients who recovered following SCS therapy, all showed a preserved fifth wave in the ABR and N20 in the SEP, and all had received SCS therapy within 9 months after the onset of brain injury. Although the 3 patients who recovered from VS remained in a bedridden state, all 7 patients who recovered from MCS were able to emerge from the bedridden state within 12 months after the start of SCS.Five-hertz cervical SCS caused increased cerebral blood flow (CBF) and induced muscle twitches of the upper extremities, and MCS patients showed a remarkable recovery of consciousness and motor function in the upper extremities compared with the lower extremities. This SCS method could be a new neuromodulation and neurorehabilitation technique, and MCS patients may be good candidates for SCS therapy.

  12. The importance of vegetation change in the prediction of future tropical cyclone flood statistics

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Irish, J. L.; Resio, D.; Bilskie, M. V.; Hagen, S. C.; Weiss, R.

    2015-12-01

    Global sea level rise is a near certainty over the next century (e.g., Stocker et al. 2013 [IPCC] and references therein). With sea level rise, coastal topography and land cover (hereafter "landscape") is expected to change and tropical cyclone flood hazard is expected to accelerate (e.g., Irish et al. 2010 [Ocean Eng], Woodruff et al. 2013 [Nature], Bilskie et al. 2014 [Geophys Res Lett], Ferreira et al. 2014 [Coast Eng], Passeri et al. 2015 [Nat Hazards]). Yet, the relative importance of sea-level rise induced landscape change on future tropical cyclone flood hazard assessment is not known. In this paper, idealized scenarios are used to evaluate the relative impact of one class of landscape change on future tropical cyclone extreme-value statistics in back-barrier regions: sea level rise induced vegetation migration and loss. The joint probability method with optimal sampling (JPM-OS) (Resio et al. 2009 [Nat Hazards]) with idealized surge response functions (e.g., Irish et al. 2009 [Nat Hazards]) is used to quantify the present-day and future flood hazard under various sea level rise scenarios. Results are evaluated in terms of their impact on the flood statistics (a) when projected flood elevations are included directly in the JPM analysis (Figure 1) and (b) when represented as additional uncertainty within the JPM integral (Resio et al. 2013 [Nat Hazards]), i.e., as random error. Findings are expected to aid in determining the level of effort required to reasonably account for future landscape change in hazard assessments, namely in determining when such processes are sufficiently captured by added uncertainty and when sea level rise induced vegetation changes must be considered dynamically, via detailed modeling initiatives. Acknowledgements: This material is based upon work supported by the National Science Foundation under Grant No. CMMI-1206271 and by the National Sea Grant College Program of the U.S. Department of Commerce's National Oceanic and

  13. Importance of hemodynamic forces as signals for exercise-induced changes in endothelial cell phenotype.

    PubMed

    Laughlin, M Harold; Newcomer, Sean C; Bender, Shawn B

    2008-03-01

    Current evidence indicates that the ability of physical activity to sustain a normal phenotype of arterial endothelial cells (ECs) plays a central role in the beneficial effects of exercise (Ex) on atherosclerotic disease. Here we evaluate the strength of evidence that shear stress (SS) and/or circumferential wall stress (stretch) are the primary signals, produced by bouts of Ex, that signal altered gene expression in arterial ECs, thereby resulting in a less atherogenic EC phenotype. Current literature indicates that SS is a signal for expression of antiatherogenic genes in cultured ECs, in ECs of isolated arteries, and in ECs of arteries in intact animals. Furthermore, SS levels in the arteries of humans during Ex are in the range that produces beneficial changes. In contrast, complex flow profiles within recirculation zones and/or oscillatory flow patterns can cause proatherogenic gene expression in ECs. In vivo evidence indicates that Ex decreases oscillatory flow/SS in some portions of the arterial tree but may increase oscillatory flow in other areas of the arterial tree. Circumferential wall stress can increase expression of some beneficial EC genes as well, but circumferential wall stress also increases production of reactive oxygen species and increases the expression of adhesion factors and other proatherogenic genes. Interactions of arterial pressure and fluid SS play an important role in arterial vascular health and likely contribute to how Ex bouts signal changes in EC gene expression. It is also clear that other local and circulating factors interact with these hemodynamic signals during Ex to produce the healthy arterial EC phenotype. We conclude that available evidence suggests that exercise signals formation of beneficial endothelial cell phenotype at least in part through changes in SS and wall stretch in the arteries.

  14. Age-Related Changes in Dynamic Postural Control and Attentional Demands are Minimally Affected by Local Muscle Fatigue

    PubMed Central

    Remaud, Anthony; Thuong-Cong, Cécile; Bilodeau, Martin

    2016-01-01

    Normal aging results in alterations in the visual, vestibular and somtaosensory systems, which in turn modify the control of balance. Muscle fatigue may exacerbate these age-related changes in sensory and motor functions, and also increase the attentional demands associated with dynamic postural control. The purpose of this study was to investigate the effect of aging on dynamic postural control and posture-related attentional demands before and after a plantar flexor fatigue protocol. Participants (young adults: n = 15; healthy seniors: n = 13) performed a dynamic postural task along the antero-posterior (AP) and the medio-lateral (ML) axes, with and without the addition of a simple reaction time (RT) task. The dynamic postural task consisted in following a moving circle on a computer screen with the representation of the center of pressure (COP). This protocol was repeated before and after a fatigue task where ankle plantar flexor muscles were targeted. The mean COP-target distance and the mean COP velocity were calculated for each trial. Cross-correlation analyses between the COP and target displacements were also performed. RTs were recorded during dual-task trials. Results showed that while young adults adopted an anticipatory control mode to move their COP as close as possible to the target center, seniors adopted a reactive control mode, lagging behind the target center. This resulted in longer COP-target distance and higher COP velocity in the latter group. Concurrently, RT increased more in seniors when switching from static stance to dynamic postural conditions, suggesting potential alterations in the central nervous system (CNS) functions. Finally, plantar flexor muscle fatigue and dual-tasking had only minor effects on dynamic postural control of both young adults and seniors. Future studies should investigate why the fatigue-induced changes in quiet standing postural control do not seem to transfer to dynamic balance tasks. PMID:26834626

  15. Age-Related Changes in Dynamic Postural Control and Attentional Demands are Minimally Affected by Local Muscle Fatigue.

    PubMed

    Remaud, Anthony; Thuong-Cong, Cécile; Bilodeau, Martin

    2015-01-01

    Normal aging results in alterations in the visual, vestibular and somtaosensory systems, which in turn modify the control of balance. Muscle fatigue may exacerbate these age-related changes in sensory and motor functions, and also increase the attentional demands associated with dynamic postural control. The purpose of this study was to investigate the effect of aging on dynamic postural control and posture-related attentional demands before and after a plantar flexor fatigue protocol. Participants (young adults: n = 15; healthy seniors: n = 13) performed a dynamic postural task along the antero-posterior (AP) and the medio-lateral (ML) axes, with and without the addition of a simple reaction time (RT) task. The dynamic postural task consisted in following a moving circle on a computer screen with the representation of the center of pressure (COP). This protocol was repeated before and after a fatigue task where ankle plantar flexor muscles were targeted. The mean COP-target distance and the mean COP velocity were calculated for each trial. Cross-correlation analyses between the COP and target displacements were also performed. RTs were recorded during dual-task trials. Results showed that while young adults adopted an anticipatory control mode to move their COP as close as possible to the target center, seniors adopted a reactive control mode, lagging behind the target center. This resulted in longer COP-target distance and higher COP velocity in the latter group. Concurrently, RT increased more in seniors when switching from static stance to dynamic postural conditions, suggesting potential alterations in the central nervous system (CNS) functions. Finally, plantar flexor muscle fatigue and dual-tasking had only minor effects on dynamic postural control of both young adults and seniors. Future studies should investigate why the fatigue-induced changes in quiet standing postural control do not seem to transfer to dynamic balance tasks.

  16. Reliability and minimal detectable change of three functional tests: forward-lunge, step-up-over and sit-to-stand

    PubMed Central

    Luque-Siles, Carmen; Gallego-Izquierdo, Tomas; Jímenez-Rejano, Jose Jesus; de-la-Orden, Susana Granados; Plaza-Manzano, Gustavo; López-Illescas-Ruiz, Africa; Ferragut-Garcías, Alejandro; Romero-Franco, Natalia; Martín-Casas, Patricia; Pecos-Martín, Daniel

    2016-01-01

    [Purpose] To examine the intrasession and intersession reliability and the absolute reliability of three functional dynamic tests—forward-lunge, step-up-over and sit-to-stand tests—using computerized dynamic posturography. [Subjects and Methods] An intra-test and test-retest, repeated measure study was designed. Forty-five healthy subjects twice carried out the forward-lunge test, step-up-over test, and sit-to-stand test on two days, one week apart. The intrasession and intersession reliabilities as judged by the intraclass correlation coefficient (ICC) and the minimal detectable change of the three functional tests were calculated. [Results] Excellent to very good intrasession reliability of the forward-lunge test (ICC range of 0.9–0.8) was found. Very good to good intrasession reliability of the step-up-over test (ICC range of 0.9–0.5) was found and very good intrasession reliability of the sit-to-stand test (ICC range of 0.8–0.7) was found. The minimal detectable change at the 95% confidence level of most of the measures was lower than 30%. [Conclusion] The forward-lunge, step-up-over and sit-to-stand tests are reliable measurement tools. PMID:28174457

  17. Minimal cosmography

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Piazza, Federico; Schücker, Thomas

    2016-04-01

    The minimal requirement for cosmography—a non-dynamical description of the universe—is a prescription for calculating null geodesics, and time-like geodesics as a function of their proper time. In this paper, we consider the most general linear connection compatible with homogeneity and isotropy, but not necessarily with a metric. A light-cone structure is assigned by choosing a set of geodesics representing light rays. This defines a "scale factor" and a local notion of distance, as that travelled by light in a given proper time interval. We find that the velocities and relativistic energies of free-falling bodies decrease in time as a consequence of cosmic expansion, but at a rate that can be different than that dictated by the usual metric framework. By extrapolating this behavior to photons' redshift, we find that the latter is in principle independent of the "scale factor". Interestingly, redshift-distance relations and other standard geometric observables are modified in this extended framework, in a way that could be experimentally tested. An extremely tight constraint on the model, however, is represented by the blackbody-ness of the cosmic microwave background. Finally, as a check, we also consider the effects of a non-metric connection in a different set-up, namely, that of a static, spherically symmetric spacetime.

  18. Volcanic Eruptions and Climate: Sulfates are More Important Than Halogens in Producing Climate Change

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Robock, A.

    2007-12-01

    Large volcanic eruptions inject sulfur gases into the stratosphere, which convert to sulfate aerosols with an e- folding residence time of about one year. The radiative and chemical effects of this aerosol cloud produce responses in the climate system. Using examples from major eruptions of the past and results from experiments with numerical models of the climate system, this talk illustrates the major impacts. Volcanic eruptions produce global cooling, and are an important natural cause of interdecadal and interannual climate change. One of the most interesting volcanic effects is the "winter warming" of Northern Hemisphere continents following major tropical eruptions. During the winter in the Northern Hemisphere following every large tropical eruption of the past century, surface air temperatures over North America, Europe, and East Asia were warmer than normal, while they were colder over Greenland and the Middle East. This pattern and the coincident atmospheric circulation correspond to the positive phase of the Arctic Oscillation. High latitude eruptions in the Northern Hemisphere, while also producing global cooling, do not have the same impact on atmospheric dynamics. They weaken the Indian and African summer monsoon, and the effects can be seen in past records of flow in the Nile and Niger Rivers. In fact we can use records of the Nile River flow to provide an improved date for the Eldgjá eruption in Iceland, which we now date at 939 A.D. While halogens may have short term effects on ozone in plumes with high halogen concentrations, there is no evidence that they are important in the global climate response to volcanic eruptions.

  19. Minimal changes and missed opportunities: a decade look at nurse practitioners in the lower Mississippi River Delta states.

    PubMed

    Kippenbrock, Thomas; Buron, Bill; Odell, Ellen; Narcisse, Marie-Rachelle

    2014-01-01

    The U.S. southern region has one of most socioeconomically deprived and poorest health care outcomes in the county. The aims of this study were to determine changes of nurse practitioners (NPs) and their practice in lower Mississippi River Delta over the past decade and to examine differences of NPs' employment in health professional storage areas (HPSAs) and rural areas. A nonexperimental quantitative survey technique was used in the years 2000 and 2010. Other data sources included Health Resources and Services Administration that identified HPSA and the U.S. Census Bureau used to distinguish urban and rural areas. NPs are younger, and more are graduates of master's and doctorate degrees, but they are not reflective of the race they serve. Approximately, 25% of NPs worked in HPSA, and 50% worked in the rural area both in 2000 and in 2010. This proportion has remained blatantly steady during the past decade. Employment in rural health centers and family practice as a specialty declined; however, self-employment was on the rise. Nursing schools and health care institutions should be collaborating to develop plans and implementation strategies to recruit and retain NPs in the Mississippi River Delta rural and HPSAs.

  20. Interface Psychology: Touchscreens Change Attribute Importance, Decision Criteria, and Behavior in Online Choice.

    PubMed

    Brasel, S Adam; Gips, James

    2015-09-01

    As the rise of tablets and smartphones move the dominant interface for digital content from mouse or trackpad to direct touchscreen interaction, work is needed to explore the role of interfaces in shaping psychological reactions to online content. This research explores the role of direct-touch interfaces in product search and choice, and isolates the touch element from other form factor changes such as screen size. Results from an experimental study using a travel recommendation Web site show that a direct-touch interface (vs. a more traditional mouse interface) increases the number of alternatives searched, and biases evaluations toward tangible attributes such as décor and furniture over intangible attributes such as WiFi and employee demeanor. Direct-touch interfaces also elevate the importance of internal and subjective satisfaction metrics such as instinct over external and objective metrics such as reviews, which in turn increases anticipated satisfaction metrics. Findings suggest that interfaces can strongly affect how online content is explored, perceived, remembered, and acted on, and further work in interface psychology could be as fruitful as research exploring the content itself.

  1. Interface Psychology: Touchscreens Change Attribute Importance, Decision Criteria, and Behavior in Online Choice

    PubMed Central

    Gips, James

    2015-01-01

    Abstract As the rise of tablets and smartphones move the dominant interface for digital content from mouse or trackpad to direct touchscreen interaction, work is needed to explore the role of interfaces in shaping psychological reactions to online content. This research explores the role of direct-touch interfaces in product search and choice, and isolates the touch element from other form factor changes such as screen size. Results from an experimental study using a travel recommendation Web site show that a direct-touch interface (vs. a more traditional mouse interface) increases the number of alternatives searched, and biases evaluations toward tangible attributes such as décor and furniture over intangible attributes such as WiFi and employee demeanor. Direct-touch interfaces also elevate the importance of internal and subjective satisfaction metrics such as instinct over external and objective metrics such as reviews, which in turn increases anticipated satisfaction metrics. Findings suggest that interfaces can strongly affect how online content is explored, perceived, remembered, and acted on, and further work in interface psychology could be as fruitful as research exploring the content itself. PMID:26348814

  2. AO/NAO Response to Climate Change. 2; Relative Importance of Low- and High-Latitude Temperature Changes

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Rind, D.; Perlwitz, J.; Lonergan, P.; Lerner, J.

    2005-01-01

    Using a variety of GCM experiments with various versions of the GISS model, we investigate how different aspects of tropospheric climate changes affect the extratropical Arctic Oscillation (AO)/North Atlantic Oscillation (NAO) circulation indices. The results show that low altitude changes in the extratropical latitudinal temperature gradient can have a strong impact on eddy forcing of the extratropical zonal wind, in the sense that when this latitudinal temperature gradient increases, it helps force a more negative AO/NAO phase. In addition, local conditions at high latitudes can stabilize/destabilize the atmosphere, inducing negative/positive phase changes. To the extent that there is not a large temperature change in the tropical upper troposphere (either through reduced tropical sensitivity at the surface, or limited transport of this change to high levels), the changes in the low level temperature gradient can provide the dominate influence on the extratropical circulation, so that planetary wave meridional refraction and eddy angular momentum transport changes become uncorrelated with potential vorticity transports. In particular, the climate change that produces the most positive NAO phase change would have substantial warming in the tropical upper troposphere over the Pacific Ocean, with high latitude warming in the North Atlantic. An increase in positive phase of these circulation indices is still more likely than not, but it will depend on the degree of tropical and high latitude temperature response and the transport of low level warming into the upper troposphere. These are aspects that currently differ among the models used for predicting the effects of global warning, contributing to the lack of consensus of future changes in the AO/NAO.

  3. Relative importance of glacier contributions to streamflow in a changing climate

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    The role of glaciers and snow in climate change-affected runoff is evaluated by taking into account the carryover of runoff and of unmelted snow from one hydrological year to another. This water balance is computed for the present climate and for future climates with changed temperatures and precip...

  4. Estimating the Effect of Climate Change on Crop Yields and Farmland Values: The Importance of Extreme Temperatures

    EPA Pesticide Factsheets

    This is a presentation titled Estimating the Effect of Climate Change on Crop Yields and Farmland Values: The Importance of Extreme Temperatures that was given for the National Center for Environmental Economics

  5. Interactions of Climate Change and Nitrogen Management for Optimizing Crop Productivity and Food Security while Minimizing Nitrogen Pollution and Greenhouse Gas Emissions

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Davidson, E. A.; Suddick, E. C.

    2012-12-01

    Producing food, transportation, and energy for seven billion people has led to huge increases in use of synthetic nitrogen (N) fertilizers and fossil fuels, resulting in large releases of N as air and water pollution. In its numerous chemical forms, N plays a critical role in all aspects of climate change, including mitigation, adaptation, and impacts. Here we report on a multi-authored, interdisciplinary technical report on climate-nitrogen interactions submitted to the US National Climate Assessment as part of a Research Coordination Network activity. Management of the N cycle not only affects emissions of nitrous oxide (N2O) and nitrogen oxides (NOX), but also impacts carbon dioxide (CO2) and methane (CH4), through effects on carbon cycling processes in forests and soils and the effects on atmospheric reactions of ozone (O3) and CH4. While some of these direct and indirect N effects have a short-term cooling effect, the warming effects of N2O dominate at long time scales. The challenges of mitigating N2O emissions are substantially different from those for CO2 and CH4, because N is essential for food production, and over 80% of anthropogenic N2O emissions are from the agricultural sector. On one hand, improved agricultural nutrient management can confer some adaptive capacity of crops to climatic variability, but, on the other hand, increased climatic variability will render the task more difficult to manage nutrients for the optimization of crop productivity while minimizing N losses to the environment. Higher air temperatures will result in a "climate penalty" for air quality mitigation efforts, because larger NOX emissions reductions will be needed to achieve the same reductions of O3 pollution under higher temperatures, thus imposing further challenges to avoid harmful impacts on human health and crop productivity. Changes in river discharge, due to summer drought and to extreme precipitation events, will affect the transport of N from agricultural fields to

  6. Public Health Implications of Changing Rodent Importation Patterns - United States, 1999-2013.

    PubMed

    Lankau, E W; Sinclair, J R; Schroeder, B A; Galland, G G; Marano, N

    2017-04-01

    The United States imports a large volume of live wild and domestic animal species; these animals pose a demonstrated risk for introduction of zoonotic diseases. Rodents are imported for multiple purposes, including scientific research, zoo exhibits and the pet trade. Current U.S. public health regulatory restrictions specific to rodent importation pertain only to those of African origin. To understand the impacts of these regulations and the potential public health risks of international rodent trade to the United States, we evaluated live rodent import records during 1999-2013 by shipment volume and geographic origin, source (e.g. wild-caught versus captive- or commercially bred), intended purpose and rodent taxonomy. Live rodent imports increased from 2737 animals during 1999 to 173 761 animals during 2013. Increases in both the number and size of shipments contributed to this trend. The proportion of wild-captured imports declined from 75% during 1999 to <1% during 2013. Nearly all shipments during these years were imported for commercial purposes. Imports from Europe and other countries in North America experienced notable increases in volume. Gerbils and hamsters arriving from Europe and chinchillas, guinea pigs and hamsters arriving from other countries in North America were predominant taxa underlying this trend. After 2003, African-origin imports became sporadic events under the federal permit process. These patterns suggest development of large-scale captive rodent breeding markets abroad for commercial sale in the United States. While the shift from wild-captured imports alleviates many conservation concerns and risks for novel disease emergence, such consolidated sourcing might elevate exposure risks for zoonotic diseases associated with high-density rodent breeding (e.g. lymphocytic choriomeningitis or salmonellosis). A responsive border health system must periodically re-evaluate importation regulations in conjunction with key stakeholders to ensure a

  7. Public health implications of changing rodent importation patterns— United States, 1999–2013

    PubMed Central

    Lankau, Emily W.; Sinclair, Julie R.; Schroeder, Betsy A.; Galland, G. Gale; Marano, Nina

    2015-01-01

    Summary The United States imports a large volume of live wild and domestic animal species; these animals pose a demonstrated risk for introduction of zoonotic diseases. Rodents are imported for multiple purposes, including scientific research, zoo exhibits, and the pet trade. Current U.S. public health regulatory restrictions specific to rodent importation pertain only to those of African origin. To understand the impacts of these regulations and the potential public health risks of international rodent trade to the United States, we evaluated live rodent import records during 1999 –2013 by shipment volume and geographic origin, source (e.g., wild -caught versus captive-or commercially bred), intended purpose, and rodent taxonomy. Live rodent imports increased from 2,737 animals during 1999 to 173,761 animals during 2013. Increases in both the number and size of shipments contributed to this trend. The proportion of wild-captured imports declined from 75% during 1999 to <1% during 2013. Nearly all shipments during these years were imported for commercial purposes. Imports from Europe and other countries in North America experienced notable increases in volume. Gerbils and hamsters arriving from Europe and chinchillas, guinea pigs, and hamsters arriving from other countries in North America were predominant taxa underlying this trend . After 2003, African-origin imports became sporadic events under the federal permit process. These patterns suggest development of large -scale captive rodent breeding markets abroad for commercial sale in the United States. While the shift from wild-captured imports alleviates many conservation concerns and risks for novel disease emergence, such consolidated sourcing might elevate exposure risks for zoonotic diseases associated with high-density rodent breeding(e.g. , lymphocytic choriomeningitis or salmonellosis). A responsive border health system must periodically re-evaluate importation regulations in conjunction with key

  8. The importance of considering shifts in seasonal changes in discharges when prediciting future phosphorus loads in streams

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    In this work, we hypothesize that phosphorus (P) concentrations in streams vary seasonally and with streamflow and that it is important to incorporate this variation when predicting changes in P loading associated with climate change. Our study area includes 14 watersheds with a range of land uses t...

  9. Oxidation flux change on spermatozoa membrane in important pathologic conditions leading to male infertility.

    PubMed

    Wiwanitkit, V

    2008-06-01

    Free radicals or reactive oxygen species mediate their action through proinflammatory cytokines and this mechanism has been proposed as a common underlying factor for male infertility. There is extensive literature on oxidative stress and its role in male infertility and sperm DNA damage and its effects on assisted reproductive techniques. However, there has never been a report on the oxidation flux change in spermatozoa. Here, the author determined the oxidation flux change in such hypoxic cases, using the simulation test based on nanomedicine technique is used. Of interest, change of flux can be detected. The main pathogenesis should be the direct injury of membrane structure of spermatozoa by free radicals which can lead to sperm defect. Therefore, this work can support the finding that the oxidation flux change corresponding to oxygen pressure change in spermatozoa does not exist. However, the flux change can be seen if the membrane thickness of spermatozoa is varied. Thin membrane spermatozoa are more prone to oxidative stress than thick membrane ones. The defect in the enzymatic system within the spermatozoa should be a better explanation for vulnerability of spermatozoa to oxidative stress. The use of enzymatic modification technique by antioxidants can be useful alternative in management of male infertility.

  10. 78 FR 77353 - Import Administration; Change of Agency Name for Supplies for Use in Emergency Relief Work

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2013-12-23

    ...), through internal department organizational orders, changed the name of ``Import Administration'' to... any references to Import Administration in any document or other communication shall be deemed to be... the decision by the Department, through internal Department Organizational Orders 10-3...

  11. Structural changes in the minimal spanning tree and the hierarchical network in the Korean stock market around the global financial crisis

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Nobi, Ashadun; Maeng, Seong Eun; Ha, Gyeong Gyun; Lee, Jae Woo

    2015-04-01

    This paper considers stock prices in the Korean stock market during the 2008 global financial crisis by focusing on three time periods: before, during, and after the crisis. Complex networks are extracted from cross-correlation coefficients between the normalized logarithmic return of the stock price time series of firms. The minimal spanning trees (MSTs) and the hierarchical network (HN) are generated from cross-correlation coefficients. Before and after the crisis, securities firms are located at the center of the MST. During the crisis, however, the center of the MST changes to a firm in heavy industry and construction. During the crisis, the MST shrinks in comparison to that before and that after the crisis. This topological change in the MST during the crisis reflects a distinct effect of the global financial crisis. The cophenetic correlation coefficient increases during the crisis, indicating an increase in the hierarchical structure during in this period. When crisis hits the market, firms behave synchronously, and their correlations are higher than those during a normal period.

  12. Use of glutaraldehyde and benzalkonium chloride for minimizing post-harvest physio-chemical and microbial changes responsible for sucrose losses in sugar cane.

    PubMed

    Singh, Pushpa; Arya, Namita; Tiwari, Priyanka; Suman, Archna; Rai, R K; Shrivastava, A K; Solomon, S

    2008-08-27

    Sugar cane is sensitive to enormous sucrose losses induced by physio-chemical and microbial changes, the severity being increased during the time lag between harvest and crushing in the mills. Minimization of the sucrose losses in the field is essential for better sugar recovery and prevention of sucrose losses. An experiment was conducted to evaluate the efficacy of glutaraldehyde and benzalkonium chloride for their effects on the microbial counts and physio-chemical changes responsible for sucrose losses. Glutaraldehyde and benzalkonium chloride (1000 + 250 ppm) reduced the losses in sucrose content to 7.1% as compared to the 30.8% loss in the control, thus improving the performance by 76.9%. The application of chemicals reduced the acid invertase activity (by 60%), lowered weight loss, titrable acidity, reducing sugars content, dextran, ethanol, and ethylene production and respiration rates. The application led to the reduction in the total bacterial, fungal, Leuconostoc, and yeast counts by 67.92, 51.3%, 26.08, and 51.2%, respectively.

  13. The importance of land cover change across urban-rural typologies for climate modeling.

    PubMed

    Vargo, Jason; Habeeb, Dana; Stone, Brian

    2013-01-15

    Land cover changes affect local surface energy balances by changing the amount of solar energy reflected, the magnitude and duration over which absorbed energy is released as heat, and the amount of energy that is diverted to non-heating fluxes through evaporation. However, such local influences often are only crudely included in climate modeling exercises, if at all. A better understanding of local land conversion dynamics can serve to inform inputs for climate models and increase the role for land use planning in climate management policy. Here we present a new approach for projecting and incorporating metropolitan land cover change into mesoscale climate and other environmental assessment models. Our results demonstrate the relative contributions of different land development patterns to land cover change and conversion and suggest that regional growth management strategies serving to increase settlement densities over time can have a significant influence on the rate of deforestation per unit of population growth. Employing the approach presented herein, the impacts of land conversion on climate change and on parallel environmental systems and services, such as ground water recharge, habitat provision, and food production, may all be investigated more closely and managed through land use planning.

  14. Pathogenic marine microbes influence the effects of climate change on a commercially important tropical bivalve

    PubMed Central

    Turner, Lucy M.; Alsterberg, Christian; Turner, Andrew D.; Girisha, S. K.; Rai, Ashwin; Havenhand, Jonathan N.; Venugopal, M. N.; Karunasagar, Indrani; Godhe, Anna

    2016-01-01

    There is growing evidence that climate change will increase the prevalence of toxic algae and harmful bacteria, which can accumulate in marine bivalves. However, we know little about any possible interactions between exposure to these microorganisms and the effects of climate change on bivalve health, or about how this may affect the bivalve toxin-pathogen load. In mesocosm experiments, mussels, Perna viridis, were subjected to simulated climate change (warming and/or hyposalinity) and exposed to harmful bacteria and/or toxin-producing dinoflagellates. We found significant interactions between climate change and these microbes on metabolic and/or immunobiological function and toxin-pathogen load in mussels. Surprisingly, however, these effects were virtually eliminated when mussels were exposed to both harmful microorganisms simultaneously. This study is the first to examine the effects of climate change on determining mussel toxin-pathogen load in an ecologically relevant, multi-trophic context. The results may have considerable implications for seafood safety. PMID:27576351

  15. Proposed Approach for Reviewing Changes to Risk-Important Human Actions

    DTIC Science & Technology

    2000-10-01

    DISCLAIMER: This report was prepared as an account of work sponsored by an agency of the U.S. Government. Neither the U.S. Government nor any agency...failure of the new HA in question ( ACDF ^), and (3) the integrated risk due to the modification over the time that the change or modification is to be...LERF), respectively. These figures show a plant’s baseline risk on the x-axis and ACDF and ALERF due to a plant modification or change on the y-axis

  16. Abrupt Holocene climate change as an important factor for human migration in West Greenland.

    PubMed

    D'Andrea, William J; Huang, Yongsong; Fritz, Sherilyn C; Anderson, N John

    2011-06-14

    West Greenland has had multiple episodes of human colonization and cultural transitions over the past 4,500 y. However, the explanations for these large-scale human migrations are varied, including climatic factors, resistance to adaptation, economic marginalization, mercantile exploration, and hostile neighborhood interactions. Evaluating the potential role of climate change is complicated by the lack of quantitative paleoclimate reconstructions near settlement areas and by the relative stability of Holocene temperature derived from ice cores atop the Greenland ice sheet. Here we present high-resolution records of temperature over the past 5,600 y based on alkenone unsaturation in sediments of two lakes in West Greenland. We find that major temperature changes in the past 4,500 y occurred abruptly (within decades), and were coeval in timing with the archaeological records of settlement and abandonment of the Saqqaq, Dorset, and Norse cultures, which suggests that abrupt temperature changes profoundly impacted human civilization in the region. Temperature variations in West Greenland display an antiphased relationship to temperature changes in Ireland over centennial to millennial timescales, resembling the interannual to multidecadal temperature seesaw associated with the North Atlantic Oscillation.

  17. Relative importance of glacier contributions to water supply in a changing climate

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    The Snowmelt Runoff Model (SRM) was designed for simulation, forecasting, and future assessments, such as the effects of climate change. The most recent version of SRM uses the Microsoft Windows operating system and operates efficiently in the PC environment. A formalized algorithm for assessing ...

  18. Robust Impacts of Climate Change in Europe and Why Study Scale is Important for Adaptation

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Donnelly, C.; Andersson, J.; Olsson, J.; Bosshard, T.; Yang, W.; Berg, P.; Arheimer, B.

    2015-12-01

    Impacts of climate change on water resources in Europe have been studied using multiple climate, hydrological and downscaling models and at multiple scales. Although results seem to differ largely between these studies, robust qualitative results have emerged at the European scale. Generally, a drying trend coupled with more intense extremes (floods & droughts) is observed in southern Europe, whereas a wetting trend coupled with less intense extremes is observed in Northern Europe. The location of the change between wetting and drying leads to uncertainty of climate change impacts in central Europe. Also, temperature-related hydrological processes lead to more robust predictions than precipitation-related processes as climate models are more consistent for temperature. For European hydrology, this leads to more robust predictions in regions with snow-dominated hydrology and where evapotranspiration dominates the water cycle. Robust predictions of changes to the seasonality of discharge are seen in snow-dominated regions (Fennoscandinavia, Alps) while robust predictions of decreases in runoff are seen for the Iberian peninsula. While uncertainty in the projections mostly comes from climate uncertainty, predictions of impacts on soil moisture and low flows can be largely dependent on the choice of hydrological model where methods to estimate evapotranspiration and runoff differ widely. While the regional-scale results show some robustness, there can be large local-scale differences even where the same catchment is considered at different scales. Furthermore, understanding of uncertainties due to correction and downscaling procedures are only beginning to emerge. Our evaluations of bias-correction indicate that uncertainties vary considerably depending on the variable. The scale of uncertainty due to bias-correction can be similar to the projected climate changes and to the uncertainty from the climate models. In this presentation we put forward a new bottom-up method

  19. Catchment sensitivity to changing climate conditions: the importance of landscape characteristic

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Teutschbein, C.; Karlsen, R.; Grabs, T.; Laudon, H.; Bishop, K. H.

    2014-12-01

    The scientific literature is full of studies analyzing future climate change impacts on hydrology with focus on individual catchments. However, we recently found that hydrologic behavior and specific discharge vary considerably even in neighboring and rather similar catchments under current climate conditions and that these variations are related to landscape characteristics. Therefore we hypothesize that these landscape characteristics also play a fundamental role for the sensitivity of a catchment to changing climate conditions. We analyzed the hydrological response of 14 neighboring catchments in Northern Sweden with slightly different topography, land cover, size and geology. Current (1981-2010) and future (2061-2090) streamflow was simulated with the HBV light model. Climate projections were based on 14 regional climate models (ENSEMBLES EU project) and bias-corrected with a distribution-mapping approach. Our simulations revealed that future spring flood peaks will occur much earlier and decrease by 13 to 32 %, whereas winter base flows will increase slightly. These changes are somewhat expected and mainly triggered by a projected increase in winter temperature, which leads to less snow accumulation on the ground. However, these values also highlight that there is a large variability amongst the catchments in their hydrological response to the same future climate conditions. For example, spring flood peaks in catchments without wetlands decrease by only 13 to 15 %, whereas catchments with wetlands show a spring flood peak reduction of 20 to 32 %. In addition to wetlands, we also identified lakes, peat soils and higher elevations as factors that seem to cause a stronger hydrological response to the climate change signal, whereas catchments dominated by forests, steeper slopes and till soils seem to be less strongly affected by a changing climate. Therefore, our results suggest that the sensitivity of catchments to future climate conditions is strongly linked to

  20. Insect Infestations Linked to Shifts in Microclimate: Important Climate Change Implications

    SciTech Connect

    Classen, Aimee T; Hart, Stephen C; Whitham, Thomas G; Cobb, Neil S; Koch, George W

    2005-01-01

    Changes in vegetation due to drought-influenced herbivory may influence microclimate in ecosystems. In combination with studies of insect resistant and susceptible trees, we used long-term herbivore removal experiments with two herbivores of pinon (Pinus edulis Endelm.) to test the general hypothesis that herbivore alteration of plant architecture affects soil microclimate, a major driver of ecosystem-level processes. The pinon needle scale (Matsucoccus acalyptus, Herbert) attacks needles of juvenile trees causing them to develop an open crown. In contrast, the stem-boring moth (Dioryctria albovittella Hulst.) kills the terminal shoots of mature trees, causing the crown to develop a dense form. Our studies focused on how the microclimate effects of these architectural changes are likely to accumulate over time. Three patterns emerged: (1) scale herbivory reduced leaf area index (LAI) of susceptible trees by 39%, whereas moths had no effect on LAI; (2) scale herbivory increased soil moisture and temperature beneath susceptible trees by 35 and 26%, respectively, whereas moths had no effect; and (3) scale and moth herbivory decreased crown interception of precipitation by 51 and 29%, respectively. From these results, we conclude: (1) the magnitude of scale effects on soil moisture and temperature is large, similar to global change scenarios, and sufficient to drive changes in ecosystem processes. (2) The larger sizes of moth-susceptible trees apparently buffered them from most microclimate effects of herbivory, despite marked changes in crown architecture. (3) The phenotypic expression of susceptibility or resistance to scale insects extends beyond plant-herbivore interactions to the physical environment.

  1. 78 FR 72570 - Import Administration; Change of Agency Name for Instruments and Apparatus for Educational and...

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2013-12-03

    ... Name for Instruments and Apparatus for Educational and Scientific Institutions AGENCY: Import... final form. List of Subjects 15 CFR Part 301 Instruments and apparatus for educational and scientific institutions. 15 CFR Part 303 Watches, Watch movements and jewelry program. PART 301--INSTRUMENTS AND...

  2. Simulated Vegetation Response to Climate Change in California: The Importance of Seasonal Production Patterns

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Kim, J. B.; Pitts, B.

    2013-12-01

    MC1 dynamic global vegetation model simulates vegetation response to climate change by simulating vegetation production, soil biogeochemistry, plant biogeography and fire. It has been applied at a wide range of spatial scales, yet the spatio-temporal patterns of simulated vegetation production, which drives the model's response to climate change, has not been examined in detail. We ran MC1 for California at a relatively fine scale, 30 arc-seconds, for the historical period (1895-2006) and for the future (2007-2100), using downscaled data from four CMIP3-based climate projections: A2 and B1 GHG emissions scenarios simulated by PCM and GFDL GCMs. The use of these four climate projections aligns our work with a body of climate change research work commissioned by the California Public Interest Energy Research (PIER) Program. The four climate projections vary not only in terms of changes in their annual means, but in the seasonality of projected climate change. We calibrated MC1 using MODIS NPP data for 2000-2011 as a guide, and adapting a published technique for adjusting simulated vegetation production by increasing the simulated plant rooting depths. We evaluated the simulation results by comparing the model output for the historical period with several benchmark datasets, summarizing by EPA Level 3 Ecoregions. Multi-year summary statistics of model predictions compare moderately well with Kuchler's potential natural vegetation map, National Biomass and Carbon Dataset, Leenhouts' compilation of fire return intervals, and, of course, the MODIS NPP data for 2000-2011. When we compared MC1's monthly NPP values with MODIS monthly GPP data (2000-2011), however, the seasonal patterns compared very poorly, with NPP/GPP ratio for spring (Mar-Apr-May) often exceeding 1, and the NPP/GPP ratio for summer (Jun-Jul-Aug) often flattening to zero. This suggests MC1's vegetation production algorithms are overly biased for spring production at the cost of summer production. We

  3. The importance of benthic-pelagic coupling for marine ecosystem functioning in a changing world.

    PubMed

    Griffiths, Jennifer R; Kadin, Martina; Nascimento, Francisco J A; Tamelander, Tobias; Törnroos, Anna; Bonaglia, Stefano; Bonsdorff, Erik; Brüchert, Volker; Gårdmark, Anna; Järnström, Marie; Kotta, Jonne; Lindegren, Martin; Nordström, Marie C; Norkko, Alf; Olsson, Jens; Weigel, Benjamin; Žydelis, Ramunas; Blenckner, Thorsten; Niiranen, Susa; Winder, Monika

    2017-01-28

    Benthic-pelagic coupling is manifested as the exchange of energy, mass, or nutrients between benthic and pelagic habitats. It plays a prominent role in aquatic ecosystems, and it is crucial to functions from nutrient cycling to energy transfer in food webs. Coastal and estuarine ecosystem structure and function are strongly affected by anthropogenic pressures; however, there are large gaps in our understanding of the responses of inorganic nutrient and organic matter fluxes between benthic habitats and the water column. We illustrate the varied nature of physical and biological benthic-pelagic coupling processes and their potential sensitivity to three anthropogenic pressures - climate change, nutrient loading, and fishing - using the Baltic Sea as a case study and summarize current knowledge on the exchange of inorganic nutrients and organic material between habitats. Traditionally measured benthic-pelagic coupling processes (e.g., nutrient exchange and sedimentation of organic material) are to some extent quantifiable, but the magnitude and variability of biological processes are rarely assessed, preventing quantitative comparisons. Changing oxygen conditions will continue to have widespread effects on the processes that govern inorganic and organic matter exchange among habitats while climate change and nutrient load reductions may have large effects on organic matter sedimentation. Many biological processes (predation, bioturbation) are expected to be sensitive to anthropogenic drivers, but the outcomes for ecosystem function are largely unknown. We emphasize how improved empirical and experimental understanding of benthic-pelagic coupling processes and their variability are necessary to inform models that can quantify the feedbacks among processes and ecosystem responses to a changing world.

  4. Niche construction is an important component of a science of intentional change.

    PubMed

    O'Brien, Michael J

    2014-08-01

    Wilson and colleagues are correct that a modern theory of evolution must go beyond reliance on natural selection. Niche-construction theory, although it does not ignore selection, emphasizes the capacity of organisms to modify environmental states, often in a manner that suits their genotypes. Such matches are the dynamic products of a two-way process that involves organisms both responding to "problems" posed by their environments through selection and setting themselves new problems by changing environments through niche construction.

  5. Adaptation pathways of global wheat production: Importance of strategic adaptation to climate change.

    PubMed

    Tanaka, Akemi; Takahashi, Kiyoshi; Masutomi, Yuji; Hanasaki, Naota; Hijioka, Yasuaki; Shiogama, Hideo; Yamanaka, Yasuhiro

    2015-09-16

    Agricultural adaptation is necessary to reduce the negative impacts of climate change on crop yields and to maintain food production. However, few studies have assessed the course of adaptation along with the progress of climate change in each of the current major food producing countries. Adaptation pathways, which describe the temporal sequences of adaptations, are helpful for illustrating the timing and intensity of the adaptation required. Here we present adaptation pathways in the current major wheat-producing countries, based on sequential introduction of the minimum adaptation measures necessary to maintain current wheat yields through the 21st century. We considered two adaptation options: (i) expanding irrigation infrastructure; and (ii) switching crop varieties and developing new heat-tolerant varieties. We find that the adaptation pathways differ markedly among the countries. The adaptation pathways are sensitive to both the climate model uncertainty and natural variability of the climate system, and the degree of sensitivity differs among countries. Finally, the negative impacts of climate change could be moderated by implementing adaptations steadily according to forecasts of the necessary future adaptations, as compared to missing the appropriate timing to implement adaptations.

  6. Molecular changes in hepatic metabolism and transport in cirrhosis and their functional importance

    PubMed Central

    Dietrich, Christoph G; Götze, Oliver; Geier, Andreas

    2016-01-01

    Liver cirrhosis is the common endpoint of many hepatic diseases and represents a relevant risk for liver failure and hepatocellular carcinoma. The progress of liver fibrosis and cirrhosis is accompanied by deteriorating liver function. This review summarizes the regulatory and functional changes in phase I and phase II metabolic enzymes as well as transport proteins and provides an overview regarding lipid and glucose metabolism in cirrhotic patients. Interestingly, phase I enzymes are generally downregulated transcriptionally, while phase II enzymes are mostly preserved transcriptionally but are reduced in their function. Transport proteins are regulated in a specific way that resembles the molecular changes observed in obstructive cholestasis. Lipid and glucose metabolism are characterized by insulin resistance and catabolism, leading to the disturbance of energy expenditure and wasting. Possible non-invasive tests, especially breath tests, for components of liver metabolism are discussed. The heterogeneity and complexity of changes in hepatic metabolism complicate the assessment of liver function in individual patients. Additionally, studies in humans are rare, and species differences preclude the transferability of data from rodents to humans. In clinical practice, some established global scores or criteria form the basis for the functional evaluation of patients with liver cirrhosis, but difficult treatment decisions such as selection for transplantation or resection require further research regarding the application of existing non-invasive tests and the development of more specific tests. PMID:26755861

  7. Climate remains an important driver of post-European vegetation change in the eastern United States

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Neil Pederson,; Anthony W. D’Amato,; James M. Dyer,; Foster, David R.; Goldblum, David; Hart, Justin L.; Hessl, Amy E.; Iverson, Louis R.; Jackson, Stephen T.; Martin-Benito, Dario; McCarthy, Brian C.; McEwan, Ryan W.; Mladenoff, David J.; Parker, Albert J.; Shuman, Bryan; Williams, John W.

    2014-01-01

    The influence of climate on forest change during the past century in the eastern United States was evaluated in a recent paper (Nowacki & Abrams, 2014) that centers on an increase in ‘highly competitive mesophytic hardwoods’ (Nowacki & Abrams, 2008) and a concomitant decrease in the more xerophytic Quercus species. Nowacki & Abrams (2014) concluded that climate change has not contributed significantly to observed changes in forest composition. However, the authors restrict their focus to a single element of climate: increasing temperature since the end of the Little Ice Age ca. 150 years ago. In their study, species were binned into four classifications (e.g., Acer saccharum – ‘cool-adapted’, Acer rubrum – ‘warm-adapted’) based on average annual temperature within each species range in the United States, reducing the multifaceted character of climate into a single, categorical measure. The broad temperature classes not only veil the many biologically relevant aspects of temperature (e.g., seasonal and extreme temperatures) but they may also mask other influences, both climatic (e.g., moisture sensitivity) and nonclimatic (e.g., competition).

  8. The changing biodiversity of Alabama Drosophila: important impacts of seasonal variation, urbanization, and invasive species.

    PubMed

    Bombin, Andrei; Reed, Laura K

    2016-10-01

    Global warming and anthropogenic disturbances significantly influence the biosphere, tremendously increasing species extinction rates. In Central Alabama, we analyzed Drosophilidae species composition change nearly 100 years after the previous survey. We found ten Drosophilid species that were not reported during the last major biodiversity studies, two of which are invasive pests. In addition, we analyzed the influence of seasonal environmental variables characteristic of the subtropical climate zone on Drosophila abundance and biodiversity. We found a significant correlation between temperature and abundance of total Drosophila as well as for six of the seven most represented species individually, with a maximum abundance at intermediate temperatures (18-26°C). In addition, temperature was positively correlated with biodiversity of Drosophila. Precipitation produced a significant effect on the abundance of five species of Drosophila, with different optima for each species, but did not affect overall biodiversity. We concluded that in the subtropical climate zone of Central Alabama, seasonal temperature and precipitation changes produce a significant effect on Drosophila abundance and biodiversity, while local land use also impacts fly abundance, contributing to an apparent shift in species composition over the last century. We expect global climate change and other anthropogenic factors to further impact Drosophila species composition in the subtropical climate zone into the future.

  9. Carbon cycling under 300 years of land use change: importance of the secondary vegetation sink

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Shevliakova, Elena; Pacala, Stephen W.; Malyshev, Sergey; Hurtt, George C.; Milly, P.C.D.; Caspersen, John P.; Sentman, Lori T.; Fisk, Justin P.; Wirth, Christian; Crevoisier, Cyril

    2009-01-01

    We have developed a dynamic land model (LM3V) able to simulate ecosystem dynamics and exchanges of water, energy, and CO2 between land and atmosphere. LM3V is specifically designed to address the consequences of land use and land management changes including cropland and pasture dynamics, shifting cultivation, logging, fire, and resulting patterns of secondary regrowth. Here we analyze the behavior of LM3V, forced with the output from the Geophysical Fluid Dynamics Laboratory (GFDL) atmospheric model AM2, observed precipitation data, and four historic scenarios of land use change for 1700-2000. Our analysis suggests a net terrestrial carbon source due to land use activities from 1.1 to 1.3 GtC/a during the 1990s, where the range is due to the difference in the historic cropland distribution. This magnitude is substantially smaller than previous estimates from other models, largely due to our estimates of a secondary vegetation sink of 0.35 to 0.6 GtC/a in the 1990s and decelerating agricultural land clearing since the 1960s. For the 1990s, our estimates for the pastures' carbon flux vary from a source of 0.37 to a sink of 0.15 GtC/a, and for the croplands our model shows a carbon source of 0.6 to 0.9 GtC/a. Our process-based model suggests a smaller net deforestation source than earlier bookkeeping models because it accounts for decelerated net conversion of primary forest to agriculture and for stronger secondary vegetation regrowth in tropical regions. The overall uncertainty is likely to be higher than the range reported here because of uncertainty in the biomass recovery under changing ambient conditions, including atmospheric CO2 concentration, nutrients availability, and climate. Copyright 2009 by the American Geophysical Union.

  10. Strict sun protection results in minimal skin changes in a patient with xeroderma pigmentosum and a novel c.2009delG mutation in XPD (ERCC2).

    PubMed

    Emmert, Steffen; Ueda, Takahiro; Zumsteg, Urs; Weber, Peter; Khan, Sikandar G; Oh, Kyu-Seon; Boyle, Jennifer; Laspe, Petra; Zachmann, Karolin; Boeckmann, Lars; Kuschal, Christiane; Bircher, Andreas; Kraemer, Kenneth H

    2009-01-01

    We examined the clinical, molecular and genetic features of a 16-year-old boy (XP2GO) with xeroderma pigmentosum (XP) and progressive neurological symptoms. The parents are not consanguineous. Increased sun sensitivity led to the diagnosis of XP at 2 years of age and a strict UV protection scheme was implemented. Besides recurrent conjunctivitis and bilateral pterygium, only mild freckling was present on his lips. He shows absent deep tendon reflexes, progressive sensorineural deafness and progressive mental retardation. MRI shows diffuse frontal cerebral atrophy and dilated ventricles. Symptoms of trichothiodystrophy (brittle hair with a tiger-tail banding pattern on polarized microscopy) or Cockayne syndrome (cachectic dwarfism, cataracts, pigmentary retinopathy and spasticity) were absent. XP2GO fibroblasts showed reduced post-UV cell survival (D(37) = 3.8 J/m(2)), reduced nucleotide excision repair, reduced expression of XPD mRNA and an undetectable level of XPD protein. Mutational analysis of the XPD gene in XP2GO revealed two different mutations: a common p.Arg683Trp amino acid change (c.2047C>T) known to be associated with XP and a novel frameshift mutation c.2009delG (p.Gly670Alafs*39). The latter mutation potentially behaves as a null allele. While not preventing neurological degeneration, early diagnosis and rigorous sun protection can result in minimal skin disease without cancer in XP patients.

  11. Intra-Rater Reliability and Minimal Detectable Change of Vertical Ground Reaction Force Measurement during Gait and Half-Squat Tasks on Healthy Male Adults

    PubMed Central

    Fairus, Fariza Zainudin; Joseph, Leonard Henry; Omar, Baharudin; Ahmad, Johan; Sulaiman, Riza

    2016-01-01

    Background The understanding of vertical ground reaction force (VGRF) during walking and half-squatting is necessary and commonly utilised during the rehabilitation period. The purpose of this study was to establish measurement reproducibility of VGRF that reports the minimal detectable changes (MDC) during walking and half-squatting activity among healthy male adults. Methods 14 male adults of average age, 24.88 (5.24) years old, were enlisted in this study. The VGRF was assessed using the force plates which were embedded into a customised walking platform. Participants were required to carry out three trials of gait and half-squat. Each participant completed the two measurements within a day, approximately four hours apart. Results Measurements of VGRF between sessions presented an excellent VGRF data for walking (ICC Left = 0.88, ICC Right = 0.89). High reliability of VGRF was also noted during the half-squat activity (ICC Left = 0.95, ICC Right = 0.90). The standard errors of measurement (SEM) of VGRF during the walking and half-squat activity are less than 8.35 Nm/kg and 4.67 Nm/kg for the gait and half-squat task respectively. Conclusion The equipment set-up and measurement procedure used to quantify VGRF during walking and half-squatting among healthy males displayed excellent reliability. Researcher should consider using this method to measure the VGRF during functional performance assessment. PMID:27547111

  12. Repeatability and Minimal Detectable Change in Longitudinal Median Nerve Excursion Measures During Upper Limb Neurodynamic Techniques in a Mixed Population: A Pilot Study Using Musculoskeletal Ultrasound Imaging.

    PubMed

    Paquette, Philippe; Lamontagne, Martin; Higgins, Johanne; Gagnon, Dany H

    2015-07-01

    This study determined test-retest reliability and minimum detectable change in longitudinal median nerve excursion during upper limb neurodynamic tests (ULNTs). Seven participants with unilateral or bilateral carpal tunnel syndrome and 11 healthy participants were randomly tested with two ULNTs (i.e., tensioner and slider). Each ULNT was performed three times each at 45° and 90° of shoulder abduction on two separate visits. Video sequences of median nerve excursion, recorded by a physical therapist using ultrasound imaging, were quantified using computer software. The generalizability theory, encompassing a G-Study and a D-study, measured the dependability coefficient (Φ) along with standard error of measurement (SEM) accuracy and allowed various testing protocols to be proposed. The highest reliability (Φ = 0.84) and lowest minimal measurement error (SEM = 0.58 mm) of the longitudinal median nerve excursion were reached during the ULNT-slider performed with 45° of shoulder abduction and when measures obtained from three different image sequences recorded during a single visit were averaged. It is recommended that longitudinal median nerve excursion measures computed from three separate image sequences recorded during a single visit be averaged in clinical practice. Ideally, adding a second visit (six image sequences) is also suggested in research protocols.

  13. Permafrost thaw and wildfire: Equally important drivers of boreal tree cover changes in the Taiga Plains, Canada

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Helbig, M.; Pappas, C.; Sonnentag, O.

    2016-02-01

    Boreal forests cover vast areas of the permafrost zones of North America, and changes in their composition and structure can lead to pronounced impacts on the regional and global climate. We partition the variation in regional boreal tree cover changes between 2000 and 2014 across the Taiga Plains, Canada, into its main causes: permafrost thaw, wildfire disturbance, and postfire regrowth. Moderate Resolution Imaging Spectroradiometer Percent Tree Cover (PTC) data are used in combination with maps of historic fires, and permafrost and drainage characteristics. We find that permafrost thaw is equally important as fire history to explain PTC changes. At the southern margin of the permafrost zone, PTC loss due to permafrost thaw outweighs PTC gain from postfire regrowth. These findings emphasize the importance of permafrost thaw in controlling regional boreal forest changes over the last decade, which may become more pronounced with rising air temperatures and accelerated permafrost thaw.

  14. The importance of warm season warming to western U.S. streamflow changes

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Das, T.; Pierce, D.W.; Cayan, D.R.; Vano, J.A.; Lettenmaier, D.P.

    2011-01-01

    Warm season climate warming will be a key driver of annual streamflow changes in four major river basins of the western U.S., as shown by hydrological model simulations using fixed precipitation and idealized seasonal temperature changes based on climate projections with SRES A2 forcing. Warm season (April-September) warming reduces streamflow throughout the year; streamflow declines both immediately and in the subsequent cool season. Cool season (October-March) warming, by contrast, increases streamflow immediately, partially compensating for streamflow reductions during the subsequent warm season. A uniform warm season warming of 3C drives a wide range of annual flow declines across the basins: 13.3%, 7.2%, 1.8%, and 3.6% in the Colorado, Columbia, Northern and Southern Sierra basins, respectively. The same warming applied during the cool season gives annual declines of only 3.5%, 1.7%, 2.1%, and 3.1%, respectively. Copyright 2011 by the American Geophysical Union.

  15. Tracking a Medically Important Spider: Climate Change, Ecological Niche Modeling, and the Brown Recluse (Loxosceles reclusa)

    PubMed Central

    Saupe, Erin E.; Papes, Monica; Selden, Paul A.; Vetter, Richard S.

    2011-01-01

    Most spiders use venom to paralyze their prey and are commonly feared for their potential to cause injury to humans. In North America, one species in particular, Loxosceles reclusa (brown recluse spider, Sicariidae), causes the majority of necrotic wounds induced by the Araneae. However, its distributional limitations are poorly understood and, as a result, medical professionals routinely misdiagnose brown recluse bites outside endemic areas, confusing putative spider bites for other serious conditions. To address the issue of brown recluse distribution, we employ ecological niche modeling to investigate the present and future distributional potential of this species. We delineate range boundaries and demonstrate that under future climate change scenarios, the spider's distribution may expand northward, invading previously unaffected regions of the USA. At present, the spider's range is centered in the USA, from Kansas east to Kentucky and from southern Iowa south to Louisiana. Newly influenced areas may include parts of Nebraska, Minnesota, Wisconsin, Michigan, South Dakota, Ohio, and Pennsylvania. These results illustrate a potential negative consequence of climate change on humans and will aid medical professionals in proper bite identification/treatment, potentially reducing bite misdiagnoses. PMID:21464985

  16. Minimal hepatic encephalopathy.

    PubMed

    Zamora Nava, Luis Eduardo; Torre Delgadillo, Aldo

    2011-06-01

    The term minimal hepatic encephalopathy (MHE) refers to the subtle changes in cognitive function, electrophysiological parameters, cerebral neurochemical/neurotransmitter homeostasis, cerebral blood flow, metabolism, and fluid homeostasis that can be observed in patients with cirrhosis who have no clinical evidence of hepatic encephalopathy; the prevalence is as high as 84% in patients with hepatic cirrhosis. Physician does generally not perceive cirrhosis complications, and neuropsychological tests and another especial measurement like evoked potentials and image studies like positron emission tomography can only make diagnosis. Diagnosis of minimal hepatic encephalopathy may have prognostic and therapeutic implications in cirrhotic patients. The present review pretends to explore the clinic, therapeutic, diagnosis and prognostic aspects of this complication.

  17. Changes in mitochondrial function are pivotal in neurodegenerative and psychiatric disorders: How important is BDNF?

    PubMed Central

    Markham, A; Bains, R; Franklin, P; Spedding, M

    2014-01-01

    The brain is at the very limit of its energy supply and has evolved specific means of adapting function to energy supply, of which mitochondria form a crucial link. Neurotrophic and inflammatory processes may not only have opposite effects on neuroplasticity, but also involve opposite effects on mitochondrial oxidative phosphorylation and glycolytic processes, respectively, modulated by stress and glucocorticoids, which also have marked effects on mood. Neurodegenerative processes show marked disorders in oxidative metabolism in key brain areas, sometimes decades before symptoms appear (Parkinson's and Alzheimer's diseases). We argue that brain-derived neurotrophic factor couples activity to changes in respiratory efficiency and these effects may be opposed by inflammatory cytokines, a key factor in neurodegenerative processes. Linked Articles This article is part of a themed issue on Mitochondrial Pharmacology: Energy, Injury & Beyond. To view the other articles in this issue visit http://dx.doi.org/10.1111/bph.2014.171.issue-8 PMID:24720259

  18. Bridging the Partisan Divide Over Climate Change: Messenger is as Important as the Message

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Cater, M.

    2014-12-01

    In the United States, fewer than one-third of Republicans believe that climate change is driven significantly by burning fossil fuels. This despite unprecedented worldwide scientific consensus that it is. Over 13,000 peer reviewed scientific papers affirm it. Twenty-four deny it. Yet the Republican "disbelief" persists in part because of ideological bubbles that, according to analysis by the Marquette Law School, are deeper and more geographically based than ever before. More and more Americans are living in politically one-sided counties, with 51% of voters in the 2012 presidential race living in a county that was "partisan" - or 10 points redder or bluer than the U.S. as a whole. One in five lived in a county that was "extreme" - or 20 points redder or bluer than the country. With mainstream media contracting, opinion media exploding and the Internet increasingly giving us only what we want to hear, ideological bubbles are becoming more isolated and insulated than ever. Dan Kahan at Yale has discovered that these bubbles - the values and groups that hold them - have a greater impact on our perception of certain issues than scientific understanding. In fact, the more individuals become scientifically literate, the more they tend to use that information to confirm the view of their group. So the more conservative and more knowledgeable you are about climate change, the less convinced you will be that it is a problem. Countless scientific studies confirm people rely on those they trust. And conversely, they reject information coming from those they do not. To bridge the partisan divide, and break the ideological barriers to climate science, trusted leaders within conservative circles must engage and speak out. The conservative leaders I work with have transcended their ideological boundaries, understand the science largely because they have learned from people they trust, recognize the risk and have identified solutions that protect their conservative values.

  19. Quantitative assessment of the importance of phenotypic plasticity in adaptation to climate change in wild bird populations.

    PubMed

    Vedder, Oscar; Bouwhuis, Sandra; Sheldon, Ben C

    2013-07-01

    Predictions about the fate of species or populations under climate change scenarios typically neglect adaptive evolution and phenotypic plasticity, the two major mechanisms by which organisms can adapt to changing local conditions. As a consequence, we have little understanding of the scope for organisms to track changing environments by in situ adaptation. Here, we use a detailed individual-specific long-term population study of great tits (Parus major) breeding in Wytham Woods, Oxford, UK to parameterise a mechanistic model and thus directly estimate the rate of environmental change to which in situ adaptation is possible. Using the effect of changes in early spring temperature on temporal synchrony between birds and a critical food resource, we focus in particular on the contribution of phenotypic plasticity to population persistence. Despite using conservative estimates for evolutionary and reproductive potential, our results suggest little risk of population extinction under projected local temperature change; however, this conclusion relies heavily on the extent to which phenotypic plasticity tracks the changing environment. Extrapolating the model to a broad range of life histories in birds suggests that the importance of phenotypic plasticity for adjustment to projected rates of temperature change increases with slower life histories, owing to lower evolutionary potential. Understanding the determinants and constraints on phenotypic plasticity in natural populations is thus crucial for characterising the risks that rapidly changing environments pose for the persistence of such populations.

  20. Quantitative Assessment of the Importance of Phenotypic Plasticity in Adaptation to Climate Change in Wild Bird Populations

    PubMed Central

    Vedder, Oscar; Bouwhuis, Sandra; Sheldon, Ben C.

    2013-01-01

    Predictions about the fate of species or populations under climate change scenarios typically neglect adaptive evolution and phenotypic plasticity, the two major mechanisms by which organisms can adapt to changing local conditions. As a consequence, we have little understanding of the scope for organisms to track changing environments by in situ adaptation. Here, we use a detailed individual-specific long-term population study of great tits (Parus major) breeding in Wytham Woods, Oxford, UK to parameterise a mechanistic model and thus directly estimate the rate of environmental change to which in situ adaptation is possible. Using the effect of changes in early spring temperature on temporal synchrony between birds and a critical food resource, we focus in particular on the contribution of phenotypic plasticity to population persistence. Despite using conservative estimates for evolutionary and reproductive potential, our results suggest little risk of population extinction under projected local temperature change; however, this conclusion relies heavily on the extent to which phenotypic plasticity tracks the changing environment. Extrapolating the model to a broad range of life histories in birds suggests that the importance of phenotypic plasticity for adjustment to projected rates of temperature change increases with slower life histories, owing to lower evolutionary potential. Understanding the determinants and constraints on phenotypic plasticity in natural populations is thus crucial for characterising the risks that rapidly changing environments pose for the persistence of such populations. PMID:23874152

  1. Rapid Morphological Change in the Masticatory Structures of an Important Ecosystem Service Provider.

    PubMed

    Doudna, John W; Danielson, Brent J

    2015-01-01

    Humans have altered the biotic and abiotic environmental conditions of most organisms. In some cases, such as intensive agriculture, an organism's entire ecosystem is converted to novel conditions. Thus, it is striking that some species continue to thrive under such conditions. The prairie deer mouse (Peromyscus maniculatus bairdii) is an example of such an organism, and so we sought to understand what role evolutionary adaptation played in the success of this species, with particular interest in adaptations to novel foods. In order to understand the evolutionary history of this species' masticatory structures, we examined the maxilla, zygomatic plate, and mandible of historic specimens collected prior to 1910 to specimens collected in 2012 and 2013. We found that mandibles, zygomatic plates, and maxilla have all changed significantly since 1910, and that morphological development has shifted significantly. We present compelling evidence that these differences are due to natural selection as a response to a novel and ubiquitous food source, waste grain (corn, Zea mays and soybean, Glycine max).

  2. Rapid Morphological Change in the Masticatory Structures of an Important Ecosystem Service Provider

    PubMed Central

    Doudna, John W.; Danielson, Brent J.

    2015-01-01

    Humans have altered the biotic and abiotic environmental conditions of most organisms. In some cases, such as intensive agriculture, an organism’s entire ecosystem is converted to novel conditions. Thus, it is striking that some species continue to thrive under such conditions. The prairie deer mouse (Peromyscus maniculatus bairdii) is an example of such an organism, and so we sought to understand what role evolutionary adaptation played in the success of this species, with particular interest in adaptations to novel foods. In order to understand the evolutionary history of this species’ masticatory structures, we examined the maxilla, zygomatic plate, and mandible of historic specimens collected prior to 1910 to specimens collected in 2012 and 2013. We found that mandibles, zygomatic plates, and maxilla have all changed significantly since 1910, and that morphological development has shifted significantly. We present compelling evidence that these differences are due to natural selection as a response to a novel and ubiquitous food source, waste grain (corn, Zea mays and soybean, Glycine max). PMID:26061880

  3. Permafrost and Climate Change in Nunavik and Nunatsiavut: Importance for Municipal and Transportation Infrastructures

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Lemay, M.; Allard, M.

    2011-12-01

    Permafrost degradation is seriously affecting the natural environment. The landscape is changing through thermokarst that takes place mostly in the discontinuous permafrost zone and through increased active layer depth and more frequent slope processes in the continuous zone. Northern residents are affected as vegetation, water bodies and soil drainage are greatly modified, which has an impact on resources traditionally available for humans such as berries that are shaded in the understory of shrubs that expand in thermokarst hollows. The modern built environment is particularly affected. Essential transportation infrastructures are being studied and adaptive solutions are sought, applied and tested. To protect and optimize the major investments required for extensive housing and construction, the urban planning of communities calls upon better permafrost maps and prediction of permafrost behavior. Final permafrost degradation around 0°C appears to be in great part under the influence of unfrozen water contents and heat brought at the thawing interface by groundwater. This process is also effective in accelerating localized thawing under human infrastructures. Collection and organization of permafrost information in geographic information systems (GIS) allows the integration of essential knowledge and provide very useful tools for sharing information with stakeholders and communities, for establishing diagnostics of situations and for supporting multidisciplinary decision making for land use planning. The principal adaptive measures lie in adapting foundations types to mapped permafrost conditions to ensure a prolonged service life of buildings.

  4. [Fertility and contraception in the rural areas. Important changes in contraception].

    PubMed

    Zuniga Herrera, E

    1990-01-01

    National fertility surveys conducted in Mexico since 1969 indicate that fertility in rural areas (localities with under 2500 inhabitants) is declining. The total fertility rate of rural women in union aged 20-44 years declined from 8.2 in 1968 to 5.8 in 1985. The beginning of the steep decline in rural fertility apparently occurred between 1973-75, at a time when official family planing programs were just starting, especially those accessible to rural women. Knowledge of contraception spread rapidly between 1969-76. The number of women in union who had ever used contraception doubled between 1976-81 to 40.2%. Important rural health programs developed in the late 1970s may have influenced contraceptive usage. Fertility continued to decline between 1980-85. The proportion of women who had ever used contraception in 1985 increased by only 3.5% in comparison to the 1981 level, but by 1987 the use of traditional methods such as rhythm and withdrawal was almost nil, and the use of IUDs, injectables, and sterilization had expanded. The age specific fertility rates suggest that the fertility reduction between 1980 and 1985 resulted in large part from the behavior of women over 34.

  5. Accelerated Evaluation of Automated Vehicles Safety in Lane-Change Scenarios Based on Importance Sampling Techniques.

    PubMed

    Zhao, Ding; Lam, Henry; Peng, Huei; Bao, Shan; LeBlanc, David J; Nobukawa, Kazutoshi; Pan, Christopher S

    2016-08-05

    Automated vehicles (AVs) must be thoroughly evaluated before their release and deployment. A widely used evaluation approach is the Naturalistic-Field Operational Test (N-FOT), which tests prototype vehicles directly on the public roads. Due to the low exposure to safety-critical scenarios, N-FOTs are time consuming and expensive to conduct. In this paper, we propose an accelerated evaluation approach for AVs. The results can be used to generate motions of the other primary vehicles to accelerate the verification of AVs in simulations and controlled experiments. Frontal collision due to unsafe cut-ins is the target crash type of this paper. Human-controlled vehicles making unsafe lane changes are modeled as the primary disturbance to AVs based on data collected by the University of Michigan Safety Pilot Model Deployment Program. The cut-in scenarios are generated based on skewed statistics of collected human driver behaviors, which generate risky testing scenarios while preserving the statistical information so that the safety benefits of AVs in nonaccelerated cases can be accurately estimated. The cross-entropy method is used to recursively search for the optimal skewing parameters. The frequencies of the occurrences of conflicts, crashes, and injuries are estimated for a modeled AV, and the achieved accelerated rate is around 2000 to 20 000. In other words, in the accelerated simulations, driving for 1000 miles will expose the AV with challenging scenarios that will take about 2 to 20 million miles of real-world driving to encounter. This technique thus has the potential to greatly reduce the development and validation time for AVs.

  6. Accelerated Evaluation of Automated Vehicles Safety in Lane-Change Scenarios Based on Importance Sampling Techniques

    PubMed Central

    Zhao, Ding; Lam, Henry; Peng, Huei; Bao, Shan; LeBlanc, David J.; Nobukawa, Kazutoshi; Pan, Christopher S.

    2016-01-01

    Automated vehicles (AVs) must be thoroughly evaluated before their release and deployment. A widely used evaluation approach is the Naturalistic-Field Operational Test (N-FOT), which tests prototype vehicles directly on the public roads. Due to the low exposure to safety-critical scenarios, N-FOTs are time consuming and expensive to conduct. In this paper, we propose an accelerated evaluation approach for AVs. The results can be used to generate motions of the other primary vehicles to accelerate the verification of AVs in simulations and controlled experiments. Frontal collision due to unsafe cut-ins is the target crash type of this paper. Human-controlled vehicles making unsafe lane changes are modeled as the primary disturbance to AVs based on data collected by the University of Michigan Safety Pilot Model Deployment Program. The cut-in scenarios are generated based on skewed statistics of collected human driver behaviors, which generate risky testing scenarios while preserving the statistical information so that the safety benefits of AVs in nonaccelerated cases can be accurately estimated. The cross-entropy method is used to recursively search for the optimal skewing parameters. The frequencies of the occurrences of conflicts, crashes, and injuries are estimated for a modeled AV, and the achieved accelerated rate is around 2000 to 20 000. In other words, in the accelerated simulations, driving for 1000 miles will expose the AV with challenging scenarios that will take about 2 to 20 million miles of real-world driving to encounter. This technique thus has the potential to greatly reduce the development and validation time for AVs. PMID:27840592

  7. Prediction of changes in important physical parameters during composting of separated animal slurry solid fractions.

    PubMed

    Chowdhury, Md Albarune; de Neergaard, Andreas; Jensen, Lars Stoumann

    2014-01-01

    Solid-liquid separation of animal slurry, with solid fractions used for composting, has gained interest recently. However, efficient composting of separated animal slurry solid fractions (SSFs) requires a better understanding of the process dynamics in terms of important physical parameters and their interacting physical relationships in the composting matrix. Here we monitored moisture content, bulk density, particle density and air-filled porosity (AFP) during composting of SSF collected from four commercially available solid-liquid separators. Composting was performed in laboratory-scale reactors for 30 days (d) under forced aeration and measurements were conducted on the solid samples at the beginning of composting and at 10-d intervals during composting. The results suggest that differences in initial physical properties of SSF influence the development of compost maximum temperatures (40-70 degreeC). Depending on SSF, total wet mass and volume losses (expressed as % of initial value) were up to 37% and 34%, respectively. After 30 d of composting, relative losses of total solids varied from 17.9% to 21.7% and of volatile solids (VS) from 21.3% to 27.5%, depending on SSF. VS losses in all composts showed different dynamics as described by the first-order kinetic equation. The estimated component particle density of 1441 kg m-3 for VS and 2625 kg m-3 for fixed solids can be used to improve estimates of AFP for SSF within the range tested. The linear relationship between wet bulk density and AFP reported by previous researchers held true for SSF.

  8. The importance of eating rice: changing food habits among pregnant Indonesian women during the economic crisis.

    PubMed

    Hartini, T Ninuk S; Padmawati, R Siwi; Lindholm, Lars; Surjono, Achmad; Winkvist, Anna

    2005-07-01

    This article presents qualitative and quantitative research findings on food habits of pregnant Indonesian women in relation to the economic crisis that arose in 1997. Between 1996 and 1998, dietary intakes were estimated for 450 pregnant women in Central Java. Between January and June 1999, four focus group discussions, 16 in-depth interviews and four non-participant observations were held with women, two in-depth interviews were held with traditional birth attendants, and four with midwives. Women were categorized as urban or rural, rich or poor, and according to rice field ownership. The women reported that before the crisis they bought more foods and cooked more meals and snacks. During the crisis, cooking methods became simpler and cooking tasty foods was more important than cooking nutritious foods. This involved using plenty of spices and cooking oil, but reducing the use of expensive nutritious foods. The herbal drink jamu was drunk by 15% of pregnant women; its consumption was lower during than before the economic crisis. Twenty-six percent of the women avoided certain foods due to food taboos, and most of these women avoided beneficial foods; this phenomenon decreased during the crisis among the rich and the rural, poor, landless women. In spite of increased prices for rice, women did not decrease their rice consumption during the crisis because rice was believed to have the highest value for survival, to provide strength during pregnancy and delivery, and to be easier to store and cook. Finally, children and husbands had highest priority in being served food, and women were the last to eat.

  9. The Importance of Consensus Information in Acceptance of Climate Change (Invited)

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Cook, J.; Lewandowsky, S.

    2013-12-01

    In recent years, public perception of the scientific consensus on human-caused global warming has been disturbingly low, in contrast to the overwhelming level of agreement among climate scientists and in peer-reviewed research. The misperception is partly cultural, with a significant link between perceived consensus and political ideology, and partly informational with all cultural groups exhibiting the misperception to varying degrees. This universal 'consensus gap' is in large part due to a persistent and focused misinformation campaign casting doubt on the consensus, dating back as early as the 1980s. Opponents of climate action have long recognized that perception of scientific consensus is linked to support for climate policy, a link only acknowledged by social scientists in the last few years. How do we counter the all-too-effective misinformation campaign? Psychological research tells us that a crucial aspect of effective refutations is an alternative narrative. In this case, an important counter-narrative to the consensus story is the strategy to perpetuate the impression of ongoing scientific debate. I will also present recent research into the effect that consensus information has on climate beliefs of Australians and Americans. For both groups, the consensus message significantly increased beliefs about human-caused global warming and outperformed interventions that feature evidence or scientists' expertise. For the Australian sample, consensus information partially neutralised the biasing influence of ideology. However, for Americans, a backfire effect (reduced climate belief) was observed for a small minority holding strong conservative views. A psychological model employing Bayesian Networks indicates that a key element to the backfire effect is conspiratorial thinking, consistent with other research finding a link between rejection of climate science and conspiratorial ideation. Thus when presented to a general audience, consensus information has an

  10. Lichens and weathering: importance for soil formation, nutrient cycling and adaptation to environmental change

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Purvis, O. W.; Convey, P.; Flowerdew, M. J.; Peat, H. J.; Najorka, J.

    2012-04-01

    Lichens comprise ca. 6% of the Earth's terrestrial vegetation, and are dominant in certain polar ecosystems, being primary colonists of rocks where they play a major role in the biogeochemical cycling of elements and contribute to soil formation. We present an historical overview of studies in the Antarctic, leading to recent collection opportunities on Signy Island providing new material to investigate how biodiversity has responded to regional and rapid environmental change. Mountainous, with an ice cap, glaciers, rugged topography, and a complex geology and pedology, Signy Island includes a wide range of terrestrial habitats. A small, inconspicuous lichen, Acarospora cf. badiofusca, was discovered colonizing iron-stained quartz mica schists on the lower slope of Manhaul Rocks, a recently exposed nunatak on the McLeod Glacier, Signy Island, maritime Antarctic. Thallus colour ranged from rust to paler orange and green. Many lichens are colourful, mostly due to the presence of secondary metabolites which are of fungal origin. In some cases colour may reflect chemical coordination reactions involving lichen biomass components and dissolved cations which can lead to metal complex and mineral formation. By far the greatest research effort into characterizing elements and minerals associated with lichens concerns those occurring beneath them, research driven partly from a desire to understand weathering processes. This study, for the first time in the maritime Antarctic, addressed the hypothesis that colour reflects element localization, and examined substance localization within lichen tissues and considered responses to stress. Methods utilised include macrophotography, X-Ray Diffraction with a position sensitive detector (PSD), Scanning Electron Microscopy in back-scattered and ED modes and electron probe microanalysis for the elements Fe, C and Si and by using a third generation variable pressure secondary detector employed as a panchromatic cathodoluminescence

  11. Social change as an important goal or likely outcome: how regulatory focus affects commitment to collective action.

    PubMed

    Zaal, Maarten P; Van Laar, Colette; Ståhl, Tomas; Ellemers, Naomi; Derks, Belle

    2012-03-01

    The results of three experiments showed that regulatory focus influences the way in which the importance and likelihood of social change affect individuals' commitment to collective action. In Studies 1 (N= 82) and 2 (N= 153), the strength of participants' chronic regulatory focus was measured. In Study 3 (N= 52), promotion or prevention focus was experimentally induced. The results showed that for individuals under promotion focus, commitment to collective action depended on the perceived likelihood that through this action important social change would be achieved. Individuals under prevention focus were willing to commit to collective action when they attached high importance to its goal, regardless of the extent to which they believed that attainment of this goal was likely. Implications of these results for work on regulatory focus and collective action are discussed.

  12. Importance of disinfection as a means of prevention in our changing world hygiene and the home.

    PubMed

    Bloomfield, Sally F

    2007-09-13

    Contrary to expectation, the risks of infection are growing rather than declining, even in everyday life. After all, who is able to make a distinction between cleanliness and hygiene? This situation is further compounded by the growing number of persons who are susceptible to infections. If one wants to combat infectious diseases in an economically feasible and consistent manner, public support must be sought. In turn, the public have a right to be informed in a proper and responsible manner. The difference between "dirt" and "contamination" must be highlighted once again.To create a forum for everyday hygiene, an international expert working group was set up (http://www.ifh-homehygiene.org). The hallmark of this group is its holistic view of hygiene in the family setting, something that is not true in the case of most public health sectors. Based on the latest study results, the International Forum for Hygiene (IFH) has coined a new motto "Selective Hygiene", and evaluates the causes of infection so as to be able to react in an appropriate manner. The aim cannot be routine, daily repetitive decontamination of all potentially dangerous microbes that are found in a normal household, but rather selective reaction to important transmission processes, i.e. hands and foodstuffs, kitchen, bathroom and toilet. The motto can be summarized as follows: "Do the right thing at the right time". This, however, calls for an understanding of the risks and of effective procedures for microbial reduction. Depending on the respective circumstances, hands can be washed with running water or by using a hand disinfectant. Even experts must learn that hygiene in the home must be evaluated differently from that of the hospital setting. The comparatively lower risk is offset by markedly less awareness of the risks involved. These risks can be significantly increased by any members of the household who are ill. Hence in some cases it is advisable to use disinfectants in the home too - even

  13. The importance of considering shifts in seasonal changes in discharges when predicting future phosphorus loads in streams

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    LaBeau, Meredith B.; Mayer, Alex S.; Griffis, Veronica; Watkins, David Jr.; Robertson, Dale; Gyawali, Rabi

    2015-01-01

    In this work, we hypothesize that phosphorus (P) concentrations in streams vary seasonally and with streamflow and that it is important to incorporate this variation when predicting changes in P loading associated with climate change. Our study area includes 14 watersheds with a range of land uses throughout the U.S. Great Lakes Basin. We develop annual seasonal load-discharge regression models for each watershed and apply these models with simulated discharges generated for future climate scenarios to simulate future P loading patterns for two periods: 2046–2065 and 2081–2100. We utilize output from the Coupled Model Intercomparison Project phase 3 downscaled climate change projections that are input into the Large Basin Runoff Model to generate future discharge scenarios, which are in turn used as inputs to the seasonal P load regression models. In almost all cases, the seasonal load-discharge models match observed loads better than the annual models. Results using the seasonal models show that the concurrence of nonlinearity in the load-discharge model and changes in high discharges in the spring months leads to the most significant changes in P loading for selected tributaries under future climate projections. These results emphasize the importance of using seasonal models to understand the effects of future climate change on nutrient loads.

  14. A novel approach to investigation of the pathogenesis of active minimal-change nephrotic syndrome using subtracted cDNA library screening.

    PubMed

    Sahali, Djillali; Pawlak, André; Valanciuté, Asta; Grimbert, Philippe; Lang, Philippe; Remy, Philippe; Bensman, Albert; Guellaën, Georges

    2002-05-01

    Clinical and experimental observations suggest that minimal-change nephrotic syndrome (MCNS) results from T cell dysfunction, via unknown mechanisms. For the identification of genes that are potentially involved in MCNS, a subtractive cDNA library was constructed from cDNA from T cell-enriched peripheral blood mononuclear cells obtained from the same patient during relapse versus remission ("relapse minus remission"). This library was screened by differential hybridization with forward ("relapse minus remission") and reverse ("remission minus relapse") subtractive cDNAs probes, as well as unsubtracted probes from relapse and remission, and irrelevant nephrotic syndrome (membranous nephropathy). A total of 84 transcripts were isolated, of which 12 matched proteins of unknown function and 30 were unknown clones. Among the 42 known transcripts, at least 18 are closely involved in the T cell receptor-mediated complex signaling cascade, including genes encoding components of the T cell receptor and proteins associated with the cytoskeletal scaffold, as well as transcription factors. In particular, it was demonstrated that the expression levels of Fyb/Slap, L-plastin, and grancalcin were increased during relapse, suggesting that the integration of proximal signaling after T cell engagement involves the preferential recruitment of these cytoskeleton-associated proteins in MCNS. Because very low levels of interleukin-12 receptor beta2 mRNA were detected in relapse samples, the interleukin-12 signaling pathway might be defective, suggesting that, in MCNS, T cell activation evolves toward a T helper 2 phenotype. Therefore, the combination of subtractive cloning and differential screening constitutes an efficient approach to the identification of genes that are likely to be involved in the pathophysiologic processes of MCNS.

  15. Intensity and importance of competition for a grass (Festuca rubra) and a legume (Trifolium pratense) vary with environmental changes.

    PubMed

    Zhang, Junyan; Cheng, Genwei; Yu, Feihai; Kräuchi, Norbert; Li, Mai-He

    2008-12-01

    How plant competition varies across environmental gradients has been a long debate among ecologists. We conducted a growth chamber experiment to determine the intensity and importance of competition for plants grown in changed environmental conditions. Festuca rubra and Trifolium pratense were grown in monoculture and in two- and/or three-species mixtures under three environmental treatments. The measured competitive variations in terms of growth (height and biomass) were species-dependent. Competition intensity for Festuca increased with decreased productivity, whilst competition importance displayed a humpback response. However, significant response was detected in neither competition intensity nor importance for Trifolium. Intensity and importance of competition followed different response patterns, suggesting that they may not be correlated along an environmental gradient. The biological and physiological variables of plants play an important role to determine the interspecific competition associated with competition intensity and importance. However, the competitive feature can be modified by multiple environmental changes which may increase or hinder how competitive a plant is.

  16. Esophagectomy - minimally invasive

    MedlinePlus

    Minimally invasive esophagectomy; Robotic esophagectomy; Removal of the esophagus - minimally invasive; Achalasia - esophagectomy; Barrett esophagus - esophagectomy; Esophageal cancer - esophagectomy - laparoscopic; Cancer of the ...

  17. Eco-evolutionary partitioning metrics: assessing the importance of ecological and evolutionary contributions to population and community change.

    PubMed

    Govaert, Lynn; Pantel, Jelena H; De Meester, Luc

    2016-08-01

    Interest in eco-evolutionary dynamics is rapidly increasing thanks to ground-breaking research indicating that evolution can occur rapidly and can alter the outcome of ecological processes. A key challenge in this sub-discipline is establishing how important the contribution of evolutionary and ecological processes and their interactions are to observed shifts in population and community characteristics. Although a variety of metrics to separate and quantify the effects of evolutionary and ecological contributions to observed trait changes have been used, they often allocate fractions of observed changes to ecology and evolution in different ways. We used a mathematical and numerical comparison of two commonly used frameworks - the Price equation and reaction norms - to reveal that the Price equation cannot partition genetic from non-genetic trait change within lineages, whereas the reaction norm approach cannot partition among- from within-lineage trait change. We developed a new metric that combines the strengths of both Price-based and reaction norm metrics, extended all metrics to analyse community change and also incorporated extinction and colonisation of species in these metrics. Depending on whether our new metric is applied to populations or communities, it can correctly separate intraspecific, interspecific, evolutionary, non-evolutionary and interacting eco-evolutionary contributions to trait change.

  18. Importance of change appraisal for employee well-being during organizational restructuring: findings from the Finnish paper industry's extensive transition.

    PubMed

    Pahkin, Krista; Nielsen, Karina; Väänänen, Ari; Mattila-Holappa, Pauliina; Leppänen, Anneli; Koskinen, Aki

    2014-01-01

    The global recession has forced the Finnish forest industry to carry out major restructuring activities. Employees have faced different kinds of restructuring, mainly aimed at reducing staff and production. Many studies have shown the negative consequences of restructuring on employee well-being by using negative, ill-health indicators. Our aim is to examine the extent to which change appraisal influences both the negative and positive aspects of work-related well-being among employees who continue working in the organization after the restructuring process. We also examine the role of different actors (top management, immediate supervisor, employees themselves) in how the change is appraised. The study investigated blue-collar employees working in the Finnish forest industry during a period of extensive transition (2008-2009). All six participating factories underwent restructuring between baseline and the follow-up survey (n=369). After adjustment for gender, age and baseline well-being, negative change appraisal increased the risk of experiencing more stress and less work enjoyment. Negative change appraisals thus also damaged the positive, motivational aspects of employee well-being. The results showed the importance of offering employees the opportunity to participate in the planning of changes related to their work as regards positive change appraisal.

  19. Adaptation Planning to Minimize Damage to Road Infrastructure from Rising Groundwater Associated with Climate Change and Sea Level Rise in Coastal New Hampshire

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Knott, J. F.; Jacobs, J. M.; Daniel, J.; Kirshen, P. H.

    2015-12-01

    Coastal communities with high population density and infrastructure close to the shoreline are vulnerable to the effects of climate change and sea level rise (SLR). In the northeast, annual precipitation has increased by more than 10-percent in the last 100 years and is projected to increase further in the future. In addition, sea level in coastal New Hampshire is projected to rise 1.2 to 2.0 meters by the year 2100 (New Hampshire Coastal Risks and Hazards Commission). Climate change vulnerability and adaptation studies have primarily focused on surface water flooding from SLR; however, little attention has been given to rising waters from beneath the ground surface. Groundwater in many coastal communities will rise with rising sea level which will likely have important consequences for water quality, the structural integrity of foundations and infrastructure, and the health of natural ecosystems in the coastal zone. In this study, we have constructed a regional groundwater flow model of coastal New Hampshire to investigate the effect of various climate change and SLR scenarios on groundwater levels, focusing on impacts to road infrastructure. Using LiDAR datasets and downscaled global climate predictions, we determined that the interaction of several hydrogeological factors resulted in distinct spatial patterns of groundwater rise that were not evident from simple models linking SLR and terrain. Furthermore, by loosely coupling the groundwater model to a hydraulic model for pavement systems, we were able to identify sections of roadways that will have compromised pavement performance due to rising groundwater intersecting the sublayers of these roadways. Our findings broadly suggest that adaptation strategies designed to counter the effects of climate change and SLR in coastal communities must consider potential damage from rising groundwater in addition to surface water impacts not only immediately along the coast but also at significant distances inland.

  20. Dissonance and importance: attitude change effects of personal relevance and race of the beneficiary of a counterattitudinal advocacy.

    PubMed

    Eisenstadt, Donna; Leippe, Michael R

    2005-08-01

    The authors asked or instructed White college students to write an essay advocating a large tuition hike to increase scholarships for either students in general or Black students (yielding low or high racial symbolism, respectively) that would take effect in the near or far future (yielding high or low personal relevance, respectively). Especially when high-choice participants wrote highly compliant (i.e., unqualified) essays, attitude change was greater when the advocacy had either high (vs. low) personal relevance or high (vs. low) racial symbolism. Yet there was no attitude change when both symbolism and relevance were high. They may increase dissonance by making the dissonant elements more important and numerous. The coupling of relevance and symbolism, however, may link the attitude so strongly to personal values and self-concept that attitude change becomes untenable as a mode of dissonance reduction.

  1. A change in the epidemiology of bovine cysticercosis in Israel between 1973 and 2008 due to import of live cattle.

    PubMed

    Meiry, M; Brenner, G; Markovitcs, A; Klement, E

    2013-08-01

    Bovine cysticercosis (BC) is an important disease because of its zoonotic nature. There is a significant variation in the prevalence of BC in different countries, ranging from <0.01% to more than 20%. In this study, we followed the changes of BC prevalence in Israel during the last four decades and examined its association with import of live cattle. During 1973-2007, 629,549 cattle were subjected to post-mortem inspection conducted in 'Marbek' slaughterhouse located in the south of Israel. A specific comparison was made between the prevalence of BC in local and imported cattle during 2003-2007. Of 629,549 cattle, 2568 were infected with Cysticercus bovis (0.4%). From 1980, there was a gradual decrease in the prevalence of BC (R(2) = 0.53) with exceptional peaks. Moreover, from 1973 to 1998, only 4% of the documented cases appeared in outbreaks as opposed to 38% after 1998 when mass importation of live cattle to Israel was initiated. All of these late outbreak cases appeared in imported cattle of which 95% originated from Australia. During the years 2002-2007, importation from Australia was found as a significant risk factor for infection with BC, with prevalence in these cattle reaching 1.8% in 2006. The time from importation to BC detection suggests that infection occurred either in Australia or during the transport into Israel. We conclude that despite a reduction in the prevalence of BC as a result of a possible improvement in sanitary conditions at the farms, meticulous meat inspection is still essential in Israel and possibly in other developed countries exporting and importing live cattle.

  2. Minimal covering problem and PLA minimization

    SciTech Connect

    Young, M.H.; Muroga, S.

    1985-12-01

    Solving the minimal covering problem by an implicit enumeration method is discussed. The implicit enumeration method in this paper is a modification of the Quine-McCluskey method tailored to computer processing and also its extension, utilizing some new properties of the minimal covering problem for speedup. A heuristic algorithm is also presented to solve large-scale problems. Its application to the minimization of programmable logic arrays (i.e., PLAs) is shown as an example. Computational experiences are presented to confirm the improvements by the implicit enumeration method discussed.

  3. Minimally invasive mediastinal surgery

    PubMed Central

    Melfi, Franca M. A.; Mussi, Alfredo

    2016-01-01

    In the past, mediastinal surgery was associated with the necessity of a maximum exposure, which was accomplished through various approaches. In the early 1990s, many surgical fields, including thoracic surgery, observed the development of minimally invasive techniques. These included video-assisted thoracic surgery (VATS), which confers clear advantages over an open approach, such as less trauma, short hospital stay, increased cosmetic results and preservation of lung function. However, VATS is associated with several disadvantages. For this reason, it is not routinely performed for resection of mediastinal mass lesions, especially those located in the anterior mediastinum, a tiny and remote space that contains vital structures at risk of injury. Robotic systems can overcome the limits of VATS, offering three-dimensional (3D) vision and wristed instrumentations, and are being increasingly used. With regards to thymectomy for myasthenia gravis (MG), unilateral and bilateral VATS approaches have demonstrated good long-term neurologic results with low complication rates. Nevertheless, some authors still advocate the necessity of maximum exposure, especially when considering the distribution of normal and ectopic thymic tissue. In recent studies, the robotic approach has shown to provide similar neurological outcomes when compared to transsternal and VATS approaches, and is associated with a low morbidity. Importantly, through a unilateral robotic technique, it is possible to dissect and remove at least the same amount of mediastinal fat tissue. Preliminary results on early-stage thymomatous disease indicated that minimally invasive approaches are safe and feasible, with a low rate of pleural recurrence, underlining the necessity of a “no-touch” technique. However, especially for thymomatous disease characterized by an indolent nature, further studies with long follow-up period are necessary in order to assess oncologic and neurologic results through minimally

  4. Each life stage matters: the importance of assessing the response to climate change over the complete life cycle in butterflies.

    PubMed

    Radchuk, Viktoriia; Turlure, Camille; Schtickzelle, Nicolas

    2013-01-01

    As ectothermic organisms, butterflies have widely been used as models to explore the predicted impacts of climate change. However, most studies explore only one life stage; to our best knowledge, none have integrated the impact of temperature on the vital rates of all life stages for a species of conservation concern. Besides, most population viability analysis models for butterflies are based on yearly population growth rate, precluding the implementation and assessment of important climate change scenarios, where climate change occurs mainly, or differently, during some seasons. Here, we used a combination of laboratory and field experiments to quantify the impact of temperature on all life stages of a vulnerable glacial relict butterfly. Next, we integrated these impacts into an overall population response using a deterministic periodic matrix model and explored the impact of several climate change scenarios. Temperature positively affected egg, pre-diapause larva and pupal survival, and the number of eggs laid by a female; only the survival of overwintering larva was negatively affected by an increase in temperature. Despite the positive impact of warming on many life stages, population viability was reduced under all scenarios, with predictions of much shorter times to extinction than under the baseline (current temperature situation) scenario. Indeed, model predictions were the most sensitive to changes in survival of overwintering larva, the only stage negatively affected by warming. A proper consideration of every stage of the life cycle is important when designing conservation guidelines in the light of climate change. This is in line with the resource-based habitat view, which explicitly refers to the habitat as a collection of resources needed for all life stages of the species. We, therefore, encourage adopting a resource-based habitat view for population viability analysis and development of conservation guidelines for butterflies, and more generally

  5. Quantifying the relative importance of land cover change from climate and land use in the representative concentration pathways

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Davies-Barnard, T.; Valdes, P. J.; Singarayer, J. S.; Wiltshire, A. J.; Jones, C. D.

    2015-06-01

    Climate change is projected to cause substantial alterations in vegetation distribution, but these have been given little attention in comparison to land use in the Representative Concentration Pathway (RCP) scenarios. Here we assess the climate-induced land cover changes (CILCC) in the RCPs and compare them to land use land cover change (LULCC). To do this, we use an ensemble of simulations with and without LULCC in Earth System Model HadGEM2-ES (Hadley Centre Global Environmental Model 2) - for RCP2.6, RCP4.5, and RCP8.5. We find that climate change causes an expansion poleward of vegetation that affects more land area than LULCC in all of the RCPs considered here. The terrestrial carbon changes from CILCC are also larger than for LULCC. When considering only forest, the LULCC is larger, but the CILCC is highly variable with the overall radiative forcing of the scenario. The CILCC forest increase compensates 90% of the global anthropogenic deforestation by 2100 in RCP8.5 but just 3% in RCP2.6. Overall, bigger land cover changes tend to originate from LULCC in the shorter term or lower radiative forcing scenarios and from CILCC in the longer term and higher radiative forcing scenarios. The extent to which CILCC could compensate for LULCC raises difficult questions regarding global forest and biodiversity offsetting, especially at different time scales. This research shows the importance of considering the relative size of CILCC to LULCC, especially with regard to the ecological effects of the different RCPs.

  6. [Attaching importance to study on acute health risk assessment and adaptation of air pollution and climate change].

    PubMed

    Shi, X M

    2017-03-10

    Air pollution and climate change have become key environmental and public health problems around the world, which poses serious threat to human health. How to assess and mitigate the health risks and increase the adaptation of the public have become an urgent topic of research in this area. The six papers in this issue will provide important and rich information on design, analysis method, indicator selection and setting about acute health risk assessment and adaptation study of air pollution and climate change in China, reflecting the advanced conceptions of multi-center and area-specific study and multi-pollutant causing acute effect study. However, the number and type of the cities included in these studies were still limited. In future, researchers should further expand detailed multi-center and multi-area study coverage, conduct area specific predicting and early warning study and strengthen adaptation study.

  7. Detecting temporal change in freshwater fisheries surveys: statistical power and the important linkages between management questions and monitoring objectives

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Wagner, Tyler; Irwin, Brian J.; James R. Bence,; Daniel B. Hayes,

    2016-01-01

    Monitoring to detect temporal trends in biological and habitat indices is a critical component of fisheries management. Thus, it is important that management objectives are linked to monitoring objectives. This linkage requires a definition of what constitutes a management-relevant “temporal trend.” It is also important to develop expectations for the amount of time required to detect a trend (i.e., statistical power) and for choosing an appropriate statistical model for analysis. We provide an overview of temporal trends commonly encountered in fisheries management, review published studies that evaluated statistical power of long-term trend detection, and illustrate dynamic linear models in a Bayesian context, as an additional analytical approach focused on shorter term change. We show that monitoring programs generally have low statistical power for detecting linear temporal trends and argue that often management should be focused on different definitions of trends, some of which can be better addressed by alternative analytical approaches.

  8. Minimally invasive esophagectomy

    PubMed Central

    Herbella, Fernando A; Patti, Marco G

    2010-01-01

    Esophageal resection is associated with a high morbidity and mortality rate. Minimally invasive esophagectomy (MIE) might theoretically decrease this rate. We reviewed the current literature on MIE, with a focus on the available techniques, outcomes and comparison with open surgery. This review shows that the available literature on MIE is still crowded with heterogeneous studies with different techniques. There are no controlled and randomized trials, and the few retrospective comparative cohort studies are limited by small numbers of patients and biased by historical controls of open surgery. Based on the available literature, there is no evidence that MIE brings clear benefits compared to conventional esophagectomy. Increasing experience and the report of larger series might change this scenario. PMID:20698044

  9. Seven-year follow-up of allogeneic transplant using BCNU, etoposide, cytarabine and melphalan chemotherapy in patients with Hodgkin lymphoma after autograft failure: importance of minimal residual disease.

    PubMed

    Sobol, Urszula; Rodriguez, Tulio; Smith, Scott; Go, Aileen; Vimr, Ross; Parthasarathy, Mala; Guo, Rong; Stiff, Patrick

    2014-06-01

    Abstract Allogeneic transplant using reduced intensity conditioning is a therapeutic option for patients with Hodgkin lymphoma (HL) who relapse after an autograft. This was a prospective study of 31 consecutive eligible patients with HL who relapsed after an autograft and underwent an allograft using BEAM (BCNU, etoposide, cytarabine, melphalan) conditioning. At a median follow-up of 7 years the progression-free survival (PFS) was 36% (95% confidence interval [CI] 19-54%) and overall survival (OS) was 42% (95% CI 23-59%). In multivariate analysis only residual disease at the time of transplant predicted outcome, with a 4-year PFS and OS of 62% and 75% for patients with minimal residual disease versus 8% and 8% for patients with gross residual disease, respectively (p = 0.005 and p = 0.001, respectively). This benefit seemed to be irrespective of chemosensitivity, with an OS for patients with chemorefractory yet minimal disease of 71% at 4 years. BEAM allogeneic transplant is effective in producing long-term remissions after autograft failure. Regardless of chemosensitivity, minimizing tumor burden pre-transplant may improve long-term outcome.

  10. Better Hyper-minimization

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Maletti, Andreas

    Hyper-minimization aims to compute a minimal deterministic finite automaton (dfa) that recognizes the same language as a given dfa up to a finite number of errors. Algorithms for hyper-minimization that run in time O(n logn), where n is the number of states of the given dfa, have been reported recently in [Gawrychowski and Jeż: Hyper-minimisation made efficient. Proc. Mfcs, Lncs 5734, 2009] and [Holzer and Maletti: An n logn algorithm for hyper-minimizing a (minimized) deterministic automaton. Theor. Comput. Sci. 411, 2010]. These algorithms are improved to return a hyper-minimal dfa that commits the least number of errors. This closes another open problem of [Badr, Geffert, and Shipman: Hyper-minimizing minimized deterministic finite state automata. Rairo Theor. Inf. Appl. 43, 2009]. Unfortunately, the time complexity for the obtained algorithm increases to O(n 2).

  11. The importance of socio-ecological system dynamics in understanding adaptation to global change in the forestry sector.

    PubMed

    Blanco, Victor; Brown, Calum; Holzhauer, Sascha; Vulturius, Gregor; Rounsevell, Mark D A

    2017-03-08

    Adaptation is necessary to cope with or take advantage of the effects of climate change on socio-ecological systems. This is especially important in the forestry sector, which is sensitive to the ecological and economic impacts of climate change, and where the adaptive decisions of owners play out over long periods of time. Relatively little is known about how successful these decisions are likely to be in meeting demands for ecosystem services in an uncertain future. We explore adaptation to global change in the forestry sector using CRAFTY-Sweden; an agent-based model that represents large-scale land-use dynamics, based on the demand and supply of ecosystem services. Future impacts and adaptation within the Swedish forestry sector were simulated for scenarios of socio-economic change (Shared Socio-economic Pathways) and climatic change (Representative Concentration Pathways, for three climate models), between 2010 and 2100. Substantial differences were found in the competitiveness and coping ability of land owners implementing different management strategies through time. Generally, multi-objective management was found to provide the best basis for adaptation. Across large regions, however, a combination of management strategies was better at meeting ecosystem service demands. Results also show that adaptive capacity evolves through time in response to external (global) drivers and interactions between individual actors. This suggests that process-based models are more appropriate for the study of autonomous adaptation and future adaptive and coping capacities than models based on indicators, discrete time snapshots or exogenous proxies. Nevertheless, a combination of planned and autonomous adaptation by institutions and forest owners is likely to be more successful than either group acting alone.

  12. Increasingly minimal bias routing

    DOEpatents

    Bataineh, Abdulla; Court, Thomas; Roweth, Duncan

    2017-02-21

    A system and algorithm configured to generate diversity at the traffic source so that packets are uniformly distributed over all of the available paths, but to increase the likelihood of taking a minimal path with each hop the packet takes. This is achieved by configuring routing biases so as to prefer non-minimal paths at the injection point, but increasingly prefer minimal paths as the packet proceeds, referred to herein as Increasing Minimal Bias (IMB).

  13. Disentangling the relative importance of changes in climate and land-use intensity in driving recent bird population trends.

    PubMed

    Eglington, Sarah M; Pearce-Higgins, James W

    2012-01-01

    Threats to biodiversity resulting from habitat destruction and deterioration have been documented for many species, whilst climate change is regarded as increasingly impacting upon species' distribution and abundance. However, few studies have disentangled the relative importance of these two drivers in causing recent population declines. We quantify the relative importance of both processes by modelling annual variation in population growth of 18 farmland bird species in the UK as a function of measures of land-use intensity and weather. Modelled together, both had similar explanatory power in accounting for annual fluctuations in population growth. When these models were used to retrodict population trends for each species as a function of annual variation in land-use intensity and weather combined, and separately, retrodictions incorporating land-use intensity were more closely linked to observed population trends than retrodictions based only on weather, and closely matched the UK farmland bird index from 1970 onwards. Despite more stable land-use intensity in recent years, climate change (inferred from weather trends) has not overtaken land-use intensity as the dominant driver of bird populations.

  14. A Coevolutionary Residue Network at the Site of a Functionally Important Conformational Change in a Phosphohexomutase Enzyme Family

    PubMed Central

    Furdui, Cristina; Beamer, Lesa J.

    2012-01-01

    Coevolution analyses identify residues that co-vary with each other during evolution, revealing sequence relationships unobservable from traditional multiple sequence alignments. Here we describe a coevolutionary analysis of phosphomannomutase/phosphoglucomutase (PMM/PGM), a widespread and diverse enzyme family involved in carbohydrate biosynthesis. Mutual information and graph theory were utilized to identify a network of highly connected residues with high significance. An examination of the most tightly connected regions of the coevolutionary network reveals that most of the involved residues are localized near an interdomain interface of this enzyme, known to be the site of a functionally important conformational change. The roles of four interface residues found in this network were examined via site-directed mutagenesis and kinetic characterization. For three of these residues, mutation to alanine reduces enzyme specificity to ∼10% or less of wild-type, while the other has ∼45% activity of wild-type enzyme. An additional mutant of an interface residue that is not densely connected in the coevolutionary network was also characterized, and shows no change in activity relative to wild-type enzyme. The results of these studies are interpreted in the context of structural and functional data on PMM/PGM. Together, they demonstrate that a network of coevolving residues links the highly conserved active site with the interdomain conformational change necessary for the multi-step catalytic reaction. This work adds to our understanding of the functional roles of coevolving residue networks, and has implications for the definition of catalytically important residues. PMID:22685552

  15. Methylome analysis reveals an important role for epigenetic changes in the regulation of the Arabidopsis response to phosphate starvation.

    PubMed

    Yong-Villalobos, Lenin; González-Morales, Sandra Isabel; Wrobel, Kazimierz; Gutiérrez-Alanis, Dolores; Cervantes-Peréz, Sergio Alan; Hayano-Kanashiro, Corina; Oropeza-Aburto, Araceli; Cruz-Ramírez, Alfredo; Martínez, Octavio; Herrera-Estrella, Luis

    2015-12-29

    Phosphate (Pi) availability is a significant limiting factor for plant growth and productivity in both natural and agricultural systems. To cope with such limiting conditions, plants have evolved a myriad of developmental and biochemical strategies to enhance the efficiency of Pi acquisition and assimilation to avoid nutrient starvation. In the past decade, these responses have been studied in detail at the level of gene expression; however, the possible epigenetic components modulating plant Pi starvation responses have not been thoroughly investigated. Here, we report that an extensive remodeling of global DNA methylation occurs in Arabidopsis plants exposed to low Pi availability, and in many instances, this effect is related to changes in gene expression. Modifications in methylation patterns within genic regions were often associated with transcriptional activation or repression, revealing the important role of dynamic methylation changes in modulating the expression of genes in response to Pi starvation. Moreover, Arabidopsis mutants affected in DNA methylation showed that changes in DNA methylation patterns are required for the accurate regulation of a number of Pi-starvation-responsive genes and that DNA methylation is necessary to establish proper morphological and physiological phosphate starvation responses.

  16. Methylome analysis reveals an important role for epigenetic changes in the regulation of the Arabidopsis response to phosphate starvation

    PubMed Central

    Yong-Villalobos, Lenin; González-Morales, Sandra Isabel; Wrobel, Kazimierz; Gutiérrez-Alanis, Dolores; Cervantes-Peréz, Sergio Alan; Hayano-Kanashiro, Corina; Oropeza-Aburto, Araceli; Cruz-Ramírez, Alfredo; Martínez, Octavio; Herrera-Estrella, Luis

    2015-01-01

    Phosphate (Pi) availability is a significant limiting factor for plant growth and productivity in both natural and agricultural systems. To cope with such limiting conditions, plants have evolved a myriad of developmental and biochemical strategies to enhance the efficiency of Pi acquisition and assimilation to avoid nutrient starvation. In the past decade, these responses have been studied in detail at the level of gene expression; however, the possible epigenetic components modulating plant Pi starvation responses have not been thoroughly investigated. Here, we report that an extensive remodeling of global DNA methylation occurs in Arabidopsis plants exposed to low Pi availability, and in many instances, this effect is related to changes in gene expression. Modifications in methylation patterns within genic regions were often associated with transcriptional activation or repression, revealing the important role of dynamic methylation changes in modulating the expression of genes in response to Pi starvation. Moreover, Arabidopsis mutants affected in DNA methylation showed that changes in DNA methylation patterns are required for the accurate regulation of a number of Pi-starvation–responsive genes and that DNA methylation is necessary to establish proper morphological and physiological phosphate starvation responses. PMID:26668375

  17. Benthic Food Webs of the Chukchi and Beaufort Seas: Relative Importance of Ultimate Carbon Sources in a Changing Climate

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Dunton, K. H.; Schonberg, S. V.; Mctigue, N.; Bucolo, P. A.; Connelly, T. L.; McClelland, J. W.

    2014-12-01

    Changes in sea-ice cover, coastal erosion, and freshwater run-off have the potential to greatly influence carbon assimilation pathways and affect trophic structure in benthic communities across the western Arctic. In the Chukchi Sea, variations in the duration and timing of ice cover affect the delivery of ice algae to a relatively shallow (40-50 m) shelf benthos. Although ice algae are known as an important spring carbon subsidy for marine benthic fauna, ice algal contributions may also help initiate productivity of an active microphytobenthos. Recent studies provide clear evidence that the microphytobenthos are photosynthetically active, and have sufficient light and nutrients for in situ growth. The assimilation of benthic diatoms from both sources may explain the 13C enrichment observed in benthic primary consumers throughout the northern Chukchi. On the eastern Beaufort Sea coast, shallow (2-4 m) estuarine lagoon systems receive massive subsidies of terrestrial carbon that is assimilated by a benthic fauna of significant importance to upper trophic level species, but again, distinct 13C enrichment in benthic primary consumers suggests the existence of an uncharacterized food source. Since ice algae are absent, we believe the 13C enrichment in benthic fauna is caused by the assimilation of benthic microalgae, as reflected in seasonally high benthic chlorophyll in spring under replete light and nutrient conditions. Our observations suggest that changes in ice cover, on both temporal and spatial scales, are likely to have significant effects on the magnitude and timing of organic matter delivery to both shelf and nearshore systems, and that locally produced organic matter may become an increasingly important carbon subsidy that affects trophic assimilation and secondary ecosystem productivity.

  18. LLNL Waste Minimization Program Plan

    SciTech Connect

    Not Available

    1990-02-14

    This document is the February 14, 1990 version of the LLNL Waste Minimization Program Plan (WMPP). The Waste Minimization Policy field has undergone continuous changes since its formal inception in the 1984 HSWA legislation. The first LLNL WMPP, Revision A, is dated March 1985. A series of informal revision were made on approximately a semi-annual basis. This Revision 2 is the third formal issuance of the WMPP document. EPA has issued a proposed new policy statement on source reduction and recycling. This policy reflects a preventative strategy to reduce or eliminate the generation of environmentally-harmful pollutants which may be released to the air, land surface, water, or ground water. In accordance with this new policy new guidance to hazardous waste generators on the elements of a Waste Minimization Program was issued. In response to these policies, DOE has revised and issued implementation guidance for DOE Order 5400.1, Waste Minimization Plan and Waste Reduction reporting of DOE Hazardous, Radioactive, and Radioactive Mixed Wastes, final draft January 1990. This WMPP is formatted to meet the current DOE guidance outlines. The current WMPP will be revised to reflect all of these proposed changes when guidelines are established. Updates, changes and revisions to the overall LLNL WMPP will be made as appropriate to reflect ever-changing regulatory requirements. 3 figs., 4 tabs.

  19. Effects of the New Prokinetic Agent DA-9701 Formulated With Corydalis Tuber and Pharbitis Seed in Patients With Minimal Change Esophagitis: A Bicenter, Randomized, Double Blind, Placebo-controlled Study

    PubMed Central

    Park, Chan Hyuk; Kim, Hyun-Soo; Lee, Sang Kil

    2014-01-01

    Background/Aims DA-9701 (Motilitone) is a new prokinetic agent formulated with Corydalis Tuber and Pharbitis Seed. We assessed the efficacy of DA-9701 in symptomatic patients with minimal change esophagitis. Methods Patients with minimal change esophagitis presenting with reflux or dyspeptic symptoms were randomly assigned to receive either DA-9701 30 mg or placebo t.i.d. (means 3 times a day). After 4 weeks of treatment, the primary efficacy end point determined by changes of the Nepean dyspepsia index questionnaire-Korean version (NDI-K) symptom scores, was analyzed. Results Forty-two and 39 patients were assigned to the treatment and control groups, respectively. After 4 weeks, NDI-K symptom scores were reduced from 35.4 to 13.5 (P < 0.001) and from 43.0 to 27.7 (P < 0.001) in the treatment and the control groups, respectively. However, changes in the symptom scores did not differ between the 2 groups (P = 0.741). Although the quality of life scores were significantly improved after 4 weeks in both groups, changes in the quality of life score between the baseline value and that at 4 weeks did not differ between the 2 groups. The reflux symptom score was significantly improved in the treatment group compared to the placebo group in patients aged 65 years or older (P = 0.035). Conclusions Although NDI-K symptom scores and quality of life scores were improved after 4 weeks of treatment compared with baseline values in patients with minimal change esophagitis, DA-9701 did not improve the symptom scores or quality of life scores compared with the placebo. PMID:24953714

  20. Acclimation of Betula alleghaniensis Britton to moderate soil water deficit: small morphological changes make for important consequences in crown display.

    PubMed

    Rasheed, Fahad; Delagrange, Sylvain

    2016-11-01

    In the context of the predicted increasing frequency of summer droughts in the northeastern deciduous forest of North America due to climate change, we investigated the acclimation capacity of yellow birch, an economically important native tree species, to soil water deficit. We carried out an integrated examination of allocation of biomass, leaf physiology, branching pattern and in situ 3D crown display. Potted seedlings were subjected to moderate soil water deficit for four consecutive months during their second growing season. Individuals under soil water deficit showed a 40% decrease in biomass accumulation but no change in the relative allocation of biomass to the different plant compartments. Net CO2 assimilation rates at leaf level decreased under water deficit (~15%) but could not alone explain the total reduction in growth, excluding the carbon starvation hypothesis. The observed reduction in net CO2 assimilation rates was related to a decrease in stomatal conductance and chlorophyll content. STARzen (in situ silhouette to total leaf area ratio; a proxy for light interception efficiency) decreased under soil water deficit due to shifts in biomass allocation within the branch compartment from long upper axes to short bottom axes. Despite the fact that the understanding of the processes involved in growth reduction and branching pattern alteration will need more attention in future research, we conclude that under water deficit yellow birch at young stages will: (i) experience a substantial loss of growth and biomass; and (ii) acclimate through architectural plasticity rather than through changes in the relative allocation of root biomass to enhance its water management.

  1. Biochemical changes during the development of witches' broom: the most important disease of cocoa in Brazil caused by Crinipellis perniciosa.

    PubMed

    Scarpari, L M; Meinhardt, L W; Mazzafera, P; Pomella, A W V; Schiavinato, M A; Cascardo, J C M; Pereira, G A G

    2005-03-01

    Witches' broom disease (WBD) is caused by the hemibiotrophic basidiomycete fungus Crinipellis perniciosa, which is one of the most important diseases of cocoa in the western hemisphere. In this study, the contents of soluble sugars, amino acids, alkaloids, ethylene, phenolics, tannins, flavonoids, pigments, malondialdehyde (MDA), glycerol, and fatty acids were analysed in cocoa (Theobroma cacao) shoots during the infection and development of WBD. Alterations were observed in the content of soluble sugars (sucrose, glucose, and fructose), asparagine and alkaloids (caffeine and theobromine), ethylene, and tannins. Ethylene and tannins increased prior to symptom development and declined with the death of the infected tissues. Furthermore, MDA and glycerol concentrations were higher in infected tissue than in the controls, while fatty acid composition changed in the infected tissues. Chlorophylls a and b were lower throughout the development of the disease while carotenoids and xanthophylls dropped in the infected tissue by the time of symptom development. These results show co-ordinated biochemical alterations in the infected tissues, indicating major stress responses with the production of ethylene. Ethylene levels are hypothesized to play a key role in broom development. Some of the other biochemical alterations are directly associated with ethylene synthesis and may be important for the modification of its effect on the infected tissues.

  2. Depressive-like behavior observed with a minimal loss of locus coeruleus (LC) neurons following administration of 6-hydroxydopamine is associated with electrophysiological changes and reversed with precursors of norepinephrine

    PubMed Central

    Szot, Patricia; Franklin, Allyn; Miguelez, Cristina; Wang, Yangqing; Vidaurrazaga, Igor; Ugedo, Luisa; Sikkema, Carl; Wilkinson, Charles W.; Raskind, Murray A.

    2016-01-01

    Depression is a common co-morbid condition most often observed in subjects with mild cognitive impairment (MCI) and during the early stages of Alzheimer’s disease (AD). Dysfunction of the central noradrenergic nervous system is an important component in depression. In AD, locus coeruleus (LC) noradrenergic neurons are significantly reduced pathologically and the reduction of LC neurons is hypothesized to begin very early in the progression of the disorder; however, it is not known if dysfunction of the noradrenergic system due to early LC neuronal loss is involved in mediating depression in early AD. Therefore, the purpose of this study was to determine in an animal model if a loss of noradrenergic LC neurons results in depressive-like behavior. The LC noradrenergic neuronal population was reduced by the bilateral administration of the neurotoxin 6-hydroxydopamine (6-OHDA) directly into the LC. Forced swim test (FST) was performed three weeks after the administration of 6-OHDA (5, 10 and 14 μg/μl), animals administered the 5 μg/μl of 6-OHDA demonstrated a significant increase in immobility, indicating depressive-like behavior. This increase in immobility at the 5 μg/μl dose was observed with a minimal loss of LC noradrenergic neurons as compared to LC neuronal loss observed at 10 and 14 μg/μl dose. A significant positive correlation between the number of surviving LC neurons after 6-OHDA and FST immobile time was observed, suggesting that in animals with a minimal loss of LC neurons (or a greater number of surviving LC neurons) following 6-OHDA demonstrated depressive-like behavior. As the 6-OHDA-induced loss of LC neurons is increased, the time spent immobile is reduced. Depressive-like behavior was also observed with the 5 μg/μl dose of 6-OHDA with a second behavior test, sucrose consumption. FTS increased immobility following 6-OHDA (5 μg/μl) was reversed by the administration of a single dose of L-1-3-4-dihydroxyphenylalanine (DOPA) or L-threo-3

  3. The New Minimal Standard Model

    SciTech Connect

    Davoudiasl, Hooman; Kitano, Ryuichiro; Li, Tianjun; Murayama, Hitoshi

    2005-01-13

    We construct the New Minimal Standard Model that incorporates the new discoveries of physics beyond the Minimal Standard Model (MSM): Dark Energy, non-baryonic Dark Matter, neutrino masses, as well as baryon asymmetry and cosmic inflation, adopting the principle of minimal particle content and the most general renormalizable Lagrangian. We base the model purely on empirical facts rather than aesthetics. We need only six new degrees of freedom beyond the MSM. It is free from excessive flavor-changing effects, CP violation, too-rapid proton decay, problems with electroweak precision data, and unwanted cosmological relics. Any model of physics beyond the MSM should be measured against the phenomenological success of this model.

  4. Response of plant tundra communities to changes in abiotic and biotic environments: Importance of the temporal dimension

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Saccone, P.; Virtanen, R.

    2015-12-01

    Understanding of ecosystem response to changing environment have been improved by the convergence of observational and experimental approaches that allow disentangling mechanisms involved and large scale subsequent patterns. However, such approaches often face context-dependence of underlying processes, and a major challenge of community ecology is to deepen our understanding of this context-dependency for reliable upscaling. Here we used the results from several transplant experiments of heath communities in the Northern Fennoscandian during the last two decades to investigate the relative importance of abiotic and biotic drivers and the plant functional response. The plant community composition of blocks of heath vegetation from diverse origins transplanted in contrasted abiotic and biotic conditions was monitored from 6 to 23 years depending on the design. Considering both abiotic severity and biotic environment, the transplantation along altitudinal gradient constituted major habitat perturbation, in particular for communities from the mountain tundra vulnerable to strong functional shift. In addition, the joint effects of multiple drivers associated to grazing pressure and abiotic micro heterogeneity resulted in divergent community in the long-term. However, the different factors operated on different temporal scales. The vegetation depending on their origin and functional type also showed contrasted patterns from immediate and transient response to strong biological inertia. Our results reveal the potential for alternative response of plant communities depending on the interplay between the multiple drivers and the functional attributes of the vegetation. This interplay should drive plant communities toward divergent alternative states, but our ability to extrapolate longer-term trajectories from partial dynamics is challenged by the temporal differences in drivers pressure and plant response. The responses to manipulation appear as successional processes and

  5. Perception of floods as an important aspect of quality of life and territorial changes in flood areas

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Klemešová, Kamila; Andráško, Ivan

    2014-05-01

    The quality of life in many municipalities in the Czech Republic is affected by coming floods. Since 1997 when a great part of Moravia was affected by an extreme flood situation, much closer attention is paid to floods and flood protection. Flood management is based, besides others, on European flood legislation but it still does not reflect the social perception of flood situations as a common part of the evaluation of flood risk. However, this very perception strongly influences future implementation of flood measures, territorial and social development of the municipality and indirectly the quality of life in the municipality. One of the main problems in flood issue is the financing of anti-flood measures. In view of the fact that financial resources in environmental sphere are limited, preventive anti-flood measures, that can eliminate the impacts of future floods and are not so expensive, assume more importance. Such kind of measures is often suggested for local needs. The necessity to research the social perception of flood in this context is supported by some studies pointing out a still insufficient use of preventive anti-flood measures in the Czech Republic in spite of several extreme floods in the past 20 years. This paper aims at presenting the results of a research which has been done in a model area affected by floods. The aim of this research was to point out the main factors that influence the life in the municipality after flood (including suggested anti-flood measures) and the possibilities and willingness of the inhabitants to change them. The research results have subsequently been supplemented with the same evaluation by the members of local administrations who are important players in post-flood development of the municipality and in dealings with citizens about the suggested anti-flood measures.

  6. Controlling and minimizing fingering instabilities in non-Newtonian fluids.

    PubMed

    Fontana, João V; Dias, Eduardo O; Miranda, José A

    2014-01-01

    The development of the viscous fingering instability in Hele-Shaw cells has great practical and scientific importance. Recently, researchers have proposed different strategies to control the number of interfacial fingering structures, or to minimize as much as possible the amplitude of interfacial disturbances. Most existing studies address the situation in which an inviscid fluid displaces a viscous Newtonian fluid. In this work, we report on controlling and minimizing protocols considering the situation in which the displaced fluid is a non-Newtonian, power-law fluid. The necessary changes on the controlling schemes due to the shear-thinning and shear thickening nature of the displaced fluid are calculated analytically and discussed.

  7. Minimizing Classroom Interruptions.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Partin, Ronald L.

    1987-01-01

    Offers suggestions for minimizing classroom interruptions, such as suggesting to the principal that announcements not be read over the intercom during class time and arranging desks and chairs so as to minimize visual distractions. Contains a school interruption survey form. (JC)

  8. Seasonal change in main alkaloids of jaborandi (Pilocarpus microphyllus Stapf ex Wardleworth), an economically important species from the Brazilian flora

    PubMed Central

    Véras, Leiz Maria Costa; Azevedo, Iábita Fabiana Sousa; Biase, Adriele Giaretta; Costa, Joana; Oliveira, Maria Beatriz P. P.; Mafra, Isabel

    2017-01-01

    Pilocarpus microphyllus Stapf ex Wardleworth (jaborandi, Rutaceae) is one of the most important Brazilian medicinal species owing to its content of pilocarpine (PIL), an alkaloid used for treating glaucoma and xerostomia. This species contains another alkaloid, epiisopiloturine (EPI), which has demonstrated effectiveness against schistosomiasis. The aim of this work was to assess seasonal changes of PIL and EPI in three populations of cultivated P. microphyllus from northeastern Brazil over one year, including the dry and rainy seasons. Alkaloid profiles were correlated to phenotypic and genetic patterns in the morphological and molecular characterizations. PIL was the primary alkaloid and its levels differed among populations in all months except September. The S01 population (green line) showed an especially high PIL content compared to populations S02 and S03 (traditional line), which had similar alkaloid contents. PIL content gradually decreased in the three populations in the rainy season.EPI content was significantly different between the green line (S01) and the traditional line (S02 and S03).S01 had a significantly lower EPI content in all months, demonstrating that it was not the best source for EPI extraction. Inter simple sequence repeat (ISSR) markers and morphological analyses clearly separated S01 from S02 and S03, in agreement with the alkaloid results. This study shows the first correlation between the chemical, morphological, and molecular markers of P. microphyllus and highlights the potential benefits of a multidisciplinary research approach aimed at supporting both industry and conservation of natural resources. PMID:28151972

  9. Seasonal change in main alkaloids of jaborandi (Pilocarpus microphyllus Stapf ex Wardleworth), an economically important species from the Brazilian flora.

    PubMed

    Lima, David Fernandes; de Lima, Luiza Ianny; Rocha, Jefferson Almeida; de Andrade, Ivanilza Moreira; Grazina, Liliana Gonçalves; Villa, Caterina; Meira, Liliana; Véras, Leiz Maria Costa; Azevedo, Iábita Fabiana Sousa; Biase, Adriele Giaretta; Costa, Joana; Oliveira, Maria Beatriz P P; Mafra, Isabel; Leite, José Roberto de Souza de Almeida

    2017-01-01

    Pilocarpus microphyllus Stapf ex Wardleworth (jaborandi, Rutaceae) is one of the most important Brazilian medicinal species owing to its content of pilocarpine (PIL), an alkaloid used for treating glaucoma and xerostomia. This species contains another alkaloid, epiisopiloturine (EPI), which has demonstrated effectiveness against schistosomiasis. The aim of this work was to assess seasonal changes of PIL and EPI in three populations of cultivated P. microphyllus from northeastern Brazil over one year, including the dry and rainy seasons. Alkaloid profiles were correlated to phenotypic and genetic patterns in the morphological and molecular characterizations. PIL was the primary alkaloid and its levels differed among populations in all months except September. The S01 population (green line) showed an especially high PIL content compared to populations S02 and S03 (traditional line), which had similar alkaloid contents. PIL content gradually decreased in the three populations in the rainy season.EPI content was significantly different between the green line (S01) and the traditional line (S02 and S03).S01 had a significantly lower EPI content in all months, demonstrating that it was not the best source for EPI extraction. Inter simple sequence repeat (ISSR) markers and morphological analyses clearly separated S01 from S02 and S03, in agreement with the alkaloid results. This study shows the first correlation between the chemical, morphological, and molecular markers of P. microphyllus and highlights the potential benefits of a multidisciplinary research approach aimed at supporting both industry and conservation of natural resources.

  10. Minimally invasive surgery in cancer. Immunological response.

    PubMed

    Bobocea, A C; Trandafir, B; Bolca, C; Cordoş, I

    2012-01-01

    Minimally invasive surgery produced major changes in treating abdominal malignancies and early stage lung cancer. Laparoscopy and thoracoscopy are less traumatic than open surgery: allow faster recovery, shorter hospital stay, better cosmesis. Although these clinical benefits are important, prolonged disease-free interval, long-term survival with improved quality of life are most important endpoints for oncologic surgery. Major surgery causes significant alteration of immunological response, of particular importance in oncologic patients, as postoperative immunosuppression has been related to septic complications, lower survival rate, tumor spread and metastases. Clinical studies have shown laparoscopic surgery preserves better the patient's immunological function. Postoperative plasma peak concentrations of IL-6, IL-10, C-reactive protein (CRP) and TNF-alpha were lower after laparoscopic colonic resection. Prospective thoracoscopic VATS lobectomy trials found better preservation of lymphocyte T-cell function and quicker return of proliferative responses to normal, lower levels of CRP, thromboxane and prostacyclin. Immune function is influenced by the extent of surgical trauma. Minimally invasive surgery show reduced acute-phase responses compared with open procedures and better preservation of cellular immune mechanisms.

  11. What is the importance of climate model bias when projecting the impacts of climate change on land surface processes?

    SciTech Connect

    Liu, M. L.; Rajagopalan, K.; Chung, S. H.; Jiang, X.; Harrison, J. H.; Nergui, T.; Guenther, Alex B.; Miller, C.; Reyes, J.; Tague, C. L.; Choate, J. S.; Salathe, E.; Stockle, Claudio O.; Adam, J. C.

    2014-05-16

    , significant differences rise from projected SWE, crop yield from dry lands, and HJ Andrews’s ET between BC and NBC data. Even though BC post-processing has no significant impacts on most of the studied variables when taking PNW as a whole, their effects have large spatial variations and some local areas are substantially influenced. In addition, there are months during which BC and NBC post-processing produces significant differences in projected changes, such as summer runoff. Factor-controlled simulations indicate that BC post-processing of precipitation and temperature both substantially contribute to these differences at region scales. We conclude that there are trade-offs between using BC climate data for offline CCI studies vs. direct modeled climate data. These trade-offs should be considered when designing integrated modeling frameworks for specific applications; e.g., BC may be more important when considering impacts on reservoir operations in mountainous watersheds than when investigating impacts on biogenic emissions and air quality (where VOCs are a primary indicator).

  12. What is the importance of climate model bias when projecting the impacts of climate change on land surface processes?

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Liu, M.; Rajagopalan, K.; Chung, S. H.; Jiang, X.; Harrison, J.; Nergui, T.; Guenther, A.; Miller, C.; Reyes, J.; Tague, C.; Choate, J.; Salathé, E. P.; Stöckle, C. O.; Adam, J. C.

    2014-05-01

    from dry lands, and HJ-Andrews's ET between BC and NBC data. Even though BC post-processing has no significant impacts on most of the studied variables when taking PNW as a whole, their effects have large spatial variations and some local areas are substantially influenced. In addition, there are months during which BC and NBC post-processing produces significant differences in projected changes, such as summer runoff. Factor-controlled simulations indicate that BC post-processing of precipitation and temperature both substantially contribute to these differences at regional scales. We conclude that there are trade-offs between using BC climate data for offline CCI studies versus directly modeled climate data. These trade-offs should be considered when designing integrated modeling frameworks for specific applications; for example, BC may be more important when considering impacts on reservoir operations in mountainous watersheds than when investigating impacts on biogenic emissions and air quality, for which VOCs are a primary indicator.

  13. The Importance of Simulating Changes in Topography in Process-based Soil Erosion Modelling: Implications for Landscape-Evolution Modelling

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Hewett, C. J.; Wainwright, J.; Parsons, A. J.; Cooper, J. R.; Kitchener, B.; Hargrave, G. K.; Long, E. J.; Onda, Y.; Patin, J.

    2013-12-01

    described by an exponential distribution function. The initial, static version of the model has been modified so that surface topography during a storm event may be updated at regular intervals or at every time step. The dynamic version of the model makes it possible to test how important topographic change is in controlling runoff and erosion processes in events of different magnitudes or over a series of consecutive events. Results from field data under natural conditions in Japan and the USA and experimental data from plot-scale rainfall-simulation experiments at the University of Tsukuba Large Rainfall-Simulation Facility are used to evaluate the model. Furthermore sensitivity analysis is carried out to assess the impacts of dynamic changes in topography on flow and particle transport more generally. The introduction of topographic change during storms provides a more realistic model of what happens in heavy storm conditions especially on steep slopes and could be used to inform the development of improved landscape-evolution models over longer simulation periods.

  14. The Importance of Simulating Changes in Topography in Process-based Soil Erosion Modelling: Implications for Landscape Evolution Modelling

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Hewett, Caspar J. M.; Wainwright, John; Parsons, Anthony J.; Cooper, James R.; Kitchener, Ben; Hargrave, Graham K.; Long, Edward J.; Onda, Yuichi; Patin, Jeremy

    2014-05-01

    -distance approach described by an exponential distribution function. The initial, static version of the model has been modified so that surface topography during a storm event may be updated at regular intervals or at every time step. The dynamic version of the model makes it possible to test how important topographic change is in controlling runoff and erosion processes in events of different magnitudes or over a series of consecutive events. Results from field data under natural conditions in Japan and USA and experimental data from plot-scale rainfall simulation experiments at the University of Tsukuba Large Rainfall-Simulation Facility have been used to evaluate the model. Furthermore, sensitivity analysis is carried out to assess the impacts of dynamic changes in topography on flow and particle transport more generally. The introduction of topographic change during storms provides a more realistic model of what happens in heavy storm conditions especially on steep slopes and could be used to inform the development of improved landscape-evolution models over longer simulation periods.

  15. What is the importance of climate model bias when projecting the impacts of climate change on land surface processes?

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Liu, M.; Rajagopalan, K.; Chung, S. H.; Jiang, X.; Harrison, J.; Nergui, T.; Guenther, A.; Miller, C.; Reyes, J.; Tague, C.; Choate, J.; Salathé, E. P.; Stöckle, C. O.; Adam, J. C.

    2013-11-01

    differences rise from projected SWE, crop yield from dry lands, and HJ Andrews's ET between BC and NBC data. Even though BC post-processing has no significant impacts on most of the studied variables when taking PNW as a whole, their effects have large spatial variations and some local areas are substantially influenced. In addition, there are months during which BC and NBC post-processing produces significant differences in projected changes, such as summer runoff. Factor-controlled simulations indicate that BC post-processing of precipitation and temperature both substantially contribute to these differences at region scales. We conclude that there are trade-offs between using BC climate data for offline CCI studies vs. direct modeled climate data. These trade-offs should be considered when designing integrated modeling frameworks for specific applications; e.g., BC may be more important when considering impacts on reservoir operations in mountainous watersheds than when investigating impacts on biogenic emissions and air quality (where VOCs are a primary indicator).

  16. Minimally invasive surgery for atrial fibrillation

    PubMed Central

    Suwalski, Piotr

    2013-01-01

    Atrial fibrillation (AF) remains the most common cardiac arrhythmia, affecting nearly 2% of the general population worldwide. Minimally invasive surgical ablation remains one of the most dynamically evolving fields of modern cardiac surgery. While there are more than a dozen issues driving this development, two seem to play the most important role: first, there is lack of evidence supporting percutaneous catheter based approach to treat patients with persistent and long-standing persistent AF. Paucity of this data offers surgical community unparalleled opportunity to challenge guidelines and change indications for surgical intervention. Large, multicenter prospective clinical studies are therefore of utmost importance, as well as honest, clear data reporting. Second, a collaborative methodology started a long-awaited debate on a Heart Team approach to AF, similar to the debate on coronary artery disease and transcatheter valves. Appropriate patient selection and tailored treatment options will most certainly result in better outcomes and patient satisfaction, coupled with appropriate use of always-limited institutional resources. The aim of this review, unlike other reviews of minimally invasive surgical ablation, is to present medical professionals with two distinctly different, approaches. The first one is purely surgical, Standalone surgical isolation of the pulmonary veins using bipolar energy source with concomitant amputation of the left atrial appendage—a method of choice in one of the most important clinical trials on AF—The Atrial Fibrillation Catheter Ablation Versus Surgical Ablation Treatment (FAST) Trial. The second one represents the most complex approach to this problem: a multidisciplinary, combined effort of a cardiac surgeon and electrophysiologist. The Convergent Procedure, which includes both endocardial and epicardial unipolar ablation bonds together minimally invasive endoscopic surgery with electroanatomical mapping, to deliver best of

  17. Environmental Controls on Multi-Scale Soil Nutrient Variability in the Tropics: the Importance of Land-Cover Change

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Holmes, K. W.; Kyriakidis, P. C.; Chadwick, O. A.; Matricardi, E.; Soares, J. V.; Roberts, D. A.

    2003-12-01

    precipitation and geology, were better predictors at coarse spatial scales. However, this result may be affected by the resolution of the available predictor maps. Land-cover change exerted a strong influence on soil chemistry at fine spatial scales, and had progressively less of an effect at coarser scales. It is important to note that land cover, and interactions among land cover and the other predictors, continued to be a significant predictor of soil chemistry at every spatial scale up to hundreds of thousands of kilometers.

  18. Seasonal change in body length of important small copepods and relationship with environmental factors in Jiaozhou Bay, China

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Sun, Xiaohong; Sun, Song; Li, Chaolun; Wang, Minxiao

    2012-05-01

    Differences among species in prosome length and in species' response to environmental factors do exist. Therefore, it is useful to examine prosome length for different copepod species in variable environments. Seasonal variations in prosome length of four small copepods and their copepodite stages in the Jiaozhou Bay were compared and the relative influence of temperature, salinity, and chlorophyll concentration were examined. Two peaks were found in the mean prosome length of Paracalanus parvus (in early winter and May). For Acartia bifilosa, the maximum values of all copepodites occurred mainly from February to April, and decreased to the bottom in July. Prosome length of Acartia pacifica peaked when it first appeared in June, then reached to the minimum in July. Parvocalanus crassirostris only appeared from late summer to autumn and the mean prosome length showed no clear changes. Correlations of adult prosome length with environmental factors were evaluated. For the four species, temperature was negatively correlated to prosome length except for P. crassirostris. But the different species varied markedly in their responds to temperature. A. bifilosa showed a more definite trend of size variation with temperature than P. parvus and A. pacifica. Correlations of prosome length with salinity were significantly positive for almost all the small copepods. The relationship between chlorophyll concentration and prosome length was complicated for these copepods, but for P. parvus, chlorophyll concentration was also an important affecting factor. Furthermore, investigation needs to be done on food quality for some copepod. These results are essential to estimate the biomass and the production, and to understand these small copepods' population dynamics in this human-affected bay.

  19. Learning about Drinking Water: How Important Are the Three Dimensions of Knowledge That Can Change Individual Behavior?

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Fremerey, Christian; Bogner, Franz X.

    2014-01-01

    Clean drinking water, our most important resource, needs comprehensive protection. Due to its ubiquitous availability, the awareness of the importance of clean drinking water has partially vanished. Therefore, sensitizing within this context and improving individual ecological behavior has become an important issue in science curricula. We…

  20. The minimal time detection algorithm

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Kim, Sungwan

    1995-01-01

    An aerospace vehicle may operate throughout a wide range of flight environmental conditions that affect its dynamic characteristics. Even when the control design incorporates a degree of robustness, system parameters may drift enough to cause its performance to degrade below an acceptable level. The object of this paper is to develop a change detection algorithm so that we can build a highly adaptive control system applicable to aircraft systems. The idea is to detect system changes with minimal time delay. The algorithm developed is called Minimal Time-Change Detection Algorithm (MT-CDA) which detects the instant of change as quickly as possible with false-alarm probability below a certain specified level. Simulation results for the aircraft lateral motion with a known or unknown change in control gain matrices, in the presence of doublet input, indicate that the algorithm works fairly well as theory indicates though there is a difficulty in deciding the exact amount of change in some situations. One of MT-CDA distinguishing properties is that detection delay of MT-CDA is superior to that of Whiteness Test.

  1. Minimal Orderings Revisited

    SciTech Connect

    Peyton, B.W.

    1999-07-01

    When minimum orderings proved too difficult to deal with, Rose, Tarjan, and Leuker instead studied minimal orderings and how to compute them (Algorithmic aspects of vertex elimination on graphs, SIAM J. Comput., 5:266-283, 1976). This paper introduces an algorithm that is capable of computing much better minimal orderings much more efficiently than the algorithm in Rose et al. The new insight is a way to use certain structures and concepts from modern sparse Cholesky solvers to re-express one of the basic results in Rose et al. The new algorithm begins with any initial ordering and then refines it until a minimal ordering is obtained. it is simple to obtain high-quality low-cost minimal orderings by using fill-reducing heuristic orderings as initial orderings for the algorithm. We examine several such initial orderings in some detail.

  2. Minimally invasive stomas.

    PubMed

    Hellinger, Michael D; Al Haddad, Abdullah

    2008-02-01

    Traditionally, stoma creation and end stoma reversal have been performed via a laparotomy incision. However, in many situations, stoma construction may be safely performed in a minimally invasive nature. This may include a trephine, laparoscopic, or combined approach. Furthermore, Hartmann's colostomy reversal, a procedure traditionally associated with substantial morbidity, may also be performed laparoscopically. The authors briefly review patient selection, preparation, and indications, and focus primarily on surgical techniques and results of minimally invasive stoma creation and Hartmann's reversal.

  3. Minimally invasive lumbar foraminotomy.

    PubMed

    Deutsch, Harel

    2013-07-01

    Lumbar radiculopathy is a common problem. Nerve root compression can occur at different places along a nerve root's course including in the foramina. Minimal invasive approaches allow easier exposure of the lateral foramina and decompression of the nerve root in the foramina. This video demonstrates a minimally invasive approach to decompress the lumbar nerve root in the foramina with a lateral to medial decompression. The video can be found here: http://youtu.be/jqa61HSpzIA.

  4. Test-retest reliability, criterion-related validity, and minimal detectable change of score on an abbreviated Wingate test for field sport participants.

    PubMed

    Hachana, Younes; Attia, Ahmed; Nassib, Sabri; Shephard, Roy J; Chelly, Mohamed Souhaiel

    2012-05-01

    Repeat measurements in 69 young adults were performed to assess the test-retest reliability and the 95% confidence interval of the difference in score between paired observations (MDC95) of a Wingate test as abbreviated for field sport participants (test of a 15-second duration [15-secT]). Test-retest reliability was excellent for peak power output (PPO) and mean power output (MPO), independently of their mode of expression and was moderate for the fatigue index (FI). The standard errors of measurement (SEM) for absolute, relative, and derived PPO and MPO values ranged from 2.6 to 3.7%, all being smaller than the corresponding smallest worthwhile change (SWC). In contrast, FI values were rated as "marginal," with an SEM (9.6%) greater than the SWC (1.7). The range of MDC95 values for PPO and MPO were 9.9-10.4 and 7.37-7.42%, respectively. The absolute MPO showed the highest test-retest reliability and was the most effective in detecting real change. A second phase of the study evaluated the criterion-related validity of the 15-secT in 43 young men who performed 15-secT and standard 30-second Wingate anaerobic test (30-secT) in random order, on 2 separate occasions. There were no significant intertest differences in absolute, relative, or derived PPO. However, the FI for the 30-secT was greater than that for the 15-secT. Intertest correlations were highly significant for both MPOs and FIs. These findings suggest that the abbreviated Wingate test offers a reliable and valid tool for the evaluation of PPO and MPO, at least in young physical education students.

  5. The Importance of Affective Containment during Unwelcome Educational Change: The Curious Incident of the Deer Hut Fire

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Dale, Di; James, Chris

    2015-01-01

    Educational change can call up a range of feelings that can pose a number of problems for those experiencing and/or organizing it. This article analyses the processes of educational change from a psychodynamic standpoint. In particular it explores affective containment, which enables feelings to be fully experienced and to be used productively. an…

  6. An investigation of the physiology and potential role of components of the deep ocean bacterial community (of the NE Atlantic) by enrichments carried out under minimal environmental change

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Egan, Simon T.; McCarthy, David M.; Patching, John W.; Fleming, Gerard T. A.

    2012-03-01

    Samples of deep-ocean water (3170 m) taken from the Rockall Trough (North-East Atlantic) were incubated for one-month at atmospheric and in-situ pressure (31 MPa), at 4 °C and in the absence and presence of added nutrients. Prokaryotic abundance (direct cell counts) increased by at least 28-fold in enrichments without added nutrients. However, the magnitude of increase in abundance was less for incubations carried out at in-situ pressure (131-181-fold) than those incubations at surface pressure (163-1714-fold increase in abundance). Changes in the prokaryotic community profile as a result of one-month incubation were measured by means of Denaturing Gel Electrophoresis (DGGE) of extracted 16S rDNA. The profiles of post-incubation samples incubated at in-situ pressure were separated from all other profiles as were those of unpressurised samples with added nutrients. The behaviour (fitness) of individual community members (Operational Taxonomic Units: OTUs) was determined on the basis of change in relative DGGE band intensities between pre- and post-incubation samples. Of twenty-one OTUs examined, six were fitter when incubated in the presence of added nutrients and at in-situ pressure and one of these was advantaged when grown in the absence of added nutrients and at in-situ pressure. These represented autochthonous and active members of the deep-ocean prokaryotic community. In contrast, seven OTUs were disadvantaged when grown under in-situ pressure and were indicative surface-derived allochtonous microorganisms. A further two OTUs came to dominance in incubations with added nutrients (pressurised and unpressurised) and similar to the previous category were probably surface-derived microorganisms. A single OTU showed characteristics of piezophilic and oliogrophic behaviour and four OTUs were disadvantaged under all incubation conditions examined. The twenty-one DGGE bands were sequenced and the bacterial communities were dominated by Gamma proteobactria and to a

  7. Implementation of flowsheet change to minimize hydrogen and ammonia generation during chemical processing of high level waste in the Defense Waste Processing Facility

    SciTech Connect

    Lambert, Dan P.; Woodham, Wesley H.; Williams, Matthew S.; Newell, J. David; Luther, Michelle C.; Brandenburg, Clayton H.

    2016-09-27

    Testing was completed to develop a chemical processing flowsheet for the Defense Waste Processing Facility (DWPF), designed to vitrify and stabilize high level radioactive waste. DWPF processing uses a reducing acid (formic acid) and an oxidizing acid (nitric acid) to rheologically thin the slurry and complete the necessary acid base and reduction reactions (primarily mercury and manganese). Formic acid reduces mercuric oxide to elemental mercury, allowing the mercury to be removed during the boiling phase of processing through steam stripping. In runs with active catalysts, formic acid can decompose to hydrogen and nitrate can be reduced to ammonia, both flammable gases, due to rhodium and ruthenium catalysis. Replacement of formic acid with glycolic acid eliminates the generation of rhodium- and ruthenium-catalyzed hydrogen and ammonia. In addition, mercury reduction is still effective with glycolic acid. Hydrogen, ammonia and mercury are discussed in the body of the report. Ten abbreviated tests were completed to develop the operating window for implementation of the flowsheet and determine the impact of changes in acid stoichiometry and the blend of nitric and glycolic acid as it impacts various processing variables over a wide processing region. Three full-length 4-L lab-scale simulations demonstrated the viability of the flowsheet under planned operating conditions. The flowsheet is planned for implementation in early 2017.

  8. Use of mild irradiation doses to control pathogenic bacteria on meat trimmings for production of patties aiming at provoking minimal changes in quality attributes.

    PubMed

    Xavier, Ma de la Paz; Dauber, Cecilia; Mussio, Paula; Delgado, Enrique; Maquieira, Ana; Soria, Alejandra; Curuchet, Ana; Márquez, Rosa; Méndez, Carlos; López, Tomás

    2014-11-01

    The objectives of the present work were to assess the use of moderate doses of gamma irradiation (2 to 5 kGy) and to reduce the risk of pathogen presence without altering the quality attributes of bovine trimmings and of patties made of irradiated trimmings. Microbiological indicators (coliforms, Pseudomonas spp and mesophilic aerobic counts), physicochemical indicators (pH, color and tiobarbituric acid) and sensory changes were evaluated during storage. 5 kGy irradiation doses slightly increased off flavors in patties. Two pathogenic markers (Listeria monocytogenes and Escherichia coli O157:H7) were inoculated at high or low loads to trimming samples which were subsequently irradiated and lethality curves were obtained. Provided that using irradiation doses ≤2.5 kGy are used, reductions of 2 log CFU/g of L. monocytogenes and 5 log CFU/g of E. coli O157:H7 are expected. It seems reasonable to suppose that irradiation can be successfully employed to improve the safety of frozen trimmings when initial pathogenic bacteria burdens are not extremely high.

  9. Minimally invasive procedures

    PubMed Central

    Baltayiannis, Nikolaos; Michail, Chandrinos; Lazaridis, George; Anagnostopoulos, Dimitrios; Baka, Sofia; Mpoukovinas, Ioannis; Karavasilis, Vasilis; Lampaki, Sofia; Papaiwannou, Antonis; Karavergou, Anastasia; Kioumis, Ioannis; Pitsiou, Georgia; Katsikogiannis, Nikolaos; Tsakiridis, Kosmas; Rapti, Aggeliki; Trakada, Georgia; Zissimopoulos, Athanasios; Zarogoulidis, Konstantinos

    2015-01-01

    Minimally invasive procedures, which include laparoscopic surgery, use state-of-the-art technology to reduce the damage to human tissue when performing surgery. Minimally invasive procedures require small “ports” from which the surgeon inserts thin tubes called trocars. Carbon dioxide gas may be used to inflate the area, creating a space between the internal organs and the skin. Then a miniature camera (usually a laparoscope or endoscope) is placed through one of the trocars so the surgical team can view the procedure as a magnified image on video monitors in the operating room. Specialized equipment is inserted through the trocars based on the type of surgery. There are some advanced minimally invasive surgical procedures that can be performed almost exclusively through a single point of entry—meaning only one small incision, like the “uniport” video-assisted thoracoscopic surgery (VATS). Not only do these procedures usually provide equivalent outcomes to traditional “open” surgery (which sometimes require a large incision), but minimally invasive procedures (using small incisions) may offer significant benefits as well: (I) faster recovery; (II) the patient remains for less days hospitalized; (III) less scarring and (IV) less pain. In our current mini review we will present the minimally invasive procedures for thoracic surgery. PMID:25861610

  10. Coupled changes in sand grain size and sand transport driven by changes in the upstream supply of sand in the Colorado River: relative importance of changes in bed-sand grain size and bed-sand area

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Topping, D.J.; Rubin, D.M.; Melis, T.S.

    2007-01-01

    Sand transport in the Colorado River in Marble and Grand canyons was naturally limited by the upstream supply of sand. Prior to the 1963 closure of Glen Canyon Dam, the river exhibited the following four effects of sand supply limitation: (1) hysteresis in sediment concentration, (2) hysteresis in sediment grain size coupled to the hysteresis in sediment concentration, (3) production of inversely graded flood deposits, and (4) development or modification of a lag between the time of a flood peak and the time of either maximum or minimum (depending on reach geometry) bed elevation. Construction and operation of the dam has enhanced the degree to which the first two of these four effects are evident, and has not affected the degree to which the last two effects of sand supply limitation are evident in the Colorado River in Marble and Grand canyons. The first three of the effects involve coupled changes in suspended-sand concentration and grain size that are controlled by changes in the upstream supply of sand. During tributary floods, sand on the bed of the Colorado River fines; this causes the suspended sand to fine and the suspended-sand concentration to increase, even when the discharge of water remains constant. Subsequently, the bed is winnowed of finer sand, the suspended sand coarsens, and the suspended-sand concentration decreases independently of discharge. Also associated with these changes in sand supply are changes in the fraction of the bed that is covered by sand. Thus, suspended-sand concentration in the Colorado River is likely regulated by both changes in the bed-sand grain size and changes in the bed-sand area. A physically based flow and suspended-sediment transport model is developed, tested, and applied to data from the Colorado River to evaluate the relative importance of changes in the bed-sand grain size and changes in the bed-sand area in regulating suspended-sand concentration. Although the model was developed using approximations for steady

  11. How important is the {103} plane of stable Ge2 Sb2 Te5 for phase-change memory?

    PubMed

    Zhang, W; Zheng, W T; Kim, J-G; Cui, X Q; Li, L; Qi, J G; Kim, Y-J; Song, S A

    2015-07-01

    Closely correlating with {200} plane of cubic phase, {103} plane of hexagonal phase of Ge(2)Sb(2)Te(5) plays a crucial role in achieving fast phase change process as well as formation of modulation structures, dislocations and twins in Ge(2)Sb(2)Te(5). The behaviors of {103} plane of hexagonal phase render the phase-change memory process as a nanoscale shape memory.

  12. Predicting the impacts of climate change on animal distributions: the importance of local adaptation and species' traits

    SciTech Connect

    HELLMANN, J. J.; LOBO, N. F.

    2011-12-20

    The geographic range limits of many species are strongly affected by climate and are expected to change under global warming. For species that are able to track changing climate over broad geographic areas, we expect to see shifts in species distributions toward the poles and away from the equator. A number of ecological and evolutionary factors, however, could restrict this shifting or redistribution under climate change. These factors include restricted habitat availability, restricted capacity for or barriers to movement, or reduced abundance of colonists due the perturbation effect of climate change. This research project examined the last of these constraints - that climate change could perturb local conditions to which populations are adapted, reducing the likelihood that a species will shift its distribution by diminishing the number of potential colonists. In the most extreme cases, species ranges could collapse over a broad geographic area with no poleward migration and an increased risk of species extinction. Changes in individual species ranges are the processes that drive larger phenomena such as changes in land cover, ecosystem type, and even changes in carbon cycling. For example, consider the poleward range shift and population outbreaks of the mountain pine beetle that has decimated millions of acres of Douglas fir trees in the western US and Canada. Standing dead trees cause forest fires and release vast quantities of carbon to the atmosphere. The beetle likely shifted its range because it is not locally adapted across its range, and it appears to be limited by winter low temperatures that have steadily increased in the last decades. To understand range and abundance changes like the pine beetle, we must reveal the extent of adaptive variation across species ranges - and the physiological basis of that adaptation - to know if other species will change as readily as the pine beetle. Ecologists tend to assume that range shifts are the dominant

  13. Quantifying the importance of patch-specific changes in habitat to metapopulation viability of an endangered songbird.

    PubMed

    Horne, Jon S; Strickler, Katherine M; Alldredge, Mathew

    2011-10-01

    A growing number of programs seek to facilitate species conservation using incentive-based mechanisms. Recently, a market-based incentive program for the federally endangered Golden-cheeked Warbler (Dendroica chrysoparia) was implemented on a trial basis at Fort Hood, an Army training post in Texas, USA. Under this program, recovery credits accumulated by Fort Hood through contracts with private landowners are used to offset unintentional loss of breeding habitat of Golden-cheeked Warblers within the installation. Critical to successful implementation of such programs is the ability to value, in terms of changes to overall species viability, both habitat loss and habitat restoration or protection. In this study, we sought to answer two fundamental questions: Given the same amount of change in breeding habitat, does the change in some patches have a greater effect on metapopulation persistence than others? And if so, can characteristics of a patch (e.g., size or spatial location) be used to predict how the metapopulation will respond to these changes? To answer these questions, we describe an approach for using sensitivity analysis of a metapopulation projection model to predict how changes to specific habitat patches would affect species viability. We used a stochastic, discrete-time projection model based on stage-specific estimates of survival and fecundity, as well as various assumptions about dispersal among populations. To assess a particular patch's leverage, we quantified how much metapopulation viability was expected to change in response to changing the size of that patch. We then related original patch size and distance from the largest patch to each patch's leverage to determine if general patch characteristics could be used to develop guidelines for valuing changes to patches within a metapopulation. We found that both the characteristic that best predicted patch leverage and the magnitude of the relationship changed under different model scenarios

  14. Minimally invasive valve surgery.

    PubMed

    Woo, Y Joseph

    2009-08-01

    Traditional cardiac valve replacement surgery is being rapidly supplanted by innovative, minimally invasive approaches toward the repair of these valves. Patients are experiencing benefits ranging from less bleeding and pain to faster recovery and greater satisfaction. These operations are proving to be safe, highly effective, and durable, and their use will likely continue to increase and become even more widely applicable.

  15. CONMIN- CONSTRAINED FUNCTION MINIMIZATION

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Vanderplaats, G. N.

    1994-01-01

    In many mathematical problems, it is necessary to determine the minimum and maximum of a function of several variables, limited by various linear and nonlinear inequality constraints. It is seldom possible, in practical applications, to solve these problems directly. In most cases, an iterative method must be used to numerically obtain a solution. The CONMIN program was developed to numerically perform the minimization of a multi-variable function subject to a set of inequality constraints. The function need not be a simple analytical equation; it may be any function which can be numerically evaluated. The basic analytic technique used by CONMIN is to minimize the function until one or more of the constraints become active. The minimization process then continues by following the constraint boundaries in a direction such that the value of the function continues to decrease. When a point is reached where no further decrease in the function can be obtained, the process is terminated. Function maximization may be achieved by minimizing the negative of the function. This program is written in FORTRAN IV for batch execution and has been implemented on a CDC 6000 series computer with a central memory requirement of approximately 43K (octal) of 60 bit words. The CONMIN program was originally developed in 1973 and last updated in 1978.

  16. Periodic minimal surfaces

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Mackay, Alan L.

    1985-04-01

    A minimal surface is one for which, like a soap film with the same pressure on each side, the mean curvature is zero and, thus, is one where the two principal curvatures are equal and opposite at every point. For every closed circuit in the surface, the area is a minimum. Schwarz1 and Neovius2 showed that elements of such surfaces could be put together to give surfaces periodic in three dimensions. These periodic minimal surfaces are geometrical invariants, as are the regular polyhedra, but the former are curved. Minimal surfaces are appropriate for the description of various structures where internal surfaces are prominent and seek to adopt a minimum area or a zero mean curvature subject to their topology; thus they merit more complete numerical characterization. There seem to be at least 18 such surfaces3, with various symmetries and topologies, related to the crystallographic space groups. Recently, glyceryl mono-oleate (GMO) was shown by Longley and McIntosh4 to take the shape of the F-surface. The structure postulated is shown here to be in good agreement with an analysis of the fundamental geometry of periodic minimal surfaces.

  17. When Are Teachers Motivated to Work beyond Retirement Age? The Importance of Support, Change of Work Role and Money

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Bal, P. Matthijs; Visser, Michel S.

    2011-01-01

    This article investigates the factors influencing the motivation to continue working after retirement among a sample of Dutch teachers. Based on previous research, it was proposed that teachers will be motivated to work after their legal retirement age when organizational support, possibilities to change work roles and financial needs are high.…

  18. The effects of saccade-contingent changes on oculomotor capture: salience is important even beyond the first oculomotor response.

    PubMed

    Silvis, Jeroen D; Donk, Mieke

    2014-08-01

    Whenever a novel scene is presented, visual salience merely plays a transient role in oculomotor selection. Unique stimulus properties, such as a distinct and, thereby, salient color, affect the oculomotor response only when observers react relatively quickly. For slower responses, or for consecutive ones, salience-driven effects appear completely absent. To date, however, the circumstances that may reinstate the effects of salience over multiple eye movements are still unclear. Recent research shows that changes to a scene can attract gaze, even when these changes occur without a transient signal (i.e., during an eye movement). The aim of the present study was to investigate whether this capture is mediated through salience-driven or memory-guided processes. In three experiments, we examined how the nature of a change in salience that occurred during an eye movement affected consecutive saccades. The results demonstrate that the oculomotor system is exclusively susceptible to increases in salience from one fixation to the next, but only when these increases result in a uniquely high salience level. This suggests that even in the case of a saccade-contingent change, oculomotor selection behavior can be affected by salience-driven mechanisms, possibly to allow the automatic detection of uniquely distinct objects at any moment. The results and implications will be discussed in relation to current views on visual selection.

  19. Minimally legally invasive dentistry.

    PubMed

    Lam, R

    2014-12-01

    One disadvantage of the rapid advances in modern dentistry is that treatment options have never been more varied or confusing. Compounded by a more educated population greatly assisted by online information in an increasingly litigious society, a major concern in recent times is increased litigation against health practitioners. The manner in which courts handle disputes is ambiguous and what is considered fair or just may not be reflected in the judicial process. Although legal decisions in Australia follow a doctrine of precedent, the law is not static and is often reflected by community sentiment. In medical litigation, this has seen the rejection of the Bolam principle with a preference towards greater patient rights. Recent court decisions may change the practice of dentistry and it is important that the clinician is not caught unaware. The aim of this article is to discuss legal issues that are pertinent to the practice of modern dentistry through an analysis of legal cases that have shaped health law. Through these discussions, the importance of continuing professional development, professional association and informed consent will be realized as a means to limit the legal complications of dental practice.

  20. "The Most Important Thing Is to Learn the Way to Learn": Evaluating the Effectiveness of Independent Learning by Perceptual Changes

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Lau, Ken

    2017-01-01

    The mission of universities today is not only to nurture experts in various professions, but also to cultivate lifelong autonomous learners. Independent learning and pedagogies that aim to foster learner autonomy have grown in importance over the past decade. However, the extent to which independent learning is successful in fostering autonomy has…

  1. 75 FR 81372 - Hass Avocados From Mexico; Importation Into the Commonwealth of Puerto Rico and Other Changes

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2010-12-28

    ... quarantine pests. In addition, we are amending the regulations to provide for the Mexican national plant... same conditions required for importation into the 50 States; Provide for the Mexican national plant... Animal and Plant Health Inspection Service 7 CFR Part 319 RIN 0579-AD13 Hass Avocados From...

  2. The importance of biotic factors in predicting global change effects on decomposition of temperate forest leaf litter.

    PubMed

    Rouifed, Soraya; Handa, I Tanya; David, Jean-François; Hättenschwiler, Stephan

    2010-05-01

    Increasing atmospheric CO(2) and temperature are predicted to alter litter decomposition via changes in litter chemistry and environmental conditions. The extent to which these predictions are influenced by biotic factors such as litter species composition or decomposer activity, and in particular how these different factors interact, is not well understood. In a 5-week laboratory experiment we compared the decomposition of leaf litter from four temperate tree species (Fagus sylvatica, Quercus petraea, Carpinus betulus and Tilia platyphyllos) in response to four interacting factors: elevated CO(2)-induced changes in litter quality, a 3 degrees C warmer environment during decomposition, changes in litter species composition, and presence/absence of a litter-feeding millipede (Glomeris marginata). Elevated CO(2) and temperature had much weaker effects on decomposition than litter species composition and the presence of Glomeris. Mass loss of elevated CO(2)-grown leaf litter was reduced in Fagus and increased in Fagus/Tilia mixtures, but was not affected in any other leaf litter treatment. Warming increased litter mass loss in Carpinus and Tilia, but not in the other two litter species and in none of the mixtures. The CO(2)- and temperature-related differences in decomposition disappeared completely when Glomeris was present. Overall, fauna activity stimulated litter mass loss, but to different degrees depending on litter species composition, with a particularly strong effect on Fagus/Tilia mixtures (+58%). Higher fauna-driven mass loss was not followed by higher C mineralization over the relatively short experimental period. Apart from a strong interaction between litter species composition and fauna, the tested factors had little or no interactive effects on decomposition. We conclude that if global change were to result in substantial shifts in plant community composition and macrofauna abundance in forest ecosystems, these interacting biotic factors could have

  3. Principle of minimal work fluctuations.

    PubMed

    Xiao, Gaoyang; Gong, Jiangbin

    2015-08-01

    Understanding and manipulating work fluctuations in microscale and nanoscale systems are of both fundamental and practical interest. For example, in considering the Jarzynski equality 〈e-βW〉=e-βΔF, a change in the fluctuations of e-βW may impact how rapidly the statistical average of e-βW converges towards the theoretical value e-βΔF, where W is the work, β is the inverse temperature, and ΔF is the free energy difference between two equilibrium states. Motivated by our previous study aiming at the suppression of work fluctuations, here we obtain a principle of minimal work fluctuations. In brief, adiabatic processes as treated in quantum and classical adiabatic theorems yield the minimal fluctuations in e-βW. In the quantum domain, if a system initially prepared at thermal equilibrium is subjected to a work protocol but isolated from a bath during the time evolution, then a quantum adiabatic process without energy level crossing (or an assisted adiabatic process reaching the same final states as in a conventional adiabatic process) yields the minimal fluctuations in e-βW, where W is the quantum work defined by two energy measurements at the beginning and at the end of the process. In the classical domain where the classical work protocol is realizable by an adiabatic process, then the classical adiabatic process also yields the minimal fluctuations in e-βW. Numerical experiments based on a Landau-Zener process confirm our theory in the quantum domain, and our theory in the classical domain explains our previous numerical findings regarding the suppression of classical work fluctuations [G. Y. Xiao and J. B. Gong, Phys. Rev. E 90, 052132 (2014)].

  4. Principle of minimal work fluctuations

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Xiao, Gaoyang; Gong, Jiangbin

    2015-08-01

    Understanding and manipulating work fluctuations in microscale and nanoscale systems are of both fundamental and practical interest. For example, in considering the Jarzynski equality =e-β Δ F , a change in the fluctuations of e-β W may impact how rapidly the statistical average of e-β W converges towards the theoretical value e-β Δ F, where W is the work, β is the inverse temperature, and Δ F is the free energy difference between two equilibrium states. Motivated by our previous study aiming at the suppression of work fluctuations, here we obtain a principle of minimal work fluctuations. In brief, adiabatic processes as treated in quantum and classical adiabatic theorems yield the minimal fluctuations in e-β W. In the quantum domain, if a system initially prepared at thermal equilibrium is subjected to a work protocol but isolated from a bath during the time evolution, then a quantum adiabatic process without energy level crossing (or an assisted adiabatic process reaching the same final states as in a conventional adiabatic process) yields the minimal fluctuations in e-β W, where W is the quantum work defined by two energy measurements at the beginning and at the end of the process. In the classical domain where the classical work protocol is realizable by an adiabatic process, then the classical adiabatic process also yields the minimal fluctuations in e-β W. Numerical experiments based on a Landau-Zener process confirm our theory in the quantum domain, and our theory in the classical domain explains our previous numerical findings regarding the suppression of classical work fluctuations [G. Y. Xiao and J. B. Gong, Phys. Rev. E 90, 052132 (2014), 10.1103/PhysRevE.90.052132].

  5. Discrete Minimal Surface Algebras

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Arnlind, Joakim; Hoppe, Jens

    2010-05-01

    We consider discrete minimal surface algebras (DMSA) as generalized noncommutative analogues of minimal surfaces in higher dimensional spheres. These algebras appear naturally in membrane theory, where sequences of their representations are used as a regularization. After showing that the defining relations of the algebra are consistent, and that one can compute a basis of the enveloping algebra, we give several explicit examples of DMSAs in terms of subsets of sln (any semi-simple Lie algebra providing a trivial example by itself). A special class of DMSAs are Yang-Mills algebras. The representation graph is introduced to study representations of DMSAs of dimension d ≤ 4, and properties of representations are related to properties of graphs. The representation graph of a tensor product is (generically) the Cartesian product of the corresponding graphs. We provide explicit examples of irreducible representations and, for coinciding eigenvalues, classify all the unitary representations of the corresponding algebras.

  6. Longitudinal Changes in Functioning and Disability in Patients with Disorders of Consciousness: The Importance of Environmental Factors

    PubMed Central

    Willems, Michelle; Sattin, Davide; Vingerhoets, Ad J.J.M.; Leonardi, Matilde

    2015-01-01

    Disorders of consciousness are neurological conditions associated with low levels of functioning which pose a serious challenge to public health systems. The current study aimed to examine longitudinal changes in functioning in patients with disorders of consciousness and to identify associated biopsychosocial factors using the International Classification of Functioning, Disability, and Health. An Italian sample of 248 patients was assessed longitudinally. Differences in relative variability (an index of change that controls for baseline levels) between acute and chronic patients and predictors of relative variability in “Activities & Participation” were examined. Results showed that there were subgroups of patients whose functioning improved over time. The number of problems in “Activities & Participation” decreased in acute patients over time, whereas in chronic patients, an increase was found. The significant difference in relative variability for the environmental factor “support and relationships” reflects the increase in facilitators in acute patients, whereas the number of facilitators in chronic patients remained unchanged over time. Age at event, time from event, and relative variability in “Environmental Factors” were significant predictors of relative variability in “Activities & Participation”. It is of clinical relevance that patients with disorders of consciousness are kept in a supportive and facilitative environment, in order to prevent a decline in their functioning. Moreover, caregivers should receive tailored support in order to enhance and facilitate appropriate care of patients with disorders of consciousness. PMID:25837348

  7. Axonal and dendritic changes are associated with diabetic encephalopathy in rats: an important risk factor for Alzheimer's disease.

    PubMed

    Zhou, Yanping; Luo, Yi; Dai, Jiapei

    2013-01-01

    Axonopathy is closely linked to and promotes diabetic peripheral neuropathy and a subset of neurological diseases including Alzheimer's disease (AD), but its involvement in the development of diabetic encephalopathy remains unknown. In the present study, we aimed to ascertain the role of axonopathy in the development of diabetic encephalopathy and the possible relationship between diabetic encephalopathy and AD. The streptozotocin (STZ)-induced diabetic rat model was used. A Y-maze task, in vivo neuronal tracing, immunohistochemistry, and western blot analysis were performed to evaluate the cognitive functions, axonal and dendritic changes, and the expressions of amyloid-β (Aβ) and hyperphosphorylated tau in relation to the development of diabetic encephalopathy in this diabetic model. Coincident with significant memory impairment, the diabetic rats showed obvious axonal and dendritic changes, termed axonopathy and dendropathy, respectively, which mainly manifested as the swelling of axons, varicosities, and dendrites in the cognitive-associated brain regions compared to the non-diabetic animals. The site-specific hyperphosphorylated tau, but not deposits of Aβ, was detected in the diabetic rat brains. These data reveal a key role of axonopathy and dendropathy accompanied with the site-specific hyperphosphorylated tau in the course of diabetic encephalopathy, which may be the early link to the neuropathological processes of AD.

  8. [Minimally invasive thymus surgery].

    PubMed

    Rückert, J C; Ismail, M; Swierzy, M; Braumann, C; Badakhshi, H; Rogalla, P; Meisel, A; Rückert, R I; Müller, J M

    2008-01-01

    There are absolute and relative indications for complete removal of the thymus gland. In the complex therapy of autoimmune-related myasthenia gravis, thymectomy plays a central role and is performed with relative indication. In case of thymoma with or without myasthenia, thymectomy is absolutely indicated. Thymus resection is further necessary for cases of hyperparathyroidism with ectopic intrathymic parathyroids or with certain forms of multiple endocrine neoplasia. The transcervical operation technique traditionally reflected the well-founded desire for minimal invasiveness for thymectomy. Due to the requirement of radicality however, most of these operations were performed using sternotomy. With the evolution of therapeutic thoracoscopy in thoracic surgery, several pure or extended minimally invasive operation techniques for thymectomy have been developed. At present uni- or bilateral, subxiphoid, and modified transcervical single or combination thoracoscopic techniques are in use. Recently a very precise new level of thoracoscopic operation technique was developed using robotic-assisted surgery. There are special advantages of this technique for thymectomy. An overview of the development and experiences with minimally invasive thymectomy is presented, including data from the largest series published so far.

  9. Waste Minimization Crosscut Plan

    SciTech Connect

    Not Available

    1992-05-13

    On November 27, 1991, the Secretary of Energy directed that a Department of Energy (DOE) crosscut plan for waste minimization (WMin) be prepared and submitted by March 1, 1992. This Waste Minimization Crosscut Plan responds to the Secretary's direction and supports the National Energy Strategy (NES) goals of achieving greater energy security, increasing energy and economic efficiency, and enhancing environmental quality. It provides a DOE-wide planning framework for effective coordination of all DOE WMin activities. This Plan was jointly prepared by the following Program Secretarial Officer (PSO) organizations: Civilian Radioactive Waste Management (RW); Conservation and Renewable Energy (CE); Defense Programs (DP); Environmental Restoration and Waste Management (EM), lead; Energy Research (ER); Fossil Energy (FE); Nuclear Energy (NE); and New Production Reactors (NP). Assistance and guidance was provided by the offices of Policy, Planning, and Analysis (PE) and Environment, Safety and Health (EH). Comprehensive application of waste minimization within the Department and in both the public and private sectors will provide significant benefits and support National Energy Strategy goals. These benefits include conservation of a substantial proportion of the energy now used by industry and Government, improved environmental quality, reduced health risks, improved production efficiencies, and longer useful life of disposal capacity. Taken together, these benefits will mean improved US global competitiveness, expanded job opportunities, and a better quality of life for all citizens.

  10. Waste Minimization Crosscut Plan

    SciTech Connect

    Not Available

    1992-05-13

    On November 27, 1991, the Secretary of Energy directed that a Department of Energy (DOE) crosscut plan for waste minimization (WMin) be prepared and submitted by March 1, 1992. This Waste Minimization Crosscut Plan responds to the Secretary`s direction and supports the National Energy Strategy (NES) goals of achieving greater energy security, increasing energy and economic efficiency, and enhancing environmental quality. It provides a DOE-wide planning framework for effective coordination of all DOE WMin activities. This Plan was jointly prepared by the following Program Secretarial Officer (PSO) organizations: Civilian Radioactive Waste Management (RW); Conservation and Renewable Energy (CE); Defense Programs (DP); Environmental Restoration and Waste Management (EM), lead; Energy Research (ER); Fossil Energy (FE); Nuclear Energy (NE); and New Production Reactors (NP). Assistance and guidance was provided by the offices of Policy, Planning, and Analysis (PE) and Environment, Safety and Health (EH). Comprehensive application of waste minimization within the Department and in both the public and private sectors will provide significant benefits and support National Energy Strategy goals. These benefits include conservation of a substantial proportion of the energy now used by industry and Government, improved environmental quality, reduced health risks, improved production efficiencies, and longer useful life of disposal capacity. Taken together, these benefits will mean improved US global competitiveness, expanded job opportunities, and a better quality of life for all citizens.

  11. Opening the mind to close it: considering a message in light of important values increases message processing and later resistance to change.

    PubMed

    Blankenship, Kevin L; Wegener, Duane T

    2008-02-01

    Past research showed that considering a persuasive message in light of important rather than unimportant values creates attitudes that resist later attack. The traditional explanation is that the attitudes come to express the value or that a cognitive link between the value and attitude enhances resistance. However, the current research showed that another explanation is plausible. Similar to other sources of involvement, considering important rather than unimportant values increases processing of the message considered in light of those values. This occurs when the values are identified as normatively high or low in importance and when the perceived importance differs across participants for the same values. The increase in processing creates resistance to later attacks, and unlike past research, individual-level measures of initial amount of processing mediate value importance effects on later resistance to change. Important values motivate processing because they increase personal involvement with the issue, rather than creating attitudes that represent or express core values.

  12. Contemporary review of minimally invasive pancreaticoduodenectomy

    PubMed Central

    Dai, Rui; Turley, Ryan S; Blazer, Dan G

    2016-01-01

    AIM To assess the current literature describing various minimally invasive techniques for and to review short-term outcomes after minimally invasive pancreaticoduodenectomy (PD). METHODS PD remains the only potentially curative treatment for periampullary malignancies, including, most commonly, pancreatic adenocarcinoma. Minimally invasive approaches to this complex operation have begun to be increasingly reported in the literature and are purported by some to reduce the historically high morbidity of PD associated with the open technique. In this systematic review, we have searched the literature for high-quality publications describing minimally invasive techniques for PD-including laparoscopic, robotic, and laparoscopic-assisted robotic approaches (hybrid approach). We have identified publications with the largest operative experiences from well-known centers of excellence for this complex procedure. We report primarily short term operative and perioperative results and some short term oncologic endpoints. RESULTS Minimally invasive techniques include laparoscopic, robotic and hybrid approaches and each of these techniques has strong advocates. Consistently, across all minimally invasive modalities, these techniques are associated less intraoperative blood loss than traditional open PD (OPD), but in exchange for longer operating times. These techniques are relatively equivalent in terms of perioperative morbidity and short term oncologic outcomes. Importantly, pancreatic fistula rate appears to be comparable in most minimally invasive series compared to open technique. Impact of minimally invasive technique on length of stay is mixed compared to some traditional open series. A few series have suggested that initiation of and time to adjuvant therapy may be improved with minimally invasive techniques, however this assertion remains controversial. In terms of short-terms costs, minimally invasive PD is significantly higher than that of OPD. CONCLUSION Minimally

  13. Do drivers of biodiversity change differ in importance across marine and terrestrial systems - Or is it just different research communities' perspectives?

    PubMed

    Knapp, Sonja; Schweiger, Oliver; Kraberg, Alexandra; Asmus, Harald; Asmus, Ragnhild; Brey, Thomas; Frickenhaus, Stephan; Gutt, Julian; Kühn, Ingolf; Liess, Matthias; Musche, Martin; Pörtner, Hans-O; Seppelt, Ralf; Klotz, Stefan; Krause, Gesche

    2017-01-01

    Cross-system studies on the response of different ecosystems to global change will support our understanding of ecological changes. Synoptic views on the planet's two main realms, the marine and terrestrial, however, are rare, owing to the development of rather disparate research communities. We combined questionnaires and a literature review to investigate how the importance of anthropogenic drivers of biodiversity change differs among marine and terrestrial systems and whether differences perceived by marine vs. terrestrial researchers are reflected by the scientific literature. This included asking marine and terrestrial researchers to rate the relevance of different drivers of global change for either marine or terrestrial biodiversity. Land use and the associated loss of natural habitats were rated as most important in the terrestrial realm, while the exploitation of the sea by fishing was rated as most important in the marine realm. The relevance of chemicals, climate change and the increasing atmospheric concentration of CO2 were rated differently for marine and terrestrial biodiversity respectively. Yet, our literature review provided less evidence for such differences leading to the conclusion that while the history of the use of land and sea differs, impacts of global change are likely to become increasingly similar.

  14. Growth inhibition, turgor maintenance, and changes in yield threshold after cessation of solute import in pea epicotyls

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Schmalstig, J. G.; Cosgrove, D. J.

    1988-01-01

    The dependence of stem elongation on solute import was investigated in etiolated pea seedlings (Pisum sativum L. var Alaska) by excising the cotyledons. Stem elongation was inhibited by 60% within 5 hours of excision. Dry weight accumulation into the growing region stopped and osmotic pressure of the cell sap declined by 0.14 megapascal over 5 hours. Attempts to assay phloem transport via ethylenediaminetetraacetate-enhanced exudation from cut stems revealed no effect of cotyledon excision, indicating that the technique measured artifactual leakage from cells. Despite the drop in cell osmotic pressure, turgor pressure (measured directly via a pressure probe) did not decline. Turgor maintenance is postulated to occur via uptake of solutes from the free space, thereby maintaining the osmotic pressure difference across the cell membrane. Cell wall properties were measured by the pressure-block stress relaxation technique. Results indicate that growth inhibition after cotyledon excision was mediated primarily via an increase in the wall yield threshold.

  15. Growth inhibition, turgor maintenance, and changes in yield threshold after cessation of solute import in pea epicotyls.

    PubMed

    Schmalstig, J G; Cosgrove, D J

    1988-01-01

    The dependence of stem elongation on solute import was investigated in etiolated pea seedlings (Pisum sativum L. var Alaska) by excising the cotyledons. Stem elongation was inhibited by 60% within 5 hours of excision. Dry weight accumulation into the growing region stopped and osmotic pressure of the cell sap declined by 0.14 megapascal over 5 hours. Attempts to assay phloem transport via ethylenediaminetetraacetate-enhanced exudation from cut stems revealed no effect of cotyledon excision, indicating that the technique measured artifactual leakage from cells. Despite the drop in cell osmotic pressure, turgor pressure (measured directly via a pressure probe) did not decline. Turgor maintenance is postulated to occur via uptake of solutes from the free space, thereby maintaining the osmotic pressure difference across the cell membrane. Cell wall properties were measured by the pressure-block stress relaxation technique. Results indicate that growth inhibition after cotyledon excision was mediated primarily via an increase in the wall yield threshold.

  16. Cannabinoid mitigation of neuronal morphological change important to development and learning: insight from a zebra finch model of psychopharmacology.

    PubMed

    Soderstrom, Ken; Gilbert, Marcoita T

    2013-03-19

    Normal CNS development proceeds through late-postnatal stages of adolescent development. The activity-dependence of this development underscores the significance of CNS-active drug exposure prior to completion of brain maturation. Exogenous modulation of signaling important in regulating normal development is of particular concern. This mini-review presents a summary of the accumulated behavioral, physiological and biochemical evidence supporting such a key regulatory role for endocannabinoid signaling during late-postnatal CNS development. Our focus is on the data obtained using a unique zebra finch model of developmental psychopharmacology. This animal has allowed investigation of neuronal morphological effects essential to establishment and maintenance of neural circuitry, including processes related to synaptogenesis and dendritic spine dynamics. Altered neurophysiology that follows exogenous cannabinoid exposure during adolescent development has the potential to persistently alter cognition, learning and memory.

  17. Gravitino problem in minimal supergravity inflation

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Hasegawa, Fuminori; Mukaida, Kyohei; Nakayama, Kazunori; Terada, Takahiro; Yamada, Yusuke

    2017-04-01

    We study non-thermal gravitino production in the minimal supergravity inflation. In this minimal model utilizing orthogonal nilpotent superfields, the particle spectrum includes only graviton, gravitino, inflaton, and goldstino. We find that a substantial fraction of the cosmic energy density can be transferred to the longitudinal gravitino due to non-trivial change of its sound speed. This implies either a breakdown of the effective theory after inflation or a serious gravitino problem.

  18. Quantifying the relative importance of climate-forced and land-use forced land cover changes in the representative concentration pathways

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Davies-Barnard, T.; Valdes, P. J.; Singarayer, J. S.; Wiltshire, A.; Jones, C.

    2014-12-01

    Climate change is projected to cause substantial changes in vegetation distribution, but these changes have been given little attention in comparison to anthropogenic land-use change in the Representative Concentration Pathway (RCP) scenarios. Here we compare climate-forced vegetation changes to anthropogenic changes in vegetation from land-use change. To do this, we use an ensemble of simulations with and without anthropogenic land-use change in Earth System Model HadGEM2-ES for RCP2.6, RCP4.5 and RCP8.5. Climate change causes an expansion poleward of vegetation types. This climate-forced land cover change (LCC) affects more area of land than land-use forced land cover change (often referred to as Land-Use forced Land Cover Change, or LULCC) in all of the RCPs considered here. For forest specifically, the climate-forced forest increase compensates 90% of the global anthropogenic deforestation by 2100 in RCP8.5, but just 3% in RCP2.6. The strong relationship between climate-forced LCC and the overall radiative forcing means that the net effect on forest is strongly dependent on the RCP. Carbon emissions from climate-forced LCC are larger than for LULCC. Overall, bigger LCC contributions tend to originate from LULCC in the shorter term or lower radiative forcing scenarios, and from climate changes in the longer term and higher radiative forcing scenarios. The extent to which climate-forced LCC could mitigate LULCC raises difficult questions regarding global forest and biodiversity offsetting, especially at different timescales. This research shows the importance of considering the relative size of climate-forced LCC to LULCC, especially with regard to the net ecological effects of the different RCPs.

  19. Estimating changes in heat energy stored within a column of wetland surface water and factors controlling their importance in the surface energy budget

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Shoemaker, W.B.; Sumner, D.M.; Castillo, A.

    2005-01-01

    [1] Changes in heat energy stored within a column of wetland surface water can be a considerable component of the surface energy budget, an attribute that is demonstrated by comparing changes in stored heat energy to net radiation at seven sites in the wetland areas of southern Florida, including the Everglades. The magnitude of changes in stored heat energy approached the magnitude of net radiation more often during the winter dry season than during the summer wet season. Furthermore, the magnitude of changes in stored heat energy in wetland surface water generally decreased as surface energy budgets were upscaled temporally. A new method was developed to estimate changes in stored heat energy that overcomes an important data limitation, namely, the limited spatial and temporal availability of water temperature measurements. The new method is instead based on readily available air temperature measurements and relies on the convolution of air temperature changes with a regression-defined transfer function to estimate changes in water temperature. The convolution-computed water temperature changes are used with water depths and heat capacity to estimate changes in stored heat energy within the Everglades wetland areas. These results likely can be adapted to other humid subtropical wetlands characterized by open water, saw grass, and rush vegetation type communities. Copyright 2005 by the American Geophysical Union.

  20. Quantifying the relative importance of greenhouse gas emissions from current and future savanna land use change across northern Australia

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Bristow, Mila; Hutley, Lindsay B.; Beringer, Jason; Livesley, Stephen J.; Edwards, Andrew C.; Arndt, Stefan K.

    2016-11-01

    The clearing and burning of tropical savanna leads to globally significant emissions of greenhouse gases (GHGs); however there is large uncertainty relating to the magnitude of this flux. Australia's tropical savannas occupy the northern quarter of the continent, a region of increasing interest for further exploitation of land and water resources. Land use decisions across this vast biome have the potential to influence the national greenhouse gas budget. To better quantify emissions from savanna deforestation and investigate the impact of deforestation on national GHG emissions, we undertook a paired site measurement campaign where emissions were quantified from two tropical savanna woodland sites; one that was deforested and prepared for agricultural land use and a second analogue site that remained uncleared for the duration of a 22-month campaign. At both sites, net ecosystem exchange of CO2 was measured using the eddy covariance method. Observations at the deforested site were continuous before, during and after the clearing event, providing high-resolution data that tracked CO2 emissions through nine phases of land use change. At the deforested site, post-clearing debris was allowed to cure for 6 months and was subsequently burnt, followed by extensive soil preparation for cropping. During the debris burning, fluxes of CO2 as measured by the eddy covariance tower were excluded. For this phase, emissions were estimated by quantifying on-site biomass prior to deforestation and applying savanna-specific emission factors to estimate a fire-derived GHG emission that included both CO2 and non-CO2 gases. The total fuel mass that was consumed during the debris burning was 40.9 Mg C ha-1 and included above- and below-ground woody biomass, course woody debris, twigs, leaf litter and C4 grass fuels. Emissions from the burning were added to the net CO2 fluxes as measured by the eddy covariance tower for other post-deforestation phases to provide a total GHG emission from

  1. The importance of radiocarbon dates and tephra for developing chronologies of Holocene environmental changes from lake sediments, North Far East

    DOE PAGES

    Lozhkin, Anatoly V.; Brown, Thomas A.; Anderson, Patricia M.; ...

    2016-08-12

    One problem with developing continuous chronologies of paleoenvironmental change in northern areas of the Far East using 14C is the low organic content in lake sediments. However, Holocene age-models can be supplemented by widespread tephra deposits reported in the Magadan region. The best documented of these tephras has been correlated to the KO tephra from southern Kamchatka dated to 7600 BP. Though a key chronostratigraphic marker, no detailed compendium of the distribution of this tephra and its associated 14C dates has been available from sites in the northern Far East. We provide such a summary. Known locally as the Elikchanmore » tephra, lake cores indicate an ash fall that extended ~1800 km north of the Kamchatkan caldera with a ~500 km wide trajectory in the Magadan region. Other Holocene tephras preserved in lake sediments have poorer age control and possibly date to ~2500 BP, ~2700 BP and ~6000 BP. These ashes seem to be restricted to coastal or near-coastal sites. Finally, a single record of a ~25,000 BP tephra has also been documented ~100 km to the northeast of Magadan.« less

  2. The importance of radiocarbon dates and tephra for developing chronologies of Holocene environmental changes from lake sediments, North Far East

    SciTech Connect

    Lozhkin, Anatoly V.; Brown, Thomas A.; Anderson, Patricia M.; Glushkova, Olga Yu; Melekestsev, Ivan V.

    2016-08-12

    One problem with developing continuous chronologies of paleoenvironmental change in northern areas of the Far East using 14C is the low organic content in lake sediments. However, Holocene age-models can be supplemented by widespread tephra deposits reported in the Magadan region. The best documented of these tephras has been correlated to the KO tephra from southern Kamchatka dated to 7600 BP. Though a key chronostratigraphic marker, no detailed compendium of the distribution of this tephra and its associated 14C dates has been available from sites in the northern Far East. We provide such a summary. Known locally as the Elikchan tephra, lake cores indicate an ash fall that extended ~1800 km north of the Kamchatkan caldera with a ~500 km wide trajectory in the Magadan region. Other Holocene tephras preserved in lake sediments have poorer age control and possibly date to ~2500 BP, ~2700 BP and ~6000 BP. These ashes seem to be restricted to coastal or near-coastal sites. Finally, a single record of a ~25,000 BP tephra has also been documented ~100 km to the northeast of Magadan.

  3. The ZOOM minimization package

    SciTech Connect

    Fischler, Mark S.; Sachs, D.; /Fermilab

    2004-11-01

    A new object-oriented Minimization package is available for distribution in the same manner as CLHEP. This package, designed for use in HEP applications, has all the capabilities of Minuit, but is a re-write from scratch, adhering to modern C++ design principles. A primary goal of this package is extensibility in several directions, so that its capabilities can be kept fresh with as little maintenance effort as possible. This package is distinguished by the priority that was assigned to C++ design issues, and the focus on producing an extensible system that will resist becoming obsolete.

  4. Wake Vortex Minimization

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    1977-01-01

    A status report is presented on research directed at reducing the vortex disturbances of aircraft wakes. The objective of such a reduction is to minimize the hazard to smaller aircraft that might encounter these wakes. Inviscid modeling was used to study trailing vortices and viscous effects were investigated. Laser velocimeters were utilized in the measurement of aircraft wakes. Flight and wind tunnel tests were performed on scale and full model scale aircraft of various design. Parameters investigated included the effect of wing span, wing flaps, spoilers, splines and engine thrust on vortex attenuation. Results indicate that vortives may be alleviated through aerodynamic means.

  5. Minimally refined biomass fuel

    DOEpatents

    Pearson, Richard K.; Hirschfeld, Tomas B.

    1984-01-01

    A minimally refined fluid composition, suitable as a fuel mixture and derived from biomass material, is comprised of one or more water-soluble carbohydrates such as sucrose, one or more alcohols having less than four carbons, and water. The carbohydrate provides the fuel source; water solubilizes the carbohydrates; and the alcohol aids in the combustion of the carbohydrate and reduces the vicosity of the carbohydrate/water solution. Because less energy is required to obtain the carbohydrate from the raw biomass than alcohol, an overall energy savings is realized compared to fuels employing alcohol as the primary fuel.

  6. The Change of a Medically Important Genus: Worldwide Occurrence of Genetically Diverse Novel Brucella Species in Exotic Frogs.

    PubMed

    Scholz, Holger C; Mühldorfer, Kristin; Shilton, Cathy; Benedict, Suresh; Whatmore, Adrian M; Blom, Jochen; Eisenberg, Tobias

    2016-01-01

    The genus Brucella comprises various species of both veterinary and human medical importance. All species are genetically highly related to each other, sharing intra-species average nucleotide identities (ANI) of > 99%. Infections occur among various warm-blooded animal species, marine mammals, and humans. Until recently, amphibians had not been recognized as a host for Brucella. In this study, however, we show that novel Brucella species are distributed among exotic frogs worldwide. Comparative recA gene analysis of 36 frog isolates from various continents and different frog species revealed an unexpected high genetic diversity, not observed among classical Brucella species. In phylogenetic reconstructions the isolates consequently formed various clusters and grouped together with atypical more distantly related brucellae, like B. inopinata, strain BO2, and Australian isolates from rodents, some of which were isolated as human pathogens. Of one frog isolate (10RB9215) the genome sequence was determined. Comparative genome analysis of this isolate and the classical Brucella species revealed additional genetic material, absent from classical Brucella species but present in Ochrobactrum, the closest genetic neighbor of Brucella, and in other soil associated genera of the Alphaproteobacteria. The presence of gene clusters encoding for additional metabolic functions, flanked by tRNAs and mobile genetic elements, as well as by bacteriophages is suggestive for a different ecology compared to classical Brucella species. Furthermore it suggests that amphibian isolates may represent a link between free living soil saprophytes and the pathogenic Brucella with a preferred intracellular habitat. We therefore assume that brucellae from frogs have a reservoir in soil and, in contrast to classical brucellae, undergo extensive horizontal gene transfer.

  7. The Change of a Medically Important Genus: Worldwide Occurrence of Genetically Diverse Novel Brucella Species in Exotic Frogs

    PubMed Central

    Scholz, Holger C.; Mühldorfer, Kristin; Shilton, Cathy; Benedict, Suresh; Whatmore, Adrian M.; Blom, Jochen; Eisenberg, Tobias

    2016-01-01

    The genus Brucella comprises various species of both veterinary and human medical importance. All species are genetically highly related to each other, sharing intra-species average nucleotide identities (ANI) of > 99%. Infections occur among various warm-blooded animal species, marine mammals, and humans. Until recently, amphibians had not been recognized as a host for Brucella. In this study, however, we show that novel Brucella species are distributed among exotic frogs worldwide. Comparative recA gene analysis of 36 frog isolates from various continents and different frog species revealed an unexpected high genetic diversity, not observed among classical Brucella species. In phylogenetic reconstructions the isolates consequently formed various clusters and grouped together with atypical more distantly related brucellae, like B. inopinata, strain BO2, and Australian isolates from rodents, some of which were isolated as human pathogens. Of one frog isolate (10RB9215) the genome sequence was determined. Comparative genome analysis of this isolate and the classical Brucella species revealed additional genetic material, absent from classical Brucella species but present in Ochrobactrum, the closest genetic neighbor of Brucella, and in other soil associated genera of the Alphaproteobacteria. The presence of gene clusters encoding for additional metabolic functions, flanked by tRNAs and mobile genetic elements, as well as by bacteriophages is suggestive for a different ecology compared to classical Brucella species. Furthermore it suggests that amphibian isolates may represent a link between free living soil saprophytes and the pathogenic Brucella with a preferred intracellular habitat. We therefore assume that brucellae from frogs have a reservoir in soil and, in contrast to classical brucellae, undergo extensive horizontal gene transfer. PMID:28036367

  8. Logarithmic superconformal minimal models

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Pearce, Paul A.; Rasmussen, Jørgen; Tartaglia, Elena

    2014-05-01

    The higher fusion level logarithmic minimal models {\\cal LM}(P,P';n) have recently been constructed as the diagonal GKO cosets {(A_1^{(1)})_k\\oplus (A_1^ {(1)})_n}/ {(A_1^{(1)})_{k+n}} where n ≥ 1 is an integer fusion level and k = nP/(P‧- P) - 2 is a fractional level. For n = 1, these are the well-studied logarithmic minimal models {\\cal LM}(P,P')\\equiv {\\cal LM}(P,P';1). For n ≥ 2, we argue that these critical theories are realized on the lattice by n × n fusion of the n = 1 models. We study the critical fused lattice models {\\cal LM}(p,p')_{n\\times n} within a lattice approach and focus our study on the n = 2 models. We call these logarithmic superconformal minimal models {\\cal LSM}(p,p')\\equiv {\\cal LM}(P,P';2) where P = |2p - p‧|, P‧ = p‧ and p, p‧ are coprime. These models share the central charges c=c^{P,P';2}=\\frac {3}{2}\\big (1-{2(P'-P)^2}/{P P'}\\big ) of the rational superconformal minimal models {\\cal SM}(P,P'). Lattice realizations of these theories are constructed by fusing 2 × 2 blocks of the elementary face operators of the n = 1 logarithmic minimal models {\\cal LM}(p,p'). Algebraically, this entails the fused planar Temperley-Lieb algebra which is a spin-1 Birman-Murakami-Wenzl tangle algebra with loop fugacity β2 = [x]3 = x2 + 1 + x-2 and twist ω = x4 where x = eiλ and λ = (p‧- p)π/p‧. The first two members of this n = 2 series are superconformal dense polymers {\\cal LSM}(2,3) with c=-\\frac {5}{2}, β2 = 0 and superconformal percolation {\\cal LSM}(3,4) with c = 0, β2 = 1. We calculate the bulk and boundary free energies analytically. By numerically studying finite-size conformal spectra on the strip with appropriate boundary conditions, we argue that, in the continuum scaling limit, these lattice models are associated with the logarithmic superconformal models {\\cal LM}(P,P';2). For system size N, we propose finitized Kac character formulae of the form q^{-{c^{P,P';2}}/{24}+\\Delta ^{P,P';2} _{r

  9. Evaluating the Effects of Climate Change on Water Supplies and Operations: How Important are Feedbacks between Groundwater and Surface Water Use and Management?

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Ferguson, I. M.; Hanson, R. T.; Boyce, S. E.; Llewellyn, D.

    2015-12-01

    subsequent changes in baseflow and seepage, can significantly exacerbate the direct effects of climate change on surface water. These results, while limited to a simple test case, underscore the importance of accounting for the coupled response of surface-water and groundwater management in climate change analyses.

  10. Next-to-minimal SOFTSUSY

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Allanach, B. C.; Athron, P.; Tunstall, Lewis C.; Voigt, A.; Williams, A. G.

    2014-09-01

    renormalisation group equations must be consistent with boundary conditions on supersymmetry breaking parameters, as well as on the weak-scale boundary condition on gauge couplings, Yukawa couplings and the Higgs potential parameters. Solution method: Nested iterative algorithm and numerical minimisation of the Higgs potential. Reasons for new version: Major extension to include the next-to-minimal supersymmetric standard model. Summary of revisions: Added additional supersymmetric and supersymmetry breaking parameters associated with the additional gauge singlet. Electroweak symmetry breaking conditions are significantly changed in the next-to-minimal mode, and some sparticle mixing changes. An interface to NMSSMTools has also been included. Some of the object structure has also changed, and the command line interface has been made more user friendly. Restrictions: SOFTSUSY will provide a solution only in the perturbative regime and it assumes that all couplings of the model are real (i.e. CP-conserving). If the parameter point under investigation is non-physical for some reason (for example because the electroweak potential does not have an acceptable minimum), SOFTSUSY returns an error message. Running time: A few seconds per parameter point.

  11. Minimally invasive valve surgery.

    PubMed

    Woo, Y Joseph; Seeburger, Joerg; Mohr, Friedrich W

    2007-01-01

    As alternatives to standard sternotomy, surgeons have developed innovative, minimally invasive approaches to conducting valve surgery. Through very small skin incisions and partial upper sternal division for aortic valve surgery and right minithoracotomy for mitral surgery, surgeons have become adept at performing complex valve procedures. Beyond cosmetic appeal, apparent benefits range from decreased pain and bleeding to improved respiratory function and recovery time. The large retrospective studies and few small prospective randomized studies are herein briefly summarized. The focus is then directed toward describing specific intraoperative technical details in current clinical use, covering anesthetic preparation, incision, mediastinal access, cardiovascular cannulation, valve exposure, and valve reconstruction. Finally, unique situations such as pulmonic valve surgery, reoperations, beating heart surgery, and robotics are discussed.

  12. Transanal Minimally Invasive Surgery

    PubMed Central

    deBeche-Adams, Teresa; Nassif, George

    2015-01-01

    Transanal minimally invasive surgery (TAMIS) was first described in 2010 as a crossover between single-incision laparoscopic surgery and transanal endoscopic microsurgery (TEM) to allow access to the proximal and mid-rectum for resection of benign and early-stage malignant rectal lesions. The TAMIS technique can also be used for noncurative intent surgery of more advanced lesions in patients who are not candidates for radical surgery. Proper workup and staging should be done before surgical decision-making. In addition to the TAMIS port, instrumentation and set up include readily available equipment found in most operating suites. TAMIS has proven its usefulness in a wide range of applications outside of local excision, including repair of rectourethral fistula, removal of rectal foreign body, control of rectal hemorrhage, and as an adjunct in total mesorectal excision for rectal cancer. TAMIS is an easily accessible, technically feasible, and cost-effective alternative to TEM. PMID:26491410

  13. Minimally invasive parathyroid surgery

    PubMed Central

    Noureldine, Salem I.; Gooi, Zhen

    2015-01-01

    Traditionally, bilateral cervical exploration for localization of all four parathyroid glands and removal of any that are grossly enlarged has been the standard surgical treatment for primary hyperparathyroidism (PHPT). With the advances in preoperative localization studies and greater public demand for less invasive procedures, novel targeted, minimally invasive techniques to the parathyroid glands have been described and practiced over the past 2 decades. Minimally invasive parathyroidectomy (MIP) can be done either through the standard Kocher incision, a smaller midline incision, with video assistance (purely endoscopic and video-assisted techniques), or through an ectopically placed, extracervical, incision. In current practice, once PHPT is diagnosed, preoperative evaluation using high-resolution radiographic imaging to localize the offending parathyroid gland is essential if MIP is to be considered. The imaging study results suggest where the surgeon should begin the focused procedure and serve as a road map to allow tailoring of an efficient, imaging-guided dissection while eliminating the unnecessary dissection of multiple glands or a bilateral exploration. Intraoperative parathyroid hormone (IOPTH) levels may be measured during the procedure, or a gamma probe used during radioguided parathyroidectomy, to ascertain that the correct gland has been excised and that no other hyperfunctional tissue is present. MIP has many advantages over the traditional bilateral, four-gland exploration. MIP can be performed using local anesthesia, requires less operative time, results in fewer complications, and offers an improved cosmetic result and greater patient satisfaction. Additional advantages of MIP are earlier hospital discharge and decreased overall associated costs. This article aims to address the considerations for accomplishing MIP, including the role of preoperative imaging studies, intraoperative adjuncts, and surgical techniques. PMID:26425454

  14. Testing the impact of virus importation rates and future climate change on dengue activity in Malaysia using a mechanistic entomology and disease model.

    PubMed

    Williams, C R; Gill, B S; Mincham, G; Mohd Zaki, A H; Abdullah, N; Mahiyuddin, W R W; Ahmad, R; Shahar, M K; Harley, D; Viennet, E; Azil, A; Kamaluddin, A

    2015-10-01

    We aimed to reparameterize and validate an existing dengue model, comprising an entomological component (CIMSiM) and a disease component (DENSiM) for application in Malaysia. With the model we aimed to measure the effect of importation rate on dengue incidence, and to determine the potential impact of moderate climate change (a 1 °C temperature increase) on dengue activity. Dengue models (comprising CIMSiM and DENSiM) were reparameterized for a simulated Malaysian village of 10 000 people, and validated against monthly dengue case data from the district of Petaling Jaya in the state of Selangor. Simulations were also performed for 2008-2012 for variable virus importation rates (ranging from 1 to 25 per week) and dengue incidence determined. Dengue incidence in the period 2010-2012 was modelled, twice, with observed daily weather and with a 1 °C increase, the latter to simulate moderate climate change. Strong concordance between simulated and observed monthly dengue cases was observed (up to r = 0·72). There was a linear relationship between importation and incidence. However, a doubling of dengue importation did not equate to a doubling of dengue activity. The largest individual dengue outbreak was observed with the lowest dengue importation rate. Moderate climate change resulted in an overall decrease in dengue activity over a 3-year period, linked to high human seroprevalence early on in the simulation. Our results suggest that moderate reductions in importation with control programmes may not reduce the frequency of large outbreaks. Moderate increases in temperature do not necessarily lead to greater dengue incidence.

  15. Importance of Change Appraisal for Employee Well-being during Organizational Restructuring: Findings from the Finnish Paper Industry’s Extensive Transition

    PubMed Central

    PAHKIN, Krista; NIELSEN, Karina; VÄÄNÄNEN, Ari; MATTILA-HOLAPPA, Pauliina; LEPPÄNEN, Anneli; KOSKINEN, Aki

    2014-01-01

    The global recession has forced the Finnish forest industry to carry out major restructuring activities. Employees have faced different kinds of restructuring, mainly aimed at reducing staff and production. Many studies have shown the negative consequences of restructuring on employee well-being by using negative, ill-health indicators. Our aim is to examine the extent to which change appraisal influences both the negative and positive aspects of work-related well-being among employees who continue working in the organization after the restructuring process. We also examine the role of different actors (top management, immediate supervisor, employees themselves) in how the change is appraised. The study investigated blue-collar employees working in the Finnish forest industry during a period of extensive transition (2008–2009). All six participating factories underwent restructuring between baseline and the follow-up survey (n=369). After adjustment for gender, age and baseline well-being, negative change appraisal increased the risk of experiencing more stress and less work enjoyment. Negative change appraisals thus also damaged the positive, motivational aspects of employee well-being. The results showed the importance of offering employees the opportunity to participate in the planning of changes related to their work as regards positive change appraisal. PMID:24975107

  16. [MINIMALLY INVASIVE AORTIC VALVE REPLACEMENT].

    PubMed

    Tabata, Minoru

    2016-03-01

    Minimally invasive aortic valve replacement (MIAVR) is defined as aortic valve replacement avoiding full sternotomy. Common approaches include a partial sternotomy right thoracotomy, and a parasternal approach. MIAVR has been shown to have advantages over conventional AVR such as shorter length of stay and smaller amount of blood transfusion and better cosmesis. However, it is also known to have disadvantages such as longer cardiopulmonary bypass and aortic cross-clamp times and potential complications related to peripheral cannulation. Appropriate patient selection is very important. Since the procedure is more complex than conventional AVR, more intensive teamwork in the operating room is essential. Additionally, a team approach during postoperative management is critical to maximize the benefits of MIAVR.

  17. Minimal Marking: A Success Story

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    McNeilly, Anne

    2014-01-01

    The minimal-marking project conducted in Ryerson's School of Journalism throughout 2012 and early 2013 resulted in significantly higher grammar scores in two first-year classes of minimally marked university students when compared to two traditionally marked classes. The "minimal-marking" concept (Haswell, 1983), which requires…

  18. Minimizing Shortness of Breath

    MedlinePlus

    ... postures and exposure to environmental irritants. Pursed-Lip Breathing One focus of occupational therapy is to teach ... the accessory muscles and manage respiratory symptoms. Monitor Breathing During an activity, it is important to pause ...

  19. Minimally Invasive Dentistry

    MedlinePlus

    ... Health Important for Men? What is a Composite Resin (White Filling)? Learn what those dental words mean. ... fine abrasive powder. Sealants: Usually made of plastic resin, dental sealants protect teeth from bacteria that cause ...

  20. The Harmonic Oscillator in the Classical Limit of a Minimal-Length Scenario

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Quintela, T. S.; Fabris, J. C.; Nogueira, J. A.

    2016-12-01

    In this work, we explicitly solve the problem of the harmonic oscillator in the classical limit of a minimal-length scenario. We show that (i) the motion equation of the oscillator is not linear anymore because the presence of a minimal length introduces an anarmonic term and (ii) its motion is described by a Jacobi sine elliptic function. Therefore, the motion is periodic with the same amplitude and with the new period depending on the minimal length. This result (the change in the period of oscillation) is very important since it enables us to find in a quite simple way the most relevant effect of the presence of a minimal length and consequently traces of the Planck-scale physics. We show applications of our results in spectroscopy and gravity.

  1. Superpower nuclear minimalism

    SciTech Connect

    Graben, E.K.

    1992-01-01

    During the Cold War, the United States and the Soviet Union competed in building weapons -- now it seems like America and Russia are competing to get rid of them the fastest. The lengthy process of formal arms control has been replaced by exchanges of unilateral force reductions and proposals for reciprocal reductions not necessarily codified by treaty. Should superpower nuclear strategies change along with force postures President Bush has yet to make a formal pronouncement on post-Cold War American nuclear strategy, and it is uncertain if the Soviet/Russian doctrine of reasonable sufficiency formulated in the Gorbachev era actually heralds a change in strategy. Some of the provisions in the most recent round of unilateral proposals put forth by Presidents Bush and Yeltsin in January 1992 are compatible with a change in strategy. Whether such a change has actually occurred remains to be seen. With the end of the Cold War and the breakup of the Soviet Union, the strategic environment has fundamentally changed, so it would seem logical to reexamine strategy as well. There are two main schools of nuclear strategic thought: a maximalist school, mutual assured destruction (MAD) which emphasizes counterforce superiority and nuclear war- fighting capability, and a MAD-plus school, which emphasizes survivability of an assured destruction capability along with the ability to deliver small, limited nuclear attacks in the event that conflict occurs. The MAD-plus strategy is based on an attempt to conventionalize nuclear weapons which is unrealistic.

  2. Discrete minimal flavor violation

    SciTech Connect

    Zwicky, Roman; Fischbacher, Thomas

    2009-10-01

    We investigate the consequences of replacing the global flavor symmetry of minimal flavor violation (MFV) SU(3){sub Q}xSU(3){sub U}xSU(3){sub D}x{center_dot}{center_dot}{center_dot} by a discrete D{sub Q}xD{sub U}xD{sub D}x{center_dot}{center_dot}{center_dot} symmetry. Goldstone bosons resulting from the breaking of the flavor symmetry generically lead to bounds on new flavor structure many orders of magnitude above the TeV scale. The absence of Goldstone bosons for discrete symmetries constitute the primary motivation of our work. Less symmetry implies further invariants and renders the mass-flavor basis transformation observable in principle and calls for a hierarchy in the Yukawa matrix expansion. We show, through the dimension of the representations, that the (discrete) symmetry in principle does allow for additional {delta}F=2 operators. If though the {delta}F=2 transitions are generated by two subsequent {delta}F=1 processes, as, for example, in the standard model, then the four crystal-like groups {sigma}(168){approx_equal}PSL(2,F{sub 7}), {sigma}(72{phi}), {sigma}(216{phi}) and especially {sigma}(360{phi}) do provide enough protection for a TeV-scale discrete MFV scenario. Models where this is not the case have to be investigated case by case. Interestingly {sigma}(216{phi}) has a (nonfaithful) representation corresponding to an A{sub 4} symmetry. Moreover we argue that the, apparently often omitted, (D) groups are subgroups of an appropriate {delta}(6g{sup 2}). We would like to stress that we do not provide an actual model that realizes the MFV scenario nor any other theory of flavor.

  3. The importance of freshwater systems to the net atmospheric exchange of carbon dioxide and methane with a rapidly changing high Arctic watershed

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Emmerton, Craig A.; St. Louis, Vincent L.; Lehnherr, Igor; Graydon, Jennifer A.; Kirk, Jane L.; Rondeau, Kimberly J.

    2016-10-01

    A warming climate is rapidly changing the distribution and exchanges of carbon within high Arctic ecosystems. Few data exist, however, which quantify exchange of both carbon dioxide (CO2) and methane (CH4) between the atmosphere and freshwater systems, or estimate freshwater contributions to total catchment exchange of these gases, in the high Arctic. During the summers of 2005 and 2007-2012, we quantified CO2 and CH4 concentrations in, and atmospheric exchange with, common freshwater systems in the high Arctic watershed of Lake Hazen, Nunavut, Canada. We identified four types of biogeochemically distinct freshwater systems in the watershed; however mean CO2 concentrations (21-28 µmol L-1) and atmospheric exchange (-0.013 to +0.046 g C-CO2 m-2 day-1) were similar between these systems. Seasonal flooding of ponds bordering Lake Hazen generated considerable CH4 emissions to the atmosphere (+0.008 g C-CH4 m-2 day-1), while all other freshwater systems were minimal emitters of this gas (< +0.001 g C-CH4 m-2 day-1). When using ecosystem-cover classification mapping and data from previous studies, we found that freshwaters were unimportant contributors to total watershed carbon exchange, in part because they covered less than 10 % of total area in the watershed. High Arctic watersheds are experiencing warmer and wetter climates than in the past, which may have implications for moisture availability, landscape cover, and the exchange of CO2 and CH4 of underproductive but expansive polar semidesert ecosystems.

  4. Minimally invasive treatments for perforator vein insufficiency

    PubMed Central

    Salazar, Gloria Maria; Prabhakar, Anand M.; Ganguli, Suvranu

    2016-01-01

    Incompetent superficial veins are the most common cause of lower extremity superficial venous reflux and varicose veins; however, incompetent or insufficient perforator veins are the most common cause of recurrent varicose veins after treatment, often unrecognized. Perforator vein insufficiency can result in pain, skin changes, and skin ulcers, and often merit intervention. Minimally invasive treatments have replaced traditional surgical treatments for incompetent perforator veins. Current minimally invasive treatment options include ultrasound guided sclerotherapy (USGS) and endovascular thermal ablation (EVTA) with either laser or radiofrequency energy sources. Advantages and disadvantages of each modality and knowledge on these treatments are required to adequately address perforator venous disease. PMID:28123979

  5. Bacterial Stressors in Minimally Processed Food

    PubMed Central

    Capozzi, Vittorio; Fiocco, Daniela; Amodio, Maria Luisa; Gallone, Anna; Spano, Giuseppe

    2009-01-01

    Stress responses are of particular importance to microorganisms, because their habitats are subjected to continual changes in temperature, osmotic pressure, and nutrients availability. Stressors (and stress factors), may be of chemical, physical, or biological nature. While stress to microorganisms is frequently caused by the surrounding environment, the growth of microbial cells on its own may also result in induction of some kinds of stress such as starvation and acidity. During production of fresh-cut produce, cumulative mild processing steps are employed, to control the growth of microorganisms. Pathogens on plant surfaces are already stressed and stress may be increased during the multiple mild processing steps, potentially leading to very hardy bacteria geared towards enhanced survival. Cross-protection can occur because the overlapping stress responses enable bacteria exposed to one stress to become resistant to another stress. A number of stresses have been shown to induce cross protection, including heat, cold, acid and osmotic stress. Among other factors, adaptation to heat stress appears to provide bacterial cells with more pronounced cross protection against several other stresses. Understanding how pathogens sense and respond to mild stresses is essential in order to design safe and effective minimal processing regimes. PMID:19742126

  6. Waste Minimization Measurement and Progress Reporting

    SciTech Connect

    Stone, K.A.

    1995-02-13

    Westinghouse Savannah River Company is implementing productivity improvement concepts into the Waste Minimization Program by focusing on the positive initiatives taken to reduce waste generation at the Savannah River Site. Previous performance measures, based only on waste generation rates, proved to be an ineffective metric for measuring performance and promoting continuous improvements within the Program. Impacts of mission changes and non-routine operations impeded development of baseline waste generation rates and often negated waste generation trending reports. A system was developed to quantify, document and track innovative activities that impact waste volume and radioactivity/toxicity reductions. This system coupled with Management-driven waste disposal avoidance goals is proving to be a powerful tool to promote waste minimization awareness and the implementation of waste reduction initiatives. Measurement of waste not generated, in addition to waste generated, increases the credibility of the Waste Minimization Program, improves sharing of success stories, and supports development of regulatory and management reports

  7. Chilling-Mediated DNA Methylation Changes during Dormancy and Its Release Reveal the Importance of Epigenetic Regulation during Winter Dormancy in Apple (Malus x domestica Borkh.)

    PubMed Central

    Kumar, Gulshan; Rattan, Usha Kumari; Singh, Anil Kumar

    2016-01-01

    Winter dormancy is a well known mechanism adopted by temperate plants, to mitigate the chilling temperature of winters. However, acquisition of sufficient chilling during winter dormancy ensures the normal phenological traits in subsequent growing period. Thus, low temperature appears to play crucial roles in growth and development of temperate plants. Apple, being an important temperate fruit crop, also requires sufficient chilling to release winter dormancy and normal phenological traits, which are often associated with yield and quality of fruits. DNA cytosine methylation is one of the important epigenetic modifications which remarkably affect the gene expression during various developmental and adaptive processes. In present study, methylation sensitive amplified polymorphism was employed to assess the changes in cytosine methylation during dormancy, active growth and fruit set in apple, under differential chilling conditions. Under high chill conditions, total methylation was decreased from 27.2% in dormant bud to 21.0% in fruit set stage, while no significant reduction was found under low chill conditions. Moreover, the demethylation was found to be decreased, while methylation increased from dormant bud to fruit set stage under low chill as compared to high chill conditions. In addition, RNA-Seq analysis showed high expression of DNA methyltransferases and histone methyltransferases during dormancy and fruit set, and low expression of DNA glcosylases during active growth under low chill conditions, which was in accordance with changes in methylation patterns. The RNA-Seq data of 47 genes associated with MSAP fragments involved in cellular metabolism, stress response, antioxidant system and transcriptional regulation showed correlation between methylation and their expression. Similarly, bisulfite sequencing and qRT-PCR analysis of selected genes also showed correlation between gene body methylation and gene expression. Moreover, significant association

  8. Chilling-Mediated DNA Methylation Changes during Dormancy and Its Release Reveal the Importance of Epigenetic Regulation during Winter Dormancy in Apple (Malus x domestica Borkh.).

    PubMed

    Kumar, Gulshan; Rattan, Usha Kumari; Singh, Anil Kumar

    2016-01-01

    Winter dormancy is a well known mechanism adopted by temperate plants, to mitigate the chilling temperature of winters. However, acquisition of sufficient chilling during winter dormancy ensures the normal phenological traits in subsequent growing period. Thus, low temperature appears to play crucial roles in growth and development of temperate plants. Apple, being an important temperate fruit crop, also requires sufficient chilling to release winter dormancy and normal phenological traits, which are often associated with yield and quality of fruits. DNA cytosine methylation is one of the important epigenetic modifications which remarkably affect the gene expression during various developmental and adaptive processes. In present study, methylation sensitive amplified polymorphism was employed to assess the changes in cytosine methylation during dormancy, active growth and fruit set in apple, under differential chilling conditions. Under high chill conditions, total methylation was decreased from 27.2% in dormant bud to 21.0% in fruit set stage, while no significant reduction was found under low chill conditions. Moreover, the demethylation was found to be decreased, while methylation increased from dormant bud to fruit set stage under low chill as compared to high chill conditions. In addition, RNA-Seq analysis showed high expression of DNA methyltransferases and histone methyltransferases during dormancy and fruit set, and low expression of DNA glcosylases during active growth under low chill conditions, which was in accordance with changes in methylation patterns. The RNA-Seq data of 47 genes associated with MSAP fragments involved in cellular metabolism, stress response, antioxidant system and transcriptional regulation showed correlation between methylation and their expression. Similarly, bisulfite sequencing and qRT-PCR analysis of selected genes also showed correlation between gene body methylation and gene expression. Moreover, significant association

  9. Minimal hepatic encephalopathy: A review.

    PubMed

    Nardone, Raffaele; Taylor, Alexandra C; Höller, Yvonne; Brigo, Francesco; Lochner, Piergiorgio; Trinka, Eugen

    2016-10-01

    Minimal hepatic encephalopathy (MHE) is the earliest form of hepatic encephalopathy and can affect up to 80% of patients with liver cirrhosis. By definition, MHE is characterized by cognitive function impairment in the domains of attention, vigilance and integrative function, but obvious clinical manifestation are lacking. MHE has been shown to affect daily functioning, quality of life, driving and overall mortality. The diagnosis can be achieved through neuropsychological testing, recently developed computerized psychometric tests, such as the critical flicker frequency and the inhibitory control tests, as well as neurophysiological procedures. Event related potentials can reveal subtle changes in patients with normal neuropsychological performances. Spectral analysis of electroencephalography (EEG) and quantitative analysis of sleep EEG provide early markers of cerebral dysfunction in cirrhotic patients with MHE. Neuroimaging, in particular MRI, also increasingly reveals diffuse abnormalities in intrinsic brain activity and altered organization of functional connectivity networks. Medical treatment for MHE to date has been focused on reducing serum ammonia levels and includes non-absorbable disaccharides, probiotics or rifaximin. Liver transplantation may not reverse the cognitive deficits associated with MHE. We performed here an updated review on epidemiology, burden and quality of life, neuropsychological testing, neuroimaging, neurophysiology and therapy in subjects with MHE.

  10. Guidelines for mixed waste minimization

    SciTech Connect

    Owens, C.

    1992-02-01

    Currently, there is no commercial mixed waste disposal available in the United States. Storage and treatment for commercial mixed waste is limited. Host States and compacts region officials are encouraging their mixed waste generators to minimize their mixed wastes because of management limitations. This document provides a guide to mixed waste minimization.

  11. Influenza SIRS with Minimal Pneumonitis.

    PubMed

    Erramilli, Shruti; Mannam, Praveen; Manthous, Constantine A

    2016-01-01

    Although systemic inflammatory response syndrome (SIRS) is a known complication of severe influenza pneumonia, it has been reported very rarely in patients with minimal parenchymal lung disease. We here report a case of severe SIRS, anasarca, and marked vascular phenomena with minimal or no pneumonitis. This case highlights that viruses, including influenza, may cause vascular dysregulation causing SIRS, even without substantial visceral organ involvement.

  12. Ecological Change, Sliding Baselines and the Importance of Historical Data: Lessons from Combing Observational and Quantitative Data on a Temperate Reef Over 70 Years

    PubMed Central

    Gatti, Giulia; Bianchi, Carlo Nike; Parravicini, Valeriano; Rovere, Alessio; Peirano, Andrea; Montefalcone, Monica; Massa, Francesco; Morri, Carla

    2015-01-01

    Understanding the effects of environmental change on ecosystems requires the identification of baselines that may act as reference conditions. However, the continuous change of these references challenges our ability to define the true natural status of ecosystems. The so-called sliding baseline syndrome can be overcome through the analysis of quantitative time series, which are, however, extremely rare. Here we show how combining historical quantitative data with descriptive ‘naturalistic’ information arranged in a chronological chain allows highlighting long-term trends and can be used to inform present conservation schemes. We analysed the long-term change of a coralligenous reef, a marine habitat endemic to the Mediterranean Sea. The coralligenous assemblages of Mesco Reef (Ligurian Sea, NW Mediterranean) have been studied, although discontinuously, since 1937 thus making available both detailed descriptive information and scanty quantitative data: while the former was useful to understand the natural history of the ecosystem, the analysis of the latter was of paramount importance to provide a formal measure of change over time. Epibenthic assemblages remained comparatively stable until the 1990s, when species replacement, invasion by alien algae, and biotic homogenisation occurred within few years, leading to a new and completely different ecosystem state. The shift experienced by the coralligenous assemblages of Mesco Reef was probably induced by a combination of seawater warming and local human pressures, the latter mainly resulting in increased water turbidity; in turn, cumulative stress may have favoured the establishment of alien species. This study showed that the combined analysis of quantitative and descriptive historical data represent a precious knowledge to understand ecosystem trends over time and provide help to identify baselines for ecological management. PMID:25714413

  13. Waste minimization handbook, Volume 1

    SciTech Connect

    Boing, L.E.; Coffey, M.J.

    1995-12-01

    This technical guide presents various methods used by industry to minimize low-level radioactive waste (LLW) generated during decommissioning and decontamination (D and D) activities. Such activities generate significant amounts of LLW during their operations. Waste minimization refers to any measure, procedure, or technique that reduces the amount of waste generated during a specific operation or project. Preventive waste minimization techniques implemented when a project is initiated can significantly reduce waste. Techniques implemented during decontamination activities reduce the cost of decommissioning. The application of waste minimization techniques is not limited to D and D activities; it is also useful during any phase of a facility`s life cycle. This compendium will be supplemented with a second volume of abstracts of hundreds of papers related to minimizing low-level nuclear waste. This second volume is expected to be released in late 1996.

  14. The Sand Seas of northern China: Important sinks and sources of global sediment fluxes and their changing roles during different climate conditions of Late Quaternary

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Yang, X.

    2014-12-01

    Although the occurrence of aeolian sands in sedimentary sequences has been widely used as indicators of desert formation or proxies of desert climate, one should be aware that accumulation of aeolian sands does occur along river channels, in lake shores not necessarily associated with arid environment. Our ongoing geomorphological and paleoenvironmental studies in the deserts of northern China reconfirm that formation of sand seas is dependent on not only erodibility (arising from bare surface due to aridity) and wind power but more importantly sand availability related to sediment cycles under interactions between fluvial, lacustrine and aeolian processes. Here we present our ongoing geomorphological and paleoclimatic research on the Late Quaternary landscape and climatic changes in the Taklamkan Desert of northwestern China, the largest sand sea of China in arid zone, and in the Hunshandake Sandy Land at the east part of the Asian mid-latitude desert belt under semiarid climate. We find out that the occurrence of tall sand dunes in the over 300,000 km2 large Taklamakan Sand Sea is closely related to the sites of intensive fluvial sedimentation and convergence zone of surface winds. In the case of Hunshandake, the dunes (although much smaller) mainly occur along the shorelines of the former lake basins, and sediment sources are generally limited because of open hydrological systems in the south and east portions of this desert. The sedimentological and geomorphological records suggest that the climate has changed between arid and less-arid conditions in both of these deserts during Late Quaternary. Under wetter conditions the Taklamakan acts as an important sink of sediments brought by rivers with headwaters in the Tibetan Plateau and Tianshan, while under more arid conditions it acts as an important global sediment source whose dust is transported not only to East Asia and Pacific but also to Greenland ice via westerlies. The Hunshandake has the same pattern of

  15. The minimal autopoietic unit.

    PubMed

    Luisi, Pier Luigi

    2014-12-01

    It is argued that closed, cell-like compartments, may have existed in prebiotic time, showing a simplified metabolism which was bringing about a primitive form of stationary state- a kind of homeostasis. The autopoietic primitive cell can be taken as an example and there are preliminary experimental data supporting the possible existence of this primitive form of cell activity. The genetic code permits, among other things, the continuous self-reproduction of proteins; enzymic proteins permit the synthesis of nucleic acids, and in this way there is a perfect recycling between the two most important classes of biopolymers in our life. On the other hand, the genetic code is a complex machinery, which cannot be posed at the very early time of the origin of life. And the question then arises, whether some form of alternative beginning, prior to the genetic code, would have been possible: and this is the core of the question asked. Is something with the flavor of early life conceivable, prior to the genetic code? My answer is positive, although I am too well aware that the term "conceivable" does not mean that this something is easily to be performed experimentally. To illustrate my answer, I would first go back to the operational description of cellular life as given by the theory of autopoiesis. Accordingly, a living cell is an open system capable of self-maintenance, due to a process of internal self-regeneration of the components, all within a boundary which is itself product from within. This is a universal code, valid not only for a cell, but for any living macroscopic entity, as no living system exists on Earth which does not obey this principle. In this definition (or better operational description) there is no mention of DNA or genetic code. I added in that definition the term "open system"-which is not present in the primary literature (Varela, et al., 1974) to make clear that every living system is indeed an open system-without this addition, it may seem that

  16. Light, temperature, and leaf nitrogen distribution in the tropical rain forest of Biosphere 2 and their importance in the mathematical models for global environmental changes

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Tohda, Motofumi

    1997-01-01

    As the environmental changes occur throughout the world in rapid rate, we need to have further understandings for our planet. Since the ecosystems are so complex, it is almost impossible for us to integrate every factor. However, mathematical models are powerful tools which can be used to simulate those ecosystems with limited data. In this project, I collected light intensity, canopy leaf temperature and Air Handler (AHU) temperature, and nitrogen concentration in the leaves for different profiles in the rainforest mesocosm. These data will later be put into mathematical models such as "big-leaf" and "sun/shade" models to determine how these factors will affect CO2 exchange in the rainforest. As rainforests are diminishing from our planet and their existence is very important for all living things on earth, it is necessary for us to learn more about the unique system of rainforests and how we can co-exist rather than destroy.

  17. Aortic valve surgery - minimally invasive

    MedlinePlus

    ... of the heart is reduced. This is called aortic stenosis. The aortic valve can be replaced using: Minimally ... RN, Wang A. Percutaneous heart valve replacement for aortic stenosis: state of the evidence. Ann Intern Med . 2010; ...

  18. Minimally invasive aesthetic procedures in young adults

    PubMed Central

    Wollina, Uwe; Goldman, Alberto

    2011-01-01

    Age is a significant factor in modifying specific needs when it comes to medical aesthetic procedures. In this review we will focus on young adults in their third decade of life and review minimally invasive aesthetic procedures other than cosmetics and cosmeceuticals. Correction of asymmetries, correction after body modifying procedures, and facial sculpturing are important issues for young adults. The implication of aesthetic medicine as part of preventive medicine is a major ethical challenge that differentiates aesthetic medicine from fashion. PMID:21673871

  19. Shapes of embedded minimal surfaces.

    PubMed

    Colding, Tobias H; Minicozzi, William P

    2006-07-25

    Surfaces that locally minimize area have been extensively used to model physical phenomena, including soap films, black holes, compound polymers, protein folding, etc. The mathematical field dates to the 1740s but has recently become an area of intense mathematical and scientific study, specifically in the areas of molecular engineering, materials science, and nanotechnology because of their many anticipated applications. In this work, we show that all minimal surfaces are built out of pieces of the surfaces in Figs. 1 and 2.

  20. Minimal mass size of a stable {sup 3}He cluster

    SciTech Connect

    Guardiola, R.; Navarro, J.

    2005-03-01

    The minimal number of {sup 3}He atoms required to form a bound cluster has been estimated by means of a diffusion Monte Carlo procedure within the fixed-node approximation. Several importance sampling wave functions have been employed in order to consider different shell-model configurations. The resulting upper bound for the minimal number is 32 atoms.

  1. Importance of plasticity and local adaptation for coping with changing salinity in coastal areas: a test case with barnacles in the Baltic Sea

    PubMed Central

    2014-01-01

    Background Salinity plays an important role in shaping coastal marine communities. Near-future climate predictions indicate that salinity will decrease in many shallow coastal areas due to increased precipitation; however, few studies have addressed this issue. The ability of ecosystems to cope with future changes will depend on species’ capacities to acclimatise or adapt to new environmental conditions. Here, we investigated the effects of a strong salinity gradient (the Baltic Sea system – Baltic, Kattegat, Skagerrak) on plasticity and adaptations in the euryhaline barnacle Balanus improvisus. We used a common-garden approach, where multiple batches of newly settled barnacles from each of three different geographical areas along the Skagerrak-Baltic salinity gradient were exposed to corresponding native salinities (6, 15 and 30 PSU), and phenotypic traits including mortality, growth, shell strength, condition index and reproductive maturity were recorded. Results We found that B. improvisus was highly euryhaline, but had highest growth and reproductive maturity at intermediate salinities. We also found that low salinity had negative effects on other fitness-related traits including initial growth and shell strength, although mortality was also lowest in low salinity. Overall, differences between populations in most measured traits were weak, indicating little local adaptation to salinity. Nonetheless, we observed some population-specific responses – notably that populations from high salinity grew stronger shells in their native salinity compared to the other populations, possibly indicating adaptation to differences in local predation pressure. Conclusions Our study shows that B. improvisus is an example of a true brackish-water species, and that plastic responses are more likely than evolutionary tracking in coping with future changes in coastal salinity. PMID:25038588

  2. The importance of record length in estimating the magnitude of climatic changes: an example using 175 years of lake ice-out dates in New England

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Hodgkins, Glenn A.

    2013-01-01

    Many studies have shown that lake ice-out (break-up) dates in the Northern Hemisphere are useful indicators of late winter/early spring climate change. Trends in lake ice-out dates in New England, USA, were analyzed for 25, 50, 75, 100, 125, 150, and 175 year periods ending in 2008. More than 100 years of ice-out data were available for 19 of the 28 lakes in this study. The magnitude of trends over time depends on the length of the period considered. For the recent 25-year period, there was a mix of earlier and later ice-out dates. Lake ice-outs during the last 50 years became earlier by 1.8 days/decade (median change for all lakes with adequate data). This is a much higher rate than for longer historical periods; ice-outs became earlier by 0.6 days/decade during the last 75 years, 0.4 days/ decade during the last 100 years, and 0.6 days/decade during the last 125 years. The significance of trends was assessed under the assumption of serial independence of historical ice-out dates and under the assumption of short and long term persistence. Hypolimnion dissolved oxygen (DO) levels are an important factor in lake eutrophication and coldwater fish survival. Based on historical data available at three lakes, 32 to 46 % of the interannual variability of late summer hypolimnion DO levels was related to ice-out dates; earlier ice-outs were associated with lower DO levels.

  3. Minimal but non-minimal inflation and electroweak symmetry breaking

    SciTech Connect

    Marzola, Luca; Racioppi, Antonio

    2016-10-07

    We consider the most minimal scale invariant extension of the standard model that allows for successful radiative electroweak symmetry breaking and inflation. The framework involves an extra scalar singlet, that plays the rôle of the inflaton, and is compatibile with current experimental bounds owing to the non-minimal coupling of the latter to gravity. This inflationary scenario predicts a very low tensor-to-scalar ratio r≈10{sup −3}, typical of Higgs-inflation models, but in contrast yields a scalar spectral index n{sub s}≃0.97 which departs from the Starobinsky limit. We briefly discuss the collider phenomenology of the framework.

  4. Cannabinoid CB1 receptors of the dorsal hippocampus are important for induction of conditioned place preference (CPP) but do not change morphine CPP.

    PubMed

    Zarrindast, Mohammad-Reza; Nouri, Maryam; Ahmadi, Shamseddin

    2007-08-13

    Interactions between cannabinoid and opioid systems have been reported in many studies. In the present study, we have investigated influence of cannabinoid CB1 receptor mechanism on the acquisition of conditioned place preference (CPP) induced by morphine in male Wistar rats. The cannabinoid CB1 receptor agonist (WIN55,212-2) and antagonist (AM251) were injected bilaterally into the dorsal hippocampus. Morphine and naloxone were injected subcutaneously (s.c.). The conditioning treatments with injections of morphine (6 and 9 mg/kg) induced a CPP for the drug-associated place. When administered into the dorsal hippocampus, WIN55,212-2 (1 microg/rat) induced CPP, but significantly did not alter CPP induced by a sub-effective dose of morphine (3 mg/kg). Moreover, administration of different doses of AM251 (50 and 100 ng/rat) into the dorsal hippocampus induced CPP, while did not change CPP by the sub-effective dose of morphine. Naloxone alone (1 mg/kg) induced conditioned place aversion (CPA). The drug (0.5 and 1 mg/kg) also caused CPA when co-administered with WIN55,212-2 (1 microg/rat). These results suggest that endocannabinoid system in the dorsal hippocampus is important for the CPP paradigm. However, agents did not alter morphine-induced CPP.

  5. The importance of campaign saliency as a predictor of attitude and behavior change: A pilot evaluation of social marketing campaign Fat Talk Free Week.

    PubMed

    Garnett, Bernice Raveche; Buelow, Robert; Franko, Debra L; Becker, Carolyn; Rodgers, Rachel F; Austin, S Bryn

    2014-01-01

    Fat Talk Free Week (FTFW), a social marketing campaign designed to decrease self-disparaging talk about body and weight, has not yet been evaluated. We conducted a theory-informed pilot evaluation of FTFW with two college samples using a pre- and posttest design. Aligned with the central tenets of the Elaboration Likelihood Model (ELM), we investigated the importance of FTFW saliency as a predictor of fat talk behavior change. Our analytic sample consisted of 118 female participants (83% of original sample). Approximately 76% of the sample was non-Hispanic White, 14% Asian, and 8% Hispanic. At baseline, more than 50% of respondents reported engaging in frequent self fat talk; at posttest, this number dropped to 34% of respondents. Multivariable regression models supported campaign saliency as the single strongest predictor of a decrease in self fat talk. Our results support the social diffusion of campaign messages among shared communities, as we found significant decreases in fat talk among campaign attenders and nonattenders. FTFW may be a promising short-term health communication campaign to reduce fat talk, as campaign messages are salient among university women and may encourage interpersonal communication.

  6. [A consideration on the import of Chinese crude drugs of general use in the 2nd half of Taisho era (7): especially on the change of import volume and price of rhubarb].

    PubMed

    Harima, S; Tanaka, Y

    1991-01-01

    Since most of the crude drug rhubarb was imported in the Taisho era, similarly to the Meiji era, it was possible to refer to the government statistic data by investigating and elucidating the import volume of the same in the treaty ports at that time. Upon examining the import status in the period from the late part of the Taisho era to the early part of Showa era (around 1920 to 1930), the following transitions were observed. 1) In 1923 (Taisho 12), the Kantoh earthquake happened and it attacked Yokohama where the function as main trade port was almost totally destroyed. ... 2) The earthquake happened just at the time when the tariff protectionism was increasingly promoted in every country. ... 3) Since the port of Yokohama, as trade port, was damaged by the earthquake at that time and the government import statistic data were limited to a partial summing-up, our investigation was referred to the statistic data at the ports of Osaka and Kobe. ...

  7. Imported malaria.

    PubMed

    Schultz, M G

    1974-01-01

    There have been 4 waves of imported malaria in the USA. They occurred during the colonization of the country and during the Second World War, the UN Police Action in Korea, and the Viet-Nam conflict. The first 3 episodes are briefly described and the data on imported malaria from Viet-Nam are discussed in detail.Endemic malaria is resurgent in many tropical countries and international travel is also on the rise. This increases the likelihood of malaria being imported from an endemic area and introduced into a receptive area. The best defence for countries threatened by imported malaria is a vigorous surveillance programme. The principles of surveillance are discussed and an example of their application is provided by a description of the methods used to conduct surveillance of malaria in the USA.

  8. Perceived Reactions of Elementary School Students to Changes in School Lunches after Implementation of the United States Department of Agriculture's New Meals Standards: Minimal Backlash, but Rural and Socioeconomic Disparities Exist

    PubMed Central

    Chaloupka, Frank J.

    2014-01-01

    Abstract Background: Updated standards for meals sold through the USDA's National School Lunch Program took effect at the beginning of the 2012–2013 school year. The current study assessed the perceptions of school staff regarding student reactions to these changes in school lunches and how perceptions varied across schools. Methods: Mailback surveys were gathered from administrators and food service staff at a nationally representative sample of 557 US public elementary schools in the second half of the 2012–2013 school year. Results: Half of the respondents (56.4%) agreed that students complained about the meals at first, but 70% agreed that students like the new lunches. Perceived student complaints were significantly higher among respondents from rural schools (n=184) than from urban (n=127) or suburban (n=171) schools. Respondents at rural schools also were more likely to report that they perceived that fewer students were purchasing the meals and that students were consuming less of the meals than during the previous year. Perceived student complaints were higher at schools not offering regular (i.e., higher-fat) pizza. Respondents at socioeconomically disadvantaged schools (>66% of students eligible for free/reduced-priced meals) perceived that more students were buying lunch and that students were eating more of the meal than in the previous year. Conclusions: Perceptions of school personnel suggest reasonable acceptance of school lunches subsequent to revisions. Given the importance of offering healthful foods at school, the revised USDA meals standards are a promising strategy to improve the diets of children. PMID:25045934

  9. Does Minimally Invasive Spine Surgery Minimize Surgical Site Infections?

    PubMed Central

    Patel, Ravish Shammi; Dutta, Shumayou

    2016-01-01

    Study Design Retrospective review of prospectively collected data. Purpose To evaluate the incidence of surgical site infections (SSIs) in minimally invasive spine surgery (MISS) in a cohort of patients and compare with available historical data on SSI in open spinal surgery cohorts, and to evaluate additional direct costs incurred due to SSI. Overview of Literature SSI can lead to prolonged antibiotic therapy, extended hospitalization, repeated operations, and implant removal. Small incisions and minimal dissection intrinsic to MISS may minimize the risk of postoperative infections. However, there is a dearth of literature on infections after MISS and their additional direct financial implications. Methods All patients from January 2007 to January 2015 undergoing posterior spinal surgery with tubular retractor system and microscope in our institution were included. The procedures performed included tubular discectomies, tubular decompressions for spinal stenosis and minimal invasive transforaminal lumbar interbody fusion (TLIF). The incidence of postoperative SSI was calculated and compared to the range of cited SSI rates from published studies. Direct costs were calculated from medical billing for index cases and for patients with SSI. Results A total of 1,043 patients underwent 763 noninstrumented surgeries (discectomies, decompressions) and 280 instrumented (TLIF) procedures. The mean age was 52.2 years with male:female ratio of 1.08:1. Three infections were encountered with fusion surgeries (mean detection time, 7 days). All three required wound wash and debridement with one patient requiring unilateral implant removal. Additional direct cost due to infection was $2,678 per 100 MISS-TLIF. SSI increased hospital expenditure per patient 1.5-fold after instrumented MISS. Conclusions Overall infection rate after MISS was 0.29%, with SSI rate of 0% in non-instrumented MISS and 1.07% with instrumented MISS. MISS can markedly reduce the SSI rate and can be an

  10. Shapes of embedded minimal surfaces

    PubMed Central

    Colding, Tobias H.; Minicozzi, William P.

    2006-01-01

    Surfaces that locally minimize area have been extensively used to model physical phenomena, including soap films, black holes, compound polymers, protein folding, etc. The mathematical field dates to the 1740s but has recently become an area of intense mathematical and scientific study, specifically in the areas of molecular engineering, materials science, and nanotechnology because of their many anticipated applications. In this work, we show that all minimal surfaces are built out of pieces of the surfaces in Figs. 1 and 2. PMID:16847265

  11. Disruption of both chloroplastic and cytosolic FBPase genes results in a dwarf phenotype and important starch and metabolite changes in Arabidopsis thaliana

    PubMed Central

    Rojas-González, José A.; Soto-Súarez, Mauricio; García-Díaz, Ángel; Romero-Puertas, María C.; Sandalio, Luisa M.; Mérida, Ángel; Thormählen, Ina; Geigenberger, Peter; Serrato, Antonio J.; Sahrawy, Mariam

    2015-01-01

    In this study, evidence is provided for the role of fructose-1,6-bisphosphatases (FBPases) in plant development and carbohydrate synthesis and distribution by analysing two Arabidopsis thaliana T-DNA knockout mutant lines, cyfbp and cfbp1, and one double mutant cyfbp cfbp1 which affect each FBPase isoform, cytosolic and chloroplastic, respectively. cyFBP is involved in sucrose synthesis, whilst cFBP1 is a key enzyme in the Calvin–Benson cycle. In addition to the smaller rosette size and lower rate of photosynthesis, the lack of cFBP1 in the mutants cfbp1 and cyfbp cfbp1 leads to a lower content of soluble sugars, less starch accumulation, and a greater superoxide dismutase (SOD) activity. The mutants also had some developmental alterations, including stomatal opening defects and increased numbers of root vascular layers. Complementation also confirmed that the mutant phenotypes were caused by disruption of the cFBP1 gene. cyfbp mutant plants without cyFBP showed a higher starch content in the chloroplasts, but this did not greatly affect the phenotype. Notably, the sucrose content in cyfbp was close to that found in the wild type. The cyfbp cfbp1 double mutant displayed features of both parental lines but had the cfbp1 phenotype. All the mutants accumulated fructose-1,6-bisphosphate and triose-phosphate during the light period. These results prove that while the lack of cFBP1 induces important changes in a wide range of metabolites such as amino acids, sugars, and organic acids, the lack of cyFBP activity in Arabidopsis essentially provokes a carbon metabolism imbalance which does not compromise the viability of the double mutant cyfbp cfbp1. PMID:25743161

  12. Disruption of both chloroplastic and cytosolic FBPase genes results in a dwarf phenotype and important starch and metabolite changes in Arabidopsis thaliana.

    PubMed

    Rojas-González, José A; Soto-Súarez, Mauricio; García-Díaz, Ángel; Romero-Puertas, María C; Sandalio, Luisa M; Mérida, Ángel; Thormählen, Ina; Geigenberger, Peter; Serrato, Antonio J; Sahrawy, Mariam

    2015-05-01

    In this study, evidence is provided for the role of fructose-1,6-bisphosphatases (FBPases) in plant development and carbohydrate synthesis and distribution by analysing two Arabidopsis thaliana T-DNA knockout mutant lines, cyfbp and cfbp1, and one double mutant cyfbp cfbp1 which affect each FBPase isoform, cytosolic and chloroplastic, respectively. cyFBP is involved in sucrose synthesis, whilst cFBP1 is a key enzyme in the Calvin-Benson cycle. In addition to the smaller rosette size and lower rate of photosynthesis, the lack of cFBP1 in the mutants cfbp1 and cyfbp cfbp1 leads to a lower content of soluble sugars, less starch accumulation, and a greater superoxide dismutase (SOD) activity. The mutants also had some developmental alterations, including stomatal opening defects and increased numbers of root vascular layers. Complementation also confirmed that the mutant phenotypes were caused by disruption of the cFBP1 gene. cyfbp mutant plants without cyFBP showed a higher starch content in the chloroplasts, but this did not greatly affect the phenotype. Notably, the sucrose content in cyfbp was close to that found in the wild type. The cyfbp cfbp1 double mutant displayed features of both parental lines but had the cfbp1 phenotype. All the mutants accumulated fructose-1,6-bisphosphate and triose-phosphate during the light period. These results prove that while the lack of cFBP1 induces important changes in a wide range of metabolites such as amino acids, sugars, and organic acids, the lack of cyFBP activity in Arabidopsis essentially provokes a carbon metabolism imbalance which does not compromise the viability of the double mutant cyfbp cfbp1.

  13. Age-related changes in functional postsynaptic nicotinic acetylcholine receptor subunits in neurons of the laterodorsal tegmental nucleus, a nucleus important in drug addiction.

    PubMed

    Christensen, Mark H; Kohlmeier, Kristi A

    2016-03-01

    The earlier an individual initiates cigarette smoking, the higher the likelihood of development of dependency to nicotine, the addictive ingredient in cigarettes. One possible mechanism underlying this higher addiction liability is an ontogenetically differential cellular response induced by nicotine in neurons mediating the reinforcing or euphoric effects of this drug, which could arise from age-related differences in the composition of nicotinic acetylcholine receptor (nAChR) subunits. In the current study, we examined whether the subunit composition of nAChRs differed between neurons within the laterodorsal tegmentum (LDT), a nucleus importantly involved in drug addiction associated behaviours, across two periods of ontogeny in which nicotine-mediated excitatory responses were shown to depend on age. To this end, whole-cell patch-clamp recordings in mouse brain slices from identified LDT neurons, in combination with nAChR subunit-specific receptor antagonists, were conducted. Comparison of the contribution of different nAChR subunits to acetylcholine (ACh)-induced inward currents indicated that the contributions of the β2 and/or β4 and α7 nAChR subunits alter across age. Taken together, we conclude that across a limited ontogenetic period, there is plasticity in the subunit composition of nAChRs in LDT neurons. In addition, our data indicate, for the first time, functional presence of α6 nAChR subunits in LDT neurons within the age ranges studied. Changes in subunit composition of nAChRs across ontogeny could contribute to the age-related differential excitability induced by nicotine. Differences in the subunit composition of nAChRs within the LDT would be expected to contribute to ontogenetic-dependent outflow from the LDT to target regions, which include reward-related circuitry.

  14. Rationally reduced libraries for combinatorial pathway optimization minimizing experimental effort

    PubMed Central

    Jeschek, Markus; Gerngross, Daniel; Panke, Sven

    2016-01-01

    Rational flux design in metabolic engineering approaches remains difficult since important pathway information is frequently not available. Therefore empirical methods are applied that randomly change absolute and relative pathway enzyme levels and subsequently screen for variants with improved performance. However, screening is often limited on the analytical side, generating a strong incentive to construct small but smart libraries. Here we introduce RedLibs (Reduced Libraries), an algorithm that allows for the rational design of smart combinatorial libraries for pathway optimization thereby minimizing the use of experimental resources. We demonstrate the utility of RedLibs for the design of ribosome-binding site libraries by in silico and in vivo screening with fluorescent proteins and perform a simple two-step optimization of the product selectivity in the branched multistep pathway for violacein biosynthesis, indicating a general applicability for the algorithm and the proposed heuristics. We expect that RedLibs will substantially simplify the refactoring of synthetic metabolic pathways. PMID:27029461

  15. Designing a Minimal Intervention Strategy to Control Taenia solium.

    PubMed

    Lightowlers, Marshall W; Donadeu, Meritxell

    2017-02-21

    Neurocysticercosis is an important cause of epilepsy in many developing countries. The disease is a zoonosis caused by the cestode parasite Taenia solium. Many potential intervention strategies are available, however none has been able to be implemented and sustained. Here we predict the impact of some T. solium interventions that could be applied to prevent transmission through pigs, the parasite's natural animal intermediate host. These include minimal intervention strategies that are predicted to be effective and likely to be feasible. Logical models are presented which reflect changes in the risk that age cohorts of animals have for their potential to transmit T. solium. Interventions that include a combined application of vaccination, plus chemotherapy in young animals, are the most effective.

  16. Minimally invasive aortic valve surgery

    PubMed Central

    Castrovinci, Sebastiano; Emmanuel, Sam; Moscarelli, Marco; Murana, Giacomo; Caccamo, Giuseppa; Bertolino, Emanuela Clara; Nasso, Giuseppe; Speziale, Giuseppe; Fattouch, Khalil

    2016-01-01

    Aortic valve disease is a prevalent disorder that affects approximately 2% of the general adult population. Surgical aortic valve replacement is the gold standard treatment for symptomatic patients. This treatment has demonstrably proven to be both safe and effective. Over the last few decades, in an attempt to reduce surgical trauma, different minimally invasive approaches for aortic valve replacement have been developed and are now being increasingly utilized. A narrative review of the literature was carried out to describe the surgical techniques for minimally invasive aortic valve surgery and report the results from different experienced centers. Minimally invasive aortic valve replacement is associated with low perioperative morbidity, mortality and a low conversion rate to full sternotomy. Long-term survival appears to be at least comparable to that reported for conventional full sternotomy. Minimally invasive aortic valve surgery, either with a partial upper sternotomy or a right anterior minithoracotomy provides early- and long-term benefits. Given these benefits, it may be considered the standard of care for isolated aortic valve disease. PMID:27582764

  17. Wilson loops in minimal surfaces

    SciTech Connect

    Drukker, Nadav; Gross, David J.; Ooguri, Hirosi

    1999-04-27

    The AdS/CFT correspondence suggests that the Wilson loop of the large N gauge theory with N = 4 supersymmetry in 4 dimensions is described by a minimal surface in AdS{sub 5} x S{sup 5}. The authors examine various aspects of this proposal, comparing gauge theory expectations with computations of minimal surfaces. There is a distinguished class of loops, which the authors call BPS loops, whose expectation values are free from ultra-violet divergence. They formulate the loop equation for such loops. To the extent that they have checked, the minimal surface in AdS{sub 5} x S{sup 5} gives a solution of the equation. The authors also discuss the zig-zag symmetry of the loop operator. In the N = 4 gauge theory, they expect the zig-zag symmetry to hold when the loop does not couple the scalar fields in the supermultiplet. They will show how this is realized for the minimal surface.

  18. A Defense of Semantic Minimalism

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Kim, Su

    2012-01-01

    Semantic Minimalism is a position about the semantic content of declarative sentences, i.e., the content that is determined entirely by syntax. It is defined by the following two points: "Point 1": The semantic content is a complete/truth-conditional proposition. "Point 2": The semantic content is useful to a theory of…

  19. What is minimally invasive dentistry?

    PubMed

    Ericson, Dan

    2004-01-01

    Minimally Invasive Dentistry is the application of "a systematic respect for the original tissue." This implies that the dental profession recognizes that an artifact is of less biological value than the original healthy tissue. Minimally invasive dentistry is a concept that can embrace all aspects of the profession. The common delineator is tissue preservation, preferably by preventing disease from occurring and intercepting its progress, but also removing and replacing with as little tissue loss as possible. It does not suggest that we make small fillings to restore incipient lesions or surgically remove impacted third molars without symptoms as routine procedures. The introduction of predictable adhesive technologies has led to a giant leap in interest in minimally invasive dentistry. The concept bridges the traditional gap between prevention and surgical procedures, which is just what dentistry needs today. The evidence-base for survival of restorations clearly indicates that restoring teeth is a temporary palliative measure that is doomed to fail if the disease that caused the condition is not addressed properly. Today, the means, motives and opportunities for minimally invasive dentistry are at hand, but incentives are definitely lacking. Patients and third parties seem to be convinced that the only things that count are replacements. Namely, they are prepared to pay for a filling but not for a procedure that can help avoid having one.

  20. Glucose Driven Changes in Beta Cell Identity Are Important for Function and Possibly Autoimmune Vulnerability during the Progression of Type 1 Diabetes

    PubMed Central

    Weir, Gordon C.; Bonner-Weir, Susan

    2017-01-01

    This commentary explores the hypothesis that when autoimmunity leads to a fall of beta cell mass during the progression of type 1 diabetes (T1D), rising glucose levels cause major changes in beta cell identity. This then leads to profound changes in secretory function and less well-understood changes in beta cell susceptibility to autoimmune destruction, which may influence of rate of progression of beta cell killing. PMID:28174593

  1. A global review on hydrological responses to forest change across multiple spatial scales: Importance of scale, climate, forest type and hydrological regime

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Zhang, Mingfang; Liu, Ning; Harper, Richard; Li, Qiang; Liu, Kuan; Wei, Xiaohua; Ning, Dingyuan; Hou, Yiping; Liu, Shirong

    2017-03-01

    Despite extensive studies on hydrological responses to forest cover change in small watersheds, the hydrological responses to forest change and associated mechanisms across multiple spatial scales have not been fully understood. This review thus examined about 312 watersheds worldwide to provide a generalized framework to evaluate hydrological responses to forest cover change and to identify the contribution of spatial scale, climate, forest type and hydrological regime in determining the intensity of forest change related hydrological responses in small (<1000 km2) and large watersheds (⩾1000 km2). Key findings include: (1) the increase in annual runoff associated with forest cover loss is statistically significant at multiple spatial scales whereas the effect of forest cover gain is statistically inconsistent; (2) the sensitivity of annual runoff to forest cover change tends to attenuate as watershed size increases only in large watersheds; (3) annual runoff is more sensitive to forest cover change in water-limited watersheds than in energy-limited watersheds across all spatial scales; and (4) small mixed forest-dominated watersheds or large snow-dominated watersheds are more hydrologically resilient to forest cover change. These findings improve the understanding of hydrological response to forest cover change at different spatial scales and provide a scientific underpinning to future watershed management in the context of climate change and increasing anthropogenic disturbances.

  2. Hydration change during the aging of phosphorylated human butyrylcholinesterase: importance of residues aspartate-70 and glutamate-197 in the water network as probed by hydrostatic and osmotic pressures.

    PubMed

    Masson, P; Cléry, C; Guerra, P; Redslob, A; Albaret, C; Fortier, P L

    1999-10-15

    Wild-type human butyrylcholinesterase (BuChE) and Glu-197-->Asp and Asp-70-->Gly mutants (E197D and D70G respectively) were inhibited by di-isopropyl phosphorofluoridate under standard conditions of pH, temperature and pressure. The effect of hydrostatic and osmotic pressures on the aging process (dealkylation of an isopropyl chain) of phosphorylated enzymes [di-isopropylated (DIP)-BuChE] was investigated. Hydrostatic pressure markedly increased the rate of aging of wild-type enzyme. The average activation volume (DeltaV( not equal)) for the dealkylation reaction was -170 ml/mol for DIP wild-type BuChE. On the other hand, hydrostatic pressure had little effect on the aging of the DIP mutants (DeltaV( not equal)=-2.6 ml/mol for E197D and -2 ml/mol for D70G), suggesting that the transition state of the aging process was associated with an extended hydration and conformational change in wild-type BuChE, but not in the mutants. The rate of aging of wild-type and mutant enzymes decreased with osmotic pressure, allowing very large positive osmotic activation volumes (DeltaV not equal osm) to be estimated, thus probing the participation of water in the aging process. Molecular dynamics simulations performed on the active-site gorge of the wild-type DIP adduct showed that the isopropyl chain involved in aging was highly solvated, supporting the idea that water is important for stabilizing the transition state of the dealkylation reaction. Wild-type BuChE was inhibited by soman (pinacolyl methylphosphonofluoridate). Electrophoresis performed under high pressure [up to 2.5 kbar (1 bar=10(5) Pa)] showed that the soman-aged enzyme did not pass through a pressure-induced, molten-globule transition, unlike the native wild-type enzyme. Likewise, this transition was not seen for the native E197D and D70G mutants, indicating that these mutants are resistant to the penetration of water into their structure. The stability energetics of native and soman-aged wild-type BuChE were

  3. Solar array stepping to minimize array excitation

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Bhat, Mahabaleshwar K. P. (Inventor); Liu, Tung Y. (Inventor); Plescia, Carl T. (Inventor)

    1989-01-01

    Mechanical oscillations of a mechanism containing a stepper motor, such as a solar-array powered spacecraft, are reduced and minimized by the execution of step movements in pairs of steps, the period between steps being equal to one-half of the period of torsional oscillation of the mechanism. Each pair of steps is repeated at needed intervals to maintain desired continuous movement of the portion of elements to be moved, such as the solar array of a spacecraft. In order to account for uncertainty as well as slow change in the period of torsional oscillation, a command unit may be provided for varying the interval between steps in a pair.

  4. Anaesthesia for minimally invasive surgery

    PubMed Central

    Dec, Marta

    2015-01-01

    Minimally invasive surgery (MIS) is rising in popularity. It offers well-known benefits to the patient. However, restricted access to the surgical site and gas insufflation into the body cavities may result in severe complications. From the anaesthetic point of view MIS poses unique challenges associated with creation of pneumoperitoneum, carbon dioxide absorption, specific positioning and monitoring a patient to whom the anaesthetist has often restricted access, in a poorly lit environment. Moreover, with refinement of surgical procedures and growing experience the anaesthetist is presented with patients from high-risk groups (obese, elderly, with advanced cardiac and respiratory disease) who once were deemed unsuitable for the laparoscopic technique. Anaesthetic management is aimed at getting the patient safely through the procedure, minimizing the specific risks arising from laparoscopy and the patient's coexisting medical problems, ensuring quick recovery and a relatively pain-free postoperative course with early return to normal function. PMID:26865885

  5. Minimal universal quantum heat machine.

    PubMed

    Gelbwaser-Klimovsky, D; Alicki, R; Kurizki, G

    2013-01-01

    In traditional thermodynamics the Carnot cycle yields the ideal performance bound of heat engines and refrigerators. We propose and analyze a minimal model of a heat machine that can play a similar role in quantum regimes. The minimal model consists of a single two-level system with periodically modulated energy splitting that is permanently, weakly, coupled to two spectrally separated heat baths at different temperatures. The equation of motion allows us to compute the stationary power and heat currents in the machine consistent with the second law of thermodynamics. This dual-purpose machine can act as either an engine or a refrigerator (heat pump) depending on the modulation rate. In both modes of operation, the maximal Carnot efficiency is reached at zero power. We study the conditions for finite-time optimal performance for several variants of the model. Possible realizations of the model are discussed.

  6. Minimal Doubling and Point Splitting

    SciTech Connect

    Creutz, M.

    2010-06-14

    Minimally-doubled chiral fermions have the unusual property of a single local field creating two fermionic species. Spreading the field over hypercubes allows construction of combinations that isolate specific modes. Combining these fields into bilinears produces meson fields of specific quantum numbers. Minimally-doubled fermion actions present the possibility of fast simulations while maintaining one exact chiral symmetry. They do, however, introduce some peculiar aspects. An explicit breaking of hyper-cubic symmetry allows additional counter-terms to appear in the renormalization. While a single field creates two different species, spreading this field over nearby sites allows isolation of specific states and the construction of physical meson operators. Finally, lattice artifacts break isospin and give two of the three pseudoscalar mesons an additional contribution to their mass. Depending on the sign of this mass splitting, one can either have a traditional Goldstone pseudoscalar meson or a parity breaking Aoki-like phase.

  7. Outcomes After Minimally Invasive Esophagectomy

    PubMed Central

    Luketich, James D.; Pennathur, Arjun; Awais, Omar; Levy, Ryan M.; Keeley, Samuel; Shende, Manisha; Christie, Neil A.; Weksler, Benny; Landreneau, Rodney J.; Abbas, Ghulam; Schuchert, Matthew J.; Nason, Katie S.

    2014-01-01

    Background Esophagectomy is a complex operation and is associated with significant morbidity and mortality. In an attempt to lower morbidity, we have adopted a minimally invasive approach to esophagectomy. Objectives Our primary objective was to evaluate the outcomes of minimally invasive esophagectomy (MIE) in a large group of patients. Our secondary objective was to compare the modified McKeown minimally invasive approach (videothoracoscopic surgery, laparoscopy, neck anastomosis [MIE-neck]) with our current approach, a modified Ivor Lewis approach (laparoscopy, videothoracoscopic surgery, chest anastomosis [MIE-chest]). Methods We reviewed 1033 consecutive patients undergoing MIE. Elective operation was performed on 1011 patients; 22 patients with nonelective operations were excluded. Patients were stratified by surgical approach and perioperative outcomes analyzed. The primary endpoint studied was 30-day mortality. Results The MIE-neck was performed in 481 (48%) and MIE-Ivor Lewis in 530 (52%). Patients undergoing MIE-Ivor Lewis were operated in the current era. The median number of lymph nodes resected was 21. The operative mortality was 1.68%. Median length of stay (8 days) and ICU stay (2 days) were similar between the 2 approaches. Mortality rate was 0.9%, and recurrent nerve injury was less frequent in the Ivor Lewis MIE group (P < 0.001). Conclusions MIE in our center resulted in acceptable lymph node resection, postoperative outcomes, and low mortality using either an MIE-neck or an MIE-chest approach. The MIE Ivor Lewis approach was associated with reduced recurrent laryngeal nerve injury and mortality of 0.9% and is now our preferred approach. Minimally invasive esophagectomy can be performed safely, with good results in an experienced center. PMID:22668811

  8. Minimal massive 3D gravity

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Bergshoeff, Eric; Hohm, Olaf; Merbis, Wout; Routh, Alasdair J.; Townsend, Paul K.

    2014-07-01

    We present an alternative to topologically massive gravity (TMG) with the same ‘minimal’ bulk properties; i.e. a single local degree of freedom that is realized as a massive graviton in linearization about an anti-de Sitter (AdS) vacuum. However, in contrast to TMG, the new ‘minimal massive gravity’ has both a positive energy graviton and positive central charges for the asymptotic AdS-boundary conformal algebra.

  9. [Imported histoplasmosis].

    PubMed

    Stete, Katarina; Kern, Winfried V; Rieg, Siegbert; Serr, Annerose; Maurer, Christian; Tintelnot, Kathrin; Wagner, Dirk

    2015-06-01

    Infections with Histoplasma capsulatum are rare in Germany, and mostly imported from endemic areas. Infections can present as localized or disseminated diseases in immunocompromised as well as immunocompetent hosts. A travel history may be a major clue for diagnosing histoplasmosis. Diagnostic tools include histology, cultural and molecular detection as well as serology. Here we present four cases of patients diagnosed and treated in Freiburg between 2004 and 2013 that demonstrate the broad range of clinical manifestations of histoplasmosis: an immunocompetent patient with chronic basal meningitis; a patient with HIV infection and fatal disseminated disease; a patient with pulmonary and cutaneous disease and mediastinal and cervical lymphadenopathy; and an immunosuppressed patient with disseminated involvement of lung, bone marrow and adrenal glands.

  10. Jerk Minimization Method for Vibration Control in Buildings

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Abatan, Ayo O.; Yao, Leummim

    1997-01-01

    In many vibration minimization control problems for high rise buildings subject to strong earthquake loads, the emphasis has been on a combination of minimizing the displacement, the velocity and the acceleration of the motion of the building. In most cases, the accelerations that are involved are not necessarily large but the change in them (jerk) are abrupt. These changes in magnitude or direction are responsible for most building damage and also create discomfort like motion sickness for inhabitants of these structures because of the element of surprise. We propose a method of minimizing also the jerk which is the sudden change in acceleration or the derivative of the acceleration using classical linear quadratic optimal controls. This was done through the introduction of a quadratic performance index involving the cost due to the jerk; a special change of variable; and using the jerk as a control variable. The values of the optimal control are obtained using the Riccati equation.

  11. Minimally invasive surgery for thyroid eye disease.

    PubMed

    Naik, Milind Neilkant; Nair, Akshay Gopinathan; Gupta, Adit; Kamal, Saurabh

    2015-11-01

    Thyroid eye disease (TED) can affect the eye in myriad ways: proptosis, strabismus, eyelid retraction, optic neuropathy, soft tissue changes around the eye and an unstable ocular surface. TED consists of two phases: active, and inactive. The active phase of TED is limited to a period of 12-18 months and is mainly managed medically with immunosuppression. The residual structural changes due to the resultant fibrosis are usually addressed with surgery, the mainstay of which is orbital decompression. These surgeries are performed during the inactive phase. The surgical rehabilitation of TED has evolved over the years: not only the surgical techniques, but also the concepts, and the surgical tools available. The indications for decompression surgery have also expanded in the recent past. This article discusses the technological and conceptual advances of minimally invasive surgery for TED that decrease complications and speed up recovery. Current surgical techniques offer predictable, consistent results with better esthetics.

  12. Minimally invasive surgery for thyroid eye disease

    PubMed Central

    Naik, Milind Neilkant; Nair, Akshay Gopinathan; Gupta, Adit; Kamal, Saurabh

    2015-01-01

    Thyroid eye disease (TED) can affect the eye in myriad ways: proptosis, strabismus, eyelid retraction, optic neuropathy, soft tissue changes around the eye and an unstable ocular surface. TED consists of two phases: active, and inactive. The active phase of TED is limited to a period of 12–18 months and is mainly managed medically with immunosuppression. The residual structural changes due to the resultant fibrosis are usually addressed with surgery, the mainstay of which is orbital decompression. These surgeries are performed during the inactive phase. The surgical rehabilitation of TED has evolved over the years: not only the surgical techniques, but also the concepts, and the surgical tools available. The indications for decompression surgery have also expanded in the recent past. This article discusses the technological and conceptual advances of minimally invasive surgery for TED that decrease complications and speed up recovery. Current surgical techniques offer predictable, consistent results with better esthetics. PMID:26669337

  13. Seasonal species interactions minimize the impact of species turnover on the likelihood of community persistence.

    PubMed

    Saavedra, Serguei; Rohr, Rudolf P; Fortuna, Miguel A; Selva, Nuria; Bascompte, Jordi

    2016-04-01

    Many of the observed species interactions embedded in ecological communities are not permanent, but are characterized by temporal changes that are observed along with abiotic and biotic variations. While work has been done describing and quantifying these changes, little is known about their consequences for species coexistence. Here, we investigate the extent to which changes of species composition impact the likelihood of persistence of the predator-prey community in the highly seasonal Białowieza Primeval Forest (northeast Poland), and the extent to which seasonal changes of species interactions (predator diet) modulate the expected impact. This likelihood is estimated extending recent developments on the study of structural stability in ecological communities. We find that the observed species turnover strongly varies the likelihood of community persistence between summer and winter. Importantly, we demonstrate that the observed seasonal interaction changes minimize the variation in the likelihood of persistence associated with species turnover across the year. We find that these community dynamics can be explained as the coupling of individual species to their environment by minimizing both the variation in persistence conditions and the interaction changes between seasons. Our results provide a homeostatic explanation for seasonal species interactions and suggest that monitoring the association of interactions changes with the level of variation in community dynamics can provide a good indicator of the response of species to environmental pressures.

  14. The importance of dietary change for men diagnosed with and at risk of prostate cancer: a multi-centre interview study with men, their partners and health professionals

    PubMed Central

    2014-01-01

    Background The diagnosis of prostate cancer (PC) can provide a trigger for dietary change, and there is evidence that healthier diets may improve quality of life and clinical outcomes. However, men’s views about dietary change in PC survivorship are largely unknown. This multi-centre qualitative interview study explored men’s views about dietary change in PC survivorship, to better understand motivations for, and barriers to, achieving desired changes. The role of radical and active surveillance treatments on dietary change and the influence of men’s partners were examined. Focus groups also evaluated stakeholder opinion, including healthcare professionals, about the provision of dietary advice to PC patients. Methods A multi-centre interview study explored views about diet and motivations for, and barriers to, dietary change in men at elevated risk or diagnosed with PC following prostate specific antigen (PSA) testing. 58 men and 11 partners were interviewed. Interviews and focus groups were undertaken with 11 healthcare professionals, 5 patients and 4 partners to evaluate stakeholders’ opinions about the feasibility and acceptability of providing dietary advice to PC patients. Data were analysed using methods of constant comparison and thematic analysis. Results Over half of diagnosed men reported making dietary changes, primarily to promote general or prostate health or facilitate coping, despite their uncertainty about diet-PC links. Interest in dietary advice was high. Information needs varied depending on treatment received, with men on active surveillance more frequently modifying their diet and regarding this as an adjunct therapy. Men considered their partners integral to implementing changes. Provision of dietary advice to men diagnosed with PC was considered by healthcare professionals and men to be feasible and appropriate in the context of a holistic ‘care package’. Conclusions Many men make positive dietary changes after PC diagnosis

  15. Minimally Invasive Suturectomy and Postoperative Helmet Therapy : Advantages and Limitations

    PubMed Central

    Chong, Sangjoon; Wang, Kyu-Chang; Phi, Ji Hoon; Lee, Ji Yeoun

    2016-01-01

    Various operative techniques are available for the treatment of craniosynostosis. The patient's age at presentation is one of the most important factors in the determination of the surgical modality. Minimally invasive suturectomy and postoperative helmet therapy may be performed for relatively young infants, whose age is younger than 6 months. It relies upon the potential for rapid brain growth in this age group. Its minimal invasiveness is also advantageous. In this article, we review the advantages and limitations of minimally invasive suturectomy followed by helmet therapy for the treatment of craniosynostosis. PMID:27226853

  16. Short-Term Effects of Changing Precipitation Patterns on Shrub-Steppe Grasslands: Seasonal Watering Is More Important than Frequency of Watering Events

    PubMed Central

    Densmore-McCulloch, Justine A.; Thompson, Donald L.; Fraser, Lauchlan H.

    2016-01-01

    Climate change is expected to alter precipitation patterns. Droughts may become longer and more frequent, and the timing and intensity of precipitation may change. We tested how shifting precipitation patterns, both seasonally and by frequency of events, affects soil nitrogen availability, plant biomass and diversity in a shrub-steppe temperate grassland along a natural productivity gradient in Lac du Bois Grasslands Protected Area near Kamloops, British Columbia, Canada. We manipulated seasonal watering patterns by either exclusively watering in the spring or the fall. To simulate spring precipitation we restricted precipitation inputs in the fall, then added 50% more water than the long term average in the spring, and vice-versa for the fall precipitation treatment. Overall, the amount of precipitation remained roughly the same. We manipulated the frequency of rainfall events by either applying water weekly (frequent) or monthly (intensive). After 2 years, changes in the seasonality of watering had greater effects on plant biomass and diversity than changes in the frequency of watering. Fall watering reduced biomass and increased species diversity, while spring watering had little effect. The reduction in biomass in fall watered treatments was due to a decline in grasses, but not forbs. Plant available N, measured by Plant Root Simulator (PRS)-probes, increased from spring to summer to fall, and was higher in fall watered treatments compared to spring watered treatments when measured in the fall. The only effect observed due to frequency of watering events was greater extractable soil N in monthly applied treatments compared to weekly watering treatments. Understanding the effects of changing precipitation patterns on grasslands will allow improved grassland conservation and management in the face of global climatic change, and here we show that if precipitation is more abundant in the fall, compared to the spring, grassland primary productivity will likely be

  17. Short-Term Effects of Changing Precipitation Patterns on Shrub-Steppe Grasslands: Seasonal Watering Is More Important than Frequency of Watering Events.

    PubMed

    Densmore-McCulloch, Justine A; Thompson, Donald L; Fraser, Lauchlan H

    2016-01-01

    Climate change is expected to alter precipitation patterns. Droughts may become longer and more frequent, and the timing and intensity of precipitation may change. We tested how shifting precipitation patterns, both seasonally and by frequency of events, affects soil nitrogen availability, plant biomass and diversity in a shrub-steppe temperate grassland along a natural productivity gradient in Lac du Bois Grasslands Protected Area near Kamloops, British Columbia, Canada. We manipulated seasonal watering patterns by either exclusively watering in the spring or the fall. To simulate spring precipitation we restricted precipitation inputs in the fall, then added 50% more water than the long term average in the spring, and vice-versa for the fall precipitation treatment. Overall, the amount of precipitation remained roughly the same. We manipulated the frequency of rainfall events by either applying water weekly (frequent) or monthly (intensive). After 2 years, changes in the seasonality of watering had greater effects on plant biomass and diversity than changes in the frequency of watering. Fall watering reduced biomass and increased species diversity, while spring watering had little effect. The reduction in biomass in fall watered treatments was due to a decline in grasses, but not forbs. Plant available N, measured by Plant Root Simulator (PRS)-probes, increased from spring to summer to fall, and was higher in fall watered treatments compared to spring watered treatments when measured in the fall. The only effect observed due to frequency of watering events was greater extractable soil N in monthly applied treatments compared to weekly watering treatments. Understanding the effects of changing precipitation patterns on grasslands will allow improved grassland conservation and management in the face of global climatic change, and here we show that if precipitation is more abundant in the fall, compared to the spring, grassland primary productivity will likely be

  18. Utilization of biocatalysts in cellulose waste minimization

    SciTech Connect

    Woodward, J.; Evans, B.R.

    1996-09-01

    Cellulose, a polymer of glucose, is the principal component of biomass and, therefore, a major source of waste that is either buried or burned. Examples of biomass waste include agricultural crop residues, forestry products, and municipal wastes. Recycling of this waste is important for energy conservation as well as waste minimization and there is some probability that in the future biomass could become a major energy source and replace fossil fuels that are currently used for fuels and chemicals production. It has been estimated that in the United States, between 100-450 million dry tons of agricultural waste are produced annually, approximately 6 million dry tons of animal waste, and of the 190 million tons of municipal solid waste (MSW) generated annually, approximately two-thirds is cellulosic in nature and over one-third is paper waste. Interestingly, more than 70% of MSW is landfilled or burned, however landfill space is becoming increasingly scarce. On a smaller scale, important cellulosic products such as cellulose acetate also present waste problems; an estimated 43 thousand tons of cellulose ester waste are generated annually in the United States. Biocatalysts could be used in cellulose waste minimization and this chapter describes their characteristics and potential in bioconversion and bioremediation processes.

  19. Minimally invasive PCNL-MIP.

    PubMed

    Zanetti, Stefano Paolo; Boeri, Luca; Gallioli, Andrea; Talso, Michele; Montanari, Emanuele

    2017-01-01

    Miniaturized percutaneous nephrolithotomy (mini-PCNL) has increased in popularity in recent years and is now widely used to overcome the therapeutic gap between conventional PCNL and less-invasive procedures such as shock wave lithotripsy (SWL) or flexible ureterorenoscopy (URS) for the treatment of renal stones. However, despite its minimally invasive nature, the superiority in terms of safety, as well as the similar efficacy of mini-PCNL compared to conventional procedures, is still under debate. The aim of this chapter is to present one of the most recent advancements in terms of mini-PCNL: the Karl Storz "minimally invasive PCNL" (MIP). A literature search for original and review articles either published or e-published up to December 2016 was performed using Google and the PubMed database. Keywords included: minimally invasive PCNL; MIP. The retrieved articles were gathered and examined. The complete MIP set is composed of different sized rigid metallic fiber-optic nephroscopes and different sized metallic operating sheaths, according to which the MIP is categorized into extra-small (XS), small (S), medium (M) and large (L). Dilation can be performed either in one-step or with a progressive technique, as needed. The reusable devices of the MIP and vacuum cleaner efect make PCNL with this set a cheap procedure. The possibility to shift from a small to a larger instrument within the same set (Matrioska technique) makes MIP a very versatile technique suitable for the treatment of almost any stone. Studies in the literature have shown that MIP is equally effective, with comparable rates of post-operative complications, as conventional PCNL, independently from stone size. MIP does not represent a new technique, but rather a combination of the last ten years of PCNL improvements in a single system that can transversally cover all available techniques in the panorama of percutaneous stone treatment.

  20. Prepulse minimization in KALI-5000.

    PubMed

    Kumar, D Durga Praveen; Mitra, S; Senthil, K; Sharma, Vishnu K; Singh, S K; Roy, A; Sharma, Archana; Nagesh, K V; Chakravarthy, D P

    2009-07-01

    A pulse power system (1 MV, 50 kA, and 100 ns) based on Marx generator and Blumlein pulse forming line has been built for generating high power microwaves. The Blumlein configuration poses a prepulse problem and hence the diode gap had to be increased to match the diode impedance to the Blumlein impedance during the main pulse. A simple method to eliminate prepulse voltage using a vacuum sparkgap and a resistor is given. Another fundamental approach of increasing the inductance of Marx generator to minimize the prepulse voltage is also presented. Experimental results for both of these configurations are given.

  1. Prepulse minimization in KALI-5000

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Kumar, D. Durga Praveen; Mitra, S.; Senthil, K.; Sharma, Vishnu K.; Singh, S. K.; Roy, A.; Sharma, Archana; Nagesh, K. V.; Chakravarthy, D. P.

    2009-07-01

    A pulse power system (1 MV, 50 kA, and 100 ns) based on Marx generator and Blumlein pulse forming line has been built for generating high power microwaves. The Blumlein configuration poses a prepulse problem and hence the diode gap had to be increased to match the diode impedance to the Blumlein impedance during the main pulse. A simple method to eliminate prepulse voltage using a vacuum sparkgap and a resistor is given. Another fundamental approach of increasing the inductance of Marx generator to minimize the prepulse voltage is also presented. Experimental results for both of these configurations are given.

  2. Minimally invasive therapy in Denmark.

    PubMed

    Schou, I

    1993-01-01

    Minimally invasive therapy (MIT) is beginning to have impacts on health care in Denmark, although diffusion has been delayed compared to diffusion in other European countries. Now policy makers are beginning to appreciate the potential advantages in terms of closing hospitals and shifting treatment to the out-patient setting, and diffusion will probably go faster in the future. Denmark does not have a system for technology assessment, neither central nor regional, and there is no early warning mechanism to survey international developments. This implies lack of possibilities for the planning of diffusion, training, and criteria for treatment.

  3. About the ZOOM minimization package

    SciTech Connect

    Fischler, M.; Sachs, D.; /Fermilab

    2004-11-01

    A new object-oriented Minimization package is available for distribution in the same manner as CLHEP. This package, designed for use in HEP applications, has all the capabilities of Minuit, but is a re-write from scratch, adhering to modern C++ design principles. A primary goal of this package is extensibility in several directions, so that its capabilities can be kept fresh with as little maintenance effort as possible. This package is distinguished by the priority that was assigned to C++ design issues, and the focus on producing an extensible system that will resist becoming obsolete.

  4. Minimizing travel claims cost with minimal-spanning tree model

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Jamalluddin, Mohd Helmi; Jaafar, Mohd Azrul; Amran, Mohd Iskandar; Ainul, Mohd Sharizal; Hamid, Aqmar; Mansor, Zafirah Mohd; Nopiah, Zulkifli Mohd

    2014-06-01

    Travel demand necessitates a big expenditure in spending, as has been proven by the National Audit Department (NAD). Every year the auditing process is carried out throughout the country involving official travel claims. This study focuses on the use of the Spanning Tree model to determine the shortest path to minimize the cost of the NAD's official travel claims. The objective is to study the possibility of running a network based in the Kluang District Health Office to eight Rural Clinics in Johor state using the Spanning Tree model applications for optimizing travelling distances and make recommendations to the senior management of the Audit Department to analyze travelling details before an audit is conducted. Result of this study reveals that there were claims of savings of up to 47.4% of the original claims, over the course of the travel distance.

  5. Less minimal supersymmetric standard model

    SciTech Connect

    de Gouvea, Andre; Friedland, Alexander; Murayama, Hitoshi

    1998-03-28

    Most of the phenomenological studies of supersymmetry have been carried out using the so-called minimal supergravity scenario, where one assumes a universal scalar mass, gaugino mass, and trilinear coupling at M{sub GUT}. Even though this is a useful simplifying assumption for phenomenological analyses, it is rather too restrictive to accommodate a large variety of phenomenological possibilities. It predicts, among other things, that the lightest supersymmetric particle (LSP) is an almost pure B-ino, and that the {mu}-parameter is larger than the masses of the SU(2){sub L} and U(1){sub Y} gauginos. We extend the minimal supergravity framework by introducing one extra parameter: the Fayet'Iliopoulos D-term for the hypercharge U(1), D{sub Y}. Allowing for this extra parameter, we find a much more diverse phenomenology, where the LSP is {tilde {nu}}{sub {tau}}, {tilde {tau}} or a neutralino with a large higgsino content. We discuss the relevance of the different possibilities to collider signatures. The same type of extension can be done to models with the gauge mediation of supersymmetry breaking. We argue that it is not wise to impose cosmological constraints on the parameter space.

  6. The importance of phenology for the evaluation of impact of climate change on growth of boreal, temperate and Mediterranean forests ecosystems: an overview.

    PubMed

    Kramer, K; Leinonen, I; Loustau, D

    2000-08-01

    An overview is presented of the phenological models relevant for boreal coniferous, temperate-zone deciduous and Mediterranean coniferous forest ecosystems. The phenology of the boreal forests is mainly driven by temperature, affecting the timing of the start of the growing season and thereby its duration, and the level of frost hardiness and thereby the reduction of foliage area and photosynthetic capacity by severe frost events. The phenology of temperate-zone forests is also mainly driven by temperature. Since temperate-zone forests are mostly mixed-species deciduous forests, differences in phenological response may affect competition between tree species. The phenology of Mediterranean coniferous forests is mainly driven by water availability, affecting the development of leaf area, rather than the timing of phenological events. These phenological models were subsequently coupled to the process-based forest model FORGRO to evaluate the effect of different climate change scenarios on growth. The results indicate that the phenology of each of the forest types significantly affects the growth response to a given climate change scenario. The absolute responses presented in this study should, however, be used with caution as there are still uncertainties in the phenological models, the growth models, the parameter values obtained and the climate change scenarios used. Future research should attempt to reduce these uncertainties. It is recommended that phenological models that describe the mechanisms by which seasonality in climatic drivers affects the phenological aspects of trees should be developed and carefully tested. Only by using such models may we make an assessment of the impact of climate change on the functioning and productivity of different forest ecosystems.

  7. Facility-specific waste minimization plans at Westinghouse Hanford Company

    SciTech Connect

    Craig, P.A.

    1990-06-01

    A waste minimization program is required by public law and federal and state regulations for hazardous waste generators and treatment, storage, and disposal facilities. The US Department of Energy (DOE) has directed its contractors to develop an effective strategy to minimize the generation of hazardous, radioactive, and mixed wastes at the Hanford Site in compliance with state and federal regulations. Since Westinghouse Hanford Company (Westinghouse Hanford) has a large and diversified operation, a key component of the Westinghouse Hanford waste minimization program is facility-specific waste minimization plans which document present and future activities to reduce the volume and toxicity of waste generated. Preparation and implementation of these plans will demonstrate facility compliance to Westinghouse Hanford and DOE requirements, as well as state and federal regulations. The plans include both the goals and the activities for their achievement and provide a basis for evaluation. Preparation of the plans is divided into two phases. The first phase involves writing the general'' plan which describes the facility operations, the types of waste produced, and the administrative controls used by the facility to ensure waste minimization. The second phase involves a detailed characterization of each waste stream. This characterization includes baselining the quantity of waste generated, brainstorming possible options to minimize waste, and documenting other factors such as cost and environmental and safety issues involved with the generation of the waste. This section is ever-changing as more information is obtained and as the waste minimization program evolves. 2 figs.

  8. Check dam sediments: an important indicator of the effects of environmental changes on soil erosion in the Loess Plateau in China.

    PubMed

    Wang, Yafeng; Chen, Liding; Fu, Bojie; Lü, Yihe

    2014-07-01

    Check dam sediments document the process of soil erosion for a watershed. The main objectives of this research are as follows: first, to determine whether the sediments trapped in check dams can provide useful information about local erosion and the environment, and second, to obtain the extent to which they can be stratigraphically interpreted and correlated to the land use history of an area controlled by check dams. Particle size and the concentration of (137)Cs in sediments are the indicators used to study the effects of environmental changes on soil erosion in the Loess Plateau, China. A total of 216 soil samples were collected from four sediment profile cores at the Yangjuangou watershed check dam constructed in 1955 and fully silted with sediments by 1965. The results indicated that (137)Cs dating and sediment particle size can characterize the sediment deposition process. Silt makes up more than 50 % of the sediment; both the clay and silt sediment fractions decrease gradually in the upstream direction. The sediment profiles are characterized by three depositional layers. These layers suggest changes in the land use. The top layer showed tillage disturbance, with moderate sediments and new soil mixed from 0 to 20 cm. A transition stage from wetlands (characterized by vegetation such as bulrush) to cropland is inferred from sediments at depths of 20-85 cm. Below 85 cm, sedimentary layering is obvious and there is no tillage disturbance. At the downstream site, A0, the average rate of sediment deposition from 1958 to 1963 was approximately 6,125.4 t year(-1) km(-2). Because of their high time resolution, check dam sediments indicate the effects of environmental changes on soil erosion, and they can provide a multiyear record of the soil erosion evolution at the local scale in the middle reaches of the Yellow River.

  9. Attributing greenhouse gas emissions associated with land use and land use change to direct and indirect human and natural drivers: a modelling study to estimate their relative importance.

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Hastings, Astley; Abdalla, Mohamed; Bell, Madeleine; Blagodatskiy, Sergey; Datta, Arindam; Dondini, Marta; Fitton, Nuala; Jones, Ed; Klumpp, Katja; Nemoto, Rie; Richards, Mark; Yeluripati, Jagadeesh; Smith, Pete

    2013-04-01

    Since humans cultivated crops, domesticated livestock and exploited woods and grasslands they have directly changed land use. In Europe, most of the landscapes are anthropogenically influenced. Each land use will have its carbon stock in the soil and vegetation that will depend on the geography, parent material of the soil, the climate and its land use history. For each land use and cover the soil carbon stock will reach a steady state where the rate of decomposition of the soil carbon is balanced by the organic material input each year. Each type of vegetation will reach a steady state depending on the length of its plants life cycle; for annual plants it is months, perennial grasslands it is years and for forest it is decades or centuries. In addition, the management of the crops, grasses or trees can be intensive, where the maximum vegetation is harvested or grazed, or extensive, when part of the plant material is left as a soil input. Net carbon flux will depend on the carbon balance between photosynthesis and respiration. Methane flux will mainly depend of the water content and redox potential of the soil and nitrous oxide emissions will depend of the type and amount of nitrogen input, pH and the relative timing of rainfall events, as well as the climatic conditions. In his study we have used site experiments to parameterize ecosystem models such as ECOSSE, DAYCENT, PASIM and DNDC on sites where there were more than one land use treatment to investigate the relative impact of human direct and indirect drivers compared to natural ones. Once the models have been parameterized the drivers to be investigated are systematically changed. The land uses investigated are grassland, forest, peatland and cropland. The direct drivers investigated are land use change (from cropland and grassland to bioenergy grasses, cropland to grassland and forest) and management change from intensive to extensive and vice versa. The management drivers investigated include tillage

  10. One hospital's road to waste minimization.

    PubMed

    Hooper, D M

    1994-05-01

    There are many new and exciting waste minimization programs being offered to healthcare facilities. Companies are now making reusable operating packs and gowns that are more efficient than disposables. The selling point is that the system will save healthcare money! The reusable programs do save disposal costs for an institution. Shore Memorial has scheduled a trial evaluation for reusable operating room linens to begin May 1, 1994. The concept has not been difficult to sell to physicians and staff. Perhaps this is because people are generally more aware of their environment and the reasons why it should be protected. The hospital will also be evaluating an IV bottle and bag recycling program. The New Jersey Department of Environmental Protection Agency has given approval to proceed with this type of recycling program, and Shore Memorial is in the process of scheduling this trial program with a local vendor. Waste reduction and recycling in healthcare settings will continue to be challenging because of the diversity of the wastestream and the changing environment facing healthcare. Certainly, healthcare has as much of a responsibility to the well-being of patients as it does to keeping the environment healthy. Returning to the "old way" of doing things, such as reusables, does not have a negative impact on people, but it does have an impact on the environment. Shore Memorial believes it is moving in the right direction with its waste minimization program to make a positive environmental impact.

  11. Performance monitoring during a minimal group manipulation.

    PubMed

    Pfabigan, Daniela M; Holzner, Marie-Theres; Lamm, Claus

    2016-10-01

    The on-going (self-)monitoring of our behaviour is inextricably intertwined with the surrounding social context. In this study, we investigated whether a minimal group paradigm assigning individuals to arbitrary group categories is powerful enough to induce changes in behavioural, psychophysiological and event-related potential correlates of performance monitoring. Following arbitrary group assignment based on ostensible task performance and a group identification task, 22 volunteers performed a flanker-task during both in-group and out-group contexts, while electroencephalography was performed. More errors were committed in the out-group compared with the in-group context. Error-related negativity amplitudes were larger for in-group compared with out-group errors. However, subsequent processing reflected in late Pe amplitudes and stimulus-driven conflict reflected in N2 amplitudes were not affected by the group context. Heart rate deceleration (during both correct and incorrect trials) tended to be more pronounced during the out-group compared with the in-group context. This surprising observation was corroborated by subjective ratings of performance satisfaction, in which participants reported higher satisfaction with their out-group performance. This study identified specific stimulus evaluation processes to be affected by a minimal group manipulation and demonstrated thereby transient top-down effects of a social context manipulation on performance monitoring.

  12. Minimally Invasive Laminectomy in Spondylolisthetic Lumbar Stenosis

    PubMed Central

    Caralopoulos, Ilias N.; Bui, Cuong J.

    2014-01-01

    Background Degenerative lumbar stenosis associated with spondylolisthesis is common in elderly patients. The most common symptoms are those of neurogenic claudication with leg pain. Surgery is indicated for those who fail conservative management. The generally accepted recommendation is to perform a laminectomy and a fusion at the involved level. Methods We reviewed our results for minimally invasive single-level decompression without fusion performed by the senior author in patients with symptomatic lumbar stenosis with spondylolisthesis with no dynamic instability from 2008 to 2011 at a single institution. Outcomes were measured using the visual analog scale (VAS), Prolo Economic Functional Rating Scale, and revised Oswestry Disability Index (ODI) at initial presentation and at 3-month, 6-month, and 1-year follow-up time points. Results Records for 28 patients (19 males, 9 females) were reviewed. The success rate, defined as improvement in pain and functional outcome without the need for surgical fusion, was 86%. VAS scores decreased by 6.3 points, Prolo scores increased by 3.5 points, and the ODI decreased by 31% at 1 year. All changes were statistically significant. Conclusion Minimally invasive decompression alone can be a reasonable alternative to decompression and fusion for patients with spondylolisthetic lumbar stenosis and neurogenic claudication with leg pain. Decompression without fusion should be considered for older patients and for patients who are not ideal fusion candidates. PMID:24688331

  13. Surgical efficacy of minimally invasive thoracic discectomy.

    PubMed

    Elhadi, Ali M; Zehri, Aqib H; Zaidi, Hasan A; Almefty, Kaith K; Preul, Mark C; Theodore, Nicholas; Dickman, Curtis A

    2015-11-01

    We aimed to determine the clinical indications and surgical outcomes for thoracoscopic discectomy. Thoracic disc disease is a rare degenerative process. Thoracoscopic approaches serve to minimize tissue injury during the approach, but critics argue that this comes at the cost of surgical efficacy. Current reports in the literature are limited to small institutional patient series. We systematically identified all English language articles on thoracoscopic discectomy with at least two patients, published from 1994 to 2013 on MEDLINE, Science Direct, and Google Scholar. We analyzed 12 articles that met the inclusion criteria, five prospective and seven retrospective studies comprising 545 surgical patients. The overall complication rate was 24% (n=129), with reported complications ranging from intercostal neuralgia (6.1%), atelectasis (2.8%), and pleural effusion (2.6%), to more severe complications such as pneumonia (0.8%), pneumothorax (1.3%), and venous thrombosis (0.2%). The average reported postoperative follow-up was 20.5 months. Complete resolution of symptoms was reported in 79% of patients, improvement with residual symptoms in 10.2%, no change in 9.6%, and worsening in 1.2%. The minimally invasive endoscopic approaches to the thoracic spine among selected patients demonstrate excellent clinical efficacy and acceptable complication rates, comparable to the open approaches. Disc herniations confined to a single level, with small or no calcifications, are ideal for such an approach, whereas patients with calcified discs adherent to the dura would benefit from an open approach.

  14. Navy Shipboard Hazardous Material Minimization Program

    SciTech Connect

    Bieberich, M.J.; Robinson, P.; Chastain, B.

    1994-12-31

    The use of hazardous (and potentially hazardous) materials in shipboard cleaning applications has proliferated as new systems and equipments have entered the fleet to reside alongside existing equipments. With the growing environmental awareness (and additional, more restrictive regulations) at all levels/echelon commands of the DoD, the Navy has initiated a proactive program to undertake the minimization/elimination of these hazardous materials in order to eliminate HMs at the source. This paper will focus on the current Shipboard Hazardous Materials Minimization Program initiatives including the identification of authorized HM currently used onboard, identification of potential substitute materials for HM replacement, identification of new cleaning technologies and processes/procedures, and identification of technical documents which will require revision to eliminate the procurement of HMs into the federal supply system. Also discussed will be the anticipated path required to implement the changes into the fleet and automated decision processes (substitution algorithm) currently employed. The paper will also present the most recent technologies identified for approval or additional testing and analysis including: supercritical CO{sub 2} cleaning, high pressure blasting (H{sub 2}O + baking soda), aqueous and semi-aqueous cleaning materials and processes, solvent replacements and dedicated parts washing systems with internal filtering capabilities, automated software for solvent/cleaning process substitute selection. Along with these technological advances, data availability (from on-line databases and CDROM Database libraries) will be identified and discussed.

  15. Minimally invasive colopexy for pediatric Chilaiditi syndrome.

    PubMed

    Blevins, Wayne A; Cafasso, Danielle E; Fernandez, Minela; Edwards, Mary J

    2011-03-01

    Chilaiditi syndrome is a rare disorder characterized by abdominal pain, respiratory distress, constipation, and vomiting in association with Chilaiditi's sign. Chilaiditi's sign is the finding on plain roentgenogram of colonic interposition between the liver and diaphragm and is usually asymptomatic. Surgery is typically reserved for cases of catastrophic colonic volvulus or perforation because of the syndrome. We present a case of a 6-year-old boy who presented with Chilaiditi syndrome and resulting failure to thrive because of severe abdominal pain and vomiting, which did not improve with laxatives and dietary changes. He underwent a laparoscopic gastrostomy tube placement and laparoscopic colopexy of the transverse colon to the falciform ligament and anterior abdominal wall. Postoperatively, his symptoms resolved completely, as did his failure to thrive. His gastrostomy tube was removed 3 months after surgery and never required use. This is the first case of Chilaiditi syndrome in the pediatric literature we are aware of that was treated with an elective, minimally invasive colopexy. In cases of severe Chilaiditi syndrome refractory to medical treatment, a minimally invasive colopexy should be considered as a possible treatment option and potentially offered before development of life-threatening complications such as volvulus or perforation.

  16. Update on designing and building minimal cells

    PubMed Central

    Jewett, Michael C.; Forster, Anthony C.

    2010-01-01

    Summary Minimal cells comprise only the genes and biomolecular machinery necessary for basic life. Synthesizing minimal and minimized cells will improve understanding of core biology, enhance development of biotechnology strains of bacteria, and enable evolutionary optimization of natural and unnatural biopolymers. Design and construction of minimal cells is proceeding in two different directions: “top-down” reduction of bacterial genomes in vivo and “bottom-up” integration of DNA/RNA/protein/membrane syntheses in vitro. Major progress in the last 5 years has occurred in synthetic genomics, minimization of the Escherichia coli genome, sequencing of minimal bacterial endosymbionts, identification of essential genes, and integration of biochemical systems. PMID:20638265

  17. Strategies to Minimize Antibiotic Resistance

    PubMed Central

    Lee, Chang-Ro; Cho, Ill Hwan; Jeong, Byeong Chul; Lee, Sang Hee

    2013-01-01

    Antibiotic resistance can be reduced by using antibiotics prudently based on guidelines of antimicrobial stewardship programs (ASPs) and various data such as pharmacokinetic (PK) and pharmacodynamic (PD) properties of antibiotics, diagnostic testing, antimicrobial susceptibility testing (AST), clinical response, and effects on the microbiota, as well as by new antibiotic developments. The controlled use of antibiotics in food animals is another cornerstone among efforts to reduce antibiotic resistance. All major resistance-control strategies recommend education for patients, children (e.g., through schools and day care), the public, and relevant healthcare professionals (e.g., primary-care physicians, pharmacists, and medical students) regarding unique features of bacterial infections and antibiotics, prudent antibiotic prescribing as a positive construct, and personal hygiene (e.g., handwashing). The problem of antibiotic resistance can be minimized only by concerted efforts of all members of society for ensuring the continued efficiency of antibiotics. PMID:24036486

  18. Minimally packed phases in holography

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Donos, Aristomenis; Gauntlett, Jerome P.

    2016-03-01

    We numerically construct asymptotically AdS black brane solutions of D = 4 Einstein-Maxwell theory coupled to a pseudoscalar. The solutions are holographically dual to d = 3 CFTs at finite chemical potential and in a constant magnetic field, which spontaneously break translation invariance leading to the spontaneous formation of abelian and momentum magnetisation currents flowing around the plaquettes of a periodic Bravais lattice. We analyse the three-dimensional moduli space of lattice solutions, which are generically oblique, and show, for a specific value of the magnetic field, that the free energy is minimised by the triangular lattice, associated with minimal packing of circles in the plane. We show that the average stress tensor for the thermodynamically preferred phase is that of a perfect fluid and that this result applies more generally to spontaneously generated periodic phases. The triangular structure persists at low temperatures indicating the existence of novel crystalline ground states.

  19. Minimally Invasive Spigelian Hernia Repair

    PubMed Central

    Baucom, Catherine; Nguyen, Quan D.; Hidalgo, Marco

    2009-01-01

    Introduction: Spigelian hernia is an uncommon ventral hernia characterized by a defect in the linea semilunaris. Repair of spigelian hernia has traditionally been accomplished via an open transverse incision and primary repair. The purpose of this article is to present 2 case reports of incarcerated spigelian hernia that were successfully repaired laparoscopically using Gortex mesh and to present a review of the literature regarding laparoscopic repair of spigelian hernias. Methods: Retrospective chart review and Medline literature search. Results: Two patients underwent laparoscopic mesh repair of incarcerated spigelian hernias. Both were started on a regular diet on postoperative day 1 and discharged on postoperative days 2 and 3. One patient developed a seroma that resolved without intervention. There was complete resolution of preoperative symptoms at the 12-month follow-up. Conclusion: Minimally invasive repair of spigelian hernias is an alternative to the traditional open surgical technique. Further studies are needed to directly compare the open and the laparoscopic repair. PMID:19660230

  20. Strategies to minimize antibiotic resistance.

    PubMed

    Lee, Chang-Ro; Cho, Ill Hwan; Jeong, Byeong Chul; Lee, Sang Hee

    2013-09-12

    Antibiotic resistance can be reduced by using antibiotics prudently based on guidelines of antimicrobial stewardship programs (ASPs) and various data such as pharmacokinetic (PK) and pharmacodynamic (PD) properties of antibiotics, diagnostic testing, antimicrobial susceptibility testing (AST), clinical response, and effects on the microbiota, as well as by new antibiotic developments. The controlled use of antibiotics in food animals is another cornerstone among efforts to reduce antibiotic resistance. All major resistance-control strategies recommend education for patients, children (e.g., through schools and day care), the public, and relevant healthcare professionals (e.g., primary-care physicians, pharmacists, and medical students) regarding unique features of bacterial infections and antibiotics, prudent antibiotic prescribing as a positive construct, and personal hygiene (e.g., handwashing). The problem of antibiotic resistance can be minimized only by concerted efforts of all members of society for ensuring the continued efficiency of antibiotics.

  1. Functional importance of avian seed dispersers changes in response to human-induced forest edges in tropical seed-dispersal networks.

    PubMed

    Saavedra, Francisco; Hensen, Isabell; Beck, Stephan G; Böhning-Gaese, Katrin; Lippok, Denis; Töpfer, Till; Schleuning, Matthias

    2014-11-01

    Although seed-dispersal networks are increasingly used to infer the functioning of ecosystems, few studies have investigated the link between the properties of these networks and the ecosystem function of seed dispersal by animals. We investigate how frugivore communities and seed dispersal change with habitat disturbance and test whether relationships between morphological traits and functional roles of seed dispersers change in response to human-induced forest edges. We recorded interaction frequencies between fleshy fruited plants and frugivorous bird species in tropical montane forests in the Bolivian Andes and recorded functional bird traits (body mass, gape width and wing tip length) associated with quantitative (seed-removal rate) and qualitative (seed-deposition pattern) components of seed-dispersal effectiveness. We found that the abundance and richness of frugivorous birds were higher at forest edges. More fruits were removed and dispersed seeds were less clustered at edges than in the interior. Additionally, functional and interaction diversity were higher at edges than in the interior, but functional and interaction evenness did not differ. Interaction strength of bird species increased with body mass, gape width and wing tip length in the forest interior, but was not related to bird morphologies at forest edges. Our study suggests that increases in functional and interaction diversity and an even distribution of interaction strength across bird morphologies lead to enhanced quantity and tentatively enhanced quality of seed dispersal. It also suggests that the effects of species traits on ecosystem functions can vary along small-scale gradients of human disturbance.

  2. Effects of Holocene climate change on mercury deposition in Elk Lake, Minnesota: The importance of eolain transport in the mercury cycle

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Cannon, W.F.; Dean, W.E.; Bullock, J.H.

    2003-01-01

    Sediments in Elk Lake, Minnesota, consist of 10,400 varve layers that provide a precise chronology for Holocene fluctuations in climate and biota recorded in the strata. Progressively greater concentrations and accumulation rates of mercury since ca. A.D. 1875 reflect deposition of anthropogenic mercury additions to the atmosphere. Within the Holocene record are numerous short intervals in which mercury concentrations and accumulation rates exceed the modern values. The highest mercury concentrations formed ca. 8 ka, coincident with a rapid change from cool, moist conditions to warm, dry conditions. A related change in flora from pine forest to prairie caused destruction of organic forest soils and the release of mercury that had been sequestered in them, resulting in a short- lived pulse of mercury to the lake. Accumulation rates of mercury were highest during the 4 k.y. mid-Holocene dry interval and show a correlation with periods of rapid deposition of eolian dust. The mercury was probably bound to wind-borne mineral particles, which were derived from an unidentified mercury-rich source region west of Elk Lake.

  3. Osmosis in a minimal model system

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Lion, Thomas W.; Allen, Rosalind J.

    2012-12-01

    Osmosis is one of the most important physical phenomena in living and soft matter systems. While the thermodynamics of osmosis is well understood, the underlying microscopic dynamical mechanisms remain the subject of discussion. Unravelling these mechanisms is a prerequisite for understanding osmosis in non-equilibrium systems. Here, we investigate the microscopic basis of osmosis, in a system at equilibrium, using molecular dynamics simulations of a minimal model in which repulsive solute and solvent particles differ only in their interactions with an external potential. For this system, we can derive a simple virial-like relation for the osmotic pressure. Our simulations support an intuitive picture in which the solvent concentration gradient, at osmotic equilibrium, arises from the balance between an outward force, caused by the increased total density in the solution, and an inward diffusive flux caused by the decreased solvent density in the solution. While more complex effects may occur in other osmotic systems, our results suggest that they are not required for a minimal picture of the dynamic mechanisms underlying osmosis.

  4. Nitrogen-Fixing Nodules Are an Important Source of Reduced Sulfur, Which Triggers Global Changes in Sulfur Metabolism in Lotus japonicus.

    PubMed

    Kalloniati, Chrysanthi; Krompas, Panagiotis; Karalias, Georgios; Udvardi, Michael K; Rennenberg, Heinz; Herschbach, Cornelia; Flemetakis, Emmanouil

    2015-09-01

    We combined transcriptomic and biochemical approaches to study rhizobial and plant sulfur (S) metabolism in nitrogen (N) fixing nodules (Fix(+)) of Lotus japonicus, as well as the link of S-metabolism to symbiotic nitrogen fixation and the effect of nodules on whole-plant S-partitioning and metabolism. Our data reveal that N-fixing nodules are thiol-rich organs. Their high adenosine 5'-phosphosulfate reductase activity and strong (35)S-flux into cysteine and its metabolites, in combination with the transcriptional upregulation of several rhizobial and plant genes involved in S-assimilation, highlight the function of nodules as an important site of S-assimilation. The higher thiol content observed in nonsymbiotic organs of N-fixing plants in comparison to uninoculated plants could not be attributed to local biosynthesis, indicating that nodules are an important source of reduced S for the plant, which triggers whole-plant reprogramming of S-metabolism. Enhanced thiol biosynthesis in nodules and their impact on the whole-plant S-economy are dampened in plants nodulated by Fix(-) mutant rhizobia, which in most respects metabolically resemble uninoculated plants, indicating a strong interdependency between N-fixation and S-assimilation.

  5. Evaluating Change in Beliefs About the Importance/Control of Thoughts as a Mediator of CBM-I and Responses to an ICT Stressor.

    PubMed

    Clerkin, Elise M; Magee, Joshua C; Parsons, E Marie

    2014-10-01

    This study evaluated an adaptation of a Cognitive Bias Modification-Interpretation (CBM-I) procedure designed to shift interpretations of intrusive thoughts related to beliefs about the Importance and Control of Thoughts (ICT). Individuals high in the ICT belief domain were randomly assigned to one of two conditions: (a) a positive (n = 38) condition in which scenarios about intrusive thoughts were repeatedly paired with benign interpretations; or (b) a control (n = 39) condition in which scenarios about intrusive thoughts were paired with 50% benign and 50% threatening interpretations. Further, participants engaged in an ICT stressor task. Structural equation modeling with bias-corrected bootstrapping was used to examine the effects of training on ICT-relevant interpretations, beliefs, and ICT stressor responding. As predicted, individuals in a positive (vs. control) training condition reported decreases in ICT-relevant interpretations and beliefs. Further, there was a small, statistically significant indirect (i.e., mediated) effect of training on measures of ICT stressor responding, which occurred via decreases in ICT-relevant beliefs. In sum, results indicate that training was effective in influencing interpretations and beliefs tied to Importance/Control of Thoughts and that there may be clinical utility to shifting this belief domain.

  6. Global change-type drought-induced tree mortality: vapor pressure deficit is more important than temperature per se in causing decline in tree health.

    PubMed

    Eamus, Derek; Boulain, Nicolas; Cleverly, James; Breshears, David D

    2013-08-01

    Drought-induced tree mortality is occurring across all forested continents and is expected to increase worldwide during the coming century. Regional-scale forest die-off influences terrestrial albedo, carbon and water budgets, and land-surface energy partitioning. Although increased temperatures during drought are widely identified as a critical contributor to exacerbated tree mortality associated with "global-change-type drought", corresponding changes in vapor pressure deficit (D) have rarely been considered explicitly and have not been disaggregated from that of temperature per se. Here, we apply a detailed mechanistic soil-plant-atmosphere model to examine the impacts of drought, increased air temperature (+2°C or +5°C), and increased vapor pressure deficit (D; +1 kPa or +2.5 kPa), singly and in combination, on net primary productivity (NPP) and transpiration and forest responses, especially soil moisture content, leaf water potential, and stomatal conductance. We show that increased D exerts a larger detrimental effect on transpiration and NPP, than increased temperature alone, with or without the imposition of a 3-month drought. Combined with drought, the effect of increased D on NPP was substantially larger than that of drought plus increased temperature. Thus, the number of days when NPP was zero across the 2-year simulation was 13 or 14 days in the control and increased temperature scenarios, but increased to approximately 200 days when D was increased. Drought alone increased the number of days of zero NPP to 88, but drought plus increased temperature did not increase the number of days. In contrast, drought and increased D resulted in the number of days when NPP = 0 increasing to 235 (+1 kPa) or 304 days (+2.5 kPa). We conclude that correct identification of the causes of global change-type mortality events requires explicit consideration of the influence of D as well as its interaction with drought and temperature. This study disaggregates

  7. Minimally invasive thoracic surgery: new trends in Italy

    PubMed Central

    2015-01-01

    In Italy there exists quite a long and rich history in minimally invasive thoracic surgery. Pioneer Italian surgeons have been amongst those who first adopted video-assisted thoracic surgery (VATS) to perform procedures such as lobectomy and esophagectomy, respectively and quite many others have provided important contributions related to minimally invasive thoracic surgery and have proposed innovative ideas and creative technical refinements. According to a web search on recent studies published in Italy on minimally invasive thoracic surgery along the last 3 years, uniportal, nonintubated, and robotic VATS as well as VATS lobectomy have been found to represent the most frequently investigated issues. An ongoing active investigation in each of these sub-topics is contributing to a better definition of indications advantages and disadvantages of the various surgical strategies. In addition it is likely that combination strategies including adoption of uniportal and nonintubated approaches will lead to define novel ultra-minimally invasive treatment options. PMID:26605315

  8. Age-related changes in collagen synthesis and degradation in rat tissues. Importance of degradation of newly synthesized collagen in regulating collagen production.

    PubMed Central

    Mays, P K; McAnulty, R J; Campa, J S; Laurent, G J

    1991-01-01

    During developmental growth, collagens are believed to be continuously deposited into an extracellular matrix which is increasingly stabilized by the formation of covalent cross-links throughout life. However, the age-related changes in rates of synthetic and degradative processes are less well understood. In the present study we measured rates of collagen synthesis in vivo using a flooding dose of unlabelled proline given with [14C]proline and determining production of hydroxy[14C]proline. Degradation of newly synthesized collagen was estimated from the amount of free hydroxy [14C]proline in tissues 30 min after injection. Collagen fractional synthesis rates ranged from about 5%/day in skeletal muscle to 20%/day in hearts of rats aged 1 month. At 15 months of age, collagen fractional synthesis rates had decreased markedly in lung and skin, but in skeletal muscle and heart, rates were unchanged. At 24 months of age, synthesis rates had decreased by at least 10-fold in all tissues, compared with rates at 1 month. The proportion of newly synthesized collagen degraded ranged from 6.4 +/- 0.4% in skin to 61.6 +/- 5.0% in heart at 1 month of age. During aging the proportion degraded increased in all tissues to maximal values at 15 months, ranging from 56 +/- 7% in skin to 96 +/- 1% in heart. These data suggest that there are marked age-related changes in rates of collagen metabolism. They also indicate that synthesis is active even in old animals, where the bulk of collagens produced are destined to be degraded. PMID:2049064

  9. Minimally disruptive schedule repair for MCM missions

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Molineaux, Matthew; Auslander, Bryan; Moore, Philip G.; Gupta, Kalyan M.

    2015-05-01

    Mine countermeasures (MCM) missions entail planning and operations in very dynamic and uncertain operating environments, which pose considerable risk to personnel and equipment. Frequent schedule repairs are needed that consider the latest operating conditions to keep mission on target. Presently no decision support tools are available for the challenging task of MCM mission rescheduling. To address this capability gap, we have developed the CARPE system to assist operation planners. CARPE constantly monitors the operational environment for changes and recommends alternative repaired schedules in response. It includes a novel schedule repair algorithm called Case-Based Local Schedule Repair (CLOSR) that automatically repairs broken schedules while satisfying the requirement of minimal operational disruption. It uses a case-based approach to represent repair strategies and apply them to new situations. Evaluation of CLOSR on simulated MCM operations demonstrates the effectiveness of case-based strategy. Schedule repairs are generated rapidly, ensure the elimination of all mines, and achieve required levels of clearance.

  10. Minimal Increase Network Coding for Dynamic Networks.

    PubMed

    Zhang, Guoyin; Fan, Xu; Wu, Yanxia

    2016-01-01

    Because of the mobility, computing power and changeable topology of dynamic networks, it is difficult for random linear network coding (RLNC) in static networks to satisfy the requirements of dynamic networks. To alleviate this problem, a minimal increase network coding (MINC) algorithm is proposed. By identifying the nonzero elements of an encoding vector, it selects blocks to be encoded on the basis of relationship between the nonzero elements that the controls changes in the degrees of the blocks; then, the encoding time is shortened in a dynamic network. The results of simulations show that, compared with existing encoding algorithms, the MINC algorithm provides reduced computational complexity of encoding and an increased probability of delivery.

  11. Minimal Increase Network Coding for Dynamic Networks

    PubMed Central

    Wu, Yanxia

    2016-01-01

    Because of the mobility, computing power and changeable topology of dynamic networks, it is difficult for random linear network coding (RLNC) in static networks to satisfy the requirements of dynamic networks. To alleviate this problem, a minimal increase network coding (MINC) algorithm is proposed. By identifying the nonzero elements of an encoding vector, it selects blocks to be encoded on the basis of relationship between the nonzero elements that the controls changes in the degrees of the blocks; then, the encoding time is shortened in a dynamic network. The results of simulations show that, compared with existing encoding algorithms, the MINC algorithm provides reduced computational complexity of encoding and an increased probability of delivery. PMID:26867211

  12. Complications in gynecological minimal-access oncosurgery.

    PubMed

    Becker, Sven; De Wilde, Rudy Leon

    2016-08-01

    Complications are the limiting factors of all surgeries. More than performing the actual surgery, learning how to avoid complications before, during, and after surgery is the most important task of every surgeon. Severe complications can lead to patient death. Complications such as ureterovaginal fistulas, resulting from <2 s of inattentive preparation, can lead to years of hardship, suffering, accusation, and litigation. Excellent surgery is about performing the right surgery for the right patient without any complications. Minimally invasive surgery in complex cases is technically challenging. This article details the major causes of complications in laparoscopy for the gynecologic cancer patient and present strategies for prevention, early detection, and intra- and postoperative management.

  13. Stomatal proxy record of CO2 concentrations from the last termination suggests an important role for CO2 at climate change transitions

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Steinthorsdottir, Margret; Wohlfarth, Barbara; Kylander, Malin E.; Blaauw, Maarten; Reimer, Paula J.

    2013-05-01

    A new stomatal proxy-based record of CO2 concentrations ([CO2]), based on Betula nana (dwarf birch) leaves from the Hässeldala Port sedimentary sequence in south-eastern Sweden, is presented. The record is of high chronological resolution and spans most of Greenland Interstadial 1 (GI-1a to 1c, Allerød pollen zone), Greenland Stadial 1 (GS-1, Younger Dryas pollen zone) and the very beginning of the Holocene (Preboreal pollen zone). The record clearly demonstrates that i) [CO2] were significantly higher than usually reported for the Last Termination and ii) the overall pattern of CO2 evolution through the studied time period is fairly dynamic, with significant abrupt fluctuations in [CO2] when the climate moved from interstadial to stadial state and vice versa. A new loss-on-ignition chemical record (used here as a proxy for temperature) lends independent support to the Hässeldala Port [CO2] record. The large-amplitude fluctuations around the climate change transitions may indicate unstable climates and that “tipping-point” situations were involved in Last Termination climate evolution. The scenario presented here is in contrast to [CO2] records reconstructed from air bubbles trapped in ice, which indicate lower concentrations and a gradual, linear increase of [CO2] through time. The prevalent explanation for the main climate forcer during the Last Termination being ocean circulation patterns needs to re-examined, and a larger role for atmospheric [CO2] considered.

  14. Retrograde arterial leg blood flow during tilt-back from a head-up posture: importance of capacitive flows when arterial pressure changes.

    PubMed

    Sheriff, Don D; Nådland, Inger Helene; Toska, Karin

    2010-03-01

    The windkessel function of the arterial system converts the intermittent action of the heart into more continuous microcirculatory blood flow during diastole via the return of elastic energy stored in the walls of the arteries during systole. Might the same phenomenon occur regionally within the arterial system during tilting owing to regional differences in local arterial pressure imposed by gravity? We sought to test the hypothesis that during tilt-back from a head-up posture, the return of stored elastic energy in leg arteries would work to slow, or perhaps transiently reverse, the flow of blood in the femoral artery. Femoral artery blood flow and arterial pressure were recorded during tilt back from a 30 degrees head-up posture to supine (approximately 0.5 G) in young, healthy subjects (n = 7 males and 3 females) before and during clonidine infusion. During control (no drug) conditions femoral artery blood flow ceased for an entire heart beat during tilt-back. During clonidine infusion femoral artery blood flow reversed for at least one entire heart beat during tilt-back, i.e., blood flow in the retrograde direction in the femoral artery from the leg into the abdomen. Thus substantial capacitive effects of tilting on leg blood flow occur in humans during mild changes in posture.

  15. Importance of metabolic changes induced by chemotherapy on prognosis of early-stage breast cancer patients: a review of potential mechanisms.

    PubMed

    Gadéa, E; Thivat, E; Planchat, E; Morio, B; Durando, X

    2012-04-01

    Weight variation has been reported as a side effect of chemotherapy treatment in early breast cancer patients and has been identified as a factor of poor prognosis. Causes of weight variation during chemotherapy and mechanisms involved in the poor prognosis have been little studied. Here is reviewed the current knowledge about the main causes and mechanisms involved in body weight change. Special emphasis is placed on factors associated with weight variation which could potentially be involved in the risk of relapse in breast cancer survivors. In recent decades, some studies have investigated the causes of weight variation by studying energy balance of breast cancer patients during chemotherapy. Weight gain or loss may be the consequence of energy imbalance through different factors linked with chemotherapy, such as poor treatment tolerance, decreased muscle mass and function, or hormonal alterations. This results in body composition modifications in favour of fat gain and/or lean body mass loss. Increased adipose tissue, especially in the abdominal region, could induce metabolic disturbances such as insulin resistance, through various pathways involving adipokines. These molecules have growth properties and could therefore play a role in cancer relapse. Understanding such mechanisms is key to developing preventive strategies for improving the prognosis of early-stage breast cancer patients.

  16. Speaking in Alzheimer’s Disease, is That an Early Sign? Importance of Changes in Language Abilities in Alzheimer’s Disease

    PubMed Central

    Szatloczki, Greta; Hoffmann, Ildiko; Vincze, Veronika; Kalman, Janos; Pakaski, Magdolna

    2015-01-01

    It is known that Alzheimer’s disease (AD) influences the temporal characteristics of spontaneous speech. These phonetical changes are present even in mild AD. Based on this, the question arises whether an examination based on language analysis could help the early diagnosis of AD and if so, which language and speech characteristics can identify AD in its early stage. The purpose of this article is to summarize the relation between prodromal and manifest AD and language functions and language domains. Based on our research, we are inclined to claim that AD can be more sensitively detected with the help of a linguistic analysis than with other cognitive examinations. The temporal characteristics of spontaneous speech, such as speech tempo, number of pauses in speech, and their length are sensitive detectors of the early stage of the disease, which enables an early simple linguistic screening for AD. However, knowledge about the unique features of the language problems associated with different dementia variants still has to be improved and refined. PMID:26539107

  17. Mathematical modeling of gravitational effects on the circulation: importance of the time course of venous pooling and blood volume changes in the lungs.

    PubMed

    van Heusden, K; Gisolf, J; Stok, W J; Dijkstra, S; Karemaker, J M

    2006-11-01

    A dip in blood pressure (BP) in response to head-up tilt (HUT) or active standing might be due to rapid pooling in the veins below the heart (preload) or muscle activation-induced drop in systemic vascular resistance (afterload). We hypothesized that, in the cardiovascular response to passive HUT, where, in contrast to active standing, little BP dip is observed, features affecting the preload play a key role. We developed a baroreflex model combined with a lumped-parameter model of the circulation, including viscoelastic stress-relaxation of the systemic veins. Cardiac contraction is modeled using the varying-elastance concept. Gravity affects not only the systemic, but also the pulmonary, circulation. In accordance with the experimental results, model simulations do not show a BP dip on HUT; the tilt-back response is also realistic. If it is assumed that venous capacities are steady-state values, the introduction of stress-relaxation initially reduces venous pooling. The resulting time course of venous pooling is comparable to measured impedance changes. When venous pressure-volume dynamics are neglected, rapid (completed within 30 s) venous pooling leads to a drop in BP. The direct effect of gravity on the pulmonary circulation influences the BP response in the first approximately 5 s after HUT and tilt back. In conclusion, the initial BP response to HUT is mainly determined by the response of the venous system. The time course of lower body pooling is essential in understanding the response to passive HUT.

  18. Minimally Invasive Mitral Valve Surgery II

    PubMed Central

    Wolfe, J. Alan; Malaisrie, S. Chris; Farivar, R. Saeid; Khan, Junaid H.; Hargrove, W. Clark; Moront, Michael G.; Ryan, William H.; Ailawadi, Gorav; Agnihotri, Arvind K.; Hummel, Brian W.; Fayers, Trevor M.; Grossi, Eugene A.; Guy, T. Sloane; Lehr, Eric J.; Mehall, John R.; Murphy, Douglas A.; Rodriguez, Evelio; Salemi, Arash; Segurola, Romualdo J.; Shemin, Richard J.; Smith, J. Michael; Smith, Robert L.; Weldner, Paul W.; Lewis, Clifton T. P.; Barnhart, Glenn R.; Goldman, Scott M.

    2016-01-01

    Abstract Techniques for minimally invasive mitral valve repair and replacement continue to evolve. This expert opinion, the second of a 3-part series, outlines current best practices for nonrobotic, minimally invasive mitral valve procedures, and for postoperative care after minimally invasive mitral valve surgery. PMID:27654406

  19. Mini-Med School Planning Guide

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    National Institutes of Health, Office of Science Education, 2008

    2008-01-01

    Mini-Med Schools are public education programs now offered by more than 70 medical schools, universities, research institutions, and hospitals across the nation. There are even Mini-Med Schools in Ireland, Malta, and Canada! The program is typically a lecture series that meets once a week and provides "mini-med students" information on some of the…

  20. Changing the Context Is Important and Necessary, but Not Sufficient, for Reducing Adolescent Risky Sexual Behavior: A Reply to Steinberg (2015).

    PubMed

    Bryan, Angela D; Gillman, Arielle S; Hansen, Natasha S

    2016-07-01

    Starting school later, keeping adolescents busy with structured programming, and making free condoms available, as Steinberg (2015) suggests, are important and necessary steps, but they are simply not sufficient if the goal is reducing sexually transmitted infections and unplanned pregnancy. We agree that the current state of affairs, which in many schools involves sexuality education using programs that are not empirically supported, is unacceptable. However, abandoning sexuality education entirely would leave adolescents ill equipped to protect themselves. Despite the fact that current intervention technology is neither perfect nor optimally effective, there are empirically supported, school-based sexual risk reduction interventions that teach these skills and are readily available. In addition, even though we agree that structured afternoon programs for school-aged adolescents would reduce the opportunity for sexual risk behavior during the school years, such programs would not address the demographic reality of sexual risk that continues for adolescents and emerging adults far past the end of traditional secondary education. We believe Steinberg's suggestions are an excellent start and ought to be implemented. But complementary to this approach should be the use of existing empirically supported sexual risk reduction interventions and research into the development of even more effective interventions.

  1. Cardiovascular, cerebrovascular, and respiratory changes induced by different types of music in musicians and non‐musicians: the importance of silence

    PubMed Central

    Bernardi, L; Porta, C; Sleight, P

    2006-01-01

    Objective To assess the potential clinical use, particularly in modulating stress, of changes in the cardiovascular and respiratory systems induced by music, specifically tempo, rhythm, melodic structure, pause, individual preference, habituation, order effect of presentation, and previous musical training. Design Measurement of cardiovascular and respiratory variables while patients listened to music. Setting University research laboratory for the study of cardiorespiratory autonomic function. Patients 12 practising musicians and 12 age matched controls. Interventions After a five minute baseline, presentation in random order of six different music styles (first for a two minute, then for a four minute track), with a randomly inserted two minute pause, in either sequence. Main outcome measures Breathing rate, ventilation, carbon dioxide, RR interval, blood pressure, mid‐cerebral artery flow velocity, and baroreflex. Results Ventilation, blood pressure, and heart rate increased and mid‐cerebral artery flow velocity and baroreflex decreased with faster tempi and simpler rhythmic structures compared with baseline. No habituation effect was seen. The pause reduced heart rate, blood pressure, and minute ventilation, even below baseline. An order effect independent of style was evident for mid‐cerebral artery flow velocity, indicating a progressive reduction with exposure to music, independent of style. Musicians had greater respiratory sensitivity to the music tempo than did non‐musicians. Conclusions Music induces an arousal effect, predominantly related to the tempo. Slow or meditative music can induce a relaxing effect; relaxation is particularly evident during a pause. Music, especially in trained subjects, may first concentrate attention during faster rhythms, then induce relaxation during pauses or slower rhythms. PMID:16199412

  2. Differentially Private Empirical Risk Minimization.

    PubMed

    Chaudhuri, Kamalika; Monteleoni, Claire; Sarwate, Anand D

    2011-03-01

    Privacy-preserving machine learning algorithms are crucial for the increasingly common setting in which personal data, such as medical or financial records, are analyzed. We provide general techniques to produce privacy-preserving approximations of classifiers learned via (regularized) empirical risk minimization (ERM). These algorithms are private under the ε-differential privacy definition due to Dwork et al. (2006). First we apply the output perturbation ideas of Dwork et al. (2006), to ERM classification. Then we propose a new method, objective perturbation, for privacy-preserving machine learning algorithm design. This method entails perturbing the objective function before optimizing over classifiers. If the loss and regularizer satisfy certain convexity and differentiability criteria, we prove theoretical results showing that our algorithms preserve privacy, and provide generalization bounds for linear and nonlinear kernels. We further present a privacy-preserving technique for tuning the parameters in general machine learning algorithms, thereby providing end-to-end privacy guarantees for the training process. We apply these results to produce privacy-preserving analogues of regularized logistic regression and support vector machines. We obtain encouraging results from evaluating their performance on real demographic and benchmark data sets. Our results show that both theoretically and empirically, objective perturbation is superior to the previous state-of-the-art, output perturbation, in managing the inherent tradeoff between privacy and learning performance.

  3. Differentially Private Empirical Risk Minimization

    PubMed Central

    Chaudhuri, Kamalika; Monteleoni, Claire; Sarwate, Anand D.

    2011-01-01

    Privacy-preserving machine learning algorithms are crucial for the increasingly common setting in which personal data, such as medical or financial records, are analyzed. We provide general techniques to produce privacy-preserving approximations of classifiers learned via (regularized) empirical risk minimization (ERM). These algorithms are private under the ε-differential privacy definition due to Dwork et al. (2006). First we apply the output perturbation ideas of Dwork et al. (2006), to ERM classification. Then we propose a new method, objective perturbation, for privacy-preserving machine learning algorithm design. This method entails perturbing the objective function before optimizing over classifiers. If the loss and regularizer satisfy certain convexity and differentiability criteria, we prove theoretical results showing that our algorithms preserve privacy, and provide generalization bounds for linear and nonlinear kernels. We further present a privacy-preserving technique for tuning the parameters in general machine learning algorithms, thereby providing end-to-end privacy guarantees for the training process. We apply these results to produce privacy-preserving analogues of regularized logistic regression and support vector machines. We obtain encouraging results from evaluating their performance on real demographic and benchmark data sets. Our results show that both theoretically and empirically, objective perturbation is superior to the previous state-of-the-art, output perturbation, in managing the inherent tradeoff between privacy and learning performance. PMID:21892342

  4. Against Explanatory Minimalism in Psychiatry

    PubMed Central

    Thornton, Tim

    2015-01-01

    The idea that psychiatry contains, in principle, a series of levels of explanation has been criticized not only as empirically false but also, by Campbell, as unintelligible because it presupposes a discredited pre-Humean view of causation. Campbell’s criticism is based on an interventionist-inspired denial that mechanisms and rational connections underpin physical and mental causation, respectively, and hence underpin levels of explanation. These claims echo some superficially similar remarks in Wittgenstein’s Zettel. But attention to the context of Wittgenstein’s remarks suggests a reason to reject explanatory minimalism in psychiatry and reinstate a Wittgensteinian notion of levels of explanation. Only in a context broader than the one provided by interventionism is that the ascription of propositional attitudes, even in the puzzling case of delusions, justified. Such a view, informed by Wittgenstein, can reconcile the idea that the ascription mental phenomena presupposes a particular level of explanation with the rejection of an a priori claim about its connection to a neurological level of explanation. PMID:26696908

  5. Against Explanatory Minimalism in Psychiatry.

    PubMed

    Thornton, Tim

    2015-01-01

    The idea that psychiatry contains, in principle, a series of levels of explanation has been criticized not only as empirically false but also, by Campbell, as unintelligible because it presupposes a discredited pre-Humean view of causation. Campbell's criticism is based on an interventionist-inspired denial that mechanisms and rational connections underpin physical and mental causation, respectively, and hence underpin levels of explanation. These claims echo some superficially similar remarks in Wittgenstein's Zettel. But attention to the context of Wittgenstein's remarks suggests a reason to reject explanatory minimalism in psychiatry and reinstate a Wittgensteinian notion of levels of explanation. Only in a context broader than the one provided by interventionism is that the ascription of propositional attitudes, even in the puzzling case of delusions, justified. Such a view, informed by Wittgenstein, can reconcile the idea that the ascription mental phenomena presupposes a particular level of explanation with the rejection of an a priori claim about its connection to a neurological level of explanation.

  6. Minimal breast cancer: a clinical appraisal.

    PubMed Central

    Peters, T G; Donegan, W L; Burg, E A

    1977-01-01

    Eighty-five patients with a diagnosis of minimal breast cancer were evaluated. The predominant lesion was intraductal carcinoma, and axillary metastases occurred in association with minimal breast cancer in seven of 96 cases. One death occurred due to minimal breast cancer. Bilateral mammary carcinoma was evident in 24% and bilateral minimal breast cancer in 13% of the patients. The component lesions of minimal breast cancer have varied biologic activity, but prognosis is good with a variety of operations. The multifocal nature of minimal breast cancer and the potential for metastases should be recognized. Therapy should include removal of the entire mammary parenchyma and low axillary nodes. The high incidence of bilateral malignancy supports elective contralateral biopsy at the time of therapy for minimal breast cancer. Images Fig. 1. Fig. 2. Fig. 3. Fig. 5. PMID:203233

  7. Minimal Impact Education: A New Approach To Walking Softly.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Bauchop, Deborah; Parkin, Danny

    2000-01-01

    Introduces protected areas as opportunities for outdoor education and considers the possibility that outdoor education may contribute to the ecological degradation of these areas through overuse or poor outdoor practices. Provides a new approach to minimal impact education through the promotion of individual change. (Contains 24 references.)…

  8. Minimal Models of Multidimensional Computations

    PubMed Central

    Fitzgerald, Jeffrey D.; Sincich, Lawrence C.; Sharpee, Tatyana O.

    2011-01-01

    The multidimensional computations performed by many biological systems are often characterized with limited information about the correlations between inputs and outputs. Given this limitation, our approach is to construct the maximum noise entropy response function of the system, leading to a closed-form and minimally biased model consistent with a given set of constraints on the input/output moments; the result is equivalent to conditional random field models from machine learning. For systems with binary outputs, such as neurons encoding sensory stimuli, the maximum noise entropy models are logistic functions whose arguments depend on the constraints. A constraint on the average output turns the binary maximum noise entropy models into minimum mutual information models, allowing for the calculation of the information content of the constraints and an information theoretic characterization of the system's computations. We use this approach to analyze the nonlinear input/output functions in macaque retina and thalamus; although these systems have been previously shown to be responsive to two input dimensions, the functional form of the response function in this reduced space had not been unambiguously identified. A second order model based on the logistic function is found to be both necessary and sufficient to accurately describe the neural responses to naturalistic stimuli, accounting for an average of 93% of the mutual information with a small number of parameters. Thus, despite the fact that the stimulus is highly non-Gaussian, the vast majority of the information in the neural responses is related to first and second order correlations. Our results suggest a principled and unbiased way to model multidimensional computations and determine the statistics of the inputs that are being encoded in the outputs. PMID:21455284

  9. Important features of Sustainable Aggregate Resource Management

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Solar, Slavko V.; Shields, Deborah J.; Langer, William H.

    2004-01-01

    Every society, whether developed, developing or in a phase of renewal following governmental change, requires stable, adequate and secure supplies of natural resources. In the latter case, there could be significant need for construction materials for rebuilding infrastructure, industrial capacity, and housing. It is essential that these large-volume materials be provided in a rational manner that maximizes their societal contribution and minimizes environmental impacts. We describe an approach to resource management based on the principles of sustainable developed. Sustainable Aggregate Resource Management offers a way of addressing the conflicting needs and interests of environmental, economic, and social systems. Sustainability is an ethics based concept that utilizes science and democratic processes to reach acceptable agreements and tradeoffs among interests, while acknowledging the fundamental importance of the environment and social goods. We discuss the features of sustainable aggregate resource management.

  10. The Minimal Cost of Life in Space

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Drysdale, A.; Rutkze, C.; Albright, L.; Ladue, R.

    Life in space requires protection from the external environment, provision of a suitable internal environment, provision of consumables to maintain life, and removal of wastes. Protection from the external environment will mainly require shielding from radiation and meteoroids. Provision of a suitable environment inside the spacecraft will require provision of suitable air pressure and composition, temperature, and protection from environmental toxins (trace contaminants) and pathogenic micro-organisms. Gravity may be needed for longer missions to avoid excessive changes such as decalcification and muscle degeneration. Similarly, the volume required per crewmember will increase as the mission duration increases. Consumables required include oxygen, food, and water. Nitrogen might be required, depending on the total pressure and non-metabolic losses. We normally provide these consumables from the Earth, with a greater or lesser degree of regeneration. In principle, all consumables can be regenerated. Water and air are easiest to regenerate. At the present time, food can only be regenerated by using plants, and higher plants at that. Waste must be removed, including carbon dioxide and other metabolic waste as well as trash such as food packaging, filters, and expended spare parts. This can be done by dumping or regeneration. The minimal cost of life in space would be to use a synthesis process or system to regenerate all consumables from wastes. As the efficiency of the various processes rises, the minimal cost of life support will fall. However, real world regeneration requires significant equipment, power, and crew time. Make-up will be required for those items that cannot be economically regenerated. For very inefficient processes, it might be cheaper to ship all or part of the consumables. We are currently far down the development curve, and for short missions it is cheaper to ship consumables. For longer duration missions, greater closure is cost effective

  11. Light modular rig for minimal environment impact

    SciTech Connect

    Mehra, S.; Abedrabbo, A.

    1996-12-31

    The fast plenary meeting of United Nations on human Environment in 1972 considered the need for a common outlook and for common principles to inspire and guide the people and industries of the world in the preservation and enhancement of human environment. Since then many countries have, or am now enacting, environmental legislation`s covering the wide spectrum of environmental protection issues. Petroleum industry has not been immune to inch scrutiny, however, little has changed in land based drilling operations, especially in remote areas. A major aspect of the ongoing program in the design of a light modular land rig has been minimization of the environmental impact. Today, concerns for protection of the environment have spread in many drilling areas: the use of some traditional drilling techniques such as waste pits is now banned. When rethinking about rig hardware and design today, environment protection needs to be considered at an early stage. There are many incentives for implementation of environmental protection programs, in design and in operation, aside from the regulatory/compliance issue. Waste disposal costs have risen dramatically over the last few years and the trend is expected to continue. Improvements in environment conditions improves morale and image. Growing public awareness and realization of the man made harm in my regions of the earth : dangerous levels of pollution in water, air, earth and living beings; major and undesirable disturbances to the ecological balance of the biosphere; destruction and depletion of irreplaceable resources; and gross deficiencies harmful to the physical, mental and social health of man in the living and working environment. This paper discusses the steps taken, early on in the design stage and operations methodology, to minimize the environmental impact.

  12. Risk minimization practices for pregnancy prevention: understanding risk, selecting tools.

    PubMed

    Uhl, Kathleen; Trontell, Anne; Kennedy, Dianne

    2007-03-01

    According to the March of Dimes, approximately 4% (1/28) of babies are born in the US each year with a birth defect. For the majority of birth defects the etiology is unknown, although chemicals, including drug exposures, probably account for less than 1% of all birth defects. The identification of potential human teratogenicity during drug development is important because drug-induced adverse fetal effects are potentially preventable with the application of risk assessment strategies and risk minimization tools and programs to minimize risk of pregnancy exposure while preserving access to drug benefits; risk assessment and risk minimization together comprise risk management. It is important that risk minimization programs intended to limit fetal exposure use a consistent approach and are tailored to the product-specific risk concerns in order to optimize the benefit-risk balance for a particular drug. This paper highlights general considerations in developing specific risk minimization programs to prevent fetal drug exposure including the relative advantages and disadvantages of each strategy.

  13. Building Environmental Awareness: Teaching Campers To Minimize Their Impact.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Henchey, Kathy; Carvajal, Michelle

    2000-01-01

    Three activities are described to teach campers the importance of minimizing their impact on the environment. Soil Buggy Bingo shows fire's impact on living things in the soil; Food Web demonstrates how everything in an ecosystem is interconnected; and Camouflaging--Field versus Woods shows the difference between wooded and cleared areas in the…

  14. Towards a Minimal System for Cell Division

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Schwille, Petra

    We have entered the "omics" era of the life sciences, meaning that our general knowledge about biological systems has become vast, complex, and almost impossible to fully comprehend. Consequently, the challenge for quantitative biology and biophysics is to identify appropriate procedures and protocols that allow the researcher to strip down the complexity of a biological system to a level that can be reliably modeled but still retains the essential features of its "real" counterpart. The virtue of physics has always been the reductionist approach, which allowed scientists to identify the underlying basic principles of seemingly complex phenomena, and subject them to rigorous mathematical treatment. Biological systems are obviously among the most complex phenomena we can think of, and it is fair to state that our rapidly increasing knowledge does not make it easier to identify a small set of fundamental principles of the big concept of "life" that can be defined and quantitatively understood. Nevertheless, it is becoming evident that only by tight cooperation and interdisciplinary exchange between the life sciences and quantitative sciences, and by applying intelligent reductionist approaches also to biology, will we be able to meet the intellectual challenges of the twenty-first century. These include not only the collection and proper categorization of the data, but also their true understanding and harnessing such that we can solve important practical problems imposed by medicine or the worldwide need for new energy sources. Many of these approaches are reflected by the modern buzz word "synthetic biology", therefore I briefly discuss this term in the first section. Further, I outline some endeavors of our and other groups to model minimal biological systems, with particular focus on the possibility of generating a minimal system for cell division.

  15. Selective labelling of cell-surface proteins using CyDye DIGE Fluor minimal dyes.

    PubMed

    Hagner-McWhirter, Asa; Winkvist, Maria; Bourin, Stephanie; Marouga, Rita

    2008-11-26

    Surface proteins are central to the cell's ability to react to its environment and to interact with neighboring cells. They are known to be inducers of almost all intracellular signaling. Moreover, they play an important role in environmental adaptation and drug treatment, and are often involved in disease pathogenesis and pathology (1). Protein-protein interactions are intrinsic to signaling pathways, and to gain more insight in these complex biological processes, sensitive and reliable methods are needed for studying cell surface proteins. Two-dimensional (2-D) electrophoresis is used extensively for detection of biomarkers and other targets in complex protein samples to study differential changes. Cell surface proteins, partly due to their low abundance (1 2% of cellular proteins), are difficult to detect in a 2-D gel without fractionation or some other type of enrichment. They are also often poorly represented in 2-D gels due to their hydrophobic nature and high molecular weight (2). In this study, we present a new protocol for intact cells using CyDye DIGE Fluor minimal dyes for specific labeling and detection of this important group of proteins. The results showed specific labeling of a large number of cell surface proteins with minimal labeling of intracellular proteins. This protocol is rapid, simple to use, and all three CyDye DIGE Fluor minimal dyes (Cy 2, Cy 3 and Cy 5) can be used to label cell-surface proteins. These features allow for multiplexing using the 2-D Fluorescence Difference Gel Electrophoresis (2-D DIGE) with Ettan DIGE technology and analysis of protein expression changes using DeCyder 2-D Differential Analysis Software. The level of cell-surface proteins was followed during serum starvation of CHO cells for various lengths of time (see Table 1). Small changes in abundance were detected with high accuracy, and results are supported by defined statistical methods.

  16. Process-Based Software: Increasing Financial Control and Minimizing Change.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Brown, Shawn

    1999-01-01

    New, highly flexible accounting software packages have abandoned the rigidity of past systems and are designed to be easily customized to the school district's needs without programming. Process-based software integrates processes and work flow, allowing users to work across application and function boundaries, as well as organizational…

  17. Prochlorococcus: advantages and limits of minimalism.

    PubMed

    Partensky, Frédéric; Garczarek, Laurence

    2010-01-01

    Prochlorococcus is the key phytoplanktonic organism of tropical gyres, large ocean regions that are depleted of the essential macronutrients needed for photosynthesis and cell growth. This cyanobacterium has adapted itself to oligotrophy by minimizing the resources necessary for life through a drastic reduction of cell and genome sizes. This rarely observed strategy in free-living organisms has conferred on Prochlorococcus a considerable advantage over other phototrophs, including its closest relative Synechococcus, for life in this vast yet little variable ecosystem. However, this strategy seems to reach its limits in the upper layer of the S Pacific gyre, the most oligotrophic region of the world ocean. By losing some important genes and/or functions during evolution, Prochlorococcus has seemingly become dependent on co-occurring microorganisms. In this review, we present some of the recent advances in the ecology, biology, and evolution of Prochlorococcus, which because of its ecological importance and tiny genome is rapidly imposing itself as a model organism in environmental microbiology.

  18. Prochlorococcus: Advantages and Limits of Minimalism

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Partensky, Frédéric; Garczarek, Laurence

    2010-01-01

    Prochlorococcus is the key phytoplanktonic organism of tropical gyres, large ocean regions that are depleted of the essential macronutrients needed for photosynthesis and cell growth. This cyanobacterium has adapted itself to oligotrophy by minimizing the resources necessary for life through a drastic reduction of cell and genome sizes. This rarely observed strategy in free-living organisms has conferred on Prochlorococcus a considerable advantage over other phototrophs, including its closest relative Synechococcus, for life in this vast yet little variable ecosystem. However, this strategy seems to reach its limits in the upper layer of the S Pacific gyre, the most oligotrophic region of the world ocean. By losing some important genes and/or functions during evolution, Prochlorococcus has seemingly become dependent on co-occurring microorganisms. In this review, we present some of the recent advances in the ecology, biology, and evolution of Prochlorococcus, which because of its ecological importance and tiny genome is rapidly imposing itself as a model organism in environmental microbiology.

  19. Multiple myeloma, immunotherapy and minimal residual disease.

    PubMed

    Kusenda, J; Kovarikova, A

    2016-01-01

    Multiple myeloma (MM) is an incurable heterogeneous hematological malignancy in which relapse is characterized by re-growth of residual tumor and immune suppression with a complex biology that affects many aspects of the disease and its response to treatment. The bone marrow microenvironment, including immune cells, plays a central role in MM pathogenesis, survival, and drug resistance. The advances in basic and translational research, introduction of novel agents, particularly combination therapies, improved indicators of quality of life and survival. Minimal residual disease (MRD) detection by multiparameter flow cytometry (MFC) has revolutionized monitoring of treatment response in MM. The importance of MFC methodology will be further strengthened by the ongoing international standardization efforts. Results of MRD testing provide unique and clinically important information and demonstrated the prognostic significance of MRD in patients, leading to regulate treatment intensity in many contemporary protocols. In this review, we will summarize the principal approaches in MM immunotherapy, focusing how new agents have potential in the treatment of MM and application of MRD detection by MFC as a surrogate endpoint would allow quicker evaluation of treatment outcomes and rapid identification of effective new therapies.

  20. Two-Higgs-doublet models with Minimal Flavour Violation

    SciTech Connect

    Carlucci, Maria Valentina

    2010-12-22

    The tree-level flavour-changing neutral currents in the two-Higgs-doublet models can be suppressed by protecting the breaking of either flavour or flavour-blind symmetries, but only the first choice, implemented by the application of the Minimal Flavour Violation hypothesis, is stable under quantum corrections. Moreover, a two-Higgs-doublet model with Minimal Flavour Violation enriched with flavour-blind phases can explain the anomalies recently found in the {Delta}F = 2 transitions, namely the large CP-violating phase in B{sub s} mixing and the tension between {epsilon}{sub K} and S{sub {psi}KS}.

  1. Minimal Cells-Real and Imagined.

    PubMed

    Glass, John I; Merryman, Chuck; Wise, Kim S; Hutchison, Clyde A; Smith, Hamilton O

    2017-03-27

    A minimal cell is one whose genome only encodes the minimal set of genes necessary for the cell to survive. Scientific reductionism postulates the best way to learn the first principles of cellular biology would be to use a minimal cell in which the functions of all genes and components are understood. The genes in a minimal cell are, by definition, essential. In 2016, synthesis of a genome comprised of only the set of essential and quasi-essential genes encoded by the bacterium Mycoplasma mycoides created a near-minimal bacterial cell. This organism performs the cellular functions common to all organisms. It replicates DNA, transcribes RNA, translates proteins, undergoes cell division, and little else. In this review, we examine this organism and contrast it with other bacteria that have been used as surrogates for a minimal cell.

  2. Minimal model for anomalous diffusion

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Flekkøy, Eirik G.

    2017-01-01

    A random walk model with a local probability of removal is solved exactly and shown to exhibit subdiffusive behavior with a mean square displacement the evolves as ˜t1 /2 at late times. This model is shown to be well described by a diffusion equation with a sink term, which also describes the evolution of a pressure or temperature field in a leaky environment. For this reason a number of physical processes are shown to exhibit anomalous diffusion. The presence of the sink term is shown to change the late time behavior of the field from 1 /t1 /2 to 1 /t3 /2 .

  3. Beyond minimal lepton-flavored Dark Matter

    SciTech Connect

    Chen, Mu-Chun; Huang, Jinrui; Takhistov, Volodymyr

    2016-02-09

    In this paper ,we consider a class of flavored dark matter (DM) theories where dark matter interacts with the Standard Model lepton fields at the renormalizable level. We allow for a general coupling matrix between the dark matter and leptons whose structure is beyond the one permitted by the minimal flavor violation (MFV) assumption. It is assumed that this is the only new source of flavor violation in addition to the Standard Model (SM) Yukawa interactions. The setup can be described by augmenting the SM flavor symmetry by an additional SU(3)χ, under which the dark matter χ transforms. This framework is especially phenomenologically rich, due to possible novel flavor-changing interactions which are not present within the more restrictive MFV framework. As a representative case study of this setting, which we call “beyond MFV” (BMFV), we consider Dirac fermion dark matter which transforms as a singlet under the SM gauge group and a triplet under SU(3)χ. The DM fermion couples to the SM lepton sector through a scalar mediator Φ. Unlike the case of quark-flavored DM, we show that there is no Z3 symmetry within either the MFV or BMFV settings which automatically stabilizes the lepton-flavored DM. We discuss constraints on this setup from flavor-changing processes, DM relic abundance as well as direct and indirect detections. We find that relatively large flavor-changing couplings are possible, while the dark matter mass is still within the phenomenologically interesting region below the TeV scale. Collider signatures which can be potentially searched for at the lepton and hadron colliders are discussed. Finally, we discuss the implications for decaying dark matter, which can appear if an additional stabilizing symmetry is not imposed.

  4. Beyond minimal lepton-flavored Dark Matter

    DOE PAGES

    Chen, Mu-Chun; Huang, Jinrui; Takhistov, Volodymyr

    2016-02-09

    In this paper ,we consider a class of flavored dark matter (DM) theories where dark matter interacts with the Standard Model lepton fields at the renormalizable level. We allow for a general coupling matrix between the dark matter and leptons whose structure is beyond the one permitted by the minimal flavor violation (MFV) assumption. It is assumed that this is the only new source of flavor violation in addition to the Standard Model (SM) Yukawa interactions. The setup can be described by augmenting the SM flavor symmetry by an additional SU(3)χ, under which the dark matter χ transforms. This frameworkmore » is especially phenomenologically rich, due to possible novel flavor-changing interactions which are not present within the more restrictive MFV framework. As a representative case study of this setting, which we call “beyond MFV” (BMFV), we consider Dirac fermion dark matter which transforms as a singlet under the SM gauge group and a triplet under SU(3)χ. The DM fermion couples to the SM lepton sector through a scalar mediator Φ. Unlike the case of quark-flavored DM, we show that there is no Z3 symmetry within either the MFV or BMFV settings which automatically stabilizes the lepton-flavored DM. We discuss constraints on this setup from flavor-changing processes, DM relic abundance as well as direct and indirect detections. We find that relatively large flavor-changing couplings are possible, while the dark matter mass is still within the phenomenologically interesting region below the TeV scale. Collider signatures which can be potentially searched for at the lepton and hadron colliders are discussed. Finally, we discuss the implications for decaying dark matter, which can appear if an additional stabilizing symmetry is not imposed.« less

  5. A stable, rapidly converging conjugate gradient method for energy minimization

    SciTech Connect

    Watowich, S.J.; Meyer, E.S.; Hagstrom, R.; Josephs, R.

    1989-01-01

    We apply Shanno's conjugate gradient algorithm to the problem of minimizing the potential energy function associated with molecular mechanical calculations. Shanno's algorithm is stable with respect to roundoff errors and inexact line searches and converges rapidly to a minimum. Equally important, this algorithm can improve the rate of convergence to a minimum by a factor of 5 relative to Fletcher-Reeves or Polak-Ribiere minimizers when used within the molecular mechanics package AMBER. Comparable improvements are found for a limited number of simulations when the Polak-Ribiere direction vector is incorporated into the Shanno algorithm. 24 refs., 4 figs., 3 tabs.

  6. A new algebra core for the minimal form' problem

    SciTech Connect

    Purtill, M.R. . Center for Communications Research); Oliveira, J.S.; Cook, G.O. Jr. )

    1991-12-20

    The demands of large-scale algebraic computation have led to the development of many new algorithms for manipulating algebraic objects in computer algebra systems. For instance, parallel versions of many important algorithms have been discovered. Simultaneously, more effective symbolic representations of algebraic objects have been sought. Also, while some clever techniques have been found for improving the speed of the algebraic simplification process, little attention has been given to the issue of restructuring expressions, or transforming them into minimal forms.'' By minimal form,'' we mean that form of an expression that involves a minimum number of operations. In a companion paper, we introduce some new algorithms that are very effective at finding minimal forms of expressions. These algorithms require algebraic and combinatorial machinery that is not readily available in most algebra systems. In this paper we describe a new algebra core that begins to provide the necessary capabilities.

  7. Quasiprobability Representations of Quantum Mechanics with Minimal Negativity.

    PubMed

    Zhu, Huangjun

    2016-09-16

    Quasiprobability representations, such as the Wigner function, play an important role in various research areas. The inevitable appearance of negativity in such representations is often regarded as a signature of nonclassicality, which has profound implications for quantum computation. However, little is known about the minimal negativity that is necessary in general quasiprobability representations. Here we focus on a natural class of quasiprobability representations that is distinguished by simplicity and economy. We introduce three measures of negativity concerning the representations of quantum states, unitary transformations, and quantum channels, respectively. Quite surprisingly, all three measures lead to the same representations with minimal negativity, which are in one-to-one correspondence with the elusive symmetric informationally complete measurements. In addition, most representations with minimal negativity are automatically covariant with respect to the Heisenberg-Weyl groups. Furthermore, our study reveals an interesting tradeoff between negativity and symmetry in quasiprobability representations.

  8. Enumerating Minimal Active Metabolic Pathways by Model Generation

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Soh, Takehide; Inoue, Katsumi

    In systems biology, identifying vital functions like glycolysis from a given metabolic pathway is important to understand living organisms. In this paper, we particularly focus on the problem of enumerating minimal active pathways producing target metabolites from source metabolites. We represent the problem in propositional formulas and solve it through minimal model generation. An advantage of our method is that each solution satisfies qualitative laws of biochemical reactions. Moreover, we can calculate such solutions for a cellular scale metabolic pathway within a few seconds. In experiments, we have applied our method to a whole Escherichia coli metabolic pathway. As a result, we found a minimal set of reactions corresponding to the conventional glycolysis pathway described in a biological database EcoCyc.

  9. Minimally invasive surgery of the anterior skull base: transorbital approaches

    PubMed Central

    Gassner, Holger G.; Schwan, Franziska; Schebesch, Karl-Michael

    2016-01-01

    Minimally invasive approaches are becoming increasingly popular to access the anterior skull base. With interdisciplinary cooperation, in particular endonasal endoscopic approaches have seen an impressive expansion of indications over the past decades. The more recently described transorbital approaches represent minimally invasive alternatives with a differing spectrum of access corridors. The purpose of the present paper is to discuss transorbital approaches to the anterior skull base in the light of the current literature. The transorbital approaches allow excellent exposure of areas that are difficult to reach like the anterior and posterior wall of the frontal sinus; working angles may be more favorable and the paranasal sinus system can be preserved while exposing the skull base. Because of their minimal morbidity and the cosmetically excellent results, the transorbital approaches represent an important addition to established endonasal endoscopic and open approaches to the anterior skull base. Their execution requires an interdisciplinary team approach. PMID:27453759

  10. Ramadan and sport: minimizing effects upon the observant athlete.

    PubMed

    Shephard, Roy J

    2013-12-01

    exercise is impaired, but aerobic power and muscular strength show little change during Ramadan. Ratings of fatigue are increased, and vigilance and reaction times are impaired, particularly during the afternoon. Medical issues during Ramadan are few. Athletes with diabetes mellitus should seek a medical exemption from fasting, and prescribed drug schedules should be carefully maintained. There is no major increase of injury rates, but competitors may have difficulty in producing urine for doping controls. Logical measures to minimize the effects of Ramadan include the optimization of mood state, maintenance of training, minimization of sleep loss, appropriate adjustments of diet, and the monitoring of competitors for chronic dehydration. Future research should concentrate on the changes observed in top athletes, particularly women, with data collected in the late afternoon after a known period of fasting in a well defined environment. It will be important to ensure that the lifestyle of those studied has been optimized. Implications of chronic dehydration for doping control also merit further investigation. Current data suggest that the impact of Ramadan upon athletic performance is small relative to the precision of test procedures, although it may be sufficient to cause a loss of medals. Negative effects vary widely with the type of sport, the season when fasting is observed, the local culture and the discipline exercised by the athlete.

  11. [Minimal-invasive surgery for lung cancer - strategies and limits].

    PubMed

    Schneiter, D; Weder, W

    2012-07-01

    Minimal invasive surgical procedures, also known as keyhole surgery, have gained in importance in the last years and have become the standard of care in experienced hands for most surgical procedures. Despite initial concerns with respect to the radicalness of the approach it is nowadays also established in oncologic surgery. Minimal invasive procedures aim at minimizing the operative trauma and associated inflammatory reactions to achieve faster convalescence after surgery. In addition to obvious cosmetic advantages minimal invasive surgery has been shown to be associated with fewer postoperative pain and shorter postoperative rehabilitation and faster reintegration into everyday as well as working life. With 15% of all cancer diagnoses and 29% of all cancer-associated causes of death, lung cancer is the most frequent malignancy in the general public and hence the treatment of lung cancer is a main focus of thoracic surgery. Within the scope of modern multimodal treatment concepts radical surgical resection of lung cancer is essential and the main pillar of curative treatment. In early stage lung cancer the current standard of care is a thoracoscopic lobectomy with mediastinal lymphadenectomy. The expertise of specialized centers allows for curative minimal-invasive treatment in a large number of patients, particularly of patients of advanced age or with limited pulmonary function.

  12. Minimally Invasive Mitral Valve Surgery I

    PubMed Central

    Ailawadi, Gorav; Agnihotri, Arvind K.; Mehall, John R.; Wolfe, J. Alan; Hummel, Brian W.; Fayers, Trevor M.; Farivar, R. Saeid; Grossi, Eugene A.; Guy, T. Sloane; Hargrove, W. Clark; Khan, Junaid H.; Lehr, Eric J.; Malaisrie, S. Chris; Murphy, Douglas A.; Rodriguez, Evelio; Ryan, William H.; Salemi, Arash; Segurola, Romualdo J.; Shemin, Richard J.; Smith, J. Michael; Smith, Robert L.; Weldner, Paul W.; Goldman, Scott M.; Lewis, Clifton T. P.; Barnhart, Glenn R.

    2016-01-01

    Abstract Widespread adoption of minimally invasive mitral valve repair and replacement may be fostered by practice consensus and standardization. This expert opinion, first of a 3-part series, outlines current best practices in patient evaluation and selection for minimally invasive mitral valve procedures, and discusses preoperative planning for cannulation and myocardial protection. PMID:27654407

  13. Minimizing electrode contamination in an electrochemical cell

    DOEpatents

    Kim, Yu Seung; Zelenay, Piotr; Johnston, Christina

    2014-12-09

    An electrochemical cell assembly that is expected to prevent or at least minimize electrode contamination includes one or more getters that trap a component or components leached from a first electrode and prevents or at least minimizes them from contaminating a second electrode.

  14. Importance of Gravity for Plant Growth and Behavior

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Brown, A. H.

    1985-01-01

    Flight experiments on the importance of gravity to plant growth and behavior are reported. The following studies were undertaken: (1) hyperastic responses to incremental changes of an axially imposed centripetal force; (2) Spacelab-1 experiments, methods for preparing soil in flight hardware containers were impound, to ensure desired moisture content and minimal contamination probability; (3) mesocotyl growth patterns were established by Avena lore exposure to red light during early seedling outogency; (4) the development of flight hardware; (5) choice of member of seedlings in each cube; (6) data processing and reduction; (7) clinostat validation; circummutation in space was more vigorous than on Earth based clinostat.

  15. Onychomycosis: Strategies to Minimize Recurrence.

    PubMed

    Gupta, Aditya K; Elewski, Boni E; Rosen, Ted; Caldwell, Bryan; Pariser, David M; Kircik, Leon H; Bhatia, Neal; Tosti, Antonella

    2016-03-01

    Recurrence (relapse or re-infection) in onychomycosis is common, occurring in 10% to 53% of patients. However, data on prevalence is limited as few clinical studies follow patients beyond 12 months. It has been suggested that recurrence after continuous terbinafine treatment may be less common than with intermittent or continuous itraconazole therapy, probably due to the fungicidal activity of terbinafine, although these differences tended not to be significant. Relapse rates also increase with time, peaking at month 36. Although a number of factors have been suggested to play a role in recurrence, only the co-existence of diabetes has been shown to have a significant impact. Data with topical therapy is sparse; a small study showed amorolfine prophylaxis may delay recurrence. High concentrations of efinaconazole have been reported in the nail two weeks' post-treatment suggesting twice monthly prophylaxis with topical treatments may be a realistic option, and may be an important consideration in diabetic patients with onychomycosis. Data suggest that prophylaxis may need to be continued for up to three years for optimal effect. Treating tinea pedis and any immediate family members is also critical. Other preventative strategies include avoiding communal areas where infection can spread (such as swimming pools), and decontaminating footwear.

  16. Minimizing radiation exposure during percutaneous nephrolithotomy.

    PubMed

    Chen, T T; Preminger, G M; Lipkin, M E

    2015-12-01

    Given the recent trends in growing per capita radiation dose from medical sources, there have been increasing concerns over patient radiation exposure. Patients with kidney stones undergoing percutaneous nephrolithotomy (PNL) are at particular risk for high radiation exposure. There exist several risk factors for increased radiation exposure during PNL which include high Body Mass Index, multiple access tracts, and increased stone burden. We herein review recent trends in radiation exposure, radiation exposure during PNL to both patients and urologists, and various approaches to reduce radiation exposure. We discuss incorporating the principles of As Low As reasonably Achievable (ALARA) into clinical practice and review imaging techniques such as ultrasound and air contrast to guide PNL access. Alternative surgical techniques and approaches to reducing radiation exposure, including retrograde intra-renal surgery, retrograde nephrostomy, endoscopic-guided PNL, and minimally invasive PNL, are also highlighted. It is important for urologists to be aware of these concepts and techniques when treating stone patients with PNL. The discussions outlined will assist urologists in providing patient counseling and high quality of care.

  17. Minimal genetic device with multiple tunable functions

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Bagh, Sangram; Mandal, Mahuya; McMillen, David R.

    2010-08-01

    The ability to design artificial genetic devices with predictable functions is critical to the development of synthetic biology. Given the highly variable requirements of biological designs, the ability to tune the behavior of a genetic device is also of key importance; such tuning will allow devices to be matched with other components into larger systems, and to be shifted into the correct parameter regimes to elicit desired behaviors. Here, we have developed a minimal synthetic genetic system that acts as a multifunction, tunable biodevice in the bacterium Escherichia coli. First, it acts as a biochemical AND gate, sensing the extracellular small molecules isopropyl β-D -1-thiogalactopyranoside and anhydrotetracycline as two input signals and expressing enhanced green fluorescent protein as an output signal. Next, the output signal of the AND gate can be amplified by the application of another extracellular chemical, arabinose. Further, the system can generate a wide range of chemically tunable single input-output response curves, without any genetic alteration of the circuit, by varying the concentrations of a set of extracellular small molecules. We have developed and parameterized a simple transfer function model for the system, and shown that the model successfully explains and predicts the quantitative relationships between input and output signals in the system.

  18. Minimal Technologies Application Project: Planning and installation

    SciTech Connect

    Zellmer, S.D.; Hinchman, R.R.; Severinghaus, W.D.; Johnson, D.O.; Brent, J.J.

    1989-03-01

    Intensive and continuous tactical training during the last 35 years at the Hohenfels Training Area in West Germany has caused the loss of vegetative ground cover and has accelerated soil erosion rates, resulting in extensive environmental damage, safety hazards, and unrealistic training habitats. The objectives of this project are to develop and evaluate revegetation procedures for establishing adequate vegetative cover to control erosion at minimal costs and disruption to training activities. This project involved the development and installation of 12 revegetation procedures that combined four seedbed preparation methods and seeding options with three site-closure periods. In March 1987, the four seedbed preparation/seeding options and closure periods were selected, a study site design and location chosen, and specifications for the revegetation procedures developed. A German rehabilitation contractor attempted the specified seedbed preparation and seeding on the 13.5-ha site in June, but abnormally high rainfall, usually wet site conditions, and lack of adequate equipment prevented the contractor from completing six of the 12 planned procedures. Planning and execution of the project has nonetheless provided valuable information on the importance and use of soil analytical results, seed availability and cost data, contractor equipment requirements, and time required for planning future revegetation efforts. Continued monitoring of vegetative ground cover at the site for the next two years, combined with cost information, will provide necessary data to determine which of the six revegetation procedures is the most effective. These data will be used in planning future rehabilitation efforts on tactical training areas.

  19. Hazardous waste minimization report for CY 1986

    SciTech Connect

    Kendrick, C.M.

    1990-12-01

    Oak Ridge National Laboratory (ORNL) is a multipurpose research and development facility. Its primary role is the support of energy technology through applied research and engineering development and scientific research in basic and physical sciences. ORNL also is a valuable resource in the solution of problems of national importance, such as nuclear and chemical waste management. In addition, useful radioactive and stable isotopes which are unavailable from the private sector are produced at ORNL. As a result of these activities, hazardous, radioactive, and mixed wastes are generated at ORNL. A formal hazardous waste minimization program for ORNL was launched in mid 1985 in response to the requirements of Section 3002 of the Resource Conservation and Recovery Act (RCRA). During 1986, a task plan was developed. The six major tasks include: planning and implementation of a laboratory-wide chemical inventory and the subsequent distribution, treatment, storage, and/or disposal (TSD) of unneeded chemicals; establishment and implementation of a distribution system for surplus chemicals to other (internal and external) organizations; training and communication functions necessary to inform and motivate laboratory personnel; evaluation of current procurement and tracking systems for hazardous materials and recommendation and implementation of improvements; systematic review of applicable current and proposed ORNL procedures and ongoing and proposed activities for waste volume and/or toxicity reduction potential; and establishment of criteria by which to measure progress and reporting of significant achievements. 8 refs., 1 fig., 5 tabs.

  20. Minimizing Glovebox Glove Breaches: PART II.

    SciTech Connect

    Cournoyer, M. E.; Andrade, R.M.; Taylor, D. J.; Stimmel, J. J.; Zaelke, R. L.; Balkey, J. J.

    2005-01-01

    As a matter of good business practices, a team of glovebox experts from Los Alamos National Laboratory (LANL) has been assembled to proactively investigate processes and procedures that minimize unplanned breaches in the glovebox, e.g., glove failures. A major part of this effort involves the review of glovebox glove failures that have occurred at the Plutonium Facility and at the Chemical and Metallurgy Research Facility. Information dating back to 1993 has been compiled from formal records. This data has been combined with information obtained from a baseline inventory of about 9,000 glovebox gloves. The key attributes tracked include those related to location, the glovebox glove, type and location of breaches, the worker, and the consequences resulting from breaches. This glovebox glove failure analysis yielded results in the areas of the ease of collecting this type of data, the causes of most glove failures that have occurred, the effectiveness of current controls, and recommendations to improve hazard control systems. As expected, a significant number of breaches involve high-risk operations such as grinding, hammering, using sharps (especially screwdrivers), and assembling equipment. Surprisingly, tasks such as the movement of equipment and material between gloveboxes and the opening of cans are also major contributions of breaches. Almost half the gloves fail within a year of their install date. The greatest consequence for over 90% of glovebox glove failures is alpha contamination of protective clothing. Personnel self-monitoring at the gloveboxes continues to be the most effective way of detecting glovebox glove failures. Glove failures from these tasks can be reduced through changes in procedures and the design of remote-handling apparatus. The Nuclear Materials Technology Division management uses this information to improve hazard control systems to reduce the number of unplanned breaches in the glovebox further. As a result, excursions of contaminants

  1. Planetary protection: elements for cost minimization

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Debus, Andre

    2003-11-01

    In line with the UN Outer Space Treaty (article IX of the Outer Space Treaty - London/Washington January 27., 1967 -) and with COSPAR recommendations, for ethical, safety and scientific reasons, exploration of the solar system needs to comply with planetary protection constraints in order to avoid extraterrestrial bodies contamination, particularly biological contamination by terrestrial microorganisms. It is also required to protect Earth from an eventual contamination carried by return systems or samples. The search for life in extraterrestrial samples, in situ or in the frame of sample return missions, must be conducted in order to state with the maximum possible confidence, because the discovery or the non-discovery of life in sample has a direct impact on updatations of planetary protection specifications for future missions. This last requirement imposes consequently also for implementation in order to preserve extra terrestrial samples properties, protecting also indirectly exobiological science. These constraints impose to set up unusual requirements for project teams involved in such solar system exploration missions, requirements based on hardware sterilization, sterile integration, organic cleanliness, microbiological and cleanliness control, the use of high reliability system in order to avoid crashs, the definition of specific trajectories and their control, recontamination prevention .... etc. Implementation of such requirements induces costs, difficult to estimate, but which can be important depending on the solar system target and the mission definition (fly-by, orbiter or lander). The cost impact of a planetary protection program could be important if some basic rules are not taken into account enough early and consequently, upon past experience, some recommendations can be proposed here in order to manage properly such programs and to minimize their cost.

  2. Inconsistent reporting of minimally invasive surgery errors

    PubMed Central

    White, AD; Skelton, M; Mushtaq, F; Pike, TW; Mon-Williams, M; Lodge, JPA; Wilkie, RM

    2015-01-01

    Introduction Minimally invasive surgery (MIS) is a complex task requiring dexterity and high level cognitive function. Unlike surgical ‘never events’, potentially important (and frequent) manual or cognitive slips (‘technical errors’) are underresearched. Little is known about the occurrence of routine errors in MIS, their relationship to patient outcome, and whether they are reported accurately and/or consistently. Methods An electronic survey was sent to all members of the Association of Surgeons of Great Britain and Ireland, gathering demographic information, experience and reporting of MIS errors, and a rating of factors affecting error prevalence. Results Of 249 responses, 203 completed more than 80% of the questions regarding the surgery they had performed in the preceding 12 months. Of these, 47% reported a significant error in their own performance and 75% were aware of a colleague experiencing error. Technical skill, knowledge, situational awareness and decision making were all identified as particularly important for avoiding errors in MIS. Reporting of errors was variable: 15% did not necessarily report an intraoperative error to a patient while 50% did not consistently report at an institutional level. Critically, 12% of surgeons were unaware of the procedure for reporting a technical error and 59% felt guidance is needed. Overall, 40% believed a confidential reporting system would increase their likelihood of reporting an error. Conclusion These data indicate inconsistent reporting of operative errors, and highlight the need to better understand how and why technical errors occur in MIS. A confidential ‘no blame’ reporting system might help improve patient outcomes and avoid a closed culture that can undermine public confidence. PMID:26492908

  3. Minimal representations, geometric quantization, and unitarity.

    PubMed Central

    Brylinski, R; Kostant, B

    1994-01-01

    In the framework of geometric quantization we explicitly construct, in a uniform fashion, a unitary minimal representation pio of every simply-connected real Lie group Go such that the maximal compact subgroup of Go has finite center and Go admits some minimal representation. We obtain algebraic and analytic results about pio. We give several results on the algebraic and symplectic geometry of the minimal nilpotent orbits and then "quantize" these results to obtain the corresponding representations. We assume (Lie Go)C is simple. PMID:11607478

  4. Minimal covariant observables identifying all pure states

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Carmeli, Claudio; Heinosaari, Teiko; Toigo, Alessandro

    2013-09-01

    It has been recently shown by Heinosaari, Mazzarella and Wolf (2013) [1] that an observable that identifies all pure states of a d-dimensional quantum system has minimally 4d-4 outcomes or slightly less (the exact number depending on d). However, no simple construction of this type of minimal observable is known. We investigate covariant observables that identify all pure states and have minimal number of outcomes. It is shown that the existence of this kind of observables depends on the dimension of the Hilbert space.

  5. Technology applications for radioactive waste minimization

    SciTech Connect

    Devgun, J.S.

    1994-07-01

    The nuclear power industry has achieved one of the most successful examples of waste minimization. The annual volume of low-level radioactive waste shipped for disposal per reactor has decreased to approximately one-fifth the volume about a decade ago. In addition, the curie content of the total waste shipped for disposal has decreased. This paper will discuss the regulatory drivers and economic factors for waste minimization and describe the application of technologies for achieving waste minimization for low-level radioactive waste with examples from the nuclear power industry.

  6. Sequentially reweighted TV minimization for CT metal artifact reduction

    PubMed Central

    Zhang, Xiaomeng; Xing, Lei

    2013-01-01

    Purpose: Metal artifact reduction has long been an important topic in x-ray CT image reconstruction. In this work, the authors propose an iterative method that sequentially minimizes a reweighted total variation (TV) of the image and produces substantially artifact-reduced reconstructions. Methods: A sequentially reweighted TV minimization algorithm is proposed to fully exploit the sparseness of image gradients (IG). The authors first formulate a constrained optimization model that minimizes a weighted TV of the image, subject to the constraint that the estimated projection data are within a specified tolerance of the available projection measurements, with image non-negativity enforced. The authors then solve a sequence of weighted TV minimization problems where weights used for the next iteration are computed from the current solution. Using the complete projection data, the algorithm first reconstructs an image from which a binary metal image can be extracted. Forward projection of the binary image identifies metal traces in the projection space. The metal-free background image is then reconstructed from the metal-trace-excluded projection data by employing a different set of weights. Each minimization problem is solved using a gradient method that alternates projection-onto-convex-sets and steepest descent. A series of simulation and experimental studies are performed to evaluate the proposed approach. Results: Our study shows that the sequentially reweighted scheme, by altering a single parameter in the weighting function, flexibly controls the sparsity of the IG and reconstructs artifacts-free images in a two-stage process. It successfully produces images with significantly reduced streak artifacts, suppressed noise and well-preserved contrast and edge properties. Conclusions: The sequentially reweighed TV minimization provides a systematic approach for suppressing CT metal artifacts. The technique can also be generalized to other “missing data” problems

  7. WASTE MINIMIZATION OPPORTUNITY: U.S. COAST GUARD SUPPORT CENTER - GOVERNORS ISLAND, NEW YORK

    EPA Science Inventory

    The report focuses on a waste minimization assessment of a U.S. Coast Guard facility located on Governors Island in New York. The assessment details both management initiatives and technical changes that can be made to minimize waste. The technical areas that were assessed were p...

  8. Waste-minimization opportunity assessment: US Coast Guard Support Center, Governors Island, New York

    SciTech Connect

    Not Available

    1991-01-01

    The report focuses on a waste minimization assessment of a U.S. Coast Guard facility located on Governors Island in New York. The assessment details both management initiatives and technical changes that can be made to minimize waste. The technical areas that were assessed were paint removal operations using blasting grit, buoy painting, and on-site solvent recovery.

  9. Wing kinematics in a hovering dronefly minimize power expenditure.

    PubMed

    Wu, J H; Sun, M

    2014-10-15

    When an insect hovers or performs constant-speed flight, its wings flap at certain amplitude, frequency, angle of attack, etc., and the flight is balanced (vertical force equals to the weight, and horizontal force and pitch moment are zero). It is possible that when some other sets of values of wing kinematical parameters are used, the force and moment balance conditions can still be satisfied. Does the wing kinematics used by a constant-speed flying insect minimize the power expenditure? In this study, whether the wing kinematics used by a freely hovering dronefly minimizes its energy expenditure was investigated. First, the power consumption using the set of values of wing kinematical parameters that was actually employed by the insect was computed. Then, the kinematical parameters were changed while keeping the equilibrium flight conditions satisfied, and the power consumption was recalculated. It was found that wing kinematical parameters used by the freely hovering dronefly are very close to that minimize its energy consumption, and they can ensure the margin of controllability from hovering to maneuvers. That is, slight change of wing kinematical parameters did not cause significant change of the specific power (maintained a relatively small value).

  10. Degreasing of titanium to minimize stress corrosion

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Carpenter, S. R.

    1967-01-01

    Stress corrosion of titanium and its alloys at elevated temperatures is minimized by replacing trichloroethylene with methanol or methyl ethyl ketone as a degreasing agent. Wearing cotton gloves reduces stress corrosion from perspiration before the metal components are processed.

  11. Academic Achievement and Minimal Brain Dysfunction

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Edwards, R. Philip; And Others

    1971-01-01

    The investigation provided no evidence that a diagnosis of minimal brain dysfunction based on a pediatric neurological evaluation and/or visual-motor impairment as measured by the Bender-Gestalt, is a useful predictor of academic achievement. (Author)

  12. Controlling molecular transport in minimal emulsions

    PubMed Central

    Gruner, Philipp; Riechers, Birte; Semin, Benoît; Lim, Jiseok; Johnston, Abigail; Short, Kathleen; Baret, Jean-Christophe

    2016-01-01

    Emulsions are metastable dispersions in which molecular transport is a major mechanism driving the system towards its state of minimal energy. Determining the underlying mechanisms of molecular transport between droplets is challenging due to the complexity of a typical emulsion system. Here we introduce the concept of ‘minimal emulsions', which are controlled emulsions produced using microfluidic tools, simplifying an emulsion down to its minimal set of relevant parameters. We use these minimal emulsions to unravel the fundamentals of transport of small organic molecules in water-in-fluorinated-oil emulsions, a system of great interest for biotechnological applications. Our results are of practical relevance to guarantee a sustainable compartmentalization of compounds in droplet microreactors and to design new strategies for the dynamic control of droplet compositions. PMID:26797564

  13. Genetic algorithms for minimal source reconstructions

    SciTech Connect

    Lewis, P.S.; Mosher, J.C.

    1993-12-01

    Under-determined linear inverse problems arise in applications in which signals must be estimated from insufficient data. In these problems the number of potentially active sources is greater than the number of observations. In many situations, it is desirable to find a minimal source solution. This can be accomplished by minimizing a cost function that accounts from both the compatibility of the solution with the observations and for its ``sparseness``. Minimizing functions of this form can be a difficult optimization problem. Genetic algorithms are a relatively new and robust approach to the solution of difficult optimization problems, providing a global framework that is not dependent on local continuity or on explicit starting values. In this paper, the authors describe the use of genetic algorithms to find minimal source solutions, using as an example a simulation inspired by the reconstruction of neural currents in the human brain from magnetoencephalographic (MEG) measurements.

  14. Heart bypass surgery - minimally invasive - discharge

    MedlinePlus

    ... thrombosis, 9th ed: American College of Chest Physicians evidence-based clinical practice guidelines. Chest . 2012;141(2 ... bypass surgery - minimally invasive Heart failure - overview High blood cholesterol ...

  15. Waste minimization and pollution prevention awareness plan

    SciTech Connect

    Not Available

    1991-05-31

    The purpose of this plan is to document the Lawrence Livermore National Laboratory (LLNL) Waste Minimization and Pollution Prevention Awareness Program. The plan specifies those activities and methods that are or will be employed to reduce the quantity and toxicity of wastes generated at the site. The intent of this plan is to respond to and comply with (DOE's) policy and guidelines concerning the need for pollution prevention. The Plan is composed of a LLNL Waste Minimization and Pollution Prevention Awareness Program Plan and, as attachments, Program- and Department-specific waste minimization plans. This format reflects the fact that waste minimization is considered a line management responsibility and is to be addressed by each of the Programs and Departments. 14 refs.

  16. Mixed waste minimiza