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Sample records for minimal lee-wick extension

  1. Lee-Wick black holes

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Bambi, Cosimo; Modesto, Leonardo; Wang, Yixu

    2017-01-01

    We derive and study an approximate static vacuum solution generated by a point-like source in a higher derivative gravitational theory with a pair of complex conjugate ghosts. The gravitational theory is local and characterized by a high derivative operator compatible with Lee-Wick unitarity. In particular, the tree-level two-point function only shows a pair of complex conjugate poles besides the massless spin two graviton. We show that singularity-free black holes exist when the mass of the source M exceeds a critical value Mcrit. For M >Mcrit the spacetime structure is characterized by an outer event horizon and an inner Cauchy horizon, while for M =Mcrit we have an extremal black hole with vanishing Hawking temperature. The evaporation process leads to a remnant that approaches the zero-temperature extremal black hole state in an infinite amount of time.

  2. Phenomenology of the N = 3 Lee-Wick Standard Model

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    TerBeek, Russell Henry

    With the discovery of the Higgs Boson in 2012, particle physics has decidedly moved beyond the Standard Model into a new epoch. Though the Standard Model particle content is now completely accounted for, there remain many theoretical issues about the structure of the theory in need of resolution. Among these is the hierarchy problem: since the renormalized Higgs mass receives quadratic corrections from a higher cutoff scale, what keeps the Higgs boson light? Many possible solutions to this problem have been advanced, such as supersymmetry, Randall-Sundrum models, or sub-millimeter corrections to gravity. One such solution has been advanced by the Lee-Wick Standard Model. In this theory, higher-derivative operators are added to the Lagrangian for each Standard Model field, which result in propagators that possess two physical poles and fall off more rapidly in the ultraviolet regime. It can be shown by an auxiliary field transformation that the higher-derivative theory is identical to positing a second, manifestly renormalizable theory in which new fields with opposite-sign kinetic and mass terms are found. These so-called Lee-Wick fields have opposite-sign propagators, and famously cancel off the quadratic divergences that plague the renormalized Higgs mass. The states in the Hilbert space corresponding to Lee-Wick particles have negative norm, and implications for causality and unitarity are examined. This dissertation explores a variant of the theory called the N = 3 Lee-Wick Standard Model. The Lagrangian of this theory features a yet-higher derivative operator, which produces a propagator with three physical poles and possesses even better high-energy behavior than the minimal Lee-Wick theory. An analogous auxiliary field transformation takes this higher-derivative theory into a renormalizable theory with states of alternating positive, negative, and positive norm. The phenomenology of this theory is examined in detail, with particular emphasis on the collider

  3. Lee-Wick standard model at finite temperature

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Lebed, Richard F.; Long, Andrew J.; TerBeek, Russell H.

    2013-10-01

    The Lee-Wick Standard Model at temperatures near the electroweak scale is considered, with the aim of studying the electroweak phase transition. While Lee-Wick theories possess states of negative norm, they are not pathological but instead are treated by imposing particular boundary conditions and using particular integration contours in the calculation of S-matrix elements. It is not immediately clear how to extend this prescription to formulate the theory at finite temperature; we explore two different pictures of finite-temperature Lee-Wick theories, and calculate the thermodynamic variables and the (one-loop) thermal effective potential. We apply these results to study the Lee-Wick Standard Model and find that the electroweak phase transition is a continuous crossover, much like in the Standard Model. However, the high-temperature behavior is modified due to cancellations between thermal corrections arising from the negative- and positive-norm states.

  4. Process gg{yields}h{sub 0}{yields}{gamma}{gamma} in the Lee-Wick standard model

    SciTech Connect

    Krauss, F.; Underwood, T. E. J.; Zwicky, R.

    2008-01-01

    The process gg{yields}h{sub 0}{yields}{gamma}{gamma} is studied in the Lee-Wick extension of the standard model (LWSM) proposed by Grinstein, O'Connell, and Wise. In this model, negative norm partners for each SM field are introduced with the aim to cancel quadratic divergences in the Higgs mass. All sectors of the model relevant to gg{yields}h{sub 0}{yields}{gamma}{gamma} are diagonalized and results are commented on from the perspective of both the Lee-Wick and higher-derivative formalisms. Deviations from the SM rate for gg{yields}h{sub 0} are found to be of the order of 15%-5% for Lee-Wick masses in the range 500-1000 GeV. Effects on the rate for h{sub 0}{yields}{gamma}{gamma} are smaller, of the order of 5%-1% for Lee-Wick masses in the same range. These comparatively small changes may well provide a means of distinguishing the LWSM from other models such as universal extra dimensions where same-spin partners to standard model fields also appear. Corrections to determinations of Cabibbo-Kobayashi-Maskawa (CKM) elements |V{sub t(b,s,d)}| are also considered and are shown to be positive, allowing the possibility of measuring a CKM element larger than unity, a characteristic signature of the ghostlike nature of the Lee-Wick fields.

  5. A new formulation of Lee-Wick quantum field theory

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Anselmi, Damiano; Piva, Marco

    2017-06-01

    The Lee-Wick models are higher-derivative theories that are claimed to be unitary thanks to a peculiar cancelation mechanism. In this paper, we provide a new formulation of the models, to clarify several aspects that have remained quite mysterious, so far. Specifically, we define them as nonanalytically Wick rotated Euclidean theories. The complex energy plane is divided into disconnected regions, which can be related to one another by a well-defined, albeit nonanalytic procedure. Working in a generic Lorentz frame, the models are intrinsically equipped with the right recipe to treat the pinchings of the Lee-Wick poles, with no need of external ad hoc prescriptions. We describe these features in detail by calculating the one-loop bubble diagram and explaining how the key properties generalize to more complicated diagrams. The physical results of our formulation are different from those of the previous ones. The unusual behaviors of the physical amplitudes lead to interesting phenomenological predictions.

  6. Perturbative unitarity of Lee-Wick quantum field theory

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Anselmi, Damiano; Piva, Marco

    2017-08-01

    We study the perturbative unitarity of the Lee-Wick models, formulated as nonanalytically Wick rotated Euclidean theories. The complex energy plane is divided into disconnected regions and the values of a loop integral in the various regions are related to one another by a nonanalytic procedure. We show that the one-loop diagrams satisfy the expected, unitary cutting equations in each region: only the physical d.o.f. propagate through the cuts. The goal can be achieved by working in suitable subsets of each region and proving that the cutting equations can be analytically continued as a whole. We make explicit calculations in the cases of the bubble and triangle diagrams and address the generality of our approach. We also show that the same higher-derivative models violate unitarity if they are formulated directly in Minkowski spacetime.

  7. Global symmetries and renormalizability of Lee-Wick theories

    SciTech Connect

    Chivukula, R. Sekhar; Farzinnia, Arsham; Foadi, Roshan; Simmons, Elizabeth H.

    2010-08-01

    In this paper we discuss the global symmetries and the renormalizability of Lee-Wick (LW) scalar QED. In particular, in the ''auxiliary-field'' formalism we identify softly broken SO(1,1) global symmetries of the theory. We introduce SO(1,1) invariant gauge-fixing conditions that allow us to show in the auxiliary-field formalism directly that the number of superficially divergent amplitudes in a LW Abelian gauge theory is finite. To illustrate the renormalizability of the theory, we explicitly carry out the one-loop renormalization program in LW scalar QED and demonstrate how the counterterms required are constrained by the joint conditions of gauge and SO(1,1) invariance. We also compute the one-loop beta functions in LW scalar QED and contrast them with those of ordinary scalar QED.

  8. Super-renormalizable or finite Lee-Wick quantum gravity

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Modesto, Leonardo

    2016-08-01

    We propose a class of multidimensional higher derivative theories of gravity without extra real degrees of freedom besides the graviton field. The propagator shows up the usual real graviton pole in k2 = 0 and extra complex conjugates poles that do not contribute to the absorptive part of the physical scattering amplitudes. Indeed, they may consistently be excluded from the asymptotic observable states of the theory making use of the Lee-Wick and Cutkosky, Landshoff, Olive and Polkinghorne prescription for the construction of a unitary S-matrix. Therefore, the spectrum consists of the graviton and short lived elementary unstable particles that we named ;anti-gravitons; because of their repulsive contribution to the gravitational potential at short distance. However, another interpretation of the complex conjugate pairs is proposed based on the Calmet's suggestion, i.e. they could be understood as black hole precursors long established in the classical theory. Since the theory is CPT invariant, the conjugate complex of the micro black hole precursor can be interpreted as a white hole precursor consistently with the 't Hooft complementarity principle. It is proved that the quantum theory is super-renormalizable in even dimension, i.e. only a finite number of divergent diagrams survive, and finite in odd dimension. Furthermore, turning on a local potential of the Riemann tensor we can make the theory finite in any dimension. The singularity-free Newtonian gravitational potential is explicitly computed for a range of higher derivative theories. Finally, we propose a new super-renormalizable or finite Lee-Wick standard model of particle physics.

  9. Toy model based analysis on the effect of the Lee-Wick partners in the evolution of the early universe

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Bhattacharya, Kaushik; Das, Suratna

    2012-07-01

    In the present article the thermodynamic results of the Lee-Wick partner infested universe have been applied in a toy model where there is one Lee-Wick partner to each of the standard model particles, and moreover, the longitudinal degrees of freedom of the massive partners of the standard massless gauge bosons are neglected at high temperatures. For practical purposes, the chiral fermionic sector of Lee-Wick theories requires two Lee-Wick partners per fermion, which opens up the possibility for a negative energy density of the early universe. A toy Lee-Wick model with one fermionic partner relaxes such oddities and hence is easy to deal with. In a similar way, the longitudinal degrees of freedom of the massive gauge boson partners also have the potential to yield negative energy densities, and thus those will be neglected in a toy model study. In such a toy model one can analytically calculate the time-temperature relation in the very early radiation dominated universe which shows interesting new physics. The article also tries to point out how a Lee-Wick particle dominated early cosmology transforms into the standard cosmological model. Based on the results of this toy model analysis a brief discussion is presented on the more realistic model, which can accommodate two Lee-Wick partners for each standard fermionic field and the longitudinal degree of freedom of partners of the gauge fields. It has been shown that such a universe is mostly very difficult to attain, but there are certain conditions where one can indeed think of such a universe which can evolve into the standard cosmological universe in a short time duration.

  10. Searching for Lee-Wick Gauge Bosons at the LHC

    SciTech Connect

    Rizzo, Thomas G.

    2007-04-30

    In an extension of the Standard Model(SM) based on the ideas of Lee and Wick, Grinstein, O'Connell and Wise have found an interesting way to remove the usual quadratically divergent contributions to the Higgs mass induced by radiative corrections. Phenomenologically, the model predicts the existence of Terascale, negative-norm copies of the usual SM fields with rather unique properties: ghost-like propagators and negative decay widths, but with otherwise SM-like couplings. The model is both unitary and causal on macroscopic scales. In this paper we examine whether or not such states with these unusual properties can be uniquely identified as such at the LHC. We find that in the extended strong and electroweak gauge boson sector of the model, which is the simplest one to analyze, such an identification can be rather difficult. Observation of heavy gluon-like resonances in the dijet channel offers the best hope for this identification.

  11. Causality as an emergent macroscopic phenomenon: The Lee-Wick O(N) model

    SciTech Connect

    Grinstein, Benjamin; O'Connell, Donal; Wise, Mark B.

    2009-05-15

    In quantum mechanics the deterministic property of classical physics is an emergent phenomenon appropriate only on macroscopic scales. Lee and Wick introduced Lorentz invariant quantum theories where causality is an emergent phenomenon appropriate for macroscopic time scales. In this paper we analyze a Lee-Wick version of the O(N) model. We argue that in the large-N limit this theory has a unitary and Lorentz invariant S matrix and is therefore free of paradoxes in scattering experiments. We discuss some of its acausal properties.

  12. Scale-invariant spectrum of Lee-Wick model in de Sitter spacetime

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Myung, Yun Soo; Moon, Taeyoon

    2015-02-01

    We obtain a scale-invariant spectrum from the Lee-Wick model in de Sitter spacetime. This model is a fourth-order scalar theory whose mass parameter is determined by M2=2H2. The Harrison-Zel'dovich scale-invariant spectrum is obtained by Fourier transforming the propagator in position space as well as by computing the power spectrum directly. It shows clearly that the LW scalar theory provides a truly scale-invariant spectrum in whole de Sitter, while the massless scalar propagation in de Sitter shows a scale-invariant spectrum in the superhorizon region only.

  13. Possible treatment of the ghost states in the Lee-Wick standard model

    SciTech Connect

    Shalaby, Abouzeid M.

    2009-07-15

    In this work, we employ the techniques used to cure the indefinite norm problem in pseudo-Hermitian Hamiltonians to show that the ghost states in a higher derivative scalar field theory are not real ghosts. For the model under investigation, an imaginary auxiliary field is introduced to have an equivalent non-Hermitian two-field scalar theory. We were able to calculate exactly the positive definite metric operator {eta} for the quantum mechanical as well as the quantum field versions of the theory. While the equivalent Hamiltonian is non-Hermitian in a Hilbert space characterized by the Dirac sense inner product, it is, however, a Hermitian in a Hilbert space endowed with the inner product . The main feature of the latter Hilbert space is that the propagator has the correct sign (no Lee-Wick fields). Moreover, the calculated metric operator diagonalizes the Hamiltonian in the two fields (no mixing). We found that the Hermiticity of the calculated metric operator to lead to the constrain M>2m for the two Higgs masses, in agreement with other calculations in the literature. Besides, our mass formulas coincide with those obtained in other works (obtained by a very different regime but with the existence of ghost states), which means that our positive normed Hamiltonian form preserves the mass spectra.

  14. Unitarity and Lee-Wick prescription at one loop level in the effective Myers-Pospelov electrodynamics: The e++e- annihilation

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Reyes, Carlos M.; Urrutia, L. F.

    2017-01-01

    We study perturbative unitarity in a Lorentz-symmetry-violating QED model with higher-order derivative operators in the light of the results of Lee and Wick to preserve unitarity in indefinite metric theories. Specifically, we consider the fermionic sector of the Myers-Pospelov model, which includes dimension-five operators, coupled to standard photons. We canonically quantize the model, paying attention to its effective character, and show that its Hamiltonian is stable, emphasizing the exact stage at which the indefinite metric appears and decomposes into a positive-metric sector and a negative-metric sector. Finally, we verify the optical theorem at the one-loop level in the annihilation channel of the forward-scattering process e+(p2,r )+e-(p1,s ) by applying the Lee-Wick prescription, in which the states associated with the negative metric are left out from the asymptotic Hilbert space, but nevertheless are considered in the loop integration via the propagator.

  15. Minimal conformal extensions of the Higgs sector

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Helmboldt, Alexander J.; Humbert, Pascal; Lindner, Manfred; Smirnov, Juri

    2017-07-01

    In this work we find the minimal extension of the Standard Model's Higgs sector which can lead to a light Higgs boson via radiative symmetry breaking and is consistent with the phenomenological requirements for a low-energy realization of a conformal theory. The model which turns out to be stable under renormalization group translations is an extension of the Standard Model by two scalar fields, one of which acquires a finite vacuum expectation value and therefore mixes into the physical Higgs. We find that the minimal model predicts a sizable amount of mixing which makes it testable at a collider. In addition to the physical Higgs, the theory's scalar spectrum contains one light and one heavy boson. The heavy scalar's properties render it a potential dark matter candidate.

  16. Entanglement as minimal discord over state extensions

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Luo, Shunlong

    2016-09-01

    The characterization and quantification of quantum correlations, which play an instrumental role in exploring and exploiting the quantum world, have been extensively and intensively studied in the past few decades. Of special prominence and significance are the concepts of entanglement and discord, which are usually regarded as very distinctive quantum correlations, with the latter going beyond the former. In this work we establish a direct and natural link between entanglement and discord via state extensions and reveal that entanglement is actually the intrinsic discord, by which we mean that entanglement is the irreducible residue of discord viewed from ambient spaces. Our approach, taking into account the contextuality of a quantum state and being of a global nature, stands in sharp contrast to the local operations and classical communication paradigm of entanglement, which focuses on the state itself via a local approach. Furthermore, we introduce a figure of merit which, on the one hand, captures the essence of entanglement, i.e., nonlocality and quantumness of correlations, and, on the other hand, leads to a quantitative decomposition of total correlations into classical correlations, dissonance, and entanglement. This demystifies the meaning of entanglement from the perspective of quantum measurements and provides a unified framework for the interplay of various correlations in terms of quantum measurements and mutual information.

  17. Holographically viable extensions of topologically massive and minimal massive gravity?

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Altas, Emel; Tekin, Bayram

    2016-01-01

    Recently [E. Bergshoeff et al., Classical Quantum Gravity 31, 145008 (2014)], an extension of the topologically massive gravity (TMG) in 2 +1 dimensions, dubbed as minimal massive gravity (MMG), which is free of the bulk-boundary unitarity clash that inflicts the former theory and all the other known three-dimensional theories, was found. Field equations of MMG differ from those of TMG at quadratic terms in the curvature that do not come from the variation of an action depending on the metric alone. Here we show that MMG is a unique theory and there does not exist a deformation of TMG or MMG at the cubic and quartic order (and beyond) in the curvature that is consistent at the level of the field equations. The only extension of TMG with the desired bulk and boundary properties having a single massive degree of freedom is MMG.

  18. Phenomenological studies of minimal extensions of standard model

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Kumar, Nilanjana

    The ATLAS and CMS experiments at the Large Hadron Collider (LHC) have confirmed the existence of the Higgs boson, the last missing piece of the Standard Model, making this era a great time to look for beyond Standard Model physics, which can explain the deficiencies in the Standard Model. The research described here is highly motivated by supersymmetry, which appears as an extension of the Standard Model. The phenomenological consequences of that are of great importance and have been reflected in this research. In the first project, the prospects for LHC discovery of a narrow resonance that decays to two Higgs bosons using the bb¯gammagamma final state are studied. This study is inspired by the compressed Minimal Supersymmetric Standard Model, which allows the production of stoponium (a bound state of the supersymmetric partners of the top quark and its antiquark) and its decay to Higgs boson pairs, but this study is applicable to any other di-Higgs resonance produced by gluon fusion. The cross-section needed for a 5-sigma discovery at the 14 TeV LHC for such a narrow di-Higgs resonance is estimated as a function of the integrated luminosity, using the invariant mass distributions for bb¯ and photons. I have also found the integrated luminosity required for discovery of stoponium as a function of its mass. In my second project a viable extension of the Standard Model which incorporates vectorlike fermions near the electroweak scale has been explored. Vectorlike quarks and leptons are exotic new fermions that transform in non-chiral representations of the unbroken Standard Model gauge group. Two models are considered, in which the vectorlike leptons are weak isosinglets and isodoublets. The vectorlike leptons decay to tau leptons. I have studied the prospects for excluding or discovering vectorlike leptons using multilepton events at the LHC. If the vectorlike leptons are weak isosinglets, then discovery in multilepton states is found to be extremely challenging

  19. Uniqueness of Lipschitz extensions: Minimizing the sup norm of the gradient

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Jensen, Robert

    1993-03-01

    In this paper we examine the problem of minimizing the sup norm of the gradient of a function with prescribed boundary values. Geometrically, this can be interpreted as finding a minimal Lipschitz extension. Due to the weak convexity of the functional associated to this problem, solutions are generally nonunique. By adopting G. Aronsson's notion of absolutely minimizing we are able to prove uniqueness by characterizing minimizers as the unique solutions of an associated partial differential equation. In fact, we actually prove a weak maximum principle for this partial differential equation, which in some sense is the Euler equation for the minimization problem. This is significantly difficult because the partial differential equation is both fully nonlinear and has very degenerate ellipticity. To overcome this difficulty we use the weak solutions of M. G. Crandall and P.-L. Lions, also known as viscosity solutions, in conjunction with some arguments using integration by parts.

  20. CP violation in neutrino oscillations in Minimal Supersymmetric extension of the Standard Model

    SciTech Connect

    Delepine, David; Gonzalez Macias, Vannia

    2008-07-02

    In this talk, we estimate the size of lepton flavor and CP violation in neutrino oscillations in the framework of Minimal Supersymmetric extension of the Standard Model (MSSM). We find that we may have significant CP-violating contributions up to an order of magnitude ({approx}10{sup -2}) smaller than the standard four-Fermi couplings.

  1. Clinicopathological Significance of Minimal Extrathyroid Extension in Solitary Papillary Thyroid Carcinomas.

    PubMed

    Woo, Chang Gok; Sung, Chang Ohk; Choi, Yun Mi; Kim, Won Gu; Kim, Tae Yong; Shong, Young Kee; Kim, Won Bae; Hong, Suck Joon; Song, Dong Eun

    2015-12-01

    The definitive diagnosis of minimal extrathyroid extension (ETE) is subjective because a well-defined true capsule is absent in the thyroid gland. We subclassified the extent of minimal ETE and investigated the clinicopathological significance of the presence of minimal ETE in patients with solitary papillary thyroid carcinomas (PTCs) and solitary papillary thyroid microcarcinomas (PTMCs). A series of 546 patients with solitary PTCs, including 144 patients with solitary PTMCs, were retrospectively analyzed. Whether the presence of minimal ETE had an effect on recurrence-free survival (RFS) along with other clinicopathological parameters was investigated. The only independent prognostic factor found to be associated with recurrence was the presence of LN metastasis in solitary PTC (p = 0.002) but not in solitary PTMC groups (p = 0.073). The presence of minimal ETE had no effect on RFS in both solitary PTC (p = 0.053) and solitary PTMC (p = 0.816). The presence of minimal ETE has no significant influence on RFS in solitary PTC and PTMC. There is a risk of overrepresenting the T3 category in solitary PTC and PTMC patients with minimal ETE.

  2. Minimization of the knee shear joint load in leg-extension equipment.

    PubMed

    Biscarini, A

    2008-10-01

    We developed an analytical biomechanical model for leg-extension equipment and the associated knee-extension/flexion exercises. The shear component, phi(t), of the tibiofemoral joint load was calculated taking into account all the fundamental elements of the equipment mechanics (resistance pad placement, cam/pulley system geometry, selected weight stack, etc.) and the instantaneous values of the relevant kinematical parameters (knee-flexion angle (theta(f)), angular velocity, and angular acceleration). The optimal distance (a(R))(OPT) between the knee-flexion/extension axis and the resistance pad placement point was derived by minimizing phi(t). (a(R))(OPT) is nearly independent of joint angular velocity and, for appreciably high resistance torques, becomes nearly independent of resistance level and cam/pulley geometry: for theta(f)>40 degrees , phi(t) is minimized by placing the resistance pad distally along the lower leg; for theta(f)extension phase and distally during knee-flexion phase (0.17 mextension equipment that minimizes phi(t).

  3. CKM mixings in an E[sub 6]-induced standard model extension and in the minimal supersymmetric standard model

    SciTech Connect

    Aydin, Z.Z.; Sultansoy, S.; Yilmazer, A.U. )

    1994-10-01

    The number of mixing angles and phases in the two popular extensions of the standard model (SM), the [ital E][sub 6]-induced SM extension and the minimal supersymmetric standard model with soft symmetry-breaking terms, is discussed. It is found that two [ital CP]-violating phases appear in the minimal supersymmetric SM even for the simplest case of one family.

  4. Unification and Dark Matter in a Minimal Scalar Extension of the Standard Model

    SciTech Connect

    Lisanti, Mariangela; Wacker, Jay G.

    2007-04-25

    The six Higgs doublet model is a minimal extension of the Standard Model (SM) that addresses dark matter and gauge coupling unification. Another Higgs doublet in the 5 representation of a discrete symmetry group, such as S{sub 6}, is added to the SM. The lightest components of the 5-Higgs are neutral, stable and serve as dark matter so long as the discrete symmetry is not broken. Direct and indirect detection signals, as well as collider signatures are discussed. The five-fold multiplicity of the dark matter decreases its mass and typically helps make the dark matter more visible in upcoming experiments.

  5. Casimir effect at finite temperature for pure-photon sector of the minimal Standard Model Extension

    SciTech Connect

    Santos, A.F.; Khanna, Faqir C.

    2016-12-15

    Dynamics between particles is governed by Lorentz and CPT symmetry. There is a violation of Parity (P) and CP symmetry at low levels. The unified theory, that includes particle physics and quantum gravity, may be expected to be covariant with Lorentz and CPT symmetry. At high enough energies, will the unified theory display violation of any symmetry? The Standard Model Extension (SME), with Lorentz and CPT violating terms, has been suggested to include particle dynamics. The minimal SME in the pure photon sector is considered in order to calculate the Casimir effect at finite temperature.

  6. Phenomenology of the minimal B-L extension of the standard model: The Higgs sector

    SciTech Connect

    Basso, Lorenzo; Moretti, Stefano; Pruna, Giovanni Marco

    2011-03-01

    We investigate the phenomenology of the Higgs sector of the minimal B-L extension of the standard model. We present results for both the foreseen energy stages of the Large Hadron Collider ({radical}(s)=7 and 14 TeV). We show that in such a scenario several novel production and decay channels involving the two physical Higgs states could be accessed at such a machine. Amongst these, several Higgs signatures have very distinctive features with respect to those of other models with an enlarged Higgs sector, as they involve interactions of Higgs bosons between themselves, with Z{sup '} bosons as well as with heavy neutrinos.

  7. Casimir effect at finite temperature for pure-photon sector of the minimal Standard Model Extension

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Santos, A. F.; Khanna, Faqir C.

    2016-12-01

    Dynamics between particles is governed by Lorentz and CPT symmetry. There is a violation of Parity (P) and CP symmetry at low levels. The unified theory, that includes particle physics and quantum gravity, may be expected to be covariant with Lorentz and CPT symmetry. At high enough energies, will the unified theory display violation of any symmetry? The Standard Model Extension (SME), with Lorentz and CPT violating terms, has been suggested to include particle dynamics. The minimal SME in the pure photon sector is considered in order to calculate the Casimir effect at finite temperature.

  8. Constraining minimal anomaly free U(1) extensions of the Standard Model

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Ekstedt, Andreas; Enberg, Rikard; Ingelman, Gunnar; Löfgren, Johan; Mandal, Tanumoy

    2016-11-01

    We consider a class of minimal anomaly free U(1) extensions of the Standard Model with three generations of right-handed neutrinos and a complex scalar. Using electroweak precision constraints, new 13 TeV LHC data, and considering theoretical limitations such as perturbativity, we show that it is possible to constrain a wide class of models. By classifying these models with a single parameter, κ, we can put a model independent upper bound on the new U(1) gauge coupling g z . We find that the new dilepton data puts strong bounds on the parameters, especially in the mass region M Z ' ≲ 3 TeV.

  9. Minimal vs extensive esophageal mobilization during laparoscopic fundoplication: a prospective randomized trial

    PubMed Central

    St. Peter, Shawn D.; Barnhart, Douglas C.; Ostlie, Daniel J.; Tsao, KuoJen; Leys, Charles M.; Sharp, Susan W.; Bartle, Donna; Morgan, Tracey; Harmon, Carroll M.; Georgeson, Keith E.; Holcomb, George W.

    2011-01-01

    Purpose Laparoscopic Nissen fundoplication has been traditionally performed with extensive esophageal dissection to create 2 to 3 cm of intraabdominal esophagus. Retrospective data have suggested that minimal esophageal mobilization may reduce the risk of postoperative herniation of the wrap into the lower mediastinum. To compare complete esophageal dissection to leaving the phrenoesophageal attachment intact, we conducted a 2-center, prospective, randomized trial. Methods After obtaining permission/assent, patients were randomized to circumferential division of the phrenoesophageal attachments (MAX) or minimal mobilization with no violation of the phrenoesophageal membrane (MIN). A contrast study was performed at 1 year. The primary outcome variable was postoperative wrap herniation. Results One hundred seventy-seven patients were enrolled in the study (MIN, n = 90; MAX, n = 87) from February 2006 to May 2008. There were no differences in demographics or operative time. Contrast studies were performed in 64 MIN and 71 MAX patients, respectively. The transmigration rate was 30% in the MAX group compared with 7.8% in the MIN group (P = .002). The reoperation rate was 18.4% in the MAX group and 3.3% in the MIN group (P = .006) Conclusions Minimal esophageal mobilization during laparoscopic fundoplication decreases postoperative wrap transmigration and the need for a redo operation. PMID:21238659

  10. Search for Neutral Higgs Bosons of the Minimal Supersymmetric Extension of the Standard Model with SLD

    SciTech Connect

    Ma, J

    2004-01-06

    The authors searched for the light neutral scalar Higgs boson h{sup o} and the pseudoscalar Higgs boson A{sup o} of the Minimal Supersymmetric Extension of the Standard Model (MSSM) for the case tan {beta} < 1. The experiment was done with the SLD detector at the Stanford Linear Accelerator Center (SLAC). This analysis is based on the data set collected during the 1993 physics run which contained about 50,000 hadronic Z{sup o} events. After the event selection cuts for hadronic Z{sup 0} decays with CDC information, they select 27,560 events. The Monte Carlo (MC) simulated event distributions agree very well with the data. Good agreement is achieved between MC and the data on the number of events passing each of the event selection cuts.

  11. Flaxion: a minimal extension to solve puzzles in the standard model

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Ema, Yohei; Hamaguchi, Koichi; Moroi, Takeo; Nakayama, Kazunori

    2017-01-01

    We propose a minimal extension of the standard model which includes only one additional complex scalar field, flavon, with flavor-dependent global U(1) symmetry. It not only explains the hierarchical flavor structure in the quark and lepton sector (including neutrino sector), but also solves the strong CP problem by identifying the CP-odd component of the flavon as the QCD axion, which we call flaxion. Furthermore, the flaxion model solves the cosmological puzzles in the standard model, i.e., origin of dark matter, baryon asymmetry of the universe, and inflation. We show that the radial component of the flavon can play the role of inflaton without isocurvature nor domain wall problems. The dark matter abundance can be explained by the flaxion coherent oscillation, while the baryon asymmetry of the universe is generated through leptogenesis.

  12. Revised WMAP constraints on neutrino masses and other extensions of the minimal {lambda}CDM model

    SciTech Connect

    Kristiansen, Jostein R.; Elgaroey, Oystein; Eriksen, Hans Kristian

    2006-12-15

    Recently, two issues concerning the three-year Wilkinson Microwave Anisotropy Probe (WMAP) likelihood code were pointed out. On large angular scales (l(less-or-similar sign)30), a suboptimal likelihood approximation resulted in a small power excess. On small angular scales (l(greater-or-similar sign)300), over-subtraction of unresolved point sources produced a small power deficit. For a minimal six-parameter cosmological model, these two effects conspired to decrease the value of n{sub s} by {approx}0.7{sigma}. In this paper, we study the change in preferred parameter ranges for extended cosmological models, including running of n{sub s}, massive neutrinos, curvature, and the equation of state for dark energy. We also include large-scale structure and supernova data in our analysis. We find that the parameter ranges for {alpha}{sub s}, {omega}{sub k} and w are not much altered by the modified analysis. For massive neutrinos the upper limit on the sum of the neutrino masses decreases from M{sub {nu}}<1.90 eV to M{sub {nu}}<1.57 eV when using the modified WMAP code and WMAP data only. We also find that the shift of n{sub s} to higher values is quite robust to these extensions of the minimal cosmological model.

  13. Minimally oxidized LDL offsets the apoptotic effects of extensively oxidized LDL and free cholesterol in macrophages.

    PubMed

    Boullier, Agnès; Li, Yankun; Quehenberger, Oswald; Palinski, Wulf; Tabas, Ira; Witztum, Joseph L; Miller, Yury I

    2006-05-01

    Lipid-loaded macrophage-derived foam cells populate atherosclerotic lesions and produce many pro-inflammatory and plaque-destabilizing factors. An excessive accumulation of extensively oxidized low-density lipoprotein (OxLDL) or free cholesterol (FC), both of which are believed to be major lipid components of macrophages in advanced lesions, rapidly induces apoptosis in macrophages. Indeed, there is evidence of macrophage death in lesions, but how the surviving macrophages avoid death induced by OxLDL, FC, and other factors is not known. Minimally oxidized LDL (mmLDL), which is an early product of progressive LDL oxidation in atherosclerotic lesions, countered OxLDL-induced or FC-induced apoptosis and stimulated macrophage survival both in cell culture and in vivo. DNA fragmentation and caspase-3 activity in OxLDL-treated peritoneal macrophages were significantly reduced by coincubation with mmLDL. In a separate set of experiments, mmLDL significantly reduced annexin V binding to macrophages in which apoptosis was induced by FC loading. In both cellular models, mmLDL activated a pro-survival PI3K/Akt signaling pathway, and PI3K inhibitors, wortmannin and LY294002, eliminated the pro-survival effect of mmLDL. Immunohistochemical examination demonstrated phospho-Akt in murine atherosclerotic lesions. Minimally oxidized LDL, an early form of oxidized LDL in atherosclerotic lesions, may contribute to prolonged survival of macrophage foam cells in lesions via a PI3K/Akt-dependent mechanism.

  14. Inter-Observer Variation in the Pathologic Identification of Minimal Extrathyroidal Extension in Papillary Thyroid Carcinoma.

    PubMed

    Su, Henry K; Wenig, Bruce M; Haser, Grace C; Rowe, Meghan E; Asa, Sylvia L; Baloch, Zubair; Du, Eugenie; Faquin, William C; Fellegara, Giovanni; Giordano, Thomas; Ghossein, Ronald; LiVolsi, Virginia A; Lloyd, Ricardo; Mete, Ozgur; Ozbek, Umut; Rosai, Juan; Suster, Saul; Thompson, Lester D; Turk, Andrew T; Urken, Mark L

    2016-04-01

    Extrathyroidal extension (ETE) is a significant prognostic factor in papillary thyroid carcinoma (PTC). Minimal extrathyroidal extension (mETE) is characterized by involvement of the sternothyroid muscle or perithyroid soft tissue, and is generally identified by light microscope examination. Patients with mETE, identified pathologically, are automatically upstaged to pT3. However, the prognostic implications of mETE have been a source of controversy in the literature. Moreover, there is also controversy surrounding the identification of mETE on pathological specimens. The objective of this study was to determine the level of agreement among expert pathologists in the identification of mETE in PTC cases. Eleven expert pathologists from the United States, Italy, and Canada were asked to perform a review of 69 scanned slides of representative permanent sections of PTC specimens. Each slide was evaluated for the presence of mETE. The pathologists were also asked to list the criteria they use to identify mETE. The overall strength of agreement for identifying mETE was slight (κ = 0.14). Inter-pathologist agreement was best for perithyroidal skeletal muscle involvement (κ = 0.46, moderate agreement) and worst for invasion around thick-walled vascular structures (κ = 0.02, slight agreement). In addition, there was disagreement over the constellation of histologic features that are diagnostic for mETE, which affected overall agreement for diagnosing mETE. Overall agreement for the identification of mETE is poor. Disagreement is a result of both variation in individual pathologists' interpretations of specimens and disagreement on the histologic criteria for mETE. Thus, the utility of mETE in staging and treatment of PTC is brought into question. The lack of concordance may explain the apparent lack of agreement regarding the prognostic significance of this pathologic feature.

  15. Inter-Observer Variation in the Pathologic Identification of Minimal Extrathyroidal Extension in Papillary Thyroid Carcinoma

    PubMed Central

    Su, Henry K.; Wenig, Bruce M.; Rowe, Meghan E.; Asa, Sylvia L.; Baloch, Zubair; Du, Eugenie; Faquin, William C.; Fellegara, Giovanni; Giordano, Thomas; Ghossein, Ronald; LiVolsi, Virginia A.; Lloyd, Ricardo; Mete, Ozgur; Ozbek, Umut; Rosai, Juan; Suster, Saul; Thompson, Lester D.; Turk, Andrew T.; Urken, Mark L.

    2016-01-01

    Background: Extrathyroidal extension (ETE) is a significant prognostic factor in papillary thyroid carcinoma (PTC). Minimal extrathyroidal extension (mETE) is characterized by involvement of the sternothyroid muscle or perithyroid soft tissue, and is generally identified by light microscope examination. Patients with mETE, identified pathologically, are automatically upstaged to pT3. However, the prognostic implications of mETE have been a source of controversy in the literature. Moreover, there is also controversy surrounding the identification of mETE on pathological specimens. The objective of this study was to determine the level of agreement among expert pathologists in the identification of mETE in PTC cases. Methods: Eleven expert pathologists from the United States, Italy, and Canada were asked to perform a review of 69 scanned slides of representative permanent sections of PTC specimens. Each slide was evaluated for the presence of mETE. The pathologists were also asked to list the criteria they use to identify mETE. Results: The overall strength of agreement for identifying mETE was slight (κ = 0.14). Inter-pathologist agreement was best for perithyroidal skeletal muscle involvement (κ = 0.46, moderate agreement) and worst for invasion around thick-walled vascular structures (κ = 0.02, slight agreement). In addition, there was disagreement over the constellation of histologic features that are diagnostic for mETE, which affected overall agreement for diagnosing mETE. Conclusions: Overall agreement for the identification of mETE is poor. Disagreement is a result of both variation in individual pathologists' interpretations of specimens and disagreement on the histologic criteria for mETE. Thus, the utility of mETE in staging and treatment of PTC is brought into question. The lack of concordance may explain the apparent lack of agreement regarding the prognostic significance of this pathologic feature. PMID:26953223

  16. Top quark electric dipole moment in a minimal supersymmetric standard model extension with vectorlike multiplets

    SciTech Connect

    Ibrahim, Tarek; Nath, Pran

    2010-09-01

    The electric dipole moment (EDM) of the top quark is calculated in a model with a vector like multiplet which mixes with the third generation in an extension of the minimal supersymmetric standard model. Such mixings allow for new CP violating phases. Including these new CP phases, the EDM of the top in this class of models is computed. The top EDM arises from loops involving the exchange of the W, the Z as well as from the exchange involving the charginos, the neutralinos, the gluino, and the vector like multiplet and their superpartners. The analysis of the EDM of the top is more complicated than for the light quarks because the mass of the external fermion, in this case the top quark mass cannot be ignored relative to the masses inside the loops. A numerical analysis is presented and it is shown that the top EDM could be close to 10{sup -19} ecm consistent with the current limits on the EDM of the electron, the neutron and on atomic EDMs. A top EDM of size 10{sup -19} ecm could be accessible in collider experiments such as the International Linear Collider.

  17. Naturalness made easy: two-loop naturalness bounds on minimal SM extensions

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Clarke, Jackson D.; Cox, Peter

    2017-02-01

    The main result of this paper is a collection of conservative naturalness bounds on minimal extensions of the Standard Model by (vector-like) fermionic or scalar gauge multiplets. Within, we advocate for an intuitive and physical concept of naturalness built upon the renormalisation group equations. In the effective field theory of the Standard Model plus a gauge multiplet with mass M , the low scale Higgs mass parameter is a calculable function of overline{MS} input parameters defined at some high scale Λ h > M . If the Higgs mass is very sensitive to these input parameters, then this signifies a naturalness problem. To sensibly capture the sensitivity, it is shown how a sensitivity measure can be rigorously derived as a Bayesian model comparison, which reduces in a relevant limit to a Barbieri-Giudice-like fine-tuning measure. This measure is fully generalisable to any perturbative EFT. The interesting results of our two-loop renormalisation group study are as follows: for Λ h = ΛPl we find "10% fine-tuning" bounds on the masses of various gauge multiplets of M

  18. Stability of the Tree-Level Vacuum in a Minimal S3 Extension of the Standard Model

    SciTech Connect

    Emmanuel-Costa, D.; Felix-Beltran, O.; Mondragon, M.; Rodriguez-Jauregui, E.

    2007-06-19

    In this work we analyzed the stability of the minimal S3 invariant extension of the Higgs potential. In the S3 invariant minimal standard model it is assumed that the Higgs fields belong to the three-dimensional reducible representation of the permutation group S3. We show that in the three S3 Higgs doublet model at tree-level the potential minimum preserving electric charge and CP symmetries, when it exists, is the global one.

  19. Shelf-life extension of minimally processed carrots by gaseous chlorine dioxide.

    PubMed

    Gómez-López, V M; Devlieghere, F; Ragaert, P; Debevere, J

    2007-05-10

    Chlorine dioxide (ClO(2)) gas is a strong oxidizing and sanitizing agent that has a broad and high biocidal effectiveness and big penetration ability; its efficacy to prolong the shelf-life of a minimally processed (MP) vegetable, grated carrots (Daucus carota L.), was tested in this study. Carrots were sorted, their ends removed, hand peeled, cut, washed, spin dried and separated in 2 portions, one to be treated with ClO(2) gas and the other to remain untreated for comparisons. MP carrots were decontaminated in a cabinet at 91% relative humidity and 28 degrees C for up to 6 min, including 30 s of ClO(2) injection to the cabinet, then stored under equilibrium modified atmosphere (4.5% O(2), 8.9% CO(2), 86.6% N(2)) at 7 degrees C for shelf-life studies. ClO(2) concentration in the cabinet rose to 1.33 mg/l after 30 s of treatment, and then fell to nil before 6 min. The shelf-life study included: O(2) and CO(2) headspace concentrations, microbiological quality (mesophilic aerobic bacteria, psychrotrophs, lactic acid bacteria, and yeasts), sensory quality (odour, flavour, texture, overall visual quality, and white blushing), and pH. ClO(2) did not affect respiration rate of MP carrots significantly (alpha< or =0.05), and lowered the pH significantly (alpha< or =0.05). The applied packaging configuration kept O(2) headspace concentrations in treated samples in equilibrium and prevented CO(2) accumulation. After ClO(2) treatment, the decontamination levels (log CFU/g) achieved were 1.88, 1.71, 2.60, and 0.66 for mesophilic aerobic bacteria, psychrotrophs, and yeasts respectively. The initial sensory quality of MP carrots was not impaired significantly (alpha< or =0.05). A lag phase of at least 2 days was observed for mesophilic aerobic bacteria, psychrotrophs, and lactic acid bacteria in treated samples, while mesophilic aerobic bacteria and psychrotrophs increased parallelly. Odour was the only important attribute in sensory deterioration, but it reached an

  20. Technology-assisted writing opportunities for a man emerged from a minimally conscious state and affected by extensive motor disabilities.

    PubMed

    Lancioni, Giulio E; O'Reilly, Mark F; Singh, Nirbhay N; Oliva, Doretta; Buonocunto, Francesca; Belardinelli, Marta Olivetti

    2011-01-01

    To assess a computer-aided technology for assisting writing in a man who emerged from a minimally conscious state and presented with extensive motor disabilities. The technology served to present letters, in groups, at the centre of a computer screen and display (write) the letters selected by the man (i.e. through a simplified pointing response) on the upper half of that screen. The results showed that the technology enabled the man to produce clear (readily readable) writing. This writing compared positively with the results obtained using a communication board containing the letters (i.e. a system already available to the man). Computer-aided technology may provide basic writing (communication) opportunities to persons emerged from a minimally conscious state and affected by extensive motor disabilities and lack of speech.

  1. Assisted head extension minimizes the frequency of dental contact with laryngoscopic blade during tracheal intubation.

    PubMed

    Kim, Hyun Joo; Lee, Jung-Man; Bahk, Jae-Hyon

    2013-12-01

    We hypothesized that the assisted maintenance of head extension would reduce the frequency of direct contact between the laryngoscope blade and the maxillary incisors during tracheal intubation. Sixty-eight patients undergoing elective surgical procedures under general anesthesia were enrolled in this prospective, randomized, controlled crossover study. A single experienced anesthesiologist performed the simulated tracheal intubations with a classic Macintosh laryngoscope. After reaching the sniffing position during direct laryngoscopy, tracheal intubations with and without maintaining the head extension (by an assistant) were simulated twice in each patient in random order. The occurrence of dental contact with the laryngoscope blade was recorded during the simulated tracheal intubation. The distance between the laryngoscopic blade and maxillary central incisors was assessed using a digital caliper. The angle of head extension and the glottic view were also evaluated. The frequency of dental contact was lower with the assisted head extension than without it (25/68 [37%] vs 67/68 [99%], P < .001). The blade-to-tooth distance was longer with assistance than without it (1.8 ± 1.9 [0-8] mm vs 0.0 ± 0.1 [0-1] mm, P < .001). The angle of head extension was greater with assistance than without it (26.6° ± 5.8° [6.0°-37.4°] vs 19.9° ± 5.4° [3.4°-31.8°], P < .001). No significant difference was observed between 2 simulated tracheal intubations with regard to the glottic views. The assisted maintenance of head extension during the simulation of tracheal intubation reduced the frequency of dental contact with the laryngoscopic blade without compromising the laryngoscopic views. The results of this study suggest that assisted head extension during tracheal intubation may reduce the possibility of unexpected dental injury. © 2013.

  2. Minimal SO(10) GUT in 4D and its extension to 5D

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Fukuyama, Takeshi

    2012-07-01

    The problems of renormalizable minimal SUSY SO(10) GUT in 4D are discussed. Its highly predictivity has been cultivated by many observations, which urges further its progresses. We show why broad data fittings and conceptual problems drive us to 5D and how it improves the model.

  3. Renormalization group equation study of the scalar sector of the minimal B-L extension of the standard model

    SciTech Connect

    Basso, Lorenzo; Moretti, Stefano; Pruna, Giovanni Marco

    2010-09-01

    We present the complete set of renormalization group equations at one loop for the nonexotic minimal U(1) extension of the standard model (SM). It includes all models that are anomaly-free with the SM fermion content augmented by one right-handed neutrino per generation. We then pursue the numerical study of the pure B-L model, deriving the triviality and vacuum stability bounds on an enlarged scalar sector comprising one additional Higgs singlet field with respect to the SM.

  4. Consistent cosmology with Higgs thermal inflation in a minimal extension of the MSSM

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Hindmarsh, Mark; Jones, D. R. Timothy

    2013-03-01

    We consider a class of supersymmetric inflation models, in which minimal gauged F-term hybrid inflation is coupled renormalisably to the minimal supersymmetric standard model (MSSM), with no extra ingredients; we call this class the ``minimal hybrid inflationary supersymmetric standard model'' (MHISSM). The singlet inflaton couples to the Higgs as well as the waterfall fields, supplying the Higgs μ-term. We show how such models can exit inflation to a vacuum characterised by large Higgs vevs, whose vacuum energy is controlled by supersymmetry-breaking. The true ground state is reached after an intervening period of thermal inflation along the Higgs flat direction, which has important consequences for the cosmology of the F-term inflation scenario. The scalar spectral index is reduced, with a value of approximately 0.976 in the case where the inflaton potential is dominated by the 1-loop radiative corrections. The reheat temperature following thermal inflation is about 109 GeV, which solves the gravitino overclosure problem. A Higgs condensate reduces the cosmic string mass per unit length, rendering it compatible with the Cosmic Microwave Background constraints without tuning the inflaton coupling. With the minimal U(1)' gauge symmetry in the inflation sector, where one of the waterfall fields generates a right-handed neutrino mass, we investigate the Higgs thermal inflation scenario in three popular supersymmetry-breaking schemes: AMSB, GMSB and the CMSSM, focusing on the implications for the gravitino bound. In AMSB enough gravitinos can be produced to account for the observed dark matter abundance through decays into neutralinos. In GMSB we find an upper bound on the gravitino mass of about a TeV, while in the CMSSM the thermally generated gravitinos are sub-dominant. When Big Bang Nucleosynthesis constraints are taken into account, the unstable gravitinos of AMSB and the CMSSM must have a mass O(10) TeV or greater, while in GMSB we find an upper bound on the

  5. Lagrangian Formulation of a Magnetostatic Field in the Presence of a Minimal Length Scale Based on the Kempf Algebra

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Moayedi, S. K.; Setare, M. R.; Khosropour, B.

    2013-11-01

    In the 1990s, Kempf and his collaborators Mangano and Mann introduced a D-dimensional (β, β‧)-two-parameter deformed Heisenberg algebra which leads to an isotropic minimal length (\\triangle Xi)\\min = \\hbar √ {Dβ +β '}, \\forall i\\in \\{1, 2, ..., D\\}. In this work, the Lagrangian formulation of a magnetostatic field in three spatial dimensions (D = 3) described by Kempf algebra is presented in the special case of β‧ = 2β up to the first-order over β. We show that at the classical level there is a similarity between magnetostatics in the presence of a minimal length scale (modified magnetostatics) and the magnetostatic sector of the Abelian Lee-Wick model in three spatial dimensions. The integral form of Ampere's law and the energy density of a magnetostatic field in the modified magnetostatics are obtained. Also, the Biot-Savart law in the modified magnetostatics is found. By studying the effect of minimal length corrections to the gyromagnetic moment of the muon, we conclude that the upper bound on the isotropic minimal length scale in three spatial dimensions is 4.42×10-19 m. The relationship between magnetostatics with a minimal length and the Gaete-Spallucci nonlocal magnetostatics [J. Phys. A: Math. Theor. 45, 065401 (2012)] is investigated.

  6. Shelf life extension of minimally processed cabbage and cucumber through gamma irradiation.

    PubMed

    Khattak, Amal Badshah; Bibi, Nizakat; Chaudry, Muhammad Ashraf; Khan, Misal; Khan, Maazullah; Qureshi, Muhammad Jamil

    2005-01-01

    The influence of irradiation of minimally processed cabbage and cucumber on microbial safety, texture, and sensory quality was investigated. Minimally processed, polyethylene-packed, and irradiated cabbage and cucumber were stored at refrigeration temperature (5 degrees C) for 2 weeks. The firmness values ranged from 3.23 kg (control) to 2.82 kg (3.0-kGy irradiated samples) for cucumbers, with a gradual decrease in firmness with increasing radiation dose (0 to 3 kGy). Cucumbers softened just after irradiation with a dose of 3.0 kGy and after 14 days storage, whereas the texture remained within acceptable limits up to a radiation dose of 2.5 kGy. The radiation treatment had no effect on the appearance scores of cabbage; however, scores decreased from 7.0 to 6.7 during storage. The appearance and flavor scores of cucumbers decreased with increasing radiation dose, and overall acceptability was better after radiation doses of 2.5 and 3.0 kGy. The aerobic plate counts per gram for cabbage increased from 3 to 5 log CFU (control), from 1.85 to 2.93 log CFU (2.5 kGy), and from a few colonies to 2.6 log CFU (3.0 kGy) after 14 days of storage at 5 degrees C. A similar trend was noted for cucumber samples. No coliform bacteria were detected at radiation doses greater than 2.0 kGy in either cabbage or cucumber samples. Total fungal counts per gram of sample were within acceptable limits for cucumbers irradiated at 3.0 kGy, and for cabbage no fungi were detected after 2.0-kGy irradiation. The D-values for Escherichia coli in cucumber and cabbage were 0.19 and 0.17 kGy, and those for Salmonella Paratyphi A were 0.25 and 0.29 kGy for cucumber and cabbage, respectively.

  7. A tetraploid minimally differentiated acute myeloblastic leukemia with extensive erythrophagocytosis: a case report and literature review.

    PubMed

    Li, Li; Li, Jianlan; Li, Guoxia; Tan, Yanhong; Chen, Xiuhua; Ren, Fanggang; Guo, Haixiu; Wang, Hongwei

    2012-12-01

    Tetraploidy is a rare chromosome number aberration in de novo acute myeloid leukemia (AML), and may be associated with erythrophagocytosis by leukemic blast cells. We report a 48-year-old female patient with minimally differentiated acute myeloblastic leukemia (AML-M0) exhibiting tetraploidy and erythrophagocytosis. The karyotype was 46,XX[2]/92,XXXX[18]. Bone marrow aspirate smears showed large and prominent nuclei, with erythrophagocytosis in leukemic cells. Fluorescence in situ hybridization using RUNX1 dual color break probes detected four fusion signals, accounting for 95 % (190/200), in one interphase nucleus. The mutations of TP53 and the fusion genes RUNX1/ETO, CBFβ/MYH11, and PML/RARα were all negative. This patient showed a poor response to chemotherapy, and died 66 days after the onset. To our knowledge, this is the first reported case of AML-M0 with tetraploidy and erythrophagocytosis and without additional chromosome aberrations. This case of tetraploid AML with poor prognosis suggests that further biological study of more cases of tetraploid AML will be of great importance in improving the understanding and prognosis of this tetraploid AML.

  8. Shelf life extension of minimally processed ready-to-cook (RTC) cabbage by gamma irradiation.

    PubMed

    Banerjee, Aparajita; Chatterjee, Suchandra; Variyar, Prasad S; Sharma, Arun

    2016-01-01

    Gamma irradiation (0.5-2.5 kGy) in combination with low temperature (4-15 °C) storage was attempted to increase shelf life of ready-to-cook shredded cabbage wrapped in cling films. A maximum extension in shelf life of 8 days, while retaining the microbial and sensory quality, was obtained with an irradiation dose of 2 kGy and storage at 10 °C. Gamma irradiation also inhibited browning of shredded cabbage at their cut edges resulting in enhanced visual appeal. An increase in total antioxidant activity was observed with respect to DPPH and hydroxyl radical scavenging ability while the nitric oxide radical scavenging activity and ferric reducing property remained unaffected with irradiation. Total phenolic, flavonoid and vitamin C content remained unchanged due to irradiation. No significant migration of additives from cling films into stimulant water was observed up to a radiation dose of 2 kGy thus demonstrating the feasibility of such films for above applications.

  9. Discussing direct search of dark matter particles in the minimal supersymmetric extension of the standard model with light neutralinos

    SciTech Connect

    Fornengo, N.; Scopel, S.; Bottino, A.

    2011-01-01

    We examine the status of light neutralinos in an effective minimal supersymmetric extension of the standard model at the electroweak scale which was considered in the past and discussed in terms of the available data of direct searches for dark matter particles. Our reanalysis is prompted by new measurements at the Tevatron and B factories which might potentially provide significant constraints on the minimal supersymmetric extension of the standard model. Here we examine in detail all these new data and show that the present published results from the Tevatron and B factories have only a mild effect on the original light-neutralino population. This population, which fits quite well the DAMA/LIBRA annual modulation data, would also agree with the preliminary results of CDMS, CoGeNT, and CRESST, should these data, which are at present only hints of excesses of events over the expected backgrounds, be interpreted as authentic signals of dark matter. For the neutralino mass we find a lower bound of 7-8 GeV. Our results differ from some recent conclusions by other authors because of a few crucial points which we try to single out and elucidate.

  10. Correlation of minimal extrathyroidal extension with pathologic features of lymph node metastasis in patients with papillary thyroid carcinoma.

    PubMed

    Lee, Hyoung Shin; Park, Chanwoo; Kim, Sung Won; Park, Taejung; Chun, Bong Kwon; Hong, Jong Chul; Lee, Kang Dae

    2015-11-01

    The impact of minimal extrathyroidal extension (mETE) to the prognosis of patients with papillary thyroid carcinoma (PTC) is controversial. In this study, we investigated whether mETE is related to the aggressive biology of metastatic lymph node (LN) in patients with PTC. A retrospective review of 369 patients who had biopsy-confirmed cervical LN metastasis after initial surgery for PTC was conducted. The correlations of mETE with the specific features of metastatic LNs such as the LN size, number, LN ratio, and presence of extranodal extension (ENE) were statistically analyzed. Size of the primary tumor (≥1 cm) had independent correlations to mETE (HR = 5.750). While mETE was related to number of metastatic LNs (≥5), LN ratio (≥0.31) and ENE in univariate analysis, only ENE (HR = 2.322) was independently correlated to mETE in our series. Along with mETE, size of primary tumor (≥1 cm) had significant impact on ENE (HR = 2.107). Minimal ETE particularly those with larger primary tumor (≥1 cm) may be still considered as a significant factor regarding the management of cervical LNs in patients with PTC. © 2015 Wiley Periodicals, Inc.

  11. Technology-assisted messaging opportunities for two persons emerged from a minimally conscious state and showing extensive motor disabilities.

    PubMed

    Lancioni, Giulio; O'Reilly, Mark; Singh, Nirbhay; Buonocunto, Francesca; Sacco, Valentina; Colonna, Fabio; Navarro, Jorge; Oliva, Doretta; Megna, Marisa

    2011-01-01

    To extend the assessment of a special messaging technology with two adults emerged from a minimally conscious state and showing extensive motor disabilities as well as limited or no oral/verbal skills. The study involved a non-concurrent multiple baseline design across participants. Both participants started with baseline in which the technology was not available, and continued with intervention in which the technology was used. The technology involved a net-book computer provided with specific software, a global system for mobile communication (GSM) modem, microswitches, and pre-recorded lists of persons and messages. Both participants learned to send out and receive (listen to) messages independently during the intervention. They sent out a mean of three or three and a half messages and received a mean of one and a half messages per 20-minute session. Special messaging technology may help post-coma persons with multiple disabilities engage in basic communication with distant partners.

  12. Two dark matter components in dark matter extension of the minimal supersymmetric standard model and the high energy positron spectrum in PAMELA/HEAT data

    SciTech Connect

    Huh, Ji-Haeng; Kim, Jihn E.; Kyae, Bumseok

    2009-03-15

    We present a dark matter extension of the minimal supersymmetric standard model to give the recent trend of the high energy positron spectrum of the PAMELA/HEAT experiments. If the trend is caused indeed by dark matter, the minimal supersymmetric standard model needs to be extended. Here, we minimally extend the minimal supersymmetric standard model with one more dark matter component N together with a heavy lepton E and introduce the coupling e{sub R}E{sub R}{sup c}N{sub R}. This coupling naturally appears in the flipped SU(5) grand unification models. We also present the needed parameter ranges of these additional particles.

  13. A Singlet Extension of the Minimal Supersymmetric Standard Model: Towards a More Natural Solution to the Little Hierarchy Problem

    SciTech Connect

    de la Puente, Alejandro

    2012-05-01

    In this work, I present a generalization of the Next-to-Minimal Supersymmetric Standard Model (NMSSM), with an explicit μ-term and a supersymmetric mass for the singlet superfield, as a route to alleviating the little hierarchy problem of the Minimal Supersymmetric Standard Model (MSSM). I analyze two limiting cases of the model, characterized by the size of the supersymmetric mass for the singlet superfield. The small and large limits of this mass parameter are studied, and I find that I can generate masses for the lightest neutral Higgs boson up to 140 GeV with top squarks below the TeV scale, all couplings perturbative up to the gauge unification scale, and with no need to fine tune parameters in the scalar potential. This model, which I call the S-MSSM is also embedded in a gauge-mediated supersymmetry breaking scheme. I find that even with a minimal embedding of the S-MSSM into a gauge mediated scheme, the mass for the lightest Higgs boson can easily be above 114 GeV, while keeping the top squarks below the TeV scale. Furthermore, I also study the forward-backward asymmetry in the t¯t system within the framework of the S-MSSM. For this purpose, non-renormalizable couplings between the first and third generation of quarks to scalars are introduced. The two limiting cases of the S-MSSM, characterized by the size of the supersymmetric mass for the singlet superfield is analyzed, and I find that in the region of small singlet supersymmetric mass a large asymmetry can be obtained while being consistent with constraints arising from flavor physics, quark masses and top quark decays.

  14. Interpreting the 750 GeV diphoton excess in minimal extensions of Two-Higgs-Doublet models

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Badziak, Marcin

    2016-08-01

    It is shown that the 750 GeV diphoton excess can be explained in extensions of Two-Higgs-Doublet Models that do not involve large multiplicities of new electromagnetically charged states. The key observation is that at moderate and large tan ⁡ β the total decay width of the 750 GeV Higgs is strongly reduced as compared to the Standard Model. This allows for much more economical choices of new states that enhance the diphoton signal to fit the data. In particular, it is shown that one family of vector-like quarks and leptons with SM charges is enough to explain the 750 GeV diphoton excess. Moreover, such charge assignment can keep the 125 GeV Higgs signal rates exactly at the SM values. The scenario can interpret the diphoton excess provided that the total decay width of a hypothetical resonance that would be measured at the LHC turns out to not exceed few GeV.

  15. Minimal Pairs: Minimal Importance?

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Brown, Adam

    1995-01-01

    This article argues that minimal pairs do not merit as much attention as they receive in pronunciation instruction. There are other aspects of pronunciation that are of greater importance, and there are other ways of teaching vowel and consonant pronunciation. (13 references) (VWL)

  16. Minimal covering problem and PLA minimization

    SciTech Connect

    Young, M.H.; Muroga, S.

    1985-12-01

    Solving the minimal covering problem by an implicit enumeration method is discussed. The implicit enumeration method in this paper is a modification of the Quine-McCluskey method tailored to computer processing and also its extension, utilizing some new properties of the minimal covering problem for speedup. A heuristic algorithm is also presented to solve large-scale problems. Its application to the minimization of programmable logic arrays (i.e., PLAs) is shown as an example. Computational experiences are presented to confirm the improvements by the implicit enumeration method discussed.

  17. Decays h{sup {+-}}{yields}W{sup {+-}}h{sup 0}(a{sup 0}) within an extension of the minimal supersymmetric standard model with one complex Higgs triplet

    SciTech Connect

    Barradas-Guevara, E.; Felix-Beltran, O.; Hernandez-Sanchez, J.; Rosado, A.

    2005-04-01

    The vertices h{sup {+-}}W{sup {+-}}h{sup 0} and h{sup {+-}}W{sup {+-}}a{sup 0}, involving the gauge bosons W{sup {+-}}, the lightest charged (h{sup {+-}}), the lightest CP-even neutral (h{sup 0}), and the lightest CP-odd neutral (a{sup 0}) Higgs bosons, arise within the context of many extensions of the standard model, and they can be used to probe the Higgs sector of such extensions via the decays h{sup {+-}}{yields}W{sup {+-}}h{sup 0}(a{sup 0}). We discuss the strength of these vertices for an extension of the minimal supersymmetric standard model with an additional complex Higgs triplet. By using this model, we find regions of the parameter space where the decays h{sup {+-}}{yields}W{sup {+-}}h{sup 0}(a{sup 0}) are not only kinematically allowed, but they also become important decay modes and, in some cases, the dominant ones, with BR(h{sup {+-}}{yields}W{sup {+-}}h{sup 0}){approx_equal}BR(h{sup {+-}}{yields}W{sup {+-}}a{sup 0})

  18. Minimal Reduplication

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Kirchner, Jesse Saba

    2010-01-01

    This dissertation introduces Minimal Reduplication, a new theory and framework within generative grammar for analyzing reduplication in human language. I argue that reduplication is an emergent property in multiple components of the grammar. In particular, reduplication occurs independently in the phonology and syntax components, and in both cases…

  19. Minimal Reduplication

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Kirchner, Jesse Saba

    2010-01-01

    This dissertation introduces Minimal Reduplication, a new theory and framework within generative grammar for analyzing reduplication in human language. I argue that reduplication is an emergent property in multiple components of the grammar. In particular, reduplication occurs independently in the phonology and syntax components, and in both cases…

  20. The ZOOM minimization package

    SciTech Connect

    Fischler, Mark S.; Sachs, D.; /Fermilab

    2004-11-01

    A new object-oriented Minimization package is available for distribution in the same manner as CLHEP. This package, designed for use in HEP applications, has all the capabilities of Minuit, but is a re-write from scratch, adhering to modern C++ design principles. A primary goal of this package is extensibility in several directions, so that its capabilities can be kept fresh with as little maintenance effort as possible. This package is distinguished by the priority that was assigned to C++ design issues, and the focus on producing an extensible system that will resist becoming obsolete.

  1. Minimal cosmography

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Piazza, Federico; Schücker, Thomas

    2016-04-01

    The minimal requirement for cosmography—a non-dynamical description of the universe—is a prescription for calculating null geodesics, and time-like geodesics as a function of their proper time. In this paper, we consider the most general linear connection compatible with homogeneity and isotropy, but not necessarily with a metric. A light-cone structure is assigned by choosing a set of geodesics representing light rays. This defines a "scale factor" and a local notion of distance, as that travelled by light in a given proper time interval. We find that the velocities and relativistic energies of free-falling bodies decrease in time as a consequence of cosmic expansion, but at a rate that can be different than that dictated by the usual metric framework. By extrapolating this behavior to photons' redshift, we find that the latter is in principle independent of the "scale factor". Interestingly, redshift-distance relations and other standard geometric observables are modified in this extended framework, in a way that could be experimentally tested. An extremely tight constraint on the model, however, is represented by the blackbody-ness of the cosmic microwave background. Finally, as a check, we also consider the effects of a non-metric connection in a different set-up, namely, that of a static, spherically symmetric spacetime.

  2. Constrained minimization for monotonic reconstruction

    SciTech Connect

    Rider, W.J.; Kothe, D.B.

    1996-08-20

    The authors present several innovations in a method for monotonic reconstructions. It is based on the application of constrained minimization techniques for the imposition of monotonicity on a reconstruction. In addition, they present extensions of several classical TVD limiters to a genuinely multidimensional setting. In this case the linear least squares reconstruction method is expanded upon. They also clarify data dependent weighting techniques used with the minimization process.

  3. Shapes of embedded minimal surfaces.

    PubMed

    Colding, Tobias H; Minicozzi, William P

    2006-07-25

    Surfaces that locally minimize area have been extensively used to model physical phenomena, including soap films, black holes, compound polymers, protein folding, etc. The mathematical field dates to the 1740s but has recently become an area of intense mathematical and scientific study, specifically in the areas of molecular engineering, materials science, and nanotechnology because of their many anticipated applications. In this work, we show that all minimal surfaces are built out of pieces of the surfaces in Figs. 1 and 2.

  4. Minimal but non-minimal inflation and electroweak symmetry breaking

    SciTech Connect

    Marzola, Luca; Racioppi, Antonio

    2016-10-07

    We consider the most minimal scale invariant extension of the standard model that allows for successful radiative electroweak symmetry breaking and inflation. The framework involves an extra scalar singlet, that plays the rôle of the inflaton, and is compatibile with current experimental bounds owing to the non-minimal coupling of the latter to gravity. This inflationary scenario predicts a very low tensor-to-scalar ratio r≈10{sup −3}, typical of Higgs-inflation models, but in contrast yields a scalar spectral index n{sub s}≃0.97 which departs from the Starobinsky limit. We briefly discuss the collider phenomenology of the framework.

  5. AGRICULTURAL EXTENSION.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    FARQUHAR, R.N.

    AUSTRALIAN AGRICULTURAL EXTENSION HAS LONG EMPHASIZED TECHNICAL ADVISORY SERVICE AT THE EXPENSE OF THE SOCIOECONOMIC ASPECTS OF FARM PRODUCTION AND FARM LIFE. ONLY IN TASMANIA HAS FARM MANAGEMENT BEEN STRESSED. DEMANDS FOR THE WHOLE-FARM APPROACH HAVE PRODUCED A TREND TOWARD GENERALISM FOR DISTRICT OFFICERS IN MOST STATES. THE FEDERAL GOVERNMENT,…

  6. Shapes of embedded minimal surfaces

    PubMed Central

    Colding, Tobias H.; Minicozzi, William P.

    2006-01-01

    Surfaces that locally minimize area have been extensively used to model physical phenomena, including soap films, black holes, compound polymers, protein folding, etc. The mathematical field dates to the 1740s but has recently become an area of intense mathematical and scientific study, specifically in the areas of molecular engineering, materials science, and nanotechnology because of their many anticipated applications. In this work, we show that all minimal surfaces are built out of pieces of the surfaces in Figs. 1 and 2. PMID:16847265

  7. About the ZOOM minimization package

    SciTech Connect

    Fischler, M.; Sachs, D.; /Fermilab

    2004-11-01

    A new object-oriented Minimization package is available for distribution in the same manner as CLHEP. This package, designed for use in HEP applications, has all the capabilities of Minuit, but is a re-write from scratch, adhering to modern C++ design principles. A primary goal of this package is extensibility in several directions, so that its capabilities can be kept fresh with as little maintenance effort as possible. This package is distinguished by the priority that was assigned to C++ design issues, and the focus on producing an extensible system that will resist becoming obsolete.

  8. Esophagectomy - minimally invasive

    MedlinePlus

    Minimally invasive esophagectomy; Robotic esophagectomy; Removal of the esophagus - minimally invasive; Achalasia - esophagectomy; Barrett esophagus - esophagectomy; Esophageal cancer - esophagectomy - laparoscopic; Cancer of the ...

  9. Brain and Surface Warping via Minimizing Lipschitz Extensions (PREPRINT)

    DTIC Science & Technology

    2006-01-01

    presentation of the framework is complemented with examples on synthetic geometric phantoms and cortical surfaces extracted from human brain MRI scans. 15... geometric phantoms and cortical surfaces extracted from human brain MRI scans. 1 Introduction Brain warping, a form of brain image registration and... geometric pattern matching, is one of the most funda- mental and thereby most studied problems in computa- tional brain imaging [37]. Brain images are

  10. Extension to AC Loss Minimization in High Temperature Superconductors

    DTIC Science & Technology

    2007-11-02

    The sample architecture was YBCO /Y2O3/CeO2:Pd/NiFe and YBCO /Y2O3/YSZ/CeO2:Pd/NiCrW. Both samples had a thickness of YBCO of 350 - 370 nm and the...our efforts on AC loss measurements of YBCO coated conductors on textured metallic substrates made in Cambridge. Several samples were prepared by pulsed...buffer structure thickness was 200 nm . The thickness of NiFe and NiCrW substrates was 35 µm and 90 µm, respectively. The measurements were performed in

  11. Better Hyper-minimization

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Maletti, Andreas

    Hyper-minimization aims to compute a minimal deterministic finite automaton (dfa) that recognizes the same language as a given dfa up to a finite number of errors. Algorithms for hyper-minimization that run in time O(n logn), where n is the number of states of the given dfa, have been reported recently in [Gawrychowski and Jeż: Hyper-minimisation made efficient. Proc. Mfcs, Lncs 5734, 2009] and [Holzer and Maletti: An n logn algorithm for hyper-minimizing a (minimized) deterministic automaton. Theor. Comput. Sci. 411, 2010]. These algorithms are improved to return a hyper-minimal dfa that commits the least number of errors. This closes another open problem of [Badr, Geffert, and Shipman: Hyper-minimizing minimized deterministic finite state automata. Rairo Theor. Inf. Appl. 43, 2009]. Unfortunately, the time complexity for the obtained algorithm increases to O(n 2).

  12. Increasingly minimal bias routing

    DOEpatents

    Bataineh, Abdulla; Court, Thomas; Roweth, Duncan

    2017-02-21

    A system and algorithm configured to generate diversity at the traffic source so that packets are uniformly distributed over all of the available paths, but to increase the likelihood of taking a minimal path with each hop the packet takes. This is achieved by configuring routing biases so as to prefer non-minimal paths at the injection point, but increasingly prefer minimal paths as the packet proceeds, referred to herein as Increasing Minimal Bias (IMB).

  13. Minimizing Classroom Interruptions.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Partin, Ronald L.

    1987-01-01

    Offers suggestions for minimizing classroom interruptions, such as suggesting to the principal that announcements not be read over the intercom during class time and arranging desks and chairs so as to minimize visual distractions. Contains a school interruption survey form. (JC)

  14. University of Wisconsin - Extension

    MedlinePlus

    ... Richland UW-Extension, Cooperative Extension Expands Presence at Wisconsin State Fair In a break from past years, ... community? Help us continue to improve communities throughout Wisconsin. Share Your Story Support UW-Extension UW-Extension ...

  15. Minimal Orderings Revisited

    SciTech Connect

    Peyton, B.W.

    1999-07-01

    When minimum orderings proved too difficult to deal with, Rose, Tarjan, and Leuker instead studied minimal orderings and how to compute them (Algorithmic aspects of vertex elimination on graphs, SIAM J. Comput., 5:266-283, 1976). This paper introduces an algorithm that is capable of computing much better minimal orderings much more efficiently than the algorithm in Rose et al. The new insight is a way to use certain structures and concepts from modern sparse Cholesky solvers to re-express one of the basic results in Rose et al. The new algorithm begins with any initial ordering and then refines it until a minimal ordering is obtained. it is simple to obtain high-quality low-cost minimal orderings by using fill-reducing heuristic orderings as initial orderings for the algorithm. We examine several such initial orderings in some detail.

  16. Minimally invasive stomas.

    PubMed

    Hellinger, Michael D; Al Haddad, Abdullah

    2008-02-01

    Traditionally, stoma creation and end stoma reversal have been performed via a laparotomy incision. However, in many situations, stoma construction may be safely performed in a minimally invasive nature. This may include a trephine, laparoscopic, or combined approach. Furthermore, Hartmann's colostomy reversal, a procedure traditionally associated with substantial morbidity, may also be performed laparoscopically. The authors briefly review patient selection, preparation, and indications, and focus primarily on surgical techniques and results of minimally invasive stoma creation and Hartmann's reversal.

  17. Minimally invasive lumbar foraminotomy.

    PubMed

    Deutsch, Harel

    2013-07-01

    Lumbar radiculopathy is a common problem. Nerve root compression can occur at different places along a nerve root's course including in the foramina. Minimal invasive approaches allow easier exposure of the lateral foramina and decompression of the nerve root in the foramina. This video demonstrates a minimally invasive approach to decompress the lumbar nerve root in the foramina with a lateral to medial decompression. The video can be found here: http://youtu.be/jqa61HSpzIA.

  18. Minimally invasive procedures

    PubMed Central

    Baltayiannis, Nikolaos; Michail, Chandrinos; Lazaridis, George; Anagnostopoulos, Dimitrios; Baka, Sofia; Mpoukovinas, Ioannis; Karavasilis, Vasilis; Lampaki, Sofia; Papaiwannou, Antonis; Karavergou, Anastasia; Kioumis, Ioannis; Pitsiou, Georgia; Katsikogiannis, Nikolaos; Tsakiridis, Kosmas; Rapti, Aggeliki; Trakada, Georgia; Zissimopoulos, Athanasios; Zarogoulidis, Konstantinos

    2015-01-01

    Minimally invasive procedures, which include laparoscopic surgery, use state-of-the-art technology to reduce the damage to human tissue when performing surgery. Minimally invasive procedures require small “ports” from which the surgeon inserts thin tubes called trocars. Carbon dioxide gas may be used to inflate the area, creating a space between the internal organs and the skin. Then a miniature camera (usually a laparoscope or endoscope) is placed through one of the trocars so the surgical team can view the procedure as a magnified image on video monitors in the operating room. Specialized equipment is inserted through the trocars based on the type of surgery. There are some advanced minimally invasive surgical procedures that can be performed almost exclusively through a single point of entry—meaning only one small incision, like the “uniport” video-assisted thoracoscopic surgery (VATS). Not only do these procedures usually provide equivalent outcomes to traditional “open” surgery (which sometimes require a large incision), but minimally invasive procedures (using small incisions) may offer significant benefits as well: (I) faster recovery; (II) the patient remains for less days hospitalized; (III) less scarring and (IV) less pain. In our current mini review we will present the minimally invasive procedures for thoracic surgery. PMID:25861610

  19. Less minimal supersymmetric standard model

    SciTech Connect

    de Gouvea, Andre; Friedland, Alexander; Murayama, Hitoshi

    1998-03-28

    Most of the phenomenological studies of supersymmetry have been carried out using the so-called minimal supergravity scenario, where one assumes a universal scalar mass, gaugino mass, and trilinear coupling at M{sub GUT}. Even though this is a useful simplifying assumption for phenomenological analyses, it is rather too restrictive to accommodate a large variety of phenomenological possibilities. It predicts, among other things, that the lightest supersymmetric particle (LSP) is an almost pure B-ino, and that the {mu}-parameter is larger than the masses of the SU(2){sub L} and U(1){sub Y} gauginos. We extend the minimal supergravity framework by introducing one extra parameter: the Fayet'Iliopoulos D-term for the hypercharge U(1), D{sub Y}. Allowing for this extra parameter, we find a much more diverse phenomenology, where the LSP is {tilde {nu}}{sub {tau}}, {tilde {tau}} or a neutralino with a large higgsino content. We discuss the relevance of the different possibilities to collider signatures. The same type of extension can be done to models with the gauge mediation of supersymmetry breaking. We argue that it is not wise to impose cosmological constraints on the parameter space.

  20. Minimal gaugino mediation

    SciTech Connect

    Schmaltz, Martin; Skiba, Witold

    2000-11-01

    We propose minimal gaugino mediation as the simplest known solution to the supersymmetric flavor and CP problems. The framework predicts a very minimal structure for the soft parameters at ultrahigh energies: gaugino masses are unified and non-vanishing whereas all other soft supersymmetry breaking parameters vanish. We show that this boundary condition naturally arises from a small extra dimension and present a complete model which includes a new extra-dimensional solution to the {mu} problem. We briefly discuss the predicted superpartner spectrum as a function of the two parameters of the model. The commonly ignored renormalization group evolution above the GUT scale is crucial to the viability of minimal gaugino mediation but does not introduce new model dependence.

  1. Minimal Gaugino Mediation

    SciTech Connect

    Schmaltz, M.

    2000-01-19

    The authors propose Minimal Gaugino Mediation as the simplest known solution to the supersymmetric flavor and CP problems. The framework predicts a very minimal structure for the soft parameters at ultra-high energies: gaugino masses are unified and non-vanishing whereas all other soft supersymmetry breaking parameters vanish. The authors show that this boundary condition naturally arises from a small extra dimension and present a complete model which includes a new extra-dimensional solution to the mu problem. The authors briefly discuss the predicted superpartner spectrum as a function of the two parameters of the model. The commonly ignored renormalization group evolution above the GUT scale is crucial to the viability of Minimal Gaugino Mediation but does not introduce new model dependence.

  2. Periodic minimal surfaces

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Mackay, Alan L.

    1985-04-01

    A minimal surface is one for which, like a soap film with the same pressure on each side, the mean curvature is zero and, thus, is one where the two principal curvatures are equal and opposite at every point. For every closed circuit in the surface, the area is a minimum. Schwarz1 and Neovius2 showed that elements of such surfaces could be put together to give surfaces periodic in three dimensions. These periodic minimal surfaces are geometrical invariants, as are the regular polyhedra, but the former are curved. Minimal surfaces are appropriate for the description of various structures where internal surfaces are prominent and seek to adopt a minimum area or a zero mean curvature subject to their topology; thus they merit more complete numerical characterization. There seem to be at least 18 such surfaces3, with various symmetries and topologies, related to the crystallographic space groups. Recently, glyceryl mono-oleate (GMO) was shown by Longley and McIntosh4 to take the shape of the F-surface. The structure postulated is shown here to be in good agreement with an analysis of the fundamental geometry of periodic minimal surfaces.

  3. CONMIN- CONSTRAINED FUNCTION MINIMIZATION

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Vanderplaats, G. N.

    1994-01-01

    In many mathematical problems, it is necessary to determine the minimum and maximum of a function of several variables, limited by various linear and nonlinear inequality constraints. It is seldom possible, in practical applications, to solve these problems directly. In most cases, an iterative method must be used to numerically obtain a solution. The CONMIN program was developed to numerically perform the minimization of a multi-variable function subject to a set of inequality constraints. The function need not be a simple analytical equation; it may be any function which can be numerically evaluated. The basic analytic technique used by CONMIN is to minimize the function until one or more of the constraints become active. The minimization process then continues by following the constraint boundaries in a direction such that the value of the function continues to decrease. When a point is reached where no further decrease in the function can be obtained, the process is terminated. Function maximization may be achieved by minimizing the negative of the function. This program is written in FORTRAN IV for batch execution and has been implemented on a CDC 6000 series computer with a central memory requirement of approximately 43K (octal) of 60 bit words. The CONMIN program was originally developed in 1973 and last updated in 1978.

  4. Minimally invasive valve surgery.

    PubMed

    Woo, Y Joseph

    2009-08-01

    Traditional cardiac valve replacement surgery is being rapidly supplanted by innovative, minimally invasive approaches toward the repair of these valves. Patients are experiencing benefits ranging from less bleeding and pain to faster recovery and greater satisfaction. These operations are proving to be safe, highly effective, and durable, and their use will likely continue to increase and become even more widely applicable.

  5. Next-to-minimal SOFTSUSY

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Allanach, B. C.; Athron, P.; Tunstall, Lewis C.; Voigt, A.; Williams, A. G.

    2014-09-01

    We describe an extension to the SOFTSUSY program that provides for the calculation of the sparticle spectrum in the Next-to-Minimal Supersymmetric Standard Model (NMSSM), where a chiral superfield that is a singlet of the Standard Model gauge group is added to the Minimal Supersymmetric Standard Model (MSSM) fields. Often, a Z3 symmetry is imposed upon the model. SOFTSUSY can calculate the spectrum in this case as well as the case where general Z3 violating (denoted as =) terms are added to the soft supersymmetry breaking terms and the superpotential. The user provides a theoretical boundary condition for the couplings and mass terms of the singlet. Radiative electroweak symmetry breaking data along with electroweak and CKM matrix data are used as weak-scale boundary conditions. The renormalisation group equations are solved numerically between the weak scale and a high energy scale using a nested iterative algorithm. This paper serves as a manual to the NMSSM mode of the program, detailing the approximations and conventions used. Catalogue identifier: ADPM_v4_0 Program summary URL:http://cpc.cs.qub.ac.uk/summaries/ADPM_v4_0.html Program obtainable from: CPC Program Library, Queen's University, Belfast, N. Ireland Licensing provisions: Standard CPC licence, http://cpc.cs.qub.ac.uk/licence/licence.html No. of lines in distributed program, including test data, etc.: 154886 No. of bytes in distributed program, including test data, etc.: 1870890 Distribution format: tar.gz Programming language: C++, fortran. Computer: Personal computer. Operating system: Tested on Linux 3.x. Word size: 64 bits Classification: 11.1, 11.6. Does the new version supersede the previous version?: Yes Catalogue identifier of previous version: ADPM_v3_0 Journal reference of previous version: Comput. Phys. Comm. 183 (2012) 785 Nature of problem: Calculating supersymmetric particle spectrum and mixing parameters in the next-to-minimal supersymmetric standard model. The solution to the

  6. Minimal hepatic encephalopathy.

    PubMed

    Zamora Nava, Luis Eduardo; Torre Delgadillo, Aldo

    2011-06-01

    The term minimal hepatic encephalopathy (MHE) refers to the subtle changes in cognitive function, electrophysiological parameters, cerebral neurochemical/neurotransmitter homeostasis, cerebral blood flow, metabolism, and fluid homeostasis that can be observed in patients with cirrhosis who have no clinical evidence of hepatic encephalopathy; the prevalence is as high as 84% in patients with hepatic cirrhosis. Physician does generally not perceive cirrhosis complications, and neuropsychological tests and another especial measurement like evoked potentials and image studies like positron emission tomography can only make diagnosis. Diagnosis of minimal hepatic encephalopathy may have prognostic and therapeutic implications in cirrhotic patients. The present review pretends to explore the clinic, therapeutic, diagnosis and prognostic aspects of this complication.

  7. Discrete Minimal Surface Algebras

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Arnlind, Joakim; Hoppe, Jens

    2010-05-01

    We consider discrete minimal surface algebras (DMSA) as generalized noncommutative analogues of minimal surfaces in higher dimensional spheres. These algebras appear naturally in membrane theory, where sequences of their representations are used as a regularization. After showing that the defining relations of the algebra are consistent, and that one can compute a basis of the enveloping algebra, we give several explicit examples of DMSAs in terms of subsets of sln (any semi-simple Lie algebra providing a trivial example by itself). A special class of DMSAs are Yang-Mills algebras. The representation graph is introduced to study representations of DMSAs of dimension d ≤ 4, and properties of representations are related to properties of graphs. The representation graph of a tensor product is (generically) the Cartesian product of the corresponding graphs. We provide explicit examples of irreducible representations and, for coinciding eigenvalues, classify all the unitary representations of the corresponding algebras.

  8. Minimally symmetric Higgs boson

    SciTech Connect

    Low, Ian

    2015-06-17

    Models addressing the naturalness of a light Higgs boson typically employ symmetries, either bosonic or fermionic, to stabilize the Higgs mass. We consider a setup with the minimal amount of symmetries: four shift symmetries acting on the four components of the Higgs doublet, subject to the constraints of linearly realized SU(2)(L) x U(1)(Y) electroweak symmetry. Up to terms that explicitly violate the shift symmetries, the effective Lagrangian can be derived, irrespective of the spontaneously broken group G in the ultraviolet, and is universal among all models where the Higgs arises as a pseudo-Nambu-Goldstone boson. Very high energy scatterings of vector bosons could provide smoking gun signals of a minimally symmetric Higgs boson.

  9. Minimally invasive and robotic-assisted thymus resection.

    PubMed

    Limmer, Karl K; Kernstine, Kemp H

    2011-02-01

    Thymectomy for thymoma has traditionally been performed through a transsternal approach because of the excellent exposure that that the median sternotomy provides. Minimally invasive alternatives, such as transcervical thymectomy, video-assisted thymectomy, and robotic thymectomy, have not been extensively evaluated for this disease process. It is uncertain which patients may benefit from minimally invasive approaches and data regarding the oncologic effectiveness of these techniques remains to be established. However, given the excellent capability of these techniques to perform a complete and extensive thymectomy, there does appear to be a role for minimally invasive thymectomy in the treatment of thymoma.

  10. Waste Minimization Crosscut Plan

    SciTech Connect

    Not Available

    1992-05-13

    On November 27, 1991, the Secretary of Energy directed that a Department of Energy (DOE) crosscut plan for waste minimization (WMin) be prepared and submitted by March 1, 1992. This Waste Minimization Crosscut Plan responds to the Secretary's direction and supports the National Energy Strategy (NES) goals of achieving greater energy security, increasing energy and economic efficiency, and enhancing environmental quality. It provides a DOE-wide planning framework for effective coordination of all DOE WMin activities. This Plan was jointly prepared by the following Program Secretarial Officer (PSO) organizations: Civilian Radioactive Waste Management (RW); Conservation and Renewable Energy (CE); Defense Programs (DP); Environmental Restoration and Waste Management (EM), lead; Energy Research (ER); Fossil Energy (FE); Nuclear Energy (NE); and New Production Reactors (NP). Assistance and guidance was provided by the offices of Policy, Planning, and Analysis (PE) and Environment, Safety and Health (EH). Comprehensive application of waste minimization within the Department and in both the public and private sectors will provide significant benefits and support National Energy Strategy goals. These benefits include conservation of a substantial proportion of the energy now used by industry and Government, improved environmental quality, reduced health risks, improved production efficiencies, and longer useful life of disposal capacity. Taken together, these benefits will mean improved US global competitiveness, expanded job opportunities, and a better quality of life for all citizens.

  11. Waste Minimization Crosscut Plan

    SciTech Connect

    Not Available

    1992-05-13

    On November 27, 1991, the Secretary of Energy directed that a Department of Energy (DOE) crosscut plan for waste minimization (WMin) be prepared and submitted by March 1, 1992. This Waste Minimization Crosscut Plan responds to the Secretary`s direction and supports the National Energy Strategy (NES) goals of achieving greater energy security, increasing energy and economic efficiency, and enhancing environmental quality. It provides a DOE-wide planning framework for effective coordination of all DOE WMin activities. This Plan was jointly prepared by the following Program Secretarial Officer (PSO) organizations: Civilian Radioactive Waste Management (RW); Conservation and Renewable Energy (CE); Defense Programs (DP); Environmental Restoration and Waste Management (EM), lead; Energy Research (ER); Fossil Energy (FE); Nuclear Energy (NE); and New Production Reactors (NP). Assistance and guidance was provided by the offices of Policy, Planning, and Analysis (PE) and Environment, Safety and Health (EH). Comprehensive application of waste minimization within the Department and in both the public and private sectors will provide significant benefits and support National Energy Strategy goals. These benefits include conservation of a substantial proportion of the energy now used by industry and Government, improved environmental quality, reduced health risks, improved production efficiencies, and longer useful life of disposal capacity. Taken together, these benefits will mean improved US global competitiveness, expanded job opportunities, and a better quality of life for all citizens.

  12. Minimal surfaces over stars

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    McDougall, Jane; Schaubroeck, Lisbeth

    2008-04-01

    A JS surface is a minimal graph over a polygonal domain that becomes infinite in magnitude at the domain boundary. Jenkins and Serrin characterized the existence of these minimal graphs in terms of the signs of the boundary values and the side-lengths of the polygon. For a convex polygon, there can be essentially only one JS surface, but a non-convex domain may admit several distinct JS surfaces. We consider two families of JS surfaces corresponding to different boundary values, namely JS0 and JS1, over domains in the form of regular stars. We give parameterizations for these surfaces as lifts of harmonic maps, and observe that all previously constructed JS surfaces have been of type JS0. We give an example of a JS1 surface that is a new complete embedded minimal surface generalizing Scherk's doubly periodic surface, and show also that the JS0 surface over a regular convex 2n-gon is the limit of JS1 surfaces over non-convex stars. Finally we consider the construction of other JS surfaces over stars that belong neither to JS0 nor to JS1.

  13. [Minimally invasive thymus surgery].

    PubMed

    Rückert, J C; Ismail, M; Swierzy, M; Braumann, C; Badakhshi, H; Rogalla, P; Meisel, A; Rückert, R I; Müller, J M

    2008-01-01

    There are absolute and relative indications for complete removal of the thymus gland. In the complex therapy of autoimmune-related myasthenia gravis, thymectomy plays a central role and is performed with relative indication. In case of thymoma with or without myasthenia, thymectomy is absolutely indicated. Thymus resection is further necessary for cases of hyperparathyroidism with ectopic intrathymic parathyroids or with certain forms of multiple endocrine neoplasia. The transcervical operation technique traditionally reflected the well-founded desire for minimal invasiveness for thymectomy. Due to the requirement of radicality however, most of these operations were performed using sternotomy. With the evolution of therapeutic thoracoscopy in thoracic surgery, several pure or extended minimally invasive operation techniques for thymectomy have been developed. At present uni- or bilateral, subxiphoid, and modified transcervical single or combination thoracoscopic techniques are in use. Recently a very precise new level of thoracoscopic operation technique was developed using robotic-assisted surgery. There are special advantages of this technique for thymectomy. An overview of the development and experiences with minimally invasive thymectomy is presented, including data from the largest series published so far.

  14. Minimally invasive mediastinal surgery

    PubMed Central

    Melfi, Franca M. A.; Mussi, Alfredo

    2016-01-01

    In the past, mediastinal surgery was associated with the necessity of a maximum exposure, which was accomplished through various approaches. In the early 1990s, many surgical fields, including thoracic surgery, observed the development of minimally invasive techniques. These included video-assisted thoracic surgery (VATS), which confers clear advantages over an open approach, such as less trauma, short hospital stay, increased cosmetic results and preservation of lung function. However, VATS is associated with several disadvantages. For this reason, it is not routinely performed for resection of mediastinal mass lesions, especially those located in the anterior mediastinum, a tiny and remote space that contains vital structures at risk of injury. Robotic systems can overcome the limits of VATS, offering three-dimensional (3D) vision and wristed instrumentations, and are being increasingly used. With regards to thymectomy for myasthenia gravis (MG), unilateral and bilateral VATS approaches have demonstrated good long-term neurologic results with low complication rates. Nevertheless, some authors still advocate the necessity of maximum exposure, especially when considering the distribution of normal and ectopic thymic tissue. In recent studies, the robotic approach has shown to provide similar neurological outcomes when compared to transsternal and VATS approaches, and is associated with a low morbidity. Importantly, through a unilateral robotic technique, it is possible to dissect and remove at least the same amount of mediastinal fat tissue. Preliminary results on early-stage thymomatous disease indicated that minimally invasive approaches are safe and feasible, with a low rate of pleural recurrence, underlining the necessity of a “no-touch” technique. However, especially for thymomatous disease characterized by an indolent nature, further studies with long follow-up period are necessary in order to assess oncologic and neurologic results through minimally

  15. Minimally refined biomass fuel

    DOEpatents

    Pearson, Richard K.; Hirschfeld, Tomas B.

    1984-01-01

    A minimally refined fluid composition, suitable as a fuel mixture and derived from biomass material, is comprised of one or more water-soluble carbohydrates such as sucrose, one or more alcohols having less than four carbons, and water. The carbohydrate provides the fuel source; water solubilizes the carbohydrates; and the alcohol aids in the combustion of the carbohydrate and reduces the vicosity of the carbohydrate/water solution. Because less energy is required to obtain the carbohydrate from the raw biomass than alcohol, an overall energy savings is realized compared to fuels employing alcohol as the primary fuel.

  16. Wake Vortex Minimization

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    1977-01-01

    A status report is presented on research directed at reducing the vortex disturbances of aircraft wakes. The objective of such a reduction is to minimize the hazard to smaller aircraft that might encounter these wakes. Inviscid modeling was used to study trailing vortices and viscous effects were investigated. Laser velocimeters were utilized in the measurement of aircraft wakes. Flight and wind tunnel tests were performed on scale and full model scale aircraft of various design. Parameters investigated included the effect of wing span, wing flaps, spoilers, splines and engine thrust on vortex attenuation. Results indicate that vortives may be alleviated through aerodynamic means.

  17. Accountability in Extension

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Lutz, Arlen E.; Swoboda, Donald W.

    1972-01-01

    Authors discuss the advantages of the EMIS/SEMIS (Extension Management Information System/State Extension Management Information System), point out some of its deficiencies, and suggest ways to strengthen and improve it. (Editor)

  18. Logarithmic superconformal minimal models

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Pearce, Paul A.; Rasmussen, Jørgen; Tartaglia, Elena

    2014-05-01

    The higher fusion level logarithmic minimal models {\\cal LM}(P,P';n) have recently been constructed as the diagonal GKO cosets {(A_1^{(1)})_k\\oplus (A_1^ {(1)})_n}/ {(A_1^{(1)})_{k+n}} where n ≥ 1 is an integer fusion level and k = nP/(P‧- P) - 2 is a fractional level. For n = 1, these are the well-studied logarithmic minimal models {\\cal LM}(P,P')\\equiv {\\cal LM}(P,P';1). For n ≥ 2, we argue that these critical theories are realized on the lattice by n × n fusion of the n = 1 models. We study the critical fused lattice models {\\cal LM}(p,p')_{n\\times n} within a lattice approach and focus our study on the n = 2 models. We call these logarithmic superconformal minimal models {\\cal LSM}(p,p')\\equiv {\\cal LM}(P,P';2) where P = |2p - p‧|, P‧ = p‧ and p, p‧ are coprime. These models share the central charges c=c^{P,P';2}=\\frac {3}{2}\\big (1-{2(P'-P)^2}/{P P'}\\big ) of the rational superconformal minimal models {\\cal SM}(P,P'). Lattice realizations of these theories are constructed by fusing 2 × 2 blocks of the elementary face operators of the n = 1 logarithmic minimal models {\\cal LM}(p,p'). Algebraically, this entails the fused planar Temperley-Lieb algebra which is a spin-1 Birman-Murakami-Wenzl tangle algebra with loop fugacity β2 = [x]3 = x2 + 1 + x-2 and twist ω = x4 where x = eiλ and λ = (p‧- p)π/p‧. The first two members of this n = 2 series are superconformal dense polymers {\\cal LSM}(2,3) with c=-\\frac {5}{2}, β2 = 0 and superconformal percolation {\\cal LSM}(3,4) with c = 0, β2 = 1. We calculate the bulk and boundary free energies analytically. By numerically studying finite-size conformal spectra on the strip with appropriate boundary conditions, we argue that, in the continuum scaling limit, these lattice models are associated with the logarithmic superconformal models {\\cal LM}(P,P';2). For system size N, we propose finitized Kac character formulae of the form q^{-{c^{P,P';2}}/{24}+\\Delta ^{P,P';2} _{r

  19. Cooled artery extension

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Gernert, Nelson J. (Inventor)

    1990-01-01

    An artery vapor trap. A heat pipe artery is constructed with an extension protruding from the evaporator end of the heat pipe beyond the active area of the evaporator. The vapor migrates into the artery extension because of gravity or liquid displacement, and cooling the extension condenses the vapor to liquid, thus preventing vapor lock in the working portion of the artery by removing vapor from within the active artery. The condensed liquid is then transported back to the evaporator by the capillary action of the artery extension itself or by wick located within the extension.

  20. Transanal Minimally Invasive Surgery

    PubMed Central

    deBeche-Adams, Teresa; Nassif, George

    2015-01-01

    Transanal minimally invasive surgery (TAMIS) was first described in 2010 as a crossover between single-incision laparoscopic surgery and transanal endoscopic microsurgery (TEM) to allow access to the proximal and mid-rectum for resection of benign and early-stage malignant rectal lesions. The TAMIS technique can also be used for noncurative intent surgery of more advanced lesions in patients who are not candidates for radical surgery. Proper workup and staging should be done before surgical decision-making. In addition to the TAMIS port, instrumentation and set up include readily available equipment found in most operating suites. TAMIS has proven its usefulness in a wide range of applications outside of local excision, including repair of rectourethral fistula, removal of rectal foreign body, control of rectal hemorrhage, and as an adjunct in total mesorectal excision for rectal cancer. TAMIS is an easily accessible, technically feasible, and cost-effective alternative to TEM. PMID:26491410

  1. Membranes minimize liquid discharge

    SciTech Connect

    Cappos, S.

    1995-07-01

    Zero discharge is a matter of concentration. Liquid and solid waste are repeatedly reduced to minimize or eliminate their discharge. But the process is intense, requiring an array of filtering and purifying technologies to achieve discharge goals. One of the most productive and effective technologies for this purpose is reverse osmosis (RO). Developed in the 1960s, RO produces a high-quality permeate for reuse, and a small concentrated stream for further treatment. The addition of RO to a wastewater treatment system can reduce overall operating costs and the capital costs of other components, as well as reduce a waste treatment system`s reliance on chemical treatment. The paper discusses how RO works, when RO is the best solution, where the waste goes, alternative technologies (clarifiers, vapor compression evaporators, and ion exchange demineralizers), and recent advances in membrane technology.

  2. Minimally invasive esophagectomy

    PubMed Central

    Herbella, Fernando A; Patti, Marco G

    2010-01-01

    Esophageal resection is associated with a high morbidity and mortality rate. Minimally invasive esophagectomy (MIE) might theoretically decrease this rate. We reviewed the current literature on MIE, with a focus on the available techniques, outcomes and comparison with open surgery. This review shows that the available literature on MIE is still crowded with heterogeneous studies with different techniques. There are no controlled and randomized trials, and the few retrospective comparative cohort studies are limited by small numbers of patients and biased by historical controls of open surgery. Based on the available literature, there is no evidence that MIE brings clear benefits compared to conventional esophagectomy. Increasing experience and the report of larger series might change this scenario. PMID:20698044

  3. Minimally invasive valve surgery.

    PubMed

    Woo, Y Joseph; Seeburger, Joerg; Mohr, Friedrich W

    2007-01-01

    As alternatives to standard sternotomy, surgeons have developed innovative, minimally invasive approaches to conducting valve surgery. Through very small skin incisions and partial upper sternal division for aortic valve surgery and right minithoracotomy for mitral surgery, surgeons have become adept at performing complex valve procedures. Beyond cosmetic appeal, apparent benefits range from decreased pain and bleeding to improved respiratory function and recovery time. The large retrospective studies and few small prospective randomized studies are herein briefly summarized. The focus is then directed toward describing specific intraoperative technical details in current clinical use, covering anesthetic preparation, incision, mediastinal access, cardiovascular cannulation, valve exposure, and valve reconstruction. Finally, unique situations such as pulmonic valve surgery, reoperations, beating heart surgery, and robotics are discussed.

  4. Minimally invasive parathyroid surgery

    PubMed Central

    Noureldine, Salem I.; Gooi, Zhen

    2015-01-01

    Traditionally, bilateral cervical exploration for localization of all four parathyroid glands and removal of any that are grossly enlarged has been the standard surgical treatment for primary hyperparathyroidism (PHPT). With the advances in preoperative localization studies and greater public demand for less invasive procedures, novel targeted, minimally invasive techniques to the parathyroid glands have been described and practiced over the past 2 decades. Minimally invasive parathyroidectomy (MIP) can be done either through the standard Kocher incision, a smaller midline incision, with video assistance (purely endoscopic and video-assisted techniques), or through an ectopically placed, extracervical, incision. In current practice, once PHPT is diagnosed, preoperative evaluation using high-resolution radiographic imaging to localize the offending parathyroid gland is essential if MIP is to be considered. The imaging study results suggest where the surgeon should begin the focused procedure and serve as a road map to allow tailoring of an efficient, imaging-guided dissection while eliminating the unnecessary dissection of multiple glands or a bilateral exploration. Intraoperative parathyroid hormone (IOPTH) levels may be measured during the procedure, or a gamma probe used during radioguided parathyroidectomy, to ascertain that the correct gland has been excised and that no other hyperfunctional tissue is present. MIP has many advantages over the traditional bilateral, four-gland exploration. MIP can be performed using local anesthesia, requires less operative time, results in fewer complications, and offers an improved cosmetic result and greater patient satisfaction. Additional advantages of MIP are earlier hospital discharge and decreased overall associated costs. This article aims to address the considerations for accomplishing MIP, including the role of preoperative imaging studies, intraoperative adjuncts, and surgical techniques. PMID:26425454

  5. On the construction of general cubature formula by flat extensions

    PubMed Central

    Bucero, Marta Abril; Bajaj, Chandrajit

    2016-01-01

    We describe a new method to compute general cubature formulae. The problem is initially transformed into the computation of truncated Hankel operators with flat extensions. We then analyze the algebraic properties associated to flat extensions and show how to recover the cubature points and weights from the truncated Hankel operator. We next present an algorithm to test the flat extension property and to additionally compute the decomposition. To generate cubature formulae with a minimal number of points, we propose a new relaxation hierarchy of convex optimization problems minimizing the nuclear norm of the Hankel operators. For a suitably high order of convex relaxation, the minimizer of the optimization problem corresponds to a cubature formula. Furthermore cubature formulae with a minimal number of points are associated to faces of the convex sets. We illustrate our method on some examples, and for each we obtain a new minimal cubature formula. PMID:27563154

  6. Minimal Marking: A Success Story

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    McNeilly, Anne

    2014-01-01

    The minimal-marking project conducted in Ryerson's School of Journalism throughout 2012 and early 2013 resulted in significantly higher grammar scores in two first-year classes of minimally marked university students when compared to two traditionally marked classes. The "minimal-marking" concept (Haswell, 1983), which requires…

  7. Torque-wrench extension

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Peterson, D. H.

    1981-01-01

    Torque-wrench extension makes it easy to install and remove fasteners that are beyond reach of typical wrenches or are located in narrow spaces that prevent full travel of wrench handle. At same time, tool reads applied torque accurately. Wrench drive system, for torques up to 125 inch-pounds, uses 2 standard drive-socket extensions in aluminum frame. Extensions are connected to bevel gear that turns another bevel gear. Gears produce 1:1 turn ratio through 90 degree translation of axis of rotation. Output bevel has short extension that is used to attach 1/4-inch drive socket.

  8. Minimal Higgs inflation

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Maity, Debaprasad

    2017-06-01

    In this paper we propose minimal Higgs inflation scenarios by non-polynomial modification of the Higgs potential. The modification is done in such a way that it creates a flat plateau for a huge range of field values at the inflationary energy scale μ ≃(λ) 1 / 4 α. Assuming the perturbative Higgs quartic coupling, λ ≃ O (1), our model prediction for all the cosmologically relevant quantities, (ns , r , dnsk), fit extremely well with observations made by PLANCK. For both the models the inflation energy scale turned out to be μ ≃ (1014 ,1015) GeV. Considering observed central value of the scalar spectral index, ns = 0.968, models predict efolding number, N = (52 , 47). Within a wide range of viable parameter space, we found that the prediction of tensor to scalar ratio r (≤10-5) is far below the current experimental limit. The prediction for the running of scalar spectral index, dnsk, remains very small. We also computed the background field dependent unitarity scale Λ (h), which turned out to be much larger than the aforementioned inflationary energy scale.

  9. The method of minimal normal forms

    SciTech Connect

    Mane, S.R.; Weng, W.T.

    1992-01-01

    Normal form methods for solving nonlinear differential equations are reviewed and the comparative merits of three methods are evaluated. The concept of the minimal normal form is explained and is shown to be superior to other choices. The method is then extended to apply to the evaluation of discrete maps of an accelerator or storage ring. Such an extension, as suggested in this paper, is more suited for accelerator-based applications than a formulation utilizing continuous differential equations. A computer code has been generated to systematically implement various normal form formulations for maps in two-dimensional phase space. Specific examples of quadratic and cubic nonlinear fields were used and solved by the method developed. The minimal normal form method shown here gives good results using relatively low order expansions.

  10. The method of minimal normal forms

    SciTech Connect

    Mane, S.R.; Weng, W.T.

    1992-12-31

    Normal form methods for solving nonlinear differential equations are reviewed and the comparative merits of three methods are evaluated. The concept of the minimal normal form is explained and is shown to be superior to other choices. The method is then extended to apply to the evaluation of discrete maps of an accelerator or storage ring. Such an extension, as suggested in this paper, is more suited for accelerator-based applications than a formulation utilizing continuous differential equations. A computer code has been generated to systematically implement various normal form formulations for maps in two-dimensional phase space. Specific examples of quadratic and cubic nonlinear fields were used and solved by the method developed. The minimal normal form method shown here gives good results using relatively low order expansions.

  11. Discrete minimal flavor violation

    SciTech Connect

    Zwicky, Roman; Fischbacher, Thomas

    2009-10-01

    We investigate the consequences of replacing the global flavor symmetry of minimal flavor violation (MFV) SU(3){sub Q}xSU(3){sub U}xSU(3){sub D}x{center_dot}{center_dot}{center_dot} by a discrete D{sub Q}xD{sub U}xD{sub D}x{center_dot}{center_dot}{center_dot} symmetry. Goldstone bosons resulting from the breaking of the flavor symmetry generically lead to bounds on new flavor structure many orders of magnitude above the TeV scale. The absence of Goldstone bosons for discrete symmetries constitute the primary motivation of our work. Less symmetry implies further invariants and renders the mass-flavor basis transformation observable in principle and calls for a hierarchy in the Yukawa matrix expansion. We show, through the dimension of the representations, that the (discrete) symmetry in principle does allow for additional {delta}F=2 operators. If though the {delta}F=2 transitions are generated by two subsequent {delta}F=1 processes, as, for example, in the standard model, then the four crystal-like groups {sigma}(168){approx_equal}PSL(2,F{sub 7}), {sigma}(72{phi}), {sigma}(216{phi}) and especially {sigma}(360{phi}) do provide enough protection for a TeV-scale discrete MFV scenario. Models where this is not the case have to be investigated case by case. Interestingly {sigma}(216{phi}) has a (nonfaithful) representation corresponding to an A{sub 4} symmetry. Moreover we argue that the, apparently often omitted, (D) groups are subgroups of an appropriate {delta}(6g{sup 2}). We would like to stress that we do not provide an actual model that realizes the MFV scenario nor any other theory of flavor.

  12. Minimal Change Disease.

    PubMed

    Vivarelli, Marina; Massella, Laura; Ruggiero, Barbara; Emma, Francesco

    2017-02-07

    Minimal change disease (MCD) is a major cause of idiopathic nephrotic syndrome (NS), characterized by intense proteinuria leading to edema and intravascular volume depletion. In adults, it accounts for approximately 15% of patients with idiopathic NS, reaching a much higher percentage at younger ages, up to 70%-90% in children >1 year of age. In the pediatric setting, a renal biopsy is usually not performed if presentation is typical and the patient responds to therapy with oral prednisone at conventional doses. Therefore, in this setting steroid-sensitive NS can be considered synonymous with MCD. The pathologic hallmark of disease is absence of visible alterations by light microscopy and effacement of foot processes by electron microscopy. Although the cause is unknown and it is likely that different subgroups of disease recognize a different pathogenesis, immunologic dysregulation and modifications of the podocyte are thought to synergize in altering the integrity of the glomerular basement membrane and therefore determining proteinuria. The mainstay of therapy is prednisone, but steroid-sensitive forms frequently relapse and this leads to a percentage of patients requiring second-line steroid-sparing immunosuppression. The outcome is variable, but forms of MCD that respond to steroids usually do not lead to chronic renal damage, whereas forms that are unresponsive to steroids may subsequently reveal themselves as FSGS. However, in a substantial number of patients the disease is recurrent and requires long-term immunosuppression, with significant morbidity because of side effects. Recent therapeutic advances, such as the use of anti-CD20 antibodies, have provided long-term remission off-therapy and suggest new hypotheses for disease pathogenesis. Copyright © 2017 by the American Society of Nephrology.

  13. Priorities for Extension.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Hayward, J. A.

    Agricultural extension is one component in an array including research, training, education, marketing, international trade, etc. which develop together to bring about growth, and sustained growth determines the priorities for extension. These priorities depend inevitably on the stage of development of a country or region, and on the current…

  14. Kentucky's Urban Extension Focus

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Young, Jeffery; Vavrina, Charles

    2014-01-01

    Defining the success of Urban Extension units is sometimes challenging. For those Extension agents, specialists, administrators, and others who have worked to bring solid, research-based programming to urban communities, it is no surprise that working in these communities brings its own unique and sometimes difficult challenges. Kentucky's Urban…

  15. Kentucky's Urban Extension Focus

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Young, Jeffery; Vavrina, Charles

    2014-01-01

    Defining the success of Urban Extension units is sometimes challenging. For those Extension agents, specialists, administrators, and others who have worked to bring solid, research-based programming to urban communities, it is no surprise that working in these communities brings its own unique and sometimes difficult challenges. Kentucky's Urban…

  16. Energy minimization versus pseudo force technique for nonlinear structural analysis

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Kamat, M. P.; Hayduk, R. J.

    1980-01-01

    The effectiveness of using minimization techniques for the solution of nonlinear structural analysis problems is discussed and demonstrated by comparison with the conventional pseudo force technique. The comparison involves nonlinear problems with a relatively few degrees of freedom. A survey of the state-of-the-art of algorithms for unconstrained minimization reveals that extension of the technique to large scale nonlinear systems is possible.

  17. Minerva: Cylindrical coordinate extension for Athena

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Skinner, M. Aaron; Ostriker, Eve C.

    2013-02-01

    Minerva is a cylindrical coordinate extension of the Athena astrophysical MHD code of Stone, Gardiner, Teuben, and Hawley. The extension follows the approach of Athena's original developers and has been designed to alter the existing Cartesian-coordinates code as minimally and transparently as possible. The numerical equations in cylindrical coordinates are formulated to maintain consistency with constrained transport (CT), a central feature of the Athena algorithm, while making use of previously implemented code modules such as the Riemann solvers. Angular momentum transport, which is critical in astrophysical disk systems dominated by rotation, is treated carefully.

  18. Extension in Tough Times--Addressing Failures in Public and Private Extension, Lessons from the Tasmanian Wool Industry, Australia

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Hunt, Warren; Coutts, Jeff

    2009-01-01

    This paper reports research on the impact of introducing a range of extension approaches into the wool-growing regions of Tasmania Australia to meet an emerging knowledge and skills gap in the sector. The wool-growing industry of the state has experienced minimal government extension support for over 15 years. There is a failure in both private…

  19. Extension in Tough Times--Addressing Failures in Public and Private Extension, Lessons from the Tasmanian Wool Industry, Australia

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Hunt, Warren; Coutts, Jeff

    2009-01-01

    This paper reports research on the impact of introducing a range of extension approaches into the wool-growing regions of Tasmania Australia to meet an emerging knowledge and skills gap in the sector. The wool-growing industry of the state has experienced minimal government extension support for over 15 years. There is a failure in both private…

  20. [Physical rehabilitation in extensively burned patients].

    PubMed

    Martín Martínez, V; Díez Sanz, Ma J; Corona Fernández, O; García Aragón, A; González Fraile, L

    2014-02-01

    The rehabilitation of the extensively burned patient aims to prevent and minimize consequences of the own lesion this is supported by three pillars: 1) postural treatment to prevent contractures; 2) kinesiotherapy to maintain/restore joint range of movement and muscle strength; 3) functional recovery. Physical therapy is essential in the multidisciplinary team. A coordinated team assures better results and positively influences the quality of life of the patients.

  1. [Minimal cerebral dysfunctions and ADHD in adulthood].

    PubMed

    Linden, M; Weddigen, J

    2016-11-01

    Attention deficit hyperactivity disorder (ADHD) is of great importance not only in children but also in adults; however, despite extensive research there are still many unsolved questions with respect to the diagnosis. Patients not only suffer from attention deficits and hyperactivity but also a variety of other problems, such as dyspraxia, problems with stimulus discrimination, dysgrammatism, legasthenia, or motor coordination problems. Furthermore, there are also psychopathological disorders, such as problems with memory, formal thinking, emotional modulation, drive and vegetative stability, in the sense of a psycho-organic syndrome. Such syndromes have long been known in psychiatry under terms, such as complex capacity disorders, minimal cerebral dysfunction (MCD), minimal brain dysfunction (MBD), mild psycho-organic syndrome, psycho-organic axis syndrome, mild cognitive impairment, developmental disorder and developmental biological syndrome. Etiological data with respect to genetics and early childhood brain trauma support the notion of a psychobiological disorder for complex cerebral dysfunction in the sense of a psycho-organic syndrome. Depending on the individual life and work situation, these additional symptoms of ADHD are in many cases of greater relevance for life adjustment than the core symptoms, depending on the individual life and work situations. The concept of minimal cerebral dysfunction describes the ADHD problem better and has a direct bearing on the diagnosis, therapy and sociomedical care of the patients.

  2. Guidelines for mixed waste minimization

    SciTech Connect

    Owens, C.

    1992-02-01

    Currently, there is no commercial mixed waste disposal available in the United States. Storage and treatment for commercial mixed waste is limited. Host States and compacts region officials are encouraging their mixed waste generators to minimize their mixed wastes because of management limitations. This document provides a guide to mixed waste minimization.

  3. Influenza SIRS with Minimal Pneumonitis.

    PubMed

    Erramilli, Shruti; Mannam, Praveen; Manthous, Constantine A

    2016-01-01

    Although systemic inflammatory response syndrome (SIRS) is a known complication of severe influenza pneumonia, it has been reported very rarely in patients with minimal parenchymal lung disease. We here report a case of severe SIRS, anasarca, and marked vascular phenomena with minimal or no pneumonitis. This case highlights that viruses, including influenza, may cause vascular dysregulation causing SIRS, even without substantial visceral organ involvement.

  4. Waste minimization handbook, Volume 1

    SciTech Connect

    Boing, L.E.; Coffey, M.J.

    1995-12-01

    This technical guide presents various methods used by industry to minimize low-level radioactive waste (LLW) generated during decommissioning and decontamination (D and D) activities. Such activities generate significant amounts of LLW during their operations. Waste minimization refers to any measure, procedure, or technique that reduces the amount of waste generated during a specific operation or project. Preventive waste minimization techniques implemented when a project is initiated can significantly reduce waste. Techniques implemented during decontamination activities reduce the cost of decommissioning. The application of waste minimization techniques is not limited to D and D activities; it is also useful during any phase of a facility`s life cycle. This compendium will be supplemented with a second volume of abstracts of hundreds of papers related to minimizing low-level nuclear waste. This second volume is expected to be released in late 1996.

  5. Minimal flavour violation and multi-Higgs models

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Botella, F. J.; Branco, G. C.; Rebelo, M. N.

    2010-04-01

    We propose an extension of the hypothesis of Minimal Flavour Violation (MFV) to general multi-Higgs models without the assumption of Natural Flavour Conservation (NFC) in the Higgs sector. We study in detail under what conditions the neutral Higgs couplings are only functions of VCKM and propose a MFV expansion for the neutral Higgs couplings to fermions.

  6. Efficient sign extension for multiple addition

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Grisamore, Robert T.; Swartzlander, Earl E., Jr.

    2003-12-01

    A technique for reducing the sign extension overhead in adder trees is presented. A generalized version of the technique is shown to reduce the number of redundant sign extension computations required for reducing parallel adder trees from N terms to two terms. Additionally, the technique eliminates the fan-out latency that traditional sign extension places on late arriving sign bits. Twos complement number growth is also managed in carry-save form without the need for carry propagation. The application of the technique to 2N term adder trees is demonstrated. The implementation requires no computational overhead and needs minimal hardware. This design not only reduces hardware complexity, but also reduces computation delay. Finally, a simple circuit transformation to the traditional 4-2 compressor allows simple construction of circuits utilizing the technique.

  7. Minimal realistic SU(5) Grand Unified Theory

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Assad, Nima

    2016-03-01

    Despite making predictions in unprecedented agreement with experiment, such as the magnetic dipole moment of the electron to one part in a billion, the experimental confirmation of neutrino flavor oscillations, and thus of massive neutrinos, implies that the Standard Model (SM) of particle physics is incomplete. An extension of the SM, which retains its low energy predictions while accounting for massive neutrinos, is achieved through the introduction of the dimension 5 Weinberg operator and its associated energy scale above the electroweak (102 GeV), but below the Planck scale (1019 GeV). The Beyond Standard Model (BSM) class of Grand Unified Theories (GUTs) implicates such a scale (1016 GeV) in the unification of the three SM gauge couplings, thus making the origin of neutrino mass a theoretically appealing probe into particle behavior at energies currently inaccessible experimentally. Here, we compare the 24F and 15H extensions of the Georgi-Glashow SU(5) GUT to accommodate massive neutrinos and to unify SM gauge couplings while minimizing the theory's additional field content. Using the Monte Carlo event generator MadGraph, each extension is found to produce distinct signatures at the run II of the LHC.

  8. Minimizing waste in environmental restoration

    SciTech Connect

    Moos, L.; Thuot, J.R.

    1996-07-01

    Environmental restoration, decontamination and decommissioning and facility dismantelment projects are not typically known for their waste minimization and pollution prevention efforts. Typical projects are driven by schedules and milestones with little attention given to cost or waste minimization. Conventional wisdom in these projects is that the waste already exists and cannot be reduced or minimized. In fact, however, there are three significant areas where waste and cost can be reduced. Waste reduction can occur in three ways: beneficial reuse or recycling; segregation of waste types; and reducing generation of secondary waste. This paper will discuss several examples of reuse, recycle, segregation, and secondary waste reduction at ANL restoration programs.

  9. Vocabulary Extension through Poetry.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Surajlal, K. C.

    1986-01-01

    Based on the notion that teaching vocabulary extension in isolation makes little impact on students, a three-part exercise, designed to develop students' vocabulary through poetry while providing meaningful enjoyment, uses the poem "The Hawk" by A. C. Benson. In the first class period, students are introduced to both the exercise and the poem and…

  10. Mobile Applications for Extension

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Drill, Sabrina L.

    2012-01-01

    Mobile computing devices (smart phones, tablets, etc.) are rapidly becoming the dominant means of communication worldwide and are increasingly being used for scientific investigation. This technology can further our Extension mission by increasing our power for data collection, information dissemination, and informed decision-making. Mobile…

  11. Targeting Extension Publications.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Nehiley, James M.; William, Ray D.

    1980-01-01

    A study on the readability of publications of the Florida Cooperative Extension Service shows that most are written at the 12th-grade level, though the average Floridian reads at the sixth-grade level. The materials present a barrier to comprehension by limited-resource audiences in Florida. (JOW)

  12. Vocabulary Extension through Poetry.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Surajlal, K. C.

    1986-01-01

    Based on the notion that teaching vocabulary extension in isolation makes little impact on students, a three-part exercise, designed to develop students' vocabulary through poetry while providing meaningful enjoyment, uses the poem "The Hawk" by A. C. Benson. In the first class period, students are introduced to both the exercise and the poem and…

  13. Selecting Extensive Reading Materials

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Jacobs, George M.

    2014-01-01

    This article offers guidance to teachers and students in selecting materials for extensive reading (ER). First, the article explains characteristics of ER and reviews some of the potential gains for students who do ER. Second, the article considers criteria for teachers to bear in mind when selecting ER materials. Third, the article then suggests…

  14. Extensible Systems Dynamics Framework

    DTIC Science & Technology

    2008-04-01

    pedigree information across communities-of-interest and across network boundaries. 15. SUBJECT TERMS Ptolemy II, Systems Dynamics, PMESII, National...3 4.2 ADAPT THE PTOLEMY II FRAMEWORK TO ENSURE A WELL-SUITED MODELING...report of activities in the Extensible Systems Dynamics Framework project performed by the Ptolemy Project, University of California, Berkeley for

  15. Mobile Applications for Extension

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Drill, Sabrina L.

    2012-01-01

    Mobile computing devices (smart phones, tablets, etc.) are rapidly becoming the dominant means of communication worldwide and are increasingly being used for scientific investigation. This technology can further our Extension mission by increasing our power for data collection, information dissemination, and informed decision-making. Mobile…

  16. Job Enrichment in Extension.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Fourman, Louis S.; Jones, Jo

    1997-01-01

    Interviews with 10 participants in Ohio State University's job enrichment program for midcareer extension agents found that 5 returned to their same jobs after the experience but only 2 felt challenged/renewed. Part-time participation while working made it difficult to balance responsibilities. More information and a structured orientation were…

  17. Aortic valve surgery - minimally invasive

    MedlinePlus

    ... of the heart is reduced. This is called aortic stenosis. The aortic valve can be replaced using: Minimally ... RN, Wang A. Percutaneous heart valve replacement for aortic stenosis: state of the evidence. Ann Intern Med . 2010; ...

  18. Dissipative correct restrictions and extensions for the Sturm-Liouville operator

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Biyarov, Bazarkan; Abdrasheva, Gulnara

    2017-09-01

    In this paper, we describe the maximal dissipative correct restrictions (extensions) of the maximal (minimal) operator generated by the Sturm-Liouville operator when the minimal operator is not symmetric. It is proved that they have systems of eigenvectors and associated vectors which form a Riesz basis with brackets. It is shown that the dissipative correct restrictions of the maximal operator are not necessarily extensions of the minimal operator.

  19. Gamut Extension for Cinema.

    PubMed

    Zamir, Syed Waqas; Vazquez-Corral, Javier; Bertalmio, Marcelo

    2017-04-01

    Emerging display technologies are able to produce images with a much wider color gamut than those of conventional distribution gamuts for cinema and TV, creating an opportunity for the development of gamut extension algorithms (GEAs) that exploit the full color potential of these new systems. In this paper, we present a novel GEA, implemented as a PDE-based optimization procedure related to visual perception models, that performs gamut extension (GE) by taking into account the analysis of distortions in hue, chroma, and saturation. User studies performed using a digital cinema projector under cinematic (low ambient light, large screen) conditions show that the proposed algorithm outperforms the state of the art, producing gamut extended images that are perceptually more faithful to the wide-gamut ground truth, as well as free of color artifacts and hue shifts. We also show how currently available image quality metrics, when applied to the GE problem, provide results that do not correlate with users' choices.

  20. Massive neutrinos and invisible axion minimally connected

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Bertolini, Stefano; Di Luzio, Luca; Kolešová, Helena; Malinský, Michal

    2015-03-01

    We survey a few minimal scalar extensions of the standard electroweak model that provide a simple setup for massive neutrinos in connection with an invisible axion. The presence of a chiral U (1 ) à la Peccei-Quinn drives the pattern of Majorana neutrino masses while providing a dynamical solution to the strong C P problem and an axion as a dark matter candidate. We paradigmatically apply such a renormalizable framework to type-II seesaw and to two viable models for neutrino oscillations where the neutrino masses arise at one and two loops, respectively. We comment on the naturalness of the effective setups as well as on their implications for vacuum stability and electroweak baryogenesis.

  1. Microneedle-mediated minimally invasive patient monitoring.

    PubMed

    Donnelly, Ryan F; Mooney, Karen; Caffarel-Salvador, Ester; Torrisi, Barbara M; Eltayib, Eyman; McElnay, James C

    2014-02-01

    The emerging field of microneedle-based minimally invasive patient monitoring and diagnosis is reviewed. Microneedle arrays consist of rows of micron-scale projections attached to a solid support. They have been widely investigated for transdermal drug and vaccine delivery applications since the late 1990s. However, researchers and clinicians have recently realized the great potential of microneedles for extraction of skin interstitial fluid and, less commonly, blood, for enhanced monitoring of patient health. We reviewed the journal and patent literature, and summarized the findings and provided technical insights and critical analysis. We describe the basic concepts in detail and extensively review the work performed to date. It is our view that microneedles will have an important role to play in clinical management of patients and will ultimately improve therapeutic outcomes for people worldwide.

  2. Fusion algebras of logarithmic minimal models

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Rasmussen, Jørgen; Pearce, Paul A.

    2007-11-01

    We present explicit conjectures for the chiral fusion algebras of the logarithmic minimal models {\\cal LM}(p,p^{\\prime}) considering Virasoro representations with no enlarged or extended symmetry algebra. The generators of fusion are countably infinite in number but the ensuing fusion rules are quasi-rational in the sense that the fusion of a finite number of representations decomposes into a finite direct sum of representations. The fusion rules are commutative, associative and exhibit an sell(2) structure but require so-called Kac representations which are typically reducible yet indecomposable representations of rank 1. In particular, the identity of the fundamental fusion algebra p ≠ 1 is a reducible yet indecomposable Kac representation of rank 1. We make detailed comparisons of our fusion rules with the results of Gaberdiel and Kausch for p = 1 and with Eberle and Flohr for (p, p') = (2, 5) corresponding to the logarithmic Yang-Lee model. In the latter case, we confirm the appearance of indecomposable representations of rank 3. We also find that closure of a fundamental fusion algebra is achieved without the introduction of indecomposable representations of rank higher than 3. The conjectured fusion rules are supported, within our lattice approach, by extensive numerical studies of the associated integrable lattice models. Details of our lattice findings and numerical results will be presented elsewhere. The agreement of our fusion rules with the previous fusion rules lends considerable support for the identification of the logarithmic minimal models {\\cal LM}(p,p^{\\prime}) with the augmented c_{p,p^{\\prime}} (minimal) models defined algebraically.

  3. Minimal Erythema Dose (MED) Testing

    PubMed Central

    Heckman, Carolyn J.; Chandler, Rachel; Kloss, Jacqueline D.; Benson, Amy; Rooney, Deborah; Munshi, Teja; Darlow, Susan D.; Perlis, Clifford; Manne, Sharon L.; Oslin, David W.

    2013-01-01

    Ultraviolet radiation (UV) therapy is sometimes used as a treatment for various common skin conditions, including psoriasis, acne, and eczema. The dosage of UV light is prescribed according to an individual's skin sensitivity. Thus, to establish the proper dosage of UV light to administer to a patient, the patient is sometimes screened to determine a minimal erythema dose (MED), which is the amount of UV radiation that will produce minimal erythema (sunburn or redness caused by engorgement of capillaries) of an individual's skin within a few hours following exposure. This article describes how to conduct minimal erythema dose (MED) testing. There is currently no easy way to determine an appropriate UV dose for clinical or research purposes without conducting formal MED testing, requiring observation hours after testing, or informal trial and error testing with the risks of under- or over-dosing. However, some alternative methods are discussed. PMID:23748556

  4. [Vegetative or minimally conscious state?].

    PubMed

    Overbeek, Berno U H; Lavrijsen, Jan C M; Eilander, Henk J

    2010-01-01

    We describe the clinical course of a 51-year-old woman in a vegetative state and of a 63-year-old woman in a minimally conscious state. The difference between these two states is an important one, as clinical course, prognosis and medical-ethical considerations of both are different. In practice it is difficult to distinguish between a vegetative state and a minimally conscious state, but the use of a Post-Acute Level of Consciousness scale helps to illustrate the differences. Expertise, research, and application of functional neuro-imaging techniques (PET, fMRI) might also be useful. The differences between these two states regarding rehabilitation, pain management and medical-ethical decisions are important. The effects of neuro-rehabilitation and the implications of a minimally conscious state for patients and their proxies need further investigation.

  5. The New Minimal Standard Model

    SciTech Connect

    Davoudiasl, Hooman; Kitano, Ryuichiro; Li, Tianjun; Murayama, Hitoshi

    2005-01-13

    We construct the New Minimal Standard Model that incorporates the new discoveries of physics beyond the Minimal Standard Model (MSM): Dark Energy, non-baryonic Dark Matter, neutrino masses, as well as baryon asymmetry and cosmic inflation, adopting the principle of minimal particle content and the most general renormalizable Lagrangian. We base the model purely on empirical facts rather than aesthetics. We need only six new degrees of freedom beyond the MSM. It is free from excessive flavor-changing effects, CP violation, too-rapid proton decay, problems with electroweak precision data, and unwanted cosmological relics. Any model of physics beyond the MSM should be measured against the phenomenological success of this model.

  6. Does Minimally Invasive Spine Surgery Minimize Surgical Site Infections?

    PubMed Central

    Patel, Ravish Shammi; Dutta, Shumayou

    2016-01-01

    Study Design Retrospective review of prospectively collected data. Purpose To evaluate the incidence of surgical site infections (SSIs) in minimally invasive spine surgery (MISS) in a cohort of patients and compare with available historical data on SSI in open spinal surgery cohorts, and to evaluate additional direct costs incurred due to SSI. Overview of Literature SSI can lead to prolonged antibiotic therapy, extended hospitalization, repeated operations, and implant removal. Small incisions and minimal dissection intrinsic to MISS may minimize the risk of postoperative infections. However, there is a dearth of literature on infections after MISS and their additional direct financial implications. Methods All patients from January 2007 to January 2015 undergoing posterior spinal surgery with tubular retractor system and microscope in our institution were included. The procedures performed included tubular discectomies, tubular decompressions for spinal stenosis and minimal invasive transforaminal lumbar interbody fusion (TLIF). The incidence of postoperative SSI was calculated and compared to the range of cited SSI rates from published studies. Direct costs were calculated from medical billing for index cases and for patients with SSI. Results A total of 1,043 patients underwent 763 noninstrumented surgeries (discectomies, decompressions) and 280 instrumented (TLIF) procedures. The mean age was 52.2 years with male:female ratio of 1.08:1. Three infections were encountered with fusion surgeries (mean detection time, 7 days). All three required wound wash and debridement with one patient requiring unilateral implant removal. Additional direct cost due to infection was $2,678 per 100 MISS-TLIF. SSI increased hospital expenditure per patient 1.5-fold after instrumented MISS. Conclusions Overall infection rate after MISS was 0.29%, with SSI rate of 0% in non-instrumented MISS and 1.07% with instrumented MISS. MISS can markedly reduce the SSI rate and can be an

  7. Minimal Incision Congenital Cardiac Surgery

    PubMed Central

    del Nido, Pedro J.

    2008-01-01

    Minimally invasive techniques have had limited application in congenital cardiac surgery, primarily due to the complexity of the defects, small working area, and the fact that most defects require exposure to intracardiac structures. Advances in cannula design and instrumentation have allowed application of minimal incision techniques but in most cases, cardiopulmonary bypass is still required. Image guided surgery, which uses non-invasive imaging to guide intracardiac procedures, holds the promise of permitting performance of reconstructive surgery in the beating heart in children. PMID:18395631

  8. DNA: An Extensible Molecule

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Cluzel, Philippe; Lebrun, Anne; Heller, Christoph; Lavery, Richard; Viovy, Jean-Louis; Chatenay, Didier; Caron, Francois

    1996-02-01

    The force-displacement response of a single duplex DNA molecule was measured. The force saturates at a plateau around 70 piconewtons, which ends when the DNA has been stretched about 1.7 times its contour length. This behavior reveals a highly cooperative transition to a state here termed S-DNA. Addition of an intercalator suppresses this transition. Molecular modeling of the process also yields a force plateau and suggests a structure for the extended form. These results may shed light on biological processes involving DNA extension and open the route for mechanical studies on individual molecules in a previously unexplored range.

  9. Extensive Coronal Hole

    NASA Image and Video Library

    2017-09-02

    A large coronal hole has been spewing solar wind particles in the general direction of Earth over the past few days (Aug. 31- Sept. 1, 2017). It is the extensive dark area that stretches from the top of the sun and angles down to the right. Coronal holes are areas of open magnetic field, which allow charge particles to escape into space. They appear dark in certain wavelengths of extreme ultraviolet light such as shown here. These clouds of particles can cause aurora to appear, particularly in higher latitude regions. Movies are available at https://photojournal.jpl.nasa.gov/catalog/PIA21942

  10. Portable Extensible Viewer

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Horowitz, Jay G.

    1997-01-01

    The use of Nonuniform Rational B-Splines (NURBS) to represent geometry and data offers a standard way to facilitate the multidisciplinary analysis and design of aeropropulsion products. Using standard geometry defined by NURBS throughout design, analysis, part definition, manufacture, and test processes saves money and time. The Portable Extensible Viewer (PEV) offers engineers of different disciplines a means to view and manipulate NURBS geometry and associated data. Under the guidance of a team of Lewis, Boeing Company, and Navy personnel, PEV was developed by NASA Lewis Research Center's Computer Services Division for Lewis' Interdisciplinary Technology Office. The aeropropulsion industry provided input to the design requirements.

  11. Extensive focal epithelial hyperplasia.

    PubMed

    Hashemipour, Maryam Alsadat; Shoryabi, Ali; Adhami, Shahrzad; Mehrabizadeh Honarmand, Hoda

    2010-01-01

    Heck's disease or focal epithelial hyperplasia is a benign contagious disease caused by human papillomavirus types 13 or 32. It occurs with low frequency in the Iranian population. This condition is characterized by the occurrence of multiple, small papules or nodules in the oral cavity, especially on the labial and buccal mucosa and tongue. In some populations, up to 39% of children are affected. Conservative surgical excision of lesions may be performed for diagnostic or aesthetic purposes. The risk of recurrence after this therapy is minimal, and there seems to be no malignant transformation potential. In the present work, we presented the clinical case of a 12-year-old Iranian girl with oral lesions that clinically and histologically correspond to Heck's disease.

  12. LLNL Waste Minimization Program Plan

    SciTech Connect

    Not Available

    1990-02-14

    This document is the February 14, 1990 version of the LLNL Waste Minimization Program Plan (WMPP). The Waste Minimization Policy field has undergone continuous changes since its formal inception in the 1984 HSWA legislation. The first LLNL WMPP, Revision A, is dated March 1985. A series of informal revision were made on approximately a semi-annual basis. This Revision 2 is the third formal issuance of the WMPP document. EPA has issued a proposed new policy statement on source reduction and recycling. This policy reflects a preventative strategy to reduce or eliminate the generation of environmentally-harmful pollutants which may be released to the air, land surface, water, or ground water. In accordance with this new policy new guidance to hazardous waste generators on the elements of a Waste Minimization Program was issued. In response to these policies, DOE has revised and issued implementation guidance for DOE Order 5400.1, Waste Minimization Plan and Waste Reduction reporting of DOE Hazardous, Radioactive, and Radioactive Mixed Wastes, final draft January 1990. This WMPP is formatted to meet the current DOE guidance outlines. The current WMPP will be revised to reflect all of these proposed changes when guidelines are established. Updates, changes and revisions to the overall LLNL WMPP will be made as appropriate to reflect ever-changing regulatory requirements. 3 figs., 4 tabs.

  13. A Defense of Semantic Minimalism

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Kim, Su

    2012-01-01

    Semantic Minimalism is a position about the semantic content of declarative sentences, i.e., the content that is determined entirely by syntax. It is defined by the following two points: "Point 1": The semantic content is a complete/truth-conditional proposition. "Point 2": The semantic content is useful to a theory of…

  14. Wilson loops in minimal surfaces

    SciTech Connect

    Drukker, Nadav; Gross, David J.; Ooguri, Hirosi

    1999-04-27

    The AdS/CFT correspondence suggests that the Wilson loop of the large N gauge theory with N = 4 supersymmetry in 4 dimensions is described by a minimal surface in AdS{sub 5} x S{sup 5}. The authors examine various aspects of this proposal, comparing gauge theory expectations with computations of minimal surfaces. There is a distinguished class of loops, which the authors call BPS loops, whose expectation values are free from ultra-violet divergence. They formulate the loop equation for such loops. To the extent that they have checked, the minimal surface in AdS{sub 5} x S{sup 5} gives a solution of the equation. The authors also discuss the zig-zag symmetry of the loop operator. In the N = 4 gauge theory, they expect the zig-zag symmetry to hold when the loop does not couple the scalar fields in the supermultiplet. They will show how this is realized for the minimal surface.

  15. Dubin's Minimal Linkage Construct Revisited.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Rogers, Donald P.

    This paper contains a theoretical analysis and empirical study that support the major premise of Robert Dubin's minimal-linkage construct-that restricting communication links increases organizational stability. The theoretical analysis shows that fewer communication links are associated with less uncertainty, more redundancy, and greater…

  16. Minimally invasive aortic valve surgery

    PubMed Central

    Castrovinci, Sebastiano; Emmanuel, Sam; Moscarelli, Marco; Murana, Giacomo; Caccamo, Giuseppa; Bertolino, Emanuela Clara; Nasso, Giuseppe; Speziale, Giuseppe; Fattouch, Khalil

    2016-01-01

    Aortic valve disease is a prevalent disorder that affects approximately 2% of the general adult population. Surgical aortic valve replacement is the gold standard treatment for symptomatic patients. This treatment has demonstrably proven to be both safe and effective. Over the last few decades, in an attempt to reduce surgical trauma, different minimally invasive approaches for aortic valve replacement have been developed and are now being increasingly utilized. A narrative review of the literature was carried out to describe the surgical techniques for minimally invasive aortic valve surgery and report the results from different experienced centers. Minimally invasive aortic valve replacement is associated with low perioperative morbidity, mortality and a low conversion rate to full sternotomy. Long-term survival appears to be at least comparable to that reported for conventional full sternotomy. Minimally invasive aortic valve surgery, either with a partial upper sternotomy or a right anterior minithoracotomy provides early- and long-term benefits. Given these benefits, it may be considered the standard of care for isolated aortic valve disease. PMID:27582764

  17. A Defense of Semantic Minimalism

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Kim, Su

    2012-01-01

    Semantic Minimalism is a position about the semantic content of declarative sentences, i.e., the content that is determined entirely by syntax. It is defined by the following two points: "Point 1": The semantic content is a complete/truth-conditional proposition. "Point 2": The semantic content is useful to a theory of…

  18. What is minimally invasive dentistry?

    PubMed

    Ericson, Dan

    2004-01-01

    Minimally Invasive Dentistry is the application of "a systematic respect for the original tissue." This implies that the dental profession recognizes that an artifact is of less biological value than the original healthy tissue. Minimally invasive dentistry is a concept that can embrace all aspects of the profession. The common delineator is tissue preservation, preferably by preventing disease from occurring and intercepting its progress, but also removing and replacing with as little tissue loss as possible. It does not suggest that we make small fillings to restore incipient lesions or surgically remove impacted third molars without symptoms as routine procedures. The introduction of predictable adhesive technologies has led to a giant leap in interest in minimally invasive dentistry. The concept bridges the traditional gap between prevention and surgical procedures, which is just what dentistry needs today. The evidence-base for survival of restorations clearly indicates that restoring teeth is a temporary palliative measure that is doomed to fail if the disease that caused the condition is not addressed properly. Today, the means, motives and opportunities for minimally invasive dentistry are at hand, but incentives are definitely lacking. Patients and third parties seem to be convinced that the only things that count are replacements. Namely, they are prepared to pay for a filling but not for a procedure that can help avoid having one.

  19. Non-extensive radiobiology

    SciTech Connect

    Sotolongo-Grau, O.; Rodriguez-Perez, D.; Antoranz, J. C.; Sotolongo-Costa, O.

    2011-03-14

    The expression of survival factors for radiation damaged cells is based on probabilistic assumptions and experimentally fitted for each tumor, radiation and conditions. Here we show how the simplest of these radiobiological models can be derived from the maximum entropy principle of the classical Boltzmann-Gibbs expression. We extend this derivation using the Tsallis entropy and a cutoff hypothesis, motivated by clinical observations. A generalization of the exponential, the logarithm and the product to a non-extensive framework, provides a simple formula for the survival fraction corresponding to the application of several radiation doses on a living tissue. The obtained expression shows a remarkable agreement with the experimental data found in the literature, also providing a new interpretation of some of the parameters introduced anew. It is also shown how the presented formalism may have direct application in radiotherapy treatment optimization through the definition of the potential effect difference, simply calculated between the tumour and the surrounding tissue.

  20. Extensive Nonadditivity of Privacy

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Smith, Graeme; Smolin, John A.

    2009-09-01

    Quantum information theory establishes the ultimate limits on communication and cryptography in terms of channel capacities for various types of information. The private capacity is particularly important because it quantifies achievable rates of quantum key distribution. We study the power of quantum channels with limited private capacity, focusing on channels that dephase in random bases. These display extensive nonadditivity of private capacity: a channel with 2log⁡d input qubits that has a private capacity less than 2, but when used together with a second channel with zero private capacity, the joint capacity jumps to (1/2)log⁡d. In contrast to earlier work which found nonadditivity vanishing as a fraction of input size or conditional on unproven mathematical assumptions, this provides a natural setting manifesting nonadditivity of privacy of the strongest possible sort.

  1. Extensive nonadditivity of privacy.

    PubMed

    Smith, Graeme; Smolin, John A

    2009-09-18

    Quantum information theory establishes the ultimate limits on communication and cryptography in terms of channel capacities for various types of information. The private capacity is particularly important because it quantifies achievable rates of quantum key distribution. We study the power of quantum channels with limited private capacity, focusing on channels that dephase in random bases. These display extensive nonadditivity of private capacity: a channel with 2logd input qubits that has a private capacity less than 2, but when used together with a second channel with zero private capacity, the joint capacity jumps to (1/2)logd. In contrast to earlier work which found nonadditivity vanishing as a fraction of input size or conditional on unproven mathematical assumptions, this provides a natural setting manifesting nonadditivity of privacy of the strongest possible sort.

  2. An Object-oriented minimization package for HEP

    SciTech Connect

    Mark S Fischler and David Sachs

    2003-07-02

    A portion of the HEP community has perceived the need for a minimization package written in C++ and taking advantage of the Object-Oriented nature of that language. To be acceptable for HEP, such a package must at least encompass all the capabilities of Minuit. Aside from the slight plus of not relying on outside Fortran compilation, the advantages that a C++ package based on O-O design would confer over the multitude of available C++ Minuit-wrappers include: Easier extensibility to different algorithms and forms of constraints; and usage modes which would not be available in the global-common-based Minuit design. An example of the latter is a job pursuing two ongoing minimization problems simultaneously. We discuss the design and implementation of such a package, which extends Minuit only in minor ways but which greatly diminishes the programming effort (if not the algorithm thought) needed to make more significant extensions.

  3. Turning an Extension Aide into an Extension Agent

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Seevers, Brenda; Dormody, Thomas J.

    2010-01-01

    For any organization to remain sustainable, a renewable source of faculty and staff needs to be available. The Extension Internship Program for Juniors and Seniors in High School is a new tool for recruiting and developing new Extension agents. Students get "hands on" experience working in an Extension office and earn college credit…

  4. Turning an Extension Aide into an Extension Agent

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Seevers, Brenda; Dormody, Thomas J.

    2010-01-01

    For any organization to remain sustainable, a renewable source of faculty and staff needs to be available. The Extension Internship Program for Juniors and Seniors in High School is a new tool for recruiting and developing new Extension agents. Students get "hands on" experience working in an Extension office and earn college credit…

  5. Minimal universal quantum heat machine.

    PubMed

    Gelbwaser-Klimovsky, D; Alicki, R; Kurizki, G

    2013-01-01

    In traditional thermodynamics the Carnot cycle yields the ideal performance bound of heat engines and refrigerators. We propose and analyze a minimal model of a heat machine that can play a similar role in quantum regimes. The minimal model consists of a single two-level system with periodically modulated energy splitting that is permanently, weakly, coupled to two spectrally separated heat baths at different temperatures. The equation of motion allows us to compute the stationary power and heat currents in the machine consistent with the second law of thermodynamics. This dual-purpose machine can act as either an engine or a refrigerator (heat pump) depending on the modulation rate. In both modes of operation, the maximal Carnot efficiency is reached at zero power. We study the conditions for finite-time optimal performance for several variants of the model. Possible realizations of the model are discussed.

  6. Anaesthesia for minimally invasive surgery

    PubMed Central

    Dec, Marta

    2015-01-01

    Minimally invasive surgery (MIS) is rising in popularity. It offers well-known benefits to the patient. However, restricted access to the surgical site and gas insufflation into the body cavities may result in severe complications. From the anaesthetic point of view MIS poses unique challenges associated with creation of pneumoperitoneum, carbon dioxide absorption, specific positioning and monitoring a patient to whom the anaesthetist has often restricted access, in a poorly lit environment. Moreover, with refinement of surgical procedures and growing experience the anaesthetist is presented with patients from high-risk groups (obese, elderly, with advanced cardiac and respiratory disease) who once were deemed unsuitable for the laparoscopic technique. Anaesthetic management is aimed at getting the patient safely through the procedure, minimizing the specific risks arising from laparoscopy and the patient's coexisting medical problems, ensuring quick recovery and a relatively pain-free postoperative course with early return to normal function. PMID:26865885

  7. Minimal Doubling and Point Splitting

    SciTech Connect

    Creutz, M.

    2010-06-14

    Minimally-doubled chiral fermions have the unusual property of a single local field creating two fermionic species. Spreading the field over hypercubes allows construction of combinations that isolate specific modes. Combining these fields into bilinears produces meson fields of specific quantum numbers. Minimally-doubled fermion actions present the possibility of fast simulations while maintaining one exact chiral symmetry. They do, however, introduce some peculiar aspects. An explicit breaking of hyper-cubic symmetry allows additional counter-terms to appear in the renormalization. While a single field creates two different species, spreading this field over nearby sites allows isolation of specific states and the construction of physical meson operators. Finally, lattice artifacts break isospin and give two of the three pseudoscalar mesons an additional contribution to their mass. Depending on the sign of this mass splitting, one can either have a traditional Goldstone pseudoscalar meson or a parity breaking Aoki-like phase.

  8. Monitoring crack extension in fracture toughness tests by ultrasonics

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Klima, S. J.; Fisher, D. M.; Buzzard, R. J.

    1976-01-01

    An ultrasonic method was used to observe the onset of crack extension and to monitor continued crack growth in fracture toughness specimens during three-point bend tests. A 20-MHz transducer was used with commercially available equipment to detect average crack extension less than 0.09 mm. The material tested was a 300-grade maraging steel in the annealed condition. A crack extension resistance curve was developed to demonstrate the usefulness of the ultrasonic method for minimizing the number of tests required to generate such curves.

  9. Monitoring crack extension in fracture toughness tests by ultrasonics

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Klima, S. J.; Fisher, D. M.; Buzzard, R. J.

    1975-01-01

    An ultrasonic method was used to observe the onset of crack extension and to monitor continued crack growth in fracture toughness specimens during three point bend tests. A 20 MHz transducer was used with commercially available equipment to detect average crack extension less than 0.09 mm. The material tested was a 300-grade maraging steel in the annealed condition. A crack extension resistance curve was developed to demonstrate the usefulness of the ultrasonic method for minimizing the number of tests required to generate such curves.

  10. Optimizing Processes to Minimize Risk

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Loyd, David

    2017-01-01

    NASA, like the other hazardous industries, has suffered very catastrophic losses. Human error will likely never be completely eliminated as a factor in our failures. When you can't eliminate risk, focus on mitigating the worst consequences and recovering operations. Bolstering processes to emphasize the role of integration and problem solving is key to success. Building an effective Safety Culture bolsters skill-based performance that minimizes risk and encourages successful engagement.

  11. Principle of minimal work fluctuations

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Xiao, Gaoyang; Gong, Jiangbin

    2015-08-01

    Understanding and manipulating work fluctuations in microscale and nanoscale systems are of both fundamental and practical interest. For example, in considering the Jarzynski equality =e-β Δ F , a change in the fluctuations of e-β W may impact how rapidly the statistical average of e-β W converges towards the theoretical value e-β Δ F, where W is the work, β is the inverse temperature, and Δ F is the free energy difference between two equilibrium states. Motivated by our previous study aiming at the suppression of work fluctuations, here we obtain a principle of minimal work fluctuations. In brief, adiabatic processes as treated in quantum and classical adiabatic theorems yield the minimal fluctuations in e-β W. In the quantum domain, if a system initially prepared at thermal equilibrium is subjected to a work protocol but isolated from a bath during the time evolution, then a quantum adiabatic process without energy level crossing (or an assisted adiabatic process reaching the same final states as in a conventional adiabatic process) yields the minimal fluctuations in e-β W, where W is the quantum work defined by two energy measurements at the beginning and at the end of the process. In the classical domain where the classical work protocol is realizable by an adiabatic process, then the classical adiabatic process also yields the minimal fluctuations in e-β W. Numerical experiments based on a Landau-Zener process confirm our theory in the quantum domain, and our theory in the classical domain explains our previous numerical findings regarding the suppression of classical work fluctuations [G. Y. Xiao and J. B. Gong, Phys. Rev. E 90, 052132 (2014), 10.1103/PhysRevE.90.052132].

  12. Principle of minimal work fluctuations.

    PubMed

    Xiao, Gaoyang; Gong, Jiangbin

    2015-08-01

    Understanding and manipulating work fluctuations in microscale and nanoscale systems are of both fundamental and practical interest. For example, in considering the Jarzynski equality 〈e-βW〉=e-βΔF, a change in the fluctuations of e-βW may impact how rapidly the statistical average of e-βW converges towards the theoretical value e-βΔF, where W is the work, β is the inverse temperature, and ΔF is the free energy difference between two equilibrium states. Motivated by our previous study aiming at the suppression of work fluctuations, here we obtain a principle of minimal work fluctuations. In brief, adiabatic processes as treated in quantum and classical adiabatic theorems yield the minimal fluctuations in e-βW. In the quantum domain, if a system initially prepared at thermal equilibrium is subjected to a work protocol but isolated from a bath during the time evolution, then a quantum adiabatic process without energy level crossing (or an assisted adiabatic process reaching the same final states as in a conventional adiabatic process) yields the minimal fluctuations in e-βW, where W is the quantum work defined by two energy measurements at the beginning and at the end of the process. In the classical domain where the classical work protocol is realizable by an adiabatic process, then the classical adiabatic process also yields the minimal fluctuations in e-βW. Numerical experiments based on a Landau-Zener process confirm our theory in the quantum domain, and our theory in the classical domain explains our previous numerical findings regarding the suppression of classical work fluctuations [G. Y. Xiao and J. B. Gong, Phys. Rev. E 90, 052132 (2014)].

  13. Outcomes After Minimally Invasive Esophagectomy

    PubMed Central

    Luketich, James D.; Pennathur, Arjun; Awais, Omar; Levy, Ryan M.; Keeley, Samuel; Shende, Manisha; Christie, Neil A.; Weksler, Benny; Landreneau, Rodney J.; Abbas, Ghulam; Schuchert, Matthew J.; Nason, Katie S.

    2014-01-01

    Background Esophagectomy is a complex operation and is associated with significant morbidity and mortality. In an attempt to lower morbidity, we have adopted a minimally invasive approach to esophagectomy. Objectives Our primary objective was to evaluate the outcomes of minimally invasive esophagectomy (MIE) in a large group of patients. Our secondary objective was to compare the modified McKeown minimally invasive approach (videothoracoscopic surgery, laparoscopy, neck anastomosis [MIE-neck]) with our current approach, a modified Ivor Lewis approach (laparoscopy, videothoracoscopic surgery, chest anastomosis [MIE-chest]). Methods We reviewed 1033 consecutive patients undergoing MIE. Elective operation was performed on 1011 patients; 22 patients with nonelective operations were excluded. Patients were stratified by surgical approach and perioperative outcomes analyzed. The primary endpoint studied was 30-day mortality. Results The MIE-neck was performed in 481 (48%) and MIE-Ivor Lewis in 530 (52%). Patients undergoing MIE-Ivor Lewis were operated in the current era. The median number of lymph nodes resected was 21. The operative mortality was 1.68%. Median length of stay (8 days) and ICU stay (2 days) were similar between the 2 approaches. Mortality rate was 0.9%, and recurrent nerve injury was less frequent in the Ivor Lewis MIE group (P < 0.001). Conclusions MIE in our center resulted in acceptable lymph node resection, postoperative outcomes, and low mortality using either an MIE-neck or an MIE-chest approach. The MIE Ivor Lewis approach was associated with reduced recurrent laryngeal nerve injury and mortality of 0.9% and is now our preferred approach. Minimally invasive esophagectomy can be performed safely, with good results in an experienced center. PMID:22668811

  14. Minimal massive 3D gravity

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Bergshoeff, Eric; Hohm, Olaf; Merbis, Wout; Routh, Alasdair J.; Townsend, Paul K.

    2014-07-01

    We present an alternative to topologically massive gravity (TMG) with the same ‘minimal’ bulk properties; i.e. a single local degree of freedom that is realized as a massive graviton in linearization about an anti-de Sitter (AdS) vacuum. However, in contrast to TMG, the new ‘minimal massive gravity’ has both a positive energy graviton and positive central charges for the asymptotic AdS-boundary conformal algebra.

  15. Construction schedules slack time minimizing

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Krzemiński, Michał

    2017-07-01

    The article presents two copyright models for minimizing downtime working brigades. Models have been developed for construction schedules performed using the method of work uniform. Application of flow shop models is possible and useful for the implementation of large objects, which can be divided into plots. The article also presents a condition describing gives which model should be used, as well as a brief example of optimization schedule. The optimization results confirm the legitimacy of the work on the newly-developed models.

  16. Comprehension asymmetries in language acquisition: a test for Relativized Minimality.

    PubMed

    Varlokosta, Spyridoula; Nerantzini, Michaela; Papadopoulou, Despina

    2015-05-01

    Cross-linguistic studies have shown that typically developing children have difficulties comprehending non-canonical structures. These findings have been interpreted within the Relativized Minimality (RM) approach, according to which local relations cannot be established between two terms of a dependency if an intervening element possesses similar morphosyntactic features. In an extension of RM, Friedmann, Belletti, and Rizzi (2009) suggested that lexical NP restriction is the source of minimality effects in non-canonical sentences. The present study aimed at investigating whether the predictions of their account can be confirmed in Greek. Our results indicate that although lexical NP restriction is a crucial factor in generating minimality effects, it is not always sufficient to account for the comprehension difficulties that young children face with non-canonical sentences, since the internal structure (i.e. the feature specification) of the moved element and of the intervener affects their performance, as well.

  17. Minimally invasive surgery. Future developments.

    PubMed Central

    Wickham, J. E.

    1994-01-01

    The rapid development of minimally invasive surgery means that there will be fundamental changes in interventional treatment. Technological advances will allow new minimally invasive procedures to be developed. Application of robotics will allow some procedures to be done automatically, and coupling of slave robotic instruments with virtual reality images will allow surgeons to perform operations by remote control. Miniature motors and instruments designed by microengineering could be introduced into body cavities to perform operations that are currently impossible. New materials will allow changes in instrument construction, such as use of memory metals to make heat activated scissors or forceps. With the reduced trauma associated with minimally invasive surgery, fewer operations will require long hospital stays. Traditional surgical wards will become largely redundant, and hospitals will need to cope with increased through-put of patients. Operating theatres will have to be equipped with complex high technology equipment, and hospital staff will need to be trained to manage it. Conventional nursing care will be carried out more in the community. Many traditional specialties will be merged, and surgical training will need fundamental revision to ensure that surgeons are competent to carry out the new procedures. Images Fig 1 Fig 2 Fig 3 Fig 4 Fig 5 PMID:8312776

  18. Minimally invasive paediatric cardiac surgery.

    PubMed

    Bacha, Emile; Kalfa, David

    2014-01-01

    The concept of minimally invasive surgery for congenital heart disease in paediatric patients is broad, and has the aim of reducing the trauma of the operation at each stage of management. Firstly, in the operating room using minimally invasive incisions, video-assisted thoracoscopic and robotically assisted surgery, hybrid procedures, image-guided intracardiac surgery, and minimally invasive cardiopulmonary bypass strategies. Secondly, in the intensive-care unit with neuroprotection and 'fast-tracking' strategies that involve early extubation, early hospital discharge, and less exposure to transfused blood products. Thirdly, during postoperative mid-term and long-term follow-up by providing the children and their families with adequate support after hospital discharge. Improvement of these strategies relies on the development of new devices, real-time multimodality imaging, aids to instrument navigation, miniaturized and specialized instrumentation, robotic technology, and computer-assisted modelling of flow dynamics and tissue mechanics. In addition, dedicated multidisciplinary co-ordinated teams involving congenital cardiac surgeons, perfusionists, intensivists, anaesthesiologists, cardiologists, nurses, psychologists, and counsellors are needed before, during, and after surgery to go beyond apparent technological and medical limitations with the goal to 'treat more while hurting less'.

  19. Developing a Successful Asynchronous Online Extension Program for Forest Landowners

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Zobrist, Kevin W.

    2014-01-01

    Asynchronous online Extension classes can reach a wide audience, is convenient for the learner, and minimizes ongoing demands on instructor time. However, producing such classes takes significant effort up front. Advance planning and good communication with contributors are essential to success. Considerations include delivery platforms, content…

  20. Developing a Successful Asynchronous Online Extension Program for Forest Landowners

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Zobrist, Kevin W.

    2014-01-01

    Asynchronous online Extension classes can reach a wide audience, is convenient for the learner, and minimizes ongoing demands on instructor time. However, producing such classes takes significant effort up front. Advance planning and good communication with contributors are essential to success. Considerations include delivery platforms, content…

  1. The BGAN extension programme

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Rivera, Juan J.; Trachtman, Eyal; Richharia, Madhavendra

    2005-11-01

    Mobile satellite telecommunications systems have undergone an enormous evolution in the last decades, with the interest in having advanced telecommunications services available on demand, anywhere and at any time, leading to incredible advances. The demand for braodband data is therefore rapidly gathering pace, but current solutions are finding it increasingly difficult to combine large bandwidth with ubiquitous coverage, reliability and portability. The BGAN (Broadband Global Area Network) system, designed to operate with the Inmarsat-4 satellites, provides breakthrough services that meet all of these requirements. It will enable broadband connection on the move, delivering all the key tools of the modern office. Recognising the great impact that Inmarsat's BGAN system will have on the European satellite communications industry, and the benefits that it will bring to a wide range of European industries, in 2003 ESA initiated the "BGAN Extension" project. Its primary goals are to provide the full range of BGAN services to truly mobile platforms, operating in aeronautical, vehicular and maritime environments, and to introduce a multicast service capability. The project is supported by the ARTES Programme which establishes a collaboration agreement between ESA, Inmarsat and a group of key industrial and academic institutions which includes EMS, Logica, Nera and the University of Surrey (UK).

  2. Extensible Wind Towers

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Sinagra, Marco; Tucciarelli, Tullio

    The diffusion of wind energy generators is restricted by their strong landscape impact. The PERIMA project is about the development of an extensible wind tower able to support a wind machine for several hundred kW at its optimal working height, up to more than 50 m. The wind tower has a telescopic structure, made by several tubes located inside each other with their axis in vertical direction. The lifting force is given by a jack-up system confined inside a shaft, drilled below the ground level. In the retracted tower configuration, at rest, tower tubes are hidden in the foundation of the telescopic structure, located below the ground surface, and the wind machine is the only emerging part of the system. The lifting system is based on a couple of oleodynamic cylinders that jack-up a central tube connected to the top of the tower by a spring, with a diameter smaller than the minimum tower diameter and with a length a bit greater than the length of the extended telescopic structure. The central tube works as plunger and lifts all telescopic elements. The constraint between the telescopic elements is ensured by special parts, which are kept in traction by the force of the spring and provide the resisting moment. The most evident benefit of the proposed system is attained with the use of a two-blade propeller, which can be kept horizontal in the retracted tower configuration.

  3. Extension of Storage Stability in Energy-Dense Encapsulated Systems by Minimization of Lipid Oxidation

    DTIC Science & Technology

    1988-01-01

    of compounds like gallic 8 and chlorogenic acids . There are, of course, modifying circumstances. BHA and BHT are quite volatile and may be partially...GROUP FLUORE-SCEI-NCEI AIITox I l)ATI ON ASCORBIC ACID MA LLARI) REIA’IION ANT lOX I DANTs SOLID SAMPLE FLUORESCENCE ICALI.ATEI) IIYDROP1I 11 1. A...By contrast, ascorbic acid produced little to no effect in the compressed system. ....DG, a lipophile, was mcre than twic.Pas effective as propyl

  4. Minimally invasive therapy in Denmark.

    PubMed

    Schou, I

    1993-01-01

    Minimally invasive therapy (MIT) is beginning to have impacts on health care in Denmark, although diffusion has been delayed compared to diffusion in other European countries. Now policy makers are beginning to appreciate the potential advantages in terms of closing hospitals and shifting treatment to the out-patient setting, and diffusion will probably go faster in the future. Denmark does not have a system for technology assessment, neither central nor regional, and there is no early warning mechanism to survey international developments. This implies lack of possibilities for the planning of diffusion, training, and criteria for treatment.

  5. Risk minimization through portfolio replication

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Ciliberti, S.; Mã©Zard, M.

    2007-05-01

    We use a replica approach to deal with portfolio optimization problems. A given risk measure is minimized using empirical estimates of asset values correlations. We study the phase transition which happens when the time series is too short with respect to the size of the portfolio. We also study the noise sensitivity of portfolio allocation when this transition is approached. We consider explicitely the cases where the absolute deviation and the conditional value-at-risk are chosen as a risk measure. We show how the replica method can study a wide range of risk measures, and deal with various types of time series correlations, including realistic ones with volatility clustering.

  6. Prepulse minimization in KALI-5000.

    PubMed

    Kumar, D Durga Praveen; Mitra, S; Senthil, K; Sharma, Vishnu K; Singh, S K; Roy, A; Sharma, Archana; Nagesh, K V; Chakravarthy, D P

    2009-07-01

    A pulse power system (1 MV, 50 kA, and 100 ns) based on Marx generator and Blumlein pulse forming line has been built for generating high power microwaves. The Blumlein configuration poses a prepulse problem and hence the diode gap had to be increased to match the diode impedance to the Blumlein impedance during the main pulse. A simple method to eliminate prepulse voltage using a vacuum sparkgap and a resistor is given. Another fundamental approach of increasing the inductance of Marx generator to minimize the prepulse voltage is also presented. Experimental results for both of these configurations are given.

  7. Prepulse minimization in KALI-5000

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Kumar, D. Durga Praveen; Mitra, S.; Senthil, K.; Sharma, Vishnu K.; Singh, S. K.; Roy, A.; Sharma, Archana; Nagesh, K. V.; Chakravarthy, D. P.

    2009-07-01

    A pulse power system (1 MV, 50 kA, and 100 ns) based on Marx generator and Blumlein pulse forming line has been built for generating high power microwaves. The Blumlein configuration poses a prepulse problem and hence the diode gap had to be increased to match the diode impedance to the Blumlein impedance during the main pulse. A simple method to eliminate prepulse voltage using a vacuum sparkgap and a resistor is given. Another fundamental approach of increasing the inductance of Marx generator to minimize the prepulse voltage is also presented. Experimental results for both of these configurations are given.

  8. SAR image regularization with fast approximate discrete minimization.

    PubMed

    Denis, Loïc; Tupin, Florence; Darbon, Jérôme; Sigelle, Marc

    2009-07-01

    Synthetic aperture radar (SAR) images, like other coherent imaging modalities, suffer from speckle noise. The presence of this noise makes the automatic interpretation of images a challenging task and noise reduction is often a prerequisite for successful use of classical image processing algorithms. Numerous approaches have been proposed to filter speckle noise. Markov random field (MRF) modelization provides a convenient way to express both data fidelity constraints and desirable properties of the filtered image. In this context, total variation minimization has been extensively used to constrain the oscillations in the regularized image while preserving its edges. Speckle noise follows heavy-tailed distributions, and the MRF formulation leads to a minimization problem involving nonconvex log-likelihood terms. Such a minimization can be performed efficiently by computing minimum cuts on weighted graphs. Due to memory constraints, exact minimization, although theoretically possible, is not achievable on large images required by remote sensing applications. The computational burden of the state-of-the-art algorithm for approximate minimization (namely the alpha -expansion) is too heavy specially when considering joint regularization of several images. We show that a satisfying solution can be reached, in few iterations, by performing a graph-cut-based combinatorial exploration of large trial moves. This algorithm is applied to joint regularization of the amplitude and interferometric phase in urban area SAR images.

  9. Translation Invariant Extensions of Finite Volume Measures

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Goldstein, S.; Kuna, T.; Lebowitz, J. L.; Speer, E. R.

    2017-02-01

    We investigate the following questions: Given a measure μ _Λ on configurations on a subset Λ of a lattice L, where a configuration is an element of Ω ^Λ for some fixed set Ω , does there exist a measure μ on configurations on all of L, invariant under some specified symmetry group of L, such that μ _Λ is its marginal on configurations on Λ ? When the answer is yes, what are the properties, e.g., the entropies, of such measures? Our primary focus is the case in which L=Z^d and the symmetries are the translations. For the case in which Λ is an interval in Z we give a simple necessary and sufficient condition, local translation invariance ( LTI), for extendibility. For LTI measures we construct extensions having maximal entropy, which we show are Gibbs measures; this construction extends to the case in which L is the Bethe lattice. On Z we also consider extensions supported on periodic configurations, which are analyzed using de Bruijn graphs and which include the extensions with minimal entropy. When Λ subset Z is not an interval, or when Λ subset Z^d with d>1, the LTI condition is necessary but not sufficient for extendibility. For Z^d with d>1, extendibility is in some sense undecidable.

  10. Minimizing travel claims cost with minimal-spanning tree model

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Jamalluddin, Mohd Helmi; Jaafar, Mohd Azrul; Amran, Mohd Iskandar; Ainul, Mohd Sharizal; Hamid, Aqmar; Mansor, Zafirah Mohd; Nopiah, Zulkifli Mohd

    2014-06-01

    Travel demand necessitates a big expenditure in spending, as has been proven by the National Audit Department (NAD). Every year the auditing process is carried out throughout the country involving official travel claims. This study focuses on the use of the Spanning Tree model to determine the shortest path to minimize the cost of the NAD's official travel claims. The objective is to study the possibility of running a network based in the Kluang District Health Office to eight Rural Clinics in Johor state using the Spanning Tree model applications for optimizing travelling distances and make recommendations to the senior management of the Audit Department to analyze travelling details before an audit is conducted. Result of this study reveals that there were claims of savings of up to 47.4% of the original claims, over the course of the travel distance.

  11. The minimal time detection algorithm

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Kim, Sungwan

    1995-01-01

    An aerospace vehicle may operate throughout a wide range of flight environmental conditions that affect its dynamic characteristics. Even when the control design incorporates a degree of robustness, system parameters may drift enough to cause its performance to degrade below an acceptable level. The object of this paper is to develop a change detection algorithm so that we can build a highly adaptive control system applicable to aircraft systems. The idea is to detect system changes with minimal time delay. The algorithm developed is called Minimal Time-Change Detection Algorithm (MT-CDA) which detects the instant of change as quickly as possible with false-alarm probability below a certain specified level. Simulation results for the aircraft lateral motion with a known or unknown change in control gain matrices, in the presence of doublet input, indicate that the algorithm works fairly well as theory indicates though there is a difficulty in deciding the exact amount of change in some situations. One of MT-CDA distinguishing properties is that detection delay of MT-CDA is superior to that of Whiteness Test.

  12. Annual Waste Minimization Summary Report

    SciTech Connect

    Alfred J. Karns

    2007-01-01

    This report summarizes the waste minimization efforts undertaken by National Security Technologies, LLC (NSTec), for the U. S. Department of Energy (DOE) National Nuclear Security Administration Nevada Site Office (NNSA/NSO), during CY06. This report was developed in accordance with the requirements of the Nevada Test Site (NTS) Resource Conservation and Recovery Act (RCRA) Permit (No. NEV HW0021) and as clarified in a letter dated April 21, 1995, from Paul Liebendorfer of the Nevada Division of Environmental Protection to Donald Elle of the DOE, Nevada Operations Office. The NNSA/NSO Pollution Prevention (P2) Program establishes a process to reduce the volume and toxicity of waste generated by the NNSA/NSO and ensures that proposed methods of treatment, storage, and/or disposal of waste minimize potential threats to human health and the environment. The following information provides an overview of the P2 Program, major P2 accomplishments during the reporting year, a comparison of the current year waste generation to prior years, and a description of efforts undertaken during the year to reduce the volume and toxicity of waste generated by the NNSA/NSO.

  13. Cultural change and support of waste minimization

    SciTech Connect

    Boylan, M.S.

    1991-12-31

    The process of bringing a subject like pollution prevention to top of mind awareness, where designed to prevent waste becomes part of business as usual, is called cultural change. With Department of Energy orders and management waste minimization commitment statements on file, the REAL work is just beginning at the Idaho National Engineering Laboratory (INEL); shaping the attitudes of 11,000+ employees. The difficulties of such a task are daunting. The 890 square mile INEL site and in-town support offices mean a huge diversity of employee jobs and waste streams; from cafeteria and auto maintenance wastes to high-level nuclear waste casks. INEL is pursuing a three component cultural change strategy: training, publicity, and public outreach. To meet the intent of DOE orders, all INEL employees are slated to receive pollution prevention orientation training. More technical training is given to targeted groups like purchasing and design engineering. To keep newly learned pollution prevention concepts top-of-mind, extensive site-wide publicity is being developed and conducted, culminating in the April Pollution Prevention Awareness Week coinciding with Earth Day 1992. Finally, news of INEL pollution prevention successes is shared with the public to increase their overall environmental awareness and their knowledge of INEL activities. An important added benefit is the sense of pride the program instills in INEL employees to have their successes displayed so publicly.

  14. Minimal Technologies Application Project: Planning and installation

    SciTech Connect

    Zellmer, S.D.; Hinchman, R.R.; Severinghaus, W.D.; Johnson, D.O.; Brent, J.J.

    1989-03-01

    Intensive and continuous tactical training during the last 35 years at the Hohenfels Training Area in West Germany has caused the loss of vegetative ground cover and has accelerated soil erosion rates, resulting in extensive environmental damage, safety hazards, and unrealistic training habitats. The objectives of this project are to develop and evaluate revegetation procedures for establishing adequate vegetative cover to control erosion at minimal costs and disruption to training activities. This project involved the development and installation of 12 revegetation procedures that combined four seedbed preparation methods and seeding options with three site-closure periods. In March 1987, the four seedbed preparation/seeding options and closure periods were selected, a study site design and location chosen, and specifications for the revegetation procedures developed. A German rehabilitation contractor attempted the specified seedbed preparation and seeding on the 13.5-ha site in June, but abnormally high rainfall, usually wet site conditions, and lack of adequate equipment prevented the contractor from completing six of the 12 planned procedures. Planning and execution of the project has nonetheless provided valuable information on the importance and use of soil analytical results, seed availability and cost data, contractor equipment requirements, and time required for planning future revegetation efforts. Continued monitoring of vegetative ground cover at the site for the next two years, combined with cost information, will provide necessary data to determine which of the six revegetation procedures is the most effective. These data will be used in planning future rehabilitation efforts on tactical training areas.

  15. Minimal N=4 topologically massive supergravity

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Kuzenko, Sergei M.; Novak, Joseph; Sachs, Ivo

    2017-03-01

    Using the superconformal framework, we construct a new off-shell model for N=4 topologically massive supergravity which is minimal in the sense that it makes use of a single compensating vector multiplet and involves no free parameter. As such, it provides a counterexample to the common lore that two compensating multiplets are required within the conformal approach to supergravity with eight supercharges in diverse dimensions. This theory is an off-shell N=4 supersymmetric extension of chiral gravity. All of its solutions correspond to non-conformally flat superspaces. Its maximally supersymmetric solutions include the so-called critical (4,0) anti-de Sitter superspace introduced in [25], and well as warped critical (4,0) anti-de Sitter superspaces. We also propose a dual formulation for the theory in which the vector multiplet is replaced with an off-shell hypermultiplet. Upon elimination of the auxiliary fields belonging to the hypermultiplet and imposing certain gauge conditions, the dual action reduces to the one introduced in [20].

  16. Update on designing and building minimal cells

    PubMed Central

    Jewett, Michael C.; Forster, Anthony C.

    2010-01-01

    Summary Minimal cells comprise only the genes and biomolecular machinery necessary for basic life. Synthesizing minimal and minimized cells will improve understanding of core biology, enhance development of biotechnology strains of bacteria, and enable evolutionary optimization of natural and unnatural biopolymers. Design and construction of minimal cells is proceeding in two different directions: “top-down” reduction of bacterial genomes in vivo and “bottom-up” integration of DNA/RNA/protein/membrane syntheses in vitro. Major progress in the last 5 years has occurred in synthetic genomics, minimization of the Escherichia coli genome, sequencing of minimal bacterial endosymbionts, identification of essential genes, and integration of biochemical systems. PMID:20638265

  17. Strategies to Minimize Antibiotic Resistance

    PubMed Central

    Lee, Chang-Ro; Cho, Ill Hwan; Jeong, Byeong Chul; Lee, Sang Hee

    2013-01-01

    Antibiotic resistance can be reduced by using antibiotics prudently based on guidelines of antimicrobial stewardship programs (ASPs) and various data such as pharmacokinetic (PK) and pharmacodynamic (PD) properties of antibiotics, diagnostic testing, antimicrobial susceptibility testing (AST), clinical response, and effects on the microbiota, as well as by new antibiotic developments. The controlled use of antibiotics in food animals is another cornerstone among efforts to reduce antibiotic resistance. All major resistance-control strategies recommend education for patients, children (e.g., through schools and day care), the public, and relevant healthcare professionals (e.g., primary-care physicians, pharmacists, and medical students) regarding unique features of bacterial infections and antibiotics, prudent antibiotic prescribing as a positive construct, and personal hygiene (e.g., handwashing). The problem of antibiotic resistance can be minimized only by concerted efforts of all members of society for ensuring the continued efficiency of antibiotics. PMID:24036486

  18. Minimally Invasive Spigelian Hernia Repair

    PubMed Central

    Baucom, Catherine; Nguyen, Quan D.; Hidalgo, Marco

    2009-01-01

    Introduction: Spigelian hernia is an uncommon ventral hernia characterized by a defect in the linea semilunaris. Repair of spigelian hernia has traditionally been accomplished via an open transverse incision and primary repair. The purpose of this article is to present 2 case reports of incarcerated spigelian hernia that were successfully repaired laparoscopically using Gortex mesh and to present a review of the literature regarding laparoscopic repair of spigelian hernias. Methods: Retrospective chart review and Medline literature search. Results: Two patients underwent laparoscopic mesh repair of incarcerated spigelian hernias. Both were started on a regular diet on postoperative day 1 and discharged on postoperative days 2 and 3. One patient developed a seroma that resolved without intervention. There was complete resolution of preoperative symptoms at the 12-month follow-up. Conclusion: Minimally invasive repair of spigelian hernias is an alternative to the traditional open surgical technique. Further studies are needed to directly compare the open and the laparoscopic repair. PMID:19660230

  19. [MINIMALLY INVASIVE AORTIC VALVE REPLACEMENT].

    PubMed

    Tabata, Minoru

    2016-03-01

    Minimally invasive aortic valve replacement (MIAVR) is defined as aortic valve replacement avoiding full sternotomy. Common approaches include a partial sternotomy right thoracotomy, and a parasternal approach. MIAVR has been shown to have advantages over conventional AVR such as shorter length of stay and smaller amount of blood transfusion and better cosmesis. However, it is also known to have disadvantages such as longer cardiopulmonary bypass and aortic cross-clamp times and potential complications related to peripheral cannulation. Appropriate patient selection is very important. Since the procedure is more complex than conventional AVR, more intensive teamwork in the operating room is essential. Additionally, a team approach during postoperative management is critical to maximize the benefits of MIAVR.

  20. Minimally packed phases in holography

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Donos, Aristomenis; Gauntlett, Jerome P.

    2016-03-01

    We numerically construct asymptotically AdS black brane solutions of D = 4 Einstein-Maxwell theory coupled to a pseudoscalar. The solutions are holographically dual to d = 3 CFTs at finite chemical potential and in a constant magnetic field, which spontaneously break translation invariance leading to the spontaneous formation of abelian and momentum magnetisation currents flowing around the plaquettes of a periodic Bravais lattice. We analyse the three-dimensional moduli space of lattice solutions, which are generically oblique, and show, for a specific value of the magnetic field, that the free energy is minimised by the triangular lattice, associated with minimal packing of circles in the plane. We show that the average stress tensor for the thermodynamically preferred phase is that of a perfect fluid and that this result applies more generally to spontaneously generated periodic phases. The triangular structure persists at low temperatures indicating the existence of novel crystalline ground states.

  1. Strategies to minimize antibiotic resistance.

    PubMed

    Lee, Chang-Ro; Cho, Ill Hwan; Jeong, Byeong Chul; Lee, Sang Hee

    2013-09-12

    Antibiotic resistance can be reduced by using antibiotics prudently based on guidelines of antimicrobial stewardship programs (ASPs) and various data such as pharmacokinetic (PK) and pharmacodynamic (PD) properties of antibiotics, diagnostic testing, antimicrobial susceptibility testing (AST), clinical response, and effects on the microbiota, as well as by new antibiotic developments. The controlled use of antibiotics in food animals is another cornerstone among efforts to reduce antibiotic resistance. All major resistance-control strategies recommend education for patients, children (e.g., through schools and day care), the public, and relevant healthcare professionals (e.g., primary-care physicians, pharmacists, and medical students) regarding unique features of bacterial infections and antibiotics, prudent antibiotic prescribing as a positive construct, and personal hygiene (e.g., handwashing). The problem of antibiotic resistance can be minimized only by concerted efforts of all members of society for ensuring the continued efficiency of antibiotics.

  2. 35. WEST END ELEVATION, PROPOSED EXTENSION OF COAL HOUSE, EXTENSIONS ...

    Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

    35. WEST END ELEVATION, PROPOSED EXTENSION OF COAL HOUSE, EXTENSIONS OF ENGINE AND COAL HOUSES, DEER ISLAND PUMPING STATION, METROPOLITAN WATER AND SEWERAGE BOARD, METROPOLITAN SEWERAGE WORKS, JANUARY 1908, SHEET NO. 7. Aperture card 6498-7. - Deer Island Pumping Station, Boston, Suffolk County, MA

  3. 34. PLAN, PROPOSED EXTENSION OF COAL HOUSE, EXTENSIONS OF ENGINE ...

    Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

    34. PLAN, PROPOSED EXTENSION OF COAL HOUSE, EXTENSIONS OF ENGINE AND COAL HOUSES, DEER ISLAND PUMPING STATION, METROPOLITAN WATER AND SEWERAGE BOARD, METROPOLITAN SEWARAGE WORKS, JANUARY 1909, SHEET NO. 11. Aperture card 6498-11. - Deer Island Pumping Station, Boston, Suffolk County, MA

  4. Burnout among Extension Agents in the Ohio Cooperative Extension Service.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Igodan, O. Chris; Newcomb, L. H.

    A study examined the extent and causes of burnout among extension agents in Ohio. From the 241 extension agents working in the 88 counties of Ohio, researchers selected a random sample of 101 agents. Included in the sample were 34 agriculture agents, 33 home economics agents. Included in the sample agents were asked to complete a survey…

  5. Robotic hand with modular extensions

    DOEpatents

    Salisbury, Curt Michael; Quigley, Morgan

    2015-01-20

    A robotic device is described herein. The robotic device includes a frame that comprises a plurality of receiving regions that are configured to receive a respective plurality of modular robotic extensions. The modular robotic extensions are removably attachable to the frame at the respective receiving regions by way of respective mechanical fuses. Each mechanical fuse is configured to trip when a respective modular robotic extension experiences a predefined load condition, such that the respective modular robotic extension detaches from the frame when the load condition is met.

  6. Welding torch gas cup extension

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Gordon, Stephen S. (Inventor)

    1988-01-01

    The invention relates to a gas shielded electric arc welding torch having a detachable gas cup extension which may be of any desired configuration or length. The gas cup extension assembly is mounted on a standard electric welding torch gas cup to enable welding in areas with limited access. The gas cup assembly has an upper tubular insert that fits within the gas cup such that its lower portion protrudes thereform and has a lower tubular extension that is screwed into the lower portion. The extension has a rim to define the outer perimeter of the seat edge about its entrance opening so a gasket may be placed to effect an airtight seal between the gas cup and extension. The tubular extension may be made of metal or cermaic material that can be machined. The novelty lies in the use of an extension assembly for a standard gas cup of an electric arc welding torch which extension assembly is detachable permitting the use of a number of extensions which may be of different configurations and materials and yet fit the standard gas cup.

  7. Scalable, extensible, and portable numerical libraries

    SciTech Connect

    Gropp, W.; Smith, B.

    1995-01-01

    Designing a scalable and portable numerical library requires consideration of many factors, including choice of parallel communication technology, data structures, and user interfaces. The PETSc library (Portable Extensible Tools for Scientific computing) makes use of modern software technology to provide a flexible and portable implementation. This talk will discuss the use of a meta-communication layer (allowing the user to choose different transport layers such as MPI, p4, pvm, or vendor-specific libraries) for portability, an aggressive data-structure-neutral implementation that minimizes dependence on particular data structures (even vectors), permitting the library to adapt to the user rather than the other way around, and the separation of implementation language from user-interface language. Examples are presented.

  8. Extensive Reading Coursebooks in China

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Renandya, Willy A.; Hu, Guangwei; Xiang, Yu

    2015-01-01

    This article reports on a principle-based evaluation of eight dedicated extensive reading coursebooks published in mainland China and used in many universities across the country. The aim is to determine the extent to which these coursebooks reflect a core set of nine second language acquisition and extensive reading principles. Our analysis shows…

  9. Extension and the Practicing Veterinarian

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Meyerholz, G. W.

    1974-01-01

    In order for Extension programs of veterinary medicine to succeed, good relationships are needed among university veterinarians, practicing local veterinarians, county Extension agents and the clientele. This author attempts to define some roles and relationships and offer some suggestions for the improvement of relationships to increase…

  10. Extension and the Practicing Veterinarian

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Meyerholz, G. W.

    1974-01-01

    In order for Extension programs of veterinary medicine to succeed, good relationships are needed among university veterinarians, practicing local veterinarians, county Extension agents and the clientele. This author attempts to define some roles and relationships and offer some suggestions for the improvement of relationships to increase…

  11. Extensive Reading Coursebooks in China

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Renandya, Willy A.; Hu, Guangwei; Xiang, Yu

    2015-01-01

    This article reports on a principle-based evaluation of eight dedicated extensive reading coursebooks published in mainland China and used in many universities across the country. The aim is to determine the extent to which these coursebooks reflect a core set of nine second language acquisition and extensive reading principles. Our analysis shows…

  12. Energy Crisis vs. Extension Opportunities

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Liles, Harold R.

    1978-01-01

    Discusses what steps were taken by the Cooperative Extension Service in Oklahoma, after the energy crisis began, to help landowners make better decisions regarding oil and gas leases. Oklahoma's Extension educational efforts in mineral rights management have been successful because they met the needs of the people. (EM)

  13. Repeat Customer Success in Extension

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Bess, Melissa M.; Traub, Sarah M.

    2013-01-01

    Four multi-session research-based programs were offered by two Extension specialist in one rural Missouri county. Eleven participants who came to multiple Extension programs could be called "repeat customers." Based on the total number of participants for all four programs, 25% could be deemed as repeat customers. Repeat customers had…

  14. Apples, Oranges, and Extension Methods.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Kern, K. Robert

    1979-01-01

    The author states that a common factor in comparing one extension method to another is the interaction involving a subject concept and a member of the target audience. He outlines approaches that extension personnel may use to compare effectiveness of meetings, publications, mass media, etc., in reading their audience. (MF)

  15. Repeat Customer Success in Extension

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Bess, Melissa M.; Traub, Sarah M.

    2013-01-01

    Four multi-session research-based programs were offered by two Extension specialist in one rural Missouri county. Eleven participants who came to multiple Extension programs could be called "repeat customers." Based on the total number of participants for all four programs, 25% could be deemed as repeat customers. Repeat customers had…

  16. GNU Fortran Cray Pointer Extension

    SciTech Connect

    Langton, J. A.

    2005-07-27

    The gfortran compiler is a Fortran front end to the GNU Compiler Collection. The Cray Pointer extension adds to this existing compiler support for Cray-style integer pointers. This non-standard but widely used extension adds the functionality of C-like pointers to the Fortran language.

  17. Mini-Med School Planning Guide

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    National Institutes of Health, Office of Science Education, 2008

    2008-01-01

    Mini-Med Schools are public education programs now offered by more than 70 medical schools, universities, research institutions, and hospitals across the nation. There are even Mini-Med Schools in Ireland, Malta, and Canada! The program is typically a lecture series that meets once a week and provides "mini-med students" information on some of the…

  18. Minimally Invasive Mitral Valve Surgery II

    PubMed Central

    Wolfe, J. Alan; Malaisrie, S. Chris; Farivar, R. Saeid; Khan, Junaid H.; Hargrove, W. Clark; Moront, Michael G.; Ryan, William H.; Ailawadi, Gorav; Agnihotri, Arvind K.; Hummel, Brian W.; Fayers, Trevor M.; Grossi, Eugene A.; Guy, T. Sloane; Lehr, Eric J.; Mehall, John R.; Murphy, Douglas A.; Rodriguez, Evelio; Salemi, Arash; Segurola, Romualdo J.; Shemin, Richard J.; Smith, J. Michael; Smith, Robert L.; Weldner, Paul W.; Lewis, Clifton T. P.; Barnhart, Glenn R.; Goldman, Scott M.

    2016-01-01

    Abstract Techniques for minimally invasive mitral valve repair and replacement continue to evolve. This expert opinion, the second of a 3-part series, outlines current best practices for nonrobotic, minimally invasive mitral valve procedures, and for postoperative care after minimally invasive mitral valve surgery. PMID:27654406

  19. Cyclone Simulation via Action Minimization

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Plotkin, D. A.; Weare, J.; Abbot, D. S.

    2016-12-01

    A postulated impact of climate change is an increase in intensity of tropical cyclones (TCs). This hypothesized effect results from the fact that TCs are powered subsaturated boundary layer air picking up water vapor from the surface ocean as it flows inwards towards the eye. This water vapor serves as the energy input for TCs, which can be idealized as heat engines. The inflowing air has a nearly identical temperature as the surface ocean; therefore, warming of the surface leads to a warmer atmospheric boundary layer. By the Clausius-Clapeyron relationship, warmer boundary layer air can hold more water vapor and thus results in more energetic storms. Changes in TC intensity are difficult to predict due to the presence of fine structures (e.g. convective structures and rainbands) with length scales of less than 1 km, while general circulation models (GCMs) generally have horizontal resolutions of tens of kilometers. The models are therefore unable to capture these features, which are critical to accurately simulating cyclone structure and intensity. Further, strong TCs are rare events, meaning that long multi-decadal simulations are necessary to generate meaningful statistics about intense TC activity. This adds to the computational expense, making it yet more difficult to generate accurate statistics about long-term changes in TC intensity due to global warming via direct simulation. We take an alternative approach, applying action minimization techniques developed in molecular dynamics to the WRF weather/climate model. We construct artificial model trajectories that lead from quiescent (TC-free) states to TC states, then minimize the deviation of these trajectories from true model dynamics. We can thus create Monte Carlo model ensembles that are biased towards cyclogenesis, which reduces computational expense by limiting time spent in non-TC states. This allows for: 1) selective interrogation of model states with TCs; 2) finding the likeliest paths for

  20. Minimally Invasive Hysterectomy for Uteri Greater Than One Kilogram.

    PubMed

    Ito, Traci E; Vargas, Maria V; Moawad, Gaby N; Opoku-Anane, Jessica; Shu, Michael K M; Marfori, Cherie Q; Robinson, James K

    2017-01-01

    To assess the feasibility and safety of minimally invasive hysterectomy for uteri >1 kg. Clinical and surgical characteristics were collected for patients in an academic tertiary care hospital. Included were patients who underwent minimally invasive hysterectomy by 1 of 3 fellowship-trained gynecologists from January 1, 2009, to July 1, 2015 and subsequently had confirmed uterine weights of 1 kg or greater on pathology report. Both robotic and conventional laparoscopic procedures were included. During the study period, 95 patients underwent minimally invasive hysterectomy with confirmed uterine weight over 1 kg. Eighty-eight percent were performed with conventional laparoscopy and 12.6% with robot-assisted laparoscopy. The median weight (range) was 1326 g (range, 1000-4800). The median estimated blood loss was 200 mL (range, 50-2000), and median operating time was 191 minutes (range, 75-478). Five cases were converted to laparotomy (5.2%). Four cases were converted secondary to hemorrhage and one secondary to extensive adhesions. There were no conversions after 2011. Intraoperative transfusion was given in 6.3% of cases and postoperative transfusion in 6.3% of cases. However, after 2013, the rate of intraoperative transfusion decreased to 1.0% and postoperative transfusion to 2.1%. Of the 95 cases, there were no cases with malignancy. This provides the largest case series of hysterectomy over 1 kg completed by a minimally invasive approach. Our complication rate improved with experience and was comparable to other studies of minimally invasive hysterectomy for large uteri. When performed by experienced surgeons, minimally invasive hysterectomy for uteri >1 kg can be considered feasible and safe.

  1. Minimally Invasive Hysterectomy for Uteri Greater Than One Kilogram

    PubMed Central

    Vargas, Maria V.; Moawad, Gaby N.; Opoku-Anane, Jessica; Shu, Michael K. M.; Marfori, Cherie Q.; Robinson, James K.

    2017-01-01

    Background and Objectives: To assess the feasibility and safety of minimally invasive hysterectomy for uteri >1 kg. Methods: Clinical and surgical characteristics were collected for patients in an academic tertiary care hospital. Included were patients who underwent minimally invasive hysterectomy by 1 of 3 fellowship-trained gynecologists from January 1, 2009, to July 1, 2015 and subsequently had confirmed uterine weights of 1 kg or greater on pathology report. Both robotic and conventional laparoscopic procedures were included. Results: During the study period, 95 patients underwent minimally invasive hysterectomy with confirmed uterine weight over 1 kg. Eighty-eight percent were performed with conventional laparoscopy and 12.6% with robot-assisted laparoscopy. The median weight (range) was 1326 g (range, 1000–4800). The median estimated blood loss was 200 mL (range, 50–2000), and median operating time was 191 minutes (range, 75–478). Five cases were converted to laparotomy (5.2%). Four cases were converted secondary to hemorrhage and one secondary to extensive adhesions. There were no conversions after 2011. Intraoperative transfusion was given in 6.3% of cases and postoperative transfusion in 6.3% of cases. However, after 2013, the rate of intraoperative transfusion decreased to 1.0% and postoperative transfusion to 2.1%. Of the 95 cases, there were no cases with malignancy. Conclusions: This provides the largest case series of hysterectomy over 1 kg completed by a minimally invasive approach. Our complication rate improved with experience and was comparable to other studies of minimally invasive hysterectomy for large uteri. When performed by experienced surgeons, minimally invasive hysterectomy for uteri >1 kg can be considered feasible and safe. PMID:28352147

  2. Waste minimization in the oil and gas industries

    SciTech Connect

    Smith, K.P.

    1992-09-01

    Recent legislative actions place an emphasis on waste minimization as opposed to traditional end-of-pipe waste management. This new philosophy, coupled with increasing waste disposal costs and associated liabilities, sets the stage for investigating waste minimization opportunities in all industries wastes generated by oil and gas exploration and production (E&P) and refuting activities are regulated as non-hazardous under the Resource Conservation and Recovery Act (RCRA). Potential reclassification of these wastes as hazardous would make minimization of these waste streams even more desirable. Oil and gas E&P activities generate a wide variety of wastes, although the bulk of the wastes (98%) consists of a single waste stream: produced water. Opportunities to minimize E&P wastes through point source reduction activities are limited by the extractive nature of the industry. Significant waste minimization is possible, however, through recycling. Recycling activities include underground injection of produced water, use of closed-loop drilling systems, reuse of produced water and drilling fluids in other oilfield activities, use of solid debris as construction fill, use of oily wastes as substitutes for road mix and asphalt, landspreading of produced sand for soil enhancement, and roadspreading of suitable aqueous wastes for dust suppression or deicing. Like the E&P wastes, wastes generated by oil and gas treatment and refining activities cannot be reduced substantially at the point source but can be reduced through recycling. For the most part, extensive recycling and reprocessing of many waste streams already occurs at most petroleum refineries. A variety of innovative waste treatment activities have been developed to minimize the toxicity or volume of oily wastes generated by both E&P and refining activities. These treatments include bioremediation, oxidation, biooxidation, incineration, and separation. Application of these treatment processes is still limited.

  3. Waste minimization in the oil and gas industries

    SciTech Connect

    Smith, K.P.

    1992-01-01

    Recent legislative actions place an emphasis on waste minimization as opposed to traditional end-of-pipe waste management. This new philosophy, coupled with increasing waste disposal costs and associated liabilities, sets the stage for investigating waste minimization opportunities in all industries wastes generated by oil and gas exploration and production (E P) and refuting activities are regulated as non-hazardous under the Resource Conservation and Recovery Act (RCRA). Potential reclassification of these wastes as hazardous would make minimization of these waste streams even more desirable. Oil and gas E P activities generate a wide variety of wastes, although the bulk of the wastes (98%) consists of a single waste stream: produced water. Opportunities to minimize E P wastes through point source reduction activities are limited by the extractive nature of the industry. Significant waste minimization is possible, however, through recycling. Recycling activities include underground injection of produced water, use of closed-loop drilling systems, reuse of produced water and drilling fluids in other oilfield activities, use of solid debris as construction fill, use of oily wastes as substitutes for road mix and asphalt, landspreading of produced sand for soil enhancement, and roadspreading of suitable aqueous wastes for dust suppression or deicing. Like the E P wastes, wastes generated by oil and gas treatment and refining activities cannot be reduced substantially at the point source but can be reduced through recycling. For the most part, extensive recycling and reprocessing of many waste streams already occurs at most petroleum refineries. A variety of innovative waste treatment activities have been developed to minimize the toxicity or volume of oily wastes generated by both E P and refining activities. These treatments include bioremediation, oxidation, biooxidation, incineration, and separation. Application of these treatment processes is still limited.

  4. Against Explanatory Minimalism in Psychiatry

    PubMed Central

    Thornton, Tim

    2015-01-01

    The idea that psychiatry contains, in principle, a series of levels of explanation has been criticized not only as empirically false but also, by Campbell, as unintelligible because it presupposes a discredited pre-Humean view of causation. Campbell’s criticism is based on an interventionist-inspired denial that mechanisms and rational connections underpin physical and mental causation, respectively, and hence underpin levels of explanation. These claims echo some superficially similar remarks in Wittgenstein’s Zettel. But attention to the context of Wittgenstein’s remarks suggests a reason to reject explanatory minimalism in psychiatry and reinstate a Wittgensteinian notion of levels of explanation. Only in a context broader than the one provided by interventionism is that the ascription of propositional attitudes, even in the puzzling case of delusions, justified. Such a view, informed by Wittgenstein, can reconcile the idea that the ascription mental phenomena presupposes a particular level of explanation with the rejection of an a priori claim about its connection to a neurological level of explanation. PMID:26696908

  5. Differentially Private Empirical Risk Minimization

    PubMed Central

    Chaudhuri, Kamalika; Monteleoni, Claire; Sarwate, Anand D.

    2011-01-01

    Privacy-preserving machine learning algorithms are crucial for the increasingly common setting in which personal data, such as medical or financial records, are analyzed. We provide general techniques to produce privacy-preserving approximations of classifiers learned via (regularized) empirical risk minimization (ERM). These algorithms are private under the ε-differential privacy definition due to Dwork et al. (2006). First we apply the output perturbation ideas of Dwork et al. (2006), to ERM classification. Then we propose a new method, objective perturbation, for privacy-preserving machine learning algorithm design. This method entails perturbing the objective function before optimizing over classifiers. If the loss and regularizer satisfy certain convexity and differentiability criteria, we prove theoretical results showing that our algorithms preserve privacy, and provide generalization bounds for linear and nonlinear kernels. We further present a privacy-preserving technique for tuning the parameters in general machine learning algorithms, thereby providing end-to-end privacy guarantees for the training process. We apply these results to produce privacy-preserving analogues of regularized logistic regression and support vector machines. We obtain encouraging results from evaluating their performance on real demographic and benchmark data sets. Our results show that both theoretically and empirically, objective perturbation is superior to the previous state-of-the-art, output perturbation, in managing the inherent tradeoff between privacy and learning performance. PMID:21892342

  6. Differentially Private Empirical Risk Minimization.

    PubMed

    Chaudhuri, Kamalika; Monteleoni, Claire; Sarwate, Anand D

    2011-03-01

    Privacy-preserving machine learning algorithms are crucial for the increasingly common setting in which personal data, such as medical or financial records, are analyzed. We provide general techniques to produce privacy-preserving approximations of classifiers learned via (regularized) empirical risk minimization (ERM). These algorithms are private under the ε-differential privacy definition due to Dwork et al. (2006). First we apply the output perturbation ideas of Dwork et al. (2006), to ERM classification. Then we propose a new method, objective perturbation, for privacy-preserving machine learning algorithm design. This method entails perturbing the objective function before optimizing over classifiers. If the loss and regularizer satisfy certain convexity and differentiability criteria, we prove theoretical results showing that our algorithms preserve privacy, and provide generalization bounds for linear and nonlinear kernels. We further present a privacy-preserving technique for tuning the parameters in general machine learning algorithms, thereby providing end-to-end privacy guarantees for the training process. We apply these results to produce privacy-preserving analogues of regularized logistic regression and support vector machines. We obtain encouraging results from evaluating their performance on real demographic and benchmark data sets. Our results show that both theoretically and empirically, objective perturbation is superior to the previous state-of-the-art, output perturbation, in managing the inherent tradeoff between privacy and learning performance.

  7. Minimal hepatic encephalopathy: A review.

    PubMed

    Nardone, Raffaele; Taylor, Alexandra C; Höller, Yvonne; Brigo, Francesco; Lochner, Piergiorgio; Trinka, Eugen

    2016-10-01

    Minimal hepatic encephalopathy (MHE) is the earliest form of hepatic encephalopathy and can affect up to 80% of patients with liver cirrhosis. By definition, MHE is characterized by cognitive function impairment in the domains of attention, vigilance and integrative function, but obvious clinical manifestation are lacking. MHE has been shown to affect daily functioning, quality of life, driving and overall mortality. The diagnosis can be achieved through neuropsychological testing, recently developed computerized psychometric tests, such as the critical flicker frequency and the inhibitory control tests, as well as neurophysiological procedures. Event related potentials can reveal subtle changes in patients with normal neuropsychological performances. Spectral analysis of electroencephalography (EEG) and quantitative analysis of sleep EEG provide early markers of cerebral dysfunction in cirrhotic patients with MHE. Neuroimaging, in particular MRI, also increasingly reveals diffuse abnormalities in intrinsic brain activity and altered organization of functional connectivity networks. Medical treatment for MHE to date has been focused on reducing serum ammonia levels and includes non-absorbable disaccharides, probiotics or rifaximin. Liver transplantation may not reverse the cognitive deficits associated with MHE. We performed here an updated review on epidemiology, burden and quality of life, neuropsychological testing, neuroimaging, neurophysiology and therapy in subjects with MHE. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier Ireland Ltd and Japan Neuroscience Society. All rights reserved.

  8. Against Explanatory Minimalism in Psychiatry.

    PubMed

    Thornton, Tim

    2015-01-01

    The idea that psychiatry contains, in principle, a series of levels of explanation has been criticized not only as empirically false but also, by Campbell, as unintelligible because it presupposes a discredited pre-Humean view of causation. Campbell's criticism is based on an interventionist-inspired denial that mechanisms and rational connections underpin physical and mental causation, respectively, and hence underpin levels of explanation. These claims echo some superficially similar remarks in Wittgenstein's Zettel. But attention to the context of Wittgenstein's remarks suggests a reason to reject explanatory minimalism in psychiatry and reinstate a Wittgensteinian notion of levels of explanation. Only in a context broader than the one provided by interventionism is that the ascription of propositional attitudes, even in the puzzling case of delusions, justified. Such a view, informed by Wittgenstein, can reconcile the idea that the ascription mental phenomena presupposes a particular level of explanation with the rejection of an a priori claim about its connection to a neurological level of explanation.

  9. Linking Research, Extension and Farmers: The Case of Mangrove Swamp Rice Cultivation in Sierra Leone.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Zinnah, Moses Moroe

    1994-01-01

    Interviews with 124 rice farmers in Sierra Leone revealed that farmers and extension staff have minimal participation and input in testing of new cultivation technologies. The top-down research approach has limited contact among researchers, extension staff, and farmers and affected the utility and application of research. (SK)

  10. The Role of Public Extension in Introducing Environment-Friendly Farming Methods in Turkey.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Kumuk, T.; Akgungor, S.

    1995-01-01

    Currently, the Turkish extension service plays a minimal role in reducing adverse environmental effects of farming methods. Public investment in research and extension on sustainable agriculture is needed to ensure long-term production practices that maintain the food supply without damaging the environment. (SK)

  11. Linking Research, Extension and Farmers: The Case of Mangrove Swamp Rice Cultivation in Sierra Leone.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Zinnah, Moses Moroe

    1994-01-01

    Interviews with 124 rice farmers in Sierra Leone revealed that farmers and extension staff have minimal participation and input in testing of new cultivation technologies. The top-down research approach has limited contact among researchers, extension staff, and farmers and affected the utility and application of research. (SK)

  12. The Role of Public Extension in Introducing Environment-Friendly Farming Methods in Turkey.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Kumuk, T.; Akgungor, S.

    1995-01-01

    Currently, the Turkish extension service plays a minimal role in reducing adverse environmental effects of farming methods. Public investment in research and extension on sustainable agriculture is needed to ensure long-term production practices that maintain the food supply without damaging the environment. (SK)

  13. Geometric and algebraic properties of minimal bases of singular systems

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Karcanias, Nicos

    2013-11-01

    For a general singular system ? with an associated pencil T(S), a complete classification of the right polynomial vector pairs ?, connected with the ? rational vector space, is given according to the proper-nonproper property, characterising the relationship of the degrees of those two vectors. An integral part of the classification of right pairs is the development of the notions of canonical and normal minimal bases for ? and ? rational vector spaces, where R(s) is the state restriction pencil of ?. It is shown that the notions of canonical and normal minimal bases are equivalent; the first notion characterises the pure algebraic aspect of the classification, whereas the second is intimately connected to the real geometry properties and the underlying generation mechanism of the proper and nonproper state vectors ?. The results describe the algebraic and geometric dimensions of the invariant partitioning of the set of reachability indices of singular systems. The classification of all proper and nonproper polynomial vectors ? induces a corresponding classification for the reachability spaces to proper-nonproper and results related to the possible dimensions feedback-spectra assignment properties of them are also given. The classification of minimal bases introduces new feedback invariants for singular systems, based on the real geometry of polynomial minimal bases, and provides an extension of the standard theory for proper systems (Warren, M.E., & Eckenberg, A.E. (1975).

  14. Minimal norm constrained interpolation. Ph.D. Thesis

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Irvine, L. D.

    1985-01-01

    In computational fluid dynamics and in CAD/CAM, a physical boundary is usually known only discreetly and most often must be approximated. An acceptable approximation preserves the salient features of the data such as convexity and concavity. In this dissertation, a smooth interpolant which is locally concave where the data are concave and is locally convex where the data are convex is described. The interpolant is found by posing and solving a minimization problem whose solution is a piecewise cubic polynomial. The problem is solved indirectly by using the Peano Kernal theorem to recast it into an equivalent minimization problem having the second derivative of the interpolant as the solution. This approach leads to the solution of a nonlinear system of equations. It is shown that Newton's method is an exceptionally attractive and efficient method for solving the nonlinear system of equations. Examples of shape-preserving interpolants, as well as convergence results obtained by using Newton's method are also shown. A FORTRAN program to compute these interpolants is listed. The problem of computing the interpolant of minimal norm from a convex cone in a normal dual space is also discussed. An extension of de Boor's work on minimal norm unconstrained interpolation is presented.

  15. Extended robust support vector machine based on financial risk minimization.

    PubMed

    Takeda, Akiko; Fujiwara, Shuhei; Kanamori, Takafumi

    2014-11-01

    Financial risk measures have been used recently in machine learning. For example, ν-support vector machine ν-SVM) minimizes the conditional value at risk (CVaR) of margin distribution. The measure is popular in finance because of the subadditivity property, but it is very sensitive to a few outliers in the tail of the distribution. We propose a new classification method, extended robust SVM (ER-SVM), which minimizes an intermediate risk measure between the CVaR and value at risk (VaR) by expecting that the resulting model becomes less sensitive than ν-SVM to outliers. We can regard ER-SVM as an extension of robust SVM, which uses a truncated hinge loss. Numerical experiments imply the ER-SVM's possibility of achieving a better prediction performance with proper parameter setting.

  16. Conceptual analyses of extensible booms to support a solar sail

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Crawford, R. F.; Benton, M. D.

    1977-01-01

    Extensible booms which could function as the diagonal spars and central mast of an 800 meter square, non-rotating Solar Sailing Vehicle were conceptually designed and analyzed. The boom design concept that was investigated is an extensible lattice boom which is stowed and deployed by elastically coiling and uncoiling its continuous longerons. The seven different free-span lengths in each spar which would minimize the total weights of the spars and mast were determined. Boom weights were calculated by using a semi-empirical formulation which related the overall weight of a boom to the weight of its longerons.

  17. Minimal breast cancer: a clinical appraisal.

    PubMed Central

    Peters, T G; Donegan, W L; Burg, E A

    1977-01-01

    Eighty-five patients with a diagnosis of minimal breast cancer were evaluated. The predominant lesion was intraductal carcinoma, and axillary metastases occurred in association with minimal breast cancer in seven of 96 cases. One death occurred due to minimal breast cancer. Bilateral mammary carcinoma was evident in 24% and bilateral minimal breast cancer in 13% of the patients. The component lesions of minimal breast cancer have varied biologic activity, but prognosis is good with a variety of operations. The multifocal nature of minimal breast cancer and the potential for metastases should be recognized. Therapy should include removal of the entire mammary parenchyma and low axillary nodes. The high incidence of bilateral malignancy supports elective contralateral biopsy at the time of therapy for minimal breast cancer. Images Fig. 1. Fig. 2. Fig. 3. Fig. 5. PMID:203233

  18. An H-infinity norm minimization approach

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Muse, Jonathan A.

    This dissertation seeks to merge the ideas from robust control theory such as Hinfinity control design and the Small Gain Theorem, L stability theory and Lyapunov stability from nonlinear control, and recent theoretical achievements in adaptive control. The fusion of frequency domain and linear time domain ideas allows the derivation of an H infinity Norm Minimization Approach (H infinity-NMA) for adaptive control architecture that permits a control designer to simplify the adaptive tuning process and tune the uncertainty compensation characteristics via linear control design techniques, band limit the adaptive control signal, efficiently handle redundant actuators, and handle unmatched uncertainty and matched uncertainty in a single design framework. The two stage design framework is similar to that used in robust control, but without sacrificing performance. The first stage of the design considers an ideal system with the system uncertainty completely known. For this system, a control law is designed using linear Hinfinity theory. Then in the second stage, an adaptive process is implemented that emulates the behavior of the ideal system. If the linear Hinfinity design is applied to control the emulated system, it then guarantees closed loop system stability of the actual system. All of this is accomplished while providing notions of transient performance bounds between the ideal system and the true system. Extensions to the theory include architectures for a class of output feedback systems, limiting the authority of an adaptive control system, and a method for improving the performance of an adaptive system with slow dynamics without any modification terms. Applications focus on using aerodynamic flow control for aircraft flight control and the Crew Launch Vehicle.

  19. Minimally invasive surgery in gastrointestinal cancer: benefits, challenges, and solutions for underutilization.

    PubMed

    Hamed, Osama H; Gusani, Niraj J; Kimchi, Eric T; Kavic, Stephen M

    2014-01-01

    After the widespread application of minimally invasive surgery for benign diseases and given its proven safety and efficacy, minimally invasive surgery for gastrointestinal cancer has gained substantial attention in the past several years. Despite the large number of publications on the topic and level I evidence to support its use in colon cancer, minimally invasive surgery for most gastrointestinal malignancies is still underused. We explore some of the challenges that face the fusion of minimally invasive surgery technology in the management of gastrointestinal malignancies and propose solutions that may help increase the utilization in the future. These solutions are based on extensive literature review, observation of current trends and practices in this field, and discussion made with experts in the field. We propose 4 different solutions to increase the use of minimally invasive surgery in the treatment of gastrointestinal malignancies: collaboration between surgical oncologists/hepatopancreatobiliary surgeons and minimally invasive surgeons at the same institution; a single surgeon performing 2 fellowships in surgical oncology/hepatopancreatobiliary surgery and minimally invasive surgery; establishing centers of excellence in minimally invasive gastrointestinal cancer management; and finally, using robotic technology to help with complex laparoscopic skills. Multiple studies have confirmed the utility of minimally invasive surgery techniques in dealing with patients with gastrointestinal malignancies. However, training continues to be the most important challenge that faces the use of minimally invasive surgery in the management of gastrointestinal malignancy; implementation of our proposed solutions may help increase the rate of adoption in the future.

  20. Minimal Models of Multidimensional Computations

    PubMed Central

    Fitzgerald, Jeffrey D.; Sincich, Lawrence C.; Sharpee, Tatyana O.

    2011-01-01

    The multidimensional computations performed by many biological systems are often characterized with limited information about the correlations between inputs and outputs. Given this limitation, our approach is to construct the maximum noise entropy response function of the system, leading to a closed-form and minimally biased model consistent with a given set of constraints on the input/output moments; the result is equivalent to conditional random field models from machine learning. For systems with binary outputs, such as neurons encoding sensory stimuli, the maximum noise entropy models are logistic functions whose arguments depend on the constraints. A constraint on the average output turns the binary maximum noise entropy models into minimum mutual information models, allowing for the calculation of the information content of the constraints and an information theoretic characterization of the system's computations. We use this approach to analyze the nonlinear input/output functions in macaque retina and thalamus; although these systems have been previously shown to be responsive to two input dimensions, the functional form of the response function in this reduced space had not been unambiguously identified. A second order model based on the logistic function is found to be both necessary and sufficient to accurately describe the neural responses to naturalistic stimuli, accounting for an average of 93% of the mutual information with a small number of parameters. Thus, despite the fact that the stimulus is highly non-Gaussian, the vast majority of the information in the neural responses is related to first and second order correlations. Our results suggest a principled and unbiased way to model multidimensional computations and determine the statistics of the inputs that are being encoded in the outputs. PMID:21455284

  1. Robotic assisted minimally invasive surgery

    PubMed Central

    Palep, Jaydeep H

    2009-01-01

    The term “robot” was coined by the Czech playright Karel Capek in 1921 in his play Rossom's Universal Robots. The word “robot” is from the check word robota which means forced labor. The era of robots in surgery commenced in 1994 when the first AESOP (voice controlled camera holder) prototype robot was used clinically in 1993 and then marketed as the first surgical robot ever in 1994 by the US FDA. Since then many robot prototypes like the Endoassist (Armstrong Healthcare Ltd., High Wycombe, Buck, UK), FIPS endoarm (Karlsruhe Research Center, Karlsruhe, Germany) have been developed to add to the functions of the robot and try and increase its utility. Integrated Surgical Systems (now Intuitive Surgery, Inc.) redesigned the SRI Green Telepresence Surgery system and created the daVinci Surgical System® classified as a master-slave surgical system. It uses true 3-D visualization and EndoWrist®. It was approved by FDA in July 2000 for general laparoscopic surgery, in November 2002 for mitral valve repair surgery. The da Vinci robot is currently being used in various fields such as urology, general surgery, gynecology, cardio-thoracic, pediatric and ENT surgery. It provides several advantages to conventional laparoscopy such as 3D vision, motion scaling, intuitive movements, visual immersion and tremor filtration. The advent of robotics has increased the use of minimally invasive surgery among laparoscopically naïve surgeons and expanded the repertoire of experienced surgeons to include more advanced and complex reconstructions. PMID:19547687

  2. [History of minimally invasive surgery].

    PubMed

    Radojcić, Branka; Jokić, Radoica; Grebeldinger, Slobodan; Meljnikov, Igor; Radojić, Nikola

    2009-01-01

    This paper presents a historical review and development of minimally invasive surgery. The interest of physicians to "look into the internal organs" has existed since the ancient time. The first described endoscopy was by Hippocrates. He made reference to a rectal speculum. The credit for modern endoscopy belongs to Bozzini. He developed a light conductor which he called "Lichleiter" to avoid the problems of inadequate illumination. In 1853, Desormeaux first introduced the "Lichtleiter" of Bozzini to a patient. Many developments, which occurred independently but almost simultaneously, produced breakthroughs for endoscopy and laparoscopy that were bases for modern instruments. In 1901, Kelling coined the term "coelioskope" to describe the technique that used a cystoscope to examine the abdominal cavity of dogs. In 1910, Jacobaeus used the term "laparothorakoskopie" for the fist time. In 1938, Veress developed the spring-loaded needle for draining ascites and evacuating fluid and air from the chest. Its current modifications make the "Veress" needle a perfect tool to achieve pneumnoperitoneum during laparoscopic surgery. In 1970, Hasson developed a technique performing laparoscopy through a miniature leparotomy incision. The first solid state camera was introduced in 1982 that was the start of "video-laparoscopy". In 1981 Kurt Semm performed first laparoscopic appendectomy. Within a year, all standard surgical procedures were performed laparoscopically. The authors also analyzed the new surgical techniques, such as telesurgery, robotics and virtual reality in current surgical practice. They specially enmphasized the use of laparoscopic access in pediatric surgery which has become a new gold standard in surgical treatment of pediatric patients.

  3. A minimal axisymmetric hurricane model

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Mai, Nguyen Chi; Smith, Roger K.; Zhu, Hongyan; Ulrich, Wolfgang

    2002-10-01

    Solutions of an axisymmetric version of the minimal three-dimensional numerical model of a tropical cyclone developed by Zhu et al. (2001) are described and compared with those of the three-dimensional model. Vortex evolution is similar in the two models during the early stages of intensification, but the period of rapid intensification occurs earlier in the axisymmetric model due to the higher effective resolution obtained using a staggered grid. There are marked differences at later times, when, in the three-dimensional model, asymmetric structures develop. The findings are compared with those of an earlier study by Anthes (1972). The axisymmetric model is used to investigate certain fundamental aspects of tropical-cyclone dynamics, including the emergence of a region of supergradient winds in the boundary layer and the evolution of regions satisfying necessary conditions for inertial and barotropic instability.Supergradient winds develop in the boundary layer within a radius of about 100 km of the vortex axis at an early stage of evolution and appear to be a natural feature of the vortex boundary layer. The development of flow regions satisfying necessary conditions for inertial and barotropic instability occur later, and may be attributed inter alia to the upward transfer of air with relatively high angular momentum, from the boundary layer to the middle and upper layers, by the secondary circulation of the vortex, and the downward transfer of air with relatively low angular momentum to the middle layer. A linear analysis of a two-layer slab-symmetric flow suggests why inertial instability does not occur in the axisymmetric model. Barotropic instability does not appear to be the mechanism responsible for the growth of asymmetries in the calculations using the three-dimensional version of the model.

  4. Minimal complexity control law synthesis

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Bernstein, Dennis S.; Haddad, Wassim M.; Nett, Carl N.

    1989-01-01

    A paradigm for control law design for modern engineering systems is proposed: Minimize control law complexity subject to the achievement of a specified accuracy in the face of a specified level of uncertainty. Correspondingly, the overall goal is to make progress towards the development of a control law design methodology which supports this paradigm. Researchers achieve this goal by developing a general theory of optimal constrained-structure dynamic output feedback compensation, where here constrained-structure means that the dynamic-structure (e.g., dynamic order, pole locations, zero locations, etc.) of the output feedback compensation is constrained in some way. By applying this theory in an innovative fashion, where here the indicated iteration occurs over the choice of the compensator dynamic-structure, the paradigm stated above can, in principle, be realized. The optimal constrained-structure dynamic output feedback problem is formulated in general terms. An elegant method for reducing optimal constrained-structure dynamic output feedback problems to optimal static output feedback problems is then developed. This reduction procedure makes use of star products, linear fractional transformations, and linear fractional decompositions, and yields as a byproduct a complete characterization of the class of optimal constrained-structure dynamic output feedback problems which can be reduced to optimal static output feedback problems. Issues such as operational/physical constraints, operating-point variations, and processor throughput/memory limitations are considered, and it is shown how anti-windup/bumpless transfer, gain-scheduling, and digital processor implementation can be facilitated by constraining the controller dynamic-structure in an appropriate fashion.

  5. Open Systems Viewed Through Their Conservative Extensions

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Figotin, Alexander; Shipman, Stephen P.

    2006-10-01

    A typical linear open system is often defined as a component of a larger conservative one. For instance, a dielectric medium, defined by its frequency dependent electric permittivity and magnetic permeability is a part of a conservative system which includes the matter with all its atomic complexity. A finite slab of a lattice array of coupled oscillators modelling a solid is another example. Assuming that such an open system is all one wants to observe, we ask how big a part of the original conservative system (possibly very complex) is relevant to the observations, or, in other words, how big a part of it is coupled to the open system? We study here the structure of the system coupling and its coupled and decoupled components, showing, in particular, that it is only the systemrsquo;s unique minimal extension that is relevant to its dynamics, and this extension often is tiny part of the original conservative system. We also give a scenario explaining why certain degrees of freedom of a solid do not contribute to its specific heat.

  6. Image restoration by minimizing zero norm of wavelet frame coefficients

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Bao, Chenglong; Dong, Bin; Hou, Likun; Shen, Zuowei; Zhang, Xiaoqun; Zhang, Xue

    2016-11-01

    In this paper, we propose two algorithms, namely the extrapolated proximal iterative hard thresholding (EPIHT) algorithm and the EPIHT algorithm with line-search, for solving the {{\\ell }}0-norm regularized wavelet frame balanced approach for image restoration. Under the theoretical framework of Kurdyka-Łojasiewicz property, we show that the sequences generated by the two algorithms converge to a local minimizer with linear convergence rate. Moreover, extensive numerical experiments on sparse signal reconstruction and wavelet frame based image restoration problems including CT reconstruction, image deblur, demonstrate the improvement of {{\\ell }}0-norm based regularization models over some prevailing ones, as well as the computational efficiency of the proposed algorithms.

  7. Minimal basilar membrane motion in low-frequency hearing.

    PubMed

    Warren, Rebecca L; Ramamoorthy, Sripriya; Ciganović, Nikola; Zhang, Yuan; Wilson, Teresa M; Petrie, Tracy; Wang, Ruikang K; Jacques, Steven L; Reichenbach, Tobias; Nuttall, Alfred L; Fridberger, Anders

    2016-07-26

    Low-frequency hearing is critically important for speech and music perception, but no mechanical measurements have previously been available from inner ears with intact low-frequency parts. These regions of the cochlea may function in ways different from the extensively studied high-frequency regions, where the sensory outer hair cells produce force that greatly increases the sound-evoked vibrations of the basilar membrane. We used laser interferometry in vitro and optical coherence tomography in vivo to study the low-frequency part of the guinea pig cochlea, and found that sound stimulation caused motion of a minimal portion of the basilar membrane. Outside the region of peak movement, an exponential decline in motion amplitude occurred across the basilar membrane. The moving region had different dependence on stimulus frequency than the vibrations measured near the mechanosensitive stereocilia. This behavior differs substantially from the behavior found in the extensively studied high-frequency regions of the cochlea.

  8. Minimal basilar membrane motion in low-frequency hearing

    PubMed Central

    Warren, Rebecca L.; Ramamoorthy, Sripriya; Ciganović, Nikola; Zhang, Yuan; Wilson, Teresa M.; Petrie, Tracy; Wang, Ruikang K.; Jacques, Steven L.; Reichenbach, Tobias; Nuttall, Alfred L.; Fridberger, Anders

    2016-01-01

    Low-frequency hearing is critically important for speech and music perception, but no mechanical measurements have previously been available from inner ears with intact low-frequency parts. These regions of the cochlea may function in ways different from the extensively studied high-frequency regions, where the sensory outer hair cells produce force that greatly increases the sound-evoked vibrations of the basilar membrane. We used laser interferometry in vitro and optical coherence tomography in vivo to study the low-frequency part of the guinea pig cochlea, and found that sound stimulation caused motion of a minimal portion of the basilar membrane. Outside the region of peak movement, an exponential decline in motion amplitude occurred across the basilar membrane. The moving region had different dependence on stimulus frequency than the vibrations measured near the mechanosensitive stereocilia. This behavior differs substantially from the behavior found in the extensively studied high-frequency regions of the cochlea. PMID:27407145

  9. An extension of command shaping methods for controlling residual vibration using frequency sampling

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Singer, Neil C.; Seering, Warren P.

    1992-01-01

    The authors present an extension to the impulse shaping technique for commanding machines to move with reduced residual vibration. The extension, called frequency sampling, is a method for generating constraints that are used to obtain shaping sequences which minimize residual vibration in systems such as robots whose resonant frequencies change during motion. The authors present a review of impulse shaping methods, a development of the proposed extension, and a comparison of results of tests conducted on a simple model of the space shuttle robot arm. Frequency shaping provides a method for minimizing the impulse sequence duration required to give the desired insensitivity.

  10. 40 CFR 63.1213 - How can the compliance date be extended to install pollution prevention or waste minimization...

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-07-01

    ... to install pollution prevention or waste minimization controls? 63.1213 Section 63.1213 Protection of... pollution prevention or waste minimization controls? (a) Applicability. You may request from the.... An extension may be granted if you can reasonably document that the installation of pollution...

  11. 40 CFR 63.1213 - How can the compliance date be extended to install pollution prevention or waste minimization...

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-07-01

    ... to install pollution prevention or waste minimization controls? 63.1213 Section 63.1213 Protection of... pollution prevention or waste minimization controls? (a) Applicability. You may request from the.... An extension may be granted if you can reasonably document that the installation of...

  12. 40 CFR 63.1213 - How can the compliance date be extended to install pollution prevention or waste minimization...

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-07-01

    ... extended to install pollution prevention or waste minimization controls? 63.1213 Section 63.1213 Protection... pollution prevention or waste minimization controls? (a) Applicability. You may request from the.... An extension may be granted if you can reasonably document that the installation of...

  13. Putting Extension on a Spot

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Lawrence, James E.

    1970-01-01

    Between and during television programs from WNBF-TV, Binghamton, New York, the Extension Service is providing public service announcements giving information on nutrition, food stamps, forage pests, outdoor recreation, farm safety, environmental quality, and many other subjects. (EB)

  14. Boiler-turbine life extension

    SciTech Connect

    Natzkov, S.; Nikolov, M.

    1995-12-01

    The design life of the main power equipment-boilers and turbines is about 105 working hours. The possibilities for life extension are after normatively regulated control tests. The diagnostics and methodology for Boilers and Turbines Elements Remaining Life Assessment using up to date computer programs, destructive and nondestructive control of metal of key elements of units equipment, metal creep and low cycle fatigue calculations. As well as data for most common damages and some technical decisions for elements life extension are presented.

  15. Light/multicomponent dark matter: A minimal model and detection prospects

    SciTech Connect

    Allahverdi, Rouzbeh

    2016-06-21

    We present a minimal extension of the standard model that gives rise to post-sphaleron baryogenesis by introducing colored scalar fields. The model can accommodate a fermionic dark matter candidate of Ο(GeV) mass whose stability is tied to proton stability. The supersymmetric extension of this model is straightforward and can lead to a realizion of multicomponent dark matter scenario. We discuss possible direct and indirect detection signals of the dark matter candidate(s) in this model.

  16. Minimal Cells-Real and Imagined.

    PubMed

    Glass, John I; Merryman, Chuck; Wise, Kim S; Hutchison, Clyde A; Smith, Hamilton O

    2017-03-27

    A minimal cell is one whose genome only encodes the minimal set of genes necessary for the cell to survive. Scientific reductionism postulates the best way to learn the first principles of cellular biology would be to use a minimal cell in which the functions of all genes and components are understood. The genes in a minimal cell are, by definition, essential. In 2016, synthesis of a genome comprised of only the set of essential and quasi-essential genes encoded by the bacterium Mycoplasma mycoides created a near-minimal bacterial cell. This organism performs the cellular functions common to all organisms. It replicates DNA, transcribes RNA, translates proteins, undergoes cell division, and little else. In this review, we examine this organism and contrast it with other bacteria that have been used as surrogates for a minimal cell.

  17. Agricultural extension and mass media.

    PubMed

    Perraton, H

    1983-12-01

    To learn more about the use of the mass media for agricultural extension, the World Bank has considered the efforts of 2 units: INADES-formation in West Africa and the Extension Aids Branch of Malawi. The INADES-formation study focuses on Cameroon but also considers work in Rwanda and the Ivory Coast. Some general conclusions emerge from a comparison of the 2 organizations. Malawi operates an extension service which reaches farmers through extension agents, through farmer training centers, and through mass media. The Extension Aids Branch (EAB) has responsibility for its media work and broadcasts 4 1/2 hours of radio each week. Its 6 regular radio programs include a general program which interviews farmers, a music request program in which the music is interspersed with farming advice, a farming family serial, and a daily broadcast of agricultural news and information. The 17 cinema vans show some agricultural films, made by EAB, some entertainment films, and some government information films from departments other than the ministry of agriculture. EAB also has a well-developed program of research and evaluation of its own work. INADES-formation, the training section of INADES, works towards social and economic development of the population. It teaches peasant farmers and extension agents and does this through running face-to-face seminars, by publishing a magazine, "Agripromo," and through correspondence courses. In 1978-79 INADES-formation enrolled some 4500 farmers and extension agents as students. Both of these organizations work to teach farmers better agriculture techniques, and both were created in response to the fact that agricultural extension agents cannot meet all the farmers in their area. Despite the similarity of objective, there are differences in methods and philosophy. The EAB works in a single country and uses a variety of mass media, with print playing a minor role. INADES-formation is an international and nongovernmental organization and its

  18. Energy minimization methods applied to riboswitches: a perspective and challenges.

    PubMed

    Barash, Danny; Gabdank, Idan

    2010-01-01

    Energy minimization methods for RNA secondary structure prediction have been used extensively for studying a variety of biological systems. Here, we demonstrate their applicability in riboswitch studies, exemplified in both the expression platform and aptamer domains. In the expression platform domain, energy minimization methods can be used to predict in silico a unique point mutation positioned in the non-conserved region of the TPP riboswitch that will transform it from a termination to an anti-termination state, thus backing the prediction experimentally. Furthermore, a successive prediction can be made for a compensatory mutation that is positioned over half the sequence length of the riboswitch from the original mutation and that completely overturns the anti-termination effect of the original mutation. This approach can be used to computationally predict rational modifications in riboswitches for both research and practical applications. In the aptamer domain, energy minimization methods can be used when attempting to detect a novel purine riboswitch in eukaryotes based on the consensus sequence and structure of the bacterial guanine binding aptamer. In the process, some interesting candidates are identified, and although they are attractive enough to be tested experimentally, they are not detectable by sequence based methods alone. These brief examples represent the important lessons to be learned as to the strengths and limitations of energy minimization methods. In light of our growing knowledge in the energy minimization field, future challenges can be advanced for the rational design of known riboswitches and the detection of novel riboswitches. Unlike analyses of specific cases, it is stressed that all the results described here are predictive in scope with direct applicability and an attempt to validate the predictions experimentally.

  19. Minimal normal measurement models of quantum instruments

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Pellonpää, Juha-Pekka; Tukiainen, Mikko

    2017-06-01

    In this work we study the minimal normal measurement models of quantum instruments. We show that usually the apparatus' Hilbert space in such a model is unitarily isomorphic to the minimal Stinespring dilation space of the instrument. However, if the Hilbert space of the system is infinite-dimensional and the multiplicities of the outcomes of the associated observable (POVM) are all infinite then this may not be the case. In these pathological cases the minimal apparatus' Hilbert space is shown to be unitarily isomorphic to the instrument's minimal dilation space augmented by one extra dimension.

  20. MACT: A Manageable Minimization Allocation System

    PubMed Central

    Cui, Yan; Bu, Huaien; Liao, Shizhong

    2014-01-01

    Background. Minimization is a case allocation method for randomized controlled trials (RCT). Evidence suggests that the minimization method achieves balanced groups with respect to numbers and participant characteristics, and can incorporate more prognostic factors compared to other randomization methods. Although several automatic allocation systems exist (e.g., randoWeb, and MagMin), the minimization method is still difficult to implement, and RCTs seldom employ minimization. Therefore, we developed the minimization allocation controlled trials (MACT) system, a generic manageable minimization allocation system. System Outline. The MACT system implements minimization allocation by Web and email. It has a unified interface that manages trials, participants, and allocation. It simultaneously supports multitrials, multicenters, multigrouping, multiple prognostic factors, and multilevels. Methods. Unlike previous systems, MACT utilizes an optimized database that greatly improves manageability. Simulations and Results. MACT was assessed in a series of experiments and evaluations. Relative to simple randomization, minimization produces better balance among groups and similar unpredictability. Applications. MACT has been employed in two RCTs that lasted three years. During this period, MACT steadily and simultaneously satisfied the requirements of the trial. Conclusions. MACT is a manageable, easy-to-use case allocation system. Its outstanding features are attracting more RCTs to use the minimization allocation method. PMID:24701251

  1. Contemporary review of minimally invasive pancreaticoduodenectomy

    PubMed Central

    Dai, Rui; Turley, Ryan S; Blazer, Dan G

    2016-01-01

    AIM To assess the current literature describing various minimally invasive techniques for and to review short-term outcomes after minimally invasive pancreaticoduodenectomy (PD). METHODS PD remains the only potentially curative treatment for periampullary malignancies, including, most commonly, pancreatic adenocarcinoma. Minimally invasive approaches to this complex operation have begun to be increasingly reported in the literature and are purported by some to reduce the historically high morbidity of PD associated with the open technique. In this systematic review, we have searched the literature for high-quality publications describing minimally invasive techniques for PD-including laparoscopic, robotic, and laparoscopic-assisted robotic approaches (hybrid approach). We have identified publications with the largest operative experiences from well-known centers of excellence for this complex procedure. We report primarily short term operative and perioperative results and some short term oncologic endpoints. RESULTS Minimally invasive techniques include laparoscopic, robotic and hybrid approaches and each of these techniques has strong advocates. Consistently, across all minimally invasive modalities, these techniques are associated less intraoperative blood loss than traditional open PD (OPD), but in exchange for longer operating times. These techniques are relatively equivalent in terms of perioperative morbidity and short term oncologic outcomes. Importantly, pancreatic fistula rate appears to be comparable in most minimally invasive series compared to open technique. Impact of minimally invasive technique on length of stay is mixed compared to some traditional open series. A few series have suggested that initiation of and time to adjuvant therapy may be improved with minimally invasive techniques, however this assertion remains controversial. In terms of short-terms costs, minimally invasive PD is significantly higher than that of OPD. CONCLUSION Minimally

  2. Life Extension of Aging High-Level Waste Tanks

    SciTech Connect

    Bryson, D.; Callahan, V.; Ostrom, M.; Bryan, W.; Berman, H.

    2002-02-26

    The Double Shell Tanks (DSTs) play a critical role in the Hanford High-Level Waste Treatment Complex, and therefore activities are underway to protect and better understand these tanks. The DST Life Extension Program is focused on both tank life extension and on evaluation of tank integrity. Tank life extension activities focus on understanding tank failure modes and have produced key chemistry and operations controls to minimize tank corrosion and extend useful tank life. Tank integrity program activities have developed and applied key technologies to evaluate the condition of the tank structure and predict useful tank life. Program results to date indicate that DST useful life can be extended well beyond the original design life and allow the existing tanks to fill a critical function within the Hanford High-Level Waste Treatment Complex. In addition the tank life may now be more reliably predicted, facilitating improved planning for the use and possible future replacement of these tanks.

  3. Life Extension of Aging High Level Waste (HLW) Tanks

    SciTech Connect

    BRYSON, D.

    2002-02-04

    The Double Shell Tanks (DSTs) play a critical role in the Hanford High-Level Waste Treatment Complex, and therefore activities are underway to protect and better understand these tanks. The DST Life Extension Program is focused on both tank life extension and on evaluation of tank integrity. Tank life extension activities focus on understanding tank failure modes and have produced key chemistry and operations controls to minimize tank corrosion and extend useful tank life. Tank integrity program activities have developed and applied key technologies to evaluate the condition of the tank structure and predict useful tank life. Program results to date indicate that DST useful life can be extended well beyond the original design life and allow the existing tanks to fill a critical function within the Hanford High-Level Waste Treatment Complex. In addition the tank life may now be more reliably predicted, facilitating improved planning for the use and possible future replacement of these tanks.

  4. On extensions of Leibniz algebras

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Rakhimov, I. S.; Said Husain, Sh. K.; Mohammed, M. A.

    2017-09-01

    This paper is dedicated to the study extensions of Leibniz algebras using the annihilator approach. The extensions methods have been used earlier to classify certain classes of algebras. In the paper we first review and adjust theoretical background of the method for Leibniz algebras then apply it to classify four-dimensional Leibniz algebras over a field K. We obtain complete classification of four-dimensional nilpotent Leibniz algebras. The main idea of the method is to transfer the “base change” action to an action of automorphism group of the algebras of smaller dimension on cocycles constructed by the annihilator extensions. The method can be used to classify low-dimensional Leibniz algebras over other finite fields as well.

  5. Molecular mechanisms of neurite extension.

    PubMed Central

    Valtorta, F; Leoni, C

    1999-01-01

    The extension of neurites is a major task of developing neurons, requiring a significant metabolic effort to sustain the increase in molecular synthesis necessary for plasma membrane expansion. In addition, neurite extension involves changes in the subsets of expressed proteins and reorganization of the cytomatrix. These phenomena are driven by environmental cues which activate signal transduction processes as well as by the intrinsic genetic program of the cell. The present review summarizes some of the most recent progress made in the elucidation of the molecular mechanisms underlying these processes. PMID:10212488

  6. Minimally invasive (endoscopic-computer assisted) surgery: Technique and review

    PubMed Central

    Kumar, Anand; Yadav, Nirma; Singh, Shipra; Chauhan, Neha

    2016-01-01

    Endoscopic or minimally invasive surgery popular as keyhole surgery is a medical procedure in which endoscope (a camera) is used, and it has gained broad acceptance with popularity in several surgical specialties and has heightened the standard of care. Oral and maxillofacial surgery is a modern discipline in the field of dentistry in which endoscopy has developed as well as widely used in surgeries and is rapidly gaining importance. The use of different visual as well as standard instruments such as laparoscopic and endoscopic instruments, and high-powered magnification devices, has allowed physicians to decrease the morbidity of many surgical procedures by eliminating the need for a large surgical incision. Minimally invasive techniques have evolved through the development of surgical microscopes equipped with a camera to get visual images for maxillofacial surgeries, endodontic procedures, and periodontal surgical procedures. Nevertheless, current experiences and reviewing the literature have intimated that the use of endoscopes, as in different minimally invasive methods, may permit complicated surgeries with less complications, for example, in reconstruction of facial fractures through smaller incisions with less extensive exposure. PMID:28299251

  7. Minimizing electrode contamination in an electrochemical cell

    DOEpatents

    Kim, Yu Seung; Zelenay, Piotr; Johnston, Christina

    2014-12-09

    An electrochemical cell assembly that is expected to prevent or at least minimize electrode contamination includes one or more getters that trap a component or components leached from a first electrode and prevents or at least minimizes them from contaminating a second electrode.

  8. Minimally Invasive Mitral Valve Surgery I

    PubMed Central

    Ailawadi, Gorav; Agnihotri, Arvind K.; Mehall, John R.; Wolfe, J. Alan; Hummel, Brian W.; Fayers, Trevor M.; Farivar, R. Saeid; Grossi, Eugene A.; Guy, T. Sloane; Hargrove, W. Clark; Khan, Junaid H.; Lehr, Eric J.; Malaisrie, S. Chris; Murphy, Douglas A.; Rodriguez, Evelio; Ryan, William H.; Salemi, Arash; Segurola, Romualdo J.; Shemin, Richard J.; Smith, J. Michael; Smith, Robert L.; Weldner, Paul W.; Goldman, Scott M.; Lewis, Clifton T. P.; Barnhart, Glenn R.

    2016-01-01

    Abstract Widespread adoption of minimally invasive mitral valve repair and replacement may be fostered by practice consensus and standardization. This expert opinion, first of a 3-part series, outlines current best practices in patient evaluation and selection for minimally invasive mitral valve procedures, and discusses preoperative planning for cannulation and myocardial protection. PMID:27654407

  9. Agricultural Extension. A Reference Manual.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Maunder, Addison, H.

    The basic philosophy of agricultural extension was established in the more highly developed countries over the past century. Newly formed nations, the rural population of which formerly maintained a subsistence agriculture with limited industry, found it essential to establish a better-balanced economy. This led to a variety of rural services and…

  10. Hemorrhagic Longitudinally Extensive Transverse Myelitis.

    PubMed

    Wu, Chris Y; Riangwiwat, Tanawan; Nakamoto, Beau K

    2016-01-01

    Longitudinally extensive transverse myelitis (LETM) may be associated with viral triggers, including both infections and vaccinations. We present a case of a healthy immunocompetent 33-year-old woman who developed a hemorrhagic LETM 2 weeks after seasonal influenza vaccination. Hemorrhagic LETM has not to our knowledge been reported after influenza vaccination. It may represent a forme fruste variant of acute hemorrhagic leukoencephalitis.

  11. Extension Resources for International Trade

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Seal, Susan D.

    2016-01-01

    With the opening of additional trade partnerships, the reduction of global transportation and communication costs, and the increase in demand for U.S. agricultural products and services, international trade is an area of great importance to more and more Extension clients and stakeholders. This article provides information about the primary…

  12. Rule Induction with Extension Matrices.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Wu, Xindong

    1998-01-01

    Presents a heuristic, attribute-based, noise-tolerant data mining program, HCV (Version 2.0) based on the newly-developed extension matrix approach. Outlines some techniques implemented in the HCV program for noise handling and discretization of continuous domains; an empirical comparison shows that rules generated by HCV are more compact than the…

  13. Nuclear power plant life extension

    SciTech Connect

    Carlson, D.D.; Bustard, L.D.; Harrison, D.L.

    1986-01-01

    Nuclear plant life extension represents an opportunity to achieve additional productive years of operation from existing nuclear power facilities. This is particularly important since operating licenses for over 50 GW of nuclear capacity will expire by the year 2010. By the year 2015, 85% of the total planned nuclear electric capacity will face retirement due to license expirations. Achieving additional productive years of operation from the nation's existing light water reactors is the goal of ongoing utility, vendor, US Department of Energy, and Electric Power Research Institute programs. Identifying potential technical issues associated with extending plant life and scoping realistic solutions represent first steps toward the development of a coordinated national plant life extension strategy. This is a substantial effort that must consider the breadth of issues associated with nuclear power plant design, operation, and licensing, and the numerous potential plant life extension strategies that may be appropriate to different utilities. Such an effort must enlist the expertise of the full spectrum of organizations in the nuclear industry including utilities, vendors, consultants, national laboratories, and professional organizations. A primary focus of these efforts is to identify operational changes and improvements in record-keeping, which, if implemented now, could enhance and preserve the life extension option.

  14. Strategic Opportunities for Cooperative Extension

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    National Association of State Universities and Land-Grant Colleges, 2007

    2007-01-01

    In this new century, opportunities exist to help advance America's greatness in the midst of many challenges. Energy, water, food, environment, health, economic productivity, global competitiveness, and the quality of the living environments are all paramount to the future. Extension is, as a part of higher education, prepared to create new…

  15. Protective coatings on extensible biofibres

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Holten-Andersen, Niels; Fantner, Georg E.; Hohlbauch, Sophia; Waite, J. Herbert; Zok, Frank W.

    2007-09-01

    Formulating effective coatings for use in nano- and biotechnology poses considerable technical challenges. If they are to provide abrasion resistance, coatings must be hard and adhere well to the underlying substrate. High hardness, however, comes at the expense of extensibility. This property trade-off makes the design of coatings for even moderately compliant substrates problematic, because substrate deformation easily exceeds the strain limit of the coating. Although the highest strain capacity of synthetic fibre coatings is less than 10%, deformable coatings are ubiquitous in biological systems. With an eye to heeding the lessons of nature, the cuticular coatings of byssal threads from two species of marine mussels, Mytilus galloprovincialis and Perna canaliculus, have been investigated. Consistent with their function to protect collagenous fibres in the byssal-thread core, these coatings show hardness and stiffness comparable to those of engineering plastics and yet are surprisingly extensible; the tensile failure strain of P. canaliculus cuticle is about 30% and that of M. galloprovincialis is a remarkable 70%. The difference in extensibility is attributable to the presence of deformable microphase-separated granules within the cuticle of M. galloprovincialis. The results have important implications in the design of bio-inspired extensible coatings.

  16. Extensions of 2D gravity

    SciTech Connect

    Sevrin, A.

    1993-06-01

    After reviewing some aspects of gravity in two dimensions, I show that non-trivial embeddings of sl(2) in a semi-simple (super) Lie algebra give rise to a very large class of extensions of 2D gravity. The induced action is constructed as a gauged WZW model and an exact expression for the effective action is given.

  17. Effective Public Relations in Extension.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Hogan, Mike

    1994-01-01

    Public relations efforts of the Carroll County (Ohio) extension office included periodic reports to legislators, a toll-free number distributed on refrigerator magnets, annual calendar/report to the public, newspaper supplements, and town meetings. Long-term effects were a 116% increase in funding, used to upgrade staff, programs, and…

  18. Removing the Tension from Extension

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Bradley, Lucy; Driscoll, Elizabeth; Bardon, Robert

    2012-01-01

    Job burnout and stress begin with day-to-day frustrations, roadblocks, and unmet expectations. These can transform job satisfaction and, ultimately, career choices, affecting the quality of programs, expense to universities, and relationships with the community. A series of innovative statewide workshops involving 97 agents and Extension directors…

  19. Unstable extension of Enceladus' lithosphere

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Bland, Michael T.; Beyer, Ross A.; Showman, Adam P.

    2007-12-01

    Regions near Enceladus' equator, Sarandib and Diyar Planitia, contain extensive sets of parallel ridges and troughs that may be diagnostic of the region's formation conditions. We present photoclinometry profiles across these ridges and troughs, which indicate that they are periodic, low-slope features with dominant wavelengths of 3 to 4 km and amplitudes between 100 and 400 m. The morphology of these terrains is consistent with formation via unstable extension of the lithosphere. Our numerical modeling demonstrates that unstable extension can generate large-scale topography under Enceladus-like conditions. Comparison of our photoclinometry profiles with the dominant wavelengths produced by our numerical model permits estimation of the background heat flow at the time the Sarandib-Diyar province formed. We estimate heat flows of 110 to 220mWm, suggesting that resurfacing of the planitiae was accompanied by strong, localized heating. The extension necessary to produce the ridges and troughs may have been caused by now-inactive diapirs, internal phase changes, or other mechanisms. Our heat flux estimates imply elastic thickness at the time of resurfacing of 0.4 to 1.4 km, which are sufficient to have allowed satellite reorientation if the province was underlain by a low-density region. It is therefore plausible that Enceladus has experienced multiple heating events, each leading to localized resurfacing and global reorientation.

  20. Slope Extensions to ASL Library

    SciTech Connect

    Gay, David

    2010-03-31

    Extensions to the AMPL/solver interface library (http://netlib.sandia.gov/ampl/solvers) to compute bounds on algebraic expressions, plus a test program. use in uncertainty quantification and global optimization algorithms. This software is not primarily for military applications.

  1. Extensions: Extrapolation Methods for CAD

    DTIC Science & Technology

    2000-01-01

    extension parameter ft. Pseudocode on how to compute these intermediate points can be found in the book by Farin [1]. We can easily extend this method...knowledge. Thanks to Sreedharan Vijayan for generating Figure 2. References 1. Farin , G. E., Curves and Surfaces for CAGD, Academic Press, San Diego, 1996

  2. NACRE Update and Extension Project

    SciTech Connect

    Aikawa, Masayuki; Arnould, Marcel; Takahashi, Kohji; Arai, Koji; Utsunomiya, Hiroaki

    2006-04-26

    NACRE, the 'nuclear astrophysics compilation of reaction rates', has been widely utilized in stellar evolution and nucleosynthesis studies since its publication in 1999. We describe here the current status of a Konan-Universite Libre de Brussels (ULB) joint project that aims at its update and extension.

  3. Slope Extensions to ASL Library

    SciTech Connect

    Gay, David

    2010-03-31

    Extensions to the AMPL/solver interface library (http://netlib.sandia.gov/ampl/solvers) to compute bounds on algebraic expressions, plus a test program. use in uncertainty quantification and global optimization algorithms. This software is not primarily for military applications.

  4. Removing the Tension from Extension

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Bradley, Lucy; Driscoll, Elizabeth; Bardon, Robert

    2012-01-01

    Job burnout and stress begin with day-to-day frustrations, roadblocks, and unmet expectations. These can transform job satisfaction and, ultimately, career choices, affecting the quality of programs, expense to universities, and relationships with the community. A series of innovative statewide workshops involving 97 agents and Extension directors…

  5. Extension Resources for International Trade

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Seal, Susan D.

    2016-01-01

    With the opening of additional trade partnerships, the reduction of global transportation and communication costs, and the increase in demand for U.S. agricultural products and services, international trade is an area of great importance to more and more Extension clients and stakeholders. This article provides information about the primary…

  6. Tree-level unitarity bounds for the minimal B-L model

    SciTech Connect

    Basso, L.; Belyaev, A.; Moretti, S.; Pruna, G. M.

    2010-05-01

    We have derived the unitarity bounds in the high energy limit for the minimal B-L extension of the standard model by analyzing the full class of Higgs and would-be Goldstone boson two-to-two scatterings at tree level. Moreover, we have investigated how these limits could vary at some lower critical value of the energy.

  7. Finding minimal action sequences with a simple evaluation of actions

    PubMed Central

    Shah, Ashvin; Gurney, Kevin N.

    2014-01-01

    Animals are able to discover the minimal number of actions that achieves an outcome (the minimal action sequence). In most accounts of this, actions are associated with a measure of behavior that is higher for actions that lead to the outcome with a shorter action sequence, and learning mechanisms find the actions associated with the highest measure. In this sense, previous accounts focus on more than the simple binary signal of “was the outcome achieved?”; they focus on “how well was the outcome achieved?” However, such mechanisms may not govern all types of behavioral development. In particular, in the process of action discovery (Redgrave and Gurney, 2006), actions are reinforced if they simply lead to a salient outcome because biological reinforcement signals occur too quickly to evaluate the consequences of an action beyond an indication of the outcome's occurrence. Thus, action discovery mechanisms focus on the simple evaluation of “was the outcome achieved?” and not “how well was the outcome achieved?” Notwithstanding this impoverishment of information, can the process of action discovery find the minimal action sequence? We address this question by implementing computational mechanisms, referred to in this paper as no-cost learning rules, in which each action that leads to the outcome is associated with the same measure of behavior. No-cost rules focus on “was the outcome achieved?” and are consistent with action discovery. No-cost rules discover the minimal action sequence in simulated tasks and execute it for a substantial amount of time. Extensive training, however, results in extraneous actions, suggesting that a separate process (which has been proposed in action discovery) must attenuate learning if no-cost rules participate in behavioral development. We describe how no-cost rules develop behavior, what happens when attenuation is disrupted, and relate the new mechanisms to wider computational and biological context. PMID:25506326

  8. Minimally invasive lateral transpsoas approach for spinal discitis and osteomyelitis.

    PubMed

    Patel, Neal B; Dodd, Zachary H; Voorhies, Jason; Horn, Eric M

    2015-11-01

    We present a series of patients with discitis and osteomyelitis who were surgically treated via a minimally invasive lateral transpsoas approach to the lumbar spine. Surgical treatment for spinal discitis and osteomyelitis presents challenges because of comorbidities that are common in patients undergoing this procedure. A retrospective review found six patients who met strict operative criteria including instability, intractable pain, neurological deficit, and disease progression. All patients were non-ambulatory before surgery because of intractable back pain. The patients underwent standard lateral minimally invasive surgery using either the extreme lateral interbody fusion (NuVasive, San Diego, CA, USA) or direct lateral interbody fusion (Medtronic Sofamor Danek, Memphis, TN, USA) system. The patients underwent debridement with a discectomy and partial or complete corpectomy, with polyetheretherketone or titanium cage placement. Two patients had additional posterior fixation with percutaneous pedicle screws, and none had immediate perioperative complications. The postoperative CT scans demonstrated satisfactory debridement and hardware placement. All patients experienced significant pain improvement and could ambulate within a few days of surgery. So far, the 1 year follow-up data have demonstrated stable hardware with solid fusion and continued pain improvements. One patient demonstrated hardware failure secondary to refractory infection, 2 months postoperatively, and required additional posterior decompression and debridement with pedicle screw fixation. The lateral transpsoas approach permits debridement and fixation coupled with percutaneous pedicle screw fixation to further stabilize the spine in a minimally invasive fashion. Due to the significant comorbidities in this patient population, a minimally invasive approach is a suitable surgical technique. A close follow-up period is necessary to detect early hardware failure which may necessitate more

  9. Charge and energy minimization in electrical/magnetic stimulation of nervous tissue.

    PubMed

    Jezernik, Saso; Sinkjaer, Thomas; Morari, Manfred

    2010-08-01

    In this work we address the problem of stimulating nervous tissue with the minimal necessary energy at reduced/minimal charge. Charge minimization is related to a valid safety concern (avoidance and reduction of stimulation-induced tissue and electrode damage). Energy minimization plays a role in battery-driven electrical or magnetic stimulation systems (increased lifetime, repetition rates, reduction of power requirements, thermal management). Extensive new theoretical results are derived by employing an optimal control theory framework. These results include derivation of the optimal electrical stimulation waveform for a mixed energy/charge minimization problem, derivation of the charge-balanced energy-minimal electrical stimulation waveform, solutions of a pure charge minimization problem with and without a constraint on the stimulation amplitude, and derivation of the energy-minimal magnetic stimulation waveform. Depending on the set stimulus pulse duration, energy and charge reductions of up to 80% are deemed possible. Results are verified in simulations with an active, mammalian-like nerve fiber model.

  10. Minimal representations, geometric quantization, and unitarity.

    PubMed Central

    Brylinski, R; Kostant, B

    1994-01-01

    In the framework of geometric quantization we explicitly construct, in a uniform fashion, a unitary minimal representation pio of every simply-connected real Lie group Go such that the maximal compact subgroup of Go has finite center and Go admits some minimal representation. We obtain algebraic and analytic results about pio. We give several results on the algebraic and symplectic geometry of the minimal nilpotent orbits and then "quantize" these results to obtain the corresponding representations. We assume (Lie Go)C is simple. PMID:11607478

  11. Minimal covariant observables identifying all pure states

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Carmeli, Claudio; Heinosaari, Teiko; Toigo, Alessandro

    2013-09-01

    It has been recently shown by Heinosaari, Mazzarella and Wolf (2013) [1] that an observable that identifies all pure states of a d-dimensional quantum system has minimally 4d-4 outcomes or slightly less (the exact number depending on d). However, no simple construction of this type of minimal observable is known. We investigate covariant observables that identify all pure states and have minimal number of outcomes. It is shown that the existence of this kind of observables depends on the dimension of the Hilbert space.

  12. Minimal representations, geometric quantization, and unitarity.

    PubMed

    Brylinski, R; Kostant, B

    1994-06-21

    In the framework of geometric quantization we explicitly construct, in a uniform fashion, a unitary minimal representation pio of every simply-connected real Lie group Go such that the maximal compact subgroup of Go has finite center and Go admits some minimal representation. We obtain algebraic and analytic results about pio. We give several results on the algebraic and symplectic geometry of the minimal nilpotent orbits and then "quantize" these results to obtain the corresponding representations. We assume (Lie Go)C is simple.

  13. An algorithm for constructing minimal order inverses

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Patel, R. V.

    1976-01-01

    In this paper an algorithm is presented for constructing minimal order inverses of linear, time invariant, controllable and observable, multivariable systems. By means of simple matrix operations, a 'state-overdescribed' system is first constructed which is an inverse of the given multivariable system. A simple Gauss-Jordan type reduction procedure is then used to remove the redundancy in the state vector of the inverse system to obtain a minimal order inverse. When the given multivariable system is not invertible, the algorithm enables a minimal order inverse of an invertible subsystem to be constructed. Numerical examples are given to illustrate the use of the algorithm.

  14. Technology applications for radioactive waste minimization

    SciTech Connect

    Devgun, J.S.

    1994-07-01

    The nuclear power industry has achieved one of the most successful examples of waste minimization. The annual volume of low-level radioactive waste shipped for disposal per reactor has decreased to approximately one-fifth the volume about a decade ago. In addition, the curie content of the total waste shipped for disposal has decreased. This paper will discuss the regulatory drivers and economic factors for waste minimization and describe the application of technologies for achieving waste minimization for low-level radioactive waste with examples from the nuclear power industry.

  15. Minimally invasive atlantoaxial fusion: cadaveric study and report of 5 clinical cases.

    PubMed

    Srikantha, Umesh; Khanapure, Kiran S; Jagannatha, Aniruddha T; Joshi, Krishna C; Varma, Ravi G; Hegde, Alangar S

    2016-12-01

    OBJECTIVE Minimally invasive techniques are being increasingly used to treat disorders of the cervical spine. They have a potential to reduce the postoperative neck discomfort subsequent to extensive muscle dissection associated with conventional atlantoaxial fusion procedures. The aim of this paper was to elaborate on the technique and results of minimally invasive atlantoaxial fusion. MATERIALS Minimally invasive atlantoaxial fusion was done initially in 4 fresh-frozen cadavers and subsequently in 5 clinical cases. Clinical cases included patients with reducible atlantoaxial instability and undisplaced or minimally displaced odontoid fractures. The surgical technique is illustrated in detail. RESULTS Among the cadaveric specimens, all C-1 lateral mass screws were in the correct position and 2 of the 8 C-2 screws had a vertebral canal breach. Among clinical cases, all C-1 lateral mass screws were in the correct position. Only one C-2 screw had a Grade 2 vertebral canal breach, which was clinically insignificant. None of the patients experienced neurological worsening or implant-related complications at follow-up. Evidence of rib graft fusion or C1-2 joint fusion was successfully demonstrated in 4 cases, and flexion-extension radiographs done at follow-up did not show mobility in any case. CONCLUSIONS Minimally invasive atlantoaxial fusion is a safe and effective alternative to the conventional approach in selected cases. Larger series with direct comparison to the conventional approach will be required to demonstrate clinical benefit presumed to be associated with a minimally invasive approach.

  16. Building an Extension Network in Vietnam.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Poussard, H.

    1999-01-01

    Agricultural extension in Vietnam is in transition as the economy moves to a market orientation. The national extension service created in 1993 is constrained by lack of funding, staff, and access to current extension knowledge. (SK)

  17. Extension Handbook. Processes and Practices. Second Edition.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Blackburn, Donald J., Ed.

    This book contains the following papers about processes and practices in extension education in Canada: "Historical Roots" (Blackburn, Flaherty); "Transitions and Directions in Extension" (Blackburn, Flaherty); "Applying Learning Theory in Extension Work" (Griffith); "Understanding and Applying Motivation…

  18. Extension Handbook. Processes and Practices. Second Edition.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Blackburn, Donald J., Ed.

    This book contains the following papers about processes and practices in extension education in Canada: "Historical Roots" (Blackburn, Flaherty); "Transitions and Directions in Extension" (Blackburn, Flaherty); "Applying Learning Theory in Extension Work" (Griffith); "Understanding and Applying Motivation…

  19. Hemorrhagic Longitudinally Extensive Transverse Myelitis

    PubMed Central

    Wu, Chris Y.; Riangwiwat, Tanawan

    2016-01-01

    Longitudinally extensive transverse myelitis (LETM) may be associated with viral triggers, including both infections and vaccinations. We present a case of a healthy immunocompetent 33-year-old woman who developed a hemorrhagic LETM 2 weeks after seasonal influenza vaccination. Hemorrhagic LETM has not to our knowledge been reported after influenza vaccination. It may represent a forme fruste variant of acute hemorrhagic leukoencephalitis. PMID:27847660

  20. Linguistic Extensions of Topic Models

    DTIC Science & Technology

    2010-09-01

    Linguistic Extensions of Topic Models Jordan Boyd-Graber A Dissertation Presented to the Faculty of Princeton University in Candidacy for the Degree...Princeton University ,Department of Computer Science,Princeton,NJ,08540 8. PERFORMING ORGANIZATION REPORT NUMBER 9. SPONSORING/MONITORING AGENCY NAME(S...tree. We derive an approximate posterior inference method based on variational methods for hierarchical Dirichlet processes, and we report qualitative

  1. Wilms' tumor with intracardiac extension.

    PubMed

    Martinez-Guerra, G; Ruano-Aguilar, J; Rivera-Luna, R; Cardenas-Cardos, R; Avila-Ramirez, E; Braun-Roth, G; Altamirano-Alvarez, E; Moreno-Hidalgo, A; Flamand-Rodriguez, E L

    1992-02-01

    Intracardiac tumor extension from nephroblastoma is a rare event. We report on two cases with this peculiar condition who presented with a different set of signs and symptoms. Both were diagnosed in life but only one could be properly managed on time. Emphasis is made upon the most reliable methodology for early detection and the surgical approach as the only plausible way to solve this particular complication.

  2. Mechanical heterogeneities and lithospheric extension

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Duretz, Thibault; Petri, Benoit; Mohn, Geoffroy; Schenker, Filippo L.; Schmalholz, Stefan

    2016-04-01

    Detailed geological and geophysical studies of passive margins have highlighted the multi-stage and depth-dependent aspect of lithospheric thinning. Lithospheric thinning involves a variety of structures (normal faults, low angle detachments, extensional shear zones, extraction faults) and leads to a complex architecture of passive margins (with e.g. necking zone, mantle exhumation, continental allochthons). The processes controlling the generation and evolution of these structures as well as the impact of pre-rift inheritance are so far incompletely understood. In this study, we investigate the impact of pre-rift inheritance on the development of rifted margins using two-dimensional thermo-mechanical models of lithospheric thinning. To first order, we represent the pre-rift mechanical heterogeneities with lithological layering. The rheologies are kept simple (visco-plastic) and do not involve any strain softening mechanism. Our models show that mechanical layering causes multi-stage and depth-dependent extension. In the initial rifting phase, lithospheric extension is decoupled: as the crust undergoes thinning by brittle (frictional-plastic) faults, the lithospheric mantle accommodates extension by symmetric ductile necking. In a second rifting phase, deformation in the crust and lithospheric mantle is coupled and marks the beginning of an asymmetric extension stage. Low angle extensional shear zones develop across the lithosphere and exhume subcontinental mantle. Furthemore, crustal allochthons and adjacent basins develop coevally. We describe as well the thermal evolution predicted by the numerical models and discuss the first-order implications of our results in the context of the Alpine geological history.

  3. Extensions to total variation denoising

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Blomgren, Peter; Chan, Tony F.; Mulet, Pep

    1997-10-01

    The total variation denoising method, proposed by Rudin, Osher and Fatermi, 92, is a PDE-based algorithm for edge-preserving noise removal. The images resulting from its application are usually piecewise constant, possibly with a staircase effect at smooth transitions and may contain significantly less fine details than the original non-degraded image. In this paper we present some extensions to this technique that aim to improve the above drawbacks, through redefining the total variation functional or the noise constraints.

  4. An Extension for ESO Headquarters

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Fischer, Robert; Walsh, Jeremy

    2009-03-01

    The ESO Headquarters was completed in 1980, but is now too small to house all the ESO staff and currently only about 50% reside in the original building. A decision was taken to seek an extension to the Headquarters building in close proximity to the current one and a competition was launched for architectural designs. Three designs were shortlisted and the process of selection for the final design is described. Construction will begin in 2010 and is due for completion in 2012.

  5. Minimally invasive surgery for Achilles tendon pathologies

    PubMed Central

    Maffulli, Nicola; Longo, Umile Giuseppe; Spiezia, Filippo; Denaro, Vincenzo

    2010-01-01

    Minimally invasive trauma and orthopedic surgery is increasingly common, though technically demanding. Its use for pathologies of the Achilles tendon (AT) hold the promise to allow faster recovery times, shorter hospital stays, and improved functional outcomes when compared to traditional open procedures, which can lead to difficulty with wound healing because of the tenuous blood supply and increased chance of wound breakdown and infection. We present the recent advances in the field of minimally invasive AT surgery for tendinopathy, acute ruptures, chronic tears, and chronic avulsions of the AT. In our hands, minimally invasive surgery has provided similar results to those obtained with open surgery, with decreased perioperative morbidity, decreased duration of hospital stay, and reduced costs. So far, the studies on minimally invasive orthopedic techniques are of moderate scientific quality with short follow-up periods. Multicenter studies with longer follow-up are needed to justify the long-term advantages of these techniques over traditional ones. PMID:24198547

  6. Waste minimization and pollution prevention awareness plan

    SciTech Connect

    Not Available

    1991-05-31

    The purpose of this plan is to document the Lawrence Livermore National Laboratory (LLNL) Waste Minimization and Pollution Prevention Awareness Program. The plan specifies those activities and methods that are or will be employed to reduce the quantity and toxicity of wastes generated at the site. The intent of this plan is to respond to and comply with (DOE's) policy and guidelines concerning the need for pollution prevention. The Plan is composed of a LLNL Waste Minimization and Pollution Prevention Awareness Program Plan and, as attachments, Program- and Department-specific waste minimization plans. This format reflects the fact that waste minimization is considered a line management responsibility and is to be addressed by each of the Programs and Departments. 14 refs.

  7. Controlling molecular transport in minimal emulsions

    PubMed Central

    Gruner, Philipp; Riechers, Birte; Semin, Benoît; Lim, Jiseok; Johnston, Abigail; Short, Kathleen; Baret, Jean-Christophe

    2016-01-01

    Emulsions are metastable dispersions in which molecular transport is a major mechanism driving the system towards its state of minimal energy. Determining the underlying mechanisms of molecular transport between droplets is challenging due to the complexity of a typical emulsion system. Here we introduce the concept of ‘minimal emulsions', which are controlled emulsions produced using microfluidic tools, simplifying an emulsion down to its minimal set of relevant parameters. We use these minimal emulsions to unravel the fundamentals of transport of small organic molecules in water-in-fluorinated-oil emulsions, a system of great interest for biotechnological applications. Our results are of practical relevance to guarantee a sustainable compartmentalization of compounds in droplet microreactors and to design new strategies for the dynamic control of droplet compositions. PMID:26797564

  8. Heart bypass surgery - minimally invasive - discharge

    MedlinePlus

    ... thrombosis, 9th ed: American College of Chest Physicians evidence-based clinical practice guidelines. Chest . 2012;141(2 ... bypass surgery - minimally invasive Heart failure - overview High blood cholesterol ...

  9. Genetic algorithms for minimal source reconstructions

    SciTech Connect

    Lewis, P.S.; Mosher, J.C.

    1993-12-01

    Under-determined linear inverse problems arise in applications in which signals must be estimated from insufficient data. In these problems the number of potentially active sources is greater than the number of observations. In many situations, it is desirable to find a minimal source solution. This can be accomplished by minimizing a cost function that accounts from both the compatibility of the solution with the observations and for its ``sparseness``. Minimizing functions of this form can be a difficult optimization problem. Genetic algorithms are a relatively new and robust approach to the solution of difficult optimization problems, providing a global framework that is not dependent on local continuity or on explicit starting values. In this paper, the authors describe the use of genetic algorithms to find minimal source solutions, using as an example a simulation inspired by the reconstruction of neural currents in the human brain from magnetoencephalographic (MEG) measurements.

  10. Minimally Invasive Transcatheter Aortic Valve Replacement (TAVR)

    MedlinePlus Videos and Cool Tools

    Watch a Broward Health surgeon perform a minimally invasive Transcatheter Aortic Valve Replacement (TAVR) Click Here to view the BroadcastMed, Inc. Privacy Policy and Legal Notice © 2017 BroadcastMed, Inc. ...

  11. Academic Achievement and Minimal Brain Dysfunction

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Edwards, R. Philip; And Others

    1971-01-01

    The investigation provided no evidence that a diagnosis of minimal brain dysfunction based on a pediatric neurological evaluation and/or visual-motor impairment as measured by the Bender-Gestalt, is a useful predictor of academic achievement. (Author)

  12. Mixed waste minimization in a research environment

    SciTech Connect

    Kirner, N.

    1994-12-31

    This presentation describes minimization efforts and processes for mixed waste generated by research facilities. Waste stream assessment and treatment, and database management for various research-related waste streams is detailed.

  13. Degreasing of titanium to minimize stress corrosion

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Carpenter, S. R.

    1967-01-01

    Stress corrosion of titanium and its alloys at elevated temperatures is minimized by replacing trichloroethylene with methanol or methyl ethyl ketone as a degreasing agent. Wearing cotton gloves reduces stress corrosion from perspiration before the metal components are processed.

  14. Bi-quartic parametric polynomial minimal surfaces

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Kassabov, O.; Vlachkova, K.

    2015-10-01

    Minimal surfaces with isothermal parameters admitting Bézier representation were studied by Cosín and Monterde. They showed that, up to an affine transformation, the Enneper surface is the only bi-cubic isothermal minimal surface. Here we study bi-quartic isothermal minimal surfaces and establish the general form of their generating functions in the Weierstrass representation formula. We apply an approach proposed by Ganchev to compute the normal curvature and show that, in contrast to the bi-cubic case, there is a variety of bi-quartic isothermal minimal surfaces. Based on the Bézier representation we establish some geometric properties of the bi-quartic harmonic surfaces. Numerical experiments are visualized and presented to illustrate and support our results.

  15. Controlling molecular transport in minimal emulsions

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Gruner, Philipp; Riechers, Birte; Semin, Benoît; Lim, Jiseok; Johnston, Abigail; Short, Kathleen; Baret, Jean-Christophe

    2016-01-01

    Emulsions are metastable dispersions in which molecular transport is a major mechanism driving the system towards its state of minimal energy. Determining the underlying mechanisms of molecular transport between droplets is challenging due to the complexity of a typical emulsion system. Here we introduce the concept of `minimal emulsions', which are controlled emulsions produced using microfluidic tools, simplifying an emulsion down to its minimal set of relevant parameters. We use these minimal emulsions to unravel the fundamentals of transport of small organic molecules in water-in-fluorinated-oil emulsions, a system of great interest for biotechnological applications. Our results are of practical relevance to guarantee a sustainable compartmentalization of compounds in droplet microreactors and to design new strategies for the dynamic control of droplet compositions.

  16. Organelle extensions in plant cells.

    PubMed

    Mathur, Jaideep; Mammone, Alena; Barton, Kiah A

    2012-11-01

    Cell walls lock each cell in a specific position within the supra-organization of a plant. Despite its fixed location, each cell must be able to sense alterations in its immediate environment and respond rapidly to ensure the optimal functioning, continued growth and development, and eventual long-term survival of the plant. The ultra-structural detail that underlies our present understanding of the plant cell has largely been acquired from fixed and processed material that does not allow an appreciation of the dynamic nature of sub-cellular events in the cell. In recent years, fluorescent protein-aided imaging of living plant cells has added to our understanding of the dynamic nature of the plant cell. One of the major outcomes of live imaging of plant cells is the growing appreciation that organelle shapes are not fixed, and many organelles extend their surface transiently in rapid response to environmental stimuli. In many cases, the extensions appear as tubules extending from the main organelle. Specific terms such as stromules from plastids, matrixules from mitochondria, and peroxules from peroxisomes have been coined to describe the extensions. Here, we review our present understanding of organelle extensions and discuss how they may play potential roles in maintaining cellular homeostasis in plant cells. © 2012 Institute of Botany, Chinese Academy of Sciences.

  17. A modified secant method for unconstrained minimization

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Polak, E.

    1972-01-01

    A gradient-secant algorithm for unconstrained optimization problems is presented. The algorithm uses Armijo gradient method iterations until it reaches a region where the Newton method is more efficient, and then switches over to a secant form of operation. It is concluded that an efficient method for unconstrained minimization has been developed, and that any convergent minimization method can be substituted for the Armijo gradient method.

  18. Future of Minimally Invasive Colorectal Surgery

    PubMed Central

    Whealon, Matthew; Vinci, Alessio; Pigazzi, Alessio

    2016-01-01

    Minimally invasive surgery is slowly taking over as the preferred operative approach for colorectal diseases. However, many of the procedures remain technically difficult. This article will give an overview of the state of minimally invasive surgery and the many advances that have been made over the last two decades. Specifically, we discuss the introduction of the robotic platform and some of its benefits and limitations. We also describe some newer techniques related to robotics. PMID:27582647

  19. Gravitino problem in minimal supergravity inflation

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Hasegawa, Fuminori; Mukaida, Kyohei; Nakayama, Kazunori; Terada, Takahiro; Yamada, Yusuke

    2017-04-01

    We study non-thermal gravitino production in the minimal supergravity inflation. In this minimal model utilizing orthogonal nilpotent superfields, the particle spectrum includes only graviton, gravitino, inflaton, and goldstino. We find that a substantial fraction of the cosmic energy density can be transferred to the longitudinal gravitino due to non-trivial change of its sound speed. This implies either a breakdown of the effective theory after inflation or a serious gravitino problem.

  20. Minimally Invasive Forefoot Surgery in France.

    PubMed

    Meusnier, Tristan; Mukish, Prikesht

    2016-06-01

    Study groups have been formed in France to advance the use of minimally invasive surgery. These techniques are becoming more frequently used and the technique nuances are continuing to evolve. The objective of this article was to advance the awareness of the current trends in minimally invasive surgery for common diseases of the forefoot. The percutaneous surgery at the forefoot is less developed at this time, but also will be discussed.

  1. Current research in sonic-boom minimization

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Darden, C. M.; Mack, R. J.

    1976-01-01

    A review is given of several questions as yet unanswered in the area of sonic-boom research. Efforts, both here at Langley and elsewhere, in the area of minimization, human response, design techniques and in developing higher order propagation methods are discussed. In addition, a wind-tunnel test program being conducted to assess the validity of minimization methods based on a forward spike in the F-function is described.

  2. Minimally invasive treatment of infected pancreatic necrosis

    PubMed Central

    Cebulski, Włodzimierz; Słodkowski, Maciej; Krasnodębski, Ireneusz W.

    2014-01-01

    Infected pancreatic necrosis is a challenging complication that worsens prognosis in acute pancreatitis. For years, open necrosectomy has been the mainstay treatment option in infected pancreatic necrosis, although surgical debridement still results in high morbidity and mortality rates. Recently, many reports on minimally invasive treatment in infected pancreatic necrosis have been published. This paper presents a review of minimally invasive techniques and attempts to define their role in the management of infected pancreatic necrosis. PMID:25653725

  3. Mesonic spectroscopy of minimal walking technicolor

    SciTech Connect

    Del Debbio, Luigi; Lucini, Biagio; Patella, Agostino; Pica, Claudio; Rago, Antonio

    2010-07-01

    We investigate the structure and the novel emerging features of the mesonic nonsinglet spectrum of the minimal walking technicolor theory. Precision measurements in the nonsinglet pseudoscalar and vector channels are compared to the expectations for an IR-conformal field theory and a QCD-like theory. Our results favor a scenario in which minimal walking technicolor is (almost) conformal in the infrared, while spontaneous chiral symmetry breaking seems less plausible.

  4. Minimally invasive osteosynthesis technique for articular fractures.

    PubMed

    Beale, Brian S; Cole, Grayson

    2012-09-01

    Articular fractures require accurate reduction and rigid stabilization to decrease the chance of osteoarthritis and joint dysfunction. Articular fractures have been traditionally repaired by arthrotomy and internal fixation. Recently, minimally invasive techniques have been introduced to treat articular fractures, reducing patient morbidity and improving the accuracy of reduction. A variety of techniques, including distraction, radiographic imaging, and arthroscopy, are used with the minimally invasive osteosynthesis technique of articular fractures to achieve a successful repair and outcome.

  5. Alternating minimization and Boltzmann machine learning.

    PubMed

    Byrne, W

    1992-01-01

    Training a Boltzmann machine with hidden units is appropriately treated in information geometry using the information divergence and the technique of alternating minimization. The resulting algorithm is shown to be closely related to gradient descent Boltzmann machine learning rules, and the close relationship of both to the EM algorithm is described. An iterative proportional fitting procedure for training machines without hidden units is described and incorporated into the alternating minimization algorithm.

  6. Minimally Invasive Osteotomies of the Calcaneus.

    PubMed

    Guyton, Gregory P

    2016-09-01

    Osteotomies of the calcaneus are powerful surgical tools, representing a critical component of the surgical reconstruction of pes planus and pes cavus deformity. Modern minimally invasive calcaneal osteotomies can be performed safely with a burr through a lateral incision. Although greater kerf is generated with the burr, the effect is modest, can be minimized, and is compatible with many fixation techniques. A hinged jig renders the procedure more reproducible and accessible.

  7. Minimalism in Art, Medical Science and Neurosurgery.

    PubMed

    Ökten, Ali İhsan

    2016-12-21

    The word ''minimalism'' is a word derived from French the word ''minimum''. Whereas the lexical meaning of minimum is ''the least or the smallest quantity necessary for something'', its expression in mathematics can be described as ''the lowest step a variable number can descend, least, minimal''. Minimalism, which advocates an extreme simplicity of the artistic form, is a current in modern art and music whose origins go to 1960s and which features simplicity and objectivity. Although art, science and philosophy are different disciplines, they support each other from time to time, sometimes they intertwine and sometimes they copy each other. A periodic schools or teaching in one of them can take the others into itself, so, they proceed on their ways empowering each other. It is also true for the minimalism in art and the minimal invasive surgical approaches in science. Concepts like doing with less, avoiding unnecessary materials and reducing the number of the elements in order to increase the effect in the expression which are the main elements of the minimalism in art found their equivalents in medicine and neurosurgery. Their equivalents in medicine or neurosurgery have been to protect the physical integrity of the patient with less iatrogenic injury, minimum damage and the same therapeutic effect in the most effective way and to enable the patient to regain his health in the shortest span of time.

  8. Economic impact of minimally invasive lumbar surgery

    PubMed Central

    Hofstetter, Christoph P; Hofer, Anna S; Wang, Michael Y

    2015-01-01

    Cost effectiveness has been demonstrated for traditional lumbar discectomy, lumbar laminectomy as well as for instrumented and noninstrumented arthrodesis. While emerging evidence suggests that minimally invasive spine surgery reduces morbidity, duration of hospitalization, and accelerates return to activites of daily living, data regarding cost effectiveness of these novel techniques is limited. The current study analyzes all available data on minimally invasive techniques for lumbar discectomy, decompression, short-segment fusion and deformity surgery. In general, minimally invasive spine procedures appear to hold promise in quicker patient recovery times and earlier return to work. Thus, minimally invasive lumbar spine surgery appears to have the potential to be a cost-effective intervention. Moreover, novel less invasive procedures are less destabilizing and may therefore be utilized in certain indications that traditionally required arthrodesis procedures. However, there is a lack of studies analyzing the economic impact of minimally invasive spine surgery. Future studies are necessary to confirm the durability and further define indications for minimally invasive lumbar spine procedures. PMID:25793159

  9. Minimally Invasive Surgery in Gynecologic Oncology

    PubMed Central

    Mori, Kristina M.; Neubauer, Nikki L.

    2013-01-01

    Minimally invasive surgery has been utilized in the field of obstetrics and gynecology as far back as the 1940s when culdoscopy was first introduced as a visualization tool. Gynecologists then began to employ minimally invasive surgery for adhesiolysis and obtaining biopsies but then expanded its use to include procedures such as tubal sterilization (Clyman (1963), L. E. Smale and M. L. Smale (1973), Thompson and Wheeless (1971), Peterson and Behrman (1971)). With advances in instrumentation, the first laparoscopic hysterectomy was successfully performed in 1989 by Reich et al. At the same time, minimally invasive surgery in gynecologic oncology was being developed alongside its benign counterpart. In the 1975s, Rosenoff et al. reported using peritoneoscopy for pretreatment evaluation in ovarian cancer, and Spinelli et al. reported on using laparoscopy for the staging of ovarian cancer. In 1993, Nichols used operative laparoscopy to perform pelvic lymphadenectomy in cervical cancer patients. The initial goals of minimally invasive surgery, not dissimilar to those of modern medicine, were to decrease the morbidity and mortality associated with surgery and therefore improve patient outcomes and patient satisfaction. This review will summarize the history and use of minimally invasive surgery in gynecologic oncology and also highlight new minimally invasive surgical approaches currently in development. PMID:23997959

  10. Coal Combustion Products Extension Program

    SciTech Connect

    Tarunjit S. Butalia; William E. Wolfe

    2003-12-31

    The primary objective of the CCP Extension Program is to promote the responsible uses of Ohio CCPs that are technically sound, environmentally safe, and commercially competitive. A secondary objective is to assist other CCP generating states (particularly neighboring states) in establishing CCP use programs within their states. The goal of the CCP extension program at OSU is to work with CCP stakeholders to increase the overall CCP state utilization rate to more than 30% by the year 2005. The program aims to increase FGD utilization for Ohio to more than 20% by the year 2005. The increased utilization rates are expected to be achieved through increased use of CCPs for highway, mine reclamation, agricultural, manufacturing, and other civil engineering uses. In order to accomplish these objectives and goals, the highly successful CCP pilot extension program previously in place at the university has been expanded and adopted by the university as a part of its outreach and engagement mission. The extension program is an innovative technology transfer program with multiple sponsors. The program is a collaborative effort between The Ohio State University (College of Engineering and University Extension Service), United States Department of Energy's National Energy Technology Laboratory, Ohio Department of Development's Coal Development Office, and trade associations such as the American Coal Ash Association as well as the Midwest Coal Ash Association. Industry co-sponsors include American Electric Power, Dravo Lime Company, and ISG Resources. Implementation of the proposed project results in both direct and indirect as well as societal benefits. These benefits include (1) increased utilization of CCPs instead of landfilling, (2) development of proper construction and installation procedures, (3) education of regulators, specification-writers, designers, construction contractors, and the public, (4) emphasis on recycling and decrease in the need for landfill space, (5

  11. IRAF Multiple Extensions FITS (MEF) Files Interface

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Zarate, N.

    The Multiple Extension FITS (MEF) file interface is an IRAF library providing facilities for general file operations upon FITS multi-extension files. The MEF library has been used as the basis for a set of new IRAF tasks providing file level operations for multi-extension files. These operations include functions like listing extensions, extracting, inserting, or appending extensions, deleting extensions, and manipulating extension headers. MEF supports extensions of any type since it is a file level interface and does not attempt to interpret the contents of a particular extension type. Other IRAF interfaces such as IMIO (the FITS image kernel) and STSDAS TABLES are available for dealing with specific types of extensions such as the IMAGE extension or binary tables.

  12. Mass and mixing angle patterns in the Standard Model and its material Supersymmetric Extension

    SciTech Connect

    Ramond, P.

    1992-01-01

    Using renormalization group techniques, we examine several interesting relations among masses and mixing angles of quarks and lepton in the Standard Model of Elementary Particle Interactions as a functionof scale. We extend the analysis to the minimal Supersymmetric Extension to determine its effect on these mass relations. For a heavy to quark, and minimal supersymmetry, most of these relations, can be made to agree at one unification scale.

  13. The minimization of the extraneous electromagnetic fields of an inductive power transfer system

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    McLean, James; Sutton, Robert

    2013-04-01

    The efficiency of inductive wireless power transfer (IPT) systems has been extensively studied. However, the electromagnetic compatibility of such systems is at least as important as the efficiency and has received much less attention. We consider the net magnetic dipole moment of the system as a figure of merit. That is, we seek to minimize the magnitude of the net dipole moment in order to minimize both the near magnetic fields and the radiated power. A 20 kHz, 3.3 kW, IPT system, representative of typical wireless vehicular battery charging systems, is considered and it is seen that one particular value of load impedance minimizes the net dipole moment while another, distinct, value maximizes efficiency. Thus, efficiency must be traded off, at least to some extent, in order to minimize extraneous electromagnetic fields.

  14. [Application progress of minimally invasive technique in treatment of calcaneus fractures].

    PubMed

    Yu, Tao; Yang, Yunfeng; Yu, Guangrong

    2013-02-01

    To review the application progress of minimally invasive technique in the treatment of calcaneus fractures and to analyze the advantages and disadvantages of each method as well as to predict the trend of development in the field. Domestic and abroad literature concerning the minimally invasive technique applied in calcaneus fractures in recent years was reviewed extensively and analyzed thoroughly. There are both advantages and limitations of each minimally invasive technique including percutaneous reduction and fixation, limited incision, external fixator, arthroscopic assisted reduction, and balloon expansion reduction. But every technique is developing rapidly and becoming more and more effective. A variety of minimally invasive technique can not only be used independently but also can be applied jointly to complement one another. It needs further study how to improve the effectiveness and expand the indications. And the theoretical basis of evidence-based medicine needs to be provided more.

  15. Next step in minimally invasive surgery: hybrid image-guided surgery.

    PubMed

    Marescaux, Jacques; Diana, Michele

    2015-01-01

    Surgery, interventional radiology, and advanced endoscopy have all developed minimally invasive techniques to effectively treat a variety of diseases with positive impact on patients' postoperative outcomes. However, those techniques are challenging and require extensive training. Robotics and computer sciences can help facilitate minimally invasive approaches. Furthermore, surgery, advanced endoscopy, and interventional radiology could converge towards a new hybrid specialty, hybrid image-guided minimally invasive therapies, in which the three fundamental disciplines could complement one another to maximize the positive effects and reduce the iatrogenic footprint on patients. The present manuscript describes the fundamental steps of this new paradigm shift in surgical therapies that, in our opinion, will be the next revolutionary step in minimally invasive approaches.

  16. Sequential unconstrained minimization algorithms for constrained optimization

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Byrne, Charles

    2008-02-01

    The problem of minimizing a function f(x):RJ → R, subject to constraints on the vector variable x, occurs frequently in inverse problems. Even without constraints, finding a minimizer of f(x) may require iterative methods. We consider here a general class of iterative algorithms that find a solution to the constrained minimization problem as the limit of a sequence of vectors, each solving an unconstrained minimization problem. Our sequential unconstrained minimization algorithm (SUMMA) is an iterative procedure for constrained minimization. At the kth step we minimize the function G_k(x)=f(x)+g_k(x), to obtain xk. The auxiliary functions gk(x):D ⊆ RJ → R+ are nonnegative on the set D, each xk is assumed to lie within D, and the objective is to minimize the continuous function f:RJ → R over x in the set C=\\overline D , the closure of D. We assume that such minimizers exist, and denote one such by \\hat x . We assume that the functions gk(x) satisfy the inequalities 0\\leq g_k(x)\\leq G_{k-1}(x)-G_{k-1}(x^{k-1}), for k = 2, 3, .... Using this assumption, we show that the sequence {f(xk)} is decreasing and converges to f({\\hat x}) . If the restriction of f(x) to D has bounded level sets, which happens if \\hat x is unique and f(x) is closed, proper and convex, then the sequence {xk} is bounded, and f(x^*)=f({\\hat x}) , for any cluster point x*. Therefore, if \\hat x is unique, x^*={\\hat x} and \\{x^k\\}\\rightarrow {\\hat x} . When \\hat x is not unique, convergence can still be obtained, in particular cases. The SUMMA includes, as particular cases, the well-known barrier- and penalty-function methods, the simultaneous multiplicative algebraic reconstruction technique (SMART), the proximal minimization algorithm of Censor and Zenios, the entropic proximal methods of Teboulle, as well as certain cases of gradient descent and the Newton-Raphson method. The proof techniques used for SUMMA can be extended to obtain related results for the induced proximal

  17. Straightforward prescription for computing the interparticle potential energy related to D -dimensional electromagnetic models

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Accioly, Antonio; Helayël-Neto, José; Barone, F. E.; Barone, F. A.; Gaete, Patricio

    2014-11-01

    A simple expression for calculating the interparticle potential energy concerning D -dimensional electromagnetic models is obtained via Feynman path integral. This prescription converts the hard task of computing this potential into a trivial algebraic exercise. Since this method is equivalent to that based on the merging of quantum mechanics (to leading order, i.e., in the first Born approximation) with the nonrelativistic limit of quantum field theory, and keeping in mind that the latter relies basically on the computation of the nonrelativistic Feynman amplitude (MNR ), a trivial expression for calculating MNR is obtained from the alluded prescription as an added bonus. To test the efficacy and simplicity of the method, D -dimensional interparticle potential energy is found for a well-known extension of the standard model in which the massless electrodynamics U (1 )QED is coupled to a hidden sector U (1 )h , as well as Lee-Wick electrodynamics.

  18. Tests of local Lorentz invariance violation of gravity in the standard model extension with pulsars.

    PubMed

    Shao, Lijing

    2014-03-21

    The standard model extension is an effective field theory introducing all possible Lorentz-violating (LV) operators to the standard model and general relativity (GR). In the pure-gravity sector of minimal standard model extension, nine coefficients describe dominant observable deviations from GR. We systematically implemented 27 tests from 13 pulsar systems to tightly constrain eight linear combinations of these coefficients with extensive Monte Carlo simulations. It constitutes the first detailed and systematic test of the pure-gravity sector of minimal standard model extension with the state-of-the-art pulsar observations. No deviation from GR was detected. The limits of LV coefficients are expressed in the canonical Sun-centered celestial-equatorial frame for the convenience of further studies. They are all improved by significant factors of tens to hundreds with existing ones. As a consequence, Einstein's equivalence principle is verified substantially further by pulsar experiments in terms of local Lorentz invariance in gravity.

  19. Minimizing detection errors in single molecule localization microscopy.

    PubMed

    Křížek, Pavel; Raška, Ivan; Hagen, Guy M

    2011-02-14

    Fluorescence microscopy using single molecule imaging and localization (PALM, STORM, and similar approaches) has quickly been adopted as a convenient method for obtaining multicolor, 3D superresolution images of biological samples. Using an approach based on extensive Monte Carlo simulations, we examined the performance of various noise reducing filters required for the detection of candidate molecules. We determined a suitable noise reduction method and derived an optimal, nonlinear threshold which minimizes detection errors introduced by conventional algorithms. We also present a new technique for visualization of single molecule localization microscopy data based on adaptively jittered 2D histograms. We have used our new methods to image both Atto565-phalloidin labeled actin in fibroblast cells, and mCitrine-erbB3 expressed in A431 cells. The enhanced methods developed here were crucial in processing the data we obtained from these samples, as the overall signal to noise ratio was quite low.

  20. Classical kinematics for isotropic, minimal Lorentz-violating fermion operators

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Schreck, M.

    2015-05-01

    In this article a particular classical, relativistic Lagrangian based on the isotropic fermion sector of the Lorentz-violating (minimal) Standard Model extension is considered. The motion of the associated classical particle in an external electromagnetic field is studied, and the evolution of its spin, which is introduced by hand, is investigated. It is shown that the particle travels along trajectories that are scaled versions of the standard ones. Furthermore there is no spin precession due to Lorentz violation, but the rate is modified at which the longitudinal and transverse spin components transform into each other. This demonstrates that it is practical to consider classical physics within such an isotropic Lorentz-violating framework and it opens the pathway to study a curved background in that context.

  1. Unified minimal supersymmetric model with large Yukawa couplings

    SciTech Connect

    Rattazzi, R.; Sarid, U.

    1996-02-01

    The consequences of assuming the third-generation Yukawa couplings are all large and comparable are studied in the context of the minimal sypersymmetric extension of the standard model. General aspects of the RG evolution of the parameters, theoretical constraints needed to ensure proper electroweak symmetry breaking, and experimental and cosmological bounds on low-energy parameters are presented. We also present complete and exact semianalytic solutions to the one-loop RG equations. Focusing on SU(5) or SO(10) unification, we analyze the relationship between the top and bottom masses and the superspectrum, and the phenomenological implications of the GUT conditions on scalar masses. Future experimental measurements of the superspectrum and of the strong coupling will distinguish between various GUT-scale scenarios. And if present experimental knowledge is to be accounted for most naturally, a particular set of predictions is singled out. {copyright} {ital 1996 The American Physical Society.}

  2. Minimal seesaw model for atmospheric and solar neutrino oscillations

    SciTech Connect

    Ma, E.; Roy, D.P. |

    1999-05-01

    We present a minimal seesaw model based on an extension of the standard model (SM) which includes an additional U(1), with gauge charge B{minus} (3) /(2) (L{sub {mu}}+L{sub {tau}}). The requirement of anomaly cancellation implies the existence of two right-handed singlet neutrinos, carrying this gauge charge, which have normal Dirac couplings to {nu}{sub {mu}} and {nu}{sub {tau}} but suppressed ones to {nu}{sub e}. Assuming the U(1) symmetry breaking scale to be 10{sup 12}{minus}10{sup 16} GeV, this model can naturally account for the large (small) mixing solutions to the atmospheric (solar) neutrino oscillations. {copyright} {ital 1999} {ital The American Physical Society}

  3. General University Extension. Bulletin, 1926, No. 5

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Shelby, Thomas H.

    1926-01-01

    This report concerns itself with the growth and progress of "general" university extension for the biennial period 1922-1924. By general university extension is meant extension activities of universities and colleges in the fields not covered by agricultural and home economics extension under the Federal subsidy acts through the Federal land-grant…

  4. Spreading the Word about Extension's Public Value

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Kalambokidis, Laura

    2011-01-01

    In recent years, the idea that Extension can build support for its programs by highlighting how they benefit people who have no contact with the programs has taken root in the Extension system. Providing Extension program teams with resources, training, and leadership can lead to a body of public value messages that can infuse Extension's…

  5. 48 CFR 570.405 - Lease extensions.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-10-01

    ... 48 Federal Acquisition Regulations System 4 2010-10-01 2010-10-01 false Lease extensions. 570.405... Requirements 570.405 Lease extensions. (a) This section applies to extension of the term of a lease to provide for continued occupancy on a short-term basis. (b) If the value of a lease extension will exceed...

  6. 14 CFR § 1260.23 - Extensions.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-01-01

    ... Provisions § 1260.23 Extensions. Extensions October 2000 (a) It is NASA policy to provide maximum possible continuity in funding grant-supported research and educational activities, therefore, grants may be extended.... NASA generally only approves such extensions within funds already made available. Any extension...

  7. 14 CFR 1260.23 - Extensions.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-01-01

    ... Provisions § 1260.23 Extensions. Extensions October 2000 (a) It is NASA policy to provide maximum possible continuity in funding grant-supported research and educational activities, therefore, grants may be extended.... NASA generally only approves such extensions within funds already made available. Any extension...

  8. 14 CFR 1260.23 - Extensions.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-01-01

    ... Provisions § 1260.23 Extensions. Extensions October 2000 (a) It is NASA policy to provide maximum possible continuity in funding grant-supported research and educational activities, therefore, grants may be extended.... NASA generally only approves such extensions within funds already made available. Any extension...

  9. 14 CFR 1260.23 - Extensions.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-01-01

    ... Provisions § 1260.23 Extensions. Extensions October 2000 (a) It is NASA policy to provide maximum possible continuity in funding grant-supported research and educational activities, therefore, grants may be extended.... NASA generally only approves such extensions within funds already made available. Any extension...

  10. 14 CFR 1260.23 - Extensions.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-01-01

    ... Provisions § 1260.23 Extensions. Extensions October 2000 (a) It is NASA policy to provide maximum possible continuity in funding grant-supported research and educational activities, therefore, grants may be extended.... NASA generally only approves such extensions within funds already made available. Any extension...

  11. Coal Combustion Products Extension Program

    SciTech Connect

    Tarunjit S. Butalia; William E. Wolfe

    2006-01-11

    This final project report presents the activities and accomplishments of the ''Coal Combustion Products Extension Program'' conducted at The Ohio State University from August 1, 2000 to June 30, 2005 to advance the beneficial uses of coal combustion products (CCPs) in highway and construction, mine reclamation, agricultural, and manufacturing sectors. The objective of this technology transfer/research program at The Ohio State University was to promote the increased use of Ohio CCPs (fly ash, FGD material, bottom ash, and boiler slag) in applications that are technically sound, environmentally benign, and commercially competitive. The project objective was accomplished by housing the CCP Extension Program within The Ohio State University College of Engineering with support from the university Extension Service and The Ohio State University Research Foundation. Dr. Tarunjit S. Butalia, an internationally reputed CCP expert and registered professional engineer, was the program coordinator. The program coordinator acted as liaison among CCP stakeholders in the state, produced information sheets, provided expertise in the field to those who desired it, sponsored and co-sponsored seminars, meetings, and speaking at these events, and generally worked to promote knowledge about the productive and proper application of CCPs as useful raw materials. The major accomplishments of the program were: (1) Increase in FGD material utilization rate from 8% in 1997 to more than 20% in 2005, and an increase in overall CCP utilization rate of 21% in 1997 to just under 30% in 2005 for the State of Ohio. (2) Recognition as a ''voice of trust'' among Ohio and national CCP stakeholders (particularly regulatory agencies). (3) Establishment of a national and international reputation, especially for the use of FGD materials and fly ash in construction applications. It is recommended that to increase Ohio's CCP utilization rate from 30% in 2005 to 40% by 2010, the CCP Extension Program be

  12. Quantum Tunneling Time: Relativistic Extensions

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Xu, Dai-Yu; Wang, Towe; Xue, Xun

    2013-11-01

    Several years ago, in quantum mechanics, Davies proposed a method to calculate particle's traveling time with the phase difference of wave function. The method is convenient for calculating the sojourn time inside a potential step and the tunneling time through a potential hill. We extend Davies' non-relativistic calculation to relativistic quantum mechanics, with and without particle-antiparticle creation, using Klein-Gordon equation and Dirac Equation, for different forms of energy-momentum relation. The extension is successful only when the particle and antiparticle creation/annihilation effect is negligible.

  13. Space Shuttle mission extension capability

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Fraser, W. M., Jr.

    1984-01-01

    Space Shuttle missions are currently limited to 11 days, primarily due to depletion of the power reactants (hydrogen and oxygen). A power system Mission Extension Kit (MEK) is described which could provide the capability to stay on orbit 10 additional days. These extra days would benefit Space Station construction and missions such as materials processing, earth and celestial observation, and life science studies (Spacelab). Other constraints to longer missions which may dictate minor Orbiter modifications will be discussed. The power system MEK is particularly desirable because of its existing flight qualified hardware which can be delivered within 3 to 4 years.

  14. Minimally invasive procedures on the lumbar spine

    PubMed Central

    Skovrlj, Branko; Gilligan, Jeffrey; Cutler, Holt S; Qureshi, Sheeraz A

    2015-01-01

    Degenerative disease of the lumbar spine is a common and increasingly prevalent condition that is often implicated as the primary reason for chronic low back pain and the leading cause of disability in the western world. Surgical management of lumbar degenerative disease has historically been approached by way of open surgical procedures aimed at decompressing and/or stabilizing the lumbar spine. Advances in technology and surgical instrumentation have led to minimally invasive surgical techniques being developed and increasingly used in the treatment of lumbar degenerative disease. Compared to the traditional open spine surgery, minimally invasive techniques require smaller incisions and decrease approach-related morbidity by avoiding muscle crush injury by self-retaining retractors, preventing the disruption of tendon attachment sites of important muscles at the spinous processes, using known anatomic neurovascular and muscle planes, and minimizing collateral soft-tissue injury by limiting the width of the surgical corridor. The theoretical benefits of minimally invasive surgery over traditional open surgery include reduced blood loss, decreased postoperative pain and narcotics use, shorter hospital length of stay, faster recover and quicker return to work and normal activity. This paper describes the different minimally invasive techniques that are currently available for the treatment of degenerative disease of the lumbar spine. PMID:25610845

  15. Exploration, novelty, surprise, and free energy minimization.

    PubMed

    Schwartenbeck, Philipp; Fitzgerald, Thomas; Dolan, Raymond J; Friston, Karl

    2013-01-01

    This paper reviews recent developments under the free energy principle that introduce a normative perspective on classical economic (utilitarian) decision-making based on (active) Bayesian inference. It has been suggested that the free energy principle precludes novelty and complexity, because it assumes that biological systems-like ourselves-try to minimize the long-term average of surprise to maintain their homeostasis. However, recent formulations show that minimizing surprise leads naturally to concepts such as exploration and novelty bonuses. In this approach, agents infer a policy that minimizes surprise by minimizing the difference (or relative entropy) between likely and desired outcomes, which involves both pursuing the goal-state that has the highest expected utility (often termed "exploitation") and visiting a number of different goal-states ("exploration"). Crucially, the opportunity to visit new states increases the value of the current state. Casting decision-making problems within a variational framework, therefore, predicts that our behavior is governed by both the entropy and expected utility of future states. This dissolves any dialectic between minimizing surprise and exploration or novelty seeking.

  16. Blackfolds, plane waves and minimal surfaces

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Armas, Jay; Blau, Matthias

    2015-07-01

    Minimal surfaces in Euclidean space provide examples of possible non-compact horizon geometries and topologies in asymptotically flat space-time. On the other hand, the existence of limiting surfaces in the space-time provides a simple mechanism for making these configurations compact. Limiting surfaces appear naturally in a given space-time by making minimal surfaces rotate but they are also inherent to plane wave or de Sitter space-times in which case minimal surfaces can be static and compact. We use the blackfold approach in order to scan for possible black hole horizon geometries and topologies in asymptotically flat, plane wave and de Sitter space-times. In the process we uncover several new configurations, such as black helicoids and catenoids, some of which have an asymptotically flat counterpart. In particular, we find that the ultraspinning regime of singly-spinning Myers-Perry black holes, described in terms of the simplest minimal surface (the plane), can be obtained as a limit of a black helicoid, suggesting that these two families of black holes are connected. We also show that minimal surfaces embedded in spheres rather than Euclidean space can be used to construct static compact horizons in asymptotically de Sitter space-times.

  17. Baryogenesis and dark matter in U(1) extensions

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Feng, Wan-Zhe; Nath, Pran

    2017-05-01

    A brief review is given of some recent works where baryogenesis and dark matter have a common origin within the U(1) extensions of the Standard Model (SM) and of the minimal supersymmetric Standard Model (MSSM). The models considered generate the desired baryon asymmetry and the dark matter to baryon ratio. In one model, all of the fundamental interactions do not violate lepton number, and the total B - L in the Universe vanishes. In addition, one may also generate a normal hierarchy of neutrino masses and mixings in conformity with the current data. Specifically, one can accommodate 𝜃13 ˜ 9∘ consistent with the data from Daya Bay reactor neutrino experiment.

  18. Bounds for lighter Higgses in extensions of the Standard Model

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Deandrea, Aldo

    2017-07-01

    Higgs bosons lighter than the 125 GeV one can be present in extensions of the Standard Model and exclusion or discovery of such a possibility allows to improve our knowledge of the Higgs sector. I consider Two Higgs Doublet Models, which are the minimal scalar structure of a large number of models, in order to explore the possibility of constraining a neutral scalar particle lighter than the 125 GeV Higgs boson. Such a lighter particle is not yet completely excluded by present data. I show that some new constraints can be obtained at the LHC for these light particles.

  19. Restoration of extensive erosion areas using an indirect composite technique.

    PubMed

    Knight, J S; Sneed, W D

    2000-01-01

    Cervical erosion defects, particularly those of extensive size that are located in an area where control of the operative field is difficult, can present a significant restorative challenge. This article describes an indirect restorative technique to solve this problem. Following tooth preparation, an indirect restoration is luted to the tooth and the margins are finished and polished. Using an indirect technique minimizes operative field isolation time and the total chairside time required to restore the tooth. Clinical cases are presented to illustrate this technique.

  20. A study of MAPSE extensions

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Auty, David; Charette, Robert; Mckay, Charles W.

    1986-01-01

    The technical issues of extending the Minimal Ada Programming Support Environment (MAPSE) to support the life cycle of large, complex distributed systems such as the Space Station Program (SSP) are studied. The work has been divided into two phases, Phase one, covered herein, identifies a list of advanced technical tools needed to extend the MAPSE to meet the needs believed to be inherent in the Software Support Environment (SSE). The description of SSE requirements are given, and a list of the tools are identified. An outline is also given of the principle requirements for a MAPSE, along with a description of the life cycle model and a description of the tools in the context of the life cycle model.

  1. JESS: Java extensible snakes system

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    McInerney, Tim; Akhavan Sharif, M. Reza; Pashotanizadeh, Nasrin

    2005-04-01

    Snakes (Active Contour Models) are powerful model-based image segmentation tools. Although researchers have proven them especially useful in medical image analysis over the past decade, Snakes have remained primarily in the academic world and they have not become widely used in clinical practice or widely available in commercial packages. A number of confusing and specialized variants exist and there has been no standard open-source implementation available. To address this problem, we present a Java Extensible Snakes System (JESS) that is general, portable, and extensible. The system uses Java Swing classes to allow for the rapid development of custom graphical user interfaces (GUI's). It also incorporates the Java Advanced Imaging(JAI) class library, which provide custom image preprocessing, image display and general image I/O. The Snakes algorithm itself is written in a hierarchical fashion, consisting of a general Snake class and several subclasses that span the main variants of Snakes including a new, powerful, robust subdivision-curve Snake. These subclasses can be easily and quickly extended and customized for any specific segmentation and analysis task. We demonstrate the utility of these classes for segmenting various anatomical structures from 2D medical images. We also demonstrate the effectiveness of JESS by using it to rapidly build a prototype semi-automatic sperm analysis system. The JESS software will be made publicly available in early 2005.

  2. Preschoolers' extension of familiar adjectives.

    PubMed

    Graham, Susan A; Cameron, Christopher L; Welder, Andrea N

    2005-07-01

    In two experiments, we examined the role of labels in guiding preschoolers' extension of three types of familiar adjectives: emotional state adjectives, physiological state adjectives, and trait adjectives. On each trial, we labeled a target animal with one of the three different types of adjectives and asked whether these terms could apply to a subordinate-level match, a basic-level match, a superordinate-level match, or an inanimate object. In Experiment 1, participants extended trait adjectives, but not emotional or physiological adjectives, to members of the same basic-level category, regardless of whether an explicit basic-level label was provided for the target animal. Similarly, children in Experiment 2 also extended trait adjectives to the members of the same basic-level category, even when explicit superordinate- and subordinate-level labels were provided for the target animals. Together, these results demonstrate that children appreciate that emotional and physiological adjectives cannot be generalized to the same extent as can trait adjectives, and the results document the privileged status of basic-level categories in preschoolers' extension of trait adjectives.

  3. Primary extensive spinal subarachnoid cysticercosis.

    PubMed

    Shin, Sang-Ha; Hwang, Byeong-Wook; Lee, Sang-Jin; Lee, Sang-Ho

    2012-09-01

    A case report. To describe a patient with a primary extensive spinal subarachnoid cysticercosis that was successfully treated with a combination of surgical removal and albendazole. Neurocysticercosis (NCC) is the most common parasitic infection of the central nervous system. It is mostly intracranial, but primary cysticercosis, although rare, can occur in the spinal canal. Neurological morbidity can occur if NCC is not properly treated; therefore, NCC should be considered as a lesion of primary nerve compression, which occurs within spinal canal as well as cranial cavity. A 48-year-old male patient presented with an 18-month history of progressive lower limb weakness and urinary incontinence. Contrast-enhanced lumbar magnetic resonance image showed multiple intradural and extramedullary masses and cysts from T12 to S1. A cervicothoracic magnetic resonance image revealed whole cervical and upper thoracic involvement. The patient was treated with a combination of surgical removal and orally administered albendazole. A histopathological examination confirmed cysticercosis. After the treatment, cysticercosis had disappeared on follow-up. The patient's motor weakness in the lower limbs and urinary function were improved. Spinal subarachnoid cysticercosis can occur via direct hematogenous dissemination from a gastrointestinal tract. The primary spinal cysticercosis can be dropped distantly in the spinal cavity by cerebrospinal fluid circulation like intracranial cysticercosis, and extensive spinal subarachnoid cysticercosis can be successfully treated with a combination of surgical removal and cysticidal drugs.

  4. Power Extension Package (PEP) system definition extension, orbital service module systems analysis study. Volume 1: Executive summary

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    1979-01-01

    An array deployment assembly, power regulation and control assembly, the necessary interface, and display and control equipment comprise the power extension package (PEP) which is designed to provide increased power and duration, as well as reduce fuel cell cryogen consumption during Spacelab missions. Compatible with all currently defined missions and payloads, PEP imposes minimal weight and volume penalties on sortie missions, and can be installed and removed as needed at the launch site within the normal Orbiter turnaround cycle. The technology on which it is based consists of a modified solar electric propulsion array, standard design regulator and control equipment, and a minimally modified Orbiter design. The requirements from which PEP was derived, and the system and its performance capabilities are described. Features of the recommended project are presented.

  5. Photon beamline frontends for the PETRA III extension project

    SciTech Connect

    Schulte-Schrepping, H. Hesse, M.; Degenhardt, M.; Krüger, H.; Peters, R.; Peters, H. B.; Steffen, B.

    2016-07-27

    The photon beamline frontend design for the new insertion device (ID) beamlines of the PETRA III extension project will be presented. The design is based on the concepts developed for the photon beamline frontends at PETRA III. This generic design approach minimized the number of specialized components for all beamlines. The girder concept with kinematic mounts at each girder allowed a fast and reliable installation phase. The extension beamlines are located in two new additional buildings. There will be 4 sectors with two undulator IDs in each sector with a canting angle of 20 mrad between the insertion devices. Additionally, two straight sections and a bending magnet chamber will be modified: one straight section will be transformed to a side station sector, the straight section with the 40 m long damping wiggler will be used as a hard X-ray source, and the bending magnet will serve as a soft-X-ray source.

  6. Running non-minimal inflation with stabilized inflaton potential

    DOE PAGES

    Okada, Nobuchika; Raut, Digesh

    2017-04-18

    In the context of the Higgs model involving gauge and Yukawa interactions with the spontaneous gauge symmetry breaking, we consider λφ4 inflation with non- minimal gravitational coupling, where the Higgs field is identified as the inflaton. Since the inflaton quartic coupling is very small, once quantum corrections through the gauge and Yukawa interactions are taken into account, the inflaton effective potential most likely becomes unstable. Furthermore, in order to avoid this problem, we need to impose stability conditions on the effective inflaton potential, which lead to not only non-trivial relations amongst the particle mass spectrum of the model, but alsomore » correlations between the inflationary predictions and the mass spectrum. For reasons of concrete discussion, we investigate the minimal B - L extension of the standard model with identification of the B - L Higgs field as the inflaton. The stability conditions for the inflaton effective potential fix the mass ratio amongst the B - L gauge boson, the right-handed neutrinos and the inflaton. This mass ratio also correlates with the inflationary predictions. So, if the B - L gauge boson and the right-handed neutrinos are discovered in the future, their observed mass ratio provides constraints on the inflationary predictions.« less

  7. Minimizing embedding impact in steganography using trellis-coded quantization

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Filler, Tomáš; Judas, Jan; Fridrich, Jessica

    2010-01-01

    In this paper, we propose a practical approach to minimizing embedding impact in steganography based on syndrome coding and trellis-coded quantization and contrast its performance with bounds derived from appropriate rate-distortion bounds. We assume that each cover element can be assigned a positive scalar expressing the impact of making an embedding change at that element (single-letter distortion). The problem is to embed a given payload with minimal possible average embedding impact. This task, which can be viewed as a generalization of matrix embedding or writing on wet paper, has been approached using heuristic and suboptimal tools in the past. Here, we propose a fast and very versatile solution to this problem that can theoretically achieve performance arbitrarily close to the bound. It is based on syndrome coding using linear convolutional codes with the optimal binary quantizer implemented using the Viterbi algorithm run in the dual domain. The complexity and memory requirements of the embedding algorithm are linear w.r.t. the number of cover elements. For practitioners, we include detailed algorithms for finding good codes and their implementation. Finally, we report extensive experimental results for a large set of relative payloads and for different distortion profiles, including the wet paper channel.

  8. A minimal model for the structural energetics of VO2

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Kim, Chanul; Marianetti, Chris; The Marianetti Group Team

    Resolving the structural, magnetic, and electronic structure of VO2 from the first-principles of quantum mechanics is still a forefront problem despite decades of attention. Hybrid functionals have been shown to qualitatively ruin the structural energetics. While density functional theory (DFT) combined with cluster extensions of dynamical mean-field theory (DMFT) have demonstrated promising results in terms of the electronic properties, structural phase stability has not yet been addressed. In order to capture the basic physics of the structural transition, we propose a minimal model of VO2 based on the one dimensional Peierls-Hubbard model and parameterize this based on DFT calculations of VO2. The total energy versus dimerization in the minimal mode is then solved numerically exactly using density matrix renormalization group (DMRG) and compared to the Hartree-Fock solution. We demonstrate that the Hartree-Fock solution exhibits the same pathologies as DFT+U, and spin density functional theory for that matter, while the DMRG solution is consistent with experimental observation. Our results demonstrate the critical role of non-locality in the total energy, and this will need to be accounted for to obtain a complete description of VO2 from first-principles. The authors acknowledge support from FAME, one of six centers of STARnet, a Semiconductor Research Corporation program sponsored by MARCO and DARPA.

  9. Selecting a restoration technique to minimize OCR error.

    PubMed

    Cannon, M; Fugate, M; Hush, D R; Scovel, C

    2003-01-01

    This paper introduces a learning problem related to the task of converting printed documents to ASCII text files. The goal of the learning procedure is to produce a function that maps documents to restoration techniques in such a way that on average the restored documents have minimum optical character recognition error. We derive a general form for the optimal function and use it to motivate the development of a nonparametric method based on nearest neighbors. We also develop a direct method of solution based on empirical error minimization for which we prove a finite sample bound on estimation error that is independent of distribution. We show that this empirical error minimization problem is an extension of the empirical optimization problem for traditional M-class classification with general loss function and prove computational hardness for this problem. We then derive a simple iterative algorithm called generalized multiclass ratchet (GMR) and prove that it produces an optimal function asymptotically (with probability 1). To obtain the GMR algorithm we introduce a new data map that extends Kesler's construction for the multiclass problem and then apply an algorithm called Ratchet to this mapped data, where Ratchet is a modification of the Pocket algorithm . Finally, we apply these methods to a collection of documents and report on the experimental results.

  10. Open Repair of Pectus Excavatum With Minimal Cartilage Resection

    PubMed Central

    Fonkalsrud, Eric W.

    2004-01-01

    Objective: To summarize the clinical experience with a new open repair for pectus excavatum (PE), with minimal cartilage resection. Summary Background Data: A wide variety of modified techniques of the Ravitch repair for PE have been used over the past 5 decades, with the complications and results being inconsistent. Extensive subperiosteal costal cartilage resection and perichondrial sheath detachment from the sternum may not be necessary for optimal repair. Methods: During a 12-month period, 75 consecutive patients with symptomatic PE underwent open repair using a new less invasive technique. After exposing the deformed costal cartilages, a short chip was resected medially adjacent to the sternum and laterally at the level where the chest had a near normal contour, allowing the cartilage to be elevated to the desired level with minimal force. A transverse anterior sternal osteotomy was used on most patients. A substernal support strut was used for 66 patients; the strut was placed anterior to the sternum in 9 patients under age 12 and over age 40 years. The strut was routinely removed within 6 months. Results: With a mean follow-up of 8.2 months, all but 1 patient regarded the results as very good or excellent. Mean operating time was 174 minutes; mean hospitalization was 2.7 days. There were no major complications or deaths. Conclusions: The open repair using minimal cartilage resection is effective for all variations of PE in patients of all ages, uses short operating time, provides a stable early postoperative chest wall, causes only mild postoperative pain, and produces good physiologic and cosmetic results. PMID:15273545

  11. Scaphoid tuberosity excursion is minimized during a dart-throwing motion: A biomechanical study.

    PubMed

    Werner, Frederick W; Sutton, Levi G; Basu, Niladri; Short, Walter H; Moritomo, Hisao; St-Amand, Hugo

    2016-01-01

    The purpose of this study was to determine whether the excursion of the scaphoid tuberosity and therefore scaphoid motion is minimized during a dart-throwing motion. Scaphoid tuberosity excursion was studied as an indicator of scaphoid motion in 29 cadaver wrists as they were moved through wrist flexion-extension, radioulnar deviation, and a dart-throwing motion. Study results demonstrate that excursion was significantly less during the dart-throwing motion than during either wrist flexion-extension or radioulnar deviation. If the goal of early wrist motion after carpal ligament or distal radius injury and reconstruction is to minimize loading of the healing structures, a wrist motion in which scaphoid motion is minimal should reduce length changes in associated ligamentous structures. Therefore, during rehabilitation, if a patient uses a dart-throwing motion that minimizes his or her scaphoid tuberosity excursion, there should be minimal changes in ligament loading while still allowing wrist motion. Bench research, biomechanics, and cross-sectional. Not applicable. The study was laboratory based. Copyright © 2016 Hanley & Belfus. Published by Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  12. Minimally invasive optical biopsy for oximetry

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    van der Putten, Marieke A.; Brewer, James M.; Harvey, Andrew R.

    2017-02-01

    The study of localised oxygen saturation in blood vessels can shed light on the etiology and progression of many diseases with which hypoxia is associated. For example, hypoxia in the tendon has been linked to early stages of rheumatoid arthritis, an auto-immune inflammatory disease. Vascular oximetry of deep tissue presents significant challenges as vessels are not optically accessible. In this paper, we present a novel multispectral imaging technique for vascular oximetry, and recent developments made towards its adaptation for minimally invasive imaging. We present proof-of-concept of the system and illumination scheme as well as the analysis technique. We present results of a validation study performed in vivo on mice with acutely inflamed tendons. Adaptation of the technique for minimally invasive microendoscopy is also presented, along with preliminary results of minimally invasive ex vivo vascular oximetry.

  13. Minimal perceptrons for memorizing complex patterns

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Pastor, Marissa; Song, Juyong; Hoang, Danh-Tai; Jo, Junghyo

    2016-11-01

    Feedforward neural networks have been investigated to understand learning and memory, as well as applied to numerous practical problems in pattern classification. It is a rule of thumb that more complex tasks require larger networks. However, the design of optimal network architectures for specific tasks is still an unsolved fundamental problem. In this study, we consider three-layered neural networks for memorizing binary patterns. We developed a new complexity measure of binary patterns, and estimated the minimal network size for memorizing them as a function of their complexity. We formulated the minimal network size for regular, random, and complex patterns. In particular, the minimal size for complex patterns, which are neither ordered nor disordered, was predicted by measuring their Hamming distances from known ordered patterns. Our predictions agree with simulations based on the back-propagation algorithm.

  14. Minimal Length Scale Scenarios for Quantum Gravity.

    PubMed

    Hossenfelder, Sabine

    2013-01-01

    We review the question of whether the fundamental laws of nature limit our ability to probe arbitrarily short distances. First, we examine what insights can be gained from thought experiments for probes of shortest distances, and summarize what can be learned from different approaches to a theory of quantum gravity. Then we discuss some models that have been developed to implement a minimal length scale in quantum mechanics and quantum field theory. These models have entered the literature as the generalized uncertainty principle or the modified dispersion relation, and have allowed the study of the effects of a minimal length scale in quantum mechanics, quantum electrodynamics, thermodynamics, black-hole physics and cosmology. Finally, we touch upon the question of ways to circumvent the manifestation of a minimal length scale in short-distance physics.

  15. Minimally invasive neurosurgery for cerebrospinal fluid disorders.

    PubMed

    Guillaume, Daniel J

    2010-10-01

    This article focuses on minimally invasive approaches used to address disorders of cerebrospinal fluid (CSF) circulation. The author covers the primary CSF disorders that are amenable to minimally invasive treatment, including aqueductal stenosis, fourth ventricular outlet obstruction (including Chiari malformation), isolated lateral ventricle, isolated fourth ventricle, multiloculated hydrocephalus, arachnoid cysts, and tumors that block CSF flow. General approaches to evaluating disorders of CSF circulation, including detailed imaging studies, are discussed. Approaches to minimally invasive management of such disorders are described in general, and for each specific entity. For each procedure, indications, surgical technique, and known outcomes are detailed. Specific complications as well as strategies for their avoidance and management are addressed. Lastly, future directions and the need for structured outcome studies are discussed.

  16. Genetic Research on Biospecimens Poses Minimal Risk

    PubMed Central

    Wendler, David S.; Rid, Annette

    2014-01-01

    Genetic research on human biospecimens is increasingly common. Yet, debate continues over the level of risk that this research poses to sample donors. Some argue that genetic research on biospecimens poses minimal risk; others argue that it poses greater than minimal risk and therefore needs additional requirements and limitations. This debate raises concern that some donors are not receiving appropriate protection or, conversely, that valuable research is being subject to unnecessary requirements and limitations. The present paper attempts to address this concern using the widely-endorsed ‘risks of daily life’ standard. The three extant versions of this standard all suggest that, with proper measures in place to protect donor confidentiality, most genetic research on human biospecimens poses minimal risk to donors. PMID:25530152

  17. Approximate error conjugation gradient minimization methods

    DOEpatents

    Kallman, Jeffrey S

    2013-05-21

    In one embodiment, a method includes selecting a subset of rays from a set of all rays to use in an error calculation for a constrained conjugate gradient minimization problem, calculating an approximate error using the subset of rays, and calculating a minimum in a conjugate gradient direction based on the approximate error. In another embodiment, a system includes a processor for executing logic, logic for selecting a subset of rays from a set of all rays to use in an error calculation for a constrained conjugate gradient minimization problem, logic for calculating an approximate error using the subset of rays, and logic for calculating a minimum in a conjugate gradient direction based on the approximate error. In other embodiments, computer program products, methods, and systems are described capable of using approximate error in constrained conjugate gradient minimization problems.

  18. PRIME: Phase Retrieval via Majorization-Minimization

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Qiu, Tianyu; Babu, Prabhu; Palomar, Daniel P.

    2016-10-01

    This paper considers the phase retrieval problem in which measurements consist of only the magnitude of several linear measurements of the unknown, e.g., spectral components of a time sequence. We develop low-complexity algorithms with superior performance based on the majorization-minimization (MM) framework. The proposed algorithms are referred to as PRIME: Phase Retrieval vIa the Majorization-minimization techniquE. They are preferred to existing benchmark methods since at each iteration a simple surrogate problem is solved with a closed-form solution that monotonically decreases the original objective function. In total, four algorithms are proposed using different majorization-minimization techniques. Experimental results validate that our algorithms outperform existing methods in terms of successful recovery and mean square error under various settings.

  19. Responsible gambling: general principles and minimal requirements.

    PubMed

    Blaszczynski, Alex; Collins, Peter; Fong, Davis; Ladouceur, Robert; Nower, Lia; Shaffer, Howard J; Tavares, Hermano; Venisse, Jean-Luc

    2011-12-01

    Many international jurisdictions have introduced responsible gambling programs. These programs intend to minimize negative consequences of excessive gambling, but vary considerably in their aims, focus, and content. Many responsible gambling programs lack a conceptual framework and, in the absence of empirical data, their components are based only on general considerations and impressions. This paper outlines the consensus viewpoint of an international group of researchers suggesting fundamental responsible gambling principles, roles of key stakeholders, and minimal requirements that stakeholders can use to frame and inform responsible gambling programs across jurisdictions. Such a framework does not purport to offer value statements regarding the legal status of gambling or its expansion. Rather, it proposes gambling-related initiatives aimed at government, industry, and individuals to promote responsible gambling and consumer protection. This paper argues that there is a set of basic principles and minimal requirements that should form the basis for every responsible gambling program.

  20. On Equilibria for ADM Minimization Games

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Epstein, Leah; Levin, Asaf

    In the ADM minimization problem, the input is a set of arcs along a directed ring. The input arcs need to be partitioned into non-overlapping chains and cycles so as to minimize the total number of endpoints, where a k-arc cycle contributes k endpoints and a k-arc chain contains k + 1 endpoints. We study ADM minimization problem both as a non-cooperative and a cooperative games. In these games, each arc corresponds to a player, and the players share the cost of the ADM switches. We consider two cost allocation models, a model which was considered by Flammini et al., and a new cost allocation model, which is inspired by congestion games. We compare the price of anarchy and price of stability in the two cost allocation models, as well as the strong price of anarchy and the strong price of stability.

  1. Waste Minimization Measurement and Progress Reporting

    SciTech Connect

    Stone, K.A.

    1995-02-13

    Westinghouse Savannah River Company is implementing productivity improvement concepts into the Waste Minimization Program by focusing on the positive initiatives taken to reduce waste generation at the Savannah River Site. Previous performance measures, based only on waste generation rates, proved to be an ineffective metric for measuring performance and promoting continuous improvements within the Program. Impacts of mission changes and non-routine operations impeded development of baseline waste generation rates and often negated waste generation trending reports. A system was developed to quantify, document and track innovative activities that impact waste volume and radioactivity/toxicity reductions. This system coupled with Management-driven waste disposal avoidance goals is proving to be a powerful tool to promote waste minimization awareness and the implementation of waste reduction initiatives. Measurement of waste not generated, in addition to waste generated, increases the credibility of the Waste Minimization Program, improves sharing of success stories, and supports development of regulatory and management reports

  2. One-dimensional Gromov minimal filling problem

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Ivanov, Alexandr O.; Tuzhilin, Alexey A.

    2012-05-01

    The paper is devoted to a new branch in the theory of one-dimensional variational problems with branching extremals, the investigation of one-dimensional minimal fillings introduced by the authors. On the one hand, this problem is a one-dimensional version of a generalization of Gromov's minimal fillings problem to the case of stratified manifolds. On the other hand, this problem is interesting in itself and also can be considered as a generalization of another classical problem, the Steiner problem on the construction of a shortest network connecting a given set of terminals. Besides the statement of the problem, we discuss several properties of the minimal fillings and state several conjectures. Bibliography: 38 titles.

  3. Advanced pyrochemical technologies for minimizing nuclear waste

    SciTech Connect

    Bronson, M.C.; Dodson, K.E.; Riley, D.C.

    1994-12-31

    The US Department of Energy (DOE) is seeking to reduce the size of the current nuclear weapons complex and consequently minimize operating costs. To meet this DOE objective, the national laboratories have been asked to develop advanced technologies that take uranium and plutonium from retired weapons and prepare it for new weapons, long-term storage, and/or final disposition. Current pyrochemical processes generate residue salts and ceramic wastes that require aqueous processing to remove and recover the actinides. However, the aqueous treatment of these residues generates an estimated 100 l of acidic transuranic (TRU) waste per kilogram of plutonium in the residue. Lawrence Livermore National Laboratory (LLNL) is developing pyrochemical techniques to eliminate, minimize, or more efficiently treat these residue streams. This paper presents technologies being developed at LLNL on advanced materials for actinide containment, reactors that minimize residues, and pyrochemical processes that remove actinides from waste salts.

  4. Minimally invasive surgical techniques in periodontal regeneration.

    PubMed

    Cortellini, Pierpaolo

    2012-09-01

    A review of the current scientific literature was undertaken to evaluate the efficacy of minimally invasive periodontal regenerative surgery in the treatment of periodontal defects. The impact on clinical outcomes, surgical chair-time, side effects and patient morbidity were evaluated. An electronic search of PUBMED database from January 1987 to December 2011 was undertaken on dental journals using the key-word "minimally invasive surgery". Cohort studies, retrospective studies and randomized controlled clinical trials referring to treatment of periodontal defects with at least 6 months of follow-up were selected. Quality assessment of the selected studies was done through the Strength of Recommendation Taxonomy Grading (SORT) System. Ten studies (1 retrospective, 5 cohorts and 4 RCTs) were included. All the studies consistently support the efficacy of minimally invasive surgery in the treatment of periodontal defects in terms of clinical attachment level gain, probing pocket depth reduction and minimal gingival recession. Six studies reporting on side effects and patient morbidity consistently indicate very low levels of pain and discomfort during and after surgery resulting in a reduced intake of pain-killers and very limited interference with daily activities in the post-operative period. Minimally invasive surgery might be considered a true reality in the field of periodontal regeneration. The observed clinical improvements are consistently associated with very limited morbidity to the patient during the surgical procedure as well as in the post-operative period. Minimally invasive surgery, however, cannot be applied at all cases. A stepwise decisional algorithm should support clinicians in choosing the treatment approach.

  5. The inclusion of two-loop SUSYQCD corrections to gluino and squark pole masses in the minimal and next-to-minimal supersymmetric standard model: SOFTSUSY3.7

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Allanach, B. C.; Martin, Stephen P.; Robertson, David G.; Ruiz de Austri, Roberto

    2017-10-01

    We describe an extension of the SOFTSUSY spectrum calculator to include two-loop supersymmetric QCD (SUSYQCD) corrections of order O(αs2) to gluino and squark pole masses, either in the minimal supersymmetric standard model (MSSM) or the next-to-minimal supersymmetric standard model (NMSSM). This document provides an overview of the program and acts as a manual for the new version of SOFTSUSY, which includes the increase in accuracy in squark and gluino pole mass predictions.

  6. Minimizing radiation damage in nonlinear optical crystals

    DOEpatents

    Cooke, D.W.; Bennett, B.L.; Cockroft, N.J.

    1998-09-08

    Methods are disclosed for minimizing laser induced damage to nonlinear crystals, such as KTP crystals, involving various means for electrically grounding the crystals in order to diffuse electrical discharges within the crystals caused by the incident laser beam. In certain embodiments, electrically conductive material is deposited onto or into surfaces of the nonlinear crystals and the electrically conductive surfaces are connected to an electrical ground. To minimize electrical discharges on crystal surfaces that are not covered by the grounded electrically conductive material, a vacuum may be created around the nonlinear crystal. 5 figs.

  7. Minimizing radiation damage in nonlinear optical crystals

    DOEpatents

    Cooke, D. Wayne; Bennett, Bryan L.; Cockroft, Nigel J.

    1998-01-01

    Methods are disclosed for minimizing laser induced damage to nonlinear crystals, such as KTP crystals, involving various means for electrically grounding the crystals in order to diffuse electrical discharges within the crystals caused by the incident laser beam. In certain embodiments, electrically conductive material is deposited onto or into surfaces of the nonlinear crystals and the electrically conductive surfaces are connected to an electrical ground. To minimize electrical discharges on crystal surfaces that are not covered by the grounded electrically conductive material, a vacuum may be created around the nonlinear crystal.

  8. Reversible Rings with Involutions and Some Minimalities

    PubMed Central

    Fakieh, W. M.; Nauman, S. K.

    2013-01-01

    In continuation of the recent developments on extended reversibilities on rings, we initiate here a study on reversible rings with involutions, or, in short, ∗-reversible rings. These rings are symmetric, reversible, reflexive, and semicommutative. In this note we will study some properties and examples of ∗-reversible rings. It is proved here that the polynomial rings of ∗-reversible rings may not be ∗-reversible. A criterion for rings which cannot adhere to any involution is developed and it is observed that a minimal noninvolutary ring is of order 4 and that a minimal noncommutative ∗-reversible ring is of order 16. PMID:24489510

  9. Linearized non-minimal higher curvature supergravity

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Farakos, Fotis; Kehagias, Alex; Koutrolikos, Konstantinos

    2015-05-01

    In the framework of linearized non-minimal supergravity (20/20), we present the embedding of the R +R2 model and we analyze its field spectrum. As usual, the auxiliary fields of the Einstein theory now become propagating, giving rise to additional degrees of freedom, which organize themselves into on-shell irreducible supermultiplets. By performing the analysis both in component and superspace formulations we identify the new supermultiplets. On top of the two massive chiral superfields reminiscent of the old-minimal supergravity embedding, the spectrum contains also a consistent physical, massive, vector supermultiplet and a tachyonic ghost, massive, vector supermultiplet.

  10. Pattern Search Methods for Linearly Constrained Minimization

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Lewis, Robert Michael; Torczon, Virginia

    1998-01-01

    We extend pattern search methods to linearly constrained minimization. We develop a general class of feasible point pattern search algorithms and prove global convergence to a Karush-Kuhn-Tucker point. As in the case of unconstrained minimization, pattern search methods for linearly constrained problems accomplish this without explicit recourse to the gradient or the directional derivative. Key to the analysis of the algorithms is the way in which the local search patterns conform to the geometry of the boundary of the feasible region.

  11. Minimally invasive treatments for venous compression syndromes

    PubMed Central

    Hulsberg, Paul C.; McLoney, Eric; Partovi, Sasan; Davidson, Jon C.

    2016-01-01

    The management of venous compression syndromes has historically been reliant on surgical treatment when conservative measures fail. There are, however, several settings in which endovascular therapy can play a significant role as an adjunct or even a replacement to more invasive surgical methods. We explore the role of minimally invasive treatment options for three of the most well-studied venous compression syndromes. The clinical aspects and pathophysiology of Paget-Schroetter syndrome (PSS), nutcracker syndrome, and May-Thurner syndrome are discussed in detail, with particular emphasis on the role that interventionalists can play in minimally invasive treatment. PMID:28123978

  12. Minimal String Theory and the Douglas Equation

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Belavin, A. A.; Belavin, V. A.

    We use the connection between the Frobenius manifold and the Douglas string equation to further investigate Minimal Liouville gravity. We search for a solution of the Douglas string equation and simultaneously a proper transformation from the KdV to the Liouville frame which ensures the fulfilment of the conformal and fusion selection rules. We find that the desired solution of the string equation has an explicit and simple form in the flat coordinates on the Frobenius manifold in the general case of (p,q) Minimal Liouville gravity.

  13. MINIMAL IMMERSIONS OF SPHERES INTO SPHERES

    PubMed Central

    Do Carmo, Manfredo P.; Wallach, Nolan R.

    1969-01-01

    In this paper we announce a qualitative description of an important class of closed n-dimensional submanifolds of the m-dimensional sphere, namely, those which locally minimize the n-area in the same way that geodesics minimize the arc length and are themselves locally n-spheres of constant radius r; those r that may appear are called admissible. It is known that for n = 2 each admissible r determines a unique element of the above class. The main result here is that for each n ≥ 3 and each admissible r ≥ [unk]8 there exists a continuum of distinct such submanifolds. PMID:16591771

  14. The Parisi Formula has a Unique Minimizer

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Auffinger, Antonio; Chen, Wei-Kuo

    2015-05-01

    In 1979, Parisi (Phys Rev Lett 43:1754-1756, 1979) predicted a variational formula for the thermodynamic limit of the free energy in the Sherrington-Kirkpatrick model, and described the role played by its minimizer. This formula was verified in the seminal work of Talagrand (Ann Math 163(1):221-263, 2006) and later generalized to the mixed p-spin models by Panchenko (Ann Probab 42(3):946-958, 2014). In this paper, we prove that the minimizer in Parisi's formula is unique at any temperature and external field by establishing the strict convexity of the Parisi functional.

  15. Minimally Invasive Treatment of Spine Trauma.

    PubMed

    McGowan, Jason E; Ricks, Christian B; Kanter, Adam S

    2017-01-01

    The role for minimally invasive surgery (MIS) continues to expand in the management of spinal pathology. In the setting of trauma, operative techniques that can minimize morbidity without compromising clinical efficacy have significant value. MIS techniques are associated with decreased intraoperative blood loss, operative time, and morbidity, while providing patients with comparable outcomes when compared with conventional open procedures. MIS interventions further enable earlier mobilization, decreased hospital stay, decreased pain, and an earlier return to baseline function when compared with traditional techniques. This article reviews patient selection and select MIS techniques for those who have suffered traumatic spinal injury.

  16. Instabilities and Solitons in Minimal Strips

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Machon, Thomas; Alexander, Gareth P.; Goldstein, Raymond E.; Pesci, Adriana I.

    2016-07-01

    We show that highly twisted minimal strips can undergo a nonsingular transition, unlike the singular transitions seen in the Möbius strip and the catenoid. If the strip is nonorientable, this transition is topologically frustrated, and the resulting surface contains a helicoidal defect. Through a controlled analytic approximation, the system can be mapped onto a scalar ϕ4 theory on a nonorientable line bundle over the circle, where the defect becomes a topologically protected kink soliton or domain wall, thus establishing their existence in minimal surfaces. Demonstrations with soap films confirm these results and show how the position of the defect can be controlled through boundary deformation.

  17. Minimally invasive treatments for perforator vein insufficiency.

    PubMed

    Kuyumcu, Gokhan; Salazar, Gloria Maria; Prabhakar, Anand M; Ganguli, Suvranu

    2016-12-01

    Incompetent superficial veins are the most common cause of lower extremity superficial venous reflux and varicose veins; however, incompetent or insufficient perforator veins are the most common cause of recurrent varicose veins after treatment, often unrecognized. Perforator vein insufficiency can result in pain, skin changes, and skin ulcers, and often merit intervention. Minimally invasive treatments have replaced traditional surgical treatments for incompetent perforator veins. Current minimally invasive treatment options include ultrasound guided sclerotherapy (USGS) and endovascular thermal ablation (EVTA) with either laser or radiofrequency energy sources. Advantages and disadvantages of each modality and knowledge on these treatments are required to adequately address perforator venous disease.

  18. Design of batch minimal bromate oscillator

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Li, Jun; Wang, Jichang

    2011-05-01

    A new type of minimal bromate oscillator that could exhibit spontaneous oscillations in a closed system was developed in this research. The newly developed oscillator contains a reagent benzoquinone, which does not react with metal catalyst ferroin/ferriin, but modulates the evolution of bromide ions. Since the role of the organic substrate is only the bromine removal, we define this system as a batch minimal bromate oscillator. The bromination of benzoquinone was confirmed with NMR and mass spectrometry measurements. Experiments showed that transient oscillations emerged in a closed reactor when benzoquinone concentration was above a threshold level.

  19. Instabilities and Solitons in Minimal Strips.

    PubMed

    Machon, Thomas; Alexander, Gareth P; Goldstein, Raymond E; Pesci, Adriana I

    2016-07-01

    We show that highly twisted minimal strips can undergo a nonsingular transition, unlike the singular transitions seen in the Möbius strip and the catenoid. If the strip is nonorientable, this transition is topologically frustrated, and the resulting surface contains a helicoidal defect. Through a controlled analytic approximation, the system can be mapped onto a scalar ϕ^{4} theory on a nonorientable line bundle over the circle, where the defect becomes a topologically protected kink soliton or domain wall, thus establishing their existence in minimal surfaces. Demonstrations with soap films confirm these results and show how the position of the defect can be controlled through boundary deformation.

  20. Minimally invasive treatments for perforator vein insufficiency

    PubMed Central

    Salazar, Gloria Maria; Prabhakar, Anand M.; Ganguli, Suvranu

    2016-01-01

    Incompetent superficial veins are the most common cause of lower extremity superficial venous reflux and varicose veins; however, incompetent or insufficient perforator veins are the most common cause of recurrent varicose veins after treatment, often unrecognized. Perforator vein insufficiency can result in pain, skin changes, and skin ulcers, and often merit intervention. Minimally invasive treatments have replaced traditional surgical treatments for incompetent perforator veins. Current minimally invasive treatment options include ultrasound guided sclerotherapy (USGS) and endovascular thermal ablation (EVTA) with either laser or radiofrequency energy sources. Advantages and disadvantages of each modality and knowledge on these treatments are required to adequately address perforator venous disease. PMID:28123979

  1. Minimally invasive plate osteosynthesis: tibia and fibula.

    PubMed

    Beale, Brian S; McCally, Ryan

    2012-09-01

    Fractures of the tibia and fibula are common in dogs and cats and occur most commonly as a result of substantial trauma. Tibial fractures are often amenable to repair using the minimally invasive plate osteosynthesis (MIPO) technique because of the minimal soft tissue covering of the tibia and relative ease of indirect reduction and application of the implant system on the tibia. Treatment of tibial fractures by MIPO has been found to reduce surgical time, reduce the time for fracture healing, and decrease patient morbidity, while at the same time reducing complications compared with traditional open reduction and internal fixation.

  2. Extensibility and limitations of FDDI

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Game, David; Maly, Kurt J.

    1990-01-01

    Recently two standards for Metropolitan Area Networks (MANs), Fiber Distributed Data Interface (FDDI) and Distributed Queue Dual Bus (DQDB), have emerged as the primary competitors for the MAN arena. Great interest exists in building higher speed networks which support large numbers of node and greater distance, and it is not clear what types of protocols are needed for this type of environment. There is some question as to whether or not these MAN standards can be extended to such environments. The extensibility of FDDI to the Gbps range and a long distance environment is investigated. Specification parameters which affect performance are shown and a measure is provided for predicting utilization of FDDI. A comparison of FDDI at 100 Mbps and 1 Gbps is presented. Some specific problems with FDDI are addressed and modifications which improve the viability of FDDI in such high speed networks are investigated.

  3. Extensive retroviral diversity in shark.

    PubMed

    Han, Guan-Zhu

    2015-04-28

    Retroviruses infect a wide range of vertebrates. However, little is known about the diversity of retroviruses in basal vertebrates. Endogenous retrovirus (ERV) provides a valuable resource to study the ecology and evolution of retrovirus. I performed a genome-scale screening for ERVs in the elephant shark (Callorhinchus milii) and identified three complete or nearly complete ERVs and many short ERV fragments. I designate these retroviral elements "C. milli ERVs" (CmiERVs). Phylogenetic analysis shows that the CmiERVs form three distinct lineages. The genome invasions by these retroviruses are estimated to take place more than 50 million years ago. My results reveal the extensive retroviral diversity in the elephant shark. Diverse retroviruses appear to have been associated with cartilaginous fishes for millions of years. These findings have important implications in understanding the diversity and evolution of retroviruses.

  4. Leukoencephalopathy associated with extensive burns.

    PubMed Central

    Gregorios, J B

    1982-01-01

    Unusual neuropathological changes were observed in two cases following extensive burns. These consisted of perivascular areas of demyelination distributed symmetrically in the brain and affecting the white matter predominantly. One case in addition had widespread petecchial and ring haemorrhages characteristic of brain purpura. Both patients sustained second and third degree burns in greater than 50% of the body surface area, developed metabolic acidosis, sepsis, disturbance in consciousness and multiple episodes of cardiorespiratory arrest prior to death. A toxic metabolic state related to a burn toxin released from the damaged tissue or from bacterial action to the tissue in addition to low platelet level is proposed as the major pathogenetic factor in the development of the neurological symptoms and the patients' demise. Images PMID:6754873

  5. Space Shuttle power extension package

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Loftus, J. P., Jr.; Craig, J. W.

    1980-01-01

    A modification kit for the Space Transportation System (STS) Orbiter is proposed to provide more power and mission duration for payloads. The power extension package (PEP), a flexible-substrate solar array deployed on the Space Shuttle Orbiter remote manipulator system, can provide as much as 29 kW total power for durations of 10 to 48 days. The kit is installed only for those flights which require enhanced power or duration. The PEP is made possible by development of the flexible-substrate array technology and, in itself, contributes to the technology base for the use of large area solar cells. Modifications to the Orbiter thermal control and life support systems to improve heat balance and to reduce consumables are proposed. The changes consist of repositioning the Orbiter forward radiators and replacing the lithium hydroxide scrubber with a regenerable solid amine.

  6. Fluorescein-related extensive jaundice.

    PubMed

    Kalkan, Asim; Turedi, Suleyman; Aydin, Ibrahim

    2015-03-01

    Fluorescein is a chemical dye frequently used in eye diseases to assess blood flow in the retina, choroid tissue, and iris. Although it has many known adverse effects, it has not previously been reported to lead to jaundice. The purpose of this case report was to emphasize that for patients presenting at the emergency department with jaundice symptoms, it should not be forgotten by emergency physicians that jaundice can develop after fluorescein angiography. Case: A 65-year-old woman presented at the emergency department with extensive jaundice that had developed on her entire body a few hours after fluorescein angiography applied because of vision impairment. The test results for all the diseases considered to cause jaundice were normal,and fluorescein-related jaundice was diagnosed. Conclusion: A detailed anamnesis should be taken when jaundice is seen in patients who have undergone fluorescein angiography, and it should not be forgotten that fluorescein dye is a rare cause of jaundice.

  7. Extension of HPL to complex arguments

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Maître, Daniel

    2012-03-01

    In this paper we describe the extension of the Mathematica package HPL to treat harmonic polylogarithms of complex arguments. The harmonic polylogarithms have been introduced by Remiddi and Vermaseren [E. Remiddi, J.A.M. Vermaseren, Int. J. Modern Phys. A 15 (2000) 725, hep-ph/9905237] and have many applications in high energy particle physics. New version program summaryProgram title: HPL Catalogue identifier: ADWX_v2_0 Program summary URL:http://cpc.cs.qub.ac.uk/summaries/ADWX_v2_0.html Program obtainable from: CPC Program Library, Queen's University, Belfast, N. Ireland Licensing provisions: Standard CPC licence, http://cpc.cs.qub.ac.uk/licence/licence.html No. of lines in distributed program, including test data, etc.: 13 610 No. of bytes in distributed program, including test data, etc.: 1 055 706 Distribution format: tar.gz Programming language: Mathematica 7/8. Computer: All computers running Mathematica. Operating system: Operating systems running Mathematica. Supplementary material: Additional "high weight" MinimalSet files available. Classification: 4.7. Catalogue identifier of previous version: ADWX_v1_0 Journal reference of previous version: Comput. Phys. Comm. 174 (2006) 222 Does the new version supersede the previous version?: Yes Nature of problem: Computer algebraic treatment of the harmonic polylogarithms which appear in the evaluation of Feynman diagrams. Solution method: Mathematica implementation. Reasons for new version: Added treatment of complex arguments. Details in arXiv:hep-ph/0703052. Summary of revisions: Added treatment of complex arguments. Details in arXiv:hep-ph/0703052. Running time: A few seconds for each function.

  8. Minimizing risk in anonymous egg donation.

    PubMed

    Ahuja, K K; Simons, E G; Nair, S; Rimington, M R; Armar, N A

    2003-11-01

    Assisted conception carries with it known and putative medical and surgical risks. Exposing healthy women to these risks in order to harvest eggs for donation when a safer alternative exists is morally and ethically unacceptable. Egg sharing minimizes risk and provides a source of eggs for donation. Anonymity protects all parties involved and should not be removed.

  9. Platform Technologies for Minimally Invasive Physiological Monitoring

    DTIC Science & Technology

    2006-11-01

    Platform Technologies for Minimally Invasive Physiological Monitoring Mingui Sun1,2,3,4, Steven A. Hackworth1,2,4, Zhide Tang1, Jun Zhao1,4, Daliang...Light, W. G. Berger, “Medical devices of the head, neck, and spine,” Radiographics, Jan-Feb 2004 24(1):257-85. [2] W. Liu, M. Sivaprakasam, G. Wang

  10. Minimally Invasive Surgery for Inflammatory Bowel Disease

    PubMed Central

    Holder-Murray, Jennifer; Marsicovetere, Priscilla

    2015-01-01

    Abstract: Surgical management of inflammatory bowel disease is a challenging endeavor given infectious and inflammatory complications, such as fistula, and abscess, complex often postoperative anatomy, including adhesive disease from previous open operations. Patients with Crohn's disease and ulcerative colitis also bring to the table the burden of their chronic illness with anemia, malnutrition, and immunosuppression, all common and contributing independently as risk factors for increased surgical morbidity in this high-risk population. However, to reduce the physical trauma of surgery, technologic advances and worldwide experience with minimally invasive surgery have allowed laparoscopic management of patients to become standard of care, with significant short- and long-term patient benefits compared with the open approach. In this review, we will describe the current state-of the-art for minimally invasive surgery for inflammatory bowel disease and the caveats inherent with this practice in this complex patient population. Also, we will review the applicability of current and future trends in minimally invasive surgical technique, such as laparoscopic “incisionless,” single-incision laparoscopic surgery (SILS), robotic-assisted, and other techniques for the patient with inflammatory bowel disease. There can be no doubt that minimally invasive surgery has been proven to decrease the short- and long-term burden of surgery of these chronic illnesses and represents high-value care for both patient and society. PMID:25989341

  11. Fractality in selfsimilar minimal mass structures

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    De Tommasi, D.; Maddalena, F.; Puglisi, G.; Trentadue, F.

    2017-10-01

    In this paper we study the diffusely observed occurrence of Fractality and Self-organized Criticality in mechanical systems. We analytically show, based on a prototypical compressed tensegrity structure, that these phenomena can be viewed as the result of the contemporary attainment of mass minimization and global stability in elastic systems.

  12. New Diagnostic Terminology for Minimal Brain Dysfunction.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Shaywitz, Bennett A.; And Others

    1979-01-01

    Minimal brain dysfunction has been redefined by the American Psychological Association as attention deficit disorder (ADD) and subdivided into categories with and without hyperactivity. The revised 'Diagnostic and Statistical Manual' (DSM III) is now undergoing field trials. Journal Availability: C. V. Mosby Company, 11830 Westline Industrial…

  13. Minimal Interventions in the Teaching of Mathematics

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Foster, Colin

    2014-01-01

    This paper addresses ways in which mathematics pedagogy can benefit from insights gleaned from counselling. Person-centred counselling stresses the value of genuineness, warm empathetic listening and minimal intervention to support people in solving their own problems and developing increased autonomy. Such an approach contrasts starkly with the…

  14. Using silviculture to minimize gypsy moth impacts

    Treesearch

    Kurt W. Gottschalk

    1989-01-01

    Silvicultural treatments can be used to minimize gypsy moth impacts on hardwood stands. There are two major strategies of these treatments: (1) to decrease susceptibility to defoliation by gypsy moth and (2) to strengthen the stand against mortality and encourage growth after defoliation.

  15. Using silviculture to minimize gypsy moth impacts

    Treesearch

    Kurt W. Gottschalk

    1991-01-01

    Several studies are underway to test and evaluate the use of silvicultural treatments to minimize gypsy moth impacts. Treatment objectives are to change stand susceptibility to gypsy moth defoliation or stand vulnerability to damage after defoliation. Decision charts have been developed to help forest and land managers to select the appropriate treatment for their...

  16. Minimally invasive excision of thoracic arachnoid web.

    PubMed

    Vergara, Pierluigi; Barone, Damiano Giuseppe

    2017-09-23

    Arachnoid webs are rare intradural lesions which can cause direct spinal cord compression and/or alteration of the CSF flow with syringomielia. Surgery has been historically performed via wide open laminectomies. The aim of this study is to prove the feasibility of minimally invasive techniques for the excision of arachnoid webs. A retrospective review of two cases of minimally invasive excision of thoracic arachnoid webs was performed. Surgery was carried out through expandable tubular retractors. Complete excision was achieved through the described approach, with minimal bony removal and soft tissue disruption. There were no intra- or peri- operative complications. Both patients were mobilised early and discharged home within 24hrs post-surgery. Postoperative imaging showed good re-expansion of the spinal cord, with no evidence of residual compression or tethering. For symptomatic arachnoid webs, surgery remains the only definitive treatment. In expert hands, the excision of arachnoid webs can be successfully achieved with tubular retractors and minimally invasive techniques. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  17. Minimization of Salmonella Contamination on Raw Poultry

    USDA-ARS?s Scientific Manuscript database

    Many reviews have discussed Salmonella in poultry and suggested best practices to minimize this organism on raw poultry meat. Despite years of research and conscientious control efforts by industry and regulatory agencies, human salmonellosis rates have declined only modestly and Salmonella is stil...

  18. Data clustering and visualization via energy minimization

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Andrecut, M.

    2011-09-01

    We discuss a stochastic method for configurational energy minimization, with applications to high-dimensional data clustering and visualization. Also, we demonstrate numerically the ability of the method to capture meaningful biological information from cancer-related microarray data, and to differentiate between different leukemia cancer subtypes.

  19. Minimizing emissions from existing ESP equipped MWCs

    SciTech Connect

    Rigo, H.G.; Chandler, A.J.

    1996-09-01

    A number of municipal waste combustors (MWCs) built before the mid-1980`s, when local permitting processes resulted in the application of acid gas control technology, were equipped with electrostatic precipitators to minimize particulate emissions and comply with the then applicable New Source Performance Standards for Municipal Waste Incinerators (40 CFR 60, Subpart C). Polychlorinated dibenzo-p-dioxins and dibenzo-furans (PCDD/F) emissions can be minimized from these facilities by improving combustion to minimize furnace carryover and flame formation. Unfortunately, this can do nothing about the gas and particle phase formation of PCDD/F when the products of combustion are held in the dioxin formation window--250 to 400 C or 482 to 752 F. A proof-of-concept demonstration test program to demonstrate that flue gas temperature entering existing ESPs can be practically reduced below 175 C (350 F) to minimize PCDD/F formation in the air pollution control system (APCS). At the same time, the performance of powdered activated carbon (PAC) and dry acid gas control reagent injection are demonstrated to establish the practicability of bringing existing ESP-equipped MWCs into compliance with the USEPA`s Emissions Guidelines without scrapping the sunk investment in functional, high efficiency ESPs.

  20. Minimally inconsistent reasoning in Semantic Web.

    PubMed

    Zhang, Xiaowang

    2017-01-01

    Reasoning with inconsistencies is an important issue for Semantic Web as imperfect information is unavoidable in real applications. For this, different paraconsistent approaches, due to their capacity to draw as nontrivial conclusions by tolerating inconsistencies, have been proposed to reason with inconsistent description logic knowledge bases. However, existing paraconsistent approaches are often criticized for being too skeptical. To this end, this paper presents a non-monotonic paraconsistent version of description logic reasoning, called minimally inconsistent reasoning, where inconsistencies tolerated in the reasoning are minimized so that more reasonable conclusions can be inferred. Some desirable properties are studied, which shows that the new semantics inherits advantages of both non-monotonic reasoning and paraconsistent reasoning. A complete and sound tableau-based algorithm, called multi-valued tableaux, is developed to capture the minimally inconsistent reasoning. In fact, the tableaux algorithm is designed, as a framework for multi-valued DL, to allow for different underlying paraconsistent semantics, with the mere difference in the clash conditions. Finally, the complexity of minimally inconsistent description logic reasoning is shown on the same level as the (classical) description logic reasoning.

  1. Minimal Guidelines for Authors of Web Pages.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    ADE Bulletin, 2002

    2002-01-01

    Presents guidelines that recommend the minimal reference information that should be provided on Web pages intended for use by students, teachers, and scholars in the modern languages. Suggests the inclusion of information about responsible parties, copyright declaration, privacy statements, and site information. Makes a note on Web page style. (SG)

  2. DUPONT CHAMBERS WORKS WASTE MINIMIZATION PROJECT

    EPA Science Inventory

    In a joint U.S. Environmental Protection Agency (EPA) and DuPont waste minimization project, fifteen waste streams were-selected for assessment. The intent was to develop assessments diverse in terms of process type, mode of operation, waste type, disposal needed, and relative s...

  3. Minimal theory of quasidilaton massive gravity

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    De Felice, Antonio; Mukohyama, Shinji; Oliosi, Michele

    2017-07-01

    We introduce a quasidilaton scalar field to the minimal theory of massive gravity with the Minkowski fiducial metric, in such a way that the quasidilaton global symmetry is maintained and that the theory admits a stable self-accelerating de Sitter solution. We start with a precursor theory that contains three propagating gravitational degrees of freedom without a quasidilaton scalar and introduce Stückelberg fields to covariantize its action. This makes it possible for us to formulate the quasidilaton global symmetry that mixes the Stückelberg fields and the quasidilaton scalar field. By the Hamiltonian analysis we confirm that the precursor theory with the quasidilaton scalar contains 4 degrees of freedom, three from the precursor massive gravity and one from the quasidilaton scalar. We further remove one propagating degree of freedom to construct the minimal quasidilaton theory with three propagating degrees of freedom, corresponding to two polarizations of gravitational waves from the minimal theory of massive gravity and one scalar from the quasidilaton field, by carefully introducing two additional constraints to the system in the Hamiltonian language. Switching to the Lagrangian language, we find self-accelerating de Sitter solutions in the minimal quasidilaton theory and analyze their stability. It is found that the self-accelerating de Sitter solution is stable in a wide range of parameters.

  4. Minimal Mimicry: Mere Effector Matching Induces Preference

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Sparenberg, Peggy; Topolinski, Sascha; Springer, Anne; Prinz, Wolfgang

    2012-01-01

    Both mimicking and being mimicked induces preference for a target. The present experiments investigate the minimal sufficient conditions for this mimicry-preference link to occur. We argue that mere effector matching between one's own and the other person's movement is sufficient to induce preference, independent of which movement is actually…

  5. Kundt spacetimes minimally coupled to scalar field

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Tahamtan, T.; Svítek, O.

    2017-06-01

    We derive an exact solution belonging to the Kundt class of spacetimes both with and without a cosmological constant that are minimally coupled to a free massless scalar field. We show the algebraic type of these solutions and give interpretation of the results. Subsequently, we look for solutions additionally containing an electromagnetic field satisfying nonlinear field equations.

  6. New Diagnostic Terminology for Minimal Brain Dysfunction.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Shaywitz, Bennett A.; And Others

    1979-01-01

    Minimal brain dysfunction has been redefined by the American Psychological Association as attention deficit disorder (ADD) and subdivided into categories with and without hyperactivity. The revised 'Diagnostic and Statistical Manual' (DSM III) is now undergoing field trials. Journal Availability: C. V. Mosby Company, 11830 Westline Industrial…

  7. The Biochemical Basis of Minimal Brain Dysfunction

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Shaywitz, Sally E.; And Others

    1978-01-01

    Available from: C. V. Mosby Company 11830 Westline Industrial Drive St. Louis, Missouri 63141 The research review examines evidence suggesting a biochemical basis for minimal brain dysfunction (MBD), which includes both a relationship between MBD and metabolic abnormalities and a significant genetic influence on the disorder in children. (IM)

  8. Botulinum toxin to minimize facial scarring.

    PubMed

    Jablonka, Eric M; Sherris, David A; Gassner, Holger G

    2012-10-01

    Chemoimmobilization with botulinum toxin A is an ideal biochemical agent that allows near-total elimination of muscle pull on the healing facial wound. The goal of chemoimmobilization of facial cutaneous wounds is to eliminate dynamic tension on the healing tissues to improve wound healing and minimize scarring for optimal aesthetic results.

  9. Probabilistic inspection strategies for minimizing service failures

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Brot, Abraham

    1994-09-01

    The INSIM computer program is described which simulates the 'limited fatigue life' environment in which aircraft structures generally operate. The use of INSIM to develop inspection strategies which aim to minimize service failures is demonstrated. Damage-tolerance methodology, inspection thresholds and customized inspections are simulated using the probability of failure as the driving parameter.

  10. Mixed waste minimization/mixed waste avoidance

    SciTech Connect

    Todisco, L.R.

    1994-12-31

    This presentation describes methods for the minimization and volume reduction of low-level radioactive and mixed wastes. Many methods are presented including: source reduction, better waste monitoring activities, waste segregation, recycling, administrative controls, and optimization of waste-generating processes.

  11. Minimally Invasive Mitral Valve Surgery III

    PubMed Central

    Lehr, Eric J.; Guy, T. Sloane; Smith, Robert L.; Grossi, Eugene A.; Shemin, Richard J.; Rodriguez, Evelio; Ailawadi, Gorav; Agnihotri, Arvind K.; Fayers, Trevor M.; Hargrove, W. Clark; Hummel, Brian W.; Khan, Junaid H.; Malaisrie, S. Chris; Mehall, John R.; Murphy, Douglas A.; Ryan, William H.; Salemi, Arash; Segurola, Romualdo J.; Smith, J. Michael; Wolfe, J. Alan; Weldner, Paul W.; Barnhart, Glenn R.; Goldman, Scott M.; Lewis, Clifton T. P.

    2016-01-01

    Abstract Minimally invasive mitral valve operations are increasingly common in the United States, but robotic-assisted approaches have not been widely adopted for a variety of reasons. This expert opinion reviews the state of the art and defines best practices, training, and techniques for developing a successful robotics program. PMID:27662478

  12. DUPONT CHAMBERS WORKS WASTE MINIMIZATION PROJECT

    EPA Science Inventory

    In a joint U.S. Environmental Protection Agency (EPA) and DuPont waste minimization project, fifteen waste streams were-selected for assessment. The intent was to develop assessments diverse in terms of process type, mode of operation, waste type, disposal needed, and relative s...

  13. Minimally inconsistent reasoning in Semantic Web

    PubMed Central

    Zhang, Xiaowang

    2017-01-01

    Reasoning with inconsistencies is an important issue for Semantic Web as imperfect information is unavoidable in real applications. For this, different paraconsistent approaches, due to their capacity to draw as nontrivial conclusions by tolerating inconsistencies, have been proposed to reason with inconsistent description logic knowledge bases. However, existing paraconsistent approaches are often criticized for being too skeptical. To this end, this paper presents a non-monotonic paraconsistent version of description logic reasoning, called minimally inconsistent reasoning, where inconsistencies tolerated in the reasoning are minimized so that more reasonable conclusions can be inferred. Some desirable properties are studied, which shows that the new semantics inherits advantages of both non-monotonic reasoning and paraconsistent reasoning. A complete and sound tableau-based algorithm, called multi-valued tableaux, is developed to capture the minimally inconsistent reasoning. In fact, the tableaux algorithm is designed, as a framework for multi-valued DL, to allow for different underlying paraconsistent semantics, with the mere difference in the clash conditions. Finally, the complexity of minimally inconsistent description logic reasoning is shown on the same level as the (classical) description logic reasoning. PMID:28750030

  14. MULTIOBJECTIVE PARALLEL GENETIC ALGORITHM FOR WASTE MINIMIZATION

    EPA Science Inventory

    In this research we have developed an efficient multiobjective parallel genetic algorithm (MOPGA) for waste minimization problems. This MOPGA integrates PGAPack (Levine, 1996) and NSGA-II (Deb, 2000) with novel modifications. PGAPack is a master-slave parallel implementation of a...

  15. Banach spaces that realize minimal fillings

    SciTech Connect

    Bednov, B. B.; Borodin, P. A. E-mail: pborodin@inbox.ru

    2014-04-30

    It is proved that a real Banach space realizes minimal fillings for all its finite subsets (a shortest network spanning a fixed finite subset always exists and has the minimum possible length) if and only if it is a predual of L{sub 1}. The spaces L{sub 1} are characterized in terms of Steiner points (medians). Bibliography: 25 titles. (paper)

  16. Banach spaces that realize minimal fillings

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Bednov, B. B.; Borodin, P. A.

    2014-04-01

    It is proved that a real Banach space realizes minimal fillings for all its finite subsets (a shortest network spanning a fixed finite subset always exists and has the minimum possible length) if and only if it is a predual of L_1. The spaces L_1 are characterized in terms of Steiner points (medians). Bibliography: 25 titles.

  17. MULTIOBJECTIVE PARALLEL GENETIC ALGORITHM FOR WASTE MINIMIZATION

    EPA Science Inventory

    In this research we have developed an efficient multiobjective parallel genetic algorithm (MOPGA) for waste minimization problems. This MOPGA integrates PGAPack (Levine, 1996) and NSGA-II (Deb, 2000) with novel modifications. PGAPack is a master-slave parallel implementation of a...

  18. Minimal Mimicry: Mere Effector Matching Induces Preference

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Sparenberg, Peggy; Topolinski, Sascha; Springer, Anne; Prinz, Wolfgang

    2012-01-01

    Both mimicking and being mimicked induces preference for a target. The present experiments investigate the minimal sufficient conditions for this mimicry-preference link to occur. We argue that mere effector matching between one's own and the other person's movement is sufficient to induce preference, independent of which movement is actually…

  19. Minimal Brain Dysfunction: Associations with Perinatal Complications.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Nichols, Paul L.

    Examined with over 28,000 7-year-old children whose mothers registered for prenatal care was the relationship between perinatal complications and such characteristics as poor school achievement, hyperactivity, and neurological soft signs associated with the diagnosis of minimal brain dysfunction (MBD). Ten perinatal antecedents were studied:…

  20. Challenging the minimal supersymmetric SU(5) model

    SciTech Connect

    Bajc, Borut; Lavignac, Stéphane; Mede, Timon

    2014-06-24

    We review the main constraints on the parameter space of the minimal renormalizable supersymmetric SU(5) grand unified theory. They consist of the Higgs mass, proton decay, electroweak symmetry breaking and fermion masses. Superpartner masses are constrained both from below and from above, giving hope for confirming or definitely ruling out the theory in the future. This contribution is based on Ref. [1].

  1. Competency Modeling in Extension Education: Integrating an Academic Extension Education Model with an Extension Human Resource Management Model

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Scheer, Scott D.; Cochran, Graham R.; Harder, Amy; Place, Nick T.

    2011-01-01

    The purpose of this study was to compare and contrast an academic extension education model with an Extension human resource management model. The academic model of 19 competencies was similar across the 22 competencies of the Extension human resource management model. There were seven unique competencies for the human resource management model.…

  2. Waste minimization applications at a remediation site

    SciTech Connect

    Allmon, L.A.

    1995-01-23

    The Fernald Environmental Management Project (FEMP) owned by the Department of Energy was used for the processing of uranium. In 1989 Fernald suspended production of uranium metals and was placed on the National Priorities List (NPL). The site`s mission has changed from one of production to environmental restoration. Many groups necessary for producing a product were deemed irrelevant for remediation work, including Waste Minimization. Waste Minimization does not readily appear to be applicable to remediation work. Environmental remediation is designed to correct adverse impacts to the environment from past operations and generates significant amounts of waste requiring management. The premise of pollution prevention is to avoid waste generation, thus remediation is in direct conflict with this premise. Although greater amounts of waste will be generated during environmental remediation, treatment capacities are not always available and disposal is becoming more difficult and costly. This creates the need for pollution prevention and waste minimization. Applying waste minimization principles at a remediation site is an enormous challenge. If the remediation site is also radiologically contaminated it is even a bigger challenge. Innovative techniques and ideas must be utilized to achieve reductions in the amount of waste that must be managed or dispositioned. At Fernald the waste minimization paradigm was shifted from focusing efforts on source reduction to focusing efforts on recycle/reuse by inverting the EPA waste management hierarchy. A fundamental difference at remediation sites is that source reduction has limited applicability to legacy wastes but can be applied successfully on secondary waste generation. The bulk of measurable waste reduction will be achieved by the recycle/reuse of primary wastes and by segregation and decontamination of secondary wastestreams. Each effort must be measured in terms of being economically and ecologically beneficial.

  3. Waste minimization in environmental sampling and analysis

    SciTech Connect

    Brice, D.A.; Nixon, J. . Fernald Environmental Management Project); Lewis, E.T. )

    1992-01-01

    Environmental investigations of the extent and effect of contamination, and projects to remediate such contamination, are designed to mitigate perceived threats to human health and the environment. During the course of these investigations, excavations, borings, and monitoring wells are constructed: monitoring wells are developed and purged prior to sampling; samples are collected; equipment is decontaminated; constituents extracted and analyzed; and personal protective equipment is used to keep workers safe. All of these activities generate waste. A large portion of this waste may be classified as hazardous based on characteristics or constituent components. Waste minimization is defined as reducing the volume and/or toxicity of waste generated by a process. Waste minimization has proven to be an effective means of cost reduction and improving worker health, safety, and environmental awareness in the industrial workplace through pollution prevention. Building waste minimization goals into a project during the planning phase is both cost effective and consistent with total quality management principles. Application of waste minimization principles should be an integral part of the planning and conduct of environmental investigations. Current regulatory guidance on planning environmental investigations focuses on data quality and risk assessment objectives. Waste minimization should also be a scoping priority, along with meeting worker protection requirements, protection of human health and the environment, and achieving data quality objectives. Waste volume or toxicity can be reduced through the use of smaller sample sizes, less toxic extraction solvents, less hazardous decontamination materials, smaller excavations and borings, smaller diameter monitoring wells, dedicated sampling equipment, well-fitting personal protective equipment, judicious use of screening technologies, and analyzing only for parameters of concern.

  4. Waste minimization in environmental sampling and analysis

    SciTech Connect

    Brice, D.A.; Nixon, J.; Lewis, E.T.

    1992-03-01

    Environmental investigations of the extent and effect of contamination, and projects to remediate such contamination, are designed to mitigate perceived threats to human health and the environment. During the course of these investigations, excavations, borings, and monitoring wells are constructed: monitoring wells are developed and purged prior to sampling; samples are collected; equipment is decontaminated; constituents extracted and analyzed; and personal protective equipment is used to keep workers safe. All of these activities generate waste. A large portion of this waste may be classified as hazardous based on characteristics or constituent components. Waste minimization is defined as reducing the volume and/or toxicity of waste generated by a process. Waste minimization has proven to be an effective means of cost reduction and improving worker health, safety, and environmental awareness in the industrial workplace through pollution prevention. Building waste minimization goals into a project during the planning phase is both cost effective and consistent with total quality management principles. Application of waste minimization principles should be an integral part of the planning and conduct of environmental investigations. Current regulatory guidance on planning environmental investigations focuses on data quality and risk assessment objectives. Waste minimization should also be a scoping priority, along with meeting worker protection requirements, protection of human health and the environment, and achieving data quality objectives. Waste volume or toxicity can be reduced through the use of smaller sample sizes, less toxic extraction solvents, less hazardous decontamination materials, smaller excavations and borings, smaller diameter monitoring wells, dedicated sampling equipment, well-fitting personal protective equipment, judicious use of screening technologies, and analyzing only for parameters of concern.

  5. Extensive Nosocomial Transmission of Measles Originating in Cruise Ship Passenger, Sardinia, Italy, 2014.

    PubMed

    Filia, Antonietta; Bella, Antonino; Cadeddu, Giovanna; Milia, Maria Rafaela; Del Manso, Martina; Rota, Maria Cristina; Magurano, Fabio; Nicoletti, Loredana; Declich, Silvia

    2015-08-01

    We report a measles outbreak in Sardinia, Italy, that originated in a cruise ship passenger. The outbreak showed extensive nosocomial transmission (44 of 80 cases). To minimize nosocomial transmission, health care facilities should ensure that susceptible health care workers are vaccinated against measles and should implement effective infection control procedures.

  6. Extensive Nosocomial Transmission of Measles Originating in Cruise Ship Passenger, Sardinia, Italy, 2014

    PubMed Central

    Bella, Antonino; Cadeddu, Giovanna; Milia, Maria Rafaela; Del Manso, Martina; Rota, Maria Cristina; Magurano, Fabio; Nicoletti, Loredana; Declich, Silvia

    2015-01-01

    We report a measles outbreak in Sardinia, Italy, that originated in a cruise ship passenger. The outbreak showed extensive nosocomial transmission (44 of 80 cases). To minimize nosocomial transmission, health care facilities should ensure that susceptible health care workers are vaccinated against measles and should implement effective infection control procedures. PMID:26196266

  7. A Case Study of Extensive Reading with an Unmotivated L2 Reader

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Ro, Eunseok

    2013-01-01

    Extensive reading is gaining credibility as an effective way of boosting students' affect especially in an English as a Foreign Language (EFL) context where access to a second language (L2) input is minimal. This study uses a pattern-matching, single case study research design to examine an adult reader's motivation and anxiety shifts towards…

  8. 75 FR 51843 - Proposed Extension of Information Collection Request Submitted for Public Comment; Final Rule on...

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2010-08-23

    ... Extension of Information Collection Request Submitted for Public Comment; Final Rule on Default Investments... the Paperwork Reduction Act of 1995 (PRA 95) (44 U.S.C. 3506(c)(2)(A)), provides the general public... minimize the public's reporting burden. It also helps the public understand the Department's...

  9. Curve-Like Structure Extraction Using Minimal Path Propagation With Backtracking.

    PubMed

    Chen, Yang; Zhang, Yudong; Yang, Jian; Cao, Qing; Yang, Guanyu; Chen, Jian; Shu, Huazhong; Luo, Limin; Coatrieux, Jean-Louis; Feng, Qianjing

    2016-02-01

    Minimal path techniques can efficiently extract geometrically curve-like structures by finding the path with minimal accumulated cost between two given endpoints. Though having found wide practical applications (e.g., line identification, crack detection, and vascular centerline extraction), minimal path techniques suffer from some notable problems. The first one is that they require setting two endpoints for each line to be extracted (endpoint problem). The second one is that the connection might fail when the geodesic distance between the two points is much shorter than the desirable minimal path (shortcut problem). In addition, when connecting two distant points, the minimal path connection might become inefficient as the accumulated cost increases over the propagation and results in leakage into some non-feature regions near the starting point (accumulation problem). To address these problems, this paper proposes an approach termed minimal path propagation with backtracking. We found that the information in the process of backtracking from reached points can be well utilized to overcome the above problems and improve the extraction performance. The whole algorithm is robust to parameter setting and allows a coarse setting of the starting point. Extensive experiments with both simulated and realistic data are performed to validate the performance of the proposed method.

  10. Nozzle Extension for Safety Air Gun

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Zumbrun, H. N.; Croom, Delwin R., Jr.

    1986-01-01

    New nozzle-extension design overcomes problems and incorporates original commercial nozzle, retaining intrinsic safety features. Components include extension tube, length of which made to suit application; adaptor fitting, and nozzle adaptor repinned to maintain original safety features. Design moves conical airstream to end of extension to blow machine chips away from operator. Nozzle-extension modification allows safe and efficient operation of machine tools while maintaining integrity of orginial safety-air-gun design.

  11. Nozzle Extension for Safety Air Gun

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Zumbrun, H. N.; Croom, Delwin R., Jr.

    1986-01-01

    New nozzle-extension design overcomes problems and incorporates original commercial nozzle, retaining intrinsic safety features. Components include extension tube, length of which made to suit application; adaptor fitting, and nozzle adaptor repinned to maintain original safety features. Design moves conical airstream to end of extension to blow machine chips away from operator. Nozzle-extension modification allows safe and efficient operation of machine tools while maintaining integrity of orginial safety-air-gun design.

  12. Extensive Floods in United Kingdom

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    2002-01-01

    Rain continues to fall in the United Kingdom, bringing more water to an already water-logged landscape. Some rivers there are experiencing their worst flooding in more than 50 years. Of particular note, Britain's River Ouse reached its highest levels on record since 1625. Thousands of people have been evacuated from their homes since October 30, when a large low-pressure system brought torrential rains and hurricane-force winds, placing regions around more than 40 rivers across the country on flood alert. Since then, the rains have persisted, keeping water levels high and causing additional rivers to overrun their banks. In all, at least 12 people have been killed and more than 5,000 properties flooded. Some officials estimate damages could reach 500 million pounds (roughly $715 million). These Landsat 7 scenes show a comparison of the region surrounding Exeter, England, before and after the floods. The top image was acquired September 28 and the bottom image was acquired October 30, 2000. Note the extensive flooding along the River Exe in the bottom image (blue pixels). The light bluish-white pixels in the top image are clouds, and the black splotches on the landscape are the clouds' shadows. The reddish-brown shapes are agricultural fields. Image by Robert Simmon and Brian Montgomery, NASA GSFC. Data provided by Ron Beck, USGS EROS Data Center.

  13. Extensive Floods in United Kingdom

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    2002-01-01

    Rain continues to fall in the United Kingdom, bringing more water to an already water-logged landscape. Some rivers there are experiencing their worst flooding in more than 50 years. Of particular note, Britain's River Ouse reached its highest levels on record since 1625. Thousands of people have been evacuated from their homes since October 30, when a large low-pressure system brought torrential rains and hurricane-force winds, placing regions around more than 40 rivers across the country on flood alert. Since then, the rains have persisted, keeping water levels high and causing additional rivers to overrun their banks. In all, at least 12 people have been killed and more than 5,000 properties flooded. Some officials estimate damages could reach 500 million pounds (roughly $715 million). These Landsat 7 scenes show a comparison of the region surrounding Exeter, England, before and after the floods. The top image was acquired September 28 and the bottom image was acquired October 30, 2000. Note the extensive flooding along the River Exe in the bottom image (blue pixels). The light bluish-white pixels in the top image are clouds, and the black splotches on the landscape are the clouds' shadows. The reddish-brown shapes are agricultural fields. Image by Robert Simmon and Brian Montgomery, NASA GSFC. Data provided by Ron Beck, USGS EROS Data Center.

  14. Presentation Extensions of the SOAP

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Carnright, Robert; Stodden, David; Coggi, John

    2009-01-01

    A set of extensions of the Satellite Orbit Analysis Program (SOAP) enables simultaneous and/or sequential presentation of information from multiple sources. SOAP is used in the aerospace community as a means of collaborative visualization and analysis of data on planned spacecraft missions. The following definitions of terms also describe the display modalities of SOAP as now extended: In SOAP terminology, View signifies an animated three-dimensional (3D) scene, two-dimensional still image, plot of numerical data, or any other visible display derived from a computational simulation or other data source; a) "Viewport" signifies a rectangular portion of a computer-display window containing a view; b) "Palette" signifies a collection of one or more viewports configured for simultaneous (split-screen) display in the same window; c) "Slide" signifies a palette with a beginning and ending time and an animation time step; and d) "Presentation" signifies a prescribed sequence of slides. For example, multiple 3D views from different locations can be crafted for simultaneous display and combined with numerical plots and other representations of data for both qualitative and quantitative analysis. The resulting sets of views can be temporally sequenced to convey visual impressions of a sequence of events for a planned mission.

  15. Elucidating Mechanisms of Extensive Chaos

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Egolf, David A.; Melnikov, Ilarion V.; Pesch, Werner; Ecke, Robert E.

    2001-06-01

    We report studies of the mechanism for the generation of chaotic disorder in a phenomenon found in nature, Rayleigh-Bénard convection (RBC), in a regime exhaustively studied experimentally. Through large-scale, parallel-computational studies of the detailed space-time evolution of the dynamical degrees of freedom, we find that the Spiral Defect Chaos (SDC) state of RBC is spatially- and temporally- localized to defect creation/annihilation events (D.A. Egolf, I.V. Melnikov, W. Pesch, and R.E. Ecke, Nature, 404:733--736, 2000), and we elucidate how these divergent, but very brief, events lead to eventual macroscopic differences between initially similar flow patterns. We also demonstrate that SDC is extensively chaotic, in that the number of dynamical degrees of freedom (the fractal dimension) is proportional to the system size, suggesting the possibility for a hydrodynamic-like description of the long-wavelength properties of SDC. The computational technique employed shows promise for analyzing a wide variety of extended dynamical systems.

  16. Nozzle extension design status report

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Classen, L. B.

    1972-01-01

    Twenty possible concepts of a possible nozzle/nozzle extension interface were originated. Not all of the concepts were considered worthy of analysis time. Six of them were thermally analyzed and three were stress analyzed. These analyses were done to determine which of the concepts would have the best chance of succeeding, that is, they were a screening process which was to allow rating of one concept against another. This was done because adequate material properties to determine absolute stress levels were not available at the time of the analyses. Through all of the concepts still exhibit some areas of negative margin of safety, concept no. 1 shows good promise that, with slight modifications, it could have all positive margins of safety. Another significant question, regarding these designs, has to do with the Grafoil seals and insulators. Some additional data was just recently received on Grafoil properties, but it was too late to incorporate in the analyses. The new data were not significantly different from the properties which were used.

  17. Towards a National Educational Extension Service.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Lessinger, Leon M.

    1994-01-01

    Describes major elements of an extension system for education based on those essential for one in agriculture, as exemplified by the U.S. Department of Agriculture Cooperative Extension Service. Like the agricultural system, an educational extension service would be driven by customer needs, employ county agents to facilitate client/service…

  18. 77 FR 23469 - Agency Information Collection Extension

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2012-04-19

    ... Information Collection Extension AGENCY: U.S. Department of Energy. ACTION: Submission for Office of... information collection request to OMB for extension under the provisions of the Paperwork Reduction Act of 1995. The information collection requests a three-year extension of its Security, OMB Control Number...

  19. 78 FR 38305 - Agency Information Collection Extension

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2013-06-26

    ... Information Collection Extension AGENCY: Department of Energy. ACTION: Submission for Office of Management and... information collection request to the OMB for extension under the provisions of the Paperwork Reduction Act of 1995. The information collection requests a three-year extension of its Exchange/Sale Report, Excess...

  20. 76 FR 31598 - Agency Information Collection Extension

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2011-06-01

    ... Information Collection Extension AGENCY: U.S. Department of Energy. ACTION: Submission for Office of... information collection request to the OMB for extension under the provisions of the Paperwork Reduction Act of 1995. The information collection requests a three-year extension of its Printing and Publishing...

  1. 76 FR 53887 - Agency Information Collection Extension

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2011-08-30

    ... Information Collection Extension AGENCY: U.S. Department of Energy. ACTION: Submission for Office of... information collection request to the OMB for extension under the provisions of the Paperwork Reduction Act of 1995. The information collection requests a three-year extension of its Legal Collection, OMB Control...

  2. 75 FR 4055 - Agency Information Collection Extension

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2010-01-26

    ... Information Collection Extension AGENCY: Department of Energy. ACTION: Submission for Office of Management and... information collection request to the OMB for extension under the provisions of the Paperwork Reduction Act of 1995. The information collection requests a three-year extension of its Human Reliability Program (HRP...

  3. 77 FR 51791 - Agency Information Collection Extension

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2012-08-27

    .... Energy Information Administration Agency Information Collection Extension AGENCY: U.S. Energy Information... EIA has submitted an information collection request to the OMB for extension under the provisions of the Paperwork Reduction Act of 1995. The information collection requests a three-year extension of its...

  4. 12 CFR 1102.6 - Waiver extension.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-01-01

    ... 12 Banks and Banking 7 2010-01-01 2010-01-01 false Waiver extension. 1102.6 Section 1102.6 Banks and Banking FEDERAL FINANCIAL INSTITUTIONS EXAMINATION COUNCIL APPRAISER REGULATION Temporary Waiver Requests § 1102.6 Waiver extension. The ASC may initiate an extension of temporary waiver relief and shall...

  5. 12 CFR 1102.6 - Waiver extension.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-01-01

    ... 12 Banks and Banking 10 2014-01-01 2014-01-01 false Waiver extension. 1102.6 Section 1102.6 Banks and Banking FEDERAL FINANCIAL INSTITUTIONS EXAMINATION COUNCIL APPRAISER REGULATION Temporary Waiver Requests § 1102.6 Waiver extension. The ASC may initiate an extension of temporary waiver relief and shall...

  6. 20 CFR 655.170 - Extensions.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-04-01

    ... seeking extensions of more than 2 weeks may apply to the CO. Such requests must be related to weather... extension is needed and that the need could not have been reasonably foreseen by the employer. The CO will... the decision. The CO will not grant an extension where the total work contract period under...

  7. 24 CFR 968.235 - Time extensions.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-04-01

    ... 24 Housing and Urban Development 4 2010-04-01 2010-04-01 false Time extensions. 968.235 Section... Fewer Than 250 Units) § 968.235 Time extensions. A PHA shall not obligate or expend funds after the... time extension, as follows: (a) Certification. A PHA may extend an obligation or expenditure deadline...

  8. 24 CFR 968.235 - Time extensions.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-04-01

    ... 24 Housing and Urban Development 4 2011-04-01 2011-04-01 false Time extensions. 968.235 Section... Fewer Than 250 Units) § 968.235 Time extensions. A PHA shall not obligate or expend funds after the... time extension, as follows: (a) Certification. A PHA may extend an obligation or expenditure deadline...

  9. 12 CFR 1102.6 - Waiver extension.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-01-01

    ... 12 Banks and Banking 9 2012-01-01 2012-01-01 false Waiver extension. 1102.6 Section 1102.6 Banks and Banking FEDERAL FINANCIAL INSTITUTIONS EXAMINATION COUNCIL APPRAISER REGULATION Temporary Waiver Requests § 1102.6 Waiver extension. The ASC may initiate an extension of temporary waiver relief and...

  10. 24 CFR 968.235 - Time extensions.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-04-01

    ... 24 Housing and Urban Development 4 2013-04-01 2013-04-01 false Time extensions. 968.235 Section... Fewer Than 250 Units) § 968.235 Time extensions. A PHA shall not obligate or expend funds after the... time extension, as follows: (a) Certification. A PHA may extend an obligation or expenditure deadline...

  11. 24 CFR 968.235 - Time extensions.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-04-01

    ... 24 Housing and Urban Development 4 2012-04-01 2012-04-01 false Time extensions. 968.235 Section... Fewer Than 250 Units) § 968.235 Time extensions. A PHA shall not obligate or expend funds after the... time extension, as follows: (a) Certification. A PHA may extend an obligation or expenditure deadline...

  12. Implementing Extensive Reading in an EAP Programme

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Macalister, John

    2008-01-01

    For more than twenty years the benefits of extensive reading have been proclaimed to the ELT community, but the inclusion of extensive reading in ELT programmes is far from universal. Extensive reading appears to be particularly absent in higher educational and English for Academic Purposes settings. This paper reports on the implementation of an…

  13. Tennessee's Extension Food and Nutrition Education Program.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Tennessee Univ., Knoxville. Agricultural Extension Service.

    The Extension Food and Nutrition Education program was set up by the University of Tennessee Agricultural Extension Service to assist low-income families in improving their diets. Carrying out the program on a one-to-one basis are 365 assistants who are taught the basics of nutrition by trained home economics extension agents. These assistants…

  14. Improving Disability Awareness among Extension Agents

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Mahadevan, Lakshmi; Peterson, Rick L.; Grenwelge, Cheryl

    2014-01-01

    Increasing prevalence rates and legislative mandates imply that educators, parents, and Extension agents will need better tools and resources to meet the needs of special populations. The Texas A&M AgriLife Extension Service addresses this issue by using e-learning tools. Extension agents can take advantage of these courses to gain critical…

  15. Improving Disability Awareness among Extension Agents

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Mahadevan, Lakshmi; Peterson, Rick L.; Grenwelge, Cheryl

    2014-01-01

    Increasing prevalence rates and legislative mandates imply that educators, parents, and Extension agents will need better tools and resources to meet the needs of special populations. The Texas A&M AgriLife Extension Service addresses this issue by using e-learning tools. Extension agents can take advantage of these courses to gain critical…

  16. 7 CFR 15b.27 - Extension education.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-01-01

    ... 7 Agriculture 1 2014-01-01 2014-01-01 false Extension education. 15b.27 Section 15b.27 Agriculture... Education § 15b.27 Extension education. (a) General. A recipient to which this subpart applies that provides extension education may not, on the basis of handicap, exclude qualified handicapped persons. A recipient...

  17. 7 CFR 15b.27 - Extension education.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-01-01

    ... 7 Agriculture 1 2012-01-01 2012-01-01 false Extension education. 15b.27 Section 15b.27 Agriculture... Education § 15b.27 Extension education. (a) General. A recipient to which this subpart applies that provides extension education may not, on the basis of handicap, exclude qualified handicapped persons. A recipient...

  18. 78 FR 57790 - Extension of Time Limits

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2013-09-20

    ... International Trade Administration 19 CFR Part 351 RIN 0625-AA94 Extension of Time Limits AGENCY: Import... Department of Commerce (the Department) is modifying its regulation concerning the extension of time limits... clarifies that parties may request an extension of time limits before any time limit established under Part...

  19. 78 FR 66909 - Agency Information Collection Extension

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2013-11-07

    ... Information Collection Extension AGENCY: U.S. Department of Energy. ACTION: Submission for Office of... published its Agency Information Collection Extension request in the Federal Register on Thursday, August 29, 2013 (78 FR 53436) and submitted an information collection request to the OMB for extension under...

  20. 7 CFR 15b.27 - Extension education.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-01-01

    ... 7 Agriculture 1 2013-01-01 2013-01-01 false Extension education. 15b.27 Section 15b.27 Agriculture... Education § 15b.27 Extension education. (a) General. A recipient to which this subpart applies that provides extension education may not, on the basis of handicap, exclude qualified handicapped persons. A...

  1. 7 CFR 15b.27 - Extension education.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-01-01

    ... 7 Agriculture 1 2010-01-01 2010-01-01 false Extension education. 15b.27 Section 15b.27 Agriculture... Education § 15b.27 Extension education. (a) General. A recipient to which this subpart applies that provides extension education may not, on the basis of handicap, exclude qualified handicapped persons. A...

  2. 7 CFR 15b.27 - Extension education.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-01-01

    ... 7 Agriculture 1 2011-01-01 2011-01-01 false Extension education. 15b.27 Section 15b.27 Agriculture... Education § 15b.27 Extension education. (a) General. A recipient to which this subpart applies that provides extension education may not, on the basis of handicap, exclude qualified handicapped persons. A...

  3. Polymerization behavior of Klenow fragment and Taq DNA polymerase in short primer extension reactions.

    PubMed

    Zhao, Guojie; Guan, Yifu

    2010-10-01

    DNA polymerases amplify DNA fragments through primer extension reactions. However, polymerization behavior of short primers in the primer extension process has not been systematically explored. In this study, we examined the minimal primer length required for primer extension, and the effect of primer length, mismatches and other conditions on DNA polymerization using a non-radioactive method. Under the condition we conducted, the shortest primers polymerized by Klenow fragment (KF) and Taq DNA polymerase in our experiments were respectively heptamer and octamer. The extension efficiency was also affected by the up-stream overhanging structure of the primer-template complex. We hypothesized a simple model to interpret these observations based on the polymerase structures. Furthermore, it was found that the longer the primer, the more efficient is the primer extension. These polymerization behavior of short primers lay foundation about DNA polymerization mechanism and development of novel nucleic acid detection assays.

  4. The problems of the minimal surface and minimal lineal measure in three dimensions

    SciTech Connect

    Christensen, R.M.

    1994-02-01

    A solution is given to the classical problem of the minimal surface in three dimensions formed from a repeating cell microstructure under isotropic conditions. The solution is found through a global/local minimization procedure and the resulting basic cell is composed of 14 faces. At the junctions where the intersections between faces meet at a point, half of the junctions involve 4 intersections and half involve 3 intersections. The same general solution also applies tot he related minimal lineal measure problem where the measure is that of the length of the intersections connecting the junctions. Some implications and applications for materials science are given.

  5. Advances in minimally invasive neonatal colorectal surgery

    PubMed Central

    Bandi, Ashwath S; Bradshaw, Catherine J; Giuliani, Stefano

    2016-01-01

    Over the last two decades, advances in laparoscopic surgery and minimally invasive techniques have transformed the operative management of neonatal colorectal surgery for conditions such as anorectal malformations (ARMs) and Hirschsprung’s disease. Evolution of surgical care has mainly occurred due to the use of laparoscopy, as opposed to a laparotomy, for intra-abdominal procedures and the development of trans-anal techniques. This review describes these advances and outlines the main minimally invasive techniques currently used for management of ARMs and Hirschsprung’s disease. There does still remain significant variation in the procedures used and this review aims to report the current literature comparing techniques with an emphasis on the short- and long-term clinical outcomes. PMID:27830038

  6. Advances in minimally invasive neonatal colorectal surgery.

    PubMed

    Bandi, Ashwath S; Bradshaw, Catherine J; Giuliani, Stefano

    2016-10-27

    Over the last two decades, advances in laparoscopic surgery and minimally invasive techniques have transformed the operative management of neonatal colorectal surgery for conditions such as anorectal malformations (ARMs) and Hirschsprung's disease. Evolution of surgical care has mainly occurred due to the use of laparoscopy, as opposed to a laparotomy, for intra-abdominal procedures and the development of trans-anal techniques. This review describes these advances and outlines the main minimally invasive techniques currently used for management of ARMs and Hirschsprung's disease. There does still remain significant variation in the procedures used and this review aims to report the current literature comparing techniques with an emphasis on the short- and long-term clinical outcomes.

  7. Mirror glasses for minimally invasive surgery.

    PubMed

    Ishikawa, Norihiko; Sun, You Su; Nifong, L Wiley; Oda, Makoto; Ohta, Yasuhiko; Watanabe, Go; Chitwood, W Randolph

    2007-07-01

    The operator performing minimally invasive surgery is prevented from seeing the whole field with both eyes by the restricted small thoracotomy incision. To overcome this problem, we developed mirror glasses. Use of these glasses was evaluated in terms of the time required for threading of sutures with endoscopic forceps. Three surgeon ligated thread a suture five times with and without use of the glasses in the box, and the mean time was calculated for each surgeon. The time required for ligation (mean +/- SD) was 24.2 +/- 2.9 s with mirror glasses and 27.0 +/- 2.5 s without the glasses (p = 0.01). The mirror glasses may be found useful for fine manipulation for minimally invasive surgery.

  8. [Minimally invasive operations in vascular surgery].

    PubMed

    Stádler, Petr; Sedivý, Petr; Dvorácek, Libor; Slais, Marek; Vitásek, Petr; El Samman, Khaled; Matous, Pavel

    2011-01-01

    Minimally invasive surgery provides an attractive alternative compared with conventional surgical approaches and is popular with patients, particularly because of its favourable cosmetic results. Vascular surgery has taken its inspiration from general surgery and, over the past few years, has also been reducing the invasiveness of its operating methods. In addition to traditional laparoscopic techniques, we most frequently encounter the endovascular treatment of aneurysms of the thoracic and abdominal aorta and, most recently, robot-assisted surgery in the area of the abdominal aorta and pelvic arteries. Minimally invasive surgical interventions also have other advantages, including less operative trauma, a reduction in post-operative pain, shorter periods spent in the intensive care unit and overall hospitalization times, an earlier return to normal life and, finally, a reduction in total treatment costs.

  9. Minimally Disruptive Medicine for Patients with Diabetes.

    PubMed

    Serrano, Valentina; Spencer-Bonilla, Gabriela; Boehmer, Kasey R; Montori, Victor M

    2017-09-23

    Patients with diabetes must deal with the burden of symptoms and complications (burden of illness). Simultaneously, diabetes care demands practical and emotional work from patients and their families, work to access and use healthcare and to enact self-care (burden of treatment). Patient work must compete with the demands of family, job, and community life. Overwhelmed patients may not have the capacity to access care or enact self-care and will thus experience suboptimal diabetes outcomes. Minimally disruptive medicine (MDM) is a patient-centered approach to healthcare that prioritizes patients' goals for life and health while minimizing the healthcare disruption on patients' lives. In patients with diabetes, particularly in those with complex lives and multimorbidity, MDM coordinates healthcare and community responses to improve outcomes, reduce treatment burden, and enable patients to pursue their life's hopes and dreams.

  10. A perturbation technique for shield weight minimization

    SciTech Connect

    Watkins, E.F.; Greenspan, E. )

    1993-01-01

    The radiation shield optimization code SWAN (Ref. 1) was originally developed for minimizing the thickness of a shield that will meet a given dose (or another) constraint or for extremizing a performance parameter of interest (e.g., maximizing energy multiplication or minimizing dose) while maintaining the shield volume constraint. The SWAN optimization process proved to be highly effective (e.g., see Refs. 2, 3, and 4). The purpose of this work is to investigate the applicability of the SWAN methodology to problems in which the weight rather than the volume is the relevant shield characteristic. Such problems are encountered in shield design for space nuclear power systems. The investigation is carried out using SWAN with the coupled neutron-photon cross-section library FLUNG (Ref. 5).

  11. Topological minimally entangled states via geometric measure

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Buerschaper, Oliver; García-Saez, Artur; Orús, Román; Wei, Tzu-Chieh

    2014-11-01

    Here we show how the Minimally Entangled States (MES) of a 2d system with topological order can be identified using the geometric measure of entanglement. We show this by minimizing this measure for the doubled semion, doubled Fibonacci and toric code models on a torus with non-trivial topological partitions. Our calculations are done either quasi-exactly for small system sizes, or using the tensor network approach in Orús et al (arXiv:1406.0585) for large sizes. As a byproduct of our methods, we see that the minimisation of the geometric entanglement can also determine the number of Abelian quasiparticle excitations in a given model. The results in this paper provide a very efficient and accurate way of extracting the full topological information of a 2d quantum lattice model from the multipartite entanglement structure of its ground states.

  12. Minimal Left-Right Symmetric Dark Matter.

    PubMed

    Heeck, Julian; Patra, Sudhanwa

    2015-09-18

    We show that left-right symmetric models can easily accommodate stable TeV-scale dark matter particles without the need for an ad hoc stabilizing symmetry. The stability of a newly introduced multiplet either arises accidentally as in the minimal dark matter framework or comes courtesy of the remaining unbroken Z_{2} subgroup of B-L. Only one new parameter is introduced: the mass of the new multiplet. As minimal examples, we study left-right fermion triplets and quintuplets and show that they can form viable two-component dark matter. This approach is, in particular, valid for SU(2)×SU(2)×U(1) models that explain the recent diboson excess at ATLAS in terms of a new charged gauge boson of mass 2 TeV.

  13. Activity recognition from minimal distinguishing subsequence mining

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Iqbal, Mohammad; Pao, Hsing-Kuo

    2017-08-01

    Human activity recognition is one of the most important research topics in the era of Internet of Things. To separate different activities given sensory data, we utilize a Minimal Distinguishing Subsequence (MDS) mining approach to efficiently find distinguishing patterns among different activities. We first transform the sensory data into a series of sensor triggering events and operate the MDS mining procedure afterwards. The gap constraints are also considered in the MDS mining. Given the multi-class nature of most activity recognition tasks, we modify the MDS mining approach from a binary case to a multi-class one to fit the need for multiple activity recognition. We also study how to select the best parameter set including the minimal and the maximal support thresholds in finding the MDSs for effective activity recognition. Overall, the prediction accuracy is 86.59% on the van Kasteren dataset which consists of four different activities for recognition.

  14. The Sense of Commitment: A Minimal Approach

    PubMed Central

    Michael, John; Sebanz, Natalie; Knoblich, Günther

    2016-01-01

    This paper provides a starting point for psychological research on the sense of commitment within the context of joint action. We begin by formulating three desiderata: to illuminate the motivational factors that lead agents to feel and act committed, to pick out the cognitive processes and situational factors that lead agents to sense that implicit commitments are in place, and to illuminate the development of an understanding of commitment in ontogeny. In order to satisfy these three desiderata, we propose a minimal framework, the core of which is an analysis of the minimal structure of situations which can elicit a sense of commitment. We then propose a way of conceptualizing and operationalizing the sense of commitment, and discuss cognitive and motivational processes which may underpin the sense of commitment. PMID:26779080

  15. The Minimal Supersymmetric Fat Higgs Model

    SciTech Connect

    Harnik, Roni; Kribs, Graham D.; Larson, Daniel T.; Murayama, Hitoshi

    2003-11-26

    We present a calculable supersymmetric theory of a composite"fat'" Higgs boson. Electroweak symmetry is broken dynamically through a new gauge interaction that becomes strong at an intermediate scale. The Higgs mass can easily be 200-450 GeV along with the superpartner masses, solving the supersymmetric little hierarchy problem. We explicitly verify that the model is consistent with precision electroweak data without fine-tuning. Gauge coupling unification can be maintained despite the inherently strong dynamics involved in electroweak symmetry breaking. Supersymmetrizing the Standard Model therefore does not imply a light Higgs mass, contrary to the lore in the literature. The Higgs sector of the minimal Fat Higgs model has a mass spectrum that is distinctly different from the Minimal Supersymmetric Standard Model.

  16. Minimizing broadband excitation under dissipative conditions

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Gelman, David; Kosloff, Ronnie

    2005-12-01

    Optimal control theory is employed for the task of minimizing the excited-state population of a dye molecule in solution. The spectrum of the excitation pulse is contained completely in the absorption band of the molecule. Only phase control is studied which is equivalent to optimizing the transmission of the pulse through the medium. The molecular model explicitly includes two electronic states and a single vibrational mode. The other degrees of freedom are classified as bath modes. The surrogate Hamiltonian method is employed to incorporate these bath degrees of freedom. Their influence can be classified as electronic dephasing and vibrational relaxation. In accordance with experimental results, minimal excitation is associated with a negatively chirped pulses. Optimal pulses with more complex transient structure are found to be superior to linearly chirped pulses. The difference is enhanced when the fluence is increased. The improvement degrades when dissipative effects become more dominant.

  17. A Minimal Periods Algorithm with Applications

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Xu, Zhi

    Kosaraju in "Computation of squares in a string" briefly described a linear-time algorithm for computing the minimal squares starting at each position in a word. Using the same construction of suffix trees, we generalize his result and describe in detail how to compute the minimal α power, with a period of length longer than s, starting at each position in a word w for arbitrary exponent α> 1 and integer s ≥ 0. The algorithm runs in O(α|w|)-time for s = 0 and in O(|w|2)-time otherwise. We provide a complete proof of the correctness and computational complexity of the algorithm. The algorithm can be used to detect certain types of pseudo-patterns in words, which was our original goal in studying this generalization.

  18. Facets of the balanced minimal evolution polytope.

    PubMed

    Forcey, Stefan; Keefe, Logan; Sands, William

    2016-08-01

    The balanced minimal evolution (BME) method of creating phylogenetic trees can be formulated as a linear programming problem, minimizing an inner product over the vertices of the BME polytope. In this paper we undertake the project of describing the facets of this polytope. We classify and identify the combinatorial structure and geometry (facet inequalities) of all the facets in dimensions up to five, and classify even more facets in all dimensions. A full set of facet inequalities would allow a full implementation of the simplex method for finding the BME tree-although there are reasons to think this an unreachable goal. However, our results provide the crucial first steps for a more likely-to-be-successful program: finding efficient relaxations of the BME polytope.

  19. [Invasive and minimally invasive hemodynamic monitoring].

    PubMed

    Hansen, Matthias

    2016-10-01

    Advanced hemodynamic monitoring is necessary for adequate management of high-risk patients or patients with derangement of circulation. Studies demonstrate a benefit of early goal directed therapy in unstable cardiopulmonary situations. In these days we have different possibilities of minimally invasive or invasive hemodynamic monitoring. Minimally invasive measurements like pulse conture analysis or pulse wave analysis being less accurate under some circumstances, however only an artery catheter is needed for cardiac output monitoring. Pulmonary artery, transpulmonary thermodilution and lithium dilution technology have acceptable accuracy in cardiac output measurement. For therapy of unstable circulation there are additionally parameters to obtain. The pulmonary artery catheter is the device with the largest rate of complications, used by a trained crew and with a correct indication, his use is unchained justified.

  20. Commercial radioactive waste minimization program development guidance

    SciTech Connect

    Fischer, D.K.

    1991-01-01

    This document is one of two prepared by the EG&G Idaho, Inc., Waste Management Technical Support Program Group, National Low-Level Waste Management Program Unit. One of several Department of Energy responsibilities stated in the Amendments Act of 1985 is to provide technical assistance to compact regions Host States, and nonmember States (to the extent provided in appropriations acts) in establishing waste minimization program plans. Technical assistance includes, among other things, the development of technical guidelines for volume reduction options. Pursuant to this defined responsibility, the Department of Energy (through EG&G Idaho, Inc.) has prepared this report, which includes guidance on defining a program, State/compact commission participation, and waste minimization program plans.