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Sample records for minimal lee-wick extension

  1. Lee-Wick radiation induced bouncing universe models

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Bhattacharya, Kaushik; Cai, Yi-Fu; Das, Suratna

    2013-04-01

    The present article discusses the effect of a Lee-Wick partner infested radiation phase of the early universe. As Lee-Wick partners can contribute negative energy density it is always possible that at some early phase of the universe when the Lee-Wick partners were thermalized the total energy density of the universe became very small making the effective Hubble radius very big. This possibility gives rise to the probability of a bouncing universe. As will be shown in the article a simple Lee-Wick radiation is not enough to produce a bounce. There can be two possibilities which can produce a bounce in the Lee-Wick radiation phase. One requires a cold dark matter candidate to trigger the bounce and the other possibility requires the bouncing temperature to be fine-tuned such as all the Lee-Wick partners of the standard fields are not thermalized at the bounce temperature. Both the possibilities give rise to a blue-tilted power spectrum of metric perturbations. Moreover the bouncing universe model can predict the lower limit of the masses of the Lee-Wick partners of chiral fermions and massless gauge bosons. The mass limit intrinsically depends upon the bounce temperature.

  2. Process gg{yields}h{sub 0}{yields}{gamma}{gamma} in the Lee-Wick standard model

    SciTech Connect

    Krauss, F.; Underwood, T. E. J.; Zwicky, R.

    2008-01-01

    The process gg{yields}h{sub 0}{yields}{gamma}{gamma} is studied in the Lee-Wick extension of the standard model (LWSM) proposed by Grinstein, O'Connell, and Wise. In this model, negative norm partners for each SM field are introduced with the aim to cancel quadratic divergences in the Higgs mass. All sectors of the model relevant to gg{yields}h{sub 0}{yields}{gamma}{gamma} are diagonalized and results are commented on from the perspective of both the Lee-Wick and higher-derivative formalisms. Deviations from the SM rate for gg{yields}h{sub 0} are found to be of the order of 15%-5% for Lee-Wick masses in the range 500-1000 GeV. Effects on the rate for h{sub 0}{yields}{gamma}{gamma} are smaller, of the order of 5%-1% for Lee-Wick masses in the same range. These comparatively small changes may well provide a means of distinguishing the LWSM from other models such as universal extra dimensions where same-spin partners to standard model fields also appear. Corrections to determinations of Cabibbo-Kobayashi-Maskawa (CKM) elements |V{sub t(b,s,d)}| are also considered and are shown to be positive, allowing the possibility of measuring a CKM element larger than unity, a characteristic signature of the ghostlike nature of the Lee-Wick fields.

  3. Vertex displacements for acausal particles: testing the Lee-Wick standard model at the LHC

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Álvarez, Ezequiel; Da Rold, Leandro; Schat, Carlos; Szynkman, Alejandro

    2009-10-01

    We propose to search for wrong displaced vertices, where decay products of the secondary vertex move towards the primary vertex instead of away from it, as a signature for microscopic violation of causality. We analyze in detail the leptonic sector of the recently proposed Lee-Wick Standard Model, which provides a well motivated framework to study acausal effects. We find that, assuming Minimal Flavor Violation, the Lee-Wick partners of the electron, tilde le and tilde e, can produce measurable wrong vertices at the LHC, the most promising channel being qbar qlongrightarrowblte_ltelongrightarrowe+e-jjjj. A Monte-Carlo simulation using MadGraph/MadEvent suggests that for Mllesssim450 GeV the measurement of these acausal vertex displacements should be accessible in the LHC era.

  4. Scalar perturbation in symmetric Lee-Wick bouncing universe

    SciTech Connect

    Cho, Inyong; Kwon, O-Kab E-mail: okab@skku.edu

    2011-11-01

    We investigate the scalar perturbation in the Lee-Wick bouncing universe driven by an ordinary scalar field plus a ghost field. We consider only a symmetric evolution of the universe and the scalar fields about the bouncing point. The gauge invariant Sasaki-Mukhanov variable is numerically solved in the spatially flat gauge. We find a new form of the initial perturbation growing during the contracting phase. After the bouncing, this growing mode stabilizes to a constant mode which is responsible for the late-time power spectrum.

  5. Super-renormalizable or finite Lee-Wick quantum gravity

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Modesto, Leonardo

    2016-08-01

    We propose a class of multidimensional higher derivative theories of gravity without extra real degrees of freedom besides the graviton field. The propagator shows up the usual real graviton pole in k2 = 0 and extra complex conjugates poles that do not contribute to the absorptive part of the physical scattering amplitudes. Indeed, they may consistently be excluded from the asymptotic observable states of the theory making use of the Lee-Wick and Cutkosky, Landshoff, Olive and Polkinghorne prescription for the construction of a unitary S-matrix. Therefore, the spectrum consists of the graviton and short lived elementary unstable particles that we named "anti-gravitons" because of their repulsive contribution to the gravitational potential at short distance. However, another interpretation of the complex conjugate pairs is proposed based on the Calmet's suggestion, i.e. they could be understood as black hole precursors long established in the classical theory. Since the theory is CPT invariant, the conjugate complex of the micro black hole precursor can be interpreted as a white hole precursor consistently with the 't Hooft complementarity principle. It is proved that the quantum theory is super-renormalizable in even dimension, i.e. only a finite number of divergent diagrams survive, and finite in odd dimension. Furthermore, turning on a local potential of the Riemann tensor we can make the theory finite in any dimension. The singularity-free Newtonian gravitational potential is explicitly computed for a range of higher derivative theories. Finally, we propose a new super-renormalizable or finite Lee-Wick standard model of particle physics.

  6. Electroweak precision data and the Lee-Wick standard model

    SciTech Connect

    Underwood, Thomas E. J.; Zwicky, Roman

    2009-02-01

    We investigate the electroweak precision constraints on the recently proposed Lee-Wick standard model at tree level. We analyze low-energy, Z-pole (LEP1/SLC) and LEP2 data separately. We derive the exact tree-level low-energy and Z-pole effective Lagrangians from both the auxiliary field and higher derivative formulation of the theory. For the LEP2 data we use the fact that the Lee-Wick standard model belongs to the class of models that assumes a so-called 'universal' form which can be described by seven oblique parameters at leading order in m{sub W}{sup 2}/M{sub 1,2}{sup 2}. At tree level we find that Y=-m{sub W}{sup 2}/M{sub 1}{sup 2} and W=-m{sub W}{sup 2}/M{sub 2}{sup 2}, where the negative sign is due to the presence of the negative norm states. All other oblique parameters (S,X) and (T,U,V) are found to be zero. In the addendum we show how our results differ from previous investigations, where contact terms, which are found to be of leading order, have been neglected. The LEP1/SLC constraints are slightly stronger than LEP2 and much stronger than the low-energy ones. The LEP1/SLC results exclude gauge boson masses of M{sub 1}{approx_equal}M{sub 2}{approx}3 TeV at the 99% confidence level. Somewhat lower masses are possible when one of the masses assumes a large value. Loop corrections to the electroweak observables are suppressed by the standard {approx}1/(4{pi}){sup 2} factor and are therefore not expected to change the constraints on M1 and M{sub 2}. This assertion is most transparent from the higher derivative formulation of the theory.

  7. Generalized Lee-Wick formulation from higher derivative field theories

    SciTech Connect

    Cho, Inyong; Kwon, O-Kab

    2010-07-15

    We study a higher derivative (HD) field theory with an arbitrary order of derivative for a real scalar field. The degree of freedom for the HD field can be converted to multiple fields with canonical kinetic terms up to the overall sign. The Lagrangian describing the dynamics of the multiple fields is known as the Lee-Wick (LW) form. The first step to obtain the LW form for a given HD Lagrangian is to find an auxiliary field (AF) Lagrangian which is equivalent to the original HD Lagrangian up to the quantum level. Until now, the AF Lagrangian has been studied only for N=2 and 3 cases, where N is the number of poles of the two-point function of the HD scalar field. We construct the AF Lagrangian for arbitrary N. By the linear combinations of AF fields, we also obtain the corresponding LW form. We find the explicit mapping matrices among the HD fields, the AF fields, and the LW fields. As an exercise of our construction, we calculate the relations among parameters and mapping matrices for N=2, 3, and 4 cases.

  8. Custodial isospin violation in the Lee-Wick standard model

    SciTech Connect

    Chivukula, R. Sekhar; Farzinnia, Arsham; Foadi, Roshan; Simmons, Elizabeth H.

    2010-05-01

    We analyze the tension between naturalness and isospin violation in the Lee-Wick standard model (LW SM) by computing tree-level and fermionic one-loop contributions to the post-LEP electroweak parameters (S-circumflex, T-circumflex, W, and Y) and the Zb{sub L}b-bar{sub L} coupling. The model is most natural when the LW partners of the gauge bosons and fermions are light, but small partner masses can lead to large isospin violation. The post-LEP parameters yield a simple picture in the LW SM: the gauge sector contributes to Y and W only, with leading contributions arising at tree level, while the fermion sector contributes to S-circumflex and T-circumflex only, with leading corrections arising at one loop. Hence, W and Y constrain the masses of the LW gauge bosons to satisfy M{sub 1}, M{sub 2} > or approx. 2.4 TeV at 95% C.L. Likewise, experimental limits on T-circumflex reveal that the masses of the LW fermions must satisfy M{sub q}, M{sub t} > or approx. 1.6 TeV at 95% C.L. if the Higgs mass is light and tend to exclude the LW SM for any LW fermion masses if the Higgs mass is heavy. Contributions from the top-quark sector to the Zb{sub L}b{sub L} coupling can be even more stringent, placing a lower bound of 4 TeV on the LW fermion masses at 95% C.L.

  9. Scale-invariant spectrum of Lee-Wick model in de Sitter spacetime

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Myung, Yun Soo; Moon, Taeyoon

    2015-02-01

    We obtain a scale-invariant spectrum from the Lee-Wick model in de Sitter spacetime. This model is a fourth-order scalar theory whose mass parameter is determined by M2=2H2. The Harrison-Zel'dovich scale-invariant spectrum is obtained by Fourier transforming the propagator in position space as well as by computing the power spectrum directly. It shows clearly that the LW scalar theory provides a truly scale-invariant spectrum in whole de Sitter, while the massless scalar propagation in de Sitter shows a scale-invariant spectrum in the superhorizon region only.

  10. Possible treatment of the ghost states in the Lee-Wick standard model

    SciTech Connect

    Shalaby, Abouzeid M.

    2009-07-15

    In this work, we employ the techniques used to cure the indefinite norm problem in pseudo-Hermitian Hamiltonians to show that the ghost states in a higher derivative scalar field theory are not real ghosts. For the model under investigation, an imaginary auxiliary field is introduced to have an equivalent non-Hermitian two-field scalar theory. We were able to calculate exactly the positive definite metric operator {eta} for the quantum mechanical as well as the quantum field versions of the theory. While the equivalent Hamiltonian is non-Hermitian in a Hilbert space characterized by the Dirac sense inner product, it is, however, a Hermitian in a Hilbert space endowed with the inner product . The main feature of the latter Hilbert space is that the propagator has the correct sign (no Lee-Wick fields). Moreover, the calculated metric operator diagonalizes the Hamiltonian in the two fields (no mixing). We found that the Hermiticity of the calculated metric operator to lead to the constrain M>2m for the two Higgs masses, in agreement with other calculations in the literature. Besides, our mass formulas coincide with those obtained in other works (obtained by a very different regime but with the existence of ghost states), which means that our positive normed Hamiltonian form preserves the mass spectra.

  11. Production cross sections for Lee-Wick massive electromagnetic bosons and for spin-zero and spin-one W bosons at high energies.

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Linsker, R.

    1972-01-01

    Production cross sections for three types of hypothetical particles are calculated in the presented paper. Several (Z, Z') cases were studied corresponding to elastic scattering off protons and neutrons (either free or embedded within a Fermi sea), coherent scattering off a nucleus, and inelastic scattering off a proton (in which case Z' denotes a nucleon resonance or hadronic system in the continuum). Detailed structure-function data are used to improve the accuracy of the inelastic scattering calculation. Results of calculations are given for beam energies between 50 and 10,000 GeV, and masses between 5 and 40 GeV for the massive Lee-Wick spin-1 boson. Cross sections were computed for resonant and semiweak processes. The production cross section of spin-zero weak intermediate bosons was found to be at least one order of magnitude smaller than for spin-1 weak bosons in nearly all regions of interest. The production cross section of spin-zero weak intermediate bosons for inelastic scattering off protons compares with that for elastic scattering in the regions of interest. In the case of massive spin-1 bosons and spin-1 weak intermediates, the main contribution to total production cross section off protons is elastic.

  12. Entanglement as minimal discord over state extensions

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Luo, Shunlong

    2016-09-01

    The characterization and quantification of quantum correlations, which play an instrumental role in exploring and exploiting the quantum world, have been extensively and intensively studied in the past few decades. Of special prominence and significance are the concepts of entanglement and discord, which are usually regarded as very distinctive quantum correlations, with the latter going beyond the former. In this work we establish a direct and natural link between entanglement and discord via state extensions and reveal that entanglement is actually the intrinsic discord, by which we mean that entanglement is the irreducible residue of discord viewed from ambient spaces. Our approach, taking into account the contextuality of a quantum state and being of a global nature, stands in sharp contrast to the local operations and classical communication paradigm of entanglement, which focuses on the state itself via a local approach. Furthermore, we introduce a figure of merit which, on the one hand, captures the essence of entanglement, i.e., nonlocality and quantumness of correlations, and, on the other hand, leads to a quantitative decomposition of total correlations into classical correlations, dissonance, and entanglement. This demystifies the meaning of entanglement from the perspective of quantum measurements and provides a unified framework for the interplay of various correlations in terms of quantum measurements and mutual information.

  13. Minimal extension of Einstein's theory: The quartic gravity

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Karasu, Atalay; Kenar, Esin; Tekin, Bayram

    2016-04-01

    We study structure of solutions of the recently constructed minimal extensions of Einstein's gravity in four dimensions at the quartic curvature level. The extended higher derivative theory, just like Einstein's gravity, has only a massless spin-two graviton about its unique maximally symmetric vacuum. The extended theory does not admit the Schwarzschild or Kerr metrics as exact solutions, hence there is no issue of Schwarzschild type singularity but, approximately, outside a source, spherically symmetric metric with the correct Newtonian limit is recovered. We also show that for all Einstein space-times, the square of the Riemann tensor (the Kretschmann scalar or the Gauss-Bonnet invariant) obeys a nonlinear scalar Klein-Gordon equation.

  14. Minimal anomalous U(1){sup '} extension of the MSSM

    SciTech Connect

    Anastasopoulos, Pascal; Fucito, Francesco; Lionetto, Andrea; Pradisi, Gianfranco; Racioppi, Antonio; Stanev, Yassen S.

    2008-10-15

    We study an extension of the minimal supersymmetric standard model by an anomalous Abelian vector multiplet and a Stueckelberg multiplet. The anomalies are cancelled by the Green-Schwarz mechanism and the addition of Chern-Simons terms. The advantage of this choice over the standard one is that it allows for arbitrary values of the quantum numbers of the extra U(1). As a first step toward the study of hadron annihilations producing four leptons in the final state (a clean signal which might be studied at LHC), we then compute the decays Z{sup '}{yields}Z{sub 0}{gamma} and Z{sup '}{yields}Z{sub 0}Z{sub 0}. We find that the largest values of the decay rate are {approx}10{sup -4} GeV, while the expected number of events per year at LHC is at most of the order of 10.

  15. Phenomenology of the minimal B-L extension of the standard model: The Higgs sector

    SciTech Connect

    Basso, Lorenzo; Moretti, Stefano; Pruna, Giovanni Marco

    2011-03-01

    We investigate the phenomenology of the Higgs sector of the minimal B-L extension of the standard model. We present results for both the foreseen energy stages of the Large Hadron Collider ({radical}(s)=7 and 14 TeV). We show that in such a scenario several novel production and decay channels involving the two physical Higgs states could be accessed at such a machine. Amongst these, several Higgs signatures have very distinctive features with respect to those of other models with an enlarged Higgs sector, as they involve interactions of Higgs bosons between themselves, with Z{sup '} bosons as well as with heavy neutrinos.

  16. Unification and Dark Matter in a Minimal Scalar Extension of the Standard Model

    SciTech Connect

    Lisanti, Mariangela; Wacker, Jay G.

    2007-04-25

    The six Higgs doublet model is a minimal extension of the Standard Model (SM) that addresses dark matter and gauge coupling unification. Another Higgs doublet in the 5 representation of a discrete symmetry group, such as S{sub 6}, is added to the SM. The lightest components of the 5-Higgs are neutral, stable and serve as dark matter so long as the discrete symmetry is not broken. Direct and indirect detection signals, as well as collider signatures are discussed. The five-fold multiplicity of the dark matter decreases its mass and typically helps make the dark matter more visible in upcoming experiments.

  17. Search for Neutral Higgs Bosons of the Minimal Supersymmetric Extension of the Standard Model with SLD

    SciTech Connect

    Ma, J

    2004-01-06

    The authors searched for the light neutral scalar Higgs boson h{sup o} and the pseudoscalar Higgs boson A{sup o} of the Minimal Supersymmetric Extension of the Standard Model (MSSM) for the case tan {beta} < 1. The experiment was done with the SLD detector at the Stanford Linear Accelerator Center (SLAC). This analysis is based on the data set collected during the 1993 physics run which contained about 50,000 hadronic Z{sup o} events. After the event selection cuts for hadronic Z{sup 0} decays with CDC information, they select 27,560 events. The Monte Carlo (MC) simulated event distributions agree very well with the data. Good agreement is achieved between MC and the data on the number of events passing each of the event selection cuts.

  18. Revised WMAP constraints on neutrino masses and other extensions of the minimal {lambda}CDM model

    SciTech Connect

    Kristiansen, Jostein R.; Elgaroey, Oystein; Eriksen, Hans Kristian

    2006-12-15

    Recently, two issues concerning the three-year Wilkinson Microwave Anisotropy Probe (WMAP) likelihood code were pointed out. On large angular scales (l(less-or-similar sign)30), a suboptimal likelihood approximation resulted in a small power excess. On small angular scales (l(greater-or-similar sign)300), over-subtraction of unresolved point sources produced a small power deficit. For a minimal six-parameter cosmological model, these two effects conspired to decrease the value of n{sub s} by {approx}0.7{sigma}. In this paper, we study the change in preferred parameter ranges for extended cosmological models, including running of n{sub s}, massive neutrinos, curvature, and the equation of state for dark energy. We also include large-scale structure and supernova data in our analysis. We find that the parameter ranges for {alpha}{sub s}, {omega}{sub k} and w are not much altered by the modified analysis. For massive neutrinos the upper limit on the sum of the neutrino masses decreases from M{sub {nu}}<1.90 eV to M{sub {nu}}<1.57 eV when using the modified WMAP code and WMAP data only. We also find that the shift of n{sub s} to higher values is quite robust to these extensions of the minimal cosmological model.

  19. Top quark electric dipole moment in a minimal supersymmetric standard model extension with vectorlike multiplets

    SciTech Connect

    Ibrahim, Tarek; Nath, Pran

    2010-09-01

    The electric dipole moment (EDM) of the top quark is calculated in a model with a vector like multiplet which mixes with the third generation in an extension of the minimal supersymmetric standard model. Such mixings allow for new CP violating phases. Including these new CP phases, the EDM of the top in this class of models is computed. The top EDM arises from loops involving the exchange of the W, the Z as well as from the exchange involving the charginos, the neutralinos, the gluino, and the vector like multiplet and their superpartners. The analysis of the EDM of the top is more complicated than for the light quarks because the mass of the external fermion, in this case the top quark mass cannot be ignored relative to the masses inside the loops. A numerical analysis is presented and it is shown that the top EDM could be close to 10{sup -19} ecm consistent with the current limits on the EDM of the electron, the neutron and on atomic EDMs. A top EDM of size 10{sup -19} ecm could be accessible in collider experiments such as the International Linear Collider.

  20. Stability of the Tree-Level Vacuum in a Minimal S3 Extension of the Standard Model

    SciTech Connect

    Emmanuel-Costa, D.; Felix-Beltran, O.; Mondragon, M.; Rodriguez-Jauregui, E.

    2007-06-19

    In this work we analyzed the stability of the minimal S3 invariant extension of the Higgs potential. In the S3 invariant minimal standard model it is assumed that the Higgs fields belong to the three-dimensional reducible representation of the permutation group S3. We show that in the three S3 Higgs doublet model at tree-level the potential minimum preserving electric charge and CP symmetries, when it exists, is the global one.

  1. Shelf-life extension of minimally processed carrots by gaseous chlorine dioxide.

    PubMed

    Gómez-López, V M; Devlieghere, F; Ragaert, P; Debevere, J

    2007-05-10

    Chlorine dioxide (ClO(2)) gas is a strong oxidizing and sanitizing agent that has a broad and high biocidal effectiveness and big penetration ability; its efficacy to prolong the shelf-life of a minimally processed (MP) vegetable, grated carrots (Daucus carota L.), was tested in this study. Carrots were sorted, their ends removed, hand peeled, cut, washed, spin dried and separated in 2 portions, one to be treated with ClO(2) gas and the other to remain untreated for comparisons. MP carrots were decontaminated in a cabinet at 91% relative humidity and 28 degrees C for up to 6 min, including 30 s of ClO(2) injection to the cabinet, then stored under equilibrium modified atmosphere (4.5% O(2), 8.9% CO(2), 86.6% N(2)) at 7 degrees C for shelf-life studies. ClO(2) concentration in the cabinet rose to 1.33 mg/l after 30 s of treatment, and then fell to nil before 6 min. The shelf-life study included: O(2) and CO(2) headspace concentrations, microbiological quality (mesophilic aerobic bacteria, psychrotrophs, lactic acid bacteria, and yeasts), sensory quality (odour, flavour, texture, overall visual quality, and white blushing), and pH. ClO(2) did not affect respiration rate of MP carrots significantly (alpha< or =0.05), and lowered the pH significantly (alpha< or =0.05). The applied packaging configuration kept O(2) headspace concentrations in treated samples in equilibrium and prevented CO(2) accumulation. After ClO(2) treatment, the decontamination levels (log CFU/g) achieved were 1.88, 1.71, 2.60, and 0.66 for mesophilic aerobic bacteria, psychrotrophs, and yeasts respectively. The initial sensory quality of MP carrots was not impaired significantly (alpha< or =0.05). A lag phase of at least 2 days was observed for mesophilic aerobic bacteria, psychrotrophs, and lactic acid bacteria in treated samples, while mesophilic aerobic bacteria and psychrotrophs increased parallelly. Odour was the only important attribute in sensory deterioration, but it reached an

  2. Renormalization group equation study of the scalar sector of the minimal B-L extension of the standard model

    SciTech Connect

    Basso, Lorenzo; Moretti, Stefano; Pruna, Giovanni Marco

    2010-09-01

    We present the complete set of renormalization group equations at one loop for the nonexotic minimal U(1) extension of the standard model (SM). It includes all models that are anomaly-free with the SM fermion content augmented by one right-handed neutrino per generation. We then pursue the numerical study of the pure B-L model, deriving the triviality and vacuum stability bounds on an enlarged scalar sector comprising one additional Higgs singlet field with respect to the SM.

  3. Consistent cosmology with Higgs thermal inflation in a minimal extension of the MSSM

    SciTech Connect

    Hindmarsh, Mark; Jones, D.R. Timothy E-mail: drtj@liv.ac.uk

    2013-03-01

    We consider a class of supersymmetric inflation models, in which minimal gauged F-term hybrid inflation is coupled renormalisably to the minimal supersymmetric standard model (MSSM), with no extra ingredients; we call this class the ''minimal hybrid inflationary supersymmetric standard model'' (MHISSM). The singlet inflaton couples to the Higgs as well as the waterfall fields, supplying the Higgs μ-term. We show how such models can exit inflation to a vacuum characterised by large Higgs vevs, whose vacuum energy is controlled by supersymmetry-breaking. The true ground state is reached after an intervening period of thermal inflation along the Higgs flat direction, which has important consequences for the cosmology of the F-term inflation scenario. The scalar spectral index is reduced, with a value of approximately 0.976 in the case where the inflaton potential is dominated by the 1-loop radiative corrections. The reheat temperature following thermal inflation is about 10{sup 9} GeV, which solves the gravitino overclosure problem. A Higgs condensate reduces the cosmic string mass per unit length, rendering it compatible with the Cosmic Microwave Background constraints without tuning the inflaton coupling. With the minimal U(1)' gauge symmetry in the inflation sector, where one of the waterfall fields generates a right-handed neutrino mass, we investigate the Higgs thermal inflation scenario in three popular supersymmetry-breaking schemes: AMSB, GMSB and the CMSSM, focusing on the implications for the gravitino bound. In AMSB enough gravitinos can be produced to account for the observed dark matter abundance through decays into neutralinos. In GMSB we find an upper bound on the gravitino mass of about a TeV, while in the CMSSM the thermally generated gravitinos are sub-dominant. When Big Bang Nucleosynthesis constraints are taken into account, the unstable gravitinos of AMSB and the CMSSM must have a mass O(10) TeV or greater, while in GMSB we find an upper bound on

  4. Consistent cosmology with Higgs thermal inflation in a minimal extension of the MSSM

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Hindmarsh, Mark; Jones, D. R. Timothy

    2013-03-01

    We consider a class of supersymmetric inflation models, in which minimal gauged F-term hybrid inflation is coupled renormalisably to the minimal supersymmetric standard model (MSSM), with no extra ingredients; we call this class the ``minimal hybrid inflationary supersymmetric standard model'' (MHISSM). The singlet inflaton couples to the Higgs as well as the waterfall fields, supplying the Higgs μ-term. We show how such models can exit inflation to a vacuum characterised by large Higgs vevs, whose vacuum energy is controlled by supersymmetry-breaking. The true ground state is reached after an intervening period of thermal inflation along the Higgs flat direction, which has important consequences for the cosmology of the F-term inflation scenario. The scalar spectral index is reduced, with a value of approximately 0.976 in the case where the inflaton potential is dominated by the 1-loop radiative corrections. The reheat temperature following thermal inflation is about 109 GeV, which solves the gravitino overclosure problem. A Higgs condensate reduces the cosmic string mass per unit length, rendering it compatible with the Cosmic Microwave Background constraints without tuning the inflaton coupling. With the minimal U(1)' gauge symmetry in the inflation sector, where one of the waterfall fields generates a right-handed neutrino mass, we investigate the Higgs thermal inflation scenario in three popular supersymmetry-breaking schemes: AMSB, GMSB and the CMSSM, focusing on the implications for the gravitino bound. In AMSB enough gravitinos can be produced to account for the observed dark matter abundance through decays into neutralinos. In GMSB we find an upper bound on the gravitino mass of about a TeV, while in the CMSSM the thermally generated gravitinos are sub-dominant. When Big Bang Nucleosynthesis constraints are taken into account, the unstable gravitinos of AMSB and the CMSSM must have a mass O(10) TeV or greater, while in GMSB we find an upper bound on the

  5. Diphoton resonances in a U (1 )B -L extension of the minimal supersymmetric standard model

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Lazarides, G.; Shafi, Q.

    2016-06-01

    Inspired by the 750 GeV diphoton state recently reported by ATLAS and CMS, we propose a U (1 )B-L extension of the MSSM which predicts the existence of four spin zero resonance states that are degenerate in mass in the supersymmetric limit. Vectorlike fields, a gauge singlet field, as well as the MSSM Higgsinos are prevented from acquiring arbitrary large masses by a U (1 ) R symmetry. Indeed, these masses can be considerably lighter than the Z' gauge boson mass. Depending on kinematics, the resonance states could decay into right-handed neutrinos and sneutrinos, and/or MSSM Higgs fields and Higgsinos with total decay widths in the multi-GeV range.

  6. Lagrangian Formulation of a Magnetostatic Field in the Presence of a Minimal Length Scale Based on the Kempf Algebra

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Moayedi, S. K.; Setare, M. R.; Khosropour, B.

    2013-11-01

    In the 1990s, Kempf and his collaborators Mangano and Mann introduced a D-dimensional (β, β‧)-two-parameter deformed Heisenberg algebra which leads to an isotropic minimal length (\\triangle Xi)\\min = \\hbar √ {Dβ +β '}, \\forall i\\in \\{1, 2, ..., D\\}. In this work, the Lagrangian formulation of a magnetostatic field in three spatial dimensions (D = 3) described by Kempf algebra is presented in the special case of β‧ = 2β up to the first-order over β. We show that at the classical level there is a similarity between magnetostatics in the presence of a minimal length scale (modified magnetostatics) and the magnetostatic sector of the Abelian Lee-Wick model in three spatial dimensions. The integral form of Ampere's law and the energy density of a magnetostatic field in the modified magnetostatics are obtained. Also, the Biot-Savart law in the modified magnetostatics is found. By studying the effect of minimal length corrections to the gyromagnetic moment of the muon, we conclude that the upper bound on the isotropic minimal length scale in three spatial dimensions is 4.42×10-19 m. The relationship between magnetostatics with a minimal length and the Gaete-Spallucci nonlocal magnetostatics [J. Phys. A: Math. Theor. 45, 065401 (2012)] is investigated.

  7. Minimal Prospects for Radio Detection of Extensive Air Showers in the Atmosphere of Jupiter

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Bray, J. D.; Nelles, A.

    2016-07-01

    One possible approach for detecting ultra-high-energy cosmic rays and neutrinos is to search for radio emission from extensive air showers created when they interact in the atmosphere of Jupiter, effectively utilizing Jupiter as a particle detector. We investigate the potential of this approach. For searches with current or planned radio telescopes we find that the effective area for detection of cosmic rays is substantial (˜3 × 107 km2), but the acceptance angle is so small that the typical geometric aperture (˜103 km2 sr) is less than that of existing terrestrial detectors, and cosmic rays also cannot be detected below an extremely high threshold energy (˜1023 eV). The geometric aperture for neutrinos is slightly larger, and greater sensitivity can be achieved with a radio detector on a Jupiter-orbiting satellite, but in neither case is this sufficient to constitute a practical detection technique. Exploitation of the large surface area of Jupiter for detecting ultra-high-energy particles remains a long-term prospect that will require a different technique, such as orbital fluorescence detection.

  8. Will at least one of the Higgs bosons of the next-to-minimal supersymmetric extension of the standard model be observable at LEP2 or the LHC?

    SciTech Connect

    Gunion, John F.; Haber, Howard E.; Moroi, Takeo

    1996-06-24

    We demonstrate that there are regions of parameter space in the next-to-minimal (i.e. two-Higgs-doublet, one-Higgs-singlet superfield) supersymmetric extension of the SM for which none of the Higgs bosons are observable either at LEP2 with $\\sqrt{s}=192 GeV$ and an integrated luminosity of $L=1000inverse pb$ or at the LHC with $L=600 inverse fb$.

  9. A Singlet Extension of the Minimal Supersymmetric Standard Model: Towards a More Natural Solution to the Little Hierarchy Problem

    SciTech Connect

    de la Puente, Alejandro

    2012-05-01

    In this work, I present a generalization of the Next-to-Minimal Supersymmetric Standard Model (NMSSM), with an explicit μ-term and a supersymmetric mass for the singlet superfield, as a route to alleviating the little hierarchy problem of the Minimal Supersymmetric Standard Model (MSSM). I analyze two limiting cases of the model, characterized by the size of the supersymmetric mass for the singlet superfield. The small and large limits of this mass parameter are studied, and I find that I can generate masses for the lightest neutral Higgs boson up to 140 GeV with top squarks below the TeV scale, all couplings perturbative up to the gauge unification scale, and with no need to fine tune parameters in the scalar potential. This model, which I call the S-MSSM is also embedded in a gauge-mediated supersymmetry breaking scheme. I find that even with a minimal embedding of the S-MSSM into a gauge mediated scheme, the mass for the lightest Higgs boson can easily be above 114 GeV, while keeping the top squarks below the TeV scale. Furthermore, I also study the forward-backward asymmetry in the t¯t system within the framework of the S-MSSM. For this purpose, non-renormalizable couplings between the first and third generation of quarks to scalars are introduced. The two limiting cases of the S-MSSM, characterized by the size of the supersymmetric mass for the singlet superfield is analyzed, and I find that in the region of small singlet supersymmetric mass a large asymmetry can be obtained while being consistent with constraints arising from flavor physics, quark masses and top quark decays.

  10. Interpreting the 750 GeV diphoton excess in minimal extensions of Two-Higgs-Doublet models

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Badziak, Marcin

    2016-08-01

    It is shown that the 750 GeV diphoton excess can be explained in extensions of Two-Higgs-Doublet Models that do not involve large multiplicities of new electromagnetically charged states. The key observation is that at moderate and large tan ⁡ β the total decay width of the 750 GeV Higgs is strongly reduced as compared to the Standard Model. This allows for much more economical choices of new states that enhance the diphoton signal to fit the data. In particular, it is shown that one family of vector-like quarks and leptons with SM charges is enough to explain the 750 GeV diphoton excess. Moreover, such charge assignment can keep the 125 GeV Higgs signal rates exactly at the SM values. The scenario can interpret the diphoton excess provided that the total decay width of a hypothetical resonance that would be measured at the LHC turns out to not exceed few GeV.

  11. Minimally Invasive Treatment of a Complex Tibial Plateau Fracture with Diaphyseal Extension in a Patient with Uncontrolled Diabetes Mellitus: A Case Report and Review of Literature

    PubMed Central

    Rathod, Ashok K; Pawaskar, Aditya

    2016-01-01

    Fractures of the proximal tibia comprise a huge spectrum of injuries with different fracture configurations. The combination of tibia plateau fracture with diaphyseal extension is a rare injury with sparse literature being available on treatment of the same. Various treatment modalities can be adopted with the aim of achieving a well-aligned, congruous, stable joint, which allows early motion and function. We report a case of a 40-year-old male who sustained a Schatzker type VI fracture of left tibial plateau with diaphyseal extension. On further investigations, the patient was diagnosed to have diabetes mellitus with grossly deranged blood sugar levels. The depressed tibial condyle was manipulated to lift its articular surface using K-wire as a joystick and stabilized with an additional K-wire. Distal tibial skeletal traction was maintained for three weeks followed by an above knee cast. At eight months of follow-up, X-rays revealed a well-consolidated fracture site, and the patient had attained a reasonably good range of motion with only terminal restriction of squatting. Tibial plateau fractures with diaphyseal extension in a patient with uncontrolled diabetes mellitus is certainly a challenging entity. After an extended search of literature, we could not find any reports highlighting a similar method of treatment for complex tibial plateau injuries in a patient with uncontrolled diabetes mellitus. PMID:27335711

  12. Minimally Invasive Treatment of a Complex Tibial Plateau Fracture with Diaphyseal Extension in a Patient with Uncontrolled Diabetes Mellitus: A Case Report and Review of Literature.

    PubMed

    Rathod, Ashok K; Dhake, Rakesh P; Pawaskar, Aditya

    2016-01-01

    Fractures of the proximal tibia comprise a huge spectrum of injuries with different fracture configurations. The combination of tibia plateau fracture with diaphyseal extension is a rare injury with sparse literature being available on treatment of the same. Various treatment modalities can be adopted with the aim of achieving a well-aligned, congruous, stable joint, which allows early motion and function. We report a case of a 40-year-old male who sustained a Schatzker type VI fracture of left tibial plateau with diaphyseal extension. On further investigations, the patient was diagnosed to have diabetes mellitus with grossly deranged blood sugar levels. The depressed tibial condyle was manipulated to lift its articular surface using K-wire as a joystick and stabilized with an additional K-wire. Distal tibial skeletal traction was maintained for three weeks followed by an above knee cast. At eight months of follow-up, X-rays revealed a well-consolidated fracture site, and the patient had attained a reasonably good range of motion with only terminal restriction of squatting. Tibial plateau fractures with diaphyseal extension in a patient with uncontrolled diabetes mellitus is certainly a challenging entity. After an extended search of literature, we could not find any reports highlighting a similar method of treatment for complex tibial plateau injuries in a patient with uncontrolled diabetes mellitus. PMID:27335711

  13. Minimal Reduplication

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Kirchner, Jesse Saba

    2010-01-01

    This dissertation introduces Minimal Reduplication, a new theory and framework within generative grammar for analyzing reduplication in human language. I argue that reduplication is an emergent property in multiple components of the grammar. In particular, reduplication occurs independently in the phonology and syntax components, and in both cases…

  14. The ZOOM minimization package

    SciTech Connect

    Fischler, Mark S.; Sachs, D.; /Fermilab

    2004-11-01

    A new object-oriented Minimization package is available for distribution in the same manner as CLHEP. This package, designed for use in HEP applications, has all the capabilities of Minuit, but is a re-write from scratch, adhering to modern C++ design principles. A primary goal of this package is extensibility in several directions, so that its capabilities can be kept fresh with as little maintenance effort as possible. This package is distinguished by the priority that was assigned to C++ design issues, and the focus on producing an extensible system that will resist becoming obsolete.

  15. Minimal cosmography

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Piazza, Federico; Schücker, Thomas

    2016-04-01

    The minimal requirement for cosmography—a non-dynamical description of the universe—is a prescription for calculating null geodesics, and time-like geodesics as a function of their proper time. In this paper, we consider the most general linear connection compatible with homogeneity and isotropy, but not necessarily with a metric. A light-cone structure is assigned by choosing a set of geodesics representing light rays. This defines a "scale factor" and a local notion of distance, as that travelled by light in a given proper time interval. We find that the velocities and relativistic energies of free-falling bodies decrease in time as a consequence of cosmic expansion, but at a rate that can be different than that dictated by the usual metric framework. By extrapolating this behavior to photons' redshift, we find that the latter is in principle independent of the "scale factor". Interestingly, redshift-distance relations and other standard geometric observables are modified in this extended framework, in a way that could be experimentally tested. An extremely tight constraint on the model, however, is represented by the blackbody-ness of the cosmic microwave background. Finally, as a check, we also consider the effects of a non-metric connection in a different set-up, namely, that of a static, spherically symmetric spacetime.

  16. Minimally invasive periodontal therapy.

    PubMed

    Dannan, Aous

    2011-10-01

    Minimally invasive dentistry is a concept that preserves dentition and supporting structures. However, minimally invasive procedures in periodontal treatment are supposed to be limited within periodontal surgery, the aim of which is to represent alternative approaches developed to allow less extensive manipulation of surrounding tissues than conventional procedures, while accomplishing the same objectives. In this review, the concept of minimally invasive periodontal surgery (MIPS) is firstly explained. An electronic search for all studies regarding efficacy and effectiveness of MIPS between 2001 and 2009 was conducted. For this purpose, suitable key words from Medical Subject Headings on PubMed were used to extract the required studies. All studies are demonstrated and important results are concluded. Preliminary data from case cohorts and from many studies reveal that the microsurgical access flap, in terms of MIPS, has a high potential to seal the healing wound from the contaminated oral environment by achieving and maintaining primary closure. Soft tissues are mostly preserved and minimal gingival recession is observed, an important feature to meet the demands of the patient and the clinician in the esthetic zone. However, although the potential efficacy of MIPS in the treatment of deep intrabony defects has been proved, larger studies are required to confirm and extend the reported positive preliminary outcomes.

  17. Minimal but non-minimal inflation and electroweak symmetry breaking

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Marzola, Luca; Racioppi, Antonio

    2016-10-01

    We consider the most minimal scale invariant extension of the standard model that allows for successful radiative electroweak symmetry breaking and inflation. The framework involves an extra scalar singlet, that plays the rôle of the inflaton, and is compatibile with current experimental bounds owing to the non-minimal coupling of the latter to gravity. This inflationary scenario predicts a very low tensor-to-scalar ratio r ≈ 10‑3, typical of Higgs-inflation models, but in contrast yields a scalar spectral index ns simeq 0.97 which departs from the Starobinsky limit. We briefly discuss the collider phenomenology of the framework.

  18. AGRICULTURAL EXTENSION.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    FARQUHAR, R.N.

    AUSTRALIAN AGRICULTURAL EXTENSION HAS LONG EMPHASIZED TECHNICAL ADVISORY SERVICE AT THE EXPENSE OF THE SOCIOECONOMIC ASPECTS OF FARM PRODUCTION AND FARM LIFE. ONLY IN TASMANIA HAS FARM MANAGEMENT BEEN STRESSED. DEMANDS FOR THE WHOLE-FARM APPROACH HAVE PRODUCED A TREND TOWARD GENERALISM FOR DISTRICT OFFICERS IN MOST STATES. THE FEDERAL GOVERNMENT,…

  19. Esophagectomy - minimally invasive

    MedlinePlus

    Minimally invasive esophagectomy; Robotic esophagectomy; Removal of the esophagus - minimally invasive; Achalasia - esophagectomy; Barrett esophagus - esophagectomy; Esophageal cancer - esophagectomy - laparoscopic; Cancer of the ...

  20. Minimal change disease

    MedlinePlus

    ... seen under a very powerful microscope called an electron microscope. Minimal change disease is the most common ... biopsy and examination of the tissue with an electron microscope can show signs of minimal change disease.

  1. The minimal scenario of leptogenesis

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Blanchet, Steve; Di Bari, Pasquale

    2012-12-01

    We review the main features and results of thermal leptogenesis within the type I seesaw mechanism, the minimal extension of the Standard Model explaining neutrino masses and mixing. After presenting the simplest approach, the vanilla scenario, we discuss various important developments of recent years, such as the inclusion of lepton and heavy neutrino flavour effects, a description beyond a hierarchical heavy neutrino mass spectrum and an improved kinetic description within the density matrix and the closed-time-path formalisms. We also discuss how leptogenesis can ultimately represent an important phenomenological tool to test the seesaw mechanism and the underlying model of new physics.

  2. Minimal scales from an extended Hilbert space

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Kober, Martin; Nicolini, Piero

    2010-12-01

    We consider an extension of the conventional quantum Heisenberg algebra, assuming that coordinates as well as momenta fulfil nontrivial commutation relations. As a consequence, a minimal length and a minimal mass scale are implemented. Our commutators do not depend on positions and momenta and we provide an extension of the coordinate coherent state approach to noncommutative geometry. We explore, as a toy model, the corresponding quantum field theory in a (2+1)-dimensional spacetime. Then we investigate the more realistic case of a (3+1)-dimensional spacetime, foliated into noncommutative planes. As a result, we obtain propagators, which are finite in the ultraviolet as well as the infrared regime.

  3. Minimally Invasive Valve Surgery

    PubMed Central

    Pope, Nicolas H.; Ailawadi, Gorav

    2014-01-01

    Cardiac valve surgery is life saving for many patients. The advent of minimally invasive surgical techniques has historically allowed for improvement in both post-operative convalescence and important clinical outcomes. The development of minimally invasive cardiac valve repair and replacement surgery over the past decade is poised to revolutionize the care of cardiac valve patients. Here, we present a review of the history and current trends in minimally invasive aortic and mitral valve repair and replacement, including the development of sutureless bioprosthetic valves. PMID:24797148

  4. [Minimal Change Esophagitis].

    PubMed

    Ryu, Han Seung; Choi, Suck Chei

    2016-01-25

    Gastroesophageal reflux disease (GERD) is defined as a condition which develops when the reflux of gastric contents causes troublesome symptoms and long-term complications. GERD can be divided into erosive reflux disease and non-erosive reflux disease based on endoscopic findings defined by the presence of mucosal break. The Los Angeles classification excludes minimal changes as an evidence of reflux esophagitis because of poor interobserver agreement. In the Asian literature, minimal changes are considered as one of the endoscopic findings of reflux esophagitis, but the clinical significance is still controversial. Minimal change esophagitis is recognized quite frequently among patients with GERD and many endoscopists recognize such findings in their clinical practice. This review is intended to clarify the definition of minimal change esophagitis and their histology, interobserver agreement, and symptom association with GERD.

  5. Minimizing Shortness of Breath

    MedlinePlus

    ... Top Doctors in the Nation Departments & Divisions Home Health Insights Stress & Relaxation Breathing and Relaxation Minimizing Shortness of Breath ... Management Assess Your Stress Coping Strategies Identifying ... & Programs Health Insights Doctors & Departments Research & Science Education & Training Make ...

  6. Minimally invasive procedures

    PubMed Central

    Baltayiannis, Nikolaos; Michail, Chandrinos; Lazaridis, George; Anagnostopoulos, Dimitrios; Baka, Sofia; Mpoukovinas, Ioannis; Karavasilis, Vasilis; Lampaki, Sofia; Papaiwannou, Antonis; Karavergou, Anastasia; Kioumis, Ioannis; Pitsiou, Georgia; Katsikogiannis, Nikolaos; Tsakiridis, Kosmas; Rapti, Aggeliki; Trakada, Georgia; Zissimopoulos, Athanasios; Zarogoulidis, Konstantinos

    2015-01-01

    Minimally invasive procedures, which include laparoscopic surgery, use state-of-the-art technology to reduce the damage to human tissue when performing surgery. Minimally invasive procedures require small “ports” from which the surgeon inserts thin tubes called trocars. Carbon dioxide gas may be used to inflate the area, creating a space between the internal organs and the skin. Then a miniature camera (usually a laparoscope or endoscope) is placed through one of the trocars so the surgical team can view the procedure as a magnified image on video monitors in the operating room. Specialized equipment is inserted through the trocars based on the type of surgery. There are some advanced minimally invasive surgical procedures that can be performed almost exclusively through a single point of entry—meaning only one small incision, like the “uniport” video-assisted thoracoscopic surgery (VATS). Not only do these procedures usually provide equivalent outcomes to traditional “open” surgery (which sometimes require a large incision), but minimally invasive procedures (using small incisions) may offer significant benefits as well: (I) faster recovery; (II) the patient remains for less days hospitalized; (III) less scarring and (IV) less pain. In our current mini review we will present the minimally invasive procedures for thoracic surgery. PMID:25861610

  7. Less minimal supersymmetric standard model

    SciTech Connect

    de Gouvea, Andre; Friedland, Alexander; Murayama, Hitoshi

    1998-03-28

    Most of the phenomenological studies of supersymmetry have been carried out using the so-called minimal supergravity scenario, where one assumes a universal scalar mass, gaugino mass, and trilinear coupling at M{sub GUT}. Even though this is a useful simplifying assumption for phenomenological analyses, it is rather too restrictive to accommodate a large variety of phenomenological possibilities. It predicts, among other things, that the lightest supersymmetric particle (LSP) is an almost pure B-ino, and that the {mu}-parameter is larger than the masses of the SU(2){sub L} and U(1){sub Y} gauginos. We extend the minimal supergravity framework by introducing one extra parameter: the Fayet'Iliopoulos D-term for the hypercharge U(1), D{sub Y}. Allowing for this extra parameter, we find a much more diverse phenomenology, where the LSP is {tilde {nu}}{sub {tau}}, {tilde {tau}} or a neutralino with a large higgsino content. We discuss the relevance of the different possibilities to collider signatures. The same type of extension can be done to models with the gauge mediation of supersymmetry breaking. We argue that it is not wise to impose cosmological constraints on the parameter space.

  8. Ways To Minimize Bullying.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Mueller, Mary Ellen; Parisi, Mary Joy

    This report delineates a series of interventions aimed at minimizing incidences of bullying in a suburban elementary school. The social services staff was scheduled to initiate an anti-bullying incentive in fall 2001 due to the increased occurrences of bullying during the prior year. The target population consisted of third- and fourth-grade…

  9. Minimizing Promotion Trauma.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Darling, LuAnn W.; McGrath, Loraine

    1983-01-01

    Nursing administrators can minimize promotion trauma and its unnecessary cost by building awareness of the transition process, clarifying roles and expectations, and attending to the promoted employee's needs. This article will help nursing administrators develop a concept of manager care combined with programs for orientation of new managers,…

  10. Periodic minimal surfaces

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Mackay, Alan L.

    1985-04-01

    A minimal surface is one for which, like a soap film with the same pressure on each side, the mean curvature is zero and, thus, is one where the two principal curvatures are equal and opposite at every point. For every closed circuit in the surface, the area is a minimum. Schwarz1 and Neovius2 showed that elements of such surfaces could be put together to give surfaces periodic in three dimensions. These periodic minimal surfaces are geometrical invariants, as are the regular polyhedra, but the former are curved. Minimal surfaces are appropriate for the description of various structures where internal surfaces are prominent and seek to adopt a minimum area or a zero mean curvature subject to their topology; thus they merit more complete numerical characterization. There seem to be at least 18 such surfaces3, with various symmetries and topologies, related to the crystallographic space groups. Recently, glyceryl mono-oleate (GMO) was shown by Longley and McIntosh4 to take the shape of the F-surface. The structure postulated is shown here to be in good agreement with an analysis of the fundamental geometry of periodic minimal surfaces.

  11. Minimally invasive pancreatic surgery.

    PubMed

    Yiannakopoulou, E

    2015-12-01

    Minimally invasive pancreatic surgery is feasible and safe. Laparoscopic distal pancreatectomy should be widely adopted for benign lesions of the pancreas. Laparoscopic pancreaticoduodenectomy, although technically demanding, in the setting of pancreatic ductal adenocarcinoma has a number of advantages including shorter hospital stay, faster recovery, allowing patients to recover in a timelier manner and pursue adjuvant treatment options. Furthermore, it seems that progression-free survival is longer in patients undergoing laparoscopic pancreaticoduodenectomy in comparison with those undergoing open pancreaticoduodenectomy. Minimally invasive middle pancreatectomy seems appropriate for benign or borderline tumors of the neck of the pancreas. Technological advances including intraoperative ultrasound and intraoperative fluorescence imaging systems are expected to facilitate the wide adoption of minimally invasive pancreatic surgery. Although, the oncological outcome seems similar with that of open surgery, there are still concerns, as the majority of relevant evidence comes from retrospective studies. Large multicenter randomized studies comparing laparoscopic with open pancreatectomy as well as robotic assisted with both open and laparoscopic approaches are needed. Robotic approach could be possibly shown to be less invasive than conventional laparoscopic approach through the less traumatic intra-abdominal handling of tissues. In addition, robotic approach could enable the wide adoption of the technique by surgeon who is not that trained in advanced laparoscopic surgery. A putative clinical benefit of minimally invasive pancreatic surgery could be the attenuated surgical stress response leading to reduced morbidity and mortality as well as lack of the detrimental immunosuppressive effect especially for the oncological patients. PMID:26530291

  12. Next-to-minimal SOFTSUSY

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Allanach, B. C.; Athron, P.; Tunstall, Lewis C.; Voigt, A.; Williams, A. G.

    2014-09-01

    We describe an extension to the SOFTSUSY program that provides for the calculation of the sparticle spectrum in the Next-to-Minimal Supersymmetric Standard Model (NMSSM), where a chiral superfield that is a singlet of the Standard Model gauge group is added to the Minimal Supersymmetric Standard Model (MSSM) fields. Often, a Z3 symmetry is imposed upon the model. SOFTSUSY can calculate the spectrum in this case as well as the case where general Z3 violating (denoted as =) terms are added to the soft supersymmetry breaking terms and the superpotential. The user provides a theoretical boundary condition for the couplings and mass terms of the singlet. Radiative electroweak symmetry breaking data along with electroweak and CKM matrix data are used as weak-scale boundary conditions. The renormalisation group equations are solved numerically between the weak scale and a high energy scale using a nested iterative algorithm. This paper serves as a manual to the NMSSM mode of the program, detailing the approximations and conventions used. Catalogue identifier: ADPM_v4_0 Program summary URL:http://cpc.cs.qub.ac.uk/summaries/ADPM_v4_0.html Program obtainable from: CPC Program Library, Queen's University, Belfast, N. Ireland Licensing provisions: Standard CPC licence, http://cpc.cs.qub.ac.uk/licence/licence.html No. of lines in distributed program, including test data, etc.: 154886 No. of bytes in distributed program, including test data, etc.: 1870890 Distribution format: tar.gz Programming language: C++, fortran. Computer: Personal computer. Operating system: Tested on Linux 3.x. Word size: 64 bits Classification: 11.1, 11.6. Does the new version supersede the previous version?: Yes Catalogue identifier of previous version: ADPM_v3_0 Journal reference of previous version: Comput. Phys. Comm. 183 (2012) 785 Nature of problem: Calculating supersymmetric particle spectrum and mixing parameters in the next-to-minimal supersymmetric standard model. The solution to the

  13. Beyond the minimal top partner decay

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Serra, Javi

    2015-09-01

    Light top partners are the prime sign of naturalness in composite Higgs models. We explore here the possibility of non-standard top partner phenomenology. We show that even in the simplest extension of the minimal composite Higgs model, featuring an extra singlet pseudo Nambu-Goldstone boson, the branching ratios of the top partners into standard channels can be significantly altered, with no substantial change in the generated Higgs potential. Together with the variety of possible final states from the decay of the pseudo-scalar singlet, this motivates more extensive analyses in the search for the top partners.

  14. Discrete Minimal Surface Algebras

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Arnlind, Joakim; Hoppe, Jens

    2010-05-01

    We consider discrete minimal surface algebras (DMSA) as generalized noncommutative analogues of minimal surfaces in higher dimensional spheres. These algebras appear naturally in membrane theory, where sequences of their representations are used as a regularization. After showing that the defining relations of the algebra are consistent, and that one can compute a basis of the enveloping algebra, we give several explicit examples of DMSAs in terms of subsets of sln (any semi-simple Lie algebra providing a trivial example by itself). A special class of DMSAs are Yang-Mills algebras. The representation graph is introduced to study representations of DMSAs of dimension d ≤ 4, and properties of representations are related to properties of graphs. The representation graph of a tensor product is (generically) the Cartesian product of the corresponding graphs. We provide explicit examples of irreducible representations and, for coinciding eigenvalues, classify all the unitary representations of the corresponding algebras.

  15. Minimally invasive mediastinal surgery

    PubMed Central

    Melfi, Franca M. A.; Mussi, Alfredo

    2016-01-01

    In the past, mediastinal surgery was associated with the necessity of a maximum exposure, which was accomplished through various approaches. In the early 1990s, many surgical fields, including thoracic surgery, observed the development of minimally invasive techniques. These included video-assisted thoracic surgery (VATS), which confers clear advantages over an open approach, such as less trauma, short hospital stay, increased cosmetic results and preservation of lung function. However, VATS is associated with several disadvantages. For this reason, it is not routinely performed for resection of mediastinal mass lesions, especially those located in the anterior mediastinum, a tiny and remote space that contains vital structures at risk of injury. Robotic systems can overcome the limits of VATS, offering three-dimensional (3D) vision and wristed instrumentations, and are being increasingly used. With regards to thymectomy for myasthenia gravis (MG), unilateral and bilateral VATS approaches have demonstrated good long-term neurologic results with low complication rates. Nevertheless, some authors still advocate the necessity of maximum exposure, especially when considering the distribution of normal and ectopic thymic tissue. In recent studies, the robotic approach has shown to provide similar neurological outcomes when compared to transsternal and VATS approaches, and is associated with a low morbidity. Importantly, through a unilateral robotic technique, it is possible to dissect and remove at least the same amount of mediastinal fat tissue. Preliminary results on early-stage thymomatous disease indicated that minimally invasive approaches are safe and feasible, with a low rate of pleural recurrence, underlining the necessity of a “no-touch” technique. However, especially for thymomatous disease characterized by an indolent nature, further studies with long follow-up period are necessary in order to assess oncologic and neurologic results through minimally

  16. Minimally refined biomass fuel

    DOEpatents

    Pearson, Richard K.; Hirschfeld, Tomas B.

    1984-01-01

    A minimally refined fluid composition, suitable as a fuel mixture and derived from biomass material, is comprised of one or more water-soluble carbohydrates such as sucrose, one or more alcohols having less than four carbons, and water. The carbohydrate provides the fuel source; water solubilizes the carbohydrates; and the alcohol aids in the combustion of the carbohydrate and reduces the vicosity of the carbohydrate/water solution. Because less energy is required to obtain the carbohydrate from the raw biomass than alcohol, an overall energy savings is realized compared to fuels employing alcohol as the primary fuel.

  17. Minimal E6 unification

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Susič, Vasja

    2016-06-01

    A realistic model in the class of renormalizable supersymmetric E6 Grand Unified Theories is constructed. Its matter sector consists of 3 × 27 representations, while the Higgs sector is 27 +27 ¯+35 1'+35 1' ¯+78 . An analytic solution for a Standard Model vacuum is found and the Yukawa sector analyzed. It is argued that if one considers the increased predictability due to only two symmetric Yukawa matrices in this model, it can be considered a minimal SUSY E6 model with this type of matter sector. This contribution is based on Ref. [1].

  18. Logarithmic superconformal minimal models

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Pearce, Paul A.; Rasmussen, Jørgen; Tartaglia, Elena

    2014-05-01

    The higher fusion level logarithmic minimal models {\\cal LM}(P,P';n) have recently been constructed as the diagonal GKO cosets {(A_1^{(1)})_k\\oplus (A_1^ {(1)})_n}/ {(A_1^{(1)})_{k+n}} where n ≥ 1 is an integer fusion level and k = nP/(P‧- P) - 2 is a fractional level. For n = 1, these are the well-studied logarithmic minimal models {\\cal LM}(P,P')\\equiv {\\cal LM}(P,P';1). For n ≥ 2, we argue that these critical theories are realized on the lattice by n × n fusion of the n = 1 models. We study the critical fused lattice models {\\cal LM}(p,p')_{n\\times n} within a lattice approach and focus our study on the n = 2 models. We call these logarithmic superconformal minimal models {\\cal LSM}(p,p')\\equiv {\\cal LM}(P,P';2) where P = |2p - p‧|, P‧ = p‧ and p, p‧ are coprime. These models share the central charges c=c^{P,P';2}=\\frac {3}{2}\\big (1-{2(P'-P)^2}/{P P'}\\big ) of the rational superconformal minimal models {\\cal SM}(P,P'). Lattice realizations of these theories are constructed by fusing 2 × 2 blocks of the elementary face operators of the n = 1 logarithmic minimal models {\\cal LM}(p,p'). Algebraically, this entails the fused planar Temperley-Lieb algebra which is a spin-1 Birman-Murakami-Wenzl tangle algebra with loop fugacity β2 = [x]3 = x2 + 1 + x-2 and twist ω = x4 where x = eiλ and λ = (p‧- p)π/p‧. The first two members of this n = 2 series are superconformal dense polymers {\\cal LSM}(2,3) with c=-\\frac {5}{2}, β2 = 0 and superconformal percolation {\\cal LSM}(3,4) with c = 0, β2 = 1. We calculate the bulk and boundary free energies analytically. By numerically studying finite-size conformal spectra on the strip with appropriate boundary conditions, we argue that, in the continuum scaling limit, these lattice models are associated with the logarithmic superconformal models {\\cal LM}(P,P';2). For system size N, we propose finitized Kac character formulae of the form q^{-{c^{P,P';2}}/{24}+\\Delta ^{P,P';2} _{r

  19. University of Wisconsin - Extension

    MedlinePlus

    ... Academic Affairs From the Provost Scholarship Governance Advancing Innovation Reimagining UW-Extension Awards Provost Staff Jobs Available ... extension , business and entrepreneurship , and broadcast and media innovations . Content on this page requires a newer version ...

  20. Minimizing fan energy costs

    SciTech Connect

    Monroe, R.C.

    1985-05-27

    Minimizing fan energy costs and maximizing fan efficiency is the subject of this paper. Blade design itself can cause poor flow distribution and inefficiency. A basic design criterion is that a blade should produce uniform flow over the entire plane of the fan. Also an inherent problem with the axial fan is swirl -- the tangential deflection of exit-flow caused by the effect of torque. Swirl can be prevented with an inexpensive hub component. Basic efficiency can be checked by means of the fan's performance curve. Generally, fewer blades translate into higher axial-fan efficiency. A crowded inboard area creates hub turbulence which lessens efficiency. Whether the pitch of fan blades is fixed or variable also affects energy consumption. Power savings of 50% per year or more can be realized by replacing fixed-pitch, continuously operating fans with fans whose blade pitch or speed is automatically varied.

  1. Transanal Minimally Invasive Surgery

    PubMed Central

    deBeche-Adams, Teresa; Nassif, George

    2015-01-01

    Transanal minimally invasive surgery (TAMIS) was first described in 2010 as a crossover between single-incision laparoscopic surgery and transanal endoscopic microsurgery (TEM) to allow access to the proximal and mid-rectum for resection of benign and early-stage malignant rectal lesions. The TAMIS technique can also be used for noncurative intent surgery of more advanced lesions in patients who are not candidates for radical surgery. Proper workup and staging should be done before surgical decision-making. In addition to the TAMIS port, instrumentation and set up include readily available equipment found in most operating suites. TAMIS has proven its usefulness in a wide range of applications outside of local excision, including repair of rectourethral fistula, removal of rectal foreign body, control of rectal hemorrhage, and as an adjunct in total mesorectal excision for rectal cancer. TAMIS is an easily accessible, technically feasible, and cost-effective alternative to TEM. PMID:26491410

  2. [Minimal invasive implantology].

    PubMed

    Bruck, N; Zagury, A; Nahlieli, O

    2015-07-01

    Endoscopic surgery has changed the philosophy and practice of modern surgery in all aspects of medicine. It gave rise to minimally invasive surgery procedures based on the ability to visualize and to operate via small channels. In maxillofacial surgery, our ability to see clearly the surgical field opened an entirely new world of exploration, as conditions that were once almost impossible to control and whose outcome was uncertain can be now predictably managed. in this article we will descripe the advantage of using the oral endoscope during the dental implantology procedure, and we will describe a unique implant which enable us in combination with the oral endoscope to create a maxillary sinus lift with out the need of the major surgery with all of its risks and complication.

  3. [Minimally invasive breast surgery].

    PubMed

    Mátrai, Zoltán; Gulyás, Gusztáv; Kunos, Csaba; Sávolt, Akos; Farkas, Emil; Szollár, András; Kásler, Miklós

    2014-02-01

    Due to the development in medical science and industrial technology, minimally invasive procedures have appeared in the surgery of benign and malignant breast diseases. In general , such interventions result in significantly reduced breast and chest wall scars, shorter hospitalization and less pain, but they require specific, expensive devices, longer surgical time compared to open surgery. Furthermore, indications or oncological safety have not been established yet. It is quite likely, that minimally invasive surgical procedures with high-tech devices - similar to other surgical subspecialties -, will gradually become popular and it may form part of routine breast surgery even. Vacuum-assisted core biopsy with a therapeutic indication is suitable for the removal of benign fibroadenomas leaving behind an almost invisible scar, while endoscopically assisted skin-sparing and nipple-sparing mastectomy, axillary staging and reconstruction with latissimus dorsi muscle flap are all feasible through the same short axillary incision. Endoscopic techniques are also suitable for the diagnostics and treatment of intracapsular complications of implant-based breast reconstructions (intracapsular fluid, implant rupture, capsular contracture) and for the biopsy of intracapsular lesions with uncertain pathology. Perception of the role of radiofrequency ablation of breast tumors requires further hands-on experience, but it is likely that it can serve as a replacement of surgical removal in a portion of primary tumors in the future due to the development in functional imaging and anticancer drugs. With the reduction of the price of ductoscopes routine examination of the ductal branch system, guided microdochectomy and targeted surgical removal of terminal ducto-lobular units or a "sick lobe" as an anatomical unit may become feasible. The paper presents the experience of the authors and provides a literature review, for the first time in Hungarian language on the subject. Orv. Hetil

  4. Minimally invasive parathyroid surgery

    PubMed Central

    Noureldine, Salem I.; Gooi, Zhen

    2015-01-01

    Traditionally, bilateral cervical exploration for localization of all four parathyroid glands and removal of any that are grossly enlarged has been the standard surgical treatment for primary hyperparathyroidism (PHPT). With the advances in preoperative localization studies and greater public demand for less invasive procedures, novel targeted, minimally invasive techniques to the parathyroid glands have been described and practiced over the past 2 decades. Minimally invasive parathyroidectomy (MIP) can be done either through the standard Kocher incision, a smaller midline incision, with video assistance (purely endoscopic and video-assisted techniques), or through an ectopically placed, extracervical, incision. In current practice, once PHPT is diagnosed, preoperative evaluation using high-resolution radiographic imaging to localize the offending parathyroid gland is essential if MIP is to be considered. The imaging study results suggest where the surgeon should begin the focused procedure and serve as a road map to allow tailoring of an efficient, imaging-guided dissection while eliminating the unnecessary dissection of multiple glands or a bilateral exploration. Intraoperative parathyroid hormone (IOPTH) levels may be measured during the procedure, or a gamma probe used during radioguided parathyroidectomy, to ascertain that the correct gland has been excised and that no other hyperfunctional tissue is present. MIP has many advantages over the traditional bilateral, four-gland exploration. MIP can be performed using local anesthesia, requires less operative time, results in fewer complications, and offers an improved cosmetic result and greater patient satisfaction. Additional advantages of MIP are earlier hospital discharge and decreased overall associated costs. This article aims to address the considerations for accomplishing MIP, including the role of preoperative imaging studies, intraoperative adjuncts, and surgical techniques. PMID:26425454

  5. Cooled artery extension

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Gernert, Nelson J. (Inventor)

    1990-01-01

    An artery vapor trap. A heat pipe artery is constructed with an extension protruding from the evaporator end of the heat pipe beyond the active area of the evaporator. The vapor migrates into the artery extension because of gravity or liquid displacement, and cooling the extension condenses the vapor to liquid, thus preventing vapor lock in the working portion of the artery by removing vapor from within the active artery. The condensed liquid is then transported back to the evaporator by the capillary action of the artery extension itself or by wick located within the extension.

  6. Pseudo Algebraically Closed Extensions

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Bary-Soroker, Lior

    2009-07-01

    This PhD deals with the notion of pseudo algebraically closed (PAC) extensions of fields. It develops a group-theoretic machinery, based on a generalization of embedding problems, to study these extensions. Perhaps the main result is that although there are many PAC extensions, the Galois closure of a proper PAC extension is separably closed. The dissertation also contains the following subjects. The group theoretical counterpart of pseudo algebraically closed extensions, the so-called projective pairs. Applications to seemingly unrelated subjects, e.g., an analog of Dirichlet's theorem about primes in arithmetic progression for polynomial rings in one variable over infinite fields.

  7. On the construction of general cubature formula by flat extensions

    PubMed Central

    Bucero, Marta Abril; Bajaj, Chandrajit

    2016-01-01

    We describe a new method to compute general cubature formulae. The problem is initially transformed into the computation of truncated Hankel operators with flat extensions. We then analyze the algebraic properties associated to flat extensions and show how to recover the cubature points and weights from the truncated Hankel operator. We next present an algorithm to test the flat extension property and to additionally compute the decomposition. To generate cubature formulae with a minimal number of points, we propose a new relaxation hierarchy of convex optimization problems minimizing the nuclear norm of the Hankel operators. For a suitably high order of convex relaxation, the minimizer of the optimization problem corresponds to a cubature formula. Furthermore cubature formulae with a minimal number of points are associated to faces of the convex sets. We illustrate our method on some examples, and for each we obtain a new minimal cubature formula. PMID:27563154

  8. A minimal lentivirus Tat.

    PubMed Central

    Derse, D; Carvalho, M; Carroll, R; Peterlin, B M

    1991-01-01

    Transcriptional regulatory mechanisms found in lentiviruses employ RNA enhancer elements called trans-activation responsive (TAR) elements. These nascent RNA stem-loops are cis-acting targets of virally encoded Tat effectors. Interactions between Tat and TAR increase the processivity of transcription complexes and lead to efficient copying of viral genomes. To study essential elements of this trans activation, peptide motifs from Tats of two distantly related lentiviruses, equine infectious anemia virus (EIAV) and human immunodeficiency virus type 1 (HIV-1), were fused to the coat protein of bacteriophage R17 and tested on the long terminal repeat of EIAV, where TAR was replaced by the R17 operator, the target of the coat protein. This independent RNA-tethering mechanism mapped activation domains of Tats from HIV-1 and EIAV to 47 and 15 amino acids and RNA-binding domains to 10 and 26 amino acids, respectively. Thus, a minimal lentivirus Tat consists of 25 amino acids, of which 15 modify viral transcription and 10 bind to the target RNA stem-loop. Images PMID:1658392

  9. The method of minimal normal forms

    SciTech Connect

    Mane, S.R.; Weng, W.T.

    1992-01-01

    Normal form methods for solving nonlinear differential equations are reviewed and the comparative merits of three methods are evaluated. The concept of the minimal normal form is explained and is shown to be superior to other choices. The method is then extended to apply to the evaluation of discrete maps of an accelerator or storage ring. Such an extension, as suggested in this paper, is more suited for accelerator-based applications than a formulation utilizing continuous differential equations. A computer code has been generated to systematically implement various normal form formulations for maps in two-dimensional phase space. Specific examples of quadratic and cubic nonlinear fields were used and solved by the method developed. The minimal normal form method shown here gives good results using relatively low order expansions.

  10. The method of minimal normal forms

    SciTech Connect

    Mane, S.R.; Weng, W.T.

    1992-12-31

    Normal form methods for solving nonlinear differential equations are reviewed and the comparative merits of three methods are evaluated. The concept of the minimal normal form is explained and is shown to be superior to other choices. The method is then extended to apply to the evaluation of discrete maps of an accelerator or storage ring. Such an extension, as suggested in this paper, is more suited for accelerator-based applications than a formulation utilizing continuous differential equations. A computer code has been generated to systematically implement various normal form formulations for maps in two-dimensional phase space. Specific examples of quadratic and cubic nonlinear fields were used and solved by the method developed. The minimal normal form method shown here gives good results using relatively low order expansions.

  11. Type Safe Extensible Programming

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Chae, Wonseok

    2009-10-01

    Software products evolve over time. Sometimes they evolve by adding new features, and sometimes by either fixing bugs or replacing outdated implementations with new ones. When software engineers fail to anticipate such evolution during development, they will eventually be forced to re-architect or re-build from scratch. Therefore, it has been common practice to prepare for changes so that software products are extensible over their lifetimes. However, making software extensible is challenging because it is difficult to anticipate successive changes and to provide adequate abstraction mechanisms over potential changes. Such extensibility mechanisms, furthermore, should not compromise any existing functionality during extension. Software engineers would benefit from a tool that provides a way to add extensions in a reliable way. It is natural to expect programming languages to serve this role. Extensible programming is one effort to address these issues. In this thesis, we present type safe extensible programming using the MLPolyR language. MLPolyR is an ML-like functional language whose type system provides type-safe extensibility mechanisms at several levels. After presenting the language, we will show how these extensibility mechanisms can be put to good use in the context of product line engineering. Product line engineering is an emerging software engineering paradigm that aims to manage variations, which originate from successive changes in software.

  12. Minimal electroweak model for monopole annihilation

    SciTech Connect

    Farris, T.H. ); Kephart, T.W.; Weiler, T.J. ); Yuan, T.C. )

    1992-02-03

    We construct the minimal (most economical in fields) extension of the standard model implementing the Langacker-Pi mechanism for reducing the grand unified theory (GUT) monopole cosmic density to an allowed level. The model contains just a single charged scalar field in addition to the standard Higgs doublet, and is easily embeddable in any GUT. We identify the region of parameter space where monopoles annihilate in the higher temperature early Universe. A particularly alluring possibility is that the demise of monopoles at the electroweak scale is in fact the origin of the Universe's net baryon number.

  13. The minimal geometric deformation approach extended

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Casadio, R.; Ovalle, J.; da Rocha, Roldão

    2015-11-01

    The minimal geometric deformation approach was introduced in order to study the exterior spacetime around spherically symmetric self-gravitating systems, such as stars or similar astrophysical objects, in the Randall-Sundrum brane-world framework. A consistent extension of this approach is developed here, which contains modifications of both the time component and the radial component of a spherically symmetric metric. A modified Schwarzschild geometry is obtained as an example of its simplest application, and a new solution that is potentially useful to describe stars in the brane-world is also presented.

  14. Energy minimization versus pseudo force technique for nonlinear structural analysis

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Kamat, M. P.; Hayduk, R. J.

    1980-01-01

    The effectiveness of using minimization techniques for the solution of nonlinear structural analysis problems is discussed and demonstrated by comparison with the conventional pseudo force technique. The comparison involves nonlinear problems with a relatively few degrees of freedom. A survey of the state-of-the-art of algorithms for unconstrained minimization reveals that extension of the technique to large scale nonlinear systems is possible.

  15. CR extension from hypersurfaces of higher type

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Baracco, Luca

    2007-07-01

    We prove extension of CR functions from a hypersurface M of in presence of the so-called sector property. If M has finite type in the Bloom-Graham sense, then our result is already contained in [C. Rea, Prolongement holomorphe des fonctions CR, conditions suffisantes, C. R. Acad. Sci. Paris 297 (1983) 163-166] by Rea. We think however, that the argument of our proof carries an expressive geometric meaning and deserves interest on its own right. Also, our method applies in some case to hypersurfaces of infinite type; note that for these, the classical methods fail. CR extension is treated by many authors mainly in two frames: extension in directions of iterated of commutators of CR vector fields (cf., for instance, [A. Boggess, J. Pitts, CR extension near a point of higher type, Duke Math. J. 52 (1) (1985) 67-102; A. Boggess, J.C. Polking, Holomorphic extension of CR functions, Duke Math. J. 49 (1982) 757-784. ; M.S. Baouendi, L. Rothschild, Normal forms for generic manifolds and holomorphic extension of CR functions, J. Differential Geom. 25 (1987) 431-467. ]); extension through minimality towards unprecised directions [A.E. Tumanov, Extension of CR-functions into a wedge, Mat. Sb. 181 (7) (1990) 951-964. ; A.E. Tumanov, Analytic discs and the extendibility of CR functions, in: Integral Geometry, Radon Transforms and Complex Analysis, Venice, 1996, in: Lecture Notes in Math., vol. 1684, Springer, Berlin, 1998, pp. 123-141].

  16. Extension in Tough Times--Addressing Failures in Public and Private Extension, Lessons from the Tasmanian Wool Industry, Australia

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Hunt, Warren; Coutts, Jeff

    2009-01-01

    This paper reports research on the impact of introducing a range of extension approaches into the wool-growing regions of Tasmania Australia to meet an emerging knowledge and skills gap in the sector. The wool-growing industry of the state has experienced minimal government extension support for over 15 years. There is a failure in both private…

  17. Guidelines for mixed waste minimization

    SciTech Connect

    Owens, C.

    1992-02-01

    Currently, there is no commercial mixed waste disposal available in the United States. Storage and treatment for commercial mixed waste is limited. Host States and compacts region officials are encouraging their mixed waste generators to minimize their mixed wastes because of management limitations. This document provides a guide to mixed waste minimization.

  18. Influenza SIRS with Minimal Pneumonitis

    PubMed Central

    Erramilli, Shruti; Mannam, Praveen; Manthous, Constantine A.

    2016-01-01

    Although systemic inflammatory response syndrome (SIRS) is a known complication of severe influenza pneumonia, it has been reported very rarely in patients with minimal parenchymal lung disease. We here report a case of severe SIRS, anasarca, and marked vascular phenomena with minimal or no pneumonitis. This case highlights that viruses, including influenza, may cause vascular dysregulation causing SIRS, even without substantial visceral organ involvement.

  19. Waste minimization handbook, Volume 1

    SciTech Connect

    Boing, L.E.; Coffey, M.J.

    1995-12-01

    This technical guide presents various methods used by industry to minimize low-level radioactive waste (LLW) generated during decommissioning and decontamination (D and D) activities. Such activities generate significant amounts of LLW during their operations. Waste minimization refers to any measure, procedure, or technique that reduces the amount of waste generated during a specific operation or project. Preventive waste minimization techniques implemented when a project is initiated can significantly reduce waste. Techniques implemented during decontamination activities reduce the cost of decommissioning. The application of waste minimization techniques is not limited to D and D activities; it is also useful during any phase of a facility`s life cycle. This compendium will be supplemented with a second volume of abstracts of hundreds of papers related to minimizing low-level nuclear waste. This second volume is expected to be released in late 1996.

  20. Minimal realistic SU(5) Grand Unified Theory

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Assad, Nima

    2016-03-01

    Despite making predictions in unprecedented agreement with experiment, such as the magnetic dipole moment of the electron to one part in a billion, the experimental confirmation of neutrino flavor oscillations, and thus of massive neutrinos, implies that the Standard Model (SM) of particle physics is incomplete. An extension of the SM, which retains its low energy predictions while accounting for massive neutrinos, is achieved through the introduction of the dimension 5 Weinberg operator and its associated energy scale above the electroweak (102 GeV), but below the Planck scale (1019 GeV). The Beyond Standard Model (BSM) class of Grand Unified Theories (GUTs) implicates such a scale (1016 GeV) in the unification of the three SM gauge couplings, thus making the origin of neutrino mass a theoretically appealing probe into particle behavior at energies currently inaccessible experimentally. Here, we compare the 24F and 15H extensions of the Georgi-Glashow SU(5) GUT to accommodate massive neutrinos and to unify SM gauge couplings while minimizing the theory's additional field content. Using the Monte Carlo event generator MadGraph, each extension is found to produce distinct signatures at the run II of the LHC.

  1. An Analysis of the Extension Worker's Knowledge of Extension Programs.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Stonecipher, Charles Leroy

    Forty-four employees of the General Extension Division of the Nebraska Agricultural Extension Service and 119 Agricultural Extension employees of the University of Nebraska comprised the population of this study comparing personnel's knowledge of Agricultural Extension and General Extension programs and differences in knowledge of programs…

  2. Influenza SIRS with Minimal Pneumonitis

    PubMed Central

    Erramilli, Shruti; Mannam, Praveen; Manthous, Constantine A.

    2016-01-01

    Although systemic inflammatory response syndrome (SIRS) is a known complication of severe influenza pneumonia, it has been reported very rarely in patients with minimal parenchymal lung disease. We here report a case of severe SIRS, anasarca, and marked vascular phenomena with minimal or no pneumonitis. This case highlights that viruses, including influenza, may cause vascular dysregulation causing SIRS, even without substantial visceral organ involvement. PMID:27630988

  3. Influenza SIRS with Minimal Pneumonitis.

    PubMed

    Erramilli, Shruti; Mannam, Praveen; Manthous, Constantine A

    2016-01-01

    Although systemic inflammatory response syndrome (SIRS) is a known complication of severe influenza pneumonia, it has been reported very rarely in patients with minimal parenchymal lung disease. We here report a case of severe SIRS, anasarca, and marked vascular phenomena with minimal or no pneumonitis. This case highlights that viruses, including influenza, may cause vascular dysregulation causing SIRS, even without substantial visceral organ involvement. PMID:27630988

  4. Mobile Applications for Extension

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Drill, Sabrina L.

    2012-01-01

    Mobile computing devices (smart phones, tablets, etc.) are rapidly becoming the dominant means of communication worldwide and are increasingly being used for scientific investigation. This technology can further our Extension mission by increasing our power for data collection, information dissemination, and informed decision-making. Mobile…

  5. Today's Youth: Extension's Challenge

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Robinson, Russell D.

    1970-01-01

    The challenge to Extension youth work today is programing to deal with political and value issues in a way appealing to the small group who want to make things happen" without losing the majority, who let things happen" or wonder what happened. (EB)

  6. Vocabulary Extension through Poetry.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Surajlal, K. C.

    1986-01-01

    Based on the notion that teaching vocabulary extension in isolation makes little impact on students, a three-part exercise, designed to develop students' vocabulary through poetry while providing meaningful enjoyment, uses the poem "The Hawk" by A. C. Benson. In the first class period, students are introduced to both the exercise and the poem and…

  7. LLNL Waste Minimization Program Plan

    SciTech Connect

    Not Available

    1990-02-14

    This document is the February 14, 1990 version of the LLNL Waste Minimization Program Plan (WMPP). The Waste Minimization Policy field has undergone continuous changes since its formal inception in the 1984 HSWA legislation. The first LLNL WMPP, Revision A, is dated March 1985. A series of informal revision were made on approximately a semi-annual basis. This Revision 2 is the third formal issuance of the WMPP document. EPA has issued a proposed new policy statement on source reduction and recycling. This policy reflects a preventative strategy to reduce or eliminate the generation of environmentally-harmful pollutants which may be released to the air, land surface, water, or ground water. In accordance with this new policy new guidance to hazardous waste generators on the elements of a Waste Minimization Program was issued. In response to these policies, DOE has revised and issued implementation guidance for DOE Order 5400.1, Waste Minimization Plan and Waste Reduction reporting of DOE Hazardous, Radioactive, and Radioactive Mixed Wastes, final draft January 1990. This WMPP is formatted to meet the current DOE guidance outlines. The current WMPP will be revised to reflect all of these proposed changes when guidelines are established. Updates, changes and revisions to the overall LLNL WMPP will be made as appropriate to reflect ever-changing regulatory requirements. 3 figs., 4 tabs.

  8. Minimally invasive aortic valve surgery

    PubMed Central

    Castrovinci, Sebastiano; Emmanuel, Sam; Moscarelli, Marco; Murana, Giacomo; Caccamo, Giuseppa; Bertolino, Emanuela Clara; Nasso, Giuseppe; Speziale, Giuseppe; Fattouch, Khalil

    2016-01-01

    Aortic valve disease is a prevalent disorder that affects approximately 2% of the general adult population. Surgical aortic valve replacement is the gold standard treatment for symptomatic patients. This treatment has demonstrably proven to be both safe and effective. Over the last few decades, in an attempt to reduce surgical trauma, different minimally invasive approaches for aortic valve replacement have been developed and are now being increasingly utilized. A narrative review of the literature was carried out to describe the surgical techniques for minimally invasive aortic valve surgery and report the results from different experienced centers. Minimally invasive aortic valve replacement is associated with low perioperative morbidity, mortality and a low conversion rate to full sternotomy. Long-term survival appears to be at least comparable to that reported for conventional full sternotomy. Minimally invasive aortic valve surgery, either with a partial upper sternotomy or a right anterior minithoracotomy provides early- and long-term benefits. Given these benefits, it may be considered the standard of care for isolated aortic valve disease. PMID:27582764

  9. Minimally invasive aortic valve surgery.

    PubMed

    Castrovinci, Sebastiano; Emmanuel, Sam; Moscarelli, Marco; Murana, Giacomo; Caccamo, Giuseppa; Bertolino, Emanuela Clara; Nasso, Giuseppe; Speziale, Giuseppe; Fattouch, Khalil

    2016-09-01

    Aortic valve disease is a prevalent disorder that affects approximately 2% of the general adult population. Surgical aortic valve replacement is the gold standard treatment for symptomatic patients. This treatment has demonstrably proven to be both safe and effective. Over the last few decades, in an attempt to reduce surgical trauma, different minimally invasive approaches for aortic valve replacement have been developed and are now being increasingly utilized. A narrative review of the literature was carried out to describe the surgical techniques for minimally invasive aortic valve surgery and report the results from different experienced centers. Minimally invasive aortic valve replacement is associated with low perioperative morbidity, mortality and a low conversion rate to full sternotomy. Long-term survival appears to be at least comparable to that reported for conventional full sternotomy. Minimally invasive aortic valve surgery, either with a partial upper sternotomy or a right anterior minithoracotomy provides early- and long-term benefits. Given these benefits, it may be considered the standard of care for isolated aortic valve disease. PMID:27582764

  10. What is minimally invasive dentistry?

    PubMed

    Ericson, Dan

    2004-01-01

    Minimally Invasive Dentistry is the application of "a systematic respect for the original tissue." This implies that the dental profession recognizes that an artifact is of less biological value than the original healthy tissue. Minimally invasive dentistry is a concept that can embrace all aspects of the profession. The common delineator is tissue preservation, preferably by preventing disease from occurring and intercepting its progress, but also removing and replacing with as little tissue loss as possible. It does not suggest that we make small fillings to restore incipient lesions or surgically remove impacted third molars without symptoms as routine procedures. The introduction of predictable adhesive technologies has led to a giant leap in interest in minimally invasive dentistry. The concept bridges the traditional gap between prevention and surgical procedures, which is just what dentistry needs today. The evidence-base for survival of restorations clearly indicates that restoring teeth is a temporary palliative measure that is doomed to fail if the disease that caused the condition is not addressed properly. Today, the means, motives and opportunities for minimally invasive dentistry are at hand, but incentives are definitely lacking. Patients and third parties seem to be convinced that the only things that count are replacements. Namely, they are prepared to pay for a filling but not for a procedure that can help avoid having one.

  11. A Defense of Semantic Minimalism

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Kim, Su

    2012-01-01

    Semantic Minimalism is a position about the semantic content of declarative sentences, i.e., the content that is determined entirely by syntax. It is defined by the following two points: "Point 1": The semantic content is a complete/truth-conditional proposition. "Point 2": The semantic content is useful to a theory of…

  12. Assembly of a minimal protocell

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Rasmussen, Steen

    2007-03-01

    What is minimal life, how can we make it, and how can it be useful? We present experimental and computational results towards bridging nonliving and living matter, which results in life that is different and much simpler than contemporary life. A simple yet tightly coupled catalytic cooperation between genes, metabolism, and container forms the design underpinnings of our protocell, which is a minimal self-replicating molecular machine. Experimentally, we have recently demonstrated this coupling by having an informational molecule (8-oxoguanine) catalytically control the light driven metabolic (Ru-bpy based) production of container materials (fatty acids). This is a significant milestone towards assembling a minimal self-replicating molecular machine. Recent theoretical investigations indicate that coordinated exponential component growth should naturally emerge as a result from such a catalytic coupling between the main protocellular components. A 3-D dissipative particle simulation (DPD) study of the full protocell life-cycle exposes a number of anticipated systemic issues associated with the remaining experimental challenges for the implementation of the minimal protocell. Finally we outline how more general self-replicating materials could be useful.

  13. Agricultural Extension: Who Uses It?

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Nolan, Michael; Lasley, Paul

    1979-01-01

    A Missouri study conducted to determine agricultural extension usage patterns found that heavy users of extension publications tended to be younger farmers, those with a relatively large amount of land, and pork producers. Extension meetings were a less frequent source of information than either publications or county extension office visits. (LRA)

  14. LIMB demonstration project extension

    SciTech Connect

    Not Available

    1990-09-21

    The purpose of the DOE limestone injection multistage burner (LIMB) Demonstration Project Extension is to extend the data base on LIMB technology and to expand DOE's list of Clean Coal Technologies by demonstrating the Coolside process as part of the project. The main objectives of this project are: to demonstrate the general applicability of LIMB technology by testing 3 coals and 4 sorbents (total of 12 coal/sorbent combinations) at the Ohio Edison Edgewater plant; and to demonstrate that Coolside is a viable technology for improving precipitator performance and reducing sulfur dioxide emissions while acceptable operability is maintained. Progress is reported. 3 figs.

  15. An Object-oriented minimization package for HEP

    SciTech Connect

    Mark S Fischler and David Sachs

    2003-07-02

    A portion of the HEP community has perceived the need for a minimization package written in C++ and taking advantage of the Object-Oriented nature of that language. To be acceptable for HEP, such a package must at least encompass all the capabilities of Minuit. Aside from the slight plus of not relying on outside Fortran compilation, the advantages that a C++ package based on O-O design would confer over the multitude of available C++ Minuit-wrappers include: Easier extensibility to different algorithms and forms of constraints; and usage modes which would not be available in the global-common-based Minuit design. An example of the latter is a job pursuing two ongoing minimization problems simultaneously. We discuss the design and implementation of such a package, which extends Minuit only in minor ways but which greatly diminishes the programming effort (if not the algorithm thought) needed to make more significant extensions.

  16. Anaesthesia for minimally invasive surgery

    PubMed Central

    Dec, Marta

    2015-01-01

    Minimally invasive surgery (MIS) is rising in popularity. It offers well-known benefits to the patient. However, restricted access to the surgical site and gas insufflation into the body cavities may result in severe complications. From the anaesthetic point of view MIS poses unique challenges associated with creation of pneumoperitoneum, carbon dioxide absorption, specific positioning and monitoring a patient to whom the anaesthetist has often restricted access, in a poorly lit environment. Moreover, with refinement of surgical procedures and growing experience the anaesthetist is presented with patients from high-risk groups (obese, elderly, with advanced cardiac and respiratory disease) who once were deemed unsuitable for the laparoscopic technique. Anaesthetic management is aimed at getting the patient safely through the procedure, minimizing the specific risks arising from laparoscopy and the patient's coexisting medical problems, ensuring quick recovery and a relatively pain-free postoperative course with early return to normal function. PMID:26865885

  17. Minimal universal quantum heat machine.

    PubMed

    Gelbwaser-Klimovsky, D; Alicki, R; Kurizki, G

    2013-01-01

    In traditional thermodynamics the Carnot cycle yields the ideal performance bound of heat engines and refrigerators. We propose and analyze a minimal model of a heat machine that can play a similar role in quantum regimes. The minimal model consists of a single two-level system with periodically modulated energy splitting that is permanently, weakly, coupled to two spectrally separated heat baths at different temperatures. The equation of motion allows us to compute the stationary power and heat currents in the machine consistent with the second law of thermodynamics. This dual-purpose machine can act as either an engine or a refrigerator (heat pump) depending on the modulation rate. In both modes of operation, the maximal Carnot efficiency is reached at zero power. We study the conditions for finite-time optimal performance for several variants of the model. Possible realizations of the model are discussed.

  18. Principle of minimal work fluctuations

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Xiao, Gaoyang; Gong, Jiangbin

    2015-08-01

    Understanding and manipulating work fluctuations in microscale and nanoscale systems are of both fundamental and practical interest. For example, in considering the Jarzynski equality =e-β Δ F , a change in the fluctuations of e-β W may impact how rapidly the statistical average of e-β W converges towards the theoretical value e-β Δ F, where W is the work, β is the inverse temperature, and Δ F is the free energy difference between two equilibrium states. Motivated by our previous study aiming at the suppression of work fluctuations, here we obtain a principle of minimal work fluctuations. In brief, adiabatic processes as treated in quantum and classical adiabatic theorems yield the minimal fluctuations in e-β W. In the quantum domain, if a system initially prepared at thermal equilibrium is subjected to a work protocol but isolated from a bath during the time evolution, then a quantum adiabatic process without energy level crossing (or an assisted adiabatic process reaching the same final states as in a conventional adiabatic process) yields the minimal fluctuations in e-β W, where W is the quantum work defined by two energy measurements at the beginning and at the end of the process. In the classical domain where the classical work protocol is realizable by an adiabatic process, then the classical adiabatic process also yields the minimal fluctuations in e-β W. Numerical experiments based on a Landau-Zener process confirm our theory in the quantum domain, and our theory in the classical domain explains our previous numerical findings regarding the suppression of classical work fluctuations [G. Y. Xiao and J. B. Gong, Phys. Rev. E 90, 052132 (2014), 10.1103/PhysRevE.90.052132].

  19. Principle of minimal work fluctuations.

    PubMed

    Xiao, Gaoyang; Gong, Jiangbin

    2015-08-01

    Understanding and manipulating work fluctuations in microscale and nanoscale systems are of both fundamental and practical interest. For example, in considering the Jarzynski equality 〈e-βW〉=e-βΔF, a change in the fluctuations of e-βW may impact how rapidly the statistical average of e-βW converges towards the theoretical value e-βΔF, where W is the work, β is the inverse temperature, and ΔF is the free energy difference between two equilibrium states. Motivated by our previous study aiming at the suppression of work fluctuations, here we obtain a principle of minimal work fluctuations. In brief, adiabatic processes as treated in quantum and classical adiabatic theorems yield the minimal fluctuations in e-βW. In the quantum domain, if a system initially prepared at thermal equilibrium is subjected to a work protocol but isolated from a bath during the time evolution, then a quantum adiabatic process without energy level crossing (or an assisted adiabatic process reaching the same final states as in a conventional adiabatic process) yields the minimal fluctuations in e-βW, where W is the quantum work defined by two energy measurements at the beginning and at the end of the process. In the classical domain where the classical work protocol is realizable by an adiabatic process, then the classical adiabatic process also yields the minimal fluctuations in e-βW. Numerical experiments based on a Landau-Zener process confirm our theory in the quantum domain, and our theory in the classical domain explains our previous numerical findings regarding the suppression of classical work fluctuations [G. Y. Xiao and J. B. Gong, Phys. Rev. E 90, 052132 (2014)].

  20. Minimally invasive surgery. Future developments.

    PubMed

    Wickham, J E

    1994-01-15

    The rapid development of minimally invasive surgery means that there will be fundamental changes in interventional treatment. Technological advances will allow new minimally invasive procedures to be developed. Application of robotics will allow some procedures to be done automatically, and coupling of slave robotic instruments with virtual reality images will allow surgeons to perform operations by remote control. Miniature motors and instruments designed by microengineering could be introduced into body cavities to perform operations that are currently impossible. New materials will allow changes in instrument construction, such as use of memory metals to make heat activated scissors or forceps. With the reduced trauma associated with minimally invasive surgery, fewer operations will require long hospital stays. Traditional surgical wards will become largely redundant, and hospitals will need to cope with increased through-put of patients. Operating theatres will have to be equipped with complex high technology equipment, and hospital staff will need to be trained to manage it. Conventional nursing care will be carried out more in the community. Many traditional specialties will be merged, and surgical training will need fundamental revision to ensure that surgeons are competent to carry out the new procedures. PMID:8312776

  1. Extensive nonadditivity of privacy.

    PubMed

    Smith, Graeme; Smolin, John A

    2009-09-18

    Quantum information theory establishes the ultimate limits on communication and cryptography in terms of channel capacities for various types of information. The private capacity is particularly important because it quantifies achievable rates of quantum key distribution. We study the power of quantum channels with limited private capacity, focusing on channels that dephase in random bases. These display extensive nonadditivity of private capacity: a channel with 2logd input qubits that has a private capacity less than 2, but when used together with a second channel with zero private capacity, the joint capacity jumps to (1/2)logd. In contrast to earlier work which found nonadditivity vanishing as a fraction of input size or conditional on unproven mathematical assumptions, this provides a natural setting manifesting nonadditivity of privacy of the strongest possible sort. PMID:19792417

  2. Overlap extension PCR cloning.

    PubMed

    Bryksin, Anton; Matsumura, Ichiro

    2013-01-01

    Rising demand for recombinant proteins has motivated the development of efficient and reliable cloning methods. Here we show how a beginner can clone virtually any DNA insert into a plasmid of choice without the use of restriction endonucleases or T4 DNA ligase. Chimeric primers encoding plasmid sequence at the 5' ends and insert sequence at the 3' ends are designed and synthesized. Phusion(®) DNA polymerase is utilized to amplify the desired insert by PCR. The double-stranded product is subsequently employed as a pair of mega-primers in a PCR-like reaction with circular plasmids. The original plasmids are then destroyed in restriction digests with Dpn I. The product of the overlap extension PCR is used to transform competent Escherichia coli cells. Phusion(®) DNA polymerase is used for both the amplification and fusion reactions, so both steps can be monitored and optimized in the same way. PMID:23996437

  3. Non-extensive radiobiology

    SciTech Connect

    Sotolongo-Grau, O.; Rodriguez-Perez, D.; Antoranz, J. C.; Sotolongo-Costa, O.

    2011-03-14

    The expression of survival factors for radiation damaged cells is based on probabilistic assumptions and experimentally fitted for each tumor, radiation and conditions. Here we show how the simplest of these radiobiological models can be derived from the maximum entropy principle of the classical Boltzmann-Gibbs expression. We extend this derivation using the Tsallis entropy and a cutoff hypothesis, motivated by clinical observations. A generalization of the exponential, the logarithm and the product to a non-extensive framework, provides a simple formula for the survival fraction corresponding to the application of several radiation doses on a living tissue. The obtained expression shows a remarkable agreement with the experimental data found in the literature, also providing a new interpretation of some of the parameters introduced anew. It is also shown how the presented formalism may have direct application in radiotherapy treatment optimization through the definition of the potential effect difference, simply calculated between the tumour and the surrounding tissue.

  4. Non-extensive radiobiology

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Sotolongo-Grau, O.; Rodriguez-Perez, D.; Antoranz, J. C.; Sotolongo-Costa, O.

    2011-03-01

    The expression of survival factors for radiation damaged cells is based on probabilistic assumptions and experimentally fitted for each tumor, radiation and conditions. Here we show how the simplest of these radiobiological models can be derived from the maximum entropy principle of the classical Boltzmann-Gibbs expression. We extend this derivation using the Tsallis entropy and a cutoff hypothesis, motivated by clinical observations. A generalization of the exponential, the logarithm and the product to a non-extensive framework, provides a simple formula for the survival fraction corresponding to the application of several radiation doses on a living tissue. The obtained expression shows a remarkable agreement with the experimental data found in the literature, also providing a new interpretation of some of the parameters introduced anew. It is also shown how the presented formalism may have direct application in radiotherapy treatment optimization through the definition of the potential effect difference, simply calculated between the tumour and the surrounding tissue.

  5. Monitoring crack extension in fracture toughness tests by ultrasonics

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Klima, S. J.; Fisher, D. M.; Buzzard, R. J.

    1975-01-01

    An ultrasonic method was used to observe the onset of crack extension and to monitor continued crack growth in fracture toughness specimens during three point bend tests. A 20 MHz transducer was used with commercially available equipment to detect average crack extension less than 0.09 mm. The material tested was a 300-grade maraging steel in the annealed condition. A crack extension resistance curve was developed to demonstrate the usefulness of the ultrasonic method for minimizing the number of tests required to generate such curves.

  6. Turning an Extension Aide into an Extension Agent

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Seevers, Brenda; Dormody, Thomas J.

    2010-01-01

    For any organization to remain sustainable, a renewable source of faculty and staff needs to be available. The Extension Internship Program for Juniors and Seniors in High School is a new tool for recruiting and developing new Extension agents. Students get "hands on" experience working in an Extension office and earn college credit while in high…

  7. Developing a Successful Asynchronous Online Extension Program for Forest Landowners

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Zobrist, Kevin W.

    2014-01-01

    Asynchronous online Extension classes can reach a wide audience, is convenient for the learner, and minimizes ongoing demands on instructor time. However, producing such classes takes significant effort up front. Advance planning and good communication with contributors are essential to success. Considerations include delivery platforms, content…

  8. Raising the Higgs mass with Yukawa couplings for isotriplets in vectorlike extensions of minimal supersymmetry

    SciTech Connect

    Martin, Stephen P.

    2010-09-01

    Extra vectorlike matter with both electroweak-singlet masses and large Yukawa couplings can significantly raise the lightest Higgs boson mass in supersymmetry through radiative corrections. I consider models of this type that involve a large Yukawa coupling between weak isotriplet and isodoublet chiral supermultiplets. The particle content can be completed to provide perturbative gauge coupling unification, in several different ways. The impact on precision electroweak observables is shown to be acceptably small, even if the new particles are as light as the current experimental bounds of order 100 GeV. I study the corrections to the lightest Higgs boson mass, and discuss the general features of the collider signatures for the new fermions in these models.

  9. Extension of the minimal three-nucleon model to the unphysical sheet of energy

    SciTech Connect

    Frederico, T.; Goldman, I.D.; Delfino, A.

    1988-02-01

    In the framework of the three-nucleon zero-range theory, we have calculated the correlation between the energy of the virtual state of the triton and the doublet neutron-deuteron scattering length. Our results show that the Girard-Fuda plot for the energy of the virtual state as a function of the doublet n-d scattering length is reproduced by this model. We also observe that the plot remains essentially unchanged when the nucleon-nucleon singlet input is varied.

  10. Minimal model for Brownian vortexes.

    PubMed

    Sun, Bo; Grier, David G; Grosberg, Alexander Y

    2010-08-01

    A Brownian vortex is a noise-driven machine that uses thermal fluctuations to extract a steady-state flow of work from a static force field. Its operation is characterized by loops in a probability current whose topology and direction can change with changes in temperature. We present discrete three- and four-state minimal models for Brownian vortexes that can be solved exactly with a master-equation formalism. These models elucidate conditions required for flux reversal in Brownian vortexes and provide insights into their thermodynamic efficiency through the rate of entropy production. PMID:20866791

  11. [Minimally invasive iridocorneal angle surgery].

    PubMed

    Jordan, J F

    2012-07-01

    The classical filtration surgery with trabeculectomy or drainage of chamber fluid with episcleral implants is the most effective method for permanent reduction of intraocular pressure to lower and normal levels. Even though both operative procedures are well-established the high efficiency of the method causes potentially dangerous intraoperative as well as interoperative complications with a frequency which cannot be ignored. In the past this led to a search for low complication alternatives with non-penetrating glaucoma surgery (NPGS) and the search is still continuing. Trabecular meshwork surgery in particular with continuous development of new operation techniques steered the focus to a complication-poor and minimally invasive, gonioscopic glaucoma surgery.

  12. Radiometric calibration by rank minimization.

    PubMed

    Lee, Joon-Young; Matsushita, Yasuyuki; Shi, Boxin; Kweon, In So; Ikeuchi, Katsushi

    2013-01-01

    We present a robust radiometric calibration framework that capitalizes on the transform invariant low-rank structure in the various types of observations, such as sensor irradiances recorded from a static scene with different exposure times, or linear structure of irradiance color mixtures around edges. We show that various radiometric calibration problems can be treated in a principled framework that uses a rank minimization approach. This framework provides a principled way of solving radiometric calibration problems in various settings. The proposed approach is evaluated using both simulation and real-world datasets and shows superior performance to previous approaches.

  13. Minimizing medical litigation, part 2.

    PubMed

    Harold, Tan Keng Boon

    2006-01-01

    Provider-patient disputes are inevitable in the healthcare sector. Healthcare providers and regulators should recognize this and plan opportunities to enforce alternative dispute resolution (ADR) a early as possible in the care delivery process. Negotiation is often the main dispute resolution method used by local healthcare providers, failing which litigation would usually follow. The role of mediation in resolving malpractice disputes has been minimal. Healthcare providers, administrators, and regulators should therefore look toward a post-event communication-cum-mediation framework as the key national strategy to resolving malpractice disputes. PMID:16711089

  14. The BGAN extension programme

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Rivera, Juan J.; Trachtman, Eyal; Richharia, Madhavendra

    2005-11-01

    Mobile satellite telecommunications systems have undergone an enormous evolution in the last decades, with the interest in having advanced telecommunications services available on demand, anywhere and at any time, leading to incredible advances. The demand for braodband data is therefore rapidly gathering pace, but current solutions are finding it increasingly difficult to combine large bandwidth with ubiquitous coverage, reliability and portability. The BGAN (Broadband Global Area Network) system, designed to operate with the Inmarsat-4 satellites, provides breakthrough services that meet all of these requirements. It will enable broadband connection on the move, delivering all the key tools of the modern office. Recognising the great impact that Inmarsat's BGAN system will have on the European satellite communications industry, and the benefits that it will bring to a wide range of European industries, in 2003 ESA initiated the "BGAN Extension" project. Its primary goals are to provide the full range of BGAN services to truly mobile platforms, operating in aeronautical, vehicular and maritime environments, and to introduce a multicast service capability. The project is supported by the ARTES Programme which establishes a collaboration agreement between ESA, Inmarsat and a group of key industrial and academic institutions which includes EMS, Logica, Nera and the University of Surrey (UK).

  15. Privatising Agricultural Extension: Caveat Emptor.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Kidd, A. D.; Lamers, J. P. A.; Ficarelli, P. P.; Hoffmann, V.

    2000-01-01

    Discusses forces promoting privatization of agricultural extension. Discusses experiences of privatization and commercialization of extension and related problems in various countries, particularly developing countries. Suggests that the state will continue to play an important role in agricultural extension in many countries and that…

  16. Minimizing travel claims cost with minimal-spanning tree model

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Jamalluddin, Mohd Helmi; Jaafar, Mohd Azrul; Amran, Mohd Iskandar; Ainul, Mohd Sharizal; Hamid, Aqmar; Mansor, Zafirah Mohd; Nopiah, Zulkifli Mohd

    2014-06-01

    Travel demand necessitates a big expenditure in spending, as has been proven by the National Audit Department (NAD). Every year the auditing process is carried out throughout the country involving official travel claims. This study focuses on the use of the Spanning Tree model to determine the shortest path to minimize the cost of the NAD's official travel claims. The objective is to study the possibility of running a network based in the Kluang District Health Office to eight Rural Clinics in Johor state using the Spanning Tree model applications for optimizing travelling distances and make recommendations to the senior management of the Audit Department to analyze travelling details before an audit is conducted. Result of this study reveals that there were claims of savings of up to 47.4% of the original claims, over the course of the travel distance.

  17. Annual Waste Minimization Summary Report

    SciTech Connect

    Alfred J. Karns

    2007-01-01

    This report summarizes the waste minimization efforts undertaken by National Security Technologies, LLC (NSTec), for the U. S. Department of Energy (DOE) National Nuclear Security Administration Nevada Site Office (NNSA/NSO), during CY06. This report was developed in accordance with the requirements of the Nevada Test Site (NTS) Resource Conservation and Recovery Act (RCRA) Permit (No. NEV HW0021) and as clarified in a letter dated April 21, 1995, from Paul Liebendorfer of the Nevada Division of Environmental Protection to Donald Elle of the DOE, Nevada Operations Office. The NNSA/NSO Pollution Prevention (P2) Program establishes a process to reduce the volume and toxicity of waste generated by the NNSA/NSO and ensures that proposed methods of treatment, storage, and/or disposal of waste minimize potential threats to human health and the environment. The following information provides an overview of the P2 Program, major P2 accomplishments during the reporting year, a comparison of the current year waste generation to prior years, and a description of efforts undertaken during the year to reduce the volume and toxicity of waste generated by the NNSA/NSO.

  18. Minimally invasive dentistry and the dental enterprise.

    PubMed

    Rossomando, Edward F

    2007-03-01

    Improvements in understanding the process of remineralization have resulted in a reappraisal of repair of damaged tooth structure and call into question the principles of cavity preparation of GV Black and his principle of "extension for prevention." From this reappraisal has emerged the idea of minimally invasive dentistry (MID). The goal of MID is to remove as little of the sound tooth structure during the restoration phase as possible. This goal is in our reach in part because of availability of products that promote mineralization and of dental excavation instruments, like the dental laser, that can be managed to remove only damaged tooth structure. It is critical that the leaders of the dental enterprise endorse MID. Delay could allow new products to move from the dental profession to other health care providers. For example, a caries vaccine will soon enter the market place. Will dentists expand the scope of their practices to include the application of this vaccine, or will they ignore this new product and allow the new technology to enter the scope of practice of other health providers?

  19. Cultural change and support of waste minimization

    SciTech Connect

    Boylan, M.S.

    1991-12-31

    The process of bringing a subject like pollution prevention to top of mind awareness, where designed to prevent waste becomes part of business as usual, is called cultural change. With Department of Energy orders and management waste minimization commitment statements on file, the REAL work is just beginning at the Idaho National Engineering Laboratory (INEL); shaping the attitudes of 11,000+ employees. The difficulties of such a task are daunting. The 890 square mile INEL site and in-town support offices mean a huge diversity of employee jobs and waste streams; from cafeteria and auto maintenance wastes to high-level nuclear waste casks. INEL is pursuing a three component cultural change strategy: training, publicity, and public outreach. To meet the intent of DOE orders, all INEL employees are slated to receive pollution prevention orientation training. More technical training is given to targeted groups like purchasing and design engineering. To keep newly learned pollution prevention concepts top-of-mind, extensive site-wide publicity is being developed and conducted, culminating in the April Pollution Prevention Awareness Week coinciding with Earth Day 1992. Finally, news of INEL pollution prevention successes is shared with the public to increase their overall environmental awareness and their knowledge of INEL activities. An important added benefit is the sense of pride the program instills in INEL employees to have their successes displayed so publicly.

  20. [MINIMALLY INVASIVE AORTIC VALVE REPLACEMENT].

    PubMed

    Tabata, Minoru

    2016-03-01

    Minimally invasive aortic valve replacement (MIAVR) is defined as aortic valve replacement avoiding full sternotomy. Common approaches include a partial sternotomy right thoracotomy, and a parasternal approach. MIAVR has been shown to have advantages over conventional AVR such as shorter length of stay and smaller amount of blood transfusion and better cosmesis. However, it is also known to have disadvantages such as longer cardiopulmonary bypass and aortic cross-clamp times and potential complications related to peripheral cannulation. Appropriate patient selection is very important. Since the procedure is more complex than conventional AVR, more intensive teamwork in the operating room is essential. Additionally, a team approach during postoperative management is critical to maximize the benefits of MIAVR.

  1. Minimal unitary (covariant) scattering theory

    SciTech Connect

    Lindesay, J.V.; Markevich, A.

    1983-06-01

    In the minimal three particle equations developed by Lindesay the two body input amplitude was an on shell relativistic generalization of the non-relativistic scattering model characterized by a single mass parameter ..mu.. which in the two body (m + m) system looks like an s-channel bound state (..mu.. < 2m) or virtual state (..mu.. > 2m). Using this driving term in covariant Faddeev equations generates a rich covariant and unitary three particle dynamics. However, the simplest way of writing the relativisitic generalization of the Faddeev equations can take the on shell Mandelstam parameter s = 4(q/sup 2/ + m/sup 2/), in terms of which the two particle input is expressed, to negative values in the range of integration required by the dynamics. This problem was met in the original treatment by multiplying the two particle input amplitude by THETA(s). This paper provides what we hope to be a more direct way of meeting the problem.

  2. A minimally invasive smile enhancement.

    PubMed

    Peck, Fred H

    2014-01-01

    Minimally invasive dentistry refers to a wide variety of dental treatments. On the restorative aspect of dental procedures, direct resin bonding can be a very conservative treatment option for the patient. When tooth structure does not need to be removed, the patient benefits. Proper treatment planning is essential to determine how conservative the restorative treatment will be. This article describes the diagnosis, treatment options, and procedural techniques in the restoration of 4 maxillary anterior teeth with direct composite resin. The procedural steps are reviewed with regard to placing the composite and the variety of colors needed to ensure a natural result. Finishing and polishing of the composite are critical to ending with a natural looking dentition that the patient will be pleased with for many years.

  3. Strategies to Minimize Antibiotic Resistance

    PubMed Central

    Lee, Chang-Ro; Cho, Ill Hwan; Jeong, Byeong Chul; Lee, Sang Hee

    2013-01-01

    Antibiotic resistance can be reduced by using antibiotics prudently based on guidelines of antimicrobial stewardship programs (ASPs) and various data such as pharmacokinetic (PK) and pharmacodynamic (PD) properties of antibiotics, diagnostic testing, antimicrobial susceptibility testing (AST), clinical response, and effects on the microbiota, as well as by new antibiotic developments. The controlled use of antibiotics in food animals is another cornerstone among efforts to reduce antibiotic resistance. All major resistance-control strategies recommend education for patients, children (e.g., through schools and day care), the public, and relevant healthcare professionals (e.g., primary-care physicians, pharmacists, and medical students) regarding unique features of bacterial infections and antibiotics, prudent antibiotic prescribing as a positive construct, and personal hygiene (e.g., handwashing). The problem of antibiotic resistance can be minimized only by concerted efforts of all members of society for ensuring the continued efficiency of antibiotics. PMID:24036486

  4. Minimally packed phases in holography

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Donos, Aristomenis; Gauntlett, Jerome P.

    2016-03-01

    We numerically construct asymptotically AdS black brane solutions of D = 4 Einstein-Maxwell theory coupled to a pseudoscalar. The solutions are holographically dual to d = 3 CFTs at finite chemical potential and in a constant magnetic field, which spontaneously break translation invariance leading to the spontaneous formation of abelian and momentum magnetisation currents flowing around the plaquettes of a periodic Bravais lattice. We analyse the three-dimensional moduli space of lattice solutions, which are generically oblique, and show, for a specific value of the magnetic field, that the free energy is minimised by the triangular lattice, associated with minimal packing of circles in the plane. We show that the average stress tensor for the thermodynamically preferred phase is that of a perfect fluid and that this result applies more generally to spontaneously generated periodic phases. The triangular structure persists at low temperatures indicating the existence of novel crystalline ground states.

  5. Waste minimization in chrome plating

    SciTech Connect

    Scheuer, J.; Walter, K.; Nastasi, M.

    1996-09-01

    This is the final report of a one year laboratory directed research and development project at the Los Alamos National Laboratory (LANL). Traditional wet chemical electroplating techniques utilize toxic materials and pose environmental hazards in the disposal of primary baths and waste waters. Pollutants include metals and nonmetals, such as oil, grease, phosphates, and toxic and organic compounds. This project is focused on development of plasma source ion implantation (PSII), a novel and cost-effective surface modification technique, to minimize and ultimately eliminate waste generated in chrome plating. We are collaborating with and industrial partner to design material systems, utilize the PSII processes in existing Los Alamos experimental facilities, and analyze both material and performance characteristics.

  6. Non-minimal Inflationary Attractors

    SciTech Connect

    Kallosh, Renata; Linde, Andrei E-mail: alinde@stanford.edu

    2013-10-01

    Recently we identified a new class of (super)conformally invariant theories which allow inflation even if the scalar potential is very steep in terms of the original conformal variables. Observational predictions of a broad class of such theories are nearly model-independent. In this paper we consider generalized versions of these models where the inflaton has a non-minimal coupling to gravity with a negative parameter ξ different from its conformal value -1/6. We show that these models exhibit attractor behavior. With even a slight increase of |ξ| from |ξ| = 0, predictions of these models for n{sub s} and r rapidly converge to their universal model-independent values corresponding to conformal coupling ξ = −1/6. These values of n{sub s} and r practically coincide with the corresponding values in the limit ξ → −∞.

  7. Waste minimization in analytical methods

    SciTech Connect

    Green, D.W.; Smith, L.L.; Crain, J.S.; Boparai, A.S.; Kiely, J.T.; Yaeger, J.S. Schilling, J.B.

    1995-05-01

    The US Department of Energy (DOE) will require a large number of waste characterizations over a multi-year period to accomplish the Department`s goals in environmental restoration and waste management. Estimates vary, but two million analyses annually are expected. The waste generated by the analytical procedures used for characterizations is a significant source of new DOE waste. Success in reducing the volume of secondary waste and the costs of handling this waste would significantly decrease the overall cost of this DOE program. Selection of appropriate analytical methods depends on the intended use of the resultant data. It is not always necessary to use a high-powered analytical method, typically at higher cost, to obtain data needed to make decisions about waste management. Indeed, for samples taken from some heterogeneous systems, the meaning of high accuracy becomes clouded if the data generated are intended to measure a property of this system. Among the factors to be considered in selecting the analytical method are the lower limit of detection, accuracy, turnaround time, cost, reproducibility (precision), interferences, and simplicity. Occasionally, there must be tradeoffs among these factors to achieve the multiple goals of a characterization program. The purpose of the work described here is to add waste minimization to the list of characteristics to be considered. In this paper the authors present results of modifying analytical methods for waste characterization to reduce both the cost of analysis and volume of secondary wastes. Although tradeoffs may be required to minimize waste while still generating data of acceptable quality for the decision-making process, they have data demonstrating that wastes can be reduced in some cases without sacrificing accuracy or precision.

  8. Extension education and the role of university extension departments

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Musa, Michael B.

    1994-03-01

    The categorisation by Yesufu is important in delineating the several functions and orientations through which extension education can be effected. Extension education as a catalyst in the field of development education is an imperative for all universities and other allied institutions, whether technological, agricultural, liberal or conventionally oriented. Towards this end, appropriately trained extension education personnel are a necessity. Extension departments have peculiar and unique problems due to their dual orientation. The need, therefore, arises for special attention and consideration in the areas of funding, organisational scheduling, and human and infrastructural resources.

  9. Mini-Med School Planning Guide

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    National Institutes of Health, Office of Science Education, 2008

    2008-01-01

    Mini-Med Schools are public education programs now offered by more than 70 medical schools, universities, research institutions, and hospitals across the nation. There are even Mini-Med Schools in Ireland, Malta, and Canada! The program is typically a lecture series that meets once a week and provides "mini-med students" information on some of the…

  10. Closed locally minimal nets on tetrahedra

    SciTech Connect

    Strelkova, Nataliya P

    2011-01-31

    Closed locally minimal networks are in a sense a generalization of closed geodesics. A complete classification is known of closed locally minimal networks on regular (and generally any equihedral) tetrahedra. In the present paper certain necessary and certain sufficient conditions are given for at least one closed locally minimal network to exist on a given non-equihedral tetrahedron. Bibliography: 6 titles.

  11. Minimally Invasive Mitral Valve Surgery II

    PubMed Central

    Wolfe, J. Alan; Malaisrie, S. Chris; Farivar, R. Saeid; Khan, Junaid H.; Hargrove, W. Clark; Moront, Michael G.; Ryan, William H.; Ailawadi, Gorav; Agnihotri, Arvind K.; Hummel, Brian W.; Fayers, Trevor M.; Grossi, Eugene A.; Guy, T. Sloane; Lehr, Eric J.; Mehall, John R.; Murphy, Douglas A.; Rodriguez, Evelio; Salemi, Arash; Segurola, Romualdo J.; Shemin, Richard J.; Smith, J. Michael; Smith, Robert L.; Weldner, Paul W.; Lewis, Clifton T. P.; Barnhart, Glenn R.; Goldman, Scott M.

    2016-01-01

    Abstract Techniques for minimally invasive mitral valve repair and replacement continue to evolve. This expert opinion, the second of a 3-part series, outlines current best practices for nonrobotic, minimally invasive mitral valve procedures, and for postoperative care after minimally invasive mitral valve surgery. PMID:27654406

  12. 35. WEST END ELEVATION, PROPOSED EXTENSION OF COAL HOUSE, EXTENSIONS ...

    Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

    35. WEST END ELEVATION, PROPOSED EXTENSION OF COAL HOUSE, EXTENSIONS OF ENGINE AND COAL HOUSES, DEER ISLAND PUMPING STATION, METROPOLITAN WATER AND SEWERAGE BOARD, METROPOLITAN SEWERAGE WORKS, JANUARY 1908, SHEET NO. 7. Aperture card 6498-7. - Deer Island Pumping Station, Boston, Suffolk County, MA

  13. 34. PLAN, PROPOSED EXTENSION OF COAL HOUSE, EXTENSIONS OF ENGINE ...

    Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

    34. PLAN, PROPOSED EXTENSION OF COAL HOUSE, EXTENSIONS OF ENGINE AND COAL HOUSES, DEER ISLAND PUMPING STATION, METROPOLITAN WATER AND SEWERAGE BOARD, METROPOLITAN SEWARAGE WORKS, JANUARY 1909, SHEET NO. 11. Aperture card 6498-11. - Deer Island Pumping Station, Boston, Suffolk County, MA

  14. Welding torch gas cup extension

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Gordon, Stephen S. (Inventor)

    1988-01-01

    The invention relates to a gas shielded electric arc welding torch having a detachable gas cup extension which may be of any desired configuration or length. The gas cup extension assembly is mounted on a standard electric welding torch gas cup to enable welding in areas with limited access. The gas cup assembly has an upper tubular insert that fits within the gas cup such that its lower portion protrudes thereform and has a lower tubular extension that is screwed into the lower portion. The extension has a rim to define the outer perimeter of the seat edge about its entrance opening so a gasket may be placed to effect an airtight seal between the gas cup and extension. The tubular extension may be made of metal or cermaic material that can be machined. The novelty lies in the use of an extension assembly for a standard gas cup of an electric arc welding torch which extension assembly is detachable permitting the use of a number of extensions which may be of different configurations and materials and yet fit the standard gas cup.

  15. Robotic hand with modular extensions

    SciTech Connect

    Salisbury, Curt Michael; Quigley, Morgan

    2015-01-20

    A robotic device is described herein. The robotic device includes a frame that comprises a plurality of receiving regions that are configured to receive a respective plurality of modular robotic extensions. The modular robotic extensions are removably attachable to the frame at the respective receiving regions by way of respective mechanical fuses. Each mechanical fuse is configured to trip when a respective modular robotic extension experiences a predefined load condition, such that the respective modular robotic extension detaches from the frame when the load condition is met.

  16. Waste minimization in the oil and gas industries

    SciTech Connect

    Smith, K.P.

    1992-09-01

    Recent legislative actions place an emphasis on waste minimization as opposed to traditional end-of-pipe waste management. This new philosophy, coupled with increasing waste disposal costs and associated liabilities, sets the stage for investigating waste minimization opportunities in all industries wastes generated by oil and gas exploration and production (E&P) and refuting activities are regulated as non-hazardous under the Resource Conservation and Recovery Act (RCRA). Potential reclassification of these wastes as hazardous would make minimization of these waste streams even more desirable. Oil and gas E&P activities generate a wide variety of wastes, although the bulk of the wastes (98%) consists of a single waste stream: produced water. Opportunities to minimize E&P wastes through point source reduction activities are limited by the extractive nature of the industry. Significant waste minimization is possible, however, through recycling. Recycling activities include underground injection of produced water, use of closed-loop drilling systems, reuse of produced water and drilling fluids in other oilfield activities, use of solid debris as construction fill, use of oily wastes as substitutes for road mix and asphalt, landspreading of produced sand for soil enhancement, and roadspreading of suitable aqueous wastes for dust suppression or deicing. Like the E&P wastes, wastes generated by oil and gas treatment and refining activities cannot be reduced substantially at the point source but can be reduced through recycling. For the most part, extensive recycling and reprocessing of many waste streams already occurs at most petroleum refineries. A variety of innovative waste treatment activities have been developed to minimize the toxicity or volume of oily wastes generated by both E&P and refining activities. These treatments include bioremediation, oxidation, biooxidation, incineration, and separation. Application of these treatment processes is still limited.

  17. Waste minimization in the oil and gas industries

    SciTech Connect

    Smith, K.P.

    1992-01-01

    Recent legislative actions place an emphasis on waste minimization as opposed to traditional end-of-pipe waste management. This new philosophy, coupled with increasing waste disposal costs and associated liabilities, sets the stage for investigating waste minimization opportunities in all industries wastes generated by oil and gas exploration and production (E P) and refuting activities are regulated as non-hazardous under the Resource Conservation and Recovery Act (RCRA). Potential reclassification of these wastes as hazardous would make minimization of these waste streams even more desirable. Oil and gas E P activities generate a wide variety of wastes, although the bulk of the wastes (98%) consists of a single waste stream: produced water. Opportunities to minimize E P wastes through point source reduction activities are limited by the extractive nature of the industry. Significant waste minimization is possible, however, through recycling. Recycling activities include underground injection of produced water, use of closed-loop drilling systems, reuse of produced water and drilling fluids in other oilfield activities, use of solid debris as construction fill, use of oily wastes as substitutes for road mix and asphalt, landspreading of produced sand for soil enhancement, and roadspreading of suitable aqueous wastes for dust suppression or deicing. Like the E P wastes, wastes generated by oil and gas treatment and refining activities cannot be reduced substantially at the point source but can be reduced through recycling. For the most part, extensive recycling and reprocessing of many waste streams already occurs at most petroleum refineries. A variety of innovative waste treatment activities have been developed to minimize the toxicity or volume of oily wastes generated by both E P and refining activities. These treatments include bioremediation, oxidation, biooxidation, incineration, and separation. Application of these treatment processes is still limited.

  18. Recursively minimally-deformed oscillators

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Katriel, J.; Quesne, C.

    1996-04-01

    A recursive deformation of the boson commutation relation is introduced. Each step consists of a minimal deformation of a commutator [a,a°]=fk(... ;n̂) into [a,a°]qk+1=fk(... ;n̂), where ... stands for the set of deformation parameters that fk depends on, followed by a transformation into the commutator [a,a°]=fk+1(...,qk+1;n̂) to which the deformed commutator is equivalent within the Fock space. Starting from the harmonic oscillator commutation relation [a,a°]=1 we obtain the Arik-Coon and Macfarlane-Biedenharn oscillators at the first and second steps, respectively, followed by a sequence of multiparameter generalizations. Several other types of deformed commutation relations related to the treatment of integrable models and to parastatistics are also obtained. The ``generic'' form consists of a linear combination of exponentials of the number operator, and the various recursive families can be classified according to the number of free linear parameters involved, that depends on the form of the initial commutator.

  19. Differentially Private Empirical Risk Minimization

    PubMed Central

    Chaudhuri, Kamalika; Monteleoni, Claire; Sarwate, Anand D.

    2011-01-01

    Privacy-preserving machine learning algorithms are crucial for the increasingly common setting in which personal data, such as medical or financial records, are analyzed. We provide general techniques to produce privacy-preserving approximations of classifiers learned via (regularized) empirical risk minimization (ERM). These algorithms are private under the ε-differential privacy definition due to Dwork et al. (2006). First we apply the output perturbation ideas of Dwork et al. (2006), to ERM classification. Then we propose a new method, objective perturbation, for privacy-preserving machine learning algorithm design. This method entails perturbing the objective function before optimizing over classifiers. If the loss and regularizer satisfy certain convexity and differentiability criteria, we prove theoretical results showing that our algorithms preserve privacy, and provide generalization bounds for linear and nonlinear kernels. We further present a privacy-preserving technique for tuning the parameters in general machine learning algorithms, thereby providing end-to-end privacy guarantees for the training process. We apply these results to produce privacy-preserving analogues of regularized logistic regression and support vector machines. We obtain encouraging results from evaluating their performance on real demographic and benchmark data sets. Our results show that both theoretically and empirically, objective perturbation is superior to the previous state-of-the-art, output perturbation, in managing the inherent tradeoff between privacy and learning performance. PMID:21892342

  20. Against Explanatory Minimalism in Psychiatry.

    PubMed

    Thornton, Tim

    2015-01-01

    The idea that psychiatry contains, in principle, a series of levels of explanation has been criticized not only as empirically false but also, by Campbell, as unintelligible because it presupposes a discredited pre-Humean view of causation. Campbell's criticism is based on an interventionist-inspired denial that mechanisms and rational connections underpin physical and mental causation, respectively, and hence underpin levels of explanation. These claims echo some superficially similar remarks in Wittgenstein's Zettel. But attention to the context of Wittgenstein's remarks suggests a reason to reject explanatory minimalism in psychiatry and reinstate a Wittgensteinian notion of levels of explanation. Only in a context broader than the one provided by interventionism is that the ascription of propositional attitudes, even in the puzzling case of delusions, justified. Such a view, informed by Wittgenstein, can reconcile the idea that the ascription mental phenomena presupposes a particular level of explanation with the rejection of an a priori claim about its connection to a neurological level of explanation.

  1. Against Explanatory Minimalism in Psychiatry

    PubMed Central

    Thornton, Tim

    2015-01-01

    The idea that psychiatry contains, in principle, a series of levels of explanation has been criticized not only as empirically false but also, by Campbell, as unintelligible because it presupposes a discredited pre-Humean view of causation. Campbell’s criticism is based on an interventionist-inspired denial that mechanisms and rational connections underpin physical and mental causation, respectively, and hence underpin levels of explanation. These claims echo some superficially similar remarks in Wittgenstein’s Zettel. But attention to the context of Wittgenstein’s remarks suggests a reason to reject explanatory minimalism in psychiatry and reinstate a Wittgensteinian notion of levels of explanation. Only in a context broader than the one provided by interventionism is that the ascription of propositional attitudes, even in the puzzling case of delusions, justified. Such a view, informed by Wittgenstein, can reconcile the idea that the ascription mental phenomena presupposes a particular level of explanation with the rejection of an a priori claim about its connection to a neurological level of explanation. PMID:26696908

  2. LESSons in minimally invasive urology.

    PubMed

    Dev, Harveer; Sooriakumaran, Prasanna; Tewari, Ashutosh; Rane, Abhay

    2011-05-01

    Since the introduction of laparoscopic surgery, the promise of lower postoperative morbidity and improved cosmesis has been achieved. LaparoEndoscopic Single Site (LESS) surgery potentially takes this further. Following the first human urological LESS report in 2007, numerous case series have emerged, as well as comparative studies comparing LESS with standard laparoscopy. Technological developments in instrumentation, access and optics devices are overcoming some of the challenges that are raised when operating through a single site. Further advances in the technique have included the incorporation of robotics (R-LESS), which exploit the ergonomic benefits of ex vivo robotic platforms in an attempt to further improve the implementation of LESS procedures. In the future, urologists may be able to benefit from in vivo micro-robots that will allow the manipulation of tissue from internal repositionable platforms. The use of magnetic anchoring and guidance systems (MAGS) might allow the external manoeuvring of intra-corporeal instruments to reduce clashing and facilitate triangulation. However, the final promise in minimally invasive surgery is natural orifice transluminal endoscopic surgery (NOTES), with its scarless technique. It remains to be seen whether NOTES, LESS, or any of these future developments will prove their clinical utility over standard laparoscopic methods.

  3. Medical waste: a minimal hazard.

    PubMed

    Keene, J H

    1991-11-01

    Medical waste is a subset of municipal waste, and regulated medical waste comprises less than 1% of the total municipal waste volume in the United States. As part of the overall waste stream, medical waste does contribute in a relative way to the aesthetic damage of the environment. Likewise, some small portion of the total release of hazardous chemicals and radioactive materials is derived from medical wastes. These comments can be made about any generated waste, regulated or unregulated. Healthcare professionals, including infection control personnel, microbiologists, public health officials, and others, have unsuccessfully argued that there is no evidence that past methods of treatment and disposal of regulated medical waste constitute any public health hazard. Historically, discovery of environmental contamination by toxic chemical disposal has followed assurances that the material was being disposed of in a safe manner. Therefore, a cynical public and its elected officials have demanded proof that the treatment and disposal of medical waste (i.e., infectious waste) do not constitute a public health hazard. Existent studies on municipal waste provide that proof. In order to argue that the results of these municipal waste studies are demonstrative of the minimal potential infectious environmental impact and lack of public health hazard associated with medical waste, we must accept the following: that the pathogens are the same whether they come from the hospital or the community, and that the municipal waste studied contained waste materials we now define as regulated medical waste.(ABSTRACT TRUNCATED AT 250 WORDS)

  4. Extension-block pinning for treatment of displaced mallet fractures.

    PubMed

    Mazurek, Michael T; Hofmeister, Eric P; Shin, Alexander Y; Bishop, Allen T

    2002-11-01

    Mallet injuries are common in active individuals, particularly those who participate in sports such as basketball and football. Although a majority of patients with displaced mallet fractures are treated conservatively with extension splinting, their treatment is often complicated by residual loss of extension and fracture displacement secondary to unfavorable fracture biomechanics and poor patient compliance. An attractive alternative to nonoperative treatment is the minimally invasive technique of extension-block percutaneous pinning. Extension-block percutaneous pinning allows anatomic restoration of the articular surfaces and avoids the complications associated with closed treatment. The technique is easy to perform and is an effective, safe alternative to the conservative treatment of displaced mallet fractures, particularly those associated with joint subluxation.

  5. Geometric and algebraic properties of minimal bases of singular systems

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Karcanias, Nicos

    2013-11-01

    For a general singular system ? with an associated pencil T(S), a complete classification of the right polynomial vector pairs ?, connected with the ? rational vector space, is given according to the proper-nonproper property, characterising the relationship of the degrees of those two vectors. An integral part of the classification of right pairs is the development of the notions of canonical and normal minimal bases for ? and ? rational vector spaces, where R(s) is the state restriction pencil of ?. It is shown that the notions of canonical and normal minimal bases are equivalent; the first notion characterises the pure algebraic aspect of the classification, whereas the second is intimately connected to the real geometry properties and the underlying generation mechanism of the proper and nonproper state vectors ?. The results describe the algebraic and geometric dimensions of the invariant partitioning of the set of reachability indices of singular systems. The classification of all proper and nonproper polynomial vectors ? induces a corresponding classification for the reachability spaces to proper-nonproper and results related to the possible dimensions feedback-spectra assignment properties of them are also given. The classification of minimal bases introduces new feedback invariants for singular systems, based on the real geometry of polynomial minimal bases, and provides an extension of the standard theory for proper systems (Warren, M.E., & Eckenberg, A.E. (1975).

  6. Minimal norm constrained interpolation. Ph.D. Thesis

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Irvine, L. D.

    1985-01-01

    In computational fluid dynamics and in CAD/CAM, a physical boundary is usually known only discreetly and most often must be approximated. An acceptable approximation preserves the salient features of the data such as convexity and concavity. In this dissertation, a smooth interpolant which is locally concave where the data are concave and is locally convex where the data are convex is described. The interpolant is found by posing and solving a minimization problem whose solution is a piecewise cubic polynomial. The problem is solved indirectly by using the Peano Kernal theorem to recast it into an equivalent minimization problem having the second derivative of the interpolant as the solution. This approach leads to the solution of a nonlinear system of equations. It is shown that Newton's method is an exceptionally attractive and efficient method for solving the nonlinear system of equations. Examples of shape-preserving interpolants, as well as convergence results obtained by using Newton's method are also shown. A FORTRAN program to compute these interpolants is listed. The problem of computing the interpolant of minimal norm from a convex cone in a normal dual space is also discussed. An extension of de Boor's work on minimal norm unconstrained interpolation is presented.

  7. Electric dipole moment constraints on minimal electroweak baryogenesis

    SciTech Connect

    Huber, Stephan J.; Pospelov, Maxim; Ritz, Adam

    2007-02-01

    We study the simplest generic extension of the standard model which allows for conventional electroweak baryogenesis, through the addition of dimension-six operators in the Higgs sector. At least one such operator is required to be CP-odd, and we study the constraints on such a minimal setup, and related scenarios with minimal flavor violation, from the null results of searches for electric dipole moments (EDMs), utilizing the full set of two-loop contributions to the EDMs. The results indicate that the current bounds are stringent, particularly that of the recently updated neutron EDM, but fall short of ruling out these scenarios. The next generation of EDM experiments should be sufficiently sensitive to provide a conclusive test.

  8. Repeat Customer Success in Extension

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Bess, Melissa M.; Traub, Sarah M.

    2013-01-01

    Four multi-session research-based programs were offered by two Extension specialist in one rural Missouri county. Eleven participants who came to multiple Extension programs could be called "repeat customers." Based on the total number of participants for all four programs, 25% could be deemed as repeat customers. Repeat customers had…

  9. GNU Fortran Cray Pointer Extension

    2005-07-27

    The gfortran compiler is a Fortran front end to the GNU Compiler Collection. The Cray Pointer extension adds to this existing compiler support for Cray-style integer pointers. This non-standard but widely used extension adds the functionality of C-like pointers to the Fortran language.

  10. Cooperative Extension: A Historical Assessment

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Carlson, Robert A.

    1970-01-01

    The early goals of the Extension Service were to increase agricultural productivity and maintain a rural way of life. Extension has been unable to fulfill both goals; increasing agricultural production has led to the liquidation of the rural way of life and to the development of corporate farms. (DM)

  11. Energy Crisis vs. Extension Opportunities

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Liles, Harold R.

    1978-01-01

    Discusses what steps were taken by the Cooperative Extension Service in Oklahoma, after the energy crisis began, to help landowners make better decisions regarding oil and gas leases. Oklahoma's Extension educational efforts in mineral rights management have been successful because they met the needs of the people. (EM)

  12. Extensive Reading Coursebooks in China

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Renandya, Willy A.; Hu, Guangwei; Xiang, Yu

    2015-01-01

    This article reports on a principle-based evaluation of eight dedicated extensive reading coursebooks published in mainland China and used in many universities across the country. The aim is to determine the extent to which these coursebooks reflect a core set of nine second language acquisition and extensive reading principles. Our analysis shows…

  13. Extension and the Practicing Veterinarian

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Meyerholz, G. W.

    1974-01-01

    In order for Extension programs of veterinary medicine to succeed, good relationships are needed among university veterinarians, practicing local veterinarians, county Extension agents and the clientele. This author attempts to define some roles and relationships and offer some suggestions for the improvement of relationships to increase…

  14. An H-infinity norm minimization approach

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Muse, Jonathan A.

    This dissertation seeks to merge the ideas from robust control theory such as Hinfinity control design and the Small Gain Theorem, L stability theory and Lyapunov stability from nonlinear control, and recent theoretical achievements in adaptive control. The fusion of frequency domain and linear time domain ideas allows the derivation of an H infinity Norm Minimization Approach (H infinity-NMA) for adaptive control architecture that permits a control designer to simplify the adaptive tuning process and tune the uncertainty compensation characteristics via linear control design techniques, band limit the adaptive control signal, efficiently handle redundant actuators, and handle unmatched uncertainty and matched uncertainty in a single design framework. The two stage design framework is similar to that used in robust control, but without sacrificing performance. The first stage of the design considers an ideal system with the system uncertainty completely known. For this system, a control law is designed using linear Hinfinity theory. Then in the second stage, an adaptive process is implemented that emulates the behavior of the ideal system. If the linear Hinfinity design is applied to control the emulated system, it then guarantees closed loop system stability of the actual system. All of this is accomplished while providing notions of transient performance bounds between the ideal system and the true system. Extensions to the theory include architectures for a class of output feedback systems, limiting the authority of an adaptive control system, and a method for improving the performance of an adaptive system with slow dynamics without any modification terms. Applications focus on using aerodynamic flow control for aircraft flight control and the Crew Launch Vehicle.

  15. [Minimally invasive percutaneous nephrolitholapaxy (MIP)].

    PubMed

    Nagele, U; Schilling, D; Anastasiadis, A G; Walcher, U; Sievert, K D; Merseburger, A S; Kuczyk, M; Stenzl, A

    2008-09-01

    Minimally invasive percutaneous nephrolithopaxy (MIP) was developed to combine the excellent stone-free rates of the conventional percutaneous nephrolithopaxy (PCNL) technique with the low morbidity of the miniaturized PCNL (Mini-Perc) and, at the same time, achieve a high level of patient comfort. The procedure is characterized not only by the diameter of the miniaturized 18-Fr Amplatz sheath that was adopted from the Mini-Perc but also by the following features: ultrasound-guided puncture of the kidney; single-step dilatation of the access tract; ballistic lithotripsy; a low-pressure irrigation system together with stone retraction by irrigation with a specially designed nephroscope sheath, for the so-called vacuum cleaner effect; and a sealed and tubeless access tract with primary closure of the channel independent of hemorrhage and without a second-look procedure.The results of the first 57 patients demonstrate primary stone-free rates of 92.9% with operating times averaging 62 (25-123) min. Severe complications, such as sepsis or bleeding requiring blood transfusion, did not occur. The high and predictable stone-free rate and a low morbidity comparable to that of ureteroscopy and extracorporeal shock-wave lithotripsy make MIP an attractive option for patients and urologists. The "vacuum cleaner effect" with quick removal of stone fragments reduces operating time and prevents new stone formation by avoiding residual fragments. The direct and primary closure of the access tract increases patient comfort and is justified by the reintervention rate of less than 8% in the presented cohort.The lack of a need for second-look nephroscopies, the vacuum cleaner effect, improved patient comfort without nephrostomy tubes, as well as surgery times comparable to that of traditional PCNL demonstrate a consequent evolution of the Mini-Perc. MIP therefore represents a promising and future-oriented module in modern stone therapy.

  16. Linking Research, Extension and Farmers: The Case of Mangrove Swamp Rice Cultivation in Sierra Leone.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Zinnah, Moses Moroe

    1994-01-01

    Interviews with 124 rice farmers in Sierra Leone revealed that farmers and extension staff have minimal participation and input in testing of new cultivation technologies. The top-down research approach has limited contact among researchers, extension staff, and farmers and affected the utility and application of research. (SK)

  17. The Role of Public Extension in Introducing Environment-Friendly Farming Methods in Turkey.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Kumuk, T.; Akgungor, S.

    1995-01-01

    Currently, the Turkish extension service plays a minimal role in reducing adverse environmental effects of farming methods. Public investment in research and extension on sustainable agriculture is needed to ensure long-term production practices that maintain the food supply without damaging the environment. (SK)

  18. Image restoration by minimizing zero norm of wavelet frame coefficients

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Bao, Chenglong; Dong, Bin; Hou, Likun; Shen, Zuowei; Zhang, Xiaoqun; Zhang, Xue

    2016-11-01

    In this paper, we propose two algorithms, namely the extrapolated proximal iterative hard thresholding (EPIHT) algorithm and the EPIHT algorithm with line-search, for solving the {{\\ell }}0-norm regularized wavelet frame balanced approach for image restoration. Under the theoretical framework of Kurdyka-Łojasiewicz property, we show that the sequences generated by the two algorithms converge to a local minimizer with linear convergence rate. Moreover, extensive numerical experiments on sparse signal reconstruction and wavelet frame based image restoration problems including CT reconstruction, image deblur, demonstrate the improvement of {{\\ell }}0-norm based regularization models over some prevailing ones, as well as the computational efficiency of the proposed algorithms.

  19. Conceptual analyses of extensible booms to support a solar sail

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Crawford, R. F.; Benton, M. D.

    1977-01-01

    Extensible booms which could function as the diagonal spars and central mast of an 800 meter square, non-rotating Solar Sailing Vehicle were conceptually designed and analyzed. The boom design concept that was investigated is an extensible lattice boom which is stowed and deployed by elastically coiling and uncoiling its continuous longerons. The seven different free-span lengths in each spar which would minimize the total weights of the spars and mast were determined. Boom weights were calculated by using a semi-empirical formulation which related the overall weight of a boom to the weight of its longerons.

  20. Minimal basilar membrane motion in low-frequency hearing.

    PubMed

    Warren, Rebecca L; Ramamoorthy, Sripriya; Ciganović, Nikola; Zhang, Yuan; Wilson, Teresa M; Petrie, Tracy; Wang, Ruikang K; Jacques, Steven L; Reichenbach, Tobias; Nuttall, Alfred L; Fridberger, Anders

    2016-07-26

    Low-frequency hearing is critically important for speech and music perception, but no mechanical measurements have previously been available from inner ears with intact low-frequency parts. These regions of the cochlea may function in ways different from the extensively studied high-frequency regions, where the sensory outer hair cells produce force that greatly increases the sound-evoked vibrations of the basilar membrane. We used laser interferometry in vitro and optical coherence tomography in vivo to study the low-frequency part of the guinea pig cochlea, and found that sound stimulation caused motion of a minimal portion of the basilar membrane. Outside the region of peak movement, an exponential decline in motion amplitude occurred across the basilar membrane. The moving region had different dependence on stimulus frequency than the vibrations measured near the mechanosensitive stereocilia. This behavior differs substantially from the behavior found in the extensively studied high-frequency regions of the cochlea. PMID:27407145

  1. Minimal basilar membrane motion in low-frequency hearing

    PubMed Central

    Warren, Rebecca L.; Ramamoorthy, Sripriya; Ciganović, Nikola; Zhang, Yuan; Wilson, Teresa M.; Petrie, Tracy; Wang, Ruikang K.; Jacques, Steven L.; Reichenbach, Tobias; Nuttall, Alfred L.; Fridberger, Anders

    2016-01-01

    Low-frequency hearing is critically important for speech and music perception, but no mechanical measurements have previously been available from inner ears with intact low-frequency parts. These regions of the cochlea may function in ways different from the extensively studied high-frequency regions, where the sensory outer hair cells produce force that greatly increases the sound-evoked vibrations of the basilar membrane. We used laser interferometry in vitro and optical coherence tomography in vivo to study the low-frequency part of the guinea pig cochlea, and found that sound stimulation caused motion of a minimal portion of the basilar membrane. Outside the region of peak movement, an exponential decline in motion amplitude occurred across the basilar membrane. The moving region had different dependence on stimulus frequency than the vibrations measured near the mechanosensitive stereocilia. This behavior differs substantially from the behavior found in the extensively studied high-frequency regions of the cochlea. PMID:27407145

  2. 40 CFR 63.1213 - How can the compliance date be extended to install pollution prevention or waste minimization...

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-07-01

    ... to install pollution prevention or waste minimization controls? 63.1213 Section 63.1213 Protection of... pollution prevention or waste minimization controls? (a) Applicability. You may request from the.... An extension may be granted if you can reasonably document that the installation of...

  3. 40 CFR 63.1213 - How can the compliance date be extended to install pollution prevention or waste minimization...

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-07-01

    ... extended to install pollution prevention or waste minimization controls? 63.1213 Section 63.1213 Protection... pollution prevention or waste minimization controls? (a) Applicability. You may request from the.... An extension may be granted if you can reasonably document that the installation of...

  4. 40 CFR 63.1213 - How can the compliance date be extended to install pollution prevention or waste minimization...

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-07-01

    ... to install pollution prevention or waste minimization controls? 63.1213 Section 63.1213 Protection of... pollution prevention or waste minimization controls? (a) Applicability. You may request from the.... An extension may be granted if you can reasonably document that the installation of...

  5. Invisible KL decays in the SM extensions

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Gninenko, S. N.; Krasnikov, N. V.

    2016-07-01

    In the Standard Model (SM), the branching ratio for the decay KL → νν¯ is helicity suppressed and predicted to be very small ≤ O(10‑17). We consider two natural extensions of the SM as the two-Higgs-doublet model (2HDM) and the neutrino minimal Standard Model (νMSM) with additional singlet scalar, whose main feature is that they can lead to an enhanced Br(KL → invisible). In the 2HDM, the smallness of the neutrino mass is explained due to the smallness of the second Higgs doublet vacuum expectation value. Moreover, the νMSM extension with additional singlet field can explain the (g ‑ 2)μ anomaly. The considered models demonstrate that the KL → invisible decay is a clean probe of new physics scale well above 100 TeV, that is complementary to rare K → π + invisible decay, and provide a strong motivation for its sensitive search in a near future low-energy experiment.

  6. Invisible KL decays in the SM extensions

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Gninenko, S. N.; Krasnikov, N. V.

    2016-07-01

    In the Standard Model (SM), the branching ratio for the decay KL → νν¯ is helicity suppressed and predicted to be very small ≤ O(10-17). We consider two natural extensions of the SM as the two-Higgs-doublet model (2HDM) and the neutrino minimal Standard Model (νMSM) with additional singlet scalar, whose main feature is that they can lead to an enhanced Br(KL → invisible). In the 2HDM, the smallness of the neutrino mass is explained due to the smallness of the second Higgs doublet vacuum expectation value. Moreover, the νMSM extension with additional singlet field can explain the (g - 2)μ anomaly. The considered models demonstrate that the KL → invisible decay is a clean probe of new physics scale well above 100 TeV, that is complementary to rare K → π + invisible decay, and provide a strong motivation for its sensitive search in a near future low-energy experiment.

  7. Light/multicomponent dark matter: A minimal model and detection prospects

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Allahverdi, Rouzbeh

    2016-06-01

    We present a minimal extension of the standard model that gives rise to post-sphaleron baryogenesis by introducing colored scalar fields. The model can accommodate a fermionic dark matter candidate of 𝒪(GeV) mass whose stability is tied to proton stability. The supersymmetric extension of this model is straightforward and can lead to a realizion of multicomponent dark matter scenario. We discuss possible direct and indirect detection signals of the dark matter candidate(s) in this model.

  8. Extension Russian: A Few Notes

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Matthews, Irene J.

    1974-01-01

    Presents observations on the teaching of Russian in an evening extension course and four teaching techniques which involve variety in lesson planning, flexibility in presentation, a relaxed atmosphere and encouragement. (LG)

  9. Video 6 of 6: Extensions

    NASA Video Gallery

    Find out ways to modify and enrich this challenge to make it more suitable for the ability level of your students. These customizations also could be used as extensions to the existing challenge. D...

  10. Boiler-turbine life extension

    SciTech Connect

    Natzkov, S.; Nikolov, M.

    1995-12-01

    The design life of the main power equipment-boilers and turbines is about 105 working hours. The possibilities for life extension are after normatively regulated control tests. The diagnostics and methodology for Boilers and Turbines Elements Remaining Life Assessment using up to date computer programs, destructive and nondestructive control of metal of key elements of units equipment, metal creep and low cycle fatigue calculations. As well as data for most common damages and some technical decisions for elements life extension are presented.

  11. Agricultural extension and mass media.

    PubMed

    Perraton, H

    1983-12-01

    To learn more about the use of the mass media for agricultural extension, the World Bank has considered the efforts of 2 units: INADES-formation in West Africa and the Extension Aids Branch of Malawi. The INADES-formation study focuses on Cameroon but also considers work in Rwanda and the Ivory Coast. Some general conclusions emerge from a comparison of the 2 organizations. Malawi operates an extension service which reaches farmers through extension agents, through farmer training centers, and through mass media. The Extension Aids Branch (EAB) has responsibility for its media work and broadcasts 4 1/2 hours of radio each week. Its 6 regular radio programs include a general program which interviews farmers, a music request program in which the music is interspersed with farming advice, a farming family serial, and a daily broadcast of agricultural news and information. The 17 cinema vans show some agricultural films, made by EAB, some entertainment films, and some government information films from departments other than the ministry of agriculture. EAB also has a well-developed program of research and evaluation of its own work. INADES-formation, the training section of INADES, works towards social and economic development of the population. It teaches peasant farmers and extension agents and does this through running face-to-face seminars, by publishing a magazine, "Agripromo," and through correspondence courses. In 1978-79 INADES-formation enrolled some 4500 farmers and extension agents as students. Both of these organizations work to teach farmers better agriculture techniques, and both were created in response to the fact that agricultural extension agents cannot meet all the farmers in their area. Despite the similarity of objective, there are differences in methods and philosophy. The EAB works in a single country and uses a variety of mass media, with print playing a minor role. INADES-formation is an international and nongovernmental organization and its

  12. Zinc recovery and waste sludge minimization from chromium passivation baths.

    PubMed

    Diban, Nazely; Mediavilla, Rosa; Urtiaga, Ane; Ortiz, Inmaculada

    2011-08-30

    This work reports the feasibility of applying emulsion pertraction technology (EPT) aiming at zinc recovery and waste minimization in the zinc electroplating processes that include Cr (III) passivation. The assessment consists of firstly the lifetime extension of the passivation baths by selective removal of the tramp ions zinc and iron, and secondly, the recovery of zinc for further reuse. Spent passivation baths from a local industry were tested, being the major metallic content: Cr(3+) 9000mg L(-1), Zn(2+) 12,000mg L(-1), Fe(3+) 100mg L(-1). Working in a Liqui-Cel hollow fiber membrane contactor and using the extractant bis(2,4,4-trimethylpentyl) phosphinic acid, reduction of zinc and iron concentrations below 60mg L(-1) and 2mg L(-1), respectively were obtained, while trivalent chromium, the active metal that generates the passivation layer, was retained in the baths. Zinc was selectively transferred to an acidic stripping phase that in the experimental time reached a concentration of 157,000mg L(-1). Zinc recovery by electrowinning from the acidic stripping phase without any pretreatment of the electrolyte solution provided a purity of 98.5%, matching the lower commercial zinc grade. As a result of the extension of the life time of the passivation bath, significant environmental advantages are derived such as minimization of the volume of hazardous wastes and savings in the consumption of raw materials. PMID:21704452

  13. Exceptional error minimization in putative primordial genetic codes

    PubMed Central

    2009-01-01

    Background The standard genetic code is redundant and has a highly non-random structure. Codons for the same amino acids typically differ only by the nucleotide in the third position, whereas similar amino acids are encoded, mostly, by codon series that differ by a single base substitution in the third or the first position. As a result, the code is highly albeit not optimally robust to errors of translation, a property that has been interpreted either as a product of selection directed at the minimization of errors or as a non-adaptive by-product of evolution of the code driven by other forces. Results We investigated the error-minimization properties of putative primordial codes that consisted of 16 supercodons, with the third base being completely redundant, using a previously derived cost function and the error minimization percentage as the measure of a code's robustness to mistranslation. It is shown that, when the 16-supercodon table is populated with 10 putative primordial amino acids, inferred from the results of abiotic synthesis experiments and other evidence independent of the code's evolution, and with minimal assumptions used to assign the remaining supercodons, the resulting 2-letter codes are nearly optimal in terms of the error minimization level. Conclusion The results of the computational experiments with putative primordial genetic codes that contained only two meaningful letters in all codons and encoded 10 to 16 amino acids indicate that such codes are likely to have been nearly optimal with respect to the minimization of translation errors. This near-optimality could be the outcome of extensive early selection during the co-evolution of the code with the primordial, error-prone translation system, or a result of a unique, accidental event. Under this hypothesis, the subsequent expansion of the code resulted in a decrease of the error minimization level that became sustainable owing to the evolution of a high-fidelity translation system

  14. Minimizing electrode contamination in an electrochemical cell

    DOEpatents

    Kim, Yu Seung; Zelenay, Piotr; Johnston, Christina

    2014-12-09

    An electrochemical cell assembly that is expected to prevent or at least minimize electrode contamination includes one or more getters that trap a component or components leached from a first electrode and prevents or at least minimizes them from contaminating a second electrode.

  15. Is goal ascription possible in minimal mindreading?

    PubMed

    Butterfill, Stephen A; Apperly, Ian A

    2016-03-01

    In this response to the commentary by Michael and Christensen, we first explain how minimal mindreading is compatible with the development of increasingly sophisticated mindreading behaviors that involve both executive functions and general knowledge and then sketch 1 approach to a minimal account of goal ascription. PMID:26901746

  16. Minimally invasive surgery in neonates and infants

    PubMed Central

    Lin, Tiffany; Pimpalwar, Ashwin

    2010-01-01

    Minimally invasive surgery (MIS) has significantly improved the field of surgery, with benefits including shorter operating time, improved recovery time, minimizing stress and pain due to smaller incisions, and even improving mortality. MIS procedures, including their indications, impact, limitations, and possible future evolution in neonates and infants, are discussed in this article. PMID:21180496

  17. Minimally Invasive Mitral Valve Surgery I

    PubMed Central

    Ailawadi, Gorav; Agnihotri, Arvind K.; Mehall, John R.; Wolfe, J. Alan; Hummel, Brian W.; Fayers, Trevor M.; Farivar, R. Saeid; Grossi, Eugene A.; Guy, T. Sloane; Hargrove, W. Clark; Khan, Junaid H.; Lehr, Eric J.; Malaisrie, S. Chris; Murphy, Douglas A.; Rodriguez, Evelio; Ryan, William H.; Salemi, Arash; Segurola, Romualdo J.; Shemin, Richard J.; Smith, J. Michael; Smith, Robert L.; Weldner, Paul W.; Goldman, Scott M.; Lewis, Clifton T. P.; Barnhart, Glenn R.

    2016-01-01

    Abstract Widespread adoption of minimally invasive mitral valve repair and replacement may be fostered by practice consensus and standardization. This expert opinion, first of a 3-part series, outlines current best practices in patient evaluation and selection for minimally invasive mitral valve procedures, and discusses preoperative planning for cannulation and myocardial protection. PMID:27654407

  18. 75 FR 48921 - Administrative Guidance for Multistate Extension Activities and Integrated Research and Extension...

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2010-08-12

    ...: ``Cooperative State Research, Education, and Extension Service's Implementation of the Agricultural Research... amount of agricultural extension formula funds be expended on multistate extension activities. Section... agricultural research and extension formula funds be expended on integrated research and extension...

  19. Extensive fitness and human cooperation.

    PubMed

    van Hateren, J H

    2015-12-01

    Evolution depends on the fitness of organisms, the expected rate of reproducing. Directly getting offspring is the most basic form of fitness, but fitness can also be increased indirectly by helping genetically related individuals (such as kin) to increase their fitness. The combined effect is known as inclusive fitness. Here it is argued that a further elaboration of fitness has evolved, particularly in humans. It is called extensive fitness and it incorporates producing organisms that are merely similar in phenotype. The evolvability of this mechanism is illustrated by computations on a simple model combining heredity and behaviour. Phenotypes are driven into the direction of high fitness through a mechanism that involves an internal estimate of fitness, implicitly made within the organism itself. This mechanism has recently been conjectured to be responsible for producing agency and goals. In the model, inclusive and extensive fitness are both implemented by letting fitness increase nonlinearly with the size of subpopulations of similar heredity (for the indirect part of inclusive fitness) and of similar phenotype (for the phenotypic part of extensive fitness). Populations implementing extensive fitness outcompete populations implementing mere inclusive fitness. This occurs because groups with similar phenotype tend to be larger than groups with similar heredity, and fitness increases more when groups are larger. Extensive fitness has two components, a direct component where individuals compete in inducing others to become like them and an indirect component where individuals cooperate and help others who are already similar to them.

  20. Life Extension of Aging High Level Waste (HLW) Tanks

    SciTech Connect

    BRYSON, D.

    2002-02-04

    The Double Shell Tanks (DSTs) play a critical role in the Hanford High-Level Waste Treatment Complex, and therefore activities are underway to protect and better understand these tanks. The DST Life Extension Program is focused on both tank life extension and on evaluation of tank integrity. Tank life extension activities focus on understanding tank failure modes and have produced key chemistry and operations controls to minimize tank corrosion and extend useful tank life. Tank integrity program activities have developed and applied key technologies to evaluate the condition of the tank structure and predict useful tank life. Program results to date indicate that DST useful life can be extended well beyond the original design life and allow the existing tanks to fill a critical function within the Hanford High-Level Waste Treatment Complex. In addition the tank life may now be more reliably predicted, facilitating improved planning for the use and possible future replacement of these tanks.

  1. Some generalizations of the Hewitt extension

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Vajakas, Jaan

    2012-02-01

    We introduce two extensions of a Tychonoff space that generalize the notions of the Hewitt extension and the "generalized Hewitt extension" introduced by Bachman, Beckenstein, Narici and Warner. The extensions are determined by sets of continuous functions. In particular, we study the extensions determined by all continuous functions and the extension determined by all continuous bounded functions and show that these can be regarded as epireflective functors. Finally we discuss the possibility of using these extensions to describe the characters of function algebras.

  2. Tree-level unitarity bounds for the minimal B-L model

    SciTech Connect

    Basso, L.; Belyaev, A.; Moretti, S.; Pruna, G. M.

    2010-05-01

    We have derived the unitarity bounds in the high energy limit for the minimal B-L extension of the standard model by analyzing the full class of Higgs and would-be Goldstone boson two-to-two scatterings at tree level. Moreover, we have investigated how these limits could vary at some lower critical value of the energy.

  3. 7 CFR 3430.36 - Procedures to minimize or eliminate duplication of effort.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-01-01

    ..., taskforces, or groups that seek to solve problems related to agricultural research, education, and extension... may implement appropriate business processes to minimize or eliminate the awarding of CSREES Federal... awards made by other Federal agencies. Business processes may include the review of the Current...

  4. Minimally Invasive Mitral Valve Repair in a Marfan Patient with Severe Scoliokyphosis

    PubMed Central

    Noack, Thilo; Lehmkuhl, Lukas; Seeburger, Joerg; Mohr, Friedrich Wilhelm

    2014-01-01

    A 26-year-old female Marfan patient with extensive scoliokyphosis presented with severe mitral valve regurgitation. The patient was treated with minimally invasive mitral valve repair via a right lateral minithoracotomy. In this report, we discuss the operative procedure followed in this special case and the current literature. PMID:25798347

  5. Extension for prevention: margin placement.

    PubMed

    Larson, Thomas D

    2012-01-01

    This article will review the concept of extension for prevention popularized by G.V. Black around the early 1900s. Concepts of extension and prevention have changed over the years with a more informed knowledge of the caries process, improved materials, cutting instruments, and techniques. The reasons for placement of the outline form relative to the tooth morphology, gingival tissue, relationship to adjacent teeth, and the choice of material will be described for all of the materials used in restorative dentistry. Research will be cited to support the scientific basis for outline form placement. PMID:22662468

  6. Minimal change disease: a CD80 podocytopathy?

    PubMed

    Ishimoto, Takuji; Shimada, Michiko; Araya, Carlos E; Huskey, Janna; Garin, Eduardo H; Johnson, Richard J

    2011-07-01

    Minimal change disease is the most common nephrotic syndrome in children. Although the etiology of minimal change disease remains to be elucidated, it has been postulated that it is the result of a circulating T-cell factor that causes podocyte cytoskeleton disorganization leading to increased glomerular capillary permeability and/or changes in glomerular basement membrane heparan sulfate glycosaminoglycans resulting in proteinuria. Minimal change disease has been associated with allergies and Hodgkin disease. Consistent with these associations, a role for interleukin-13 with minimal change disease has been proposed. Furthermore, studies evaluating podocytes also have evolved. Recently, increased expression of CD80 (also termed B7-1) on podocytes was identified as a mechanism for proteinuria. CD80 is inhibited by binding to CTLA-4, which is expressed on regulatory T cells. Recently, we showed that urinary CD80 is increased in minimal change disease patients and limited studies have suggested that it is not commonly present in the urine of patients with other glomerular diseases. Interleukin-13 or microbial products via Toll-like receptors could be factors that induce CD80 expression on podocytes. CTLA-4 appears to regulate CD80 expression in podocytes, and to be altered in minimal change disease patients. These findings lead us to suggest that proteinuria in minimal change disease is caused by persistent CD80 expression in podocytes, possibly initiated by stimulation of these cells by antigens or cytokines.

  7. Finding minimal action sequences with a simple evaluation of actions

    PubMed Central

    Shah, Ashvin; Gurney, Kevin N.

    2014-01-01

    Animals are able to discover the minimal number of actions that achieves an outcome (the minimal action sequence). In most accounts of this, actions are associated with a measure of behavior that is higher for actions that lead to the outcome with a shorter action sequence, and learning mechanisms find the actions associated with the highest measure. In this sense, previous accounts focus on more than the simple binary signal of “was the outcome achieved?”; they focus on “how well was the outcome achieved?” However, such mechanisms may not govern all types of behavioral development. In particular, in the process of action discovery (Redgrave and Gurney, 2006), actions are reinforced if they simply lead to a salient outcome because biological reinforcement signals occur too quickly to evaluate the consequences of an action beyond an indication of the outcome's occurrence. Thus, action discovery mechanisms focus on the simple evaluation of “was the outcome achieved?” and not “how well was the outcome achieved?” Notwithstanding this impoverishment of information, can the process of action discovery find the minimal action sequence? We address this question by implementing computational mechanisms, referred to in this paper as no-cost learning rules, in which each action that leads to the outcome is associated with the same measure of behavior. No-cost rules focus on “was the outcome achieved?” and are consistent with action discovery. No-cost rules discover the minimal action sequence in simulated tasks and execute it for a substantial amount of time. Extensive training, however, results in extraneous actions, suggesting that a separate process (which has been proposed in action discovery) must attenuate learning if no-cost rules participate in behavioral development. We describe how no-cost rules develop behavior, what happens when attenuation is disrupted, and relate the new mechanisms to wider computational and biological context. PMID:25506326

  8. Adopting a new philosophy: minimal invasion.

    PubMed

    Whitehouse, Joseph A

    2006-06-01

    Dentistry is a dynamic profession with new trends evolving. Minimally invasive dentistry is becoming not just a concept but a way of practicing. Creative people are finding ways, materials, and technology that enable patients to experience less hard-tissue or soft-tissue removal, improved prevention and maintenance, and increased attention to a philosophy of "less is more." The World Congress of Minimally Invasive Dentistry was formed to facilitate the sharing of these new concepts. The members embrace change, and dentistry offers the constant opportunity for such. As the standard of care moves toward minimally invasive dentistry, patients will benefit. PMID:16792118

  9. Technology applications for radioactive waste minimization

    SciTech Connect

    Devgun, J.S.

    1994-07-01

    The nuclear power industry has achieved one of the most successful examples of waste minimization. The annual volume of low-level radioactive waste shipped for disposal per reactor has decreased to approximately one-fifth the volume about a decade ago. In addition, the curie content of the total waste shipped for disposal has decreased. This paper will discuss the regulatory drivers and economic factors for waste minimization and describe the application of technologies for achieving waste minimization for low-level radioactive waste with examples from the nuclear power industry.

  10. Minimally Invasive Cardiovascular Surgery: Incisions and Approaches

    PubMed Central

    Langer, Nathaniel B.; Argenziano, Michael

    2016-01-01

    Throughout the modern era of cardiac surgery, most operations have been performed via median sternotomy with cardiopulmonary bypass. This paradigm is changing, however, as cardiovascular surgery is increasingly adopting minimally invasive techniques. Advances in patient evaluation, instrumentation, and operative technique have allowed surgeons to perform a wide variety of complex operations through smaller incisions and, in some cases, without cardiopulmonary bypass. With patients desiring less invasive operations and the literature supporting decreased blood loss, shorter hospital length of stay, improved postoperative pain, and better cosmesis, minimally invasive cardiac surgery should be widely practiced. Here, we review the incisions and approaches currently used in minimally invasive cardiovascular surgery. PMID:27127555

  11. Extension Resources for International Trade

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Seal, Susan D.

    2016-01-01

    With the opening of additional trade partnerships, the reduction of global transportation and communication costs, and the increase in demand for U.S. agricultural products and services, international trade is an area of great importance to more and more Extension clients and stakeholders. This article provides information about the primary…

  12. Removing the Tension from Extension

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Bradley, Lucy; Driscoll, Elizabeth; Bardon, Robert

    2012-01-01

    Job burnout and stress begin with day-to-day frustrations, roadblocks, and unmet expectations. These can transform job satisfaction and, ultimately, career choices, affecting the quality of programs, expense to universities, and relationships with the community. A series of innovative statewide workshops involving 97 agents and Extension directors…

  13. Agricultural Extension. A Reference Manual.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Maunder, Addison, H.

    The basic philosophy of agricultural extension was established in the more highly developed countries over the past century. Newly formed nations, the rural population of which formerly maintained a subsistence agriculture with limited industry, found it essential to establish a better-balanced economy. This led to a variety of rural services and…

  14. Strategic Opportunities for Cooperative Extension

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    National Association of State Universities and Land-Grant Colleges, 2007

    2007-01-01

    In this new century, opportunities exist to help advance America's greatness in the midst of many challenges. Energy, water, food, environment, health, economic productivity, global competitiveness, and the quality of the living environments are all paramount to the future. Extension is, as a part of higher education, prepared to create new…

  15. Slope Extensions to ASL Library

    SciTech Connect

    Gay, David

    2010-03-31

    Extensions to the AMPL/solver interface library (http://netlib.sandia.gov/ampl/solvers) to compute bounds on algebraic expressions, plus a test program. use in uncertainty quantification and global optimization algorithms. This software is not primarily for military applications.

  16. Mortality among agricultural extension agents.

    PubMed

    Alavanja, M C; Blair, A; Merkle, S; Teske, J; Eaton, B

    1988-01-01

    The mortality experience of agricultural extension agents in the Cooperative Extension Service (CES) of the U.S. Department of Agriculture who died during the period January 1, 1970-December 31, 1979 (n = 1,495 white males) was evaluated in proportionate-mortality and case-control studies. The proportionate-mortality analysis was used to identify cancers that might be elevated in this occupational group compared with the U.S. white male population. All cancers with a significantly elevated proportionate-mortality ratio were more thoroughly evaluated in the case-control study, where there is presumably less of a selection bias in the comparison. In the case-control study, leukemia demonstrated a statistically significant linear trend with duration of employment as an extension agent. Smaller, but nonsignificant, trends were seen for non-Hodgkin's lymphoma, multiple myeloma, and brain cancer. The odds ratio for Hodgkin's disease and cancers of the colon, prostate, and kidney did not vary with the number of years on the job. These patterns resemble cancer risks seen among farmers, suggesting that agricultural factors may also play a role in the origin of these tumors among extension agents.

  17. NACRE Update and Extension Project

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Aikawa, Masayuki; Arai, Koji; Arnould, Marcel; Takahashi, Kohji; Utsunomiya, Hiroaki

    2006-04-01

    NACRE, the `nuclear astrophysics compilation of reaction rates', has been widely utilized in stellar evolution and nucleosynthesis studies since its publication in 1999. We describe here the current status of a Konan-Université Libre de Bruxelles (ULB) joint project that aims at its update and extension.

  18. Who Are Extension Council Members?

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Oberle, Wayne H.

    1970-01-01

    Many Extension Council members were recommended by associates or friends, a procedure that contributed to homogeneity in council membership. Such homogeneity may make it difficult for council members to perceive problems of clientele with characteristics or attitudes different from their own. (DM)

  19. Rule Induction with Extension Matrices.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Wu, Xindong

    1998-01-01

    Presents a heuristic, attribute-based, noise-tolerant data mining program, HCV (Version 2.0) based on the newly-developed extension matrix approach. Outlines some techniques implemented in the HCV program for noise handling and discretization of continuous domains; an empirical comparison shows that rules generated by HCV are more compact than the…

  20. Nuclear power plant life extension

    SciTech Connect

    Carlson, D.D.; Bustard, L.D.; Harrison, D.L.

    1986-01-01

    Nuclear plant life extension represents an opportunity to achieve additional productive years of operation from existing nuclear power facilities. This is particularly important since operating licenses for over 50 GW of nuclear capacity will expire by the year 2010. By the year 2015, 85% of the total planned nuclear electric capacity will face retirement due to license expirations. Achieving additional productive years of operation from the nation's existing light water reactors is the goal of ongoing utility, vendor, US Department of Energy, and Electric Power Research Institute programs. Identifying potential technical issues associated with extending plant life and scoping realistic solutions represent first steps toward the development of a coordinated national plant life extension strategy. This is a substantial effort that must consider the breadth of issues associated with nuclear power plant design, operation, and licensing, and the numerous potential plant life extension strategies that may be appropriate to different utilities. Such an effort must enlist the expertise of the full spectrum of organizations in the nuclear industry including utilities, vendors, consultants, national laboratories, and professional organizations. A primary focus of these efforts is to identify operational changes and improvements in record-keeping, which, if implemented now, could enhance and preserve the life extension option.

  1. NACRE Update and Extension Project

    SciTech Connect

    Aikawa, Masayuki; Arnould, Marcel; Takahashi, Kohji; Arai, Koji; Utsunomiya, Hiroaki

    2006-04-26

    NACRE, the 'nuclear astrophysics compilation of reaction rates', has been widely utilized in stellar evolution and nucleosynthesis studies since its publication in 1999. We describe here the current status of a Konan-Universite Libre de Brussels (ULB) joint project that aims at its update and extension.

  2. Protective coatings on extensible biofibres

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Holten-Andersen, Niels; Fantner, Georg E.; Hohlbauch, Sophia; Waite, J. Herbert; Zok, Frank W.

    2007-09-01

    Formulating effective coatings for use in nano- and biotechnology poses considerable technical challenges. If they are to provide abrasion resistance, coatings must be hard and adhere well to the underlying substrate. High hardness, however, comes at the expense of extensibility. This property trade-off makes the design of coatings for even moderately compliant substrates problematic, because substrate deformation easily exceeds the strain limit of the coating. Although the highest strain capacity of synthetic fibre coatings is less than 10%, deformable coatings are ubiquitous in biological systems. With an eye to heeding the lessons of nature, the cuticular coatings of byssal threads from two species of marine mussels, Mytilus galloprovincialis and Perna canaliculus, have been investigated. Consistent with their function to protect collagenous fibres in the byssal-thread core, these coatings show hardness and stiffness comparable to those of engineering plastics and yet are surprisingly extensible; the tensile failure strain of P. canaliculus cuticle is about 30% and that of M. galloprovincialis is a remarkable 70%. The difference in extensibility is attributable to the presence of deformable microphase-separated granules within the cuticle of M. galloprovincialis. The results have important implications in the design of bio-inspired extensible coatings.

  3. Academic Achievement and Minimal Brain Dysfunction

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Edwards, R. Philip; And Others

    1971-01-01

    The investigation provided no evidence that a diagnosis of minimal brain dysfunction based on a pediatric neurological evaluation and/or visual-motor impairment as measured by the Bender-Gestalt, is a useful predictor of academic achievement. (Author)

  4. Minimally Invasive Treatments for Breast Cancer

    MedlinePlus

    ... SIR login) Interventional Radiology Minimally Invasive Treatments for Breast Cancer Interventional Radiology Treatments Offer New Options and Hope ... have in the fight against breast cancer. About Breast Cancer When breast tissue divides and grows at an ...

  5. Waste minimization and pollution prevention awareness plan

    SciTech Connect

    Not Available

    1991-05-31

    The purpose of this plan is to document the Lawrence Livermore National Laboratory (LLNL) Waste Minimization and Pollution Prevention Awareness Program. The plan specifies those activities and methods that are or will be employed to reduce the quantity and toxicity of wastes generated at the site. The intent of this plan is to respond to and comply with (DOE's) policy and guidelines concerning the need for pollution prevention. The Plan is composed of a LLNL Waste Minimization and Pollution Prevention Awareness Program Plan and, as attachments, Program- and Department-specific waste minimization plans. This format reflects the fact that waste minimization is considered a line management responsibility and is to be addressed by each of the Programs and Departments. 14 refs.

  6. Genetic algorithms for minimal source reconstructions

    SciTech Connect

    Lewis, P.S.; Mosher, J.C.

    1993-12-01

    Under-determined linear inverse problems arise in applications in which signals must be estimated from insufficient data. In these problems the number of potentially active sources is greater than the number of observations. In many situations, it is desirable to find a minimal source solution. This can be accomplished by minimizing a cost function that accounts from both the compatibility of the solution with the observations and for its ``sparseness``. Minimizing functions of this form can be a difficult optimization problem. Genetic algorithms are a relatively new and robust approach to the solution of difficult optimization problems, providing a global framework that is not dependent on local continuity or on explicit starting values. In this paper, the authors describe the use of genetic algorithms to find minimal source solutions, using as an example a simulation inspired by the reconstruction of neural currents in the human brain from magnetoencephalographic (MEG) measurements.

  7. Controlling molecular transport in minimal emulsions

    PubMed Central

    Gruner, Philipp; Riechers, Birte; Semin, Benoît; Lim, Jiseok; Johnston, Abigail; Short, Kathleen; Baret, Jean-Christophe

    2016-01-01

    Emulsions are metastable dispersions in which molecular transport is a major mechanism driving the system towards its state of minimal energy. Determining the underlying mechanisms of molecular transport between droplets is challenging due to the complexity of a typical emulsion system. Here we introduce the concept of ‘minimal emulsions', which are controlled emulsions produced using microfluidic tools, simplifying an emulsion down to its minimal set of relevant parameters. We use these minimal emulsions to unravel the fundamentals of transport of small organic molecules in water-in-fluorinated-oil emulsions, a system of great interest for biotechnological applications. Our results are of practical relevance to guarantee a sustainable compartmentalization of compounds in droplet microreactors and to design new strategies for the dynamic control of droplet compositions. PMID:26797564

  8. Heart bypass surgery - minimally invasive - discharge

    MedlinePlus

    ... coronary artery bypass - discharge; RACAB - discharge; Keyhole heart surgery - discharge ... You had minimally invasive coronary artery bypass surgery on one ... an artery from your chest to create a detour, or bypass, around ...

  9. Controlling molecular transport in minimal emulsions

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Gruner, Philipp; Riechers, Birte; Semin, Benoît; Lim, Jiseok; Johnston, Abigail; Short, Kathleen; Baret, Jean-Christophe

    2016-01-01

    Emulsions are metastable dispersions in which molecular transport is a major mechanism driving the system towards its state of minimal energy. Determining the underlying mechanisms of molecular transport between droplets is challenging due to the complexity of a typical emulsion system. Here we introduce the concept of `minimal emulsions', which are controlled emulsions produced using microfluidic tools, simplifying an emulsion down to its minimal set of relevant parameters. We use these minimal emulsions to unravel the fundamentals of transport of small organic molecules in water-in-fluorinated-oil emulsions, a system of great interest for biotechnological applications. Our results are of practical relevance to guarantee a sustainable compartmentalization of compounds in droplet microreactors and to design new strategies for the dynamic control of droplet compositions.

  10. Sludge minimization technologies--an overview.

    PubMed

    Odegaard, H

    2004-01-01

    The management of wastewater sludge from wastewater treatment plants represents one of the major challenges in wastewater treatment today. The cost of the sludge treatment amounts to more than the cost of the liquid in many cases. Therefore the focus on and interest in sludge minimization is steadily increasing. In this paper an overview is given for sludge minimization (sludge mass reduction) options. It is demonstrated that sludge minimization may be a result of reduced production of sludge and/or disintegration processes that may take place both in the wastewater treatment stage and in the sludge stage. Various sludge disintegration technologies for sludge minimization are discussed, including mechanical methods (focusing on stirred ball-mill, high-pressure homogenizer, ultrasonic disintegrator), chemical methods (focusing on the use of ozone), physical methods (focusing on thermal and thermal/chemical hydrolysis) and biological methods (focusing on enzymatic processes).

  11. Analysis of lipid flow on minimal surfaces

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Bahmani, Fatemeh; Christenson, Joel; Rangamani, Padmini

    2016-03-01

    Interaction between the bilayer shape and surface flow is important for capturing the flow of lipids in many biological membranes. Recent microscopy evidence has shown that minimal surfaces (planes, catenoids, and helicoids) occur often in cellular membranes. In this study, we explore lipid flow in these geometries using a `stream function' formulation for viscoelastic lipid bilayers. Using this formulation, we derive two-dimensional lipid flow equations for the commonly occurring minimal surfaces in lipid bilayers. We show that for three minimal surfaces (planes, catenoids, and helicoids), the surface flow equations satisfy Stokes flow equations. In helicoids and catenoids, we show that the tangential velocity field is a Killing vector field. Thus, our analysis provides fundamental insight into the flow patterns of lipids on intracellular organelle membranes that are characterized by fixed shapes reminiscent of minimal surfaces.

  12. Minimally Invasive Forefoot Surgery in France.

    PubMed

    Meusnier, Tristan; Mukish, Prikesht

    2016-06-01

    Study groups have been formed in France to advance the use of minimally invasive surgery. These techniques are becoming more frequently used and the technique nuances are continuing to evolve. The objective of this article was to advance the awareness of the current trends in minimally invasive surgery for common diseases of the forefoot. The percutaneous surgery at the forefoot is less developed at this time, but also will be discussed.

  13. The advantages of minimally invasive dentistry.

    PubMed

    Christensen, Gordon J

    2005-11-01

    Minimally invasive dentistry, in cases in which it is appropriate, is a concept that preserves dentitions and supporting structures. In this column, I have discussed several examples of minimally invasive dental techniques. This type of dentistry is gratifying for dentists and appreciated by patients. If more dentists would practice it, the dental profession could enhance the public's perception of its honesty and increase its professionalism as well.

  14. Current research in sonic-boom minimization

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Darden, C. M.; Mack, R. J.

    1976-01-01

    A review is given of several questions as yet unanswered in the area of sonic-boom research. Efforts, both here at Langley and elsewhere, in the area of minimization, human response, design techniques and in developing higher order propagation methods are discussed. In addition, a wind-tunnel test program being conducted to assess the validity of minimization methods based on a forward spike in the F-function is described.

  15. Minimally invasive treatment of infected pancreatic necrosis

    PubMed Central

    Cebulski, Włodzimierz; Słodkowski, Maciej; Krasnodębski, Ireneusz W.

    2014-01-01

    Infected pancreatic necrosis is a challenging complication that worsens prognosis in acute pancreatitis. For years, open necrosectomy has been the mainstay treatment option in infected pancreatic necrosis, although surgical debridement still results in high morbidity and mortality rates. Recently, many reports on minimally invasive treatment in infected pancreatic necrosis have been published. This paper presents a review of minimally invasive techniques and attempts to define their role in the management of infected pancreatic necrosis. PMID:25653725

  16. Aortic Valve Surgery: Minimally Invasive Options

    PubMed Central

    Ramlawi, Basel; Bedeir, Kareem; Lamelas, Joseph

    2016-01-01

    Minimally invasive aortic valve surgery has not been adopted by a significant proportion of cardiac surgeons despite proven benefits. This may be related to a high learning curve and technical issues requiring retraining. In this review, we discuss the data for minimally invasive aortic valve surgery and describe our operative technique for both ministernotomy and anterior thoracotomy approaches. We also discuss the advent of novel sutureless valves and how these techniques compare to available transcatheter aortic valve procedures. PMID:27127559

  17. Minimally Invasive Osteotomies of the Calcaneus.

    PubMed

    Guyton, Gregory P

    2016-09-01

    Osteotomies of the calcaneus are powerful surgical tools, representing a critical component of the surgical reconstruction of pes planus and pes cavus deformity. Modern minimally invasive calcaneal osteotomies can be performed safely with a burr through a lateral incision. Although greater kerf is generated with the burr, the effect is modest, can be minimized, and is compatible with many fixation techniques. A hinged jig renders the procedure more reproducible and accessible.

  18. Future of Minimally Invasive Colorectal Surgery.

    PubMed

    Whealon, Matthew; Vinci, Alessio; Pigazzi, Alessio

    2016-09-01

    Minimally invasive surgery is slowly taking over as the preferred operative approach for colorectal diseases. However, many of the procedures remain technically difficult. This article will give an overview of the state of minimally invasive surgery and the many advances that have been made over the last two decades. Specifically, we discuss the introduction of the robotic platform and some of its benefits and limitations. We also describe some newer techniques related to robotics. PMID:27582647

  19. Minimally Invasive Surgery in Gynecologic Oncology

    PubMed Central

    Mori, Kristina M.; Neubauer, Nikki L.

    2013-01-01

    Minimally invasive surgery has been utilized in the field of obstetrics and gynecology as far back as the 1940s when culdoscopy was first introduced as a visualization tool. Gynecologists then began to employ minimally invasive surgery for adhesiolysis and obtaining biopsies but then expanded its use to include procedures such as tubal sterilization (Clyman (1963), L. E. Smale and M. L. Smale (1973), Thompson and Wheeless (1971), Peterson and Behrman (1971)). With advances in instrumentation, the first laparoscopic hysterectomy was successfully performed in 1989 by Reich et al. At the same time, minimally invasive surgery in gynecologic oncology was being developed alongside its benign counterpart. In the 1975s, Rosenoff et al. reported using peritoneoscopy for pretreatment evaluation in ovarian cancer, and Spinelli et al. reported on using laparoscopy for the staging of ovarian cancer. In 1993, Nichols used operative laparoscopy to perform pelvic lymphadenectomy in cervical cancer patients. The initial goals of minimally invasive surgery, not dissimilar to those of modern medicine, were to decrease the morbidity and mortality associated with surgery and therefore improve patient outcomes and patient satisfaction. This review will summarize the history and use of minimally invasive surgery in gynecologic oncology and also highlight new minimally invasive surgical approaches currently in development. PMID:23997959

  20. Economic impact of minimally invasive lumbar surgery

    PubMed Central

    Hofstetter, Christoph P; Hofer, Anna S; Wang, Michael Y

    2015-01-01

    Cost effectiveness has been demonstrated for traditional lumbar discectomy, lumbar laminectomy as well as for instrumented and noninstrumented arthrodesis. While emerging evidence suggests that minimally invasive spine surgery reduces morbidity, duration of hospitalization, and accelerates return to activites of daily living, data regarding cost effectiveness of these novel techniques is limited. The current study analyzes all available data on minimally invasive techniques for lumbar discectomy, decompression, short-segment fusion and deformity surgery. In general, minimally invasive spine procedures appear to hold promise in quicker patient recovery times and earlier return to work. Thus, minimally invasive lumbar spine surgery appears to have the potential to be a cost-effective intervention. Moreover, novel less invasive procedures are less destabilizing and may therefore be utilized in certain indications that traditionally required arthrodesis procedures. However, there is a lack of studies analyzing the economic impact of minimally invasive spine surgery. Future studies are necessary to confirm the durability and further define indications for minimally invasive lumbar spine procedures. PMID:25793159

  1. Multifunction minimization for programmable logic arrays

    SciTech Connect

    Campbell, J.A.

    1984-01-01

    The problem of minimizing two-level AND/OR Boolean algebraic functions of n inputs and m outputs for implementation on programmable logic arrays (PLA) is examined. The theory of multiple-output functions as well as the historically alternative approaches to reckoning the cost of an equation implementation are reviewed. The PLA is shown to be a realization of the least product gate equation cost criterion. The multi-function minimization is dealt with in the context of a directed tree search algorithm developed in previous research. The PLA oriented minimization is shown to alter the nature of each of the basic tenets of multiple-output minimization used in earlier work. The concept of a non-prime but selectable implicant is introduced. A new cost criterion, the quantum cost, is discussed, and an approximation algorithm utilizing this criterion is developed. A timing analysis of a cyclic resolution algorithm for PLA based functions is presented. Lastly, the question of efficiency in automated minimization algorithms is examined. The application of the PLA cost criterion is shown to exhibit intrinsic increases in computational efficiency. A minterm classification algorithm is suggested and a PLA minimization algorithm is implemented in the FORTRAN language.

  2. Building an Extension Network in Vietnam.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Poussard, H.

    1999-01-01

    Agricultural extension in Vietnam is in transition as the economy moves to a market orientation. The national extension service created in 1993 is constrained by lack of funding, staff, and access to current extension knowledge. (SK)

  3. Supersymmetric extensions of the standard model

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Zwirner, Fabio

    These four lectures are meant as an elementary introduction to the physics of realistic supersymmetric models. In the first lecture, after reviewing the motivations for low-energy supersymmetry and the recipe for the construction of supersymmetric lagrangians, we introduce the Minimal Supersymmetric extension of the Standard Model, and comment on possible alternatives. In the second lecture, we discuss what can be learnt by looking at such model as the low-energy limit of some unified theory, with emphasis at the implications of its renormalization group equations and at the possibility of a supersymmetric Grand Unification. The third lecture is devoted to the problem of supersymmetry breaking: we review some general features of the spontaneous breaking of global and local supersymmetry, and we compare the supergravity models with heavy and light gravitino. In the fourth lecture, we conclude with an overview of supersymmetric phenomenology: indirect effects of supersymmetric particles in electroweak precision tests and in flavour physics, as well as direct searches for the superpartners of ordinary particles.

  4. Next step in minimally invasive surgery: hybrid image-guided surgery.

    PubMed

    Marescaux, Jacques; Diana, Michele

    2015-01-01

    Surgery, interventional radiology, and advanced endoscopy have all developed minimally invasive techniques to effectively treat a variety of diseases with positive impact on patients' postoperative outcomes. However, those techniques are challenging and require extensive training. Robotics and computer sciences can help facilitate minimally invasive approaches. Furthermore, surgery, advanced endoscopy, and interventional radiology could converge towards a new hybrid specialty, hybrid image-guided minimally invasive therapies, in which the three fundamental disciplines could complement one another to maximize the positive effects and reduce the iatrogenic footprint on patients. The present manuscript describes the fundamental steps of this new paradigm shift in surgical therapies that, in our opinion, will be the next revolutionary step in minimally invasive approaches. PMID:25598089

  5. The minimization of the extraneous electromagnetic fields of an inductive power transfer system

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    McLean, James; Sutton, Robert

    2013-04-01

    The efficiency of inductive wireless power transfer (IPT) systems has been extensively studied. However, the electromagnetic compatibility of such systems is at least as important as the efficiency and has received much less attention. We consider the net magnetic dipole moment of the system as a figure of merit. That is, we seek to minimize the magnitude of the net dipole moment in order to minimize both the near magnetic fields and the radiated power. A 20 kHz, 3.3 kW, IPT system, representative of typical wireless vehicular battery charging systems, is considered and it is seen that one particular value of load impedance minimizes the net dipole moment while another, distinct, value maximizes efficiency. Thus, efficiency must be traded off, at least to some extent, in order to minimize extraneous electromagnetic fields.

  6. Sequential unconstrained minimization algorithms for constrained optimization

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Byrne, Charles

    2008-02-01

    The problem of minimizing a function f(x):RJ → R, subject to constraints on the vector variable x, occurs frequently in inverse problems. Even without constraints, finding a minimizer of f(x) may require iterative methods. We consider here a general class of iterative algorithms that find a solution to the constrained minimization problem as the limit of a sequence of vectors, each solving an unconstrained minimization problem. Our sequential unconstrained minimization algorithm (SUMMA) is an iterative procedure for constrained minimization. At the kth step we minimize the function G_k(x)=f(x)+g_k(x), to obtain xk. The auxiliary functions gk(x):D ⊆ RJ → R+ are nonnegative on the set D, each xk is assumed to lie within D, and the objective is to minimize the continuous function f:RJ → R over x in the set C=\\overline D , the closure of D. We assume that such minimizers exist, and denote one such by \\hat x . We assume that the functions gk(x) satisfy the inequalities 0\\leq g_k(x)\\leq G_{k-1}(x)-G_{k-1}(x^{k-1}), for k = 2, 3, .... Using this assumption, we show that the sequence {f(xk)} is decreasing and converges to f({\\hat x}) . If the restriction of f(x) to D has bounded level sets, which happens if \\hat x is unique and f(x) is closed, proper and convex, then the sequence {xk} is bounded, and f(x^*)=f({\\hat x}) , for any cluster point x*. Therefore, if \\hat x is unique, x^*={\\hat x} and \\{x^k\\}\\rightarrow {\\hat x} . When \\hat x is not unique, convergence can still be obtained, in particular cases. The SUMMA includes, as particular cases, the well-known barrier- and penalty-function methods, the simultaneous multiplicative algebraic reconstruction technique (SMART), the proximal minimization algorithm of Censor and Zenios, the entropic proximal methods of Teboulle, as well as certain cases of gradient descent and the Newton-Raphson method. The proof techniques used for SUMMA can be extended to obtain related results for the induced proximal

  7. Sphenoethmoidal mucoceles with intracranial extension.

    PubMed

    Close, L G; O'Conner, W E

    1983-08-01

    Mucoceles of the paranasal sinuses are benign, expansile, locally destructive lesions that are thought to occur secondary to obstruction of the sinus ostia. Nasal and/or ocular signs and symptoms are the usual clinical manifestations of mucoceles arising in the ethmoid and sphenoid sinuses, and intracranial extension is rare. We describe three cases of widely destructive sphenoethmoidal mucoceles extending intracranially, with bone erosion and dural exposure in all cases and brain necrosis in one case.

  8. An Extension for ESO Headquarters

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Fischer, Robert; Walsh, Jeremy

    2009-03-01

    The ESO Headquarters was completed in 1980, but is now too small to house all the ESO staff and currently only about 50% reside in the original building. A decision was taken to seek an extension to the Headquarters building in close proximity to the current one and a competition was launched for architectural designs. Three designs were shortlisted and the process of selection for the final design is described. Construction will begin in 2010 and is due for completion in 2012.

  9. Mechanical heterogeneities and lithospheric extension

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Duretz, Thibault; Petri, Benoit; Mohn, Geoffroy; Schenker, Filippo L.; Schmalholz, Stefan

    2016-04-01

    Detailed geological and geophysical studies of passive margins have highlighted the multi-stage and depth-dependent aspect of lithospheric thinning. Lithospheric thinning involves a variety of structures (normal faults, low angle detachments, extensional shear zones, extraction faults) and leads to a complex architecture of passive margins (with e.g. necking zone, mantle exhumation, continental allochthons). The processes controlling the generation and evolution of these structures as well as the impact of pre-rift inheritance are so far incompletely understood. In this study, we investigate the impact of pre-rift inheritance on the development of rifted margins using two-dimensional thermo-mechanical models of lithospheric thinning. To first order, we represent the pre-rift mechanical heterogeneities with lithological layering. The rheologies are kept simple (visco-plastic) and do not involve any strain softening mechanism. Our models show that mechanical layering causes multi-stage and depth-dependent extension. In the initial rifting phase, lithospheric extension is decoupled: as the crust undergoes thinning by brittle (frictional-plastic) faults, the lithospheric mantle accommodates extension by symmetric ductile necking. In a second rifting phase, deformation in the crust and lithospheric mantle is coupled and marks the beginning of an asymmetric extension stage. Low angle extensional shear zones develop across the lithosphere and exhume subcontinental mantle. Furthemore, crustal allochthons and adjacent basins develop coevally. We describe as well the thermal evolution predicted by the numerical models and discuss the first-order implications of our results in the context of the Alpine geological history.

  10. Mass and mixing angle patterns in the Standard Model and its material Supersymmetric Extension

    SciTech Connect

    Ramond, P.

    1992-01-01

    Using renormalization group techniques, we examine several interesting relations among masses and mixing angles of quarks and lepton in the Standard Model of Elementary Particle Interactions as a functionof scale. We extend the analysis to the minimal Supersymmetric Extension to determine its effect on these mass relations. For a heavy to quark, and minimal supersymmetry, most of these relations, can be made to agree at one unification scale.

  11. COAL COMBUSTION PRODUCTS EXTENSION PROGRAM

    SciTech Connect

    Tarunjit S. Butalia; William E. Wolfe

    2005-05-15

    The primary objective of the CCP Extension Program is to promote the responsible uses of Ohio CCPs that are technically sound, environmentally safe, and commercially competitive. A secondary objective is to assist other CCP generating states (particularly neighboring states) in establishing CCP use programs within their states. The goal of the CCP extension program at OSU is to work with CCP stakeholders to increase the overall CCP state utilization rate to more than 30% by the year 2005. The program aims to increase FGD utilization for Ohio to more than 20% by the year 2005. The increased utilization rates are expected to be achieved through increased use of CCPs for highway, mine reclamation, agricultural, manufacturing, and other civil engineering uses. In order to accomplish these objectives and goals, the highly successful CCP pilot extension program previously in place at the university has been expanded and adopted by the university as a part of its outreach and engagement mission. The extension program is an innovative technology transfer program with multiple sponsors. The program is a collaborative effort between The Ohio State University (College of Engineering and University Extension Service), United States Department of Energy's National Energy Technology Laboratory, Ohio Department of Development's Coal Development Office, and trade associations such as the American Coal Ash Association as well as the Midwest Coal Ash Association. Industry co-sponsors include American Electric Power, Dravo Lime Company, and ISG Resources. Implementation of the proposed project results in both direct and indirect as well as societal benefits. These benefits include (1) increased utilization of CCPs instead of landfilling, (2) development of proper construction and installation procedures, (3) education of regulators, specification-writers, designers, construction contractors, and the public, (4) emphasis on recycling and decrease in the need for landfill space, (5

  12. Coal Combustion Products Extension Program

    SciTech Connect

    Tarunjit S. Butalia; William E. Wolfe

    2004-12-31

    The primary objective of the CCP Extension Program is to promote the responsible uses of Ohio CCPs that are technically sound, environmentally safe, and commercially competitive. A secondary objective is to assist other CCP generating states (particularly neighboring states) in establishing CCP use programs within their states. The goal of the CCP extension program at OSU is to work with CCP stakeholders to increase the overall CCP state utilization rate to more than 30% by the year 2005. The program aims to increase FGD utilization for Ohio to more than 20% by the year 2005. The increased utilization rates are expected to be achieved through increased use of CCPs for highway, mine reclamation, agricultural, manufacturing, and other civil engineering uses. In order to accomplish these objectives and goals, the highly successful CCP pilot extension program previously in place at the university has been expanded and adopted by the university as a part of its outreach and engagement mission. The extension program is an innovative technology transfer program with multiple sponsors. The program is a collaborative effort between The Ohio State University (College of Engineering and University Extension Service), United States Department of Energy's National Energy Technology Laboratory, Ohio Department of Development's Coal Development Office, and trade associations such as the American Coal Ash Association as well as the Midwest Coal Ash Association. Industry co-sponsors include American Electric Power, Dravo Lime Company, and ISG Resources. Implementation of the proposed project results in both direct and indirect as well as societal benefits. These benefits include (1) increased utilization of CCPs instead of landfilling, (2) development of proper construction and installation procedures, (3) education of regulators, specification-writers, designers, construction contractors, and the public, (4) emphasis on recycling and decrease in the need for landfill space, (5

  13. Coal Combustion Products Extension Program

    SciTech Connect

    Tarunjit S. Butalia; William E. Wolfe

    2003-12-31

    The primary objective of the CCP Extension Program is to promote the responsible uses of Ohio CCPs that are technically sound, environmentally safe, and commercially competitive. A secondary objective is to assist other CCP generating states (particularly neighboring states) in establishing CCP use programs within their states. The goal of the CCP extension program at OSU is to work with CCP stakeholders to increase the overall CCP state utilization rate to more than 30% by the year 2005. The program aims to increase FGD utilization for Ohio to more than 20% by the year 2005. The increased utilization rates are expected to be achieved through increased use of CCPs for highway, mine reclamation, agricultural, manufacturing, and other civil engineering uses. In order to accomplish these objectives and goals, the highly successful CCP pilot extension program previously in place at the university has been expanded and adopted by the university as a part of its outreach and engagement mission. The extension program is an innovative technology transfer program with multiple sponsors. The program is a collaborative effort between The Ohio State University (College of Engineering and University Extension Service), United States Department of Energy's National Energy Technology Laboratory, Ohio Department of Development's Coal Development Office, and trade associations such as the American Coal Ash Association as well as the Midwest Coal Ash Association. Industry co-sponsors include American Electric Power, Dravo Lime Company, and ISG Resources. Implementation of the proposed project results in both direct and indirect as well as societal benefits. These benefits include (1) increased utilization of CCPs instead of landfilling, (2) development of proper construction and installation procedures, (3) education of regulators, specification-writers, designers, construction contractors, and the public, (4) emphasis on recycling and decrease in the need for landfill space, (5

  14. Factors that can minimize bleeding complications after renal biopsy.

    PubMed

    Zhu, M S; Chen, J Z; Xu, A P

    2014-10-01

    Renal biopsy is a very important diagnostic tool in the evaluation of renal diseases. However, bleeding remains to be one of the most serious complications in this procedure. Many new techniques have been improved to make it safer. The risk factors and predictors of bleeding after percutaneous renal biopsy have been extensively reported in many literatures, and generally speaking, the common risk factors for renal biopsy complications focus on hypertension, high serum creatinine, bleeding diatheses, amyloidosis, advanced age, gender and so on. Our primary purpose of this review is to summarize current measures in recent years literature aiming at minimizing the bleeding complication after the renal biopsy, including the drug application before and after renal biopsy, operation details in percutaneous renal biopsies, nursing and close monitoring after the biopsy and other kinds of biopsy methods.

  15. Vascular Tree Reconstruction by Minimizing A Physiological Functional Cost

    PubMed Central

    Jiang, Yifeng; Zhuang, Zhenwu; Sinusas, Albert J.; Papademetris, Xenophon

    2011-01-01

    The reconstruction of complete vascular trees from medical images has many important applications. Although vessel detection has been extensively investigated, little work has been done on how connect the results to reconstruct the full trees. In this paper, we propose a novel theoretical framework for automatic vessel connection, where the automation is achieved by leveraging constraints from the physiological properties of the vascular trees. In particular, a physiological functional cost for the whole vascular tree is derived and an efficient algorithm is developed to minimize it. The method is generic and can be applied to different vessel detection/segmentation results, e.g. the classic rigid detection method as adopted in this paper. We demonstrate the effectiveness of this method on both 2D and 3D data. PMID:21755061

  16. Sudden death in right ventricular dysplasia with minimal gross abnormalities.

    PubMed

    Burke, A P; Robinson, S; Radentz, S; Smialek, J; Virmani, R

    1999-03-01

    Arrhythmogenic right ventricular cardiomyopathy is emerging as a relatively common cause of exercise-induced sudden death in the young. The diagnostic criteria at autopsy are, however, not fully established, leading to both over- and underdiagnosis. We report a young man and a young woman dying suddenly of right ventricular dysplasia during exercise, in whom the gross autopsy findings in the right ventricle were minimal or even absent. However, the histologic features in both right and left ventricles were typical of the disease, and consisted of fibrofatty infiltrates with typical myocyte degeneration of the right ventricle and subepicardial regions of the left ventricle. These cases illustrate that microscopic findings are diagnostic and may be present in the absence of gross findings. Marked fat replacement is not essential for the diagnosis of right ventricular dysplasia, and the right ventricle should be extensively sampled histologically in all cases of sudden unexpected death, especially those that are exercise related.

  17. Blackfolds, plane waves and minimal surfaces

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Armas, Jay; Blau, Matthias

    2015-07-01

    Minimal surfaces in Euclidean space provide examples of possible non-compact horizon geometries and topologies in asymptotically flat space-time. On the other hand, the existence of limiting surfaces in the space-time provides a simple mechanism for making these configurations compact. Limiting surfaces appear naturally in a given space-time by making minimal surfaces rotate but they are also inherent to plane wave or de Sitter space-times in which case minimal surfaces can be static and compact. We use the blackfold approach in order to scan for possible black hole horizon geometries and topologies in asymptotically flat, plane wave and de Sitter space-times. In the process we uncover several new configurations, such as black helicoids and catenoids, some of which have an asymptotically flat counterpart. In particular, we find that the ultraspinning regime of singly-spinning Myers-Perry black holes, described in terms of the simplest minimal surface (the plane), can be obtained as a limit of a black helicoid, suggesting that these two families of black holes are connected. We also show that minimal surfaces embedded in spheres rather than Euclidean space can be used to construct static compact horizons in asymptotically de Sitter space-times.

  18. Minimally invasive procedures on the lumbar spine

    PubMed Central

    Skovrlj, Branko; Gilligan, Jeffrey; Cutler, Holt S; Qureshi, Sheeraz A

    2015-01-01

    Degenerative disease of the lumbar spine is a common and increasingly prevalent condition that is often implicated as the primary reason for chronic low back pain and the leading cause of disability in the western world. Surgical management of lumbar degenerative disease has historically been approached by way of open surgical procedures aimed at decompressing and/or stabilizing the lumbar spine. Advances in technology and surgical instrumentation have led to minimally invasive surgical techniques being developed and increasingly used in the treatment of lumbar degenerative disease. Compared to the traditional open spine surgery, minimally invasive techniques require smaller incisions and decrease approach-related morbidity by avoiding muscle crush injury by self-retaining retractors, preventing the disruption of tendon attachment sites of important muscles at the spinous processes, using known anatomic neurovascular and muscle planes, and minimizing collateral soft-tissue injury by limiting the width of the surgical corridor. The theoretical benefits of minimally invasive surgery over traditional open surgery include reduced blood loss, decreased postoperative pain and narcotics use, shorter hospital length of stay, faster recover and quicker return to work and normal activity. This paper describes the different minimally invasive techniques that are currently available for the treatment of degenerative disease of the lumbar spine. PMID:25610845

  19. Minimal control power of the controlled teleportation

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Jeong, Kabgyun; Kim, Jaewan; Lee, Soojoon

    2016-03-01

    We generalize the control power of a perfect controlled teleportation of an entangled three-qubit pure state, suggested by Li and Ghose [Phys. Rev. A 90, 052305 (2014), 10.1103/PhysRevA.90.052305], to the control power of a general controlled teleportation of a multiqubit pure state. Thus, we define the minimal control power, and calculate the values of the minimal control power for a class of general three-qubit Greenberger-Horne-Zeilinger (GHZ) states and the three-qubit W class whose states have zero three-tangles. Moreover, we show that the standard three-qubit GHZ state and the standard three-qubit W state have the maximal values of the minimal control power for the two classes, respectively. This means that the minimal control power can be interpreted as not only an operational quantity of a three-qubit quantum communication but also a degree of three-qubit entanglement. In addition, we calculate the values of the minimal control power for general n -qubit GHZ states and the n -qubit W -type states.

  20. Tests of local Lorentz invariance violation of gravity in the standard model extension with pulsars.

    PubMed

    Shao, Lijing

    2014-03-21

    The standard model extension is an effective field theory introducing all possible Lorentz-violating (LV) operators to the standard model and general relativity (GR). In the pure-gravity sector of minimal standard model extension, nine coefficients describe dominant observable deviations from GR. We systematically implemented 27 tests from 13 pulsar systems to tightly constrain eight linear combinations of these coefficients with extensive Monte Carlo simulations. It constitutes the first detailed and systematic test of the pure-gravity sector of minimal standard model extension with the state-of-the-art pulsar observations. No deviation from GR was detected. The limits of LV coefficients are expressed in the canonical Sun-centered celestial-equatorial frame for the convenience of further studies. They are all improved by significant factors of tens to hundreds with existing ones. As a consequence, Einstein's equivalence principle is verified substantially further by pulsar experiments in terms of local Lorentz invariance in gravity. PMID:24702346

  1. Tests of local Lorentz invariance violation of gravity in the standard model extension with pulsars.

    PubMed

    Shao, Lijing

    2014-03-21

    The standard model extension is an effective field theory introducing all possible Lorentz-violating (LV) operators to the standard model and general relativity (GR). In the pure-gravity sector of minimal standard model extension, nine coefficients describe dominant observable deviations from GR. We systematically implemented 27 tests from 13 pulsar systems to tightly constrain eight linear combinations of these coefficients with extensive Monte Carlo simulations. It constitutes the first detailed and systematic test of the pure-gravity sector of minimal standard model extension with the state-of-the-art pulsar observations. No deviation from GR was detected. The limits of LV coefficients are expressed in the canonical Sun-centered celestial-equatorial frame for the convenience of further studies. They are all improved by significant factors of tens to hundreds with existing ones. As a consequence, Einstein's equivalence principle is verified substantially further by pulsar experiments in terms of local Lorentz invariance in gravity.

  2. Minimally invasive surgery for live kidney donors: techniques and challenges.

    PubMed

    Brook, Nicholas R; Nicholson, Michael L

    2005-09-01

    Live kidney donation is assuming an increasingly prominent role in kidney transplantation programs. The traditional operative approach has been through an incision in the upper quadrant of the abdomen or in the loin, with the attendant potential postoperative complications associated with a large surgical wound. These problems may act as disincentives to prospective donors. The introduction of laparoscopic donor surgery in 1995 heralded a new era offering reduced post-operative pain and improved cosmetic result. It is hoped that these benefits may counter some disincentives and thereby increase donation rates. Three minimal-access approaches and their advantages and disadvantages are described: classical laparoscopic, hand-assisted laparoscopic, and retroperitoneoscopic surgery. Published reports indicate extensive experience with the first 2 of these approaches and less experience with the latter. All 3 approaches present technical, physiological, and anatomical challenges in the context of retrieving an organ that is fit for transplantation. For minimal-access surgery to be accepted as the procedure of choice for live kidney donors, it must be demonstrated that morbidity is not transferred from donor to recipient when these techniques are used. Some concerns about these procedures are addressed. High-level evidence in the form of randomized controlled trials is generally lacking, but experiences of surgeons and patients suggest that, with appropriate modifications, these techniques are safe for both donors and allografts and also benefit donors' recovery. PMID:16252632

  3. A minimal model for the structural energetics of VO2

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Kim, Chanul; Marianetti, Chris; The Marianetti Group Team

    Resolving the structural, magnetic, and electronic structure of VO2 from the first-principles of quantum mechanics is still a forefront problem despite decades of attention. Hybrid functionals have been shown to qualitatively ruin the structural energetics. While density functional theory (DFT) combined with cluster extensions of dynamical mean-field theory (DMFT) have demonstrated promising results in terms of the electronic properties, structural phase stability has not yet been addressed. In order to capture the basic physics of the structural transition, we propose a minimal model of VO2 based on the one dimensional Peierls-Hubbard model and parameterize this based on DFT calculations of VO2. The total energy versus dimerization in the minimal mode is then solved numerically exactly using density matrix renormalization group (DMRG) and compared to the Hartree-Fock solution. We demonstrate that the Hartree-Fock solution exhibits the same pathologies as DFT+U, and spin density functional theory for that matter, while the DMRG solution is consistent with experimental observation. Our results demonstrate the critical role of non-locality in the total energy, and this will need to be accounted for to obtain a complete description of VO2 from first-principles. The authors acknowledge support from FAME, one of six centers of STARnet, a Semiconductor Research Corporation program sponsored by MARCO and DARPA.

  4. Comparison and improvement of algorithms for computing minimal cut sets

    PubMed Central

    2013-01-01

    Background Constrained minimal cut sets (cMCSs) have recently been introduced as a framework to enumerate minimal genetic intervention strategies for targeted optimization of metabolic networks. Two different algorithmic schemes (adapted Berge algorithm and binary integer programming) have been proposed to compute cMCSs from elementary modes. However, in their original formulation both algorithms are not fully comparable. Results Here we show that by a small extension to the integer program both methods become equivalent. Furthermore, based on well-known preprocessing procedures for integer programming we present efficient preprocessing steps which can be used for both algorithms. We then benchmark the numerical performance of the algorithms in several realistic medium-scale metabolic models. The benchmark calculations reveal (i) that these preprocessing steps can lead to an enormous speed-up under both algorithms, and (ii) that the adapted Berge algorithm outperforms the binary integer approach. Conclusions Generally, both of our new implementations are by at least one order of magnitude faster than other currently available implementations. PMID:24191903

  5. Nonconvex Nonsmooth Low Rank Minimization via Iteratively Reweighted Nuclear Norm.

    PubMed

    Lu, Canyi; Tang, Jinhui; Yan, Shuicheng; Lin, Zhouchen

    2016-02-01

    The nuclear norm is widely used as a convex surrogate of the rank function in compressive sensing for low rank matrix recovery with its applications in image recovery and signal processing. However, solving the nuclear norm-based relaxed convex problem usually leads to a suboptimal solution of the original rank minimization problem. In this paper, we propose to use a family of nonconvex surrogates of L0-norm on the singular values of a matrix to approximate the rank function. This leads to a nonconvex nonsmooth minimization problem. Then, we propose to solve the problem by an iteratively re-weighted nuclear norm (IRNN) algorithm. IRNN iteratively solves a weighted singular value thresholding problem, which has a closed form solution due to the special properties of the nonconvex surrogate functions. We also extend IRNN to solve the nonconvex problem with two or more blocks of variables. In theory, we prove that the IRNN decreases the objective function value monotonically, and any limit point is a stationary point. Extensive experiments on both synthesized data and real images demonstrate that IRNN enhances the low rank matrix recovery compared with the state-of-the-art convex algorithms. PMID:26841392

  6. Genetic research on biospecimens poses minimal risk.

    PubMed

    Wendler, David S; Rid, Annette

    2015-01-01

    Genetic research on human biospecimens is increasingly common. However, debate continues over the level of risk that this research poses to sample donors. Some argue that genetic research on biospecimens poses minimal risk; others argue that it poses greater than minimal risk and therefore needs additional requirements and limitations. This debate raises concern that some donors are not receiving appropriate protection or, conversely, that valuable research is being subject to unnecessary requirements and limitations. The present paper attempts to resolve this debate using the widely-endorsed 'risks of daily life' standard. The three extant versions of this standard all suggest that, with proper measures in place to protect confidentiality, most genetic research on human biospecimens poses minimal risk to donors.

  7. Approximate error conjugation gradient minimization methods

    DOEpatents

    Kallman, Jeffrey S

    2013-05-21

    In one embodiment, a method includes selecting a subset of rays from a set of all rays to use in an error calculation for a constrained conjugate gradient minimization problem, calculating an approximate error using the subset of rays, and calculating a minimum in a conjugate gradient direction based on the approximate error. In another embodiment, a system includes a processor for executing logic, logic for selecting a subset of rays from a set of all rays to use in an error calculation for a constrained conjugate gradient minimization problem, logic for calculating an approximate error using the subset of rays, and logic for calculating a minimum in a conjugate gradient direction based on the approximate error. In other embodiments, computer program products, methods, and systems are described capable of using approximate error in constrained conjugate gradient minimization problems.

  8. Minimally invasive surgery for atrial fibrillation.

    PubMed

    Lancaster, Timothy S; Melby, Spencer J; Damiano, Ralph J

    2016-04-01

    The surgical treatment of atrial fibrillation (AF) has been revolutionized over the past two decades through surgical innovation and improvements in endoscopic imaging, ablation technology, and surgical instrumentation. These advances have prompted the development of the less complex and less morbid Cox-Maze IV procedure, and have allowed its adaptation to a minimally invasive right mini-thoracotomy approach that can be used in stand-alone AF ablation and in patients undergoing concomitant mitral and tricuspid valve surgery. Other minimally invasive ablation techniques have been developed for stand-alone AF ablation, including video-assisted pulmonary vein isolation, extended left atrial lesion sets, and a hybrid approach. This review will discuss the tools, techniques, and outcomes of minimally invasive surgical procedures currently being practiced for AF ablation.

  9. Advanced pyrochemical technologies for minimizing nuclear waste

    SciTech Connect

    Bronson, M.C.; Dodson, K.E.; Riley, D.C.

    1994-06-01

    The Department of Energy (DOE) is seeking to reduce the size of the current nuclear weapons complex and consequently minimize operating costs. To meet this DOE objective, the national laboratories have been asked to develop advanced technologies that take uranium and plutonium, from retired weapons and prepare it for new weapons, long-term storage, and/or final disposition. Current pyrochemical processes generate residue salts and ceramic wastes that require aqueous processing to remove and recover the actinides. However, the aqueous treatment of these residues generates an estimated 100 liters of acidic transuranic (TRU) waste per kilogram of plutonium in the residue. Lawrence Livermore National Laboratory (LLNL) is developing pyrochemical techniques to eliminate, minimize, or more efficiently treat these residue streams. This paper will present technologies being developed at LLNL on advanced materials for actinide containment, reactors that minimize residues, and pyrochemical processes that remove actinides from waste salts.

  10. Robotically assisted minimally invasive mitral valve surgery

    PubMed Central

    Alwair, Hazaim; Nifong, Wiley L; Chitwood, W Randolph

    2013-01-01

    Increased recognition of advantages, over the last decade, of minimizing surgical trauma by operating through smaller incisions and its direct impact on reduced postoperative pain, quicker recovery, improved cosmesis and earlier return to work has spurred the minimally invasive cardiac surgical revolution. This transition began in the early 1990s with advancements in endoscopic instruments, video & fiberoptic technology and improvements in perfusion systems for establishing cardiopulmonary bypass (CPB) via peripheral cannulation. Society of Thoracic Surgeons data documents that 20% of all mitral valve surgeries are performed using minimally invasive techniques, with half being robotically assisted. This article reviews the current status of robotically assisted mitral valve surgery, its advantages and technical modifications for optimizing clinical outcomes. PMID:24251030

  11. [EVOLUTION OF MINIMALLY INVASIVE CARDIAC SURGERY].

    PubMed

    Fujita, Tomoyuki; Kobayashi, Junjiro

    2016-03-01

    Minimally invasive surgery is an attractive choice for patients undergoing major cardiac surgery. We review the history of minimally invasive valve surgery in this article. Due to many innovations in surgical tools, cardiopulmonary bypass systems, visualization systems, and robotic systems as well as surgical techniques, minimally invasive cardiac surgery has become standard care for valve lesion repair. In particular, aortic cross-clamp techniques and methods for cardioplegia using the Chitwood clamp and root cannula or endoballoon catheter in combination with femoro-femoral bypass systems have made such procedures safer and more practical. On the other hand, robotically assisted surgery has not become standard due to the cost and slow learning curve. However, along with the development of robotics, this less-invasive technique may provide another choice for patients in the near future. PMID:27295770

  12. Minimal perceptrons for memorizing complex patterns

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Pastor, Marissa; Song, Juyong; Hoang, Danh-Tai; Jo, Junghyo

    2016-11-01

    Feedforward neural networks have been investigated to understand learning and memory, as well as applied to numerous practical problems in pattern classification. It is a rule of thumb that more complex tasks require larger networks. However, the design of optimal network architectures for specific tasks is still an unsolved fundamental problem. In this study, we consider three-layered neural networks for memorizing binary patterns. We developed a new complexity measure of binary patterns, and estimated the minimal network size for memorizing them as a function of their complexity. We formulated the minimal network size for regular, random, and complex patterns. In particular, the minimal size for complex patterns, which are neither ordered nor disordered, was predicted by measuring their Hamming distances from known ordered patterns. Our predictions agree with simulations based on the back-propagation algorithm.

  13. 48 CFR 570.405 - Lease extensions.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-10-01

    ... 48 Federal Acquisition Regulations System 4 2010-10-01 2010-10-01 false Lease extensions. 570.405... Requirements 570.405 Lease extensions. (a) This section applies to extension of the term of a lease to provide for continued occupancy on a short-term basis. (b) If the value of a lease extension will exceed...

  14. 14 CFR 1260.23 - Extensions.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-01-01

    ... Provisions § 1260.23 Extensions. Extensions October 2000 (a) It is NASA policy to provide maximum possible continuity in funding grant-supported research and educational activities, therefore, grants may be extended.... NASA generally only approves such extensions within funds already made available. Any extension...

  15. 14 CFR 1260.23 - Extensions.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-01-01

    ... Provisions § 1260.23 Extensions. Extensions October 2000 (a) It is NASA policy to provide maximum possible continuity in funding grant-supported research and educational activities, therefore, grants may be extended.... NASA generally only approves such extensions within funds already made available. Any extension...

  16. 14 CFR 1260.23 - Extensions.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-01-01

    ... Provisions § 1260.23 Extensions. Extensions October 2000 (a) It is NASA policy to provide maximum possible continuity in funding grant-supported research and educational activities, therefore, grants may be extended.... NASA generally only approves such extensions within funds already made available. Any extension...

  17. 14 CFR § 1260.23 - Extensions.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-01-01

    ... Provisions § 1260.23 Extensions. Extensions October 2000 (a) It is NASA policy to provide maximum possible continuity in funding grant-supported research and educational activities, therefore, grants may be extended.... NASA generally only approves such extensions within funds already made available. Any extension...

  18. 14 CFR 1260.23 - Extensions.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-01-01

    ... Provisions § 1260.23 Extensions. Extensions October 2000 (a) It is NASA policy to provide maximum possible continuity in funding grant-supported research and educational activities, therefore, grants may be extended.... NASA generally only approves such extensions within funds already made available. Any extension...

  19. Coal Combustion Products Extension Program

    SciTech Connect

    Tarunjit S. Butalia; William E. Wolfe

    2006-01-11

    This final project report presents the activities and accomplishments of the ''Coal Combustion Products Extension Program'' conducted at The Ohio State University from August 1, 2000 to June 30, 2005 to advance the beneficial uses of coal combustion products (CCPs) in highway and construction, mine reclamation, agricultural, and manufacturing sectors. The objective of this technology transfer/research program at The Ohio State University was to promote the increased use of Ohio CCPs (fly ash, FGD material, bottom ash, and boiler slag) in applications that are technically sound, environmentally benign, and commercially competitive. The project objective was accomplished by housing the CCP Extension Program within The Ohio State University College of Engineering with support from the university Extension Service and The Ohio State University Research Foundation. Dr. Tarunjit S. Butalia, an internationally reputed CCP expert and registered professional engineer, was the program coordinator. The program coordinator acted as liaison among CCP stakeholders in the state, produced information sheets, provided expertise in the field to those who desired it, sponsored and co-sponsored seminars, meetings, and speaking at these events, and generally worked to promote knowledge about the productive and proper application of CCPs as useful raw materials. The major accomplishments of the program were: (1) Increase in FGD material utilization rate from 8% in 1997 to more than 20% in 2005, and an increase in overall CCP utilization rate of 21% in 1997 to just under 30% in 2005 for the State of Ohio. (2) Recognition as a ''voice of trust'' among Ohio and national CCP stakeholders (particularly regulatory agencies). (3) Establishment of a national and international reputation, especially for the use of FGD materials and fly ash in construction applications. It is recommended that to increase Ohio's CCP utilization rate from 30% in 2005 to 40% by 2010, the CCP Extension Program be

  20. Inverse Modeling Via Linearized Functional Minimization

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Barajas-Solano, D. A.; Wohlberg, B.; Vesselinov, V. V.; Tartakovsky, D. M.

    2014-12-01

    We present a novel parameter estimation methodology for transient models of geophysical systems with uncertain, spatially distributed, heterogeneous and piece-wise continuous parameters.The methodology employs a bayesian approach to propose an inverse modeling problem for the spatial configuration of the model parameters.The likelihood of the configuration is formulated using sparse measurements of both model parameters and transient states.We propose using total variation regularization (TV) as the prior reflecting the heterogeneous, piece-wise continuity assumption on the parameter distribution.The maximum a posteriori (MAP) estimator of the parameter configuration is then computed by minimizing the negative bayesian log-posterior using a linearized functional minimization approach. The computation of the MAP estimator is a large-dimensional nonlinear minimization problem with two sources of nonlinearity: (1) the TV operator, and (2) the nonlinear relation between states and parameters provided by the model's governing equations.We propose a a hybrid linearized functional minimization (LFM) algorithm in two stages to efficiently treat both sources of nonlinearity.The relation between states and parameters is linearized, resulting in a linear minimization sub-problem equipped with the TV operator; this sub-problem is then minimized using the Alternating Direction Method of Multipliers (ADMM). The methodology is illustrated with a transient saturated groundwater flow application in a synthetic domain, stimulated by external point-wise loadings representing aquifer pumping, together with an array of discrete measurements of hydraulic conductivity and transient measurements of hydraulic head.We show that our inversion strategy is able to recover the overall large-scale features of the parameter configuration, and that the reconstruction is improved by the addition of transient information of the state variable.

  1. Minimally invasive surgical techniques in periodontal regeneration.

    PubMed

    Cortellini, Pierpaolo

    2012-09-01

    A review of the current scientific literature was undertaken to evaluate the efficacy of minimally invasive periodontal regenerative surgery in the treatment of periodontal defects. The impact on clinical outcomes, surgical chair-time, side effects and patient morbidity were evaluated. An electronic search of PUBMED database from January 1987 to December 2011 was undertaken on dental journals using the key-word "minimally invasive surgery". Cohort studies, retrospective studies and randomized controlled clinical trials referring to treatment of periodontal defects with at least 6 months of follow-up were selected. Quality assessment of the selected studies was done through the Strength of Recommendation Taxonomy Grading (SORT) System. Ten studies (1 retrospective, 5 cohorts and 4 RCTs) were included. All the studies consistently support the efficacy of minimally invasive surgery in the treatment of periodontal defects in terms of clinical attachment level gain, probing pocket depth reduction and minimal gingival recession. Six studies reporting on side effects and patient morbidity consistently indicate very low levels of pain and discomfort during and after surgery resulting in a reduced intake of pain-killers and very limited interference with daily activities in the post-operative period. Minimally invasive surgery might be considered a true reality in the field of periodontal regeneration. The observed clinical improvements are consistently associated with very limited morbidity to the patient during the surgical procedure as well as in the post-operative period. Minimally invasive surgery, however, cannot be applied at all cases. A stepwise decisional algorithm should support clinicians in choosing the treatment approach.

  2. Minimally invasive transforaminal lumbosacral interbody fusion.

    PubMed

    Chang, Peng-Yuan; Wang, Michael Y

    2016-07-01

    In minimally invasive spinal fusion surgery, transforaminal lumbar (sacral) interbody fusion (TLIF) is one of the most common procedures that provides both anterior and posterior column support without retraction or violation to the neural structure. Direct and indirect decompression can be done through this single approach. Preoperative plain radiographs and MR scan should be carefully evaluated. This video demonstrates a standard approach for how to perform a minimally invasive transforaminal lumbosacral interbody fusion. The video can be found here: https://youtu.be/bhEeafKJ370 . PMID:27364426

  3. The Parisi Formula has a Unique Minimizer

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Auffinger, Antonio; Chen, Wei-Kuo

    2015-05-01

    In 1979, Parisi (Phys Rev Lett 43:1754-1756, 1979) predicted a variational formula for the thermodynamic limit of the free energy in the Sherrington-Kirkpatrick model, and described the role played by its minimizer. This formula was verified in the seminal work of Talagrand (Ann Math 163(1):221-263, 2006) and later generalized to the mixed p-spin models by Panchenko (Ann Probab 42(3):946-958, 2014). In this paper, we prove that the minimizer in Parisi's formula is unique at any temperature and external field by establishing the strict convexity of the Parisi functional.

  4. Instabilities and Solitons in Minimal Strips

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Machon, Thomas; Alexander, Gareth P.; Goldstein, Raymond E.; Pesci, Adriana I.

    2016-07-01

    We show that highly twisted minimal strips can undergo a nonsingular transition, unlike the singular transitions seen in the Möbius strip and the catenoid. If the strip is nonorientable, this transition is topologically frustrated, and the resulting surface contains a helicoidal defect. Through a controlled analytic approximation, the system can be mapped onto a scalar ϕ4 theory on a nonorientable line bundle over the circle, where the defect becomes a topologically protected kink soliton or domain wall, thus establishing their existence in minimal surfaces. Demonstrations with soap films confirm these results and show how the position of the defect can be controlled through boundary deformation.

  5. The concept of minimally invasive dentistry.

    PubMed

    Ericson, Dan

    2007-01-01

    This paper reviews Minimally Invasive Dentistry (MID) from a day-to-day dentistry perspective, focusing mostly on cariology and restorative dentistry, even though it embraces many aspects of dentistry. The concept of MID supports a systematic respect for the original tissue, including diagnosis, risk assessment, preventive treatment, and minimal tissue removal upon restoration. The motivation for MID emerges from the fact that fillings are not permanent and that the main reasons for failure are secondary caries and filling fracture. To address these flaws, there is a need for economical re-routing so that practices can survive on maintaining dental health and not only by operative procedures.

  6. Minimally invasive restorative dentistry: a biomimetic approach.

    PubMed

    Malterud, Mark I

    2006-08-01

    When providing dental treatment for a given patient, the practitioner should use a minimally invasive technique that conserves sound tooth structure as a clinical imperative. Biomimetics is a tenet that guides the author's practice and is generally described as the mimicking of natural life. This can be accomplished in many cases using contemporary composite resins and adhesive dental procedures. Both provide clinical benefits and support the biomimetic philosophy for treatment. This article illustrates a minimally invasive approach for the restoration of carious cervical defects created by poor hygiene exacerbated by the presence of orthodontic brackets.

  7. Minimally invasive repair of meta-bones.

    PubMed

    Piras, Alessandro; Guerrero, Tomás G

    2012-09-01

    Metacarpal and metatarsal fractures are common injuries in small animals and, in most of the cases, can be treated by minimally invasive techniques. Bone plates applied through epi-periosteal tunnels can stabilize meta-bones. Meta-bones III and IV are stabilized by dorsally applied plates. Meta-bones II and V are stabilized using plates applied medially and laterally. The scarcity of soft tissue coverage and the simple anatomy of meta-bones make these fractures amenable to fixation by using minimally invasive techniques. This practice should reduce morbidity and enhance healing time.

  8. Instabilities and Solitons in Minimal Strips.

    PubMed

    Machon, Thomas; Alexander, Gareth P; Goldstein, Raymond E; Pesci, Adriana I

    2016-07-01

    We show that highly twisted minimal strips can undergo a nonsingular transition, unlike the singular transitions seen in the Möbius strip and the catenoid. If the strip is nonorientable, this transition is topologically frustrated, and the resulting surface contains a helicoidal defect. Through a controlled analytic approximation, the system can be mapped onto a scalar ϕ^{4} theory on a nonorientable line bundle over the circle, where the defect becomes a topologically protected kink soliton or domain wall, thus establishing their existence in minimal surfaces. Demonstrations with soap films confirm these results and show how the position of the defect can be controlled through boundary deformation. PMID:27419593

  9. Minimal mass design of tensegrity structures

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Nagase, Kenji; Skelton, R. E.

    2014-03-01

    This paper provides a unified framework for minimal mass design of tensegrity systems. For any given configuration and any given set of external forces, we design force density (member force divided by length) and cross-section area to minimize the structural mass subject to an equilibrium condition and a maximum stress constraint. The answer is provided by a linear program. Stability is assured by a positive definite stiffness matrix. This condition is described by a linear matrix inequality. Numerical examples are shown to illustrate the proposed method.

  10. Minimizing radiation damage in nonlinear optical crystals

    DOEpatents

    Cooke, D.W.; Bennett, B.L.; Cockroft, N.J.

    1998-09-08

    Methods are disclosed for minimizing laser induced damage to nonlinear crystals, such as KTP crystals, involving various means for electrically grounding the crystals in order to diffuse electrical discharges within the crystals caused by the incident laser beam. In certain embodiments, electrically conductive material is deposited onto or into surfaces of the nonlinear crystals and the electrically conductive surfaces are connected to an electrical ground. To minimize electrical discharges on crystal surfaces that are not covered by the grounded electrically conductive material, a vacuum may be created around the nonlinear crystal. 5 figs.

  11. Minimizing radiation damage in nonlinear optical crystals

    DOEpatents

    Cooke, D. Wayne; Bennett, Bryan L.; Cockroft, Nigel J.

    1998-01-01

    Methods are disclosed for minimizing laser induced damage to nonlinear crystals, such as KTP crystals, involving various means for electrically grounding the crystals in order to diffuse electrical discharges within the crystals caused by the incident laser beam. In certain embodiments, electrically conductive material is deposited onto or into surfaces of the nonlinear crystals and the electrically conductive surfaces are connected to an electrical ground. To minimize electrical discharges on crystal surfaces that are not covered by the grounded electrically conductive material, a vacuum may be created around the nonlinear crystal.

  12. Pattern Search Methods for Linearly Constrained Minimization

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Lewis, Robert Michael; Torczon, Virginia

    1998-01-01

    We extend pattern search methods to linearly constrained minimization. We develop a general class of feasible point pattern search algorithms and prove global convergence to a Karush-Kuhn-Tucker point. As in the case of unconstrained minimization, pattern search methods for linearly constrained problems accomplish this without explicit recourse to the gradient or the directional derivative. Key to the analysis of the algorithms is the way in which the local search patterns conform to the geometry of the boundary of the feasible region.

  13. From Jack polynomials to minimal model spectra

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Ridout, David; Wood, Simon

    2015-01-01

    In this note, a deep connection between free field realizations of conformal field theories and symmetric polynomials is presented. We give a brief introduction into the necessary prerequisites of both free field realizations and symmetric polynomials, in particular Jack symmetric polynomials. Then we combine these two fields to classify the irreducible representations of the minimal model vertex operator algebras as an illuminating example of the power of these methods. While these results on the representation theory of the minimal models are all known, this note exploits the full power of Jack polynomials to present significant simplifications of the original proofs in the literature.

  14. Non-minimal inflation and SUSY GUTs

    SciTech Connect

    Okada, Nobuchika

    2012-07-27

    The Standard Model Higgs boson with the nonminimal coupling to the gravitational curvature can drive cosmological inflation. We study this type of inflationary scenario in the context of supergravity. We first point out that it is naturally implemented in the minimal supersymmetric SU(5) model, and hence virtually in any GUT models. Next we propose another scenario based on the Minimal Supersymmetric Standard Model supplemented by the right-handed neutrinos. These models can be tested by new observational data from the Planck satellite experiments within a few years.

  15. A study of MAPSE extensions

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Auty, David; Charette, Robert; Mckay, Charles W.

    1986-01-01

    The technical issues of extending the Minimal Ada Programming Support Environment (MAPSE) to support the life cycle of large, complex distributed systems such as the Space Station Program (SSP) are studied. The work has been divided into two phases, Phase one, covered herein, identifies a list of advanced technical tools needed to extend the MAPSE to meet the needs believed to be inherent in the Software Support Environment (SSE). The description of SSE requirements are given, and a list of the tools are identified. An outline is also given of the principle requirements for a MAPSE, along with a description of the life cycle model and a description of the tools in the context of the life cycle model.

  16. An Unusual Case of Extensive Lattice Degeneration and Retinal Detachment

    PubMed Central

    Sarma, Saurabh Kumar; Basaiawmoit, Jennifer V.

    2016-01-01

    Lattice degeneration of the retina is not infrequently encountered on a dilated retinal examination and many of them do not need any intervention. We report a case of atypical lattice degeneration variant with peripheral retinal detachment. An asymptomatic 35-year-old lady with minimal refractive error was found to have extensive lattice degeneration, peripheral retinal detachment and fibrotic changes peripherally with elevation of retinal vessels on dilated retinal examination. There were also areas of white without pressure, chorioretinal scarring and retinal breaks. All the changes were limited to beyond the equator but were found to span 360 degrees. She was treated with barrage laser all around to prevent extension of the retinal detachment posteriorly. She remained stable till her latest follow-up two years after the barrage laser. This case is reported for its rarity with a discussion of the probable differential diagnoses. To the best of our knowledge, this is the first report of such findings in lattice degeneration.

  17. Toddler Developmental Delays After Extensive Hospitalization: Primary Care Practitioner Guidelines.

    PubMed

    Lehner, Dana C; Sadler, Lois S

    2015-01-01

    This review investigated developmental delays toddlers may encounter after a lengthy pediatric hospitalization (30 days or greater). Physical, motor, cognitive, and psychosocial development of children aged 1 to 3 years was reviewed to raise awareness of factors associated with developmental delay after extensive hospitalization. Findings from the literature suggest that neonatal and pediatric intensive care unit (NICU/PICU) graduates are most at risk for developmental delays, but even non-critical hospital stays interrupt development to some extent. Primary care practitioners (PCPs) may be able to minimize risk for delays through the use of formal developmental screening tests and parent report surveys. References and resources are described for developmental assessment to help clinicians recognize delays and to educate families about optimal toddler development interventions. Pediatric PCPs play a leading role in coordinating health and developmental services for the young child following an extensive hospital stay. PMID:26665423

  18. The Minimal Polynomials of 2cos(π/2k) over the Rationals

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Demirci, Musa; Ikikardes, Nazli Y.; Ozgur, Birsen; Cangul, I. Naci

    2011-09-01

    The number λq = 2 cos π/q, q∈N, q≥3, appears in the study of Hecke groups which are Fuchsian groups of the first kind, and in the study of regular polyhedra. Here we obtained the minimal polynomial of this number by means of the better known Chebycheff polynomials and the set of roots on the extension Q(λq). We follow some kind of inductive method on the number q. The minimal polynomial is obtained for even q.

  19. JESS: Java extensible snakes system

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    McInerney, Tim; Akhavan Sharif, M. Reza; Pashotanizadeh, Nasrin

    2005-04-01

    Snakes (Active Contour Models) are powerful model-based image segmentation tools. Although researchers have proven them especially useful in medical image analysis over the past decade, Snakes have remained primarily in the academic world and they have not become widely used in clinical practice or widely available in commercial packages. A number of confusing and specialized variants exist and there has been no standard open-source implementation available. To address this problem, we present a Java Extensible Snakes System (JESS) that is general, portable, and extensible. The system uses Java Swing classes to allow for the rapid development of custom graphical user interfaces (GUI's). It also incorporates the Java Advanced Imaging(JAI) class library, which provide custom image preprocessing, image display and general image I/O. The Snakes algorithm itself is written in a hierarchical fashion, consisting of a general Snake class and several subclasses that span the main variants of Snakes including a new, powerful, robust subdivision-curve Snake. These subclasses can be easily and quickly extended and customized for any specific segmentation and analysis task. We demonstrate the utility of these classes for segmenting various anatomical structures from 2D medical images. We also demonstrate the effectiveness of JESS by using it to rapidly build a prototype semi-automatic sperm analysis system. The JESS software will be made publicly available in early 2005.

  20. Minimal Mimicry: Mere Effector Matching Induces Preference

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Sparenberg, Peggy; Topolinski, Sascha; Springer, Anne; Prinz, Wolfgang

    2012-01-01

    Both mimicking and being mimicked induces preference for a target. The present experiments investigate the minimal sufficient conditions for this mimicry-preference link to occur. We argue that mere effector matching between one's own and the other person's movement is sufficient to induce preference, independent of which movement is actually…

  1. Probabilistic inspection strategies for minimizing service failures

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Brot, Abraham

    1994-01-01

    The INSIM computer program is described which simulates the 'limited fatigue life' environment in which aircraft structures generally operate. The use of INSIM to develop inspection strategies which aim to minimize service failures is demonstrated. Damage-tolerance methodology, inspection thresholds and customized inspections are simulated using the probability of failure as the driving parameter.

  2. Minimal Interventions in the Teaching of Mathematics

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Foster, Colin

    2014-01-01

    This paper addresses ways in which mathematics pedagogy can benefit from insights gleaned from counselling. Person-centred counselling stresses the value of genuineness, warm empathetic listening and minimal intervention to support people in solving their own problems and developing increased autonomy. Such an approach contrasts starkly with the…

  3. Challenging the minimal supersymmetric SU(5) model

    SciTech Connect

    Bajc, Borut; Lavignac, Stéphane; Mede, Timon

    2014-06-24

    We review the main constraints on the parameter space of the minimal renormalizable supersymmetric SU(5) grand unified theory. They consist of the Higgs mass, proton decay, electroweak symmetry breaking and fermion masses. Superpartner masses are constrained both from below and from above, giving hope for confirming or definitely ruling out the theory in the future. This contribution is based on Ref. [1].

  4. DUPONT CHAMBERS WORKS WASTE MINIMIZATION PROJECT

    EPA Science Inventory

    In a joint U.S. Environmental Protection Agency (EPA) and DuPont waste minimization project, fifteen waste streams were-selected for assessment. The intent was to develop assessments diverse in terms of process type, mode of operation, waste type, disposal needed, and relative s...

  5. Tsallis distribution from minimally selected order statistics

    SciTech Connect

    Wilk, G.; Wlodarczyk, Z.

    2007-12-06

    We demonstrate that selection of the minimal value of ordered variables leads in a natural way to its distribution being given by the Tsallis distribution, the same as that resulting from Tsallis nonextensive statistics. The possible application of this result to the multiparticle production processes is indicated.

  6. Banach spaces that realize minimal fillings

    SciTech Connect

    Bednov, B. B.; Borodin, P. A. E-mail: pborodin@inbox.ru

    2014-04-30

    It is proved that a real Banach space realizes minimal fillings for all its finite subsets (a shortest network spanning a fixed finite subset always exists and has the minimum possible length) if and only if it is a predual of L{sub 1}. The spaces L{sub 1} are characterized in terms of Steiner points (medians). Bibliography: 25 titles. (paper)

  7. Minimal Brain Dysfunction: Associations with Perinatal Complications.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Nichols, Paul L.

    Examined with over 28,000 7-year-old children whose mothers registered for prenatal care was the relationship between perinatal complications and such characteristics as poor school achievement, hyperactivity, and neurological soft signs associated with the diagnosis of minimal brain dysfunction (MBD). Ten perinatal antecedents were studied:…

  8. Pancreatic cancer: Open or minimally invasive surgery?

    PubMed

    Zhang, Yu-Hua; Zhang, Cheng-Wu; Hu, Zhi-Ming; Hong, De-Fei

    2016-08-28

    Pancreatic duct adenocarcinoma is one of the most fatal malignancies, with R0 resection remaining the most important part of treatment of this malignancy. However, pancreatectomy is believed to be one of the most challenging procedures and R0 resection remains the only chance for patients with pancreatic cancer to have a good prognosis. Some surgeons have tried minimally invasive pancreatic surgery, but the short- and long-term outcomes of pancreatic malignancy remain controversial between open and minimally invasive procedures. We collected comparative data about minimally invasive and open pancreatic surgery. The available evidence suggests that minimally invasive pancreaticoduodenectomy (MIPD) is as safe and feasible as open PD (OPD), and shows some benefit, such as less intraoperative blood loss and shorter postoperative hospital stay. Despite the limited evidence for MIPD in pancreatic cancer, most of the available data show that the short-term oncological adequacy is similar between MIPD and OPD. Some surgical techniques, including superior mesenteric artery-first approach and laparoscopic pancreatoduodenectomy with major vein resection, are believed to improve the rate of R0 resection. Laparoscopic distal pancreatectomy is less technically demanding and is accepted in more pancreatic centers. It is technically safe and feasible and has similar short-term oncological prognosis compared with open distal pancreatectomy. PMID:27621576

  9. Minimally Invasive Surgery for Inflammatory Bowel Disease

    PubMed Central

    Holder-Murray, Jennifer; Marsicovetere, Priscilla

    2015-01-01

    Abstract: Surgical management of inflammatory bowel disease is a challenging endeavor given infectious and inflammatory complications, such as fistula, and abscess, complex often postoperative anatomy, including adhesive disease from previous open operations. Patients with Crohn's disease and ulcerative colitis also bring to the table the burden of their chronic illness with anemia, malnutrition, and immunosuppression, all common and contributing independently as risk factors for increased surgical morbidity in this high-risk population. However, to reduce the physical trauma of surgery, technologic advances and worldwide experience with minimally invasive surgery have allowed laparoscopic management of patients to become standard of care, with significant short- and long-term patient benefits compared with the open approach. In this review, we will describe the current state-of the-art for minimally invasive surgery for inflammatory bowel disease and the caveats inherent with this practice in this complex patient population. Also, we will review the applicability of current and future trends in minimally invasive surgical technique, such as laparoscopic “incisionless,” single-incision laparoscopic surgery (SILS), robotic-assisted, and other techniques for the patient with inflammatory bowel disease. There can be no doubt that minimally invasive surgery has been proven to decrease the short- and long-term burden of surgery of these chronic illnesses and represents high-value care for both patient and society. PMID:25989341

  10. Minimally Invasive Mitral Valve Surgery III

    PubMed Central

    Lehr, Eric J.; Guy, T. Sloane; Smith, Robert L.; Grossi, Eugene A.; Shemin, Richard J.; Rodriguez, Evelio; Ailawadi, Gorav; Agnihotri, Arvind K.; Fayers, Trevor M.; Hargrove, W. Clark; Hummel, Brian W.; Khan, Junaid H.; Malaisrie, S. Chris; Mehall, John R.; Murphy, Douglas A.; Ryan, William H.; Salemi, Arash; Segurola, Romualdo J.; Smith, J. Michael; Wolfe, J. Alan; Weldner, Paul W.; Barnhart, Glenn R.; Goldman, Scott M.; Lewis, Clifton T. P.

    2016-01-01

    Abstract Minimally invasive mitral valve operations are increasingly common in the United States, but robotic-assisted approaches have not been widely adopted for a variety of reasons. This expert opinion reviews the state of the art and defines best practices, training, and techniques for developing a successful robotics program. PMID:27662478

  11. Consequences of "Minimal" Group Affiliations in Children

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Dunham, Yarrow; Baron, Andrew Scott; Carey, Susan

    2011-01-01

    Three experiments (total N = 140) tested the hypothesis that 5-year-old children's membership in randomly assigned "minimal" groups would be sufficient to induce intergroup bias. Children were randomly assigned to groups and engaged in tasks involving judgments of unfamiliar in-group or out-group children. Despite an absence of information…

  12. Practice Enables Successful Learning under Minimal Guidance

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Brunstein, Angela; Betts, Shawn; Anderson, John R.

    2009-01-01

    Two experiments were conducted, contrasting a minimally guided discovery condition with a variety of instructional conditions. College students interacted with a computer-based tutor that presented algebra-like problems in a novel graphical representation. Although the tutor provided no instruction in a discovery condition, it constrained the…

  13. Minimally invasive pancreatic surgery – a review

    PubMed Central

    Damoli, Isacco; Ramera, Marco; Paiella, Salvatore; Marchegiani, Giovanni; Bassi, Claudio

    2015-01-01

    During the past 20 years the application of a minimally invasive approach to pancreatic surgery has progressively increased. Distal pancreatectomy is the most frequently performed procedure, because of the absence of a reconstructive phase. However, middle pancreatectomy and pancreatoduodenectomy have been demonstrated to be safe and feasible as well. Laparoscopic distal pancreatectomy is recognized as the gold standard treatment for small tumors of the pancreatic body-tail, with several advantages over the traditional open approach in terms of patient recovery. The surgical treatment of lesions of the pancreatic head via a minimally invasive approach is still limited to a few highly experienced surgeons, due to the very challenging resection and complex anastomoses. Middle pancreatectomy and enucleation are indicated for small and benign tumors and offer the maximum preservation of the parenchyma. The introduction of a robotic platform more than ten years ago increased the interest of many surgeons in minimally invasive treatment of pancreatic diseases. This new technology overcomes all the limitations of laparoscopic surgery, but actual benefits for the patients are still under investigation. The increased costs associated with robotic surgery are under debate too. This article presents the state of the art of minimally invasive pancreatic surgery. PMID:26240612

  14. Minimization of Salmonella Contamination on Raw Poultry

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Many reviews have discussed Salmonella in poultry and suggested best practices to minimize this organism on raw poultry meat. Despite years of research and conscientious control efforts by industry and regulatory agencies, human salmonellosis rates have declined only modestly and Salmonella is stil...

  15. MULTIOBJECTIVE PARALLEL GENETIC ALGORITHM FOR WASTE MINIMIZATION

    EPA Science Inventory

    In this research we have developed an efficient multiobjective parallel genetic algorithm (MOPGA) for waste minimization problems. This MOPGA integrates PGAPack (Levine, 1996) and NSGA-II (Deb, 2000) with novel modifications. PGAPack is a master-slave parallel implementation of a...

  16. Pancreatic cancer: Open or minimally invasive surgery?

    PubMed Central

    Zhang, Yu-Hua; Zhang, Cheng-Wu; Hu, Zhi-Ming; Hong, De-Fei

    2016-01-01

    Pancreatic duct adenocarcinoma is one of the most fatal malignancies, with R0 resection remaining the most important part of treatment of this malignancy. However, pancreatectomy is believed to be one of the most challenging procedures and R0 resection remains the only chance for patients with pancreatic cancer to have a good prognosis. Some surgeons have tried minimally invasive pancreatic surgery, but the short- and long-term outcomes of pancreatic malignancy remain controversial between open and minimally invasive procedures. We collected comparative data about minimally invasive and open pancreatic surgery. The available evidence suggests that minimally invasive pancreaticoduodenectomy (MIPD) is as safe and feasible as open PD (OPD), and shows some benefit, such as less intraoperative blood loss and shorter postoperative hospital stay. Despite the limited evidence for MIPD in pancreatic cancer, most of the available data show that the short-term oncological adequacy is similar between MIPD and OPD. Some surgical techniques, including superior mesenteric artery-first approach and laparoscopic pancreatoduodenectomy with major vein resection, are believed to improve the rate of R0 resection. Laparoscopic distal pancreatectomy is less technically demanding and is accepted in more pancreatic centers. It is technically safe and feasible and has similar short-term oncological prognosis compared with open distal pancreatectomy. PMID:27621576

  17. Pancreatic cancer: Open or minimally invasive surgery?

    PubMed Central

    Zhang, Yu-Hua; Zhang, Cheng-Wu; Hu, Zhi-Ming; Hong, De-Fei

    2016-01-01

    Pancreatic duct adenocarcinoma is one of the most fatal malignancies, with R0 resection remaining the most important part of treatment of this malignancy. However, pancreatectomy is believed to be one of the most challenging procedures and R0 resection remains the only chance for patients with pancreatic cancer to have a good prognosis. Some surgeons have tried minimally invasive pancreatic surgery, but the short- and long-term outcomes of pancreatic malignancy remain controversial between open and minimally invasive procedures. We collected comparative data about minimally invasive and open pancreatic surgery. The available evidence suggests that minimally invasive pancreaticoduodenectomy (MIPD) is as safe and feasible as open PD (OPD), and shows some benefit, such as less intraoperative blood loss and shorter postoperative hospital stay. Despite the limited evidence for MIPD in pancreatic cancer, most of the available data show that the short-term oncological adequacy is similar between MIPD and OPD. Some surgical techniques, including superior mesenteric artery-first approach and laparoscopic pancreatoduodenectomy with major vein resection, are believed to improve the rate of R0 resection. Laparoscopic distal pancreatectomy is less technically demanding and is accepted in more pancreatic centers. It is technically safe and feasible and has similar short-term oncological prognosis compared with open distal pancreatectomy.

  18. Extensibility and limitations of FDDI

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Game, David; Maly, Kurt J.

    1990-01-01

    Recently two standards for Metropolitan Area Networks (MANs), Fiber Distributed Data Interface (FDDI) and Distributed Queue Dual Bus (DQDB), have emerged as the primary competitors for the MAN arena. Great interest exists in building higher speed networks which support large numbers of node and greater distance, and it is not clear what types of protocols are needed for this type of environment. There is some question as to whether or not these MAN standards can be extended to such environments. The extensibility of FDDI to the Gbps range and a long distance environment is investigated. Specification parameters which affect performance are shown and a measure is provided for predicting utilization of FDDI. A comparison of FDDI at 100 Mbps and 1 Gbps is presented. Some specific problems with FDDI are addressed and modifications which improve the viability of FDDI in such high speed networks are investigated.

  19. Industrial extension, the Oklahoma way

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Farrell, Edmund J.

    1994-03-01

    Oklahoma has established a customer-driven industrial extension system. A publicly-chartered, private non-profit corporation, the Oklahoma Alliance for Manufacturing Excellence, Inc. (`the Alliance') coordinates the system. The system incorporates principles that Oklahoma manufacturers value: (1) decentralization and local accessibility; (2) coordinated existing resources; (3) comprehensive help; (4) interfirm cooperation; (5) pro-active outreach; (6) self- help and commitment from firms; (7) customer governance; and (8) performance accountability. The Oklahoma system consists of: (1) a network of locally-based broker/agents who work directly with manufacturers to diagnose problems and find appropriate assistance; (2) a group of industry sector specialists who collect and disseminate sector specific technological and market intelligence to the broker/agents and their clients; (3) all the specialized public and private sector resources coordinated by the system; and (4) a customer- driven coordination and evaluation mechanism, the Alliance.

  20. Neutrons in extensive air showers

    SciTech Connect

    Stenkin, Yu. V.; Djappuev, D. D.; Valdes-Galicia, J. F.

    2007-06-15

    The main properties of the so-called neutron bursts produced by the passage of extensive air showers (EASs) through a detector array and the properties of these EASs are considered using the experiments that are being or have been carried out previously with the Carpet-2 array at Baksan Neutrino Observatory of the Institute for Nuclear Research, Russian Academy of Sciences, and at Cosmic-Ray Station of UNAM in Mexico as examples. We show that no exotic processes are required to explain the nature of neutron bursts. Based on a working prototype of the previously proposed MULTICOM array, we also show that this phenomenon can be successfully used in studying the EAS hadronic component and that adding special thermal neutron detectors can improve significantly the capabilities of the array for EAS study.

  1. Curve-Like Structure Extraction Using Minimal Path Propagation With Backtracking.

    PubMed

    Chen, Yang; Zhang, Yudong; Yang, Jian; Cao, Qing; Yang, Guanyu; Chen, Jian; Shu, Huazhong; Luo, Limin; Coatrieux, Jean-Louis; Feng, Qianjing

    2016-02-01

    Minimal path techniques can efficiently extract geometrically curve-like structures by finding the path with minimal accumulated cost between two given endpoints. Though having found wide practical applications (e.g., line identification, crack detection, and vascular centerline extraction), minimal path techniques suffer from some notable problems. The first one is that they require setting two endpoints for each line to be extracted (endpoint problem). The second one is that the connection might fail when the geodesic distance between the two points is much shorter than the desirable minimal path (shortcut problem). In addition, when connecting two distant points, the minimal path connection might become inefficient as the accumulated cost increases over the propagation and results in leakage into some non-feature regions near the starting point (accumulation problem). To address these problems, this paper proposes an approach termed minimal path propagation with backtracking. We found that the information in the process of backtracking from reached points can be well utilized to overcome the above problems and improve the extraction performance. The whole algorithm is robust to parameter setting and allows a coarse setting of the starting point. Extensive experiments with both simulated and realistic data are performed to validate the performance of the proposed method.

  2. Curve-Like Structure Extraction Using Minimal Path Propagation With Backtracking.

    PubMed

    Chen, Yang; Zhang, Yudong; Yang, Jian; Cao, Qing; Yang, Guanyu; Chen, Jian; Shu, Huazhong; Luo, Limin; Coatrieux, Jean-Louis; Feng, Qianjing

    2016-02-01

    Minimal path techniques can efficiently extract geometrically curve-like structures by finding the path with minimal accumulated cost between two given endpoints. Though having found wide practical applications (e.g., line identification, crack detection, and vascular centerline extraction), minimal path techniques suffer from some notable problems. The first one is that they require setting two endpoints for each line to be extracted (endpoint problem). The second one is that the connection might fail when the geodesic distance between the two points is much shorter than the desirable minimal path (shortcut problem). In addition, when connecting two distant points, the minimal path connection might become inefficient as the accumulated cost increases over the propagation and results in leakage into some non-feature regions near the starting point (accumulation problem). To address these problems, this paper proposes an approach termed minimal path propagation with backtracking. We found that the information in the process of backtracking from reached points can be well utilized to overcome the above problems and improve the extraction performance. The whole algorithm is robust to parameter setting and allows a coarse setting of the starting point. Extensive experiments with both simulated and realistic data are performed to validate the performance of the proposed method. PMID:26552086

  3. Competency Modeling in Extension Education: Integrating an Academic Extension Education Model with an Extension Human Resource Management Model

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Scheer, Scott D.; Cochran, Graham R.; Harder, Amy; Place, Nick T.

    2011-01-01

    The purpose of this study was to compare and contrast an academic extension education model with an Extension human resource management model. The academic model of 19 competencies was similar across the 22 competencies of the Extension human resource management model. There were seven unique competencies for the human resource management model.…

  4. Extensive Nosocomial Transmission of Measles Originating in Cruise Ship Passenger, Sardinia, Italy, 2014

    PubMed Central

    Bella, Antonino; Cadeddu, Giovanna; Milia, Maria Rafaela; Del Manso, Martina; Rota, Maria Cristina; Magurano, Fabio; Nicoletti, Loredana; Declich, Silvia

    2015-01-01

    We report a measles outbreak in Sardinia, Italy, that originated in a cruise ship passenger. The outbreak showed extensive nosocomial transmission (44 of 80 cases). To minimize nosocomial transmission, health care facilities should ensure that susceptible health care workers are vaccinated against measles and should implement effective infection control procedures. PMID:26196266

  5. Extensive Nosocomial Transmission of Measles Originating in Cruise Ship Passenger, Sardinia, Italy, 2014.

    PubMed

    Filia, Antonietta; Bella, Antonino; Cadeddu, Giovanna; Milia, Maria Rafaela; Del Manso, Martina; Rota, Maria Cristina; Magurano, Fabio; Nicoletti, Loredana; Declich, Silvia

    2015-08-01

    We report a measles outbreak in Sardinia, Italy, that originated in a cruise ship passenger. The outbreak showed extensive nosocomial transmission (44 of 80 cases). To minimize nosocomial transmission, health care facilities should ensure that susceptible health care workers are vaccinated against measles and should implement effective infection control procedures.

  6. Percutaneous nephrostomy with extensions of the technique: step by step.

    PubMed

    Dyer, Raymond B; Regan, John D; Kavanagh, Peter V; Khatod, Elaine G; Chen, Michael Y; Zagoria, Ronald J

    2002-01-01

    Minimally invasive therapy in the urinary tract begins with renal access by means of percutaneous nephrostomy. Indications for percutaneous nephrostomy include urinary diversion, treatment of nephrolithiasis and complex urinary tract infections, ureteral intervention, and nephroscopy and ureteroscopy. Bleeding complications can be minimized by entering the kidney in a relatively avascular zone created by branching of the renal artery. The specific site of renal entry is dictated by the indication for access with consideration of the anatomic constraints. Successful percutaneous nephrostomy requires visualization of the collecting system for selection of an appropriate entry site. The definitive entry site is then selected; ideally, the entry site should be subcostal and lateral to the paraspinous musculature. Small-bore nephrostomy tracks can be created over a guide wire coiled in the renal pelvis. A large-diameter track may be necessary for percutaneous stone therapy, nephroscopy, or antegrade ureteroscopy. The most common extension of percutaneous nephrostomy is placement of a ureteral stent for treatment of obstruction. Transient hematuria occurs in virtually every patient after percutaneous nephrostomy, but severe bleeding that requires transfusion or intervention is uncommon. In patients with an obstructed urinary tract complicated by infection, extensive manipulations pose a risk of septic complications. PMID:12006684

  7. Complex esthetic and functional rehabilitation with an additive, minimally invasive restorative approach.

    PubMed

    Ho, Christopher Ck

    2014-06-01

    Historically, the management of patients presenting with extensive tooth wear comprised the use of conventional fixed prosthodontics, an approach that often entailed invasive dentistry and increased biomechanical risk. With the development of adhesive bonding, a dentition can be restored in a much more conservative manner using an additive approach. This case report describes the concepts employed in a complex rehabilitation involving tooth erosion, applying both direct and indirect restorations with minimal biological risk to the patient.

  8. The Sense of Commitment: A Minimal Approach

    PubMed Central

    Michael, John; Sebanz, Natalie; Knoblich, Günther

    2016-01-01

    This paper provides a starting point for psychological research on the sense of commitment within the context of joint action. We begin by formulating three desiderata: to illuminate the motivational factors that lead agents to feel and act committed, to pick out the cognitive processes and situational factors that lead agents to sense that implicit commitments are in place, and to illuminate the development of an understanding of commitment in ontogeny. In order to satisfy these three desiderata, we propose a minimal framework, the core of which is an analysis of the minimal structure of situations which can elicit a sense of commitment. We then propose a way of conceptualizing and operationalizing the sense of commitment, and discuss cognitive and motivational processes which may underpin the sense of commitment. PMID:26779080

  9. Commercial radioactive waste minimization program development guidance

    SciTech Connect

    Fischer, D.K.

    1991-01-01

    This document is one of two prepared by the EG&G Idaho, Inc., Waste Management Technical Support Program Group, National Low-Level Waste Management Program Unit. One of several Department of Energy responsibilities stated in the Amendments Act of 1985 is to provide technical assistance to compact regions Host States, and nonmember States (to the extent provided in appropriations acts) in establishing waste minimization program plans. Technical assistance includes, among other things, the development of technical guidelines for volume reduction options. Pursuant to this defined responsibility, the Department of Energy (through EG&G Idaho, Inc.) has prepared this report, which includes guidance on defining a program, State/compact commission participation, and waste minimization program plans.

  10. Commercial radioactive waste minimization program development guidance

    SciTech Connect

    Fischer, D.K.

    1991-01-01

    This document is one of two prepared by the EG G Idaho, Inc., Waste Management Technical Support Program Group, National Low-Level Waste Management Program Unit. One of several Department of Energy responsibilities stated in the Amendments Act of 1985 is to provide technical assistance to compact regions Host States, and nonmember States (to the extent provided in appropriations acts) in establishing waste minimization program plans. Technical assistance includes, among other things, the development of technical guidelines for volume reduction options. Pursuant to this defined responsibility, the Department of Energy (through EG G Idaho, Inc.) has prepared this report, which includes guidance on defining a program, State/compact commission participation, and waste minimization program plans.

  11. Minimal Left-Right Symmetric Dark Matter.

    PubMed

    Heeck, Julian; Patra, Sudhanwa

    2015-09-18

    We show that left-right symmetric models can easily accommodate stable TeV-scale dark matter particles without the need for an ad hoc stabilizing symmetry. The stability of a newly introduced multiplet either arises accidentally as in the minimal dark matter framework or comes courtesy of the remaining unbroken Z_{2} subgroup of B-L. Only one new parameter is introduced: the mass of the new multiplet. As minimal examples, we study left-right fermion triplets and quintuplets and show that they can form viable two-component dark matter. This approach is, in particular, valid for SU(2)×SU(2)×U(1) models that explain the recent diboson excess at ATLAS in terms of a new charged gauge boson of mass 2 TeV.

  12. A perturbation technique for shield weight minimization

    SciTech Connect

    Watkins, E.F.; Greenspan, E. )

    1993-01-01

    The radiation shield optimization code SWAN (Ref. 1) was originally developed for minimizing the thickness of a shield that will meet a given dose (or another) constraint or for extremizing a performance parameter of interest (e.g., maximizing energy multiplication or minimizing dose) while maintaining the shield volume constraint. The SWAN optimization process proved to be highly effective (e.g., see Refs. 2, 3, and 4). The purpose of this work is to investigate the applicability of the SWAN methodology to problems in which the weight rather than the volume is the relevant shield characteristic. Such problems are encountered in shield design for space nuclear power systems. The investigation is carried out using SWAN with the coupled neutron-photon cross-section library FLUNG (Ref. 5).

  13. Minimal conditions for protocell stationary growth.

    PubMed

    Bigan, Erwan; Steyaert, Jean-Marc; Douady, Stéphane

    2015-01-01

    We show that self-replication of a chemical system encapsulated within a membrane growing from within is possible without any explicit feature such as autocatalysis or metabolic closure, and without the need for their emergence through complexity. We use a protocell model relying upon random conservative chemical reaction networks with arbitrary stoichiometry, and we investigate the protocell's capability for self-replication, for various numbers of reactions in the network. We elucidate the underlying mechanisms in terms of simple minimal conditions pertaining only to the topology of the embedded chemical reaction network. A necessary condition is that each moiety must be fed, and a sufficient condition is that each siphon is fed. Although these minimal conditions are purely topological, by further endowing conservative chemical reaction networks with thermodynamically consistent kinetics, we show that the growth rate tends to increase on increasing the Gibbs energy per unit molecular weight of the nutrient and on decreasing that of the membrane precursor. PMID:25951201

  14. The Minimal Supersymmetric Fat Higgs Model

    SciTech Connect

    Harnik, Roni; Kribs, Graham D.; Larson, Daniel T.; Murayama, Hitoshi

    2003-11-26

    We present a calculable supersymmetric theory of a composite"fat'" Higgs boson. Electroweak symmetry is broken dynamically through a new gauge interaction that becomes strong at an intermediate scale. The Higgs mass can easily be 200-450 GeV along with the superpartner masses, solving the supersymmetric little hierarchy problem. We explicitly verify that the model is consistent with precision electroweak data without fine-tuning. Gauge coupling unification can be maintained despite the inherently strong dynamics involved in electroweak symmetry breaking. Supersymmetrizing the Standard Model therefore does not imply a light Higgs mass, contrary to the lore in the literature. The Higgs sector of the minimal Fat Higgs model has a mass spectrum that is distinctly different from the Minimal Supersymmetric Standard Model.

  15. [Minimally invasive operations in vascular surgery].

    PubMed

    Stádler, Petr; Sedivý, Petr; Dvorácek, Libor; Slais, Marek; Vitásek, Petr; El Samman, Khaled; Matous, Pavel

    2011-01-01

    Minimally invasive surgery provides an attractive alternative compared with conventional surgical approaches and is popular with patients, particularly because of its favourable cosmetic results. Vascular surgery has taken its inspiration from general surgery and, over the past few years, has also been reducing the invasiveness of its operating methods. In addition to traditional laparoscopic techniques, we most frequently encounter the endovascular treatment of aneurysms of the thoracic and abdominal aorta and, most recently, robot-assisted surgery in the area of the abdominal aorta and pelvic arteries. Minimally invasive surgical interventions also have other advantages, including less operative trauma, a reduction in post-operative pain, shorter periods spent in the intensive care unit and overall hospitalization times, an earlier return to normal life and, finally, a reduction in total treatment costs.

  16. Neurocontroller analysis via evolutionary network minimization.

    PubMed

    Ganon, Zohar; Keinan, Alon; Ruppin, Eytan

    2006-01-01

    This study presents a new evolutionary network minimization (ENM) algorithm. Neurocontroller minimization is beneficial for finding small parsimonious networks that permit a better understanding of their workings. The ENM algorithm is specifically geared to an evolutionary agents setup, as it does not require any explicit supervised training error, and is very easily incorporated in current evolutionary algorithms. ENM is based on a standard genetic algorithm with an additional step during reproduction in which synaptic connections are irreversibly eliminated. It receives as input a successfully evolved neurocontroller and aims to output a pruned neurocontroller, while maintaining the original fitness level. The small neurocontrollers produced by ENM provide upper bounds on the neurocontroller size needed to perform a given task successfully, and can provide for more effcient hardware implementations. PMID:16859448

  17. Tall sections from non-minimal transformations

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Morrison, David R.; Park, Daniel S.

    2016-10-01

    In previous work, we have shown that elliptic fibrations with two sections, or Mordell-Weil rank one, can always be mapped birationally to a Weierstrass model of a certain form, namely, the Jacobian of a P^{112} model. Most constructions of elliptically fibered Calabi-Yau manifolds with two sections have been carried out assuming that the image of this birational map was a "minimal" Weierstrass model. In this paper, we show that for some elliptically fibered Calabi-Yau manifolds with Mordell-Weil rank-one, the Jacobian of the P^{112} model is not minimal. Said another way, starting from a Calabi-Yau Weierstrass model, the total space must be blown up (thereby destroying the "Calabi-Yau" property) in order to embed the model into P^{112} . In particular, we show that the elliptic fibrations studied recently by Klevers and Taylor fall into this class of models.

  18. Heavier Higgs particles: Indications from Minimal Supersymmetry

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Maiani, L.; Polosa, A. D.; Riquer, V.

    2012-12-01

    We use the most recent data on the Higgs-like resonance h observed at 125 GeV to derive information about the mass of the heavier Higgs particles predicted by Minimal Supersymmetry. We treat as independent parameters the couplings of h to top quark, beauty and massive vector bosons and, in this three-dimensional space, we locate the point realizing the best fit to data and compare it to the position of the Standard Model point and to the region of coupling values accommodating heavier Higgs particles in Minimal Supersymmetry. We conclude that mass values 320 ≲MH ≲ 360 GeV are compatible at 2σ with the best fit of couplings to present data, larger values being compatible at the 1σ level. Values of 1 ≲ tan β ≲ 6 are compatible with data.

  19. Topological minimally entangled states via geometric measure

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Buerschaper, Oliver; García-Saez, Artur; Orús, Román; Wei, Tzu-Chieh

    2014-11-01

    Here we show how the Minimally Entangled States (MES) of a 2d system with topological order can be identified using the geometric measure of entanglement. We show this by minimizing this measure for the doubled semion, doubled Fibonacci and toric code models on a torus with non-trivial topological partitions. Our calculations are done either quasi-exactly for small system sizes, or using the tensor network approach in Orús et al (arXiv:1406.0585) for large sizes. As a byproduct of our methods, we see that the minimisation of the geometric entanglement can also determine the number of Abelian quasiparticle excitations in a given model. The results in this paper provide a very efficient and accurate way of extracting the full topological information of a 2d quantum lattice model from the multipartite entanglement structure of its ground states.

  20. Minimally Invasive Surgical Therapies for Atrial Fibrillation

    PubMed Central

    Nakamura, Yoshitsugu; Kiaii, Bob; Chu, Michael W. A.

    2012-01-01

    Atrial fibrillation is the most common sustained arrhythmia and is associated with significant risks of thromboembolism, stroke, congestive heart failure, and death. There have been major advances in the management of atrial fibrillation including pharmacologic therapies, antithrombotic therapies, and ablation techniques. Surgery for atrial fibrillation, including both concomitant and stand-alone interventions, is an effective therapy to restore sinus rhythm. Minimally invasive surgical ablation is an emerging field that aims for the superior results of the traditional Cox-Maze procedure through a less invasive operation with lower morbidity, quicker recovery, and improved patient satisfaction. These novel techniques utilize endoscopic or minithoracotomy approaches with various energy sources to achieve electrical isolation of the pulmonary veins in addition to other ablation lines. We review advancements in minimally invasive techniques for atrial fibrillation surgery, including management of the left atrial appendage. PMID:22666609

  1. Minimizing nonadiabaticities in optical-lattice loading

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Dolfi, Michele; Kantian, Adrian; Bauer, Bela; Troyer, Matthias

    2015-03-01

    In the quest to reach lower temperatures of ultracold gases in optical-lattice experiments, nonadiabaticities during lattice loading represent one of the limiting factors that prevent the same low temperatures being reached as in experiments without lattices. Simulating the loading of a bosonic quantum gas into a one-dimensional optical lattice with and without a trap, we find that the redistribution of atomic density inside a global confining potential is by far the dominant source of heating. Based on these results we propose adjusting the trapping potential during loading to minimize changes to the density distribution. Our simulations confirm that a very simple linear interpolation of the trapping potential during loading already significantly decreases the heating of a quantum gas, and we discuss how loading protocols minimizing density redistributions can be designed.

  2. Nonlinear transient analysis via energy minimization

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Kamat, M. P.; Knight, N. F., Jr.

    1978-01-01

    The formulation basis for nonlinear transient analysis of finite element models of structures using energy minimization is provided. Geometric and material nonlinearities are included. The development is restricted to simple one and two dimensional finite elements which are regarded as being the basic elements for modeling full aircraft-like structures under crash conditions. The results indicate the effectiveness of the technique as a viable tool for this purpose.

  3. Minimizing the Fluid Used to Induce Fracturing

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Boyle, E. J.

    2015-12-01

    The less fluid injected to induce fracturing means less fluid needing to be produced before gas is produced. One method is to inject as fast as possible until the desired fracture length is obtained. Presented is an alternative injection strategy derived by applying optimal system control theory to the macroscopic mass balance. The picture is that the fracture is constant in aperture, fluid is injected at a controlled rate at the near end, and the fracture unzips at the far end until the desired length is obtained. The velocity of the fluid is governed by Darcy's law with larger permeability for flow along the fracture length. Fracture growth is monitored through micro-seismicity. Since the fluid is assumed to be incompressible, the rate at which fluid is injected is balanced by rate of fracture growth and rate of loss to bounding rock. Minimizing injected fluid loss to the bounding rock is the same as minimizing total injected fluid How to change the injection rate so as to minimize the total injected fluid is a problem in optimal control. For a given total length, the variation of the injected rate is determined by variations in overall time needed to obtain the desired fracture length, the length at any time, and the rate at which the fracture is growing at that time. Optimal control theory leads to a boundary condition and an ordinary differential equation in time whose solution is an injection protocol that minimizes the fluid used under the stated assumptions. That method is to monitor the rate at which the square of the fracture length is growing and adjust the injection rate proportionately.

  4. Holographic dark energy from minimal supergravity

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Landim, Ricardo C. G.

    2016-02-01

    We embed models of holographic dark energy (HDE) coupled to dark matter (DM) in minimal supergravity plus matter, with one chiral superfield. We analyze two cases. The first one has the Hubble radius as the infrared (IR) cutoff and the interaction between the two fluids is proportional to the energy density of the DE. The second case has the future event horizon as IR cutoff while the interaction is proportional to the energy density of both components of the dark sector.

  5. Minimal Basis for Gauge Theory Amplitudes

    SciTech Connect

    Bjerrum-Bohr, N. E. J.; Damgaard, Poul H.; Vanhove, Pierre

    2009-10-16

    Identities based on monodromy for integrations in string theory are used to derive relations between different color-ordered tree-level amplitudes in both bosonic and supersymmetric string theory. These relations imply that the color-ordered tree-level n-point gauge theory amplitudes can be expanded in a minimal basis of (n-3)exclamation amplitudes. This result holds for any choice of polarizations of the external states and in any number of dimensions.

  6. Minimally invasive dentistry: a review and update.

    PubMed

    Brostek, Andrew M; Bochenek, Andrew J; Walsh, Laurence J

    2006-06-01

    The term "Minimal Invasive (MI) Dentistry" can best be defined as the management of caries with a biological approach, rather than with a traditional (surgical) operative dentistry approach. Where operative dentistry is required, this is now carried out in the most conservative manner with minimal destruction of tooth structure. This new approach to caries management changes the emphasis from diagnosing carious lesions as cavities (and a repeating cycle of restorations), to one of diagnosing the oral ecological imbalance and effecting biological changes in the biofilm. The goal of MI is to stop the disease process and then to restore lost tooth structure and function, maximizing the healing potential of the tooth. The thought process which underpins this new minimal invasive approach can be organized into three main categories: (1) Recognize, which means identify patient caries risk, (2) Remineralize, which means prevent caries and reverse non-cavitated caries, and (3) Repair, which means control caries activity, maximize healing and repair the damage. The disease of dental caries is not just demineralization, but a process of repeated demineralization cycles caused by an imbalance in the ecological and chemical equilibrium of the biofilm /tooth interface (the ecological plaque hypothesis). Dietary and lifestyle patterns, especially carbohydrate frequency, water intake and smoking, play an important role in changing the biofilm ecology and pathogenicity. Tools for chairside assessment of saliva and plaque, allow risk to be assessed and patient compliance monitored. The remineralizing properties of saliva can be enhanced using materials which release biologically available calcium, phosphate and fluoride ions (CPP-ACP and CPP-ACFP). Use of biocides can also alter the pathogenic properties of plaque. Use of these MI treatment protocols, can repair early lesions and improve patient understanding and compliance. This review article introduces some of the key concepts

  7. Smooth GERBS, orthogonal systems and energy minimization

    SciTech Connect

    Dechevsky, Lubomir T. E-mail: pza@hin.no; Zanaty, Peter E-mail: pza@hin.no

    2013-12-18

    New results are obtained in three mutually related directions of the rapidly developing theory of generalized expo-rational B-splines (GERBS) [7, 6]: closed-form computability of C{sup ∞}-smooth GERBS in terms of elementary and special functions, Hermite interpolation and least-squares best approximation via smooth GERBS, energy minimizing properties of smooth GERBS similar to those of the classical cubic polynomial B-splines.

  8. Perennial CBL centering problem can be minimized

    SciTech Connect

    Pilkington, P.E.

    1987-11-30

    The cement bond log (CBL) has been plagued by the problem of poor tool centering since it was introduced to the oil industry. There are reasons why poor tool centering continues to cause problems, and there are steps that operators and service companies can take to minimize this unnecessary phenomenon. Before going into these proposed solutions, some case histories are presented to illustrate the problem.

  9. Asymptotic safety, emergence and minimal length

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Percacci, Roberto; Vacca, Gian Paolo

    2010-12-01

    There seems to be a common prejudice that asymptotic safety is either incompatible with, or at best unrelated to, the other topics in the title. This is not the case. In fact, we show that (1) the existence of a fixed point with suitable properties is a promising way of deriving emergent properties of gravity, and (2) there is a sense in which asymptotic safety implies a minimal length. In doing so we also discuss possible signatures of asymptotic safety in scattering experiments.

  10. [Minimally Invasive Treatment of Esophageal Benign Diseases].

    PubMed

    Inoue, Haruhiro

    2016-07-01

    As a minimally invasive treatment of esophageal achalasia per-oral endoscopic myotomy( POEM) was developed in 2008. More than 1,100 cases of achalasia-related diseases received POEM. Success rate of the procedure was more than 95%(Eckerdt score improvement 3 points and more). No serious( Clavian-Dindo classification III b and more) complication was experienced. These results suggest that POEM becomes a standard minimally invasive treatment for achalasia-related diseases. As an off-shoot of POEM submucosal tumor removal through submucosal tunnel (per-oral endoscopic tumor resection:POET) was developed and safely performed. Best indication of POET is less than 5 cm esophageal leiomyoma. A novel endoscopic treatment of gastroesophageal reflux disease (GERD) was developed. Anti-reflux mucosectomy( ARMS) is nearly circumferential mucosal reduction of gastric cardia mucosa. ARMS is performed in 56 consecutive cases of refractory GERD. No major complications were encountered and excellent clinical results. Best indication of ARMS is a refractory GERD without long sliding hernia. Longest follow-up case is more than 10 years. Minimally invasive treatments for esophageal benign diseases are currently performed by therapeutic endoscopy. PMID:27440038

  11. New algorithms for the minimal form'' problem

    SciTech Connect

    Oliveira, J.S.; Cook, G.O. Jr. ); Purtill, M.R. . Center for Communications Research)

    1991-12-20

    It is widely appreciated that large-scale algebraic computation (performing computer algebra operations on large symbolic expressions) places very significant demands upon existing computer algebra systems. Because of this, parallel versions of many important algorithms have been successfully sought, and clever techniques have been found for improving the speed of the algebraic simplification process. In addition, some attention has been given to the issue of restructuring large expressions, or transforming them into minimal forms.'' By minimal form,'' we mean that form of an expression that involves a minimum number of operations in the sense that no simple transformation on the expression leads to a form involving fewer operations. Unfortunately, the progress that has been achieved to date on this very hard problem is not adequate for the very significant demands of large computer algebra problems. In response to this situation, we have developed some efficient algorithms for constructing minimal forms.'' In this paper, the multi-stage algorithm in which these new algorithms operate is defined and the features of these algorithms are developed. In a companion paper, we introduce the core algebra engine of a new tool that provides the algebraic framework required for the implementation of these new algorithms.

  12. Waste minimization in an autobody repair shop

    SciTech Connect

    Baria, D.N.; Dorland, D.; Bergeron, J.T.

    1994-12-31

    This work was done to document the waste minimization incorporated in a new autobody repair facility in Hermantown, Minnesota. Humes Collision Center incorporated new waste reduction techniques when it expanded its old facilities in 1992 and it was able to achieve the benefits of cost reduction and waste reduction. Humes Collision Center repairs an average of 500 cars annually and is a very small quantity generator (VSQG) of hazardous waste, as defined by the Minnesota Pollution Control Agency (MPCA). The hazardous waste consists of antifreeze, batteries, paint sludge, refrigerants, and used oil, while the nonhazardous waste consists of cardboard, glass, paint filters, plastic, sanding dust, scrap metal, and wastewater. The hazardous and nonhazardous waste output were decreased by 72%. In addition, there was a 63% reduction in the operating costs. The waste minimization includes antifreeze recovery and recycling, reduction in unused waste paint, reduction, recovery and recycle of waste lacquer thinner for cleaning spray guns and paint cups, elimination of used plastic car bags, recovery and recycle of refrigerant, reduction in waste sandpaper and elimination of sanding dust, and elimination of waste paint filters. The rate of return on the investment in waste minimization equipment is estimated from 37% per year for the distillation unit, 80% for vacuum sanding, 146% for computerized paint mixing, 211% for the refrigerant recycler, to 588% per year for the gun washer. The corresponding payback time varies from 3 years to 2 months.

  13. The non-minimal ekpyrotic trispectrum

    SciTech Connect

    Fertig, Angelika; Lehners, Jean-Luc E-mail: jlehners@aei.mpg.de

    2016-01-01

    Employing the covariant formalism, we derive the evolution equations for two scalar fields with non-canonical field space metric up to third order in perturbation theory. These equations can be used to derive predictions for local bi- and trispectra of multi-field cosmological models. Our main application is to ekpyrotic models in which the primordial curvature perturbations are generated via the non-minimal entropic mechanism. In these models, nearly scale-invariant entropy perturbations are generated first due to a non-minimal kinetic coupling between two scalar fields, and subsequently these perturbations are converted into curvature perturbations. Remarkably, the entropy perturbations have vanishing bi- and trispectra during the ekpyrotic phase. However, as we show, the conversion process to curvature perturbations induces local non-Gaussianity parameters f{sub NL} and g{sub NL} at levels that should be detectable by near-future observations. In fact, in order to obtain a large enough amplitude and small enough bispectrum of the curvature perturbations, as seen in current measurements, the conversion process must be very efficient. Interestingly, for such efficient conversions the trispectrum parameter g{sub NL} remains negative and typically of a magnitude O(10{sup 2})–O(10{sup 3}), resulting in a distinguishing feature of non-minimally coupled ekpyrotic models.

  14. Esophageal surgery in minimally invasive era

    PubMed Central

    Bencini, Lapo; Moraldi, Luca; Bartolini, Ilenia; Coratti, Andrea

    2016-01-01

    The widespread popularity of new surgical technologies such as laparoscopy, thoracoscopy and robotics has led many surgeons to treat esophageal diseases with these methods. The expected benefits of minimally invasive surgery (MIS) mainly include reductions of postoperative complications, length of hospital stay, and pain and better cosmetic results. All of these benefits could potentially be of great interest when dealing with the esophagus due to the potentially severe complications that can occur after conventional surgery. Moreover, robotic platforms are expected to reduce many of the difficulties encountered during advanced laparoscopic and thoracoscopic procedures such as anastomotic reconstructions, accurate lymphadenectomies, and vascular sutures. Almost all esophageal diseases are approachable in a minimally invasive way, including diverticula, gastro-esophageal reflux disease, achalasia, perforations and cancer. Nevertheless, while the limits of MIS for benign esophageal diseases are mainly technical issues and costs, oncologic outcomes remain the cornerstone of any procedure to cure malignancies, for which the long-term results are critical. Furthermore, many of the minimally invasive esophageal operations should be compared to pharmacologic interventions and advanced pure endoscopic procedures; such a comparison requires a difficult literature analysis and leads to some confounding results of clinical trials. This review aims to examine the evidence for the use of MIS in both malignancies and more common benign disease of the esophagus, with a particular emphasis on future developments and ongoing areas of research. PMID:26843913

  15. Minimally invasive local therapies for liver cancer

    PubMed Central

    Li, David; Kang, Josephine; Golas, Benjamin J.; Yeung, Vincent W.; Madoff, David C.

    2014-01-01

    Primary and metastatic liver tumors are an increasing global health problem, with hepatocellular carcinoma (HCC) now being the third leading cause of cancer-related mortality worldwide. Systemic treatment options for HCC remain limited, with Sorafenib as the only prospectively validated agent shown to increase overall survival. Surgical resection and/or transplantation, locally ablative therapies and regional or locoregional therapies have filled the gap in liver tumor treatments, providing improved survival outcomes for both primary and metastatic tumors. Minimally invasive local therapies have an increasing role in the treatment of both primary and metastatic liver tumors. For patients with low volume disease, these therapies have now been established into consensus practice guidelines. This review highlights technical aspects and outcomes of commonly utilized, minimally invasive local therapies including laparoscopic liver resection (LLR), radiofrequency ablation (RFA), microwave ablation (MWA), high-intensity focused ultrasound (HIFU), irreversible electroporation (IRE), and stereotactic body radiation therapy (SBRT). In addition, the role of combination treatment strategies utilizing these minimally invasive techniques is reviewed. PMID:25610708

  16. Minimally invasive thyroidectomy: a ten years experience

    PubMed Central

    Viani, Lorenzo; Montana, Chiara Montana; Cozzani, Federico; Sianesi, Mario

    2016-01-01

    Background The conventional thyroidectomy is the most frequent surgical procedure for thyroidal surgical disease. From several years were introduced minimally invasive approaches to thyroid surgery. These new procedures improved the incidence of postoperative pain, cosmetic results, patient’s quality of life, postoperative morbidity. The mini invasive video-assisted thyroidectomy (MIVAT) is a minimally invasive procedure that uses a minicervicotomy to treat thyroidal diseases. Methods We present our experience on 497 consecutively treated patients with MIVAT technique. We analyzed the mean age, sex, mean operative time, rate of bleeding, hypocalcemia, transitory and definitive nerve palsy (6 months after the procedure), postoperative pain scale from 0 to 10 at 1 hour and 24 hours after surgery, mean hospital stay. Results The indications to treat were related to preoperative diagnosis: 182 THYR 6, 184 THYR 3–4, 27 plummer, 24 basedow, 28 toxic goiter, 52 goiter. On 497 cases we have reported 1 case of bleeding (0,2%), 12 (2,4%) cases of transitory nerve palsy and 4 (0,8%) definitive nerve palsy. The rate of serologic hypocalcemia was 24.9% (124 cases) and clinical in 7.2% (36 cases); 1 case of hypoparathyroidism (0.2%). Conclusions The MIVAT is a safe approach to surgical thyroid disease, the cost are similar to CT as the adverse events. The minicervicotomy is really a minimally invasive tissue dissection. PMID:27294036

  17. Non-minimally coupled scalar fields, Holst action and black hole mechanics

    SciTech Connect

    Chatterjee, Ayan

    2011-02-15

    The paper deals with the extension of the Weak Isolated Horizon (WIH) formulation of black hole horizons to the non-minimally coupled scalar fields. In the early part of the paper, we introduce an appropriate Holst type action to incorporate scalar fields non-minimally coupled to gravity and construct the covariant phase space of the theory. Using this phase space, we proceed to prove the laws of black hole mechanics. Further, we show that with a gauge fixing, the symplectic structure on the horizon reduces to that of a U(1) Chern-Simons theory. The level of the Chern-Simons theory is shown to depend on the non-minimally coupled scalar field.

  18. S3 model for lepton mass matrices with nearly minimal texture

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Dias, A. G.; Machado, A. C. B.; Nishi, C. C.

    2012-11-01

    We propose a simple extension of the electroweak standard model based on the discrete S3 symmetry that is capable of realizing a nearly minimal Fritzsch-type texture for the Dirac mass matrices of both charged leptons and neutrinos. This is achieved with the aid of additional Z5 and Z3 symmetries, one of which can be embedded in U(1)B-L. Five complex scalar singlet fields are introduced in addition to the standard model with right-handed neutrinos. Although more general, the modified texture of the model retains the successful features of the minimal texture without fine-tuning; namely, it accommodates the masses and mixing of the leptonic sector and relates the emergence of large leptonic mixing angles with the seesaw mechanism. For large deviations of the minimal texture, both quasidegenerate spectrum or inverted hierarchy are allowed for neutrino masses.

  19. Nozzle Extension for Safety Air Gun

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Zumbrun, H. N.; Croom, Delwin R., Jr.

    1986-01-01

    New nozzle-extension design overcomes problems and incorporates original commercial nozzle, retaining intrinsic safety features. Components include extension tube, length of which made to suit application; adaptor fitting, and nozzle adaptor repinned to maintain original safety features. Design moves conical airstream to end of extension to blow machine chips away from operator. Nozzle-extension modification allows safe and efficient operation of machine tools while maintaining integrity of orginial safety-air-gun design.

  20. Nozzle extension design status report

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Classen, L. B.

    1972-01-01

    Twenty possible concepts of a possible nozzle/nozzle extension interface were originated. Not all of the concepts were considered worthy of analysis time. Six of them were thermally analyzed and three were stress analyzed. These analyses were done to determine which of the concepts would have the best chance of succeeding, that is, they were a screening process which was to allow rating of one concept against another. This was done because adequate material properties to determine absolute stress levels were not available at the time of the analyses. Through all of the concepts still exhibit some areas of negative margin of safety, concept no. 1 shows good promise that, with slight modifications, it could have all positive margins of safety. Another significant question, regarding these designs, has to do with the Grafoil seals and insulators. Some additional data was just recently received on Grafoil properties, but it was too late to incorporate in the analyses. The new data were not significantly different from the properties which were used.

  1. Presentation Extensions of the SOAP

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Carnright, Robert; Stodden, David; Coggi, John

    2009-01-01

    A set of extensions of the Satellite Orbit Analysis Program (SOAP) enables simultaneous and/or sequential presentation of information from multiple sources. SOAP is used in the aerospace community as a means of collaborative visualization and analysis of data on planned spacecraft missions. The following definitions of terms also describe the display modalities of SOAP as now extended: In SOAP terminology, View signifies an animated three-dimensional (3D) scene, two-dimensional still image, plot of numerical data, or any other visible display derived from a computational simulation or other data source; a) "Viewport" signifies a rectangular portion of a computer-display window containing a view; b) "Palette" signifies a collection of one or more viewports configured for simultaneous (split-screen) display in the same window; c) "Slide" signifies a palette with a beginning and ending time and an animation time step; and d) "Presentation" signifies a prescribed sequence of slides. For example, multiple 3D views from different locations can be crafted for simultaneous display and combined with numerical plots and other representations of data for both qualitative and quantitative analysis. The resulting sets of views can be temporally sequenced to convey visual impressions of a sequence of events for a planned mission.

  2. Extensive Floods in United Kingdom

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    2002-01-01

    Rain continues to fall in the United Kingdom, bringing more water to an already water-logged landscape. Some rivers there are experiencing their worst flooding in more than 50 years. Of particular note, Britain's River Ouse reached its highest levels on record since 1625. Thousands of people have been evacuated from their homes since October 30, when a large low-pressure system brought torrential rains and hurricane-force winds, placing regions around more than 40 rivers across the country on flood alert. Since then, the rains have persisted, keeping water levels high and causing additional rivers to overrun their banks. In all, at least 12 people have been killed and more than 5,000 properties flooded. Some officials estimate damages could reach 500 million pounds (roughly $715 million). These Landsat 7 scenes show a comparison of the region surrounding Exeter, England, before and after the floods. The top image was acquired September 28 and the bottom image was acquired October 30, 2000. Note the extensive flooding along the River Exe in the bottom image (blue pixels). The light bluish-white pixels in the top image are clouds, and the black splotches on the landscape are the clouds' shadows. The reddish-brown shapes are agricultural fields. Image by Robert Simmon and Brian Montgomery, NASA GSFC. Data provided by Ron Beck, USGS EROS Data Center.

  3. Extensive wetting due to roughness

    SciTech Connect

    Yost, F.G.; Michael, J.R.; Eisenmann, E.T. . Center for Solder Science and Technology)

    1995-01-01

    Typically, a small mass of eutectic Sn-Pb solder wets a copper surface and flows radially outward to form a hemispherical shape with a contact angle of approx. 15--20 deg. When a similar mass of solder wets and thick electroless copper coated substrate, rapid radial flow commences and surprising new effects occur. Thick coats of electroless copper have a nodular surface structure and spreading on it does not subside until all solder is consumed. When the nodular structure is wetted by solder a coastline'' with many nearby islands'' are defined. Photos of regions at the wetting front were taken in the backscatter imaging mode of an SEM. These images show that solder wets the valleys between the surface nodules forming a delicate, lacy arrangement. The geometry of this coastal'' solder structure is described as fractal-like having a dimension D = 1.38 making it similar to drying fronts and cloud configurations. The importance of surface roughness in wetting phenomena is discussed in the light of an extensive history on the subject. It is shown that for spontaneous flow, assisted by roughness, the surface geometry must consist of local angles that are larger than the equilibrium contact angle. Kinetics of the wetting process are demonstrated by image analysis of wetted area taken from videotaped experiments. These experimental kinetics are shown to be similar in form to flow in open channel capillaries.

  4. 75 FR 4055 - Agency Information Collection Extension

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2010-01-26

    ... Information Collection Extension AGENCY: Department of Energy. ACTION: Submission for Office of Management and... information collection request to the OMB for extension under the provisions of the Paperwork Reduction Act of 1995. The information collection requests a three-year extension of its Human Reliability Program...

  5. 77 FR 23469 - Agency Information Collection Extension

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2012-04-19

    ... Information Collection Extension AGENCY: U.S. Department of Energy. ACTION: Submission for Office of... information collection request to OMB for extension under the provisions of the Paperwork Reduction Act of 1995. The information collection requests a three-year extension of its Security, OMB Control...

  6. 77 FR 51791 - Agency Information Collection Extension

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2012-08-27

    .... Energy Information Administration Agency Information Collection Extension AGENCY: U.S. Energy Information... EIA has submitted an information collection request to the OMB for extension under the provisions of the Paperwork Reduction Act of 1995. The information collection requests a three-year extension of...

  7. 77 FR 44602 - Agency Information Collection Extension

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2012-07-30

    ... Information Collection Extension AGENCY: U.S. Department of Energy. ACTION: Submission for Office of... information collection request to OMB for extension under the provisions of the Paperwork Reduction Act of 1995. The information collection requests a three-year extension of its Labor Relations collection....

  8. 78 FR 38305 - Agency Information Collection Extension

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2013-06-26

    ... Information Collection Extension AGENCY: Department of Energy. ACTION: Submission for Office of Management and... information collection request to the OMB for extension under the provisions of the Paperwork Reduction Act of 1995. The information collection requests a three-year extension of its Exchange/Sale Report,...

  9. 76 FR 53887 - Agency Information Collection Extension

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2011-08-30

    ... Information Collection Extension AGENCY: U.S. Department of Energy. ACTION: Submission for Office of... information collection request to the OMB for extension under the provisions of the Paperwork Reduction Act of 1995. The information collection requests a three-year extension of its Legal Collection, OMB...

  10. 78 FR 9901 - Agency Information Collection Extension

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2013-02-12

    ... Information Collection Extension AGENCY: Department of Energy. ACTION: Submission for Office of Management and... information collection request to the OMB for extension under the provisions of the Paperwork Reduction Act of 1995. The information collection requests a three-year extension of its Human Reliability Program...

  11. 75 FR 54859 - Agency Information Collection Extension

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2010-09-09

    ... Information Collection Extension AGENCY: U.S. Department of Energy. ACTION: Submission for Office of... information collection request to the OMB for extension under the provisions of the Paperwork Reduction Act of 1995. The information collection requests a three-year extension of its Contractor Legal...

  12. 20 CFR 655.60 - Extensions.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-04-01

    ... 20 Employees' Benefits 3 2013-04-01 2013-04-01 false Extensions. 655.60 Section 655.60 Employees...) Post Certification Activities § 655.60 Extensions. An employer may apply for extensions of the period... needed and that the need could not have been reasonably foreseen by the employer. The CO will notify...

  13. 76 FR 44580 - Agency Information Collection Extension

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2011-07-26

    ... Information Collection Extension AGENCY: Department of Energy. ACTION: Submission for Office of Management and... information collection request to the OMB for extension under the provisions of the Paperwork Reduction Act of 1995. The information collection requests a three-year extension of its Procurement Collection,...

  14. 78 FR 66909 - Agency Information Collection Extension

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2013-11-07

    ... published its Agency Information Collection Extension request in the Federal Register on Thursday, August 29, 2013 (78 FR 53436) and submitted an information collection request to the OMB for extension under the... Information Collection Extension AGENCY: U.S. Department of Energy. ACTION: Submission for Office...

  15. 24 CFR 968.235 - Time extensions.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-04-01

    ... 24 Housing and Urban Development 4 2011-04-01 2011-04-01 false Time extensions. 968.235 Section... Fewer Than 250 Units) § 968.235 Time extensions. A PHA shall not obligate or expend funds after the... time extension, as follows: (a) Certification. A PHA may extend an obligation or expenditure...

  16. 24 CFR 968.235 - Time extensions.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-04-01

    ... 24 Housing and Urban Development 4 2012-04-01 2012-04-01 false Time extensions. 968.235 Section... Fewer Than 250 Units) § 968.235 Time extensions. A PHA shall not obligate or expend funds after the... time extension, as follows: (a) Certification. A PHA may extend an obligation or expenditure...

  17. 24 CFR 968.235 - Time extensions.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-04-01

    ... 24 Housing and Urban Development 4 2013-04-01 2013-04-01 false Time extensions. 968.235 Section... Fewer Than 250 Units) § 968.235 Time extensions. A PHA shall not obligate or expend funds after the... time extension, as follows: (a) Certification. A PHA may extend an obligation or expenditure...

  18. 7 CFR 15b.27 - Extension education.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-01-01

    ... 7 Agriculture 1 2013-01-01 2013-01-01 false Extension education. 15b.27 Section 15b.27 Agriculture... Education § 15b.27 Extension education. (a) General. A recipient to which this subpart applies that provides extension education may not, on the basis of handicap, exclude qualified handicapped persons. A...

  19. 7 CFR 15b.27 - Extension education.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-01-01

    ... 7 Agriculture 1 2011-01-01 2011-01-01 false Extension education. 15b.27 Section 15b.27 Agriculture... Education § 15b.27 Extension education. (a) General. A recipient to which this subpart applies that provides extension education may not, on the basis of handicap, exclude qualified handicapped persons. A...

  20. 7 CFR 15b.27 - Extension education.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-01-01

    ... 7 Agriculture 1 2014-01-01 2014-01-01 false Extension education. 15b.27 Section 15b.27 Agriculture... Education § 15b.27 Extension education. (a) General. A recipient to which this subpart applies that provides extension education may not, on the basis of handicap, exclude qualified handicapped persons. A...

  1. 7 CFR 15b.27 - Extension education.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-01-01

    ... 7 Agriculture 1 2012-01-01 2012-01-01 false Extension education. 15b.27 Section 15b.27 Agriculture... Education § 15b.27 Extension education. (a) General. A recipient to which this subpart applies that provides extension education may not, on the basis of handicap, exclude qualified handicapped persons. A...

  2. Improving Disability Awareness among Extension Agents

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Mahadevan, Lakshmi; Peterson, Rick L.; Grenwelge, Cheryl

    2014-01-01

    Increasing prevalence rates and legislative mandates imply that educators, parents, and Extension agents will need better tools and resources to meet the needs of special populations. The Texas A&M AgriLife Extension Service addresses this issue by using e-learning tools. Extension agents can take advantage of these courses to gain critical…

  3. 24 CFR 968.235 - Time extensions.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-04-01

    ... 24 Housing and Urban Development 4 2010-04-01 2010-04-01 false Time extensions. 968.235 Section... Fewer Than 250 Units) § 968.235 Time extensions. A PHA shall not obligate or expend funds after the... time extension, as follows: (a) Certification. A PHA may extend an obligation or expenditure...

  4. 77 FR 35366 - Agency Information Collection Extension

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2012-06-13

    ... of Energy Efficiency and Renewable Energy Agency Information Collection Extension AGENCY: Office of... information collection request to the OMB for extension under the provisions of the Paperwork Reduction Act of 1995. The information collection requests a three-year extension of its Historic Preservation...

  5. 7 CFR 15b.27 - Extension education.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-01-01

    ... 7 Agriculture 1 2010-01-01 2010-01-01 false Extension education. 15b.27 Section 15b.27 Agriculture... Education § 15b.27 Extension education. (a) General. A recipient to which this subpart applies that provides extension education may not, on the basis of handicap, exclude qualified handicapped persons. A...

  6. Improving the Extension Facilities in C+

    SciTech Connect

    Dubois, P F; Scott, B A

    1999-09-24

    CXX is a facility for extending Python using C++. Recently, the authors have substantially revised and improved the way in which you create extension objects and extension modules in C++. The method is now much more natural and has much less overhead, both in the code generated and in the effort needed to create the objects and extensions.

  7. 12 CFR 1102.6 - Waiver extension.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-01-01

    ... 12 Banks and Banking 9 2012-01-01 2012-01-01 false Waiver extension. 1102.6 Section 1102.6 Banks and Banking FEDERAL FINANCIAL INSTITUTIONS EXAMINATION COUNCIL APPRAISER REGULATION Temporary Waiver Requests § 1102.6 Waiver extension. The ASC may initiate an extension of temporary waiver relief and...

  8. Phenomenology of the minimal B-L extension of the standard model: Z{sup '} and neutrinos

    SciTech Connect

    Basso, Lorenzo; Belyaev, Alexander; Moretti, Stefano; Shepherd-Themistocleous, Claire H.

    2009-09-01

    We present the Large Hadron Collider (LHC) discovery potential in the Z{sup '} and heavy neutrino sectors of a U(1){sub B-L} enlarged standard model also encompassing 3 heavy Majorana neutrinos. This model exhibits novel signatures at the LHC, the most interesting arising from a Z{sup '} decay chain involving heavy neutrinos, eventually decaying into leptons and jets. In particular, this signature allows one to measure the Z{sup '} and heavy neutrino masses involved. In addition, over a large region of the parameter space, the heavy neutrinos are rather long-lived particles producing distinctive displaced vertices that can be seen in the detectors. Lastly, the simultaneous measurement of both the heavy neutrino mass and decay length enables an estimate of the absolute mass of the parent light neutrino.

  9. Fight-or-flight: murine unilateral ureteral obstruction causes extensive proximal tubular degeneration, collecting duct dilatation, and minimal fibrosis.

    PubMed

    Forbes, Michael S; Thornhill, Barbara A; Minor, Jordan J; Gordon, Katherine A; Galarreta, Carolina I; Chevalier, Robert L

    2012-07-01

    Unilateral ureteral obstruction (UUO) is the most widely used animal model of progressive renal disease. Although renal interstitial fibrosis is commonly used as an end point, recent studies reveal that obstructive injury to the glomerulotubular junction leads to the formation of atubular glomeruli. To quantitate the effects of UUO on the remainder of the nephron, renal tubular and interstitial responses were characterized in mice 7 and 14 days after UUO or sham operation under anesthesia. Fractional proximal tubular mass, cell proliferation, and cell death were measured by morphometry. Superoxide formation was identified by nitro blue tetrazolium, and oxidant injury was localized by 4-hydroxynonenol and 8-hydroxydeoxyguanosine. Fractional areas of renal vasculature, interstitial collagen, α-smooth muscle actin, and fibronectin were also measured. After 14 days of UUO, the obstructed kidney loses 19% of parenchymal mass, with a 65% reduction in proximal tubular mass. Superoxide formation is localized to proximal tubules, which undergo oxidant injury, apoptosis, necrosis, and autophagy, with widespread mitochondrial loss, resulting in tubular collapse. In contrast, mitosis and apoptosis increase in dilated collecting ducts, which remain patent through epithelial cell remodeling. Relative vascular volume fraction does not change, and interstitial matrix components do not exceed 15% of total volume fraction of the obstructed kidney. These unique proximal and distal nephron cellular responses reflect differential "fight-or-flight" responses to obstructive injury and provide earlier indexes of renal injury than do interstitial compartment responses. Therapies to prevent or retard progression of renal disease should include targeting proximal tubule injury as well as interstitial fibrosis.

  10. Support for Self-Regulation in Learning Complex Topics from Multimedia Explanations: Do Learners Need Extensive or Minimal Support?

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Rodicio, Hector Garcia; Sanchez, Emilio; Acuna, Santiago R.

    2013-01-01

    Acquiring complex conceptual knowledge requires learners to self-regulate their learning by planning, monitoring, and adjusting the process but they find it difficult to do so. In one experiment, we examined whether learners need broad systems of support for self-regulation or whether they are also able to learn with more economical support…

  11. Proactive life extension of pressure vessels

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Mager, Lloyd

    1998-03-01

    place while our vessels are in service. As the inspection takes place we are able to view a real time image of detected discontinuities on a video monitor. The B-scan ultrasonic technique is allowing us to perform fast accurate examinations covering up to 95% of the surface area of each pressure vessel. Receiving data on 95% of a pressure vessel provides us with a lot of useful information. We use this data to determine the condition of each pressure vessel. Once the condition is known the vessels are classed by risk. The risk level is then managed by making decisions related to repair, operating parameters, accepting and monitoring or replacement of the equipment. Inspection schedules are set at maximum intervals and reinspection is minimized for the vessels that are not at risk. The remaining life of each pressure vessel is determined, mechanical integrity is proven and regulatory requirements are met. Abbott Laboratories is taking this proactive approach because we understand that our process equipment is a critical element for successful operation. A run to failure practice would never allow Abbott Laboratories to achieve the corporation's objective of being the world's leading health care company. Nondestructive state of the art technology and the understanding of its capabilities and limitations are key components of a proactive program for life extension of pressure vessels. 26

  12. Intravitreal ranibizumab in treating extensive traumatic submacular hemorrhage

    PubMed Central

    Abdul-Salim, Ismail; Embong, Zunaina; Khairy-Shamel, Sonny-Teo; Raja-Azmi, Mohd-Noor

    2013-01-01

    Herein, we report our experience in treating extensive traumatic submacular hemorrhage with a single dose of intravitreal ranibizumab. A 23-year-old healthy Malay man presented with a progressive reduction of central vision in the left eye of 2 days’ duration following a history of blunt trauma. Visual acuity was reduced to counting fingers. Examination revealed infero-temporal subconjunctival hemorrhage, traumatic anterior uveitis, and an extensive sub-macular hemorrhage with suspicion of a choroidal rupture in the affected eye. He was initially treated conservatively with topical prednisolone acetate 1%. The subconjunctival hemorrhage and anterior uveitis resolved but his vision remained poor with minimal resolution of the submacular hemorrhage at 1 week follow-up (day 12 post-trauma). In view of the poor resolution of submacular hemorrhage, he was treated with a single dose of 0.5 mg intravitreal ranibizumab at day 20 post-trauma. At 4 weeks post-intravitreal ranibizumab, there was an improvement in visual acuity (from counting fingers to 6/45) and complete resolution of the submacular hemorrhage with presence of a choroidal rupture scar temporal to the fovea, which was not seen clearly at presentation due to obscuration by blood. His visual acuity further improved to 6/18 at 3 months post-trauma. Although this single case had a favorable outcome, a large population cohort study is needed to establish the effectiveness of intravitreal ranibizumab in treating extensive traumatic submacular hemorrhage. PMID:23589678

  13. Minimal-change disease secondary to etanercept.

    PubMed

    Koya, Mariko; Pichler, Raimund; Jefferson, J Ashley

    2012-10-01

    Etanercept is a soluble tumor necrosis factor alpha (TNFα) receptor which is widely used in the treatment of rheumatoid arthritis, psoriasis and other autoimmune inflammatory disorders. It is known for its relative lack of nephrotoxicity; however, there are reports on the development of nephrotic syndrome associated with the treatment with TNFα antagonists. Here, we describe a patient with psoriasis who developed biopsy-proven minimal-change disease (MCD) shortly after initiating etanercept. Our case is unique in that the MCD resolved after discontinuation of this medication, notably without the use of corticosteroids, strongly suggesting a drug-related phenomenon.

  14. Minimally Invasive Approach of a Retrocaval Ureter

    PubMed Central

    Pinheiro, Hugo; Ferronha, Frederico; Morales, Jorge; Campos Pinheiro, Luís

    2016-01-01

    The retrocaval ureter is a rare congenital entity, classically managed with open pyeloplasty techniques. The experience obtained with the laparoscopic approach of other more frequent causes of ureteropelvic junction (UPJ) obstruction has opened the method for the minimally invasive approach of the retrocaval ureter. In our paper, we describe a clinical case of a right retrocaval ureter managed successfully with laparoscopic dismembered pyeloplasty. The main standpoints of the procedure are described. Our results were similar to others published by other urologic centers, which demonstrates the safety and feasibility of the procedure for this condition.

  15. [Minimally-invasive therapy of urinary stones].

    PubMed

    Knoll, T; Trojan, L; Haecker, A; Michel, M S; Köhrmann, K U; Alken, P

    2003-09-01

    Open surgery was the standard therapy for urinary calculi up to about 30 years ago. This changed upon introduction of extracorporeal shockwave lithotripsy (ESWL) in 1980, a procedure that is now the primary therapy for 70 % of the patients in western countries. Simultaneously, endourological procedures like ureterorenoscopy (URS) and percutaneous nephrolithotripsy (PCNL) have been improved, and now, modern small diameter and highly efficient instruments offer an ideal alternative to shockwave lithotripsy. Today, minimally-invasive stone treatment has replaced open stone surgery almost completely. This article introduces ESWL, URS and PCNL and discusses indications, outcomes and limitations.

  16. The minimal length and quantum partition functions

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Abbasiyan-Motlaq, M.; Pedram, P.

    2014-08-01

    We study the thermodynamics of various physical systems in the framework of the generalized uncertainty principle that implies a minimal length uncertainty proportional to the Planck length. We present a general scheme to analytically calculate the quantum partition function of the physical systems to first order of the deformation parameter based on the behavior of the modified energy spectrum and compare our results with the classical approach. Also, we find the modified internal energy and heat capacity of the systems for the anti-Snyder framework.

  17. Temperature-Transformed ``Minimal Coupling'': Magnetofluid Unification

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Mahajan, S. M.

    2003-01-01

    The dynamics of a relativistic, hot charged fluid is expressed in terms of a hybrid magnetofluid field which unifies the electromagnetic field with an appropriately defined but analogous flow field. The unification is affected by a well-defined prescription that allows the derivation of the equations of motion of a plasma embedded in an electromagnetic field from the field-free equations. The relationship of this prescription with the minimal coupling prescription of particle dynamics is discussed; the changes brought about by the plasma temperature are highlighted. A few consequences of the unification are worked out.

  18. Minimally Invasive Approach of a Retrocaval Ureter

    PubMed Central

    Pinheiro, Hugo; Ferronha, Frederico; Morales, Jorge; Campos Pinheiro, Luís

    2016-01-01

    The retrocaval ureter is a rare congenital entity, classically managed with open pyeloplasty techniques. The experience obtained with the laparoscopic approach of other more frequent causes of ureteropelvic junction (UPJ) obstruction has opened the method for the minimally invasive approach of the retrocaval ureter. In our paper, we describe a clinical case of a right retrocaval ureter managed successfully with laparoscopic dismembered pyeloplasty. The main standpoints of the procedure are described. Our results were similar to others published by other urologic centers, which demonstrates the safety and feasibility of the procedure for this condition. PMID:27635277

  19. Minimally Invasive Transforaminal Lumbar Interbody Fusion.

    PubMed

    Ahn, Junyoung; Tabaraee, Ehsan; Singh, Kern

    2015-07-01

    Minimally invasive transforaminal lumbar interbody fusion (MIS TLIF) is performed via tubular dilators thereby preserving the integrity of the paraspinal musculature. The decreased soft tissue disruption in the MIS technique has been associated with significantly decreased blood loss, shorter length of hospitalization, and an expedited return to work while maintaining comparable arthrodesis rates when compared with the open technique particularly in the setting of spondylolisthesis (isthmic and degenerative), recurrent symptomatic disk herniation, spinal stenosis, pseudoarthrosis, iatrogenic instability, and spinal trauma. The purpose of this article and the accompanying video wass to demonstrate the techniques for a primary, single-level MIS TLIF. PMID:26079840

  20. Minimal resonant leptogenesis and lepton flavour violation

    SciTech Connect

    Deppisch, Frank F.; Pilaftsis, Apostolos

    2012-07-27

    We discuss minimal non-supersymmetric models of resonant leptogenesis, based on an approximate flavour symmetries. As an illustrative example, we consider a resonant {tau}-leptogenesis model, compatible with universal right-handed neutrino masses at the GUT scale, where the required heavy-neutrino mass splittings are generated radiatively. In particular, we explicitly demonstrate, how a minimum number of three heavy Majorana neutrinos is needed, in order to obtain successful leptogenesis and experimentally testable rates for processes of lepton flavour violation, such as {mu}{yields}e{gamma} and {mu}{yields}e conversion in nuclei.

  1. Minimally invasive surgery for esophageal achalasia

    PubMed Central

    Chen, Huan-Wen

    2016-01-01

    Esophageal achalasia is due to the esophagus of neuromuscular dysfunction caused by esophageal functional disease. Its main feature is the lack of esophageal peristalsis, the lower esophageal sphincter pressure and to reduce the swallow’s relaxation response. Lower esophageal muscular dissection is one of the main ways to treat esophageal achalasia. At present, the period of muscular layer under the thoracoscope esophagus dissection is one of the treatment of esophageal achalasia. Combined with our experience in minimally invasive esophageal surgery, to improved incision and operation procedure, and adopts the model of the complete period of muscular layer under the thoracoscope esophagus dissection in the treatment of esophageal achalasia. PMID:27499977

  2. Minimal polar swimmer at low Reynolds number.

    PubMed

    Pandey, Ankita; Simha, R Aditi

    2012-06-01

    We propose a minimal model for a polar swimmer, consisting of two spheres connected by a rigid slender arm, at low Reynolds number. The propulsive velocity for the proposed model is the maximum for any swimming cycle with the same variations in its two degrees of freedom and its displacement in a cycle is achieved entirely in one step. The stroke averaged flow field generated by the contractile swimmer at large distances is found to be dipolar. In addition, the changing radius of one of the spheres generates the field of a potential doublet centered at its initial position.

  3. Resin composites in minimally invasive dentistry.

    PubMed

    Jacobsen, Thomas

    2004-01-01

    The concept of minimally invasive dentistry will provide favorable conditions for the use of composite resin. However, a number of factors must be considered when placing composite resins in conservatively prepared cavities, including: aspects on the adaptation of the composite resin to the cavity walls; the use of adhesives; and techniques for obtaining adequate proximal contacts. The clinician must also adopt an equally conservative approach when treating failed restorations. The quality of the composite resin restoration will not only be affected by the outline form of the preparation but also by the clinician's technique and understanding of the materials.

  4. Periodical cicadas: A minimal automaton model

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    de O. Cardozo, Giovano; de A. M. M. Silvestre, Daniel; Colato, Alexandre

    2007-08-01

    The Magicicada spp. life cycles with its prime periods and highly synchronized emergence have defied reasonable scientific explanation since its discovery. During the last decade several models and explanations for this phenomenon appeared in the literature along with a great deal of discussion. Despite this considerable effort, there is no final conclusion about this long standing biological problem. Here, we construct a minimal automaton model without predation/parasitism which reproduces some of these aspects. Our results point towards competition between different strains with limited dispersal threshold as the main factor leading to the emergence of prime numbered life cycles.

  5. Minimal relativistic three-particle equations

    SciTech Connect

    Lindesay, J.

    1981-07-01

    A minimal self-consistent set of covariant and unitary three-particle equations is presented. Numerical results are obtained for three-particle bound states, elastic scattering and rearrangement of bound pairs with a third particle, and amplitudes for breakup into states of three free particles. The mathematical form of the three-particle bound state equations is explored; constraints are set upon the range of eigenvalues and number of eigenstates of these one parameter equations. The behavior of the number of eigenstates as the two-body binding energy decreases to zero in a covariant context generalizes results previously obtained non-relativistically by V. Efimov.

  6. Minimizing Occupational Exposure to Antineoplastic Agents.

    PubMed

    Polovich, Martha

    2016-01-01

    The inherent toxicity of antineoplastic drugs used for the treatment of cancer makes them harmful to healthy cells as well as to cancer cells. Nurses who prepare and/or administer the agents potentially are exposed to the drugs and their negative effects. Knowledge about these drugs and the precautions aimed at reducing exposure are essential aspects of infusion nursing practice. This article briefly reviews the mechanisms of action of common antineoplastic drugs, the adverse outcomes associated with exposure, the potential for occupational exposure from preparation and administration, and recommended strategies for minimizing occupational exposure. PMID:27598070

  7. Minimally Invasive Atrial Fibrillation Surgery: Hybrid Approach

    PubMed Central

    Beller, Jared P.; Downs, Emily A.; Ailawadi, Gorav

    2016-01-01

    Atrial fibrillation is a challenging pathologic process. There continues to be a great need for the development of a reproducible, durable cure when medical management has failed. An effective, minimally invasive, sternal-sparing intervention without the need for cardiopulmonary bypass is a promising treatment approach. In this article, we describe a hybrid technique being refined at our center that combines a thoracoscopic epicardial surgical approach with an endocardial catheter-based procedure. We also discuss our results and review the literature describing this unique treatment approach. PMID:27127561

  8. Minimal model for spoof acoustoelastic surface states

    SciTech Connect

    Christensen, J. Willatzen, M.; Liang, Z.

    2014-12-15

    Similar to textured perfect electric conductors for electromagnetic waves sustaining artificial or spoof surface plasmons we present an equivalent phenomena for the case of sound. Aided by a minimal model that is able to capture the complex wave interaction of elastic cavity modes and airborne sound radiation in perfect rigid panels, we construct designer acoustoelastic surface waves that are entirely controlled by the geometrical environment. Comparisons to results obtained by full-wave simulations confirm the feasibility of the model and we demonstrate illustrative examples such as resonant transmissions and waveguiding to show a few examples of many where spoof elastic surface waves are useful.

  9. Minimizing physical restraints in acute care.

    PubMed

    Struck, Bryan D

    2005-08-01

    The use of restraints to protect patients and insure continuation of care is an accepted fact in today's medical practice. However over the last 20 years a growing body of evidence supports the idea that restraints are harmful and should be used as the last resort. Since 1987, federal law requires long term care facilities to be restraint free. This article describes the use of restraints in the acute care setting, complications of using restraints and efforts to minimize restraint use in order to compliant with national policies.

  10. Status of the minimal supersymmetric SO(10)

    SciTech Connect

    Dorsner, Ilja

    2010-02-10

    We discuss status of the minimal supersymmetric SO(10) in both low and split supersymmetry regime. To demonstrate viability of the model we present a good fit of the fermion masses and their mixings. The solution needs a strongly split supersymmetry with gauginos and higgsinos around 10{sup 2} TeV, sfermions close to 10{sup 14} GeV and a GUT scale of around 6x10{sup 15} GeV. It predicts fast proton decay rates, hierarchical neutrino masses and large leptonic mixing angle sin{theta}{sub 13}{approx_equal}0.1.

  11. Mercury Contamination: Fate and Risk Minimization Strategies

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Charlet, L.

    Two river basins have been studied in French Guyana, which are subject to heavy mercury contamination, due to illegal gold mining. Within the framework of an interdisciplinary European project, the fate of mercury in water, air, soil, sediment has been studied, as well as its bio-accumulation in the food chain. This bioaccumulation results in the contamination of amerindian populations, through fish consumption. This study has been done in close contact with the economic and political actors. The results of the scientific interdisciplinary study has been translated in terms of risk minimization strategies, which are analyzed in the framework of the European Water Framework Directive.

  12. Learning Minimal Latent Directed Information Polytrees.

    PubMed

    Etesami, Jalal; Kiyavash, Negar; Coleman, Todd

    2016-09-01

    We propose an approach for learning latent directed polytrees as long as there exists an appropriately defined discrepancy measure between the observed nodes. Specifically, we use our approach for learning directed information polytrees where samples are available from only a subset of processes. Directed information trees are a new type of probabilistic graphical models that represent the causal dynamics among a set of random processes in a stochastic system. We prove that the approach is consistent for learning minimal latent directed trees. We analyze the sample complexity of the learning task when the empirical estimator of mutual information is used as the discrepancy measure. PMID:27391682

  13. Minimally Invasive Approach of a Retrocaval Ureter.

    PubMed

    Fidalgo, Nuno; Pinheiro, Hugo; Ferronha, Frederico; Morales, Jorge; Campos Pinheiro, Luís

    2016-01-01

    The retrocaval ureter is a rare congenital entity, classically managed with open pyeloplasty techniques. The experience obtained with the laparoscopic approach of other more frequent causes of ureteropelvic junction (UPJ) obstruction has opened the method for the minimally invasive approach of the retrocaval ureter. In our paper, we describe a clinical case of a right retrocaval ureter managed successfully with laparoscopic dismembered pyeloplasty. The main standpoints of the procedure are described. Our results were similar to others published by other urologic centers, which demonstrates the safety and feasibility of the procedure for this condition. PMID:27635277

  14. Comparison of open versus minimally invasive craniosynostosis procedures from the perspective of the parent.

    PubMed

    Kim, David; Pryor, Landon S; Broder, Kevin; Gosman, Amanda; Breithaupt, Andrew D; Meltzer, Hal S; Levy, Michael; Cohen, Steven R

    2008-01-01

    Craniosynostosis, or the premature closure of the sutures of the skull, has historically been repaired in an open manner and included extensive cranial reconstruction. In recent years, technological advancements have given surgeons the ability to perform repairs with minimal surgical invasion. With the advent of endoscopy and bioresorbable plates, recent reports [J Craniofac Surg 2002;13(4):578-82] have emphasized attempts at decreased morbidity. Recently, researchers have been able to compare the results of traditional open and minimally invasive techniques in 45 craniosynostosis cases, demonstrating decreased operating room time, blood loss, transfusions, complications, and hospital stay in minimally invasive patients [Clin Plast Surg 2004;31(3):429-42]. Many of the parameters comparing the 2 types of procedures are easily quantified and comparable, but a variety of other considerations, such as the parent's reaction to the stress of surgery, arise. The purpose of this study was to compare the effects of these surgical procedures on the parent's level of stress at the time of operation. To accomplish this, we measured stress postoperatively using the Parenting Stress Index-Short Form. Subjects undergoing surgical treatment of craniosynostosis were placed into 2 groups: open versus minimally invasive. To test for confounding factors, subjects were subcategorized for sex, parent's sex, ethnicity, and parent's marital status. Analysis of our data reveals a statistically significant decrease in total stress in the households of minimally invasive patients.

  15. Non-linear curvature perturbation in multi-field inflation models with non-minimal coupling

    SciTech Connect

    White, Jonathan; Minamitsuji, Masato; Sasaki, Misao E-mail: masato.minamitsuji@ist.utl.pt

    2013-09-01

    Using the δN formalism we consider the non-linear curvature perturbation in multi-field models of inflation with non-minimal coupling. In particular, we focus on the relation between the δN formalism as applied in the conformally related Jordan and Einstein frames. Exploiting results already known in the Einstein frame, we give expressions for the power spectrum, spectral tilt and non-gaussianity associated with the Jordan frame curvature perturbation. In the case that an adiabatic limit has not been reached, we find that in general these quantities differ from those associated with the Einstein frame curvature perturbation, and also confirm their equivalence in the absence of isocurvature modes. We then proceed to consider two analytically soluble examples, the first involving a non-minimally coupled 'spectator' field and the second being a non-minimally coupled extension of the multi-brid inflation model. In the first model we find that predictions can easily be brought into agreement with the recent Planck results, as the tensor-to-scalar ratio is generally small, the spectral tilt tuneable and the non-gaussianity suppressed. In the second model we find that predictions for all three parameters can differ substantially from those predicted in the minimally coupled case, and that the recent Planck results for the spectral tilt can be used to constrain the non-minimal coupling parameters.

  16. Non-linear curvature perturbation in multi-field inflation models with non-minimal coupling

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    White, Jonathan; Minamitsuji, Masato; Sasaki, Misao

    2013-09-01

    Using the δN formalism we consider the non-linear curvature perturbation in multi-field models of inflation with non-minimal coupling. In particular, we focus on the relation between the δN formalism as applied in the conformally related Jordan and Einstein frames. Exploiting results already known in the Einstein frame, we give expressions for the power spectrum, spectral tilt and non-gaussianity associated with the Jordan frame curvature perturbation. In the case that an adiabatic limit has not been reached, we find that in general these quantities differ from those associated with the Einstein frame curvature perturbation, and also confirm their equivalence in the absence of isocurvature modes. We then proceed to consider two analytically soluble examples, the first involving a non-minimally coupled `spectator' field and the second being a non-minimally coupled extension of the multi-brid inflation model. In the first model we find that predictions can easily be brought into agreement with the recent Planck results, as the tensor-to-scalar ratio is generally small, the spectral tilt tuneable and the non-gaussianity suppressed. In the second model we find that predictions for all three parameters can differ substantially from those predicted in the minimally coupled case, and that the recent Planck results for the spectral tilt can be used to constrain the non-minimal coupling parameters.

  17. A geometric approach to direct minimization

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    van Voorhis, Troy; Head-Gordon, Martin

    The approach presented, geometric direct minimization (GDM), is derived from purely geometrical arguments, and is designed to minimize a function of a set of orthonormal orbitals. The optimization steps consist of sequential unitary transformations of the orbitals, and convergence is accelerated using the Broyden-Fletcher-Goldfarb-Shanno (BFGS) approach in the iterative subspace, together with a diagonal approximation to the Hessian for the remaining degrees of freedom. The approach is tested by implementing the solution of the self-consistent field (SCF) equations and comparing results with the standard direct inversion in the iterative subspace (DIIS) method. It is found that GDM is very robust and converges in every system studied, including several cases in which DIIS fails to find a solution. For main group compounds, GDM convergence is nearly as rapid as DIIS, whereas for transition metalcontaining systems we find that GDM is significantly slower than DIIS. A hybrid procedure where DIIS is used for the first several iterations and GDM is used thereafter is found to provide a robust solution for transition metal-containing systems.

  18. Minimal model for aeolian sand dunes.

    PubMed

    Kroy, Klaus; Sauermann, Gerd; Herrmann, Hans J

    2002-09-01

    We present a minimal model for the formation and migration of aeolian sand dunes in unidirectional winds. It combines a perturbative description of the turbulent wind velocity field above the dune with a continuum saltation model that allows for saturation transients in the sand flux. The latter are shown to provide a characteristic length scale, called saturation length, which is distinct from the saltation length of the grains. The model admits two different classes of solutions for the steady-state profile along the wind direction: smooth heaps and dunes with slip face. We clarify the origin of the characteristic properties of these solutions and analyze their scaling behavior. We also investigate in some detail the dynamic evolution of heaps and dunes, including the steady-state migration velocity and transient shape relaxation. Although the minimal model employs nonlocal expressions for the wind shear stress as well as for the sand flux, it is simple enough to serve as a very efficient tool for analytical and numerical investigations and opens up the way to simulations of large scale desert topographies. PMID:12366107

  19. Osmosis in a minimal model system.

    PubMed

    Lion, Thomas W; Allen, Rosalind J

    2012-12-28

    Osmosis is one of the most important physical phenomena in living and soft matter systems. While the thermodynamics of osmosis is well understood, the underlying microscopic dynamical mechanisms remain the subject of discussion. Unravelling these mechanisms is a prerequisite for understanding osmosis in non-equilibrium systems. Here, we investigate the microscopic basis of osmosis, in a system at equilibrium, using molecular dynamics simulations of a minimal model in which repulsive solute and solvent particles differ only in their interactions with an external potential. For this system, we can derive a simple virial-like relation for the osmotic pressure. Our simulations support an intuitive picture in which the solvent concentration gradient, at osmotic equilibrium, arises from the balance between an outward force, caused by the increased total density in the solution, and an inward diffusive flux caused by the decreased solvent density in the solution. While more complex effects may occur in other osmotic systems, our results suggest that they are not required for a minimal picture of the dynamic mechanisms underlying osmosis.

  20. [Theory and practice of minimally invasive endodontics].

    PubMed

    Jiang, H W

    2016-08-01

    The primary goal of modern endodontic therapy is to achieve the long-term retention of a functional tooth by preventing or treating pulpitis or apical periodontitis is. The long-term retention of endodontically treated tooth is correlated with the remaining amount of tooth tissue and the quality of the restoration after root canal filling. In recent years, there has been rapid progress and development in the basic research of endodontic biology, instrument and applied materials, making treatment procedures safer, more accurate, and more efficient. Thus, minimally invasive endodontics(MIE)has received increasing attention at present. MIE aims to preserve the maximum of tooth structure during root canal therapy, and the concept covers the whole process of diagnosis and treatment of teeth. This review article focuses on describing the minimally invasive concepts and operating essentials in endodontics, from diagnosis and treatment planning to the access opening, pulp cavity finishing, root canal cleaning and shaping, 3-dimensional root canal filling and restoration after root canal treatment. PMID:27511034

  1. Environmental projects. Volume 16: Waste minimization assessment

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    1994-01-01

    The Goldstone Deep Space Communications Complex (GDSCC), located in the MoJave Desert, is part of the National Aeronautics and Space Administration's (NASA's) Deep Space Network (DSN), the world's largest and most sensitive scientific telecommunications and radio navigation network. The Goldstone Complex is operated for NASA by the Jet Propulsion Laboratory. At present, activities at the GDSCC support the operation of nine parabolic dish antennas situated at five separate locations known as 'sites.' Each of the five sites at the GDSCC has one or more antennas, called 'Deep Space Stations' (DSS's). In the course of operation of these DSS's, various hazardous and non-hazardous wastes are generated. In 1992, JPL retained Kleinfelder, Inc., San Diego, California, to quantify the various streams of hazardous and non-hazardous wastes generated at the GDSCC. In June 1992, Kleinfelder, Inc., submitted a report to JPL entitled 'Waste Minimization Assessment.' This present volume is a JPL-expanded version of the Kleinfelder, Inc. report. The 'Waste Minimization Assessment' report did not find any deficiencies in the various waste-management programs now practiced at the GDSCC, and it found that these programs are being carried out in accordance with environmental rules and regulations.

  2. Power Minimization techniques for Networked Data Centers.

    SciTech Connect

    Low, Steven; Tang, Kevin

    2011-09-28

    Our objective is to develop a mathematical model to optimize energy consumption at multiple levels in networked data centers, and develop abstract algorithms to optimize not only individual servers, but also coordinate the energy consumption of clusters of servers within a data center and across geographically distributed data centers to minimize the overall energy cost and consumption of brown energy of an enterprise. In this project, we have formulated a variety of optimization models, some stochastic others deterministic, and have obtained a variety of qualitative results on the structural properties, robustness, and scalability of the optimal policies. We have also systematically derived from these models decentralized algorithms to optimize energy efficiency, analyzed their optimality and stability properties. Finally, we have conducted preliminary numerical simulations to illustrate the behavior of these algorithms. We draw the following conclusion. First, there is a substantial opportunity to minimize both the amount and the cost of electricity consumption in a network of datacenters, by exploiting the fact that traffic load, electricity cost, and availability of renewable generation fluctuate over time and across geographical locations. Judiciously matching these stochastic processes can optimize the tradeoff between brown energy consumption, electricity cost, and response time. Second, given the stochastic nature of these three processes, real-time dynamic feedback should form the core of any optimization strategy. The key is to develop decentralized algorithms that can be implemented at different parts of the network as simple, local algorithms that coordinate through asynchronous message passing.

  3. Minimally invasive surgery for gastric cancer.

    PubMed

    Güner, Ali; Hyung, Woo Jin

    2014-01-01

    The interest in minimally invasive surgery (MIS) has rapidly increased in recent decades and surgeons have adopted minimally invasive techniques due to its reduced invasiveness and numerous advantages for patients. With increased surgical experience and newly developed surgical instruments, MIS has become the preferred approach not only for benign disease but also for oncologic surgery. Recently, robotic systems have been developed to overcome difficulties of standard laparoscopic instruments during complex procedures. Its advantages including three-dimensional images, tremor filtering, motion scaling, articulated instruments, and stable retraction have created the opportunity to use robotic technology in many procedures including cancer surgery. Gastric cancer is one of the most common causes of cancer-related deaths worldwide. While its overall incidence has decreased worldwide, the proportion of early gastric cancer has increased mainly in eastern countries following mass screening programs. The shift in the paradigm of gastric cancer treatment is toward less invasive approaches in order to improve the patient's quality of life while adhering to oncological principles. In this review, we aimed to summarize the operative strategy and current literature in laparoscopic and robotic surgery for gastric cancer.

  4. [Minimally Invasive Open Surgery for Lung Cancer].

    PubMed

    Nakagawa, Kazuo; Watanabe, Shunichi

    2016-07-01

    Significant efforts have been made to reduce the invasiveness of surgical procedures by surgeons for a long time. Surgeons always keep it in mind that the basic principle performing less invasive surgical procedures for malignant tumors is to decrease the invasiveness for patients without compromising oncological curability and surgical safety. Video-assisted thoracic surgery (VATS) has been used increasingly as a minimally invasive approach to lung cancer surgery. Whereas, whether VATS lobectomy is a less invasive procedure and has equivalent or better clinical effect compared with open lobectomy for patients with lung cancer remains controversial because of the absence of randomized prospective studies. The degree of difficulty for anatomical lung resection depends on the degree of the fissure development, mobility of hilar lymph nodes, and the degree of pleural adhesions. During pulmonary surgery, thoracic surgeons always have to deal with not only these difficulties but other unexpected events such as intraoperative bleeding. Recently, we perform pulmonary resection for lung cancer with minimally invasive open surgery (MIOS) approach. In this article, we introduce the surgical procedure of MIOS and demonstrate short-term results. Off course, the efficacy of MIOS needs to be further evaluated with long-term results. PMID:27440030

  5. [Minimally invasive glaucoma surgery using the trabectome].

    PubMed

    Wecker, T; Jordan, J F

    2015-03-01

    The main barrier reducing outflow of aqueous humor in open angle glaucomas is the juxtacanalicular trabecular meshwork. The trabectome removes this pathophysiologically altered tissue by electroablation, thus allowing for the collector channels draining Schlemm's canal to directly communicate with the anterior chamber. In studies published so far, about 30% decrease of intraocular pressure and a simultaneous 42% reduction of pressure-lowering eyedrops could be achieved in primary and secondary open angle glaucomas. A clear cornea tunnel is used to advance the trabectome to the trabecular meshwork, leaving the conjunctiva unaffected. Hence minimally invasive chamber angle surgery using this device is in particular suitable for patients with an altered ocular surface. Lowering of intraocular pressure and reduction of needed topical medication seems to be distinct in pseudoexfoliative glaucoma. Surgery with the trabectome and phacoemulsification can easily be combined in one procedure. Using a minimally invasive approach, the complication profile of the trabectome is rather advantageous, not exceeding the general risks of globe-opening surgery. Ab-interno trabeculotomy is a safe and effective method for treatment of patients with primary or secondary open angle glaucomas and moderate target pressures.

  6. Minimally invasive treatment options in fixed prosthodontics.

    PubMed

    Edelhoff, Daniel; Liebermann, Anja; Beuer, Florian; Stimmelmayr, Michael; Güth, Jan-Frederik

    2016-03-01

    Minimally invasive treatment options have become increasingly feasible in restorative dentistry, due to the introduction of the adhesive technique in combination with restorative materials featuring translucent properties similar to those of natural teeth. Mechanical anchoring of restorations via conventional cementation represents a predominantly subtractive treatment approach that is gradually being superseded by a primarily defect-oriented additive method in prosthodontics. Modifications of conventional treatment procedures have led to the development of an economical approach to the removal of healthy tooth structure. This is possible because the planned treatment outcome is defined in a wax-up before the treatment is commenced and this wax-up is subsequently used as a reference during tooth preparation. Similarly, resin- bonded FDPs and implants have made it possible to preserve the natural tooth structure of potential abutment teeth. This report describes a number of clinical cases to demonstrate the principles of modern prosthetic treatment strategies and discusses these approaches in the context of minimally invasive prosthetic dentistry.

  7. Osmosis in a minimal model system.

    PubMed

    Lion, Thomas W; Allen, Rosalind J

    2012-12-28

    Osmosis is one of the most important physical phenomena in living and soft matter systems. While the thermodynamics of osmosis is well understood, the underlying microscopic dynamical mechanisms remain the subject of discussion. Unravelling these mechanisms is a prerequisite for understanding osmosis in non-equilibrium systems. Here, we investigate the microscopic basis of osmosis, in a system at equilibrium, using molecular dynamics simulations of a minimal model in which repulsive solute and solvent particles differ only in their interactions with an external potential. For this system, we can derive a simple virial-like relation for the osmotic pressure. Our simulations support an intuitive picture in which the solvent concentration gradient, at osmotic equilibrium, arises from the balance between an outward force, caused by the increased total density in the solution, and an inward diffusive flux caused by the decreased solvent density in the solution. While more complex effects may occur in other osmotic systems, our results suggest that they are not required for a minimal picture of the dynamic mechanisms underlying osmosis. PMID:23277960

  8. The minimal curvaton-higgs model

    SciTech Connect

    Enqvist, Kari; Lerner, Rose N.; Takahashi, Tomo E-mail: rose.lerner@desy.de

    2014-01-01

    We present the first full study of the minimal curvaton-higgs (MCH) model, which is a minimal interpretation of the curvaton scenario with one real scalar coupled to the standard model Higgs boson. The standard model coupling allows the dynamics of the model to be determined in detail, including effects from the thermal background and from radiative corrections to the potential. The relevant mechanisms for curvaton decay are incomplete non-perturbative decay (delayed by thermal blocking), followed by decay via a dimension-5 non-renormalisable operator. To avoid spoiling the predictions of big bang nucleosynthesis, we find the ''bare'' curvaton mass to be m{sub σ} ≥ 8 × 10{sup 4}GeV. To match observational data from Planck there is an upper limit on the curvaton-higgs coupling g, between 10{sup −3} and 10{sup −2}, depending on the mass. This is due to interactions with the thermal background. We find that typically non-Gaussianities are small but that if f{sub NL} is observed in the near future then m{sub σ}∼<5 × 10{sup 9}GeV, depending on Hubble scale during inflation. In a thermal dark matter model, the lower bound on m{sub σ} can increase substantially. The parameter space may also be affected once the baryogenesis mechanism is specified.

  9. Gamma ray tests of Minimal Dark Matter

    SciTech Connect

    Cirelli, Marco; Hambye, Thomas; Panci, Paolo; Sala, Filippo; Taoso, Marco

    2015-10-12

    We reconsider the model of Minimal Dark Matter (a fermionic, hypercharge-less quintuplet of the EW interactions) and compute its gamma ray signatures. We compare them with a number of gamma ray probes: the galactic halo diffuse measurements, the galactic center line searches and recent dwarf galaxies observations. We find that the original minimal model, whose mass is fixed at 9.4 TeV by the relic abundance requirement, is constrained by the line searches from the Galactic Center: it is ruled out if the Milky Way possesses a cuspy profile such as NFW but it is still allowed if it has a cored one. Observations of dwarf spheroidal galaxies are also relevant (in particular searches for lines), and ongoing astrophysical progresses on these systems have the potential to eventually rule out the model. We also explore a wider mass range, which applies to the case in which the relic abundance requirement is relaxed. Most of our results can be safely extended to the larger class of multi-TeV WIMP DM annihilating into massive gauge bosons.

  10. An Aristotelian Account of Minimal Chemical Life

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Bedau, Mark A.

    2010-12-01

    This paper addresses the open philosophical and scientific problem of explaining and defining life. This problem is controversial, and there is nothing approaching a consensus about what life is. This raises a philosophical meta-question: Why is life so controversial and so difficult to define? This paper proposes that we can attribute a significant part of the controversy over life to use of a Cartesian approach to explaining life, which seeks necessary and sufficient conditions for being an individual living organism, out of the context of other organisms and the abiotic environment. The Cartesian approach contrasts with an Aristotelian approach to explaining life, which considers life only in the whole context in which it actually exists, looks at the characteristic phenomena involving actual life, and seeks the deepest and most unified explanation for those phenomena. The phenomena of life might be difficult to delimit precisely, but it certainly includes life's characteristic hallmarks, borderline cases, and puzzles. The Program-Metabolism-Container (PMC) model construes minimal chemical life as a functionally integrated triad of chemical systems, which are identified as the Program, Metabolism, and Container. Rasmussen diagrams precisely depict the functional definition of minimal chemical life. The PMC model illustrates the Aristotelian approach to life, because it explains eight of life's hallmarks, one of life's borderline cases (the virus), and two of life's puzzles.

  11. An Aristotelian account of minimal chemical life.

    PubMed

    Bedau, Mark A

    2010-12-01

    This paper addresses the open philosophical and scientific problem of explaining and defining life. This problem is controversial, and there is nothing approaching a consensus about what life is. This raises a philosophical meta-question: Why is life so controversial and so difficult to define? This paper proposes that we can attribute a significant part of the controversy over life to use of a Cartesian approach to explaining life, which seeks necessary and sufficient conditions for being an individual living organism, out of the context of other organisms and the abiotic environment. The Cartesian approach contrasts with an Aristotelian approach to explaining life, which considers life only in the whole context in which it actually exists, looks at the characteristic phenomena involving actual life, and seeks the deepest and most unified explanation for those phenomena. The phenomena of life might be difficult to delimit precisely, but it certainly includes life's characteristic hallmarks, borderline cases, and puzzles. The Program-Metabolism-Container (PMC) model construes minimal chemical life as a functionally integrated triad of chemical systems, which are identified as the Program, Metabolism, and Container. Rasmussen diagrams precisely depict the functional definition of minimal chemical life. The PMC model illustrates the Aristotelian approach to life, because it explains eight of life's hallmarks, one of life's borderline cases (the virus), and two of life's puzzles.

  12. Free energies for singleton minimal states

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Golden, J. M.

    2016-11-01

    It is assumed that any free energy function exhibits strict periodic behavior for histories that have been periodic for all past times. This is not the case for the work function, which, however, has the usual defining properties of a free energy. Forms given in fairly recent years for the minimum and related free energies of linear materials with memory have this property. Materials for which the minimal states are all singletons are those for which at least some of the singularities of the Fourier transform of the relaxation function are not isolated. For such materials, the maximum free energy is the work function, and free energies intermediate between the minimum free energy and the work function should be given by a linear relation involving these two quantities. All such functionals, except the minimum free energy, therefore do not have strict periodic behavior for periodic histories, which contradicts our assumption. A way out of the difficulty is explored which involves approximating the relaxation function by a form for which the minimal states are no longer singletons. A representation can then be given of an arbitrary free energy as a linear combination of the minimum, maximum and intermediate free energies derived in earlier work. This representation obeys our periodicity assumption. Numerical data are presented, supporting the consistency of this approach.

  13. Osmosis in a minimal model system

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Lion, Thomas W.; Allen, Rosalind J.

    2012-12-01

    Osmosis is one of the most important physical phenomena in living and soft matter systems. While the thermodynamics of osmosis is well understood, the underlying microscopic dynamical mechanisms remain the subject of discussion. Unravelling these mechanisms is a prerequisite for understanding osmosis in non-equilibrium systems. Here, we investigate the microscopic basis of osmosis, in a system at equilibrium, using molecular dynamics simulations of a minimal model in which repulsive solute and solvent particles differ only in their interactions with an external potential. For this system, we can derive a simple virial-like relation for the osmotic pressure. Our simulations support an intuitive picture in which the solvent concentration gradient, at osmotic equilibrium, arises from the balance between an outward force, caused by the increased total density in the solution, and an inward diffusive flux caused by the decreased solvent density in the solution. While more complex effects may occur in other osmotic systems, our results suggest that they are not required for a minimal picture of the dynamic mechanisms underlying osmosis.

  14. Vortex Patterns in Ginzburg-Landau Minimizers

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Serfaty, Sylvia; Sandier, Etienne

    2010-03-01

    We present a survey of results obtained with Etienne Sandier on vortices in the minimizers of the 2D Ginzburg-Landau energy of superconductivity with an applied magnetic field, in the asymptotic regime of large kappa where vortices become point-like. We describe results which characterize the critical values of the applied field for which vortices appear, their numbers and locations. If the applied field is large enough, it is observed in experiments that vortices are densely packed and form triangular (hexagonal) lattices named Abrikosov lattices. Part of our results is the rigorous derivation of a mean field model describing the optimal density of vortices at leading order in the energy, and then the derivation of a next order limiting energy which governs the positions of the vortices after blow-up at their inter-distance scale. This limiting energy is a logarithmic-type interaction between points in the plane. Among lattice configurations it is uniquely minimized by the hexagonal lattice, thus providing a first justification of the Abrikosov lattice in this regime.

  15. MR imaging guidance for minimally invasive procedures

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Wong, Terence Z.; Kettenbach, Joachim; Silverman, Stuart G.; Schwartz, Richard B.; Morrison, Paul R.; Kacher, Daniel F.; Jolesz, Ferenc A.

    1998-04-01

    Image guidance is one of the major challenges common to all minimally invasive procedures including biopsy, thermal ablation, endoscopy, and laparoscopy. This is essential for (1) identifying the target lesion, (2) planning the minimally invasive approach, and (3) monitoring the therapy as it progresses. MRI is an ideal imaging modality for this purpose, providing high soft tissue contrast and multiplanar imaging, capability with no ionizing radiation. An interventional/surgical MRI suite has been developed at Brigham and Women's Hospital which provides multiplanar imaging guidance during surgery, biopsy, and thermal ablation procedures. The 0.5T MRI system (General Electric Signa SP) features open vertical access, allowing intraoperative imaging to be performed. An integrated navigational system permits near real-time control of imaging planes, and provides interactive guidance for positioning various diagnostic and therapeutic probes. MR imaging can also be used to monitor cryotherapy as well as high temperature thermal ablation procedures sing RF, laser, microwave, or focused ultrasound. Design features of the interventional MRI system will be discussed, and techniques will be described for interactive image acquisition and tracking of interventional instruments. Applications for interactive and near-real-time imaging will be presented as well as examples of specific procedures performed using MRI guidance.

  16. Minimal nitrogen requirements of Corynebacterium renal strains.

    PubMed

    VanEseltine, W P; Cox, W M; Kadis, S

    1978-01-01

    Corynebacterium renale strain 10849 was grown in a chemically defined medium containing glucosamine, ammonium sulfate, and 5 amino acids as possible nitrogen sources. Although glucosamine was slightly stimulatory, its omission from the medium had a minimal effect on growth, and washed cells introduced into glucosamine-free medium grew readily through 10 serial transfers, demonstrating that this compound was not required for growth. Individual omissions of isoleucine, valine, methionine, and glutamine resulted in lengthened lag periods and reduced growth rates in initial transfers, but recovery occurred in subsequent serial transfers so that by the 3rd or 4th transfer, growth rates and cell crops were only slightly less than in control cultures in complete medium. Omission of cystine resulted in a permanently low growth rate and reduced cell crop, but this was remedied by substituting various nonnitrogenous compounds containing reduced sulfur. Strain 10849 and 6 additional strains were then serially cultured in a minimal defined medium in which sodium thioglycolate provided reduced sulfur and ammonium sulfate served as sole nitrogen source. Since only ammonium ion was required as the nitrogen source, it could be concluded that C renale, which rapidly hydrolyzes urea, should find an adequate source of nitrogen for growth in the urinary tract of animals. PMID:629434

  17. Gamma ray tests of Minimal Dark Matter

    SciTech Connect

    Cirelli, Marco; Sala, Filippo; Taoso, Marco; Hambye, Thomas; Panci, Paolo E-mail: thambye@ulb.ac.be E-mail: filippo.sala@cea.fr

    2015-10-01

    We reconsider the model of Minimal Dark Matter (a fermionic, hypercharge-less quintuplet of the EW interactions) and compute its gamma ray signatures. We compare them with a number of gamma ray probes: the galactic halo diffuse measurements, the galactic center line searches and recent dwarf galaxies observations. We find that the original minimal model, whose mass is fixed at 9.4 TeV by the relic abundance requirement, is constrained by the line searches from the Galactic Center: it is ruled out if the Milky Way possesses a cuspy profile such as NFW but it is still allowed if it has a cored one. Observations of dwarf spheroidal galaxies are also relevant (in particular searches for lines), and ongoing astrophysical progresses on these systems have the potential to eventually rule out the model. We also explore a wider mass range, which applies to the case in which the relic abundance requirement is relaxed. Most of our results can be safely extended to the larger class of multi-TeV WIMP DM annihilating into massive gauge bosons.

  18. Utilization of biocatalysts in cellulose waste minimization

    SciTech Connect

    Woodward, J.; Evans, B.R.

    1996-09-01

    Cellulose, a polymer of glucose, is the principal component of biomass and, therefore, a major source of waste that is either buried or burned. Examples of biomass waste include agricultural crop residues, forestry products, and municipal wastes. Recycling of this waste is important for energy conservation as well as waste minimization and there is some probability that in the future biomass could become a major energy source and replace fossil fuels that are currently used for fuels and chemicals production. It has been estimated that in the United States, between 100-450 million dry tons of agricultural waste are produced annually, approximately 6 million dry tons of animal waste, and of the 190 million tons of municipal solid waste (MSW) generated annually, approximately two-thirds is cellulosic in nature and over one-third is paper waste. Interestingly, more than 70% of MSW is landfilled or burned, however landfill space is becoming increasingly scarce. On a smaller scale, important cellulosic products such as cellulose acetate also present waste problems; an estimated 43 thousand tons of cellulose ester waste are generated annually in the United States. Biocatalysts could be used in cellulose waste minimization and this chapter describes their characteristics and potential in bioconversion and bioremediation processes.

  19. Microbial life detection with minimal assumptions

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Kounaves, Samuel P.; Noll, Rebecca A.; Buehler, Martin G.; Hecht, Michael H.; Lankford, Kurt; West, Steven J.

    2002-02-01

    To produce definitive and unambiguous results, any life detection experiment must make minimal assumptions about the nature of extraterrestrial life. The only criteria that fits this definition is the ability to reproduce and in the process create a disequilibrium in the chemical and redox environment. The Life Detection Array (LIDA), an instrument proposed for the 2007 NASA Mars Scout Mission, and in the future for the Jovian moons, enables such an experiment. LIDA responds to minute biogenic chemical and physical changes in two identical 'growth' chambers. The sensitivity is provided by two differentially monitored electrochemical sensor arrays. Growth in one of the chambers alters the chemistry and ionic properties and results in a signal. This life detection system makes minimal assumptions; that after addition of water the microorganism replicates and in the process will produce small changes in its immediate surroundings by consuming, metabolizing, and excreting a number of molecules and/or ionic species. The experiment begins by placing an homogenized split-sample of soil or water into each chamber, adding water if soil, sterilizing via high temperature, and equilibrating. In the absence of any microorganism in either chamber, no signal will be detected. The inoculation of one chamber with even a few microorganisms which reproduce, will create a sufficient disequilibrium in the system (compared to the control) to be detectable. Replication of the experiment and positive results would lead to a definitive conclusion of biologically induced changes. The split sample and the nanogram inoculation eliminates chemistry as a causal agent.

  20. Soft tissue damage after minimally invasive THA

    PubMed Central

    2010-01-01

    Background and purpose Minimally invasive surgery (MIS) for hip replacement is thought to minimize soft tissue damage. We determined the damage caused by 4 different MIS approaches as compared to a conventional lateral transgluteal approach. Methods 5 surgeons each performed a total hip arthroplasty on 5 fresh frozen cadaver hips, using either a MIS anterior, MIS anterolateral, MIS 2-incision, MIS posterior, or lateral transgluteal approach. Postoperatively, the hips were dissected and muscle damage color-stained. We measured proportional muscle damage relative to the midsubstance cross-sectional surface area (MCSA) using computerized color detection. The integrity of external rotator muscles, nerves, and ligaments was assessed by direct observation. Results None of the other MIS approaches resulted in less gluteus medius muscle damage than the lateral transgluteal approach. However, the MIS anterior approach completely preserved the gluteus medius muscle in 4 cases while partial damage occurred in 1 case. Furthermore, the superior gluteal nerve was transected in 4 cases after a MIS anterolateral approach and in 1 after the lateral transgluteal approach. The lateral femoral cutaneous nerve was transected once after both the MIS anterior approach and the MIS 2-incision approach. Interpretation The MIS anterior approach may preserve the gluteus medius muscle during total hip arthroplasty, but with a risk of damaging the lateral femoral cutaneous nerve. PMID:21110702

  1. Navy Shipboard Hazardous Material Minimization Program

    SciTech Connect

    Bieberich, M.J.; Robinson, P.; Chastain, B.

    1994-12-31

    The use of hazardous (and potentially hazardous) materials in shipboard cleaning applications has proliferated as new systems and equipments have entered the fleet to reside alongside existing equipments. With the growing environmental awareness (and additional, more restrictive regulations) at all levels/echelon commands of the DoD, the Navy has initiated a proactive program to undertake the minimization/elimination of these hazardous materials in order to eliminate HMs at the source. This paper will focus on the current Shipboard Hazardous Materials Minimization Program initiatives including the identification of authorized HM currently used onboard, identification of potential substitute materials for HM replacement, identification of new cleaning technologies and processes/procedures, and identification of technical documents which will require revision to eliminate the procurement of HMs into the federal supply system. Also discussed will be the anticipated path required to implement the changes into the fleet and automated decision processes (substitution algorithm) currently employed. The paper will also present the most recent technologies identified for approval or additional testing and analysis including: supercritical CO{sub 2} cleaning, high pressure blasting (H{sub 2}O + baking soda), aqueous and semi-aqueous cleaning materials and processes, solvent replacements and dedicated parts washing systems with internal filtering capabilities, automated software for solvent/cleaning process substitute selection. Along with these technological advances, data availability (from on-line databases and CDROM Database libraries) will be identified and discussed.

  2. Flavored dark matter beyond Minimal Flavor Violation

    DOE PAGES

    Agrawal, Prateek; Blanke, Monika; Gemmler, Katrin

    2014-10-13

    We study the interplay of flavor and dark matter phenomenology for models of flavored dark matter interacting with quarks. We allow an arbitrary flavor structure in the coupling of dark matter with quarks. This coupling is assumed to be the only new source of violation of the Standard Model flavor symmetry extended by a U(3) χ associated with the dark matter. We call this ansatz Dark Minimal Flavor Violation (DMFV) and highlight its various implications, including an unbroken discrete symmetry that can stabilize the dark matter. As an illustration we study a Dirac fermionic dark matter χ which transforms asmore » triplet under U(3) χ , and is a singlet under the Standard Model. The dark matter couples to right-handed down-type quarks via a colored scalar mediator Φ with a coupling λ. We identify a number of “flavor-safe” scenarios for the structure of λ which are beyond Minimal Flavor Violation. Also, for dark matter and collider phenomenology we focus on the well-motivated case of b-flavored dark matter. Furthermore, the combined flavor and dark matter constraints on the parameter space of λ turn out to be interesting intersections of the individual ones. LHC constraints on simplified models of squarks and sbottoms can be adapted to our case, and monojet searches can be relevant if the spectrum is compressed.« less

  3. Flavored dark matter beyond Minimal Flavor Violation

    SciTech Connect

    Agrawal, Prateek; Blanke, Monika; Gemmler, Katrin

    2014-10-13

    We study the interplay of flavor and dark matter phenomenology for models of flavored dark matter interacting with quarks. We allow an arbitrary flavor structure in the coupling of dark matter with quarks. This coupling is assumed to be the only new source of violation of the Standard Model flavor symmetry extended by a U(3) χ associated with the dark matter. We call this ansatz Dark Minimal Flavor Violation (DMFV) and highlight its various implications, including an unbroken discrete symmetry that can stabilize the dark matter. As an illustration we study a Dirac fermionic dark matter χ which transforms as triplet under U(3) χ , and is a singlet under the Standard Model. The dark matter couples to right-handed down-type quarks via a colored scalar mediator Φ with a coupling λ. We identify a number of “flavor-safe” scenarios for the structure of λ which are beyond Minimal Flavor Violation. Also, for dark matter and collider phenomenology we focus on the well-motivated case of b-flavored dark matter. Furthermore, the combined flavor and dark matter constraints on the parameter space of λ turn out to be interesting intersections of the individual ones. LHC constraints on simplified models of squarks and sbottoms can be adapted to our case, and monojet searches can be relevant if the spectrum is compressed.

  4. Minimally invasive treatment options in fixed prosthodontics.

    PubMed

    Edelhoff, Daniel; Liebermann, Anja; Beuer, Florian; Stimmelmayr, Michael; Güth, Jan-Frederik

    2016-03-01

    Minimally invasive treatment options have become increasingly feasible in restorative dentistry, due to the introduction of the adhesive technique in combination with restorative materials featuring translucent properties similar to those of natural teeth. Mechanical anchoring of restorations via conventional cementation represents a predominantly subtractive treatment approach that is gradually being superseded by a primarily defect-oriented additive method in prosthodontics. Modifications of conventional treatment procedures have led to the development of an economical approach to the removal of healthy tooth structure. This is possible because the planned treatment outcome is defined in a wax-up before the treatment is commenced and this wax-up is subsequently used as a reference during tooth preparation. Similarly, resin- bonded FDPs and implants have made it possible to preserve the natural tooth structure of potential abutment teeth. This report describes a number of clinical cases to demonstrate the principles of modern prosthetic treatment strategies and discusses these approaches in the context of minimally invasive prosthetic dentistry. PMID:26925471

  5. Psychometric tests for diagnosing minimal hepatic encephalopathy.

    PubMed

    Weissenborn, Karin

    2013-06-01

    While it is consensus that minimal hepatic encephalopathy (mHE) has significant impact on a patient's daily living, and thus should be diagnosed and treated, there is no consensus about the optimal diagnostic tools. At present the most frequently used psychometric methods for diagnosing minimal hepatic encephalopathy are the Inhibitory Control Test and the Psychometric Hepatic Encephalopathy Score PHES. Another frequently used method is Critical Flicker Frequency. The PHES and the Repeatable Battery for the Assessment of Neuropsychological Status have been recommended for diagnosing mHE by a working party commissioned by the International Society for Hepatic Encephalopathy and Nitrogen Metabolism. Recently the Continuous Reaction Time Test, which has been used in the 1980ies, has gained new interest. Today, no data are available that allow to decide which of these methods is the most appropriate. In fact, even basic information such as dependence on age, sex and education or influence of diseases that frequently accompany liver cirrhosis upon test results is missing for most of them. Future studies must address these questions to improve diagnosis of mHE. PMID:22993201

  6. OxMaR: open source free software for online minimization and randomization for clinical trials.

    PubMed

    O'Callaghan, Christopher A

    2014-01-01

    Minimization is a valuable method for allocating participants between the control and experimental arms of clinical studies. The use of minimization reduces differences that might arise by chance between the study arms in the distribution of patient characteristics such as gender, ethnicity and age. However, unlike randomization, minimization requires real time assessment of each new participant with respect to the preceding distribution of relevant participant characteristics within the different arms of the study. For multi-site studies, this necessitates centralized computational analysis that is shared between all study locations. Unfortunately, there is no suitable freely available open source or free software that can be used for this purpose. OxMaR was developed to enable researchers in any location to use minimization for patient allocation and to access the minimization algorithm using any device that can connect to the internet such as a desktop computer, tablet or mobile phone. The software is complete in itself and requires no special packages or libraries to be installed. It is simple to set up and run over the internet using online facilities which are very low cost or even free to the user. Importantly, it provides real time information on allocation to the study lead or administrator and generates real time distributed backups with each allocation. OxMaR can readily be modified and customised and can also be used for standard randomization. It has been extensively tested and has been used successfully in a low budget multi-centre study. Hitherto, the logistical difficulties involved in minimization have precluded its use in many small studies and this software should allow more widespread use of minimization which should lead to studies with better matched control and experimental arms. OxMaR should be particularly valuable in low resource settings.

  7. Dark matter in the minimal inverse seesaw mechanism

    SciTech Connect

    Abada, Asmaa; Lucente, Michele; Arcadi, Giorgio E-mail: arcadi@theorie.physik.uni-goettingen.de

    2014-10-01

    We consider the possibility of simultaneously addressing the dark matter problem and neutrino mass generation in the minimal inverse seesaw realisation. The Standard Model is extended by two right-handed neutrinos and three sterile fermionic states, leading to three light active neutrino mass eigenstates, two pairs of (heavy) pseudo-Dirac mass eigenstates and one (mostly) sterile state with mass around the keV, possibly providing a dark matter candidate, and accounting for the recently observed and still unidentified monochromatic 3.5 keV line in galaxy cluster spectra. The conventional production mechanism through oscillation from active neutrinos can account only for ∼ 43% of the observed relic density. This can be slightly increased to ∼ 48% when including effects of entropy injection from the decay of light (with mass below 20 GeV) pseudo-Dirac neutrinos. The correct relic density can be achieved through freeze-in from the decay of heavy (above the Higgs mass) pseudo-Dirac neutrinos. This production is only effective for a limited range of masses, such that the decay occurs not too far from the electroweak phase transition. We thus propose a simple extension of the inverse seesaw framework, with an extra scalar singlet coupling to both the Higgs and the sterile neutrinos, which allows to achieve the correct dark matter abundance in a broader region of the parameter space, in particular in the low mass region for the pseudo-Dirac neutrinos.

  8. Simulating granular materials by energy minimization

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Krijgsman, D.; Luding, S.

    2016-03-01

    Discrete element methods are extremely helpful in understanding the complex behaviors of granular media, as they give valuable insight into all internal variables of the system. In this paper, a novel discrete element method for performing simulations of granular media is presented, based on the minimization of the potential energy in the system. Contrary to most discrete element methods (i.e., soft-particle method, event-driven method, and non-smooth contact dynamics), the system does not evolve by (approximately) integrating Newtons equations of motion in time, but rather by searching for mechanical equilibrium solutions for the positions of all particles in the system, which is mathematically equivalent to locally minimizing the potential energy. The new method allows for the rapid creation of jammed initial conditions (to be used for further studies) and for the simulation of quasi-static deformation problems. The major advantage of the new method is that it allows for truly static deformations. The system does not evolve with time, but rather with the externally applied strain or load, so that there is no kinetic energy in the system, in contrast to other quasi-static methods. The performance of the algorithm for both types of applications of the method is tested. Therefore we look at the required number of iterations, for the system to converge to a stable solution. For each single iteration, the required computational effort scales linearly with the number of particles. During the process of creating initial conditions, the required number of iterations for two-dimensional systems scales with the square root of the number of particles in the system. The required number of iterations increases for systems closer to the jamming packing fraction. For a quasi-static pure shear deformation simulation, the results of the new method are validated by regular soft-particle dynamics simulations. The energy minimization algorithm is able to capture the evolution of the

  9. Simulating granular materials by energy minimization

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Krijgsman, D.; Luding, S.

    2016-11-01

    Discrete element methods are extremely helpful in understanding the complex behaviors of granular media, as they give valuable insight into all internal variables of the system. In this paper, a novel discrete element method for performing simulations of granular media is presented, based on the minimization of the potential energy in the system. Contrary to most discrete element methods (i.e., soft-particle method, event-driven method, and non-smooth contact dynamics), the system does not evolve by (approximately) integrating Newtons equations of motion in time, but rather by searching for mechanical equilibrium solutions for the positions of all particles in the system, which is mathematically equivalent to locally minimizing the potential energy. The new method allows for the rapid creation of jammed initial conditions (to be used for further studies) and for the simulation of quasi-static deformation problems. The major advantage of the new method is that it allows for truly static deformations. The system does not evolve with time, but rather with the externally applied strain or load, so that there is no kinetic energy in the system, in contrast to other quasi-static methods. The performance of the algorithm for both types of applications of the method is tested. Therefore we look at the required number of iterations, for the system to converge to a stable solution. For each single iteration, the required computational effort scales linearly with the number of particles. During the process of creating initial conditions, the required number of iterations for two-dimensional systems scales with the square root of the number of particles in the system. The required number of iterations increases for systems closer to the jamming packing fraction. For a quasi-static pure shear deformation simulation, the results of the new method are validated by regular soft-particle dynamics simulations. The energy minimization algorithm is able to capture the evolution of the

  10. Minimizing water consumption when producing hydropower

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Leon, A. S.

    2015-12-01

    In 2007, hydropower accounted for only 16% of the world electricity production, with other renewable sources totaling 3%. Thus, it is not surprising that when alternatives are evaluated for new energy developments, there is strong impulse for fossil fuel or nuclear energy as opposed to renewable sources. However, as hydropower schemes are often part of a multipurpose water resources development project, they can often help to finance other components of the project. In addition, hydropower systems and their associated dams and reservoirs provide human well-being benefits, such as flood control and irrigation, and societal benefits such as increased recreational activities and improved navigation. Furthermore, hydropower due to its associated reservoir storage, can provide flexibility and reliability for energy production in integrated energy systems. The storage capability of hydropower systems act as a regulating mechanism by which other intermittent and variable renewable energy sources (wind, wave, solar) can play a larger role in providing electricity of commercial quality. Minimizing water consumption for producing hydropower is critical given that overuse of water for energy production may result in a shortage of water for other purposes such as irrigation, navigation or fish passage. This paper presents a dimensional analysis for finding optimal flow discharge and optimal penstock diameter when designing impulse and reaction water turbines for hydropower systems. The objective of this analysis is to provide general insights for minimizing water consumption when producing hydropower. This analysis is based on the geometric and hydraulic characteristics of the penstock, the total hydraulic head and the desired power production. As part of this analysis, various dimensionless relationships between power production, flow discharge and head losses were derived. These relationships were used to withdraw general insights on determining optimal flow discharge and

  11. Minimal Intervention Dentistry – A New Frontier in Clinical Dentistry

    PubMed Central

    NK., Bajwa; A, Pathak

    2014-01-01

    Minimally invasive procedures are the new paradigm in health care. Everything from heart bypasses to gall bladder, surgeries are being performed with these dynamic new techniques. Dentistry is joining this exciting revolution as well. Minimally invasive dentistry adopts a philosophy that integrates prevention, remineralisation and minimal intervention for the placement and replacement of restorations. Minimally invasive dentistry reaches the treatment objective using the least invasive surgical approach, with the removal of the minimal amount of healthy tissues. This paper reviews in brief the concept of minimal intervention in dentistry. PMID:25177659

  12. Minimal intervention dentistry - a new frontier in clinical dentistry.

    PubMed

    Mm, Jingarwar; Nk, Bajwa; A, Pathak

    2014-07-01

    Minimally invasive procedures are the new paradigm in health care. Everything from heart bypasses to gall bladder, surgeries are being performed with these dynamic new techniques. Dentistry is joining this exciting revolution as well. Minimally invasive dentistry adopts a philosophy that integrates prevention, remineralisation and minimal intervention for the placement and replacement of restorations. Minimally invasive dentistry reaches the treatment objective using the least invasive surgical approach, with the removal of the minimal amount of healthy tissues. This paper reviews in brief the concept of minimal intervention in dentistry.

  13. Hamiltonian formalism of minimal massive gravity

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Mahdavian Yekta, Davood

    2015-09-01

    In this paper, we study the three-dimensional minimal massive gravity (MMG) in the Hamiltonian formalism. At first, we define the canonical gauge generators as building blocks in this formalism and then derive the canonical expressions for the asymptotic conserved charges. The construction of a consistent asymptotic structure of MMG requires introducing suitable boundary conditions. In the second step, we show that the Poisson bracket algebra of the improved canonical gauge generators produces an asymptotic gauge group, which includes two separable versions of the Virasoro algebras. For instance, we study the Banados-Teitelboim-Zanelli (BTZ) black hole as a solution of the MMG field equations, and the conserved charges give the energy and angular momentum of the BTZ black hole. Finally, we compute the black hole entropy from the Cardy formula in the dual conformal field theory and show our result is consistent with the value obtained by using the Smarr formula from the holographic principle.

  14. The minimal work cost of information processing.

    PubMed

    Faist, Philippe; Dupuis, Frédéric; Oppenheim, Jonathan; Renner, Renato

    2015-07-07

    Irreversible information processing cannot be carried out without some inevitable thermodynamical work cost. This fundamental restriction, known as Landauer's principle, is increasingly relevant today, as the energy dissipation of computing devices impedes the development of their performance. Here we determine the minimal work required to carry out any logical process, for instance a computation. It is given by the entropy of the discarded information conditional to the output of the computation. Our formula takes precisely into account the statistically fluctuating work requirement of the logical process. It enables the explicit calculation of practical scenarios, such as computational circuits or quantum measurements. On the conceptual level, our result gives a precise and operational connection between thermodynamic and information entropy, and explains the emergence of the entropy state function in macroscopic thermodynamics.

  15. The minimal work cost of information processing

    PubMed Central

    Faist, Philippe; Dupuis, Frédéric; Oppenheim, Jonathan; Renner, Renato

    2015-01-01

    Irreversible information processing cannot be carried out without some inevitable thermodynamical work cost. This fundamental restriction, known as Landauer's principle, is increasingly relevant today, as the energy dissipation of computing devices impedes the development of their performance. Here we determine the minimal work required to carry out any logical process, for instance a computation. It is given by the entropy of the discarded information conditional to the output of the computation. Our formula takes precisely into account the statistically fluctuating work requirement of the logical process. It enables the explicit calculation of practical scenarios, such as computational circuits or quantum measurements. On the conceptual level, our result gives a precise and operational connection between thermodynamic and information entropy, and explains the emergence of the entropy state function in macroscopic thermodynamics. PMID:26151678

  16. Quasistatic Cracks and Minimal Energy Surfaces

    SciTech Connect

    Raeisaenen, V.I.; Seppala, E.T.; Alava, M.J.; Raeisaenen, V.I.; Alava, M.J.; Alava, M.J.; Duxbury, P.M.

    1998-01-01

    We compare the roughness of minimal energy (ME) surfaces and scalar quasistatic fracture (SQF) surfaces. Two-dimensional ME and SQF surfaces have {ital the same roughness scaling,} w{approximately}L{sup {zeta}} (L is the system size) with {zeta}=(2)/(3). The 3{ital d} ME and SQF results at strong disorder are consistent with the random-bond Ising exponent {zeta}(d{ge}3){approx}0.21(5{minus}d) (d is the bulk dimension). However, 3{ital d} SQF surfaces are {ital rougher} than ME surfaces due to a larger prefactor. ME surfaces undergo a weakly rough to algebraically rough{close_quotes} transition in 3{ital d}, suggesting a similar behavior in fracture. {copyright} {ital 1998} {ital The American Physical Society}

  17. Intravital microscopy of the lung: minimizing invasiveness.

    PubMed

    Fiole, Daniel; Tournier, Jean-Nicolas

    2016-09-01

    In vivo microscopy has recently become a gold standard in lung immunology studies involving small animals, largely benefiting from the democratization of multiphoton microscopy allowing for deep tissue imaging. This technology represents currently our only way of exploring the lungs and inferring what happens in human respiratory medicine. The interest of lung in vivo microscopy essentially relies upon its relevance as a study model, fulfilling physiological requirements in comparison with in vitro and ex vivo experiments. However, strategies developed in order to overcome movements of the thorax caused by breathing and heartbeats remain the chief drawback of the technique and a major source of invasiveness. In this context, minimizing invasiveness is an unavoidable prerequisite for any improvement of lung in vivo microscopy. This review puts into perspective the main techniques enabling lung in vivo microscopy, providing pros and cons regarding invasiveness. PMID:26846880

  18. "Analytic continuation" of = 2 minimal model

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Sugawara, Yuji

    2014-04-01

    In this paper we discuss what theory should be identified as the "analytic continuation" with N rArr -N of the {mathcal N}=2 minimal model with the central charge hat {c} = 1 - frac {2}{N}. We clarify how the elliptic genus of the expected model is written in terms of holomorphic linear combinations of the "modular completions" introduced in [T. Eguchi and Y. Sugawara, JHEP 1103, 107 (2011)] in the SL(2)_{N+2}/U(1) supercoset theory. We further discuss how this model could be interpreted as a kind of model of the SL(2)_{N+2}/U(1) supercoset in the (widetilde {{R}},widetilde {R}) sector, in which only the discrete spectrum appears in the torus partition function and the potential IR divergence due to the non-compactness of the target space is removed. We also briefly discuss possible definitions of the sectors with other spin structures.

  19. Mechatronic Feasibility of Minimally Invasive, Atraumatic Cochleostomy

    PubMed Central

    Caversaccio, Marco; Proops, David; Brett, Peter

    2014-01-01

    Robotic assistance in the context of lateral skull base surgery, particularly during cochlear implantation procedures, has been the subject of considerable research over the last decade. The use of robotics during these procedures has the potential to provide significant benefits to the patient by reducing invasiveness when gaining access to the cochlea, as well as reducing intracochlear trauma when performing a cochleostomy. Presented herein is preliminary work on the combination of two robotic systems for reducing invasiveness and trauma in cochlear implantation procedures. A robotic system for minimally invasive inner ear access was combined with a smart drilling tool for robust and safe cochleostomy; evaluation was completed on a single human cadaver specimen. Access to the middle ear was successfully achieved through the facial recess without damage to surrounding anatomical structures; cochleostomy was completed at the planned position with the endosteum remaining intact after drilling as confirmed by microscope evaluation. PMID:25110661

  20. A minimal fate-selection switch.

    PubMed

    Weinberger, Leor S

    2015-12-01

    To preserve fitness in unpredictable, fluctuating environments, a range of biological systems probabilistically generate variant phenotypes--a process often referred to as 'bet-hedging', after the financial practice of diversifying assets to minimize risk in volatile markets. The molecular mechanisms enabling bet-hedging have remained elusive. Here, we review how HIV makes a bet-hedging decision between active replication and proviral latency, a long-lived dormant state that is the chief barrier to an HIV cure. The discovery of a virus-encoded bet-hedging circuit in HIV revealed an ancient evolutionary role for latency and identified core regulatory principles, such as feedback and stochastic 'noise', that enable cell-fate decisions. These core principles were later extended to fate selection in stem cells and cancer, exposed new therapeutic targets for HIV, and led to a potentially broad strategy of using 'noise modulation' to redirect cell fate. PMID:26611210

  1. LHC prospects for minimal decaying dark matter

    SciTech Connect

    Arcadi, Giorgio; Covi, Laura; Dradi, Federico E-mail: laura.covi@theorie.physik.uni-goettingen.de

    2014-10-01

    We study the possible signals at LHC of the minimal models of decaying dark matter. Those models are characterized by the fact that DM interacts with SM particles through renormalizable coupling with an additional heavier charged state. Such interaction allows to produce a substantial abundance of DM in the early Universe via the decay of the charged heavy state, either in- or out-of-equilibrium. Moreover additional couplings of the charged particle open up decay channels for the DM, which can nevertheless be sufficiently long-lived to be a good DM candidate and within reach of future Indirect Detection observations. We compare the cosmologically favored parameter regions to the LHC discovery reach and discuss the possibility of simultaneous detection of DM decay in Indirect Detection.

  2. The minimal nanowire: Mechanical properties of carbyne

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Nair, A. K.; Cranford, S. W.; Buehler, M. J.

    2011-07-01

    Advances in molecular assembly are converging to an ultimate in atomistic precision —nanostructures built by single atoms. Recent experimental studies confirm that single chains of carbon atoms —carbyne— exist in stable polyyne structures and can be synthesized, representing the minimal possible nanowire. Here we report the mechanical properties of carbyne obtained by first-principles-based ReaxFF molecular simulation. A peak Young's modulus of 288 GPa is found with linear stiffnesses ranging from 64.6-5 N/m for lengths of 5-64 Å. We identify a size-dependent strength that ranges from 11 GPa (1.3 nN) for the shortest to a constant 8 GPa (0.9 nN) for longer carbyne chains. We demonstrate that carbyne chains exhibit extremely high vibrational frequencies close to 6 THz for the shortest chains, which are found to be highly length-dependent.

  3. Constraints on grip-selection: minimizing awkwardness.

    PubMed

    Fischman, M G

    1998-02-01

    In picking up and manipulating an object, the selection of an initial grip (overhand versus underhand) often depends on how comfortable the hand and arm will be at the end of the movement. This effect has been called "end-state comfort" and seems to be an important constraint in grip-selection. The present experiment further explored this effect by selecting a task that would ensure a comfortable ending position regardless of the initial choice of grip. 206 undergraduates picked up a cardboard paper-towel roll from a horizontal position and placed one end down on a table. Analysis showed a clear preference for the overhand grip, as 78% of the participants chose this grip. In addition, more women preferred the overhand grip than men. The findings indicate that people may be sensitive to minimizing awkwardness in both terminal and initial positions. PMID:9530757

  4. MINIMIZATION OF CARBON LOSS IN COAL REBURNING

    SciTech Connect

    Vladimir M. Zamansky; Vitali V. Lissianski

    2001-02-10

    This project develops Fuel-Flexible Reburning (FFR), which combines conventional reburning and Advanced Reburning (AR) technologies with an innovative method of delivering coal as the reburning fuel. The overall objective of this project is to develop engineering and scientific information and know-how needed to improve the cost of reburning via increased efficiency and minimized carbon-in-ash and move the FFR technology to the demonstration and commercialization stage. The first reporting period (August 11, 2000-February 10, 2001) included experimental activities with the primary objective to characterize the impacts of reburning process parameters on NO{sub x} reduction at conditions typical of the full-scale boilers. Tests were conducted in GE EER's Boiler Simulator Facility (BSF). Tests showed that NO{sub x} reduction in basic coal reburning depends on process conditions, initial NO{sub x} and coal type. Up to 60% NO{sub x} reduction was achieved at optimized conditions.

  5. Error minimizing algorithms for nearest eighbor classifiers

    SciTech Connect

    Porter, Reid B; Hush, Don; Zimmer, G. Beate

    2011-01-03

    Stack Filters define a large class of discrete nonlinear filter first introd uced in image and signal processing for noise removal. In recent years we have suggested their application to classification problems, and investigated their relationship to other types of discrete classifiers such as Decision Trees. In this paper we focus on a continuous domain version of Stack Filter Classifiers which we call Ordered Hypothesis Machines (OHM), and investigate their relationship to Nearest Neighbor classifiers. We show that OHM classifiers provide a novel framework in which to train Nearest Neighbor type classifiers by minimizing empirical error based loss functions. We use the framework to investigate a new cost sensitive loss function that allows us to train a Nearest Neighbor type classifier for low false alarm rate applications. We report results on both synthetic data and real-world image data.

  6. Minimally invasive surgery for esophageal cancer.

    PubMed

    Santillan, Alfredo A; Farma, Jeffrey M; Meredith, Kenneth L; Shah, Nilay R; Kelley, Scott T

    2008-10-01

    Esophageal cancer represents a major public health problem worldwide. Several minimally invasive esophagectomy (MIE) techniques have been described and represent a safe alternative for the surgical management of esophageal cancer in selected centers with high volume and expertise in them. This article reviews the most recent and largest series evaluating MIE techniques. Recent larger series have shown MIE to be equivalent in postoperative morbidity and mortality rates to conventional surgery. MIE has been associated with less blood loss, less postoperative pain, and decreased intensive care unit and hospital length of stay compared with conventional surgery. Despite limited data, conventional surgery and MIE have shown no significant difference in survival, stage for stage. The myriad of MIE techniques complicates the debate of defining the optimal surgical approach for treating esophageal cancer. Randomized controlled trials comparing MIE with conventional open esophagectomy are needed to clarify the ideal procedure with the lowest postoperative morbidity, best quality of life after surgery, and long-term survival.

  7. Minimizing Reheat Energy Use in Laboratories

    SciTech Connect

    Frenze, David; Mathew, Paul; Morehead, Michael; Sartor, Dale; Starr Jr., William

    2005-11-29

    HVAC systems that are designed without properly accounting for equipment load variation across laboratory spaces in a facility can significantly increase simultaneous heating and cooling, particularly for systems that use zone reheat for temperature control. This best practice guide describes the problem of simultaneous heating and cooling resulting from load variations, and presents several technological and design process strategies to minimize it. This guide is one in a series created by the Laboratories for the 21st century ('Labs21') program, a joint program of the U.S. Environmental Protection Agency and U.S. Department of Energy. Geared towards architects, engineers, and facilities managers, these guides provide information about technologies and practices to use in designing, constructing, and operating safe, sustainable, high-performance laboratories.

  8. A review of minimally invasive cosmetic procedures.

    PubMed

    Ogden, S; Griffiths, T W

    2008-11-01

    In today's society the desire to maintain a youthful appearance has driven the development of minimally invasive dermatological procedures that are designed to rejuvenate the ageing face. The aim of this review is to present evidence for the use of techniques which can easily be incorporated into outpatient dermatology practice with low overhead expenditure. For this reason, laser and light-based treatments have been omitted. This review will instead focus on chemical peels, intradermal fillers and botulinum toxin. These techniques address the main aspects of facial ageing, namely photodamage, volume loss and dynamic lines, which correlate anatomically to skin, subcutaneous fat and muscle. A combination of such techniques will provide the practitioner with a reasonable portfolio of treatments for a balanced, holistic result.

  9. Reflections concerning triply-periodic minimal surfaces.

    PubMed

    Schoen, Alan H

    2012-10-01

    In recent decades, there has been an explosion in the number and variety of embedded triply-periodic minimal surfaces (TPMS) identified by mathematicians and materials scientists. Only the rare examples of low genus, however, are commonly invoked as shape templates in scientific applications. Exact analytic solutions are now known for many of the low genus examples. The more complex surfaces are readily defined with numerical tools such as Surface Evolver software or the Landau-Ginzburg model. Even though table-top versions of several TPMS have been placed within easy reach by rapid prototyping methods, the inherent complexity of many of these surfaces makes it challenging to grasp their structure. The problem of distinguishing TPMS, which is now acute because of the proliferation of examples, has been addressed by Lord & Mackay (Lord & Mackay 2003 Curr. Sci. 85, 346-362).

  10. Reflections concerning triply-periodic minimal surfaces

    PubMed Central

    Schoen, Alan H.

    2012-01-01

    In recent decades, there has been an explosion in the number and variety of embedded triply-periodic minimal surfaces (TPMS) identified by mathematicians and materials scientists. Only the rare examples of low genus, however, are commonly invoked as shape templates in scientific applications. Exact analytic solutions are now known for many of the low genus examples. The more complex surfaces are readily defined with numerical tools such as Surface Evolver software or the Landau–Ginzburg model. Even though table-top versions of several TPMS have been placed within easy reach by rapid prototyping methods, the inherent complexity of many of these surfaces makes it challenging to grasp their structure. The problem of distinguishing TPMS, which is now acute because of the proliferation of examples, has been addressed by Lord & Mackay (Lord & Mackay 2003 Curr. Sci. 85, 346–362). PMID:24098851

  11. Minimal residual disease in acute promyelocytic leukemia.

    PubMed

    Weil, S C

    2000-03-01

    In the last decade our understanding of acute promyelocytic leukemia (APL) has advanced tremendously. The recognition of all-trans retinoic acid (ATRA) as a powerful therapeutic agent paralleled the cloning of the t(15;17) breakpoint. RtPCR for the PML-RARA hybrid mRNA has become the hallmark of molecular diagnosis and molecular monitoring in APL. Current techniques are useful in predicting complete remission and a possible cure in many patients who repeatedly test negative by PCR. Standardizing techniques and improving the sensitivity of the assay are important. Doing this in a way so that clinically relevant minimal residual disease can be distinguished from "indolent disease" remains among the future challenges in APL. PMID:10702899

  12. Minimally invasive training in urologic oncology.

    PubMed

    Liu, Jen-Jane; Gonzalgo, Mark L

    2011-11-01

    Use of minimally invasive surgical (MIS) techniques continues to expand in the field of urologic oncology; however, proficiency in these techniques is subject to a learning curve. Current training paradigms have incorporated MIS, but in a non-standardized fashion. Residency work-hour restrictions and ethical concerns may influence efforts to deliver adequate training during a defined residency period. Post-residency fellowships or mini-courses may help urologists gain proficiency in these skills, but are time-consuming and may not provide adequate exposure. Surgical simulation with dry labs and augmentation with virtual reality are important adjuncts to operative training for MIS. The urologic oncologist must be familiar with open and MIS techniques to effectively treat cancer in the least morbid way possible and adapt to the ever-changing field of MIS with dynamic training paradigms. PMID:22155873

  13. Linear functional minimization for inverse modeling

    SciTech Connect

    Barajas-Solano, David A.; Wohlberg, Brendt Egon; Vesselinov, Velimir Valentinov; Tartakovsky, Daniel M.

    2015-06-01

    In this paper, we present a novel inverse modeling strategy to estimate spatially distributed parameters of nonlinear models. The maximum a posteriori (MAP) estimators of these parameters are based on a likelihood functional, which contains spatially discrete measurements of the system parameters and spatiotemporally discrete measurements of the transient system states. The piecewise continuity prior for the parameters is expressed via Total Variation (TV) regularization. The MAP estimator is computed by minimizing a nonquadratic objective equipped with the TV operator. We apply this inversion algorithm to estimate hydraulic conductivity of a synthetic confined aquifer from measurements of conductivity and hydraulic head. The synthetic conductivity field is composed of a low-conductivity heterogeneous intrusion into a high-conductivity heterogeneous medium. Our algorithm accurately reconstructs the location, orientation, and extent of the intrusion from the steady-state data only. Finally, addition of transient measurements of hydraulic head improves the parameter estimation, accurately reconstructing the conductivity field in the vicinity of observation locations.

  14. Minimally invasive procedures for neuropathic pain.

    PubMed

    Sdrulla, Andrei; Chen, Grace

    2016-04-01

    Neuropathic pain is "pain arising as a direct consequence of a lesion or disease affecting the somatosensory system". The prevalence of neuropathic pain ranges from 7 to 11% of the population and minimally invasive procedures have been used to both diagnose and treat neuropathic pain. Diagnostic procedures consist of nerve blocks aimed to isolate the peripheral nerve implicated, whereas therapeutic interventions either modify or destroy nerve function. Procedures that modify how nerves function include epidural steroid injections, peripheral nerve blocks and sympathetic nerve blocks. Neuroablative procedures include radiofrequency ablation, cryoanalgesia and neurectomies. Currently, neuromodulation with peripheral nerve stimulators and spinal cord stimulators are the most evidence-based treatments of neuropathic pain. PMID:26988024

  15. Minimal Increase Network Coding for Dynamic Networks.

    PubMed

    Zhang, Guoyin; Fan, Xu; Wu, Yanxia

    2016-01-01

    Because of the mobility, computing power and changeable topology of dynamic networks, it is difficult for random linear network coding (RLNC) in static networks to satisfy the requirements of dynamic networks. To alleviate this problem, a minimal increase network coding (MINC) algorithm is proposed. By identifying the nonzero elements of an encoding vector, it selects blocks to be encoded on the basis of relationship between the nonzero elements that the controls changes in the degrees of the blocks; then, the encoding time is shortened in a dynamic network. The results of simulations show that, compared with existing encoding algorithms, the MINC algorithm provides reduced computational complexity of encoding and an increased probability of delivery. PMID:26867211

  16. Endoscopic navigation for minimally invasive suturing.

    PubMed

    Wengert, Christian; Bossard, Lukas; Häberling, Armin; Baur, Charles; Székely, Gábor; Cattin, Philippe C

    2007-01-01

    Manipulating small objects such as needles, screws or plates inside the human body during minimally invasive surgery can be very difficult for less experienced surgeons, due to the loss of 3D depth perception. This paper presents an approach for tracking a suturing needle using a standard endoscope. The resulting pose information of the needle is then used to generate artificial 3D cues on the 2D screen to optimally support surgeons during tissue suturing. Additionally, if an external tracking device is provided to report the endoscope's position, the suturing needle can be tracked in a hybrid fashion with sub-millimeter accuracy. Finally, a visual navigation aid can be incorporated, if a 3D surface is intraoperatively reconstructed from video or registered from preoperative imaging. PMID:18044620

  17. Minimally disruptive schedule repair for MCM missions

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Molineaux, Matthew; Auslander, Bryan; Moore, Philip G.; Gupta, Kalyan M.

    2015-05-01

    Mine countermeasures (MCM) missions entail planning and operations in very dynamic and uncertain operating environments, which pose considerable risk to personnel and equipment. Frequent schedule repairs are needed that consider the latest operating conditions to keep mission on target. Presently no decision support tools are available for the challenging task of MCM mission rescheduling. To address this capability gap, we have developed the CARPE system to assist operation planners. CARPE constantly monitors the operational environment for changes and recommends alternative repaired schedules in response. It includes a novel schedule repair algorithm called Case-Based Local Schedule Repair (CLOSR) that automatically repairs broken schedules while satisfying the requirement of minimal operational disruption. It uses a case-based approach to represent repair strategies and apply them to new situations. Evaluation of CLOSR on simulated MCM operations demonstrates the effectiveness of case-based strategy. Schedule repairs are generated rapidly, ensure the elimination of all mines, and achieve required levels of clearance.

  18. Minimal residual method stronger than polynomial preconditioning

    SciTech Connect

    Faber, V.; Joubert, W.; Knill, E.

    1994-12-31

    Two popular methods for solving symmetric and nonsymmetric systems of equations are the minimal residual method, implemented by algorithms such as GMRES, and polynomial preconditioning methods. In this study results are given on the convergence rates of these methods for various classes of matrices. It is shown that for some matrices, such as normal matrices, the convergence rates for GMRES and for the optimal polynomial preconditioning are the same, and for other matrices such as the upper triangular Toeplitz matrices, it is at least assured that if one method converges then the other must converge. On the other hand, it is shown that matrices exist for which restarted GMRES always converges but any polynomial preconditioning of corresponding degree makes no progress toward the solution for some initial error. The implications of these results for these and other iterative methods are discussed.

  19. Minimal Increase Network Coding for Dynamic Networks.

    PubMed

    Zhang, Guoyin; Fan, Xu; Wu, Yanxia

    2016-01-01

    Because of the mobility, computing power and changeable topology of dynamic networks, it is difficult for random linear network coding (RLNC) in static networks to satisfy the requirements of dynamic networks. To alleviate this problem, a minimal increase network coding (MINC) algorithm is proposed. By identifying the nonzero elements of an encoding vector, it selects blocks to be encoded on the basis of relationship between the nonzero elements that the controls changes in the degrees of the blocks; then, the encoding time is shortened in a dynamic network. The results of simulations show that, compared with existing encoding algorithms, the MINC algorithm provides reduced computational complexity of encoding and an increased probability of delivery.

  20. JSC Metal Finishing Waste Minimization Methods

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Sullivan, Erica

    2003-01-01

    THe paper discusses the following: Johnson Space Center (JSC) has achieved VPP Star status and is ISO 9001 compliant. The Structural Engineering Division in the Engineering Directorate is responsible for operating the metal finishing facility at JSC. The Engineering Directorate is responsible for $71.4 million of space flight hardware design, fabrication and testing. The JSC Metal Finishing Facility processes flight hardware to support the programs in particular schedule and mission critical flight hardware. The JSC Metal Finishing Facility is operated by Rothe Joint Venture. The Facility provides following processes: anodizing, alodining, passivation, and pickling. JSC Metal Finishing Facility completely rebuilt in 1998. Total cost of $366,000. All new tanks, electrical, plumbing, and ventilation installed. Designed to meet modern safety, environmental, and quality requirements. Designed to minimize contamination and provide the highest quality finishes.

  1. Design and Demonstration of Minimal Lunar Base

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Boche-Sauvan, L.; Foing, B. H.; Exohab Team

    2009-04-01

    Introduction: We propose a conceptual analysis of a first minimal lunar base, in focussing on the system aspects and coordinating every different part as part an evolving architecture [1-3]. We justify the case for a scientific outpost allowing experiments, sample analysis in laboratory (relevant to the origin and evolution of the Earth, geophysical and geochemical studies of the Moon, life sciences, observation from the Moon). Research: Research activities will be conducted with this first settlement in: - science (of, from and on the Moon) - exploration (robotic mobility, rover, drilling), - technology (communication, command, organisation, automatism). Life sciences. The life sciences aspects are considered through a life support for a crew of 4 (habitat) and a laboratory activity with biological experiments performed on Earth or LEO, but then without any magnetosphere protection and therefore with direct cosmic rays and solar particle effects. Moreover, the ability of studying the lunar environment in the field will be a big asset before settling a permanent base [3-5]. Lunar environment. The lunar environment adds constraints to instruments specifications (vacuum, extreme temperature, regolith, seism, micrometeorites). SMART-1 and other missions data will bring geometrical, chemical and physical details about the environment (soil material characteristics, on surface conditions …). Test bench. To assess planetary technologies and operations preparing for Mars human exploration. Lunar outpost predesign modular concept: To allow a human presence on the moon and to carry out these experiments, we will give a pre-design of a human minimal lunar base. Through a modular concept, this base will be possibly evolved into a long duration or permanent base. We will analyse the possibilities of settling such a minimal base by means of the current and near term propulsion technology, as a full Ariane 5 ME carrying 1.7 T of gross payload to the surface of the Moon

  2. Minimal dilaton model and the diphoton excess

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Agarwal, Bakul; Isaacson, Joshua; Mohan, Kirtimaan A.

    2016-08-01

    In light of the recent 750 GeV diphoton excesses reported by the ATLAS and CMS collaborations, we investigate the possibility of explaining this excess using the minimal dilaton model. We find that this model is able to explain the observed excess with the presence of additional top partner(s), with the same charge as the top quark, but with mass in the TeV region. First, we constrain model parameters using in addition to the 750 GeV diphoton signal strength, precision electroweak tests, single top production measurements, as well as Higgs signal strength data collected in the earlier runs of the LHC. In addition we discuss interesting phenomenology that could arise in this model, relevant for future runs of the LHC.

  3. Convex Lower Bounds for Free Energy Minimization

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Moussa, Jonathan

    We construct lower bounds on free energy with convex relaxations from the nonlinear minimization over probabilities to linear programs over expectation values. Finite-temperature expectation values are further resolved into distributions over energy. A superset of valid expectation values is delineated by an incomplete set of linear constraints. Free energy bounds can be improved systematically by adding constraints, which also increases their computational cost. We compute several free energy bounds of increasing accuracy for the triangular-lattice Ising model to assess the utility of this method. This work was supported by the Laboratory Directed Research and Development program at Sandia National Laboratories. Sandia National Laboratories is a multi-program laboratory managed and operated by Sandia Corporation, a wholly owned subsidiary of Lockheed Martin Corporation, for the U.S. Department of Energy's National Nuclear Security Administration under Contract DE-AC04-94AL85000.

  4. Waste Minimization and Pollution Prevention Awareness Plan

    SciTech Connect

    Not Available

    1994-04-01

    The purpose of this plan is to document Lawrence Livermore National Laboratory (LLNL) projections for present and future waste minimization and pollution prevention. The plan specifies those activities and methods that are or will be used to reduce the quantity and toxicity of wastes generated at the site. It is intended to satisfy Department of Energy (DOE) requirements. This Plan provides an overview of projected activities from FY 1994 through FY 1999. The plans are broken into site-wide and problem-specific activities. All directorates at LLNL have had an opportunity to contribute input, to estimate budget, and to review the plan. In addition to the above, this plan records LLNL`s goals for pollution prevention, regulatory drivers for those activities, assumptions on which the cost estimates are based, analyses of the strengths of the projects, and the barriers to increasing pollution prevention activities.

  5. Endoscopic navigation for minimally invasive suturing.

    PubMed

    Wengert, Christian; Bossard, Lukas; Häberling, Armin; Baur, Charles; Székely, Gábor; Cattin, Philippe C

    2007-01-01

    Manipulating small objects such as needles, screws or plates inside the human body during minimally invasive surgery can be very difficult for less experienced surgeons, due to the loss of 3D depth perception. This paper presents an approach for tracking a suturing needle using a standard endoscope. The resulting pose information of the needle is then used to generate artificial 3D cues on the 2D screen to optimally support surgeons during tissue suturing. Additionally, if an external tracking device is provided to report the endoscope's position, the suturing needle can be tracked in a hybrid fashion with sub-millimeter accuracy. Finally, a visual navigation aid can be incorporated, if a 3D surface is intraoperatively reconstructed from video or registered from preoperative imaging.

  6. Radiation oncology: physics advances that minimize morbidity.

    PubMed

    Allison, Ron R; Patel, Rajen M; McLawhorn, Robert A

    2014-12-01

    Radiation therapy has become an ever more successful treatment for many cancer patients. This is due in large part from advances in physics including the expanded use of imaging protocols combined with ever more precise therapy devices such as linear and particle beam accelerators, all contributing to treatments with far fewer side effects. This paper will review current state-of-the-art physics maneuvers that minimize morbidity, such as intensity-modulated radiation therapy, volummetric arc therapy, image-guided radiation, radiosurgery and particle beam treatment. We will also highlight future physics enhancements on the horizon such as MRI during treatment and intensity-modulated hadron therapy, all with the continued goal of improved clinical outcomes.

  7. Minimal Increase Network Coding for Dynamic Networks

    PubMed Central

    Wu, Yanxia

    2016-01-01

    Because of the mobility, computing power and changeable topology of dynamic networks, it is difficult for random linear network coding (RLNC) in static networks to satisfy the requirements of dynamic networks. To alleviate this problem, a minimal increase network coding (MINC) algorithm is proposed. By identifying the nonzero elements of an encoding vector, it selects blocks to be encoded on the basis of relationship between the nonzero elements that the controls changes in the degrees of the blocks; then, the encoding time is shortened in a dynamic network. The results of simulations show that, compared with existing encoding algorithms, the MINC algorithm provides reduced computational complexity of encoding and an increased probability of delivery. PMID:26867211

  8. New identities between unitary minimal Virasoro characters

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Taormina, Anne

    1994-10-01

    Two sets of identities between unitary minimal Virasoro characters at levels m=3, 4, 5 are presented and proven. The first identity suggests a connection between the Ising and the tricritical Ising models since the m=3 Virasoro characters are obtained as bilinears of m=4 Virasoro characters. The second identity given the tricritical Ising model characters as bilinears in the Ising model characters and the six combinations of m=5 Virasoro characters which do not appear in the spectrum of the three state Potts model. The implication of these identities on the study of the branching rules of N=4 superconformal characters intoSwidehat{U(2)} × Swidehat{U(2)} characters is discussed.

  9. Minimally invasive training in urologic oncology.

    PubMed

    Liu, Jen-Jane; Gonzalgo, Mark L

    2011-11-01

    Use of minimally invasive surgical (MIS) techniques continues to expand in the field of urologic oncology; however, proficiency in these techniques is subject to a learning curve. Current training paradigms have incorporated MIS, but in a non-standardized fashion. Residency work-hour restrictions and ethical concerns may influence efforts to deliver adequate training during a defined residency period. Post-residency fellowships or mini-courses may help urologists gain proficiency in these skills, but are time-consuming and may not provide adequate exposure. Surgical simulation with dry labs and augmentation with virtual reality are important adjuncts to operative training for MIS. The urologic oncologist must be familiar with open and MIS techniques to effectively treat cancer in the least morbid way possible and adapt to the ever-changing field of MIS with dynamic training paradigms.

  10. Minimally invasive surgery for thyroid eye disease.

    PubMed

    Naik, Milind Neilkant; Nair, Akshay Gopinathan; Gupta, Adit; Kamal, Saurabh

    2015-11-01

    Thyroid eye disease (TED) can affect the eye in myriad ways: proptosis, strabismus, eyelid retraction, optic neuropathy, soft tissue changes around the eye and an unstable ocular surface. TED consists of two phases: active, and inactive. The active phase of TED is limited to a period of 12-18 months and is mainly managed medically with immunosuppression. The residual structural changes due to the resultant fibrosis are usually addressed with surgery, the mainstay of which is orbital decompression. These surgeries are performed during the inactive phase. The surgical rehabilitation of TED has evolved over the years: not only the surgical techniques, but also the concepts, and the surgical tools available. The indications for decompression surgery have also expanded in the recent past. This article discusses the technological and conceptual advances of minimally invasive surgery for TED that decrease complications and speed up recovery. Current surgical techniques offer predictable, consistent results with better esthetics.

  11. Minimal five dimensional supergravities and complex geometries

    SciTech Connect

    Herdeiro, Carlos A. R.

    2010-07-28

    We discuss the relation between solutions admitting Killing spinors of minimal super-gravities in five dimensions, both timelike and null, and complex geometries. For the timelike solutions the results may be summarised as follows. In the ungauged case (vanishing cosmological constant {Lambda} 0) the solutions are determined in terms of a hyper-Kaehler base space; in the gauged case ({Lambda}<0) the complex geometry is Kaehler; in the de Sitter case ({Lambda}>0) the complex geometry is hyper-Kaehler with torsion (HKT). For the null solutions we shall focus on the de Sitter case, for which the solutions are determined by a constrained Einstein-Weyl 3-geometry called Gauduchon-Tod space. The method for constructing explicit solutions is discussed in each case.

  12. Minimizing forced outage risk in generator bidding

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Das, Dibyendu

    Competition in power markets has exposed the participating companies to physical and financial uncertainties. Generator companies bid to supply power in a day-ahead market. Once their bids are accepted by the ISO they are bound to supply power. A random outage after acceptance of bids forces a generator to buy power from the expensive real-time hourly spot market and sell to the ISO at the set day-ahead market clearing price, incurring losses. A risk management technique is developed to assess this financial risk associated with forced outages of generators and then minimize it. This work presents a risk assessment module which measures the financial risk of generators bidding in an open market for different bidding scenarios. The day-ahead power market auction is modeled using a Unit Commitment algorithm and a combination of Normal and Cauchy distributions generate the real time hourly spot market. Risk profiles are derived and VaRs are calculated at 98 percent confidence level as a measure of financial risk. Risk Profiles and VaRs help the generators to analyze the forced outage risk and different factors affecting it. The VaRs and the estimated total earning for different bidding scenarios are used to develop a risk minimization module. This module will develop a bidding strategy of the generator company such that its estimated total earning is maximized keeping the VaR below a tolerable limit. This general framework of a risk management technique for the generating companies bidding in competitive day-ahead market can also help them in decisions related to building new generators.

  13. Towards a Minimal System for Cell Division

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Schwille, Petra

    We have entered the "omics" era of the life sciences, meaning that our general knowledge about biological systems has become vast, complex, and almost impossible to fully comprehend. Consequently, the challenge for quantitative biology and biophysics is to identify appropriate procedures and protocols that allow the researcher to strip down the complexity of a biological system to a level that can be reliably modeled but still retains the essential features of its "real" counterpart. The virtue of physics has always been the reductionist approach, which allowed scientists to identify the underlying basic principles of seemingly complex phenomena, and subject them to rigorous mathematical treatment. Biological systems are obviously among the most complex phenomena we can think of, and it is fair to state that our rapidly increasing knowledge does not make it easier to identify a small set of fundamental principles of the big concept of "life" that can be defined and quantitatively understood. Nevertheless, it is becoming evident that only by tight cooperation and interdisciplinary exchange between the life sciences and quantitative sciences, and by applying intelligent reductionist approaches also to biology, will we be able to meet the intellectual challenges of the twenty-first century. These include not only the collection and proper categorization of the data, but also their true understanding and harnessing such that we can solve important practical problems imposed by medicine or the worldwide need for new energy sources. Many of these approaches are reflected by the modern buzz word "synthetic biology", therefore I briefly discuss this term in the first section. Further, I outline some endeavors of our and other groups to model minimal biological systems, with particular focus on the possibility of generating a minimal system for cell division.

  14. Managing sediment to minimize environmental impacts

    SciTech Connect

    Sherman, K.

    1995-12-31

    When considering licensing of a hydroelectric project, FERC must give equal consideration to power and nonpower values such as environmental resources. A case study is the existing Rock-Creek Cresta Project, located on the North Fork of the Feather River in northern California, which is in the process of relicensing by the Commission. This project includes two reservoirs - Rock Creek and Cresta Reservoirs, each formed by a dam that diverts water from the river into a tunnel and to a powerhouse. The watershed includes large natural and man-made sediment sources. Rock Creek Reservoir has accumulated 3.9 million cubic yards of sediments since the dam was built in 1950; Cresta Reservoir has accumulated 2.9 million cy of sediments since 1949. Operational problems began in the 1980s. As part of the relicensing process, Pacific Gas & Electric Company (PG&E) initially proposed a combination of dredging 500,000 cy of sediment from each reservoir, land disposal of dredged sediments, followed by sediment pass-through to achieve a long term net balance of sediment inflow and outflow. This proposal had substantial economic costs and environmental impact. Potential environmental effects included impacts to water quality and aquatic organisms and to terrestrial habitat from disposal of a million cy of dredged sediments. PG&E used physical and mathematical models to develop an innovative approach that minimized the amount of sediment needed to be dredged by limiting dredging to the area immediately adjacent to the intake structures. This would also tend to minimize impacts to water quality and aquatic habitat by reducing the area of disturbance within the reservoirs. PG&E proposes to keep the intake areas open and provide for long-term sediment pass-through by providing additional low-level outlet capacity. This would permit reservoir drawdown, which would increase velocities and sediment movement out of the reservoirs.

  15. Minimally invasive surgical approach to pancreatic malignancies.

    PubMed

    Bencini, Lapo; Annecchiarico, Mario; Farsi, Marco; Bartolini, Ilenia; Mirasolo, Vita; Guerra, Francesco; Coratti, Andrea

    2015-12-15

    Pancreatic surgery for malignancy is recognized as challenging for the surgeons and risky for the patients due to consistent perioperative morbidity and mortality. Furthermore, the oncological long-term results are largely disappointing, even for those patients who experience an uneventfully hospital stay. Nevertheless, surgery still remains the cornerstone of a multidisciplinary treatment for pancreatic cancer. In order to maximize the benefits of surgery, the advent of both laparoscopy and robotics has led many surgeons to treat pancreatic cancers with these new methodologies. The reduction of postoperative complications, length of hospital stay and pain, together with a shorter interval between surgery and the beginning of adjuvant chemotherapy, represent the potential advantages over conventional surgery. Lastly, a better cosmetic result, although not crucial in any cancerous patient, could also play a role by improving overall well-being and patient self-perception. The laparoscopic approach to pancreatic surgery is, however, difficult in inexperienced hands and requires a dedicated training in both advanced laparoscopy and pancreatic surgery. The recent large diffusion of the da Vinci(®) robotic platform seems to facilitate many of the technical maneuvers, such as anastomotic biliary and pancreatic reconstructions, accurate lymphadenectomy, and vascular sutures. The two main pancreatic operations, distal pancreatectomy and pancreaticoduodenectomy, are approachable by a minimally invasive path, but more limited interventions such as enucleation are also feasible. Nevertheless, a word of caution should be taken into account when considering the increasing costs of these newest technologies because the main concerns regarding these are the maintenance of all oncological standards and the lack of long-term follow-up. The purpose of this review is to examine the evidence for the use of minimally invasive surgery in pancreatic cancer (and less aggressive tumors

  16. Minimally invasive total hip arthroplasty: in opposition.

    PubMed

    Hungerford, David S

    2004-06-01

    At the Knee Society Winter Meeting in 2003, Seth Greenwald and I debated about whether there should be new standards (ie, regulations) applied to the release of information to the public on "new developments." I argued for the public's "right to know" prior to the publication of peer-reviewed literature. He argued for regulatory constraint or "proving by peer-reviewed publication" before alerting the public. It is not a contradiction for me to currently argue against the public advertising of minimally invasive (MIS) total hip arthroplasty as not yet being in the best interest of the public. It is hard to remember a concept that has so captured both the public's and the surgical community's fancy as MIS. Patients are "demanding" MIS without knowing why. Surgeons are offering it as the next best, greatest thing without having developed the skill and experience to avoid the surgery's risks. If you put "minimally invasive hip replacement" into the Google search engine (http://www.google.com), you get 5,170 matches. If you put the same words in PubMed (http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/entrez/query.fcgi), referencing the National Library of Medicine database, you get SEVENTEEN; none is really a peer-reviewed article. Most are 1 page papers in orthopedics from medical education meetings. On the other hand, there are over 6,000 peer-reviewed articles on total hip arthroplasty. Dr. Thomas Sculco, my couterpart in this debate, wrote an insightful editorial in the American Journal of Orthopedic Surgery in which he stated: "Although these procedures have generated incredible interest and enthusiasm, I am concerned that they may be performed to the detriment of our patients." I couldn't agree with him more. Smaller is not necessarily better and, when it is worse, it will be the "smaller" that is held accountable.

  17. Minimizing Launch Mass for ISRU Processes

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    England, C.; Hallinan, K. P.

    2004-01-01

    The University of Dayton and the Jet Propulsion Laboratory are developing a methodology for estimating the Earth launch mass (ELM) of processes for In-Situ Resource Utilization (ISRU) with a focus on lunar resource recovery. ISRU may be enabling for both an extended presence on the Moon, and for large sample return missions and for a human presence on Mars. To accomplish these exploration goals, the resources recovered by ISRU must offset the ELM for the recovery process. An appropriate figure of merit is the cost of the exploration mission, which is closely related to ELM. For a given production rate and resource concentration, the lowest ELM - and the best ISRU process - is achieved by minimizing capital equipment for both the ISRU process and energy production. ISRU processes incur Carnot limitations and second law losses (irreversibilities) that ultimately determine production rate, material utilization and energy efficiencies. Heat transfer, chemical reaction, and mechanical operations affect the ELM in ways that are best understood by examining the process's detailed energetics. Schemes for chemical and thermal processing that do not incorporate an understanding of second law losses will be incompletely understood. Our team is developing a methodology that will aid design and selection of ISRU processes by identifying the impact of thermodynamic losses on ELM. The methodology includes mechanical, thermal and chemical operations, and, when completed, will provide a procedure and rationale for optimizing their design and minimizing their cost. The technique for optimizing ISRU with respect to ELM draws from work of England and Funk that relates the cost of endothermic processes to their second law efficiencies. Our team joins their approach for recovering resources by chemical processing with analysis of thermal and mechanical operations in space. Commercial firms provide cost inputs for ELM and planetary landing. Additional information is included in the

  18. Boson stars in biscalar extensions of Horndeski gravity

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Brihaye, Yves; Cisterna, Adolfo; Erices, Cristián

    2016-06-01

    This paper is concerned with the construction and analysis of boson stars in the context of nonminimal derivative coupling theories. In particular, we embed our model in the biscalar extension of Horndeski gravity, considering a scalar field theory displaying a nonminimally coupled kinetic term given by the Einstein tensor. We focus on the case where the potential is given by a mass term only and when a six order self-interaction is included. In the latter case we consider specific couplings in the self-interacting terms in such a way that our self-interaction is given by a positive definite potential presenting two degenerate local vacua. We show how solutions can be obtained and we compare its principal properties with standard configurations constructed with the usual minimally coupled kinetic term.

  19. Non-abelian gauge extensions for B-decay anomalies

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Boucenna, Sofiane M.; Celis, Alejandro; Fuentes-Martín, Javier; Vicente, Avelino; Virto, Javier

    2016-09-01

    We study the generic features of minimal gauge extensions of the Standard Model in view of recent hints of lepton-flavor non-universality in semi-leptonic b → sℓ+ℓ- and b → cℓν decays. We classify the possible models according to the symmetry-breaking pattern and the source of flavor non-universality. We find that in viable models the SU (2) L factor is embedded non-trivially in the extended gauge group, and that gauge couplings should be universal, hinting to the presence of new degrees of freedom sourcing non-universality. Finally, we provide an explicit model that can explain the B-decay anomalies in a coherent way and confront it with the relevant phenomenological constraints.

  20. 75 FR 77663 - Information Collection Extension Request

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2010-12-13

    ... of the Secretary Information Collection Extension Request ACTION: Notice. SUMMARY: The Department of... comment on information collection extension request in accordance with the Paperwork Reduction Act of 1995... Information Report--29 CFR part 31 (Title VI of the Civil Rights Act), Nondiscrimination--Disability--29...

  1. Australian National University Science Extension Day

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Fletcher, Sarah

    2016-01-01

    The first Australian National University (ANU) Science Extension Day was held on September 8, 2015. The ANU Science Extension Day is a project that was initiated by Theodore Primary School (ACT) and developed by Theodore Primary, Calwell High School, Science Educators Association of the ACT (SEA*ACT), and the ANU. The project was developed with a…

  2. 78 FR 57790 - Extension of Time Limits

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2013-09-20

    ... Regulation Regarding the Extension of Time Limits, 78 FR 3367 (January 16, 2013) (Proposed Rule). The... Information and Time Limits for Submission of Factual Information, 78 FR 21246 (April 10, 2013). As to the... International Trade Administration 19 CFR Part 351 RIN 0625-AA94 Extension of Time Limits AGENCY:...

  3. 36 CFR 251.89 - Time extensions.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-07-01

    ... 36 Parks, Forests, and Public Property 2 2012-07-01 2012-07-01 false Time extensions. 251.89... Appeal of Decisions Relating to Occupancy and Use of National Forest System Lands § 251.89 Time extensions. (a) Filing of notice of appeal. Time for filing a notice of appeal is not extendable. (b)...

  4. Kentucky's Urban Extension Focus

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Young, Jeffery; Vavrina, Charles

    2014-01-01

    Defining the success of Urban Extension units is sometimes challenging. For those Extension agents, specialists, administrators, and others who have worked to bring solid, research-based programming to urban communities, it is no surprise that working in these communities brings its own unique and sometimes difficult challenges. Kentucky's…

  5. Taxonomy for Assessing Evaluation Competencies in Extension

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Rodgers, Michelle S.; Hillaker, Barbara D.; Haas, Bruce E.; Peters, Cheryl

    2012-01-01

    Evaluation of public service programming is becoming increasingly important with current funding realities. The taxonomy of evaluation competencies compiled by Ghere et al. (2006) provided the starting place for Taxonomy for Assessing Evaluation Competencies in Extension. The Michigan State University Extension case study described here presents a…

  6. Extension System Reform and the Challenges Ahead

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Rivera, William M.; Alex, Gary

    2004-01-01

    Public agricultural extension services around the world are being pressured to adapt to new funding constraints and a changing agricultural sector. The global perspective on extension is no longer that of a unified public sector service, but of a multi-institutional network of knowledge and information support for rural people. This reality and…

  7. Farmer Experience of Pluralistic Agricultural Extension, Malawi

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Chowa, Clodina; Garforth, Chris; Cardey, Sarah

    2013-01-01

    Purpose: Malawi's current extension policy supports pluralism and advocates responsiveness to farmer demand. We investigate whether smallholder farmers' experience supports the assumption that access to multiple service providers leads to extension and advisory services that respond to the needs of farmers. Design/methodology/approach: Within a…

  8. A New Funding Model for Extension

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Brown, Paul W.; Otto, Daniel M.; Ouart, Michael D.

    2006-01-01

    The traditional funding model of the Cooperative Extension System has been stretched to its limits by increasing demand for information and programs without concurrent increases in funding by the public sector. As the social, economic, and political environments have evolved and become more complex, extension is often asked to apply the expertise…

  9. Extension - A Risk Taken in the Revolution

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    McNeil, Donald R.

    1970-01-01

    Extension institutions should take a risk and pool their resources with those of vocational-technical institutes, high schools, private schools, outside industries or government to advise the best possible educational programs for all the people. Extension needs money, support, commitment, and the will to take risks now. (DM)

  10. Creating Teams Increases Extension Educator Productivity

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Chalker-Scott, Linda; Daniels, Catherine H.; Martini, Nicole

    2016-01-01

    The Garden Team at Washington State University is a transdisciplinary group of faculty, staff, and students with expertise in applied plant and soil sciences and an interest in Extension education. The team's primary mission is to create current, relevant, and peer-reviewed materials as Extension publications for home gardeners. The average yearly…

  11. Extension Sustainability Camp: Design, Implementation, and Evaluation

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Brain, Roslynn; Upton, Sally; Tingey, Brett

    2015-01-01

    Sustainability Camps provide an opportunity for Extension educators to be in the forefront of sustainability outreach and to meet the growing demand for sustainability education. This article shares development, implementation, and evaluation of an Extension Sustainability Camp for youth, grades 4-6. Camp impact was measured via daily pre-and…

  12. Extensive Reading Quizzes and Reading Attitudes

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Stoeckel, Tim; Reagan, Nevitt; Hann, Fergus

    2012-01-01

    Extensive reading (ER) has become a common feature of many English as a second or foreign language (ESL/EFL) programs. There is evidence that reading large amounts of easy, interesting material may improve foreign language skills, most notably in vocabulary, reading rates, and overall proficiency. However, teacher evaluation of extensive reading…

  13. 10 CFR 905.33 - Extension formula.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-01-01

    ... 10 Energy 4 2010-01-01 2010-01-01 false Extension formula. 905.33 Section 905.33 Energy DEPARTMENT OF ENERGY ENERGY PLANNING AND MANAGEMENT PROGRAM Power Marketing Initiative § 905.33 Extension formula. (a) The amount of power to be extended to an existing customer shall be determined according...

  14. Small Businessmen's Perceptions of University Extension.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Douglah, Mohammad A.; Dopp, Arvid D.

    A survey was made in Clark County, Wisconsin, of small businessmen's knowledge and perception of university extension. The businessmen appeared most knowledgeable about Extension programs offered through mass media, but less knowledgeable about local staff affiliation and relationship to the University of Wisconsin. They participated in Extension…

  15. Effective Use of Facebook for Extension Professionals

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Mains, Mark; Jenkins-Howard, Brooke; Stephenson, Laura

    2013-01-01

    As the use of social media increases, Extension is challenged to stay relevant with cliental by using digital tools. This article illustrates how Facebook can be part of Extension's repertoire of methods for communication, program implementation, education, and marketing. This allows professionals to build social networking capacity with…

  16. Community Leadership Development: Implications for Extension.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Northeast Regional Center for Rural Development, University Park, PA.

    Designed for extension personnel who are involved in community leadership (CL) programs, this publication summarizes recent national efforts that could be useful in developing and conducting CL programs, and current leadership theory and literature. Part 1 reports the results of the national survey, initiated in April 1985, of extension staff…

  17. Extensive Reading: Students' Performance and Perception

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Fernandez de Morgado, Nelly

    2009-01-01

    Reading is thought to be a crucial skill in the EFL learning process, and Extensive Reading a very useful strategy. However, very few teachers implement it on a regular basis. The process of introducing Extensive Reading (ER) is considered far too expensive, complicated, and time-consuming. One way to encourage its use would be to more deeply…

  18. Developing a Roadmap for Excellence in Extension

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Saunders, Kristine S.; Reese, Diane

    2011-01-01

    Trying to figure out the promotion and tenure system is one of the major stressors for new Extension faculty. To help new county-based Extension faculty, their supervisors, committee chairs, and other mentors evaluate progress in the probationary years, a Roadmap with specific guideposts delineating expectations for pre-tenure years was developed.…

  19. 1890 Institutions' Extension Program and Rural Development.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Brown, Adell, Jr.

    The extension role of Tuskegee Institute and the 16 black land grant colleges established by the Morrill Act of 1890 has been to diffuse among the non-university citizens of America useful and practical information on agriculture, home economics, and related areas. Tuskegee's extension efforts began in 1880 and flourished under the leadership of…

  20. Graduate Students Serve Extension as Evaluation Consultants

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    McClure, Megan; Fuhrman, Nicholas E.

    2011-01-01

    In an effort to provide graduate students at a distance with field-based learning experiences and evaluation resources to statewide Extension programs, 24 Master's students participating in a distance-delivered program evaluation course served as evaluation consultants for Extension programs. State evaluation specialists unable to conduct…