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Sample records for minimally cognitive individuals

  1. Population dynamics of minimally cognitive individuals. Part I: Introducing knowledge into the dynamics

    SciTech Connect

    Schmieder, R.W.

    1995-07-01

    The author presents a new approach for modeling the dynamics of collections of objects with internal structure. Based on the fact that the behavior of an individual in a population is modified by its knowledge of other individuals, a procedure for accounting for knowledge in a population of interacting objects is presented. It is assumed that each object has partial (or complete) knowledge of some (or all) other objects in the population. The dynamical equations for the objects are then modified to include the effects of this pairwise knowledge. This procedure has the effect of projecting out what the population will do from the much larger space of what it could do, i.e., filtering or smoothing the dynamics by replacing the complex detailed physical model with an effective model that produces the behavior of interest. The procedure therefore provides a minimalist approach for obtaining emergent collective behavior. The use of knowledge as a dynamical quantity, and its relationship to statistical mechanics, thermodynamics, information theory, and cognition microstructure are discussed.

  2. Population dynamics of minimally cognitive individuals. Part 2: Dynamics of time-dependent knowledge

    SciTech Connect

    Schmieder, R.W.

    1995-07-01

    The dynamical principle for a population of interacting individuals with mutual pairwise knowledge, presented by the author in a previous paper for the case of constant knowledge, is extended to include the possibility that the knowledge is time-dependent. Several mechanisms are presented by which the mutual knowledge, represented by a matrix K, can be altered, leading to dynamical equations for K(t). The author presents various examples of the transient and long time asymptotic behavior of K(t) for populations of relatively isolated individuals interacting infrequently in local binary collisions. Among the effects observed in the numerical experiments are knowledge diffusion, learning transients, and fluctuating equilibria. This approach will be most appropriate to small populations of complex individuals such as simple animals, robots, computer networks, agent-mediated traffic, simple ecosystems, and games. Evidence of metastable states and intermittent switching leads them to envision a spectroscopy associated with such transitions that is independent of the specific physical individuals and the population. Such spectra may serve as good lumped descriptors of the collective emergent behavior of large classes of populations in which mutual knowledge is an important part of the dynamics.

  3. Transcending Cognitive Individualism

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Zerubavel, Eviatar; Smith, Eliot R.

    2010-01-01

    Advancing knowledge in many areas of psychology and neuroscience, underlined by dazzling images of brain scans, appear to many professionals and to the public to show that people are on the way to explaining cognition purely in terms of processes within the individual's head. Yet while such cognitive individualism still dominates the popular…

  4. Neuropsychology of cognitive ageing, minimal cognitive impairment, Alzheimer's disease, and vascular cognitive impairment.

    PubMed

    Lindeboom, Jaap; Weinstein, Henry

    2004-04-19

    In this review, the neuropsychological symptoms of different diseases in the elderly are described. After a brief explanation of relevant principles in the neuropsychological assessment of older individuals, a summary of the complex relation between ageing and cognition is presented. It may be concluded that cognitive decline is not an inevitable outcome of ageing, and may well be the result of unrecognised pathology. The term mild cognitive impairment is reserved for patients whose impairment is objectively demonstrable but is not pronounced in more than one domain of cognition and does not seriously affect activities of daily living. The initial phase of Alzheimer's disease is marked by a progressive deterioration of episodic memory. When the process advances, the impairment spreads to other functions, such as semantic memory, language and visuo-spatial ability. Vascular dementia is the second most common type of dementia; however, it is increasingly being recognised that vascular dementia is actually a heterogeneous syndrome and that several vascular pathologies can lead to cognitive deterioration. In contrast to the striking deficits produced by cortical infarcts, lesions of the subcortical white matter are mainly associated with a non-specific slowing of behaviour. Cerebrovascular disease also plays an important role in forms of cognitive decline other than dementia, and as such, it appears to be no less prevalent in old age than Alzheimer's disease. Neuropsychology is an important asset to the study and treatment of cognitive decline, but must be embedded in a multi-disciplinary context.

  5. Neurophysiological Indicators of Residual Cognitive Capacity in the Minimally Conscious State

    PubMed Central

    Hauger, Solveig L.; Schnakers, Caroline; Andersson, Stein; Becker, Frank; Moberget, Torgeir; Giacino, Joseph T.; Schanke, Anne-Kristine; Løvstad, Marianne

    2015-01-01

    Background. The diagnostic usefulness of electrophysiological methods in assessing disorders of consciousness (DoC) remains to be established on an individual patient level, and there is need to determine what constitutes robust experimental paradigm to elicit electrophysiological indices of covert cognitive capacity. Objectives. Two tasks encompassing active and passive conditions were explored in an event-related potentials (ERP) study. The task robustness was studied in healthy controls, and their utility to detect covert signs of command-following on an individual patient level was investigated in patients in a minimally conscious state (MCS). Methods. Twenty healthy controls and 20 MCS patients participated. The active tasks included (1) listening for a change of pitch in the subject's own name (SON) and (2) counting SON, both contrasted to passive conditions. Midline ERPs are reported. Results. A larger P3 response was detected in the counting task compared to active listening to pitch change in the healthy controls. On an individual level, the counting task revealed a higher rate of responders among both healthy subjects and MCS patients. Conclusion. ERP paradigms involving actively counting SON represent a robust paradigm in probing for volitional cognition in minimally conscious patients and add important diagnostic information in some patients. PMID:26504351

  6. Minimizing Confusion and Disorientation: Cognitive Support Work in Informal Dementia Caregiving

    PubMed Central

    Berry, Brandon

    2015-01-01

    Drawing from ethnographic fieldwork and in-depth interviews, I explain how informal dementia caregivers attempt to reduce the affected individual’s moments of confusion and disorientation through cognitive support work. I identify three stages through which such support takes shape and then gradually declines in usage. In a first stage, family members collaborate with affected individuals to first identify and then to avoid “triggers” that elicit sudden bouts of confusion. In a second stage, caregivers lose the effective collaboration of the affected individual and begin unilateral attempts to minimize confused states through pre-emptive conversational techniques, third-party interactional support, and social-environment shifts. In a third stage, caregivers learn that the affected individual has reached a level of impairment that does not respond well to efforts at reduction and begin abandoning strategies. I identify the motivations driving cognitive support work and discuss the role of lay health knowledge in dementia caregiving. I conclude by considering the utility of cognitive support as a concept within dementia caregiving. PMID:24984915

  7. Reading Comprehension Improvement with Individualized Cognitive Profiles and Metacognition

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Allen, Kathleen D.; Hancock, Thomas E.

    2008-01-01

    This study models improving classroom reading instruction through valid assessment and individualized metacomprehension. Individualized cognitive profiles of Woodcock-Johnson III cognitive abilities correlated with reading comprehension were used during classroom independent reading for judgments of learning, feedback, self-reflection, and…

  8. Individual variation in cognitive performance: developmental and evolutionary perspectives

    PubMed Central

    Thornton, Alex; Lukas, Dieter

    2012-01-01

    Animal cognition experiments frequently reveal striking individual variation but rarely consider its causes and largely ignore its potential consequences. Studies often focus on a subset of high-performing subjects, sometimes viewing evidence from a single individual as sufficient to demonstrate the cognitive capacity of a species. We argue that the emphasis on demonstrating species-level cognitive capacities detracts from the value of individual variation in understanding cognitive development and evolution. We consider developmental and evolutionary interpretations of individual variation and use meta-analyses of data from published studies to examine predictors of individual performance. We show that reliance on small sample sizes precludes robust conclusions about individual abilities as well as inter- and intraspecific differences. We advocate standardization of experimental protocols and pooling of data between laboratories to improve statistical rigour. Our analyses show that cognitive performance is influenced by age, sex, rearing conditions and previous experience. These effects limit the validity of comparative analyses unless developmental histories are taken into account, and complicate attempts to understand how cognitive traits are expressed and selected under natural conditions. Further understanding of cognitive evolution requires efforts to elucidate the heritability of cognitive traits and establish whether elevated cognitive performance confers fitness advantages in nature. PMID:22927576

  9. Representations in Dynamical Embodied Agents: Re-Analyzing a Minimally Cognitive Model Agent

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Mirolli, Marco

    2012-01-01

    Understanding the role of "representations" in cognitive science is a fundamental problem facing the emerging framework of embodied, situated, dynamical cognition. To make progress, I follow the approach proposed by an influential representational skeptic, Randall Beer: building artificial agents capable of minimally cognitive behaviors and…

  10. Sex Differences in Cognition in Healthy Elderly Individuals

    PubMed Central

    Munro, Cynthia A.; Winicki, Jessica M.; Schretlen, David J.; Gower, Emily W.; Turano, Kathleen A.; Muñoz, Beatriz; Keay, Lisa; Bandeen-Roche, Karen; West, Sheila K.

    2012-01-01

    Sex differences in patterns of cognitive test performance have been attributed to factors, such as sex hormones or sexual dimorphisms in brain structure, that change with normal aging. The current study examined sex differences in patterns of cognitive test performance in healthy elderly individuals. Cognitive test scores of 957 men and women (age 67–89), matched for overall level of cognitive test performance, age, education, and depression scale score, were compared. Men and women were indistinguishable on tests of auditory divided attention, category fluency, and executive functioning. In contrast, women performed better than men on tests of psychomotor speed and verbal learning and memory, whereas men outperformed women on tests of visuoconstruction and visual perception. Our finding that the pattern of sex differences in cognition observed in young adults is observed in old age has implications for future studies of both healthy elderly individuals and of those with cognitive disorders. PMID:22670852

  11. Inter-individual cognitive variability in children with Asperger's syndrome.

    PubMed

    Gonzalez-Gadea, Maria Luz; Tripicchio, Paula; Rattazzi, Alexia; Baez, Sandra; Marino, Julian; Roca, Maria; Manes, Facundo; Ibanez, Agustin

    2014-01-01

    Multiple studies have tried to establish the distinctive profile of individuals with Asperger's syndrome (AS). However, recent reports suggest that adults with AS feature heterogeneous cognitive profiles. The present study explores inter-individual variability in children with AS through group comparison and multiple case series analysis. All participants completed an extended battery including measures of fluid and crystallized intelligence, executive functions, theory of mind, and classical neuropsychological tests. Significant group differences were found in theory of mind and other domains related to global information processing. However, the AS group showed high inter-individual variability (both sub- and supra-normal performance) on most cognitive tasks. Furthermore, high fluid intelligence correlated with less general cognitive impairment, high cognitive flexibility, and speed of motor processing. In light of these findings, we propose that children with AS are characterized by a distinct, uneven pattern of cognitive strengths and weaknesses. PMID:25132817

  12. Inter-individual cognitive variability in children with Asperger's syndrome.

    PubMed

    Gonzalez-Gadea, Maria Luz; Tripicchio, Paula; Rattazzi, Alexia; Baez, Sandra; Marino, Julian; Roca, Maria; Manes, Facundo; Ibanez, Agustin

    2014-01-01

    Multiple studies have tried to establish the distinctive profile of individuals with Asperger's syndrome (AS). However, recent reports suggest that adults with AS feature heterogeneous cognitive profiles. The present study explores inter-individual variability in children with AS through group comparison and multiple case series analysis. All participants completed an extended battery including measures of fluid and crystallized intelligence, executive functions, theory of mind, and classical neuropsychological tests. Significant group differences were found in theory of mind and other domains related to global information processing. However, the AS group showed high inter-individual variability (both sub- and supra-normal performance) on most cognitive tasks. Furthermore, high fluid intelligence correlated with less general cognitive impairment, high cognitive flexibility, and speed of motor processing. In light of these findings, we propose that children with AS are characterized by a distinct, uneven pattern of cognitive strengths and weaknesses.

  13. Inter-individual cognitive variability in children with Asperger's syndrome

    PubMed Central

    Gonzalez-Gadea, Maria Luz; Tripicchio, Paula; Rattazzi, Alexia; Baez, Sandra; Marino, Julian; Roca, Maria; Manes, Facundo; Ibanez, Agustin

    2014-01-01

    Multiple studies have tried to establish the distinctive profile of individuals with Asperger's syndrome (AS). However, recent reports suggest that adults with AS feature heterogeneous cognitive profiles. The present study explores inter-individual variability in children with AS through group comparison and multiple case series analysis. All participants completed an extended battery including measures of fluid and crystallized intelligence, executive functions, theory of mind, and classical neuropsychological tests. Significant group differences were found in theory of mind and other domains related to global information processing. However, the AS group showed high inter-individual variability (both sub- and supra-normal performance) on most cognitive tasks. Furthermore, high fluid intelligence correlated with less general cognitive impairment, high cognitive flexibility, and speed of motor processing. In light of these findings, we propose that children with AS are characterized by a distinct, uneven pattern of cognitive strengths and weaknesses. PMID:25132817

  14. Elderly Individuals with Diabetes: Adding Cognitive Training to Psychoeducational Intervention

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Vianna Paulo, Debora Lee; Sanches Yassuda, Monica

    2012-01-01

    The present research examined the effects of a cognitive training program combined with psychoeducational intervention for diabetic elderly patients. Specifically, it aimed at assessing the effects of an eight-session cognitive training and educational program in diabetic elderly individuals and investigating changes in their awareness about…

  15. Are cognitive distortions associated with denial and minimization among sex offenders?

    PubMed

    Nunes, Kevin L; Jung, Sandy

    2013-04-01

    Although there has been much speculation about the relationship between cognitive distortions and denial/minimization, little research on the subject is available. The authors conducted secondary analyses on existing data sets to further examine the degree of association between various measures of cognitive distortions and denial/minimization among child molesters (Sample 1, n = 73; Sample 2, n = 42; Sample 3, n = 38) and rapists (Sample 1, n = 41; Sample 3, n = 14). Meta-analysis of the findings from Samples 1, 2, and 3 indicated that greater endorsement of cognitive distortions about sex offending in general was significantly associated with greater denial/minimization of one's own guilt and deviance (r = .24), harm to one's own victims (r = .32), one's need for treatment (r = .21), and responsibility for one's sex offenses (r = .16). Although correlated, cognitive distortions and denial/minimization, at least as typically measured, are distinct constructs.

  16. Information Processing and Dynamics in Minimally Cognitive Agents

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Beer, Randall D.; Williams, Paul L.

    2015-01-01

    There has been considerable debate in the literature about the relative merits of information processing versus dynamical approaches to understanding cognitive processes. In this article, we explore the relationship between these two styles of explanation using a model agent evolved to solve a relational categorization task. Specifically, we…

  17. Individual Cognitive Behavioral Intervention for Anger

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Rose, John L.; Dodd, Louise; Rose, Nicola

    2008-01-01

    There is growing evidence for the efficacy of programs to reduce inappropriate aggression in people with intellectual disabilities. These have been provided in groups and for individuals in forensic settings. People with intellectual disability and inappropriately expressed anger who were referred to a community psychology service were assigned to…

  18. Identifying Individual Differences: A Cognitive Styles Tool

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Sanders, Perry R.; Conti, Gary J.

    2012-01-01

    Although One-Stop Career Centers are mandated to promote client-centered services, patrons are ordinarily funneled through a standard procedure. Adult education principles suggest that these centers should be learner-centered and address individual differences. Therefore, the purpose of the this study was to describe the interaction of the…

  19. Cognitive Functional Evaluation (CFE) Process for Individuals with Suspected Cognitive Disabilities.

    PubMed

    Hartman-Maeir, Adina; Katz, Noomi; Baum, Carolyn M

    2009-01-01

    The purpose of this paper is to conceptualize the evaluation process for individuals with suspected cognitive disabilities. The Cognitive Functional Evaluation (CFE) process yields a comprehensive profile of the clients' cognitive strengths and weaknesses in occupational performance. The components of the CFE are outlined in six stages as a decision tree with examples of standardized instruments from which to choose the assessments for each client evaluated: (1) interview and background information; (2) cognitive screening and baseline status tests; (3) general measures of cognition and executive functions in occupation; (4) cognitive tests for specific domains; (5) measures of specific cognitive domains in occupations; and (6) environmental assessment. The first three stages are required to ascertain basic cognitive abilities underlying occupational performance. Tests for each stage can be chosen from the ones listed according to the client characteristics and the theory utilized, there is no need to use all of them. Once this data is available a further decision is made whether a more in-depth assessment is needed (stages (4) and (5)). The environmental component is evaluated in all instances with at least one of the assessments. The CFE process for individuals with suspected cognitive disabilities is recommended to be used by occupational therapists as a common ground for evaluation, documentation, and communicating information. PMID:23930828

  20. Individual Differences in Learning and Cognitive Abilities. Final Report.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Ackerman, Phillip L.

    This final report reviews a program of theoretical and empirical research focusing on the ability determinants of individual differences in skill acquisition. An integrative framework for information processing and cognitive ability determinants of skills is presented, along with principles for ability-skill relations. Three major patterns of…

  1. Variations in Cognitive Maps: Understanding Individual Differences in Navigation

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Weisberg, Steven M.; Schinazi, Victor R.; Newcombe, Nora S.; Shipley, Thomas F.; Epstein, Russell A.

    2014-01-01

    There are marked individual differences in the formation of cognitive maps both in the real world and in virtual environments (VE; e.g., Blajenkova, Motes, & Kozhevnikov, 2005; Chai & Jacobs, 2010; Ishikawa & Montello, 2006; Wen, Ishikawa, & Sato, 2011). These differences, however, are poorly understood and can be difficult to…

  2. Working memory delay activity predicts individual differences in cognitive abilities.

    PubMed

    Unsworth, Nash; Fukuda, Keisuke; Awh, Edward; Vogel, Edward K

    2015-05-01

    A great deal of prior research has examined the relation between estimates of working memory and cognitive abilities. Yet, the neural mechanisms that account for these relations are still not very well understood. The current study explored whether individual differences in working memory delay activity would be a significant predictor of cognitive abilities. A large number of participants performed multiple measures of capacity, attention control, long-term memory, working memory span, and fluid intelligence, and latent variable analyses were used to examine the data. During two working memory change detection tasks, we acquired EEG data and examined the contralateral delay activity. The results demonstrated that the contralateral delay activity was significantly related to cognitive abilities, and importantly these relations were because of individual differences in both capacity and attention control. These results suggest that individual differences in working memory delay activity predict individual differences in a broad range of cognitive abilities, and this is because of both differences in the number of items that can be maintained and the ability to control access to working memory. PMID:25436671

  3. Working Memory Delay Activity Predicts Individual Differences in Cognitive Abilities

    PubMed Central

    Unsworth, Nash; Fukuda, Keisuke; Awh, Edward; Vogel, Edward K.

    2015-01-01

    A great deal of prior research has examined the relation between estimates of working memory and cognitive abilities. Yet, the neural mechanisms that account for these relations are still not very well understood. The current study explored whether individual differences in working memory delay activity would be a significant predictor of cognitive abilities. A large number of participants performed multiple measures of capacity, attention control, long-term memory, working memory span, and fluid intelligence, and latent variable analyses were used to examine the data. During two working memory change detection tasks, we acquired EEG data and examined the contra-lateral delay activity. The results demonstrated that the contralateral delay activity was significantly related to cognitive abilities, and importantly these relations were because of individual differences in both capacity and attention control. These results suggest that individual differences in working memory delay activity predict individual differences in a broad range of cognitive abilities, and this is because of both differences in the number of items that can be maintained and the ability to control access to working memory. PMID:25436671

  4. Individualized Cognitive Modeling for Close-Loop Task Mitigation

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Zhang, Guangfan; Xu, Roger; Wang, Wei; Li, Jiang; Schnell, Tom; Keller, Mike

    2010-01-01

    An accurate real-time operator functional state assessment makes it possible to perform task management, minimize risks, and improve mission performance. In this paper, we discuss the development of an individualized operator functional state assessment model that identifies states likely leading to operational errors. To address large individual variations, we use two different approaches to build a model for each individual using its data as well as data from subjects with similar responses. If a subject's response is similar to that of the individual of interest in a specific functional state, all the training data from this subject will be used to build the individual model. The individualization methods have been successfully verified and validated with a driving test data set provided by University of Iowa. With the individualized models, the mean squared error can be significantly decreased (by around 20%).

  5. Childhood trauma and general cognitive ability: Roles of minimization/denial and gender.

    PubMed

    Mert, Derya Guliz; Kelleci, Meral; Yildiz, Esengul; Mizrak, Ali; Kugu, Nesim

    2016-09-30

    The aim of this study was to investigate the effects of minimization and gender on the interaction between childhood trauma and general cognitive ability. The study included 345 students. The data were obtained via an information form, the Childhood Trauma Questionnaire (CTQ), and Raven's standard progressive matrices (RSPM). The mean CTQ total score and the mean sexual abuse, physical, and emotional neglect subscale scores of the male students were significantly higher than those of the female students (p<0.05). The mean minimization score of the female students was greater than that of the male students (p<0.05). However, among the female students with minimization scores of 3, there was a moderate and significant negative correlation between the CTQ and RSPM scores (r=-0.533, p<0.05). This study found that general cognitive ability was influenced by childhood trauma among female students with higher minimization/neglect scores. The results of the current study suggest that ignoring the effects of minimization may be a misleading factor for determining the gender ratio of childhood trauma and evaluating its effect on long-term cognitive functions. PMID:27392231

  6. Autonomous indoor wayfinding for individuals with cognitive impairments

    PubMed Central

    2010-01-01

    Background A challenge to individuals with cognitive impairments in wayfinding is how to remain oriented, recall routines, and travel in unfamiliar areas in a way relying on limited cognitive capacity. While people without disabilities often use maps or written directions as navigation tools or for remaining oriented, this cognitively-impaired population is very sensitive to issues of abstraction (e.g. icons on maps or signage) and presents the designer with a challenge to tailor navigation information specific to each user and context. Methods This paper describes an approach to providing distributed cognition support of travel guidance for persons with cognitive disabilities. A solution is proposed based on passive near-field RFID tags and scanning PDAs. A prototype is built and tested in field experiments with real subjects. The unique strength of the system is the ability to provide unique-to-the-user prompts that are triggered by context. The key to the approach is to spread the context awareness across the system, with the context being flagged by the RFID tags and the appropriate response being evoked by displaying the appropriate path guidance images indexed by the intersection of specific end-user and context ID embedded in RFID tags. Results We found that passive RFIDs generally served as good context for triggering navigation prompts, although individual differences in effectiveness varied. The results of controlled experiments provided more evidence with regard to applicabilities of the proposed autonomous indoor wayfinding method. Conclusions Our findings suggest that the ability to adapt indoor wayfinding devices for appropriate timing of directions and standing orientation will be particularly important. PMID:20840786

  7. Pharmacological Cognitive Enhancement in Healthy Individuals: A Compensation for Cognitive Deficits or a Question of Personality?

    PubMed Central

    Maier, Larissa J.; Wunderli, Michael D.; Vonmoos, Matthias; Römmelt, Andreas T.; Baumgartner, Markus R.; Seifritz, Erich

    2015-01-01

    The ongoing bioethical debate on pharmacological cognitive enhancement (PCE) in healthy individuals is often legitimated by the assumption that PCE will widely spread and become desirable for the general public in the near future. This assumption was questioned as PCE is not equally save and effective in everyone. Additionally, it was supposed that the willingness to use PCE is strongly personality-dependent likely preventing a broad PCE epidemic. Thus, we investigated whether the cognitive performance and personality of healthy individuals with regular nonmedical methylphenidate (MPH) use for PCE differ from stimulant-naïve controls. Twenty-five healthy individuals using MPH for PCE were compared with 39 age-, sex-, and education-matched healthy controls regarding cognitive performance and personality assessed by a comprehensive neuropsychological test battery including social cognition, prosocial behavior, decision-making, impulsivity, and personality questionnaires. Substance use was assessed through self-report in an interview and quantitative hair and urine analyses. Recently abstinent PCE users showed no cognitive impairment but superior strategic thinking and decision-making. Furthermore, PCE users displayed higher levels of trait impulsivity, novelty seeking, and Machiavellianism combined with lower levels of social reward dependence and cognitive empathy. Finally, PCE users reported a smaller social network and exhibited less prosocial behavior in social interaction tasks. In conclusion, the assumption that PCE use will soon become epidemic is not supported by the present findings as PCE users showed a highly specific personality profile that shares a number of features with illegal stimulant users. Lastly, regular MPH use for PCE is not necessarily associated with cognitive deficits. PMID:26107846

  8. Cognitive Modeling of Individual Variation in Reference Production and Comprehension

    PubMed Central

    Hendriks, Petra

    2016-01-01

    A challenge for most theoretical and computational accounts of linguistic reference is the observation that language users vary considerably in their referential choices. Part of the variation observed among and within language users and across tasks may be explained from variation in the cognitive resources available to speakers and listeners. This paper presents a computational model of reference production and comprehension developed within the cognitive architecture ACT-R. Through simulations with this ACT-R model, it is investigated how cognitive constraints interact with linguistic constraints and features of the linguistic discourse in speakers’ production and listeners’ comprehension of referring expressions in specific tasks, and how this interaction may give rise to variation in referential choice. The ACT-R model of reference explains and predicts variation among language users in their referential choices as a result of individual and task-related differences in processing speed and working memory capacity. Because of limitations in their cognitive capacities, speakers sometimes underspecify or overspecify their referring expressions, and listeners sometimes choose incorrect referents or are overly liberal in their interpretation of referring expressions. PMID:27092101

  9. Representations in dynamical embodied agents: re-analyzing a minimally cognitive model agent.

    PubMed

    Mirolli, Marco

    2012-07-01

    Understanding the role of ''representations'' in cognitive science is a fundamental problem facing the emerging framework of embodied, situated, dynamical cognition. To make progress, I follow the approach proposed by an influential representational skeptic, Randall Beer: building artificial agents capable of minimally cognitive behaviors and assessing whether their internal states can be considered to involve representations. Hence, I operationalize the concept of representing as ''standing in,'' and I look for representations in embodied agents involved in simple categorization tasks. In a first experiment, no representation can be found, but the relevance of the task is undermined by the fact that agents with no internal states can reach high performance. A simple modification makes the task more "representationally hungry," and in this case, agents' internal states are found to qualify as representations. I conclude by discussing the benefits of reconciling the embodied-dynamical approach with the notion of representation.

  10. Synchronisation effects on the behavioural performance and information dynamics of a simulated minimally cognitive robotic agent.

    PubMed

    Moioli, Renan C; Vargas, Patricia A; Husbands, Phil

    2012-09-01

    Oscillatory activity is ubiquitous in nervous systems, with solid evidence that synchronisation mechanisms underpin cognitive processes. Nevertheless, its informational content and relationship with behaviour are still to be fully understood. In addition, cognitive systems cannot be properly appreciated without taking into account brain-body- environment interactions. In this paper, we developed a model based on the Kuramoto Model of coupled phase oscillators to explore the role of neural synchronisation in the performance of a simulated robotic agent in two different minimally cognitive tasks. We show that there is a statistically significant difference in performance and evolvability depending on the synchronisation regime of the network. In both tasks, a combination of information flow and dynamical analyses show that networks with a definite, but not too strong, propensity for synchronisation are more able to reconfigure, to organise themselves functionally and to adapt to different behavioural conditions. The results highlight the asymmetry of information flow and its behavioural correspondence. Importantly, it also shows that neural synchronisation dynamics, when suitably flexible and reconfigurable, can generate minimally cognitive embodied behaviour. PMID:22810898

  11. Improving Memory and Cognition in Individuals with Down Syndrome.

    PubMed

    Rafii, Michael S

    2016-07-01

    Down syndrome (DS), often due to trisomy 21, is the most common genetic cause of intellectual disability (ID). In addition, virtually all individuals with DS develop the neuropathology of Alzheimer's disease (AD) by the age of 40 years and almost 60 % will manifest symptoms of AD dementia by the age of 65 years. Currently, there are no pharmacological treatments available for ID in individuals with DS and only limited symptomatic treatments for AD dementia. Advances in our understanding in both the molecular basis of ID and the pathogenesis of AD have created opportunities to study potential therapeutic targets. Recent studies in animal models of DS continue to provide a rational basis for translating specific compounds into human clinical trials. However, target and compound selection are only initial steps in the drug development pathway. Other necessary considerations include appropriate study designs to assess efficacy in the DS population, as well as operational aspects specifically tailored to assess cognition in this population. We discuss recent progress in the development of compounds for both ID and AD in individuals with DS, as well as concepts for the design and conduct of clinical trials with such compounds. PMID:27272473

  12. Sensitivity of alpha band ERD to individual differences in cognition.

    PubMed

    Neubauer, Aljoscha C; Fink, Andreas; Grabner, Roland H

    2006-01-01

    According to the neural efficiency hypothesis, brighter individuals might be characterized by lower and topographically more differentiated brain activation than less intelligent individuals, presumably reflecting a more specialized recruitment of task-related areas. The findings of several studies analyzing the event-related desynchronization (ERD) in the (upper) alpha frequency band have corroborated and elaborated the original neural efficiency hypothesis. In this chapter, we review classical and recent findings and argue in favor of a more differentiated picture of this phenomenon, emphasizing the role of participants' sex, task complexity, and material specificity, as well as the importance to select an adequate external criterion (intelligence measure). Also, recent ERD findings related to emotional intelligence and creativity as well as recent studies focusing on practice, learning ability, and expertise are presented, which point to the need of a broader neurophysiological ability concept. The reviewed findings point at the high suitability of the ERD method to uncover consistent and stable individual differences in people's brain activation patterns when engaged in performing cognitively demanding tasks. PMID:17071230

  13. The structure of individual differences in the cognitive abilities of children and chimpanzees.

    PubMed

    Herrmann, Esther; Hernández-Lloreda, Maria Victoria; Call, Josep; Hare, Brian; Tomasello, Michael

    2010-01-01

    Most studies of animal cognition focus on group performance and neglect individual differences and the correlational structure of cognitive abilities. Moreover, no previous studies have compared the correlational structure of cognitive abilities in nonhuman animals and humans. We compared the structure of individual differences of 106 chimpanzees and 105 two-year-old human children using 15 cognitive tasks that posed problems about the physical or social world. We found a similar factor of spatial cognition for the two species. But whereas the chimpanzees had only a single factor in addition to spatial cognition, the children had two distinct additional factors: one for physical cognition and one for social cognition. These findings, in combination with previous research, support the proposal that humans share many cognitive skills with nonhuman apes, especially for dealing with the physical world, but in addition have evolved some specialized skills of social cognition.

  14. [Workshops for cognitive stimulation adapted for elderly illiterate individuals with mild cognitive impairment].

    PubMed

    dos Santos, Izabel Borges; Gomes, Lucy; de Matos, Neuza Moreira; do Vale, Maria Sueli; dos Santos, Fernando Borges; Cardenas, Carmen Jansen; Alves, Vicente Paulo

    2012-01-01

    The aim of this study was to assess the self-perception of memory in elderly illiterate with mild cognitive impairment, before and after workshops of cognitive stimulation adapted for illiterate individuals. The research was qualitative, held at the Health Unit of Taguatinga-DF, involving 63 elderly illiterate: 22 in the experimental group (EG), with 10 workshops; 21 in control group 1 (CG1), with 10 lectures; and 20 in the control group 2 (GC2), without intervention. Semi-structured interviews were carried on before and after the interventions, asking about memory status. The activities offered weekly to EG and CG1 have had two hours of duration. The mean age of the participants was 72.8 years, and 92% were female. In pre-intervention, 82% reported worsening memory during the last year. In post-intervention, CG1 and CG2 kept memory changes, while EG improved cognition. One concludes that the provided workshops and lectures improved functionality and socialization / integration. PMID:23559175

  15. [Beneficial effect of preferred music on cognitive functions in minimally conscious state patients].

    PubMed

    Verger, J; Ruiz, S; Tillmann, B; Ben Romdhane, M; De Quelen, M; Castro, M; Tell, L; Luauté, J; Perrin, F

    2014-11-01

    Several studies have shown that music can boost cognitive functions in normal and brain-damaged subjects. A few studies have suggested a beneficial effect of music in patients with a disorder of consciousness but it is difficult to conclude since they did not use quantified measures and a control condition/group. The aim of the present study was to compare the effect of music to that of a continuous sound on the relational behavior of patients in a minimally conscious state (MCS). Behavioral responses of six MCS patients were evaluated using items from the Coma Recovery Scale-Revised. Weekly evaluation sessions were carried out, over four weeks, under two conditions: following the presentation of either the patient's preferred music, or following a continuous sound (control condition). Qualitative and quantitative analyses showed that twelve of the eighteen sessions (66.6%) showed a better result for the music condition than for the control condition. This new protocol suggests that preferred music has a beneficial effect on the cognitive abilities of MCS patients. The results further suggest that cerebral plasticity may be enhanced in autobiographical (emotional and familiar) contexts. These findings should now be further extended with an increased number of patients to further validate the hypothesis of the beneficial effect of music on cognitive recovery. PMID:25287735

  16. [Beneficial effect of preferred music on cognitive functions in minimally conscious state patients].

    PubMed

    Verger, J; Ruiz, S; Tillmann, B; Ben Romdhane, M; De Quelen, M; Castro, M; Tell, L; Luauté, J; Perrin, F

    2014-11-01

    Several studies have shown that music can boost cognitive functions in normal and brain-damaged subjects. A few studies have suggested a beneficial effect of music in patients with a disorder of consciousness but it is difficult to conclude since they did not use quantified measures and a control condition/group. The aim of the present study was to compare the effect of music to that of a continuous sound on the relational behavior of patients in a minimally conscious state (MCS). Behavioral responses of six MCS patients were evaluated using items from the Coma Recovery Scale-Revised. Weekly evaluation sessions were carried out, over four weeks, under two conditions: following the presentation of either the patient's preferred music, or following a continuous sound (control condition). Qualitative and quantitative analyses showed that twelve of the eighteen sessions (66.6%) showed a better result for the music condition than for the control condition. This new protocol suggests that preferred music has a beneficial effect on the cognitive abilities of MCS patients. The results further suggest that cerebral plasticity may be enhanced in autobiographical (emotional and familiar) contexts. These findings should now be further extended with an increased number of patients to further validate the hypothesis of the beneficial effect of music on cognitive recovery.

  17. Individual Differences in Learning the Affective Value of Others Under Minimal Conditions

    PubMed Central

    Bliss-Moreau, Eliza; Barrett, Lisa Feldman; Wright, Christopher I.

    2009-01-01

    This paper provides the first demonstration that people can learn about the positive and negative value of other people (e.g., neutral faces) under minimal learning conditions, with stable individual differences in this learning. In four studies, participants viewed neutral faces paired with sentences describing positive, negative or neutral behaviors on either two (Study 1) or four (Studies 2, 3, and 4) occasions. Participants were later asked to judge the valence of the faces alone. Studies 1 and 2 demonstrated that learning does occur under minimal conditions. Study 3 and 4 further demonstrated that the degree of learning was moderated by Extraversion. Finally, Study 4 demonstrated that initial learning persisted over a period of 2 days. Implications for affective processing and person perception are discussed. PMID:18729580

  18. Identified ambivalence: When cognitive conflicts can help individuals overcome cognitive traps.

    PubMed

    Guarana, Cristiano L; Hernandez, Morela

    2016-07-01

    In this article we investigate the functional effects of ambivalence on decision-making processes. We build on the misattribution literature and recent work on ambivalence to propose that individuals who properly identify the causes of their ambivalence (i.e., identified ambivalence) can systematically process relevant situational cues to make more effective decisions. The results of 4 studies demonstrate that individuals experiencing identified ambivalence are less influenced by cognitive biases (i.e., the framing effect, availability bias, and conjunction bias) than individuals experiencing no ambivalence or felt ambivalence. Notably, we find that contextual awareness accounts for the effect of identified ambivalence on decision effectiveness. We then investigate the role of trait self-control as a specific contingency in our model; our results indicate that identified ambivalence leads to effective decisions when individuals are low in trait self-control. Taken together, we advance theory and offer robust, consistent empirical evidence that explains why and how ambivalence can result in functional outcomes. (PsycINFO Database Record PMID:26963080

  19. Identified ambivalence: When cognitive conflicts can help individuals overcome cognitive traps.

    PubMed

    Guarana, Cristiano L; Hernandez, Morela

    2016-07-01

    In this article we investigate the functional effects of ambivalence on decision-making processes. We build on the misattribution literature and recent work on ambivalence to propose that individuals who properly identify the causes of their ambivalence (i.e., identified ambivalence) can systematically process relevant situational cues to make more effective decisions. The results of 4 studies demonstrate that individuals experiencing identified ambivalence are less influenced by cognitive biases (i.e., the framing effect, availability bias, and conjunction bias) than individuals experiencing no ambivalence or felt ambivalence. Notably, we find that contextual awareness accounts for the effect of identified ambivalence on decision effectiveness. We then investigate the role of trait self-control as a specific contingency in our model; our results indicate that identified ambivalence leads to effective decisions when individuals are low in trait self-control. Taken together, we advance theory and offer robust, consistent empirical evidence that explains why and how ambivalence can result in functional outcomes. (PsycINFO Database Record

  20. Cognitive Reappraisal Self-Efficacy Mediates the Effects of Individual Cognitive-Behavioral Therapy for Social Anxiety Disorder

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Goldin, Philippe R.; Ziv, Michal; Jazaieri, Hooria; Werner, Kelly; Kraemer, Helena; Heimberg, Richard G.; Gross, James J.

    2012-01-01

    Objective: To examine whether changes in cognitive reappraisal self-efficacy (CR-SE) mediate the effects of individually administered cognitive-behavioral therapy (I-CBT) for social anxiety disorder (SAD) on severity of social anxiety symptoms. Method: A randomized controlled trial in which 75 adult patients (21-55 years of age; 53% male; 57%…

  1. The Influences of Cognitive Styles on Individual Learning and Collaborative Learning

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Chen, Sherry Y.; Chang, Li-Ping

    2016-01-01

    Both individual learning (IL) and collaborative learning (CL) provide students with different benefits. However, previous research indicates that cognitive styles affect students' learning preferences. Thus, it is necessary to examine how cognitive styles influence students' reactions to IL and CL. Among various cognitive styles, Pask's…

  2. The Assessment of Meta-Cognition in Different Contexts: Individualized vs. Peer Assisted Learning

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Shamir, Adina; Mevarech, Zemira R.; Gida, Carmit

    2009-01-01

    This study investigated the effectiveness of assessing young children's meta-cognition in different contexts (i.e., individual learning (IL), peer assisted learning (PAL) and self-reports). Additionally, the contributions of declarative and procedural meta-cognition in IL and PAL, TOM and language ability on children's cognitive performance…

  3. Band target entropy minimization for retrieving the information of individual components from overlapping chromatographic data.

    PubMed

    Xia, Zhenzhen; Liu, Yan; Cai, Wensheng; Shao, Xueguang

    2015-09-11

    Band target entropy minimization (BTEM) is a self-modeling curve resolution (SMCR) approach relying on non-negative criterion and minimization of Shannon entropy. In this study, BTEM algorithm was applied to retrieving the information of individual components from overlapping gas chromatography-mass spectrometry (GC-MS) data. The algorithm starts with dividing the whole data into bands along the retention time. In each band, singular value decomposition (SVD) is used to decompose the data into scores and loadings. Because the pure chromatographic signal possesses the lowest Shannon entropy, the chromatographic signal of each component can be constructed by optimizing the combination of the loadings with minimal Shannon entropy under non-negative criterion. To show the efficiency of the algorithm, a simulated four-component overlapping GC-MS data and an experimental GC-MS data of 18 organophosphorus pesticide mixture are investigated. The results show that both the chromatographic profiles and mass spectra of the components can be successfully extracted from the overlapping signals.

  4. Computerized and virtual reality cognitive training for individuals at high risk of cognitive decline: systematic review of the literature.

    PubMed

    Coyle, Hannah; Traynor, Victoria; Solowij, Nadia

    2015-04-01

    The aim of this study was to assess the efficacy of cognitive training, specifically computerized cognitive training (CCT) and virtual reality cognitive training (VRCT), programs for individuals living with mild cognitive impairment (MCI) or dementia and therefore at high risk of cognitive decline. After searching a range of academic databases (CINHAL, PSYCinfo, and Web of Science), the studies evaluated (N = 16) were categorized as CCT (N = 10), VRCT (N = 3), and multimodal interventions (N = 3). Effect sizes were calculated, but a meta-analysis was not possible because of the large variability of study design and outcome measures adopted. The cognitive domains of attention, executive function, and memory (visual and verbal) showed the most consistent improvements. The positive effects on psychological outcomes (N = 6) were significant reductions on depressive symptoms (N = 3) and anxiety (N = 2) and improved perceived use of memory strategy (N = 1). Assessments of activities of daily living demonstrated no significant improvements (N = 8). Follow-up studies (N = 5) demonstrated long-term improvements in cognitive and psychological outcomes (N = 3), and the intervention groups showed a plateau effect of cognitive functioning compared with the cognitive decline experienced by control groups (N = 2). CCT and VRCT were moderately effective in long-term improvement of cognition for those at high risk of cognitive decline. Total intervention time did not mediate efficacy. Future research needs to improve study design by including larger samples, longitudinal designs, and a greater range of outcome measures, including functional and quality of life measures, to assess the wider effect of cognitive training on individuals at high risk of cognitive decline.

  5. [Cognitive decline in elderly individuals with type 2 diabetes mellitus].

    PubMed

    Sakurai, Takashi

    2013-11-01

    Cognitive decline in diabetes impairs the activity of daily living and shortens the healthy life expectancy. Once diabetes is accompanied by demented disorders, it becomes difficult to achieve good control of diabetes. Treatment for diabetes and demented disease should be provided concomitantly, because cognitive dysfunction worsens diabetic control and hyperglycemia worsens cognitive function vice versa, resulting in increased risks of acute metabolic failure. Compliance to medical treatment of diabetes is seriously impaired in the elderly with cognitive decline. Comprehensive approach with several medical specialists and care stuffs is thus needed. This manuscript briefly summaries the recent evidence for target of glycemic control and appropriate use of anti-diabetic medication in diabetic elderly with cognitive impairment.

  6. Individual differences in drivers' cognitive processing of road safety messages.

    PubMed

    Kaye, Sherrie-Anne; White, Melanie J; Lewis, Ioni M

    2013-01-01

    acceptance measures. As predicted, the degree of initial processing of the content of the social gain-framed message mediated the relationship between the reward sensitive trait and message effectiveness. Initial processing of the physical loss-framed message partially mediated the relationship between the punishment sensitive trait and both message effectiveness and behavioural intention ratings. These results show that reward sensitivity and punishment sensitivity traits influence cognitive processing of gain-framed and loss-framed message content, respectively, and subsequently, message effectiveness and behavioural intention ratings. Specifically, a range of road safety messages (i.e., gain-frame and loss-frame messages) could be designed which align with the processing biases associated with personality and which would target those individuals who are sensitive to rewards and those who are sensitive to punishments.

  7. Individual differences in drivers' cognitive processing of road safety messages.

    PubMed

    Kaye, Sherrie-Anne; White, Melanie J; Lewis, Ioni M

    2013-01-01

    acceptance measures. As predicted, the degree of initial processing of the content of the social gain-framed message mediated the relationship between the reward sensitive trait and message effectiveness. Initial processing of the physical loss-framed message partially mediated the relationship between the punishment sensitive trait and both message effectiveness and behavioural intention ratings. These results show that reward sensitivity and punishment sensitivity traits influence cognitive processing of gain-framed and loss-framed message content, respectively, and subsequently, message effectiveness and behavioural intention ratings. Specifically, a range of road safety messages (i.e., gain-frame and loss-frame messages) could be designed which align with the processing biases associated with personality and which would target those individuals who are sensitive to rewards and those who are sensitive to punishments. PMID:22608267

  8. Neurophysiological assessment for evaluating residual cognition in vegetative and minimally conscious state patients: a pilot study

    PubMed Central

    De Salvo, Simona; Caminiti, Fabrizia; Bonanno, Lilla; De Cola, Maria Cristina; Corallo, Francesco; Caizzone, Antonino; Rifici, Carmela; Bramanti, Placido; Marino, Silvia

    2015-01-01

    Summary The aim of this study was to assess residual cognitive function and perform outcome evaluation in vegetative state (VS) and minimally conscious state (MCS) patients, using Neurowave, a system able to monitor event-related potentials (ERPs) induced by neurosensory stimulation. Eleven VS and five MCS patients underwent neurological examination and clinical evaluation performed using validated clinical and behavioral scales; they also underwent neurosensory stimulation, which consisted of administration of target images (rare stimuli), relevant to the patient’s personal history and having emotional significance, alternated with non-target images (“standard” stimuli), which had no emotional significance. All simultaneous ERP responses at baseline (T0) and at three months from T0 (T1) were recorded. At T0 we found significant differences between the VS and MCS patients for the N200 (p=0.02) and P300 (p=0.04) waves. The neurophysiological analysis at T1 showed a significant difference only for P300 (p=0.02), probably due to the improvements observed in the VS subjects for the N100 (p=0.009) and N200 (p=0.02) sensory components. Our findings seem to show the value of ERP monitoring in VS and MCS patients as a means of investigating residual cognitive function. This approach could guide early therapeutic and rehabilitation interventions, and contribute to identifying better diagnostic and prognostic markers for use in unresponsive or low-responsive patients. PMID:26727702

  9. Individual responses to methylphenidate and caffeine in children with minimal brain dysfunction.

    PubMed Central

    Garfinkel, B. D.; Webster, C. D.; Sloman, L.

    1975-01-01

    Eight children with minimal brain dysfunction were studied for their individual responses to two stimulant medications--methylphenidate hydrochloride and caffeine citrate. Four types of behavioural responses were observed in the double-blind crossover experiment: four children responded favourably to both psychostimulants, one responded to methylphenidate alone and two responded to the placebo. The behaviour of one child deteriorated while he was taking methylphenidate and caffeine. In general, methylphenidate was superior to caffeine in diminishing hyperactive and aggressive behaviour. It is apparent that such stimulant medication exerts its therapeutic effects in these two areas primarily and would therefore be useful as one aspect of a complete treatment program for children with this syndrome. PMID:803184

  10. Individual differences in perceiving and recognizing faces-One element of social cognition.

    PubMed

    Wilhelm, Oliver; Herzmann, Grit; Kunina, Olga; Danthiir, Vanessa; Schacht, Annekathrin; Sommer, Werner

    2010-09-01

    Recognizing faces swiftly and accurately is of paramount importance to humans as a social species. Individual differences in the ability to perform these tasks may therefore reflect important aspects of social or emotional intelligence. Although functional models of face cognition based on group and single case studies postulate multiple component processes, little is known about the ability structure underlying individual differences in face cognition. In 2 large individual differences experiments (N = 151 and N = 209), a broad variety of face-cognition tasks were tested and the component abilities of face cognition-face perception, face memory, and the speed of face cognition-were identified and then replicated. Experiment 2 also showed that the 3 face-cognition abilities are clearly distinct from immediate and delayed memory, mental speed, general cognitive ability, and object cognition. These results converge with functional and neuroanatomical models of face cognition by demonstrating the difference between face perception and face memory. The results also underline the importance of distinguishing between speed and accuracy of face cognition. Together our results provide a first step toward establishing face-processing abilities as an independent ability reflecting elements of social intelligence. PMID:20677889

  11. Cognitive Function in Individuals with Atypical Pubertal Development.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Rovet, Joanne F.; And Others

    A study of 55 growth-disturbed children, aged 8-17, was conducted to assess how rate of physical maturation and pubertal development influences cognitive and neuropsychological functioning. The sample included 27 boys with short stature and delayed pubertal development (SSB), 15 girls with delayed puberty (DPG), and 13 girls with precocious…

  12. Loss of Fornix White Matter Volume as a Predictor of Cognitive Impairment in Cognitively Normal Elderly Individuals

    PubMed Central

    Fletcher, Evan; Raman, Mekala; Huebner, Philip; Liu, Amy; Mungas, Dan; Carmichael, Owen; DeCarli, Charles

    2014-01-01

    IMPORTANCE Magnetic resonance imaging markers of incipient cognitive decline among healthy elderly individuals have become important for both clarifying the biological underpinnings of dementia and clinically identifying healthy individuals at high risk of cognitive decline. Even though the role of hippocampal atrophy is well known in the later stages of decline, the ability of fornix-hippocampal markers to predict the earliest clinical deterioration is less clear. OBJECTIVES To examine the involvement of the hippocampus-fornix circuit in the very earliest stages of cognitive impairment and to determine whether the volumes of fornix white matter and hippocampal gray matter would be useful markers for understanding the onset of dementia and for clinical intervention. DESIGN A longitudinal cohort of cognitively normal elderly participants received clinical evaluations with T1-weighted magnetic resonance imaging and diffusivity scans during repeated visits over an average of 4 years. Regression and Cox proportional hazards models were used to analyze the relationships between fornix and hippocampal measures and their predictive power for incidence and time of conversion from normal to impaired cognition. SETTING A cohort of community-recruited elderly individuals at the Alzheimer Disease Center of the University of California, Davis. PARTICIPANTS A total of 102 cognitively normal elderly participants, with an average age of 73 years, recruited through community outreach using methods designed to enhance ethnic diversity. MAIN OUTCOMES AND MEASURES Our preliminary hypothesis was that fornix white matter volume should be a significant predictor of cognitive decline among normal elderly individuals and that fornix measures would be associated with gray matter changes in the hippocampus. RESULTS Fornix body volume and axial diffusivity were highly significant predictors (P = .02 and .005, respectively) of cognitive decline from normal cognition. Hippocampal volume was not

  13. The latent structure of cognitive and emotional empathy in individuals with autism, first-degree relatives and typical individuals

    PubMed Central

    2014-01-01

    Background Empathy is a vital component for social understanding involving the ability to recognise emotion (cognitive empathy) and provide an appropriate affective response (emotional empathy). Autism spectrum conditions have been described as disorders of empathy. First-degree relatives may show some mild traits of the autism spectrum, the broader autism phenotype (BAP). Whether both cognitive and emotional empathy, rather than cognitive empathy alone, are impaired in autism and the BAP is still under debate. Moreover the association between various aspects of empathy is unclear. This study aims to examine the relationship between different components of empathy across individuals with varying levels of genetic vulnerability to autism. Methods Factor analyses utilising questionnaire and performance-based task data were implemented among individuals with autism, parents of a child with autism and controls. The relationship between performance-based tasks and behavioural measures of empathy was also explored. Results A four-factor model including cognitive empathy, emotional empathy, social skills and a performance-based factor fitted the data best irrespective of genetic vulnerability. Individuals with autism displayed impairment on all four factors, with parents showing intermediate difficulties. Performance-based measures of empathy were related in almost equal magnitude to cognitive and emotional empathy latent factors and the social skills factor. Conclusions This study suggests individuals with autism have difficulties with multiple facets of empathy, while parents show intermediate impairments, providing evidence for a quantitative BAP. Impaired scores on performance-based measures of empathy, often thought to be pure measures of cognitive empathy, were also related to much wider empathy difficulties than impairments in cognitive empathy alone. PMID:25101164

  14. Cognitive Style as Environmentally Sensitive Individual Differences in Cognition: A Modern Synthesis and Applications in Education, Business, and Management.

    PubMed

    Kozhevnikov, Maria; Evans, Carol; Kosslyn, Stephen M

    2014-05-01

    The key aims of this article are to relate the construct of cognitive style to current theories in cognitive psychology and neuroscience and to outline a framework that integrates the findings on individual differences in cognition across different disciplines. First, we characterize cognitive style as patterns of adaptation to the external world that develop on the basis of innate predispositions, the interactions among which are shaped by changing environmental demands. Second, we show that research on cognitive style in psychology and cross-cultural neuroscience, on learning styles in education, and on decision-making styles in business and management all address the same phenomena. Third, we review cognitive-psychology and neuroscience research that supports the validity of the concept of cognitive style. Fourth, we show that various styles from disparate disciplines can be organized into a single taxonomy. This taxonomy allows us to integrate all the well-documented cognitive, learning, and decision-making styles; all of these style types correspond to adaptive systems that draw on different levels of information processing. Finally, we discuss how the proposed approach might promote greater coherence in research and application in education, in business and management, and in other disciplines.

  15. Cognitive Style as Environmentally Sensitive Individual Differences in Cognition: A Modern Synthesis and Applications in Education, Business, and Management.

    PubMed

    Kozhevnikov, Maria; Evans, Carol; Kosslyn, Stephen M

    2014-05-01

    The key aims of this article are to relate the construct of cognitive style to current theories in cognitive psychology and neuroscience and to outline a framework that integrates the findings on individual differences in cognition across different disciplines. First, we characterize cognitive style as patterns of adaptation to the external world that develop on the basis of innate predispositions, the interactions among which are shaped by changing environmental demands. Second, we show that research on cognitive style in psychology and cross-cultural neuroscience, on learning styles in education, and on decision-making styles in business and management all address the same phenomena. Third, we review cognitive-psychology and neuroscience research that supports the validity of the concept of cognitive style. Fourth, we show that various styles from disparate disciplines can be organized into a single taxonomy. This taxonomy allows us to integrate all the well-documented cognitive, learning, and decision-making styles; all of these style types correspond to adaptive systems that draw on different levels of information processing. Finally, we discuss how the proposed approach might promote greater coherence in research and application in education, in business and management, and in other disciplines. PMID:26171827

  16. Reducing Individual Variation for fMRI Studies in Children by Minimizing Template Related Errors.

    PubMed

    Weng, Jian; Dong, Shanshan; He, Hongjian; Chen, Feiyan; Peng, Xiaogang

    2015-01-01

    Spatial normalization is an essential process for group comparisons in functional MRI studies. In practice, there is a risk of normalization errors particularly in studies involving children, seniors or diseased populations and in regions with high individual variation. One way to minimize normalization errors is to create a study-specific template based on a large sample size. However, studies with a large sample size are not always feasible, particularly for children studies. The performance of templates with a small sample size has not been evaluated in fMRI studies in children. In the current study, this issue was encountered in a working memory task with 29 children in two groups. We compared the performance of different templates: a study-specific template created by the experimental population, a Chinese children template and the widely used adult MNI template. We observed distinct differences in the right orbitofrontal region among the three templates in between-group comparisons. The study-specific template and the Chinese children template were more sensitive for the detection of between-group differences in the orbitofrontal cortex than the MNI template. Proper templates could effectively reduce individual variation. Further analysis revealed a correlation between the BOLD contrast size and the norm index of the affine transformation matrix, i.e., the SFN, which characterizes the difference between a template and a native image and differs significantly across subjects. Thereby, we proposed and tested another method to reduce individual variation that included the SFN as a covariate in group-wise statistics. This correction exhibits outstanding performance in enhancing detection power in group-level tests. A training effect of abacus-based mental calculation was also demonstrated, with significantly elevated activation in the right orbitofrontal region that correlated with behavioral response time across subjects in the trained group. PMID:26207985

  17. Reducing Individual Variation for fMRI Studies in Children by Minimizing Template Related Errors.

    PubMed

    Weng, Jian; Dong, Shanshan; He, Hongjian; Chen, Feiyan; Peng, Xiaogang

    2015-01-01

    Spatial normalization is an essential process for group comparisons in functional MRI studies. In practice, there is a risk of normalization errors particularly in studies involving children, seniors or diseased populations and in regions with high individual variation. One way to minimize normalization errors is to create a study-specific template based on a large sample size. However, studies with a large sample size are not always feasible, particularly for children studies. The performance of templates with a small sample size has not been evaluated in fMRI studies in children. In the current study, this issue was encountered in a working memory task with 29 children in two groups. We compared the performance of different templates: a study-specific template created by the experimental population, a Chinese children template and the widely used adult MNI template. We observed distinct differences in the right orbitofrontal region among the three templates in between-group comparisons. The study-specific template and the Chinese children template were more sensitive for the detection of between-group differences in the orbitofrontal cortex than the MNI template. Proper templates could effectively reduce individual variation. Further analysis revealed a correlation between the BOLD contrast size and the norm index of the affine transformation matrix, i.e., the SFN, which characterizes the difference between a template and a native image and differs significantly across subjects. Thereby, we proposed and tested another method to reduce individual variation that included the SFN as a covariate in group-wise statistics. This correction exhibits outstanding performance in enhancing detection power in group-level tests. A training effect of abacus-based mental calculation was also demonstrated, with significantly elevated activation in the right orbitofrontal region that correlated with behavioral response time across subjects in the trained group.

  18. Creatine supplementation and cognitive performance in elderly individuals.

    PubMed

    McMorris, Terry; Mielcarz, Gregorsz; Harris, Roger C; Swain, Jonathan P; Howard, Alan

    2007-09-01

    The purpose of this study was to examine the effect of creatine supplementation on the cognitive performance of elderly people. Participants were divided into two groups, which were tested on random number generation, forward and backward number and spatial recall, and long-term memory tasks to establish a baseline level. Group 1 (n = 15) were given 5 g four times a day of placebo for 1 week, followed by the same dosage of creatine for the second week. Group 2 (n = 17) were given placebo both weeks. Participants were retested at the end of each week. Results showed a significant effect of creatine supplementation on all tasks except backward number recall. It was concluded that creatine supplementation aids cognition in the elderly.

  19. Neuropsychological, Cognitive, and Theoretical Considerations for Evaluation of Bilingual Individuals

    PubMed Central

    Mindt, Monica Rivera; Arentoft, Alyssa; Germano, Kaori Kubo; D'Aquila, Erica; Scheiner, Diane; Pizzirusso, Maria; Sandoval, Tiffany C.; Gollan, Tamar H.

    2008-01-01

    As the number of bilinguals in the USA grows rapidly, it is increasingly important for neuropsychologists to be equipped and trained to address the unique challenges inherent in conducting ethical and competent neuropsychological evaluations with this population. Research on bilingualism has focused on two key cognitive mechanisms that introduce differences between bilinguals and monolinguals: (a) reduced frequency of language-specific use (weaker links), and (b) competition for selection within the language system in bilinguals (interference). Both mechanisms are needed to explain how bilingualism affects neuropsychological test performance, including the robust bilingual disadvantages found on verbal tasks, and more subtle bilingual advantages on some measures of cognitive control. These empirical results and theoretical claims can be used to derive a theoretically informed method for assessing cognitive status in bilinguals. We present specific considerations for measuring degree of bilingualism for both clients and examiners to aid in determinations of approaches to testing bilinguals, with practical guidelines for incorporating models of bilingualism and recent experimental data into neuropsychological evaluations. This integrated approach promises to provide improved clinical services for bilingual clients, and will also contribute to a program of research that will ultimately reveal the mechanisms underlying language processing and executive functioning in bilinguals and monolinguals alike. PMID:18841477

  20. Neuropsychological, cognitive, and theoretical considerations for evaluation of bilingual individuals.

    PubMed

    Rivera Mindt, Monica; Arentoft, Alyssa; Kubo Germano, Kaori; D'Aquila, Erica; Scheiner, Diane; Pizzirusso, Maria; Sandoval, Tiffany C; Gollan, Tamar H

    2008-09-01

    As the number of bilinguals in the USA grows rapidly, it is increasingly important for neuropsychologists to be equipped and trained to address the unique challenges inherent in conducting ethical and competent neuropsychological evaluations with this population. Research on bilingualism has focused on two key cognitive mechanisms that introduce differences between bilinguals and monolinguals: (a) reduced frequency of language-specific use (weaker links), and (b) competition for selection within the language system in bilinguals (interference). Both mechanisms are needed to explain how bilingualism affects neuropsychological test performance, including the robust bilingual disadvantages found on verbal tasks, and more subtle bilingual advantages on some measures of cognitive control. These empirical results and theoretical claims can be used to derive a theoretically informed method for assessing cognitive status in bilinguals. We present specific considerations for measuring degree of bilingualism for both clients and examiners to aid in determinations of approaches to testing bilinguals, with practical guidelines for incorporating models of bilingualism and recent experimental data into neuropsychological evaluations. This integrated approach promises to provide improved clinical services for bilingual clients, and will also contribute to a program of research that will ultimately reveal the mechanisms underlying language processing and executive functioning in bilinguals and monolinguals alike.

  1. Sensitivity and Specificity of the Montreal Cognitive Assessment Modified for Individuals Who Are Visually Impaired

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Wittich, Walter; Phillips, Natalie; Nasreddine, Ziad S.; Chertkow, Howard

    2010-01-01

    Evaluating the cognitive status of individuals who are visually impaired is limited by the design of the test that is used. This article presents data on the sensitivity and specificity of the version of the Montreal Cognitive Assessment for people who are visually impaired. The original validation data were reanalyzed, excluding the five visual…

  2. Cognitive Flexibility among Individuals with Down Syndrome: Assessing the Influence of Verbal and Nonverbal Abilities

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Campbell, Colin; Landry, Oriane; Russo, Natalie; Flores, Heidi; Jacques, Sophie; Burack, Jacob A.

    2013-01-01

    The influences of verbal mental age (VMA) and performance mental age (PMA) on cognitive flexibility were examined among a group of participants with Down syndrome (DS), in order to disentangle the relative contributions of each. The impaired cognitive flexibility typically observed among individuals with DS in combination with uneven VMA and PMA…

  3. The Addition of an Individualized Cognitive Intervention to a Standardized Behavioral Intervention for Obesity.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    DeLucia, Janice L.; Kalodner, Cynthia R.

    This study examined the effectiveness of the addition of a cognitive intervention based on individualized assessment to a behavioral intervention for obesity. Overweight subjects (N=63) were randomly assigned to either a behavioral intervention or a behavioral intervention combined with a cognitive intervention which focused on changing specific…

  4. The Role of Affective and Cognitive Individual Differences in Social Perception.

    PubMed

    Aquino, Antonio; Haddock, Geoffrey; Maio, Gregory R; Wolf, Lukas J; Alparone, Francesca R

    2016-06-01

    Three studies explored the connection between social perception processes and individual differences in the use of affective and cognitive information in relation to attitudes. Study 1 revealed that individuals high in need for affect (NFA) accentuated differences in evaluations of warm and cold traits, whereas individuals high in need for cognition (NFC) accentuated differences in evaluations of competent and incompetent traits. Study 2 revealed that individual differences in NFA predicted liking of warm or cold targets, whereas individual differences in NFC predicted perceptions of competent or incompetent targets. Furthermore, the effects of NFA and NFC were independent of structural bases and meta-bases of attitudes. Study 3 revealed that differences in the evaluation of warm and cold traits mediated the effects of NFA and NFC on liking of targets. The implications for social perception processes and for individual differences in affect-cognition are discussed. PMID:27460272

  5. Individually modifiable risk factors to ameliorate cognitive aging: a systematic review and meta-analysis.

    PubMed

    Lehert, P; Villaseca, P; Hogervorst, E; Maki, P M; Henderson, V W

    2015-10-01

    A number of health and lifestyle factors are thought to contribute to cognitive decline associated with age but cannot be easily modified by the individual patient. We identified 12 individually modifiable interventions that can be implemented during midlife or later with the potential to ameliorate cognitive aging. For ten of these, we used PubMed databases for a systematic review of long-duration (at least 6 months), randomized, controlled trials in midlife and older adults without dementia or mild cognitive impairment with objective measures of neuropsychological performance. Using network meta-analysis, we performed a quantitative synthesis for global cognition (primary outcome) and episodic memory (secondary outcome). Of 1038 publications identified by our search strategy, 24 eligible trials were included in the network meta-analysis. Results suggested that the Mediterranean diet supplemented by olive oil and tai chi exercise may improve global cognition, and the Mediterranean diet plus olive oil and soy isoflavone supplements may improve memory. Effect sizes were no more than small (standardized mean differences 0.11-0.22). Cognitive training may have cognitive benefit as well. Most individually modifiable risk factors have not yet been adequately studied. We conclude that some interventions that can be self-initiated by healthy midlife and older adults may ameliorate cognitive aging. PMID:26361790

  6. Individually modifiable risk factors to ameliorate cognitive aging: a systematic review and meta-analysis.

    PubMed

    Lehert, P; Villaseca, P; Hogervorst, E; Maki, P M; Henderson, V W

    2015-10-01

    A number of health and lifestyle factors are thought to contribute to cognitive decline associated with age but cannot be easily modified by the individual patient. We identified 12 individually modifiable interventions that can be implemented during midlife or later with the potential to ameliorate cognitive aging. For ten of these, we used PubMed databases for a systematic review of long-duration (at least 6 months), randomized, controlled trials in midlife and older adults without dementia or mild cognitive impairment with objective measures of neuropsychological performance. Using network meta-analysis, we performed a quantitative synthesis for global cognition (primary outcome) and episodic memory (secondary outcome). Of 1038 publications identified by our search strategy, 24 eligible trials were included in the network meta-analysis. Results suggested that the Mediterranean diet supplemented by olive oil and tai chi exercise may improve global cognition, and the Mediterranean diet plus olive oil and soy isoflavone supplements may improve memory. Effect sizes were no more than small (standardized mean differences 0.11-0.22). Cognitive training may have cognitive benefit as well. Most individually modifiable risk factors have not yet been adequately studied. We conclude that some interventions that can be self-initiated by healthy midlife and older adults may ameliorate cognitive aging.

  7. The effectiveness of a stimulation program on cognitive capacity among individuals older than 60.

    PubMed

    Karatay, Gülnaz; Akkuş, Yeliz

    2011-02-01

    The purpose of this study was to test the effects of a multistimulant home-based intervention program on cognitive function, anxiety, and depression among older adults with cognitive impairment. This research is quasi-experimental and was designed in an effort to increase the cognitive capacity of individuals above the age of 60 with reduced cognitive capacities. Each senior received a total of seven home visits, including intervention conversation, newspaper/ book reading, painting/handcraft activities, and physical exercise. The Mini Mental State Test scores of the participants statistically increased, whereas the Beck Anxiety and the Geriatric Depression Scale scores showed a decrease (p < .05) after the intervention. Findings demonstrate that the multistimulant approach to improve cognitive capacity among individuals older than 60 years was successful. PMID:20802086

  8. Assessing cognitive insight in nonpsychiatric individuals and outpatients with schizophrenia in Taiwan: an investigation using the Beck Cognitive Insight Scale

    PubMed Central

    2011-01-01

    Background The Beck Cognitive Insight Scale (BCIS) was designed for the assessment of the cognitive processes involved in self-reflection and the ability to modify erroneous beliefs and misinterpretations. Studies investigating the factor structure of the BCIS have indicated a two-factor model in the psychotic population. The factor structure of the BCIS, however, has not received much consideration in the nonpsychiatric population. The present study examined the factor structure and validity of the BCIS and compared its scores between nonpsychiatric individuals and outpatients with psychosis. Method The Taiwanese version of the BCIS was administered to 507 nonpsychiatric individuals and 118 outpatients with schizophrenia. The psychometric properties of the BCIS were examined through the following analyses: exploratory and confirmatory factor analyses, reliability, correlation analyses, and discriminative validity. Results The BCIS showed adequate internal consistency and stability over time. Exploratory and confirmatory factor analyses on the 15-item measure indicated a two-factor solution that supported the two dimensions of the Taiwanese BCIS, which was also observed with the original BCIS. Following the construct validation, we obtained a composite index (self-reflectiveness minus self-certainty) of the Taiwanese BCIS that reflected cognitive insight. Consistent with previous studies, our results indicated that psychosis is associated with low self-reflectiveness and high self-certainty, which possibly reflect lower cognitive insight. Our results also showed that better cognitive insight is related to worse depression in patients with schizophrenia spectrum disorders, but not in nonpsychiatric individuals. The receiver operating characteristic (ROC) analyses revealed that the area under the curve (AUC) was 0.731. A composite index of 3 was a good limit, with a sensitivity of 87% and a specificity of 51%. Conclusion The BCIS proved to be useful for measuring

  9. Association of white matter hyperintensities and gray matter volume with cognition in older individuals without cognitive impairment.

    PubMed

    Arvanitakis, Zoe; Fleischman, Debra A; Arfanakis, Konstantinos; Leurgans, Sue E; Barnes, Lisa L; Bennett, David A

    2016-05-01

    Both presence of white matter hyperintensities (WMH) and smaller total gray matter volume on brain magnetic resonance imaging (MRI) are common findings in old age, and contribute to impaired cognition. We tested whether total WMH volume and gray matter volume had independent associations with cognition in community-dwelling individuals without dementia or mild cognitive impairment (MCI). We used data from participants of the Rush Memory and Aging Project. Brain MRI was available in 209 subjects without dementia or MCI (mean age 80; education = 15 years; 74 % women). WMH and gray matter were automatically segmented, and the total WMH and gray matter volumes were measured. Both MRI-derived measures were normalized by the intracranial volume. Cognitive data included composite measures of five different cognitive domains, based on 19 individual tests. Linear regression analyses, adjusted for age, sex, and education, were used to examine the relationship of logarithmically-transformed total WMH volume and of total gray matter volume to cognition. Larger total WMH volumes were associated with lower levels of perceptual speed (p < 0.001), but not with episodic memory, semantic memory, working memory, or visuospatial abilities (all p > 0.10). Smaller total gray matter volumes were associated with lower levels of perceptual speed (p = 0.013) and episodic memory (p = 0.001), but not with the other three cognitive domains (all p > 0.14). Larger total WMH volume was correlated with smaller total gray matter volume (p < 0.001). In a model with both MRI-derived measures included, the relation of WMH to perceptual speed remained significant (p < 0.001), while gray matter volumes were no longer related (p = 0.14). This study of older community-dwelling individuals without overt cognitive impairment suggests that the association of larger total WMH volume with lower perceptual speed is independent of total gray matter volume. These results help elucidate the

  10. Are Prescription Stimulants "Smart Pills"? The Epidemiology and Cognitive Neuroscience of Prescription Stimulant Use by Normal Healthy Individuals

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Smith, M. Elizabeth; Farah, Martha J.

    2011-01-01

    Use of prescription stimulants by normal healthy individuals to enhance cognition is said to be on the rise. Who is using these medications for cognitive enhancement, and how prevalent is this practice? Do prescription stimulants in fact enhance cognition for normal healthy people? We review the epidemiological and cognitive neuroscience…

  11. It Shall Not Return to Me Void: Teaching Religious Content to Individuals with Cognitive Disability

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Iguchi, Carolyn M.

    2010-01-01

    This research is an exploratory qualitative investigation into the challenges of teaching religious material to individuals with cognitive disabilities. The study setting was a single large evangelical Christian church known for excellence in ministry to individuals with disabilities and their families. The following issues were explored: (a)…

  12. Cognitive Imitation in Typically-Developing 3- and 4-Year Olds and Individuals with Autism

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Subiaul, Francys; Lurie, Herbert; Romansky, Kathryn; Klein, Tovah; Holmes, David; Terrace, Herbert

    2007-01-01

    Individuals diagnosed with autism suffer from numerous social, affective and linguistic impairments. It has also been suggested that they have a global imitation deficit. That hypothesis, however, is compromised by the fact that individuals with autism suffer from various motor impairments. Here we describe an experiment on cognitive imitation, a…

  13. Cognitive-Behavioral Therapy for Insomnia: Comparison of Individual Therapy, Group Therapy, and Telephone Consultations

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Bastien, Celyne H.; Morin, Charles M.; Ouellet, Marie-Christine; Blais, France C.; Bouchard, Sebastien

    2004-01-01

    Forty-five adults with primary insomnia received cognitive-behavioral therapy (CBT) implemented in a group therapy format, in individual face-to-face therapy or through brief individual telephone consultations. The results indicate that CBT was effective in improving sleep parameters with all 3 methods of treatment implementation, and there was no…

  14. Individual Differences in the Extent and Development of Aggressive Cognitive-Associative Networks.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Bushman, Brad J.

    1996-01-01

    Extends L. Berkowitz's neoassociationist aggression model by considering the role of personality variables. Experiment one tested the hypothesis that high-trait-aggressive individuals have more developed aggressive cognitive-associative networks than low-trait-aggressive individuals. In experiment two, participants rated the stimulus words used in…

  15. Associations between oxytocin receptor genotypes and social cognitive performance in individuals with schizophrenia.

    PubMed

    Davis, Michael C; Horan, William P; Nurmi, Erika L; Rizzo, Shemra; Li, Wendy; Sugar, Catherine A; Green, Michael F

    2014-11-01

    Individuals with schizophrenia often show substantial deficits in social cognitive abilities, which are strongly associated with social functioning. To advance our understanding of the genetic variation that is associated with social cognitive deficits in schizophrenia, we genotyped 74 schizophrenia outpatients who completed social cognitive performance measures assessing mentalizing, social perception, and emotional intelligence, as well as clinical symptoms. We assessed seven single nucleotide polymorphisms (SNPs) of the oxytocin receptor (OXTR) previously found to show replicable associations with socio-emotional processes. For one of the seven SNPs, rs2268493, the 'T' allele was significantly associated with poorer performance on a composite social cognition index, as well as specific tests of mentalizing and social perception. None of the SNPs were associated with clinical symptoms. Though the sample size is small, these findings provide initial support for the involvement of genetic variants of the OXTR in social cognitive impairments in schizophrenia. PMID:25244972

  16. An individualized and everyday life approach to cognitive rehabilitation in schizophrenia: a case illustration.

    PubMed

    Levaux, M-N; Fonteneau, B; Larøi, F; Offerlin-Meyer, I; Danion, J-M; Van der Linden, M

    2012-01-01

    Objective. The effectiveness of an individualized and everyday approach to cognitive rehabilitation for schizophrenia was examined in a case study. Method. After cognitive and functional assessment, concrete objectives were targeted for the person's everyday complaints. Strategies were constructed based on an analysis of the cognitive profile, daily life functioning, and processes involved in activities. They included a memory strategy for reading, a diary to compensate memory difficulties, and working memory exercises to improve immediate processing of information when reading and following conversations. Efficacy was assessed with outcome measures. Results. The program had beneficial effects on the person's cognitive and everyday functioning, which persisted at a 3-year follow-up. Conclusion. Findings provide suggestive evidence that an individualized and everyday approach may be a useful alternative in order to obtain a meaningfully lasting transfer of training to daily life, compared to the nomothetic ones which dominate the field.

  17. Where am I? Who am I? The Relation Between Spatial Cognition, Social Cognition and Individual Differences in the Built Environment

    PubMed Central

    Proulx, Michael J.; Todorov, Orlin S.; Taylor Aiken, Amanda; de Sousa, Alexandra A.

    2016-01-01

    Knowing who we are, and where we are, are two fundamental aspects of our physical and mental experience. Although the domains of spatial and social cognition are often studied independently, a few recent areas of scholarship have explored the interactions of place and self. This fits in with increasing evidence for embodied theories of cognition, where mental processes are grounded in action and perception. Who we are might be integrated with where we are, and impact how we move through space. Individuals vary in personality, navigational strategies, and numerous cognitive and social competencies. Here we review the relation between social and spatial spheres of existence in the realms of philosophical considerations, neural and psychological representations, and evolutionary context, and how we might use the built environment to suit who we are, or how it creates who we are. In particular we investigate how two spatial reference frames, egocentric and allocentric, might transcend into the social realm. We then speculate on how environments may interact with spatial cognition. Finally, we suggest how a framework encompassing spatial and social cognition might be taken in consideration by architects and urban planners. PMID:26903893

  18. Automated cognitive testing of monkeys in social groups yields results comparable to individual laboratory based testing

    PubMed Central

    Gazes, Regina Paxton; Brown, Emily Kathryn; Basile, Benjamin M.; Hampton, Robert R.

    2013-01-01

    Cognitive abilities likely evolved in response to specific environmental and social challenges and are therefore expected to be specialized for the life history of each species. Specialized cognitive abilities may be most readily engaged under conditions that approximate the natural environment of the species being studied. While naturalistic environments might therefore have advantages over laboratory settings for cognitive research, it is difficult to conduct certain types of cognitive tests in these settings. We implemented methods for automated cognitive testing of monkeys (Macaca mulatta) in large social groups (Field station) and compared the performance to that of laboratory housed monkeys (Laboratory). The Field station animals shared access to four touch screen computers in a large naturalistic social group. Each Field station subject had an RFID chip implanted in each arm for computerized identification and individualized assignment of cognitive tests. The Laboratory group was housed and tested in a typical laboratory setting, with individual access to testing computers in their home cages. Monkeys in both groups voluntarily participated at their own pace for food rewards. We evaluated performance in two visual psychophysics tests, a perceptual classification test, a transitive inference test, and a delayed matching to sample memory test. Despite differences in housing, social environment, age, and sex, monkeys in the two groups performed similarly in all tests. Semi-free ranging monkeys living in complex social environments are therefore viable subjects for cognitive testing designed to take advantage of the unique affordances of naturalistic testing environments. PMID:23263675

  19. Cognitive Remediation for Individuals with Psychosis in a Supported Education Setting: A Pilot Study

    PubMed Central

    Kidd, Sean A.; Kaur Bajwa, Jaswant; McKenzie, Kwame J.; Ganguli, Rohan; Haji Khamneh, Bahar

    2012-01-01

    Cognitive remediation (CR) is a treatment approach that is being increasingly examined as a means through which the cognitive impacts of schizophrenia might be ameliorated. While CR has demonstrated good outcomes when paired with supported employment, little is known regarding how it might be integrated within supported education contexts. In this study CR was examined in a supported education context with 16 individuals with psychosis. The findings indicated that CR aligned well with the academic curriculum with very low attrition, was found useful by students, and showed similar pre-post differences on cognitive measures as those found in previous work. PMID:22666598

  20. Cognitive Abilities, Monitoring Confidence, and Control Thresholds Explain Individual Differences in Heuristics and Biases

    PubMed Central

    Jackson, Simon A.; Kleitman, Sabina; Howie, Pauline; Stankov, Lazar

    2016-01-01

    In this paper, we investigate whether individual differences in performance on heuristic and biases tasks can be explained by cognitive abilities, monitoring confidence, and control thresholds. Current theories explain individual differences in these tasks by the ability to detect errors and override automatic but biased judgments, and deliberative cognitive abilities that help to construct the correct response. Here we retain cognitive abilities but disentangle error detection, proposing that lower monitoring confidence and higher control thresholds promote error checking. Participants (N = 250) completed tasks assessing their fluid reasoning abilities, stable monitoring confidence levels, and the control threshold they impose on their decisions. They also completed seven typical heuristic and biases tasks such as the cognitive reflection test and Resistance to Framing. Using structural equation modeling, we found that individuals with higher reasoning abilities, lower monitoring confidence, and higher control threshold performed significantly and, at times, substantially better on the heuristic and biases tasks. Individuals with higher control thresholds also showed lower preferences for risky alternatives in a gambling task. Furthermore, residual correlations among the heuristic and biases tasks were reduced to null, indicating that cognitive abilities, monitoring confidence, and control thresholds accounted for their shared variance. Implications include the proposal that the capacity to detect errors does not differ between individuals. Rather, individuals might adopt varied strategies that promote error checking to different degrees, regardless of whether they have made a mistake or not. The results support growing evidence that decision-making involves cognitive abilities that construct actions and monitoring and control processes that manage their initiation. PMID:27790170

  1. Physical activity and cognitive function in individuals over 60 years of age: a systematic review

    PubMed Central

    Carvalho, Ashley; Rea, Irene Maeve; Parimon, Tanyalak; Cusack, Barry J

    2014-01-01

    Background It is unclear whether physical activity in later life is beneficial for maintenance of cognitive function. We performed a systematic review examining the effects of exercise on cognitive function in older individuals, and present possible mechanisms whereby physical activity may improve cognition. Methods Sources consisted of PubMed, Medline, CINAHL, the Cochrane Controlled Trials Register, and the University of Washington, School of Medicine Library Database, with a search conducted on August 15, 2012 for publications limited to the English language starting January 1, 2000. Randomized controlled trials including at least 30 participants and lasting at least 6 months, and all observational studies including a minimum of 100 participants for one year, were evaluated. All subjects included were at least 60 years of age. Results Twenty-seven studies met the inclusion criteria. Twenty-six studies reported a positive correlation between physical activity and maintenance or enhancement of cognitive function. Five studies reported a dose-response relationship between physical activity and cognition. One study showed a nonsignificant correlation. Conclusion The preponderance of evidence suggests that physical activity is beneficial for cognitive function in the elderly. However, the majority of the evidence is of medium quality with a moderate risk of bias. Larger randomized controlled trials are needed to clarify the association between exercise and cognitive function and to determine which types of exercise have the greatest benefit on specific cognitive domains. Despite these caveats, the current evidence suggests that physical activity may help to improve cognitive function and, consequently, delay the progression of cognitive impairment in the elderly. PMID:24748784

  2. Cognitive Vulnerability in Patients with Generalized Anxiety Disorder, Dysthymic Disorder and Normal Individuals

    PubMed Central

    Al-Ghorabaie, Fateme Moin; Noferesti, Azam; Fadaee, Mahdi; Ganji, Nima

    2016-01-01

    Aim: The purpose of this study was to assess cognitive vulnerability and response style in clinical and normal individuals. Method: A sample of 90 individuals was selected for each of the 3 groups of Generalized Anxiety disorder, Dysthymic disorder and normal individuals. They completed MCQ and RSQ. Results: Results analyzed by MANOVA and post hoc showed significant differences among groups. Dysthymic group and GAD reported higher scores on cognitive confidence compared to the normal group. Individuals with GAD showed highly negative beliefs about need to control thought, compared to the other groups, but in cognitive self-consciousness they have no differences with the normal group. In regard to uncontrollability, danger and positive beliefs, GAD group had higher levels than the other groups. Although normal and GAD group didn’t show any significant differences in response style, there was a significant difference between Dysthymic group and other groups in all response styles. Discussion: Beliefs and meta-cognitive strategies can be distinguished between clinical and non clinical individuals. Also, findings support the Self-Regulatory Executive Function model. PMID:27045393

  3. Individual differences in social dominance orientation predict support for the use of cognitive ability tests.

    PubMed

    Kim, Anita; Berry, Christopher M

    2015-02-01

    This study investigates the personality processes involved in the debate surrounding the use of cognitive ability tests in college admissions. In Study 1, 108 undergraduates (Mage  = 18.88 years, 60 women, 80 Whites) completed measures of social dominance orientation (SDO), testing self-efficacy, and attitudes regarding the use of cognitive ability tests in college admissions; SAT/ACT scores were collected from the registrar. Sixty-seven undergraduates (Mage  = 19.06 years, 39 women, 49 Whites) completed the same measures in Study 2, along with measures of endorsement of commonly presented arguments about test use. In Study 3, 321 American adults (Mage  = 35.58 years, 180 women, 251 Whites) completed the same measures used in Study 2; half were provided with facts about race and validity issues surrounding cognitive ability tests. Individual differences in SDO significantly predicted support for the use of cognitive ability tests in all samples, after controlling for SAT/ACT scores and test self-efficacy and also among participants who read facts about cognitive ability tests. Moreover, arguments for and against test use mediated this effect. The present study sheds new light on an old debate by demonstrating that individual differences in beliefs about hierarchy play a key role in attitudes toward cognitive ability test use.

  4. Effects of non-pharmacological or pharmacological interventions on cognition and brain plasticity of aging individuals

    PubMed Central

    Pieramico, Valentina; Esposito, Roberto; Cesinaro, Stefano; Frazzini, Valerio; Sensi, Stefano L.

    2014-01-01

    Brain aging and aging-related neurodegenerative disorders are major health challenges faced by modern societies. Brain aging is associated with cognitive and functional decline and represents the favourable background for the onset and development of dementia. Brain aging is associated with early and subtle anatomo-functional physiological changes that often precede the appearance of clinical signs of cognitive decline. Neuroimaging approaches unveiled the functional correlates of these alterations and helped in the identification of therapeutic targets that can be potentially useful in counteracting age-dependent cognitive decline. A growing body of evidence supports the notion that cognitive stimulation and aerobic training can preserve and enhance operational skills in elderly individuals as well as reduce the incidence of dementia. This review aims at providing an extensive and critical overview of the most recent data that support the efficacy of non-pharmacological and pharmacological interventions aimed at enhancing cognition and brain plasticity in healthy elderly individuals as well as delaying the cognitive decline associated with dementia. PMID:25228860

  5. Emotion, working memory task demands and individual differences predict behavior, cognitive effort and negative affect.

    PubMed

    Storbeck, Justin; Davidson, Nicole A; Dahl, Chelsea F; Blass, Sara; Yung, Edwin

    2015-01-01

    We examined whether positive and negative affect motivates verbal and spatial working memory processes, respectively, which have implications for the expenditure of mental effort. We argue that when emotion promotes cognitive tendencies that are goal incompatible with task demands, greater cognitive effort is required to perform well. We sought to investigate whether this increase in cognitive effort impairs behavioural control over a broad domain of self-control tasks. Moreover, we predicted that individuals with higher behavioural inhibition system (BIS) sensitivities would report more negative affect within the goal incompatible conditions because such individuals report higher negative affect during cognitive challenge. Positive or negative affective states were induced followed by completing a verbal or spatial 2-back working memory task. All participants then completed one of three self-control tasks. Overall, we observed that conditions of emotion and working memory incompatibility (positive/spatial and negative/verbal) performed worse on the self-control tasks, and within the incompatible conditions individuals with higher BIS sensitivities reported more negative affect at the end of the study. The combination of findings suggests that emotion and working memory compatibility reduces cognitive effort and impairs behavioural control.

  6. Preclinical Alzheimer disease: identification of cases at risk among cognitively intact older individuals.

    PubMed

    Lazarczyk, Maciej J; Hof, Patrick R; Bouras, Constantin; Giannakopoulos, Panteleimon

    2012-10-25

    Since the first description of the case of Auguste Deter, presented in Tübingen in 1906 by Alois Alzheimer, there has been an exponential increase in our knowledge of the neuropathological, cellular, and molecular foundation of Alzheimer's disease (AD). The concept of AD pathogenesis has evolved from a static, binary view discriminating cognitive normality from dementia, towards a dynamic view that considers AD pathology as a long-lasting morbid process that takes place progressively over years, or even decades, before the first symptoms become apparent, and thus operating in a continuum between the two aforementioned extreme states. Several biomarkers have been proposed to predict AD-related cognitive decline, initially in cases with mild cognitive impairment, and more recently in cognitively intact individuals. These early markers define at-risk individuals thought to be in the preclinical phase of AD. However, the clinical relevance of this preclinical phase remains controversial. The fate of such individuals, who are cognitively intact, but positive for some early AD biomarkers, is currently uncertain at best. In this report, we advocate the point of view that although most of these preclinical cases will evolve to clinically overt AD, some appear to have efficient compensatory mechanisms and virtually never develop dementia. We critically review the currently available early AD markers, discuss their clinical relevance, and propose a novel classification of preclinical AD, designating these non-progressing cases as 'stable asymptomatic cerebral amyloidosis'.

  7. Neighbourhood social capital as a moderator between individual cognitions and sports behaviour among Dutch adolescents.

    PubMed

    Prins, R G; Beenackers, M A; Boog, M C; Van Lenthe, F J; Brug, J; Oenema, A

    2014-03-01

    This study aimed to explore whether individual cognitions and neighbourhood social capital strengthen each other in their relation with engaging in sports at least three times per week. Cross-sectional analyses on data from the last wave of the YouRAction trial (2009-2010, Rotterdam, the Netherlands; baseline response: 98%) were conducted. In total 1129 had data on the last wave questionnaire (93%) and 832 of them had complete data on a self-administered questionnaire on frequency of sports participation, perceived neighbourhood social capital, cognitions (attitude, subjective norm, perceived behavioural control and intention toward sport participation) and demographics. Ecometric methods were used to aggregate perceived neighbourhood social capital to the neighbourhood level. Multilevel logistic regression analyses (neighbourhood and individual as levels) were conducted to examine associations of cognitions, neighbourhood social capital and the social capital by individual cognition interaction with fit norm compliance. If the interaction was significant, simple slopes analyses were conducted to decompose interaction effects. It was found that neighbourhood social capital was significantly associated with fit norm compliance (OR: 5.40; 95% CI: 1.13-25.74). Moreover, neighbourhood social capital moderated the association of attitude, perceived behavioural control and intention with fit norm compliance. The simple slope analyses visualized that the associations of cognitions with fit norm compliance were stronger in case of more neighbourhood social capital. Hence, higher levels of neighbourhood social capital strengthen the associations of attitude, perceived behavioural control and intention in their association with fit norm compliance.

  8. Association of Visual Acuity and Cognitive Impairment in Older Individuals: Fujiwara-kyo Eye Study.

    PubMed

    Mine, Masashi; Miyata, Kimie; Morikawa, Masayuki; Nishi, Tomo; Okamoto, Nozomi; Kawasaki, Ryo; Yamashita, Hidetoshi; Kurumatani, Norio; Ogata, Nahoko

    2016-01-01

    Both visual impairment and cognitive impairment are essential factors that determine the quality of life in the aged population. The aim of this study was to determine if a correlation existed between visual acuity and cognitive impairment in an elderly Japanese population. The Fujiwara-kyo Eye Study was a cross-sectional study of individuals aged ≥68 years who lived in Nara Prefecture of Japan. Participants underwent ophthalmological examinations and cognitive function test. A mild visual impairment was defined as having a best corrected visual acuity (BCVA) >0.2 logarithm of the minimum angle of resolution (logMAR) units in the better eye. Cognitive impairment was defined as having a Mini-Mental State Examination (MMSE) score of ≤23 points. A total to 2818 individuals completed the examinations. The mean age of the participants was 76.3 ± 4.8 years (mean ± standard deviation). The mean BCVA of the better eye was -0.02 ± 0.13 logMAR units and 6.6% subjects were classified as being mildly visually impaired. The mean MMSE score was 27.3 ± 2.3 and 5.7% subjects were classified as being cognitively impaired. The proportion of subjects with cognitive or moderate visual impairment increased with age, and there was a significant correlation between the visual acuity and MMSE score (r = -0.10, p < 0.0001). Subjects with mild visual impairments had 2.4 times higher odds of having cognitive impairment than those without visual impairment (odds ratio 2.4, 95% confidence interval, 1.5-3.8, p < 0.001) after adjusting for age, sex, and length of education. We conclude that it may be important to maintain good visual acuity to reduce the risk of having cognitive impairment.

  9. Cognitive correlates of frontoparietal network connectivity 'at rest' in individuals with differential risk for psychotic disorder.

    PubMed

    Peeters, S C T; van Bronswijk, S; van de Ven, V; Gronenschild, E H B M; Goebel, R; van Os, J; Marcelis, M

    2015-11-01

    Altered frontoparietal network functional connectivity (FPN-fc) has been associated with neurocognitive dysfunction in individuals with (risk for) psychotic disorder. Cannabis use is associated with cognitive and FPN-fc alterations in healthy individuals, but it is not known whether cannabis exposure moderates the FPN-fc-cognition association. We studied FPN-fc in relation to psychosis risk, as well as the moderating effects of psychosis risk and cannabis use on the association between FPN-fc and (social) cognition. This was done by collecting resting-state fMRI scans and (social) cognitive test results from 63 patients with psychotic disorder, 73 unaffected siblings and 59 controls. Dorsolateral prefrontal cortex (DLPFC) seed-based correlation analyses were used to estimate FPN-fc group differences. Additionally, group×FPN-fc and cannabis×FPN-fc interactions in models of cognition were assessed with regression models. Results showed that DLPFC-fc with the left precuneus, right inferior parietal lobule, right middle temporal gyrus (MTG), inferior frontal gyrus (IFG) regions and right insula was decreased in patients compared to controls. Siblings had reduced DLPFC-fc with the right MTG, left middle frontal gyrus, right superior frontal gyrus, IFG regions, and right insula compared to controls, with an intermediate position between patients and controls for DLPFC-IFG/MTG and insula-fc. There were no significant FPN-fc×group or FPN-fc×cannabis interactions in models of cognition. Reduced DLPFC-insula-fc was associated with worse social cognition in the total sample. In conclusion, besides patient- and sibling-specific FPN-fc alterations, there was evidence for trait-related alterations. FPN-fc-cognition associations were not conditional on familial liability or cannabis use. Lower FPN-fc was associated with lower emotion processing in the total group. PMID:26411531

  10. Association of Visual Acuity and Cognitive Impairment in Older Individuals: Fujiwara-kyo Eye Study.

    PubMed

    Mine, Masashi; Miyata, Kimie; Morikawa, Masayuki; Nishi, Tomo; Okamoto, Nozomi; Kawasaki, Ryo; Yamashita, Hidetoshi; Kurumatani, Norio; Ogata, Nahoko

    2016-01-01

    Both visual impairment and cognitive impairment are essential factors that determine the quality of life in the aged population. The aim of this study was to determine if a correlation existed between visual acuity and cognitive impairment in an elderly Japanese population. The Fujiwara-kyo Eye Study was a cross-sectional study of individuals aged ≥68 years who lived in Nara Prefecture of Japan. Participants underwent ophthalmological examinations and cognitive function test. A mild visual impairment was defined as having a best corrected visual acuity (BCVA) >0.2 logarithm of the minimum angle of resolution (logMAR) units in the better eye. Cognitive impairment was defined as having a Mini-Mental State Examination (MMSE) score of ≤23 points. A total to 2818 individuals completed the examinations. The mean age of the participants was 76.3 ± 4.8 years (mean ± standard deviation). The mean BCVA of the better eye was -0.02 ± 0.13 logMAR units and 6.6% subjects were classified as being mildly visually impaired. The mean MMSE score was 27.3 ± 2.3 and 5.7% subjects were classified as being cognitively impaired. The proportion of subjects with cognitive or moderate visual impairment increased with age, and there was a significant correlation between the visual acuity and MMSE score (r = -0.10, p < 0.0001). Subjects with mild visual impairments had 2.4 times higher odds of having cognitive impairment than those without visual impairment (odds ratio 2.4, 95% confidence interval, 1.5-3.8, p < 0.001) after adjusting for age, sex, and length of education. We conclude that it may be important to maintain good visual acuity to reduce the risk of having cognitive impairment. PMID:27610269

  11. Cognitive correlates of frontoparietal network connectivity 'at rest' in individuals with differential risk for psychotic disorder.

    PubMed

    Peeters, S C T; van Bronswijk, S; van de Ven, V; Gronenschild, E H B M; Goebel, R; van Os, J; Marcelis, M

    2015-11-01

    Altered frontoparietal network functional connectivity (FPN-fc) has been associated with neurocognitive dysfunction in individuals with (risk for) psychotic disorder. Cannabis use is associated with cognitive and FPN-fc alterations in healthy individuals, but it is not known whether cannabis exposure moderates the FPN-fc-cognition association. We studied FPN-fc in relation to psychosis risk, as well as the moderating effects of psychosis risk and cannabis use on the association between FPN-fc and (social) cognition. This was done by collecting resting-state fMRI scans and (social) cognitive test results from 63 patients with psychotic disorder, 73 unaffected siblings and 59 controls. Dorsolateral prefrontal cortex (DLPFC) seed-based correlation analyses were used to estimate FPN-fc group differences. Additionally, group×FPN-fc and cannabis×FPN-fc interactions in models of cognition were assessed with regression models. Results showed that DLPFC-fc with the left precuneus, right inferior parietal lobule, right middle temporal gyrus (MTG), inferior frontal gyrus (IFG) regions and right insula was decreased in patients compared to controls. Siblings had reduced DLPFC-fc with the right MTG, left middle frontal gyrus, right superior frontal gyrus, IFG regions, and right insula compared to controls, with an intermediate position between patients and controls for DLPFC-IFG/MTG and insula-fc. There were no significant FPN-fc×group or FPN-fc×cannabis interactions in models of cognition. Reduced DLPFC-insula-fc was associated with worse social cognition in the total sample. In conclusion, besides patient- and sibling-specific FPN-fc alterations, there was evidence for trait-related alterations. FPN-fc-cognition associations were not conditional on familial liability or cannabis use. Lower FPN-fc was associated with lower emotion processing in the total group.

  12. Association of Visual Acuity and Cognitive Impairment in Older Individuals: Fujiwara-kyo Eye Study

    PubMed Central

    Mine, Masashi; Miyata, Kimie; Morikawa, Masayuki; Nishi, Tomo; Okamoto, Nozomi; Kawasaki, Ryo; Yamashita, Hidetoshi; Kurumatani, Norio; Ogata, Nahoko

    2016-01-01

    Abstract Both visual impairment and cognitive impairment are essential factors that determine the quality of life in the aged population. The aim of this study was to determine if a correlation existed between visual acuity and cognitive impairment in an elderly Japanese population. The Fujiwara-kyo Eye Study was a cross-sectional study of individuals aged ≥68 years who lived in Nara Prefecture of Japan. Participants underwent ophthalmological examinations and cognitive function test. A mild visual impairment was defined as having a best corrected visual acuity (BCVA) >0.2 logarithm of the minimum angle of resolution (logMAR) units in the better eye. Cognitive impairment was defined as having a Mini-Mental State Examination (MMSE) score of ≤23 points. A total to 2818 individuals completed the examinations. The mean age of the participants was 76.3 ± 4.8 years (mean ± standard deviation). The mean BCVA of the better eye was −0.02 ± 0.13 logMAR units and 6.6% subjects were classified as being mildly visually impaired. The mean MMSE score was 27.3 ± 2.3 and 5.7% subjects were classified as being cognitively impaired. The proportion of subjects with cognitive or moderate visual impairment increased with age, and there was a significant correlation between the visual acuity and MMSE score (r = −0.10, p < 0.0001). Subjects with mild visual impairments had 2.4 times higher odds of having cognitive impairment than those without visual impairment (odds ratio 2.4, 95% confidence interval, 1.5–3.8, p < 0.001) after adjusting for age, sex, and length of education. We conclude that it may be important to maintain good visual acuity to reduce the risk of having cognitive impairment. PMID:27610269

  13. Association of Visual Acuity and Cognitive Impairment in Older Individuals: Fujiwara-kyo Eye Study

    PubMed Central

    Mine, Masashi; Miyata, Kimie; Morikawa, Masayuki; Nishi, Tomo; Okamoto, Nozomi; Kawasaki, Ryo; Yamashita, Hidetoshi; Kurumatani, Norio; Ogata, Nahoko

    2016-01-01

    Abstract Both visual impairment and cognitive impairment are essential factors that determine the quality of life in the aged population. The aim of this study was to determine if a correlation existed between visual acuity and cognitive impairment in an elderly Japanese population. The Fujiwara-kyo Eye Study was a cross-sectional study of individuals aged ≥68 years who lived in Nara Prefecture of Japan. Participants underwent ophthalmological examinations and cognitive function test. A mild visual impairment was defined as having a best corrected visual acuity (BCVA) >0.2 logarithm of the minimum angle of resolution (logMAR) units in the better eye. Cognitive impairment was defined as having a Mini-Mental State Examination (MMSE) score of ≤23 points. A total to 2818 individuals completed the examinations. The mean age of the participants was 76.3 ± 4.8 years (mean ± standard deviation). The mean BCVA of the better eye was −0.02 ± 0.13 logMAR units and 6.6% subjects were classified as being mildly visually impaired. The mean MMSE score was 27.3 ± 2.3 and 5.7% subjects were classified as being cognitively impaired. The proportion of subjects with cognitive or moderate visual impairment increased with age, and there was a significant correlation between the visual acuity and MMSE score (r = −0.10, p < 0.0001). Subjects with mild visual impairments had 2.4 times higher odds of having cognitive impairment than those without visual impairment (odds ratio 2.4, 95% confidence interval, 1.5–3.8, p < 0.001) after adjusting for age, sex, and length of education. We conclude that it may be important to maintain good visual acuity to reduce the risk of having cognitive impairment.

  14. Ecological rationality or nested sets? Individual differences in cognitive processing predict Bayesian reasoning.

    PubMed

    Sirota, Miroslav; Juanchich, Marie; Hagmayer, York

    2014-02-01

    The presentation of a Bayesian inference problem in terms of natural frequencies rather than probabilities has been shown to enhance performance. The effect of individual differences in cognitive processing on Bayesian reasoning has rarely been studied, despite enabling us to test process-oriented variants of the two main accounts of the facilitative effect of natural frequencies: The ecological rationality account (ERA), which postulates an evolutionarily shaped ease of natural frequency automatic processing, and the nested sets account (NSA), which posits analytical processing of nested sets. In two experiments, we found that cognitive reflection abilities predicted normative performance equally well in tasks featuring whole and arbitrarily parsed objects (Experiment 1) and that cognitive abilities and thinking dispositions (analytical vs. intuitive) predicted performance with single-event probabilities, as well as natural frequencies (Experiment 2). Since these individual differences indicate that analytical processing improves Bayesian reasoning, our findings provide stronger support for the NSA than for the ERA.

  15. Cognitive behavioral therapy and exercise minimally help Gulf War veterans' illnesses.

    PubMed

    Luttermoser, Gary

    2003-06-01

    Cognitive behavioral therapy and aerobic exercise provide only modest relief from symptoms of Gulf War veterans' illnesses. Unfortunately, over 80% of the patients showed no improvement of symptoms after 1 year of either or both treatments. With the Iraqi war ending, the outcomes of veterans of this previous conflict may prove significant. PMID:12791222

  16. Commentary: Some Prospects for Connecting Concepts and Methods of Individual Cognition and of Situativity

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Greeno, James G.

    2015-01-01

    The development of scientific concepts and methods that supported analyses of individual cognition and learning occurred during the 1950s, 1960s, 1970s, and 1980s, with outstanding contributions by Newell and Simon (1972), van Dijk and Kintsch (1983), and others, providing an impressive and rapid scientific advance. At the same time, another…

  17. Individual Cognitive Structuring and the Sociocultural Context: Strategy Shifts in the Game of Dominoes

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Nasir, Na'ilah Suad

    2005-01-01

    In this article, I explore the relation between the sociocultural and individual cognitive structuring as elementary school students, high school students, and adults play the strategic game of dominoes. I present data from a study in which players at each level were observed and video-recorded during domino tournament play. Findings reveal the…

  18. Separation-Individuation Difficulties and Cognitive-Behavioral Indicators of Eating Disorders among College Women.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Friedlander, Myrna L.; Siegel, Sheri M.

    1990-01-01

    Tested theoretical link between difficulties with separation-individuation and cognitive-behavioral indicators characteristic of anorexia nervosa and bulimia. Assessed 124 college women using three self-report measures. Results suggest strong relation between 2 sets of variables and support theoretical assertions about factors that contribute to…

  19. Assessment of Cognitive and Adaptive Behaviour among Individuals with Congenital Insensitivity to Pain and Anhidrosis

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Erez, Daniella Levy; Levy, Jacov; Friger, Michael; Aharoni-Mayer, Yael; Cohen-Iluz, Moran; Goldstein, Esther

    2010-01-01

    Aim: Individuals with congenital insensitivity to pain with anhidrosis (CIPA) are reported to have mental retardation but to our knowledge no detailed study on the subject has ever been published. The present study assessed and documented cognitive and adaptive behaviour among Arab Bedouin children with CIPA. Methods: Twenty-three Arab Bedouin…

  20. Cognitive Biases in Individuals with Mild to Borderline Intellectual Disability and Alcohol Use-Related Problems

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    van Duijvenbode, Neomi; Didden, Robert; Voogd, Hubert; Korzilius, Hubert P. L. M.; Engels, Rutger C. M. E.

    2012-01-01

    The primary aim of the present pilot study was to examine cognitive biases in individuals with mild to borderline ID and alcohol use-related problems. Participants (N = 57) performed the approach avoidance task, picture rating task and visual dot probe task, which was combined with eye-tracking methodology. They were admitted to a forensic setting…

  1. Cognitive Behavioral Group Therapy for Mood Management in Individuals with Intellectual Disabilities: A Pilot Study

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Ghafoori, Bita; Ratanasiripong, Paul; Holladay, Christina

    2010-01-01

    Individuals with intellectual disabilities (ID) often display mental health symptoms that may benefit from psychotherapy. In this pilot study, a newly designed cognitive behavioral therapy (CBT) group treatment targeting mood difficulties was provided to 8 adults with mild-borderline ID. Assessment occurred at pretreatment, posttreatment, and 4…

  2. What Are the Social, Psychological, and Cognitive Factors That Drive Individuals to Entrepreneurship?

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    LaMattina, Lina M.

    2013-01-01

    The purpose of this study was two-fold; first, to uncover the social, psychological, and cognitive factors core to the entrepreneurial individual; and secondly, to provide accurate data to be used in curriculum development to fill the existing educational gap that exists in the current literature regarding understanding the inner workings of the…

  3. Working Memory and Mathematics: A Review of Developmental, Individual Difference, and Cognitive Approaches

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Raghubar, Kimberly P.; Barnes, Marcia A.; Hecht, Steven A.

    2010-01-01

    Working memory refers to a mental workspace, involved in controlling, regulating, and actively maintaining relevant information to accomplish complex cognitive tasks (e.g. mathematical processing). Despite the potential relevance of a relation between working memory and math for understanding developmental and individual differences in…

  4. A Gesture Recognition System to Transition Autonomously through Vocational Tasks for Individuals with Cognitive Impairments

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Chang, Yao-Jen; Chen, Shu-Fang; Chuang, An-Fu

    2011-01-01

    This study assessed the possibility of training two individuals with cognitive impairments using a Kinect-based task prompting system. This study was carried out according to an ABAB sequence in which A represented the baseline and B represented intervention phases. Data showed that the two participants significantly increased their target…

  5. An Evidence-Based Systematic Review on Cognitive Interventions for Individuals with Dementia

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Hopper, Tammy; Bourgeois, Michelle; Pimentel, Jane; Qualls, Constance Dean; Hickey, Ellen; Frymark, Tobi; Schooling, Tracy

    2013-01-01

    Purpose: To evaluate the current state of research evidence related to cognitive interventions for individuals with Alzheimer's disease or related dementias. Method: A systematic search of the literature was conducted across 27 electronic databases based on a set of a priori questions, inclusion/exclusion criteria, and search parameters. Studies…

  6. Opening the Creative Mind of High Need for Cognitive Closure Individuals through Activation of Uncreative Ideas

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Ong, Lay See; Leung, Angela K.-Y.

    2013-01-01

    Drawing on the integrative system theory of creativity combining the person, process, and press perspectives, this research offers the first evidence of how high-need-for-cognitive-closure (NFC) individuals' creative mind can be opened up, by making them become more cognizant of uncreative ideas as consensually invalid solutions to creative…

  7. Individual Versus Individual and Group Therapy Regarding a Cognitive-Behavioral Treatment for Battered Women in a Community Setting.

    PubMed

    Echeburúa, Enrique; Sarasua, Belén; Zubizarreta, Irene

    2014-07-01

    The current study aimed to test the clinical effectiveness of a cognitive-behavioral therapy (CBT) program for battered women in a community setting and to find out whether effectiveness of individual therapy can be improved in conjunction with group therapy. One hundred sixteen treatment-seeking battered women were assigned either to CBT on an individual basis or an individual and group basis. Psychological treatment, focused on post-traumatic stress disorder (PTSD), emotional discomfort, and impaired functioning, comprised a 17-session program, including emotional expression, psychoeducation, trauma re-exposure, coping skills, and problem-solving training. Although most treated patients in both groups improved in all variables (PTSD, emotional discomfort, and impaired functioning) at all assessments, the combined individual and group therapy did better than the individual therapy regarding PTSD symptoms and impaired functioning at follow-up assessments. These findings partially support the beneficial effects of group CBT as adjunctive therapy to individual CBT. Implications of this study for clinical practice and future research in this field are commented on.

  8. Experimental pain processing in individuals with cognitive impairment: current state of the science.

    PubMed

    Defrin, Ruth; Amanzio, Martina; de Tommaso, Marina; Dimova, Violeta; Filipovic, Sasa; Finn, David P; Gimenez-Llort, Lydia; Invitto, Sara; Jensen-Dahm, Christina; Lautenbacher, Stefan; Oosterman, Joukje M; Petrini, Laura; Pick, Chaim G; Pickering, Gisele; Vase, Lene; Kunz, Miriam

    2015-08-01

    Cognitive impairment (CI) can develop during the course of ageing and is a feature of many neurological and neurodegenerative diseases. Many individuals with CI have substantial, sustained, and complex health care needs, which frequently include pain. However, individuals with CI can have difficulty communicating the features of their pain to others, which in turn presents a significant challenge for effective diagnosis and treatment of their pain. Herein, we review the literature on responsivity of individuals with CI to experimental pain stimuli. We discuss pain responding across a large number of neurological and neurodegenerative disorders in which CI is typically present. Overall, the existing data suggest that pain processing is altered in most individuals with CI compared with cognitively intact matched controls. The precise nature of these alterations varies with the type of CI (or associated clinical condition) and may also depend on the type of pain stimulation used and the type of pain responses assessed. Nevertheless, it is clear that regardless of the etiology of CI, patients do feel noxious stimuli, with more evidence for hypersensitivity than hyposensitivity to these stimuli compared with cognitively unimpaired individuals. Our current understanding of the neurobiological mechanisms underpinning these alterations is limited but may be enhanced through the use of animal models of CI, which also exhibit alterations in nociceptive responding. Further research using additional behavioural indices of pain is warranted. Increased understanding of altered experimental pain processing in CI will facilitate the development of improved diagnostic and therapeutic approaches for pain in individuals with CI.

  9. Experimental pain processing in individuals with cognitive impairment: current state of the science.

    PubMed

    Defrin, Ruth; Amanzio, Martina; de Tommaso, Marina; Dimova, Violeta; Filipovic, Sasa; Finn, David P; Gimenez-Llort, Lydia; Invitto, Sara; Jensen-Dahm, Christina; Lautenbacher, Stefan; Oosterman, Joukje M; Petrini, Laura; Pick, Chaim G; Pickering, Gisele; Vase, Lene; Kunz, Miriam

    2015-08-01

    Cognitive impairment (CI) can develop during the course of ageing and is a feature of many neurological and neurodegenerative diseases. Many individuals with CI have substantial, sustained, and complex health care needs, which frequently include pain. However, individuals with CI can have difficulty communicating the features of their pain to others, which in turn presents a significant challenge for effective diagnosis and treatment of their pain. Herein, we review the literature on responsivity of individuals with CI to experimental pain stimuli. We discuss pain responding across a large number of neurological and neurodegenerative disorders in which CI is typically present. Overall, the existing data suggest that pain processing is altered in most individuals with CI compared with cognitively intact matched controls. The precise nature of these alterations varies with the type of CI (or associated clinical condition) and may also depend on the type of pain stimulation used and the type of pain responses assessed. Nevertheless, it is clear that regardless of the etiology of CI, patients do feel noxious stimuli, with more evidence for hypersensitivity than hyposensitivity to these stimuli compared with cognitively unimpaired individuals. Our current understanding of the neurobiological mechanisms underpinning these alterations is limited but may be enhanced through the use of animal models of CI, which also exhibit alterations in nociceptive responding. Further research using additional behavioural indices of pain is warranted. Increased understanding of altered experimental pain processing in CI will facilitate the development of improved diagnostic and therapeutic approaches for pain in individuals with CI. PMID:26181216

  10. Beyond the Sensorimotor Plasticity: Cognitive Expansion of Prism Adaptation in Healthy Individuals

    PubMed Central

    Michel, Carine

    2016-01-01

    Sensorimotor plasticity allows us to maintain an efficient motor behavior in reaction to environmental changes. One of the classical models for the study of sensorimotor plasticity is prism adaptation. It consists of pointing to visual targets while wearing prismatic lenses that shift the visual field laterally. The conditions of the development of the plasticity and the sensorimotor after-effects have been extensively studied for more than a century. However, the interest taken in this phenomenon was considerably increased since the demonstration of neglect rehabilitation following prism adaptation by Rossetti et al. (1998). Mirror effects, i.e., simulation of neglect in healthy individuals, were observed for the first time by Colent et al. (2000). The present review focuses on the expansion of prism adaptation to cognitive functions in healthy individuals during the last 15 years. Cognitive after-effects have been shown in numerous tasks even in those that are not intrinsically spatial in nature. Altogether, these results suggest the existence of a strong link between low-level sensorimotor plasticity and high-level cognitive functions and raise important questions about the mechanisms involved in producing unexpected cognitive effects following prism adaptation. Implications for the functional mechanisms and neuroanatomical network of prism adaptation are discussed to explain how sensorimotor plasticity may affect cognitive processes. PMID:26779088

  11. Individual differences in the habitual use of cognitive reappraisal predict the reward-related processing

    PubMed Central

    Sai, Liyang; Wang, Sisi; Ward, Anne; Ku, Yixuan; Sang, Biao

    2015-01-01

    Recent studies have shown that instructed cognitive reappraisal can regulate the neural processing of reward. However, it is still unclear whether the habitual use of cognitive reappraisal in everyday life is related to brain activity involved in reward processing. In the present study, participants’ neural responses to reward were measured using electroencephalography (EEG) recorded during a gambling task and their tendency to use cognitive reappraisal was assessed using the Emotion Regulation Questionnaire (ERQ). Event-related potential (ERP) results indicated that losses on the gambling task elicited greater negative reward-related feedback negativity (FN) than gains. The differential FN between losses and gains was significantly correlated with cognitive reappraisal scores across participants such that individuals with a higher tendency to use cognitive reappraisal showed stronger reward processing (i.e., amplified FN difference between losses and gains). This correlation remained significant after controlling for expressive suppression scores. However, expressive suppression per se was not correlated with FN differences. Taken together, these results suggest that the habitual use of cognitive reappraisal is associated with increased neural processing of reward. PMID:26388796

  12. Individual differences in brain structure underpin empathizing–systemizing cognitive styles in male adults

    PubMed Central

    Lai, Meng-Chuan; Lombardo, Michael V.; Chakrabarti, Bhismadev; Ecker, Christine; Sadek, Susan A.; Wheelwright, Sally J.; Murphy, Declan G.M.; Suckling, John; Bullmore, Edward T.; Baron-Cohen, Simon

    2012-01-01

    Individual differences in cognitive style can be characterized along two dimensions: ‘systemizing’ (S, the drive to analyze or build ‘rule-based’ systems) and ‘empathizing’ (E, the drive to identify another's mental state and respond to this with an appropriate emotion). Discrepancies between these two dimensions in one direction (S > E) or the other (E > S) are associated with sex differences in cognition: on average more males show an S > E cognitive style, while on average more females show an E > S profile. The neurobiological basis of these different profiles remains unknown. Since individuals may be typical or atypical for their sex, it is important to move away from the study of sex differences and towards the study of differences in cognitive style. Using structural magnetic resonance imaging we examined how neuroanatomy varies as a function of the discrepancy between E and S in 88 adult males from the general population. Selecting just males allows us to study discrepant E-S profiles in a pure way, unconfounded by other factors related to sex and gender. An increasing S > E profile was associated with increased gray matter volume in cingulate and dorsal medial prefrontal areas which have been implicated in processes related to cognitive control, monitoring, error detection, and probabilistic inference. An increasing E > S profile was associated with larger hypothalamic and ventral basal ganglia regions which have been implicated in neuroendocrine control, motivation and reward. These results suggest an underlying neuroanatomical basis linked to the discrepancy between these two important dimensions of individual differences in cognitive style. PMID:22446488

  13. A social-cognitive perspective of terrorism risk perception and individual response in Canada.

    PubMed

    Lee, Jennifer E C; Lemyre, Louise

    2009-09-01

    The volume of research on terrorism has increased since the events of September 11, 2001. However, efforts to develop a contextualized model incorporating cognitive, social-contextual, and affective factors as predictors of individual responses to this threat have been limited. Therefore, the aim of this study was to evaluate a series of hypotheses drawn from such a model that was generated from a series of interviews with members of the Canadian public. Data of a national survey on perceived chemical, biological, radiological, nuclear, and explosives (CBRNE) terrorism threat and preparedness were analyzed. Results demonstrated that worry and behavioral responses to terrorism, such as individual preparedness, information seeking, and avoidance behaviors, were each a function of cognitive and social-contextual factors. As an affective response, worry about terrorism independently contributed to the prediction of behavioral responses above and beyond cognitive and social-contextual factors, and partially mediated the relationships of some of these factors with behavioral responses. Perceived coping efficacy emerged as the cognitive factor associated with the most favorable response to terrorism. Hence, findings highlight the importance of fostering a sense of coping efficacy to the effectiveness of strategies aimed at improving individual preparedness for terrorism.

  14. Compensatory larger cortical thickness in healthy elderly individuals with electroencephalographic risk for cognitive decline.

    PubMed

    Castro-Chavira, Susana A; Barrios, Fernando A; Pasaye, Erick H; Alatorre-Cruz, Graciela C; Fernández, Thalía

    2016-06-15

    Excess theta electroencephalographic (EEG) activity has been described as an accurate predictor for cognitive decline at least 7 years before symptom presentation. To test whether this predictor for cognitive decline correlates with structural changes in the brains of healthy elderly individuals, we compared the magnetic resonance structural images of healthy individuals with excess of theta activity [group with a risk for cognitive decline, risk group (RG); n=14] with healthy controls with normal EEG activity (control group; n=14). Neuropsychological and epidemiological analyses showed significant differences in only two features: more years of education and better performance in the visuospatial process task in the control group. Voxel-based morphometry results were not conclusive, but showed tendencies toward larger volumes in the prefrontal and parietal lobes, and smaller volumes in the right temporal lobe, right occipital lobe, and left cerebellum for the RG; these tendencies are in agreement with those proposed by the posterior-anterior shift in an aging model. Cortical-thickness analyses yielded a significant correlation between cortical thickness and years of education in the prefrontal and inferior-temporal regions, and larger cortical thickness in the RG, independent of age and years of education, in the right superior temporal region. These results suggest changes in the cortical thickness of structures related to memory and visuospatial functions in healthy, cognitively normal individuals before the appearance of cognitive decline. Thus, the performance of healthy elderly individuals with EEG risk may only be slightly different from normal because of compensation mechanisms allowing them to fulfill daily-life tasks, masking structural changes during preclinical neurocognitive disorders. PMID:27171033

  15. Emotion recognition, emotional awareness and cognitive bias in individuals with bulimia nervosa.

    PubMed

    Legenbauer, Tanja; Vocks, Silja; Rüddel, Heinz

    2008-06-01

    Difficulties recognizing emotion have been reported for eating disordered individuals in relation to perception of emotions in others and emotional self-awareness. It remains unclear whether this is a perceptual or cognitive-affective problem. Clarification is sought and the question of a cognitive bias is addressed when interpreting facially expressed emotions. Twenty participants with bulimia nervosa (BN) and 20 normal controls (NC) were assessed for ability to recognize emotional and neutral expressions. Emotional self-awareness was also assessed. Significant differences were found for emotional self-awareness. For emotional faces, only a poorer recognition of the emotion, surprise, for BN was found. Problems with emotional self-awareness suggest a cognitive-affective disturbance in emotion recognition. Implications for therapy are discussed.

  16. Explorations in combining cognitive models of individuals and system dynamics models of groups.

    SciTech Connect

    Backus, George A.

    2008-07-01

    This report documents a demonstration model of interacting insurgent leadership, military leadership, government leadership, and societal dynamics under a variety of interventions. The primary focus of the work is the portrayal of a token societal model that responds to leadership activities. The model also includes a linkage between leadership and society that implicitly represents the leadership subordinates as they directly interact with the population. The societal model is meant to demonstrate the efficacy and viability of using System Dynamics (SD) methods to simulate populations and that these can then connect to cognitive models depicting individuals. SD models typically focus on average behavior and thus have limited applicability to describe small groups or individuals. On the other hand, cognitive models readily describe individual behavior but can become cumbersome when used to describe populations. Realistic security situations are invariably a mix of individual and population dynamics. Therefore, the ability to tie SD models to cognitive models provides a critical capability that would be otherwise be unavailable.

  17. White matter tract injury and cognitive impairment in human immunodeficiency virus-infected individuals.

    PubMed

    Gongvatana, Assawin; Schweinsburg, Brian C; Taylor, Michael J; Theilmann, Rebecca J; Letendre, Scott L; Alhassoon, Omar M; Jacobus, Joanna; Woods, Steven P; Jernigan, Terry L; Ellis, Ronald J; Frank, Lawrence R; Grant, Igor

    2009-04-01

    Approximately half of those infected with the human immunodeficiency virus (HIV) exhibit cognitive impairment, which has been related to cerebral white matter damage. Despite the effectiveness of antiretroviral treatment, cognitive impairment remains common even in individuals with undetectable viral loads. One explanation for this may be subtherapeutic concentrations of some antiretrovirals in the central nervous system (CNS). We utilized diffusion tensor imaging and a comprehensive neuropsychological evaluation to investigate the relationship of white matter integrity to cognitive impairment and antiretroviral treatment variables. Participants included 39 HIV-infected individuals (49% with acquired immunodeficiency syndrome [AIDS]; mean CD4 = 529) and 25 seronegative subjects. Diffusion tensor imaging indices were mapped onto a common whole-brain white matter tract skeleton, allowing between-subject voxelwise comparisons. The total HIV-infected group exhibited abnormal white matter in the internal capsule, inferior longitudinal fasciculus, and optic radiation; whereas those with AIDS exhibited more widespread damage, including in the internal capsule and the corpus callosum. Cognitive impairment in the HIV-infected group was related to white matter injury in the internal capsule, corpus callosum, and superior longitudinal fasciculus. White matter injury was not found to be associated with HIV viral load or estimated CNS penetration of antiretrovirals. Diffusion tensor imaging was useful in identifying changes in white matter tracts associated with more advanced HIV infection. Relationships between diffusion alterations in specific white matter tracts and cognitive impairment support the potential utility of diffusion tensor imaging in examining the anatomical underpinnings of HIV-related cognitive impairment. The study also confirms that CNS injury is evident in persons infected with HIV despite effective antiretroviral treatment.

  18. Topiramate impairs cognitive function in methadone-maintained individuals with concurrent cocaine dependence

    PubMed Central

    Rass, Olga; Umbricht, Annie; Bigelow, George E.; Strain, Eric C.; Johnson, Matthew W.; Mintzer, Miriam Z.

    2014-01-01

    Topiramate is being investigated as a potential pharmacotherapy for the treatment of addictive disorders. However, its cognitive side effects raise concerns about its use, especially in populations with cognitive impairment, such as persons with chronic substance use disorders. This study investigated the topiramate's cognitive effects in individuals dually dependent on cocaine and opioids as part of a double-blind, randomized, controlled trial of topiramate for the cocaine dependence treatment. Following five weeks of stabilization on daily oral methadone (M=96 mg), participants were randomized to topiramate (n=18) or placebo (n=22). Cognitive testing took place at two time points: study weeks 4-5 to assess baseline performance and 10-13 weeks later to assess performance during stable dosing (300 mg topiramate or placebo). All participants were maintained on methadone at both testing times, and testing occurred two hours after the daily methadone plus topiramate/placebo administration. The topiramate and placebo groups did not differ on sex, level of education, premorbid intelligence, methadone dose, or illicit drug use. Topiramate slowed psychomotor and information processing speed, worsened divided attention, reduced n-back working memory accuracy, and increased the false alarm rate in recognition memory. Topiramate had no effects on visual processing, other measures of psychomotor function, risk-taking, self-control, Sternberg working memory, free recall, and metamemory. These findings indicate that topiramate may cause cognitive impairment in this population. This effect may limit its acceptability and use as a treatment in individuals with chronic opiate and cocaine use disorders, among whom pre-existing cognitive impairments are common. PMID:25365653

  19. Topiramate impairs cognitive function in methadone-maintained individuals with concurrent cocaine dependence.

    PubMed

    Rass, Olga; Umbricht, Annie; Bigelow, George E; Strain, Eric C; Johnson, Matthew W; Mintzer, Miriam Z

    2015-03-01

    Topiramate is being investigated as a potential pharmacotherapy for the treatment of addictive disorders. However, its cognitive side effects raise concerns about its use, especially in populations with cognitive impairment, such as persons with chronic substance use disorders. This study investigated topiramate's cognitive effects in individuals dually dependent on cocaine and opioids as part of a double-blind, randomized, controlled trial of topiramate for cocaine dependence treatment. After 5 weeks of stabilization on daily oral methadone (M = 96 mg), participants were randomized to topiramate (n = 18) or placebo (n = 22). Cognitive testing took place at 2 time points: study weeks 4 through 5 to assess baseline performance and 10 to 13 weeks later to assess performance during stable dosing (300 mg topiramate or placebo). All participants were maintained on methadone at both testing times, and testing occurred 2 hours after the daily methadone plus topiramate/placebo administration. The topiramate and placebo groups did not differ on sex, level of education, premorbid intelligence, methadone dose, or illicit drug use. Topiramate slowed psychomotor and information processing speed, worsened divided attention, reduced n-back working memory accuracy, and increased the false alarm rate in recognition memory. Topiramate had no effects on visual processing, other measures of psychomotor function, risk-taking, self-control, Sternberg working memory, free recall, and metamemory. These findings indicate that topiramate may cause cognitive impairment in this population. This effect may limit its acceptability and use as a treatment in individuals with chronic opioid and cocaine use disorders, among whom preexisting cognitive impairments are common. (PsycINFO Database Record PMID:25365653

  20. Age and individual sleep characteristics affect cognitive performance in anesthesiology residents after a 24-hour shift.

    PubMed

    Tadinac, Meri; Sekulić, Ante; Hromatko, Ivana; Mazul-Sunko, Branka; Ivancić, Romina

    2014-03-01

    Previous research has shown that both shift work and sleep deprivation have an adverse influence on various aspects of human cognitive performance. The aim of this study was to explore changes in cognitive functioning and subjective sleepiness of anesthesiology residents after a 24-hour shift. Twenty-six anesthesiology residents completed a set of psychological instruments at the beginning and at the end of the shift, as well as a questionnaire regarding information about the shift, Stanford Sleepiness Scale, and Circadian Type Questionnaire. There was a significant decline in cognitive performance measured by the Auditory Verbal Learning Test after the shift. The effect was stronger in older participants and in those with high scores on rigidity of sleep scale and low scores on the ability to overcome sleepiness scale. There were no differences in the digits forward test (a measure of concentration), while digits backward test (a measure of working memory) even showed an improved performance after the shift. Although participants reported being significantly sleepier after the shift, the subjective sleepiness did not correlate with any of the objective measures of cognitive performance. In conclusion, the performance in short tasks involving concentration and working memory was not impaired, while performance in long-term and monotone tasks declined after sleep deprivation, and the magnitude of this decline depended on the specific individual characteristics of sleep and on age Surprisingly, age seemed to have an important impact on cognitive functions after shift work even in the relatively age-homogeneous population of young anesthesiology residents.

  1. Individualized evaluation of cholinesterase inhibitors effects in dementia with adaptive cognitive testing.

    PubMed

    Wouters, Hans; Van Campen, Jos P C M; Appels, Bregje A; Beijnen, Jos H; Zwinderman, Aeilko H; Van Gool, Willem A; Schmand, Ben

    2016-09-01

    Computerized Adaptive Testing (CAT) of cognitive function, selects for every individual patient, only items of appropriate difficulty to estimate his or her level of cognitive impairment. Therefore, CAT has the potential to combine brevity with precision. We retrospectively examined the evaluation of treatment effects of cholinesterase inhibitors by CAT using longitudinal data from 643 patients from a Dutch teaching hospital who were diagnosed with Alzheimer disease or Lewy Body disease. The Cambridge Cognitive Examination (CAMCOG) was administered before treatment initiation and after intervals of six months of treatment. A previously validated CAT was simulated using 47 CAMCOG items. Results demonstrated that the CAT required a median number of 17 items (inter-quartile range 16-20), or a corresponding 64% test reduction, to estimate patients' global cognitive impairment levels. At the same time, intraclass correlations between global cognitive impairment levels as estimated by CAT or based on all 47 CAMCOG items, ranged from 0.93 at baseline to 0.91-0.94 at follow-up measurements. Slightly more people had substantial decline on the original CAMCOG (N = 31/285, 11%) than on the CAT (N = 17/285, 6%). We conclude that CAT saves time, does not lose much precision, and therefore deserves a role in the evaluation of treatment effects in dementia. Copyright © 2015 John Wiley & Sons, Ltd.

  2. [Do elderly individuals with a cognitive handicap have worse oral health?].

    PubMed

    Ferreira, Raquel Conceição; Vargas, Andréa Maria Duarte; Fernandes, Neuma Carla Neves; Souza, João Gabriel Silva; Sá, Maria Aparecida Barbosa de; Oliveira, Lorenna Fonseca Braga de; Martins, Andréa Maria Eleutério de Barros Lima

    2014-08-01

    A comparison of the oral health of elderly people with and without a cognitive handicap was assessed. The cognitive condition, the indices of decayed, missing, filled teeth (DMFT), decayed, filled roots (DFR), the need for dental treatment, the presence of plaque (P), calculus (C), the community periodontal index (CPI), the rate of periodontal attachment loss (PAL), edentulism, prosthetic use and the need for prosthetics were evaluated in a complex probabilistic sample by conglomerates of the elderly (65-74 years). PASW(r) 17.0 was used for the statistical analyses with correction for the design effect, applying the Mann Whitney and chi-square test with 95% reliability. A total of 736 elderly individuals were interviewed and examined. Those with cognitive impairment had higher average DMFT, DFR and lower average healthy sextant CPI, a lower prevalence of sextants without plaque/calculus, use of prosthetics and higher prevalence of edentulism and need for prosthetics. Elderly individuals with a cognitive handicap had poorer oral health. PMID:25119081

  3. [Do elderly individuals with a cognitive handicap have worse oral health?].

    PubMed

    Ferreira, Raquel Conceição; Vargas, Andréa Maria Duarte; Fernandes, Neuma Carla Neves; Souza, João Gabriel Silva; Sá, Maria Aparecida Barbosa de; Oliveira, Lorenna Fonseca Braga de; Martins, Andréa Maria Eleutério de Barros Lima

    2014-08-01

    A comparison of the oral health of elderly people with and without a cognitive handicap was assessed. The cognitive condition, the indices of decayed, missing, filled teeth (DMFT), decayed, filled roots (DFR), the need for dental treatment, the presence of plaque (P), calculus (C), the community periodontal index (CPI), the rate of periodontal attachment loss (PAL), edentulism, prosthetic use and the need for prosthetics were evaluated in a complex probabilistic sample by conglomerates of the elderly (65-74 years). PASW(r) 17.0 was used for the statistical analyses with correction for the design effect, applying the Mann Whitney and chi-square test with 95% reliability. A total of 736 elderly individuals were interviewed and examined. Those with cognitive impairment had higher average DMFT, DFR and lower average healthy sextant CPI, a lower prevalence of sextants without plaque/calculus, use of prosthetics and higher prevalence of edentulism and need for prosthetics. Elderly individuals with a cognitive handicap had poorer oral health.

  4. Individual differences in cognition, affect, and performance: Behavioral, neuroimaging, and molecular genetic approaches

    PubMed Central

    Parasuraman, Raja; Jiang, Yang

    2012-01-01

    We describe the use of behavioral, neuroimaging, and genetic methods to examine individual differences in cognition and affect, guided by three criteria: (1) relevance to human performance in work and everyday settings; (2) interactions between working memory, decision-making, and affective processing; and (3) examination of individual differences. The results of behavioral, functional MRI (fMRI), event-related potential (ERP), and molecular genetic studies show that analyses at the group level often mask important findings associated with sub-groups of individuals. Dopaminergic/noradrenergic genes influencing prefrontal cortex activity contribute to inter-individual variation in working memory and decision behavior, including performance in complex simulations of military decision-making. The interactive influences of individual differences in anxiety, sensation seeking, and boredom susceptibility on evaluative decision-making can be systematically described using ERP and fMRI methods. We conclude that a multi-modal neuroergonomic approach to examining brain function (using both neuroimaging and molecular genetics) can be usefully applied to understanding individual differences in cognition and affect and has implications for human performance at work. PMID:21569853

  5. Individual differences in cognition, affect, and performance: behavioral, neuroimaging, and molecular genetic approaches.

    PubMed

    Parasuraman, Raja; Jiang, Yang

    2012-01-01

    We describe the use of behavioral, neuroimaging, and genetic methods to examine individual differences in cognition and affect, guided by three criteria: (1) relevance to human performance in work and everyday settings; (2) interactions between working memory, decision-making, and affective processing; and (3) examination of individual differences. The results of behavioral, functional MRI (fMRI), event-related potential (ERP), and molecular genetic studies show that analyses at the group level often mask important findings associated with sub-groups of individuals. Dopaminergic/noradrenergic genes influencing prefrontal cortex activity contribute to inter-individual variation in working memory and decision behavior, including performance in complex simulations of military decision-making. The interactive influences of individual differences in anxiety, sensation seeking, and boredom susceptibility on evaluative decision-making can be systematically described using ERP and fMRI methods. We conclude that a multi-modal neuroergonomic approach to examining brain function (using both neuroimaging and molecular genetics) can be usefully applied to understanding individual differences in cognition and affect and has implications for human performance at work. PMID:21569853

  6. Evaluating alternative strategies for minimizing unintended fitness consequences of cultured individuals on wild populations.

    PubMed

    Baskett, Marissa L; Waples, Robin S

    2013-02-01

    Artificial propagation strategies often incur selection in captivity that leads to traits that are maladaptive in the wild. For propagation programs focused on production rather than demographic contribution to wild populations, effects on wild populations can occur through unintentional escapement or the need to release individuals into natural environments for part of their life cycle. In this case, 2 alternative management strategies might reduce unintended fitness consequences on natural populations: (1) reduce selection in captivity as much as possible to reduce fitness load (keep them similar), or (2) breed a separate population to reduce captive-wild interactions as much as possible (make them different). We quantitatively evaluate these 2 strategies with a coupled demographic-genetic model based on Pacific salmon hatcheries that incorporates a variety of relevant processes and dynamics: selection in the hatchery relative to the wild, assortative mating based on the trait under selection, and different life cycle arrangements in terms of hatchery release, density dependence, natural selection, and reproduction. Model results indicate that, if natural selection only occurs between reproduction and captive release, the similar strategy performs better. However, if natural selection occurs between captive release and reproduction, the different and similar strategies present viable alternatives to reducing unintended fitness consequences because of the greater opportunity to purge maladaptive individuals. In this case, the appropriate approach depends on the feasibility of each strategy and the demographic goal (e.g., increasing natural abundance, or ensuring that a high proportion of natural spawners are naturally produced). In addition, the fitness effects of hatchery release are much greater if hatchery release occurs before (vs. after) density-dependent interactions. Given the logistical challenges to achieving both the similar and different strategies

  7. [Individual differences in hypothetic-deductive reasoning: importance of cognitive skills and flexibility].

    PubMed

    Seoane, Gloria; Valiña, M D; Rodríguez, M S; Martín, Montserrat; Ferraces, María J

    2007-05-01

    Recent investigations show that people's differential performance when solving reasoning tasks is due to differences not only at computational level, but also at the rational or intentional level. This study is within the framework of this context and it specifically analyses individual differences in hypothetic-deductive reasoning, taking into account the characteristics associated with the task itself (content and instructions) as well as the individuals' differential characteristics. Two hundred and seventy-six students from the University of Santiago de Compostela participated in this study. Several psychometric tests were administered and participants were requested to solve various reasoning tasks. The results obtained confirm that, in effect, the differences between competent and non-competent reasoners are observed at both the above-mentioned levels: cognitive skills and abilities (algorithmic level) and cognitive flexibility (intentional level).

  8. A gesture recognition system to transition autonomously through vocational tasks for individuals with cognitive impairments.

    PubMed

    Chang, Yao-Jen; Chen, Shu-Fang; Chuang, An-Fu

    2011-01-01

    This study assessed the possibility of training two individuals with cognitive impairments using a Kinect-based task prompting system. This study was carried out according to an ABAB sequence in which A represented the baseline and B represented intervention phases. Data showed that the two participants significantly increased their target response, thus improving vocational job skills during the intervention phases. Practical and developmental implications of the findings are discussed. PMID:21985989

  9. Delusion proneness in nonclinical individuals and cognitive insight: the contributions of rumination and reflection.

    PubMed

    Carse, Traci; Langdon, Robyn

    2013-08-01

    Although previous research demonstrates that clinical individuals with delusions score low on one of the facets of cognitive insight, self-reflection, and high on the other facet, self-certainty, analogous studies of delusion proneness in nonclinical individuals have found that delusion proneness in nonclinical individuals associates with higher levels of both self-certainty and self-reflection. The present study sought to reconcile these inconsistent results by examining the contributions of different facets of self-reflection, rumination and reflection, to delusion proneness. One hundred fifty-two individuals completed three questionnaires: the Beck Cognitive Insight Scale (BCIS), the Peters et al. Delusions Inventory (PDI), and the Rumination-Reflection Questionnaire (RRQ). The results showed that the individuals scoring higher on delusion proneness demonstrated higher levels of both self-certainty and self-reflection on the BCIS as well as higher levels of rumination and reflection on the RRQ. As predicted, the strength of the relationship between BCIS self-reflection and delusion proneness was diminished when rumination was controlled for. These findings suggest that the previously observed positive relation between BCIS self-reflection and nonclinical delusion proneness might be driven, in part, by the ruminative aspect of self-reflection.

  10. Individual differences in local gray matter density are associated with differences in affective and cognitive empathy.

    PubMed

    Eres, Robert; Decety, Jean; Louis, Winnifred R; Molenberghs, Pascal

    2015-08-15

    The understanding of empathy from a neuroscientific perspective has recently developed quickly, with numerous functional MRI studies associating different brain regions with different components of empathy. A recent meta-analysis across 40 fMRI studies revealed that affective empathy is most often associated with increased activity in the insula, whereas cognitive empathy is most often associated with activity in the midcingulate cortex and adjacent dorsomedial prefrontal cortex (MCC/dmPFC). To date, however, it remains unclear whether individual differences in brain morphometry in these regions underlie different dispositions in affective and cognitive empathy. In order to test this hypothesis, voxel-based morphometry (VBM) was used to examine the extent to which gray matter density predicts scores from an established empathy measure (Questionnaire of Cognitive and Affective Empathy; QCAE). One hundred and seventy-six participants completed the QCAE and underwent MRI in order to acquire a high-resolution, three-dimensional T1-weighted structural scans. A factor analysis of the questionnaire scores revealed two distinct factors of empathy, affective and cognitive, which confirmed the validity of the QCAE. VBM results revealed gray matter density differences associated with the distinct components of empathy. Higher scores on affective empathy were associated with greater gray matter density in the insula cortex and higher scores of cognitive empathy were associated with greater gray matter density in the MCC/dmPFC. Taken together, these results provide validation for empathy being a multi-component construct, suggesting that affective and cognitive empathy are differentially represented in brain morphometry as well as providing convergent evidence for empathy being represented by different neural and structural correlates. PMID:26008886

  11. Neuroimaging studies of the striatum in cognition Part I: healthy individuals

    PubMed Central

    Provost, Jean-Sebastien; Hanganu, Alexandru; Monchi, Oury

    2015-01-01

    The striatum has traditionally mainly been associated with playing a key role in the modulation of motor functions. Indeed, lesion studies in animals and studies of some neurological conditions in humans have brought further evidence to this idea. However, better methods of investigation have raised concerns about this notion, and it was proposed that the striatum could also be involved in different types of functions including cognitive ones. Although the notion was originally a matter of debate, it is now well-accepted that the caudate nucleus contributes to cognition, while the putamen could be involved in motor functions, and to some extent in cognitive functions as well. With the arrival of modern neuroimaging techniques in the early 1990, knowledge supporting the cognitive aspect of the striatum has greatly increased, and a substantial number of scientific papers were published studying the role of the striatum in healthy individuals. For the first time, it was possible to assess the contribution of specific areas of the brain during the execution of a cognitive task. Neuroanatomical studies have described functional loops involving the striatum and the prefrontal cortex suggesting a specific interaction between these two structures. This review examines the data up to date and provides strong evidence for a specific contribution of the fronto-striatal regions in different cognitive processes, such as set-shifting, self-initiated responses, rule learning, action-contingency, and planning. Finally, a new two-level functional model involving the prefrontal cortex and the dorsal striatum is proposed suggesting an essential role of the dorsal striatum in selecting between competing potential responses or actions, and in resolving a high level of ambiguity. PMID:26500513

  12. Individual differences in local gray matter density are associated with differences in affective and cognitive empathy.

    PubMed

    Eres, Robert; Decety, Jean; Louis, Winnifred R; Molenberghs, Pascal

    2015-08-15

    The understanding of empathy from a neuroscientific perspective has recently developed quickly, with numerous functional MRI studies associating different brain regions with different components of empathy. A recent meta-analysis across 40 fMRI studies revealed that affective empathy is most often associated with increased activity in the insula, whereas cognitive empathy is most often associated with activity in the midcingulate cortex and adjacent dorsomedial prefrontal cortex (MCC/dmPFC). To date, however, it remains unclear whether individual differences in brain morphometry in these regions underlie different dispositions in affective and cognitive empathy. In order to test this hypothesis, voxel-based morphometry (VBM) was used to examine the extent to which gray matter density predicts scores from an established empathy measure (Questionnaire of Cognitive and Affective Empathy; QCAE). One hundred and seventy-six participants completed the QCAE and underwent MRI in order to acquire a high-resolution, three-dimensional T1-weighted structural scans. A factor analysis of the questionnaire scores revealed two distinct factors of empathy, affective and cognitive, which confirmed the validity of the QCAE. VBM results revealed gray matter density differences associated with the distinct components of empathy. Higher scores on affective empathy were associated with greater gray matter density in the insula cortex and higher scores of cognitive empathy were associated with greater gray matter density in the MCC/dmPFC. Taken together, these results provide validation for empathy being a multi-component construct, suggesting that affective and cognitive empathy are differentially represented in brain morphometry as well as providing convergent evidence for empathy being represented by different neural and structural correlates.

  13. Impact of a poka-yoke device on job performance of individuals with cognitive impairments.

    PubMed

    Erlandson, R F; Noblett, M J; Phelps, J A

    1998-09-01

    Job performance and production related issues are important not only to successful vocational training and ultimate job placement for individuals with cognitive disabilities, but also for their ability to have expanded vocational options. This study hypothesized that the application of Kaizen philosophy, and poka-yoke techniques in particular, could create job opportunities and improve productivity of individuals with cognitive disabilities. Poka-yoke or error-proofing techniques are part of the collection of Kaizen techniques. Kaizen refers to continuous improvement in performance, cost/effectiveness, and quality. Kaizen strives to empower the worker, increase worker satisfaction, facilitate a sense of accomplishment, and thereby create pride-of-work. These techniques typically reduce the physical and cognitive demands of a task and thereby render the task more accessible. The job was a fuel clamp assembly. A redesigned assembly fixture was the poka-yoke intervention. Consistent with poka-yoke principles, the intervention improved the productivity of everyone attempting the assembly. In particular, the workers in this study showed an 80% increase in productivity and an average percent error drop from 52% to about 1% after the process redesign. Furthermore, the workers showed improved morale, self-esteem, and pride-of-work. Prior to the process redesign, only the higher functioning workers could successfully perform the assembly. After the redesign a greater number of workers could successfully perform the assembly. These results not only validated the study hypothesis, but demonstrated that the success facilitated by applying Kaizen techniques had similar results with individuals with cognitive disabilities as with nondisabled workers.

  14. A FISTful of Emotion: Individual Differences in Trait Anxiety and Cognitive-Affective Flexibility During Preadolescence.

    PubMed

    Mărcuş, Oana; Stanciu, Oana; MacLeod, Colin; Liebregts, Heather; Visu-Petra, Laura

    2016-10-01

    Cognitive-affective flexibility represents the ability to switch between alternative ways of processing emotional stimuli according to situational demands and individual goals. Although reduced flexibility has been implicated as a mechanism for the development of anxiety, there is very limited data on this relationship in children and adolescents. The aim of the current study was to investigate cognitive-affective flexibility in preadolescents (N = 112, 50 girls, 11-12 and 13-14 years old) and to examine if this ability is related to individual differences in trait anxiety. Their interplay was assessed using the modified version of the Flexible Item Selection Task (FIST; Jacques and Zelazo 2001) with non-emotional stimuli (geometrical shapes) and the Emotional FIST (EM-FIST) with emotional stimuli (emotional facial expressions). Performance on the EM-FIST indicated that across the whole age range, trials requiring greater cognitive flexibility were more demanding than nonflexible ones, as revealed by both response time and accuracy performance. Moreover, flexibility demands were higher for younger children than for older ones but only in terms of response speed. Individual differences in trait anxiety moderated the impact of flexibility only on the EM-FIST. Being flexible on the EM-FIST was more demanding for high trait anxious children than for their low trait anxious peers. Lastly, overall girls responded faster than boys, but only in the EM-FIST. These findings extend the presently limited literature concerning variability in cognitive-affective flexibility during this sensitive developmental window.

  15. Thyroid function, depressed mood, and cognitive performance in older individuals: the Maastricht Aging Study.

    PubMed

    van Boxtel, M P J; Menheere, P P C A; Bekers, O; Hogervorst, E; Jolles, J

    2004-08-01

    The hypothesis was tested that thyroid function, as indicated by serum thyroid-stimulating hormone (TSH) level, is associated with cognitive performance in a healthy aging population. In a random sample of 120 participants recruited from the Maastricht Aging Study (MAAS), aged between 49 and 71 years, we assessed TSH level, mood state (Symptom Check List, subscale depression), and three domains of cognitive function: verbal memory, general sensorimotor speed, and complex flexibility. After correction for age, sex, and educational level, a negative association between TSH and memory function was apparent: higher levels of TSH predicted lower levels of memory performance. Exclusion of individuals with TSH levels suspect for thyroid disorder (n=2) or who were on thyroid replacement (n=3) attenuated this association. Furthermore, additional control for mood status reduced the association below the significance level. No interaction between age and TSH on cognition was found, which indicated that the TSH-memory association was independent of age group level. We conclude that the association between TSH level and memory performance was small and dependent on mood status and the presence of (possible) thyroid disease in this relatively healthy population based sample. Prospective studies are needed to address the role of thyroid function in age-related cognitive decline.

  16. Cognitive synergy in groups and group-to-individual transfer of decision-making competencies.

    PubMed

    Curşeu, Petru L; Meslec, Nicoleta; Pluut, Helen; Lucas, Gerardus J M

    2015-01-01

    In a field study (148 participants organized in 38 groups) we tested the effect of group synergy and one's position in relation to the collaborative zone of proximal development (CZPD) on the change of individual decision-making competencies. We used two parallel sets of decision tasks reported in previous research to test rationality and we evaluated individual decision-making competencies in the pre-group and post-group conditions as well as group rationality (as an emergent group level phenomenon). We used multilevel modeling to analyze the data and the results showed that members of synergetic groups had a higher cognitive gain as compared to members of non-synergetic groups, while highly rational members (members above the CZPD) had lower cognitive gains compared to less rational group members (members situated below the CZPD). These insights extend the literature on group-to-individual transfer of learning and have important practical implications as they show that group dynamics influence the development of individual decision-making competencies.

  17. Cognitive synergy in groups and group-to-individual transfer of decision-making competencies

    PubMed Central

    Curşeu, Petru L.; Meslec, Nicoleta; Pluut, Helen; Lucas, Gerardus J. M.

    2015-01-01

    In a field study (148 participants organized in 38 groups) we tested the effect of group synergy and one's position in relation to the collaborative zone of proximal development (CZPD) on the change of individual decision-making competencies. We used two parallel sets of decision tasks reported in previous research to test rationality and we evaluated individual decision-making competencies in the pre-group and post-group conditions as well as group rationality (as an emergent group level phenomenon). We used multilevel modeling to analyze the data and the results showed that members of synergetic groups had a higher cognitive gain as compared to members of non-synergetic groups, while highly rational members (members above the CZPD) had lower cognitive gains compared to less rational group members (members situated below the CZPD). These insights extend the literature on group-to-individual transfer of learning and have important practical implications as they show that group dynamics influence the development of individual decision-making competencies. PMID:26441750

  18. Toward the Computational Representation of Individual Cultural, Cognitive, and Physiological State: The Sensor Shooter Simulation

    SciTech Connect

    RAYBOURN,ELAINE M.; FORSYTHE,JAMES C.

    2001-08-01

    This report documents an exploratory FY 00 LDRD project that sought to demonstrate the first steps toward a realistic computational representation of the variability encountered in individual human behavior. Realism, as conceptualized in this project, required that the human representation address the underlying psychological, cultural, physiological, and environmental stressors. The present report outlines the researchers' approach to representing cognitive, cultural, and physiological variability of an individual in an ambiguous situation while faced with a high-consequence decision that would greatly impact subsequent events. The present project was framed around a sensor-shooter scenario as a soldier interacts with an unexpected target (two young Iraqi girls). A software model of the ''Sensor Shooter'' scenario from Desert Storm was developed in which the framework consisted of a computational instantiation of Recognition Primed Decision Making in the context of a Naturalistic Decision Making model [1]. Recognition Primed Decision Making was augmented with an underlying foundation based on our current understanding of human neurophysiology and its relationship to human cognitive processes. While the Gulf War scenario that constitutes the framework for the Sensor Shooter prototype is highly specific, the human decision architecture and the subsequent simulation are applicable to other problems similar in concept, intensity, and degree of uncertainty. The goal was to provide initial steps toward a computational representation of human variability in cultural, cognitive, and physiological state in order to attain a better understanding of the full depth of human decision-making processes in the context of ambiguity, novelty, and heightened arousal.

  19. The recency ratio as an index of cognitive performance and decline in elderly individuals.

    PubMed

    Bruno, Davide; Reichert, Chelsea; Pomara, Nunzio

    2016-11-01

    Individuals with Alzheimer's disease have been found to present a typical serial position curve in immediate recall tests, showing poor primacy performance and exaggerated recency recall. However, the recency advantage is usually lost after a delay. On this basis, we examined whether the recency ratio (Rr), calculated by dividing recency performance in an immediate memory task by recency performance in a delayed task, was a useful risk marker of cognitive decline. We tested whether change in Mini-Mental State Examination (MMSE) performance between baseline and follow-up was predicted by baseline Rr and found this to be the case (N = 245). From these analyses, we conclude that participants with high Rr scores, who show disproportionate recency recall in the immediate test compared to the delayed test, present signs of being at risk for cognitive decline or dysfunction.

  20. Attention and Working Memory-Related EEG Markers of Subtle Cognitive Deterioration in Healthy Elderly Individuals.

    PubMed

    Deiber, Marie-Pierre; Meziane, Hadj Boumediene; Hasler, Roland; Rodriguez, Cristelle; Toma, Simona; Ackermann, Marine; Herrmann, François; Giannakopoulos, Panteleimon

    2015-01-01

    Future treatments of Alzheimer's disease need the identification of cases at high risk at the preclinical stage of the disease before the development of irreversible structural damage. We investigated here whether subtle cognitive deterioration in a population of healthy elderly individuals could be predicted by EEG signals at baseline under cognitive activation. Continuous EEG was recorded in 97 elderly control subjects and 45 age-matched mild cognitive impairment (MCI) cases during a simple attentional and a 2-back working memory task. Upon 18-month neuropsychological follow-up, the final sample included 55 stable (sCON) and 42 deteriorated (dCON) controls. We examined the P1, N1, P3, and PNwm event-related components as well as the oscillatory activities in the theta (4-7 Hz), alpha (8-13 Hz), and beta (14-25 Hz) frequency ranges (ERD/ERS: event-related desynchronization/synchronization, and ITC: inter-trial coherence). Behavioral performance, P1, and N1 components were comparable in all groups. The P3, PNwm, and all oscillatory activity indices were altered in MCI cases compared to controls. Only three EEG indices distinguished the two control groups: alpha and beta ERD (dCON >  sCON) and beta ITC (dCON <  sCON). These findings show that subtle cognitive deterioration has no impact on EEG indices associated with perception, discrimination, and working memory processes but mostly affects attention, resulting in an enhanced recruitment of attentional resources. In addition, cognitive decline alters neural firing synchronization at high frequencies (14-25 Hz) at early stages, and possibly affects lower frequencies (4-13 Hz) only at more severe stages. PMID:26401557

  1. Cognitive reserve protects against apathy in individuals with human immunodeficiency virus.

    PubMed

    Shapiro, Miriam E; Mahoney, Jeannette R; Peyser, Deena; Zingman, Barry S; Verghese, Joe

    2014-02-01

    Apathy is associated with impaired neuropsychological functioning in individuals with HIV. While cognitive reserve (CR) delays neurocognitive decline, CR's relationship with apathy has never been studied. We examined CR's association with apathy in 116 HIV-positive individuals recruited from an urban AIDS center and assessed whether this relationship is moderated by age and/or disease severity. Participants completed the Wechsler Test of Adult Reading and Apathy Evaluation Scale. A CR-composite, combining years of education and word-reading ability, significantly predicted apathy (t = -2.37, p = .02). CR's relationship with apathy was not moderated by age, but participants with nadir CD4 levels ≤ 200 demonstrated a stronger association (t = -3.25, p = .002) than those with nadir CD4 levels > 200 (t = -0.61, p = .55). These findings suggest a protective effect of CR against apathy in HIV-infected individuals across the age span, particularly after a certain threshold of disease severity.

  2. Social Cognition in Individuals at Ultra-High Risk for Psychosis: A Meta-Analysis

    PubMed Central

    van Donkersgoed, R. J. M.; Wunderink, L.; Nieboer, R.; Aleman, A.; Pijnenborg, G. H. M.

    2015-01-01

    Objective Treatment in the ultra-high risk stage for a psychotic episode is critical to the course of symptoms. Markers for the development of psychosis have been studied, to optimize the detection of people at risk of psychosis. One possible marker for the transition to psychosis is social cognition. To estimate effect sizes for social cognition based on a quantitative integration of the published evidence, we conducted a meta-analysis of social cognitive performance in people at ultra high risk (UHR). Methods A literature search (1970-July 2015) was performed in PubMed, PsychINFO, Medline, Embase, and ISI Web of Science, using the search terms ‘social cognition’, ‘theory of mind’, ‘emotion recognition’, ‘attributional style’, ‘social knowledge’, ‘social perception’, ‘empathy’, ‘at risk mental state’, ‘clinical high risk’, ‘psychosis prodrome’, and ‘ultra high risk’. The pooled effect size (Cohen’s D) and the effect sizes for each domain of social cognition were calculated. A random effects model with 95% confidence intervals was used. Results Seventeen studies were included in the analysis. The overall significant effect was of medium magnitude (d = 0.52, 95% Cl = 0.38–0.65). No moderator effects were found for age, gender and sample size. Sub-analyses demonstrated that individuals in the UHR phase show significant moderate deficits in affect recognition and affect discrimination in faces as well as in voices and in verbal Theory of Mind (TOM). Due to an insufficient amount of studies, we did not calculate an effect size for attributional bias and social perception/ knowledge. A majority of studies did not find a correlation between social cognition deficits and transition to psychosis, which may suggest that social cognition in general is not a useful marker for the development of psychosis. However some studies suggest the possible predictive value of verbal TOM and the recognition of specific emotions in faces

  3. An examination of the social, behavioral, and cognitive influences of infamous individuals on media consumers.

    PubMed

    Matusitz, Jonathan; Breen, Gerald-Mark

    2011-01-01

    This article presents a substantial extant and predictive statement on social cognitive theory (SCT), a well-known interpersonal communication theory coined by Bandura (1986) and researched by prominent scholars in the social sciences. An important rationale behind conducting this analysis is that it provides several groundbreaking and unique applications of SCT through the exploration of infamous celebrities (i.e., Michael Jackson, Keith Richards, Robert Downey, Jr., and sexually perverted religious leaders) published in global media outlets. The objective is to demonstrate the socially influential effects that these notorious individuals pose on media consumers and interested parties, in line with theoretical assumptions posited by SCT. PMID:21902486

  4. Social implications arise in embodied music cognition research which can counter musicological "individualism".

    PubMed

    Moran, Nikki

    2014-01-01

    The agenda in music research that is broadly recognized as embodied music cognition has arrived hand-in-hand with a social interpretation of music, focusing on the real-world basis of its performance, and fostering an empirical approach to musician movement regarding the communicative function and potential of those movements. However, embodied cognition emerged from traditional cognitivism, which produced a body of scientific explanation of music-theoretic concepts. The analytical object of this corpus is based on the particular imagined encounter of a listener responding to an idealized "work." Although this problem of essentialism has been identified within mainstream musicology, the lingering effects may spill over into interdisciplinary, empirical research. This paper defines the situation according to its legacy of individualism, and offers an alternative sketch of musical activity as performance event, a model that highlights the social interaction processes at the heart of musical behavior. I describe some recent empirical work based on interaction-oriented approaches, arguing that this particular focus - on the social interaction process itself - creates a distinctive and promising agenda for further research into embodied music cognition. PMID:25101011

  5. Coronary artery calcium is associated with cortical thinning in cognitively normal individuals

    PubMed Central

    Lee, Jin San; Kang, Danbee; Jang, Young Kyoung; Kim, Hee Jin; Na, Duk L.; Shin, Hee Young; Kang, Mira; Yang, Jin-Ju; Lee, Jong-Min; Lee, Juyoun; Kim, Yeo Jin; Park, Key-Chung; Guallar, Eliseo; Seo, Sang Won; Cho, Juhee

    2016-01-01

    To evaluate the association between coronary artery calcium (CAC) and cortical thickness in a large sample of cognitively normal individuals, with special emphasis in determining if the association thickness has regional brain specificity and if it is mediated by white matter hyperintensities (WMH). A total of 512 participants were included in this study. CAC scores were assessed by multi-detector computed tomography. Cortical thickness was measured using a surface-based method. Linear mixed models were used to assess the association between CAC scores and cortical thickness. In fully adjusted models, increased CAC scores were associated with cortical thinning across several brain regions, which generally overlapped with the distribution of default mode network. The association between CAC scores and cortical thickness was significantly stronger in participants with moderate or severe WMH compared to those with none or mild WMH, even though CAC scores were not associated with WMH. In cognitively normal adults, CAC was associated with cortical thinning in areas related to cognitive function. This association was evident after adjusting for multiple coronary artery disease risk factors and for WMH, suggesting that CAC may be more closely related to Alzheimer’s Disease-type disease rather than to cerebral small vessel disease. PMID:27694965

  6. Assessment of strategic processing during narrative comprehension in individuals with mild cognitive impairment.

    PubMed

    Schmitter-Edgecombe, Maureen; Creamer, Scott

    2010-07-01

    A think-aloud protocol was used to examine the strategies used by individuals with mild cognitive impairment (MCI) during text comprehension. Twenty-three participants with MCI and 23 cognitively healthy older adults (OA) read narratives, pausing to verbalize their thoughts after each sentence. The verbal protocol analysis developed by Trabasso and Magliano (1996) was then used to code participants' utterances into inferential and non-inferential statements; inferential statements were further coded to identify the memory operation used in their generation. Compared with OA controls, the MCI participants showed poorer story comprehension and produced fewer inferences. The MCI participants were also less skilled at providing explanations of story events and in using prior text information to support inference generation. Poorer text comprehension was associated with poorer verbal memory abilities and poorer use of prior text events when producing inferential statements. The results suggest that the memory difficulties of the MCI group may be an important cognitive factor interfering with their ability to integrate narrative events through the use of inferences and to form a global coherence to support text comprehension.

  7. Behaviours caregivers use to determine pain in non-verbal, cognitively impaired individuals.

    PubMed

    McGrath, P J; Rosmus, C; Canfield, C; Campbell, M A; Hennigar, A

    1998-05-01

    To create a checklist of behaviours that caregivers could use to determine pain in non-verbal individuals with mental retardation, primary caregivers were recruited by the Division of Neurology and interviewed using a semistructured interview. Caregivers of 20 individuals were asked to recall two instances of short, sharp pain and two of longer-lasting pain and describe the individual's behaviour. Transcribed interviews were reviewed by two of the authors and sets of non-overlapping items were developed. Average age of the 20 individuals was 14.5 years (range 6 to 29 years) and language level averaged 10 months as scored by the MacArthur Communicative Development Inventory. All had mental retardation and 18 had epilepsy and spastic quadriplegia or hemiparesis. Thirty-one behaviours were extracted from the interviews. The specific behaviours were often different from one child to another but the classes of behaviours (Vocal, Eating/Sleeping, Social/Personality, Facial expression of pain, Activity, Body and limbs, and Physiological) were common to almost all children. Reliability of using the checklist on interviews was very good (kappa=0.77). The checklist has excellent content validity and will be useful for caregivers of cognitively-impaired, non-verbal individuals to report on pain behaviours. Further research is needed to additionally assess its validity and sensitivity. PMID:9630262

  8. Individual differences in substance dependence: at the intersection of brain, behaviour and cognition.

    PubMed

    Baker, Travis E; Stockwell, Tim; Barnes, Gordon; Holroyd, Clay B

    2011-07-01

    Recent theories of drug dependence propose that the transition from occasional recreational substance use to harmful use and dependence results from the impact of disrupted midbrain dopamine signals for reinforcement learning on frontal brain areas that implement cognitive control and decision-making. We investigated this hypothesis in humans using electrophysiological and behavioral measures believed to assay the integrity of midbrain dopamine system and its neural targets. Our investigation revealed two groups of dependent individuals, one characterized by disrupted dopamine-dependent reward learning and the other by disrupted error learning associated with depression-proneness. These results highlight important neurobiological and behavioral differences between two classes of dependent users that can inform the development of individually tailored treatment programs.

  9. Albuminuria, Cerebrovascular Disease and Cortical Atrophy: among Cognitively Normal Elderly Individuals.

    PubMed

    Cho, Eun Bin; Shin, Hee-Young; Park, Sang Eon; Chun, Phillip; Jang, Hye Ryoun; Yang, Jin-ju; Kim, Hee Jin; Kim, Yeo Jin; Jung, Na-Yeon; Lee, Jin San; Lee, Juyoun; Jang, Young Kyoung; Jang, Eun Young; Kang, Mira; Lee, Jong-Min; Kim, Changsoo; Min, Ju-Hong; Ryu, Seungho; Na, Duk L; Seo, Sang Won

    2016-02-15

    We tested the hypothesis that decreased glomerular filtration rate and albuminuria have different roles in brain structure alterations. We enrolled 1,215 cognitively normal individuals, all of whom underwent high-resolution T1-weighted volumetric magnetic resonance imaging scans. The cerebral small vessel disease burdens were assessed with white matter hyperintensities (WMH), lacunes, and microbleeds. Subjects were considered to have an abnormally elevated urine albumin creatinine ratio if the value was ≥17 mg/g for men and ≥25 mg/g for women. Albuminuria, but not estimated glomerular filtration rate (eGFR), was associated with increased WMH burdens (p = 0.002). The data was analyzed after adjusting for age, sex, education, history of hypertension, diabetes mellitus, hyperlipidemia, ischemic heart disease, stroke, total cholesterol level, body mass index, status of smoking and alcohol drinking, and intracranial volume. Albuminuria was also associated with cortical thinning, predominantly in the frontal and occipital regions (both p < 0.01) in multiple linear regression analysis. However, eGFR was not associated with cortical thickness. Furthermore, path analysis for cortical thickness showed that albuminuria was associated with frontal thinning partially mediated by WMH burdens. The assessment of albuminuria is needed to improve our ability to identify individuals with high risk for cognitive impairments, and further institute appropriate preventive measures.

  10. Albuminuria, Cerebrovascular Disease and Cortical Atrophy: among Cognitively Normal Elderly Individuals.

    PubMed

    Cho, Eun Bin; Shin, Hee-Young; Park, Sang Eon; Chun, Phillip; Jang, Hye Ryoun; Yang, Jin-ju; Kim, Hee Jin; Kim, Yeo Jin; Jung, Na-Yeon; Lee, Jin San; Lee, Juyoun; Jang, Young Kyoung; Jang, Eun Young; Kang, Mira; Lee, Jong-Min; Kim, Changsoo; Min, Ju-Hong; Ryu, Seungho; Na, Duk L; Seo, Sang Won

    2016-01-01

    We tested the hypothesis that decreased glomerular filtration rate and albuminuria have different roles in brain structure alterations. We enrolled 1,215 cognitively normal individuals, all of whom underwent high-resolution T1-weighted volumetric magnetic resonance imaging scans. The cerebral small vessel disease burdens were assessed with white matter hyperintensities (WMH), lacunes, and microbleeds. Subjects were considered to have an abnormally elevated urine albumin creatinine ratio if the value was ≥17 mg/g for men and ≥25 mg/g for women. Albuminuria, but not estimated glomerular filtration rate (eGFR), was associated with increased WMH burdens (p = 0.002). The data was analyzed after adjusting for age, sex, education, history of hypertension, diabetes mellitus, hyperlipidemia, ischemic heart disease, stroke, total cholesterol level, body mass index, status of smoking and alcohol drinking, and intracranial volume. Albuminuria was also associated with cortical thinning, predominantly in the frontal and occipital regions (both p < 0.01) in multiple linear regression analysis. However, eGFR was not associated with cortical thickness. Furthermore, path analysis for cortical thickness showed that albuminuria was associated with frontal thinning partially mediated by WMH burdens. The assessment of albuminuria is needed to improve our ability to identify individuals with high risk for cognitive impairments, and further institute appropriate preventive measures. PMID:26878913

  11. Effects of Sleep Deprivation on Brain Bioenergetics, Sleep, and Cognitive Performance in Cocaine-Dependent Individuals

    PubMed Central

    Trksak, George H.; Bracken, Bethany K.; Jensen, J. Eric; Plante, David T.; Penetar, David M.; Tartarini, Wendy L.; Maywalt, Melissa A.; Dorsey, Cynthia M.; Renshaw, Perry F.; Lukas, Scott E.

    2013-01-01

    In cocaine-dependent individuals, sleep is disturbed during cocaine use and abstinence, highlighting the importance of examining the behavioral and homeostatic response to acute sleep loss in these individuals. The current study was designed to identify a differential effect of sleep deprivation on brain bioenergetics, cognitive performance, and sleep between cocaine-dependent and healthy control participants. 14 healthy control and 8 cocaine-dependent participants experienced consecutive nights of baseline, total sleep deprivation, and recovery sleep in the research laboratory. Participants underwent [31]P magnetic resonance spectroscopy (MRS) brain imaging, polysomnography, Continuous Performance Task, and Digit Symbol Substitution Task. Following recovery sleep, [31]P MRS scans revealed that cocaine-dependent participants exhibited elevated global brain β-NTP (direct measure of adenosine triphosphate), α-NTP, and total NTP levels compared to those of healthy controls. Cocaine-dependent participants performed worse on the Continuous Performance Task and Digit Symbol Substitution Task at baseline compared to healthy control participants, but sleep deprivation did not worsen cognitive performance in either group. Enhancements of brain ATP levels in cocaine dependent participants following recovery sleep may reflect a greater impact of sleep deprivation on sleep homeostasis, which may highlight the importance of monitoring sleep during abstinence and the potential influence of sleep loss in drug relapse. PMID:24250276

  12. Effects of sleep deprivation on brain bioenergetics, sleep, and cognitive performance in cocaine-dependent individuals.

    PubMed

    Trksak, George H; Bracken, Bethany K; Jensen, J Eric; Plante, David T; Penetar, David M; Tartarini, Wendy L; Maywalt, Melissa A; Dorsey, Cynthia M; Renshaw, Perry F; Lukas, Scott E

    2013-01-01

    In cocaine-dependent individuals, sleep is disturbed during cocaine use and abstinence, highlighting the importance of examining the behavioral and homeostatic response to acute sleep loss in these individuals. The current study was designed to identify a differential effect of sleep deprivation on brain bioenergetics, cognitive performance, and sleep between cocaine-dependent and healthy control participants. 14 healthy control and 8 cocaine-dependent participants experienced consecutive nights of baseline, total sleep deprivation, and recovery sleep in the research laboratory. Participants underwent ³¹P magnetic resonance spectroscopy (MRS) brain imaging, polysomnography, Continuous Performance Task, and Digit Symbol Substitution Task. Following recovery sleep, ³¹P MRS scans revealed that cocaine-dependent participants exhibited elevated global brain β-NTP (direct measure of adenosine triphosphate), α-NTP, and total NTP levels compared to those of healthy controls. Cocaine-dependent participants performed worse on the Continuous Performance Task and Digit Symbol Substitution Task at baseline compared to healthy control participants, but sleep deprivation did not worsen cognitive performance in either group. Enhancements of brain ATP levels in cocaine dependent participants following recovery sleep may reflect a greater impact of sleep deprivation on sleep homeostasis, which may highlight the importance of monitoring sleep during abstinence and the potential influence of sleep loss in drug relapse. PMID:24250276

  13. An in-depth cognitive examination of individuals with superior face recognition skills.

    PubMed

    Bobak, Anna K; Bennetts, Rachel J; Parris, Benjamin A; Jansari, Ashok; Bate, Sarah

    2016-09-01

    Previous work has reported the existence of "super-recognisers" (SRs), or individuals with extraordinary face recognition skills. However, the precise underpinnings of this ability have not yet been investigated. In this paper we examine (a) the face-specificity of super recognition, (b) perception of facial identity in SRs, (c) whether SRs present with enhancements in holistic processing and (d) the consistency of these findings across different SRs. A detailed neuropsychological investigation into six SRs indicated domain-specificity in three participants, with some evidence of enhanced generalised visuo-cognitive or socio-emotional processes in the remaining individuals. While superior face-processing skills were restricted to face memory in three of the SRs, enhancements to facial identity perception were observed in the others. Notably, five of the six participants showed at least some evidence of enhanced holistic processing. These findings indicate cognitive heterogeneity in the presentation of superior face recognition, and have implications for our theoretical understanding of the typical face-processing system and the identification of superior face-processing skills in applied settings. PMID:27344238

  14. Novel Technology for Treating Individuals with Aphasia and Concomitant Cognitive Deficits

    PubMed Central

    Cherney, Leora R.; Halper, Anita S.

    2009-01-01

    Purpose This article describes three individuals with aphasia and concomitant cognitive deficits who used state-of-the-art computer software for training conversational scripts. Method Participants were assessed before and after 9 weeks of a computer script training program. For each participant, three individualized scripts were developed, recorded on the software, and practiced sequentially at home. Weekly meetings with the speech-language pathologist occurred to monitor practice and assess progress. Baseline and posttreatment scripts were audiotaped, transcribed, and compared to the target scripts for content, grammatical productivity, and rate of production of script-related words. Interviews were conducted at the conclusion of treatment. Results There was great variability in improvements across scripts, with two participants improving on two of their three scripts in measures of content, grammatical productivity, and rate of production of script-related words. One participant gained more than 5 points on the Aphasia Quotient of the Western Aphasia Battery. Five positive themes were consistently identified from exit interviews: increased verbal communication, improvements in other modalities and situations, communication changes noticed by others, increased confidence, and satisfaction with the software. Conclusion Computer-based script training potentially may be an effective intervention for persons with chronic aphasia and concomitant cognitive deficits. PMID:19158062

  15. Understanding physical activity in individuals with prediabetes: an application of social cognitive theory.

    PubMed

    Taylor, Lorian M; Raine, Kim D; Plotnikoff, Ronald C; Vallance, Jeff K; Sharma, Arya M; Spence, John C

    2016-01-01

    Despite well-documented evidence implicating physical activity (PA) in the prevention of type 2 diabetes, the overwhelming majority of individuals with prediabetes are not physically active enough. The purpose of this study was to investigate the applicability of the social cognitive theory (SCT) in understanding PA behaviour in individuals with prediabetes. Individuals with prediabetes (N = 232) completed a mailed questionnaire assessing demographics, self-reported PA (MET.min/wk) and SCT constructs for PA MET.min/wk. For PA MET.min/wk, scheduling and task efficacy both had significant effects on PA (β = .30 and .22, respectively). Goal formation also had a direct effect on PA for scheduling, coping and task efficacy (β = .20, .34 and .30, respectively). Task, coping and scheduling efficacy explained a significant portion of the variance in PA behaviour. Overall, SCT appears to have merit as a model for understanding PA in individuals with prediabetes. Further evaluative inquiry is needed to establish support for the use of the SCT as a framework for developing, implementing and evaluating PA behaviour change interventions in this population. PMID:26300537

  16. Understanding physical activity in individuals with prediabetes: an application of social cognitive theory.

    PubMed

    Taylor, Lorian M; Raine, Kim D; Plotnikoff, Ronald C; Vallance, Jeff K; Sharma, Arya M; Spence, John C

    2016-01-01

    Despite well-documented evidence implicating physical activity (PA) in the prevention of type 2 diabetes, the overwhelming majority of individuals with prediabetes are not physically active enough. The purpose of this study was to investigate the applicability of the social cognitive theory (SCT) in understanding PA behaviour in individuals with prediabetes. Individuals with prediabetes (N = 232) completed a mailed questionnaire assessing demographics, self-reported PA (MET.min/wk) and SCT constructs for PA MET.min/wk. For PA MET.min/wk, scheduling and task efficacy both had significant effects on PA (β = .30 and .22, respectively). Goal formation also had a direct effect on PA for scheduling, coping and task efficacy (β = .20, .34 and .30, respectively). Task, coping and scheduling efficacy explained a significant portion of the variance in PA behaviour. Overall, SCT appears to have merit as a model for understanding PA in individuals with prediabetes. Further evaluative inquiry is needed to establish support for the use of the SCT as a framework for developing, implementing and evaluating PA behaviour change interventions in this population.

  17. Interacting with Nature Improves Cognition and Affect for Individuals with Depression

    PubMed Central

    Berman, Marc G.; Kross, Ethan; Krpan, Katherine M.; Askren, Mary K.; Burson, Aleah; Deldin, Patricia J.; Kaplan, Stephen; Sherdell, Lindsey; Gotlib, Ian H.; Jonides, John

    2012-01-01

    Background This study aimed to explore whether walking in nature may be beneficial for individuals with major depressive disorder (MDD). Healthy adults demonstrate significant cognitive gains after nature walks, but it was unclear whether those same benefits would be achieved in a depressed sample as walking alone in nature might induce rumination, thereby worsening memory and mood. Methods Twenty individuals diagnosed with MDD participated in this study. At baseline, mood and short term memory span were assessed using the PANAS and the backwards digit span (BDS) task, respectively. Participants were then asked to think about an unresolved negative autobiographical event to prime rumination, prior to taking a 50 minute walk in either a natural or urban setting. After the walk, mood and short-term memory span were reassessed. The following week, participants returned to the lab and repeated the entire procedure, but walked in the location not visited in the first session (i.e., a counterbalanced within-subjects design). Results Participants exhibited significant increases in memory span after the nature walk relative to the urban walk, p < .001, ηp2= .53 (a large effect-size). Participants also showed increases in mood, but the mood effects did not correlate with the memory effects, suggesting separable mechanisms and replicating previous work. Limitations Sample size and participants’ motivation. Conclusions These findings extend earlier work demonstrating the cognitive and affective benefits of interacting with nature to individuals with MDD. Therefore, interacting with nature may be useful clinically as a supplement to existing treatments for MDD. PMID:22464936

  18. High daytime and nighttime ambulatory pulse pressure predict poor cognitive function and mild cognitive impairment in hypertensive individuals.

    PubMed

    Riba-Llena, Iolanda; Nafría, Cristina; Filomena, Josefina; Tovar, José L; Vinyoles, Ernest; Mundet, Xavier; Jarca, Carmen I; Vilar-Bergua, Andrea; Montaner, Joan; Delgado, Pilar

    2016-01-01

    High blood pressure accelerates normal aging stiffness process. Arterial stiffness (AS) has been previously associated with impaired cognitive function and dementia. Our aims are to study how cognitive function and status (mild cognitive impairment, MCI and normal cognitive aging, NCA) relate to AS in a community-based population of hypertensive participants assessed with office and 24-hour ambulatory blood pressure measurements. Six hundred ninety-nine participants were studied, 71 had MCI and the rest had NCA. Office pulse pressure (PP), carotid-femoral pulse wave velocity, and 24-hour ambulatory PP monitoring were collected. Also, participants underwent a brain magnetic resonance to study cerebral small-vessel disease (cSVD) lesions. Multivariate analysis-related cognitive function and cognitive status to AS measurements after adjusting for demographic, vascular risk factors, and cSVD. Carotid-femoral pulse wave velocity and PP at different periods were inversely correlated with several cognitive domains, but only awake PP measurements were associated with attention after correcting for confounders (beta = -0.22, 95% confidence interval (CI) -0.41, -0.03). All ambulatory PP measurements were related to MCI, which was independently associated with nocturnal PP (odds ratio (OR) = 2.552, 95% CI 1.137, 5.728) and also related to the presence of deep white matter hyperintensities (OR = 1.903, 1.096, 3.306). Therefore, higher day and night ambulatory PP measurements are associated with poor cognitive outcomes.

  19. Neighborhood Social Context and Individual Polycyclic Aromatic Hydrocarbon Exposures Associated with Child Cognitive Test Scores

    PubMed Central

    Eldred-Skemp, Nicolia; Quinn, James W.; Chang, Hsin-wen; Rauh, Virginia A.; Rundle, Andrew; Orjuela, Manuela A.; Perera, Frederica P.

    2013-01-01

    Childhood cognitive and test-taking abilities have long-term implications for educational achievement and health, and may be influenced by household environmental exposures and neighborhood contexts. This study evaluates whether age 5 scores on the Wechsler Preschool and Primary Scale of Intelligence-Revised (WPPSI-R, administered in English) are associated with polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbon (PAH) exposure and neighborhood context variables including poverty, low educational attainment, low English language proficiency, and inadequate plumbing. The Columbia Center for Children’s Environmental Health enrolled African-American and Dominican-American New York City women during pregnancy, and conducted follow-up for subsequent childhood health outcomes including cognitive test scores. Individual outcomes were linked to data characterizing 1-km network buffers around prenatal addresses, home observations, interviews, and prenatal PAH exposure data from personal air monitors. Prenatal PAH exposure above the median predicted 3.5 point lower total WPPSI-R scores and 3.9 point lower verbal scores; the association was similar in magnitude across models with adjustments for neighborhood characteristics. Neighborhood-level low English proficiency was independently associated with 2.3 point lower mean total WPPSI-R score, 1.2 point lower verbal score, and 2.7 point lower performance score per standard deviation. Low neighborhood-level educational attainment was also associated with 2.0 point lower performance scores. In models examining effect modification, neighborhood associations were similar or diminished among the high PAH exposure group, as compared with the low PAH exposure group. Early life exposure to personal PAH exposure or selected neighborhood-level social contexts may predict lower cognitive test scores. However, these results may reflect limited geographic exposure variation and limited generalizability. PMID:24994947

  20. Neurobehavioral evidence for individual differences in canine cognitive control: an awake fMRI study.

    PubMed

    Cook, Peter F; Spivak, Mark; Berns, Gregory

    2016-09-01

    Based on behavioral evidence, the domestic dog has emerged as a promising comparative model of human self-control. However, while research on human inhibition has probed heterogeneity and neuropathology through an integration of neural and behavioral evidence, there are no parallel data exploring the brain mechanisms involved in canine inhibition. Here, using a combination of cognitive testing and awake neuroimaging in domestic dogs, we provide evidence precisely localizing frontal brain regions underpinning response inhibition in this species and demonstrate the dynamic relationship between these regions and behavioral measures of control. Thirteen dogs took part in an in-scanner go/no-go task and an out-of-scanner A-not-B test. A frontal brain region was identified showing elevated neural activity for all subjects during successful inhibition in the scanner, and dogs showing greater mean brain activation in this region produced fewer false alarms. Better performance in the go/no-go task was also correlated with fewer errors in the out-of-scanner A-not-B test, suggesting that dogs show consistent neurobehavioral individual differences in cognitive control, as is seen in humans. These findings help establish parity between human and canine mechanisms of self-control and pave the way for future comparative studies examining their function and dysfunction. PMID:27062134

  1. Motivation for everyday social participation in cognitively able individuals with autism spectrum disorder

    PubMed Central

    Chen, Yu-Wei; Bundy, Anita C; Cordier, Reinie; Chien, Yi-Ling; Einfeld, Stewart L

    2015-01-01

    Objective The purpose of the present study was to examine motivation for the contextual nature of motivations for social participation in cognitively able adolescents and adults with autism spectrum disorder, using self-determination theory as a theoretical framework. Methods Fourteen Australians and 16 Taiwanese (aged 16–45 years) with Asperger’s syndrome and high functioning autism were asked to carry a device which prompted them seven times/day for 7 days, to record what they were doing, with whom, perceived difficulty and social reciprocity, and the reasons for engaging in a situation, which were then coded into degree of self-determination. Results Multilevel analyses showed that participants were more likely to be self-determined while engaging in “solitary/parallel leisure” and “social activities” than in other types of activities. Interactions with “family members” and “casual/intimate friends” were also positively associated with self-determined motivation. Further, participants were more likely to perceive higher levels of being listened to during interaction with casual/intimate friends than in interaction with other people. Global social anxiety served as a moderator for their perceptions of difficulty and social reciprocity during social engagement. Conclusion The findings highlight the context-dependent motivations for social engagement of cognitively able individuals with autism spectrum disorder. PMID:26508865

  2. Individual Differences in Numeracy and Cognitive Reflection, with Implications for Biases and Fallacies in Probability Judgment.

    PubMed

    Liberali, Jordana M; Reyna, Valerie F; Furlan, Sarah; Stein, Lilian M; Pardo, Seth T

    2012-10-01

    Despite evidence that individual differences in numeracy affect judgment and decision making, the precise mechanisms underlying how such differences produce biases and fallacies remain unclear. Numeracy scales have been developed without sufficient theoretical grounding, and their relation to other cognitive tasks that assess numerical reasoning, such as the Cognitive Reflection Test (CRT), has been debated. In studies conducted in Brazil and in the USA, we administered an objective Numeracy Scale (NS), Subjective Numeracy Scale (SNS), and the CRT to assess whether they measured similar constructs. The Rational-Experiential Inventory, inhibition (go/no-go task), and intelligence were also investigated. By examining factor solutions along with frequent errors for questions that loaded on each factor, we characterized different types of processing captured by different items on these scales. We also tested the predictive power of these factors to account for biases and fallacies in probability judgments. In the first study, 259 Brazilian undergraduates were tested on the conjunction and disjunction fallacies. In the second study, 190 American undergraduates responded to a ratio-bias task. Across the different samples, the results were remarkably similar. The results indicated that the CRT is not just another numeracy scale, that objective and subjective numeracy scales do not measure an identical construct, and that different aspects of numeracy predict different biases and fallacies. Dimensions of numeracy included computational skills such as multiplying, proportional reasoning, mindless or verbatim matching, metacognitive monitoring, and understanding the gist of relative magnitude, consistent with dual-process theories such as fuzzy-trace theory.

  3. [Cognitive behavioral weight-loss program for individuals with psychotic mental diseases].

    PubMed

    Gaitero Calleja, Ana María; Santed Germán, Miguel Angel; Rullas Trincado, Margarita; Grande de Lucas, Araceli

    2007-11-01

    Overweight derived from the intake of new antipsychotic medication in order to treat schizophrenia is a growing problem. The main purpose of this study is to launch a cognitive behavioural program in outpatients. It is focused on the weight control of patients with chronic mental diseases, especially those diagnosed as psychotic, and who are under treatment in a Psychosocial Rehabilitation Centre. In this study, the results of an experimental group and a control group were compared. The experimental group was made up of 7 individuals, 3 males and 4 females, and the control group comprised 4 males and 4 females. The program had a duration of twelve sessions administered over a period of three months. Three months after concluding the program, both groups were followed up. The data obtained indicate the efficiency of the cognitive-behavioural treatment in the patients. The achievements of this project were, on the one hand, to significantly reduce the patients' weight and, on the other, to modify their nutritional and physical exercise habits.

  4. Spatial but not verbal cognitive deficits at age 3 years in persistently antisocial individuals.

    PubMed

    Raine, Adrian; Yaralian, Pauline S; Reynolds, Chandra; Venables, Peter H; Mednick, Sarnoff A

    2002-01-01

    Previous studies have repeatedly shown verbal intelligence deficits in adolescent antisocial individuals, but it is not known whether these deficits are in place prior to kindergarten or, alternatively, whether they are acquired throughout childhood. This study assesses whether cognitive deficits occur as early as age 3 years and whether they are specific to persistently antisocial individuals. Verbal and spatial abilities were assessed at ages 3 and 11 years in 330 male and female children, while antisocial behavior was assessed at ages 8 and 17 years. Persistently antisocial individuals (N = 47) had spatial deficits in the absence of verbal deficits at age 3 years compared to comparisons (N = 133), and also spatial and verbal deficits at age 11 years. Age 3 spatial deficits were independent of social adversity, early hyperactivity, poor test motivation, poor test comprehension, and social discomfort during testing, and they were found in females as well as males. Findings suggest that early spatial deficits contribute to persistent antisocial behavior whereas verbal deficits are developmentally acquired. An early-starter model is proposed whereby early spatial impairments interfere with early bonding and attachment, reflect disrupted right hemisphere affect regulation and expression, and predispose to later persistent antisocial behavior.

  5. Decision-making theories: linking the disparate research areas of individual and collective cognition.

    PubMed

    Pelé, Marie; Sueur, Cédric

    2013-07-01

    In order to maximize their fitness, animals have to deal with different environmental and social factors that affect their everyday life. Although the way an animal behaves might enhance its fitness or survival in regard to one factor, it could compromise them regarding another. In the domain of decision sciences, research concerning decision making focuses on performances at the individual level but also at the collective one. However, between individual and collective decision making, different terms are used resulting in little or no connection between both research areas. In this paper, we reviewed how different branches of decision sciences study the same concept, mainly called speed-accuracy trade-off, and how the different results are on the same track in terms of showing the optimality of decisions. Whatever the level, individual or collective, each decision might be defined with three parameters: time or delay to decide, risk and accuracy. We strongly believe that more progress would be possible in this domain of research if these different branches were better linked, with an exchange of their results and theories. A growing amount of literature describes economics in humans and eco-ethology in birds making compromises between starvation, predation and reproduction. Numerous studies have been carried out on social cognition in primates but also birds and carnivores, and other publications describe market or reciprocal exchanges of commodities. We therefore hope that this paper will lead these different areas to a common decision science.

  6. Assessment of impairment in activities of daily living in mild cognitive impairment using an individualized scale.

    PubMed

    Chaves, Giseli de Fátima Dos Santos; Oliveira, Alexandra Martini; Chaves, Juliana Aparecida Dos Santos; Forlenza, Orestes Vicente; Aprahamian, Ivan; Nunes, Paula Villela

    2016-07-01

    Mild impairment in activities of daily living (ADL) can occur in Mild Cognitive Impairment (MCI), but the nature and extent of these difficulties need to be further explored. The Canadian occupational performance measure (COPM) is one of the few individualized scales designed to identify self-perceived difficulties in ADL. The present study investigated impairments in ADL using the COPM in elderly with MCI. A total of 58 MCI patients were submitted to the COPM for studies of its validity and reliability. The COPM proved a valid and consistent instrument for evaluating ADL in elderly MCI patients. A total of 74.6% of the MCI patients reported difficulties in ADL. Of these problems, 41.2% involved self-care, 31.4% productivity and 27.4% leisure. This data further corroborates recent reports of possible functional impairment in complex ADL in MCI. PMID:27487375

  7. The Impact of Aging, Cognition, and Symptoms on Functional Competence in Individuals With Schizophrenia Across the Lifespan

    PubMed Central

    Kalache, Sawsan M.; Mulsant, Benoit H.; Davies, Simon J. C.; Liu, Angela Y.; Voineskos, Aristotle N.; Butters, Meryl A.; Miranda, Dielle; Menon, Mahesh; Kern, Robert S.; Rajji, Tarek K.

    2015-01-01

    Objective: Life expectancy in individuals with schizophrenia continues to increase. It is not clear whether cognitive deficits associated with schizophrenia remain as strong predictors of function in older and younger individuals. Thus, we assessed the relationship between cognition and functional competence in individuals with schizophrenia across 7 decades of life. Methods: We analyzed data obtained in 232 community-dwelling participants with schizophrenia (age range: 19–79 years). Cognition was assessed using the Measurement and Treatment Research to Improve Cognition in Schizophrenia Consensus Cognitive Battery. Functional competence was assessed using the UCSD Performance-based Skills Assessment, which includes measures of Comprehension and Planning of Recreational Activities Skills, Financial Skills, Communication Skills, Transportation Skills, and Household Management Skills. To assess the effects of Global Cognition on functional competence, we performed hierarchical multivariate linear or logistic regression analyses controlling for age, education, gender, and negative symptoms. Results: Participants’ mean age was 49.1 (SD = 13.2, range = 19–79 years), 161 (69%) were male, and 55 (24%) were aged ≥60. Global Cognition was a predictor of Comprehension and Planning Skills (Exp(β) = 1.048), Financial Skills (Exp(β) = 1.104), Communication Skills (ΔR 2 = .31) and Transportation Skills (Exp(β) = 1.066), but not Household Management Skills after adjusting for age, education, gender, and negative symptoms of schizophrenia. Conclusion: Cognition remains a strong predictor of functional competence across the lifespan. These findings suggest that treating cognitive impairment associated with schizophrenia could improve individuals’ function independent of their age. PMID:25103208

  8. Asymmetry in prefrontal resting-state EEG spectral power underlies individual differences in phasic and sustained cognitive control.

    PubMed

    Ambrosini, Ettore; Vallesi, Antonino

    2016-01-01

    In our daily life, we constantly exert sustained and phasic cognitive control processes to manage multiple competing task sets and rapidly switch between them. Increasing research efforts are attempting to unveil how the brain mediates these processes, highlighting the importance of the prefrontal cortex. An intriguing question concerns the influence of hemispheric asymmetries and whether it may be generalized to different cognitive domains depending on lateralized processing. Another currently open question concerns the underlying causes of the observed huge inter-individual variability in cognitive control abilities. Here we tackle these issues by investigating whether participants' hemispheric asymmetry in intrinsic (i.e., resting-state-related) brain dynamics can reflect differences in their phasic and/or sustained cognitive control abilities regardless of the cognitive domain. To this aim, we recorded human participants' resting-state electroencephalographic activity and performed a source-based spectral analysis to assess their lateralized brain dynamics at rest. Moreover, we used three task-switching paradigms involving different cognitive domains to assess participants' domain-general phasic and sustained cognitive control abilities. By performing a series of correlations and an intersection analysis, we showed that participants with stronger left- and right-lateralized intrinsic brain activity in the middle frontal gyrus were more able, respectively, to exert phasic and sustained cognitive control. We propose that the variability in participants' prefrontal hemispheric asymmetry in the intrinsic electrophysiological spectral profile reflects individual differences in preferentially engaging either the left-lateralized, phasic or the right-lateralized, sustained cognitive control processes to regulate their behavior in response to changing task demands, regardless of the specific cognitive domain involved. PMID:26416650

  9. Asymmetry in prefrontal resting-state EEG spectral power underlies individual differences in phasic and sustained cognitive control.

    PubMed

    Ambrosini, Ettore; Vallesi, Antonino

    2016-01-01

    In our daily life, we constantly exert sustained and phasic cognitive control processes to manage multiple competing task sets and rapidly switch between them. Increasing research efforts are attempting to unveil how the brain mediates these processes, highlighting the importance of the prefrontal cortex. An intriguing question concerns the influence of hemispheric asymmetries and whether it may be generalized to different cognitive domains depending on lateralized processing. Another currently open question concerns the underlying causes of the observed huge inter-individual variability in cognitive control abilities. Here we tackle these issues by investigating whether participants' hemispheric asymmetry in intrinsic (i.e., resting-state-related) brain dynamics can reflect differences in their phasic and/or sustained cognitive control abilities regardless of the cognitive domain. To this aim, we recorded human participants' resting-state electroencephalographic activity and performed a source-based spectral analysis to assess their lateralized brain dynamics at rest. Moreover, we used three task-switching paradigms involving different cognitive domains to assess participants' domain-general phasic and sustained cognitive control abilities. By performing a series of correlations and an intersection analysis, we showed that participants with stronger left- and right-lateralized intrinsic brain activity in the middle frontal gyrus were more able, respectively, to exert phasic and sustained cognitive control. We propose that the variability in participants' prefrontal hemispheric asymmetry in the intrinsic electrophysiological spectral profile reflects individual differences in preferentially engaging either the left-lateralized, phasic or the right-lateralized, sustained cognitive control processes to regulate their behavior in response to changing task demands, regardless of the specific cognitive domain involved.

  10. Automated cognitive testing of monkeys in social groups yields results comparable to individual laboratory-based testing.

    PubMed

    Gazes, Regina Paxton; Brown, Emily Kathryn; Basile, Benjamin M; Hampton, Robert R

    2013-05-01

    Cognitive abilities likely evolved in response to specific environmental and social challenges and are therefore expected to be specialized for the life history of each species. Specialized cognitive abilities may be most readily engaged under conditions that approximate the natural environment of the species being studied. While naturalistic environments might therefore have advantages over laboratory settings for cognitive research, it is difficult to conduct certain types of cognitive tests in these settings. We implemented methods for automated cognitive testing of monkeys (Macaca mulatta) in large social groups (Field station) and compared the performance to that of laboratory-housed monkeys (Laboratory). The Field station animals shared access to four touch-screen computers in a large naturalistic social group. Each Field station subject had an RFID chip implanted in each arm for computerized identification and individualized assignment of cognitive tests. The Laboratory group was housed and tested in a typical laboratory setting, with individual access to testing computers in their home cages. Monkeys in both groups voluntarily participated at their own pace for food rewards. We evaluated performance in two visual psychophysics tests, a perceptual classification test, a transitive inference test, and a delayed matching-to-sample memory test. Despite the differences in housing, social environment, age, and sex, monkeys in the two groups performed similarly in all tests. Semi-free ranging monkeys living in complex social environments are therefore viable subjects for cognitive testing designed to take advantage of the unique affordances of naturalistic testing environments.

  11. Automated cognitive testing of monkeys in social groups yields results comparable to individual laboratory-based testing.

    PubMed

    Gazes, Regina Paxton; Brown, Emily Kathryn; Basile, Benjamin M; Hampton, Robert R

    2013-05-01

    Cognitive abilities likely evolved in response to specific environmental and social challenges and are therefore expected to be specialized for the life history of each species. Specialized cognitive abilities may be most readily engaged under conditions that approximate the natural environment of the species being studied. While naturalistic environments might therefore have advantages over laboratory settings for cognitive research, it is difficult to conduct certain types of cognitive tests in these settings. We implemented methods for automated cognitive testing of monkeys (Macaca mulatta) in large social groups (Field station) and compared the performance to that of laboratory-housed monkeys (Laboratory). The Field station animals shared access to four touch-screen computers in a large naturalistic social group. Each Field station subject had an RFID chip implanted in each arm for computerized identification and individualized assignment of cognitive tests. The Laboratory group was housed and tested in a typical laboratory setting, with individual access to testing computers in their home cages. Monkeys in both groups voluntarily participated at their own pace for food rewards. We evaluated performance in two visual psychophysics tests, a perceptual classification test, a transitive inference test, and a delayed matching-to-sample memory test. Despite the differences in housing, social environment, age, and sex, monkeys in the two groups performed similarly in all tests. Semi-free ranging monkeys living in complex social environments are therefore viable subjects for cognitive testing designed to take advantage of the unique affordances of naturalistic testing environments. PMID:23263675

  12. Brain imaging of cognitively normal individuals with 2 parents affected by late-onset AD

    PubMed Central

    Murray, John; Tsui, Wai H.; Spector, Nicole; Goldowsky, Alexander; Williams, Schantel; Osorio, Ricardo; McHugh, Pauline; Glodzik, Lidia; Vallabhajosula, Shankar; de Leon, Mony J.

    2014-01-01

    Objectives: This brain imaging study examines whether cognitively normal (NL) individuals with 2 parents affected by late-onset Alzheimer disease (LOAD) show evidence of more extensive Alzheimer disease pathology compared with those who have a single parent affected by LOAD. Methods: Fifty-two NL individuals received MRI, 11C-Pittsburgh compound B (PiB)-PET, and 18F-fluoro-2-deoxyglucose (FDG)-PET. These included 4 demographically balanced groups (n = 13/group, aged 32–72 years, 60% female, 30% APOE ε4 carriers) of NL individuals with maternal (FHm), paternal (FHp), and maternal and paternal (FHmp) family history of LOAD, and with negative family history (FH−). Statistical parametric mapping, voxel-based morphometry, and z-score mapping were used to compare MRI gray matter volumes (GMVs), partial volume–corrected PiB retention, and FDG metabolism across FH groups and vs FH−. Results: NL FHmp showed more severe abnormalities in all 3 biomarkers vs the other groups regarding the number of regions affected and magnitude of impairment. PiB retention and hypometabolism were most pronounced in FHmp, intermediate in FHm, and lowest in FHp and FH−. GMV reductions were highest in FHmp and intermediate in FHm and FHp vs FH−. In all FH+ groups, amyloid-β deposition exceeded GMV loss and hypometabolism exceeded GMV loss (p < 0.001), while amyloid-β deposition exceeded hypometabolism in FHmp and FHp but not in FHm. Conclusions: These biomarker findings show a “LOAD parent-dose effect” in NL individuals several years, if not decades, before possible clinical symptoms. PMID:24523481

  13. No Effect of Omega-3 Fatty Acid Supplementation on Cognition and Mood in Individuals with Cognitive Impairment and Probable Alzheimer’s Disease: A Randomised Controlled Trial

    PubMed Central

    Phillips, Michelle A.; Childs, Caroline E.; Calder, Philip C.; Rogers, Peter J.

    2015-01-01

    Findings from epidemiological and observational studies have indicated that diets high in omega-3 polyunsaturated fatty acids (PUFAs) such as docosahexaenoic acid (DHA) and eicosapentaenoic acid (EPA) may reduce the risk of cognitive decline and Alzheimer’s disease (AD). To determine if increasing intake of DHA and EPA through supplementation is beneficial to cognition and mood in individuals with cognitive impairment no dementia (CIND) or Alzheimer’s disease (AD) a four month, randomised, double-blind, placebo controlled study was conducted. Fifty-seven participants with CIND and nineteen with AD were randomised to receive either omega-3 PUFAs (600 mg EPA and 625 mg DHA per day) or placebo (olive oil) over a four month period. Elevating depleted levels of EPA and DHA through supplementation in individuals with CIND or AD was found to have negligible beneficial effect on their cognition or mood. These findings confirm an overall negligible benefit of omega-3 PUFA supplementation for those with cognitive impairment and dementia. More intervention studies need to be undertaken with longer study durations and larger sample sizes. It may prove fruitful to examine effects of different doses as well as effects in other dementia subtypes. PMID:26501267

  14. No Effect of Omega-3 Fatty Acid Supplementation on Cognition and Mood in Individuals with Cognitive Impairment and Probable Alzheimer's Disease: A Randomised Controlled Trial.

    PubMed

    Phillips, Michelle A; Childs, Caroline E; Calder, Philip C; Rogers, Peter J

    2015-01-01

    Findings from epidemiological and observational studies have indicated that diets high in omega-3 polyunsaturated fatty acids (PUFAs) such as docosahexaenoic acid (DHA) and eicosapentaenoic acid (EPA) may reduce the risk of cognitive decline and Alzheimer's disease (AD). To determine if increasing intake of DHA and EPA through supplementation is beneficial to cognition and mood in individuals with cognitive impairment no dementia (CIND) or Alzheimer's disease (AD) a four month, randomised, double-blind, placebo controlled study was conducted. Fifty-seven participants with CIND and nineteen with AD were randomised to receive either omega-3 PUFAs (600 mg EPA and 625 mg DHA per day) or placebo (olive oil) over a four month period. Elevating depleted levels of EPA and DHA through supplementation in individuals with CIND or AD was found to have negligible beneficial effect on their cognition or mood. These findings confirm an overall negligible benefit of omega-3 PUFA supplementation for those with cognitive impairment and dementia. More intervention studies need to be undertaken with longer study durations and larger sample sizes. It may prove fruitful to examine effects of different doses as well as effects in other dementia subtypes. PMID:26501267

  15. Use of cognitive aids and other assistive technology by individuals with multiple sclerosis

    PubMed Central

    JOHNSON, KURT L.; BAMER, ALYSSA M.; YORKSTON, KATHRYN M.; AMTMANN, DAGMAR

    2010-01-01

    Purpose To investigate the use of assistive technology (AT), unmet needs for AT, and examine correlates of use of memory aids and cognitive strategies among individuals with multiple sclerosis (MS). Method A cross-sectional study of 1,063 community dwelling adults with MS in Washington State. A self-report survey assessed use of AT as well as depression, fatigue, mobility, and other demographic and disease related variables. Results Some 70% of respondents reported using memory strategies and 50.7% reported using electronic memory aids. The strongest correlate of use of electronic memory aids was endorsement of difficulties thinking (OR: 2.09, p < 0.001) though younger age, higher education, and report of higher fatigue were also significant. Fatigue (OR: 1.27, p < 0.001) and depression (OR: 0.89, p < 0.001) were highly associated with use of memory strategies. Subjects who were older, unemployed, more depressed, and have more mobility disability were less likely to use memory strategies. Conculsions Use of AT for memory is widespread and further research should be conducted on efficacy of AT. Many individuals who might be presumed to need AT for memory most (older, less educated, more disability) are least likely to report use. Healthcare providers are urged to ask about memory AT and make appropriate referrals. PMID:19172475

  16. Adapted cognitive-behavioral therapy for religious individuals with mental disorder: a systematic review.

    PubMed

    Lim, Caroline; Sim, Kang; Renjan, Vidhya; Sam, Hui Fang; Quah, Soo Li

    2014-06-01

    Cognitive-behavioral therapy (CBT) is considered an evidence-based psychological intervention for various mental disorders. However, mental health clinicians should be cognizant of the population that was used to validate the intervention and assess its acceptability to a target group that is culturally different. We systematically reviewed published empirical studies of CBT adapted for religious individuals with mental disorder to determine the extent to which religiously modified CBT can be considered an empirically supported treatment following the criteria delineated by the American Psychological Association Task Force on Promotion and Dissemination of Psychological Procedures. Overall, nine randomized controlled trials and one quasi-experimental study were included that compared the effectiveness of religiously modified CBT to standard CBT or other treatment modalities for the treatment of depressive disorders, generalized anxiety disorder, and schizophrenia. The majority of these studies either found no difference in effectiveness between religiously modified CBT compared to standard CBT or other treatment modalities, or early effects that were not sustained. Considering the methodological limitations of the reviewed studies, religiously modified CBT cannot be considered a well-established psychological intervention for the treatment of the foregoing mental disorders following the a priori set criteria at this juncture. Nevertheless, melding religious content with CBT may be an acceptable treatment modality for individuals with strong religious convictions. PMID:24813028

  17. Effects of Partial and Acute Total Sleep Deprivation on Performance across Cognitive Domains, Individuals and Circadian Phase

    PubMed Central

    Lo, June C.; Groeger, John A.; Santhi, Nayantara; Arbon, Emma L.; Lazar, Alpar S.; Hasan, Sibah; von Schantz, Malcolm; Archer, Simon N.; Dijk, Derk-Jan

    2012-01-01

    Background Cognitive performance deteriorates during extended wakefulness and circadian phase misalignment, and some individuals are more affected than others. Whether performance is affected similarly across cognitive domains, or whether cognitive processes involving Executive Functions are more sensitive to sleep and circadian misalignment than Alertness and Sustained Attention, is a matter of debate. Methodology/Principal Findings We conducted a 2 × 12-day laboratory protocol to characterize the interaction of repeated partial and acute total sleep deprivation and circadian phase on performance across seven cognitive domains in 36 individuals (18 males; mean ± SD of age = 27.6±4.0 years). The sample was stratified for the rs57875989 polymorphism in PER3, which confers cognitive susceptibility to total sleep deprivation. We observed a deterioration of performance during both repeated partial and acute total sleep deprivation. Furthermore, prior partial sleep deprivation led to poorer cognitive performance in a subsequent total sleep deprivation period, but its effect was modulated by circadian phase such that it was virtually absent in the evening wake maintenance zone, and most prominent during early morning hours. A significant effect of PER3 genotype was observed for Subjective Alertness during partial sleep deprivation and on n-back tasks with a high executive load when assessed in the morning hours during total sleep deprivation after partial sleep loss. Overall, however, Subjective Alertness and Sustained Attention were more affected by both partial and total sleep deprivation than other cognitive domains and tasks including n-back tasks of Working Memory, even when implemented with a high executive load. Conclusions/Significance Sleep loss has a primary effect on Sleepiness and Sustained Attention with much smaller effects on challenging Working Memory tasks. These findings have implications for understanding how sleep debt and circadian rhythmicity

  18. Tryptophan Metabolism and Its Relationship with Depression and Cognitive Impairment Among HIV-infected Individuals

    PubMed Central

    Keegan, Michael R.; Chittiprol, Seetharamaiah; Letendre, Scott L.; Winston, Alan; Fuchs, Dietmar; Boasso, Adriano; Iudicello, Jennifer; Ellis, Ronald J.

    2016-01-01

    OBJECTIVE Cognitive impairment (CI) and major depressive disorder (MDD) remain prevalent in treated HIV-1 disease; however, the pathogenesis remains elusive. A possible contributing mechanism is immune-mediated degradation of tryptophan (TRP) via the kynurenine (KYN) pathway, resulting in decreased production of serotonin and accumulation of TRP degradation products. We explored the association of these biochemical pathways and their relationship with CI and MDD in HIV-positive (HIV+) individuals. METHODS In a cross-sectional analysis, concentrations of neopterin (NEO), tumor necrosis factor-alpha, TRP, KYN, KYN/TRP ratio, phenylalanine (PHE), tyrosine (TYR), PHE/TYR ratio, and nitrite were assessed in the cerebrospinal fluid (CSF) and plasma of HIV+ (n = 91) and HIV-negative (HIV−) individuals (n = 66). CI and MDD were assessed via a comprehensive neuropsychological test battery. A Global Deficit Score ≥0.5 was defined as CI. Nonparametric statistical analyses included Kruskal–Wallis and Mann–Whitney U tests, and multivariate logistic regression. RESULTS Following Bonferroni correction, NEO concentrations were found to be greater in CSF and TRP concentration was found to be lower in the plasma of HIV+ versus HIV− individuals, including a subgroup of aviremic (defined as HIV-1 RNA <50 cps/mL) HIV+ participants receiving antiretroviral therapy (n = 44). There was a nonsignificant trend toward higher KYN/TRP ratios in plasma in the HIV+ group (P = 0.027; Bonferroni corrected α = 0.0027). In a logistic regression model, lower KYN/TRP ratios in plasma were associated with CI and MDD in the overall HIV+ group (P = 0.038 and P = 0.063, respectively) and the aviremic subgroup (P = 0.066 and P = 0.027, respectively), though this observation was not statistically significant following Bonferroni correction (Bonferroni corrected α = 0.0031). CONCLUSIONS We observed a trend toward lower KYN/TRP ratios in aviremic HIV+ patients with CI and MDD. PMID:27812290

  19. Oxytocin, but not vasopressin, impairs social cognitive ability among individuals with higher levels of social anxiety: a randomized controlled trial.

    PubMed

    Tabak, Benjamin A; Meyer, Meghan L; Dutcher, Janine M; Castle, Elizabeth; Irwin, Michael R; Lieberman, Matthew D; Eisenberger, Naomi I

    2016-08-01

    Individuals with social anxiety are characterized by a high degree of social sensitivity, which can coincide with impairments in social cognitive functioning (e.g. theory of mind). Oxytocin (OT) and vasopressin (AVP) have been shown to improve social cognition, and OT has been theorized as a potential therapeutic agent for individuals with social anxiety disorder. However, no study has investigated whether these neuropeptides improve social cognitive ability among socially anxious individuals. In a randomized, double-blind, placebo controlled, between-subjects design we investigated whether social anxiety moderated the effects of OT or AVP (vs placebo) on social working memory (i.e. working memory that involves manipulating social information) and non-social working memory. OT vs placebo impaired social working memory accuracy in participants with higher levels of social anxiety. No differences were found for non-social working memory or for AVP vs placebo. Results suggest that OT administration in individuals with higher levels of social anxiety may impair social cognitive functioning. Randomized-controlled trial registration: NCT01680718.

  20. Assigning Students in Cooperative and Individual Learning Environments According to Cognitive Styles: Achievement and Perceptions in Computer Technology Learning

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Bai, Hua

    2009-01-01

    This study explored the achievement of teacher education students in computer technology learning and their perceptions on learning experiences according to cognitive styles in learning environments. It was found that independent students in individual learning environment had significantly higher achievement than field-dependent students in…

  1. Exploring Individual and Item Factors that Affect Assessment Validity for Diverse Learners: Results from a Large-Scale Cognitive Lab

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Winter, Phoebe C.; Kopriva, Rebecca J.; Chen, Chen-Su; Emick, Jessica E.

    2006-01-01

    A cognitive lab technique (n=156) was used to investigate interactions between individual factors and item factors presumed to affect assessment validity for diverse students, including English language learners. Findings support the concept of "access"--an interaction between specific construct-irrelevant item features and individual…

  2. Oxytocin, but not vasopressin, impairs social cognitive ability among individuals with higher levels of social anxiety: a randomized controlled trial.

    PubMed

    Tabak, Benjamin A; Meyer, Meghan L; Dutcher, Janine M; Castle, Elizabeth; Irwin, Michael R; Lieberman, Matthew D; Eisenberger, Naomi I

    2016-08-01

    Individuals with social anxiety are characterized by a high degree of social sensitivity, which can coincide with impairments in social cognitive functioning (e.g. theory of mind). Oxytocin (OT) and vasopressin (AVP) have been shown to improve social cognition, and OT has been theorized as a potential therapeutic agent for individuals with social anxiety disorder. However, no study has investigated whether these neuropeptides improve social cognitive ability among socially anxious individuals. In a randomized, double-blind, placebo controlled, between-subjects design we investigated whether social anxiety moderated the effects of OT or AVP (vs placebo) on social working memory (i.e. working memory that involves manipulating social information) and non-social working memory. OT vs placebo impaired social working memory accuracy in participants with higher levels of social anxiety. No differences were found for non-social working memory or for AVP vs placebo. Results suggest that OT administration in individuals with higher levels of social anxiety may impair social cognitive functioning. Randomized-controlled trial registration: NCT01680718. PMID:27053769

  3. Research on Motivation in Collaborative Learning: Moving beyond the Cognitive-Situative Divide and Combining Individual and Social Processes

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Jarvela, Sanna; Volet, Simone; Jarvenoja, Hanna

    2010-01-01

    In this article we propose that in order to advance our understanding of motivation in collaborative learning we should move beyond the cognitive-situative epistemological divide and combine individual and social processes. Our claim is that although recent research has recognized the importance of social aspects in emerging and sustained…

  4. A Location-Based Prompting System to Transition Autonomously through Vocational Tasks for Individuals with Cognitive Impairments

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Chang, Yao-Jen; Wang, Tsen-Yung; Chen, Yan-Ru

    2011-01-01

    This study assessed the possibility of training two individuals with cognitive impairments using location-based task prompting system in a supported employment program. This study was carried out according to an ABAB sequence in which A represented the baseline and B represented intervention phases. Data showed that the two participants…

  5. Working Memory Capacity and Its Relation to Stroop Interference and Facilitation Effects in Individuals with Mild Cognitive Impairment

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Sung, Jee Eun; Kim, Jin Hee; Jeong, Jee Hyang; Kang, Heejin

    2012-01-01

    Purpose: The purposes of the study were to investigate (a) the task-specific differences in short-term memory (STM) and working memory capacity (WMC) in individuals with mild cognitive impairment (MCI) and normal elderly adults (NEAs), (b) the Stroop interference and facilitation effects, and (c) the relationship of STM and WMC to the Stroop…

  6. Mindfulness-Based Cognitive Therapy for Individuals Whose Lives Have Been Affected by Cancer: A Randomized Controlled Trial

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Foley, Elizabeth; Baillie, Andrew; Huxter, Malcolm; Price, Melanie; Sinclair, Emma

    2010-01-01

    Objective: This study evaluated the effectiveness of mindfulness-based cognitive therapy (MBCT) for individuals with a diagnosis of cancer. Method: Participants (N = 115) diagnosed with cancer, across site and stage, were randomly allocated to either the treatment or the wait-list condition. Treatment was conducted at 1 site, by a single…

  7. Imaging brain effects of APOE4 in cognitively normal individuals across the lifespan.

    PubMed

    Fouquet, Marine; Besson, Florent L; Gonneaud, Julie; La Joie, Renaud; Chételat, Gaël

    2014-09-01

    The ε4 allele of the apolipoprotein E (APOE4) is associated with an increased risk of developing Alzheimer's disease (AD). Hence, several studies have compared the brain characteristics of APOE4 carriers versus non-carriers in presymptomatic stages to determine early AD biomarkers. The present review provides an overview on APOE4-related brain changes in cognitively normal individuals, focusing on the main neuroimaging biomarkers for AD, i.e. cortical beta-amyloid (Aβ) deposition, hypometabolism and atrophy. The most consistent findings are observed with Aβ deposition as most studies report significantly higher cortical Aβ load in APOE4 carriers compared with non-carriers. Fluorodeoxyglucose-positron emission tomography studies are rare and tend to show hypometabolism in brain regions typically impaired in AD. Structural magnetic resonance imaging findings are the most numerous and also the most discrepant, showing atrophy in AD-sensitive regions in some studies but contradicting results as well. Altogether, this suggests a graded effect of APOE4, with a predominant effect on Aβ over brain structure and metabolism. Multimodal studies confirm this view and also suggest that APOE4 effects on brain structure and function are mediated by both Aβ-dependent and Aβ-independent pathological processes. Neuroimaging studies on asymptomatic APOE4 carriers offer relevant information to the understanding of early pathological mechanisms of the disease, although caution is needed as to whether APOE4 effects reflect AD pathological processes, and are representative of these effects in non-carriers.

  8. NUTRIENT PATTERNS AND BRAIN BIOMARKERS OF ALZHEIMER’S DISEASE IN COGNITIVELY NORMAL INDIVIDUALS

    PubMed Central

    BERTI, V.; MURRAY, J.; DAVIES, M.; SPECTOR, N.; TSUI, W.H.; LI, Y.; WILLIAMS, S.; PIRRAGLIA, E.; VALLABHAJOSULA, S.; MCHUGH, P.; PUPI, A.; DE LEON, M.J.; MOSCONI, L.

    2015-01-01

    Objectives Epidemiological evidence linking diet, one of the most important modifiable lifestyle factors, and risk of Alzheimer’s disease (AD) is rapidly increasing. However, there is little or no evidence for a direct association between dietary nutrients and brain biomarkers of AD. This study identifies nutrient patterns associated with major brain AD biomarkers in a cohort of clinically and cognitively normal (NL) individuals at risk for AD. Design Cross-sectional study. Setting Manhattan (broader area). Participants Fifty-two NL individuals (age 54+12 y, 70% women, Clinical Dementia Rating=0, MMSE>27, neuropsychological test performance within norms by age and education) with complete dietary information and cross-sectional, 3D T1-weighted Magnetic Resonance Imaging (MRI; gray matter volumes, GMV, a marker of brain atrophy), 11C-Pittsburgh compound-B (PiB; a marker of fibrillar amyloid-β, Aβ) and 18F-fluorodeoxyglucose (FDG; a marker of glucose metabolism, METglc) Positron Emission Tomography (PET) scans were examined. Measurements Dietary intake of 35 nutrients associated with cognitive function and AD was assessed using the Harvard/Willet Food Frequency Questionnaire. Principal component analysis was used to generate nutrient patterns (NP) from the full nutrient panel. Statistical parametric mapping and voxel based morphometry were used to assess the associations of the identified NPs with AD biomarkers. Results None of the participants were diabetics, smokers, or met criteria for obesity. Five NPs were identified: NP1 was characterized by most B-vitamins and several minerals [VitB&Minerals]; NP2 by monounsaturated and polyunsaturated fats, including ω-3 and ω-6 PUFA, and vitamin E [VitE&PUFA]; NP3 by vitamin A, vitamin C, carotenoids and dietary fibers [Anti-oxidants&Fibers]; NP4 by vitamin B12, vitamin D and zinc [VitB12&D]; NP5 by saturated, trans-saturated fats, cholesterol and sodium [Fats]. Voxel-based analysis showed that NP4 scores [VitB12&D

  9. 34 CFR 97.406 - Research involving greater than minimal risk and no prospect of direct benefit to individual...

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-07-01

    ... Education PROTECTION OF HUMAN SUBJECTS Additional ED Protections for Children Who Are Subjects in Research... conducts or funds research in which the IRB finds that more than minimal risk to children is presented by... in their actual or expected medical, dental, psychological, social, or educational situations;...

  10. History of childhood physical trauma is related to cognitive decline in individuals with ultra-high risk for psychosis.

    PubMed

    Üçok, Alp; Kaya, Hatice; Uğurpala, Can; Çıkrıkçılı, Uğur; Ergül, Ceylan; Yokuşoğlu, Çağdaş; Bülbül, Öznur; Direk, Nese

    2015-12-01

    The aim of this study was to investigate the relationship between childhood trauma (CT) and cognitive functioning in individuals with ultra-high risk for psychosis (UHR). Fifty-three individuals at UHR for psychosis were administered a neurocognitive battery that assessed attention, processing speed, verbal learning, memory, working memory, interference inhibition, and sustained attention. The CT was assessed using the short-version Childhood Trauma Questionnaire (CTQ). We dichotomized the sample by using cut-off scores for the presence of emotional, physical and sexual trauma, and physical and emotional neglect. Those with a history of physical trauma performed worse on the Digit Span Forward test, Trail making B (time), Stroop test (difference between color and word reading times), and completed categories of the Wisconsin Card Sorting Test (WCST). Physical trauma scores were correlated with WCST-completed categories, Digit Span Forward and Stroop test scores. Physical neglect scores were negatively correlated with Digit Span Forward Test scores. Most of the significant dose–response relationships between cognitive impairment and different subtypes of CT were found only in men. There was no difference between those with and without other kinds of childhood abuse or neglect in terms of cognitive impairment. Our findings suggest that a history of physical trauma has a negative impact on cognitive function in individuals at UHR for psychosis.

  11. Individual Cognitive Styles of University Students and Acquisition of Spanish as a Foreign Language.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Hokanson, Sonja G.

    2000-01-01

    Varying methodological conditions changed the emphasis of Spanish instruction for 212 English-speaking university students. Evaluation of the cognitive style preferences of first semester students via the Myers-Briggs Type Inventory, Learning Styles Inventory, and a specially-designed questionnaire produced a single cognitive preference score.…

  12. Does Multimedia Support Individual Differences?--EFL Learners' Listening Comprehension and Cognitive Load

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Yang, Hui-Yu

    2014-01-01

    The present study examines how display model, English proficiency and cognitive preference affect English as a Foreign Language (EFL) learners' listening comprehension of authentic videos and cognitive load degree. EFL learners were randomly assigned to one of two groups. The control group received single coding and the experimental group…

  13. Individual and Environmental Characteristics Associated with Cognitive Development in Down Syndrome: A Longitudinal Study

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Couzens, Donna; Haynes, Michele; Cuskelly, Monica

    2012-01-01

    Background: Associations among cognitive development and intrapersonal and environmental characteristics were investigated for 89 longitudinal study participants with Down syndrome to understand developmental patterns associated with cognitive strengths and weaknesses. Materials and Methods: Subtest scores of the Stanford-Binet IV collected…

  14. 45 CFR 46.406 - Research involving greater than minimal risk and no prospect of direct benefit to individual...

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-10-01

    ... no prospect of direct benefit to individual subjects, but likely to yield generalizable knowledge... direct benefit to individual subjects, but likely to yield generalizable knowledge about the subject's... knowledge about the subjects' disorder or condition which is of vital importance for the understanding...

  15. Cognitive Correlates of Functional Abilities in Individuals with Mild Cognitive Impairment: Comparison of Questionnaire, Direct Observation and Performance-based Measures

    PubMed Central

    Schmitter-Edgecombe, Maureen; Parsey, Carolyn M.

    2014-01-01

    The relationship between and the cognitive correlates of several proxy measures of functional status were studied in a population with mild cognitive impairment (MCI). Participants were 51 individuals diagnosed with MCI and 51 cognitively healthy older adults (OA). Participants completed performance-based functional status tests, standardized neuropsychological tests, and performed eight activities of daily living (e.g., watered plants, filled medication dispenser) while under direct observation in a campus apartment. An informant interview about everyday functioning was also conducted. Compared to the OA control group, the MCI group performed more poorly on all proxy measures of everyday functioning. The informant-report of instrumental activities of daily living (IADL) did not correlate with the two performance-based measures; however, both the informant-report IADL and the performance-based everyday problem-solving test correlated with the direct observation measure. After controlling for age and education, cognitive predictors did not explain a significant amount of variance in the performance-based measures; however, performance on a delayed memory task was a unique predictor for the informant-report IADL, and processing speed predicted unique variance for the direct observation score. These findings indicate that differing methods for evaluating functional status are not assessing completely overlapping aspects of everyday functioning in the MCI population. PMID:24766574

  16. Guidelines for Evaluation and Management of Cognitive Disorders in HIV-Positive Individuals.

    PubMed

    Underwood, Jonathan; Winston, Alan

    2016-10-01

    Antiretroviral therapy has revolutionised the treatment for people living with HIV (PLWH). Where antiretroviral coverage is high, the treatment paradigm for HIV-disease is now one of managing the long-term consequences of the virus and its treatment rather than the consequences of untreated HIV-disease such as immunosuppression and opportunistic infections. One such long-term consequence is HIV-associated cognitive impairment which is reported to occur in up to 50 % of treated PLWH and has been associated with poorer outcomes. Given the ageing cohort and increased frequency of comorbidities, the prevalence of symptomatic cognitive impairment may increase with time. High quality evidence for management strategies including screening, diagnosis and treatment of HIV-associated cognitive impairment are lacking and in general guidelines are based on best clinical practice. In this article, we assessed recent guidelines concerning the management of HIV-associated cognitive impairment by performing a systematic review of the MEDLINE database using PubMed. We report that, in general, guidelines from around the world regarding the management of HIV-associated cognitive impairment are converging. Screening is generally not recommended in asymptomatic PLWH. Diagnosis of HIV-associated cognitive impairment should be made only after a comprehensive assessment and exclusion of other potential causes. Antiretroviral therapy forms the cornerstone of management of HIV-associated cognitive impairment and should be guided by plasma and cerebrospinal fluid (CSF) genotype(s).

  17. Derailing the streetcar named desire. Cognitive distractions reduce individual differences in cravings and unhealthy snacking in response to palatable food.

    PubMed

    van Dillen, Lotte F; Andrade, Jackie

    2016-01-01

    People who are sensitive to food temptations are prone to weight gain and obesity in food-rich environments. Understanding the factors that drive their desire to eat is key to limiting their reactions to available food. This study tested whether individual differences in sensitivity to hedonic food cues are cognitively based and, accordingly, can be regulated by blocking cognitive resources. To this end, one lab study (Study 1; N = 91) and one field study (Study 2; N = 63) measured sensitivity to hedonic food cues using the Power of Food Scale (PFS; Lowe et al., 2009) and assessed participants' appetitive responses to high-calorie food options. To test the role of cognitive elaboration of food cues, participants completed a menu-selection task to induce food cravings and then were free to elaborate those cravings (control group) or were blocked from doing so by cognitive distraction (playing Tetris, solving puzzles; experimental group). Compared to non-sensitive participants, sensitive participants displayed a greater attentional bias to high-calorie food (Study 1), reported stronger cravings (Study 2), and more often chose an unhealthy snack (Studies 1 & 2), but only when they had not been distracted. When distracted, all participants were similarly unresponsive to high-calorie food. This finding suggests that temptation can be effectively controlled by blocking people's cognitive resources, even for people highly sensitive to hedonic food cues. PMID:26375358

  18. Cognitive reserve impacts on inter-individual variability in resting-state cerebral metabolism in normal aging.

    PubMed

    Bastin, Christine; Yakushev, Igor; Bahri, Mohamed Ali; Fellgiebel, Andreas; Eustache, Francis; Landeau, Brigitte; Scheurich, Armin; Feyers, Dorothée; Collette, Fabienne; Chételat, Gael; Salmon, Eric

    2012-11-01

    There is a great deal of heterogeneity in the impact of aging on cognition and cerebral functioning. One potential factor contributing to individual differences among the elderly is the cognitive reserve, which designates the partial protection from the deleterious effects of aging that lifetime experience provides. Neuroimaging studies examining task-related activation in elderly people suggested that cognitive reserve takes the form of more efficient use of brain networks and/or greater ability to recruit alternative networks to compensate for age-related cerebral changes. In this exploratory multi-center study, we examined the relationships between cognitive reserve, as measured by education and verbal intelligence, and cerebral metabolism at rest (FDG-PET) in a sample of 74 healthy older participants. Higher degree of education and verbal intelligence was associated with less metabolic activity in the right posterior temporoparietal cortex and the left anterior intraparietal sulcus. Functional connectivity analyses of resting-state fMRI images in a subset of 41 participants indicated that these regions belong to the default mode network and the dorsal attention network respectively. Lower metabolism in the temporoparietal cortex was also associated with better memory abilities. The findings provide evidence for an inverse relationship between cognitive reserve and resting-state activity in key regions of two functional networks respectively involved in internal mentation and goal-directed attention. PMID:22796505

  19. The evaluation of acute pain in individuals with cognitive impairment: a differential effect of the level of impairment.

    PubMed

    Defrin, Ruth; Lotan, Meir; Pick, Chaim G

    2006-10-01

    The present study investigated whether the level of cognitive impairment (CI) affects acute pain behavior and how it is manifested. Participants were 159 individuals (mean age 42+/-12), 121 with CI (divided into four groups according to the level of CI: mild, moderate, severe, profound) and 38 with normal cognition (controls). The behavior of the participants before and during acute pain (influenza vaccination) was coded by two raters with the Facial Action Coding System (FACS - scores facial reactions to pain) and the Non-Communicating Children's Pain Checklist (NCCPC-R - scores both facial and general body reactions). Individuals with severe-profound CI exhibited elevated FACS and NCCPC-R values at baseline compared with all other groups (p<0.01). Both FACS and NCCPC-R scores of individuals with mild-moderate CI and controls increased significantly during vaccination (p<0.001). In contrast, individuals with severe-profound CI exhibited high rates of "freezing reaction" (stillness) during vaccination, manifested mainly in the face and therefore resulting in elevation of only NCCPC-R scores but not of FACS's. The results suggest that the level of CI affects baseline as well as pain behavior and it is therefore necessary to choose an appropriate behavioral tool to measure pain in these individuals accordingly. For example, tools based on facial reactions alone might provide the false impression that individuals with severe-profound CI are insensitive to pain (due to freezing).

  20. From neural signatures of emotional modulation to social cognition: individual differences in healthy volunteers and psychiatric participants.

    PubMed

    Ibáñez, Agustín; Aguado, Jaume; Baez, Sandra; Huepe, David; Lopez, Vladimir; Ortega, Rodrigo; Sigman, Mariano; Mikulan, Ezequiel; Lischinsky, Alicia; Torrente, Fernando; Cetkovich, Marcelo; Torralva, Teresa; Bekinschtein, Tristan; Manes, Facundo

    2014-07-01

    It is commonly assumed that early emotional signals provide relevant information for social cognition tasks. The goal of this study was to test the association between (a) cortical markers of face emotional processing and (b) social-cognitive measures, and also to build a model which can predict this association (a and b) in healthy volunteers as well as in different groups of psychiatric patients. Thus, we investigated the early cortical processing of emotional stimuli (N170, using a face and word valence task) and their relationship with the social-cognitive profiles (SCPs, indexed by measures of theory of mind, fluid intelligence, speed processing and executive functions). Group comparisons and individual differences were assessed among schizophrenia (SCZ) patients and their relatives, individuals with attention deficit hyperactivity disorder (ADHD), individuals with euthymic bipolar disorder (BD) and healthy participants (educational level, handedness, age and gender matched). Our results provide evidence of emotional N170 impairments in the affected groups (SCZ and relatives, ADHD and BD) as well as subtle group differences. Importantly, cortical processing of emotional stimuli predicted the SCP, as evidenced by a structural equation model analysis. This is the first study to report an association model of brain markers of emotional processing and SCP.

  1. From neural signatures of emotional modulation to social cognition: individual differences in healthy volunteers and psychiatric participants

    PubMed Central

    Aguado, Jaume; Baez, Sandra; Huepe, David; Lopez, Vladimir; Ortega, Rodrigo; Sigman, Mariano; Mikulan, Ezequiel; Lischinsky, Alicia; Torrente, Fernando; Cetkovich, Marcelo; Torralva, Teresa; Bekinschtein, Tristan; Manes, Facundo

    2014-01-01

    It is commonly assumed that early emotional signals provide relevant information for social cognition tasks. The goal of this study was to test the association between (a) cortical markers of face emotional processing and (b) social-cognitive measures, and also to build a model which can predict this association (a and b) in healthy volunteers as well as in different groups of psychiatric patients. Thus, we investigated the early cortical processing of emotional stimuli (N170, using a face and word valence task) and their relationship with the social-cognitive profiles (SCPs, indexed by measures of theory of mind, fluid intelligence, speed processing and executive functions). Group comparisons and individual differences were assessed among schizophrenia (SCZ) patients and their relatives, individuals with attention deficit hyperactivity disorder (ADHD), individuals with euthymic bipolar disorder (BD) and healthy participants (educational level, handedness, age and gender matched). Our results provide evidence of emotional N170 impairments in the affected groups (SCZ and relatives, ADHD and BD) as well as subtle group differences. Importantly, cortical processing of emotional stimuli predicted the SCP, as evidenced by a structural equation model analysis. This is the first study to report an association model of brain markers of emotional processing and SCP. PMID:23685775

  2. Neurobiological factors as predictors of cognitive-behavioral therapy outcome in individuals with antisocial behavior: a review of the literature.

    PubMed

    Cornet, Liza J M; de Kogel, Catharina H; Nijman, Henk L I; Raine, Adrian; van der Laan, Peter H

    2014-11-01

    This review focuses on the predictive value of neurobiological factors in relation to cognitive-behavioral therapy outcome among individuals with antisocial behavior. Ten relevant studies were found. Although the literature on this topic is scarce and diverse, it appears that specific neurobiological characteristics, such as physiological arousal levels, can predict treatment outcome. The predictive value of neurobiological factors is important as it could give more insight into the causes of variability in treatment outcome among individuals with antisocial behavior. Furthermore, results can contribute to improvement in current treatment selection procedures and to the development of alternative treatment options.

  3. 34 CFR 97.406 - Research involving greater than minimal risk and no prospect of direct benefit to individual...

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-07-01

    ... prospect of direct benefit to individual subjects, but likely to yield generalizable knowledge about the... subjects, but likely to yield generalizable knowledge about the subject's disorder or condition. ED...) The intervention or procedure is likely to yield generalizable knowledge about the subjects'...

  4. Oral communication in individuals with hearing impairment-considerations regarding attentional, cognitive and social resources.

    PubMed

    Lemke, Ulrike; Scherpiet, Sigrid

    2015-01-01

    Traditionally, audiology research has focused primarily on hearing and related disorders. In recent years, however, growing interest and insight has developed into the interaction of hearing and cognition. This applies to a person's listening and speech comprehension ability and the neural realization thereof. The present perspective extends this view to oral communication, when two or more people interact in social context. Specifically, the impact of hearing impairment and cognitive changes with age is discussed. In focus are executive functions, a group of top-down processes that guide attention, thought and action according to goals and intentions. The strategic allocation of the limited cognitive processing capacity among concurrent tasks is often effortful, especially under adverse communication conditions and in old age. Working memory, a sub-function extensively discussed in cognitive hearing science, is here put into the context of other executive and cognitive functions required for oral communication and speech comprehension. Finally, taking an ecological view on hearing impairment, activity limitations and participation restrictions are discussed regarding their psycho-social impact and third-party disability. PMID:26236268

  5. Increasing individual upper alpha power by neurofeedback improves cognitive performance in human subjects.

    PubMed

    Hanslmayr, Simon; Sauseng, Paul; Doppelmayr, Michael; Schabus, Manuel; Klimesch, Wolfgang

    2005-03-01

    The hypothesis was tested of whether neurofeedback training (NFT)--applied in order to increase upper alpha but decrease theta power--is capable of increasing cognitive performance. A mental rotation task was performed before and after upper alpha and theta NFT. Only those subjects who were able to increase their upper alpha power (responders) performed better on mental rotations after NFT. Training success (extent of NFT-induced increase in upper alpha power) was positively correlated with the improvement in cognitive performance. Furthermore, the EEG of NFT responders showed a significant increase in reference upper alpha power (i.e. in a time interval preceding mental rotation). This is in line with studies showing that increased upper alpha power in a prestimulus (reference) interval is related to good cognitive performance.

  6. Patient safety considerations in the rehabilitation of the individual with cognitive impairment.

    PubMed

    Tyson, Brad T; Pham, Martha T; Brown, Natashia T; Mayer, Thomas R

    2012-05-01

    Deficits in cognitive functioning are associated with many safety concerns, including difficulties performing activities of daily living, medication errors, motor vehicle accidents, impaired awareness of deficits, decision-making capacity, falls, and travel away from home. Preventing adverse safety outcomes is particularly relevant in rehabilitation patients. Integration of information and recommendations stemming from allied disciplines, such as rehabilitation medicine, physical therapy, occupational therapy, speech therapy, and neuropsychology, is the most effective way to limit poor outcomes. Education and prevention counseling by health care professionals is an important approach in limiting adverse safety outcomes in patients with cognitive impairment.

  7. Review of normative data for common screening measures used to evaluate cognitive functioning in elderly individuals.

    PubMed

    Busch, Robyn M; Chapin, Jessica Smerz

    2008-07-01

    When conducting neuropsychological evaluations of the elderly, it is important to compare patients' test scores to appropriate normative data to maximize diagnostic and descriptive accuracy. Many sets of normative data are now available for screening measures that assess cognitive functioning in the elderly. This article systematically reviewed available norms for 6 widely used screening measures of cognitive functioning in elderly patients. Details regarding the sample characteristics and data collection methods are provided for each set of norms, thereby providing a useful reference for clinicians.

  8. Cognitive and biochemical effects of monosodium glutamate and aspartame, administered individually and in combination in male albino mice.

    PubMed

    Abu-Taweel, Gasem M; A, Zyadah M; Ajarem, Jamaan S; Ahmad, Mohammad

    2014-01-01

    The present study was designed to investigate the in vivo effects of monosodium glutamate (MSG) and aspartame (ASM) individually and in combination on the cognitive behavior and biochemical parameters like neurotransmitters and oxidative stress indices in the brain tissue of mice. Forty male Swiss albino mice were randomly divided into four groups of ten each and were exposed to MSG and ASM through drinking water for one month. Group I was the control and was given normal tap water. Groups II and III received MSG (8 mg/kg) and ASM (32 mg/kg) respectively dissolved in tap water. Group IV received MSG and ASM together in the same doses. After the exposure period, the animals were subjected to cognitive behavioral tests in a shuttle box and a water maze. Thereafter, the animals were sacrificed and the neurotransmitters and oxidative stress indices were estimated in their forebrain tissue. Both MSG and ASM individually as well as in combination had significant disruptive effects on the cognitive responses, memory retention and learning capabilities of the mice in the order (MSG+ASM)>ASM>MSG. Furthermore, while MSG and ASM individually were unable to alter the brain neurotransmitters and the oxidative stress indices, their combination dose (MSG+ASM) decreased significantly the levels of neurotransmitters (dopamine and serotonin) and it also caused oxidative stress by increasing the lipid peroxides measured in the form of thiobarbituric acid-reactive substances (TBARS) and decreasing the level of total glutathione (GSH). Further studies are required to evaluate the synergistic effects of MSG and ASM on the neurotransmitters and oxidative stress indices and their involvement in cognitive dysfunctions.

  9. Individual Differences in Some (But Not All) Medial Prefrontal Regions Reflect Cognitive Demand While Regulating Unpleasant Emotion

    PubMed Central

    Urry, Heather L.; van Reekum, Carien M.; Johnstone, Tom; Davidson, Richard J.

    2009-01-01

    The present study investigated the premise that individual differences in autonomic physiology could be used to specify the nature and consequences of information processing taking place in medial prefrontal regions during cognitive reappraisal of unpleasant emotion. Neural (blood oxygenation level-dependent functional magnetic resonance imaging) and autonomic (electrodermal, pupil diameter, cardiac acceleration) signals were recorded simultaneously as twenty-six older people (ages 64-66 years) used reappraisal to increase, maintain, or decrease their responses to unpleasant pictures. EDA was higher when increasing and lower when decreasing compared to maintaining. This suggested modulation of emotional arousal by reappraisal. By contrast, pupil diameter and cardiac acceleration were higher when increasing and decreasing compared to maintaining. This suggested modulation of cognitive demand. Importantly, reappraisal-related activation (increase, decrease > maintain) in two medial prefrontal regions (dorsal medial frontal gyrus and dorsal cingulate cortex) was correlated with greater cardiac acceleration (increase, decrease > maintain) and monotonic changes in EDA (increase > maintain > decrease). These data indicate that these two medial prefrontal regions are involved in the allocation of cognitive resources to regulate unpleasant emotion, and that they modulate emotional arousal in accordance with the regulatory goal. The emotional arousal effects were mediated by the right amygdala. Reappraisal-related activation in a third medial prefrontal region (subgenual anterior cingulate cortex) was not associated with similar patterns of change in any of the autonomic measures, thus highlighting regional specificity in the degree to which cognitive demand is reflected in medial prefrontal activation during reappraisal. PMID:19486944

  10. The impact of clinical and demographic variables on cognitive performance in methamphetamine-dependent individuals in rural South Carolina.

    PubMed

    Price, Kimber L; DeSantis, Stacia M; Simpson, Annie N; Tolliver, Bryan K; McRae-Clark, Aimee L; Saladin, Michael E; Baker, Nathaniel L; Wagner, Mark T; Brady, Kathleen T

    2011-01-01

    Inconsistencies in reports on methamphetamine (METH) associated cognitive dysfunction may be attributed, at least in part, to the diversity of study sample features (eg, clinical and demographic characteristics). The current study assessed cognitive function in a METH-dependent population from rural South Carolina, and the impact of demographic and clinical characteristics on performance. Seventy-one male (28.2%) and female (71.8%) METH-dependent subjects were administered a battery of neurocognitive tests including the Test of Memory Malingering (TOMM), Shipley Institute of Living Scale, Paced Auditory Serial Addition Test (PASAT), Symbol Digit Modalities Test (SDMT), Grooved Pegboard Test, California Verbal Learning Test (CVLT), and Wisconsin Card Sorting Test (WCST). Demographic and clinical characteristics (eg, gender, frequency of METH use) were examined as predictors of performance. Subjects scored significantly lower than expected on one test of attention and one of fine motor function, but performed adequately on all other tests. There were no predictors of performance on attention; however, more frequent METH use was associated with better performance for males and worse for females on fine motor skills. The METH-dependent individuals in this population exhibit very limited cognitive impairment. The marked differences in education, Intellectual Quotient (IQ), and gender in our sample when compared to the published literature may contribute to these findings. Characterization of the impact of clinical and/or demographic features on cognitive deficits could be important in guiding the development of treatment interventions.

  11. Individual differences in some (but not all) medial prefrontal regions reflect cognitive demand while regulating unpleasant emotion.

    PubMed

    Urry, Heather L; van Reekum, Carien M; Johnstone, Tom; Davidson, Richard J

    2009-09-01

    The present study investigated the premise that individual differences in autonomic physiology could be used to specify the nature and consequences of information processing taking place in medial prefrontal regions during cognitive reappraisal of unpleasant pictures. Neural (blood oxygenation level-dependent functional magnetic resonance imaging) and autonomic (electrodermal [EDA], pupil diameter, cardiac acceleration) signals were recorded simultaneously as twenty-six older people (ages 64-66 years) used reappraisal to increase, maintain, or decrease their responses to unpleasant pictures. EDA was higher when increasing and lower when decreasing compared to maintaining. This suggested modulation of emotional arousal by reappraisal. By contrast, pupil diameter and cardiac acceleration were higher when increasing and decreasing compared to maintaining. This suggested modulation of cognitive demand. Importantly, reappraisal-related activation (increase, decrease>maintain) in two medial prefrontal regions (dorsal medial frontal gyrus and dorsal cingulate gyrus) was correlated with greater cardiac acceleration (increase, decrease>maintain) and monotonic changes in EDA (increase>maintain>decrease). These data indicate that these two medial prefrontal regions are involved in the allocation of cognitive resources to regulate unpleasant emotion, and that they modulate emotional arousal in accordance with the regulatory goal. The emotional arousal effects were mediated by the right amygdala. Reappraisal-related activation in a third medial prefrontal region (subgenual anterior cingulate cortex) was not associated with similar patterns of change in any of the autonomic measures, thus highlighting regional specificity in the degree to which cognitive demand is reflected in medial prefrontal activation during reappraisal. PMID:19486944

  12. Minimally important differences for Patient Reported Outcomes Measurement Information System pain interference for individuals with back pain

    PubMed Central

    Amtmann, Dagmar; Kim, Jiseon; Chung, Hyewon; Askew, Robert L; Park, Ryoungsun; Cook, Karon F

    2016-01-01

    Background The minimally important difference (MID) refers to the smallest change that is sufficiently meaningful to carry implications for patients’ care. MIDs are necessary to guide the interpretation of scores. This study estimated MID for the Patient Reported Outcomes Measurement Information System (PROMIS) pain interference (PI). Methods Study instruments were administered to 414 people who participated in two studies that included treatment with low back pain (LBP; n=218) or depression (n=196). Participants with LBP received epidural steroid injections and participants with depression received antidepressants, psychotherapy, or both. MIDs were estimated for the changes in LBP. MIDs were included only if a priori criteria were met (ie, sample size ≥10, Spearman correlation ≥0.3 between anchor measures and PROMIS-PI scores, and effect size range =0.2–0.8). The interquartile range (IQR) of MID estimates was calculated. Results The IQR ranged from 3.5 to 5.5 points. The lower bound estimate of the IQR (3.5) was greater than mean of standard error of measurement (SEM) both at time 1 (SEM =2.3) and at time 2 (SEM =2.5), indicating that the estimate of MID exceeded measurement error. Conclusion Based on our results, researchers and clinicians using PROMIS-PI can assume that change of 3.5 to 5.5 points in comparisons of mean PROMIS-PI scores of people with LBP can be considered meaningful. PMID:27175093

  13. Tracking ongoing cognition in individuals using brief, whole-brain functional connectivity patterns

    PubMed Central

    Gonzalez-Castillo, Javier; Hoy, Colin W.; Handwerker, Daniel A.; Robinson, Meghan E.; Buchanan, Laura C.; Saad, Ziad S.; Bandettini, Peter A.

    2015-01-01

    Functional connectivity (FC) patterns in functional MRI exhibit dynamic behavior on the scale of seconds, with rich spatiotemporal structure and limited sets of whole-brain, quasi-stable FC configurations (FC states) recurring across time and subjects. Based on previous evidence linking various aspects of cognition to group-level, minute-to-minute FC changes in localized connections, we hypothesized that whole-brain FC states may reflect the global, orchestrated dynamics of cognitive processing on the scale of seconds. To test this hypothesis, subjects were continuously scanned as they engaged in and transitioned between mental states dictated by tasks. FC states computed within windows as short as 22.5 s permitted robust tracking of cognition in single subjects with near perfect accuracy. Accuracy dropped markedly for subjects with the lowest task performance. Spatially restricting FC information decreased accuracy at short time scales, emphasizing the distributed nature of whole-brain FC dynamics, beyond univariate magnitude changes, as valuable markers of cognition. PMID:26124112

  14. Cross-Cultural Investigation into Cognitive Underpinnings of Individual Differences in Early Arithmetic

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Rodic, Maja; Zhou, Xinlin; Tikhomirova, Tatiana; Wei, Wei; Malykh, Sergei; Ismatulina, Victoria; Sabirova, Elena; Davidova, Yulia; Tosto, Maria Grazia; Lemelin, Jean-Pascal; Kovas, Yulia

    2015-01-01

    The present study evaluated 626 5-7-year-old children in the UK, China, Russia, and Kyrgyzstan on a cognitive test battery measuring: (1) general skills; (2) non-symbolic number sense; (3) symbolic number understanding; (4) simple arithmetic--operating with numbers; and (5) familiarity with numbers. Although most inter-population differences were…

  15. Testing and Measurement Potentials of Microcomputers for Cognitive Style Research and Individualized Instruction.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Burroway, Robert L.

    Microcomputer versions of three commonly used cognitive style measurement instruments are described and demonstrated: the Leveling-Sharpening House Test (LSHT) (Santostefano, 1964); Lowenfeld's Successive Impressions Test I (SIT-I) (1945); and the Group Embedded Figures Test (GEFT) (Witkin, Oltman, Ruskin, and Karp, 1971). At present, many…

  16. Separation-Individuation Conflict as a Model for Understanding Distressed Caregivers: Psychodynamic and Cognitive Case Studies.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Rose, Jonathon M.; DelMaestro, Susan G.

    1990-01-01

    Discusses Project Assist, a project designed to study efficacy of time-limited psychodynamic and cognitive behavioral therapies for experienced and recent caregivers. Claims Project Assist offers psychotherapy that can assist caregivers in separating their own emotions, identity, and well-being from those of care receiver, a process which appears…

  17. Problems with Individual Difference Measures Based on Some Componential Cognitive Paradigms.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Dunlap, William P.; And Others

    1989-01-01

    The reliability of derived measures from 4 cognitive paradigms was studied using 19 Navy enlisted men (aged between 18 and 24 years). The paradigms were: graphemic and phonemic analysis; semantic memory retrieval; lexical decision making; and letter classification. Results indicate that derived scores may have low reliability. (SLD)

  18. The Use of Task-based Cognitive Tests for Defining Vocational Aptness of Individuals with Disabilities

    PubMed Central

    Kwon, Jae-Sung; Oh, Duck-Won

    2015-01-01

    Objectives The purpose of this study was to demonstrate the use of task-based cognitive tests to detect potential problems in the assessment of work training for vocational rehabilitation. Methods Eleven participants with a normal range of cognitive functioning scores were recruited for this study. Participants were all trainees who participated in a vocational training program. The Rey Complex Figure Test and the Allen Cognitive Level Screen were randomly administered to all participants. Responses to the tests were qualitatively analyzed with matrix and scatter charts. Results Observational outcomes derived from the tests indicated that response errors, distortions, and behavioral problems occurred in most participants. These factors may impede occupational performance despite normal cognitive function. These findings suggest that the use of task-based tests may be beneficial for detecting potential problems associated with the work performance of people with disabilities. Conclusion Specific analysis using the task-based tests may be necessary to complete the decision-making process for vocational aptness. Furthermore, testing should be led by professionals with a higher specialization in this field. PMID:26430613

  19. Diagnostic assessment to estimate and minimize neutron dose rates received by occupationally exposed individuals at cyclotron facilities.

    PubMed

    Reina, L C; Silva, A X; Suita, J C; Souza, M I S; Facure, A; Silva, J C P; Furlanetto, J A D; Rebello, W

    2010-03-01

    Since 2003, radiopharmaceuticals for medical diagnostic purposes have been produced at the Instituto de Engenharia Nuclear, in Brazil, using two cyclotron accelerators - CV-28 and RDS111. As a result of the ever increasing production, a diagnostic assessment to reduce neutron dose rates received by occupationally exposed individuals during irradiation processes has been developed. The purpose of this work is to present this assessment, which is currently being applied to both the Fluorine and Iodine targets of CV-28 and RDS111 cyclotron accelerators.

  20. Salivary Cytokines as a Minimally-Invasive Measure of Immune Functioning in Young Children: Correlates of Individual Differences and Sensitivity to Laboratory Stress

    PubMed Central

    Riis, Jenna L.; Granger, Douglas A.; DiPietro, Janet A.; Bandeen-Roche, Karen; Johnson, Sara B.

    2015-01-01

    There is growing interest in minimally-invasive measures of environmentally-responsive biological systems in developmental science. Contributing to that endeavor, this study explores the intercorrelations, correlates, and task-sensitivity of proinflammatory salivary cytokines in childhood. Saliva was sampled from 125 healthy five-year old children (49% male) across a series of cognitive and emotional challenge laboratory tasks. Samples were assayed for cytokines (IL-1β, IL-6, IL-8, TNFα), and markers of hypothalamic–pituitary– adrenal (HPA) and autonomic nervous system (ANS) activation (salivary cortisol and alpha-amylase [sAA]). Cytokines were positively intercorrelated and task-sensitivity varied. Except IL-8, cytokines were elevated in children with oral health issues and tobacco smoke exposure. Among boys, cytokines were positively related to sAA and negatively related to cortisol. The findings suggest that in healthy children, salivary cytokine levels reflect compartmentalized oral immune activity. Associations between ANS and HPA activity and cytokines in saliva may present opportunities for minimally-invasive methods to explore neuroendocrine-immune interactions during development. PMID:25604242

  1. Do Individual Differences and Aging Effects in the Estimation of Geographical Slant Reflect Cognitive or Perceptual Effects?

    PubMed Central

    Dean, Abigail M.; Oh, Jaehyun; Thomson, Christopher J.; Norris, Catherine J.

    2016-01-01

    Several individual differences including age have been suggested to affect the perception of slant. A cross-sectional study of outdoor hill estimation (N = 106) was analyzed using individual difference measures of age, experiential knowledge, fitness, personality traits, and sex. Of particular note, it was found that for participants who reported any experiential knowledge about slant, estimates decreased (i.e., became more accurate) as conscientiousness increased, suggesting that more conscientious individuals were more deliberate about taking their experiential knowledge (rather than perception) into account. Effects of fitness were limited to those without experiential knowledge, suggesting that they, too, may be cognitive rather than perceptual. The observed effects of age, which tended to produce lower, more accurate estimates of hill slant, provide more evidence that older adults do not see hills as steeper. The main effect of age was to lower slant estimates; such effects may be due to implicit experiential knowledge acquired over a lifetime. The results indicate the impact of cognitive, rather than perceptual factors on individual differences in slant estimation. PMID:27698978

  2. Do Individual Differences and Aging Effects in the Estimation of Geographical Slant Reflect Cognitive or Perceptual Effects?

    PubMed Central

    Dean, Abigail M.; Oh, Jaehyun; Thomson, Christopher J.; Norris, Catherine J.

    2016-01-01

    Several individual differences including age have been suggested to affect the perception of slant. A cross-sectional study of outdoor hill estimation (N = 106) was analyzed using individual difference measures of age, experiential knowledge, fitness, personality traits, and sex. Of particular note, it was found that for participants who reported any experiential knowledge about slant, estimates decreased (i.e., became more accurate) as conscientiousness increased, suggesting that more conscientious individuals were more deliberate about taking their experiential knowledge (rather than perception) into account. Effects of fitness were limited to those without experiential knowledge, suggesting that they, too, may be cognitive rather than perceptual. The observed effects of age, which tended to produce lower, more accurate estimates of hill slant, provide more evidence that older adults do not see hills as steeper. The main effect of age was to lower slant estimates; such effects may be due to implicit experiential knowledge acquired over a lifetime. The results indicate the impact of cognitive, rather than perceptual factors on individual differences in slant estimation.

  3. Negative Cognitive Style as a Predictor of Negative Life Events in Depression-Prone Individuals: A Test of the Stress Generation Hypothesis

    PubMed Central

    Safford, Scott M.; Alloy, Lauren B.; Abramson, Lyn Y.; Crossfield, Alisa G.

    2007-01-01

    Background Stress generation effects in depressed individuals have been well-documented. However, less is known about what personal attributes of depression-prone individuals may contribute to the stress generation effect. This study investigated the role of negative cognitive style in predicting the occurrence of negative life events. Methods Undergraduates identified as either high (n = 76) or low (n = 81) in negative cognitive style were assessed for lifetime history of depression followed by periodic assessment over the course of six months for the occurrence of negative life events and depressive episodes. Results Individuals with negative cognitive styles generated more negative life events (dependent events and interpersonal events, but not more independent or achievement-related events) than individuals with more positive cognitive styles. These results appear to be unique to women. Limitations Utilizing participants specifically chosen to be high or low in negative cognitive style may limit generalizability to other individuals. Conclusions Results suggest that an underlying negative cognitive style may account for the stress generation effect often found in depressed individuals, particularly for women. Adequately addressing cognitive patterns in treatment or prevention programs may not only effectively reduce depression, but may also reduce the likelihood of experiencing negative life events that often serve as precipitants for depression. PMID:17030064

  4. Youth culture and smoking: Integrating social group processes and individual cognitive processes in a model of health-related behaviours.

    PubMed

    Schofield, Penelope E; Pattison, Philippa E; Hill, David J; Borland, Ron

    2003-05-01

    This article assesses four theoretical models proposed to predict future smoking. Young adults were surveyed at three six-month intervals, the first occurring three months after leaving school. Models 1 and 2 were versions of theory of triadic influence (TTI), which links a person's behavioural experience and cognitions to their future behaviour. Model 1 did not fit the data; the fit of model 2 was just adequate. Model 3 combined TTI and self-categorization theory (ST), by allowing norms of the individual's peer group to influence cognitions and future behaviour. It fitted the data well. Model 4, which extended model, provided the best fit. Strength of identification to the peer group was found to enhance the effect of the peer group norm.

  5. Testing cognitive predictors of individual differences in the sexual psychophysiological responses of sexually functional women.

    PubMed

    Clifton, Jessica; Seehuus, Martin; Rellini, Alessandra H

    2015-07-01

    The literature on sexual responses shows a large and not fully understood between-women variance in sexual responses and in strength of coherence between physiological and subjective sexual responses. This study investigated cognitive factors theorized to be associated with sexual responses that could explain such variance. Specifically, we investigated the predictive value of sexual excitation/inhibition and sexual schemas on sexual response and coherence. Vaginal photoplethysmography and continuous subjective sexual arousal were collected from 29 young women while they watched a control/erotic video sequence. Hierarchical linear modeling revealed that high sexual excitation and schemas related to passion and romance were related to higher coherence. These findings support the notion that cognitive factors that enhance sexual arousal contribute to the large variation seen in the coherence of sexual response as measured in the laboratory. PMID:25816911

  6. Cognitive and affective mechanisms linking trait mindfulness to craving among individuals in addiction recovery.

    PubMed

    Garland, Eric L; Roberts-Lewis, Amelia; Kelley, Karen; Tronnier, Christine; Hanley, Adam

    2014-04-01

    The present study aimed to identify affective, cognitive, and conative mediators of the relation between trait mindfulness and craving in data culled from an urban sample of 165 persons (in abstinence verified by urinalysis) entering into residential treatment for substance use disorders between 2010 and 2012. Multivariate path analysis adjusting for age, gender, education level, employment status, and substance use frequency indicated that the association between the total trait mindfulness score on the Five Facet Mindfulness Questionnaire and alcohol/drug craving was statistically mediated by negative affect (measured by the PANAS, beta = -.13) and cognitive reappraisal (measured by the CERQ, beta = -.08), but not by readiness to change (measured by the URICA, beta = -.001). Implications for mindfulness-oriented treatment of persons with substance use disorders are discussed. The study's limitations are noted.

  7. Individual Variation among Preschoolers in a Cognitive Intervention Program in Low Income Families.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Levenstein, Phyllis

    The range of cognitive gains made by low-income preschool children in the home-based Mother-Child Home Program is discussed as to the causes of the wide variability found. At the end of one year (October 1967 to May 1968) in the program, 33 low-income preschoolers made an average Stanford-Binet IQ gain of 17 points. The varibility within this…

  8. Cognitive Interference From Food Cues in Weight Loss Maintainers, Normal Weight, and Obese Individuals

    PubMed Central

    Phelan, Suzanne; Hassenstab, Jason; McCaffery, Jeanne M.; Sweet, Lawrence; Raynor, Hollie A.; Cohen, Ronald A.; Wing, Rena R.

    2011-01-01

    Much attention has been paid to the behavioral characteristics of successful weight loss maintenance, but less is known about the cognitive processes that underlie this process. The purpose of this study was to investigate cognitive interference from food-related cues in long-term weight loss maintainers (WLM; N = 15) as compared with normal weight (NW; N = 19) and obese (OB; N = 14) controls. A Food Stroop paradigm was used to determine whether successful WLM differed from controls in both the speed and accuracy of color naming words for low-calorie and high-calorie foods. A significant group × condition interaction for reaction time was observed (P = 0.04). In post hoc analyses, no significant differences in reaction time across the three groups were observed for the low-calorie foods (P = 0.66). However, for the high-calorie foods, WLM showed a significantly slower reaction time than the NW (0.04) and OB (0.009) groups (885 ± 17.6, 834 ± 15.8, 816 ± 18.3 ms, respectively). No significant group differences were seen for number of correct trials in 45 s (P = 0.12). The differential interference among WLM did not appear to generalize to other types of distracters (i.e., nonfood). Overall, findings from this study suggest that WLM differ from OB and NW controls in their cognitive responses to high-calorie food cues. Future research is needed to better understand why this bias exists and whether and how interventions can change cognitive processes to better facilitate long-term weight control. PMID:20539296

  9. Characterization of Activities of Daily Living in Individuals With Mild Cognitive Impairment

    PubMed Central

    Jefferson, Angela L.; Byerly, Laura K.; Vanderhill, Susan; Lambe, Susan; Wong, Sarah; Ozonoff, Al; Karlawish, Jason H.

    2009-01-01

    Objective To determine whether participants with mild cognitive impairment (MCI) differ from cognitively normal (NC) older adults on traditional and novel informant-based measures of activities of daily living (ADL) and to identify cognitive correlates of ADLs among participants with MCI. Design Cross-sectional. Setting University medical setting. Participants Seventy-seven participants (NC: N = 39; MCI: N = 38), 60 to 90 years old (73.5 ± 6.6 years; 53% female). Measurements Neuropsychological and ADL measures. Methods Neuropsychological tests were administered to NC and MCI participants. Informants completed the Lawton and Brody Instrumental Activities of Daily Living and Physical Self-Maintenance Scale, including instrumental (IADL) and basic ADL (BADL) scales, as well as the Functional Capacities for Activities of Daily Living (FC-ADL), an error-based ADL measure. Results No statistically or clinically significant between-group differences emerged for the BADL or IADL subscales. However, a robust difference was noted for the FC-ADL scale (MCI errors > NC errors; F(1,75) = 13.6, p <0.001; d = 0.84). Among MCI participants, correlations revealed that a measure of verbal learning was the only neuropsychological correlate of FC-ADL total score (r =-0.39, df = 36, p = 0.007). No neuropsychological measures were significantly associated with the IADL or BADL subscale score. Conclusion Traditional measures assessing global ADLs may not be sensitive to early functional changes related to MCI; however, error-based measures may capture the subtle evolving functional decline associated with MCI. Among MCI participants, early functional difficulties are associated with verbal learning performance, possibly secondary to the hallmark cognitive impairment associated with this cohort. PMID:18332397

  10. Group and Individual Treatment of Obsessive-Compulsive Disorder Using Cognitive Therapy and Exposure Plus Response Prevention: A 2-Year Follow-Up of Two Randomized Trials

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Whittal, Maureen L.; Robichaud, Melisa; Thordarson, Dana S.; McLean, Peter D.

    2008-01-01

    Relatively little is known about the long-term durability of group treatments for obsessive-compulsive disorder (OCD) and contemporary cognitive treatments. The current study investigated the 2-year follow-up results for participants who completed randomized trials of group or individual treatment and received either cognitive therapy (CT) or…

  11. A minimal limit-cycle model to profile movement patterns of individuals during agility drill performance: Effects of skill level.

    PubMed

    Mehdizadeh, Sina; Arshi, Ahmed Reza; Davids, Keith

    2015-06-01

    Identification of control strategies during agility performance is significant in understanding movement behavior. This study aimed at providing a fundamental mathematical model for describing the motion of participants during an agility drill and to determine whether skill level constrained model components. Motion patterns of two groups of skilled and unskilled participants (n=8 in each) during performance of a forward/backward agility drill modeled as limit-cycles. Participant movements were recorded by motion capture of a reflective marker attached to the sacrum of each individual. Graphical and regression analyses of movement kinematics in Hooke's plane, phase plane and velocity profile were performed to determine components of the models. Results showed that the models of both skilled and unskilled groups had terms from Duffing stiffness as well as Van der Pol damping oscillators. Data also indicated that the proposed models captured on average 97% of the variance for both skilled and unskilled groups. Findings from this study revealed the movement patterning associated with skilled and unskilled performance in a typical forward/backward agility drill which might be helpful for trainers and physiotherapists in enhancing agility. PMID:25828582

  12. Individual Cognitive Social Capital and Its Relationship with Pain and Sick Leave Due to Pain in the Austrian Population

    PubMed Central

    Muckenhuber, Johanna; Pollak, Lorenz; Stein, Katharina Viktoria; Dorner, Thomas Ernst

    2016-01-01

    Background Individual cognitive social capital has repeatedly been shown to be linked to health disparities in many dimensions. The aim of the study was to investigate the association between social capital and pain-related measures. Methods 15,474 subjects older than 15 years were personally interviewed on subjective health, quality of life, health behaviour, and utilisation of healthcare in the Austrian Health Interview Survey. An indicator for cognitive social capital at the individual level consisting of nine questions targeted at different social resources was built and its association with pain-related items analysed. Results Odds ratios, adjusted for age, chronic diseases, and educational level for having suffered from severe pain in the last 12 months were 2.02 (95% CI 1.77–2.03) in the lowest tertile and 1.30 (95% CI 1.14–1.47) in the middle tertile of social capital for men. The corresponding odds ratios for women were 2.28 (95% CI 2.01–2.59) and 1.30 (95% CI 1.15–1.46). In both sexes, pain intensity increased significantly with decreasing level of social capital. The proportion of subjects that have been on sick leave in the last 12 months due to pain were 16.3%, 12.0%, and 7.7% (P<0.001) from lowest to highest tertile of social capital in men, and 16.5%, 12.3%, and 6.7%, respectively (P<0.001) in women. Conclusion Our findings indicate that low cognitive social capital at individual level is significantly associated not only with higher prevalence of pain and higher pain intensity, but also with a higher chance for sick leave due to pain in employed subjects. PMID:27322649

  13. Outcomes of Cognitive-Behavioral Treatment for Insomnia on Insomnia, Depression, and Fatigue for Individuals with Multiple Sclerosis

    PubMed Central

    Clancy, Megan; Drerup, Michelle

    2015-01-01

    Background: This clinical case series examined outcomes of cognitive-behavioral therapy for insomnia (CBT-I) in individuals with multiple sclerosis (MS). Current literature links insomnia with higher rates of depression and fatigue in individuals with MS. However, no research to date evaluates a targeted psychotherapeutic intervention for insomnia in this population. Participants and Methods: Eleven individuals with a diagnosis of MS and insomnia participated in individual or group-based CBT-I sessions at the Cleveland Clinic Sleep Disorders Center between 2008 and 2013. A medical record review examined these individuals' self-reported experiences of insomnia, depression, and fatigue at the preintervention and postintervention levels using the Insomnia Severity Index, nine-item Patient Health Questionnaire, and Fatigue Severity Scale. Total sleep time was also reported at pretreatment and posttreatment intervals. Results: Overall, participants reported improvements regarding insomnia, fatigue, and depression after CBT-I. Total sleep time also increased by an average of 1.5 hours. Despite overall improvement, symptoms of fatigue, insomnia, and depression persisted, at varying levels, for most participants. Conclusions: These results strongly suggest that CBT-I may serve as an effective clinical intervention for individuals with MS who report symptoms of insomnia. Given the considerable overlap of experiences of insomnia, depression, and fatigue in people with MS, CBT-I may also be helpful in identifying areas that may require additional clinical intervention for persistent symptoms of depression and fatigue. Further research is necessary. PMID:26664331

  14. Rapid Assessment of Severe Cognitive Impairment in Individuals with Developmental Disabilities

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Walsh, D. M.; Finwall, J.; Touchette, P. E.; McGregor, M. R.; Fernandez, G. E.; Lott, I. T.; Sandman, C. A.

    2007-01-01

    Background: Most standardized intelligence tests require more than 1hour for administration, which is problematic when evaluating individuals with intellectual disabilities and developmental disabilities (IDDD), because a significant proportion of these individuals can not tolerate lengthy evaluations. Furthermore, most standardized intelligence…

  15. Individual differences in competent consumer choice: the role of cognitive reflection and numeracy skills.

    PubMed

    Graffeo, Michele; Polonio, Luca; Bonini, Nicolao

    2015-01-01

    In this paper, we investigate whether cognitive reflection and numeracy skills affect the quality of the consumers' decision-making process in a purchase decision context. In a first (field) experiment, an identical product was on sale in two shops with different initial prices and discounts. One of the two deals was better than the other and the consumers were asked to choose the best one and to describe which arithmetic operations they used to solve the problem; then they were asked to complete the numeracy scale (Lipkus et al., 2001). The choice procedures used by the consumers were classified as "complete decision approach" when all the arithmetic operations needed to solve the problem were computed, and as "partial decision approach" when only some operations were computed. A mediation model shows that higher numeracy is associated with use of the complete decision approach. In turn, this approach is positively associated with the quality of the purchase decision. Given that these findings highlight the importance of the decision processes, in a second (laboratory) experiment we used a supplementary method to study the type of information search used by the participants: eye-tracking. In this experiment the participants were presented with decision problems similar to those used in Experiment 1 and they completed the Lipkus numeracy scale and the Cognitive Reflection Test (CRT; Frederick, 2005). Participants with a high CRT score chose the best deal more frequently, and showed a more profound and detailed information search pattern compared to participants with a low CRT score. Overall, results indicate that higher levels of cognitive reflection and numeracy skills predict the use of a more thorough decision process (measured with two different techniques: retrospective verbal reports and eye movements). In both experiments the decision process is a crucial factor which greatly affects the quality of the purchase decision.

  16. Individual differences in competent consumer choice: the role of cognitive reflection and numeracy skills

    PubMed Central

    Graffeo, Michele; Polonio, Luca; Bonini, Nicolao

    2015-01-01

    In this paper, we investigate whether cognitive reflection and numeracy skills affect the quality of the consumers’ decision-making process in a purchase decision context. In a first (field) experiment, an identical product was on sale in two shops with different initial prices and discounts. One of the two deals was better than the other and the consumers were asked to choose the best one and to describe which arithmetic operations they used to solve the problem; then they were asked to complete the numeracy scale (Lipkus et al., 2001). The choice procedures used by the consumers were classified as “complete decision approach” when all the arithmetic operations needed to solve the problem were computed, and as “partial decision approach” when only some operations were computed. A mediation model shows that higher numeracy is associated with use of the complete decision approach. In turn, this approach is positively associated with the quality of the purchase decision. Given that these findings highlight the importance of the decision processes, in a second (laboratory) experiment we used a supplementary method to study the type of information search used by the participants: eye-tracking. In this experiment the participants were presented with decision problems similar to those used in Experiment 1 and they completed the Lipkus numeracy scale and the Cognitive Reflection Test (CRT; Frederick, 2005). Participants with a high CRT score chose the best deal more frequently, and showed a more profound and detailed information search pattern compared to participants with a low CRT score. Overall, results indicate that higher levels of cognitive reflection and numeracy skills predict the use of a more thorough decision process (measured with two different techniques: retrospective verbal reports and eye movements). In both experiments the decision process is a crucial factor which greatly affects the quality of the purchase decision. PMID:26136721

  17. Stress management training as a prevention program for heavy social drinkers: cognitions, affect, drinking, and individual differences.

    PubMed

    Rohsenow, D J; Smith, R E; Johnson, S

    1985-01-01

    The effectiveness of cognitive-affective stress management training (SMT) as a drinking reduction program for heavy social drinking college students was investigated. The SMT package included muscle relaxation and meditation training, cognitive restructuring, and coping skill rehearsal during induced affect. Treated and control subjects rated the frequency and intensity of their anxiety, anger and depression and recorded their alcohol consumption on a daily basis over a 6-month period. SMT significantly reduced posttreatment daily anxiety ratings and was associated with changes in four of ten irrational beliefs and a shift toward more internal locus of control in treated subjects. Reduction in anxiety was no longer evident at the 2 1/2- and 5 1/2-month follow-ups. The men in the SMT group showed a significant decrease in daily drinking rates at posttreatment and at the 2 1/2-month follow-up, but drinking returned to baseline levels by 5 1/2 months for the group as a whole. However, significant improvement variance in daily moods and in drinking rates over all posttreatment periods was accounted for by individual difference variables in the trained subjects but not in the control group, suggesting that these cognitive, personality, and social support variables are associated with response to stress management training. Implications of these results for future prevention research are discussed.

  18. Sex-specific neural activity when resolving cognitive interference in individuals with or without prior internalizing disorders.

    PubMed

    Wang, Zhishun; Jacobs, Rachel H; Marsh, Rachel; Horga, Guillermo; Qiao, Jianping; Warner, Virginia; Weissman, Myrna M; Peterson, Bradley S

    2016-03-30

    The processing of cognitive interference is a self-regulatory capacity that is impaired in persons with internalizing disorders. This investigation was to assess sex differences in the neural correlates of cognitive interference in individuals with and without an illness history of an internalizing disorder. We compared functional magnetic resonance imaging blood-oxygenation-level-dependent responses in both males (n=63) and females (n=80) with and without this illness history during performance of the Simon task. Females deactivated superior frontal gyrus, inferior parietal lobe, and posterior cingulate cortex to a greater extent than males. Females with a prior history of internalizing disorder also deactivated these regions more compared to males with that history, and they additionally demonstrated greater activation of right inferior frontal gyrus. These group differences were represented in a significant sex-by-illness interaction in these regions. These deactivated regions compose a task-negative or default mode network, whereas the inferior frontal gyrus usually activates when performing an attention-demanding task and is a key component of a task-positive network. Our findings suggest that a prior history of internalizing disorders disproportionately influences functioning of the default mode network and is associated with an accompanying activation of the task-positive network in females during the resolution of cognitive interference. PMID:27000310

  19. Cognitive-behavioural treatment of pathological gambling in individuals with chronic schizophrenia: a pilot study.

    PubMed

    Echeburúa, Enrique; Gómez, Montserrat; Freixa, Montserrat

    2011-11-01

    The current study aimed to test the clinical effectiveness of a cognitive-behavioural program (CBT) specifically adapted for pathological gamblers with chronic schizophrenia, carried out in a naturalistic setting of community Mental Health Centres. Forty-four pathological gamblers with chronic schizophrenia were assigned either to a standard drug therapy for schizophrenia (control group) or to cognitive-behavioural therapy for pathological gambling plus a standard drug therapy for schizophrenia (experimental group). Psychological treatment comprised a 20-session program including psychoeducation, stimulus control, gradual exposure and relapse prevention. Therapeutic success was defined as abstinence or the occurrence of only 1 or 2 episodes of gambling during the follow-up period. While the patients treated in the experimental group showed a rate of success of 73.9%, only 19% of the participants belonging to the control group gave up gambling at the 3-month follow-up. The CBT group also did better than the control group in the number of gambling episodes and in the amount of money spent on gambling. However, the improvement of the experimental group was weaker at the 6- and 12-month follow-up. These findings support the beneficial effects of CBT as adjunctive therapy for patients with dual diagnoses (schizophrenia and pathological gambling).

  20. The Influence of Levetiracetam in Cognitive Performance in Healthy Individuals: Neuropsychological, Behavioral and Electrophysiological Approach

    PubMed Central

    Magalhães, Julio Cesar; Gongora, Mariana; Vicente, Renan; Bittencourt, Juliana; Tanaka, Guaraci; Velasques, Bruna; Teixeira, Silmar; Morato, Gledys; Basile, Luis F.; Arias-Carrión, Oscar; Pompeu, Fernando A.M.S; Cagy, Mauricio; Ribeiro, Pedro

    2015-01-01

    Objective The present study sought to analyze the influence of Levetiracetam (LEV) in cognitive performance by identifying the changes produced by LEV in reaction time, in neuropsychological assessment of attention and memory and in absolute theta power in frontal activity. Methods Twelve healthy subjects (5 men and 7 women; mean age, 30.08 years, standard deviation, 4.71) were recruited for this study. The neuropsychological tests: Trail Making Test (A and B), Digit Span (direct and indirect numerical orders/working memory); Stroop test (inhibitory control of attention); Tower of London (planning and decision-making) and a quantitative electroencephalography were applied in 2 different days after and before the participants ingested the capsule of placebo or 500 mg LEV. Results A two-way-ANOVA was implemented to observe the interaction between conditions (placebo or LEV 500 mg) and moments (pre- and post-ingestion of LEV or placebo). The data were analyzed by the SPSS statistical package (p<0.05). For the neuropsychological parameter, the Trail Making Test (A) was the only test that showed significant difference for condition in the task execution time (p=0.026). Regarding the reaction time in the behavioral parameter, an interaction between both factors (p=0.034) was identified through a two-way-ANOVA (condition versus moment). Electrophysiological measures showed a significant interaction for electrodes: F7, F3, and FZ. Conclusion The findings showed that LEV promotes an important cognitive enhancement in the executive functions. PMID:25912541

  1. Effects of Non-Driving Cognitive Activity on Driver's Eye Movement and Their Individual Difference

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Itoh, Makoto; Inagaki, Toshiyuki

    This paper investigates effects on driver's eye movement when the driver is distracted by a secondary cognitive task that demands a high mental workload. By observing drivers behavior in a fixed-base driving simulator, we analyze how the time lengths of eye fixations change when a driver is imposed to perform a cognitive secondary task. The results show that two types (Type 1: the number of short fixations increases, Type 2: the number of short fixations decreases) are found. Interestingly, our data show that both types can be seen even in one driver depending on traffic conditions. It is also shown that likelihood of occurring Type 1 or Type 2 effects depends on driver. The data suggest that it is possible to predict which effect is likely to occur for a driver if we analyze his or her eye movement under normal conditions. With these findings, this study developed and improved a driver-adaptable algorithm for detecting the state of being under high mental workload. The results suggest that the time length of an eye fixation can be useful index at least several drivers.

  2. A Meta-Analytic Review of the Efficacy of Physical Exercise Interventions on Cognition in Individuals with Autism Spectrum Disorder and ADHD.

    PubMed

    Tan, Beron W Z; Pooley, Julie A; Speelman, Craig P

    2016-09-01

    This review evaluates the efficacy of using physical exercise interventions on improving cognitive functions in individuals with autism spectrum disorder (ASD) and/or attention deficit hyperactivity disorder (ADHD). This review includes a meta-analysis based on a random-effects model of data reported in 22 studies with 579 participants aged 3-25 year old. The results revealed an overall small to medium effect of exercise on cognition, supporting the efficacy of exercise interventions in enhancing certain aspects of cognitive performance in individuals with ASD and/or ADHD. Specifically, similar to the general population literature, the cognitive benefits of exercise are not consistent across all aspects of cognitive functions (i.e., some areas are not improved). The clinical significance of the reported effect sizes is also considered. PMID:27412579

  3. A Meta-Analytic Review of the Efficacy of Physical Exercise Interventions on Cognition in Individuals with Autism Spectrum Disorder and ADHD.

    PubMed

    Tan, Beron W Z; Pooley, Julie A; Speelman, Craig P

    2016-09-01

    This review evaluates the efficacy of using physical exercise interventions on improving cognitive functions in individuals with autism spectrum disorder (ASD) and/or attention deficit hyperactivity disorder (ADHD). This review includes a meta-analysis based on a random-effects model of data reported in 22 studies with 579 participants aged 3-25 year old. The results revealed an overall small to medium effect of exercise on cognition, supporting the efficacy of exercise interventions in enhancing certain aspects of cognitive performance in individuals with ASD and/or ADHD. Specifically, similar to the general population literature, the cognitive benefits of exercise are not consistent across all aspects of cognitive functions (i.e., some areas are not improved). The clinical significance of the reported effect sizes is also considered.

  4. Noise-Induced Tinnitus Using Individualized Gap Detection Analysis and Its Relationship with Hyperacusis, Anxiety, and Spatial Cognition

    PubMed Central

    Pace, Edward; Zhang, Jinsheng

    2013-01-01

    Tinnitus has a complex etiology that involves auditory and non-auditory factors and may be accompanied by hyperacusis, anxiety and cognitive changes. Thus far, investigations of the interrelationship between tinnitus and auditory and non-auditory impairment have yielded conflicting results. To further address this issue, we noise exposed rats and assessed them for tinnitus using a gap detection behavioral paradigm combined with statistically-driven analysis to diagnose tinnitus in individual rats. We also tested rats for hearing detection, responsivity, and loss using prepulse inhibition and auditory brainstem response, and for spatial cognition and anxiety using Morris water maze and elevated plus maze. We found that our tinnitus diagnosis method reliably separated noise-exposed rats into tinnitus(+) and tinnitus(−) groups and detected no evidence of tinnitus in tinnitus(−) and control rats. In addition, the tinnitus(+) group demonstrated enhanced startle amplitude, indicating hyperacusis-like behavior. Despite these results, neither tinnitus, hyperacusis nor hearing loss yielded any significant effects on spatial learning and memory or anxiety, though a majority of rats with the highest anxiety levels had tinnitus. These findings showed that we were able to develop a clinically relevant tinnitus(+) group and that our diagnosis method is sound. At the same time, like clinical studies, we found that tinnitus does not always result in cognitive-emotional dysfunction, although tinnitus may predispose subjects to certain impairment like anxiety. Other behavioral assessments may be needed to further define the relationship between tinnitus and anxiety, cognitive deficits, and other impairments. PMID:24069375

  5. A novel technique for the quantitative assessment of apraxic deficits: application to individuals with mild cognitive impairment.

    PubMed

    Crutch, Sebastian J; Rossor, Martin N; Warrington, Elizabeth K

    2007-09-01

    The purpose of this study was to apply two novel quantitative assessments of apraxia to issues surrounding the cognitive profile of individuals with mild cognitive impairment (MCI) who are at increased risk of Alzheimer's disease (AD). In particular, it was wished to determine whether such quantitative assessment techniques can detect minor degrees of impairment at a stage in the putative disease process before apraxia has become clinically obvious. A total of 23 individuals with MCI and 75 healthy controls were assessed on two 3-item sequential movement tasks involving either meaningful or meaningless actions. A traditional rating scale assessment of gesture-to-command was also administered. MCI patients took significantly longer than control subjects to complete the sequential movement tasks despite unimpaired performance on the traditional gesture production tasks. Furthermore, retrospective analyses revealed that, at the group level, only MCI patients who subsequently proceeded to a clinical diagnosis of AD were significantly slower than controls at the initial assessment. These findings provide the first evidence that the neuropsychological deficits associated with MCI may extend to the domain of praxic functions. Consequently, this work contributes to the growing literature questioning the clinical usefulness of the concept of MCI and the appropriateness of current diagnostic criteria for distinguishing this condition from mild AD.

  6. Distributed Cognition and Process Management Enabling Individualized Translational Research: The NIH Undiagnosed Diseases Program Experience

    PubMed Central

    Links, Amanda E.; Draper, David; Lee, Elizabeth; Guzman, Jessica; Valivullah, Zaheer; Maduro, Valerie; Lebedev, Vlad; Didenko, Maxim; Tomlin, Garrick; Brudno, Michael; Girdea, Marta; Dumitriu, Sergiu; Haendel, Melissa A.; Mungall, Christopher J.; Smedley, Damian; Hochheiser, Harry; Arnold, Andrew M.; Coessens, Bert; Verhoeven, Steven; Bone, William; Adams, David; Boerkoel, Cornelius F.; Gahl, William A.; Sincan, Murat

    2016-01-01

    The National Institutes of Health Undiagnosed Diseases Program (NIH UDP) applies translational research systematically to diagnose patients with undiagnosed diseases. The challenge is to implement an information system enabling scalable translational research. The authors hypothesized that similar complex problems are resolvable through process management and the distributed cognition of communities. The team, therefore, built the NIH UDP integrated collaboration system (UDPICS) to form virtual collaborative multidisciplinary research networks or communities. UDPICS supports these communities through integrated process management, ontology-based phenotyping, biospecimen management, cloud-based genomic analysis, and an electronic laboratory notebook. UDPICS provided a mechanism for efficient, transparent, and scalable translational research and thereby addressed many of the complex and diverse research and logistical problems of the NIH UDP. Full definition of the strengths and deficiencies of UDPICS will require formal qualitative and quantitative usability and process improvement measurement. PMID:27785453

  7. What is "theory of mind"? Concepts, cognitive processes and individual differences.

    PubMed

    Apperly, Ian A

    2012-01-01

    Research on "theory of mind" has traditionally focused on a narrow participant group (preschool children) using a narrow range of experimental tasks (most notably, false-belief tasks). Recent work has greatly expanded the age range of human participants tested to include human infants, older children, and adults, has devised new tasks, and has adopted methods from cognitive psychology and neuroscience. However, theoretical work has not kept pace with these changes, with the result that studies using one kind of method or participant group often inherit assumptions about the nature of theory of mind from other research, with little regard for whether these assumptions are appropriate. I argue that three distinct approaches to thinking about theory of mind are already implicit in research practice, and that future work, whether with infants, children, or adults, will benefit from articulating these approaches more clearly and following their different implications for what theory of mind is and how it should be studied. PMID:22533318

  8. Cognitive and Functional Decline among Individuals 50 Years of Age or Older in Cambé, Paraná, Brazil: A Population-Based Study

    PubMed Central

    Cabrera, Marcos Aparecido Sarria; Bortoletto, Maira Aira Sayuri Sakay; de Souza, Regina Kazue Tanno; Prina, Douglas Manuel Carrapeiro; Vieira, Maria Cristina Umpierrez; Silva, Ana Maria Rigo

    2016-01-01

    Aims To identify the frequency of cognitive and functional decline (CFD) among adults 50 years of age and older by a population-based study. Methods Cognitive function was analyzed by the Mini-Mental State Examination, and the functional conditions were based on instrumental activities of daily living (IADL). Cases of CFD included individuals with cognitive decline and 2 or more compromised IADL. Results A total of 693 individuals were studied. The frequency of CFD was 16.3%. A low socioeconomic profile was associated with greater CFD independent of gender, age, education, and presence of depression (OR = 2.46; 95% CI: 1.53-3.97). Conclusions These data show a high frequency of CFD among adults 50 years and older. Individuals with less education and a lower socioeconomic level exhibited poorer cognitive and functional conditions. PMID:27350779

  9. Optimal Predictions in Everyday Cognition: The Wisdom of Individuals or Crowds?

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Mozer, Michael C.; Pashler, Harold; Homaei, Hadjar

    2008-01-01

    Griffiths and Tenenbaum (2006) asked individuals to make predictions about the duration or extent of everyday events (e.g., cake baking times), and reported that predictions were optimal, employing Bayesian inference based on veridical prior distributions. Although the predictions conformed strikingly to statistics of the world, they reflect…

  10. A Cognitive Processing Account of Individual Differences in Novice Logo Programmers' Conceptualisation and Use of Recursion.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Gibbons, Pamela

    1995-01-01

    Describes a study that investigated individual differences in the construction of mental models of recursion in LOGO programming. The learning process was investigated from the perspective of Norman's mental models theory and employed diSessa's ontology regarding distributed, functional, and surrogate mental models, and the Luria model of brain…

  11. Event-Related Functional Magnetic Resonance Imaging Investigation of Executive Control in Very Old Individuals with Mild Cognitive Impairment

    PubMed Central

    Rosano, Caterina; Aizenstein, Howard J.; Cochran, Jennifer L.; Saxton, Judith A.; De Kosky, Steven T.; Newman, Anne B.; Kuller, Lewis H.; Lopez, Oscar L.; Carter, Cameron S.

    2010-01-01

    Background Attentional control of executive cognitive function (ECF) decreases in older individuals with Alzheimer Disease (AD). In order to examine early AD-related changes in the neural substrates of ECF attentional control, we measured activation dorsolateral prefrontal (dLPFC), posterior parietal (PPC), and anterior cingulate cortex (ACC) in adults with mild cognitively impairment (MCI) and in cognitively normal (CN) adults. Methods Functional magnetic resonance imaging analysis of brain activation in MCI (n = 8, mean age 79.5) and CN (n = 8 mean age 81.5) during increasing loads of attentional demands. Results MCI and CN older adults performed with similar accuracy and reaction time. MCI had greater activation than CN in PPC (right p = .03 and left p = .05) and dlPFC areas (right p = .002 and left p = .004), while activation in ACC was similar in the two groups. Response to increasing loads of the task differed by group: MCI selectively engaged bilateral PPC (right p = .03, left p = .04), while CN subjects increased bilateral dlPFC activation (right p = .005 and left p = .02) and ACC activation (p = .04). Among MCI, greater load-related changes in PPC activity were associated with smaller load-related changes in accuracy rates (r = −.85, p = .07) and greater increases in reaction times (r = .97, p = .01). In CN subjects, load-related change in PPC activation was associated with load-related change in reaction time (r = .76, p = .02) but not with changes in accuracy rates. Conclusions PPC and dlPFC may show early functional changes associated with MCI. PMID:15820233

  12. In intergroup conflict, self-sacrifice is stronger among pro-social individuals, and parochial altruism emerges especially among cognitively taxed individuals.

    PubMed

    Dreu, Carsten K W De; Dussel, D Berno; Velden, Femke S Ten

    2015-01-01

    Parochial altruism is decomposed in a tendency to benefit the in-group along with a tendency to ignore, derogate, and harm rivaling out-groups. Building off recent work suggesting that decisions to cooperate can be relatively fast and intuitive, we examine parochial altruism in intergroup conflict when cognitive deliberation is rendered difficult or not. Predictions were tested in an experiment using an incentivized Intergroup Prisoner's Dilemma-Maximizing Differences Game with 95 subjects classified as either pro-social or pro-self being randomly allocated to high vs. low impulse-control conditions. Results showed, first of all, that self-sacrificial decisions to contribute were made faster than decisions not to contribute, and that faster decision time associated with more positive expectations of in-group members. Second, we observed that lowering impulse control with a difficult rather than easy Stroop Task increased the amount contributed to a pool that benefited in-group members while harming out-group members; thus reducing deliberation increased parochial altruism. Finally, results replicated earlier work showing that especially pro-social (vs. pro-self) individuals contributed more to the in-group and did not lower their contributions to the between-group pool that benefitted their in-group and, simultaneously, hurt the out-group. This pattern emerged independent of their impulse control. Thus, (in-group bounded) cooperation is more prominent among individuals with strong rather than weak other-regarding preferences. Moreover, the intuitive tendency to cooperate may have evolved in the context of intergroup conflict and therefore is sharp-edged-in-group bounded and including willingness to aggress out-groups.

  13. In intergroup conflict, self-sacrifice is stronger among pro-social individuals, and parochial altruism emerges especially among cognitively taxed individuals

    PubMed Central

    Dreu, Carsten K. W. De; Dussel, D. Berno; Velden, Femke S. Ten

    2015-01-01

    Parochial altruism is decomposed in a tendency to benefit the in-group along with a tendency to ignore, derogate, and harm rivaling out-groups. Building off recent work suggesting that decisions to cooperate can be relatively fast and intuitive, we examine parochial altruism in intergroup conflict when cognitive deliberation is rendered difficult or not. Predictions were tested in an experiment using an incentivized Intergroup Prisoner’s Dilemma–Maximizing Differences Game with 95 subjects classified as either pro-social or pro-self being randomly allocated to high vs. low impulse-control conditions. Results showed, first of all, that self-sacrificial decisions to contribute were made faster than decisions not to contribute, and that faster decision time associated with more positive expectations of in-group members. Second, we observed that lowering impulse control with a difficult rather than easy Stroop Task increased the amount contributed to a pool that benefited in-group members while harming out-group members; thus reducing deliberation increased parochial altruism. Finally, results replicated earlier work showing that especially pro-social (vs. pro-self) individuals contributed more to the in-group and did not lower their contributions to the between-group pool that benefitted their in-group and, simultaneously, hurt the out-group. This pattern emerged independent of their impulse control. Thus, (in-group bounded) cooperation is more prominent among individuals with strong rather than weak other-regarding preferences. Moreover, the intuitive tendency to cooperate may have evolved in the context of intergroup conflict and therefore is sharp-edged—in-group bounded and including willingness to aggress out-groups. PMID:25999888

  14. Brain SCALE: brain structure and cognition: an adolescent longitudinal twin study into the genetic etiology of individual differences.

    PubMed

    van Soelen, Inge L C; Brouwer, Rachel M; Peper, Jiska S; van Leeuwen, Marieke; Koenis, Marinka M G; van Beijsterveldt, Toos C E M; Swagerman, Suzanne C; Kahn, René S; Hulshoff Pol, Hilleke E; Boomsma, Dorret I

    2012-06-01

    From childhood into adolescence, the child's brain undergoes considerable changes in both structure and function. Twin studies are of great value to explore to what extent genetic and environmental factors explain individual differences in brain development and cognition. In The Netherlands, we initiated a longitudinal study in which twins, their siblings and their parents are assessed at three year intervals. The participants were recruited from The Netherlands Twin Register (NTR) and at baseline consisted of 112 families, with 9-year-old twins and an older sibling. Three years later, 89 families returned for follow-up assessment. Data collection included psychometric IQ tests, a comprehensive neuropsychological testing protocol, and parental and self-ratings of behavioral and emotional problems. Physical maturation was measured through assessment of Tanner stages. Hormonal levels (cortisol, luteinizing hormone, follicle-stimulating hormone, testosterone, and estrogens) were assessed in urine and saliva. Brain scans were acquired using 1.5 Tesla Magnetic Resonance Imaging (MRI), which provided volumetric measures and measures of cortical thickness. Buccal swabs were collected for DNA isolation for future candidate gene and genome-wide analysis studies. This article gives an overview of the study and the main findings. Participants will return for a third assessment when the twins are around 16 years old. Longitudinal twin-sibling studies that map brain development and cognitive function at well-defined ages aid in the understanding of genetic influences on normative brain development. PMID:22856378

  15. Brain SCALE: brain structure and cognition: an adolescent longitudinal twin study into the genetic etiology of individual differences.

    PubMed

    van Soelen, Inge L C; Brouwer, Rachel M; Peper, Jiska S; van Leeuwen, Marieke; Koenis, Marinka M G; van Beijsterveldt, Toos C E M; Swagerman, Suzanne C; Kahn, René S; Hulshoff Pol, Hilleke E; Boomsma, Dorret I

    2012-06-01

    From childhood into adolescence, the child's brain undergoes considerable changes in both structure and function. Twin studies are of great value to explore to what extent genetic and environmental factors explain individual differences in brain development and cognition. In The Netherlands, we initiated a longitudinal study in which twins, their siblings and their parents are assessed at three year intervals. The participants were recruited from The Netherlands Twin Register (NTR) and at baseline consisted of 112 families, with 9-year-old twins and an older sibling. Three years later, 89 families returned for follow-up assessment. Data collection included psychometric IQ tests, a comprehensive neuropsychological testing protocol, and parental and self-ratings of behavioral and emotional problems. Physical maturation was measured through assessment of Tanner stages. Hormonal levels (cortisol, luteinizing hormone, follicle-stimulating hormone, testosterone, and estrogens) were assessed in urine and saliva. Brain scans were acquired using 1.5 Tesla Magnetic Resonance Imaging (MRI), which provided volumetric measures and measures of cortical thickness. Buccal swabs were collected for DNA isolation for future candidate gene and genome-wide analysis studies. This article gives an overview of the study and the main findings. Participants will return for a third assessment when the twins are around 16 years old. Longitudinal twin-sibling studies that map brain development and cognitive function at well-defined ages aid in the understanding of genetic influences on normative brain development.

  16. Drowsiness/alertness algorithm development and validation using synchronized EEG and cognitive performance to individualize a generalized model

    PubMed Central

    Johnson, Robin R.; Popovic, Djordje P.; Olmstead, Richard E.; Stikic, Maja; Levendowski, Daniel J.; Berka, Chris

    2011-01-01

    A great deal of research over the last century has focused on drowsiness/alertness detection, as fatigue-related physical and cognitive impairments pose a serious risk to public health and safety. Available drowsiness/alertness detection solutions are unsatisfactory for a number of reasons: 1) lack of generalizability, 2) failure to address individual variability in generalized models, and/or 3) they lack a portable, un-tethered application. The current study aimed to address these issues, and determine if an individualized electroencephalography (EEG) based algorithm could be defined to track performance decrements associated with sleep loss, as this is the first step in developing a field deployable drowsiness/alertness detection system. The results indicated that an EEG-based algorithm, individualized using a series of brief "identification" tasks, was able to effectively track performance decrements associated with sleep deprivation. Future development will address the need for the algorithm to predict performance decrements due to sleep loss, and provide field applicability. PMID:21419826

  17. Alterations in cortical thickness development in preterm-born individuals: Implications for high-order cognitive functions

    PubMed Central

    Nam, Kie Woo; Castellanos, Nazareth; Simmons, Andrew; Froudist-Walsh, Seán; Allin, Matthew P.; Walshe, Muriel; Murray, Robin M.; Evans, Alan; Muehlboeck, J-Sebastian; Nosarti, Chiara

    2015-01-01

    Very preterm birth (gestational age < 33 weeks) is associated with alterations in cortical thickness and with neuropsychological/behavioural impairments. Here we studied cortical thickness in very preterm born individuals and controls in mid-adolescence (mean age 15 years) and beginning of adulthood (mean age 20 years), as well as longitudinal changes between the two time points. Using univariate approaches, we showed both increases and decreases in cortical thickness in very preterm born individuals compared to controls. Specifically (1) very preterm born adolescents displayed extensive areas of greater cortical thickness, especially in occipitotemporal and prefrontal cortices, differences which decreased substantially by early adulthood; (2) at both time points, very preterm-born participants showed smaller cortical thickness, especially in parahippocampal and insular regions. We then employed a multivariate approach (support vector machine) to study spatially discriminating features between the two groups, which achieved a mean accuracy of 86.5%. The spatially distributed regions in which cortical thickness best discriminated between the groups (top 5%) included temporal, occipitotemporal, parietal and prefrontal cortices. Within these spatially distributed regions (top 1%), longitudinal changes in cortical thickness in left temporal pole, right occipitotemporal gyrus and left superior parietal lobe were significantly associated with scores on language-based tests of executive function. These results describe alterations in cortical thickness development in preterm-born individuals in their second decade of life, with implications for high-order cognitive processing. PMID:25871628

  18. Alterations in cortical thickness development in preterm-born individuals: Implications for high-order cognitive functions.

    PubMed

    Nam, Kie Woo; Castellanos, Nazareth; Simmons, Andrew; Froudist-Walsh, Seán; Allin, Matthew P; Walshe, Muriel; Murray, Robin M; Evans, Alan; Muehlboeck, J-Sebastian; Nosarti, Chiara

    2015-07-15

    Very preterm birth (gestational age <33 weeks) is associated with alterations in cortical thickness and with neuropsychological/behavioural impairments. Here we studied cortical thickness in very preterm born individuals and controls in mid-adolescence (mean age 15 years) and beginning of adulthood (mean age 20 years), as well as longitudinal changes between the two time points. Using univariate approaches, we showed both increases and decreases in cortical thickness in very preterm born individuals compared to controls. Specifically (1) very preterm born adolescents displayed extensive areas of greater cortical thickness, especially in occipitotemporal and prefrontal cortices, differences which decreased substantially by early adulthood; (2) at both time points, very preterm-born participants showed smaller cortical thickness, especially in parahippocampal and insular regions. We then employed a multivariate approach (support vector machine) to study spatially discriminating features between the two groups, which achieved a mean accuracy of 86.5%. The spatially distributed regions in which cortical thickness best discriminated between the groups (top 5%) included temporal, occipitotemporal, parietal and prefrontal cortices. Within these spatially distributed regions (top 1%), longitudinal changes in cortical thickness in left temporal pole, right occipitotemporal gyrus and left superior parietal lobe were significantly associated with scores on language-based tests of executive function. These results describe alterations in cortical thickness development in preterm-born individuals in their second decade of life, with implications for high-order cognitive processing. PMID:25871628

  19. The Within-day Relation Between Lonely Episodes and Subsequent Clinical Pain in Individuals with Fibromyalgia: Mediating Role of Pain Cognitions

    PubMed Central

    Wolf, Laurie D.; Davis, Mary C.; Yeung, Ellen W.

    2015-01-01

    Objective This daily diary study of individuals with fibromyalgia (FM) examined whether morning increases in loneliness relate to worsened evening bodily pain through afternoon negative pain cognitions. Methods 220 participants with FM completed electronic diaries 4 times a day for 21 days to assess loneliness, negative pain cognitions, bodily pain, and social enjoyment. Multilevel structural equation modeling was used to examine within-person relations of morning increases in loneliness, afternoon negative pain cognitions, and evening pain, controlling for morning pain. Results On mornings when individuals experienced higher than their usual levels of loneliness, they experienced higher levels of afternoon maladaptive pain cognitions, which in turn predicted increases in evening pain above the level of morning pain. Afternoon maladaptive pain cognitions fully mediated the relations between morning loneliness and evening pain. Conclusions Lonely episodes are associated with subsequent increases in negative patterns of thinking about pain, which in turn predict subsequent increases in bodily pain within a day. Because pain cognitions mediate the loneliness—pain link, FM interventions may benefit from addressing individuals’ vulnerability to maladaptive cognitions following lonely episodes. PMID:25637526

  20. Piloting a cognitive-behavioral intervention for family members living with individuals with severe mental disorders.

    PubMed

    Polo-López, Rocío; Echeburúa, Enrique; Berry, Katherine; Salaberría, Karmele

    2014-09-01

    Living with a person who experiences mental health problems can have an adverse effect on well-being. The aim of this study is to evaluate the effectiveness of a psychological treatment for relatives of people with mental health problems, byusing an interrupted time-series design. The sample comprised 20 individuals, who completed assessment measures at baseline and 6 months later. Sixteen of these participants then received the treatment and were assessed again at the end of the program. There were no significant changes in outcomes between the baseline and the second assessments done 6 months later and there were significant improvements in well-being following treatment The program shows promise as a treatment for relatives of people with mental health problems and therefore warrants further evaluation in more controlled studies.

  1. Does social dominance generate prejudice? Integrating individual and contextual determinants of intergroup cognitions.

    PubMed

    Guimond, Serge; Dambrun, Michaël; Michinov, Nicolas; Duarte, Sandra

    2003-04-01

    Social dominance orientation (SDO) has been proposed as an important variable in the explanation of prejudice. We distinguish between three conceptualizations of SDO: SDO as a personality trait (personality model), SDO as a moderator of the effects of situational variables (Person x Situation model), and SDO as a mediator of the effect of social position on prejudice (group socialization model [GSM]). Four studies (N = 1.657) looking at the relations between social positions, SDO, and prejudice in a natural setting and in a laboratory setting provide strong support for the GSM. In contrast to previous correlational findings, there is evidence of a cause (dominant social position), an effect (prejudice increases), and a mediator (SDO). These results suggest new perspectives on the integration of individual and contextual determinants of prejudice.

  2. A cognitive neuroscience approach to individual differences in sensitivity to reward.

    PubMed

    Avila, C; Parcet, M A; Barrós-Loscertales, A

    2008-10-01

    The Reinforcement Sensitivity Theory proposes that a neurobiological system, the Behavioral Activation System, defines individual differences on the subject's sensitivity and reactivity to appetitive stimuli associated with mesocorticolimbic structures, while this system does not mediate aversive stimulus processing. However, Jeffrey A. Gray's model also predicts the system's antagonism between this appetitive system and another aversive stimulus sensitive system, the Behavioral Inhibitory System/Fight-Flight-Freeze System, mostly associated with limbic structures. Therefore, direct modulation of brain activation during appetitive stimulus processing should be expected from the Behavioral Activation System, while inverse modulation during aversive stimulus processing may be expected to reflect the system's antagonism. Using the Sensitivity to Reward scale of the SPSR questionnaire to assess individual differences in the activity of the reward system, we present different behavioral and neuroimaging data to illustrate our view. The first experiment was based on a simple letter-judgment task while viewing erotic and aversive pictures selected from the International Affective Picture System. A second experiment employed a task performed by participants to detect infrequent aversive (i.e., stop) signals when responding to reward. The results from these studies were consistent with the idea that Behavioral Activation System-related personality traits mediate the brain activation associated with appetitive stimulus processing in reward-related areas, while it also showed its antagonism to aversive systems through a negative mediation on the limbic cortex activation. To conclude, sensitivity to reward may be understood as a form of impulsivity related to both better appetitive learning and poorer aversive learning.

  3. Social cognition is not associated with cognitive reserve in older adults.

    PubMed

    Lavrencic, Louise M; Kurylowicz, Lisa; Valenzuela, Michael J; Churches, Owen F; Keage, Hannah A D

    2016-01-01

    Social and general cognitive abilities decline in late life. Those with high cognitive reserve display better general cognitive performance in old age; however, it is unknown whether this is also the case for social cognition. A total of 115 healthy older adults, aged 60-85 years (m = 44, f = 71) were assessed using The Awareness of Social Inference Test (TASIT-R; social cognition), the Lifetime of Experiences Questionnaire (LEQ; cognitive reserve), and the Wechsler Abbreviated Scale of Intelligence (WASI-II; general cognitive ability). The LEQ did not predict performance on any TASIT-R subtest: Emotion Evaluation Test (β = -.097, p = .325), Social Inference - Minimal (β = -.004, p = .972), or Social Inference - Enriched (β = -.016, p = .878). Sensitivity analyses using two alternative cognitive reserve measures, years of education and the National Adult Reading Test, supported these effects. Cognitive reserve was strongly related to WASI-II performance. Unlike general cognitive ability, social cognition appears unaffected by cognitive reserve. Findings contribute to the emerging understanding that cognitive reserve differentially affects individual cognitive domains, which has implications for the theoretical understanding of cognitive reserve and its brain correlates. Cognitive measures unbiased by cognitive reserve may serve as best indicators of brain health, free of compensatory mechanisms. PMID:25989367

  4. Social cognition is not associated with cognitive reserve in older adults.

    PubMed

    Lavrencic, Louise M; Kurylowicz, Lisa; Valenzuela, Michael J; Churches, Owen F; Keage, Hannah A D

    2016-01-01

    Social and general cognitive abilities decline in late life. Those with high cognitive reserve display better general cognitive performance in old age; however, it is unknown whether this is also the case for social cognition. A total of 115 healthy older adults, aged 60-85 years (m = 44, f = 71) were assessed using The Awareness of Social Inference Test (TASIT-R; social cognition), the Lifetime of Experiences Questionnaire (LEQ; cognitive reserve), and the Wechsler Abbreviated Scale of Intelligence (WASI-II; general cognitive ability). The LEQ did not predict performance on any TASIT-R subtest: Emotion Evaluation Test (β = -.097, p = .325), Social Inference - Minimal (β = -.004, p = .972), or Social Inference - Enriched (β = -.016, p = .878). Sensitivity analyses using two alternative cognitive reserve measures, years of education and the National Adult Reading Test, supported these effects. Cognitive reserve was strongly related to WASI-II performance. Unlike general cognitive ability, social cognition appears unaffected by cognitive reserve. Findings contribute to the emerging understanding that cognitive reserve differentially affects individual cognitive domains, which has implications for the theoretical understanding of cognitive reserve and its brain correlates. Cognitive measures unbiased by cognitive reserve may serve as best indicators of brain health, free of compensatory mechanisms.

  5. Individual differences in cognitive planning on the Tower of Hanoi task: neuropsychological maturity or measurement error?

    PubMed

    Bishop, D V; Aamodt-Leeper, G; Creswell, C; McGurk, R; Skuse, D H

    2001-05-01

    The Tower of Hanoi (ToH) task was given to 238 children aged from 7 to 15 years, and 20 adults. Individual variation within an age band was substantial. ToH score did not correlate significantly with Verbal IQ, nor with ability to inhibit a prepotent response. We readministered the ToH to 45 children after 30 to 40 days. The test-retest correlation of .5 is low in relation to accepted psychometric standards, though at least as high as reliability of the related Tower of London (ToL) in adults. The reasons for low reliability remain unclear: task novelty did not seem to be involved, as children did not improve on retest. We conclude that it is not safe to use this test to index integrity or maturation of underlying neurological systems in children. We compared our results with three published studies using the ToL with children, and found similar levels of performance on problems involving the same number of moves. Another study using automated ToL obtained much poorer scores, suggesting that computerised presentation may impair children's performance. PMID:11383971

  6. Neural Circuits for Cognitive Appetite Control in Healthy and Obese Individuals: An fMRI Study

    PubMed Central

    Tuulari, Jetro J.; Karlsson, Henry K.; Hirvonen, Jussi; Salminen, Paulina; Nuutila, Pirjo; Nummenmaa, Lauri

    2015-01-01

    The mere sight of foods may activate the brain’s reward circuitry, and humans often experience difficulties in inhibiting urges to eat upon encountering visual food signals. Imbalance between the reward circuit and those supporting inhibitory control may underlie obesity, yet brain circuits supporting volitional control of appetite and their possible dysfunction that can lead to obesity remain poorly specified. Here we delineated the brain basis of volitional appetite control in healthy and obese individuals with functional magnetic resonance imaging (fMRI). Twenty-seven morbidly obese women (mean BMI = 41.4) and fourteen age-matched normal-weight women (mean BMI = 22.6) were scanned with 1.5 Tesla fMRI while viewing food pictures. They were instructed to inhibit their urge to eat the foods, view the stimuli passively or imagine eating the foods. Across all subjects, a frontal cortical control circuit was activated during appetite inhibition versus passive viewing of the foods. Inhibition minus imagined eating (appetite control) activated bilateral precunei and parietal cortices and frontal regions spanning anterior cingulate and superior medial frontal cortices. During appetite control, obese subjects had lower responses in the medial frontal, middle cingulate and dorsal caudate nuclei. Functional connectivity of the control circuit was increased in morbidly obese versus control subjects during appetite control, which might reflect impaired integrative and executive function in obesity. PMID:25658479

  7. The characteristics of event related potential in the cognitive course of individual Chinese characters.

    PubMed

    Mingshi, Wang; Hongqiang, Yu; Huisheng, Lu

    2005-01-01

    The difference between the Chinese and English character recognition process and the characteristics of Chinese character recognition process are investigated by analyzing the ERP difference between the matched and mismatched ending strokes of a single Chinese character. First, the P300 are observed in the mismatched ERP waveforms, which don't exist in the matched ERP waveforms (P<0.05). These phenomena demonstrate that the recognition of the pictograph Chinese characters are not only affected by the semanteme, but also closely related to its image of the figure. Secondly, the amplitude of the N400 in the mismatched ending strokes of Chinese character is obviously higher than that in the matched groups (P<0.05). The N400 is distributed in the other areas except the right side of temporal lobe and is higher in the left side. However, the amplitude of N400 in the waveforms has no obvious distinction between the cerebral hemispheres, where the amplitude of N400 are obtained by distracting the ERP of the mismatched individual Chinese character by the ERP of the matched group. These results show that the difference between cerebral hemispheres is attributed to the formal and phonic processing, not due to the semantic processing, which verify that the left and right cerebral hemisphere are both used in the Chinese character recognition, which is very different from the English character recognition, where the left side cerebral hemisphere is used with high percentage.

  8. A Randomized Controlled Trial of Cognitive Behavioral Therapy for Adherence and Depression (CBT-AD) in HIV-infected Individuals

    PubMed Central

    Safren, Steven A.; O’Cleirigh, Conall; Tan, Judy; Raminani, Sudha; Reilly, Laura C.; Otto, Michael W.; Mayer, Kenneth H.

    2008-01-01

    Objective To evaluate cognitive behavioral therapy to enhance medication adherence and reduce depression (CBT-AD) in individuals with HIV. Design A two arm, randomized, controlled, cross-over trial comparing CBT-AD, to enhanced treatment as usual only (ETAU). ETAU, which both groups received, included a single-session intervention for adherence and a letter to the patient’s provider documenting her or his continued depression. The intervention group also received 10 to 12 sessions of CBT-AD. Main Outcome Measures Adherence to antiretroviral therapy as assessed by Medication Event Monitoring Systems (MEMs) and depression as assessed by blinded structured evaluation. Results At the acute outcome assessment (3-months), those who received CBT-AD evidenced significantly greater improvements in medication adherence and depression relative to the comparison group. Those who were originally assigned to the comparison group who chose to cross over to CBT-AD showed similar improvements in both depression and adherence outcomes. Treatment gains for those in the intervention group were generally maintained at 6 and 12-month follow-up assessments. By the end of the follow-up period, those originally assigned CBT-AD demonstrated improvements in plasma HIV RNA concentrations, though these differences did not emerge before the cross-over, and hence there were not between-group differences. Conclusions CBT-AD is a potentially efficacious approach for individuals with HIV struggling with depression and adherence. Replication and extension in larger efficacy trials are needed. PMID:19210012

  9. Prescription stimulants in individuals with and without attention deficit hyperactivity disorder: misuse, cognitive impact, and adverse effects

    PubMed Central

    Lakhan, Shaheen E; Kirchgessner, Annette

    2012-01-01

    Prescription stimulants are often used to treat attention deficit hyperactivity disorder (ADHD). Drugs like methylphenidate (Ritalin, Concerta), dextroamphetamine (Dexedrine), and dextroamphetamine-amphetamine (Adderall) help people with ADHD feel more focused. However, misuse of stimulants by ADHD and nonaffected individuals has dramatically increased over recent years based on students' misconceptions or simple lack of knowledge of associated risks. In this review, we discuss recent advances in the use and increasing misuse of prescription stimulants among high school and college students and athletes. Given the widespread belief that stimulants enhance performance, there are in fact only a few studies reporting the cognitive enhancing effects of stimulants in ADHD and nonaffected individuals. Student athletes should be apprised of the very serious consequences that can emerge when stimulants are used to improve sports performance. Moreover, misuse of stimulants is associated with dangers including psychosis, myocardial infarction, cardiomyopathy, and even sudden death. As ADHD medications are prescribed for long-term treatment, there is a need for long-term safety studies and education on the health risks associated with misuse is imperative. PMID:23139911

  10. Higher Cognitive Function in Elderly Individuals with Previous Cataract Surgery: Cross-Sectional Association Independent of Visual Acuity in the HEIJO-KYO Cohort.

    PubMed

    Miyata, Kimie; Obayashi, Kenji; Saeki, Keigo; Tone, Nobuhiro; Tanaka, Kunihiko; Nishi, Tomo; Morikawa, Masayuki; Kurumatani, Norio; Ogata, Nahoko

    2016-06-01

    Cataract surgery improves visual acuity and drastically increases the capacity for light reception to the retina. Although previous studies suggested that both light exposure and visual acuity were associated with cognitive function, the relationships between cataract surgery, visual acuity, and cognitive function have not been evaluated in large populations. In this cross-sectional study, we measured cognitive function using the Mini-Mental State Examination and best-corrected visual acuity in pseudophakic (previous cataract surgery) and phakic (no previous cataract surgery) elderly individuals. Of 945 participants (mean age 71.7 years), 166 (17.6%) had pseudophakia and 317 (33.5%) had impaired cognitive function (score ≤26). The pseudophakic group showed significantly better visual acuity than the phakic group (p = 0.003) and lower age-adjusted odds ratio (ORs) for cognitive impairment (OR 0.66; p = 0.038). Consistently, in multivariate logistic regression models, after adjusting for confounding factors, including visual acuity and socioeconomic status, ORs for cognitive impairment were significantly lower in the pseudophakic group than in the phakic group (OR 0.64; 95% confidence interval 0.43-0.96; p = 0.031). This association remained significant in sensitivity analysis, excluding participants with low cognitive score ≤23 (n = 36). In conclusion, in a general elderly population, prevalence of cognitive impairment was significantly lower in pseudophakic individuals independently of visual acuity. The association was also independent of several major causes of cognitive impairment such as aging, gender, obesity, socioeconomic status, hypertension, diabetes, sleep disturbances, depressive symptoms, and physical inactivity.

  11. FDG and Amyloid PET in Cognitively Normal Individuals at Risk for Late-Onset Alzheimer’s Disease

    PubMed Central

    Murray, John; Tsui, Wai H.; Li, Yi; McHugh, Pauline; Williams, Schantel; Cummings, Megan; Pirraglia, Elizabeth; Solnes, Lilja; Osorio, Ricardo; Glodzik, Lidia; Vallabhajosula, Shankar; Drzezga, Alexander; Minoshima, Satoshi; de Leon, Mony J.; Mosconi, Lisa

    2014-01-01

    Having a parent affected by late-onset Alzheimer’s disease (AD) is a major risk factor for cognitively normal (NL) individuals. This study explores the potential of PET with 18F-FDG and the amyloid- β (Aβ) tracer 11C-Pittsburgh Compound B (PiB) for detection of individual risk in NL adults with AD-parents. Methods FDG− and PiB-PET was performed in 119 young to late-middle aged NL individuals including 80 NL with positive family history of AD (FH+) and 39 NL with negative family history of any dementia (FH−). The FH+ group included 50 subjects with maternal (FHm) and 30 with paternal family history (FHp). Individual FDG and PiB scans were Z scored on a voxel-wise basis relative to modality-specific reference databases using automated procedures and rated as positive or negative (+/−) for AD-typical abnormalities using predefined criteria. To determine the effect of age, the cohort was separated into younger (49 ± 9 y) and older (68 ± 5 y) groups relative to the median age (60 y). Results Among individuals of age >60 y, as compared to controls, NL FH+ showed a higher frequency of FDG+ scans vs. FH− (53% vs. 6% p < 0.003), and a trend for PiB+ scans (27% vs. 11%; p = 0.19). This effect was observed for both FHm and FHp groups. Among individuals of age ≤60 y, NL FHm showed a higher frequency of FDG+ scans (29%) compared to FH− (5%, p = 0.04) and a trend compared to FHp (11%) (p = 0.07), while the distribution of PiB+ scans was not different between groups. In both age cohorts, FDG+ scans were more frequent than PiB+ scans among NL FH+, especially FHm (p < 0.03). FDG-PET was a significant predictor of FH+ status. Classification according to PiB status was significantly less successful. Conclusions Automated analysis of FDG− and PiB-PET demonstrates higher rates of abnormalities in at-risk FH+ vs FH− subjects, indicating potentially ongoing early AD-pathology in this population. The frequency of metabolic abnormalities was higher than that of A

  12. Associations between Cognition, Gender and Monocyte Activation among HIV Infected Individuals in Nigeria

    PubMed Central

    Royal, Walter; Cherner, Mariana; Burdo, Tricia H.; Umlauf, Anya; Letendre, Scott L.; Jumare, Jibreel; Abimiku, Alash’le; Alabi, Peter; Alkali, Nura; Bwala, Sunday; Okwuasaba, Kanayo; Eyzaguirre, Lindsay M.; Akolo, Christopher; Guo, Ming; Williams, Kenneth C.; Blattner, William A.

    2016-01-01

    The potential role of gender in the occurrence of HIV-related neurocognitive impairment (NCI) and associations with markers of HIV-related immune activity has not been previously examined. In this study 149 antiretroviral-naïve seropositive subjects in Nigeria (SP, 92 women and 57 men) and 58 seronegative (SN, 38 women and 20 men) were administered neuropsychological testing that assessed 7 ability domains. From the neuropsychological test scores was calculated a global deficit score (GDS), a measure of overall NCI. Percentages of circulating monocytes and plasma HIV RNA, soluble CD163 and soluble CD14 levels were also assessed. HIV SP women were found to be younger, more educated and had higher CD4+ T cell counts and borderline higher viral load measures than SP men. On the neuropsychological testing, SP women were more impaired in speed of information processing and verbal fluency and had a higher mean GDS than SN women. Compared to SP men, SP women were also more impaired in speed of information processing and verbal fluency as well as on tests of learning and memory. Numbers of circulating monocytes and plasma sCD14 and sCD163 levels were significantly higher for all SP versus all SN individuals and were also higher for SP women and for SP men versus their SN counterparts. Among SP women, soluble CD14 levels were slightly higher than for SP men, and SP women had higher viral load measurements and were more likely to have detectable virus than SP men. Higher sCD14 levels among SP women correlated with more severe global impairment, and higher viral load measurements correlated with higher monocyte numbers and sCD14 and sCD14 levels, associations that were not observed for SP men. These studies suggest that the risk of developing NCI differ for HIV infected women and men in Nigeria and, for women, may be linked to effects from higher plasma levels of HIV driving activation of circulating monocytes. PMID:26829391

  13. Associations between Cognition, Gender and Monocyte Activation among HIV Infected Individuals in Nigeria.

    PubMed

    Royal, Walter; Cherner, Mariana; Burdo, Tricia H; Umlauf, Anya; Letendre, Scott L; Jumare, Jibreel; Abimiku, Alash'le; Alabi, Peter; Alkali, Nura; Bwala, Sunday; Okwuasaba, Kanayo; Eyzaguirre, Lindsay M; Akolo, Christopher; Guo, Ming; Williams, Kenneth C; Blattner, William A

    2016-01-01

    The potential role of gender in the occurrence of HIV-related neurocognitive impairment (NCI) and associations with markers of HIV-related immune activity has not been previously examined. In this study 149 antiretroviral-naïve seropositive subjects in Nigeria (SP, 92 women and 57 men) and 58 seronegative (SN, 38 women and 20 men) were administered neuropsychological testing that assessed 7 ability domains. From the neuropsychological test scores was calculated a global deficit score (GDS), a measure of overall NCI. Percentages of circulating monocytes and plasma HIV RNA, soluble CD163 and soluble CD14 levels were also assessed. HIV SP women were found to be younger, more educated and had higher CD4+ T cell counts and borderline higher viral load measures than SP men. On the neuropsychological testing, SP women were more impaired in speed of information processing and verbal fluency and had a higher mean GDS than SN women. Compared to SP men, SP women were also more impaired in speed of information processing and verbal fluency as well as on tests of learning and memory. Numbers of circulating monocytes and plasma sCD14 and sCD163 levels were significantly higher for all SP versus all SN individuals and were also higher for SP women and for SP men versus their SN counterparts. Among SP women, soluble CD14 levels were slightly higher than for SP men, and SP women had higher viral load measurements and were more likely to have detectable virus than SP men. Higher sCD14 levels among SP women correlated with more severe global impairment, and higher viral load measurements correlated with higher monocyte numbers and sCD14 and sCD14 levels, associations that were not observed for SP men. These studies suggest that the risk of developing NCI differ for HIV infected women and men in Nigeria and, for women, may be linked to effects from higher plasma levels of HIV driving activation of circulating monocytes. PMID:26829391

  14. Performance enhancement in the workplace: why and when healthy individuals should disclose their reliance on pharmaceutical cognitive enhancers

    PubMed Central

    Garasic, Mirko D.; Lavazza, Andrea

    2015-01-01

    The use of pharmaceuticals cognitive enhancers (PCE) has been stirring growing interest, not only in the scientific domain but also in the popular media, and has probably had some increase recently in academic, professional and military quarters. So this phenomenon is deemed as a normal procedure aimed at improving the performance of an individual as well as the overall standards of an organization. Although the vast majority of countries have some kind of restrictions to reduce the wide non-medical usage of PCE, these can be overcome quite easily. In arguing for our explicit claim that, in many contexts, the use of cognitive enhancers should be disclosed—as a moral and socially relevant duty—we maintain that PCE present typical, or at least not rare, properties. The features are the following: (a) the enhancer has acute and/or chronic effects. In the first case, shortly after taking the drug the performance is significantly better than average; in the second case, there is a growing or lasting effect, which, however, is poised to diminish when one stops taking the drug; (b) those effects are significant (there is a difference in the outcome considered between taking and not taking the drug) and sometimes dramatic; and (c) a third feature, not directly related to enhancers as such, is their varying safety, availability, and legal permissibility, which might either induce people to take them or refrain them from doing so. We will consider the issue of fairness due to “unenhanced” people as well as the potentially dysfunctional social consequences of an undisclosed PCE use. PMID:25762902

  15. Generating genius: how an Alzheimer’s drug became considered a ‘cognitive enhancer’ for healthy individuals

    PubMed Central

    2014-01-01

    Background Donepezil, an acetylcholinesterase inhibitor used in the treatment of Alzheimer’s disease, has been widely cited in media and bioethics literature on cognitive enhancement (CE) as having the potential to improve the cognitive ability of healthy individuals. In both literatures, this claim has been repeatedly supported by the results of a small study published by Yesavage et al. in 2002 on non-demented pilots (30–70 years old). The factors contributing to this specific interpretation of this study’s results are unclear. Methods We examined print media and interdisciplinary bioethics coverage of this small study, aiming to provide insight into how evidence from research may be shaped within different discourses, potentially influencing important policy, ethics, and clinical decisions. Systematic qualitative content analysis was used to examine how this study was reported in 27 media and 22 bioethics articles. Articles were analyzed for content related to: (1) headlines and titles; (2) colloquialisms; and, (3) accuracy of reporting of the characteristics and results of the study. Results In media and bioethics articles referencing this small study, strong claims were made about donepezil as a CE drug. The majority of headlines, titles, and colloquialisms used enhancement language and the majority of these suggest that donepezil could be used to enhance intellectual ability. Further, both literatures moved between reporting the results of the primary study and magnifying the perceived connection between these results and the CE debate that was alluded to in the primary study. Specific descriptions of the results overwhelmingly reported an improvement in performance on a flight simulator, while more general statements claimed donepezil enhanced cognitive performance. Further, a high level of reporting accuracy was found regarding study characteristics of the original study, but variable levels of accuracy surrounded the presentation of complex

  16. Sugar-sweetened soft drinks are associated with poorer cognitive function in individuals with type 2 diabetes: the Maine-Syracuse Longitudinal Study.

    PubMed

    Crichton, Georgina E; Elias, Merrill F; Torres, Rachael V

    2016-04-01

    The importance of adequate nutrition on cognitive performance is well recognised. Greater intakes of soft drinks are associated with a higher risk for type 2 diabetes, as well as other cardiometabolic diseases. A few studies have specifically examined whether the intake of soft drinks may be related to cognitive function. The aim of this study was to investigate whether soft drink intakes, including both sugar-sweetened and diet beverages, are associated with cognitive function, with adjustment for cardiovascular, lifestyle and dietary factors, and stratified according to type 2 diabetes status. Cross-sectional analyses were undertaken using 803 community-dwelling participants, aged 23-98 years, from the Maine-Syracuse Longitudinal Study. Cognitive function was measured using an extensive battery of neuropsychological tests. Usual dietary intake of soft drinks was assessed using a FFQ. Stratification by type 2 diabetes indicated that a greater intake of sugar-sweetened soft drinks was significantly associated with poorer performance in visual spatial memory, working memory, scanning and tracking, executive function, the global composite and the Mini-Mental State Examination in diabetic individuals. These relations were not attenuated with statistical control for BMI and other cardiovascular, lifestyle and dietary factors. Diet soft drink intake was unrelated to cognitive performance. Frequent sugar-sweetened soft drink intake was associated with poorer cognitive performance, particularly in individuals with type 2 diabetes, but the underlying causal mechanisms are yet to be determined. Longitudinal studies are needed to clarify these findings and the underlying causal mechanisms. PMID:26940176

  17. Maintenance of Cognitive Performance and Mood for Individuals with Alzheimer's Disease Following Consumption of a Nutraceutical Formulation: A One-Year, Open-Label Study.

    PubMed

    Remington, Ruth; Bechtel, Cynthia; Larsen, David; Samar, Annemarie; Page, Robert; Morrell, Christopher; Shea, Thomas B

    2016-01-01

    Nutritional interventions have shown varied efficacy on cognitive performance during Alzheimer's disease (AD). Twenty-four individuals diagnosed with AD received a nutraceutical formulation (NF: folate, alpha-tocopherol, B12, S-adenosyl methioinine, N-acetyl cysteine, acetyl-L-carnitine) under open-label conditions (ClinicalTrials.gov NCT01320527). Primary outcome was cognitive performance. Secondary outcomes were behavioral and psychological symptoms of dementia (BPSD) and activities of daily living. Participants maintained their baseline cognitive performance and BPSD over 12 months. These findings are consistent with improvement in cognitive performance and BPSD in prior placebo-controlled studies with NF, and contrast with the routine decline for participants receiving placebo.

  18. Effects of Ganglioside on Working Memory and the Default Mode Network in Individuals with Subjective Cognitive Impairment: A Randomized Controlled Trial.

    PubMed

    Jeon, Yujin; Kim, Binna; Kim, Jieun E; Kim, Bori R; Ban, Soonhyun; Jeong, Jee Hyang; Kwon, Oran; Rhie, Sandy Jeong; Ahn, Chang-Won; Kim, Jong-Hoon; Jung, Sung Ug; Park, Soo-Hyun; Lyoo, In Kyoon; Yoon, Sujung

    2016-01-01

    This randomized, double-blind, placebo-controlled trial examined whether the administration of ganglioside, an active ingredient of deer bone extract, can improve working memory performance by increasing gray matter volume and functional connectivity in the default mode network (DMN) in individuals with subjective cognitive impairment. Seventy-five individuals with subjective cognitive impairment were chosen to receive either ganglioside (330[Formula: see text][Formula: see text]g/day or 660[Formula: see text][Formula: see text]g/day) or a placebo for 8 weeks. Changes in working memory performance with treatment of either ganglioside or placebo were assessed as cognitive outcome measures. Using voxel-based morphometry and functional connectivity analyses, changes in gray matter volume and functional connectivity in the DMN were also assessed as brain outcome measures. Improvement in working memory performance was greater in the ganglioside group than in the placebo group. The ganglioside group, relative to the placebo group, showed greater increases in gray matter volume and functional connectivity in the DMN. A significant relationship between increased functional connectivity of the precuneus and improved working memory performance was observed in the ganglioside group. The current findings suggest that ganglioside has cognitive-enhancing effects in individuals with subjective cognitive impairment. Ganglioside-induced increases in gray matter volume and functional connectivity in the DMN may partly be responsible for the potential nootropic effects of ganglioside. The clinical trial was registered with ClinicalTrials.gov (identifier: NCT02379481).

  19. The association between SBP and mortality risk differs with level of cognitive function in very old individuals

    PubMed Central

    Weidung, Bodil; Littbrand, Håkan; Nordström, Peter; Carlberg, Bo; Gustafson, Yngve

    2016-01-01

    Objective: Cognitive impairment and dementia are highly prevalent in very old populations. Cardiovascular disease is a common cause of death in people with dementia. This study investigated whether the association of blood pressure (BP) with mortality differed with respect to mini-mental state examination (MMSE) score in a representative sample of very old individuals. Methods: The sample consisted of 1115 participants aged 85, 90, and at least 95 years from the Umeå85+/GErontological Regional DAtabase cohort study. The main outcome was all-cause mortality within 2 years according to BP and MMSE score, using Cox proportional-hazard regression models adjusted for sociodemographic and clinical characteristics associated with death. Results: Mean age, MMSE score, and SBP and DBP were 89.4 ± 4.6 years, 21.1 ± 7.6, 146.1 ± 23.4 mmHg, and 74.1 ± 11.7 mmHg, respectively. Within 2 years, 293 (26%) participants died. BP was not associated independently with mortality risk, except among participants with MMSE scores of 0–10 among whom mortality risk was increased in association with SBP at least 165 mmHg and 125 mmHg or less, compared with 126–139 mmHg (adjusted hazard ratio 4.54, 95% confidence interval = 1.52–13.60 and hazard ratio 2.23, 95% confidence interval = 1.12–4.45, respectively). In age and sex-adjusted analyses, SBP 125 mmHg or less was associated with increased mortality risk in participants with MMSE scores at least 18. Conclusion: In people aged at least 85 years, the association of SBP with mortality appears to differ with respect to MMSE score. Very old individuals with very severe cognitive impairment and low or high BP may have increased mortality risk. PMID:26938812

  20. Top-Down Computerized Cognitive Remediation in Schizophrenia: A Case Study of an Individual with Impairment in Verbal Fluency

    PubMed Central

    Masson, Marjolaine; Wykes, Til; Maziade, Michel; Reeder, Clare; Gariépy, Marie-Anne; Roy, Marc-André; Ivers, Hans; Cellard, Caroline

    2015-01-01

    The objective of this case study was to assess the specific effect of cognitive remediation for schizophrenia on the pattern of cognitive impairments. Case A is a 33-year-old man with a schizophrenia diagnosis and impairments in visual memory, inhibition, problem solving, and verbal fluency. He was provided with a therapist delivered cognitive remediation program involving practice and strategy which was designed to train attention, memory, executive functioning, visual-perceptual processing, and metacognitive skills. Neuropsychological and clinical assessments were administered at baseline and after three months of treatment. At posttest assessment, Case A had improved significantly on targeted (visual memory and problem solving) and nontargeted (verbal fluency) cognitive processes. The results of the current case study suggest that (1) it is possible to improve specific cognitive processes with targeted exercises, as seen by the improvement in visual memory due to training exercises targeting this cognitive domain; (2) cognitive remediation can produce improvements in cognitive processes not targeted during remediation since verbal fluency was improved while there was no training exercise on this specific cognitive process; and (3) including learning strategies in cognitive remediation increases the value of the approach and enhances participant improvement, possibly because strategies using verbalization can lead to improvement in verbal fluency even if it was not practiced. PMID:25949840

  1. Top-down computerized cognitive remediation in schizophrenia: a case study of an individual with impairment in verbal fluency.

    PubMed

    Masson, Marjolaine; Wykes, Til; Maziade, Michel; Reeder, Clare; Gariépy, Marie-Anne; Roy, Marc-André; Ivers, Hans; Cellard, Caroline

    2015-01-01

    The objective of this case study was to assess the specific effect of cognitive remediation for schizophrenia on the pattern of cognitive impairments. Case A is a 33-year-old man with a schizophrenia diagnosis and impairments in visual memory, inhibition, problem solving, and verbal fluency. He was provided with a therapist delivered cognitive remediation program involving practice and strategy which was designed to train attention, memory, executive functioning, visual-perceptual processing, and metacognitive skills. Neuropsychological and clinical assessments were administered at baseline and after three months of treatment. At posttest assessment, Case A had improved significantly on targeted (visual memory and problem solving) and nontargeted (verbal fluency) cognitive processes. The results of the current case study suggest that (1) it is possible to improve specific cognitive processes with targeted exercises, as seen by the improvement in visual memory due to training exercises targeting this cognitive domain; (2) cognitive remediation can produce improvements in cognitive processes not targeted during remediation since verbal fluency was improved while there was no training exercise on this specific cognitive process; and (3) including learning strategies in cognitive remediation increases the value of the approach and enhances participant improvement, possibly because strategies using verbalization can lead to improvement in verbal fluency even if it was not practiced.

  2. Top-down computerized cognitive remediation in schizophrenia: a case study of an individual with impairment in verbal fluency.

    PubMed

    Masson, Marjolaine; Wykes, Til; Maziade, Michel; Reeder, Clare; Gariépy, Marie-Anne; Roy, Marc-André; Ivers, Hans; Cellard, Caroline

    2015-01-01

    The objective of this case study was to assess the specific effect of cognitive remediation for schizophrenia on the pattern of cognitive impairments. Case A is a 33-year-old man with a schizophrenia diagnosis and impairments in visual memory, inhibition, problem solving, and verbal fluency. He was provided with a therapist delivered cognitive remediation program involving practice and strategy which was designed to train attention, memory, executive functioning, visual-perceptual processing, and metacognitive skills. Neuropsychological and clinical assessments were administered at baseline and after three months of treatment. At posttest assessment, Case A had improved significantly on targeted (visual memory and problem solving) and nontargeted (verbal fluency) cognitive processes. The results of the current case study suggest that (1) it is possible to improve specific cognitive processes with targeted exercises, as seen by the improvement in visual memory due to training exercises targeting this cognitive domain; (2) cognitive remediation can produce improvements in cognitive processes not targeted during remediation since verbal fluency was improved while there was no training exercise on this specific cognitive process; and (3) including learning strategies in cognitive remediation increases the value of the approach and enhances participant improvement, possibly because strategies using verbalization can lead to improvement in verbal fluency even if it was not practiced. PMID:25949840

  3. Individual Differences in Cognitive-Flexibility: The Influence of Spontaneous Eyeblink Rate, Trait Psychoticism and Working Memory on Attentional Set-Shifting

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Tharp, Ian J.; Pickering, Alan D.

    2011-01-01

    Individual differences in psychophysiological function have been shown to influence the balance between flexibility and distractibility during attentional set-shifting [e.g., Dreisbach et al. (2005). Dopamine and cognitive control: The influence of spontaneous eyeblink rate and dopamine gene polymorphisms on perseveration and distractibility.…

  4. A Theoretical Rationale for Using the Individualized Meaning-Centered Approach to Braille Literacy Education with Students Who Have Mild to Moderate Cognitive Disabilities

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Wormsley, Diane P.

    2011-01-01

    This article describes the components of the Individualized Meaning-centered Approach to Braille Literacy Education (I-M-ABLE) for teaching braille reading and writing to students who are blind and have additional cognitive impairments. The components of I-M-ABLE are: (1) selecting and teaching the Key Vocabulary; (2) teaching the efficient use of…

  5. A Meta-Analytic Review of the Efficacy of Physical Exercise Interventions on Cognition in Individuals with Autism Spectrum Disorder and ADHD

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Tan, Beron W. Z.; Pooley, Julie A.; Speelman, Craig P.

    2016-01-01

    This review evaluates the efficacy of using physical exercise interventions on improving cognitive functions in individuals with autism spectrum disorder (ASD) and/or attention deficit hyperactivity disorder (ADHD). This review includes a meta-analysis based on a random-effects model of data reported in 22 studies with 579 participants aged…

  6. Cognitive Psychology Meets Psychometric Theory: On the Relation between Process Models for Decision Making and Latent Variable Models for Individual Differences

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    van der Maas, Han L. J.; Molenaar, Dylan; Maris, Gunter; Kievit, Rogier A.; Borsboom, Denny

    2011-01-01

    This article analyzes latent variable models from a cognitive psychology perspective. We start by discussing work by Tuerlinckx and De Boeck (2005), who proved that a diffusion model for 2-choice response processes entails a 2-parameter logistic item response theory (IRT) model for individual differences in the response data. Following this line…

  7. The Effect of the APOE Genotype on Individual BrainAGE in Normal Aging, Mild Cognitive Impairment, and Alzheimer's Disease.

    PubMed

    Löwe, Luise Christine; Gaser, Christian; Franke, Katja

    2016-01-01

    In our aging society, diseases in the elderly come more and more into focus. An important issue in research is Mild Cognitive Impairment (MCI) and Alzheimer's Disease (AD) with their causes, diagnosis, treatment, and disease prediction. We applied the Brain Age Gap Estimation (BrainAGE) method to examine the impact of the Apolipoprotein E (APOE) genotype on structural brain aging, utilizing longitudinal magnetic resonance image (MRI) data of 405 subjects from the Alzheimer's Disease Neuroimaging Initiative (ADNI) database. We tested for differences in neuroanatomical aging between carrier and non-carrier of APOE ε4 within the diagnostic groups and for longitudinal changes in individual brain aging during about three years follow-up. We further examined whether a combination of BrainAGE and APOE status could improve prediction accuracy of conversion to AD in MCI patients. The influence of the APOE status on conversion from MCI to AD was analyzed within all allelic subgroups as well as for ε4 carriers and non-carriers. The BrainAGE scores differed significantly between normal controls, stable MCI (sMCI) and progressive MCI (pMCI) as well as AD patients. Differences in BrainAGE changing rates over time were observed for APOE ε4 carrier status as well as in the pMCI and AD groups. At baseline and during follow-up, BrainAGE scores correlated significantly with neuropsychological test scores in APOE ε4 carriers and non-carriers, especially in pMCI and AD patients. Prediction of conversion was most accurate using the BrainAGE score as compared to neuropsychological test scores, even when the patient's APOE status was unknown. For assessing the individual risk of coming down with AD as well as predicting conversion from MCI to AD, the BrainAGE method proves to be a useful and accurate tool even if the information of the patient's APOE status is missing. PMID:27410431

  8. Impaired Cognitive Flexibility in Amyotrophic Lateral Sclerosis

    PubMed Central

    Evans, Jessica; Olm, Christopher; McCluskey, Leo; Elman, Lauren; Boller, Ashley; Moran, Eileen; Rascovsky, Katya; Bisbing, Teagan; McMillan, Corey T.; Grossman, Murray

    2014-01-01

    Objective Up to half of patients with amyotrophic lateral sclerosis (ALS) may have cognitive difficulty, but most cognitive measures are confounded by a motor component. Rare studies have related impaired cognition in ALS to disease in gray matter (GM) and white matter (WM). We evaluated a simple, untimed measure of executive functioning with minimal motor demands in ALS, and relate performance to structural disease. Methods Fifty-six patients with ALS and 29 matched healthy controls were assessed with the Visual-Verbal Test (VVT). This brief measure of cognitive flexibility first assesses an individual's ability to identify a shared feature in three of four simple geometric designs. Cognitive flexibility is challenged when individuals are next asked to identify a different shared feature in another three of the same four geometric designs. Regression analyses related performance to GM atrophy and reduced WM fractional anisotropy (FA) in a subset of patients. Results ALS patients were significantly impaired on this simple measure of cognitive flexibility (p<0.01). An error in cognitive flexibility was present in 48.2% of individual ALS patients. Regression analyses related impaired cognitive flexibility to GM atrophy in inferior frontal and insula regions, and to reduced FA in WM projections in inferior frontal-occipital and uncinate fasciculi and corpus callosum. Conclusion Patients with ALS have impaired cognitive flexibility on an untimed measure with minimal motor demands, and this is related in part to a large-scale frontal network that is degraded in ALS. PMID:25812127

  9. Communicating HIV Status in Sexual Interactions: Assessing Social Cognitive Constructs, Situational Factors, and Individual Characteristics Among South African MSM

    PubMed Central

    Reddy, Vasu; Kaighobadi, Farnaz; Nel, Dawie; Sandfort, Theo

    2012-01-01

    This study assessed whether social cognitive constructs, situational factors, and individual characteristics were associated with communicating HIV status and whether communication was related to sexual risk behavior. A quota-sampling method stratified by age, race, and township was used to recruit 300 men who have sex with men to participate in a community-based survey in Pretoria in 2008. Participants reported characteristics of their last sexual encounter involving anal sex, including whether they or their partner had communicated their HIV status. Fifty-nine percent of participants reported that they or their partner had communicated their HIV status. HIV communication self-efficacy (aOR = 1.2, 95 % CI: 1.04–1.68), being with a steady partner (aOR = 0.36, 95 % CI: 0.19–0.67), and being Black (versus White; aOR = 0.08, 95 % CI: 0.03–0.27) were independently associated with communicating HIV status. Communicating HIV status was not associated with unprotected anal intercourse. HIV communication self-efficacy increases men’s likelihood of communicating HIV status. Being with a steady partner and being Black reduces that likelihood. Communication about HIV status did not lead to safer sex. PMID:23065127

  10. Combined effects of physical exercise and education on age-related cortical thinning in cognitively normal individuals

    PubMed Central

    Lee, Jin San; Shin, Hee Young; Kim, Hee Jin; Jang, Young Kyoung; Jung, Na-Yeon; Lee, Juyoun; Kim, Yeo Jin; Chun, Phillip; Yang, Jin-Ju; Lee, Jong-Min; Kang, Mira; Park, Key-Chung; Na, Duk L.; Seo, Sang Won

    2016-01-01

    We investigated the association between self-reported physical exercise and cortical thickness in a large sample of cognitively normal individuals. We also determined whether a combination of physical exercise and education had more protective effects on age-related cortical thinning than either parameter alone. A total of 1,842 participants were included in this analysis. Physical exercise was assessed using a questionnaire regarding intensity, frequency, and duration. Cortical thickness was measured using a surface-based method. Longer duration of exercise (≥1 hr/day), but not intensity or frequency, was associated with increased mean cortical thickness globally (P-value = 0.013) and in the frontal regions (P-value = 0.007). In particular, the association of exercise with cortical thinning had regional specificity in the bilateral dorsolateral prefrontal, precuneus, left postcentral, and inferior parietal regions. The combination of higher exercise level and higher education level showed greater global and frontal mean thickness than either parameter alone. Testing for a trend with the combination of high exercise level and high education level confirmed this finding (P-value = 0.001–0.003). Our findings suggest that combined exercise and education have important implications for brain health, especially considering the paucity of known protective factors for age-related cortical thinning. PMID:27063336

  11. Self-compassion enhances the efficacy of explicit cognitive reappraisal as an emotion regulation strategy in individuals with major depressive disorder.

    PubMed

    Diedrich, Alice; Hofmann, Stefan G; Cuijpers, Pim; Berking, Matthias

    2016-07-01

    Cognitive reappraisal has been shown to be an effective strategy to regulate depressed mood in healthy and remitted depressed individuals. However, individuals currently suffering from a clinical depression often experience difficulties in utilizing this strategy. Therefore, the goal of this study was to examine whether the efficacy of explicit cognitive reappraisal in major depressive disorder can be enhanced through the use of self-compassion and emotion-focused acceptance as preparatory strategies. Thereby, explicit cognitive reappraisal refers to purposefully identifying, challenging, and modifying depressiogenic cognitions to reduce depressed mood. To test our hypotheses, we induced depressed mood at four points in time in 54 participants (64.8% female; age M = 35.59, SD = 11.49 years) meeting criteria for major depressive disorder. After each mood induction, participants were instructed to either wait, or employ self-compassion, acceptance, or reappraisal to regulate their depressed mood. Depressed mood was assessed before and after each mood induction and regulation period on a visual analog scale. Results indicated that participants who had utilized self-compassion as a preparatory strategy experienced a significantly greater reduction of depressed mood during reappraisal than did those who had been instructed to wait prior to reappraisal. Participants who had used acceptance as a preparatory strategy did not experience a significantly greater reduction of depressed mood during subsequent reappraisal than those in the waiting condition. These findings provide preliminary evidence that the efficacy of explicit cognitive reappraisal is moderated by the precursory use of other emotion regulation strategies. In particular, they suggest that depressed individuals might benefit from using self-compassion to facilitate the subsequent use of explicit cognitive reappraisal. PMID:27152671

  12. Self-compassion enhances the efficacy of explicit cognitive reappraisal as an emotion regulation strategy in individuals with major depressive disorder.

    PubMed

    Diedrich, Alice; Hofmann, Stefan G; Cuijpers, Pim; Berking, Matthias

    2016-07-01

    Cognitive reappraisal has been shown to be an effective strategy to regulate depressed mood in healthy and remitted depressed individuals. However, individuals currently suffering from a clinical depression often experience difficulties in utilizing this strategy. Therefore, the goal of this study was to examine whether the efficacy of explicit cognitive reappraisal in major depressive disorder can be enhanced through the use of self-compassion and emotion-focused acceptance as preparatory strategies. Thereby, explicit cognitive reappraisal refers to purposefully identifying, challenging, and modifying depressiogenic cognitions to reduce depressed mood. To test our hypotheses, we induced depressed mood at four points in time in 54 participants (64.8% female; age M = 35.59, SD = 11.49 years) meeting criteria for major depressive disorder. After each mood induction, participants were instructed to either wait, or employ self-compassion, acceptance, or reappraisal to regulate their depressed mood. Depressed mood was assessed before and after each mood induction and regulation period on a visual analog scale. Results indicated that participants who had utilized self-compassion as a preparatory strategy experienced a significantly greater reduction of depressed mood during reappraisal than did those who had been instructed to wait prior to reappraisal. Participants who had used acceptance as a preparatory strategy did not experience a significantly greater reduction of depressed mood during subsequent reappraisal than those in the waiting condition. These findings provide preliminary evidence that the efficacy of explicit cognitive reappraisal is moderated by the precursory use of other emotion regulation strategies. In particular, they suggest that depressed individuals might benefit from using self-compassion to facilitate the subsequent use of explicit cognitive reappraisal.

  13. The rostral prefrontal cortex underlies individual differences in working memory capacity: An approach from the hierarchical model of the cognitive control.

    PubMed

    Minamoto, Takehiro; Yaoi, Ken; Osaka, Mariko; Osaka, Naoyuki

    2015-10-01

    Neuroimaging and behavioral evidence has suggested that the lateral prefrontal cortex is involved in individual differences in working memory capacity (WMC). However, few studies have localized the neural structures that differentiate high and low WMC individuals, considering the functional architecture of the prefrontal cortex. The present study aimed to identify a frontal region that underlies individual differences from the perspective of the hierarchical architecture of the frontal cortex. By manipulating an episodic factor of cognitive control (control in selecting an appropriate task set according to a temporal context) and using a parametric modulation analysis, we found that both high- and low- WMC individuals have similar activation patterns in the premotor cortex (BA6, 8), caudal prefrontal cortex (BA44, 45), and frontopolar cortex (BA10, 11), but differed in the rostral part of the prefrontal cortex (BA46/47); high WMC individuals showed greater activation in the higher episodic control condition, whereas low WMC individuals showed reduced activation when episodic control was required. Similar patterns of activation were found in the right inferior parietal and middle/inferior temporal cortices. These results indicate that the rostral prefrontal cortex, which supports episodic cognitive control, possibly by sending a weighting signal toward the inferior parietal and middle/inferior temporal cortices that modulate saliency and sensory processing, underlies individual differences in WMC. Episodic control account, which considers the organization of the prefrontal cortex, fits well with previous findings of individual differences in WMC. PMID:26280275

  14. Cognitive-affective processing system analysis of intra-individual dynamics in collaborative therapeutic assessment: translating basic theory and research into clinical applications.

    PubMed

    Shoda, Yuichi; Wilson, Nicole L; Chen, Jessica; Gilmore, Amanda K; Smith, Ronald E

    2013-12-01

    According to the cognitive-affective processing system (CAPS) model, behavior is a function of how the distinctive cognitive-affective system of the individual responds to one's subjective experience of the situation encountered. Thus an individual's maladaptive coping processes may be understood by identifying the nature of the situations that a client experiences as highly stressful and the psychological reactions they trigger. An initial study established the feasibility and utility of an Internet-based CAPS daily diary program; it was then used to facilitate a clinical stress-management intervention. The daily diary enabled researchers and clinicians to gather Highly-Repeated Within-Persons (HRWP) data on the situational features, cognitions, affect, and coping behaviors associated with daily life stress, which were then analyzed separately for each participant to identify each individual's unique and distinctive pattern of intra-individual dynamics. Results suggested that individuals differed reliably in the features of psychological situations that triggered stress and maladaptive coping behaviors. HRWP analysis of daily diary data enhanced the efficacy of clinical intervention, and clients' self-regulatory capabilities and life satisfaction were shown to increase over the course of the intervention. We discuss how our program of research fits into the larger goals of translational science and current NIMH clinical research priorities. PMID:23072471

  15. A pilot study on the effect of cognitive training on BDNF serum levels in individuals with Parkinson’s disease

    PubMed Central

    Angelucci, Francesco; Peppe, Antonella; Carlesimo, Giovanni A.; Serafini, Francesca; Zabberoni, Silvia; Barban, Francesco; Shofany, Jacob; Caltagirone, Carlo; Costa, Alberto

    2015-01-01

    Parkinson’s disease (PD) patients, besides motor dysfunctions, may also display mild cognitive deficits (MCI) which increase with disease progression. The neurotrophin brain-derived neurotrophic factor (BDNF) plays a role in the survival of dopaminergic neurons and in the regulation of synaptic connectivity. Moreover, the brain and peripheral level of this protein may be significantly reduced in PD patients. These data suggest that a cognitive rehabilitation protocol aimed at restoring cognitive deficits in PD patients may also involve changes in this neurotrophin. Thus, in this pilot study we evaluated the effect of a cognitive rehabilitation protocol focused on the training of executive functioning and measured BDNF serum levels in a group of PD patients with mild cognitive impairment, as compared to the effect of a placebo treatment (n = 7/8 group). The results showed that PD patients undergoing the cognitive rehabilitation, besides improving their cognitive performance as measured with the Zoo Map Test, also displayed increased serum BDNF levels as compared to the placebo group. These findings suggest that BDNF serum levels may represent a biomarker of the effects of cognitive rehabilitation in PD patients affected by MCI. However, the functional significance of this increase in PD as well as other neuropathological conditions remains to be determined. PMID:25852518

  16. Cognition and Adaptive Skills in Myotonic Dystrophy Type 1: A Study of 55 Individuals with Congenital and Childhood Forms

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Ekstrom, Anne-Berit; Hakenas-Plate, Louise; Tulinius, Mar; Wentz, Elisabet

    2009-01-01

    Aims: To investigate cognitive abilities and adaptive skills in children and adolescents with myotonic dystrophy type 1 (DM1) and correlate the findings to the cytosine-thymine-guanine (CTG) repeat expansion size. Method: Cognitive level was assessed in 55 children and adolescents with DM1 (31 males, 24 females; mean age 12y 1mo, SD 5y 1mo; range…

  17. Lack of acknowledgment of fruit and vegetable recommendations among nonadherent individuals: associations with information processing and cancer cognitions.

    PubMed

    Cerully, Jennifer L; Klein, William M P; McCaul, Kevin D

    2006-01-01

    Inadequate consumption of fruits and vegetables is regarded as an important behavioral risk factor for multiple types of cancer. Nevertheless, adherence with the National Cancer Institute (NCI) guidelines to eat between five and nine servings of fruits and vegetables per day is remarkably low. The current study explored the extent to which nonadherent respondents in a national survey (N = 5,625) listed fruit and vegetable consumption as a method by which to decrease their own or others' cancer risk. We sought to determine whether respondents who listed fruit and vegetable consumption as a method by which to decrease their own or others' cancer risk (hereafter referred to as "listers") differed from respondents who did not list fruit and vegetable consumption as a method by which to decrease their own or others' cancer risk (hereafter referred to as) "nonlisters" on measures of information processing and cancer cognitions. Nonlisters were more likely than listers to seek out cancer information but less likely to trust the information. The two groups did not differ in the amount of attention they paid to such information. Listers had lower absolute risk perceptions than nonlisters, but listers and nonlisters did not differ on measures of relative breast and colon cancer risk perceptions and worry for cancer in general. Female listers did perceive themselves to be at less relative risk for breast cancer than nonlisters. Respondents were more likely to list fruit and vegetable consumption as a cancer-risk reduction strategy for others than for themselves, suggesting a "double standard" in their beliefs. These findings suggest that communications designed to promote fruit and vegetable consumption need to account for biases in how nonadherent individuals respond to these communications.

  18. Minimization of genetic distances by the consensus, ancestral, and center-of-tree (COT) sequences for HIV-1 variants within an infected individual and the design of reagents to test immune reactivity.

    PubMed

    Kesturu, Girish S; Colleton, Bonnie A; Liu, Yi; Heath, Laura; Shaikh, Obaid Shakil; Rinaldo, Charles R; Shankarappa, Raj

    2006-05-10

    Eliciting maximal immune responses to highly divergent viruses is a challenge and a focus in AIDS vaccine development. Another challenge is to identify the immune correlates of protective immunity. Recent AIDS vaccine design approaches attempt to use reconstructed centralized viral sequences that minimize genetic differences to circulating viruses. Using these approaches, we derive and analyze consensus (CON), ancestral (ANC), and center-of-tree (COT) sequences to represent intra-individual HIV-1 env variants encoding a range of diversities and phylogenetic structures. Each reconstructed sequence significantly minimized genetic distances to extant sequences throughout the first 5 years of infection of an individual. Interestingly, ANC sequences diverged and were not significantly better than extant sequences in minimizing genetic distances at later stages of infection and disease, likely due to the development of a substantially asymmetric phylogeny. COT or CON sequences derived from autologous virus samplings may be useful for increasing the sensitivity of assessments of immune reactivity against HIV.

  19. The Association of Age With Rate of Cognitive Decline in Elderly Individuals Residing in Supporting Care Facilities

    PubMed Central

    Ravona-Springer, Ramit; Luo, Xiaodong; Schmeidler, James; Wysocki, Michael; Lesser, Gerson T.; Rapp, Michael A.; Dahlman, Karen; Grossman, Hillel T.; Haroutunian, Vahram; Beeri, Michal Schnaider

    2012-01-01

    Objectives This study examines the effect of age on rate of cognitive decline in different stages of dementia, of nursing home and assisted-living residents. Methods In this longitudinal study, the Mini Mental State Examination (MMSE) was used to measure rate of cognitive decline in subjects who were nondemented [Clinical Dementia Rating (CDR)=0; n=353], questionably demented (CDR=0.5; n=121), or frankly demented (CDR≥1; n=213) at baseline. Results A generalized estimating equation was used to model the MMSE scores over time (mean follow-up 2.9±2.0 y). The generalized estimating equation model had the MMSE scores at successive follow-up time points as dependent variables and had linear and quadratic age, follow-up time from baseline, CDR at baseline, and all the interactions among them as independent variables, controlling for MMSE at baseline, sex, race, and education. The mean age of the entire sample was 85.2±7.4 years at baseline. There were no significant interactions of linear age effects with rate of cognitive decline. The analysis of interaction of quadratic age with rate of cognitive decline showed complex relationships: in the nondemented group, there was no substantial quadratic association of age with the rate of cognitive decline (P=0.13); in the questionable demented group, the oldest subjects declined relatively faster (P=0.02); and in the demented group, the youngest and oldest subjects tended to decline relatively less than subjects in the intermediate ages (P=0.07). Conclusions This study adds an additional aspect to the complexity of the association between age and rate of cognitive decline, showing that the direction and amplitude of this effect differs according to the stage along the course of cognitive decline. PMID:21572311

  20. RoLo: A Dictionary Interface that Minimizes Extraneous Cognitive Load of Lookup and Supports Incidental and Incremental Learning of Vocabulary

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Dang, Thanh-Dung; Chen, Gwo-Dong; Dang, Giao; Li, Liang-Yi; Nurkhamid

    2013-01-01

    Dictionary use can improve reading comprehension and incidental vocabulary learning. Nevertheless, great extraneous cognitive load imposed by the search process may reduce or even prevent the improvement. With the help of technology, dictionary users can now instantly access the meaning list of a searched word using a mouse click. However, they…

  1. Evaluating the Cognition, Behavior, and Social Profile of an Adolescent With Learning Disabilities and Assessing the Effectiveness of an Individualized Educational Program

    PubMed Central

    Tabitha Louis, Preeti; Arnold Emerson, Isaac

    2014-01-01

    Objective: The present study seeks to outline a holistic assessment method that was used in understanding problems experienced by an adolescent boy and in designing and implementing an individualized educational program. Methods: An adolescent child referred for concerns in learning was screened for learning disability using standardized inventories and test batteries. The Connors Parent and Teacher Rating Scales (short forms), Wechsler's Intelligence Scale for Children (WISC), the Vineland Social Maturity Scale (VSMS), and the Kinetic Family Drawing (KFD) test were used to assess the behavior, cognition, and social profile of the child. An individualized educational program was designed and this intervention was provided for 6 months by using parents as co-therapists. Participant and parent interview schedules were used in identifying underlying issues of concern. The child was reassessed 6 months after the intervention was provided. Results: Findings on the Connors Parent Rating Scale revealed scores that were greater than the 50th percentile on the domains of inattention and cognitive problems. On the Connors Teacher Rating Scale, we observed scores greater than the 50th percentile on the hyperactivity, cognitive problems, and the inattention domains. The WISC revealed that the child had a "Dull Normal" Intellectual functioning and there was also a deficit of 2 years on the social skills as tested by the Vineland Social Maturity Scale (VSMS). The Kinetic Family Drawing Test revealed negative emotions within the child. Post intervention, we noticed a remarkable improvement in the scores across all domains of behavior, social, and cognitive functioning. Conclusion: Designing an individualized education program that is tailored to the specific needs of the child and using parents as co-therapists proved to be an effective intervention. PMID:25053954

  2. Exploring the Impact of Visual Complexity Levels in 3d City Models on the Accuracy of Individuals' Orientation and Cognitive Maps

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Rautenbach, V.; Çöltekin, A.; Coetzee, S.

    2015-08-01

    In this paper we report results from a qualitative user experiment (n=107) designed to contribute to understanding the impact of various levels of complexity (mainly based on levels of detail, i.e., LoD) in 3D city models, specifically on the participants' orientation and cognitive (mental) maps. The experiment consisted of a number of tasks motivated by spatial cognition theory where participants (among other things) were given orientation tasks, and in one case also produced sketches of a path they `travelled' in a virtual environment. The experiments were conducted in groups, where individuals provided responses on an answer sheet. The preliminary results based on descriptive statistics and qualitative sketch analyses suggest that very little information (i.e., a low LoD model of a smaller area) might have a negative impact on the accuracy of cognitive maps constructed based on a virtual experience. Building an accurate cognitive map is an inherently desired effect of the visualizations in planning tasks, thus the findings are important for understanding how to develop better-suited 3D visualizations such as 3D city models. In this study, we specifically discuss the suitability of different levels of visual complexity for development planning (urban planning), one of the domains where 3D city models are most relevant.

  3. Adult Body Height Is a Good Predictor of Different Dimensions of Cognitive Function in Aged Individuals: A Cross-Sectional Study

    PubMed Central

    Pereira, Vitor H.; Costa, Patrício S.; Santos, Nadine C.; Cunha, Pedro G.; Correia-Neves, Margarida; Palha, Joana A.; Sousa, Nuno

    2016-01-01

    Background: Adult height, weight, and adiposity measures have been suggested by some studies to be predictors of depression, cognitive impairment, and dementia. However, the presence of confounding factors and the lack of a thorough neuropsychological evaluation in many of these studies have precluded a definitive conclusion about the influence of anthropometric measures in cognition and depression. In this study we aimed to assess the value of height, weight, and abdominal perimeter to predict cognitive impairment and depressive symptoms in aged individuals. Methods and Findings: Cross-sectional study performed between 2010 and 2012 in the Portuguese general community. A total of 1050 participants were included in the study and randomly selected from local area health authority registries. The cohort was representative of the general Portuguese population with respect to age (above 50 years of age) and gender. Cognitive function was assessed using a battery of tests grouped in two dimensions: general executive function and memory. Two-step hierarchical multiple linear regression models were conducted to determine the predictive value of anthropometric measures in cognitive performance and mood before and after correction for possible confounding factors (gender, age, school years, physical activity, alcohol consumption, and smoking habits). We found single associations of weight, height, body mass index, abdominal perimeter, and age with executive function, memory and depressive symptoms. However, when included in a predictive model adjusted for gender, age, school years, and lifestyle factors only height prevailed as a significant predictor of general executive function (β = 0.139; p < 0.001) and memory (β = 0.099; p < 0.05). No relation was found between mood and any of the anthropometric measures studied. Conclusions and Relevance: Height is an independent predictor of cognitive function in late-life and its effects on the general and executive function and

  4. Adult Body Height Is a Good Predictor of Different Dimensions of Cognitive Function in Aged Individuals: A Cross-Sectional Study

    PubMed Central

    Pereira, Vitor H.; Costa, Patrício S.; Santos, Nadine C.; Cunha, Pedro G.; Correia-Neves, Margarida; Palha, Joana A.; Sousa, Nuno

    2016-01-01

    Background: Adult height, weight, and adiposity measures have been suggested by some studies to be predictors of depression, cognitive impairment, and dementia. However, the presence of confounding factors and the lack of a thorough neuropsychological evaluation in many of these studies have precluded a definitive conclusion about the influence of anthropometric measures in cognition and depression. In this study we aimed to assess the value of height, weight, and abdominal perimeter to predict cognitive impairment and depressive symptoms in aged individuals. Methods and Findings: Cross-sectional study performed between 2010 and 2012 in the Portuguese general community. A total of 1050 participants were included in the study and randomly selected from local area health authority registries. The cohort was representative of the general Portuguese population with respect to age (above 50 years of age) and gender. Cognitive function was assessed using a battery of tests grouped in two dimensions: general executive function and memory. Two-step hierarchical multiple linear regression models were conducted to determine the predictive value of anthropometric measures in cognitive performance and mood before and after correction for possible confounding factors (gender, age, school years, physical activity, alcohol consumption, and smoking habits). We found single associations of weight, height, body mass index, abdominal perimeter, and age with executive function, memory and depressive symptoms. However, when included in a predictive model adjusted for gender, age, school years, and lifestyle factors only height prevailed as a significant predictor of general executive function (β = 0.139; p < 0.001) and memory (β = 0.099; p < 0.05). No relation was found between mood and any of the anthropometric measures studied. Conclusions and Relevance: Height is an independent predictor of cognitive function in late-life and its effects on the general and executive function and

  5. Analogies Solving by Individuals with and without Intellectual Disability: Different Cognitive Patterns as Indicated by Eye Movements

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Vakil, Eli; Lifshitz, Hefziba; Tzuriel, David; Weiss, Izhak; Arzuoan, Yossi

    2011-01-01

    Eighteen adults with intellectual disability (ID) and 20 children with typical development (TD) matched for cognitive level, participated in this study. Participants solved perceptual and conceptual analogies (from the Conceptual and Perceptual Analogical Modifiability Test-CPAM) while having their eye movements monitored. As predicted, the…

  6. A[Beta] Deposits in Older Non-Demented Individuals with Cognitive Decline Are Indicative of Preclinical Alzheimer's Disease

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Villemagne, V. L.; Pike, K. E.; Darby, D.; Maruff, P.; Savage, G.; Ng, S.; Ackermann, U.; Cowie, T. F.; Currie, J.; Chan, S. G.; Jones, G.; Tochon-Danguy, H.; O'Keefe, G.; Masters, C. L.; Rowe, C. C.

    2008-01-01

    Approximately 30% of healthy persons aged over 75 years show A[beta] deposition at autopsy. It is postulated that this represents preclinical Alzheimer's disease (AD). We evaluated the relationship between A[beta] burden as assessed by PiB PET and cognitive decline in a well-characterized, non-demented, elderly cohort. PiB PET studies and…

  7. Physical and Cognitive-Affective Factors Associated with Fatigue in Individuals with Fibromyalgia: A Multiple Regression Analysis

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Muller, Veronica; Brooks, Jessica; Tu, Wei-Mo; Moser, Erin; Lo, Chu-Ling; Chan, Fong

    2015-01-01

    Purpose: The main objective of this study was to determine the extent to which physical and cognitive-affective factors are associated with fibromyalgia (FM) fatigue. Method: A quantitative descriptive design using correlation techniques and multiple regression analysis. The participants consisted of 302 members of the National Fibromyalgia &…

  8. Brief Report: Cognitive Processing of Own Emotions in Individuals with Autistic Spectrum Disorder and in Their Relatives

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Hill, Elisabeth; Berthoz, Sylvie; Frith, Uta

    2004-01-01

    Difficulties in the cognitive processing of emotions--including difficulties identifying and describing feelings--are assumed to be an integral part of autism. We studied such difficulties via self-report in 27 high-functioning adults with autistic spectrum disorders, their biological relatives (n = 49), and normal adult controls (n = 35), using…

  9. The Perspectives of Individuals with Cognitive Disabilities and/or Autism on Their Lives and Their Problem Behavior.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Ruef, Michael B.; Turnbull, Ann P.

    2002-01-01

    This study explored perceptions of nine adults with cognitive disabilities and/or autism regarding barriers and solutions experienced due to problem behavior and elicited suggestions for improving quality of life while reducing problem behavior. Emergent themes included communication difficulties, need for privacy and personal decision making, and…

  10. Group Cognitive-Behavioral Therapy and Group Interpersonal Psychotherapy for the Nonpurging Bulimic Individual: A Controlled Comparison.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Wilfrey, Denise E.; And Others

    1993-01-01

    Evaluated effectiveness of group cognitive-behavioral treatment (CBT) and group interpersonal psychotherapy (IPT) for binge eating among 56 women with nonpurging bulimia. At posttreatment, both CBT and IPT conditions showed significant improvement in reducing binge eating, compared to waiting-list condition. Binge eating remained significantly…

  11. Absence of amyloid β oligomers at the postsynapse and regulated synaptic Zn2+ in cognitively intact aged individuals with Alzheimer’s disease neuropathology

    PubMed Central

    2012-01-01

    Background Early cognitive impairment in Alzheimer Disease (AD) is thought to result from the dysfunctional effect of amyloid beta (Aβ) oligomers targeting the synapses. Some individuals, however, escape cognitive decline despite the presence of the neuropathologic features of AD (Aβ plaques and neurofibrillary tangles). We term this group Non-Demented with AD Neuropathology or NDAN. The present study illustrates one putative resistance mechanism involved in NDAN cases which may suggest targets for the effective treatment of AD. Results Here we describe the localization of Aβ oligomers at the postsynapse in hippocampi from AD cases. Notably, however, we also found that while present in soluble fractions, Aβ oligomers are absent from hippocampal postsynapses in NDAN cases. In addition, levels of phosphorylated (active) CREB, a transcription factor important for synaptic plasticity, are normal in NDAN individuals, suggesting that their synapses are functionally intact. Analysis of Zn2+ showed that levels were increased in both soluble fractions and synaptic vesicles in AD hippocampi, paralleled by a decrease of expression of the synaptic vesicle Zn2+ transporter, ZnT3. Conversely, in NDAN individuals, levels of Zn2+ in soluble fractions were significantly lower than in AD, whereas in synaptic vesicles the levels of Zn2+ were similar to AD, but accompanied by preserved expression of the ZnT3. Conclusions Taken together, these data illustrate that despite substantial AD neuropathology, Aβ oligomers, and increased synaptic vesicle Zn2+, susceptible brain tissue in these aged NDAN individuals features, as compared to symptomatic AD subjects, significantly lower total Zn2+ levels and no association of Aβ oligomers with the postsynapse, which collectively may promote the maintenance of intact cognitive function. PMID:22640423

  12. Within-individual increases in innovative behavior and creative, persuasion, and change self-efficacy over time: A social-cognitive theory perspective.

    PubMed

    Ng, Thomas W H; Lucianetti, Lorenzo

    2016-01-01

    Studies of innovative behavior (the generation, dissemination, and implementation of new ideas) have generally overlooked the agency perspective on this important type of performance behavior. Guided by social-cognitive theory, we propose a moderated mediation relationship to explain why and how employees become motivated to make things happen through their innovative endeavors. First, we propose that within-individual increases in organizational trust and perceived respect by colleagues promote within-individual increases in creative, persuasion, and change self-efficacy over time. Second, we propose that within-individual increases in self-efficacy beliefs promote within-individual increases in idea generation, dissemination, and implementation over time. Finally, we propose that psychological collectivism (a between-individual variable) is a moderator, and that a higher level of psychological collectivism weakens the positive relationship between within-individual increases in self-efficacy beliefs and within-individual increases in innovative behavior. Repeated measures collected from 267 employees in Italy at 3 time points over an 8-month period generally support our proposed dynamic moderated mediation relationship. PMID:26052714

  13. Within-individual increases in innovative behavior and creative, persuasion, and change self-efficacy over time: A social-cognitive theory perspective.

    PubMed

    Ng, Thomas W H; Lucianetti, Lorenzo

    2016-01-01

    Studies of innovative behavior (the generation, dissemination, and implementation of new ideas) have generally overlooked the agency perspective on this important type of performance behavior. Guided by social-cognitive theory, we propose a moderated mediation relationship to explain why and how employees become motivated to make things happen through their innovative endeavors. First, we propose that within-individual increases in organizational trust and perceived respect by colleagues promote within-individual increases in creative, persuasion, and change self-efficacy over time. Second, we propose that within-individual increases in self-efficacy beliefs promote within-individual increases in idea generation, dissemination, and implementation over time. Finally, we propose that psychological collectivism (a between-individual variable) is a moderator, and that a higher level of psychological collectivism weakens the positive relationship between within-individual increases in self-efficacy beliefs and within-individual increases in innovative behavior. Repeated measures collected from 267 employees in Italy at 3 time points over an 8-month period generally support our proposed dynamic moderated mediation relationship.

  14. Show-that-I-Can (Homework) in Cognitive-Behavioral Therapy for Anxious Youth: Individualizing Homework for Robert

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Kendall, Philip C.; Barmish, Andrea J.

    2007-01-01

    Cognitive-behavioral therapy (CBT) has been reviewed and described as an empirically supported treatment for anxious youth. One component of CBT is the use of out-of-session "Show That I Can" tasks (STIC; i.e., homework tasks). STIC tasks vary in content and are to be completed between sessions. We discuss homework in CBT for Robert, a 13-year-old…

  15. Acute, low-dose methamphetamine administration improves attention/information processing speed and working memory in methamphetamine-dependent individuals displaying poorer cognitive performance at baseline.

    PubMed

    Mahoney, James J; Jackson, Brian J; Kalechstein, Ari D; De La Garza, Richard; Newton, Thomas F

    2011-03-30

    Abstinent methamphetamine (Meth) dependent individuals demonstrate poorer performance on tests sensitive to attention/information processing speed, learning and memory, and working memory when compared to non-Meth dependent individuals. The poorer performance on these tests may contribute to the morbidity associated with Meth-dependence. In light of this, we sought to determine the effects of acute, low-dose Meth administration on attention, working memory, and verbal learning and memory in 19 non-treatment seeking, Meth-dependent individuals. Participants were predominantly male (89%), Caucasian (63%), and cigarette smokers (63%). Following a four day, drug-free washout period, participants were given a single-blind intravenous infusion of saline, followed the next day by 30 mg of Meth. A battery of neurocognitive tasks was administered before and after each infusion, and performance on measures of accuracy and reaction time were compared between conditions. While acute Meth exposure did not affect test performance for the entire sample, participants who demonstrated relatively poor performance on these tests at baseline, identified using a median split on each test, showed significant improvement on measures of attention/information processing speed and working memory when administered Meth. Improved performance was seen on the following measures of working memory: choice reaction time task (p≤0.04), a 1-back task (p≤0.01), and a 2-back task (p≤0.04). In addition, those participants demonstrating high neurocognitive performance at baseline experienced similar or decreased performance following Meth exposure. These findings suggest that acute administration of Meth may temporarily improve Meth-associated neurocognitive performance in those individuals experiencing lower cognitive performance at baseline. As a result, stimulants may serve as a successful treatment for improving cognitive functioning in those Meth-dependent individuals experiencing

  16. The Distracting Effects of Music on the Cognitive Test Performance of Creative and Non-Creative Individuals

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Doyle, Maddie; Furnham, Adrian

    2012-01-01

    This study examined the effect of background music upon performance of creative and non-creative individuals on a reading comprehension task. In the presence of musical distraction and silence, 54 individuals (27 creative) carried out reading comprehension tasks in a repeated measures design. An interaction was predicted, such that musical…

  17. ""Moby-Dick" Is My Favorite:" Evaluating a Cognitively Accessible Portable Reading System for Audiobooks for Individuals with Intellectual Disability

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Davies, Daniel K.; Stock, Steven E.; King, Larry R.; Wehmeyer, Michael L.

    2008-01-01

    Significant barriers exist for individuals with intellectual disability to independently access print-based content. It is regrettable that, while the amount of content now available electronically increases, tools to access these materials have not been developed with individuals with intellectual disability in mind. This article reports the…

  18. Visual cognition

    SciTech Connect

    Pinker, S.

    1985-01-01

    This book consists of essays covering issues in visual cognition presenting experimental techniques from cognitive psychology, methods of modeling cognitive processes on computers from artificial intelligence, and methods of studying brain organization from neuropsychology. Topics considered include: parts of recognition; visual routines; upward direction; mental rotation, and discrimination of left and right turns in maps; individual differences in mental imagery, computational analysis and the neurological basis of mental imagery: componental analysis.

  19. Conceptual Knowledge Influences Decision Making Differently in Individuals with High or Low Cognitive Flexibility: An ERP Study

    PubMed Central

    Dong, Xiaofei; Du, Xiumin; Qi, Bing

    2016-01-01

    Objective Studies using the Iowa Gambling Task (IGT) have distinguished between good and bad decision makers and have provided an explanation for deficits in decision making. Previous studies have demonstrated a link between Wisconsin Card Sorting Test (WCST) performance and IGT performance, but the results were not consistent and failed to explain why WCST performance can predict IGT performance. The present study aimed to demonstrate that WCST performance can predict IGT performance and to identify the cognitive component of the WCST that affects IGT performance using event-related potentials (ERPs). Methods In this study, 39 healthy subjects (5 subjects were excluded) were divided into a high group and a low group based on their global score on the WCST. A single-choice version of the IGT was used to eliminate the impact of retrieval strategies on the choice evaluation process and interference due to uncorrelated decks. Differences in the underlying neural mechanisms and explicit knowledge between the two groups during the three stages of the decision-making process were described. Results Based on the information processing perspective, we divided the decision-making process into three stages: choice evaluation, response selection, and feedback processing. The behavioral results showed that the highly cognitively flexible participants performed better on the IGT and acquired more knowledge of the task. The ERP results showed that during the choice evaluation stage, the P300 recorded from central and parietal regions when a bad deck appeared was larger in the high group participants than in the low group participants. During the response selection stage, the effect of choice type was significant only in the frontal region in the high group, with a larger effect for passing. During the feedback evaluation stage, a larger FRN was evoked for a loss than for a win in the high group, whereas the FRN effect was absent in the low group. Conclusion Compared with the

  20. Cognitive reserve and preinjury educational attainment: effects on outcome of community-based rehabilitation for longer-term individuals with acquired brain injury.

    PubMed

    Fortune, Dónal G; Walsh, R Stephen; Richards, Helen L

    2016-09-01

    The cognitive reserve hypothesis has been proposed to account for the mismatch between brain pathology and its clinical expression. The aim of the current research was to explore, in a longitudinal data set, the effects of level of educational attainment before brain injury (cognitive reserve) and clinical factors on the level of rehabilitation-induced changes in disability and community integration. Participants in receipt of postacute rehabilitation were assessed at induction to the service and again at between 14 and 18 months of follow-up while still in service on changes in aspects of their abilities, adjustment and participation (Mayo Portland Adaptability Indices) and community integration (Community Integration Questionnaire). Controlling for type and severity of injury, age at onset of injury and duration of time since injury, participants with higher previous educational attainment showed significantly greater changes over the course of rehabilitation on adjustment to their injury and participation, but not on abilities, or community integration following postacute rehabilitation. Level of education would appear to be an important element of cognitive reserve in brain injury that serves to aid responses to postacute rehabilitation in terms of an individual's adjustment to disability and participation.

  1. The association between home environmental variables and soft drink consumption among adolescents. Exploration of mediation by individual cognitions and habit strength.

    PubMed

    Tak, N I; Te Velde, S J; Oenema, A; Van der Horst, K; Timperio, A; Crawford, D; Brug, J

    2011-04-01

    Soft-drink consumption is one of the important target behaviours for the prevention of excessive weight gain among adolescents. To be able to modify these behaviours in obesity prevention interventions, further understanding of the underlying factors and mediational pathways is required. The present study aimed to explore associations between home environment variables and adolescent soft drink consumption and potential mediation of these associations by individual cognitions derived from the Theory of Planned Behaviour and habit strength. The ENDORSE study (N=1005) provided data on soft drink consumption and on home environment variables related to soft drink consumption (availability, accessibility, parental modelling, and parental rules), cognitive variables (intention, attitude, perceived behaviour control, and parental norm) and habit strength. Multiple mediation analyses were conducted using regression analyses according to the steps described by MacKinnon to assess the association between home environment variables and soft drink consumption and mediation of these associations by cognitive variables and habit strength. The bootstrapping method was used to calculate the confidence intervals. There were significant associations between the home environment variables and soft drink consumption. After inclusion of the mediators the strength of these associations was reduced. In the multiple mediator models, habit strength (39.4-62.6%) and intention (19.1-36.6%) were the strongest mediators. Intention and habit strength partly mediate the associations between home environment factors and soft drink consumption, suggesting that home environment variables influence soft drink consumption both indirectly and directly.

  2. The association between home environmental variables and soft drink consumption among adolescents. Exploration of mediation by individual cognitions and habit strength.

    PubMed

    Tak, N I; Te Velde, S J; Oenema, A; Van der Horst, K; Timperio, A; Crawford, D; Brug, J

    2011-04-01

    Soft-drink consumption is one of the important target behaviours for the prevention of excessive weight gain among adolescents. To be able to modify these behaviours in obesity prevention interventions, further understanding of the underlying factors and mediational pathways is required. The present study aimed to explore associations between home environment variables and adolescent soft drink consumption and potential mediation of these associations by individual cognitions derived from the Theory of Planned Behaviour and habit strength. The ENDORSE study (N=1005) provided data on soft drink consumption and on home environment variables related to soft drink consumption (availability, accessibility, parental modelling, and parental rules), cognitive variables (intention, attitude, perceived behaviour control, and parental norm) and habit strength. Multiple mediation analyses were conducted using regression analyses according to the steps described by MacKinnon to assess the association between home environment variables and soft drink consumption and mediation of these associations by cognitive variables and habit strength. The bootstrapping method was used to calculate the confidence intervals. There were significant associations between the home environment variables and soft drink consumption. After inclusion of the mediators the strength of these associations was reduced. In the multiple mediator models, habit strength (39.4-62.6%) and intention (19.1-36.6%) were the strongest mediators. Intention and habit strength partly mediate the associations between home environment factors and soft drink consumption, suggesting that home environment variables influence soft drink consumption both indirectly and directly. PMID:21241761

  3. Can cognitive science create a cognitive economics?

    PubMed

    Chater, Nick

    2015-02-01

    Cognitive science can intersect with economics in at least three productive ways: by providing richer models of individual behaviour for use in economic analysis; by drawing from economic theory in order to model distributed cognition; and jointly to create more powerful 'rational' models of cognitive processes and social interaction. There is the prospect of moving from behavioural economics to a genuinely cognitive economics.

  4. Differential Effects of the Catechol-O-Methyltransferase Val158Met Genotype on the Cognitive Function of Schizophrenia Patients and Healthy Japanese Individuals

    PubMed Central

    Tsuchimine, Shoko; Yasui-Furukori, Norio; Kaneda, Ayako; Kaneko, Sunao

    2013-01-01

    Background The functional polymorphism Val158Met in the catechol-O-methyltransferase (COMT) gene has been associated with differences in prefrontal cognitive functions in patients with schizophrenia and healthy individuals. Several studies have indicated that the Met allele is associated with better performance on measures of cognitive function. We investigated whether the COMT Val158Met genotype was associated with cognitive function in 149 healthy controls and 118 patients with schizophrenia. Methods Cognitive function, including verbal memory, working memory, motor speed, attention, executive function and verbal fluency, was assessed by the Brief Assessment of Cognition in Schizophrenia (BACS-J). We employed a one-way analysis of variance (ANOVA) and a multiple regression analysis to determine the associations between the COMT Val158Met genotype and the BACS-J measurements. Results The one-way ANOVA revealed a significant difference in the scores on the Tower of London, a measure of executive function, between the different Val158Met genotypes in the healthy controls (p = 0.023), and a post-hoc analysis showed significant differences between the scores on the Tower of London in the val/val genotype group (18.6 ± 2.4) compared to the other two groups (17.6 ± 2.7 for val/met and 17.1 ± 3.2 for met/met; p = 0.027 and p = 0.024, respectively). Multiple regression analyses revealed that executive function was significantly correlated with the Val158Met genotype (p = 0.003). However, no evidence was found for an effect of the COMT on any cognitive domains of the BACS-J in the patients with schizophrenia. Conclusion These data support the hypothesis that the COMT Val158Met genotype maintains an optimal level of dopamine activity. Further studies should be performed that include a larger sample size and include patients on and off medication, as these patients would help to confirm our findings. PMID:24282499

  5. Event-based prospective memory and everyday forgetting in healthy older adults and individuals with mild cognitive impairment.

    PubMed

    Tam, Joyce W; Schmitter-Edgecombe, Maureen

    2013-01-01

    An event-based nonfocal task was used to evaluate prospective memory (PM) and the relationship between PM, neuropsychological testing data, and everyday forgetting. Twenty-four participants with mild cognitive impairment (MCI) and 24 age- and education-matched cognitively healthy adults responded to a nonfocal PM cue, while completing an ongoing working memory task. Neuropsychological testing data and self- and informant-report of frequency of forgetting were also gathered. Compared to healthy adults, the MCI participants exhibited significantly poorer prospective remembering and ongoing task performance, despite similar self-reported effort directed to the PM task. Both self- and informant-report indicated that the MCI group was experiencing a higher frequency of everyday forgetting than the healthy adult group. Self-report of everyday forgetting was correlated with PM task performance for the healthy adults, but not for the MCI participants. For the healthy adults, correlational analyses also showed significant relationships between PM accuracy and tests of memory and executive functioning, suggesting that both spontaneous retrieval processes and effortful, strategic monitoring may be important in supporting prospective remembering for this nonfocal PM task. The stronger relationships between PM accuracy and memory and language tests for the MCI group suggest that their poorer event-based prospective remembering might be linked to impaired spontaneous retrieval processes, which are thought to be supported by medial temporal structures. PMID:23419059

  6. Comparative safety and effectiveness of cognitive enhancers for Alzheimer's dementia: protocol for a systematic review and individual patient data network meta-analysis

    PubMed Central

    Veroniki, Areti Angeliki; Straus, Sharon E; Ashoor, Huda M; Hamid, Jemila S; Hemmelgarn, Brenda R; Holroyd-Leduc, Jayna; Majumdar, Sumit R; McAuley, Glenn; Tricco, Andrea C

    2016-01-01

    Introduction Alzheimer's dementia (AD) is the most common cause of dementia, and several organisations, such as the National Institute for Health and Care Excellence, suggest that management of patients with AD should be tailored to their needs. To date, little research has been conducted on the treatment effect in different subgroups of patients with AD. The aim of this study is to examine the comparative effectiveness and safety of cognitive enhancers for different patient characteristics. Methods and analysis We will update our previous literature search from January 2015 forward, using the same terms and electronic databases (eg, MEDLINE) from our previous review. We will additionally search grey literature and scan the reference lists of the included studies. Randomised clinical trials of any duration conducted at any time comparing cognitive enhancers alone or in any combination against other cognitive enhancers, or placebo in adults with AD will be eligible. The outcomes of interest are cognition according to the Mini-Mental State Examination, and overall serious adverse events. For each outcome and treatment comparison, we will perform a Bayesian hierarchical random-effects meta-analysis combining the individual patient data (IPD) from each eligible study. If the identified treatment comparisons form a connected network diagram, we will perform an IPD network meta-analysis (NMA) to estimate subgroup effects for patients with different characteristics, such as AD severity and sex. We will combine aggregated data from studies that we will not be able to obtain IPD, with the IPD provided by the original authors, in a single model. We will use the PRISMA-IPD and PRISMA-NMA statements to report our findings. Ethics and dissemination The findings of this study will be of interest to stakeholders, including decision makers, guideline developers, clinicians, methodologists and patients, and they will help to improve guidelines for the management of patients with AD

  7. Gated Auditory Speech Perception in Elderly Hearing Aid Users and Elderly Normal-Hearing Individuals: Effects of Hearing Impairment and Cognitive Capacity

    PubMed Central

    Lidestam, Björn; Hällgren, Mathias; Rönnberg, Jerker

    2014-01-01

    This study compared elderly hearing aid (EHA) users and elderly normal-hearing (ENH) individuals on identification of auditory speech stimuli (consonants, words, and final word in sentences) that were different when considering their linguistic properties. We measured the accuracy with which the target speech stimuli were identified, as well as the isolation points (IPs: the shortest duration, from onset, required to correctly identify the speech target). The relationships between working memory capacity, the IPs, and speech accuracy were also measured. Twenty-four EHA users (with mild to moderate hearing impairment) and 24 ENH individuals participated in the present study. Despite the use of their regular hearing aids, the EHA users had delayed IPs and were less accurate in identifying consonants and words compared with the ENH individuals. The EHA users also had delayed IPs for final word identification in sentences with lower predictability; however, no significant between-group difference in accuracy was observed. Finally, there were no significant between-group differences in terms of IPs or accuracy for final word identification in highly predictable sentences. Our results also showed that, among EHA users, greater working memory capacity was associated with earlier IPs and improved accuracy in consonant and word identification. Together, our findings demonstrate that the gated speech perception ability of EHA users was not at the level of ENH individuals, in terms of IPs and accuracy. In addition, gated speech perception was more cognitively demanding for EHA users than for ENH individuals in the absence of semantic context. PMID:25085610

  8. Gated auditory speech perception in elderly hearing aid users and elderly normal-hearing individuals: effects of hearing impairment and cognitive capacity.

    PubMed

    Moradi, Shahram; Lidestam, Björn; Hällgren, Mathias; Rönnberg, Jerker

    2014-01-01

    This study compared elderly hearing aid (EHA) users and elderly normal-hearing (ENH) individuals on identification of auditory speech stimuli (consonants, words, and final word in sentences) that were different when considering their linguistic properties. We measured the accuracy with which the target speech stimuli were identified, as well as the isolation points (IPs: the shortest duration, from onset, required to correctly identify the speech target). The relationships between working memory capacity, the IPs, and speech accuracy were also measured. Twenty-four EHA users (with mild to moderate hearing impairment) and 24 ENH individuals participated in the present study. Despite the use of their regular hearing aids, the EHA users had delayed IPs and were less accurate in identifying consonants and words compared with the ENH individuals. The EHA users also had delayed IPs for final word identification in sentences with lower predictability; however, no significant between-group difference in accuracy was observed. Finally, there were no significant between-group differences in terms of IPs or accuracy for final word identification in highly predictable sentences. Our results also showed that, among EHA users, greater working memory capacity was associated with earlier IPs and improved accuracy in consonant and word identification. Together, our findings demonstrate that the gated speech perception ability of EHA users was not at the level of ENH individuals, in terms of IPs and accuracy. In addition, gated speech perception was more cognitively demanding for EHA users than for ENH individuals in the absence of semantic context. PMID:25085610

  9. Functional neural correlates of figure copy and recall task performances in cognitively impaired individuals: an 18F-FDG-PET study.

    PubMed

    Han, Ji Young; Byun, Min Soo; Seo, Eun Hyun; Yi, Dahyun; Choe, Young Min; Sohn, Bo Kyung; Choi, Hyo Jung; Baek, Hyewon; Lee, Jun Ho; Kim, Hyun Jung; Woo, Jong Inn; Lee, Dong Yong

    2015-12-01

    Figure copy and recall tasks from the Benton Visual Retention Test (BVRT) and the Consortium to Establish a Registry of Alzheimer's Disease (CERAD) neuropsychological battery are used widely to assess visuospatial function in cognitively impaired (CI) individuals. We aimed to identify functional neural correlates of figure copy and recall task performances as measured by the BVRT and the CERAD constructional praxis (CP) and CP recall (CR) in CI individuals. Both tasks were administered to 64 CI individuals with early or prodromal stage Alzheimer's disease and 36 cognitively normal individuals. Voxel-wise correlations between test scores and regional cerebral glucose metabolism (rCMglc) measured by fluorine-18 fluorodeoxyglucose PET in CI participants were analyzed. BVRT figure copy task performance was associated with rCMglc of the bilateral posterior brain regions including the parieto-temporo-occipital regions, whereas the BVRT figure recall task performance was predominantly correlated with rCMglc of the left parietal and temporo-occipital regions. Meanwhile, CERAD CP performance was associated mainly with rCMglc of the left prefrontal and temporo-occipital areas as well as in the bilateral parietal regions, whereas CERAD CR performance was correlated with rCMglc of the right prefrontal, parietal, and temporal regions. In conclusion, the functional neural correlates of the two tasks were markedly different, suggesting that these tasks might measure different visuospatial functions. Our findings contribute toward understanding the functional neuroanatomical aspects of these tasks, which is useful for both interpreting the task results as well as for more sophisticated utilization of these tasks for probing specific neuroanatomical functions. PMID:26509549

  10. Interaction between sleep-disordered breathing and apolipoprotein E genotype on cerebrospinal fluid biomarkers for Alzheimer's disease in cognitively normal elderly individuals.

    PubMed

    Osorio, Ricardo S; Ayappa, Indu; Mantua, Janna; Gumb, Tyler; Varga, Andrew; Mooney, Anne M; Burschtin, Omar E; Taxin, Zachary; During, Emmanuel; Spector, Nicole; Biagioni, Milton; Pirraglia, Elizabeth; Lau, Hiuyan; Zetterberg, Henrik; Blennow, Kaj; Lu, Shou-En; Mosconi, Lisa; Glodzik, Lidia; Rapoport, David M; de Leon, Mony J

    2014-06-01

    Previous studies have suggested a link between sleep disordered breathing (SDB) and dementia risk. In the present study, we analyzed the relationship between SDB severity, cerebrospinal fluid (CSF) Alzheimer's disease-biomarkers, and the ApoE alleles. A total of 95 cognitively normal elderly participants were analyzed for SDB severity, CSF measures of phosphorylated-tau (p-tau), total-tau (t-tau), and amyloid beta 42 (Aβ-42), as well as ApoE allele status. In ApoE3+ subjects, significant differences were found between sleep groups for p-tau (F[df2] = 4.3, p = 0.017), and t-tau (F[df2] = 3.3, p = 0.043). Additionally, among ApoE3+ subjects, the apnea and/or hypopnea with 4% O2-desaturation index was positively correlated with p-tau (r = 0.30, p = 0.023), t-tau (r = 0.31, p = 0.021), and Aβ-42 (r = 0.31, p = 0.021). In ApoE2+ subjects, the apnea and/or hypopnea with 4% O2-desaturation index was correlated with lower levels of CSF Aβ-42 (r = -0.71, p = 0.004), similarly to ApoE4+ subjects where there was also a trend toward lower CSF Aβ-42 levels. Our observations suggest that there is an association between SDB and CSF Alzheimer's disease-biomarkers in cognitively normal elderly individuals. Existing therapies for SDB such as continuous positive airway pressure could delay the onset to mild cognitive impairment or dementia in normal elderly individuals. PMID:24439479

  11. Minimal Reduplication

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Kirchner, Jesse Saba

    2010-01-01

    This dissertation introduces Minimal Reduplication, a new theory and framework within generative grammar for analyzing reduplication in human language. I argue that reduplication is an emergent property in multiple components of the grammar. In particular, reduplication occurs independently in the phonology and syntax components, and in both cases…

  12. "Moby-dick is my favorite:" evaluating a cognitively accessible portable reading system for audiobooks for individuals with intellectual disability.

    PubMed

    Davies, Daniel K; Stock, Steven E; King, Larry R; Wehmeyer, Michael L

    2008-08-01

    Significant barriers exist for individuals with intellectual disability to independently access print-based content. It is regrettable that, while the amount of content now available electronically increases, tools to access these materials have not been developed with individuals with intellectual disability in mind. This article reports the results of research evaluating the use of a palmtop PC-based application designed to enable individuals with intellectual disability to access electronic books and documents. Participants with intellectual disability were randomly assigned to 1 of 3 groups, each group differing in the type of audio player used. Participants who used the specially designed reader made significantly fewer errors accessing electronic books and required significantly fewer prompts than did participants using either of 2 mainstream audiobook readers.

  13. "Moby-dick is my favorite:" evaluating a cognitively accessible portable reading system for audiobooks for individuals with intellectual disability.

    PubMed

    Davies, Daniel K; Stock, Steven E; King, Larry R; Wehmeyer, Michael L

    2008-08-01

    Significant barriers exist for individuals with intellectual disability to independently access print-based content. It is regrettable that, while the amount of content now available electronically increases, tools to access these materials have not been developed with individuals with intellectual disability in mind. This article reports the results of research evaluating the use of a palmtop PC-based application designed to enable individuals with intellectual disability to access electronic books and documents. Participants with intellectual disability were randomly assigned to 1 of 3 groups, each group differing in the type of audio player used. Participants who used the specially designed reader made significantly fewer errors accessing electronic books and required significantly fewer prompts than did participants using either of 2 mainstream audiobook readers. PMID:18671443

  14. Modular Cognitive-Behavioral Therapy for Childhood Anxiety Disorders. Guides to Individualized Evidence-Based Treatment Series

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Chorpita, Bruce F.

    2006-01-01

    This clinically wise and pragmatic book presents a systematic approach for treating any form of childhood anxiety using proven exposure-based techniques. What makes this rigorously tested modular treatment unique is that it is explicitly designed with flexibility and individualization in mind. Developed in a real-world, highly diverse community…

  15. Adapting Individual Psychotherapy for Adults with Intellectual Disabilities: A Comparative Review of the Cognitive-Behavioural and Psychodynamic Literature

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Whitehouse, Richard M.; Tudway, Jeremy A.; Look, Roger; Kroese, Biza Stenfert

    2006-01-01

    Background: Historically, adults with intellectual disabilities have had little access to individual psychotherapy. Over the last 20 years an increasing body of literature has described psychotherapy with this client group and reported methods for adapting traditional psychotherapeutic techniques. Method: The current review identified the…

  16. Therapist adherence in individual cognitive-behavioral therapy for binge-eating disorder: assessment, course, and predictors.

    PubMed

    Brauhardt, Anne; de Zwaan, Martina; Herpertz, Stephan; Zipfel, Stephan; Svaldi, Jennifer; Friederich, Hans-Christoph; Hilbert, Anja

    2014-10-01

    While cognitive-behavioral therapy (CBT) is the most well-established treatment for binge-eating disorder (BED), little is known about process factors influencing its outcome. The present study sought to explore the assessment of therapist adherence, its course over treatment, and its associations with patient and therapist characteristics, and the therapeutic alliance. In a prospective multicenter randomized-controlled trial comparing CBT to internet-based guided self-help (INTERBED-study), therapist adherence using the newly developed Adherence Control Form (ACF) was determined by trained raters in randomly selected 418 audio-taped CBT sessions of 89 patients (25% of all sessions). Observer-rated therapeutic alliance, interview-based and self-reported patient and therapist characteristics were assessed. Three-level multilevel modeling was applied. The ACF showed adequate psychometric properties. Therapist adherence was excellent. While significant between-therapist variability in therapist adherence was found, within-therapist variability was non-significant. Patient and therapist characteristics did not predict the therapist adherence. The therapist adherence positively predicted the therapeutic alliance. The ACF demonstrated its utility to assess therapist adherence in CBT for BED. The excellent levels of therapist adherence point to the internal validity of the CBT within the INTERBED-study serving as a prerequisite for empirical comparisons between treatments. Variability between therapists should be addressed in therapist trainings and dissemination trials.

  17. The genetic basis of individual differences in reward processing and the link to addictive behavior and social cognition.

    PubMed

    Yacubian, J; Büchel, C

    2009-11-24

    Dopaminergic neurotransmission is widely recognized to be critical to the neurobiology of reward, motivation and addiction. Interestingly, social interactions and related behavior also activate the same neuronal system. Consequently, genetic variations of dopamine neurotransmission are thought influence reward processing that in turn may affect distinctive social behavior and susceptibility to addiction. This review focuses on advances made to date in an effort to link genetic individual variations and reward processing as a possible basis for addictive behaviors.

  18. Assessment of Cognitive Scales to Examine Memory, Executive Function and Language in Individuals with Down Syndrome: Implications of a 6-month Observational Study.

    PubMed

    Liogier d'Ardhuy, Xavier; Edgin, Jamie O; Bouis, Charles; de Sola, Susana; Goeldner, Celia; Kishnani, Priya; Nöldeke, Jana; Rice, Sydney; Sacco, Silvia; Squassante, Lisa; Spiridigliozzi, Gail; Visootsak, Jeannie; Heller, James; Khwaja, Omar

    2015-01-01

    Down syndrome (DS) is the most commonly identifiable genetic form of intellectual disability. Individuals with DS have considerable deficits in intellectual functioning (i.e., low intellectual quotient, delayed learning and/or impaired language development) and adaptive behavior. Previous pharmacological studies in this population have been limited by a lack of appropriate endpoints that accurately measured change in cognitive and functional abilities. Therefore, the current longitudinal observational study assessed the suitability and reliability of existing cognitive scales to determine which tools would be the most effective in future interventional clinical studies. Subtests of the Repeatable Battery for the Assessment of Neuropsychological Status (RBANS), Cambridge Neuropsychological Test Automated Battery (CANTAB), and Clinical Evaluation of Language Fundamentals-Preschool-2 (CELF-P-2), and the Observer Memory Questionnaire-Parent Form (OMQ-PF), Behavior Rating Inventory of Executive Function®-Preschool Version (BRIEF-P) and Leiter International Performance Scale-Revised were assessed. The results reported here have contributed to the optimization of trial design and endpoint selection for the Phase 2 study of a new selective negative allosteric modulator of the GABAA receptor α5-subtype (Basmisanil), and can be applied to other studies in the DS population. PMID:26635554

  19. Acute exercise facilitates brain function and cognition in children who need it most: an ERP study of individual differences in inhibitory control capacity.

    PubMed

    Drollette, Eric S; Scudder, Mark R; Raine, Lauren B; Moore, R Davis; Saliba, Brian J; Pontifex, Matthew B; Hillman, Charles H

    2014-01-01

    The present study examined the effects of moderate-intensity aerobic exercise on aspects of cognitive control in two groups of children categorized by higher- and lower-task performance. Event-related brain potentials (ERPs) were collected in 40 preadolescent children during a modified flanker task following 20 min of treadmill walking and seated rest on separate occasions. Participants were bifurcated into two groups based on task performance following the resting session. Findings revealed that following exercise, higher-performers maintained accuracy and exhibited no change in P3 amplitude compared to seated rest. Lower-performers demonstrated a differential effect, such that accuracy measures improved, and P3 amplitude increased following exercise. Lastly, both groups displayed smaller N2 amplitude and shorter P3 latency following exercise, suggesting an overall facilitation in response conflict and the speed of stimulus classification. The current findings replicate prior research reporting the beneficial influence of acute aerobic exercise on cognitive performance in children. However, children with lower inhibitory control capacity may benefit the most from single bouts of exercise. These data are among the first to demonstrate the differential effect of physical activity on individuals who vary in inhibitory control, and further support the role of aerobic exercise for brain health during development.

  20. Assessment of Cognitive Scales to Examine Memory, Executive Function and Language in Individuals with Down Syndrome: Implications of a 6-month Observational Study

    PubMed Central

    Liogier d'Ardhuy, Xavier; Edgin, Jamie O.; Bouis, Charles; de Sola, Susana; Goeldner, Celia; Kishnani, Priya; Nöldeke, Jana; Rice, Sydney; Sacco, Silvia; Squassante, Lisa; Spiridigliozzi, Gail; Visootsak, Jeannie; Heller, James; Khwaja, Omar

    2015-01-01

    Down syndrome (DS) is the most commonly identifiable genetic form of intellectual disability. Individuals with DS have considerable deficits in intellectual functioning (i.e., low intellectual quotient, delayed learning and/or impaired language development) and adaptive behavior. Previous pharmacological studies in this population have been limited by a lack of appropriate endpoints that accurately measured change in cognitive and functional abilities. Therefore, the current longitudinal observational study assessed the suitability and reliability of existing cognitive scales to determine which tools would be the most effective in future interventional clinical studies. Subtests of the Repeatable Battery for the Assessment of Neuropsychological Status (RBANS), Cambridge Neuropsychological Test Automated Battery (CANTAB), and Clinical Evaluation of Language Fundamentals-Preschool-2 (CELF-P-2), and the Observer Memory Questionnaire-Parent Form (OMQ-PF), Behavior Rating Inventory of Executive Function®–Preschool Version (BRIEF-P) and Leiter International Performance Scale-Revised were assessed. The results reported here have contributed to the optimization of trial design and endpoint selection for the Phase 2 study of a new selective negative allosteric modulator of the GABAA receptor α5-subtype (Basmisanil), and can be applied to other studies in the DS population. PMID:26635554

  1. The Influence of Individual and Team Cognitive Ability on Operators’ Task and Safety Performance: A Multilevel Field Study in Nuclear Power Plants

    PubMed Central

    Zhang, Jingyu; Li, Yongjuan; Wu, Changxu

    2013-01-01

    While much research has investigated the predictors of operators’ performance such as personality, attitudes and motivation in high-risk industries, its cognitive antecedents and boundary conditions have not been fully investigated. Based on a multilevel investigation of 312 nuclear power plant main control room operators from 50 shift teams, the present study investigated how general mental ability (GMA) at both individual and team level can influence task and safety performance. At the individual level, operators’ GMA was predictive of their task and safety performance and this trend became more significant as they accumulated more experience. At the team level, we found team GMA had positive influences on all three performance criteria. However, we also found a “big-fish-little-pond” effect insofar as team GMA had a relatively smaller effect and inhibited the contribution of individual GMA to workers’ extra-role behaviors (safety participation) compared to its clear beneficial influence on in-role behaviors (task performance and safety compliance). The possible mechanisms related to learning and social comparison processes are discussed. PMID:24391964

  2. The influence of individual and team cognitive ability on operators' task and safety performance: a multilevel field study in nuclear power plants.

    PubMed

    Zhang, Jingyu; Li, Yongjuan; Wu, Changxu

    2013-01-01

    While much research has investigated the predictors of operators' performance such as personality, attitudes and motivation in high-risk industries, its cognitive antecedents and boundary conditions have not been fully investigated. Based on a multilevel investigation of 312 nuclear power plant main control room operators from 50 shift teams, the present study investigated how general mental ability (GMA) at both individual and team level can influence task and safety performance. At the individual level, operators' GMA was predictive of their task and safety performance and this trend became more significant as they accumulated more experience. At the team level, we found team GMA had positive influences on all three performance criteria. However, we also found a "big-fish-little-pond" effect insofar as team GMA had a relatively smaller effect and inhibited the contribution of individual GMA to workers' extra-role behaviors (safety participation) compared to its clear beneficial influence on in-role behaviors (task performance and safety compliance). The possible mechanisms related to learning and social comparison processes are discussed.

  3. Individual differences in children's mathematics achievement: The roles of symbolic numerical magnitude processing and domain-general cognitive functions.

    PubMed

    Vanbinst, K; De Smedt, B

    2016-01-01

    This contribution reviewed the available evidence on the domain-specific and domain-general neurocognitive determinants of children's arithmetic development, other than nonsymbolic numerical magnitude processing, which might have been overemphasized as a core factor of individual differences in mathematics and dyscalculia. We focused on symbolic numerical magnitude processing, working memory, and phonological processing, as these determinants have been most researched and their roles in arithmetic can be predicted against the background of brain imaging data. Our review indicates that symbolic numerical magnitude processing is a major determinant of individual differences in arithmetic. Working memory, particularly the central executive, also plays a role in learning arithmetic, but its influence appears to be dependent on the learning stage and experience of children. The available evidence on phonological processing suggests that it plays a more subtle role in children's acquisition of arithmetic facts. Future longitudinal studies should investigate these factors in concert to understand their relative contribution as well as their mediating and moderating roles in children's arithmetic development.

  4. Impact of individualized yoga therapy on perceived quality of life performance on cognitive tasks and depression among Type II diabetic patients

    PubMed Central

    Satish, Latha; Lakshmi, V Subbu

    2016-01-01

    Context: An individualized approach of providing yoga support can address many of the disease-related concerns indicated in the management of diabetes, specifically the impact on other life activities and long-term functional wellbeing. Aim: To analyze the role of regular yoga practice as a self-management approach to achieve glycemic control and psychological wellbeing in Type II diabetic patients. Methods: Ninety-one subjects of both sexes responded to the announcement and consented to participate in the study. This was a single group, before and after yoga evaluation without control comparison. The fasting and postprandial blood sugar, glycosylated hemoglobin (HBA1c), cognitive tasks, depression, cognitive failure, and diabetic-related quality of life (QOL) were measured as pretest. The subjects underwent one-to-one individualized yoga therapy sessions, which included 12 supervised sessions spread over a 3-month period. The posttest data were analyzed using paired t-test and Wilcoxon paired rank test. Results: Showed significant reduction in fasting blood sugar. QOL of the diabetic patients had improved significantly. There was a significant reduction in the frequency (mean difference of 7.58, P > 0.01) of depressive symptoms and intensity of depression (mean difference 1.66, P > 0.05). Concentration and attention span improved significantly and mean discrepancy score reduced (mean difference 3.42, P > 0.01). There were no marked changes in the postprandial blood sugar and HBA1c. Conclusion: Yoga practice enhances the subjective wellbeing, QOL, improves mood and concentration, and facilitates achievement of adequate glycemic control among Type II diabetic patients. PMID:27512320

  5. Distributed impact of cognitive-communication impairment: Disruptions in the use of definite references when speaking to individuals with amnesia.

    PubMed

    Duff, Melissa C; Hengst, Julie A; Gupta, Rupa; Tranel, Daniel; Cohen, Neal J

    2011-06-01

    BACKGROUND: Definite references signal a speaker's belief that a listener can uniquely identify the referent (e.g., the dog, as the only dog among a group of animals). Clark's (1992) collaborative referencing model provides a way to examine the speaker's display of confidence that his/her reference will be understood by the listener without further clarification. We previously found that amnesia participants, as directors in a barrier task with a familiar partner, used referencing forms that displayed less confidence than forms used by comparison participants. If this is an interactional consequence of managing the memory impairment (as opposed to a language deficit), we should also expect a decrease in definite referencing by their partners. AIMS: To examine the use of definite references by healthy non-brain-damaged participants when speaking to their memory-impaired partner during repeated trials of a barrier task. METHODS #ENTITYSTARTX00026; PROCEDURES: We replicated our previous work with 11 of the same participant pairs-6 individuals with hippocampal amnesia and 5 comparison participants-each of whom was paired with a familiar partner of their choosing. Focusing on the productions of the partners (i.e., partners became directors) we (1) coded referential expressions as definite or indefinite; (2) tracked changes in the use of indefinite and definite references across trials; and (3) compared data to previous analyses (when amnesia participants were directors). OUTCOMES #ENTITYSTARTX00026; RESULTS: The productions of comparison pairs were overwhelming definite (95%, 1359). In sharp contrast, partners of the amnesia participants used a definite initiating reference less than half the time (48%, 825), when speaking to their memory-impaired partner and used definite references that signalled a lack of confidence more often and across more trials. CONCLUSIONS: These findings support the assumption that disruptions in language-and-memory-in-use are not limited to

  6. Potential of Cognitive Computing and Cognitive Systems

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Noor, Ahmed K.

    2014-11-01

    Cognitive computing and cognitive technologies are game changers for future engineering systems, as well as for engineering practice and training. They are major drivers for knowledge automation work, and the creation of cognitive products with higher levels of intelligence than current smart products. This paper gives a brief review of cognitive computing and some of the cognitive engineering systems activities. The potential of cognitive technologies is outlined, along with a brief description of future cognitive environments, incorporating cognitive assistants - specialized proactive intelligent software agents designed to follow and interact with humans and other cognitive assistants across the environments. The cognitive assistants engage, individually or collectively, with humans through a combination of adaptive multimodal interfaces, and advanced visualization and navigation techniques. The realization of future cognitive environments requires the development of a cognitive innovation ecosystem for the engineering workforce. The continuously expanding major components of the ecosystem include integrated knowledge discovery and exploitation facilities (incorporating predictive and prescriptive big data analytics); novel cognitive modeling and visual simulation facilities; cognitive multimodal interfaces; and cognitive mobile and wearable devices. The ecosystem will provide timely, engaging, personalized / collaborative, learning and effective decision making. It will stimulate creativity and innovation, and prepare the participants to work in future cognitive enterprises and develop new cognitive products of increasing complexity. http://www.aee.odu.edu/cognitivecomp

  7. An fMRI investigation of analogical mapping in metaphor comprehension: the influence of context and individual cognitive capacities on processing demands.

    PubMed

    Prat, Chantel S; Mason, Robert A; Just, Marcel Adam

    2012-03-01

    This study used fMRI to investigate the neural correlates of analogical mapping during metaphor comprehension, with a focus on dynamic configuration of neural networks with changing processing demands and individual abilities. Participants with varying vocabulary sizes and working memory capacities read 3-sentence passages ending in nominal critical utterances of the form "X is a Y." Processing demands were manipulated by varying preceding contexts. Three figurative conditions manipulated difficulty by varying the extent to which preceding contexts mentioned relevant semantic features for relating the vehicle and topic of the critical utterance to one another. In the easy condition, supporting information was mentioned. In the neutral condition, no relevant information was mentioned. In the most difficult condition, opposite features were mentioned, resulting in an ironic interpretation of the critical utterance. A fourth, literal condition included context that supported a literal interpretation of the critical utterance. Activation in lateral and medial frontal regions increased with increasing contextual difficulty. Lower vocabulary readers also had greater activation across conditions in the right inferior frontal gyrus. In addition, volumetric analyses showed increased right temporo-parietal junction and superior medial frontal activation for all figurative conditions over the literal condition. The results from this experiment imply that the cortical regions are dynamically recruited in language comprehension as a function of the processing demands of a task. Individual differences in cognitive capacities were also associated with differences in recruitment and modulation of working memory and executive function regions, highlighting the overlapping computations in metaphor comprehension and general thinking and reasoning.

  8. Minimal cosmography

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Piazza, Federico; Schücker, Thomas

    2016-04-01

    The minimal requirement for cosmography—a non-dynamical description of the universe—is a prescription for calculating null geodesics, and time-like geodesics as a function of their proper time. In this paper, we consider the most general linear connection compatible with homogeneity and isotropy, but not necessarily with a metric. A light-cone structure is assigned by choosing a set of geodesics representing light rays. This defines a "scale factor" and a local notion of distance, as that travelled by light in a given proper time interval. We find that the velocities and relativistic energies of free-falling bodies decrease in time as a consequence of cosmic expansion, but at a rate that can be different than that dictated by the usual metric framework. By extrapolating this behavior to photons' redshift, we find that the latter is in principle independent of the "scale factor". Interestingly, redshift-distance relations and other standard geometric observables are modified in this extended framework, in a way that could be experimentally tested. An extremely tight constraint on the model, however, is represented by the blackbody-ness of the cosmic microwave background. Finally, as a check, we also consider the effects of a non-metric connection in a different set-up, namely, that of a static, spherically symmetric spacetime.

  9. The effect of mere-measurement of cognitions on physical activity behavior: a randomized controlled trial among overweight and obese individuals

    PubMed Central

    2011-01-01

    Background The promotion of physical activity among an overweight/obese population is an important challenge for clinical practitioners and researchers. In this regard, completing a questionnaire on cognitions could be a simple and easy strategy to increase levels of physical activity. Thus, the aim of the present study was to test the effect of completing a questionnaire based on the Theory of Planned Behavior (TPB) on the level of physical activity. Methods Overall, 452 overweight/obese adults were recruited and randomized to the experimental or control group. At baseline, participants completed a questionnaire on cognitions regarding their participation in leisure-time physical activity (experimental condition) versus a questionnaire on fruit and vegetable consumption (control condition). The questionnaires assessed the TPB variables that are beliefs, attitude, norm, perception of control, intention and a few additional variables from other theories. At three-month follow-up, leisure-time physical activity was self-reported by means of a short questionnaire. An analysis of covariance with baseline physical activity level as covariate was used to verify the effect of the intervention. Results At follow-up, 373 participants completed the leisure-time physical activity questionnaire. The statistical analysis showed that physical activity participation was greater among participants in the experimental condition than those in the control condition (F(1,370) = 6.85, p = .009, d = 0.20). Conclusions Findings indicate that completing a TPB questionnaire has a significant positive impact on subsequent participation in physical activity. Consequently, asking individuals to complete such a questionnaire is a simple, inexpensive and easy strategy to increase the level of physical activity among overweight/obese adults. PMID:21223565

  10. Individual differences in behavioral and cardiovascular reactivity to emotive stimuli and their relationship to cognitive flexibility in a primate model of trait anxiety

    PubMed Central

    Shiba, Yoshiro; Santangelo, Andrea M.; Braesicke, Katrin; Agustín-Pavón, Carmen; Cockcroft, Gemma; Haggard, Mark; Roberts, Angela C.

    2014-01-01

    High trait anxiety is a risk factor for the development of anxiety disorders. Like the disorders themselves high trait anxiety has marked phenotypic variation at the level of symptomatology and neural circuits, suggesting that there may be different symptoms and distinct neural circuits associated with risk for these disorders. To address these issues, it is essential to develop reliable animal models of trait anxiety in a non-human primate whose brain bears structural and functional similarity to humans. The present study investigated individual variation in responsivity to fearful and anxiety provoking stimuli in the common marmoset monkey. Seven out of 27 animals failed to display discriminative, conditioned cardiovascular and behavioral responses on an auditory fear discrimination task, similar to that seen in high anxious humans and rodents. Their heightened emotionality to a rubber snake was consistent with the hypothesis that they were high in trait-like anxiety. Evidence for phenotypic variation in the high anxiety group was provided by the finding that discrimination failure was predicted early in conditioning by either hyper-vigilant scanning to the cues or a reduction in blood pressure to the context, i.e., test apparatus. Given that high trait anxiety in humans can be associated with altered prefrontal cognitive functioning and previously we implicated the marmoset anterior orbitofrontal (antOFC) and ventrolateral prefrontal cortex (vlPFC) in negative emotion regulation, we also tested the marmosets on two tests of cognitive flexibility differentially dependent on these two regions. While the high anxious group did not differ overall in their perseverative performance, the two distinct phenotypes were differentially correlated with reduced perseverative responding on the OFC- and vlPFC-dependent flexibility tests. Together, this study provides a new model of trait anxiety in marmosets amenable to analysis of phenotypic variation and neural circuitry

  11. The effect of perceived regional accents on individual economic behavior: a lab experiment on linguistic performance, cognitive ratings and economic decisions.

    PubMed

    Heblich, Stephan; Lameli, Alfred; Riener, Gerhard

    2015-01-01

    Does it matter if you speak with a regional accent? Speaking immediately reveals something of one's own social and cultural identity, be it consciously or unconsciously. Perceiving accents involves not only reconstructing such imprints but also augmenting them with particular attitudes and stereotypes. Even though we know much about attitudes and stereotypes that are transmitted by, e.g. skin color, names or physical attractiveness, we do not yet have satisfactory answers how accent perception affects human behavior. How do people act in economically relevant contexts when they are confronted with regional accents? This paper reports a laboratory experiment where we address this question. Participants in our experiment conduct cognitive tests where they can choose to either cooperate or compete with a randomly matched male opponent identified only via his rendering of a standardized text in either a regional accent or standard accent. We find a strong connection between the linguistic performance and the cognitive rating of the opponent. When matched with an opponent who speaks the accent of the participant's home region--the in-group opponent--, individuals tend to cooperate significantly more often. By contrast, they are more likely to compete when matched with an accent speaker from outside their home region, the out-group opponent. Our findings demonstrate, firstly, that the perception of an out-group accent leads not only to social discrimination but also influences economic decisions. Secondly, they suggest that this economic behavior is not necessarily attributable to the perception of a regional accent per se, but rather to the social rating of linguistic distance and the in-group/out-group perception it evokes. PMID:25671607

  12. The Effect of Perceived Regional Accents on Individual Economic Behavior: A Lab Experiment on Linguistic Performance, Cognitive Ratings and Economic Decisions

    PubMed Central

    Heblich, Stephan; Lameli, Alfred; Riener, Gerhard

    2015-01-01

    Does it matter if you speak with a regional accent? Speaking immediately reveals something of one’s own social and cultural identity, be it consciously or unconsciously. Perceiving accents involves not only reconstructing such imprints but also augmenting them with particular attitudes and stereotypes. Even though we know much about attitudes and stereotypes that are transmitted by, e.g. skin color, names or physical attractiveness, we do not yet have satisfactory answers how accent perception affects human behavior. How do people act in economically relevant contexts when they are confronted with regional accents? This paper reports a laboratory experiment where we address this question. Participants in our experiment conduct cognitive tests where they can choose to either cooperate or compete with a randomly matched male opponent identified only via his rendering of a standardized text in either a regional accent or standard accent. We find a strong connection between the linguistic performance and the cognitive rating of the opponent. When matched with an opponent who speaks the accent of the participant’s home region—the in-group opponent –, individuals tend to cooperate significantly more often. By contrast, they are more likely to compete when matched with an accent speaker from outside their home region, the out-group opponent. Our findings demonstrate, firstly, that the perception of an out-group accent leads not only to social discrimination but also influences economic decisions. Secondly, they suggest that this economic behavior is not necessarily attributable to the perception of a regional accent per se, but rather to the social rating of linguistic distance and the in-group/out-group perception it evokes. PMID:25671607

  13. Nutrient intake and brain biomarkers of Alzheimer's disease in at-risk cognitively normal individuals: a cross-sectional neuroimaging pilot study

    PubMed Central

    Mosconi, Lisa; Murray, John; Davies, Michelle; Williams, Schantel; Pirraglia, Elizabeth; Spector, Nicole; Tsui, Wai H; Li, Yi; Butler, Tracy; Osorio, Ricardo S; Glodzik, Lidia; Vallabhajosula, Shankar; McHugh, Pauline; Marmar, Charles R; de Leon, Mony J

    2014-01-01

    Objective There is increasing evidence to suggest that diet, one of the most important modifiable environmental factors, may play a role in preventing or delaying cognitive decline and Alzheimer's disease (AD). This study examines the relationship between dietary nutrients and brain biomarkers of AD in cognitively normal individuals (NL) with and without AD risk factors. Design As part of an ongoing brain imaging study, participants received clinical and laboratory examinations, a neurocognitive test battery, positron emission tomography (PET) with 11C-Pittsburgh Compound-B (PiB; a measure of amyloid-β (Aβ) load) and 18F-fluorodeoxyglucose (FDG; a proxy of neuronal activity), and completed semiquantitative food frequency questionnaires. Setting Research centre affiliated with the Alzheimer's disease Core Center at New York University School of Medicine. Participants 49 NL individuals (age 25–72 years, 69% women) with dietary information, 11C-PiB and 18F-FDG PET scans were examined. Results Controlling for age and total caloric intake, higher intake of vitamin B12, vitamin D and ω-3 polyunsaturated fatty acid (PUFA) was associated with lower Aβ load in AD regions on PiB-PET, while higher intake of β-carotene and folate was associated with higher glucose metabolism on FDG-PET. β-carotene and folate were associated with reduced glucose metabolism for women, apolipoprotein E epsilon 4 (APOE4) carriers and participants with positive AD family history, but not for their risk-free counterparts. The associations of vitamin B12, vitamin D and ω-3 PUFA with PiB retention were independent of gender, APOE and family history. The identified nutrient combination was associated with higher intake of vegetables, fruit, whole grains, fish and legumes, and lower intake of high-fat dairies, meat and sweets. Conclusions Our data provide a potential pathophysiological mechanism for epidemiological findings showing that dietary interventions may play a role in the prevention

  14. Abnormality in glutamine-glutamate cycle in the cerebrospinal fluid of cognitively intact elderly individuals with major depressive disorder: a 3-year follow-up study.

    PubMed

    Hashimoto, K; Bruno, D; Nierenberg, J; Marmar, C R; Zetterberg, H; Blennow, K; Pomara, N

    2016-03-01

    Major depressive disorder (MDD), common in the elderly, is a risk factor for dementia. Abnormalities in glutamatergic neurotransmission via the N-methyl-D-aspartate receptor (NMDA-R) have a key role in the pathophysiology of depression. This study examined whether depression was associated with cerebrospinal fluid (CSF) levels of NMDA-R neurotransmission-associated amino acids in cognitively intact elderly individuals with MDD and age- and gender-matched healthy controls. CSF was obtained from 47 volunteers (MDD group, N=28; age- and gender-matched comparison group, N=19) at baseline and 3-year follow-up (MDD group, N=19; comparison group, N=17). CSF levels of glutamine, glutamate, glycine, L-serine and D-serine were measured by high-performance liquid chromatography. CSF levels of amino acids did not differ across MDD and comparison groups. However, the ratio of glutamine to glutamate was significantly higher at baseline in subjects with MDD than in controls. The ratio decreased in individuals with MDD over the 3-year follow-up, and this decrease correlated with a decrease in the severity of depression. No correlations between absolute amino-acid levels and clinical variables were observed, nor were correlations between amino acids and other biomarkers (for example, amyloid-β42, amyloid-β40, and total and phosphorylated tau protein) detected. These results suggest that abnormalities in the glutamine-glutamate cycle in the communication between glia and neurons may have a role in the pathophysiology of depression in the elderly. Furthermore, the glutamine/glutamate ratio in CSF may be a state biomarker for depression.

  15. An fMRI Investigation of Analogical Mapping in Metaphor Comprehension: The Influence of Context and Individual Cognitive Capacities on Processing Demands

    PubMed Central

    Prat, Chantel S.; Mason, Robert A.; Just, Marcel Adam

    2014-01-01

    This study used fMRI to investigate the neural correlates of analogical mapping during metaphor comprehension, with a focus on dynamic configuration of neural networks with changing processing demands and individual abilities. Participants with varying vocabulary sizes and working memory capacities read 3-sentence passages ending in nominal critical utterances of the form “X is a Y.” Processing demands were manipulated by varying preceding contexts. Three figurative conditions manipulated difficulty by varying the extent to which preceding contexts mentioned relevant semantic features for relating the vehicle and topic of the critical utterance to one another. In the easy condition, supporting information was mentioned. In the neutral condition, no relevant information was mentioned. In the most difficult condition, opposite features were mentioned, resulting in an ironic interpretation of the critical utterance. A fourth, literal condition included context that supported a literal interpretation of the critical utterance. Activation in lateral and medial frontal regions increased with increasing contextual difficulty. Lower vocabulary readers also had greater activation across conditions in the right inferior frontal gyrus. In addition, volumetric analyses showed increased right temporo-parietal junction and superior medial frontal activation for all figurative conditions over the literal condition. The results from this experiment imply that the cortical regions are dynamically recruited in language comprehension as a function of the processing demands of a task. Individual differences in cognitive capacities were also associated with differences in recruitment and modulation of working memory and executive function regions, highlighting the overlapping computations in metaphor comprehension and general thinking and reasoning. PMID:22122242

  16. Abnormality in glutamine–glutamate cycle in the cerebrospinal fluid of cognitively intact elderly individuals with major depressive disorder: a 3-year follow-up study

    PubMed Central

    Hashimoto, K; Bruno, D; Nierenberg, J; Marmar, C R; Zetterberg, H; Blennow, K; Pomara, N

    2016-01-01

    Major depressive disorder (MDD), common in the elderly, is a risk factor for dementia. Abnormalities in glutamatergic neurotransmission via the N-methyl-d-aspartate receptor (NMDA-R) have a key role in the pathophysiology of depression. This study examined whether depression was associated with cerebrospinal fluid (CSF) levels of NMDA-R neurotransmission-associated amino acids in cognitively intact elderly individuals with MDD and age- and gender-matched healthy controls. CSF was obtained from 47 volunteers (MDD group, N=28; age- and gender-matched comparison group, N=19) at baseline and 3-year follow-up (MDD group, N=19; comparison group, N=17). CSF levels of glutamine, glutamate, glycine, l-serine and d-serine were measured by high-performance liquid chromatography. CSF levels of amino acids did not differ across MDD and comparison groups. However, the ratio of glutamine to glutamate was significantly higher at baseline in subjects with MDD than in controls. The ratio decreased in individuals with MDD over the 3-year follow-up, and this decrease correlated with a decrease in the severity of depression. No correlations between absolute amino-acid levels and clinical variables were observed, nor were correlations between amino acids and other biomarkers (for example, amyloid-β42, amyloid-β40, and total and phosphorylated tau protein) detected. These results suggest that abnormalities in the glutamine–glutamate cycle in the communication between glia and neurons may have a role in the pathophysiology of depression in the elderly. Furthermore, the glutamine/glutamate ratio in CSF may be a state biomarker for depression. PMID:26926880

  17. Sleep Disturbances in Individuals with Alcohol-Related Disorders: A Review of Cognitive-Behavioral Therapy for Insomnia (CBT-I) and Associated Non-Pharmacological Therapies

    PubMed Central

    Brooks, Alyssa T; Wallen, Gwenyth R

    2014-01-01

    Sleep disturbances are common among alcohol-dependent individuals and are often associated with relapse. The utility of behavioral therapies for sleep disturbances, including cognitive-behavioral therapy for insomnia (CBT-I), among those with alcohol-related disorders is not well understood. This review systematically evaluates the evidence of CBT-I and related behavioral therapies applied to those with alcohol-related disorders and accompanying sleep disturbances. A search of four research databases (PubMed, PsycINFO, Embase, and CINAHL Plus) yielded six studies that met selection criteria. Articles were reviewed using Cochrane’s Grades of Recommendation, Assessment, Development, and Evaluation (GRADE) scoring system. A majority of the studies demonstrated significant improvements in sleep efficiency among behavioral therapy treatment group(s), including but not limited to CBT-I. While behavioral sleep interventions have been successful in varied populations, they may not be utilized to their full potential among those with alcohol-related disorders as evidenced by the low number of studies found. These findings suggest a need for mixed-methods research on individuals’ sleep experience to inform interventions that are acceptable to the target population. PMID:25288884

  18. Errorless learning and elaborative self-generation in healthy older adults and individuals with amnestic mild cognitive impairment: mnemonic benefits and mechanisms.

    PubMed

    Lubinsky, Tobi; Rich, Jill B; Anderson, Nicole D

    2009-09-01

    Errorless learning is an intervention that benefits memory performance in healthy older adults and a variety of clinical populations. A limitation of the errorless learning technique is that it is passive and does not involve elaborative processing. We report two studies investigating the added benefits of elaborative, self-generated learning to the errorless learning advantage. We also explored the mnemonic mechanisms of the errorless learning advantage. In both studies, older adults and individuals with amnestic mild cognitive impairment (aMCI) completed four encoding conditions representing the crossing of errorless/errorful learning and self-generated/experimenter-provided learning. Self-generation enhanced the errorless learning benefit in cued recall and cued recognition, but not in free recall or item recognition. An errorless learning advantage was observed for priming of target words, and this effect was amplified for participants with aMCI after self-generated learning. Moreover, the aMCI group showed significant priming of prior self-generated errors. These results demonstrate that self-generation enhances the errorless learning advantage when study and test conditions match. The data also support the argument that errorless learning eliminates the misleading implicit influence of prior errors, as well as the need for explicit memory processes to distinguish targets from errors. PMID:19631023

  19. Mild cognitive impairment identified in older individuals with Down syndrome by reduced telomere signal numbers and shorter telomeres measured in microns.

    PubMed

    Jenkins, Edmund C; Ye, Lingling; Velinov, Milen; Krinsky-McHale, Sharon J; Zigman, Warren B; Schupf, Nicole; Silverman, Wayne P

    2012-07-01

    Previously, we established that short-term T lymphocyte cultures from people with Down syndrome (DS) and dementia (Alzheimer's disease) had shorter telomeres than did those from age- and sex-matched people with DS only, quantified as significantly reduced numbers of signals of peptide nucleic acid (PNA) telomere probes in whole metaphases [Jenkins et al. (2008); Neurosci Lett 440:340-343] as well as reduced telomere probe light intensity values in interphases [Jenkins et al. (2010); Neurobiol Aging 31:765-771]. We now describe shorter telomere length in adults with DS and mild cognitive impairment (MCI) compared to age- and sex-matched individuals with DS without MCI. Telomere length is quantified by reduced telomere signal numbers and shorter chromosome 1 telomeres measured in micrometers (microns). These findings were in agreement with quantitative light intensity measurements of chromosome 1 and chromosome 21 PNA telomere probes with and without the use of a "normalizing ratio" involving the fluorescence exhibited by a PNA probe for centromere 2, and with the use of light intensity measurements of interphase preparations. Most importantly, the distributions of chromosome 1 telomere lengths (in microns) were completely non-overlapping for adults with and without MCI, indicating that this measure has great promise as a biomarker for MCI as well as dementia in this population. PMID:22592955

  20. Double jeopardy in inferring cognitive processes.

    PubMed

    Fific, Mario

    2014-01-01

    Inferences we make about underlying cognitive processes can be jeopardized in two ways due to problematic forms of aggregation. First, averaging across individuals is typically considered a very useful tool for removing random variability. The threat is that averaging across subjects leads to averaging across different cognitive strategies, thus harming our inferences. The second threat comes from the construction of inadequate research designs possessing a low diagnostic accuracy of cognitive processes. For that reason we introduced the systems factorial technology (SFT), which has primarily been designed to make inferences about underlying processing order (serial, parallel, coactive), stopping rule (terminating, exhaustive), and process dependency. SFT proposes that the minimal research design complexity to learn about n number of cognitive processes should be equal to 2 (n) . In addition, SFT proposes that (a) each cognitive process should be controlled by a separate experimental factor, and (b) The saliency levels of all factors should be combined in a full factorial design. In the current study, the author cross combined the levels of jeopardies in a 2 × 2 analysis, leading to four different analysis conditions. The results indicate a decline in the diagnostic accuracy of inferences made about cognitive processes due to the presence of each jeopardy in isolation and when combined. The results warrant the development of more individual subject analyses and the utilization of full-factorial (SFT) experimental designs.

  1. Double jeopardy in inferring cognitive processes

    PubMed Central

    Fific, Mario

    2014-01-01

    Inferences we make about underlying cognitive processes can be jeopardized in two ways due to problematic forms of aggregation. First, averaging across individuals is typically considered a very useful tool for removing random variability. The threat is that averaging across subjects leads to averaging across different cognitive strategies, thus harming our inferences. The second threat comes from the construction of inadequate research designs possessing a low diagnostic accuracy of cognitive processes. For that reason we introduced the systems factorial technology (SFT), which has primarily been designed to make inferences about underlying processing order (serial, parallel, coactive), stopping rule (terminating, exhaustive), and process dependency. SFT proposes that the minimal research design complexity to learn about n number of cognitive processes should be equal to 2n. In addition, SFT proposes that (a) each cognitive process should be controlled by a separate experimental factor, and (b) The saliency levels of all factors should be combined in a full factorial design. In the current study, the author cross combined the levels of jeopardies in a 2 × 2 analysis, leading to four different analysis conditions. The results indicate a decline in the diagnostic accuracy of inferences made about cognitive processes due to the presence of each jeopardy in isolation and when combined. The results warrant the development of more individual subject analyses and the utilization of full-factorial (SFT) experimental designs. PMID:25374545

  2. Interactive Team Cognition

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Cooke, Nancy J.; Gorman, Jamie C.; Myers, Christopher W.; Duran, Jasmine L.

    2013-01-01

    Cognition in work teams has been predominantly understood and explained in terms of shared cognition with a focus on the similarity of static knowledge structures across individual team members. Inspired by the current zeitgeist in cognitive science, as well as by empirical data and pragmatic concerns, we offer an alternative theory of team…

  3. Increased intra-individual reaction time variability in attention-deficit/hyperactivity disorder across response inhibition tasks with different cognitive demands.

    PubMed

    Vaurio, Rebecca G; Simmonds, Daniel J; Mostofsky, Stewart H

    2009-10-01

    One of the most consistent findings in children with ADHD is increased moment-to-moment variability in reaction time (RT). The source of increased RT variability can be examined using ex-Gaussian analyses that divide variability into normal and exponential components and Fast Fourier transform (FFT) that allow for detailed examination of the frequency of responses in the exponential distribution. Prior studies of ADHD using these methods have produced variable results, potentially related to differences in task demand. The present study sought to examine the profile of RT variability in ADHD using two Go/No-go tasks with differing levels of cognitive demand. A total of 140 children (57 with ADHD and 83 typically developing controls), ages 8-13 years, completed both a "simple" Go/No-go task and a more "complex" Go/No-go task with increased working memory load. Repeated measures ANOVA of ex-Gaussian functions revealed for both tasks children with ADHD demonstrated increased variability in both the normal/Gaussian (significantly elevated sigma) and the exponential (significantly elevated tau) components. In contrast, FFT analysis of the exponential component revealed a significant task x diagnosis interaction, such that infrequent slow responses in ADHD differed depending on task demand (i.e., for the simple task, increased power in the 0.027-0.074 Hz frequency band; for the complex task, decreased power in the 0.074-0.202 Hz band). The ex-Gaussian findings revealing increased variability in both the normal (sigma) and exponential (tau) components for the ADHD group, suggest that both impaired response preparation and infrequent "lapses in attention" contribute to increased variability in ADHD. FFT analyses reveal that the periodicity of intermittent lapses of attention in ADHD varies with task demand. The findings provide further support for intra-individual variability as a candidate intermediate endophenotype of ADHD. PMID:19552927

  4. Increased intra-individual reaction time variability in attention-deficit/hyperactivity disorder across response inhibition tasks with different cognitive demands

    PubMed Central

    Vaurio, Rebecca G.; Simmonds, Daniel J.; Mostofsky, Stewart H.

    2015-01-01

    One of the most consistent findings in children with ADHD is increased moment-to-moment variability in reaction time (RT). The source of increased RT variability can be examined using ex-Gaussian analyses that divide variability into normal and exponential components and Fast Fourier transform (FFT) that allow for detailed examination of the frequency of responses in the exponential distribution. Prior studies of ADHD using these methods have produced variable results, potentially related to differences in task demand. The present study sought to examine the profile of RT variability in ADHD using two Go/No-go tasks with differing levels of cognitive demand. A total of 140 children (57 with ADHD and 83 typically developing controls), ages 8–13 years, completed both a “simple” Go/No-go task and a more “complex” Go/No-go task with increased working memory load. Repeated measures ANOVA of ex-Gaussian functions revealed for both tasks children with ADHD demonstrated increased variability in both the normal/Gaussian (significantly elevated sigma) and the exponential (significantly elevated tau) components. In contrast, FFT analysis of the exponential component revealed a significant task × diagnosis interaction, such that infrequent slow responses in ADHD differed depending on task demand (i.e., for the simple task, increased power in the 0.027–0.074 Hz frequency band; for the complex task, decreased power in the 0.074–0.202 Hz band). The ex-Gaussian findings revealing increased variability in both the normal (sigma) and exponential (tau) components for the ADHD group, suggest that both impaired response preparation and infrequent “lapses in attention” contribute to increased variability in ADHD. FFT analyses reveal that the periodicity of intermittent lapses of attention in ADHD varies with task demand. The findings provide further support for intra-individual variability as a candidate intermediate endophenotype of ADHD. PMID:19552927

  5. Positive gaze preferences in older adults: assessing the role of cognitive effort with pupil dilation.

    PubMed

    Allard, Eric S; Wadlinger, Heather A; Isaacowitz, Derek M

    2010-05-01

    Older adults display positive preferences in their gaze, consistent with their prioritization of emotion regulation goals. While some research has argued that substantial amounts of cognitive effort are necessary for these information-processing preferences to occur, other work suggests that these attentional patterns unfold with minimal cognitive exertion. The current study used an implicit regulatory context (i.e., viewing facial stimuli of varying emotions) to assess how much cognitive effort was required for positive attentional preferences to occur. Effortful cognitive processing was assessed with a direct measure of change in pupil dilation. Results indicated that minimal cognitive effort was expended when older adults engaged in positive gaze preferences. This finding suggests that gaze acts as a rather effortless and economical regulatory tool for individuals to shape their affective experience.

  6. The Effect of the APOE Genotype on Individual BrainAGE in Normal Aging, Mild Cognitive Impairment, and Alzheimer’s Disease

    PubMed Central

    Gaser, Christian; Franke, Katja

    2016-01-01

    In our aging society, diseases in the elderly come more and more into focus. An important issue in research is Mild Cognitive Impairment (MCI) and Alzheimer’s Disease (AD) with their causes, diagnosis, treatment, and disease prediction. We applied the Brain Age Gap Estimation (BrainAGE) method to examine the impact of the Apolipoprotein E (APOE) genotype on structural brain aging, utilizing longitudinal magnetic resonance image (MRI) data of 405 subjects from the Alzheimer’s Disease Neuroimaging Initiative (ADNI) database. We tested for differences in neuroanatomical aging between carrier and non-carrier of APOE ε4 within the diagnostic groups and for longitudinal changes in individual brain aging during about three years follow-up. We further examined whether a combination of BrainAGE and APOE status could improve prediction accuracy of conversion to AD in MCI patients. The influence of the APOE status on conversion from MCI to AD was analyzed within all allelic subgroups as well as for ε4 carriers and non-carriers. The BrainAGE scores differed significantly between normal controls, stable MCI (sMCI) and progressive MCI (pMCI) as well as AD patients. Differences in BrainAGE changing rates over time were observed for APOE ε4 carrier status as well as in the pMCI and AD groups. At baseline and during follow-up, BrainAGE scores correlated significantly with neuropsychological test scores in APOE ε4 carriers and non-carriers, especially in pMCI and AD patients. Prediction of conversion was most accurate using the BrainAGE score as compared to neuropsychological test scores, even when the patient’s APOE status was unknown. For assessing the individual risk of coming down with AD as well as predicting conversion from MCI to AD, the BrainAGE method proves to be a useful and accurate tool even if the information of the patient’s APOE status is missing. PMID:27410431

  7. Neuroplastic Effects of Combined Computerized Physical and Cognitive Training in Elderly Individuals at Risk for Dementia: An eLORETA Controlled Study on Resting States

    PubMed Central

    Kartsidis, Panagiotis; Ioannides, Andreas A.; Bamidis, Panagiotis D.

    2015-01-01

    The present study investigates whether a combined cognitive and physical training may induce changes in the cortical activity as measured via electroencephalogram (EEG) and whether this change may index a deceleration of pathological processes of brain aging. Seventy seniors meeting the clinical criteria of mild cognitive impairment (MCI) were equally divided into 5 groups: 3 experimental groups engaged in eight-week cognitive and/or physical training and 2 control groups: active and passive. A 5-minute long resting state EEG was measured before and after the intervention. Cortical EEG sources were modelled by exact low resolution brain electromagnetic tomography (eLORETA). Cognitive function was assessed before and after intervention using a battery of neuropsychological tests including the minimental state examination (MMSE). A significant training effect was identified only after the combined training scheme: a decrease in the post- compared to pre-training activity of precuneus/posterior cingulate cortex in delta, theta, and beta bands. This effect was correlated to improvements in cognitive capacity as evaluated by MMSE scores. Our results indicate that combined physical and cognitive training shows indices of a positive neuroplastic effect in MCI patients and that EEG may serve as a potential index of gains versus cognitive declines and neurodegeneration. This trial is registered with ClinicalTrials.gov Identifier NCT02313935. PMID:25945260

  8. Free thyroxine levels are associated with cognitive changes in individuals with a first episode of psychosis: A prospective 1-year follow-up study.

    PubMed

    Labad, J; Barbero, J D; Gutiérrez-Zotes, A; Montalvo, I; Creus, M; Cabezas, Á; Solé, M; Algora, M J; Garcia-Parés, G; Vilella, E

    2016-03-01

    The results of previous cross-sectional studies suggest that free thyroxine (FT4) levels are associated with cognitive abilities (particularly attention/vigilance) during the early stages of psychosis. We aimed to explore whether hypothalamic-pituitary-thyroid hormones predict cognitive changes in a 1-year longitudinal study following first episodes of psychosis (FEP). We studied 36 FEP patients and a control group of 50 healthy subjects (HS). Plasma levels of thyroid-stimulating hormone (TSH) and FT4 were measured. Cognitive assessment was performed with the MATRICS Cognitive Consensus Cognitive Battery (MCCB). FEP patients were assessed twice (baseline and after 1year), whereas HS were assessed only once. We compared cognitive changes at 1year between three groups based on baseline FT4 levels: 1) lowest quartile (Q1, FT4<1.16ng/dL); 2) medium quartiles (Q2-Q3, FT4 1.16-1.54ng/dL); and 3) highest quartile (Q4, FT4>1.54ng/dL). No differences in TSH or FT4 levels were found between HS and FEP patients. All participants had FT4 levels within the normal range. HS outperformed FEP patients in all cognitive tasks. In relation to the relationship between FT4 levels and cognitive changes, a U-shaped pattern was observed: FEP patients from the middle quartiles (Q2-Q3) improved in attention/vigilance, whereas both extreme quartiles (Q1 and Q4) showed a worsening in this cognitive domain over time. Patients with lower FT4 (Q1) showed poorer baseline attention; therefore, lower baseline FT4 levels predicted a poorer prognosis in terms of attention performance. Our study suggests that baseline FT4 levels are associated with changes in attention and vigilance performance over one year in FEP patients. PMID:26805411

  9. A P300-based cognitive assessment battery

    PubMed Central

    Kirschner, Aaron; Cruse, Damian; Chennu, Srivas; Owen, Adrian M; Hampshire, Adam

    2015-01-01

    Background It is well established that some patients who are diagnosed as being in a vegetative state or a minimally conscious state show reliable signs of volition that may only be detected by measuring neural responses. A pertinent question is whether these patients are capable of higher cognitive processes. Methods Here, we develop a series of EEG paradigms that probe several core aspects of cognition at the bedside without the need for motor responses and explore the sensitivity of this approach in a group of healthy controls. Results Using analysis of ERPs alone, this method can determine with high reliability whether individual participants are able to attend a stimulus stream, maintain items in working memory, or solve complex grammatical reasoning problems. Conclusion We suggest that this approach could form the basis of a brain-based battery for assessing higher cognition in patients with severe motor impairments or disorders of consciousness. PMID:26085962

  10. Physical exercise and cognitive performance in the elderly: current perspectives.

    PubMed

    Kirk-Sanchez, Neva J; McGough, Ellen L

    2014-01-01

    In an aging population with increasing incidence of dementia and cognitive impairment, strategies are needed to slow age-related decline and reduce disease-related cognitive impairment in older adults. Physical exercise that targets modifiable risk factors and neuroprotective mechanisms may reduce declines in cognitive performance attributed to the normal aging process and protect against changes related to neurodegenerative diseases such as Alzheimer's disease and other types of dementia. In this review we summarize the role of exercise in neuroprotection and cognitive performance, and provide information related to implementation of physical exercise programs for older adults. Evidence from both animal and human studies supports the role of physical exercise in modifying metabolic, structural, and functional dimensions of the brain and preserving cognitive performance in older adults. The results of observational studies support a dose-dependent neuroprotective relationship between physical exercise and cognitive performance in older adults. Although some clinical trials of exercise interventions demonstrate positive effects of exercise on cognitive performance, other trials show minimal to no effect. Although further research is needed, physical exercise interventions aimed at improving brain health through neuroprotective mechanisms show promise for preserving cognitive performance. Exercise programs that are structured, individualized, higher intensity, longer duration, and multicomponent show promise for preserving cognitive performance in older adults.

  11. Cognition-Enhancing Drugs

    PubMed Central

    Mehlman, Maxwell J

    2004-01-01

    New drugs that enhance cognition in cognitively healthy individuals present difficult public policy challenges. While their use is not inherently unethical, steps must be taken to ensure that they are safe, that they are widely available to promote equality of opportunity, and that individuals are free to decide whether or not to use them. PMID:15330974

  12. Internet minimal group paradigm.

    PubMed

    Amichai-Hamburger, Yair

    2005-04-01

    Over many years, social psychologists have sought to understand what causes individuals to form themselves into groups. Initially, it was believed that groups were formed when people bonded around a common goal. Later, it was found that, when individuals were divided into groups on a random basis, this in itself was sufficient for them to feel part of a group and show a preference for their own group over others. Since the environment in cyberspace is different from that of the offline world, for example, there is no physical proximity between participants; it may be assumed that it would be difficult to achieve feelings of affiliation among potential or actual group members. This pioneer study seeks to discover which components are requisite to the creation of a group identity among individuals surfing the Internet. For this experiment, 24 people were divided into two Internet chat groups according to their intuitive preference in a decision-making task. It was found that group members perceived their own group performance as superior on a cognitive task as compared with that of the other group. These results demonstrate that for surfers, the Internet experience is very real and even a trivial allocation of people to a group is likely to create a situation of ingroup favoritism. PMID:15938653

  13. Effects of self-hypnosis training and cognitive restructuring on daily pain intensity and catastrophizing in individuals with multiple sclerosis and chronic pain.

    PubMed

    Jensen, Mark P; Ehde, Dawn M; Gertz, Kevin J; Stoelb, Brenda L; Dillworth, Tiara M; Hirsh, Adam T; Molton, Ivan R; Kraft, George H

    2011-01-01

    Fifteen adults with multiple sclerosis were given 16 sessions of treatment for chronic pain that included 4 sessions each of 4 different treatment modules: (a) an education control intervention; (b) self-hypnosis training (HYP); (c) cognitive restructuring (CR); and (d) a combined hypnosis-cognitive restructuring intervention (CR-HYP). The findings supported the greater beneficial effects of HYP, relative to CR, on average pain intensity. The CR-HYP treatment appeared to have beneficial effects greater than the effects of CR and HYP alone. Future research examining the efficacy of an intervention that combines CR and HYP is warranted. PMID:21104484

  14. Esophagectomy - minimally invasive

    MedlinePlus

    Minimally invasive esophagectomy; Robotic esophagectomy; Removal of the esophagus - minimally invasive; Achalasia - esophagectomy; Barrett esophagus - esophagectomy; Esophageal cancer - esophagectomy - laparoscopic; Cancer of the ...

  15. Open-Minded Cognition.

    PubMed

    Price, Erika; Ottati, Victor; Wilson, Chase; Kim, Soyeon

    2015-11-01

    The present research conceptualizes open-minded cognition as a cognitive style that influences how individuals select and process information. An open-minded cognitive style is marked by willingness to consider a variety of intellectual perspectives, values, opinions, or beliefs-even those that contradict the individual's opinion. An individual's level of cognitive openness is expected to vary across domains (such as politics and religion). Four studies develop and validate a novel measure of open-minded cognition, as well as two domain-specific measures of religious and political open-minded cognition. Exploratory and confirmatory factor analysis (controlling for acquiescence bias) are used to develop the scales in Studies 1 to 3. Study 4 demonstrates that these scales possess convergent and discriminant validity. Study 5 demonstrates the scale's unique predictive validity using the outcome of Empathic Concern (Davis, 1980). Study 6 demonstrates the scale's unique predictive validity using the outcomes of warmth toward racial, religious, and sexual minorities. PMID:26315581

  16. Open-Minded Cognition.

    PubMed

    Price, Erika; Ottati, Victor; Wilson, Chase; Kim, Soyeon

    2015-11-01

    The present research conceptualizes open-minded cognition as a cognitive style that influences how individuals select and process information. An open-minded cognitive style is marked by willingness to consider a variety of intellectual perspectives, values, opinions, or beliefs-even those that contradict the individual's opinion. An individual's level of cognitive openness is expected to vary across domains (such as politics and religion). Four studies develop and validate a novel measure of open-minded cognition, as well as two domain-specific measures of religious and political open-minded cognition. Exploratory and confirmatory factor analysis (controlling for acquiescence bias) are used to develop the scales in Studies 1 to 3. Study 4 demonstrates that these scales possess convergent and discriminant validity. Study 5 demonstrates the scale's unique predictive validity using the outcome of Empathic Concern (Davis, 1980). Study 6 demonstrates the scale's unique predictive validity using the outcomes of warmth toward racial, religious, and sexual minorities.

  17. The Role of Individual Differences in the Study Abroad Context: Cognitive Capacity and Language Development during Short-Term Intensive Language Exposure

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Grey, Sarah; Cox, Jessica G.; Serafini, Ellen J.; Sanz, Cristina

    2015-01-01

    While research suggests that study abroad (SA) benefits second language (L2) oral fluency, its benefits for other domains are less clear, especially for shorterterm programs, which are becoming more common. Additionally, studies investigating the relationship between cognitive capacity and benefits of SA report inconsistent patterns. In light of…

  18. Resting Frontal Gamma Power at 16, 24 and 36 months Predicts Individual Differences in Language and Cognition at 4 and 5 years

    PubMed Central

    Gou, Zhenkun; Choudhury, Naseem; Benasich, April A.

    2011-01-01

    Gamma activity has been linked to a variety of different cognitive processes and exists in both transient and persistent forms. Across studies, different brain regions have been suggested to contribute to gamma activity. Multiple studies have shown that the function of gamma oscillations may be related to temporal binding of early sensory information to relevant top-down processes. Given this hypothesis, we expected gamma oscillations to subserve general brain mechanisms that contribute to the development of cognitive and linguistic systems. The present study aims to examine the predictive relations between resting-state cortical gamma power density at a critical point in language and cognitive acquisition (i.e. 16, 24 and 36 months), and cognitive and language output at ages 4 and 5 years. Our findings show that both 24- and 36-month gamma power are significantly correlated with later language scores, notably Non-Word Repetition. Further, 16-, 24- and 36-month gamma were all significantly correlated with 4-year PLS-3 and CELF-P sentence structure scores. Although associations reported here do not reflect a direct cause and effect of early resting gamma power on later language outcomes, capacity to generate higher power in the gamma range at crucial developmental periods may index better modulation of attention and allow easier access to working memory, thus providing an advantage for overall development, particularly in the linguistic domain. Moreover, measuring abilities at times when these abilities are still emergent may allow better prediction of later outcomes. PMID:21295619

  19. Resting frontal gamma power at 16, 24 and 36 months predicts individual differences in language and cognition at 4 and 5 years.

    PubMed

    Gou, Zhenkun; Choudhury, Naseem; Benasich, April A

    2011-07-01

    Gamma activity has been linked to a variety of different cognitive processes and exists in both transient and persistent forms. Across studies, different brain regions have been suggested to contribute to gamma activity. Multiple studies have shown that the function of gamma oscillations may be related to temporal binding of early sensory information to relevant top-down processes. Given this hypothesis, we expected gamma oscillations to subserve general brain mechanisms that contribute to the development of cognitive and linguistic systems. The present study aims to examine the predictive relations between resting-state cortical gamma power density at a critical point in language and cognitive acquisition (i.e. 16, 24 and 36 months), and cognitive and language output at ages 4 and 5 years. Our findings show that both 24- and 36-month gamma power are significantly correlated with later language scores, notably Non-Word Repetition. Further, 16-, 24- and 36-month gamma were all significantly correlated with 4-year PLS-3 and CELF-P sentence structure scores. Although associations reported here do not reflect a direct cause and effect of early resting gamma power on later language outcomes, capacity to generate higher power in the gamma range at crucial developmental periods may index better modulation of attention and allow easier access to working memory, thus providing an advantage for overall development, particularly in the linguistic domain. Moreover, measuring abilities at times when these abilities are still emergent may allow better prediction of later outcomes.

  20. Evaluating the Use of a Self-Advocacy Strategy as a Means of Improving Progress in the General Curriculum for Individuals with Cognitive Disabilities

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Schelling, Amy L.

    2010-01-01

    The purpose of this study was to evaluate if the use of a self-advocacy strategy, with high school students identified as having a mild cognitive disability, would increase student use of self-advocacy skills across multiple school settings. Participants in the study were also identified as participating in at least one general education class at…

  1. Application of a MRI based index to longitudinal atrophy change in Alzheimer disease, mild cognitive impairment and healthy older individuals in the AddNeuroMed cohort.

    PubMed

    Aguilar, Carlos; Muehlboeck, J-Sebastian; Mecocci, Patrizia; Vellas, Bruno; Tsolaki, Magda; Kloszewska, Iwona; Soininen, Hilkka; Lovestone, Simon; Wahlund, Lars-Olof; Simmons, Andrew; Westman, Eric

    2014-01-01

    Cross sectional studies of patients at risk of developing Alzheimer disease (AD) have identified several brain regions known to be prone to degeneration suitable as biomarkers, including hippocampal, ventricular, and whole brain volume. The aim of this study was to longitudinally evaluate an index based on morphometric measures derived from MRI data that could be used for classification of AD and healthy control subjects, as well as prediction of conversion from mild cognitive impairment (MCI) to AD. Patients originated from the AddNeuroMed project at baseline (119 AD, 119 MCI, 110 controls (CTL)) and 1-year follow-up (62 AD, 73 MCI, 79 CTL). Data consisted of 3D T1-weighted MR images, demographics, MMSE, ADAS-Cog, CERAD and CDR scores, and APOE e4 status. We computed an index using a multivariate classification model (AD vs. CTL), using orthogonal partial least squares to latent structures (OPLS). Sensitivity, specificity and AUC were determined. Performance of the classifier (AD vs. CTL) was high at baseline (10-fold cross-validation, 84% sensitivity, 91% specificity, 0.93 AUC) and at 1-year follow-up (92% sensitivity, 74% specificity, 0.93 AUC). Predictions of conversion from MCI to AD were good at baseline (77% of MCI converters) and at follow-up (91% of MCI converters). MCI carriers of the APOE e4 allele manifested more atrophy and presented a faster cognitive decline when compared to non-carriers. The derived index demonstrated a steady increase in atrophy over time, yielding higher accuracy in prediction at the time of clinical conversion. Neuropsychological tests appeared less sensitive to changes over time. However, taking the average of the two time points yielded better correlation between the index and cognitive scores as opposed to using cross-sectional data only. Thus, multivariate classification seemed to detect patterns of AD changes before conversion from MCI to AD and including longitudinal information is of great importance.

  2. Minimal change disease

    MedlinePlus

    ... seen under a very powerful microscope called an electron microscope. Minimal change disease is the most common ... biopsy and examination of the tissue with an electron microscope can show signs of minimal change disease.

  3. Cognitive Remediation in Schizophrenia

    PubMed Central

    Kaneko, Yoshio

    2012-01-01

    Cognitive deficits in schizophrenia are pervasive, severe, and largely independent of the positive and negative symptoms of the illness. These deficits are increasingly considered to be core features of schizophrenia with evidence that the extent of cognitive impairment is the most salient predictor of daily functioning. Unfortunately, current schizophrenia treatment has been limited in addressing the cognitive deficits of the illness. Alterations in neuroplasticity are hypothesized to underpin these cognitive deficits, though preserved neuroplasticity may offer an avenue towards cognitive remediation. Key neuroplastic principles to consider in designing remediation interventions include ensuring sufficient intensity and duration of remediation programs, "bottom-up" training that proceeds from simple to complex cognitive processes, and individual tailoring of remediation regimens. We discuss several cognitive remediation programs, including cognitive enhancement therapy, which embrace these principles to target neurocognitive and social cognitive improvements and which havebeen demonstrated to be effective in schizophrenia. Future directions in cognitive remediation research include potential synergy with pharmacologic treatment, non-invasive stimulation techniques, and psychosocial interventions, identification of patient characteristics that predict outcome with cognitive remediation, and increasing the access to these interventions in front-line settings. PMID:23430145

  4. [Normal aging and cognition].

    PubMed

    Ska, Bernadette; Joanette, Yves

    2006-03-01

    It is now well documented that normal aging modifies the cognitive functioning and most observations suggest that cognition evolves in the direction of deterioration. The more frequently impaired functions are memory, attention and visual-spatial abilities. On the other hand, some abilities seem to increase, such as vocabulary. Considering the aging effect on cognition, questions remain regarding directionality, universality and reversibility. A great variability in aged related impacts is observed among subjects and among cognitive domains. Some individuals evolved more rapidly than others. Some cognitive functions are more affected by aging than others. General and specific factors are hypothesized to explain the aged related cognitive decline. Among them, educational level, health, cognitive style, life style, personality, are likely to modulate the aged related cognitive evolution by influencing attentional resources and cerebral plasticity. Cognitive resources are essential to develop adaptative strategies. During the life span, resources are activated and increased by learning and training. Considering the role of cognitive resources, successful aging is dependent on several conditions : absence of disease leading to a loss of autonomy, maintenance of cognitive and physical activities, and active and social engaged lifestyle. PMID:16527210

  5. Enhancing memory performance with rTMS in healthy subjects and individuals with Mild Cognitive Impairment: the role of the right dorsolateral prefrontal cortex

    PubMed Central

    Turriziani, Patrizia; Smirni, Daniela; Zappalà, Giuseppe; Mangano, Giuseppa R.; Oliveri, Massimiliano; Cipolotti, Lisa

    2012-01-01

    A debated question in the literature is the degree of anatomical and functional lateralization of the executive control processes sub-served by the dorsolateral prefrontal cortex (DLPFC) during recognition memory retrieval. We investigated if transient inhibition and excitation of the left and right DLPFC at retrieval by means of repetitive transcranial magnetic stimulation (rTMS) modulate recognition memory performance in 100 healthy controls (HCs) and in eight patients with Mild Cognitive Impairment (MCI). Recognition memory tasks of faces, buildings, and words were used in different experiments. rTMS-inhibition of the right DLPFC enhanced recognition memory in both HCs and MCIs. rTMS-excitation of the same region in HCs deteriorated memory performance. Inhibition of the right DLPFC could modulate the excitability of a network of brain regions, in the ipsilateral as well as in the contralateral hemisphere, enhancing function in HCs or restoring an adaptive equilibrium in MCI. PMID:22514525

  6. Developing an Informant Questionnaire for Cognitive Abilities in Down Syndrome: The Cognitive Scale for Down Syndrome (CS-DS)

    PubMed Central

    Rodger, Erin; Fodor-Wynne, Lucy; Hamburg, Sarah; Strydom, André

    2016-01-01

    Down syndrome (DS) is the most common genetic cause of intellectual disability (ID). Abilities relating to executive function, memory and language are particularly affected in DS, although there is a large variability across individuals. People with DS also show an increased risk of developing dementia. While assessment batteries have been developed for adults with DS to assess cognitive abilities, these batteries may not be suitable for those with more severe IDs, dementia, or visual / hearing difficulties. Here we report the development of an informant rated questionnaire, the Cognitive Scale for Down Syndrome (CS-DS), which focuses on everyday abilities relating to executive function, memory and language, and is suitable for assessing these abilities in all adults with DS regardless of cognitive ability. Complete questionnaires were collected about 128 individuals with DS. After final question selection we found high internal consistency scores across the total questionnaire and within the executive function, memory and language domains. CS-DS scores showed a wide range, with minimal floor and ceiling effects. We found high interrater (n = 55) and test retest (n = 36) intraclass correlations. CS-DS scores were significantly lower in those aged 41+ with significant cognitive decline compared to those without decline. Across all adults without cognitive decline, CS-DS scores correlated significantly to measures of general abilities. Exploratory factor analysis suggested five factors within the scale, relating to memory, self-regulation / inhibition, self-direction / initiation, communication, and focussing attention. The CS-DS therefore shows good interrater and test retest reliability, and appears to be a valid and suitable informant rating tool for assessing everyday cognitive abilities in a wide range of individuals with DS. Such a questionnaire may be a useful outcome measure for intervention studies to assess improvements to cognition, in addition to

  7. Simulating motivated cognition

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Gevarter, William B.

    1991-01-01

    A research effort to develop a sophisticated computer model of human behavior is described. A computer framework of motivated cognition was developed. Motivated cognition focuses on the motivations or affects that provide the context and drive in human cognition and decision making. A conceptual architecture of the human decision-making approach from the perspective of information processing in the human brain is developed in diagrammatic form. A preliminary version of such a diagram is presented. This architecture is then used as a vehicle for successfully constructing a computer program simulation Dweck and Leggett's findings that relate how an individual's implicit theories orient them toward particular goals, with resultant cognitions, affects, and behavior.

  8. Cognitive Preference and Student Performance.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    McDaniel, Ernest D.; Barnes, Shelba

    As early as 1964, cognitive preference was introduced as a way of describing an individual's preference for applying, relating or questioning information. To determine the role of cognitive preference in the pattern of variables predicting teachers' ratings of students' performance, 44 high school students completed a 61-item cognitive preference…

  9. Cognitive-Behavioral Treatment for Adolescents Who Sexually Offend and Their Families: Individual and Family Applications in a Collaborative Outpatient Program

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Kolko, David J.; Noel, Colleen; Thomas, Gretchen; Torres, Eunice

    2004-01-01

    This article describes an outpatient treatment program for adolescent sexual abusers that was established by a mental health agency in collaboration with a specialized probation program in the juvenile court. Individualized treatment is based on a comprehensive clinical assessment with the youth and guardian, for which examples are provided. Given…

  10. Perioperative cognitive trajectory in adults.

    PubMed

    Nadelson, M R; Sanders, R D; Avidan, M S

    2014-03-01

    Approximately a quarter of a billion people undergo surgery every year hoping that the operation will alleviate symptoms, cure diseases, and improve quality-of-life. A concern has arisen that, despite the benefits of surgery, elderly patients might suffer neurological injury from surgery and general anaesthesia leading to persistent cognitive decline. However, many studies of postoperative cognition have had methodological weaknesses, including lack of suitable control groups, dissociation of cognitive outcomes from surgical outcomes, sub-optimal statistical techniques, and absence of longitudinal preoperative cognitive assessments. Emerging evidence suggests that after early cognitive decline, most patients return to their preoperative cognitive trajectories within 3 months of surgery; some even experience subsequent cognitive improvement. In this review, we summarize the scientific literature on perioperative cognition. We propose that the most important determinants of the postoperative cognitive trajectory are the preoperative cognitive trajectory, the success of the surgery, and events in the perioperative period. Postoperative complications, ongoing inflammation, and chronic pain are probably modifiable risk factors for persistent postoperative cognitive decline. When surgery is successful with minimal perioperative physiological perturbations, elderly patients can expect cognition to follow its preoperative course. Furthermore, when surgery alleviates symptoms and enhances quality-of-life, postoperative cognitive improvement is a possible and desirable outcome.

  11. Cognitive impairment in multiple sclerosis.

    PubMed

    Jongen, P J; Ter Horst, A T; Brands, A M

    2012-04-01

    Cognitive impairment occurs in 40-65% of multiple sclerosis (MS) patients, typically involving complex attention, information processing speed, (episodic) memory and executive functions. It is seen in the subclinical radiologically isolated syndrome, clinically isolated syndrome, and all phases of clinical MS. In pediatric-onset MS cognition is frequently impaired and worsens relatively rapidly. Cognitive impairment often affects personal life and vocational status. Depression, anxiety and fatigue aggravate symptoms, whereas cognitive reserve partially protects. Cognitive dysfunction correlates to brain magnetic resonance imaging (MRI) lesion volumes and (regional) atrophy, and degree of and increase in MRI abnormalities predict further worsening. Experimental MRI indicates a crucial role for (focal) cortical lesions and atrophy, abnormal cortical integrity, and early changes in normal appearing brain tissue. Functional MRI suggests compensatory reorganization and adaptation changes in neural activities. Screening tools are the Brief Repeatable Neuropsychological Battery, Symbol Digit Modalities Test and Audio Recorded Cognitive Screen. The Minimal Assessment of Cognitive Function in Multiple Sclerosis (MS) is used for formal neuropsychological evaluation. What constitutes a clinically relevant change and how to optimally monitor cognition are issues to be settled. In relapsing-remitting MS timely and adequate disease modifying drug treatment may stabilize or possibly improve cognition. There is no evidence-based symptomatic drug treatment, nor are there optimal non-pharmacological approaches. Leisure activities enhance cognitive reserve. Cognitive rehabilitation in MS patients is still in its infancy. Cognitive behavioral therapy, exercise, and education programs are promising psychosocial interventions to improve coping and lessen cognitive symptoms.

  12. Interpretation of clinical relevance of X-chromosome copy number variations identified in a large cohort of individuals with cognitive disorders and/or congenital anomalies.

    PubMed

    Willemsen, Marjolein H; de Leeuw, Nicole; de Brouwer, Arjan P M; Pfundt, Rolph; Hehir-Kwa, Jayne Y; Yntema, Helger G; Nillesen, Willy M; de Vries, Bert B A; van Bokhoven, Hans; Kleefstra, Tjitske

    2012-11-01

    Genome-wide array studies are now routinely being used in the evaluation of patients with cognitive disorders (CD) and/or congenital anomalies (CA). Therefore, inevitably each clinician is confronted with the challenging task of the interpretation of copy number variations detected by genome-wide array platforms in a diagnostic setting. Clinical interpretation of autosomal copy number variations is already challenging, but assessment of the clinical relevance of copy number variations of the X-chromosome is even more complex. This study provides an overview of the X-Chromosome copy number variations that we have identified by genome-wide array analysis in a large cohort of 4407 male and female patients. We have made an interpretation of the clinical relevance of each of these copy number variations based on well-defined criteria and previous reports in literature and databases. The prevalence of X-chromosome copy number variations in this cohort was 57/4407 (∼1.3%), of which 15 (0.3%) were interpreted as (likely) pathogenic.

  13. Cognitive Distortions and Suicide Attempts.

    PubMed

    Jager-Hyman, Shari; Cunningham, Amy; Wenzel, Amy; Mattei, Stephanie; Brown, Gregory K; Beck, Aaron T

    2014-08-01

    Although theorists have posited that suicidal individuals are more likely than non-suicidal individuals to experience cognitive distortions, little empirical work has examined whether those who recently attempted suicide are more likely to engage in cognitive distortions than those who have not recently attempted suicide. In the present study, 111 participants who attempted suicide in the 30 days prior to participation and 57 psychiatric control participants completed measures of cognitive distortions, depression, and hopelessness. Findings support the hypothesis that individuals who recently attempted suicide are more likely than psychiatric controls to experience cognitive distortions, even when controlling for depression and hopelessness. Fortune telling was the only cognitive distortion uniquely associated with suicide attempt status. However, fortune telling was no longer significantly associated with suicide attempt status when controlling for hopelessness. Findings underscore the importance of directly targeting cognitive distortions when treating individuals at risk for suicide.

  14. The Modified Checklist for Autism in Toddlers in extremely low gestational age newborns: individual items associated with motor, cognitive, vision and hearing limitations.

    PubMed

    Luyster, Rhiannon J; Kuban, Karl C K; O'Shea, T Michael; Paneth, Nigel; Allred, Elizabeth N; Leviton, Alan

    2011-07-01

    The Modified Checklist for Autism in Toddlers (M-CHAT) has yielded elevated rates of screening failure for children born preterm or with low birthweight. We extended these findings with a detailed examination of M-CHAT items in a large sample of children born at extremely low gestational age. The sample was grouped according to children's current limitations and degree of impairment. The aim was to better understand how disabilities might influence M-CHAT scores. Fourteen participating institutions of the Extremely Low Gestational Age Newborns (ELGAN) Study prospectively collected information about 1086 infants who were born before the 28th week of gestation and had an assessment at age 24-months. The 24-month visit included a neurological assessment, the Bayley Scales of Infant Development, Second edition (BSID-II), M-CHAT and a medical history form. Outcome measures included the distribution of failed M-CHAT items among groups classified according to cerebral palsy diagnosis, gross motor function, BSID-II scores and vision or hearing impairments. M-CHAT items were failed more frequently by children with concurrently identified impairments (motor, cognitive, vision and hearing). In addition, the frequency of item failure increased with the severity of impairment. The failed M-CHAT items were often, but not consistently, related to children's specific impairments. Importantly, four of the six M-CHAT 'critical items' were commonly affected by presence and severity of concurrent impairments. The strong association between impaired sensory or motor function and M-CHAT results among extremely low gestational age children suggests that such impairments might give rise to false positive M-CHAT screening. PMID:21649679

  15. The Sense of Commitment: A Minimal Approach

    PubMed Central

    Michael, John; Sebanz, Natalie; Knoblich, Günther

    2016-01-01

    This paper provides a starting point for psychological research on the sense of commitment within the context of joint action. We begin by formulating three desiderata: to illuminate the motivational factors that lead agents to feel and act committed, to pick out the cognitive processes and situational factors that lead agents to sense that implicit commitments are in place, and to illuminate the development of an understanding of commitment in ontogeny. In order to satisfy these three desiderata, we propose a minimal framework, the core of which is an analysis of the minimal structure of situations which can elicit a sense of commitment. We then propose a way of conceptualizing and operationalizing the sense of commitment, and discuss cognitive and motivational processes which may underpin the sense of commitment. PMID:26779080

  16. Catehol-O-Methyltransferase gene Val158Met polymorphism as a potential predictor of response to computer-assisted delivery of cognitive-behavioral therapy among cocaine-dependent individuals: Preliminary findings from a randomized controlled trial

    PubMed Central

    Carroll, Kathleen M.; Herman, Aryeh; DeVito, Elise E.; Frankforter, Tami L.; Potenza, Marc N; Sofuoglu, Mehmet

    2015-01-01

    Background Findings from uncontrolled studies suggest that the COMT Val108/158Met polymorphism may affect response to cognitive behavioral therapy (CBT) in some populations. Using data from a randomized controlled trial evaluating computerized CBT (CBT4CBT), we evaluated treatment response by COMT genotype, with the a priori hypothesis that Val carriers would have improved response to computerized delivery of CBT. Methods 101 cocaine-dependent individuals, of whom 81 contributed analyzable genetic samples, were randomized to standard methadone maintenance treatment plus CBT4CBT or standard treatment alone in an 8-week trial. Results There was a significant genotype by time effect on frequency of cocaine use from baseline to the end of the 6-month follow-up, suggesting greater reductions over time for Val carriers relative to individuals with the Met/Met genotype. There was a significant treatment condition by genotype interactions for rates of participants attaining 21 or more days of continuous abstinence as well as self-reported percent days of abstinence, suggesting less cocaine use among Val carriers when assigned to CBT compared to standard treatment. Exploration of possible mechanisms using measures of attentional biased also pointed to greater change over time in these measures among the Val carriers assigned to CBT. Conclusion These are the first data from a randomized controlled trial indicating significant interactions of COMT polymorphism and behavioral therapy condition on treatment outcome, where Val carriers appeared to respond particularly well to computerized CBT. These preliminary data point to a potential biomarker of response to CBT linked to its putative mechanism of action, enhanced cognitive control. PMID:25930952

  17. Cognitive Engagement and Cognitive Aging: Is Openness Protective?

    PubMed Central

    Sharp, Emily Schoenhofen; Reynolds, Chandra A.; Pedersen, Nancy L.; Gatz, Margaret

    2010-01-01

    The purpose of this study was to examine whether openness to experience is related to longitudinal change in cognitive performance across advancing age. Participants were 857 individuals from the Swedish Adoption/Twin Study of Aging (SATSA). Factors for 5 cognitive domains were created including: verbal ability, spatial ability, memory, processing speed, and a global score, “g”. Latent growth curve models were used to assess level and longitudinal trajectories of cognitive performance. It was hypothesized that individuals who endorsed higher levels of openness would have higher cognitive test scores and lesser rates of cognitive decline. As predicted, higher openness to experience was associated with significantly higher performance across all cognitive tests for both males and females even after adjusting for education, cardiovascular disease and activities of daily living. Openness, however, was not predictive of differences in the trajectories of cognitive performance over age. PMID:20230128

  18. Minimally Invasive Valve Surgery

    PubMed Central

    Pope, Nicolas H.; Ailawadi, Gorav

    2014-01-01

    Cardiac valve surgery is life saving for many patients. The advent of minimally invasive surgical techniques has historically allowed for improvement in both post-operative convalescence and important clinical outcomes. The development of minimally invasive cardiac valve repair and replacement surgery over the past decade is poised to revolutionize the care of cardiac valve patients. Here, we present a review of the history and current trends in minimally invasive aortic and mitral valve repair and replacement, including the development of sutureless bioprosthetic valves. PMID:24797148

  19. [Minimal Change Esophagitis].

    PubMed

    Ryu, Han Seung; Choi, Suck Chei

    2016-01-25

    Gastroesophageal reflux disease (GERD) is defined as a condition which develops when the reflux of gastric contents causes troublesome symptoms and long-term complications. GERD can be divided into erosive reflux disease and non-erosive reflux disease based on endoscopic findings defined by the presence of mucosal break. The Los Angeles classification excludes minimal changes as an evidence of reflux esophagitis because of poor interobserver agreement. In the Asian literature, minimal changes are considered as one of the endoscopic findings of reflux esophagitis, but the clinical significance is still controversial. Minimal change esophagitis is recognized quite frequently among patients with GERD and many endoscopists recognize such findings in their clinical practice. This review is intended to clarify the definition of minimal change esophagitis and their histology, interobserver agreement, and symptom association with GERD.

  20. Minimizing Shortness of Breath

    MedlinePlus

    ... Top Doctors in the Nation Departments & Divisions Home Health Insights Stress & Relaxation Breathing and Relaxation Minimizing Shortness of Breath ... Management Assess Your Stress Coping Strategies Identifying ... & Programs Health Insights Doctors & Departments Research & Science Education & Training Make ...

  1. Grounded cognition.

    PubMed

    Barsalou, Lawrence W

    2008-01-01

    Grounded cognition rejects traditional views that cognition is computation on amodal symbols in a modular system, independent of the brain's modal systems for perception, action, and introspection. Instead, grounded cognition proposes that modal simulations, bodily states, and situated action underlie cognition. Accumulating behavioral and neural evidence supporting this view is reviewed from research on perception, memory, knowledge, language, thought, social cognition, and development. Theories of grounded cognition are also reviewed, as are origins of the area and common misperceptions of it. Theoretical, empirical, and methodological issues are raised whose future treatment is likely to affect the growth and impact of grounded cognition.

  2. Deficits of cognitive theory of mind and its relationship with functioning in individuals with an at-risk mental state and first-episode psychosis.

    PubMed

    Ohmuro, Noriyuki; Katsura, Masahiro; Obara, Chika; Kikuchi, Tatsuo; Sakuma, Atsushi; Iizuka, Kunio; Hamaie, Yumiko; Ito, Fumiaki; Matsuoka, Hiroo; Matsumoto, Kazunori

    2016-09-30

    Disturbance of theory of mind (ToM) and its relationship with functioning in schizophrenia is well documented; however, this is unclear in spectrum disorders like at-risk mental state (ARMS) and first-episode psychosis (FEP). To assess mental state reasoning ability, the total score of the Theory of Mind Picture Stories Task questionnaire was compared among 36 Japanese individuals with ARMS, 40 with FEP, and 25 healthy controls (HC). Pearson's correlations between ToM performance and global and social functioning indices were examined. ToM performance for FEP and ARMS subjects was significantly lower than that for HC, though the significance of the difference between the ARMS and HC disappeared when controlling for premorbid IQ. ToM deficits in ARMS subjects were confirmed only in the comprehension of higher-order false belief. Only among FEP subjects were ToM performance and global functioning significantly correlated, though the significance disappeared when controlling for neurocognitive performance or dose of antipsychotics. No significant correlation between ToM performance and social functioning was observed in the FEP and ARMS groups. The current findings suggest that ToM deficits emerge in ARMS subjects confined within a higher-order domain, and that the relationship between ToM impairment and functional deterioration might be established after psychosis onset. PMID:27434201

  3. Deficits of cognitive theory of mind and its relationship with functioning in individuals with an at-risk mental state and first-episode psychosis.

    PubMed

    Ohmuro, Noriyuki; Katsura, Masahiro; Obara, Chika; Kikuchi, Tatsuo; Sakuma, Atsushi; Iizuka, Kunio; Hamaie, Yumiko; Ito, Fumiaki; Matsuoka, Hiroo; Matsumoto, Kazunori

    2016-09-30

    Disturbance of theory of mind (ToM) and its relationship with functioning in schizophrenia is well documented; however, this is unclear in spectrum disorders like at-risk mental state (ARMS) and first-episode psychosis (FEP). To assess mental state reasoning ability, the total score of the Theory of Mind Picture Stories Task questionnaire was compared among 36 Japanese individuals with ARMS, 40 with FEP, and 25 healthy controls (HC). Pearson's correlations between ToM performance and global and social functioning indices were examined. ToM performance for FEP and ARMS subjects was significantly lower than that for HC, though the significance of the difference between the ARMS and HC disappeared when controlling for premorbid IQ. ToM deficits in ARMS subjects were confirmed only in the comprehension of higher-order false belief. Only among FEP subjects were ToM performance and global functioning significantly correlated, though the significance disappeared when controlling for neurocognitive performance or dose of antipsychotics. No significant correlation between ToM performance and social functioning was observed in the FEP and ARMS groups. The current findings suggest that ToM deficits emerge in ARMS subjects confined within a higher-order domain, and that the relationship between ToM impairment and functional deterioration might be established after psychosis onset.

  4. Social cognition.

    PubMed

    Sollberger, Marc; Rankin, Katherine P; Miller, Bruce L

    2010-08-01

    Social cognitive neuroscience is a novel field of interdisciplinary research that examines socio-emotional cognition and behavior by emphasizing the neural substrates of these processes. Insights from this biological perspective have established that socio-emotional processing does not happen in a sequential order but in a recursive and interlinked fashion; that individual brain regions are not associated with one, but multiple, distinct social functions; and that brain regions are organized into dynamically interacting networks. These factors explain why it is difficult to pinpoint the neural substrates of particular social deficits in patients with brain diseases. With that said, there are specific brain regions that are highly specialized for the perception, regulation, and modulation of emotion and behavior. This article will review key aspects of social processing beginning with their underlying neural substrates, including (1) perception of social signals, (2) social and emotional evaluation, and (3) behavioral response generation and selection. Case studies will be used to illustrate the real-life social deficits resulting from distinct patterns of neuroanatomic damage, highlighting the brain regions most critical for adequate social behavior. Continuum Lifelong Learning Neurol 2010;16(4):69-85. PMID:22810514

  5. Minimally invasive procedures

    PubMed Central

    Baltayiannis, Nikolaos; Michail, Chandrinos; Lazaridis, George; Anagnostopoulos, Dimitrios; Baka, Sofia; Mpoukovinas, Ioannis; Karavasilis, Vasilis; Lampaki, Sofia; Papaiwannou, Antonis; Karavergou, Anastasia; Kioumis, Ioannis; Pitsiou, Georgia; Katsikogiannis, Nikolaos; Tsakiridis, Kosmas; Rapti, Aggeliki; Trakada, Georgia; Zissimopoulos, Athanasios; Zarogoulidis, Konstantinos

    2015-01-01

    Minimally invasive procedures, which include laparoscopic surgery, use state-of-the-art technology to reduce the damage to human tissue when performing surgery. Minimally invasive procedures require small “ports” from which the surgeon inserts thin tubes called trocars. Carbon dioxide gas may be used to inflate the area, creating a space between the internal organs and the skin. Then a miniature camera (usually a laparoscope or endoscope) is placed through one of the trocars so the surgical team can view the procedure as a magnified image on video monitors in the operating room. Specialized equipment is inserted through the trocars based on the type of surgery. There are some advanced minimally invasive surgical procedures that can be performed almost exclusively through a single point of entry—meaning only one small incision, like the “uniport” video-assisted thoracoscopic surgery (VATS). Not only do these procedures usually provide equivalent outcomes to traditional “open” surgery (which sometimes require a large incision), but minimally invasive procedures (using small incisions) may offer significant benefits as well: (I) faster recovery; (II) the patient remains for less days hospitalized; (III) less scarring and (IV) less pain. In our current mini review we will present the minimally invasive procedures for thoracic surgery. PMID:25861610

  6. Cognitive-Behavioural Analysis System of Psychotherapy (CBASP), a drug, or their combination: differential therapeutics for persistent depressive disorder: a study protocol of an individual participant data network meta-analysis

    PubMed Central

    Schramm, Elisabeth; Weitz, Erica S; Salanti, Georgia; Efthimiou, Orestis; Michalak, Johannes; Watanabe, Norio; Keller, Martin B; Kocsis, James H; Klein, Daniel N; Cuijpers, Pim

    2016-01-01

    Introduction Despite important advances in psychological and pharmacological treatments of persistent depressive disorders in the past decades, their responses remain typically slow and poor, and differential responses among different modalities of treatments or their combinations are not well understood. Cognitive-Behavioural Analysis System of Psychotherapy (CBASP) is the only psychotherapy that has been specifically designed for chronic depression and has been examined in an increasing number of trials against medications, alone or in combination. When several treatment alternatives are available for a certain condition, network meta-analysis (NMA) provides a powerful tool to examine their relative efficacy by combining all direct and indirect comparisons. Individual participant data (IPD) meta-analysis enables exploration of impacts of individual characteristics that lead to a differentiated approach matching treatments to specific subgroups of patients. Methods and analysis We will search for all randomised controlled trials that compared CBASP, pharmacotherapy or their combination, in the treatment of patients with persistent depressive disorder, in Cochrane CENTRAL, PUBMED, SCOPUS and PsycINFO, supplemented by personal contacts. Individual participant data will be sought from the principal investigators of all the identified trials. Our primary outcomes are depression severity as measured on a continuous observer-rated scale for depression, and dropouts for any reason as a proxy measure of overall treatment acceptability. We will conduct a one-step IPD-NMA to compare CBASP, medications and their combinations, and also carry out a meta-regression to identify their prognostic factors and effect moderators. The model will be fitted in OpenBUGS, using vague priors for all location parameters. For the heterogeneity we will use a half-normal prior on the SD. Ethics and dissemination This study requires no ethical approval. We will publish the findings in a peer

  7. Cognition and animal welfare.

    PubMed

    Rogers, Lesley J

    2010-05-01

    Animals exhibit species-typical adaptations of behavior and may suffer stress in captivity if they are prevented from performing these patterns of behavior. This article considers whether these particular 'needs' rely on cognitive processes or are performed without complex cognition despite their appearance of behavioral complexity. Emotion and cognition in animals are also discussed, particularly whether animals can feel emotions and, if so, what ranges of emotions they might feel. Cognitive capacities that would contribute to suffering include empathy with the suffering of others, memories of negative events and suffering in anticipation of future events. Cognitive bias of individual animals toward positive or negative feelings is related to dominance of the left or right hemisphere, respectively. These biases might be reflected in the animal's preferred limb to pick up food. Hence, limb preference could be a useful measure of cognitive bias. Post-traumatic stress disorder is a cognitive condition that, it is suggested, might involve dominance of the right hemisphere. This debilitating condition is experience-dependent and not infrequently seen in animals in captivity. In conclusion, it is argued that there is an obvious need for more research on cognition as it relates to animal welfare and as a basis for changing legislature to protect animals from suffering. Copyright © 2010 John Wiley & Sons, Ltd. For further resources related to this article, please visit the WIREs website. PMID:26271384

  8. Positive Effects of Computer-Based Cognitive Training in Adults with Mild Cognitive Impairment

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Herrera, C.; Chambon, C.; Michel, B. F.; Paban, V.; Alescio-Lautier, B.

    2012-01-01

    Considering the high risk for individuals with amnestic Mild Cognitive Impairment (A-MCI) to progress towards Alzheimer's disease (AD), we investigated the efficacy of a non-pharmacological intervention, that is, cognitive training that could reduce cognitive difficulties and delay the cognitive decline. For this, we evaluated the efficacy of a…

  9. Ways To Minimize Bullying.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Mueller, Mary Ellen; Parisi, Mary Joy

    This report delineates a series of interventions aimed at minimizing incidences of bullying in a suburban elementary school. The social services staff was scheduled to initiate an anti-bullying incentive in fall 2001 due to the increased occurrences of bullying during the prior year. The target population consisted of third- and fourth-grade…

  10. Minimally invasive periodontal therapy.

    PubMed

    Dannan, Aous

    2011-10-01

    Minimally invasive dentistry is a concept that preserves dentition and supporting structures. However, minimally invasive procedures in periodontal treatment are supposed to be limited within periodontal surgery, the aim of which is to represent alternative approaches developed to allow less extensive manipulation of surrounding tissues than conventional procedures, while accomplishing the same objectives. In this review, the concept of minimally invasive periodontal surgery (MIPS) is firstly explained. An electronic search for all studies regarding efficacy and effectiveness of MIPS between 2001 and 2009 was conducted. For this purpose, suitable key words from Medical Subject Headings on PubMed were used to extract the required studies. All studies are demonstrated and important results are concluded. Preliminary data from case cohorts and from many studies reveal that the microsurgical access flap, in terms of MIPS, has a high potential to seal the healing wound from the contaminated oral environment by achieving and maintaining primary closure. Soft tissues are mostly preserved and minimal gingival recession is observed, an important feature to meet the demands of the patient and the clinician in the esthetic zone. However, although the potential efficacy of MIPS in the treatment of deep intrabony defects has been proved, larger studies are required to confirm and extend the reported positive preliminary outcomes.

  11. Minimizing Promotion Trauma.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Darling, LuAnn W.; McGrath, Loraine

    1983-01-01

    Nursing administrators can minimize promotion trauma and its unnecessary cost by building awareness of the transition process, clarifying roles and expectations, and attending to the promoted employee's needs. This article will help nursing administrators develop a concept of manager care combined with programs for orientation of new managers,…

  12. Periodic minimal surfaces

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Mackay, Alan L.

    1985-04-01

    A minimal surface is one for which, like a soap film with the same pressure on each side, the mean curvature is zero and, thus, is one where the two principal curvatures are equal and opposite at every point. For every closed circuit in the surface, the area is a minimum. Schwarz1 and Neovius2 showed that elements of such surfaces could be put together to give surfaces periodic in three dimensions. These periodic minimal surfaces are geometrical invariants, as are the regular polyhedra, but the former are curved. Minimal surfaces are appropriate for the description of various structures where internal surfaces are prominent and seek to adopt a minimum area or a zero mean curvature subject to their topology; thus they merit more complete numerical characterization. There seem to be at least 18 such surfaces3, with various symmetries and topologies, related to the crystallographic space groups. Recently, glyceryl mono-oleate (GMO) was shown by Longley and McIntosh4 to take the shape of the F-surface. The structure postulated is shown here to be in good agreement with an analysis of the fundamental geometry of periodic minimal surfaces.

  13. Minimally invasive pancreatic surgery.

    PubMed

    Yiannakopoulou, E

    2015-12-01

    Minimally invasive pancreatic surgery is feasible and safe. Laparoscopic distal pancreatectomy should be widely adopted for benign lesions of the pancreas. Laparoscopic pancreaticoduodenectomy, although technically demanding, in the setting of pancreatic ductal adenocarcinoma has a number of advantages including shorter hospital stay, faster recovery, allowing patients to recover in a timelier manner and pursue adjuvant treatment options. Furthermore, it seems that progression-free survival is longer in patients undergoing laparoscopic pancreaticoduodenectomy in comparison with those undergoing open pancreaticoduodenectomy. Minimally invasive middle pancreatectomy seems appropriate for benign or borderline tumors of the neck of the pancreas. Technological advances including intraoperative ultrasound and intraoperative fluorescence imaging systems are expected to facilitate the wide adoption of minimally invasive pancreatic surgery. Although, the oncological outcome seems similar with that of open surgery, there are still concerns, as the majority of relevant evidence comes from retrospective studies. Large multicenter randomized studies comparing laparoscopic with open pancreatectomy as well as robotic assisted with both open and laparoscopic approaches are needed. Robotic approach could be possibly shown to be less invasive than conventional laparoscopic approach through the less traumatic intra-abdominal handling of tissues. In addition, robotic approach could enable the wide adoption of the technique by surgeon who is not that trained in advanced laparoscopic surgery. A putative clinical benefit of minimally invasive pancreatic surgery could be the attenuated surgical stress response leading to reduced morbidity and mortality as well as lack of the detrimental immunosuppressive effect especially for the oncological patients. PMID:26530291

  14. Cognitive ecology.

    PubMed

    Hutchins, Edwin

    2010-10-01

    Cognitive ecology is the study of cognitive phenomena in context. In particular, it points to the web of mutual dependence among the elements of a cognitive ecosystem. At least three fields were taking a deeply ecological approach to cognition 30 years ago: Gibson's ecological psychology, Bateson's ecology of mind, and Soviet cultural-historical activity theory. The ideas developed in those projects have now found a place in modern views of embodied, situated, distributed cognition. As cognitive theory continues to shift from units of analysis defined by inherent properties of the elements to units defined in terms of dynamic patterns of correlation across elements, the study of cognitive ecosystems will become an increasingly important part of cognitive science.

  15. Neural correlates of cognitive style and flexible cognitive control.

    PubMed

    Shin, Gyeonghee; Kim, Chobok

    2015-06-01

    Human abilities of flexible cognitive control are associated with appropriately regulating the amount of cognitive control required in response to contextual demands. In the context of conflicting situations, for instance, the amount of cognitive control increases according to the level of previously experienced conflict, resulting in optimized performance. We explored whether the amount of cognitive control in conflict resolution was related to individual differences in cognitive style that were determined with the Object-Spatial-Verbal cognitive style questionnaire. In this functional magnetic resonance imaging (fMRI) study, a version of the color-word Stroop task, which evokes conflict between color and verbal components, was employed to explore whether individual preferences for distracting information were related to the increases in neural conflict adaptation in cognitive control network regions. The behavioral data revealed that the more the verbal style was preferred, the greater the conflict adaptation effect was observed, especially when the current trial type was congruent. Consistent with the behavioral data, the imaging results demonstrated increased neural conflict adaptation effects in task-relevant network regions, including the left dorsolateral prefrontal cortex, left fusiform gyrus, and left precuneus, as the preference for verbal style increased. These results provide new evidence that flexible cognitive control is closely associated with individuals' preference of cognitive style.

  16. Neural correlates of cognitive style and flexible cognitive control.

    PubMed

    Shin, Gyeonghee; Kim, Chobok

    2015-06-01

    Human abilities of flexible cognitive control are associated with appropriately regulating the amount of cognitive control required in response to contextual demands. In the context of conflicting situations, for instance, the amount of cognitive control increases according to the level of previously experienced conflict, resulting in optimized performance. We explored whether the amount of cognitive control in conflict resolution was related to individual differences in cognitive style that were determined with the Object-Spatial-Verbal cognitive style questionnaire. In this functional magnetic resonance imaging (fMRI) study, a version of the color-word Stroop task, which evokes conflict between color and verbal components, was employed to explore whether individual preferences for distracting information were related to the increases in neural conflict adaptation in cognitive control network regions. The behavioral data revealed that the more the verbal style was preferred, the greater the conflict adaptation effect was observed, especially when the current trial type was congruent. Consistent with the behavioral data, the imaging results demonstrated increased neural conflict adaptation effects in task-relevant network regions, including the left dorsolateral prefrontal cortex, left fusiform gyrus, and left precuneus, as the preference for verbal style increased. These results provide new evidence that flexible cognitive control is closely associated with individuals' preference of cognitive style. PMID:25812714

  17. Cognition, emotion, and attention.

    PubMed

    Müller-Oehring, Eva M; Schulte, Tilman

    2014-01-01

    Deficits of attention, emotion, and cognition occur in individuals with alcohol abuse and addiction. This review elucidates the concepts of attention, emotion, and cognition and references research on the underlying neural networks and their compromise in alcohol use disorder. Neuroimaging research on adolescents with family history of alcoholism contributes to the understanding of pre-existing brain structural conditions and characterization of cognition and attention processes in high-risk individuals. Attention and cognition interact with other brain functions, including perceptual selection, salience, emotion, reward, and memory, through interconnected neural networks. Recent research reports compromised microstructural and functional network connectivity in alcoholism, which can have an effect on the dynamic tuning between brain systems, e.g., the frontally based executive control system, the limbic emotion system, and the midbrain-striatal reward system, thereby impeding cognitive flexibility and behavioral adaptation to changing environments. Finally, we introduce concepts of functional compensation, the capacity to generate attentional resources for performance enhancement, and brain structure recovery with abstinence. An understanding of the neural mechanisms of attention, emotion, and cognition will likely provide the basis for better treatment strategies for developing skills that enhance alcoholism therapy adherence and quality of life, and reduce the propensity for relapse. PMID:25307584

  18. Case report: Angelman syndrome in an individual with a small SMC(15) and paternal uniparental disomy: a case report with reference to the assessment of cognitive functioning and autistic symptomatology.

    PubMed

    Thompson, Russell John; Bolton, Patrick F

    2003-04-01

    The case of a 15-year-old male with Angelman syndrome, paternal uniparental disomy of chromosome 15, and a small supernumerary marker chromosome is discussed. Assessment of cognitive functioning revealed an uneven profile of ability across different domains; in particular, receptive language ability was found to be superior to expressive language ability, whilst both gross and fine motor skills were found to be relatively well developed. Assessment using the Autism Diagnostic Observation Schedule showed very little evidence of autistic symptomatology. The patient showed an interest in social interaction and used a variety of methods to communicate, including some gestures and several single words. A clinical history revealed febrile convulsions during childhood but an absence of seizures in the previous 5 years. The patient was not hypopigmented, and height, weight, and head circumference were within the normal range for his age. The implications of these features are discussed in the context of previous work describing a milder phenotype in nondeletion cases of Angelman syndrome and work that has examined the prevalence of autism spectrum disorders amongst individuals with Angelman syndrome.

  19. Discrete Minimal Surface Algebras

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Arnlind, Joakim; Hoppe, Jens

    2010-05-01

    We consider discrete minimal surface algebras (DMSA) as generalized noncommutative analogues of minimal surfaces in higher dimensional spheres. These algebras appear naturally in membrane theory, where sequences of their representations are used as a regularization. After showing that the defining relations of the algebra are consistent, and that one can compute a basis of the enveloping algebra, we give several explicit examples of DMSAs in terms of subsets of sln (any semi-simple Lie algebra providing a trivial example by itself). A special class of DMSAs are Yang-Mills algebras. The representation graph is introduced to study representations of DMSAs of dimension d ≤ 4, and properties of representations are related to properties of graphs. The representation graph of a tensor product is (generically) the Cartesian product of the corresponding graphs. We provide explicit examples of irreducible representations and, for coinciding eigenvalues, classify all the unitary representations of the corresponding algebras.

  20. Motor Dynamics of Embodied Cognition

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Anderson, Sarah Elizabeth

    2011-01-01

    Predominant theories of cognition have previously emphasized the modularity of processing, in which individual isolated modules process information free from the influence of other types of information. However, more recent theories suggest that cognition is much more linked to motor and sensory processes than modular theories suggest. In this…

  1. Stochastic Dynamics Underlying Cognitive Stability and Flexibility.

    PubMed

    Ueltzhöffer, Kai; Armbruster-Genç, Diana J N; Fiebach, Christian J

    2015-06-01

    Cognitive stability and flexibility are core functions in the successful pursuit of behavioral goals. While there is evidence for a common frontoparietal network underlying both functions and for a key role of dopamine in the modulation of flexible versus stable behavior, the exact neurocomputational mechanisms underlying those executive functions and their adaptation to environmental demands are still unclear. In this work we study the neurocomputational mechanisms underlying cue based task switching (flexibility) and distractor inhibition (stability) in a paradigm specifically designed to probe both functions. We develop a physiologically plausible, explicit model of neural networks that maintain the currently active task rule in working memory and implement the decision process. We simplify the four-choice decision network to a nonlinear drift-diffusion process that we canonically derive from a generic winner-take-all network model. By fitting our model to the behavioral data of individual subjects, we can reproduce their full behavior in terms of decisions and reaction time distributions in baseline as well as distractor inhibition and switch conditions. Furthermore, we predict the individual hemodynamic response timecourse of the rule-representing network and localize it to a frontoparietal network including the inferior frontal junction area and the intraparietal sulcus, using functional magnetic resonance imaging. This refines the understanding of task-switch-related frontoparietal brain activity as reflecting attractor-like working memory representations of task rules. Finally, we estimate the subject-specific stability of the rule-representing attractor states in terms of the minimal action associated with a transition between different rule states in the phase-space of the fitted models. This stability measure correlates with switching-specific thalamocorticostriatal activation, i.e., with a system associated with flexible working memory updating and

  2. Stochastic Dynamics Underlying Cognitive Stability and Flexibility

    PubMed Central

    Ueltzhöffer, Kai; Armbruster-Genç, Diana J. N.; Fiebach, Christian J.

    2015-01-01

    Cognitive stability and flexibility are core functions in the successful pursuit of behavioral goals. While there is evidence for a common frontoparietal network underlying both functions and for a key role of dopamine in the modulation of flexible versus stable behavior, the exact neurocomputational mechanisms underlying those executive functions and their adaptation to environmental demands are still unclear. In this work we study the neurocomputational mechanisms underlying cue based task switching (flexibility) and distractor inhibition (stability) in a paradigm specifically designed to probe both functions. We develop a physiologically plausible, explicit model of neural networks that maintain the currently active task rule in working memory and implement the decision process. We simplify the four-choice decision network to a nonlinear drift-diffusion process that we canonically derive from a generic winner-take-all network model. By fitting our model to the behavioral data of individual subjects, we can reproduce their full behavior in terms of decisions and reaction time distributions in baseline as well as distractor inhibition and switch conditions. Furthermore, we predict the individual hemodynamic response timecourse of the rule-representing network and localize it to a frontoparietal network including the inferior frontal junction area and the intraparietal sulcus, using functional magnetic resonance imaging. This refines the understanding of task-switch-related frontoparietal brain activity as reflecting attractor-like working memory representations of task rules. Finally, we estimate the subject-specific stability of the rule-representing attractor states in terms of the minimal action associated with a transition between different rule states in the phase-space of the fitted models. This stability measure correlates with switching-specific thalamocorticostriatal activation, i.e., with a system associated with flexible working memory updating and

  3. Case study: auditory brain responses in a minimally verbal child with autism and cerebral palsy

    PubMed Central

    Yau, Shu H.; McArthur, Genevieve; Badcock, Nicholas A.; Brock, Jon

    2015-01-01

    An estimated 30% of individuals with autism spectrum disorders (ASD) remain minimally verbal into late childhood, but research on cognition and brain function in ASD focuses almost exclusively on those with good or only moderately impaired language. Here we present a case study investigating auditory processing of GM, a nonverbal child with ASD and cerebral palsy. At the age of 8 years, GM was tested using magnetoencephalography (MEG) whilst passively listening to speech sounds and complex tones. Where typically developing children and verbal autistic children all demonstrated similar brain responses to speech and nonspeech sounds, GM produced much stronger responses to nonspeech than speech, particularly in the 65–165 ms (M50/M100) time window post-stimulus onset. GM was retested aged 10 years using electroencephalography (EEG) whilst passively listening to pure tone stimuli. Consistent with her MEG response to complex tones, GM showed an unusually early and strong response to pure tones in her EEG responses. The consistency of the MEG and EEG data in this single case study demonstrate both the potential and the feasibility of these methods in the study of minimally verbal children with ASD. Further research is required to determine whether GM's atypical auditory responses are characteristic of other minimally verbal children with ASD or of other individuals with cerebral palsy. PMID:26150768

  4. A two-decade comparison of prevalence of dementia in individuals aged 65 years and older from three geographical areas of England: results of the Cognitive Function and Ageing Study I and II

    PubMed Central

    Matthews, Fiona E; Arthur, Antony; Barnes, Linda E; Bond, John; Jagger, Carol; Robinson, Louise; Brayne, Carol

    2013-01-01

    Summary Background The prevalence of dementia is of interest worldwide. Contemporary estimates are needed to plan for future care provision, but much evidence is decades old. We aimed to investigate whether the prevalence of dementia had changed in the past two decades by repeating the same approach and diagnostic methods as used in the Medical Research Council Cognitive Function and Ageing Study (MRC CFAS) in three of the original study areas in England. Methods Between 1989 and 1994, MRC CFAS investigators did baseline interviews in populations aged 65 years and older in six geographically defined areas in England and Wales. A two stage process, with screening followed by diagnostic assessment, was used to obtain data for algorithmic diagnoses (geriatric mental state–automated geriatric examination for computer assisted taxonomy), which were then used to estimate dementia prevalence. Data from three of these areas—Cambridgeshire, Newcastle, and Nottingham—were selected for CFAS I. Between 2008 and 2011, new fieldwork was done in the same three areas for the CFAS II study. For both CFAS I and II, each area needed to include 2500 individuals aged 65 years and older to provide power for geographical and generational comparison. Sampling was stratified according to age group (65–74 years vs ≥75 years). CFAS II used identical sampling, approach, and diagnostic methods to CFAS I, except that screening and assessement were combined into one stage. Prevalence estimates were calculated using inverse probability weighting methods to adjust for sampling design and non-response. Full likelihood Bayesian models were used to investigate informative non-response. Findings 7635 people aged 65 years or older were interviewed in CFAS I (9602 approached, 80% response) in Cambridgeshire, Newcastle, and Nottingham, with 1457 being diagnostically assessed. In the same geographical areas, the CFAS II investigators interviewed 7796 individuals (14 242 approached, 242 with

  5. Cognitive stimulation in brainstorming.

    PubMed

    Dugosh, K L; Paulus, P B; Roland, E J; Yang, H C

    2000-11-01

    Research on group brainstorming has demonstrated that it is less effective for generating large numbers of ideas than individual brainstorming, yet various scholars have presumed that group idea sharing should enhance cognitive stimulation and idea production. Three experiments examined the potential of cognitive stimulation in brainstorming. Experiments 1 and 2 used a paradigm in which individuals were exposed to ideas on audiotape as they were brainstorming, and Experiment 3 used the electronic brainstorming paradigm. Evidence was obtained for enhanced idea generation both during and after idea exposure. The attentional set of the participant and the content of the exposure manipulation (number of ideas, presence of irrelevant information) influenced this effect. These results are consistent with a cognitive perspective on group brainstorming.

  6. Down Syndrome: Cognitive Phenotype

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Silverman, Wayne

    2007-01-01

    Down syndrome is the most prevalent cause of intellectual impairment associated with a genetic anomaly, in this case, trisomy of chromosome 21. It affects both physical and cognitive development and produces a characteristic phenotype, although affected individuals vary considerably with respect to severity of specific impairments. Studies…

  7. The Cognitive Unconscious.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Kihlstrom, John F.

    1987-01-01

    Addresses implications drawn from contemporary research in cognitive psychology which deal with the impact of nonconscious mental structures and processes on an individual's experience, thought, and action. Discusses the information-processing perspective, automatic processes, subliminal perception, implicit memory, hypnotic alterations, and the…

  8. Fail or flourish? Cognitive appraisal moderates the effect of solo status on performance.

    PubMed

    White, Judith B

    2008-09-01

    When everyone in a group shares a common social identity except one individual, the one who is different from the majority has solo status. Solo status increases one's visibility and performance pressure, which may result in stress. Stress has divergent effects on performance, and individuals' response to stressful situations is predicted by their cognitive appraisal (challenge or threat) of the situation. Two experiments test the hypothesis that cognitive appraisal moderates the effect of solo status on performance. Experiment 1 finds that at relatively high appraisal levels (resources exceed demands), solo status improves men's and women's performance; at relatively low appraisal levels, solo status hurts performance. Experiment 2 replicates this effect for solo status based on minimal group assignment. Results suggest that for individuals who feel challenged and not threatened by their work, it may help to be a solo.

  9. Minimally invasive mediastinal surgery

    PubMed Central

    Melfi, Franca M. A.; Mussi, Alfredo

    2016-01-01

    In the past, mediastinal surgery was associated with the necessity of a maximum exposure, which was accomplished through various approaches. In the early 1990s, many surgical fields, including thoracic surgery, observed the development of minimally invasive techniques. These included video-assisted thoracic surgery (VATS), which confers clear advantages over an open approach, such as less trauma, short hospital stay, increased cosmetic results and preservation of lung function. However, VATS is associated with several disadvantages. For this reason, it is not routinely performed for resection of mediastinal mass lesions, especially those located in the anterior mediastinum, a tiny and remote space that contains vital structures at risk of injury. Robotic systems can overcome the limits of VATS, offering three-dimensional (3D) vision and wristed instrumentations, and are being increasingly used. With regards to thymectomy for myasthenia gravis (MG), unilateral and bilateral VATS approaches have demonstrated good long-term neurologic results with low complication rates. Nevertheless, some authors still advocate the necessity of maximum exposure, especially when considering the distribution of normal and ectopic thymic tissue. In recent studies, the robotic approach has shown to provide similar neurological outcomes when compared to transsternal and VATS approaches, and is associated with a low morbidity. Importantly, through a unilateral robotic technique, it is possible to dissect and remove at least the same amount of mediastinal fat tissue. Preliminary results on early-stage thymomatous disease indicated that minimally invasive approaches are safe and feasible, with a low rate of pleural recurrence, underlining the necessity of a “no-touch” technique. However, especially for thymomatous disease characterized by an indolent nature, further studies with long follow-up period are necessary in order to assess oncologic and neurologic results through minimally

  10. The ZOOM minimization package

    SciTech Connect

    Fischler, Mark S.; Sachs, D.; /Fermilab

    2004-11-01

    A new object-oriented Minimization package is available for distribution in the same manner as CLHEP. This package, designed for use in HEP applications, has all the capabilities of Minuit, but is a re-write from scratch, adhering to modern C++ design principles. A primary goal of this package is extensibility in several directions, so that its capabilities can be kept fresh with as little maintenance effort as possible. This package is distinguished by the priority that was assigned to C++ design issues, and the focus on producing an extensible system that will resist becoming obsolete.

  11. Minimally refined biomass fuel

    DOEpatents

    Pearson, Richard K.; Hirschfeld, Tomas B.

    1984-01-01

    A minimally refined fluid composition, suitable as a fuel mixture and derived from biomass material, is comprised of one or more water-soluble carbohydrates such as sucrose, one or more alcohols having less than four carbons, and water. The carbohydrate provides the fuel source; water solubilizes the carbohydrates; and the alcohol aids in the combustion of the carbohydrate and reduces the vicosity of the carbohydrate/water solution. Because less energy is required to obtain the carbohydrate from the raw biomass than alcohol, an overall energy savings is realized compared to fuels employing alcohol as the primary fuel.

  12. Minimal E6 unification

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Susič, Vasja

    2016-06-01

    A realistic model in the class of renormalizable supersymmetric E6 Grand Unified Theories is constructed. Its matter sector consists of 3 × 27 representations, while the Higgs sector is 27 +27 ¯+35 1'+35 1' ¯+78 . An analytic solution for a Standard Model vacuum is found and the Yukawa sector analyzed. It is argued that if one considers the increased predictability due to only two symmetric Yukawa matrices in this model, it can be considered a minimal SUSY E6 model with this type of matter sector. This contribution is based on Ref. [1].

  13. Parkinson's disease-cognitive rating scale: psychometrics for mild cognitive impairment.

    PubMed

    Fernández de Bobadilla, Ramón; Pagonabarraga, Javier; Martínez-Horta, Saül; Pascual-Sedano, Berta; Campolongo, Antonia; Kulisevsky, Jaime

    2013-09-01

    Lack of validated data on cutoff scores for mild cognitive impairment (MCI) and sensitivity to change in predementia stages of Parkinson's disease (PD) limit the utility of instruments measuring global cognition as screening and outcome measures in therapeutic trials. Investigators who were blinded to PD-Cognitive Rating Scale (PD-CRS) scores classified a cohort of prospectively recruited, nondemented patients into a PD with normal cognition (PD-NC) group and a PD with MCI (PD-MCI) group using Clinical Dementia Rating (CDR) and the Mattis Dementia Rating Scale-2 (MDRS-2). The discriminative power of the PD-CRS for PD-MCI was examined in a representative sample of 234 patients (145 in the PD-NC group; 89 in the PD-MCI group) and in a control group of 98 healthy individuals. Sensitivity to change in the PD-CRS score (the minimal clinically important difference was examined with the Clinical Global Impression of Change scale and was calculated with a combination of distribution-based and anchor-based approaches) was explored in a 6-month observational multicenter trial involving a subset of 120 patients (PD-NC, 63; PD-MCI, 57). Regression analysis demonstrated that PD-CRS total scores (P < 0.001) and age (P = 0.01) independently differentiated PD-NC from PD-MCI. Area under the receiver operating characteristic curve (AUC) analysis (AUC, 0.85; 95% confidence interval, 0.80-0.90) indicated that a score ≤ 81 of 134 was the optimal cutoff point on the total score for the PD-CRS (sensitivity, 79%; specificity, 80%; positive predictive value, 59%; negative predictive value, 91%). A range of change from 10 to 13 points on the PD-CRS total score was indicative of clinically significant change. These findings suggest that the PD-CRS is a useful tool to identify PD-MCI and to track cognitive changes in nondemented patients with PD.

  14. Cognitive functioning in socially anxious adults: insights from the NIH Toolbox Cognition Battery

    PubMed Central

    Troller-Renfree, Sonya V.; Barker, Tyson V.; Pine, Daniel S.; Fox, Nathan A.

    2015-01-01

    Theory suggests that individuals with social anxiety manifest unique patterns of cognition with less efficient fluid cognition and unperturbed crystallized cognition; however, empirical support for these ideas remains inconclusive. The heterogeneity of past findings may reflect unreliability in cognitive assessments or the influence of confounding variables. The present study examined the relations among social anxiety and performance on the reliable, newly established NIH Toolbox Cognition Battery. Results indicate that high socially anxious adults performed as well as low anxious participants on all measures of fluid cognition. However, high socially anxious adults demonstrated enhanced crystallized cognitive abilities relative to a low socially anxious comparison group. PMID:26106346

  15. Cognitive approaches to early Alzheimer's disease diagnosis.

    PubMed

    Harrison, John

    2013-05-01

    In this article, cognitive measures in the screening of individuals at risk for Alzheimer disease (AD) are reviewed. Use of cognitive tasks in identifying clinical cases of AD is considered, as well as methods for detecting those in the prodromal stages of the disease, including cognitive screening instruments. Traditional assessments, such as the mini-mental state examination, as well as contemporary computerized screening instruments, are examined. Areas of cognition for investigation in the detection of prodromal AD are recommended. The prospects for general cognitive screening are reviewed, and more engaging technologies to tests individuals at risk for developing AD are recommended.

  16. Logarithmic superconformal minimal models

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Pearce, Paul A.; Rasmussen, Jørgen; Tartaglia, Elena

    2014-05-01

    The higher fusion level logarithmic minimal models {\\cal LM}(P,P';n) have recently been constructed as the diagonal GKO cosets {(A_1^{(1)})_k\\oplus (A_1^ {(1)})_n}/ {(A_1^{(1)})_{k+n}} where n ≥ 1 is an integer fusion level and k = nP/(P‧- P) - 2 is a fractional level. For n = 1, these are the well-studied logarithmic minimal models {\\cal LM}(P,P')\\equiv {\\cal LM}(P,P';1). For n ≥ 2, we argue that these critical theories are realized on the lattice by n × n fusion of the n = 1 models. We study the critical fused lattice models {\\cal LM}(p,p')_{n\\times n} within a lattice approach and focus our study on the n = 2 models. We call these logarithmic superconformal minimal models {\\cal LSM}(p,p')\\equiv {\\cal LM}(P,P';2) where P = |2p - p‧|, P‧ = p‧ and p, p‧ are coprime. These models share the central charges c=c^{P,P';2}=\\frac {3}{2}\\big (1-{2(P'-P)^2}/{P P'}\\big ) of the rational superconformal minimal models {\\cal SM}(P,P'). Lattice realizations of these theories are constructed by fusing 2 × 2 blocks of the elementary face operators of the n = 1 logarithmic minimal models {\\cal LM}(p,p'). Algebraically, this entails the fused planar Temperley-Lieb algebra which is a spin-1 Birman-Murakami-Wenzl tangle algebra with loop fugacity β2 = [x]3 = x2 + 1 + x-2 and twist ω = x4 where x = eiλ and λ = (p‧- p)π/p‧. The first two members of this n = 2 series are superconformal dense polymers {\\cal LSM}(2,3) with c=-\\frac {5}{2}, β2 = 0 and superconformal percolation {\\cal LSM}(3,4) with c = 0, β2 = 1. We calculate the bulk and boundary free energies analytically. By numerically studying finite-size conformal spectra on the strip with appropriate boundary conditions, we argue that, in the continuum scaling limit, these lattice models are associated with the logarithmic superconformal models {\\cal LM}(P,P';2). For system size N, we propose finitized Kac character formulae of the form q^{-{c^{P,P';2}}/{24}+\\Delta ^{P,P';2} _{r

  17. Psychostimulants and Cognition: A Continuum of Behavioral and Cognitive Activation

    PubMed Central

    Wood, Suzanne; Sage, Jennifer R.; Shuman, Tristan

    2014-01-01

    Psychostimulants such as cocaine have been used as performance enhancers throughout recorded history. Although psychostimulants are commonly prescribed to improve attention and cognition, a great deal of literature has described their ability to induce cognitive deficits, as well as addiction. How can a single drug class be known to produce both cognitive enhancement and impairment? Properties of the particular stimulant drug itself and individual differences between users have both been suggested to dictate the outcome of stimulant use. A more parsimonious alternative, which we endorse, is that dose is the critical determining factor in cognitive effects of stimulant drugs. Herein, we review several popular stimulants (cocaine, amphetamine, methylphenidate, modafinil, and caffeine), outlining their history of use, mechanism of action, and use and abuse today. One common graphic depiction of the cognitive effects of psychostimulants is an inverted U–shaped dose-effect curve. Moderate arousal is beneficial to cognition, whereas too much activation leads to cognitive impairment. In parallel to this schematic, we propose a continuum of psychostimulant activation that covers the transition from one drug effect to another as stimulant intake is increased. Low doses of stimulants effect increased arousal, attention, and cognitive enhancement; moderate doses can lead to feelings of euphoria and power, as well as addiction and cognitive impairment; and very high doses lead to psychosis and circulatory collapse. This continuum helps account for the seemingly disparate effects of stimulant drugs, with the same drug being associated with cognitive enhancement and impairment. PMID:24344115

  18. Cognitive strategies of university athletes.

    PubMed

    Madigan, R; Frey, R D; Matlock, T S

    1992-06-01

    Thirty-six college basketball players and skiers, both men and women, were interviewed about their use of cognitive processes to prepare themselves for competition. The interviews examined cognitive techniques for enhancing motor skills and developing competitive strategies. During the interviews the subjects engaged in some of their cognitive preparation strategies and then described the details of these experiences. All athletes reported that the use of cognitive strategies enhanced their performance. Their imagery was rich, detailed, and multisensory. An average of three sensory modalities were present in the imagery. Vision, kinesthesis, and touch were the most common sensory experiences reported, but audition, taste, and smell were also experienced by some athletes. Strong affective states, especially confidence and satisfaction, accompanied the imagery. Individual differences in the imagery used by the athletes were also found and may be related to individual differences in the athletes' cognitive styles.

  19. Memory and Mystery: The Cultural Selection of Minimally Counterintuitive Narratives

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Norenzayan, Ara; Atran, Scott; Faulkner, Jason; Schaller, Mark

    2006-01-01

    We hypothesize that cultural narratives such as myths and folktales are more likely to achieve cultural stability if they correspond to a minimally counterintuitive (MCI) cognitive template that includes mostly intuitive concepts combined with a minority of counterintuitive ones. Two studies tested this hypothesis, examining whether this template…

  20. Task-Dependent Individual Differences in Prefrontal Connectivity

    PubMed Central

    Biswal, Bharat B.; Eldreth, Dana A.; Motes, Michael A.

    2010-01-01

    Recent advances in neuroimaging have permitted testing of hypotheses regarding the neural bases of individual differences, but this burgeoning literature has been characterized by inconsistent results. To test the hypothesis that differences in task demands could contribute to between-study variability in brain-behavior relationships, we had participants perform 2 tasks that varied in the extent of cognitive involvement. We examined connectivity between brain regions during a low-demand vigilance task and a higher-demand digit–symbol visual search task using Granger causality analysis (GCA). Our results showed 1) Significant differences in numbers of frontoparietal connections between low- and high-demand tasks 2) that GCA can detect activity changes that correspond with task-demand changes, and 3) faster participants showed more vigilance-related activity than slower participants, but less visual-search activity. These results suggest that relatively low-demand cognitive performance depends on spontaneous bidirectionally fluctuating network activity, whereas high-demand performance depends on a limited, unidirectional network. The nature of brain-behavior relationships may vary depending on the extent of cognitive demand. High-demand network activity may reflect the extent to which individuals require top-down executive guidance of behavior for successful task performance. Low-demand network activity may reflect task- and performance monitoring that minimizes executive requirements for guidance of behavior. PMID:20064942

  1. MINIMIZING COGNITIVE ERRORS IN SITE-SPECIFIC CAUSAL ASSESSMENT

    EPA Science Inventory

    Interest in causal investigations in aquatic systems has been a natural outgrowth of the increased use of biological monitoring to characterize the condition of resources. Although biological monitoring approaches are critical tools for detecting whether effects are occurring, t...

  2. Decision making and the avoidance of cognitive demand.

    PubMed

    Kool, Wouter; McGuire, Joseph T; Rosen, Zev B; Botvinick, Matthew M

    2010-11-01

    Behavioral and economic theories have long maintained that actions are chosen so as to minimize demands for exertion or work, a principle sometimes referred to as the law of less work. The data supporting this idea pertain almost entirely to demands for physical effort. However, the same minimization principle has often been assumed also to apply to cognitive demand. The authors set out to evaluate the validity of this assumption. In 6 behavioral experiments, participants chose freely between courses of action associated with different levels of demand for controlled information processing. Together, the results of these experiments revealed a bias in favor of the less demanding course of action. The bias was obtained across a range of choice settings and demand manipulations and was not wholly attributable to strategic avoidance of errors, minimization of time on task, or maximization of the rate of goal achievement. It is remarkable that the effect also did not depend on awareness of the demand manipulation. Consistent with a motivational account, avoidance of demand displayed sensitivity to task incentives and covaried with individual differences in the efficacy of executive control. The findings reported, together with convergent neuroscientific evidence, lend support to the idea that anticipated cognitive demand plays a significant role in behavioral decision making. PMID:20853993

  3. Motoric cognitive risk syndrome

    PubMed Central

    Annweiler, Cedric; Ayers, Emmeline; Barzilai, Nir; Beauchet, Olivier; Bennett, David A.; Bridenbaugh, Stephanie A.; Buchman, Aron S.; Callisaya, Michele L.; Camicioli, Richard; Capistrant, Benjamin; Chatterji, Somnath; De Cock, Anne-Marie; Ferrucci, Luigi; Giladi, Nir; Guralnik, Jack M.; Hausdorff, Jeffrey M.; Holtzer, Roee; Kim, Ki Woong; Kowal, Paul; Kressig, Reto W.; Lim, Jae-Young; Lord, Susan; Meguro, Kenichi; Montero-Odasso, Manuel; Muir-Hunter, Susan W.; Noone, Mohan L.; Rochester, Lynn; Srikanth, Velandai; Wang, Cuiling

    2014-01-01

    Objectives: Our objective is to report prevalence of motoric cognitive risk syndrome (MCR), a newly described predementia syndrome characterized by slow gait and cognitive complaints, in multiple countries, and its association with dementia risk. Methods: Pooled MCR prevalence analysis of individual data from 26,802 adults without dementia and disability aged 60 years and older from 22 cohorts from 17 countries. We also examined risk of incident cognitive impairment (Mini-Mental State Examination decline ≥4 points) and dementia associated with MCR in 4,812 individuals without dementia with baseline Mini-Mental State Examination scores ≥25 from 4 prospective cohort studies using Cox models adjusted for potential confounders. Results: At baseline, 2,808 of the 26,802 participants met MCR criteria. Pooled MCR prevalence was 9.7% (95% confidence interval [CI] 8.2%–11.2%). MCR prevalence was higher with older age but there were no sex differences. MCR predicted risk of developing incident cognitive impairment in the pooled sample (adjusted hazard ratio [aHR] 2.0, 95% CI 1.7–2.4); aHRs were 1.5 to 2.7 in the individual cohorts. MCR also predicted dementia in the pooled sample (aHR 1.9, 95% CI 1.5–2.3). The results persisted even after excluding participants with possible cognitive impairment, accounting for early dementia, and diagnostic overlap with other predementia syndromes. Conclusion: MCR is common in older adults, and is a strong and early risk factor for cognitive decline. This clinical approach can be easily applied to identify high-risk seniors in a wide variety of settings. PMID:25031288

  4. Minimizing fan energy costs

    SciTech Connect

    Monroe, R.C.

    1985-05-27

    Minimizing fan energy costs and maximizing fan efficiency is the subject of this paper. Blade design itself can cause poor flow distribution and inefficiency. A basic design criterion is that a blade should produce uniform flow over the entire plane of the fan. Also an inherent problem with the axial fan is swirl -- the tangential deflection of exit-flow caused by the effect of torque. Swirl can be prevented with an inexpensive hub component. Basic efficiency can be checked by means of the fan's performance curve. Generally, fewer blades translate into higher axial-fan efficiency. A crowded inboard area creates hub turbulence which lessens efficiency. Whether the pitch of fan blades is fixed or variable also affects energy consumption. Power savings of 50% per year or more can be realized by replacing fixed-pitch, continuously operating fans with fans whose blade pitch or speed is automatically varied.

  5. Transanal Minimally Invasive Surgery

    PubMed Central

    deBeche-Adams, Teresa; Nassif, George

    2015-01-01

    Transanal minimally invasive surgery (TAMIS) was first described in 2010 as a crossover between single-incision laparoscopic surgery and transanal endoscopic microsurgery (TEM) to allow access to the proximal and mid-rectum for resection of benign and early-stage malignant rectal lesions. The TAMIS technique can also be used for noncurative intent surgery of more advanced lesions in patients who are not candidates for radical surgery. Proper workup and staging should be done before surgical decision-making. In addition to the TAMIS port, instrumentation and set up include readily available equipment found in most operating suites. TAMIS has proven its usefulness in a wide range of applications outside of local excision, including repair of rectourethral fistula, removal of rectal foreign body, control of rectal hemorrhage, and as an adjunct in total mesorectal excision for rectal cancer. TAMIS is an easily accessible, technically feasible, and cost-effective alternative to TEM. PMID:26491410

  6. [Minimal invasive implantology].

    PubMed

    Bruck, N; Zagury, A; Nahlieli, O

    2015-07-01

    Endoscopic surgery has changed the philosophy and practice of modern surgery in all aspects of medicine. It gave rise to minimally invasive surgery procedures based on the ability to visualize and to operate via small channels. In maxillofacial surgery, our ability to see clearly the surgical field opened an entirely new world of exploration, as conditions that were once almost impossible to control and whose outcome was uncertain can be now predictably managed. in this article we will descripe the advantage of using the oral endoscope during the dental implantology procedure, and we will describe a unique implant which enable us in combination with the oral endoscope to create a maxillary sinus lift with out the need of the major surgery with all of its risks and complication.

  7. [Minimally invasive breast surgery].

    PubMed

    Mátrai, Zoltán; Gulyás, Gusztáv; Kunos, Csaba; Sávolt, Akos; Farkas, Emil; Szollár, András; Kásler, Miklós

    2014-02-01

    Due to the development in medical science and industrial technology, minimally invasive procedures have appeared in the surgery of benign and malignant breast diseases. In general , such interventions result in significantly reduced breast and chest wall scars, shorter hospitalization and less pain, but they require specific, expensive devices, longer surgical time compared to open surgery. Furthermore, indications or oncological safety have not been established yet. It is quite likely, that minimally invasive surgical procedures with high-tech devices - similar to other surgical subspecialties -, will gradually become popular and it may form part of routine breast surgery even. Vacuum-assisted core biopsy with a therapeutic indication is suitable for the removal of benign fibroadenomas leaving behind an almost invisible scar, while endoscopically assisted skin-sparing and nipple-sparing mastectomy, axillary staging and reconstruction with latissimus dorsi muscle flap are all feasible through the same short axillary incision. Endoscopic techniques are also suitable for the diagnostics and treatment of intracapsular complications of implant-based breast reconstructions (intracapsular fluid, implant rupture, capsular contracture) and for the biopsy of intracapsular lesions with uncertain pathology. Perception of the role of radiofrequency ablation of breast tumors requires further hands-on experience, but it is likely that it can serve as a replacement of surgical removal in a portion of primary tumors in the future due to the development in functional imaging and anticancer drugs. With the reduction of the price of ductoscopes routine examination of the ductal branch system, guided microdochectomy and targeted surgical removal of terminal ducto-lobular units or a "sick lobe" as an anatomical unit may become feasible. The paper presents the experience of the authors and provides a literature review, for the first time in Hungarian language on the subject. Orv. Hetil

  8. Minimally invasive parathyroid surgery

    PubMed Central

    Noureldine, Salem I.; Gooi, Zhen

    2015-01-01

    Traditionally, bilateral cervical exploration for localization of all four parathyroid glands and removal of any that are grossly enlarged has been the standard surgical treatment for primary hyperparathyroidism (PHPT). With the advances in preoperative localization studies and greater public demand for less invasive procedures, novel targeted, minimally invasive techniques to the parathyroid glands have been described and practiced over the past 2 decades. Minimally invasive parathyroidectomy (MIP) can be done either through the standard Kocher incision, a smaller midline incision, with video assistance (purely endoscopic and video-assisted techniques), or through an ectopically placed, extracervical, incision. In current practice, once PHPT is diagnosed, preoperative evaluation using high-resolution radiographic imaging to localize the offending parathyroid gland is essential if MIP is to be considered. The imaging study results suggest where the surgeon should begin the focused procedure and serve as a road map to allow tailoring of an efficient, imaging-guided dissection while eliminating the unnecessary dissection of multiple glands or a bilateral exploration. Intraoperative parathyroid hormone (IOPTH) levels may be measured during the procedure, or a gamma probe used during radioguided parathyroidectomy, to ascertain that the correct gland has been excised and that no other hyperfunctional tissue is present. MIP has many advantages over the traditional bilateral, four-gland exploration. MIP can be performed using local anesthesia, requires less operative time, results in fewer complications, and offers an improved cosmetic result and greater patient satisfaction. Additional advantages of MIP are earlier hospital discharge and decreased overall associated costs. This article aims to address the considerations for accomplishing MIP, including the role of preoperative imaging studies, intraoperative adjuncts, and surgical techniques. PMID:26425454

  9. Social Individualism.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Cornille, Thomas A.; Harrigan, John

    Relationships between individuals and society have often been presented from the perspective of the social institution. Social psychology has addressed the variables that affect the individual in relationships with larger groups. Social individualism is a conceptual framework that explores the relationship of the individual and society from the…

  10. Management options for minimal hepatic encephalopathy.

    PubMed

    Bajaj, Jasmohan S

    2008-12-01

    Minimal hepatic encephalopathy (MHE) is a neurocognitive dysfunction that is present in the majority of patients with cirrhosis. MHE has a characteristic cognitive profile that cannot be diagnosed clinically. This cognitive dysfunction is independent of sleep dysfunction or problems with overall intelligence. MHE has a significant impact on quality of life, the ability to function in daily life and progression to overt hepatic encephalopathy. Driving ability can be impaired in MHE and this may be a significant factor behind motor vehicle accidents. A crucial aspect of the clinical care of MHE patients is their driving history, which is often ignored during routine care and can add a vital dimension to the overall disease assessment. Driving history should be an integral part of the care of patients with MHE. The preserved communication skills and lack of specific signs and insight make MHE difficult to diagnose. The predominant strategies for MHE diagnosis are psychometric or neurophysiological testing. These are usually limited by financial, normative or time constraints. Studies into inhibitory control, cognitive drug research and critical flicker frequency tests are encouraging. These tests do not require a psychologist for administration and interpretation. Lactulose and probiotics have been studied for their potential use as therapies for MHE, but these are not standard-of-care practices at this time. Therapy can improve the quality of life in MHE patients but the natural history, specific diagnostic strategies and treatment options are still being investigated. PMID:19090738

  11. Experienced Cognition.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Carlson, Richard A.

    This book describes a theoretical framework, "experienced cognition," for understanding cognition at the level of conscious mental states that make up a person's stream of awareness. The central idea is a cospecification hypothesis that an experienced self and experienced objects are simultaneously specified in the information available to…

  12. Adult individual differences as moderators of child effects.

    PubMed

    Bates, J E; Pettit, G S

    1981-09-01

    Experimentally varying child behavior stimuli and then assessing the extent to which adult individual differences (especially in cognitions) moderate the effect of the child on the adult is a variation on the usual methods in child effects research. This method allows description of the role of child effects in more complex adult-child systems. Existing literature incorporating this approach is reviewed, with emphasis on the moderating effects of sex, personality, and perceptions. A previously unreported study is described as an example of a multivariate approach to exploring the relationships between adult individual differences and the effects of infant stimuli. The study suggests that experienced caregivers who do not have much liking for infants see themselves as likely to provide appropriate, but minimally social care for an infant. Conversely, the study suggests that inexperienced adults who like infants very much see themselves as providing more extensive and social caregiving, although it would not always be appropriate to the infant's state. PMID:7320350

  13. Over-Prescribed Medications, Under-Appreciated Risks: A Review of the Cognitive Effects of Anticholinergic Medications in Older Adults.

    PubMed

    Britt, Daniel M I; Day, Gregory S

    2016-01-01

    Anticholinergic medications are associated with adverse cognitive effects in cognitively normal and impaired individuals, with a greater magnitude of effect observed in individuals with preexisting cognitive impairment due to Alzheimer disease. PMID:27443047

  14. Visual cognition

    SciTech Connect

    Pinker, S.

    1985-01-01

    This collection of research papers on visual cognition first appeared as a special issue of Cognition: International Journal of Cognitive Science. The study of visual cognition has seen enormous progress in the past decade, bringing important advances in our understanding of shape perception, visual imagery, and mental maps. Many of these discoveries are the result of converging investigations in different areas, such as cognitive and perceptual psychology, artificial intelligence, and neuropsychology. This volume is intended to highlight a sample of work at the cutting edge of this research area for the benefit of students and researchers in a variety of disciplines. The tutorial introduction that begins the volume is designed to help the nonspecialist reader bridge the gap between the contemporary research reported here and earlier textbook introductions or literature reviews.

  15. The Myth of Cognitive Consistency: Psychological Theories and Intimate Violence.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Horowitz, Sandra V.

    Several psychological theories are viable when examining the victims of intimate violence, specifically battered women. Although cognitive consistency models view individuals as striving toward balanced cognitive states, battered women can exist with the cognitive inconsistency of being harmed by men who love them. The theory of cognitive arousal…

  16. Music training, cognition, and personality.

    PubMed

    Corrigall, Kathleen A; Schellenberg, E Glenn; Misura, Nicole M

    2013-01-01

    Although most studies that examined associations between music training and cognitive abilities had correlational designs, the prevailing bias is that music training causes improvements in cognition. It is also possible, however, that high-functioning children are more likely than other children to take music lessons, and that they also differ in personality. We asked whether individual differences in cognition and personality predict who takes music lessons and for how long. The participants were 118 adults (Study 1) and 167 10- to 12-year-old children (Study 2). We collected demographic information and measured cognitive ability and the Big Five personality dimensions. As in previous research, cognitive ability was associated with musical involvement even when demographic variables were controlled statistically. Novel findings indicated that personality was associated with musical involvement when demographics and cognitive ability were held constant, and that openness-to-experience was the personality dimension with the best predictive power. These findings reveal that: (1) individual differences influence who takes music lessons and for how long, (2) personality variables are at least as good as cognitive variables at predicting music training, and (3) future correlational studies of links between music training and non-musical ability should account for individual differences in personality.

  17. A minimal lentivirus Tat.

    PubMed Central

    Derse, D; Carvalho, M; Carroll, R; Peterlin, B M

    1991-01-01

    Transcriptional regulatory mechanisms found in lentiviruses employ RNA enhancer elements called trans-activation responsive (TAR) elements. These nascent RNA stem-loops are cis-acting targets of virally encoded Tat effectors. Interactions between Tat and TAR increase the processivity of transcription complexes and lead to efficient copying of viral genomes. To study essential elements of this trans activation, peptide motifs from Tats of two distantly related lentiviruses, equine infectious anemia virus (EIAV) and human immunodeficiency virus type 1 (HIV-1), were fused to the coat protein of bacteriophage R17 and tested on the long terminal repeat of EIAV, where TAR was replaced by the R17 operator, the target of the coat protein. This independent RNA-tethering mechanism mapped activation domains of Tats from HIV-1 and EIAV to 47 and 15 amino acids and RNA-binding domains to 10 and 26 amino acids, respectively. Thus, a minimal lentivirus Tat consists of 25 amino acids, of which 15 modify viral transcription and 10 bind to the target RNA stem-loop. Images PMID:1658392

  18. Screening and personalizing nootropic drugs and cognitive modulator regimens in silico.

    PubMed

    Jellen, Leslie C; Aliper, Alexander; Buzdin, Anton; Zhavoronkov, Alex

    2015-01-01

    The go-to cognitive enhancers of today are those that are widely available rather than optimal for the user, including drugs typically prescribed for treatment of ADHD (e.g., methylphenidate) and sleep disturbances such as narcolepsy (modafinil). While highly effective in their intended therapeutic role, performance gains in healthy populations are modest at best and profoundly inconsistent across subgroups and individuals. We propose a method for in silico screening of possible novel cognitive enhancers followed by high-throughput in vivo and in vitro validation. The proposed method uses gene expression data to evaluate the the collection of activated or suppressed signaling pathways in tissues or neurons of the cognitively enhanced brain. An algorithm maps expression data onto signaling pathways and quantifies their individual activation strength. The collective pathways and their activation form what we term the signaling pathway cloud, a biological fingerprint of cognitive enhancement (or any other condition of interest). Drugs can then be screened and ranked based on their ability to minimize, mimic, or exaggerate pathway activation or suppression within that cloud. Using this approach, one may predict the efficacy of many drugs that may enhance various aspects of cognition before costly preclinical studies and clinical trials are undertaken. PMID:25705179

  19. Screening and personalizing nootropic drugs and cognitive modulator regimens in silico

    PubMed Central

    Jellen, Leslie C.; Aliper, Alexander; Buzdin, Anton; Zhavoronkov, Alex

    2015-01-01

    The go-to cognitive enhancers of today are those that are widely available rather than optimal for the user, including drugs typically prescribed for treatment of ADHD (e.g., methylphenidate) and sleep disturbances such as narcolepsy (modafinil). While highly effective in their intended therapeutic role, performance gains in healthy populations are modest at best and profoundly inconsistent across subgroups and individuals. We propose a method for in silico screening of possible novel cognitive enhancers followed by high-throughput in vivo and in vitro validation. The proposed method uses gene expression data to evaluate the the collection of activated or suppressed signaling pathways in tissues or neurons of the cognitively enhanced brain. An algorithm maps expression data onto signaling pathways and quantifies their individual activation strength. The collective pathways and their activation form what we term the signaling pathway cloud, a biological fingerprint of cognitive enhancement (or any other condition of interest). Drugs can then be screened and ranked based on their ability to minimize, mimic, or exaggerate pathway activation or suppression within that cloud. Using this approach, one may predict the efficacy of many drugs that may enhance various aspects of cognition before costly preclinical studies and clinical trials are undertaken. PMID:25705179

  20. Cognitive Performance and Cognitive Style.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    International Journal of Behavioral Development, 1985

    1985-01-01

    Investigates (1) the relationships between cognitive performance and cognitive styles and predictive possibilities and (2) performance differences by sex, school, grade, and income in 92 Indian adolescents. Assessment measures included Liquid Conservation, Islands, Goat-Lion, Hanoi-Tower, Rabbits (Piagetian); Block Design (WISC-R); Paper Cutting…

  1. Life-span cognitive activity, neuropathologic burden, and cognitive aging

    PubMed Central

    Boyle, Patricia A.; Yu, Lei; Barnes, Lisa L.; Schneider, Julie A.; Bennett, David A.

    2013-01-01

    Objective: To test the hypothesis that cognitive activity across the life span is related to late-life cognitive decline not linked to common neuropathologic disorders. Methods: On enrollment, older participants in a longitudinal clinical-pathologic cohort study rated late-life (i.e., current) and early-life participation in cognitively stimulating activities. After a mean of 5.8 years of annual cognitive function testing, 294 individuals had died and undergone neuropathologic examination. Chronic gross infarcts, chronic microscopic infarcts, and neocortical Lewy bodies were identified, and measures of β-amyloid burden and tau-positive tangle density in multiple brain regions were derived. Results: In a mixed-effects model adjusted for age at death, sex, education, gross and microscopic infarction, neocortical Lewy bodies, amyloid burden, and tangle density, more frequent late-life cognitive activity (estimate = 0.028, standard error [SE] = 0.008, p < 0.001) and early-life cognitive activity (estimate = 0.034, SE = 0.013, p = 0.008) were each associated with slower cognitive decline. The 2 measures together accounted for 14% of the residual variability in cognitive decline not related to neuropathologic burden. The early-life–activity association was attributable to cognitive activity in childhood (estimate = 0.027, SE = 0.012, p = 0.026) and middle age (estimate = 0.029, SE = 0.013, p = 0.025) but not young adulthood (estimate = −0.020, SE = 0.014, p = 0.163). Conclusions: More frequent cognitive activity across the life span has an association with slower late-life cognitive decline that is independent of common neuropathologic conditions, consistent with the cognitive reserve hypothesis. PMID:23825173

  2. Cognitive anthropology is a cognitive science.

    PubMed

    Boster, James S

    2012-07-01

    Cognitive anthropology contributes to cognitive science as a complement to cognitive psychology. The chief threat to its survival has not been rejection by other cognitive scientists but by other cultural anthropologists. It will remain a part of cognitive science as long as cognitive anthropologists research, teach, and publish.

  3. Correlates of Canadian Native Children's Reading Performance: From Cognitive Styles to Cognitive Processes

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Das, J. P.; Janzen, Troy; Georgiou, George K.

    2007-01-01

    Individual differences in reading and cognitive processing among a sample of generally poor readers were studied in order to answer two major questions: Do they have a specific cognitive style that favors global-simultaneous strategies and a weak sequential strategy? If they do not have a distinct cognitive style or strategy, but are merely poor…

  4. Early Detection of Cognitive-Linguistic Change Associated with Mild Cognitive Impairment

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Fleming, Valarie B.

    2014-01-01

    Individuals with mild cognitive impairment (MCI) may present with subtle declines in linguistic ability that go undetected by tasks not challenging enough to tax a relatively intact cognitive-linguistic system. This study was designed to replicate and extend a previous study of cognitive-linguistic ability in MCI using a complex discourse…

  5. Food sharing and social cognition.

    PubMed

    Legg, Edward William; Ostojić, Ljerka; Clayton, Nicola Susan

    2015-01-01

    Many non-human animals share food with each other, with kin, mates, and other unrelated individuals. When individuals share food with others they lose a valuable resource. Thus, traditionally much research has investigated how this behavior can be an evolutionarily stable strategy. Only recently has food-sharing behavior been exploited to investigate non-human cognition. Certain evolutionarily stable strategies that have been proposed as accounts for food-sharing behaviors, such as reciprocity and interchange, may rely on complex cognitive abilities. In these cases, individuals may calculate the benefit they may receive from sharing with the recipient. In some species, sharing of food can facilitate the recipients' rate and extent of learning. This form of teaching may be cognitively complex if the donor takes into account the level of the recipient's abilities. In addition, an animal's food-sharing behavior, which in itself may be based on a simple cognitive mechanism, could be used as a tool to investigate the extent to which the individual may be capable of complex cognitive abilities, for example, mental-state attribution. These three areas of research, reciprocity, teaching, and mental-state attribution, illustrate how food-sharing behavior can be used as a valuable natural behavior to investigate cognition in non-human animals. PMID:26263068

  6. Melting Lizards and Crying Mailboxes: Children's Preferential Recall of Minimally Counterintuitive Concepts

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Banerjee, Konika; Haque, Omar S.; Spelke, Elizabeth S.

    2013-01-01

    Previous research with adults suggests that a catalog of minimally counterintuitive concepts, which underlies supernatural or religious concepts, may constitute a cognitive optimum and is therefore cognitively encoded and culturally transmitted more successfully than either entirely intuitive concepts or maximally counterintuitive concepts. This…

  7. Synthetic cognitive development - Where intelligence comes from

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Weinbaum (Weaver), D.; Veitas, V.

    2016-06-01

    The human cognitive system is a remarkable exemplar of a general intelligent system whose competence is not confined to a specific problem domain. Evidently, general cognitive competences are a product of a prolonged and complex process of cognitive development. Therefore, the process of cognitive development is a primary key to understanding the emergence of intelligent behavior. This paper develops the theoretical foundations for a model that generalizes the process of cognitive development. The model aims to provide a realistic scheme for the synthesis of scalable cognitive systems with an open-ended range of capabilities. Major concepts and theories of human cognitive development are introduced and briefly explored, focusing on the enactive approach to cognition and the concept of sense-making. The initial scheme of human cognitive development is then generalized by introducing the philosophy of individuation and the abstract mechanism of transduction. The theory of individuation provides the ground for the necessary paradigmatic shift from cognitive systems as given products to cognitive development as a formative process of self-organization. Next, the conceptual model is specified as a scalable scheme of networks of agents. The mechanisms of individuation are formulated in context-independent information theoretical terms. Finally, the paper discusses two concrete aspects of the generative model - mechanisms of transduction and value modulating systems. These are topics of further research towards an implementable architecture.

  8. Occupational solvent exposure and cognition

    PubMed Central

    Sabbath, E.L.; Glymour, M.M.; Berr, C.; Singh-Manoux, A.; Zins, M.; Goldberg, M.

    2012-01-01

    Objective: Chronic occupational solvent exposure is associated with long-term cognitive deficits. Cognitive reserve may protect solvent-exposed workers from cognitive impairment. We tested whether the association between chronic solvent exposure and cognition varied by educational attainment, a proxy for cognitive reserve. Methods: Data were drawn from a prospective cohort of French national gas and electricity (GAZEL) employees (n = 4,134). Lifetime exposure to 4 solvent types (chlorinated solvents, petroleum solvents, benzene, and nonbenzene aromatic solvents) was assessed using a validated job-exposure matrix. Education was dichotomized at less than secondary school or below. Cognitive impairment was defined as scoring below the 25th percentile on the Digit Symbol Substitution Test at mean age 59 (SD 2.8; 88% of participants were retired at testing). Log-binomial regression was used to model risk ratios (RRs) for poor cognition as predicted by solvent exposure, stratified by education and adjusted for sociodemographic and behavioral factors. Results: Solvent exposure rates were higher among less-educated patients. Within this group, there was a dose-response relationship between lifetime exposure to each solvent type and RR for poor cognition (e.g., for high exposure to benzene, RR = 1.24, 95% confidence interval 1.09–1.41), with significant linear trends (p < 0.05) in 3 out of 4 solvent types. Recency of solvent exposure also predicted worse cognition among less-educated patients. Among those with secondary education or higher, there was no significant or near-significant relationship between any quantification of solvent exposure and cognition. Conclusions: Solvent exposure is associated with poor cognition only among less-educated individuals. Higher cognitive reserve in the more-educated group may explain this finding. PMID:22641403

  9. Spatial cognition

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Kaiser, Mary Kister; Remington, Roger

    1988-01-01

    Spatial cognition is the ability to reason about geometric relationships in the real (or a metaphorical) world based on one or more internal representations of those relationships. The study of spatial cognition is concerned with the representation of spatial knowledge, and our ability to manipulate these representations to solve spatial problems. Spatial cognition is utilized most critically when direct perceptual cues are absent or impoverished. Examples are provided of how human spatial cognitive abilities impact on three areas of space station operator performance: orientation, path planning, and data base management. A videotape provides demonstrations of relevant phenomena (e.g., the importance of orientation for recognition of complex, configural forms). The presentation is represented by abstract and overhead visuals only.

  10. [MINDFULNESS-BASED COGNITIVE THERAPY (MBCT) AND THE "THIRD WAVE" OF COGNITIVE-BEHAVIORAL THERAPIES (CBT)].

    PubMed

    Garay, Cristian Javier; Korman, Guido Pablo; Keegan, Eduardo Gustavo

    2015-01-01

    The paper presents the reasons that led to the incorporation of mindfulness as part of a cognitive therapy approach to the prevention of relapse of recurrent depressive disorders. It describes the context in which models focused on the contents of cognition gave way to models focused on cognitive processes. We highlight the problems encountered by the standard cognitive model when trying to account for the cognitive vulnerability of individuals who, having experienced a depressive episode, are in remission. We briefly describe the theoretical foundations of Mindfulness-Based Cognitive Therapy and its therapeutic approach.

  11. Disembodying cognition

    PubMed Central

    Chatterjee, Anjan

    2010-01-01

    The idea that concepts are embodied by our motor and sensory systems is popular in current theorizing about cognition. Embodied cognition accounts come in different versions and are often contrasted with a purely symbolic amodal view of cognition. Simulation, or the hypothesis that concepts simulate the sensory and motor experience of real world encounters with instances of those concepts, has been prominent in psychology and cognitive neuroscience. Here, with a focus on spatial thought and language, I review some of the evidence cited in support of simulation versions of embodied cognition accounts. While these data are extremely interesting and many of the experiments are elegant, knowing how to best interpret the results is often far from clear. I point out that a quick acceptance of embodied accounts runs the danger of ignoring alternate hypotheses and not scrutinizing neuroscience data critically. I also review recent work from my lab that raises questions about the nature of sensory motor grounding in spatial thought and language. In my view, the question of whether or not cognition is grounded is more fruitfully replaced by questions about gradations in this grounding. A focus on disembodying cognition, or on graded grounding, opens the way to think about how humans abstract. Within neuroscience, I propose that three functional anatomic axes help frame questions about the graded nature of grounded cognition. First, are questions of laterality differences. Do association cortices in both hemispheres instantiate the same kind of sensory or motor information? Second, are questions about ventral dorsal axes. Do neuronal ensembles along this axis shift from conceptual representations of objects to the relationships between objects? Third, are questions about gradients centripetally from sensory and motor cortices towards and within perisylvian cortices. How does sensory and perceptual information become more language-like and then get transformed into language

  12. Individual Education.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Corsini, Raymond

    1981-01-01

    Paper presented at the 66th Convention of the International Association of Pupil Personnel Workers, October 20, 1980, Baltimore, Maryland, describes individual education based on the principles of Alfred Adler. Defines six advantages of individual education, emphasizing student responsibility, mutual respect, and allowing students to progress at…

  13. Cognitive dysfunction and depression in adult kidney transplant recipients: baseline findings from the FAVORIT Ancillary Cognitive Trial (FACT)

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Hyperhomocysteinemia and B-vitamin deficiency may be treatable risk factors for cognitive impairment and decline. Hyperhomocysteinemia, cognitive impairment and depression all are common in individuals with kidney disease, including kidney transplant recipient. Accordingly, we assessed the prevalenc...

  14. Visual cognition

    PubMed Central

    Cavanagh, Patrick

    2011-01-01

    Visual cognition, high-level vision, mid-level vision and top-down processing all refer to decision-based scene analyses that combine prior knowledge with retinal input to generate representations. The label “visual cognition” is little used at present, but research and experiments on mid- and high-level, inference-based vision have flourished, becoming in the 21st century a significant, if often understated part, of current vision research. How does visual cognition work? What are its moving parts? This paper reviews the origins and architecture of visual cognition and briefly describes some work in the areas of routines, attention, surfaces, objects, and events (motion, causality, and agency). Most vision scientists avoid being too explicit when presenting concepts about visual cognition, having learned that explicit models invite easy criticism. What we see in the literature is ample evidence for visual cognition, but few or only cautious attempts to detail how it might work. This is the great unfinished business of vision research: at some point we will be done with characterizing how the visual system measures the world and we will have to return to the question of how vision constructs models of objects, surfaces, scenes, and events. PMID:21329719

  15. Guidelines for mixed waste minimization

    SciTech Connect

    Owens, C.

    1992-02-01

    Currently, there is no commercial mixed waste disposal available in the United States. Storage and treatment for commercial mixed waste is limited. Host States and compacts region officials are encouraging their mixed waste generators to minimize their mixed wastes because of management limitations. This document provides a guide to mixed waste minimization.

  16. Influenza SIRS with Minimal Pneumonitis

    PubMed Central

    Erramilli, Shruti; Mannam, Praveen; Manthous, Constantine A.

    2016-01-01

    Although systemic inflammatory response syndrome (SIRS) is a known complication of severe influenza pneumonia, it has been reported very rarely in patients with minimal parenchymal lung disease. We here report a case of severe SIRS, anasarca, and marked vascular phenomena with minimal or no pneumonitis. This case highlights that viruses, including influenza, may cause vascular dysregulation causing SIRS, even without substantial visceral organ involvement.

  17. Waste minimization handbook, Volume 1

    SciTech Connect

    Boing, L.E.; Coffey, M.J.

    1995-12-01

    This technical guide presents various methods used by industry to minimize low-level radioactive waste (LLW) generated during decommissioning and decontamination (D and D) activities. Such activities generate significant amounts of LLW during their operations. Waste minimization refers to any measure, procedure, or technique that reduces the amount of waste generated during a specific operation or project. Preventive waste minimization techniques implemented when a project is initiated can significantly reduce waste. Techniques implemented during decontamination activities reduce the cost of decommissioning. The application of waste minimization techniques is not limited to D and D activities; it is also useful during any phase of a facility`s life cycle. This compendium will be supplemented with a second volume of abstracts of hundreds of papers related to minimizing low-level nuclear waste. This second volume is expected to be released in late 1996.

  18. Embodied cognition.

    PubMed

    Foglia, Lucia; Wilson, Robert A

    2013-05-01

    Traditional views in philosophy of mind and cognitive science depict the mind as an information processor, one whose connections with the body and the world are of little theoretical importance. On the contrary, mounting empirical evidence shows that bodily states and modality-specific systems for perception and action underlie information processing, and that embodiment contributes to various aspects and effects of mental phenomena. This article will briefly review and discuss some of this evidence and what it implies. By challenging mainstream accounts of mind and cognition, embodiment views offer new ways of conceptualizing knowledge and suggest novel perspectives on cognitive variation and mind-body reductionism. WIREs Cogn Sci 2013, 4:319-325. doi: 10.1002/wcs.1226 For further resources related to this article, please visit the WIREs website. PMID:26304209

  19. Cognitive linguistics.

    PubMed

    Evans, Vyvyan

    2012-03-01

    Cognitive linguistics is one of the fastest growing and influential perspectives on the nature of language, the mind, and their relationship with sociophysical (embodied) experience. It is a broad theoretical and methodological enterprise, rather than a single, closely articulated theory. Its primary commitments are outlined. These are the Cognitive Commitment-a commitment to providing a characterization of language that accords with what is known about the mind and brain from other disciplines-and the Generalization Commitment-which represents a dedication to characterizing general principles that apply to all aspects of human language. The article also outlines the assumptions and worldview which arises from these commitments, as represented in the work of leading cognitive linguists. WIREs Cogn Sci 2012, 3:129-141. doi: 10.1002/wcs.1163 For further resources related to this article, please visit the WIREs website.

  20. Cognitive fitness.

    PubMed

    Gilkey, Roderick; Kilts, Clint

    2007-11-01

    Recent neuroscientific research shows that the health of your brain isn't, as experts once thought, just the product of childhood experiences and genetics; it reflects your adult choices and experiences as well. Professors Gilkey and Kilts of Emory University's medical and business schools explain how you can strengthen your brain's anatomy, neural networks, and cognitive abilities, and prevent functions such as memory from deteriorating as you age. The brain's alertness is the result of what the authors call cognitive fitness -a state of optimized ability to reason, remember, learn, plan, and adapt. Certain attitudes, lifestyle choices, and exercises enhance cognitive fitness. Mental workouts are the key. Brain-imaging studies indicate that acquiring expertise in areas as diverse as playing a cello, juggling, speaking a foreign language, and driving a taxicab expands your neural systems and makes them more communicative. In other words, you can alter the physical makeup of your brain by learning new skills. The more cognitively fit you are, the better equipped you are to make decisions, solve problems, and deal with stress and change. Cognitive fitness will help you be more open to new ideas and alternative perspectives. It will give you the capacity to change your behavior and realize your goals. You can delay senescence for years and even enjoy a second career. Drawing from the rapidly expanding body of neuroscience research as well as from well-established research in psychology and other mental health fields, the authors have identified four steps you can take to become cognitively fit: understand how experience makes the brain grow, work hard at play, search for patterns, and seek novelty and innovation. Together these steps capture some of the key opportunities for maintaining an engaged, creative brain. PMID:18159786

  1. Cognitive epidemiology

    PubMed Central

    Deary, Ian J; Batty, G David

    2007-01-01

    This glossary provides a guide to some concepts, findings and issues of discussion in the new field of research in which intelligence test scores are associated with mortality and morbidity. Intelligence tests are devised and studied by differential psychologists. Some of the major concepts in differential psychology are explained, especially those regarding cognitive ability testing. Some aspects of IQ (intelligence) tests are described and some of the major tests are outlined. A short guide is given to the main statistical techniques used by differential psychologists in the study of human mental abilities. There is a discussion of common epidemiological concepts in the context of cognitive epidemiology. PMID:17435201

  2. Neurocognition and cognitive biases in schizophrenia.

    PubMed

    Garcia, Cristina P; Sacks, Stephanie A; Weisman de Mamani, Amy G

    2012-08-01

    Individuals with schizophrenia have been found to exhibit a number of information processing biases that may play a role in the development and exacerbation of symptoms and may impair overall functioning. However, little is known about the factors that are associated with these cognitive biases. Recently, researchers have begun to consider whether neurocognitive deficits, common in schizophrenia, may be risk factors for the development of cognitive biases. In the present study, we assessed neurocognition (verbal learning, delayed verbal recall memory, and verbal recognition memory) and cognitive biases (knowledge corruption and impaired cognitive insight) in 72 individuals with schizophrenia or schizoaffective disorder. As hypothesized, poorer delayed verbal recall memory was associated with increased knowledge corruption. Contrary to expectations, verbal learning and verbal memory were not associated with cognitive insight. These findings suggest that an inadequate recall memory system may put patients with schizophrenia at greater risk for cognitive distortions.

  3. Temporal structure of consciousness and minimal self in schizophrenia.

    PubMed

    Martin, Brice; Wittmann, Marc; Franck, Nicolas; Cermolacce, Michel; Berna, Fabrice; Giersch, Anne

    2014-01-01

    The concept of the minimal self refers to the consciousness of oneself as an immediate subject of experience. According to recent studies, disturbances of the minimal self may be a core feature of schizophrenia. They are emphasized in classical psychiatry literature and in phenomenological work. Impaired minimal self-experience may be defined as a distortion of one's first-person experiential perspective as, for example, an "altered presence" during which the sense of the experienced self ("mineness") is subtly affected, or "altered sense of demarcation," i.e., a difficulty discriminating the self from the non-self. Little is known, however, about the cognitive basis of these disturbances. In fact, recent work indicates that disorders of the self are not correlated with cognitive impairments commonly found in schizophrenia such as working-memory and attention disorders. In addition, a major difficulty with exploring the minimal self experimentally lies in its definition as being non-self-reflexive, and distinct from the verbalized, explicit awareness of an "I." In this paper, we shall discuss the possibility that disturbances of the minimal self observed in patients with schizophrenia are related to alterations in time processing. We shall review the literature on schizophrenia and time processing that lends support to this possibility. In particular we shall discuss the involvement of temporal integration windows on different time scales (implicit time processing) as well as duration perception disturbances (explicit time processing) in disorders of the minimal self. We argue that a better understanding of the relationship between time and the minimal self as well of issues of embodiment require research that looks more specifically at implicit time processing. Some methodological issues will be discussed.

  4. Temporal structure of consciousness and minimal self in schizophrenia

    PubMed Central

    Martin, Brice; Wittmann, Marc; Franck, Nicolas; Cermolacce, Michel; Berna, Fabrice; Giersch, Anne

    2014-01-01

    The concept of the minimal self refers to the consciousness of oneself as an immediate subject of experience. According to recent studies, disturbances of the minimal self may be a core feature of schizophrenia. They are emphasized in classical psychiatry literature and in phenomenological work. Impaired minimal self-experience may be defined as a distortion of one’s first-person experiential perspective as, for example, an “altered presence” during which the sense of the experienced self (“mineness”) is subtly affected, or “altered sense of demarcation,” i.e., a difficulty discriminating the self from the non-self. Little is known, however, about the cognitive basis of these disturbances. In fact, recent work indicates that disorders of the self are not correlated with cognitive impairments commonly found in schizophrenia such as working-memory and attention disorders. In addition, a major difficulty with exploring the minimal self experimentally lies in its definition as being non-self-reflexive, and distinct from the verbalized, explicit awareness of an “I.” In this paper, we shall discuss the possibility that disturbances of the minimal self observed in patients with schizophrenia are related to alterations in time processing. We shall review the literature on schizophrenia and time processing that lends support to this possibility. In particular we shall discuss the involvement of temporal integration windows on different time scales (implicit time processing) as well as duration perception disturbances (explicit time processing) in disorders of the minimal self. We argue that a better understanding of the relationship between time and the minimal self as well of issues of embodiment require research that looks more specifically at implicit time processing. Some methodological issues will be discussed. PMID:25400597

  5. Cognition-emotion interactions: patterns of change and implications for math problem solving.

    PubMed

    Trezise, Kelly; Reeve, Robert A

    2014-01-01

    Surprisingly little is known about whether relationships between cognitive and emotional states remain stable or change over time, or how different patterns of stability and/or change in the relationships affect problem solving abilities. Nevertheless, cross-sectional studies show that anxiety/worry may reduce working memory (WM) resources, and the ability to minimize the effects anxiety/worry is higher in individuals with greater WM capacity. To investigate the patterns of stability and/or change in cognition-emotion relations over time and their implications for problem solving, 126 14-year-olds' algebraic WM and worry levels were assessed twice in a single day before completing an algebraic math problem solving test. We used latent transition analysis to identify stability/change in cognition-emotion relations, which yielded a six subgroup solution. Subgroups varied in WM capacity, worry, and stability/change relationships. Among the subgroups, we identified a high WM/low worry subgroup that remained stable over time and a high WM/high worry, and a moderate WM/low worry subgroup that changed to low WM subgroups over time. Patterns of stability/change in subgroup membership predicted algebraic test results. The stable high WM/low worry subgroup performed best and the low WM capacity-high worry "unstable across time" subgroup performed worst. The findings highlight the importance of assessing variations in cognition-emotion relationships over time (rather than assessing cognition or emotion states alone) to account for differences in problem solving abilities.

  6. Evaluation and Management of Posttraumatic Cognitive Impairments

    PubMed Central

    Arciniegas, David B.; Frey, Kimberly L.; Newman, Jody; Wortzel, Hal S.

    2011-01-01

    Psychiatrists are increasingly called upon to care for individuals with cognitive, emotional, and behavioral disturbances after TBI, especially in settings serving military service personnel and Veterans. In both the early and late post-injury periods, cognitive impairments contribute to disability among persons with TBI and are potentially substantial sources of suffering for persons with TBI and their families. In this article, the differential diagnosis, evaluation, and management of posttraumatic cognitive complaints is reviewed. The importance of pre-treatment evaluation as well as consideration of non-cognitive contributors to cognitive problems and functional limitations is emphasized first. The course of recovery after TBI, framed as a progression through posttraumatic encephalopathy, is reviewed next and used to anchor the evaluation and treatment of posttraumatic cognitive impairments in relation to injury severity as well as time post-injury. Finally, pharmacologic and rehabilitative interventions that may facilitate cognitive and functional recovery at each stage of posttraumatic encephalopathy are presented. PMID:21270968

  7. Cognitive Control

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Hammond, Kenneth R.; Summers, David A.

    1972-01-01

    Discusses experiments which show difficulties in putting mastered skills to good effect arise through deficiencies of cognitive control: subjects knew what to do but couldn't" do it. Authors believe traditional response-oriented feedback impedes control, hence performance, and that subjects must see why errors are made to improve. (PD)

  8. Cognitive Science.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Soni, P. Sarita, Ed.; Carmichael, Ann G., Ed.

    1993-01-01

    This theme issue features five articles profiling Indiana University faculty whose work on various campuses continues to broaden and advance knowledge about cognitive science. The articles in the journal are: "A Matter of Time" (Karen Grooms) which discusses the work of Robert F. Port; "Perceiving as a Complex System" (Tom Tierney) which profiles…

  9. Cognitive Science.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Cocking, Rodney R.; Mestre, Jose P.

    The focus of this paper is on cognitive science as a model for understanding the application of human skills toward effective problem-solving. Sections include: (1) "Introduction" (discussing information processing framework, expert-novice distinctions, schema theory, and learning process); (2) "Application: The Expert-Novice Paradigm as a Means…

  10. Cognitive systems for revenge and forgiveness.

    PubMed

    McCullough, Michael E; Kurzban, Robert; Tabak, Benjamin A

    2013-02-01

    Minimizing the costs that others impose upon oneself and upon those in whom one has a fitness stake, such as kin and allies, is a key adaptive problem for many organisms. Our ancestors regularly faced such adaptive problems (including homicide, bodily harm, theft, mate poaching, cuckoldry, reputational damage, sexual aggression, and the infliction of these costs on one’s offspring, mates, coalition partners, or friends). One solution to this problem is to impose retaliatory costs on an aggressor so that the aggressor and other observers will lower their estimates of the net benefits to be gained from exploiting the retaliator in the future. We posit that humans have an evolved cognitive system that implements this strategy – deterrence – which we conceptualize as a revenge system. The revenge system produces a second adaptive problem: losing downstream gains from the individual on whom retaliatory costs have been imposed. We posit, consequently, a subsidiary computational system designed to restore particular relationships after cost-imposing interactions by inhibiting revenge and motivating behaviors that signal benevolence for the harmdoer. The operation of these systems depends on estimating the risk of future exploitation by the harmdoer and the expected future value of the relationship with the harmdoer. We review empirical evidence regarding the operation of these systems, discuss the causes of cultural and individual differences in their outputs, and sketch their computational architecture.

  11. COGNITIVE PROFILE OF TURNER SYNDROME

    PubMed Central

    Hong, David; Kent, Jamie Scaletta; Kesler, Shelli

    2011-01-01

    Turner syndrome (TS) is a relatively common neurogenetic disorder characterized by complete or partial monosomy-X in a phenotypic female. TS is associated with a cognitive profile that typically includes intact intellectual function and verbal abilities with relative weaknesses in visual–spatial, executive, and social cognitive domains. In this report, we review previous and current research related to the cognitive profile of TS. We also discuss how cognitive impairments in this syndrome may reflect integrative rather than modular deficits. For example, the less commonly reported areas of verbal difficulty in TS and certain visual–spatial deficits seem significantly influenced by impairments in executive function and spatially loaded stimuli. We provide a summary of cognitive testing measures used in the assessment of visual–spatial and executive skills, which includes test domain descriptions as well as a comprehensive examination of social cognitive function in TS. This review concludes with a discussion of ecological interpretations regarding the meaning of cognitive deficits in TS at the individual level. PMID:20014362

  12. Individualizing Medicare.

    PubMed

    Chollet, D J

    1999-05-01

    Despite the enactment of significant changes to the Medicare program in 1997, Medicare's Hospital Insurance trust fund is projected to be exhausted just as the baby boom enters retirement. To address Medicare's financial difficulties, a number of reform proposals have been offered, including several to individualize Medicare financing and benefits. These proposals would attempt to increase Medicare revenues and reduce Medicare expenditures by having individuals bear risk--investment market risk before retirement and insurance market risk after retirement. Many fundamental aspects of these proposals have yet to be worked out, including how to guarantee a baseline level of saving for health insurance after retirement, how retirees might finance unanticipated health insurance price increases after retirement, the potential implications for Medicaid of inadequate individual saving, and whether the administrative cost of making the system fair and adequate ultimately would eliminate any rate-of-return advantages from allowing workers to invest their Medicare contributions in corporate stocks and bonds.

  13. Individualizing Medicare.

    PubMed

    Chollet, D J

    1999-05-01

    Despite the enactment of significant changes to the Medicare program in 1997, Medicare's Hospital Insurance trust fund is projected to be exhausted just as the baby boom enters retirement. To address Medicare's financial difficulties, a number of reform proposals have been offered, including several to individualize Medicare financing and benefits. These proposals would attempt to increase Medicare revenues and reduce Medicare expenditures by having individuals bear risk--investment market risk before retirement and insurance market risk after retirement. Many fundamental aspects of these proposals have yet to be worked out, including how to guarantee a baseline level of saving for health insurance after retirement, how retirees might finance unanticipated health insurance price increases after retirement, the potential implications for Medicaid of inadequate individual saving, and whether the administrative cost of making the system fair and adequate ultimately would eliminate any rate-of-return advantages from allowing workers to invest their Medicare contributions in corporate stocks and bonds. PMID:10915458

  14. The emergence of cognitive hearing science.

    PubMed

    Arlinger, Stig; Lunner, Thomas; Lyxell, Björn; Pichora-Fuller, M Kathleen

    2009-10-01

    Cognitive Hearing Science or Auditory Cognitive Science is an emerging field of interdisciplinary research concerning the interactions between hearing and cognition. It follows a trend over the last half century for interdisciplinary fields to develop, beginning with Neuroscience, then Cognitive Science, then Cognitive Neuroscience, and then Cognitive Vision Science. A common theme is that an interdisciplinary approach is necessary to understand complex human behaviors, to develop technologies incorporating knowledge of these behaviors, and to find solutions for individuals with impairments that undermine typical behaviors. Accordingly, researchers in traditional academic disciplines, such as Psychology, Physiology, Linguistics, Philosophy, Anthropology, and Sociology benefit from collaborations with each other, and with researchers in Computer Science and Engineering working on the design of technologies, and with health professionals working with individuals who have impairments. The factors that triggered the emergence of Cognitive Hearing Science include the maturation of the component disciplines of Hearing Science and Cognitive Science, new opportunities to use complex digital signal-processing to design technologies suited to performance in challenging everyday environments, and increasing social imperatives to help people whose communication problems span hearing and cognition. Cognitive Hearing Science is illustrated in research on three general topics: (1) language processing in challenging listening conditions; (2) use of auditory communication technologies or the visual modality to boost performance; (3) changes in performance with development, aging, and rehabilitative training. Future directions for modeling and the translation of research into practice are suggested. PMID:19778385

  15. Influenza SIRS with Minimal Pneumonitis

    PubMed Central

    Erramilli, Shruti; Mannam, Praveen; Manthous, Constantine A.

    2016-01-01

    Although systemic inflammatory response syndrome (SIRS) is a known complication of severe influenza pneumonia, it has been reported very rarely in patients with minimal parenchymal lung disease. We here report a case of severe SIRS, anasarca, and marked vascular phenomena with minimal or no pneumonitis. This case highlights that viruses, including influenza, may cause vascular dysregulation causing SIRS, even without substantial visceral organ involvement. PMID:27630988

  16. Influenza SIRS with Minimal Pneumonitis.

    PubMed

    Erramilli, Shruti; Mannam, Praveen; Manthous, Constantine A

    2016-01-01

    Although systemic inflammatory response syndrome (SIRS) is a known complication of severe influenza pneumonia, it has been reported very rarely in patients with minimal parenchymal lung disease. We here report a case of severe SIRS, anasarca, and marked vascular phenomena with minimal or no pneumonitis. This case highlights that viruses, including influenza, may cause vascular dysregulation causing SIRS, even without substantial visceral organ involvement. PMID:27630988

  17. Cognitive diversity and moral enhancement.

    PubMed

    Gyngell, Chris; Easteal, Simon

    2015-01-01

    One debate in contemporary bioethics centers on whether the development of cognitive enhancement technologies (CETs) will hasten the need for moral enhancement. In this article we provide a new argument in favor of pursuing these enhancement technologies together. The widespread availability of CETs will likely increase population-level cognitive diversity. Different people will choose to enhance different aspects of their cognition, and some won't enhance themselves at all. Although this has the potential to be beneficial for society, it could also result in harms as people become more different from one another. Aspects of our moral psychology make it difficult for people to cooperate and coordinate actions with those who are very different from themselves. These moral failings could be targeted by moral enhancement technologies, which may improve cooperation among individuals. Moral enhancement technologies will therefore help society maximize the benefits, and reduce the costs, associated with widespread access to cognitive enhancements.

  18. Pedophilia occurring after onset of cognitive impairment.

    PubMed

    Regestein, Q R; Reich, P

    1978-11-01

    Four married patients are reported who first manifested pedophilia and other signs of disinhibition after sustaining illnesses that led to cognitive impairments. Although pedophilia may often be related to a long-standing inadequacy of sexual functioning, the onset of pedophilia in an individual without a previous histroy of sexual perversion may indicate the presence of recently sustained cognitive impairments.

  19. Cognitive Systems Struggling for Word Order

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Langus, Alan; Nespor, Marina

    2010-01-01

    We argue that the grammatical diversity observed among the world's languages emerges from the struggle between individual cognitive systems trying to impose their preferred structure on human language. We investigate the cognitive bases of the two most common word orders in the world's languages: SOV (Subject-Object-Verb) and SVO. Evidence from…

  20. The Cognitive Phenotype of Spina Bifida Meningomyelocele

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Dennis, Maureen; Barnes, Marcia A.

    2010-01-01

    A cognitive phenotype is a product of both assets and deficits that specifies what individuals with spina bifida meningomyelocele (SBM) can and cannot do and why they can or cannot do it. In this article, we review the cognitive phenotype of SBM and describe the processing assets and deficits that cut within and across content domains, sensory…