Li, Zhi; Yang, Rong-Tao; Li, Zu-Bing
Computer-assisted navigation has been widely used in oral and maxillofacial surgery. The purpose of this study was to describe the applications of computer-assisted navigation for the minimally invasive reduction of isolated zygomatic arch fractures. All patients identified as having isolated zygomatic arch fractures presenting to the authors' department from April 2013 through November 2014 were included in this prospective study. Minimally invasive reductions of isolated zygomatic arch fractures were performed on these patients under the guidance of computer-assisted navigation. The reduction status was evaluated by postoperative computed tomography (CT) 1 week after the operation. Postoperative complications and facial contours were evaluated during follow-up. Functional recovery was evaluated by the difference between the preoperative maximum interincisal mouth opening and that at the final follow-up. Twenty-three patients were included in this case series. The operation proceeded well in all patients. Postoperatively, all patients displayed uneventful healing without postoperative complication. Postoperative CT showed exact reduction in all cases. Satisfactory facial contour and functional recovery were observed in all patients. The preoperative maximal mouth opening ranged from 8 to 25 mm, and the maximal mouth opening at the final follow-up ranged from 36 to 42 mm. Computer-assisted navigation can be used not only for guiding zygomatic arch fracture reduction, but also for assessing reduction. Computer-assisted navigation is an effective and minimally invasive technique that can be applied in the reduction of isolated zygomatic arch fractures. Copyright © 2015 American Association of Oral and Maxillofacial Surgeons. Published by Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.
Linson, Jeremy; Ahmed, Bestoun; Awad, Ziad
Right aortic arch (RAA) is a rare congenital vascular abnormality in which the aorta descends in the right thorax and encircles the esophagus. Historically, esophagectomy for patients for RAA is done through a left thoracotomy as exposure and mobilization of the esophagus is difficult through a right thoracotomy. A 73-year-old male was found to have an esophageal adenocarcinoma. Endoscopic ultrasound showed a T3N0 lesion in the lower third of the esophagus. PET CT demonstrated a circumferential lesion without evidence of distant disease or involved lymph nodes and a RAA which was not associated with congenital heart disease or symptoms. The patient received neo-adjuvant chemoradiation (50.4 Gy) with carboplatin and paclitaxel. Minimally invasive Ivor-Lewis esophagectomy (MIE) utilizing conventional right thoracoscopy was done. Esophageal mobilization, transection and mediastinal lymph node dissection was performed through anteriorly placed trocars, thereby avoiding the right side descending aorta that is lying anterior and to the right of the esophagus. In this video we demonstrate MIE utilizing right thoracoscopy. Total operative time was 250 minutes and the patient was discharged home on post-operative day 8. Final pathology showed complete pathological response, with 0/22 involved lymph nodes and uninvolved surgical margins. Minimally invasive esophagectomy has been reported to deliver superior outcomes to the open approach. MIE can be performed in selected patients with RAA, and herein we demonstrate a minimally invasive option for the treatment of distal esophageal cancer in patients with RAA. To our knowledge this is the 1st reported case in the English literature utilizing this approach in patient with RAA.
Minimally invasive esophagectomy; Robotic esophagectomy; Removal of the esophagus - minimally invasive; Achalasia - esophagectomy; Barrett esophagus - esophagectomy; Esophageal cancer - esophagectomy - laparoscopic; Cancer of the ...
Hellinger, Michael D; Al Haddad, Abdullah
Traditionally, stoma creation and end stoma reversal have been performed via a laparotomy incision. However, in many situations, stoma construction may be safely performed in a minimally invasive nature. This may include a trephine, laparoscopic, or combined approach. Furthermore, Hartmann's colostomy reversal, a procedure traditionally associated with substantial morbidity, may also be performed laparoscopically. The authors briefly review patient selection, preparation, and indications, and focus primarily on surgical techniques and results of minimally invasive stoma creation and Hartmann's reversal.
Lumbar radiculopathy is a common problem. Nerve root compression can occur at different places along a nerve root's course including in the foramina. Minimal invasive approaches allow easier exposure of the lateral foramina and decompression of the nerve root in the foramina. This video demonstrates a minimally invasive approach to decompress the lumbar nerve root in the foramina with a lateral to medial decompression. The video can be found here: http://youtu.be/jqa61HSpzIA.
Baltayiannis, Nikolaos; Michail, Chandrinos; Lazaridis, George; Anagnostopoulos, Dimitrios; Baka, Sofia; Mpoukovinas, Ioannis; Karavasilis, Vasilis; Lampaki, Sofia; Papaiwannou, Antonis; Karavergou, Anastasia; Kioumis, Ioannis; Pitsiou, Georgia; Katsikogiannis, Nikolaos; Tsakiridis, Kosmas; Rapti, Aggeliki; Trakada, Georgia; Zissimopoulos, Athanasios; Zarogoulidis, Konstantinos
Minimally invasive procedures, which include laparoscopic surgery, use state-of-the-art technology to reduce the damage to human tissue when performing surgery. Minimally invasive procedures require small “ports” from which the surgeon inserts thin tubes called trocars. Carbon dioxide gas may be used to inflate the area, creating a space between the internal organs and the skin. Then a miniature camera (usually a laparoscope or endoscope) is placed through one of the trocars so the surgical team can view the procedure as a magnified image on video monitors in the operating room. Specialized equipment is inserted through the trocars based on the type of surgery. There are some advanced minimally invasive surgical procedures that can be performed almost exclusively through a single point of entry—meaning only one small incision, like the “uniport” video-assisted thoracoscopic surgery (VATS). Not only do these procedures usually provide equivalent outcomes to traditional “open” surgery (which sometimes require a large incision), but minimally invasive procedures (using small incisions) may offer significant benefits as well: (I) faster recovery; (II) the patient remains for less days hospitalized; (III) less scarring and (IV) less pain. In our current mini review we will present the minimally invasive procedures for thoracic surgery. PMID:25861610
Woo, Y Joseph
Traditional cardiac valve replacement surgery is being rapidly supplanted by innovative, minimally invasive approaches toward the repair of these valves. Patients are experiencing benefits ranging from less bleeding and pain to faster recovery and greater satisfaction. These operations are proving to be safe, highly effective, and durable, and their use will likely continue to increase and become even more widely applicable.
Rückert, J C; Ismail, M; Swierzy, M; Braumann, C; Badakhshi, H; Rogalla, P; Meisel, A; Rückert, R I; Müller, J M
There are absolute and relative indications for complete removal of the thymus gland. In the complex therapy of autoimmune-related myasthenia gravis, thymectomy plays a central role and is performed with relative indication. In case of thymoma with or without myasthenia, thymectomy is absolutely indicated. Thymus resection is further necessary for cases of hyperparathyroidism with ectopic intrathymic parathyroids or with certain forms of multiple endocrine neoplasia. The transcervical operation technique traditionally reflected the well-founded desire for minimal invasiveness for thymectomy. Due to the requirement of radicality however, most of these operations were performed using sternotomy. With the evolution of therapeutic thoracoscopy in thoracic surgery, several pure or extended minimally invasive operation techniques for thymectomy have been developed. At present uni- or bilateral, subxiphoid, and modified transcervical single or combination thoracoscopic techniques are in use. Recently a very precise new level of thoracoscopic operation technique was developed using robotic-assisted surgery. There are special advantages of this technique for thymectomy. An overview of the development and experiences with minimally invasive thymectomy is presented, including data from the largest series published so far.
Melfi, Franca M. A.; Mussi, Alfredo
In the past, mediastinal surgery was associated with the necessity of a maximum exposure, which was accomplished through various approaches. In the early 1990s, many surgical fields, including thoracic surgery, observed the development of minimally invasive techniques. These included video-assisted thoracic surgery (VATS), which confers clear advantages over an open approach, such as less trauma, short hospital stay, increased cosmetic results and preservation of lung function. However, VATS is associated with several disadvantages. For this reason, it is not routinely performed for resection of mediastinal mass lesions, especially those located in the anterior mediastinum, a tiny and remote space that contains vital structures at risk of injury. Robotic systems can overcome the limits of VATS, offering three-dimensional (3D) vision and wristed instrumentations, and are being increasingly used. With regards to thymectomy for myasthenia gravis (MG), unilateral and bilateral VATS approaches have demonstrated good long-term neurologic results with low complication rates. Nevertheless, some authors still advocate the necessity of maximum exposure, especially when considering the distribution of normal and ectopic thymic tissue. In recent studies, the robotic approach has shown to provide similar neurological outcomes when compared to transsternal and VATS approaches, and is associated with a low morbidity. Importantly, through a unilateral robotic technique, it is possible to dissect and remove at least the same amount of mediastinal fat tissue. Preliminary results on early-stage thymomatous disease indicated that minimally invasive approaches are safe and feasible, with a low rate of pleural recurrence, underlining the necessity of a “no-touch” technique. However, especially for thymomatous disease characterized by an indolent nature, further studies with long follow-up period are necessary in order to assess oncologic and neurologic results through minimally
Noureldine, Salem I.; Gooi, Zhen
Traditionally, bilateral cervical exploration for localization of all four parathyroid glands and removal of any that are grossly enlarged has been the standard surgical treatment for primary hyperparathyroidism (PHPT). With the advances in preoperative localization studies and greater public demand for less invasive procedures, novel targeted, minimally invasive techniques to the parathyroid glands have been described and practiced over the past 2 decades. Minimally invasive parathyroidectomy (MIP) can be done either through the standard Kocher incision, a smaller midline incision, with video assistance (purely endoscopic and video-assisted techniques), or through an ectopically placed, extracervical, incision. In current practice, once PHPT is diagnosed, preoperative evaluation using high-resolution radiographic imaging to localize the offending parathyroid gland is essential if MIP is to be considered. The imaging study results suggest where the surgeon should begin the focused procedure and serve as a road map to allow tailoring of an efficient, imaging-guided dissection while eliminating the unnecessary dissection of multiple glands or a bilateral exploration. Intraoperative parathyroid hormone (IOPTH) levels may be measured during the procedure, or a gamma probe used during radioguided parathyroidectomy, to ascertain that the correct gland has been excised and that no other hyperfunctional tissue is present. MIP has many advantages over the traditional bilateral, four-gland exploration. MIP can be performed using local anesthesia, requires less operative time, results in fewer complications, and offers an improved cosmetic result and greater patient satisfaction. Additional advantages of MIP are earlier hospital discharge and decreased overall associated costs. This article aims to address the considerations for accomplishing MIP, including the role of preoperative imaging studies, intraoperative adjuncts, and surgical techniques. PMID:26425454
deBeche-Adams, Teresa; Nassif, George
Transanal minimally invasive surgery (TAMIS) was first described in 2010 as a crossover between single-incision laparoscopic surgery and transanal endoscopic microsurgery (TEM) to allow access to the proximal and mid-rectum for resection of benign and early-stage malignant rectal lesions. The TAMIS technique can also be used for noncurative intent surgery of more advanced lesions in patients who are not candidates for radical surgery. Proper workup and staging should be done before surgical decision-making. In addition to the TAMIS port, instrumentation and set up include readily available equipment found in most operating suites. TAMIS has proven its usefulness in a wide range of applications outside of local excision, including repair of rectourethral fistula, removal of rectal foreign body, control of rectal hemorrhage, and as an adjunct in total mesorectal excision for rectal cancer. TAMIS is an easily accessible, technically feasible, and cost-effective alternative to TEM. PMID:26491410
Herbella, Fernando A; Patti, Marco G
Esophageal resection is associated with a high morbidity and mortality rate. Minimally invasive esophagectomy (MIE) might theoretically decrease this rate. We reviewed the current literature on MIE, with a focus on the available techniques, outcomes and comparison with open surgery. This review shows that the available literature on MIE is still crowded with heterogeneous studies with different techniques. There are no controlled and randomized trials, and the few retrospective comparative cohort studies are limited by small numbers of patients and biased by historical controls of open surgery. Based on the available literature, there is no evidence that MIE brings clear benefits compared to conventional esophagectomy. Increasing experience and the report of larger series might change this scenario. PMID:20698044
Woo, Y Joseph; Seeburger, Joerg; Mohr, Friedrich W
As alternatives to standard sternotomy, surgeons have developed innovative, minimally invasive approaches to conducting valve surgery. Through very small skin incisions and partial upper sternal division for aortic valve surgery and right minithoracotomy for mitral surgery, surgeons have become adept at performing complex valve procedures. Beyond cosmetic appeal, apparent benefits range from decreased pain and bleeding to improved respiratory function and recovery time. The large retrospective studies and few small prospective randomized studies are herein briefly summarized. The focus is then directed toward describing specific intraoperative technical details in current clinical use, covering anesthetic preparation, incision, mediastinal access, cardiovascular cannulation, valve exposure, and valve reconstruction. Finally, unique situations such as pulmonic valve surgery, reoperations, beating heart surgery, and robotics are discussed.
... invasive - discharge Transurethral resection of the prostate - discharge Review Date 6/29/2015 Updated by: Jennifer Sobol, ... the Michigan Institute of Urology, West Bloomfield, MI. Review provided by VeriMed Healthcare Network. Also reviewed by ...
Advanced hemodynamic monitoring is necessary for adequate management of high-risk patients or patients with derangement of circulation. Studies demonstrate a benefit of early goal directed therapy in unstable cardiopulmonary situations. In these days we have different possibilities of minimally invasive or invasive hemodynamic monitoring. Minimally invasive measurements like pulse conture analysis or pulse wave analysis being less accurate under some circumstances, however only an artery catheter is needed for cardiac output monitoring. Pulmonary artery, transpulmonary thermodilution and lithium dilution technology have acceptable accuracy in cardiac output measurement. For therapy of unstable circulation there are additionally parameters to obtain. The pulmonary artery catheter is the device with the largest rate of complications, used by a trained crew and with a correct indication, his use is unchained justified.
Castrovinci, Sebastiano; Emmanuel, Sam; Moscarelli, Marco; Murana, Giacomo; Caccamo, Giuseppa; Bertolino, Emanuela Clara; Nasso, Giuseppe; Speziale, Giuseppe; Fattouch, Khalil
Aortic valve disease is a prevalent disorder that affects approximately 2% of the general adult population. Surgical aortic valve replacement is the gold standard treatment for symptomatic patients. This treatment has demonstrably proven to be both safe and effective. Over the last few decades, in an attempt to reduce surgical trauma, different minimally invasive approaches for aortic valve replacement have been developed and are now being increasingly utilized. A narrative review of the literature was carried out to describe the surgical techniques for minimally invasive aortic valve surgery and report the results from different experienced centers. Minimally invasive aortic valve replacement is associated with low perioperative morbidity, mortality and a low conversion rate to full sternotomy. Long-term survival appears to be at least comparable to that reported for conventional full sternotomy. Minimally invasive aortic valve surgery, either with a partial upper sternotomy or a right anterior minithoracotomy provides early- and long-term benefits. Given these benefits, it may be considered the standard of care for isolated aortic valve disease. PMID:27582764
Minimally Invasive Dentistry is the application of "a systematic respect for the original tissue." This implies that the dental profession recognizes that an artifact is of less biological value than the original healthy tissue. Minimally invasive dentistry is a concept that can embrace all aspects of the profession. The common delineator is tissue preservation, preferably by preventing disease from occurring and intercepting its progress, but also removing and replacing with as little tissue loss as possible. It does not suggest that we make small fillings to restore incipient lesions or surgically remove impacted third molars without symptoms as routine procedures. The introduction of predictable adhesive technologies has led to a giant leap in interest in minimally invasive dentistry. The concept bridges the traditional gap between prevention and surgical procedures, which is just what dentistry needs today. The evidence-base for survival of restorations clearly indicates that restoring teeth is a temporary palliative measure that is doomed to fail if the disease that caused the condition is not addressed properly. Today, the means, motives and opportunities for minimally invasive dentistry are at hand, but incentives are definitely lacking. Patients and third parties seem to be convinced that the only things that count are replacements. Namely, they are prepared to pay for a filling but not for a procedure that can help avoid having one.
Luketich, James D.; Pennathur, Arjun; Awais, Omar; Levy, Ryan M.; Keeley, Samuel; Shende, Manisha; Christie, Neil A.; Weksler, Benny; Landreneau, Rodney J.; Abbas, Ghulam; Schuchert, Matthew J.; Nason, Katie S.
Background Esophagectomy is a complex operation and is associated with significant morbidity and mortality. In an attempt to lower morbidity, we have adopted a minimally invasive approach to esophagectomy. Objectives Our primary objective was to evaluate the outcomes of minimally invasive esophagectomy (MIE) in a large group of patients. Our secondary objective was to compare the modified McKeown minimally invasive approach (videothoracoscopic surgery, laparoscopy, neck anastomosis [MIE-neck]) with our current approach, a modified Ivor Lewis approach (laparoscopy, videothoracoscopic surgery, chest anastomosis [MIE-chest]). Methods We reviewed 1033 consecutive patients undergoing MIE. Elective operation was performed on 1011 patients; 22 patients with nonelective operations were excluded. Patients were stratified by surgical approach and perioperative outcomes analyzed. The primary endpoint studied was 30-day mortality. Results The MIE-neck was performed in 481 (48%) and MIE-Ivor Lewis in 530 (52%). Patients undergoing MIE-Ivor Lewis were operated in the current era. The median number of lymph nodes resected was 21. The operative mortality was 1.68%. Median length of stay (8 days) and ICU stay (2 days) were similar between the 2 approaches. Mortality rate was 0.9%, and recurrent nerve injury was less frequent in the Ivor Lewis MIE group (P < 0.001). Conclusions MIE in our center resulted in acceptable lymph node resection, postoperative outcomes, and low mortality using either an MIE-neck or an MIE-chest approach. The MIE Ivor Lewis approach was associated with reduced recurrent laryngeal nerve injury and mortality of 0.9% and is now our preferred approach. Minimally invasive esophagectomy can be performed safely, with good results in an experienced center. PMID:22668811
Wickham, J. E.
The rapid development of minimally invasive surgery means that there will be fundamental changes in interventional treatment. Technological advances will allow new minimally invasive procedures to be developed. Application of robotics will allow some procedures to be done automatically, and coupling of slave robotic instruments with virtual reality images will allow surgeons to perform operations by remote control. Miniature motors and instruments designed by microengineering could be introduced into body cavities to perform operations that are currently impossible. New materials will allow changes in instrument construction, such as use of memory metals to make heat activated scissors or forceps. With the reduced trauma associated with minimally invasive surgery, fewer operations will require long hospital stays. Traditional surgical wards will become largely redundant, and hospitals will need to cope with increased through-put of patients. Operating theatres will have to be equipped with complex high technology equipment, and hospital staff will need to be trained to manage it. Conventional nursing care will be carried out more in the community. Many traditional specialties will be merged, and surgical training will need fundamental revision to ensure that surgeons are competent to carry out the new procedures. Images Fig 1 Fig 2 Fig 3 Fig 4 Fig 5 PMID:8312776
Bacha, Emile; Kalfa, David
The concept of minimally invasive surgery for congenital heart disease in paediatric patients is broad, and has the aim of reducing the trauma of the operation at each stage of management. Firstly, in the operating room using minimally invasive incisions, video-assisted thoracoscopic and robotically assisted surgery, hybrid procedures, image-guided intracardiac surgery, and minimally invasive cardiopulmonary bypass strategies. Secondly, in the intensive-care unit with neuroprotection and 'fast-tracking' strategies that involve early extubation, early hospital discharge, and less exposure to transfused blood products. Thirdly, during postoperative mid-term and long-term follow-up by providing the children and their families with adequate support after hospital discharge. Improvement of these strategies relies on the development of new devices, real-time multimodality imaging, aids to instrument navigation, miniaturized and specialized instrumentation, robotic technology, and computer-assisted modelling of flow dynamics and tissue mechanics. In addition, dedicated multidisciplinary co-ordinated teams involving congenital cardiac surgeons, perfusionists, intensivists, anaesthesiologists, cardiologists, nurses, psychologists, and counsellors are needed before, during, and after surgery to go beyond apparent technological and medical limitations with the goal to 'treat more while hurting less'.
Minimally invasive therapy (MIT) is beginning to have impacts on health care in Denmark, although diffusion has been delayed compared to diffusion in other European countries. Now policy makers are beginning to appreciate the potential advantages in terms of closing hospitals and shifting treatment to the out-patient setting, and diffusion will probably go faster in the future. Denmark does not have a system for technology assessment, neither central nor regional, and there is no early warning mechanism to survey international developments. This implies lack of possibilities for the planning of diffusion, training, and criteria for treatment.
Wolfe, J. Alan; Malaisrie, S. Chris; Farivar, R. Saeid; Khan, Junaid H.; Hargrove, W. Clark; Moront, Michael G.; Ryan, William H.; Ailawadi, Gorav; Agnihotri, Arvind K.; Hummel, Brian W.; Fayers, Trevor M.; Grossi, Eugene A.; Guy, T. Sloane; Lehr, Eric J.; Mehall, John R.; Murphy, Douglas A.; Rodriguez, Evelio; Salemi, Arash; Segurola, Romualdo J.; Shemin, Richard J.; Smith, J. Michael; Smith, Robert L.; Weldner, Paul W.; Lewis, Clifton T. P.; Barnhart, Glenn R.; Goldman, Scott M.
Abstract Techniques for minimally invasive mitral valve repair and replacement continue to evolve. This expert opinion, the second of a 3-part series, outlines current best practices for nonrobotic, minimally invasive mitral valve procedures, and for postoperative care after minimally invasive mitral valve surgery. PMID:27654406
Minimally invasive surgery (MIS) is rising in popularity. It offers well-known benefits to the patient. However, restricted access to the surgical site and gas insufflation into the body cavities may result in severe complications. From the anaesthetic point of view MIS poses unique challenges associated with creation of pneumoperitoneum, carbon dioxide absorption, specific positioning and monitoring a patient to whom the anaesthetist has often restricted access, in a poorly lit environment. Moreover, with refinement of surgical procedures and growing experience the anaesthetist is presented with patients from high-risk groups (obese, elderly, with advanced cardiac and respiratory disease) who once were deemed unsuitable for the laparoscopic technique. Anaesthetic management is aimed at getting the patient safely through the procedure, minimizing the specific risks arising from laparoscopy and the patient's coexisting medical problems, ensuring quick recovery and a relatively pain-free postoperative course with early return to normal function. PMID:26865885
Baucom, Catherine; Nguyen, Quan D.; Hidalgo, Marco
Introduction: Spigelian hernia is an uncommon ventral hernia characterized by a defect in the linea semilunaris. Repair of spigelian hernia has traditionally been accomplished via an open transverse incision and primary repair. The purpose of this article is to present 2 case reports of incarcerated spigelian hernia that were successfully repaired laparoscopically using Gortex mesh and to present a review of the literature regarding laparoscopic repair of spigelian hernias. Methods: Retrospective chart review and Medline literature search. Results: Two patients underwent laparoscopic mesh repair of incarcerated spigelian hernias. Both were started on a regular diet on postoperative day 1 and discharged on postoperative days 2 and 3. One patient developed a seroma that resolved without intervention. There was complete resolution of preoperative symptoms at the 12-month follow-up. Conclusion: Minimally invasive repair of spigelian hernias is an alternative to the traditional open surgical technique. Further studies are needed to directly compare the open and the laparoscopic repair. PMID:19660230
Minimally invasive aortic valve replacement (MIAVR) is defined as aortic valve replacement avoiding full sternotomy. Common approaches include a partial sternotomy right thoracotomy, and a parasternal approach. MIAVR has been shown to have advantages over conventional AVR such as shorter length of stay and smaller amount of blood transfusion and better cosmesis. However, it is also known to have disadvantages such as longer cardiopulmonary bypass and aortic cross-clamp times and potential complications related to peripheral cannulation. Appropriate patient selection is very important. Since the procedure is more complex than conventional AVR, more intensive teamwork in the operating room is essential. Additionally, a team approach during postoperative management is critical to maximize the benefits of MIAVR.
Dai, Rui; Turley, Ryan S; Blazer, Dan G
AIM To assess the current literature describing various minimally invasive techniques for and to review short-term outcomes after minimally invasive pancreaticoduodenectomy (PD). METHODS PD remains the only potentially curative treatment for periampullary malignancies, including, most commonly, pancreatic adenocarcinoma. Minimally invasive approaches to this complex operation have begun to be increasingly reported in the literature and are purported by some to reduce the historically high morbidity of PD associated with the open technique. In this systematic review, we have searched the literature for high-quality publications describing minimally invasive techniques for PD-including laparoscopic, robotic, and laparoscopic-assisted robotic approaches (hybrid approach). We have identified publications with the largest operative experiences from well-known centers of excellence for this complex procedure. We report primarily short term operative and perioperative results and some short term oncologic endpoints. RESULTS Minimally invasive techniques include laparoscopic, robotic and hybrid approaches and each of these techniques has strong advocates. Consistently, across all minimally invasive modalities, these techniques are associated less intraoperative blood loss than traditional open PD (OPD), but in exchange for longer operating times. These techniques are relatively equivalent in terms of perioperative morbidity and short term oncologic outcomes. Importantly, pancreatic fistula rate appears to be comparable in most minimally invasive series compared to open technique. Impact of minimally invasive technique on length of stay is mixed compared to some traditional open series. A few series have suggested that initiation of and time to adjuvant therapy may be improved with minimally invasive techniques, however this assertion remains controversial. In terms of short-terms costs, minimally invasive PD is significantly higher than that of OPD. CONCLUSION Minimally
Palep, Jaydeep H
The term “robot” was coined by the Czech playright Karel Capek in 1921 in his play Rossom's Universal Robots. The word “robot” is from the check word robota which means forced labor. The era of robots in surgery commenced in 1994 when the first AESOP (voice controlled camera holder) prototype robot was used clinically in 1993 and then marketed as the first surgical robot ever in 1994 by the US FDA. Since then many robot prototypes like the Endoassist (Armstrong Healthcare Ltd., High Wycombe, Buck, UK), FIPS endoarm (Karlsruhe Research Center, Karlsruhe, Germany) have been developed to add to the functions of the robot and try and increase its utility. Integrated Surgical Systems (now Intuitive Surgery, Inc.) redesigned the SRI Green Telepresence Surgery system and created the daVinci Surgical System® classified as a master-slave surgical system. It uses true 3-D visualization and EndoWrist®. It was approved by FDA in July 2000 for general laparoscopic surgery, in November 2002 for mitral valve repair surgery. The da Vinci robot is currently being used in various fields such as urology, general surgery, gynecology, cardio-thoracic, pediatric and ENT surgery. It provides several advantages to conventional laparoscopy such as 3D vision, motion scaling, intuitive movements, visual immersion and tremor filtration. The advent of robotics has increased the use of minimally invasive surgery among laparoscopically naïve surgeons and expanded the repertoire of experienced surgeons to include more advanced and complex reconstructions. PMID:19547687
Radojcić, Branka; Jokić, Radoica; Grebeldinger, Slobodan; Meljnikov, Igor; Radojić, Nikola
This paper presents a historical review and development of minimally invasive surgery. The interest of physicians to "look into the internal organs" has existed since the ancient time. The first described endoscopy was by Hippocrates. He made reference to a rectal speculum. The credit for modern endoscopy belongs to Bozzini. He developed a light conductor which he called "Lichleiter" to avoid the problems of inadequate illumination. In 1853, Desormeaux first introduced the "Lichtleiter" of Bozzini to a patient. Many developments, which occurred independently but almost simultaneously, produced breakthroughs for endoscopy and laparoscopy that were bases for modern instruments. In 1901, Kelling coined the term "coelioskope" to describe the technique that used a cystoscope to examine the abdominal cavity of dogs. In 1910, Jacobaeus used the term "laparothorakoskopie" for the fist time. In 1938, Veress developed the spring-loaded needle for draining ascites and evacuating fluid and air from the chest. Its current modifications make the "Veress" needle a perfect tool to achieve pneumnoperitoneum during laparoscopic surgery. In 1970, Hasson developed a technique performing laparoscopy through a miniature leparotomy incision. The first solid state camera was introduced in 1982 that was the start of "video-laparoscopy". In 1981 Kurt Semm performed first laparoscopic appendectomy. Within a year, all standard surgical procedures were performed laparoscopically. The authors also analyzed the new surgical techniques, such as telesurgery, robotics and virtual reality in current surgical practice. They specially enmphasized the use of laparoscopic access in pediatric surgery which has become a new gold standard in surgical treatment of pediatric patients.
Ailawadi, Gorav; Agnihotri, Arvind K.; Mehall, John R.; Wolfe, J. Alan; Hummel, Brian W.; Fayers, Trevor M.; Farivar, R. Saeid; Grossi, Eugene A.; Guy, T. Sloane; Hargrove, W. Clark; Khan, Junaid H.; Lehr, Eric J.; Malaisrie, S. Chris; Murphy, Douglas A.; Rodriguez, Evelio; Ryan, William H.; Salemi, Arash; Segurola, Romualdo J.; Shemin, Richard J.; Smith, J. Michael; Smith, Robert L.; Weldner, Paul W.; Goldman, Scott M.; Lewis, Clifton T. P.; Barnhart, Glenn R.
Abstract Widespread adoption of minimally invasive mitral valve repair and replacement may be fostered by practice consensus and standardization. This expert opinion, first of a 3-part series, outlines current best practices in patient evaluation and selection for minimally invasive mitral valve procedures, and discusses preoperative planning for cannulation and myocardial protection. PMID:27654407
Hofstetter, Christoph P; Hofer, Anna S; Wang, Michael Y
Cost effectiveness has been demonstrated for traditional lumbar discectomy, lumbar laminectomy as well as for instrumented and noninstrumented arthrodesis. While emerging evidence suggests that minimally invasive spine surgery reduces morbidity, duration of hospitalization, and accelerates return to activites of daily living, data regarding cost effectiveness of these novel techniques is limited. The current study analyzes all available data on minimally invasive techniques for lumbar discectomy, decompression, short-segment fusion and deformity surgery. In general, minimally invasive spine procedures appear to hold promise in quicker patient recovery times and earlier return to work. Thus, minimally invasive lumbar spine surgery appears to have the potential to be a cost-effective intervention. Moreover, novel less invasive procedures are less destabilizing and may therefore be utilized in certain indications that traditionally required arthrodesis procedures. However, there is a lack of studies analyzing the economic impact of minimally invasive spine surgery. Future studies are necessary to confirm the durability and further define indications for minimally invasive lumbar spine procedures. PMID:25793159
... of the heart is reduced. This is called aortic stenosis. The aortic valve can be replaced using: Minimally ... RN, Wang A. Percutaneous heart valve replacement for aortic stenosis: state of the evidence. Ann Intern Med . 2010; ...
Maffulli, Nicola; Longo, Umile Giuseppe; Spiezia, Filippo; Denaro, Vincenzo
Minimally invasive trauma and orthopedic surgery is increasingly common, though technically demanding. Its use for pathologies of the Achilles tendon (AT) hold the promise to allow faster recovery times, shorter hospital stays, and improved functional outcomes when compared to traditional open procedures, which can lead to difficulty with wound healing because of the tenuous blood supply and increased chance of wound breakdown and infection. We present the recent advances in the field of minimally invasive AT surgery for tendinopathy, acute ruptures, chronic tears, and chronic avulsions of the AT. In our hands, minimally invasive surgery has provided similar results to those obtained with open surgery, with decreased perioperative morbidity, decreased duration of hospital stay, and reduced costs. So far, the studies on minimally invasive orthopedic techniques are of moderate scientific quality with short follow-up periods. Multicenter studies with longer follow-up are needed to justify the long-term advantages of these techniques over traditional ones. PMID:24198547
... thrombosis, 9th ed: American College of Chest Physicians evidence-based clinical practice guidelines. Chest . 2012;141(2 ... bypass surgery - minimally invasive Heart failure - overview High blood cholesterol ...
Whealon, Matthew; Vinci, Alessio; Pigazzi, Alessio
Minimally invasive surgery is slowly taking over as the preferred operative approach for colorectal diseases. However, many of the procedures remain technically difficult. This article will give an overview of the state of minimally invasive surgery and the many advances that have been made over the last two decades. Specifically, we discuss the introduction of the robotic platform and some of its benefits and limitations. We also describe some newer techniques related to robotics. PMID:27582647
Meusnier, Tristan; Mukish, Prikesht
Study groups have been formed in France to advance the use of minimally invasive surgery. These techniques are becoming more frequently used and the technique nuances are continuing to evolve. The objective of this article was to advance the awareness of the current trends in minimally invasive surgery for common diseases of the forefoot. The percutaneous surgery at the forefoot is less developed at this time, but also will be discussed.
Cebulski, Włodzimierz; Słodkowski, Maciej; Krasnodębski, Ireneusz W.
Infected pancreatic necrosis is a challenging complication that worsens prognosis in acute pancreatitis. For years, open necrosectomy has been the mainstay treatment option in infected pancreatic necrosis, although surgical debridement still results in high morbidity and mortality rates. Recently, many reports on minimally invasive treatment in infected pancreatic necrosis have been published. This paper presents a review of minimally invasive techniques and attempts to define their role in the management of infected pancreatic necrosis. PMID:25653725
Beale, Brian S; Cole, Grayson
Articular fractures require accurate reduction and rigid stabilization to decrease the chance of osteoarthritis and joint dysfunction. Articular fractures have been traditionally repaired by arthrotomy and internal fixation. Recently, minimally invasive techniques have been introduced to treat articular fractures, reducing patient morbidity and improving the accuracy of reduction. A variety of techniques, including distraction, radiographic imaging, and arthroscopy, are used with the minimally invasive osteosynthesis technique of articular fractures to achieve a successful repair and outcome.
Mori, Kristina M.; Neubauer, Nikki L.
Minimally invasive surgery has been utilized in the field of obstetrics and gynecology as far back as the 1940s when culdoscopy was first introduced as a visualization tool. Gynecologists then began to employ minimally invasive surgery for adhesiolysis and obtaining biopsies but then expanded its use to include procedures such as tubal sterilization (Clyman (1963), L. E. Smale and M. L. Smale (1973), Thompson and Wheeless (1971), Peterson and Behrman (1971)). With advances in instrumentation, the first laparoscopic hysterectomy was successfully performed in 1989 by Reich et al. At the same time, minimally invasive surgery in gynecologic oncology was being developed alongside its benign counterpart. In the 1975s, Rosenoff et al. reported using peritoneoscopy for pretreatment evaluation in ovarian cancer, and Spinelli et al. reported on using laparoscopy for the staging of ovarian cancer. In 1993, Nichols used operative laparoscopy to perform pelvic lymphadenectomy in cervical cancer patients. The initial goals of minimally invasive surgery, not dissimilar to those of modern medicine, were to decrease the morbidity and mortality associated with surgery and therefore improve patient outcomes and patient satisfaction. This review will summarize the history and use of minimally invasive surgery in gynecologic oncology and also highlight new minimally invasive surgical approaches currently in development. PMID:23997959
Hulsberg, Paul C.; McLoney, Eric; Partovi, Sasan; Davidson, Jon C.
The management of venous compression syndromes has historically been reliant on surgical treatment when conservative measures fail. There are, however, several settings in which endovascular therapy can play a significant role as an adjunct or even a replacement to more invasive surgical methods. We explore the role of minimally invasive treatment options for three of the most well-studied venous compression syndromes. The clinical aspects and pathophysiology of Paget-Schroetter syndrome (PSS), nutcracker syndrome, and May-Thurner syndrome are discussed in detail, with particular emphasis on the role that interventionalists can play in minimally invasive treatment. PMID:28123978
Nelson, Bradley J; Kaliakatsos, Ioannis K; Abbott, Jake J
Microrobots have the potential to revolutionize many aspects of medicine. These untethered, wirelessly controlled and powered devices will make existing therapeutic and diagnostic procedures less invasive and will enable new procedures never before possible. The aim of this review is threefold: first, to provide a comprehensive survey of the technological state of the art in medical microrobots; second, to explore the potential impact of medical microrobots and inspire future research in this field; and third, to provide a collection of valuable information and engineering tools for the design of medical microrobots.
Lavelle, William; Carl, Allen; Lavelle, Elizabeth Demers
This article summarizes current issues related to invasive and minimally invasive surgical techniques for back pain conditions. It describes pain generators and explains theories about how discs fail. The article discusses techniques for treating painful sciatica, painful motion segments, and spinal stenosis. Problems related to current imaging are also presented. The article concludes with a discussion about physical therapy.
van der Putten, Marieke A.; Brewer, James M.; Harvey, Andrew R.
The study of localised oxygen saturation in blood vessels can shed light on the etiology and progression of many diseases with which hypoxia is associated. For example, hypoxia in the tendon has been linked to early stages of rheumatoid arthritis, an auto-immune inflammatory disease. Vascular oximetry of deep tissue presents significant challenges as vessels are not optically accessible. In this paper, we present a novel multispectral imaging technique for vascular oximetry, and recent developments made towards its adaptation for minimally invasive imaging. We present proof-of-concept of the system and illumination scheme as well as the analysis technique. We present results of a validation study performed in vivo on mice with acutely inflamed tendons. Adaptation of the technique for minimally invasive microendoscopy is also presented, along with preliminary results of minimally invasive ex vivo vascular oximetry.
Guillaume, Daniel J
This article focuses on minimally invasive approaches used to address disorders of cerebrospinal fluid (CSF) circulation. The author covers the primary CSF disorders that are amenable to minimally invasive treatment, including aqueductal stenosis, fourth ventricular outlet obstruction (including Chiari malformation), isolated lateral ventricle, isolated fourth ventricle, multiloculated hydrocephalus, arachnoid cysts, and tumors that block CSF flow. General approaches to evaluating disorders of CSF circulation, including detailed imaging studies, are discussed. Approaches to minimally invasive management of such disorders are described in general, and for each specific entity. For each procedure, indications, surgical technique, and known outcomes are detailed. Specific complications as well as strategies for their avoidance and management are addressed. Lastly, future directions and the need for structured outcome studies are discussed.
Kuyumcu, Gokhan; Salazar, Gloria Maria; Prabhakar, Anand M; Ganguli, Suvranu
Incompetent superficial veins are the most common cause of lower extremity superficial venous reflux and varicose veins; however, incompetent or insufficient perforator veins are the most common cause of recurrent varicose veins after treatment, often unrecognized. Perforator vein insufficiency can result in pain, skin changes, and skin ulcers, and often merit intervention. Minimally invasive treatments have replaced traditional surgical treatments for incompetent perforator veins. Current minimally invasive treatment options include ultrasound guided sclerotherapy (USGS) and endovascular thermal ablation (EVTA) with either laser or radiofrequency energy sources. Advantages and disadvantages of each modality and knowledge on these treatments are required to adequately address perforator venous disease.
Salazar, Gloria Maria; Prabhakar, Anand M.; Ganguli, Suvranu
Incompetent superficial veins are the most common cause of lower extremity superficial venous reflux and varicose veins; however, incompetent or insufficient perforator veins are the most common cause of recurrent varicose veins after treatment, often unrecognized. Perforator vein insufficiency can result in pain, skin changes, and skin ulcers, and often merit intervention. Minimally invasive treatments have replaced traditional surgical treatments for incompetent perforator veins. Current minimally invasive treatment options include ultrasound guided sclerotherapy (USGS) and endovascular thermal ablation (EVTA) with either laser or radiofrequency energy sources. Advantages and disadvantages of each modality and knowledge on these treatments are required to adequately address perforator venous disease. PMID:28123979
Skovrlj, Branko; Gilligan, Jeffrey; Cutler, Holt S; Qureshi, Sheeraz A
Degenerative disease of the lumbar spine is a common and increasingly prevalent condition that is often implicated as the primary reason for chronic low back pain and the leading cause of disability in the western world. Surgical management of lumbar degenerative disease has historically been approached by way of open surgical procedures aimed at decompressing and/or stabilizing the lumbar spine. Advances in technology and surgical instrumentation have led to minimally invasive surgical techniques being developed and increasingly used in the treatment of lumbar degenerative disease. Compared to the traditional open spine surgery, minimally invasive techniques require smaller incisions and decrease approach-related morbidity by avoiding muscle crush injury by self-retaining retractors, preventing the disruption of tendon attachment sites of important muscles at the spinous processes, using known anatomic neurovascular and muscle planes, and minimizing collateral soft-tissue injury by limiting the width of the surgical corridor. The theoretical benefits of minimally invasive surgery over traditional open surgery include reduced blood loss, decreased postoperative pain and narcotics use, shorter hospital length of stay, faster recover and quicker return to work and normal activity. This paper describes the different minimally invasive techniques that are currently available for the treatment of degenerative disease of the lumbar spine. PMID:25610845
Guyton, Gregory P
Osteotomies of the calcaneus are powerful surgical tools, representing a critical component of the surgical reconstruction of pes planus and pes cavus deformity. Modern minimally invasive calcaneal osteotomies can be performed safely with a burr through a lateral incision. Although greater kerf is generated with the burr, the effect is modest, can be minimized, and is compatible with many fixation techniques. A hinged jig renders the procedure more reproducible and accessible.
A review of the current scientific literature was undertaken to evaluate the efficacy of minimally invasive periodontal regenerative surgery in the treatment of periodontal defects. The impact on clinical outcomes, surgical chair-time, side effects and patient morbidity were evaluated. An electronic search of PUBMED database from January 1987 to December 2011 was undertaken on dental journals using the key-word "minimally invasive surgery". Cohort studies, retrospective studies and randomized controlled clinical trials referring to treatment of periodontal defects with at least 6 months of follow-up were selected. Quality assessment of the selected studies was done through the Strength of Recommendation Taxonomy Grading (SORT) System. Ten studies (1 retrospective, 5 cohorts and 4 RCTs) were included. All the studies consistently support the efficacy of minimally invasive surgery in the treatment of periodontal defects in terms of clinical attachment level gain, probing pocket depth reduction and minimal gingival recession. Six studies reporting on side effects and patient morbidity consistently indicate very low levels of pain and discomfort during and after surgery resulting in a reduced intake of pain-killers and very limited interference with daily activities in the post-operative period. Minimally invasive surgery might be considered a true reality in the field of periodontal regeneration. The observed clinical improvements are consistently associated with very limited morbidity to the patient during the surgical procedure as well as in the post-operative period. Minimally invasive surgery, however, cannot be applied at all cases. A stepwise decisional algorithm should support clinicians in choosing the treatment approach.
Platform Technologies for Minimally Invasive Physiological Monitoring Mingui Sun1,2,3,4, Steven A. Hackworth1,2,4, Zhide Tang1, Jun Zhao1,4, Daliang...Light, W. G. Berger, “Medical devices of the head, neck, and spine,” Radiographics, Jan-Feb 2004 24(1):257-85.  W. Liu, M. Sivaprakasam, G. Wang
Holder-Murray, Jennifer; Marsicovetere, Priscilla
Abstract: Surgical management of inflammatory bowel disease is a challenging endeavor given infectious and inflammatory complications, such as fistula, and abscess, complex often postoperative anatomy, including adhesive disease from previous open operations. Patients with Crohn's disease and ulcerative colitis also bring to the table the burden of their chronic illness with anemia, malnutrition, and immunosuppression, all common and contributing independently as risk factors for increased surgical morbidity in this high-risk population. However, to reduce the physical trauma of surgery, technologic advances and worldwide experience with minimally invasive surgery have allowed laparoscopic management of patients to become standard of care, with significant short- and long-term patient benefits compared with the open approach. In this review, we will describe the current state-of the-art for minimally invasive surgery for inflammatory bowel disease and the caveats inherent with this practice in this complex patient population. Also, we will review the applicability of current and future trends in minimally invasive surgical technique, such as laparoscopic “incisionless,” single-incision laparoscopic surgery (SILS), robotic-assisted, and other techniques for the patient with inflammatory bowel disease. There can be no doubt that minimally invasive surgery has been proven to decrease the short- and long-term burden of surgery of these chronic illnesses and represents high-value care for both patient and society. PMID:25989341
Lehr, Eric J.; Guy, T. Sloane; Smith, Robert L.; Grossi, Eugene A.; Shemin, Richard J.; Rodriguez, Evelio; Ailawadi, Gorav; Agnihotri, Arvind K.; Fayers, Trevor M.; Hargrove, W. Clark; Hummel, Brian W.; Khan, Junaid H.; Malaisrie, S. Chris; Mehall, John R.; Murphy, Douglas A.; Ryan, William H.; Salemi, Arash; Segurola, Romualdo J.; Smith, J. Michael; Wolfe, J. Alan; Weldner, Paul W.; Barnhart, Glenn R.; Goldman, Scott M.; Lewis, Clifton T. P.
Abstract Minimally invasive mitral valve operations are increasingly common in the United States, but robotic-assisted approaches have not been widely adopted for a variety of reasons. This expert opinion reviews the state of the art and defines best practices, training, and techniques for developing a successful robotics program. PMID:27662478
Stádler, Petr; Sedivý, Petr; Dvorácek, Libor; Slais, Marek; Vitásek, Petr; El Samman, Khaled; Matous, Pavel
Minimally invasive surgery provides an attractive alternative compared with conventional surgical approaches and is popular with patients, particularly because of its favourable cosmetic results. Vascular surgery has taken its inspiration from general surgery and, over the past few years, has also been reducing the invasiveness of its operating methods. In addition to traditional laparoscopic techniques, we most frequently encounter the endovascular treatment of aneurysms of the thoracic and abdominal aorta and, most recently, robot-assisted surgery in the area of the abdominal aorta and pelvic arteries. Minimally invasive surgical interventions also have other advantages, including less operative trauma, a reduction in post-operative pain, shorter periods spent in the intensive care unit and overall hospitalization times, an earlier return to normal life and, finally, a reduction in total treatment costs.
Nakamura, Yoshitsugu; Kiaii, Bob; Chu, Michael W. A.
Atrial fibrillation is the most common sustained arrhythmia and is associated with significant risks of thromboembolism, stroke, congestive heart failure, and death. There have been major advances in the management of atrial fibrillation including pharmacologic therapies, antithrombotic therapies, and ablation techniques. Surgery for atrial fibrillation, including both concomitant and stand-alone interventions, is an effective therapy to restore sinus rhythm. Minimally invasive surgical ablation is an emerging field that aims for the superior results of the traditional Cox-Maze procedure through a less invasive operation with lower morbidity, quicker recovery, and improved patient satisfaction. These novel techniques utilize endoscopic or minithoracotomy approaches with various energy sources to achieve electrical isolation of the pulmonary veins in addition to other ablation lines. We review advancements in minimally invasive techniques for atrial fibrillation surgery, including management of the left atrial appendage. PMID:22666609
Jain, R; Kato, Y; Sano, H; Imizu, S; Watanabe, S; Yamaguchi, S; Shinya, N; Jindal, V; Kanno, T
Minimally invasive surgeries by innovative approaches are practiced in all fields. The evolution of microneurosurgery has revolutionized the results in neurosurgery. Use of endoscopes and navigation has made microsurgery less invasive. Another development to make minimally invasive microneurosurgery further lesser invasive is the use of micromanipulator. The use and effectiveness of manually controlled micromanipulator system is presented. The manually controlled micromanipulator system consists of three parts, i.e., a basic micromanipulator, manipulator supporting device and the manual control. The micromanipulator fitted in supporting device is arranged before the start of surgery. The supporting device used is pneumatically driven powered endoscopic holding device (Mitaka Kohki Co., Tokyo) In maximum number of times we used the system for endoscopic assisted cerebrovascular microneurosurgery. In a span of two months we used it in thirty aneurysm clipping surgeries. The endoscope fitted in system has three ranges of motions (forward/backward, upside/down and sideways). We use MACHIDA rigid endoscope with internal diameter of 2.7 mm (smallest diameter endoscope available). Special features of this endoscope are accurate visualization at a deeper plane, stable movements and availability of single focus point for long time. All these features are valuable during pre- and postoperative clipping observation. The aim of development of micromanipulator system was to further reduce invasiveness. A significant improvement in manual dexterity is possible when working through the micromanipulator interface, which dampens human physiological tremor. The physiological tremor would render the manual dexterity unsafe at the end of lever arm of long instruments. Thus, the use endoscope becomes practical. The minimally invasive microneurosurgery can be further made lesser invasive by use of micromanipulator and we are convinced that this will facilitate more accurate and
Viani, Lorenzo; Montana, Chiara Montana; Cozzani, Federico; Sianesi, Mario
Background The conventional thyroidectomy is the most frequent surgical procedure for thyroidal surgical disease. From several years were introduced minimally invasive approaches to thyroid surgery. These new procedures improved the incidence of postoperative pain, cosmetic results, patient’s quality of life, postoperative morbidity. The mini invasive video-assisted thyroidectomy (MIVAT) is a minimally invasive procedure that uses a minicervicotomy to treat thyroidal diseases. Methods We present our experience on 497 consecutively treated patients with MIVAT technique. We analyzed the mean age, sex, mean operative time, rate of bleeding, hypocalcemia, transitory and definitive nerve palsy (6 months after the procedure), postoperative pain scale from 0 to 10 at 1 hour and 24 hours after surgery, mean hospital stay. Results The indications to treat were related to preoperative diagnosis: 182 THYR 6, 184 THYR 3–4, 27 plummer, 24 basedow, 28 toxic goiter, 52 goiter. On 497 cases we have reported 1 case of bleeding (0,2%), 12 (2,4%) cases of transitory nerve palsy and 4 (0,8%) definitive nerve palsy. The rate of serologic hypocalcemia was 24.9% (124 cases) and clinical in 7.2% (36 cases); 1 case of hypoparathyroidism (0.2%). Conclusions The MIVAT is a safe approach to surgical thyroid disease, the cost are similar to CT as the adverse events. The minicervicotomy is really a minimally invasive tissue dissection. PMID:27294036
Vergara, Pierluigi; Barone, Damiano Giuseppe
Arachnoid webs are rare intradural lesions which can cause direct spinal cord compression and/or alteration of the CSF flow with syringomielia. Surgery has been historically performed via wide open laminectomies. The aim of this study is to prove the feasibility of minimally invasive techniques for the excision of arachnoid webs. A retrospective review of two cases of minimally invasive excision of thoracic arachnoid webs was performed. Surgery was carried out through expandable tubular retractors. Complete excision was achieved through the described approach, with minimal bony removal and soft tissue disruption. There were no intra- or peri- operative complications. Both patients were mobilised early and discharged home within 24hrs post-surgery. Postoperative imaging showed good re-expansion of the spinal cord, with no evidence of residual compression or tethering. For symptomatic arachnoid webs, surgery remains the only definitive treatment. In expert hands, the excision of arachnoid webs can be successfully achieved with tubular retractors and minimally invasive techniques. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.
Patel, Ravish Shammi; Dutta, Shumayou
Study Design Retrospective review of prospectively collected data. Purpose To evaluate the incidence of surgical site infections (SSIs) in minimally invasive spine surgery (MISS) in a cohort of patients and compare with available historical data on SSI in open spinal surgery cohorts, and to evaluate additional direct costs incurred due to SSI. Overview of Literature SSI can lead to prolonged antibiotic therapy, extended hospitalization, repeated operations, and implant removal. Small incisions and minimal dissection intrinsic to MISS may minimize the risk of postoperative infections. However, there is a dearth of literature on infections after MISS and their additional direct financial implications. Methods All patients from January 2007 to January 2015 undergoing posterior spinal surgery with tubular retractor system and microscope in our institution were included. The procedures performed included tubular discectomies, tubular decompressions for spinal stenosis and minimal invasive transforaminal lumbar interbody fusion (TLIF). The incidence of postoperative SSI was calculated and compared to the range of cited SSI rates from published studies. Direct costs were calculated from medical billing for index cases and for patients with SSI. Results A total of 1,043 patients underwent 763 noninstrumented surgeries (discectomies, decompressions) and 280 instrumented (TLIF) procedures. The mean age was 52.2 years with male:female ratio of 1.08:1. Three infections were encountered with fusion surgeries (mean detection time, 7 days). All three required wound wash and debridement with one patient requiring unilateral implant removal. Additional direct cost due to infection was $2,678 per 100 MISS-TLIF. SSI increased hospital expenditure per patient 1.5-fold after instrumented MISS. Conclusions Overall infection rate after MISS was 0.29%, with SSI rate of 0% in non-instrumented MISS and 1.07% with instrumented MISS. MISS can markedly reduce the SSI rate and can be an
McGowan, Jason E; Ricks, Christian B; Kanter, Adam S
The role for minimally invasive surgery (MIS) continues to expand in the management of spinal pathology. In the setting of trauma, operative techniques that can minimize morbidity without compromising clinical efficacy have significant value. MIS techniques are associated with decreased intraoperative blood loss, operative time, and morbidity, while providing patients with comparable outcomes when compared with conventional open procedures. MIS interventions further enable earlier mobilization, decreased hospital stay, decreased pain, and an earlier return to baseline function when compared with traditional techniques. This article reviews patient selection and select MIS techniques for those who have suffered traumatic spinal injury.
Beale, Brian S; McCally, Ryan
Fractures of the tibia and fibula are common in dogs and cats and occur most commonly as a result of substantial trauma. Tibial fractures are often amenable to repair using the minimally invasive plate osteosynthesis (MIPO) technique because of the minimal soft tissue covering of the tibia and relative ease of indirect reduction and application of the implant system on the tibia. Treatment of tibial fractures by MIPO has been found to reduce surgical time, reduce the time for fracture healing, and decrease patient morbidity, while at the same time reducing complications compared with traditional open reduction and internal fixation.
Bandi, Ashwath S; Bradshaw, Catherine J; Giuliani, Stefano
Over the last two decades, advances in laparoscopic surgery and minimally invasive techniques have transformed the operative management of neonatal colorectal surgery for conditions such as anorectal malformations (ARMs) and Hirschsprung’s disease. Evolution of surgical care has mainly occurred due to the use of laparoscopy, as opposed to a laparotomy, for intra-abdominal procedures and the development of trans-anal techniques. This review describes these advances and outlines the main minimally invasive techniques currently used for management of ARMs and Hirschsprung’s disease. There does still remain significant variation in the procedures used and this review aims to report the current literature comparing techniques with an emphasis on the short- and long-term clinical outcomes. PMID:27830038
Bandi, Ashwath S; Bradshaw, Catherine J; Giuliani, Stefano
Over the last two decades, advances in laparoscopic surgery and minimally invasive techniques have transformed the operative management of neonatal colorectal surgery for conditions such as anorectal malformations (ARMs) and Hirschsprung's disease. Evolution of surgical care has mainly occurred due to the use of laparoscopy, as opposed to a laparotomy, for intra-abdominal procedures and the development of trans-anal techniques. This review describes these advances and outlines the main minimally invasive techniques currently used for management of ARMs and Hirschsprung's disease. There does still remain significant variation in the procedures used and this review aims to report the current literature comparing techniques with an emphasis on the short- and long-term clinical outcomes.
Ishikawa, Norihiko; Sun, You Su; Nifong, L Wiley; Oda, Makoto; Ohta, Yasuhiko; Watanabe, Go; Chitwood, W Randolph
The operator performing minimally invasive surgery is prevented from seeing the whole field with both eyes by the restricted small thoracotomy incision. To overcome this problem, we developed mirror glasses. Use of these glasses was evaluated in terms of the time required for threading of sutures with endoscopic forceps. Three surgeon ligated thread a suture five times with and without use of the glasses in the box, and the mean time was calculated for each surgeon. The time required for ligation (mean +/- SD) was 24.2 +/- 2.9 s with mirror glasses and 27.0 +/- 2.5 s without the glasses (p = 0.01). The mirror glasses may be found useful for fine manipulation for minimally invasive surgery.
Williamson, Tom; Du, Xinli; Bell, Brett; Coulson, Chris; Caversaccio, Marco; Proops, David; Brett, Peter; Weber, Stefan
Robotic assistance in the context of lateral skull base surgery, particularly during cochlear implantation procedures, has been the subject of considerable research over the last decade. The use of robotics during these procedures has the potential to provide significant benefits to the patient by reducing invasiveness when gaining access to the cochlea, as well as reducing intracochlear trauma when performing a cochleostomy. Presented herein is preliminary work on the combination of two robotic systems for reducing invasiveness and trauma in cochlear implantation procedures. A robotic system for minimally invasive inner ear access was combined with a smart drilling tool for robust and safe cochleostomy; evaluation was completed on a single human cadaver specimen. Access to the middle ear was successfully achieved through the facial recess without damage to surrounding anatomical structures; cochleostomy was completed at the planned position with the endosteum remaining intact after drilling as confirmed by microscope evaluation.
Healy, G. M.; Redmond, C. E.; Stocker, E.; Connaghan, G.; Skehan, S. J.; Killeen, R. P.
Diffuse large B cell lymphomas (DLBCL) are an aggressive group of non-Hodgkin lymphoid malignancies which have diverse presentation and can have high mortality. Central nervous system relapse is rare but has poor survival. We present the diagnosis of primary mandibular DLBCL and a unique minimally invasive diagnosis of secondary intracranial recurrence. This case highlights the manifold radiological contributions to the diagnosis and management of lymphoma. PMID:28018686
Wollina, Uwe; Goldman, Alberto
Age is a significant factor in modifying specific needs when it comes to medical aesthetic procedures. In this review we will focus on young adults in their third decade of life and review minimally invasive aesthetic procedures other than cosmetics and cosmeceuticals. Correction of asymmetries, correction after body modifying procedures, and facial sculpturing are important issues for young adults. The implication of aesthetic medicine as part of preventive medicine is a major ethical challenge that differentiates aesthetic medicine from fashion. PMID:21673871
Corniola, M V; Stienen, M N; Tessitore, E; Schaller, K; Gautschi, O P
In the early twentieth century, the understanding of spine biomechanics and the advent of surgical techniques of the lumbar spine, led to the currently emerging concept of minimal invasive spine surgery, By reducing surgical access, blood loss, infection rate and general morbidity, functional prognosis of patients is improved. This is a real challenge for the spine surgeon, who has to maintain a good operative result by significantly reducing surgical collateral damages due to the relatively traumatic conventional access.
Hung, Andrew J; Chen, Jian; Shah, Ankeet; Gill, Inderbir S
Tremendous interest and need lie in the intersection of telemedicine and minimally invasive surgery. Robotics provides an ideal environment for surgical telementoring and telesurgery, given its endoscopic optics and mechanized instrument movement. We review the current status, challenges and future promise of telemedicine in endoscopic and minimally invasive surgery, with particular focus on urologic applications. Two paired investigators screened Pubmed(®), Scopus(®) and Web of Science(®) databases for all full-text English language articles published between 1995 and 2016, using the keywords: telemedicine, minimally invasive surgical procedure, robotic surgical procedure, education, distance. We categorized and included studies on level of interaction between proctors and trainees. Research design, special equipment, telecommunicating network bandwidth, and research outcomes of each study were demonstrated and analyzed. Of 65 identified articles, 38 peer-reviewed manuscripts qualified for inclusion. Studies were categorized into four advancing levels: verbal guidance, guidance with telestration, guidance with tele-assist, and telesurgery. More advanced levels of surgical telementoring provides more effective and experiential teaching, but are associated with higher telecommunicating network bandwidth requirement and expense. Concerns from patient safety, legal, financial, economic, and ethical standpoints remain to be reconciled. Telementoring and telesurgery in minimally invasive surgery are becoming more practical and cost-effective in facilitating the teaching of advanced surgical skills worldwide and the delivery of surgical care to underserved areas. Yet, many challenges remain. Maturity of these modalities depends on financial incentives, favorable legislation and collaboration with cybersecurity experts to ensure safety and cost-effectiveness. Copyright © 2017 American Urological Association Education and Research, Inc. Published by Elsevier Inc. All
Bencini, Lapo; Moraldi, Luca; Bartolini, Ilenia; Coratti, Andrea
The widespread popularity of new surgical technologies such as laparoscopy, thoracoscopy and robotics has led many surgeons to treat esophageal diseases with these methods. The expected benefits of minimally invasive surgery (MIS) mainly include reductions of postoperative complications, length of hospital stay, and pain and better cosmetic results. All of these benefits could potentially be of great interest when dealing with the esophagus due to the potentially severe complications that can occur after conventional surgery. Moreover, robotic platforms are expected to reduce many of the difficulties encountered during advanced laparoscopic and thoracoscopic procedures such as anastomotic reconstructions, accurate lymphadenectomies, and vascular sutures. Almost all esophageal diseases are approachable in a minimally invasive way, including diverticula, gastro-esophageal reflux disease, achalasia, perforations and cancer. Nevertheless, while the limits of MIS for benign esophageal diseases are mainly technical issues and costs, oncologic outcomes remain the cornerstone of any procedure to cure malignancies, for which the long-term results are critical. Furthermore, many of the minimally invasive esophageal operations should be compared to pharmacologic interventions and advanced pure endoscopic procedures; such a comparison requires a difficult literature analysis and leads to some confounding results of clinical trials. This review aims to examine the evidence for the use of MIS in both malignancies and more common benign disease of the esophagus, with a particular emphasis on future developments and ongoing areas of research. PMID:26843913
Li, David; Kang, Josephine; Golas, Benjamin J.; Yeung, Vincent W.; Madoff, David C.
Primary and metastatic liver tumors are an increasing global health problem, with hepatocellular carcinoma (HCC) now being the third leading cause of cancer-related mortality worldwide. Systemic treatment options for HCC remain limited, with Sorafenib as the only prospectively validated agent shown to increase overall survival. Surgical resection and/or transplantation, locally ablative therapies and regional or locoregional therapies have filled the gap in liver tumor treatments, providing improved survival outcomes for both primary and metastatic tumors. Minimally invasive local therapies have an increasing role in the treatment of both primary and metastatic liver tumors. For patients with low volume disease, these therapies have now been established into consensus practice guidelines. This review highlights technical aspects and outcomes of commonly utilized, minimally invasive local therapies including laparoscopic liver resection (LLR), radiofrequency ablation (RFA), microwave ablation (MWA), high-intensity focused ultrasound (HIFU), irreversible electroporation (IRE), and stereotactic body radiation therapy (SBRT). In addition, the role of combination treatment strategies utilizing these minimally invasive techniques is reviewed. PMID:25610708
As a minimally invasive treatment of esophageal achalasia per-oral endoscopic myotomy( POEM) was developed in 2008. More than 1,100 cases of achalasia-related diseases received POEM. Success rate of the procedure was more than 95%(Eckerdt score improvement 3 points and more). No serious( Clavian-Dindo classification III b and more) complication was experienced. These results suggest that POEM becomes a standard minimally invasive treatment for achalasia-related diseases. As an off-shoot of POEM submucosal tumor removal through submucosal tunnel (per-oral endoscopic tumor resection:POET) was developed and safely performed. Best indication of POET is less than 5 cm esophageal leiomyoma. A novel endoscopic treatment of gastroesophageal reflux disease (GERD) was developed. Anti-reflux mucosectomy( ARMS) is nearly circumferential mucosal reduction of gastric cardia mucosa. ARMS is performed in 56 consecutive cases of refractory GERD. No major complications were encountered and excellent clinical results. Best indication of ARMS is a refractory GERD without long sliding hernia. Longest follow-up case is more than 10 years. Minimally invasive treatments for esophageal benign diseases are currently performed by therapeutic endoscopy.
Atrial fibrillation (AF) remains the most common cardiac arrhythmia, affecting nearly 2% of the general population worldwide. Minimally invasive surgical ablation remains one of the most dynamically evolving fields of modern cardiac surgery. While there are more than a dozen issues driving this development, two seem to play the most important role: first, there is lack of evidence supporting percutaneous catheter based approach to treat patients with persistent and long-standing persistent AF. Paucity of this data offers surgical community unparalleled opportunity to challenge guidelines and change indications for surgical intervention. Large, multicenter prospective clinical studies are therefore of utmost importance, as well as honest, clear data reporting. Second, a collaborative methodology started a long-awaited debate on a Heart Team approach to AF, similar to the debate on coronary artery disease and transcatheter valves. Appropriate patient selection and tailored treatment options will most certainly result in better outcomes and patient satisfaction, coupled with appropriate use of always-limited institutional resources. The aim of this review, unlike other reviews of minimally invasive surgical ablation, is to present medical professionals with two distinctly different, approaches. The first one is purely surgical, Standalone surgical isolation of the pulmonary veins using bipolar energy source with concomitant amputation of the left atrial appendage—a method of choice in one of the most important clinical trials on AF—The Atrial Fibrillation Catheter Ablation Versus Surgical Ablation Treatment (FAST) Trial. The second one represents the most complex approach to this problem: a multidisciplinary, combined effort of a cardiac surgeon and electrophysiologist. The Convergent Procedure, which includes both endocardial and epicardial unipolar ablation bonds together minimally invasive endoscopic surgery with electroanatomical mapping, to deliver best of
Pinheiro, Hugo; Ferronha, Frederico; Morales, Jorge; Campos Pinheiro, Luís
The retrocaval ureter is a rare congenital entity, classically managed with open pyeloplasty techniques. The experience obtained with the laparoscopic approach of other more frequent causes of ureteropelvic junction (UPJ) obstruction has opened the method for the minimally invasive approach of the retrocaval ureter. In our paper, we describe a clinical case of a right retrocaval ureter managed successfully with laparoscopic dismembered pyeloplasty. The main standpoints of the procedure are described. Our results were similar to others published by other urologic centers, which demonstrates the safety and feasibility of the procedure for this condition. PMID:27635277
Gamme, Gary; Birch, Daniel W; Karmali, Shahzeer
Laparoscopic splenectomy (LS) has become an established standard of care in the management of surgical diseases of the spleen. The present article is an update and review of current procedures and controversies regarding minimally invasive splenectomy. We review the indications and contraindications for LS as well as preoperative considerations. An individual assessment of the procedures and outcomes of multiport laparoscopic splenectomy, hand-assisted laparoscopic splenectomy, robotic splenectomy, natural orifice transluminal endoscopic splenectomy and single-port splenectomy is included. Furthermore, this review examines postoperative considerations after LS, including the postoperative course of uncomplicated patients, postoperative portal vein thrombosis, infections and malignancy.
Zhao, Baoliang; Nelson, Carl A.
Robotic minimally invasive surgery (R-MIS) has achieved success in various procedures; however, the lack of haptic feedback is considered by some to be a limiting factor. The typical method to acquire tool–tissue reaction forces is attaching force sensors on surgical tools, but this complicates sterilization and makes the tool bulky. This paper explores the feasibility of using motor current to estimate tool-tissue forces and demonstrates acceptable results in terms of time delay and accuracy. This sensorless force estimation method sheds new light on the possibility of equipping existing robotic surgical systems with haptic interfaces that require no sensors and are compatible with existing sterilization methods. PMID:27222680
Chen, Huan-Wen; Du, Ming
Esophageal achalasia is due to the esophagus of neuromuscular dysfunction caused by esophageal functional disease. Its main feature is the lack of esophageal peristalsis, the lower esophageal sphincter pressure and to reduce the swallow's relaxation response. Lower esophageal muscular dissection is one of the main ways to treat esophageal achalasia. At present, the period of muscular layer under the thoracoscope esophagus dissection is one of the treatment of esophageal achalasia. Combined with our experience in minimally invasive esophageal surgery, to improved incision and operation procedure, and adopts the model of the complete period of muscular layer under the thoracoscope esophagus dissection in the treatment of esophageal achalasia.
Christidis, Daniel; McGrath, Shannon; Perera, Marlon; Manning, Todd; Bolton, Damien; Lawrentschuk, Nathan
The prevalence of benign prostatic hypertrophy (BPH) causing bothersome lower urinary tract symptoms increases with our ageing population. Treatment of BPH traditionally begins with medical therapy and surgical intervention is then considered for those whose symptoms progress despite treatment. Minimally invasive surgical therapies have been developed as an intermediary in the treatment of BPH with the aim of decreasing the invasiveness of interventions. These therapies also aim to reduce morbidity and dysfunction related to invasive surgical procedures. Multiple treatment options exist in this group including mechanical and thermo-ablative strategies. Emerging therapies utilizing differing technologies range from the established to the experimental. We review the current literature related to these minimally invasive therapies and the evidence of their effectiveness in treating BPH. The role of minimally invasive surgical therapies in the treatment of BPH is still yet to be strongly defined. Given the experimental nature of many of the modalities, further study is required prior to their recommendation as alternatives to invasive surgical therapy. More mature evidence is required for the analysis of durability of effect of these therapies to make robust conclusions of their effectiveness.
Edelhoff, Daniel; Liebermann, Anja; Beuer, Florian; Stimmelmayr, Michael; Güth, Jan-Frederik
Minimally invasive treatment options have become increasingly feasible in restorative dentistry, due to the introduction of the adhesive technique in combination with restorative materials featuring translucent properties similar to those of natural teeth. Mechanical anchoring of restorations via conventional cementation represents a predominantly subtractive treatment approach that is gradually being superseded by a primarily defect-oriented additive method in prosthodontics. Modifications of conventional treatment procedures have led to the development of an economical approach to the removal of healthy tooth structure. This is possible because the planned treatment outcome is defined in a wax-up before the treatment is commenced and this wax-up is subsequently used as a reference during tooth preparation. Similarly, resin- bonded FDPs and implants have made it possible to preserve the natural tooth structure of potential abutment teeth. This report describes a number of clinical cases to demonstrate the principles of modern prosthetic treatment strategies and discusses these approaches in the context of minimally invasive prosthetic dentistry.
Docimo, Giovanni; Salvatore Tolone, Salvatore; Gili, Simona; d'Alessandro, A; Casalino, G; Brusciano, L; Ruggiero, Roberto; Docimo, Ludovico
To establish if the indication for different approaches for thyroidectomy and the incision length provided by means of pre-operative assessment of gland volume and size of nodules resulted in safe and effective outcomes and in any notable aesthetic or quality-of-life impact on patients. Ninehundred eightytwo consecutive patients, undergoing total thyroidectomy, were enrolled. The thyroid volume and maximal nodule diameter were measured by means of ultrasounds. Based on ultrasounds findings, patients were divided into three groups: minimally invasive video assisted thyroidectomy (MIVAT), minimally invasive thyroidectomy (MIT) and conventional thyroidectomy (CT) groups. The data concerning the following parameters were collected: operative time, postoperative complications, postoperative pain and cosmetic results. The MIVAT group included 179 patients, MIT group included 592 patients and CT group included 211 patients. Incidence of complications did not differ significantly in each group. In MIVAT and MIT group, the perception of postoperative pain was less intense than CT group. The patients in the MIVAT (7±1.5) and MIT (8±2) groups were more satisfied with the cosmetic results than those in CT group (5±1.3) (p= <0.05). The MIT is a technique totally reproducible, and easily convertible to perform surgical procedures in respect of the patient, without additional complications, increased costs, and with better aesthetic results.
Yakub, M A; Pau, K K; Awang, Y
A minimally invasive approach to aortic valve surgery through a transverse incision ("pocket incision") at the right second intercostal space was examined. Sixteen patients with a mean age of 30 years underwent this approach. The third costal cartilage was either excised (n = 5) or dislocated (n = 11). The right internal mammary artery was preserved. Cardiopulmonary bypass (CPB) was established with aortic-right atrial cannulation in all except the first case. Aortic valve replacements (AVR) were performed in 15 patients and one had aortic valve repair with concomitant ventricular septal defect closure. There was no mortality and no major complications. The aortic cross-clamp, CPB and operative times were 72 +/- 19 mins, 105 +/- 26 mins and 3 hrs 00 min +/- 29 mins respectively. The mean time to extubation was 5.7 +/- 4.0 hrs, ICU stay of 27 +/- 9 hrs and postoperative hospital stay of 5.1 +/- 1.2 days. Minimally invasive "pocket incision" aortic valve surgery is technically feasible and safe. It has the advantages of central cannulation for CPB, preservation of the internal mammary artery and avoiding sternotomy. This approach is cosmetically acceptable and allows rapid patient recovery.
Jiang, H W
The primary goal of modern endodontic therapy is to achieve the long-term retention of a functional tooth by preventing or treating pulpitis or apical periodontitis is. The long-term retention of endodontically treated tooth is correlated with the remaining amount of tooth tissue and the quality of the restoration after root canal filling. In recent years, there has been rapid progress and development in the basic research of endodontic biology, instrument and applied materials, making treatment procedures safer, more accurate, and more efficient. Thus, minimally invasive endodontics(MIE)has received increasing attention at present. MIE aims to preserve the maximum of tooth structure during root canal therapy, and the concept covers the whole process of diagnosis and treatment of teeth. This review article focuses on describing the minimally invasive concepts and operating essentials in endodontics, from diagnosis and treatment planning to the access opening, pulp cavity finishing, root canal cleaning and shaping, 3-dimensional root canal filling and restoration after root canal treatment.
Caralopoulos, Ilias N.; Bui, Cuong J.
Background Degenerative lumbar stenosis associated with spondylolisthesis is common in elderly patients. The most common symptoms are those of neurogenic claudication with leg pain. Surgery is indicated for those who fail conservative management. The generally accepted recommendation is to perform a laminectomy and a fusion at the involved level. Methods We reviewed our results for minimally invasive single-level decompression without fusion performed by the senior author in patients with symptomatic lumbar stenosis with spondylolisthesis with no dynamic instability from 2008 to 2011 at a single institution. Outcomes were measured using the visual analog scale (VAS), Prolo Economic Functional Rating Scale, and revised Oswestry Disability Index (ODI) at initial presentation and at 3-month, 6-month, and 1-year follow-up time points. Results Records for 28 patients (19 males, 9 females) were reviewed. The success rate, defined as improvement in pain and functional outcome without the need for surgical fusion, was 86%. VAS scores decreased by 6.3 points, Prolo scores increased by 3.5 points, and the ODI decreased by 31% at 1 year. All changes were statistically significant. Conclusion Minimally invasive decompression alone can be a reasonable alternative to decompression and fusion for patients with spondylolisthetic lumbar stenosis and neurogenic claudication with leg pain. Decompression without fusion should be considered for older patients and for patients who are not ideal fusion candidates. PMID:24688331
Wong, Terence Z.; Kettenbach, Joachim; Silverman, Stuart G.; Schwartz, Richard B.; Morrison, Paul R.; Kacher, Daniel F.; Jolesz, Ferenc A.
Image guidance is one of the major challenges common to all minimally invasive procedures including biopsy, thermal ablation, endoscopy, and laparoscopy. This is essential for (1) identifying the target lesion, (2) planning the minimally invasive approach, and (3) monitoring the therapy as it progresses. MRI is an ideal imaging modality for this purpose, providing high soft tissue contrast and multiplanar imaging, capability with no ionizing radiation. An interventional/surgical MRI suite has been developed at Brigham and Women's Hospital which provides multiplanar imaging guidance during surgery, biopsy, and thermal ablation procedures. The 0.5T MRI system (General Electric Signa SP) features open vertical access, allowing intraoperative imaging to be performed. An integrated navigational system permits near real-time control of imaging planes, and provides interactive guidance for positioning various diagnostic and therapeutic probes. MR imaging can also be used to monitor cryotherapy as well as high temperature thermal ablation procedures sing RF, laser, microwave, or focused ultrasound. Design features of the interventional MRI system will be discussed, and techniques will be described for interactive image acquisition and tracking of interventional instruments. Applications for interactive and near-real-time imaging will be presented as well as examples of specific procedures performed using MRI guidance.
Bobocea, A C; Trandafir, B; Bolca, C; Cordoş, I
Minimally invasive surgery produced major changes in treating abdominal malignancies and early stage lung cancer. Laparoscopy and thoracoscopy are less traumatic than open surgery: allow faster recovery, shorter hospital stay, better cosmesis. Although these clinical benefits are important, prolonged disease-free interval, long-term survival with improved quality of life are most important endpoints for oncologic surgery. Major surgery causes significant alteration of immunological response, of particular importance in oncologic patients, as postoperative immunosuppression has been related to septic complications, lower survival rate, tumor spread and metastases. Clinical studies have shown laparoscopic surgery preserves better the patient's immunological function. Postoperative plasma peak concentrations of IL-6, IL-10, C-reactive protein (CRP) and TNF-alpha were lower after laparoscopic colonic resection. Prospective thoracoscopic VATS lobectomy trials found better preservation of lymphocyte T-cell function and quicker return of proliferative responses to normal, lower levels of CRP, thromboxane and prostacyclin. Immune function is influenced by the extent of surgical trauma. Minimally invasive surgery show reduced acute-phase responses compared with open procedures and better preservation of cellular immune mechanisms.
Blevins, Wayne A; Cafasso, Danielle E; Fernandez, Minela; Edwards, Mary J
Chilaiditi syndrome is a rare disorder characterized by abdominal pain, respiratory distress, constipation, and vomiting in association with Chilaiditi's sign. Chilaiditi's sign is the finding on plain roentgenogram of colonic interposition between the liver and diaphragm and is usually asymptomatic. Surgery is typically reserved for cases of catastrophic colonic volvulus or perforation because of the syndrome. We present a case of a 6-year-old boy who presented with Chilaiditi syndrome and resulting failure to thrive because of severe abdominal pain and vomiting, which did not improve with laxatives and dietary changes. He underwent a laparoscopic gastrostomy tube placement and laparoscopic colopexy of the transverse colon to the falciform ligament and anterior abdominal wall. Postoperatively, his symptoms resolved completely, as did his failure to thrive. His gastrostomy tube was removed 3 months after surgery and never required use. This is the first case of Chilaiditi syndrome in the pediatric literature we are aware of that was treated with an elective, minimally invasive colopexy. In cases of severe Chilaiditi syndrome refractory to medical treatment, a minimally invasive colopexy should be considered as a possible treatment option and potentially offered before development of life-threatening complications such as volvulus or perforation.
Abdullah, Walid Ahmed; Khalil, Hesham S; Alhindi, Maryam M; Marzook, Hamdy
Excessive gingival display is a problem that can be managed by variety of procedures. These procedures include non-surgical and surgical methods. The underlying cause of gummy smile can affect the type of procedure to be selected. Most patients prefer minimally invasive procedures with outstanding results. The authors describe a minimally invasive lip repositioning technique for management of gummy smile. Twelve patients (10 females, 2 males) with gingival display of 4 mm or more were operated under local anesthesia using a modified lip repositioning technique. Patients were followed up for 1, 3, 6 and 12 months and gingival display was measured at each follow up visit. The gingival mucosa was dissected and levator labii superioris and depressor septi muscles were freed and repositioned in a lower position. The levator labii superioris muscles were pulled in a lower position using circumdental sutures for 10 days. Both surgeon's and patient's satisfaction of surgical outcome was recorded at each follow-up visit. At early stage of follow-up the main complaints of patients were the feeling of tension in the upper lip and circum oral area, mild pain which was managed with analgesics. One month postoperatively, the gingival display in all patients was recorded to be between 2 and 4 mm with a mean of (2.6 mm). Patient satisfaction records after 1 month showed that 10 patients were satisfied with the results. Three months postoperatively, the gingival display in all patients was recorded and found to be between 2 and 5 mm with a mean of 3 mm. Patient satisfaction records showed that 8 patients were satisfied with the results as they gave scores between. Surgeon's satisfaction at three months follow up showed that the surgeons were satisfied in 8 patients. The same results were found in the 6 and 12 months follow-up periods without any changes. Complete relapse was recorded only in one case at the third postoperative month. This study showed that the proposed lip
Xydas, Steve; Williams, Roy F.; LaPietra, Angelo; Mawad, Maurice; Hasty, Frederick; Escolar, Esteban; Mihos, Christos G.
Background Double valve surgery is associated with an increased peri-operative morbidity and mortality. A less invasive right thoracotomy approach may be a viable alternative to median sternotomy surgery in these higher-risk patients. Methods We retrospectively analyzed the baseline demographics, operative characteristics, and post-operative outcomes of patients who underwent minimally invasive double valve surgery between January 2009 and December 2011 at our institution. Results The cohort consisted of 117 patients, of which 68 (58.1%) were female. The mean age was 73±11 years, and the mean left ventricular ejection fraction was 52±11%. There were 43 (36.8%) patients with a history of congestive heart failure, 45 (38.5%) with chronic obstructive pulmonary disease, and 5 (4.3%) had a history of chronic kidney disease. The patients underwent primary (90.6%) or re-operative (9.4%) double valve surgery, which consisted of 50 (42.7%) aortic valve replacement and mitral valve repair, 31 (26.5%) mitral and tricuspid valve repair, 18 (15.4%) aortic and mitral valve replacement, 17 (14.5%) mitral valve replacement with tricuspid valve repair, and 1 (0.9%) aortic valve replacement with tricuspid valve repair. Post-operatively, there were 40 (34.2%) cases of prolonged ventilation, 9 (7.7%) acute kidney injury, 6 (5.1%) re-operations for bleeding, 1 (0.9%) cerebrovascular accident, and 15 (12.8%) cases of atrial fibrillation. The mean total hospital length of stay was 12±12 days, with an in-hospital mortality of 2 (1.7%). Conclusions A minimally invasive right thoracotomy approach to primary or re-operative double valve surgery is feasible, may be utilized with acceptable peri-operative morbidity and mortality. PMID:28740713
Rostaminia, Ghazaleh; Machiorlatti, Michael; Shobeiri, S Abbas; Quiroz, Lieschen H
To investigate the association between the minimal levator hiatus (MLH) area at rest with its surrounding soft-tissue and bony structures in nulliparous asymptomatic women with a normal levator ani muscle. A subanalysis was undertaken of a prospective study of the appearance of the levator ani in asymptomatic nulliparous women conducted between September 2010 and September 2011. The subanalysis included women with a normal levator ani muscle. Three-dimensional ultrasonography volumes were used to obtain pelvic floor measurements. The analysis included 56 women with mean age of 43.0±13.4years. The mean MLH area was 13.1±1.8cm(2) (range 9.0-17.3). The pubic arch angle had no influence on the MLH area (Pearson correlation coefficient r=0.13). Height and pubic arch length were positively correlated with the MLH area (r=0.26 [P=0.52] and r=0.50 [P<0.001], respectively). The MLH size of nulliparous women varied widely and was positively correlated with the height and pubic arch length of the women. Therefore, caution is warranted when interpreting the MLH area as an indicator of a levator ani defect or a predictor of pelvic organ prolapse without taking a woman's pelvic bone characteristics into account. Copyright © 2016 International Federation of Gynecology and Obstetrics. Published by Elsevier Ireland Ltd. All rights reserved.
Undurraga Machicao, Felipe; Santolaya Cohen, Raimundo; Berrios Silva, Raul; Rivera, Francisco
Abstract Post-traumatic pulmonary hernia can occur immediately after thoracic trauma or it may also appear months or even years after the onset. We report a case of a seventeen year-old male patient with thoracic blunt trauma secondary to high energy bicycle accident. Chest CT shows moderate hemothorax and pneumothorax, displaced fracture of the fifth left rib, and protusion of pulmonary tissue through a chest wall defect. In the Emergency Room the patient presents with chest pain (7/10 in Visual Analog Scale) and respiratory distress. Video-assisted thoracic surgery approach was chosen. Hernia reduction, non-anatomic lingular resection and rib fracture external fixation using a titanium plate was performed. Traumatic pulmonary hernia is an uncommon complication of thoracic trauma which may constitute an emergency for the trauma or thoracic surgeon. The early management of this injury can be developed by minimally invasive approach with excellent results. PMID:28852454
Rothenberg, S S; Chang, J H; Bealer, J F
This study evaluates the feasibility, safety, and efficacy of performing advanced endoscopic procedures in infants under 5 kg. Over a 51-month period 183 infants weighing 1.3 to 5.0 kg underwent 195 procedures using minimally invasive techniques. The majority of the procedures were performed using 3.5-mm instruments and 2.7-mm scopes. Procedures include Nissen fundoplication, pyloromyotomy, colon pull-through, patent ductus arteriosus closure, Ladd's procedure, colon resection, congenital diaphragmatic hernia repair, ovarian cyst excision, and exploration. All but two procedures were completed successfully endoscopically. There were two intraoperative complications and no mortality. Days to discharge for patients admitted for their specific procedure were Nissen 2.1, patent ductus arteriosus 2, pyloromyotomy 1, and pull-through 3.4. This study demonstrates that advanced endosurgical techniques in infants is safe, effective, and associated with the same benefit as that seen in older patients.
Naik, Milind Neilkant; Nair, Akshay Gopinathan; Gupta, Adit; Kamal, Saurabh
Thyroid eye disease (TED) can affect the eye in myriad ways: proptosis, strabismus, eyelid retraction, optic neuropathy, soft tissue changes around the eye and an unstable ocular surface. TED consists of two phases: active, and inactive. The active phase of TED is limited to a period of 12–18 months and is mainly managed medically with immunosuppression. The residual structural changes due to the resultant fibrosis are usually addressed with surgery, the mainstay of which is orbital decompression. These surgeries are performed during the inactive phase. The surgical rehabilitation of TED has evolved over the years: not only the surgical techniques, but also the concepts, and the surgical tools available. The indications for decompression surgery have also expanded in the recent past. This article discusses the technological and conceptual advances of minimally invasive surgery for TED that decrease complications and speed up recovery. Current surgical techniques offer predictable, consistent results with better esthetics. PMID:26669337
Donnelly, Ryan F; Mooney, Karen; Caffarel-Salvador, Ester; Torrisi, Barbara M; Eltayib, Eyman; McElnay, James C
The emerging field of microneedle-based minimally invasive patient monitoring and diagnosis is reviewed. Microneedle arrays consist of rows of micron-scale projections attached to a solid support. They have been widely investigated for transdermal drug and vaccine delivery applications since the late 1990s. However, researchers and clinicians have recently realized the great potential of microneedles for extraction of skin interstitial fluid and, less commonly, blood, for enhanced monitoring of patient health. We reviewed the journal and patent literature, and summarized the findings and provided technical insights and critical analysis. We describe the basic concepts in detail and extensively review the work performed to date. It is our view that microneedles will have an important role to play in clinical management of patients and will ultimately improve therapeutic outcomes for people worldwide.
Naik, Milind Neilkant; Nair, Akshay Gopinathan; Gupta, Adit; Kamal, Saurabh
Thyroid eye disease (TED) can affect the eye in myriad ways: proptosis, strabismus, eyelid retraction, optic neuropathy, soft tissue changes around the eye and an unstable ocular surface. TED consists of two phases: active, and inactive. The active phase of TED is limited to a period of 12-18 months and is mainly managed medically with immunosuppression. The residual structural changes due to the resultant fibrosis are usually addressed with surgery, the mainstay of which is orbital decompression. These surgeries are performed during the inactive phase. The surgical rehabilitation of TED has evolved over the years: not only the surgical techniques, but also the concepts, and the surgical tools available. The indications for decompression surgery have also expanded in the recent past. This article discusses the technological and conceptual advances of minimally invasive surgery for TED that decrease complications and speed up recovery. Current surgical techniques offer predictable, consistent results with better esthetics.
Bencini, Lapo; Annecchiarico, Mario; Farsi, Marco; Bartolini, Ilenia; Mirasolo, Vita; Guerra, Francesco; Coratti, Andrea
Pancreatic surgery for malignancy is recognized as challenging for the surgeons and risky for the patients due to consistent perioperative morbidity and mortality. Furthermore, the oncological long-term results are largely disappointing, even for those patients who experience an uneventfully hospital stay. Nevertheless, surgery still remains the cornerstone of a multidisciplinary treatment for pancreatic cancer. In order to maximize the benefits of surgery, the advent of both laparoscopy and robotics has led many surgeons to treat pancreatic cancers with these new methodologies. The reduction of postoperative complications, length of hospital stay and pain, together with a shorter interval between surgery and the beginning of adjuvant chemotherapy, represent the potential advantages over conventional surgery. Lastly, a better cosmetic result, although not crucial in any cancerous patient, could also play a role by improving overall well-being and patient self-perception. The laparoscopic approach to pancreatic surgery is, however, difficult in inexperienced hands and requires a dedicated training in both advanced laparoscopy and pancreatic surgery. The recent large diffusion of the da Vinci® robotic platform seems to facilitate many of the technical maneuvers, such as anastomotic biliary and pancreatic reconstructions, accurate lymphadenectomy, and vascular sutures. The two main pancreatic operations, distal pancreatectomy and pancreaticoduodenectomy, are approachable by a minimally invasive path, but more limited interventions such as enucleation are also feasible. Nevertheless, a word of caution should be taken into account when considering the increasing costs of these newest technologies because the main concerns regarding these are the maintenance of all oncological standards and the lack of long-term follow-up. The purpose of this review is to examine the evidence for the use of minimally invasive surgery in pancreatic cancer (and less aggressive tumors
Hungerford, David S
At the Knee Society Winter Meeting in 2003, Seth Greenwald and I debated about whether there should be new standards (ie, regulations) applied to the release of information to the public on "new developments." I argued for the public's "right to know" prior to the publication of peer-reviewed literature. He argued for regulatory constraint or "proving by peer-reviewed publication" before alerting the public. It is not a contradiction for me to currently argue against the public advertising of minimally invasive (MIS) total hip arthroplasty as not yet being in the best interest of the public. It is hard to remember a concept that has so captured both the public's and the surgical community's fancy as MIS. Patients are "demanding" MIS without knowing why. Surgeons are offering it as the next best, greatest thing without having developed the skill and experience to avoid the surgery's risks. If you put "minimally invasive hip replacement" into the Google search engine (http://www.google.com), you get 5,170 matches. If you put the same words in PubMed (http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/entrez/query.fcgi), referencing the National Library of Medicine database, you get SEVENTEEN; none is really a peer-reviewed article. Most are 1 page papers in orthopedics from medical education meetings. On the other hand, there are over 6,000 peer-reviewed articles on total hip arthroplasty. Dr. Thomas Sculco, my couterpart in this debate, wrote an insightful editorial in the American Journal of Orthopedic Surgery in which he stated: "Although these procedures have generated incredible interest and enthusiasm, I am concerned that they may be performed to the detriment of our patients." I couldn't agree with him more. Smaller is not necessarily better and, when it is worse, it will be the "smaller" that is held accountable.
Wengert, Christian; Bossard, Lukas; Baur, Charles; Székely, Gábor; Cattin, Philippe C
Manipulating small objects such as needles, screws or plates inside the human body during minimally invasive surgery can be very difficult for less experienced surgeons due to the loss of 3D depth perception. Classical navigation techniques are often incapable of providing support in such situations, as the augmentation of the scene with the necessary artificial markers--if possible at all--is usually cumbersome and leads to increased invasiveness. We present an approach relying solely on a standard endoscope as a tracking device for determining the pose of such objects, using the example of a suturing needle. The resulting pose information is then used to generate artificial 3D cues on the 2D screen to provide optimal support for surgeons during tissue suturing. In addition, if an external tracking device is provided to report the endoscope's position, the suturing needle can be directly tracked in the world coordinate system. Furthermore, a visual navigation aid can be incorporated if a 3D surface is intraoperatively reconstructed from the endoscopic video stream or registered from preoperative imaging.
Tria, Alfred J; Scuderi, Giles R
Minimally invasive surgery (MIS) for arthroplasty of the knee began with surgery for unicondylar knee arthroplasty (UKA). Partial knee replacements were designed in the 1970s and were amenable to a more limited exposure. In the 1990s Repicci popularized the MIS for UKA. Surgeons began to apply his concepts to total knee arthroplasty. Four MIS surgical techniques were developed: quadriceps sparing, mini-mid vastus, mini-subvastus, and mini-medial parapatellar. The quadriceps sparing technique is the most limited one and is also the most difficult. However, it is the least invasive and allows rapid recovery. The mini-midvastus is the most common technique because it affords slightly better exposure and can be extended. The mini-subvastus technique entirely avoids incising the quadriceps extensor mechanism but is time consuming and difficult in the obese and in the muscular male patient. The mini-parapatellar technique is most familiar to surgeons and represents a good starting point for surgeons who are learning the techniques. The surgeries are easier with smaller instruments but can be performed with standard ones. The techniques are accurate and do lead to a more rapid recovery, with less pain, less blood loss, and greater motion if they are appropriately performed. PMID:26601062
Elhadi, Ali M; Zehri, Aqib H; Zaidi, Hasan A; Almefty, Kaith K; Preul, Mark C; Theodore, Nicholas; Dickman, Curtis A
We aimed to determine the clinical indications and surgical outcomes for thoracoscopic discectomy. Thoracic disc disease is a rare degenerative process. Thoracoscopic approaches serve to minimize tissue injury during the approach, but critics argue that this comes at the cost of surgical efficacy. Current reports in the literature are limited to small institutional patient series. We systematically identified all English language articles on thoracoscopic discectomy with at least two patients, published from 1994 to 2013 on MEDLINE, Science Direct, and Google Scholar. We analyzed 12 articles that met the inclusion criteria, five prospective and seven retrospective studies comprising 545 surgical patients. The overall complication rate was 24% (n=129), with reported complications ranging from intercostal neuralgia (6.1%), atelectasis (2.8%), and pleural effusion (2.6%), to more severe complications such as pneumonia (0.8%), pneumothorax (1.3%), and venous thrombosis (0.2%). The average reported postoperative follow-up was 20.5 months. Complete resolution of symptoms was reported in 79% of patients, improvement with residual symptoms in 10.2%, no change in 9.6%, and worsening in 1.2%. The minimally invasive endoscopic approaches to the thoracic spine among selected patients demonstrate excellent clinical efficacy and acceptable complication rates, comparable to the open approaches. Disc herniations confined to a single level, with small or no calcifications, are ideal for such an approach, whereas patients with calcified discs adherent to the dura would benefit from an open approach.
Khoo, Larry T; Palmer, Sylvain; Laich, Daniel T; Fessler, Richard G
The wide exposure required for a standard posterior lumbar interbody fusion (PLIF) can cause unnecessary trauma to the lumbar musculoligamentous complex. By combining existing microendoscopic, percutaneous instrumentation and interbody technologies, a novel, minimally invasive, percutaneous PLIF technique was developed to minimize such iatrogenic tissue injury (MIP-PLIF). The MIP-PLIF technique was validated in three cadaveric torsos with six motion segments decompressed and fused. Preoperative variables measured from imaging included interpedicular distance, pedicular height and width, interspinous distance, lordosis, intervertebral height, Cobb angle, and foraminal height and volume. Using the METRx and MD spinal access systems (Medtronic Sofamor Danek, Memphis, TN), bilateral laminotomies were performed using a hybrid of microsurgical and microendoscopic techniques. The intervertebral disc spaces were then distracted and prepared with the Tangent (Medtronic Sofamor Danek) interbody instruments. Either a 10 or 12 by 22 mm interbody graft was then placed. Using the Sextant (Medtronic Sofamor Danek) system, percutaneous pedicle screw-rod fixation of the motion segment was completed. We then applied MIP-PLIF in three patients. For segments with preoperative intervertebral/foraminal height loss, MIP-PLIF was effective in restoring both heights in all cases. The amount of improvement (9.7 to 38% disc height increase; 7.7 to 29.9% foraminal height increase) varied directly with the size of the graft used and the original degree of disc and foraminal height loss. Segmental lordosis improved by 29% on average. Graft and screw placement was accurate in the cadavers, except for a single Grade 1 screw violation of one pedicle. The average operative time was 3.5 hours per level. In our three clinical cases, the MIP-PLIF procedure required a mean of 5.4 hours, estimated blood loss was 185 ml, and inpatient stay was 2.8 days, with no intravenous narcotic use after 2 days in
Attia, Rizwan Q.; Hickey, Graeme L.; Grant, Stuart W.; Bridgewater, Ben; Roxburgh, James C.; Kumar, Pankaj; Ridley, Paul; Bhabra, Moninder; Millner, Russell W. J.; Athanasiou, Thanos; Casula, Roberto; Chukwuemka, Andrew; Pillay, Thasee; Young, Christopher P.
Objective Minimally invasive aortic valve replacement (MIAVR) has been demonstrated as a safe and effective option but remains underused. We aimed to evaluate outcomes of isolated MIAVR compared with conventional aortic valve replacement (CAVR). Methods Data from The National Institute for Cardiovascular Outcomes Research (NICOR) were analyzed at seven volunteer centers (2006–2012). Primary outcomes were in-hospital mortality and midterm survival. Secondary outcomes were postoperative length of stay as well as cumulative bypass and cross-clamp times. Propensity modeling with matched cohort analysis was used. Results Of 307 consecutive MIAVR patients, 151 (49%) were performed during the last 2 years of study with a continued increase in numbers. The 307 MIAVR patients were matched on a 1:1 ratio. In the matched CAVR group, there was no statistically significant difference in in-hospital mortality [MIAVR, 4/307,(1.3%); 95% confidence interval (CI), 0.4%–3.4% vs CAVR, 6/307 (2.0%); 95% CI, 0.8%–4.3%; P = 0.752]. One-year survival rates in the MIAVR and CAVR groups were 94.4% and 94.6%, respectively. There was no statistically significant difference in midterm survival (P = 0.677; hazard ratio, 0.90; 95% CI, 0.56–1.46). Median postoperative length of stay was lower in the MIAVR patients by 1 day (P = 0.009). The mean cumulative bypass time (94.8 vs 91.3 minutes; P = 0.333) and cross-clamp time (74.6 vs 68.4 minutes; P = 0.006) were longer in the MIAVR group; however, this was significant only in the cross-clamp time comparison. Conclusions Minimally invasive aortic valve replacement is a safe alternative to CAVR with respect to operative and 1-year mortality and is associated with a shorter postoperative stay. Further studies are required in high-risk (logistic EuroSCORE > 10) patients to define the role of MIAVR. PMID:26926521
Gebel, Philipp; Oszwald, Markus; Ishaque, Bernd; Ahmed, Gaffar; Blessing, Recha; Thorey, Fritz; Ottersbach, Andreas
The purpose of this study was to analyse a new concept of using the the minimally invasive direct anterior approach (DAA) in total hip replacement (THR) in combination with the leg positioner (Rotex- Table) and a modified retractor system (Condor). We evaluated retrospectively the first 100 primary THR operated with the new concept between 2009 and 2010, regarding operation data, radiological and clinical outcome (HOOS). All surgeries were perfomed in a standardized operation technique including navigation. The average age of the patients was 68 years (37 to 92 years), with a mean BMI of 26.5 (17 to 43). The mean time of surgery was 80 min. (55 to 130 min). The blood loss showed an average of 511.5 mL (200 to 1000 mL). No intra-operative complications occurred. The postoperative complication rate was 6%. The HOOS increased from 43 points pre-operatively to 90 (max 100 points) 3 months after surgery. The radiological analysis showed an average cup inclination of 43° and a leg length discrepancy in a range of +/− 5 mm in 99%. The presented technique led to excellent clinic results, showed low complication rates and allowed correct implant positions although manpower was saved. PMID:22577504
Park, Adrian; Kavic, Stephen M; Lee, Tommy H; Heniford, B Todd
The field of postgraduate minimally invasive surgery/gastrointestinal surgery (MIS/GIS) training has undergone substantial growth and change. To determine whether fellowships are meeting a strategic need in training, we conducted a survey to assess the current status and trends of change in MIS/GIS fellowships. A survey was distributed to fellows currently in MIS/GIS programs in the United States and Canada in 2003 and 2006. Fellows were asked to describe demographics as well as their experience both during fellowship and residency. We compared this with aggregate data of resident experience through the Accreditation Council for Graduate Medical Education (ACGME) case logs, data tracked by industry, and program data from the Fellowship Council (FC) web site. There were 54 responses to the 75 surveys distributed in 2006 (72% response rate). MIS fellows performed more laparoscopic cases during their residency than the average graduating chief resident, but did not feel competent to perform advanced laparoscopic surgery. However, combining fellowship numbers with residency numbers does suggest that the total experience provides competency in a wide variety of procedures. It seems that the MIS/GIS Fellowship is meeting a real need among graduating surgical residents; fellows felt unprepared for clinical practice at the completion of residency. It is encouraging to note the improvements in fellowship structure, standards, and overall experience, brought by the efforts of the FC. It is hoped that this report of the state of MIS fellowship with a comprehensive review of current data will aid in further evaluation and improvement.
Vitiello, Valentina; Lee, Su-Lin; Cundy, Thomas P; Yang, Guang-Zhong
Recent technological advances in surgery have resulted in the development of a range of new techniques that have reduced patient trauma, shortened hospitalization, and improved diagnostic accuracy and therapeutic outcome. Despite the many appreciated benefits of minimally invasive surgery (MIS) compared to traditional approaches, there are still significant drawbacks associated with conventional MIS including poor instrument control and ergonomics caused by rigid instrumentation and its associated fulcrum effect. The use of robot assistance has helped to realize the full potential of MIS with improved consistency, safety and accuracy. The development of articulated, precision tools to enhance the surgeon's dexterity has evolved in parallel with advances in imaging and human-robot interaction. This has improved hand-eye coordination and manual precision down to micron scales, with the capability of navigating through complex anatomical pathways. In this review paper, clinical requirements and technical challenges related to the design of robotic platforms for flexible access surgery are discussed. Allied technical approaches and engineering challenges related to instrument design, intraoperative guidance, and intelligent human-robot interaction are reviewed. We also highlight emerging designs and research opportunities in the field by assessing the current limitations and open technical challenges for the wider clinical uptake of robotic platforms in MIS.
Vitiello, Gerardo A; Cavnar, Michael J; Hajdu, Cristina; Khaykis, Inessa; Newman, Elliot; Melis, Marcovalerio; Pachter, H Leon; Cohen, Steven M
The management of ectopic pancreas is not well defined. This study aims to determine the prevalence of symptomatic ectopic pancreas and identify those who may benefit from treatment, with a particular focus on robotically assisted surgical management. Our institutional pathology database was queried to identify a cohort of ectopic pancreas specimens. Additional clinical data regarding clinical symptomatology, diagnostic studies, and treatment were obtained through chart review. Nineteen cases of ectopic pancreas were found incidentally during surgery for another condition or found incidentally in a pathologic specimen (65.5%). Eleven patients (37.9%) reported prior symptoms, notably abdominal pain and/or gastrointestinal bleeding. The most common locations for ectopic pancreas were the duodenum and small bowel (31% and 27.6%, respectively). Three out of 29 cases (10.3%) had no symptoms, but had evidence of preneoplastic changes on pathology, while one harbored pancreatic cancer. Over the years, treatment of ectopic pancreas has shifted from open to laparoscopic and more recently to robotic surgery. Our experience is in line with existing evidence supporting surgical treatment of symptomatic or complicated ectopic pancreas. In the current era, minimally invasive and robotic surgery can be used safely and successfully for treatment of ectopic pancreas.
Introduction We present a case of penetrating gunshot injury to the high-cervical spinal cord and describe a minimally invasive approach used for removal of the bullet fragment. We present this report to demonstrate technical feasibility of a minimally invasive approach to projectile removal. Case presentation An 18-year-old African-American man presented to our hospital with a penetrating gunshot injury to the high-cervical spine. The bullet lodged in the spinal cord at the C1 level and rendered our patient quadriplegic and dependent on a ventilator. For personal and forensic reasons, our patient and his family requested removal of the bullet fragment almost one year following the injury. Given the significant comorbidity associated with quadriplegia and ventilator dependency, a minimally invasive approach was used to limit the peri-operative complication risk and expedite recovery. Using a minimally invasive expandable retractor system and the aid of a microscope, the posterior arch of C1 was removed, the dura was opened, and the bullet fragment was successfully removed from the spinal cord. Conclusions Here we describe a minimally invasive procedure demonstrating the technical feasibility of removing an intramedullary foreign object from the high-cervical spine. We do not suggest that the availability of minimally invasive procedures should lower the threshold or expand the indications for the removal of bullet fragments in the spinal canal. Rather, our objective is to expand the indications for minimally invasive procedures in an effort to reduce the morbidity and mortality associated with spinal procedures. In addition, this report may help to highlight the feasibility of this approach. PMID:22876811
Baumbach, Hardy; Rustenbach, Christian J; Ahad, Samir; Nagib, Ragi; Albert, Marc; Ratge, Dieter; Franke, Ulrich F W
Minimally invasive extracorporeal circulation (MECC) is predominantly used in coronary operations. Data supporting the benefits of MECC in minimally invasive valve operations are still absent. Patients undergoing either isolated minimally invasive mitral or aortic valve procedures were prospectively randomized to a minimally invasive group (MECC; n = 101) or a conventional extracorporeal circulation group (CECC; n = 99). The procedural and postoperative outcomes were compared, including the levels of inflammation factors (procalcitonin, interleukin [IL]-6, IL-8, and IL-10), tumor necrosis factor-α [TNF-α], and interferon-gamma [IFN-γ]). The demographics were comparable between the groups regarding age (MECC versus CECC, 70.5 ± 10.2 years versus 73.1 ± 8.9 years; P = 0.086), left ventricular function (59.2% ± 13.4% versus 62.1% ± 14.0%; p = 0.302), EuroSCORE (7.4% ± 7.9% versus 6.8% ± 4.0%; p = 0.256), and other comorbidities. Hospital mortality (n = 1 versus n = 3; p = 0.339) and other complications were similar. However, hemoglobin level (111.9 ± 19.0 g/L versus 103.8 ± 14.6 g/L; p = 0.001), the number of packed red blood cells (PRBCs) (1.1 ± 1.9 versus 1.7 ± 1.8; p = 0.003), the levels of ILs (IL-6, 194.0 ± 131.8 pg/mL versus 289.2 ± 62.5 pg/mL; p = 0.020; IL-8, 38.1 ± 27.3 pg/mL versus 45.8 ± 43.4 pg/mL; p = 0.012; IL-10, 29.0 ± 123.9 pg/mL versus 49.9 ± 85.6 pg/mL; p = 0.012), TNF-α (3.8 ± 6.7 ng/mL versus 10.8 ± 47.7 ng/mL; p = 0.049), and IFN-γ (1.9 ± 1.9 pg/mL versus 4.5 ± 2.7 pg/mL; p = 0.027) were in favor of patients in the MECC group. Additionally, those patients had shorter postoperative ventilation time (7.7 ± 8.4 hours versus 9.3 ± 12.9 hours; p = 0.010) and intensive care unit (ICU) stay (1.2 ± 1.2 days versus 2.2 ± 3.8 days; p = 0.047). The intraprocedural data were excellent and comparable in the groups, but postoperative outcomes were better in the MECC group. Thus MECC is preferable to CECC even for
White, AD; Skelton, M; Mushtaq, F; Pike, TW; Mon-Williams, M; Lodge, JPA; Wilkie, RM
Introduction Minimally invasive surgery (MIS) is a complex task requiring dexterity and high level cognitive function. Unlike surgical ‘never events’, potentially important (and frequent) manual or cognitive slips (‘technical errors’) are underresearched. Little is known about the occurrence of routine errors in MIS, their relationship to patient outcome, and whether they are reported accurately and/or consistently. Methods An electronic survey was sent to all members of the Association of Surgeons of Great Britain and Ireland, gathering demographic information, experience and reporting of MIS errors, and a rating of factors affecting error prevalence. Results Of 249 responses, 203 completed more than 80% of the questions regarding the surgery they had performed in the preceding 12 months. Of these, 47% reported a significant error in their own performance and 75% were aware of a colleague experiencing error. Technical skill, knowledge, situational awareness and decision making were all identified as particularly important for avoiding errors in MIS. Reporting of errors was variable: 15% did not necessarily report an intraoperative error to a patient while 50% did not consistently report at an institutional level. Critically, 12% of surgeons were unaware of the procedure for reporting a technical error and 59% felt guidance is needed. Overall, 40% believed a confidential reporting system would increase their likelihood of reporting an error. Conclusion These data indicate inconsistent reporting of operative errors, and highlight the need to better understand how and why technical errors occur in MIS. A confidential ‘no blame’ reporting system might help improve patient outcomes and avoid a closed culture that can undermine public confidence. PMID:26492908
Chan, Kin Wai; Lee, K H; Tam, Y H; Yeung, C K
There is only limited experience of using the minimally invasive surgery (MIS) technique in resecting pediatric solid tumors. In this paper, we report our experience of using the MIS technique in the management of pediatric solid tumors. A retrospective review was undertaken on all children who had undergone MIS for their solid tumors between 1995 and 2005. Over a 10-year period, there were 38 patients who had undergone MIS for tumor resection. The mean age at the time of surgery was 7.5 years (range, 1 day to 15 years). There were 22 ovarian tumors, 4 sacrococcygeal tumors, 3 adrenal tumors, 3 retroperitoneal tumors, 1 kidney tumor, 1 liver mass, 1 intra-abdominal testicular tumor, and 3 intrathoracic masses. Thirty of 38 patients had undergone a successful resection using the MIS technique (78.9%). Eight patients required a conversion to the open procedure because of limited intraperitoneal space in 7 and excessive bleeding in 1. Of the 28 successfully MIS-resected intra-abdominal tumors, 18 required enlargement of the umbilical incision and 5 required an additional Pfannenstiel incision for tumor retrieval. Enlargement of the thoracic port site for specimen retrieval was required in the 2 successfully MIS-resected intrathoracic masses. The mean operation time was 171 minutes (range, 45-275). There was no postoperative complication encountered. On an average follow-up of 3.1 years, there was no recurrence observed, even in the 7 patients with malignant tumors, and all patients with successful MIS tumor excision had good cosmetic results. With the advance of laparoscopic instruments and techniques, a variety of pediatric solid tumors can be resected safely by the MIS technique. This has the potential benefit of a more rapid postoperative recovery and better cosmetic results. The role of the MIS technique in resecting malignant tumors is uncertain, as the number of cases in the current series is too small to draw any conclusion.
Safavi-Abbasi, Sam; Maurer, Adrian J; Rabb, Craig H
The use of minimally invasive tubular retractor microsurgery for treatment of multilevel spinal epidural abscess is described. This technique was used in 3 cases, and excellent results were achieved. The authors conclude that multilevel spinal epidural abscesses can be safely and effectively managed using microsurgery via a minimally invasive tubular retractor system.
Peng, Da-ming; Wang, Geng-yuan; Yu, Xue-fei
This article introduces the principle, structure and components of a visualization system for carrying out minimally invasive surgical abortion. Without altering the current surgical approach or increasing the surgical difficulty, the surgical system integrated a mini-CMOS image sensor and LED light and a visual device to allow fixed-point removal of the fetus or embryo in the minimally invasive surgery.
Baumbach, Hardy; Rustenbach, Christian; Michaelsen, Jens; Hipp, Gernot; Pressmar, Markus; Leinweber, Marco; Franke, Ulrich Friedrich Wilhelm
Minimally invasive extracorporeal circulation (MECC) technology was applied predominantly in coronary surgery. Data regarding the application of MECC in minimally invasive valve surgery are missing largely. Patients undergoing isolated minimally invasive mitral or aortic valve procedures were allocated either to conventional extracorporeal circulation (CECC) group (n = 63) or MECC group (n = 105), and their prospectively generated data were analyzed. Demographic data were comparable between the groups regarding age (CECC vs. MECC: 71.0 ± 7.5 vs. 66.2 ± 10.1 years, p = 0.091) and logistic EuroSCORE I (6.2 ± 2.5 vs. 5.4 ± 3.0, p = 0.707). Hospital mortality was one patient in each group (1.6 vs. 1.0%, p = 0.688). The levels of leukocytes were lower in the MECC group (11.6 ± 3.2 vs. 9.4 ± 4.3 109/L, p = 0.040). Levels of platelets (137.2 ± 45.5 vs. 152.4 ± 50.3 109/L, p = 0.015) and hemoglobin (103.3 ± 11.3 vs. 107.3 ± 14.7 g/L, p = 0.017) were higher in the MECC group. Renal function was better preserved (creatinine: 1.1 ± 0.4 vs. 0.9 ± 0.2 mg/dL, p = 0.019). We were able to validate shorter time of postoperative ventilation (9.5 ± 15.1 vs. 6.3 ± 3.4 h, p = 0.054) as well as significantly shorter intensive care unit (ICU) stay (1.8 ± 1.3 vs. 1.2 ± 1.0 d, p = 0.005) for MECC patients. The course of C-reactive protein did not differ between the groups. We were able to prove the feasibility of MECC even in minimally invasive performed mitral and aortic valve procedures. In addition, the use of MECC provides decreased platelet consumption and less hemodilution. The use of MECC in these selected patients lead to a shorter ventilation time and ICU stay. Georg Thieme Verlag KG Stuttgart · New York.
Snyder, Laura A.; O'Toole, John; Eichholz, Kurt M.; Perez-Cruet, Mick J.; Fessler, Richard
Minimally invasive spine surgery has its roots in the mid-twentieth century with a few surgeons and a few techniques, but it has now developed into a large field of progressive spinal surgery. A wide range of techniques are now called “minimally invasive,” and case reports are submitted constantly with new “minimally invasive” approaches to spinal pathology. As minimally invasive spine surgery has become more mainstream over the past ten years, in this paper we discuss its history and development. PMID:24967347
Fradeani, Mauro; Barducci, Giancarlo; Bacherini, Leonardo
A minimally invasive prosthetic procedure (MIPP) for the esthetic rehabilitation of the complete arch advocates the preservation of enamel to optimize the adhesive bond of the luting agent to both the tooth surface and the etchable ceramic restoration. When esthetic rehabilitation of a worn dentition is required, a MIPP can be selected to reduce the biological cost of removing additional enamel tooth structure. The fundamental steps to achieve this goal are to: (1) increase the vertical dimension of occlusion (VDO); (2) reduce the thickness of the monolithic ceramic material; (3) preserve the enamel during tooth preparation; and (4) adhesively bond the etchable ceramic restorations. This article presents a comprehensive, minimally invasive prosthetic treatment approach for the esthetic rehabilitation of a severely worn dentition using a lithium disilicate all-ceramic material with partial and complete coverage restorations.
Lindley, Timothy; Greenlee, Jeremy D W; Teo, Charles
The primary goal of any surgical approach is to adequately visualize and treat the pathologic condition with minimal disruption to adjacent normal anatomy. The work of several researchers has revealed the promise of minimally invasive endonasal neurosurgery and paved the way for broader applications of the technology. This article discusses the current state of minimally invasive endonasal techniques to address the pathologic conditions of the anterior cranial fossa and parasellar region. Copyright © 2010 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.
Y. Yazdandoost, Rokhsareh; Hayatbini, Niki; Asgharnejad Farid, Ali Asghar; Gharaee, Banafsheh; Latifi, Noor Ahmad
BACKGROUND Elective aesthetic surgeries are increasing in the Iranian population with reasons linked to body image dissatisfaction and psychological symptoms. This study compared the body image dissatisfaction and psychological symptoms among invasive and minimally invasive aesthetic surgery patients and a control group. METHODS Data from 90 participants (invasive aesthetic surgery=30 Ss, minimally invasive aesthetic surgery=30 Ss, and control group=30 Ss) were included. Subjects were assessed on body image dissatisfaction and psychological symptoms to provide an evidence for a continuum of body image dissatisfaction, anxiety, depression and interpersonal sensitivity in invasive and minimally invasive aesthetic surgery clients. RESULTS Between the three groups of invasive, minimally invasive aesthetic surgeries and control on body image dissatisfaction and psychological symptoms (anxiety, depression and interpersonal sensitivity), there was a significant difference. CONCLUSION These findings have implications for pre-surgical assessment as well as psychological interventions rather than invasive medical interventions at first step. PMID:27579270
Y Yazdandoost, Rokhsareh; Hayatbini, Niki; Asgharnejad Farid, Ali Asghar; Gharaee, Banafsheh; Latifi, Noor Ahmad
Elective aesthetic surgeries are increasing in the Iranian population with reasons linked to body image dissatisfaction and psychological symptoms. This study compared the body image dissatisfaction and psychological symptoms among invasive and minimally invasive aesthetic surgery patients and a control group. Data from 90 participants (invasive aesthetic surgery=30 Ss, minimally invasive aesthetic surgery=30 Ss, and control group=30 Ss) were included. Subjects were assessed on body image dissatisfaction and psychological symptoms to provide an evidence for a continuum of body image dissatisfaction, anxiety, depression and interpersonal sensitivity in invasive and minimally invasive aesthetic surgery clients. Between the three groups of invasive, minimally invasive aesthetic surgeries and control on body image dissatisfaction and psychological symptoms (anxiety, depression and interpersonal sensitivity), there was a significant difference. These findings have implications for pre-surgical assessment as well as psychological interventions rather than invasive medical interventions at first step.
Babaei, Masoud; Balavarca, Yesilda; Jansen, Lina; Gondos, Adam; Lemmens, Valery; Sjövall, Annika; B⊘rge Johannesen, Tom; Moreau, Michel; Gabriel, Liberale; Gonçalves, Ana Filipa; Bento, Maria José; van de Velde, Tony; Kempfer, Lana Raffaela; Becker, Nikolaus; Ulrich, Alexis; Ulrich, Cornelia M.; Schrotz-King, Petra; Brenner, Hermann
Abstract Minimally invasive surgery (MIS) of colorectal cancer (CRC) was first introduced over 20 years ago and recently has gained increasing acceptance and usage beyond clinical trials. However, data on dissemination of the method across countries and on long-term outcomes are still sparse. In the context of a European collaborative study, a total of 112,023 CRC cases from 3 population-based (N = 109,695) and 4 institute-based clinical cancer registries (N = 2328) were studied and compared on the utilization of MIS versus open surgery. Cox regression models were applied to study associations between surgery type and survival of patients from the population-based registries. The study considered adjustment for potential confounders. The percentage of CRC patients undergoing MIS differed substantially between centers and generally increased over time. MIS was significantly less often used in stage II to IV colon cancer compared with stage I in most centers. MIS tended to be less often used in older (70+) than in younger colon cancer patients. MIS tended to be more often used in women than in men with rectal cancer. MIS was associated with significantly reduced mortality among colon cancer patients in the Netherlands (hazard ratio [HR] 0.66, 95% confidence interval [CI] (0.63–0.69), Sweden (HR 0.68, 95% CI 0.60–0.76), and Norway (HR 0.73, 95% CI 0.67–0.79). Likewise, MIS was associated with reduced mortality of rectal cancer patients in the Netherlands (HR 0.74, 95% CI 0.68–0.80) and Sweden (HR 0.77, 95% CI 0.66–0.90). Utilization of MIS in CRC resection is increasing, but large variation between European countries and clinical centers prevails. Our results support association of MIS with substantially enhanced survival among colon cancer patients. Further studies controlling for selection bias and residual confounding are needed to establish role of MIS in survival of patients. PMID:27258522
Krasopoulos, George; Goldstraw, Peter
This review is trying to address the effectiveness and sustainability of results following minimally invasive repair of pectus excavatum (MIRPE). The aim is to present these results for the benefit of clinicians and the patients. Literature search has revealed 179 hits, which were independently assessed and led to 80 publications being formally reviewed. Studies reporting results from less than 10 patients were excluded. Thirty-five studies were found to be reporting results from patients' and/or surgeons' perspective and they were included in this review. Data from the United Kingdom registry for MIRPE were also included. Results from over 2997 patients (age: <1-85 years) who had MIRPE and 1393 patients who had their metallic bar removed were assessed. The most common indication for surgery was cosmesis. There was a net gain with regard to self-esteem for 96-100% of the individuals. A percentage of procedures (0-20%) was assessed by surgeons as having an 'unsatisfactory outcome' and a number of patients (0-25%) reported an 'unsatisfactory end result.' However, these percentages are not necessarily referring to the same patients and an unsatisfactory result does not seem to affect the positive effect on self-esteem. The reported changes in social life, lung capacity, cardiovascular capacity, exercise capacity and general health are based on weak data and significant improvements, if any, are probably seen in a limited number of patients. The metallic bars were removed after 1.5-4.5 years and there is an overall 0-4.5% reported recurrence post-bar removal. In conclusion, MIRPE may improve cosmesis and self-esteem of patients with pectus excavatum deformity. Direct or indirect improvement in other physiological parameters may also help the 'well-being' of these patients and their social integration. There is a clear need for standardisation in the way results are reported in the literature and a socioeconomic analysis with regard to gains, benefits and costs related
Burke, William M.; Tergas, Ana I.; Hou, June Y.; Huang, Yongmei; Hu, Jim C.; Hillyer, Grace Clarke; Ananth, Cande V.; Neugut, Alfred I.; Hershman, Dawn L.
Purpose Despite the potential benefits of minimally invasive hysterectomy for uterine cancer, population-level data describing the procedure’s safety in unselected patients are lacking. We examined the use of minimally invasive surgery and the association between the route of the procedure and long-term survival. Methods We used the SEER-Medicare database to identify women with stage I-III uterine cancer who underwent hysterectomy from 2006 to 2011. Patients who underwent abdominal hysterectomy were compared with those who had minimally invasive hysterectomy (laparoscopic and robot-assisted). Perioperative morbidity, use of adjuvant therapy, and long-term survival were examined after propensity score balancing. Results We identified 6,304 patients, including 4,139 (65.7%) who underwent abdominal hysterectomy and 2,165 (34.3%) who underwent minimally invasive hysterectomy; performance of minimally invasive hysterectomy increased from 9.3% in 2006 to 61.7% in 2011. Robot-assisted procedures accounted for 62.3% of the minimally invasive operations. Compared with women who underwent abdominal hysterectomy, minimally invasive hysterectomy was associated with a lower overall complication rate (22.7% v 39.7%; P < .001), and lower perioperative mortality (0.6% v 1.1%), but these women were more likely to receive adjuvant pelvic radiotherapy (34.3% v 31.3%) and brachytherapy (33.6% v 31.0%; P < .05). The complication rate was higher after robot-assisted hysterectomy compared with laparoscopic hysterectomy (23.7% v 19.5%; P = .03). There was no association between the use of minimally invasive hysterectomy and either overall (HR, 0.89; 95% CI, 0.75 to 1.04) or cancer-specific (HR, 0.83; 95% CI, 0.59 to 1.16) mortality. Conclusion Minimally invasive hysterectomy does not appear to compromise long-term survival for women with endometrial cancer. PMID:26834057
Chong, Sangjoon; Wang, Kyu-Chang; Phi, Ji Hoon; Lee, Ji Yeoun
Various operative techniques are available for the treatment of craniosynostosis. The patient's age at presentation is one of the most important factors in the determination of the surgical modality. Minimally invasive suturectomy and postoperative helmet therapy may be performed for relatively young infants, whose age is younger than 6 months. It relies upon the potential for rapid brain growth in this age group. Its minimal invasiveness is also advantageous. In this article, we review the advantages and limitations of minimally invasive suturectomy followed by helmet therapy for the treatment of craniosynostosis. PMID:27226853
Limmer, Karl K; Kernstine, Kemp H
Thymectomy for thymoma has traditionally been performed through a transsternal approach because of the excellent exposure that that the median sternotomy provides. Minimally invasive alternatives, such as transcervical thymectomy, video-assisted thymectomy, and robotic thymectomy, have not been extensively evaluated for this disease process. It is uncertain which patients may benefit from minimally invasive approaches and data regarding the oncologic effectiveness of these techniques remains to be established. However, given the excellent capability of these techniques to perform a complete and extensive thymectomy, there does appear to be a role for minimally invasive thymectomy in the treatment of thymoma.
Villavicencio, Alan T.; Roeca, Cassandra M.; Nelson, E. Lee; Mason, Alexander
Background Available clinical data are insufficient for comparing minimally invasive (MI) and open approaches for transforaminal lumbar interbody fusion (TLIF). To date, a paucity of literature exists directly comparing minimally invasive (MI) and open approaches for transforaminal lumbar interbody fusion (TLIF). The purpose of this study was to directly compare safety and effectiveness for these two surgical approaches. Materials and Methods Open or minimally invasive TLIF was performed in 63 and 76 patients, respectively. All consecutive minimally invasive TLIF cases were matched with a comparable cohort of open TLIF cases using three variables: diagnosis, number of spinal levels, and history of previous lumbar surgery. Patients were treated for painful degenerative disc disease with or without disc herniation, spondylolisthesis, and/or stenosis at one or two spinal levels. Clinical outcome (self-report measures, e.g., visual analog scale (VAS), patient satisfaction, and MacNab's criteria), operative data (operative time, estimated blood loss), length of hospitalization, and complications were assessed. Average follow-up for patients was 37.5 months. Results: The mean change in VAS scores postoperatively was greater (5.2 vs. 4.1) in theopen TLIF patient group (P = 0.3). MacNab's criteria score was excellent/good in 67% and 70% (P = 0.8) of patients in open and minimally invasive TLIF groups, respectively. The overall patient satisfaction was 72.1% and 64.5% (P = 0.4) in open and minimally invasive TLIF groups, respectively. The total mean operative time was 214.9 min for open and 222.5 min for minimally invasive TLIF procedures (P = 0.5). The mean estimated blood loss for minimally invasive TLIF (163.0 ml) was significantly lower (P < 0.0001) than the open approach (366.8 ml). The mean duration of hospitalization in the minimally invasive TLIF (3 days) was significantly shorter (P = 0.02) than the open group (4.2 days). The total rate of neurological deficit was
Hung, W K; Ying, M; Chan, C M; Lam, H S; Mak, K L
Minimally invasive surgery is gaining popularity around the world because it achieves the same or even superior results when compared to standard surgery but with less morbidity. Minimally invasive breast surgery is a broad concept encompassing new developments in the field of breast surgery that work on this minimally invasive principle. In this regard, breast-conserving surgery and sentinel lymph node biopsy are good illustrations of this concept. There are three major areas of progress in the minimally invasive management of breast disease. First, percutaneous excisional devices are now available that can replace the surgical excision of breast mass lesions. Second, various ablative treatments are capable of destroying breast cancers in situ instead of surgical excision. Third, mammary ductoscopy provides a new approach to the investigation of mammary duct pathology. Clinical experience and potential applications of these new technologies are reviewed.
Ho, Michael; Garau, Giorgio; Walley, Gayle; Oliva, Francesco; Panni, Alfredo Schiavone; Longo, Umile Giuseppe
We compared a minimally invasive surgical technique to the conventional (open approach) surgical technique used in fixation of hip fractures with the dynamic hip screw (DHS) device. Using a case-control design (44 cases and 44 controls), we tested the null hypothesis that there is no difference between the two techniques in the following outcome measures: duration of surgery, time to mobilisation and weight bearing postoperatively, length of hospital stay, mean difference of pre- and postoperative haemoglobin levels, position of the lag screw of the DHS device in the femoral head, and the tip–apex distance. The minimally invasive DHS technique had significantly shorter duration of surgery and length of hospital stay. There was also less blood loss in the minimally invasive DHS technique. The minimally invasive DHS technique produces better outcome measures in the operating time, length of hospital stay, and blood loss compared to the conventional approach while maintaining equal fixation stability. PMID:18478227
In Italy there exists quite a long and rich history in minimally invasive thoracic surgery. Pioneer Italian surgeons have been amongst those who first adopted video-assisted thoracic surgery (VATS) to perform procedures such as lobectomy and esophagectomy, respectively and quite many others have provided important contributions related to minimally invasive thoracic surgery and have proposed innovative ideas and creative technical refinements. According to a web search on recent studies published in Italy on minimally invasive thoracic surgery along the last 3 years, uniportal, nonintubated, and robotic VATS as well as VATS lobectomy have been found to represent the most frequently investigated issues. An ongoing active investigation in each of these sub-topics is contributing to a better definition of indications advantages and disadvantages of the various surgical strategies. In addition it is likely that combination strategies including adoption of uniportal and nonintubated approaches will lead to define novel ultra-minimally invasive treatment options. PMID:26605315
Ozgur, Burak M; Yoo, Kevin; Rodriguez, Gerardo; Taylor, William R
Minimal access surgical techniques have been described for diskectomy and laminectomy procedures performed through tubular exposures. Tubular exposures, however, restrain visibility to a fixed diameter and require co-axial instrument manipulation. An independent blade retractor system has been developed to overcome the obstacles of working through a tube. Decompression and circumferential fusion can be accomplished through this minimal access exposure via a combination of laminectomy and transforaminal lumbar interbody fusion (TLIF) coupled with minimally invasive pedicle screw fixation. Herein, we describe a minimally-invasive technique for TLIF exposure. Illustrations, intraoperative photographs, and fluoroscopic images supplement this technique. We found that the described minimally-invasive system provides comparable exposure to the traditional-open techniques with the benefits of minimally-invasive techniques. Additionally, it does not have the added constraints of a tubular system. We were able to perform TLIFs without any additional complications. Minimal access decompression and TLIF can be performed safely and effectively using this minimally-invasive system. Besides the retractor system, no additional specialized instruments are required. An operative microscope is not required, in fact, all our cases were performed using operative loupes. The light attachment provides superb visbility without the discomfort of having to wear a headlight. Thus far we have found no added risks or complications using this system. We are currently working on long-term analysis and follow-up to further evaluate this system's efficacy.
Reade, Clifton C; Bower, Curtis E; Kypson, Alan P; Nifong, L Wiley; Wooden, William A; Chitwood, W Randolph
Historically, contraindications to minimally invasive or robotic mitral valve surgery have included prior mastectomy, thoracic reconstruction, or chest radiation. However, we believe that by granting flexibility in the choice of skin incision site while performing careful dissection, surgeons can provide these patients the outstanding results afforded by a minithoracotomy. We present a patient who had undergone a prior mastectomy and radiation treatment in whom we performed a minimally invasive mitral valve repair through a right-sided minithoracotomy using the previous mastectomy incision.
Trevisanuto, D; Marchetto, L
Respiratory distress syndrome (RDS) is the most common respiratory morbidity in preterm infants. In addition to respiratory support, the current clinical treatment includes endotracheal intubation and rapid instillation of exogenous surfactant. However, this approach needs skilled operators and has been associated with complications such as hemodynamic instability and electroencephalogram abnormalities. New, less invasive methods for surfactant administration are needed. In this article, we reviewed the available noninvasive procedures for surfactant administration. In particular, we focused on aerosolized surfactant and surfactant administration through LMA.
Harrel, Stephen K.; Wilson, Thomas G.; Rivera-Hidalgo, Francisco
Introduction Minimally invasive periodontal procedures have been reported to produce excellent clinical results. Visualization during minimally invasive procedures has traditionally been obtained by the use of surgical telescopes, surgical microscopes, glass fiber endoscopes, or a combination of these devices. All of these methods for visualization are less than fully satisfactory due to problems with access, magnification, and blurred imaging. Clinical Innovation A videoscope for use with minimally invasive periodontal procedures has been developed to overcome some of the difficulties that exist with current visualization approaches. This videoscope incorporates a gas shielding technology that eliminates the problems of fogging and fouling of the optics of the videoscope that has previously prevented the successful application of endoscopic visualization to periodontal surgery. Additionally, as part of the gas shielding technology the videoscope also includes a moveable retractor specifically adapted for minimally invasive surgery. Discussion The clinical use of the videoscope during minimally invasive periodontal surgery is demonstrated and discussed. Conclusion The videoscope with gas shielding alleviates many of the difficulties associated with visualization during minimally invasive periodontal surgery PMID:23782239
STEWART, KATHERINE IKARD; FADER, AMANDA N.
Minimally invasive surgery continues to transform the field of gynecologic oncology and has now become the standard of care for many early-stage malignancies. The proven benefits of minimally invasive surgery are driving the rapid introduction and dissemination of novel technologies and the increasing ability to perform even the most complex procedures less invasively. In this article, we will review the current literature on traditional multiport laparoscopy, robotic-assisted laparoscopy, laparoendoscopic single-site surgery as well as robotic-assisted laparoendoscopic single-site surgery, with a specific focus on their role in the treatment of gynecologic malignancies. PMID:28406810
Yurteri-Kaplan, Ladin A; Andriani, Leslie; Kumar, Anagha; Saunders, Pamela A; Mete, Mihriye M; Sokol, Andrew I
To develop a valid and reliable survey to measure surgical team members' perceptions regarding their institution's requirements for successful minimally invasive surgery (MIS). Questionnaire development and validation study (Canadian Task Force classification II-2). Three hospital types: rural, urban/academic, and community/academic. Minimally invasive staff (team members). Development and validation of a minimally invasive surgery survey (MISS). Using the Safety Attitudes questionnaire as a guide, we developed questions assessing study participants' attitudes regarding the requirements for successful MIS. The questions were closed-ended and responses based on a 5-point Likert scale. The large pool of questions was then given to 4 focus groups made up of 3 to 6 individuals. Each focus group consisted of individuals from a specific profession (e.g., surgeons, anesthesiologists, nurses, and surgical technicians). Questions were revised based on focus group recommendations, resulting in a final 52-question set. The question set was then distributed to MIS team members. Individuals were included if they had participated in >10 MIS cases and worked in the MIS setting in the past 3 months. Participants in the trial population were asked to repeat the questionnaire 4 weeks later to evaluate internal consistency. Participants' demographics, including age, gender, specialty, profession, and years of experience, were captured in the questionnaire. Factor analysis with varimax rotation was performed to determine domains (questions evaluating similar themes). For internal consistency and reliability, domains were tested using interitem correlations and Cronbach's α. Cronbach's α > .6 was considered internally consistent. Kendall's correlation coefficient τ closer to 1 and with p < .05 was considered significant for the test-retest reliability. Two hundred fifty participants answered the initial question set. Of those, 53 were eliminated because they did not meet
Hegde, Vivek; Morawala, Abdul; Gupta, Abhilasha; Khandwawala, Naqiyaa
Dens invaginatus, also known as dens in dente, is a rare anomaly affecting human dentition. The condition results in invagination of an amelodental structure within the pulp. This case report discusses the current management protocol of dens invaginatus using a minimally invasive and nonsurgical treatment option. As with most conditions, early diagnosis and preventive measures help minimize complications in dens invaginatus cases. PMID:27656073
Surgical ablation for atrial fibrillation is most frequently done in the concomitant setting, and most commonly with mitral valve surgery. Minimally invasive surgical techniques for the treatment of atrial fibrillation have developed contemporaneously with techniques for minimally invasive mitral valve surgery. As in traditional surgery for atrial fibrillation, there are many different permutations of ablations for the less invasive approaches. Lesion sets can vary from simple pulmonary vein isolation (PVI) to full bi-atrial lesions that completely reproduce the traditional cut-and-sew Cox Maze III procedure with variable efficacy in restoring sinus rhythm. Additionally, treatment of the atrial appendage can be done through minimally invasive approaches without any ablation at all in an attempt to mitigate the risk of stroke. Finally, hybrid procedures combining minimally invasive surgery and catheter-based ablation are being developed that might augment surgical treatment of atrial fibrillation at the time of minimally invasive mitral valve repair. These various permutations and their results are reviewed. PMID:26539352
Kim, Choll W; Siemionow, Krzysztof; Anderson, D Greg; Phillips, Frank M
Minimally invasive surgery for spinal disorders is predicated on the following basic principles: (1) avoid muscle crush injury by self-retaining retractors; (2) do not disrupt tendon attachment sites of key muscles, particularly the origin of the multifidus muscle at the spinous process; (3) use known anatomic neurovascular and muscle compartment planes; and (4) minimize collateral soft-tissue injury by limiting the width of the surgical corridor. The traditional midline posterior approach for lumbar decompression and fusion violates these key principles of minimally invasive surgery. The tendon origin of the multifidus muscle is detached, the surgical corridor is exceedingly wide, and significant muscle crush injury occurs with the use of powerful self-retaining retractors. The combination of these factors leads to well-described changes in muscle physiology and function. Minimally invasive posterior lumbar surgery is performed with table-mounted tubular retractors that focus the surgical dissection to a narrow corridor directly over the surgical target site. The path of the surgical corridor is chosen based on anatomic planes, specifically avoiding injury to the musculotendinous complex and the neurovascular bundle. With these relatively simple modifications in the minimally invasive surgical technique, significant improvements have been achieved in intraoperative blood loss, postoperative pain, and surgical morbidity. However, minimally invasive surgical techniques remains technically demanding, and a significant complication rate has been reported during a surgeon's initial learning curve for the procedures. Improvements in surgeon training along with long-term prospective studies will be needed for advancements in this area of spine surgery.
Kiekenbeck, A; Preis, M; Salzmann, G
Surgical treatment of patients with rheumatoid arthritis of the shoulder should be one part of a concept of conservative and surgical treatment. In addition to disease-modifying agents, local minimally invasive surgery can avoid structural damage to the shoulder and furthermore achieve a restitution of shoulder function. According to Larsen Stage 0-III, an arthroscopic synovectomy and bursectomy can achieve a good prognosis and help to avoid further structural damage to the rheumatoid shoulder. Minimally invasive procedures in the surgery of the rheumatoid shoulder lead to less immobilisation and faster rehabilitation, to the benefit of the joints in the operated limb, much like therapy of the knee. It is also possible to treat associated pathologies with minimally invasive surgery, such as bursitis, small rotator cuff defects, and synovitis of the acromioclavicular joint, as well as synovectomy of the glenohumeral joint Good results can be achieved in these cases using minimally invasive surgery. However, minimally invasive reconstructive procedures are limited in the rheumatoid shoulder.
Nunobe, Souya; Kumagai, Koshi; Ida, Satoshi; Ohashi, Manabu; Hiki, Naoki
Laparoscopic surgery for gastric cancer has become extremely widespread in recent years especially in Asian countries due to its low invasiveness. As to evidence of indication for laparoscopic surgery for gastric cancer, laparoscopic surgery for gastric cancer often appears to be indicated for early gastric cancer at many institutions, while evidence was considered to be insufficient to recommend laparoscopic surgery for gastric cancer at Stage II and above. There are also problems with indications for cases other than tumour factors. No meta-analyses and prospective studies have been reported, but outcomes of laparoscopic surgery for gastric cancer in gastric cancer patients with co-morbid and/or existing diseases have been reported in retrospective studies. Indications in the elderly appear to be favourable in terms of post-operative ambulation considering factors such as the degree of dissection in accordance with the status of the patient. Meta-analyses, randomized controlled trials and several retrospective studies have compared the short-term usefulness of laparoscopic surgery for gastric cancer with that of conventional gastrectomy. The superiority of laparoscopic surgery for gastric cancer has been reported in terms of the reduced amount of bleeding, a reduction in the administration frequency and period of analgesic doses, a reduction in the duration of fever, early recovery of intestinal movement and early return to oral intake. A small-scale randomized controlled trial and several retrospective studies have demonstrated no significant differences in survival rate, recurrence rate and type of recurrence between laparoscopic surgery for gastric cancer and conventional gastrectomy. The results of the aforementioned trials in early gastric cancer in Japan and Korea for which enrolment is complete remain to be published. © The Author 2016. Published by Oxford University Press. All rights reserved. For Permissions, please email: email@example.com.
Li, Ming; Mazilu, Dumitru; Horvath, Keith A.
Minimally invasive cardiac surgery is less traumatic and therefore leads to quicker recovery. With the assistance of engineering technologies on devices, imaging, and robotics, in conjunction with surgical technique, minimally invasive cardiac surgery will improve clinical outcomes and expand the cohort of patients that can be treated. We used transapical aortic valve implantation as an example to demonstrate that minimally invasive cardiac surgery can be implemented with the integration of surgical techniques and engineering technologies. Feasibility studies and long-term evaluation results prove that transapical aortic valve implantation under MRI guidance is feasible and practical. We are investigating an MRI compatible robotic surgical system to further assist the surgeon to precisely deliver aortic valve prostheses via a transapical approach. Ex vivo experimentation results indicate that a robotic system can also be employed in in vivo models. PMID:23125924
Ito, Traci E; Vargas, Maria V; Moawad, Gaby N; Opoku-Anane, Jessica; Shu, Michael K M; Marfori, Cherie Q; Robinson, James K
To assess the feasibility and safety of minimally invasive hysterectomy for uteri >1 kg. Clinical and surgical characteristics were collected for patients in an academic tertiary care hospital. Included were patients who underwent minimally invasive hysterectomy by 1 of 3 fellowship-trained gynecologists from January 1, 2009, to July 1, 2015 and subsequently had confirmed uterine weights of 1 kg or greater on pathology report. Both robotic and conventional laparoscopic procedures were included. During the study period, 95 patients underwent minimally invasive hysterectomy with confirmed uterine weight over 1 kg. Eighty-eight percent were performed with conventional laparoscopy and 12.6% with robot-assisted laparoscopy. The median weight (range) was 1326 g (range, 1000-4800). The median estimated blood loss was 200 mL (range, 50-2000), and median operating time was 191 minutes (range, 75-478). Five cases were converted to laparotomy (5.2%). Four cases were converted secondary to hemorrhage and one secondary to extensive adhesions. There were no conversions after 2011. Intraoperative transfusion was given in 6.3% of cases and postoperative transfusion in 6.3% of cases. However, after 2013, the rate of intraoperative transfusion decreased to 1.0% and postoperative transfusion to 2.1%. Of the 95 cases, there were no cases with malignancy. This provides the largest case series of hysterectomy over 1 kg completed by a minimally invasive approach. Our complication rate improved with experience and was comparable to other studies of minimally invasive hysterectomy for large uteri. When performed by experienced surgeons, minimally invasive hysterectomy for uteri >1 kg can be considered feasible and safe.
Vargas, Maria V.; Moawad, Gaby N.; Opoku-Anane, Jessica; Shu, Michael K. M.; Marfori, Cherie Q.; Robinson, James K.
Background and Objectives: To assess the feasibility and safety of minimally invasive hysterectomy for uteri >1 kg. Methods: Clinical and surgical characteristics were collected for patients in an academic tertiary care hospital. Included were patients who underwent minimally invasive hysterectomy by 1 of 3 fellowship-trained gynecologists from January 1, 2009, to July 1, 2015 and subsequently had confirmed uterine weights of 1 kg or greater on pathology report. Both robotic and conventional laparoscopic procedures were included. Results: During the study period, 95 patients underwent minimally invasive hysterectomy with confirmed uterine weight over 1 kg. Eighty-eight percent were performed with conventional laparoscopy and 12.6% with robot-assisted laparoscopy. The median weight (range) was 1326 g (range, 1000–4800). The median estimated blood loss was 200 mL (range, 50–2000), and median operating time was 191 minutes (range, 75–478). Five cases were converted to laparotomy (5.2%). Four cases were converted secondary to hemorrhage and one secondary to extensive adhesions. There were no conversions after 2011. Intraoperative transfusion was given in 6.3% of cases and postoperative transfusion in 6.3% of cases. However, after 2013, the rate of intraoperative transfusion decreased to 1.0% and postoperative transfusion to 2.1%. Of the 95 cases, there were no cases with malignancy. Conclusions: This provides the largest case series of hysterectomy over 1 kg completed by a minimally invasive approach. Our complication rate improved with experience and was comparable to other studies of minimally invasive hysterectomy for large uteri. When performed by experienced surgeons, minimally invasive hysterectomy for uteri >1 kg can be considered feasible and safe. PMID:28352147
de Franchis, Roberto
Current guidelines recommend screening all cirrhotic patients by endoscopy, to identify patients at risk of bleeding who should undergo prophylactic treatment. However, since the prevalence of varices in cirrhotic patients is variable, universal screening would imply a large number of unnecessary endoscopies and a heavy burden for endoscopy units. In addition, compliance to screening programs may be hampered by the perceived unpleasantness of endoscopy. Predicting the presence of oesophageal varices by non-invasive means might increase compliance and would permit to restrict the performance of endoscopy to those patients with a high probability of having varices. Over the years, several studies have addressed this issue by assessing the potential of biochemical, clinical and ultrasound parameters, transient elastography, CT scanning and video capsule endoscopy. The platelet count/spleen diameter ratio, CT scanning and video capsule endoscopy have shown promising performance characteristics, although none of them is equivalent to EGD. These methods are perceived by patients as preferable to endoscopy and thus might increase adherence to screening programs. Whether this will compensate for the lower sensitivity of these alternative techniques, and ultimately improve the outcomes if more patients undergo screening, is the crucial question that will have to be answered in the future.
Rioja, Jorge; Rincon Mayans, Anibal; Parra, Raul O
Radical prostatectomy is currently the standard of care for localized prostate cancer. In the last decade, the minimally invasive surgery, especially the robotic surgery has been growing and open techniques are less frequent performed. A non-systematic review of the literature is performed, highlighting the current situation of the perineal radical prostatectomy in the minimally invasive era, its indications, and functional and oncological outcomes. Radical perineal prostatectomy, when compared with other surgical approaches, still experience favorable outcomes. Urologist might be abandoning an underused surgical approach.
Scarpa, Maria Grazia
TULAA or Transumbilical Laparoscopic Assisted Appendicectomy is a minimally invasive technique described by Pelosi in 1992 for the removal of the inflamed appendix. Its main advantage is the possibility of exploring the peritoneal cavity and performing a simple and safe extracorporeal appendicectomy. Since its first description, different authors reported their experience with such technique. The aim of this review is to summarise the surgical outcomes currently reported in the literature for this minimally invasive surgical approach and compare it with standard open and laparoscopic appendicectomy. PMID:28078139
Sevim, Yusuf; Celik, Suleyman Utku; Yavarifar, Hana; Akyol, Cihangir
Anastomotic leakage is an unfortunate complication of colorectal surgery. This distressing situation can cause severe morbidity and significantly affects the patient’s quality of life. Additional interventions may cause further morbidity and mortality. Parenteral nutrition and temporary diverting ostomy are the standard treatments of anastomotic leaks. However, technological developments in minimally invasive treatment modalities for anastomotic dehiscence have caused them to be used widely. These modalities include laparoscopic repair, endoscopic self-expandable metallic stents, endoscopic clips, over the scope clips, endoanal repair and endoanal sponges. The review aimed to provide an overview of the current knowledge on the minimally invasive management of anastomotic leaks. PMID:27721925
Kim, Terrence T.; Johnson, J. Patrick; Pashman, Robert; Drazin, Doniel
We present our perioperative minimally invasive spine surgery technique using intraoperative computed tomography image-guided navigation for the treatment of various lumbar spine pathologies. We present an illustrative case of a patient undergoing minimally invasive percutaneous posterior spinal fusion assisted by the O-arm system with navigation. We discuss the literature and the advantages of the technique over fluoroscopic imaging methods: lower occupational radiation exposure for operative room personnel, reduced need for postoperative imaging, and decreased revision rates. Most importantly, we demonstrate that use of intraoperative cone beam CT image-guided navigation has been reported to increase accuracy. PMID:27213152
Kabul Gürbulak, Esin; Akgün, İsmail Ethem; Öz, Ayhan; Ömeroğlu, Sinan; Battal, Muharrem; Celayir, Fevzi; Mihmanlı, Mehmet
The gold standard of surgical treatment of colorectal anastomotic leak is abdominal drainage of collected fluid and stoma formation. Conventional laparotomy has been the preferred approach for treatment. However, both laparoscopic surgical techniquesand endoscopic stenting have gained popularity over the past years as minimal invasive approaches, especially in the management and treatment of perforations of the gastrointestinal system. We present here a successful treatment with a minimal invasive management of anastomosis leak in the early postoperative period after colon resection in a 62-year-old female patient who had undergone urgent laparoscopic intra-abdominal lavage and drainage followed by endoscopic stenting. PMID:25861277
Schneiter, D; Weder, W
Minimal invasive surgical procedures, also known as keyhole surgery, have gained in importance in the last years and have become the standard of care in experienced hands for most surgical procedures. Despite initial concerns with respect to the radicalness of the approach it is nowadays also established in oncologic surgery. Minimal invasive procedures aim at minimizing the operative trauma and associated inflammatory reactions to achieve faster convalescence after surgery. In addition to obvious cosmetic advantages minimal invasive surgery has been shown to be associated with fewer postoperative pain and shorter postoperative rehabilitation and faster reintegration into everyday as well as working life. With 15% of all cancer diagnoses and 29% of all cancer-associated causes of death, lung cancer is the most frequent malignancy in the general public and hence the treatment of lung cancer is a main focus of thoracic surgery. Within the scope of modern multimodal treatment concepts radical surgical resection of lung cancer is essential and the main pillar of curative treatment. In early stage lung cancer the current standard of care is a thoracoscopic lobectomy with mediastinal lymphadenectomy. The expertise of specialized centers allows for curative minimal-invasive treatment in a large number of patients, particularly of patients of advanced age or with limited pulmonary function.
Basdogan, Cagatay; Sedef, Mert; Harders, Matthias; Wesarg, Stefan
Simulation-based training using VR techniques is a promising alternative to traditional training in minimally invasive surgery (MIS). Simulators let the trainee touch, feel, and manipulate virtual tissues and organs through the same surgical tool handles used in actual MIS while viewing images of tool-tissue interactions on a monitor as in real laparoscopic procedures.
Winkler, Bernhard; Jenni, Hans Jörg; Gygax, Erich; Schnüriger, Beat; Seidl, Christian; Erdoes, Gabor; Kadner, Alexander; Carrel, Thierry; Eberle, Balthasar
Current guidelines for the treatment of hypothermic cardiocirculatory arrest recommend extracorporeal life support and rewarming, using cardiopulmonary bypass or extracorporeal membrane oxygenation circuits. Both have design-related shortcomings which may result in prolonged reperfusion time or insufficient oxygen delivery to vital organs. This article describes clear advantages of minimally invasive extracorporeal circulation systems during emergency extracorporeal life support in hypothermic arrest. The technique of minimally invasive extracorporeal circulation for reperfusion and rewarming is represented by the case of a 59-year-old patient in hypothermic cardiocirculatory arrest at 25.3°C core temperature, with multiple trauma. With femoro-femoral cannulation performed under sonographic and echocardiographic guidance, extracorporeal life support was initiated using a minimally invasive extracorporeal circulation system. Perfusing rhythm was restored at 28°C. During rewarming on the mobile circuit, trauma surveys were completed and the treatment initiated. Normothermic weaning was successful on the first attempt, trauma surgery was completed and the patient survived neurologically intact. For extracorporeal resuscitation from hypothermic arrest, minimally invasive extracorporeal circulation offers all the advantages of conventional cardiopulmonary bypass and extracorporeal membrane oxygenation systems without their shortcomings. © The Author(s) 2016.
Lorio, Morgan P.
Rationale The index 2014 ISASS Policy Statement - Minimally Invasive Sacroiliac Joint Fusion was generated out of necessity to provide an ICD9-based background and emphasize tools to ensure correct diagnosis. A timely ICD10-based 2016 Update provides a granular threshold selection with improved level of evidence and a more robust, relevant database. PMID:27652197
Antoniou, Stavros A; Lasithiotakis, Konstantinos; Koch, Oliver O; Antoniou, George A; Pointner, Rudolph; Granderath, Frank A
Publication of scientific articles in peer-reviewed medical journals is considered as a measure of research productivity. The aim of the present study was to quantify the research contributions of different countries in minimally invasive surgery and to critically discuss the results under the prism of recent socioeconomic developments. The electronical archives of 4 major surgical journals (Annals of Surgery, British Journal of Surgery, Journal of the American College of Surgeons, and Surgical Endoscopy) were searched between 2009 and 2012. Publications on minimally invasive general surgery were assessed according to the country. A total of 6595 records were identified; 2160 articles were related to minimally invasive surgery. The volume of publication activity was evenly distributed in North America (34%) and Europe (39%). The United States (31%), the United Kingdom (7.6%), and Japan (6.7%) were the most productive countries. When adjusted for country population, the Netherlands (7.7/10), Denmark (4.4/10), and Switzerland (4.1/10) occupied the highest ranks. Although the United States dominates in terms of absolute number of publications, several smaller countries were more prolific, when the number of inhabitants was taken into account. The recent financial crisis is expected to undermine international collaborative conditions in the field of minimally invasive surgery. The need for a stepped-up international scientific collaboration is hereto highlighted.
Mayr, E; Häuser, H; Rüter, A; Bohndorf, K
This article describes the CT-guided osteosynthesis of calcaneus fractures. This procedure is minimal invasive and offers the opportunity to reduce and to stabilize such fractures very exactly under intraoperative CT-controll only by stab-incisions. A running study will define the ranking of this method.
Klingler, Jan-Helge; Scholz, Christoph; Kogias, Evangelos; Sircar, Ronen; Krüger, Marie T; Volz, Florian; Scheiwe, Christian; Hubbe, Ulrich
To describe the minimally invasive technique for cement augmentation of cannulated and fenestrated screws using an injection cannula as well as to report its safety and efficacy. A total of 157 cannulated and fenestrated pedicle screws had been cement-augmented during minimally invasive posterior screw-rod spondylodesis in 35 patients from January to December 2012. Retrospective evaluation of cement extravasation and screw loosening was carried out in postoperative plain radiographs and thin-sliced triplanar computed tomography scans. Twenty-seven, largely prevertebral cement extravasations were detected in 157 screws (17.2%). None of the cement extravasations was causing a clinical sequela like a new neurological deficit. One screw loosening was noted (0.6%) after a mean follow-up of 12.8 months. We observed no cementation-associated complication like pulmonary embolism or hemodynamic insufficiency. The presented minimally invasive cement augmentation technique using an injection cannula facilitates convenient and safe cement delivery through polyaxial cannulated and fenestrated screws during minimally invasive screw-rod spondylodesis. Nevertheless, the optimal injection technique and design of fenestrated screws have yet to be identified. This trial is registered with German Clinical Trials DRKS00006726.
Kogias, Evangelos; Sircar, Ronen; Krüger, Marie T.; Volz, Florian; Scheiwe, Christian; Hubbe, Ulrich
Purpose. To describe the minimally invasive technique for cement augmentation of cannulated and fenestrated screws using an injection cannula as well as to report its safety and efficacy. Methods. A total of 157 cannulated and fenestrated pedicle screws had been cement-augmented during minimally invasive posterior screw-rod spondylodesis in 35 patients from January to December 2012. Retrospective evaluation of cement extravasation and screw loosening was carried out in postoperative plain radiographs and thin-sliced triplanar computed tomography scans. Results. Twenty-seven, largely prevertebral cement extravasations were detected in 157 screws (17.2%). None of the cement extravasations was causing a clinical sequela like a new neurological deficit. One screw loosening was noted (0.6%) after a mean follow-up of 12.8 months. We observed no cementation-associated complication like pulmonary embolism or hemodynamic insufficiency. Conclusions. The presented minimally invasive cement augmentation technique using an injection cannula facilitates convenient and safe cement delivery through polyaxial cannulated and fenestrated screws during minimally invasive screw-rod spondylodesis. Nevertheless, the optimal injection technique and design of fenestrated screws have yet to be identified. This trial is registered with German Clinical Trials DRKS00006726. PMID:26075297
Wolfe, Kevin C.; Kaul, Ashutosh
Many surgeons continue to actively pursue surgical approaches that are less invasive for their patients. This pursuit requires the surgeon to adapt to new instruments, techniques, technologies, knowledge bases, visual perspectives, and motor skills, among other changes. The premise of this paper is that surgeons adopting minimally invasive approaches are particularly obligated to maintain an accurate perception of their own competencies and learning needs in these areas (ie, self-efficacy). The psychological literature on the topic of self-efficacy is vast and provides valuable information that can help assure that an individual develops and maintains accurate self-efficacy beliefs. The current paper briefly summarizes the practical implications of psychological research on self-efficacy for minimally invasive surgery training. Specific approaches to training and the provision of feedback are described in relation to potential types of discrepancies that may exist between perceived and actual efficacy. PMID:19366532
Goldstone, Andrew B; Joseph Woo, Y
Cardiac surgery is in the midst of a practice revolution. Traditionally, surgery for valvular heart disease consisted of valve replacement via conventional sternotomy using cardiopulmonary bypass. However, over the past 20 years, the increasing popularity of less-invasive procedures, accompanied by advancements in imaging, surgical instrumentation, and robotic technology, has motivated and enabled surgeons to develop and perform complex cardiac surgical procedures through small incisions, often eliminating the need for sternotomy or cardiopulmonary bypass. In addition to the benefits of improved cosmesis, minimally invasive mitral valve surgery was pioneered with the intent of reducing morbidity, postoperative pain, blood loss, hospital length of stay, and time to return to normal activity. This article reviews the current state-of-the-art of minimally invasive approaches to the surgical treatment of valvular heart disease.
Karcz, W. Konrad; von Braun, William
Background Reduction in operative trauma along with an improvement in endoscopic access has undoubtedly occupied surgical minds for at least the past 3 decades. It is not at all surprising that minimally invasive colon surgery has come a long way since the first laparoscopic appendectomy by Semm in 1981. It is common knowledge that the recent developments in video and robotic technologies have significantly furthered advancements in laparoscopic and minimally invasive surgery. This has led to the overall acceptance of the treatment of benign colorectal pathology via the endoscopic route. Malignant disease, however, is still primarily treated by conventional approaches. Methods and Results This review article is based on a literature search pertaining to advances in minimally invasive colorectal surgery for the treatment of malignant pathology, as well as on personal experience in the field over the same period of time. Our search was limited to level I and II clinical papers only, according to the evidence-based medicine guidelines. We attempted to present our unbiased view on the subject relying only on the evidence available. Conclusion Focusing on advances in colorectal minimally invasive surgery, it has to be stated that there are still a number of unanswered questions regarding the surgical management of malignant diseases with this approach. These questions do not only relate to the area of boundaries set for the use of minimally invasive techniques in this field but also to the exact modality best suited to the treatment of every particular case whilst maintaining state-of-the-art oncological principles. PMID:27493947
Gassner, Holger G.; Schwan, Franziska; Schebesch, Karl-Michael
Minimally invasive approaches are becoming increasingly popular to access the anterior skull base. With interdisciplinary cooperation, in particular endonasal endoscopic approaches have seen an impressive expansion of indications over the past decades. The more recently described transorbital approaches represent minimally invasive alternatives with a differing spectrum of access corridors. The purpose of the present paper is to discuss transorbital approaches to the anterior skull base in the light of the current literature. The transorbital approaches allow excellent exposure of areas that are difficult to reach like the anterior and posterior wall of the frontal sinus; working angles may be more favorable and the paranasal sinus system can be preserved while exposing the skull base. Because of their minimal morbidity and the cosmetically excellent results, the transorbital approaches represent an important addition to established endonasal endoscopic and open approaches to the anterior skull base. Their execution requires an interdisciplinary team approach. PMID:27453759
Keller, D S; Ibarra, S; Haas, E M
Laparoscopy was the most significant technologic advance in colorectal surgery in the last quarter century. The safety, feasibility and oncologic equivalence have been proven, and undisputed clinical benefits have also been demonstrated over open approaches. Despite proven benefits, laparoscopic has not dominated the market, especially for colon and rectal cancer cases. Adaptations in laparoscopic technique were developed to increase use of minimally invasive surgery. Concurrently, there has been a paradigm shift toward less invasive technologies to further optimize patient outcomes. From these needs, hand assisted laparoscopic surgery (HALS), single incision laparoscopic surgery (SILS), and robotic assisted laparoscopic surgery (RALS) were applied to colorectal surgery. Each platform has unique costs and benefits, and similar outcomes when likened to each other in comparative studies. However, conventional laparoscopy, HALS, SILS, and RALS actually serve a complementary role as tools to increase the use of minimally invasive colorectal surgery. The goal of this paper is to review the history, current status, technical specifications, and evolution of the major minimally invasive platforms for colorectal surgery.
Wang, Christina Y; Maibach, Howard I
There is increasing interest in minimally invasive skin sampling techniques to assay markers of molecular biology and biochemical processes. This overview examines methodology strengths and limitations, and exciting developments pending in the scientific community. Publications were searched via PubMed, the U.S. Patent and Trademark Office Website, the DermTech Website and the CuDerm Website. The keywords used were noninvasive skin sampling, skin stripping, skin taping, detergent method, ring method, mechanical scrub, reverse iontophoresis, glucose monitoring, buccal smear, hair root sampling, mRNA, DNA, RNA, and amino acid. There is strong interest in finding methods to access internal biochemical, molecular, and genetic processes through noninvasive and minimally invasive external means. Minimally invasive techniques include the widely used skin tape stripping, the abrasion method that includes scraping and detergent, and reverse iontophoresis. The first 2 methods harvest largely the stratum corneum. Hair root sampling (material deeper than the epidermis), buccal smear, shave biopsy, punch biopsy, and suction blistering are also methods used to obtain cellular material for analysis, but involve some degree of increased invasiveness and thus are only briefly mentioned. Existing and new sampling methods are being refined and validated, offering exciting, different noninvasive means of quickly and efficiently obtaining molecular material with which to monitor bodily functions and responses, assess drug levels, and follow disease processes without subjecting patients to unnecessary discomfort and risk.
Ferreira, Renata Tosoni Rodrigues; Silva, Roberto Rocha e; Marchi, Evaldo
Objective To compare the results of aortic valve replacement with access by sternotomy or minimally invasive approach. Methods Retrospective analysis of medical records of 37 patients undergoing aortic valve replacement by sternotomy or minimally invasive approach, with emphasis on the comparison of time of cardiopulmonary bypass and aortic clamping, volume of surgical bleeding, time of mechanical ventilation, need for blood transfusion, incidence of atrial fibrillation, length of stay in intensive care unit, time of hospital discharge, short-term mortality and presence of surgical wound infection. Results Sternotomy was used in 22 patients and minimally invasive surgery in 15 patients. The minimally invasive approach had significantly higher time values of cardiopulmonary bypass (114.3±23.9 versus 86.7±19.8min.; P=0.003), aortic clamping (87.4±19.2 versus 61.4±12.9 min.; P<0.001) and mechanical ventilation (287.3±138.9 versus 153.9±118.6 min.; P=0.003). No difference was found in outcomes surgical bleeding volume, need for blood transfusion, incidence of atrial fibrillation, length of stay in intensive care unit and time of hospital discharge. No cases of short-term mortality or surgical wound infection were documented. Conclusion The less invasive approach presented with longer times of cardiopulmonary bypass, aortic clamping and mechanical ventilation than sternotomy, however without prejudice to the length of stay in intensive care unit, time of hospital discharge and morbidity. PMID:28076618
Bandt, S Kathleen; Leuthardt, Eric C
Medically refractory epilepsy is associated with significant morbidity and mortality. Surgery is a safe and effective option for some patients, however the opportunity exists to develop less invasive and more effective surgical options. To this end, multiple minimally invasive, image-guided techniques have been applied to the treatment of epilepsy. These techniques can be divided into thermoablative and disconnective techniques. Each has been described in the treatment of epilepsy only in small case series. Larger series and longer follow up periods will determine each option's place in the surgical armamentarium for the treatment of refractory epilepsy but early results are promising. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.
Schneider, Crispin; Boddy, Alex P; Fukuta, Junaid; Groom, William D; Streets, Christopher G
To evaluate predictors of allogenic blood transfusion requirements in patients undergoing minimal invasive oesophagectomy at a tertiary high volume centre for oesophago-gastric surgery. Retrospective analysis of all patients undergoing minimal access oesophagectomy in our department between January 2010 and December 2011. Patients were divided into two groups depending on whether they required a blood transfusion at any time during their index admission. Factors that have been shown to influence perioperative blood transfusion requirements in major surgery were included in the analysis. Binary logistic regression analysis was performed to determine the impact of patient and perioperative characteristics on transfusion requirements during the index admission. A total of 80 patients underwent minimal access oesophagectomy, of which 61 patients had a laparoscopic assisted oesophagectomy and 19 patients had a minimal invasive oesophagectomy. Perioperative blood transfusion was required in 28 patients at any time during hospital admission. On binary logistic regression analysis, a lower preoperative haemoglobin concentration (p < 0.01), suffering a significant complication (p < 0.005) and laparoscopic assisted oesophagectomy (p < 0.05) were independent predictors of blood transfusion requirements. It has been reported that requirement for blood transfusion can affect long-term outcomes in oesophageal cancer resection. Two factors which could be addressed preoperatively; haemoglobin concentration and type of oesophageal resection, may be valuable in predicting blood transfusions in patients undergoing minimally invasive oesophagectomy. Our analysis revealed that preoperative haemoglobin concentration, occurrence of significant complications and type of minimal access oesophagectomy predicted blood transfusion requirements in the patient population examined. Copyright © 2014 Surgical Associates Ltd. Published by Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.
Ishii, Chiharu; Kamei, Yusuke
Recently, the robotic surgical support systems are in clinical use for minimally invasive surgery. For improvement in operativity and safety of minimally invasive surgery, the development of haptic forceps manipulator is in demand to help surgeon's immersion and dexterity. We have developed a multi-DOF robotic forceps manipulator using a novel omni-directional bending mechanism, so far. In this paper, in order to control the developed robotic forceps as a slave manipulator, joy-stick type master manipulator with force feedback mechanism for remote control is designed and built, and force feedback bilateral control system was constructed for grasping and bending motions of the robotic forceps. Experimental works were carried out and experimental results showed the effectiveness of the proposed control system.
Coe, Jeffrey D; Zucherman, James F; Kucharzyk, Donald W; Poelstra, Kornelis A; Miller, Larry E; Kunwar, Sandeep
The increasing adoption of minimally invasive techniques for spine surgery in recent years has led to significant advancements in instrumentation for lumbar interbody fusion. Percutaneous pedicle screw fixation is now a mature technology, but the role of expandable cages is still evolving. The capability to deliver a multiexpandable interbody cage with a large footprint through a narrow surgical cannula represents a significant advancement in spinal surgery technology. The purpose of this report is to describe a multiexpandable lumbar interbody fusion cage, including implant characteristics, intended use, surgical technique, preclinical testing, and early clinical experience. Results to date suggest that the multiexpandable cage allows a less invasive approach to posterior/transforaminal lumbar interbody fusion surgery by minimizing iatrogenic risks associated with static or vertically expanding interbody prostheses while providing immediate vertebral height restoration, restoration of anatomic alignment, and excellent early-term clinical results. PMID:27729817
Midrio, Paola; Gamba, Piergiorgio
The success of modern surgery is dependent on the availability of good equipment and instruments. This dependence increases along with the degree of sophistication of the surgery performed. Paediatric minimally invasive and endoscopic surgery are sophisticated techniques where imaging is obtained through a video-circuit. Endoscopic surgery has opened the field of virtual reality in surgery, and in minimally invasive surgery the actual operation is done through a limited number of small holes. Robot-assisted urologic surgery is an emerging and safe technology for many urologic paediatric operations, although further documentation, including long-term functional outcome, is deemed necessary before definite conclusions can be drawn regarding the superiority or not of robotic assistance compared to conventional laparoscopic approaches. PMID:27867840
Aiolfi, Alberto; Scolari, Federica; Saino, Greta; Bonavina, Luigi
Surgical resection has been the mainstay of treatment of pharyngoesophageal (Zenker) diverticula over the past century. Developments in minimally invasive surgery and new endoscopic devices have led to a paradigm change. The concept of dividing the septum between the esophagus and the pouch rather than resecting the pouch itself has been revisited during the last three decades and new technologies have been investigated to make the transoral operation safe and effective. The internal pharyngoesophageal myotomy accomplished through the transoral stapling approach has been shown to effectively relieve outflow obstruction and restore physiological bolus transit in patients with medium size diverticula. Transoral techniques, either through a rigid device or by flexible endoscopy, are gaining popularity over the open surgical approach due the low morbidity, the fast recovery time and the fact that the procedure can be safely repeated. We provide an analysis of the the current status of minimally invasive endoscopic management of Zenker diverticulum.
Aiolfi, Alberto; Scolari, Federica; Saino, Greta; Bonavina, Luigi
Surgical resection has been the mainstay of treatment of pharyngoesophageal (Zenker) diverticula over the past century. Developments in minimally invasive surgery and new endoscopic devices have led to a paradigm change. The concept of dividing the septum between the esophagus and the pouch rather than resecting the pouch itself has been revisited during the last three decades and new technologies have been investigated to make the transoral operation safe and effective. The internal pharyngoesophageal myotomy accomplished through the transoral stapling approach has been shown to effectively relieve outflow obstruction and restore physiological bolus transit in patients with medium size diverticula. Transoral techniques, either through a rigid device or by flexible endoscopy, are gaining popularity over the open surgical approach due the low morbidity, the fast recovery time and the fact that the procedure can be safely repeated. We provide an analysis of the the current status of minimally invasive endoscopic management of Zenker diverticulum. PMID:25685264
Nassour, Ibrahim; Polanco, Patricio M.
Minimally invasive surgery has been cautiously introduced in surgical oncology over the last two decades due to a concern of compromised oncological outcomes. Recently, it has been adopted in liver surgery for colorectal metastases. Colorectal cancer is a major cause of cancer-related death in the USA. In addition, liver metastasis is the most common site of distant disease and its resection improves survival. While open resection was the standard of care, laparoscopic liver surgery has become the standard of care for minor liver resections. Laparoscopic liver surgery provides equivalent oncological outcomes with better perioperative results compared to open liver surgery. Robotic liver surgery has been introduced as it is believed to overcome some of the limitations of laparoscopy. Finally, laparoscopic radio-frequency ablation and microwave coagulation can be used as adjuncts in minimally invasive surgery to complement or replace surgical resection when not possible. PMID:27570500
Nassour, Ibrahim; Polanco, Patricio M
Minimally invasive surgery has been cautiously introduced in surgical oncology over the last two decades due to a concern of compromised oncological outcomes. Recently, it has been adopted in liver surgery for colorectal metastases. Colorectal cancer is a major cause of cancer-related death in the USA. In addition, liver metastasis is the most common site of distant disease and its resection improves survival. While open resection was the standard of care, laparoscopic liver surgery has become the standard of care for minor liver resections. Laparoscopic liver surgery provides equivalent oncological outcomes with better perioperative results compared to open liver surgery. Robotic liver surgery has been introduced as it is believed to overcome some of the limitations of laparoscopy. Finally, laparoscopic radio-frequency ablation and microwave coagulation can be used as adjuncts in minimally invasive surgery to complement or replace surgical resection when not possible.
Hanke, Jasmin S.; Rojas, Sebastian V.; Avsar, Murat; Haverich, Axel; Schmitto, Jan D.
Nowadays, the worldwide number of left ventricular assist devices (LVADs) being implanted per year is higher than the number of cardiac transplantations. The rapid developments in the field of mechanical support are characterized by continuous miniaturization and enhanced performance of the pumps, providing increased device durability and a prolonged survival of the patients. The miniaturization process enabled minimally-invasive implantation methods, which are associated with generally benefitting the overall outcome of patients. Therefore, these new implantation strategies are considered the novel state of the art in LVAD surgery. In this paper we provide a comprehensive review on the existing literature on minimally-invasive techniques with an emphasis on the different implantation approaches and their individual surgical challenges. PMID:25981314
Niedbala, Angela; Adams, Michael; Boswell, William C; Considine, John M
The minimally invasive pectus excavatum repair as described by Nuss et al. is rapidly gaining acceptance as an effective method of repair of severe pectus excavatum deformities in the pediatric population. It potentially offers several advantages over previous techniques. The incidence of major complications of the procedure has been reduced by recent modifications including utilization of video-assisted thoracoscopy during placement of the Lorenz pectus bar as well as utilizing the pectus bar stabilizer that provides more rigid fixation of the strut. We report two cases of acquired thoracic scoliosis following minimally invasive repair of severe pectus excavatum deformity. This particular complication has not been reported in previous literature and warrants concern. In both cases the thoracic scoliosis slowly improved with physical therapy and range-of-motion exercises.
Feußner, H; Wilhelm, D
Surgery can only maintain its role in a highly competitive environment if results are continuously improved, accompanied by further reduction of the interventional trauma for patients and with justifiable costs. Significant impulse to achieve this goal was expected from minimally invasive surgery and, in particular, robotic surgery; however, a real breakthrough has not yet been achieved. Accordingly, the new strategic approach of cognitive surgery is required to optimize the provision of surgical treatment. A full scale integration of all modules utilized in the operating room (OR) into a comprehensive network and the development of systems with technical cognition are needed to upgrade the current technical environment passively controlled by the surgeon into an active collaborative support system (surgery 4.0). Only then can the true potential of minimally invasive surgery and robotic surgery be exploited.
Bonilla, Esteban D; Stevenson, Richard G; Caputo, Angelo A; White, Shane N
Minimally invasive flowable composite Class I restorations are widely used. However, flowable composites are characterized by low filler contents, modified resin formulations, low moduli of elasticity, low viscosity, generally poor mechanical properties, and decreased long-term stability. The purpose of this study was to compare the microleakage resistance of a wide variety of flowable composites used with their manufacturers' recommended bonding systems to that of a long-used and widely studied microhybrid composite when placed as minimally invasive occlusal restorations. Molar teeth were prepared in a standardized manner, restored, artificially aged, stained, sectioned, evaluated, and analyzed. Microleakage varied substantially, by a whole order of magnitude, among the material groups tested. The control group, a conventional microhybrid composite material, leaked significantly less than all the flowable composite groups. Microleakage varied very slightly among measurement site locations. Tiny microscopic bubbles were seen within many of the flowable composite specimens, as were a few voids.
Botta, Luca; Cannata, Aldo; Bruschi, Giuseppe; Fratto, Pasquale; Taglieri, Corrado; Russo, Claudio Francesco; Martinelli, Luigi
Redo cardiac surgery represents a clinical challenge due to a higher rate of peri-operative morbidity and mortality. Mitral valve re-operations can be particularly demanding in patients with patent coronary artery bypass grafts, previous aortic valve replacement, calcified aorta or complications following a previous operation (abscesses, perivalvular leaks, or thrombosis). Risk of graft injuries, hemorrhage, the presence of dense adhesions and complex valve exposure can make redo valve operations challenging through a median sternotomy. In this review article we provide an overview of minimally invasive approaches for redo mitral valve surgery discussing indications, techniques, outcomes, concerns and controversies. Scientific literature about minimally invasive approach for redo mitral surgery was reviewed with a MEDLINE search strategy combining "mitral valve" with the following terms: 'minimally invasive', 'reoperation', and 'alternative approach'. The search was limited to the last ten years. A total of 168 papers were found using the reported search. From these, ten papers were identified to provide the best evidence on the subject. Mitral valve reoperations can be safely and effectively performed through a smaller right thoracotomy in the fourth intercostal space termed "mini" thoracotomy or "port access". The greatest potential benefit of a right mini-thoracotomy is the avoidance of sternal re-entry and limited dissection of adhesions, avoiding the risk of injury to cardiac structures or patent grafts. Good percentages of valve repair can be achieved. Mortality is low as well as major complications. Minimally invasive procedures with an unclamped aorta have the potential to combine the benefits of minimally invasive access and continuous myocardial perfusion. Less invasive trans-catheter techniques could be considered as the natural future evolution for management of structural heart disease and mitral reoperations. The safety and efficacy of these
Gockel, I; Paschold, M; Lang, H; Heid, F
Resection of the esophagus is an invasive 2-cavitiy procedure which requires special anesthesiological expertise during perioperative care. Furthermore, in surgery new minimally invasive techniques are continually being established which place special challenges on the treatment team because the anesthesiologist is decisively involved in the course of surgery. The aim of this article is to present the development of surgical treatment options for esophageal cancer starting from classical open resection up to the minimally invasive technique of esophagectomy (MIE). Previous experience with MIE on a cohort of patients is presented and the special anesthesiological characteristics of this innovative technique are illustrated. In the department for general, visceral and transplantation surgery of the University Medical Center of Mainz, minimally invasive abdominothoracic esophageal resection has been carried out since 2010. High thoracic anastomization was performed using the EEA™-OrVil™ system operated by the anesthesiologist. Currently 17 highly selected patients have been surgically treated using this technique. Esophagogastric anastomosis with the EEA™-OrVil™ system was feasible in all patients. Transoral introduction of the gastric probe with the connecting sheath and the angled anvil led to minor dislocation of the double lumen tube in only one patient and could immediately be corrected. Further intraoperative complications did not occur. Four of the 17 patients developed pneumonia which could be controlled by intravenous antibiotics. None of the patients had to be reintubated. One patient developed gastric tube necrosis and died 51 days postoperatively due to massive intracerebral hemorrhage. There were no complications of anastomoses following OrVil™ anastomization. In all patients an R0 resection could be achieved. Minimally invasive esophagectomy with transoral anastomization appears to be an enrichment of the minimally invasive spectrum as
Morris, Stephanie N.; Isaacson, Keith B.
Background and Objective: Despite the prevalence of hysterectomy for treatment of benign gynecologic conditions, providers nationwide have been slow to adopt minimally-invasive surgical techniques. Our objective is to investigate the impact of a department for minimally invasive gynecologic surgery (MIGS) on the rate of laparoscopic hysterectomy at an academic community hospital without robotic technology. Methods: This retrospective observational study included all patients who underwent hysterectomy for benign indications from January 1, 2004, through December 31, 2012. The primary outcome was route of hysterectomy: open, laparoscopic, or vaginal. Secondary outcomes of interest included length of stay and factors associated with an open procedure. Results: In 2004, only 24 (8%) of the 292 hysterectomies performed for benign conditions at Newton-Wellesley Hospital (NWH) were laparoscopic. The rate increased to more than 50% (189/365) by 2008, and, in 2012, 72% (316/439) of hysterectomies were performed via a traditional laparoscopic approach. By 2012, more than 93% (411/439) of all hysterectomies were performed in a minimally invasive manner (including total laparoscopic hysterectomy [TLH], laparoscopic supracervical hysterectomy [LSH], total vaginal hysterectomy [TVH], and laparoscopy-assisted vaginal hysterectomy [LAVH]). More than 85% of the hysterectomies at NWH in 2012 were outpatient procedures. By this time, the surgeon's preference or lack of expertise was rarely cited as a factor leading to open hysterectomy. Conclusions: A large diverse gynecologic surgery department transformed surgical practice from primarily open hysterectomy to a majority (>72%) performed via the traditional laparoscopic route and a large majority (>93%) performed in a minimally invasive manner in less than 8 years, without the use of robotic technology. This paradigm shift was fueled by patient demand and by MIGS department surgical mentorship for generalist obstetrician
Vitonis, Allison F.; Einarsson, Jon I.
Background and Objectives: The goal of this study is to obtain updated surveillance statistics for hysterectomy procedures in the United States and identify factors associated with undergoing a minimally invasive approach to hysterectomy. Methods: A cross-sectional analysis of the 2009 United States Nationwide Inpatient Sample was performed. Subjects included all women aged 18 years or older who underwent hysterectomy of any type. Logistic regression and multivariate analyses were performed to assess the proportion of hysterectomies performed by various routes, as well as factors associated with undergoing minimally invasive surgery (laparoscopic, vaginal, or robotic). Results: A total of 479 814 hysterectomies were performed in the United States in 2009, 86.6% of which were performed for benign indications. Among the hysterectomies performed for benign indications, 56% were completed abdominally, 20.4% were performed laparoscopically, 18.8% were performed vaginally, and 4.5% were performed with robotic assistance. Factors associated with decreased odds of a minimally invasive hysterectomy included the following: minority race (P < .0001), fibroids (P < .0001), concomitant adnexal surgery (P < .0001), self-pay (P = .01) or Medicaid as insurer (P < .0001), and increased severity of illness (P < .0001). Factors associated with increased odds of a minimally invasive hysterectomy included the following: age >50 years (P < .0001), prolapse or menstrual disorder (P < .0001), median household income of $48 000–$62 999 (P = .007) or ≥$63 000 (P = .009), and location in the West (P = .02). A length of stay >1 day was most common in abdominal hysterectomy cases (96.1%), although total mean charges were highest for robotic cases ($38 161). Conclusion: The US hysterectomy incidence in 2009 decreased from prior years' reports, with an increasing frequency of laparoscopic and robotic approaches. Racial and socioeconomic factors influenced hysterectomy mode. PMID:25392662
Vida, Vladimiro L; Tessari, Chiara; Putzu, Alessandro; Tiberio, Ivo; Guariento, Alvise; Gallo, Michele; Stellin, Giovanni
Congenital minimally invasive cardiac surgery has gained wide acceptance thanks to its favorable outcomes. The introduction of peripheral cannulation for cardiopulmonary bypass further reduces surgical trauma by decreasing surgical access and allowing the spectrum of surgical access for the correction of simple congenital heart defects to be widened. Right internal jugular vein percutaneous cannulation, together with the direct surgical cannulation of femoral vessels, proves to be a safe and effective tool in patients with body weight above 15 kg.
Kachrilas, Stefanos; Karaolides, Theocharis; Nikitopoulou, Stavroula; Papadopoulos, George; Buchholz, Noor; Masood, Junaid
Endourological techniques are used more often nowadays in the treatment of ureteric strictures of various etiologies. Advances in technology have provided new tools to the armamentarium of the endoscopic urological surgeon. Numerous studies exist that investigate the efficiency and safety of each of the therapeutic modalities available. In this review, we attempt to demonstrate the available and contemporary evidence supporting each minimally invasive modality in the management of ureteric strictures. PMID:24294293
Sun, Jun-zhan; Zheng, Guo-hai; Zhao, Ke-yi
To evaluate minimally invasive treatment of clavicular fractures with cannulated screw. Data of 65 patients who had undergone minimally invasive treatment with cannulated screws for clavicular fractures from April 2009 to October 2010 were retrospectively analyzed and compared with those of 65 patients with clavicular fractures who had been treated by the same surgeons with plates. In the study group, there were 41 males and 24 females, aged from 19-67 years (mean, 35.8 years). According to Craig's classification, there were 29 group 1 and 36 of group 2-II. Neer scores were used to evaluate shoulder function and radiographs to assess fracture union. The incision length was 4-5 cm in the cannulated screw group (CSG) and 10-11 cm in the reconstructive plate group (RPG). Radiographs showed bone union was achieved in both groups, the bone healing time being 13.2 ± 6.9 weeks in the CSG and 16.3 ± 8.7 weeks in the RPG. All patients were followed up for 6 to 20 months (average, 10.6 months). The average Neer score was 96.6 ± 3.4 in the CSG and 94.2 ± 5.8 in the RPG. In the CSG, screw loosening occurred in five, and fracture displacement in three. There was a significant difference in fracture healing time between two groups but not in Neer score. Minimally invasive treatment of clavicular fractures with cannulated screws has the advantages of minimal invasion, short bone healing time, good clinical outcomes, and being relatively inexpensive. © 2014 Chinese Orthopaedic Association and Wiley Publishing Asia Pty Ltd.
Pojar, M; Vojáček, J; Harrer, J; Turek, Z; Samek, J; Omran, N; Volt, M
Minimally invasive surgical access for the treatment of mitral and tricuspid valves has become an alternative method to the conventional approach via median sternotomy. The aim of this paper is to evaluate our experience and results with minimally invasive approach in cardiac surgery at our institution. A total of 52 patients underwent minimally invasive cardiac surgery between November 2011 and March 2013. Right lateral minithoracotomy and femoral vessels cannulation for cardiopulmonary bypass was used. Follow-up data was collected in a prospective database and analysed retrospectively. The mean age of patients was 60.9 ± 11.6 years (female patients accounted for 63.5%). The procedures performed included mitral valve repair in 44 (85%) patients and tricuspid valve repair in 25 (48%). Atrial septal defect closure was performed in 8 (15%) patients and cryoablation of atrial fibrillation in 26 (50%) patients. There were 75% combined procedures. The median duration of the operation was 235 (155-315) minutes. The median length of cardiopulmonary bypass and crossclamp time was 139 (89-225) and 92 (51-168) minutes, respectively. The median duration of postoperative hospital stay was 12.5 (6-34) days. Hospital and 30-day mortality was 0%. At follow-up (121.3 ± 32.72 days), two patients (3.8%) required reoperation (1 for right haemothorax, 1 for aortic valve insufficiency). Minimally invasive access has been adopted as a routine method for the therapy of valve disease. The minithoracotomy approach is a safe and feasible technique with comparable mortality and in-hospital morbidity.
Hu, Yuanyuan; Cao, Jingwei; Hou, Xianzeng; Liu, Guangcun
Reports suggest that patients with spontaneous intracerebral hemorrhage (ICH) can benefit from minimally invasive surgery, but the inclusion criterion for operation is controversial. This article analyzes factors affecting the 30-day prognoses of patients who have received minimally invasive surgery and proposes a simple grading scale that represents clinical operation effectiveness. The records of 101 patients with spontaneous ICH presenting to Qianfoshan Hospital were reviewed. Factors affecting their 30-day prognosis were identified by logistic regression. A clinical grading scale, the MIS score, was developed by weighting the independent predictors based on these factors. Univariate analysis revealed that the factors that affect 30-day prognosis include Glasgow coma scale score (P < 0.01), age ≥80 years (P < 0.05), blood glucose (P < 0.01), ICH volume (P < 0.01), operation time (P < 0.05), and presence of intraventricular hemorrhage (P < 0.001). Logistic regression revealed that the factors that affect 30-day prognosis include Glasgow coma scale score (P < 0.05), age (P < 0.05), ICH volume (P < 0.01), and presence of intraventricular hemorrhage (P < 0.05). The MIS score was developed accordingly; 39 patients with 0-1 MIS scores had favorable prognoses, whereas only 9 patients with 2-5 MIS scores had poor prognoses. The MIS score is a simple grading scale that can be used to select patients who are suited for minimal invasive drainage surgery. When MIS score is 0-1, minimal invasive surgery is strongly recommended for patients with spontaneous cerebral hemorrhage. The scale merits further prospective studies to fully determine its efficacy. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.
Patel, Neal B; Dodd, Zachary H; Voorhies, Jason; Horn, Eric M
We present a series of patients with discitis and osteomyelitis who were surgically treated via a minimally invasive lateral transpsoas approach to the lumbar spine. Surgical treatment for spinal discitis and osteomyelitis presents challenges because of comorbidities that are common in patients undergoing this procedure. A retrospective review found six patients who met strict operative criteria including instability, intractable pain, neurological deficit, and disease progression. All patients were non-ambulatory before surgery because of intractable back pain. The patients underwent standard lateral minimally invasive surgery using either the extreme lateral interbody fusion (NuVasive, San Diego, CA, USA) or direct lateral interbody fusion (Medtronic Sofamor Danek, Memphis, TN, USA) system. The patients underwent debridement with a discectomy and partial or complete corpectomy, with polyetheretherketone or titanium cage placement. Two patients had additional posterior fixation with percutaneous pedicle screws, and none had immediate perioperative complications. The postoperative CT scans demonstrated satisfactory debridement and hardware placement. All patients experienced significant pain improvement and could ambulate within a few days of surgery. So far, the 1 year follow-up data have demonstrated stable hardware with solid fusion and continued pain improvements. One patient demonstrated hardware failure secondary to refractory infection, 2 months postoperatively, and required additional posterior decompression and debridement with pedicle screw fixation. The lateral transpsoas approach permits debridement and fixation coupled with percutaneous pedicle screw fixation to further stabilize the spine in a minimally invasive fashion. Due to the significant comorbidities in this patient population, a minimally invasive approach is a suitable surgical technique. A close follow-up period is necessary to detect early hardware failure which may necessitate more
Cianforlini, Marco; Rosini, Cristina; Marinelli, Mario; de Palma, Luigi
Objective: Treatment of mild and moderate hallux valgus deformities. Discussion: Minimally invasive technique enables surgeons to treat mild and moderate hallux valgus deformities with excellent and good results in the majority of patients. Nonunion of first metatarsal, moreover, has only rarely been reported. Summary: We describe the essential steps of a surgical technique for the treatment of nonunions after miniinvasive subcapital first metatarsal osteotomy reconstructed using a tricortical iliac crest bone graft. PMID:25013553
Branch, Byron C.; Hilton, Donald L.; Watts, Clark
Background: Minimally invasive tubular access for posterior cervical foraminotomy can be an effective and safe technique for decompression of the nerve root utilizing minimally invasive muscle splitting with routine outpatient discharge. This technique has come under scrutiny calling into question the associated learning curve, a subjective limited exposure provided, and an argument that the risks and complications are largely unknown. In response to previously published critiques, this study aims to describe the outcomes and complications associated with this technique in a large patient series. Methods: A retrospective chart review was performed from 1999 to 2013 capturing a single surgeon's experience with the minimally invasive tubular access for posterior cervical foraminotomy technique from a single institution, encompassing 463 patients. Surgical outcome documented at follow-up and complications were obtained from this patient series. Additional variables analyzed include: Hospital length of stay, number of levels operated, targeted root for decompression, side operated, length of surgery, and estimated blood loss. Results: Outpatient discharge was achieved in 91.6% of cases. There were 10 complications (2.2%) among the 463 patients undergoing this technique from 1999 to 2013. Patients were followed for an average of 1 year and 2 months postoperatively. Improvement from the preoperative condition was observed in 98.2% of patients and excellent outcomes with patients reporting complete relief of symptoms with no or mild residual discomfort was seen in 92.2%. Conclusions: Compared with open techniques, minimally invasive tubular access for posterior cervical foraminotomy demonstrates comparable, if not superior, complication rates, and patient outcomes. PMID:26009705
Peirone, Bruno; Rovesti, Gian Luca; Baroncelli, Alessandro Boero; Piras, Lisa
Indirect fracture reduction is used to align diaphyseal fractures in small animals when using minimally-invasive fracture repair. Indirect reduction achieves functional fracture reduction without opening the fracture site. The limb is restored to length and spatial alignment is achieved to ensure proper angular and rotational alignment. Fracture reduction can be accomplished using a variety of techniques and devices, including hanging the limb, manual traction, distraction table, external fixators, and a fracture distractor. Copyright © 2012 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.
Abri, P D; Szabó, Z; Gal, I
Since 1990 new developments have found their way into almost every area of minimally invasive surgery (MIS), and nowadays, 90% of all gynecological operations and 80% of all abdominal operations can be performed by this approach. In contrast to surgical development, operating room (OR) design has not progressed much over the past half century. While a number of surgical suites have been designed for specific specialties, more commonplace is the flexible OR concept.
Abri, Prof Dr Med Omid; Szabó, Zoltán; Gal, Istvan
Since 1990 new developments have found their way into almost every area of minimally invasive surgery (MIS), and nowadays, 90% of all gynecological operations and 80% of all abdominal operations can be performed by this approach. In contrast to surgical development, operating room (OR) design has not progressed much over the past half century. While a number of surgical suites have been designed for specific specialties, more commonplace is the flexible OR concept.
Lamelas, Joseph; Williams, Roy F; Mawad, Maurice; LaPietra, Angelo
Different types of cannulation techniques are available for minimally invasive cardiac surgery. At our institution, we favor a femoral platform for most minimally invasive cardiac procedures. Here, we review our results utilizing this cannulation approach. We retrospectively reviewed all minimally invasive valve surgeries that were performed at our institution between January 2009 and January 2015. Operative times, lengths of stay, postoperative complications, and mortality were analyzed. We identified 2,645 consecutive patients. The mean age was 69.7 ± 12.77 years, and 1,412 patients (53.4%) were male. Three hundred fifty-eight patients (13.5%) had a history of cerebrovascular accident, 422 (16%) had previous heart surgery, and 276 (10.4%) had a history of peripheral vascular disease. The procedures performed were isolated aortic valve replacements (42.1%), isolated mitral valve operations (40.6%), tricuspid valve repairs (0.57%), double valve surgery (15%), triple valve surgery (0.3%), and ascending aortic aneurysm resection with and without circulatory arrest (5%). Femoral cannulation and central cannulation were utilized in 2,400 patients (90.7%) and 244 patients (9.3%), respectively. The median aortic cross-clamp time and cardiopulmonary bypass time were 81 minutes (interquartile range, 65 to 105) and 113 minutes (interquartile range, 92 to 142), respectively. The median postoperative hospital length of stay was 6 days (interquartile range, 5 to 9). There were 31 cerebrovascular accidents (1.17%), no aortic dissections, two compartment syndromes, two femoral arterial pseudoaneurysms, and 174 (6.65%) groin wound seromas. The overall 30-day mortality was 57 patients (2.15%). Minimally invasive cardiac surgical procedures utilizing femoral cannulation techniques have a low risk of complications. Copyright © 2017 The Society of Thoracic Surgeons. Published by Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.
Rodríguez, Dayron; Sacco, Dianne E
Minimally invasive interventions for stone disease in the United States are mainly founded on 3 surgical procedures: extracorporeal shock wave lithotripsy, ureteroscopic lithotripsy, and percutaneous nephrolithotomy. With the advancement of technology, treatment has shifted toward less invasive strategies and away from open or laparoscopic surgery. The treatment chosen for a patient with stones is based on the stone and patient characteristics. Each of the minimally invasive techniques uses an imaging source, either fluoroscopy or ultrasound, to localize the stone and an energy source to fragment the stone. Extracorporeal shock wave lithotripsy uses a shock wave energy source generated outside the body to fragment the stone. In contrast, with ureteroscopy, laser energy is placed directly on the stone using a ureteroscope that visualizes the stone. Percutaneous nephrolithotomy requires dilation of a tract through the back into the renal pelvis so that instruments can be inserted directly onto the stone to fragment or pulverize it. The success of the surgical intervention relies on performing the least invasive technique with the highest success of stone removal.
Pinzon, David; Byrns, Simon; Zheng, Bin
Background The amount of direct hand-tool-tissue interaction and feedback in minimally invasive surgery varies from being attenuated in laparoscopy to being completely absent in robotic minimally invasive surgery. The role of haptic feedback during surgical skill acquisition and its emphasis in training have been a constant source of controversy. This review discusses the major developments in haptic simulation as they relate to surgical performance and the current research questions that remain unanswered. Search Strategy An in-depth review of the literature was performed using PubMed. Results A total of 198 abstracts were returned based on our search criteria. Three major areas of research were identified, including advancements in 1 of the 4 components of haptic systems, evaluating the effectiveness of haptic integration in simulators, and improvements to haptic feedback in robotic surgery. Conclusions Force feedback is the best method for tissue identification in minimally invasive surgery and haptic feedback provides the greatest benefit to surgical novices in the early stages of their training. New technology has improved our ability to capture, playback and enhance to utility of haptic cues in simulated surgery. Future research should focus on deciphering how haptic training in surgical education can increase performance, safety, and improve training efficiency.
Levy, Lauren L; Emer, Jason J
Over the past decade, facial rejuvenation procedures to circumvent traditional surgery have become increasingly popular. Office-based, minimally invasive procedures can promote a youthful appearance with minimal downtime and low risk of complications. Injectable botulinum toxin (BoNT), soft-tissue fillers, and chemical peels are among the most popular non-invasive rejuvenation procedures, and each has unique applications for improving facial aesthetics. Despite the simplicity and reliability of office-based procedures, complications can occur even with an astute and experienced injector. The goal of any procedure is to perform it properly and safely; thus, early recognition of complications when they do occur is paramount in dictating prevention of long-term sequelae. The most common complications from BoNT and soft-tissue filler injection are bruising, erythema and pain. With chemical peels, it is not uncommon to have erythema, irritation and burning. Fortunately, these side effects are normally transient and have simple remedies. More serious complications include muscle paralysis from BoNT, granuloma formation from soft-tissue filler placement and scarring from chemical peels. Thankfully, these complications are rare and can be avoided with excellent procedure technique, knowledge of facial anatomy, proper patient selection, and appropriate pre- and post-skin care. This article reviews complications of office-based, minimally invasive procedures, with emphasis on prevention and management. Practitioners providing these treatments should be well versed in this subject matter in order to deliver the highest quality care. PMID:23060707
Li, Cheng Guo; Lee, Chang Yeol; Lee, Kwang; Jung, Hyungil
The healthcare system relies widely on biochemical information obtained from blood sample extracted via hypodermic needles, despite the invasiveness and pain associated with this procedure. Therefore, an alternative micro-scale needle for minimally invasive blood sampling is highly desirable. Traditional fabrication techniques to create microneedles do not generate needles with the combined features of a sharp tip, long length, and hollow structure concurrently. Here, we report the fabrication of a microneedle long enough to reach blood vessels and sharp enough to minimize nerve contact for minimally invasive blood extraction. The microneedle structure was precisely controlled using a drawing lithography technique, and a sharp tip angle was introduced using a laser-cutting system. We investigated the characteristics of a microneedle with a length of 1,800 μm length, an inner diameter of 60 μm, a tip diameter of 120 μm, and a 15° bevel angle through in-vitro liquid extraction and mechanical strength analysis. We demonstrated that the proposed structure results in blood extraction at a reasonable rate, and that a microneedle with this geometry can reliably penetrate skin without breaking. We integrated this microneedle into a blood extraction device to extract a 20 μl volume of mouse blood in-vivo. Our optimized, hollow microneedle can potentially be incorporated with other cutting-edge technologies such as microactuators, biosensors, and microfluidic chips to create blood analysis systems for point-of-care diagnostics.
Romo-Rodríguez, R; Arroyo-Berezowsky, C
Metacarpal fractures comprise 18 to 44% of hand fractures. Fractures from the second to the fifth metacarpals are 88% of the metacarpal fractures and fractures of the fifth metacarpals are the most common. Fractures of the neck of the fifth metacarpal are about 20% of all the hand fractures. Most of these fractures can be treated conservatively with good functional results. However, for those neck and shaft unstable fractures that need surgical treatment, there is no gold standard for osteosynthesis. Recently, there have been reports of minimally invasive osteosynthesis using headless retrograde intramedullary cannulated screws with good functional results. We report our short term experience treating nine fifth metacarpal neck fractures, one fourth metacarpal neck fracture and a transverse fifth metacarpal shaft fracture that did not fulfill criteria for conservative treatment. We treated them with minimally invasive osteosynthesis using retrograde intramedullary headless cannulated screws. All patients showed radiographic healing and had full range of motion of the metacarpophalangeal joint at one month follow up except for one patient who suffered a dorsal mutilating hand injury along with a fifth metacarpal neck fracture. One patient had osteoporotic bone and we could not control height loss with screws, so we had to use k-wires. Minimally invasive osteosynthesis with cannulated headless retrograde screws is a good option to treat neck and transverse diaphyseal fractures of the metacarpals. It confers a stable construct that allows early range of motion and return to activities.
Kumar, Anand; Yadav, Nirma; Singh, Shipra; Chauhan, Neha
Endoscopic or minimally invasive surgery popular as keyhole surgery is a medical procedure in which endoscope (a camera) is used, and it has gained broad acceptance with popularity in several surgical specialties and has heightened the standard of care. Oral and maxillofacial surgery is a modern discipline in the field of dentistry in which endoscopy has developed as well as widely used in surgeries and is rapidly gaining importance. The use of different visual as well as standard instruments such as laparoscopic and endoscopic instruments, and high-powered magnification devices, has allowed physicians to decrease the morbidity of many surgical procedures by eliminating the need for a large surgical incision. Minimally invasive techniques have evolved through the development of surgical microscopes equipped with a camera to get visual images for maxillofacial surgeries, endodontic procedures, and periodontal surgical procedures. Nevertheless, current experiences and reviewing the literature have intimated that the use of endoscopes, as in different minimally invasive methods, may permit complicated surgeries with less complications, for example, in reconstruction of facial fractures through smaller incisions with less extensive exposure. PMID:28299251
Mizutani, Koji; Aoki, Akira; Coluzzi, Donald; Yukna, Raymond; Wang, Chen-Ying; Pavlic, Verica; Izumi, Yuichi
Laser therapy has the potential to be an effective, minimally invasive procedure in periodontal therapy. The aim of the present review was to survey the relevant literature on the clinical application of lasers as a minimally invasive treatment for periodontitis and peri-implant disease. Currently, there are a large number of published clinical studies and case reports that evaluate the adjunctive use of diode, carbon dioxide, neodymium-doped yttrium aluminium garnet (Nd:YAG), erbium-doped yttrium aluminium garnet (Er:YAG) and erbium, chromium-doped: yttrium, scandium, gallium, garnet (Er,Cr:YSGG) lasers or antimicrobial photodynamic therapy for nonsurgical and minimally invasive surgical treatment of periodontal pockets. These procedures are expected not only to control inflammation but also to provide biostimulation effects with photonic energy. Recent meta-analyses did not show statistically significant differences in pocket reduction and clinical attachment gain compared with mechanical debridement alone, although limited positive effects of adjunctive laser therapy were reported. At present, systematic literature approaches suggest that more evidence-based studies need to be performed to support the integration of various laser therapies into the treatment of periodontal and peri-implant diseases. The disparity between previous statistical analyses and individual successful clinical outcomes of laser applications might reveal the necessity of developing optimal laser-treatment modalities of different wavelengths and better-defined indications for each protocol. © 2016 John Wiley & Sons A/S. Published by John Wiley & Sons Ltd.
Muzaffar, Nasir; Bhat, Rafiq; Yasin, Mohammad
Background The management of distal tibia fractures continues to remain a source of controversy and debate. Objectives The aim of this study was to evaluate the various complications of minimally invasive percutaneous plate osteosynthesis (MIPPO) using a locking plate for closed fractures of distal tibia in a retrospective study. Patients and Methods Twenty-five patients with distal tibial fractures, treated by minimally invasive percutaneous plate osteosynthesis, were evaluated in a retrospective study. We studied the rate, probable etiological factors and preventive and corrective measures of various complications associated with minimally invasive plating of distal tibia. Results Mean age of the patients was 41.16 years (range 22 - 65). There were 13 male and 12 female patients. All fractures united at an average duration of 16.8 weeks. There were two cases of superficial and two cases of deep infection, and deep infections required removal of hardware for cure. There were four cases of ankle stiffness, most of them occurring in intra-articular fractures, three cases of palpable implant, three cases of malunion, one case of loss of reduction and one patient required reoperation. The average AO foot and ankle score was 83.6. Conclusions We found MIPPO using locking plate to be a safe and effective method for the treatment of distal tibial fractures in properly selected patients yet can result in a variety of complications if proper precautions before, during and after surgery are not taken care of. PMID:28182170
Romano, Piero; Avolio, Luigi; Martucciello, Giuseppe; Steyaert, Henri; Valla, Jean Stéphane
The development of laparoscopic surgery has extended its uses to include adrenalectomy in children and in adults. Because conventional adrenalectomy requires a large incision, minimally invasive surgery offers a less aggressive solution in some selected cases. Twenty-nine adrenal masses in 26 children were treated using adrenalectomy between 1994 and 2004 (12 were treated laparoscopically, the remaining 17 with open surgery). Minimally invasive procedures were limited to the removal of small localized adrenal tumors and to biopsies. Although this approach must be limited to operations on lesions presumed to be benign, preoperative criteria for nonmalignancy are often difficult to define. Indications can be expanded to include to stage I neuroblastoma. There seems to be no age and weight limit. The technique applied varies in accordance with anatomy and the surgeon's experience: minimally invasive adrenalectomy, in our experience, was preferentially performed through a lateral retroperitoneal approach. Laparoscopic adrenalectomy can be used if the selection of cases is rigorous and the operations are performed by well-trained laparoscopic surgeons.
Pilolli, F; Giordano, L; Galli, A; Bussi, M
The purpose of the present study was to evaluate the advantages of a video-assisted, minimally invasive transcervical approach to benign and malignant parapharyngeal space (PPS) tumours. Ten patients affected by benign and malignant PPS neoplasms underwent a combined transcervical and video-assisted minimally invasive approach, using Hopkins telescopes. We describe the operative technique and perform a review of the literature. Definitive histology revealed 3 pleomorphic adenomas, 2 schwannomas, 2 metastatic papillary thyroid carcinomas, one carcinoma ex pleomorphic adenoma, one cavernous haemangioma and one basal cell adenoma. Mean tumour size was 37.2 mm (range: 19-60). Operation time ranged from 75 min to 185 min (mean: 146.7). One case was converted to transcervical-transparotid approach. Patients were discharged on postoperative day 2-5. One patients presented hypoglossal nerve paresis. The minimally invasive video-assisted transcervical approach is safe and feasible for selected benign and malignant PPS tumours. Furthermore, it offers harmless dissection in a deep and narrow space, accurate haemostasis and continuous control of critical anatomic structures.
Cannata, Aldo; Bruschi, Giuseppe; Fratto, Pasquale; Taglieri, Corrado; Russo, Claudio Francesco; Martinelli, Luigi
Redo cardiac surgery represents a clinical challenge due to a higher rate of peri-operative morbidity and mortality. Mitral valve re-operations can be particularly demanding in patients with patent coronary artery bypass grafts, previous aortic valve replacement, calcified aorta or complications following a previous operation (abscesses, perivalvular leaks, or thrombosis). Risk of graft injuries, hemorrhage, the presence of dense adhesions and complex valve exposure can make redo valve operations challenging through a median sternotomy. In this review article we provide an overview of minimally invasive approaches for redo mitral valve surgery discussing indications, techniques, outcomes, concerns and controversies. Scientific literature about minimally invasive approach for redo mitral surgery was reviewed with a MEDLINE search strategy combining “mitral valve” with the following terms: ‘minimally invasive’, ‘reoperation’, and ‘alternative approach’. The search was limited to the last ten years. A total of 168 papers were found using the reported search. From these, ten papers were identified to provide the best evidence on the subject. Mitral valve reoperations can be safely and effectively performed through a smaller right thoracotomy in the fourth intercostal space termed “mini” thoracotomy or “port access”. The greatest potential benefit of a right mini-thoracotomy is the avoidance of sternal re-entry and limited dissection of adhesions, avoiding the risk of injury to cardiac structures or patent grafts. Good percentages of valve repair can be achieved. Mortality is low as well as major complications. Minimally invasive procedures with an unclamped aorta have the potential to combine the benefits of minimally invasive access and continuous myocardial perfusion. Less invasive trans-catheter techniques could be considered as the natural future evolution for management of structural heart disease and mitral reoperations. The safety and
Ong, Lawrence; Liu, Hong
Abstract As part of the enhanced recovery after surgery (ERAS) protocol, the goal-directed fluid management with hemodynamic monitoring can effectively guide perioperative fluid use and significantly improve the outcomes in high-risk patients undergoing major surgeries. Several minimally invasive and non-invasive monitoring devices are commercially available for clinical use. As part of an internal evaluation, we reported the results from three different hemodynamic monitoring devices used in a patient undergoing a major abdominal surgery. PMID:25050116
Cheung, Sing T; Lee, Kim H; Yeung, Tse H; Tse, Cheong Y; Tam, Yuk H; Chan, Kin W; Yeung, Chung K
Intussusception is one of the most common causes of intestinal obstruction in infancy. Non-operative reduction using air enema or other hydrostatic reduction methods has been the standard treatment in most cases. However, if the non-operative method is not indicated or fails, open surgery is still necessary. With the tremendous development of the minimally invasive approach in handling surgical conditions in children in the last decade, this has been applied recently for the reduction of intussusception in children. We herein reviewed our experience of using the combined approach, namely, pneumatic reduction and, if failed, laparoscopic reduction in the management of childhood intussusception. We carried out a retrospective analysis of all children with intussusception managed at Prince of Wales Hospital between December 1998 and December 2004. The minimally invasive approach was used as far as possible. The method of reduction, success rate and the incidence of complication were analysed. Over a 6-year period, there were 146 patients with 167 episodes of intussusception. Pneumatic reduction was carried out in 160 occasions and was successful in 134 (83.8%). In 33 patients, operative reduction was required. Of these, laparoscopic reduction was attempted in 15 and was successful in 13 (86.7%). In those with either pneumatic or laparoscopic reduction, no procedure-related complication was encountered and they had a significant shorter hospital stay (median 3.0 day) than those requiring laparotomy (median 8.0 day) (t-test, P < 0.0001). The minimally invasive approach, that is, pneumatic and/or laparoscopic reduction, was successful in reducing intussusception in 88% of patients with minimal morbidity and shorter hospital stay.
Rumpf, Christian G.; Lang, Robert D.; Goetz, Marcus H.
Today most surgical treatment of spinal deformations is concentrated on invasive mechanical techniques with long operation times and major effects on the patient's mobility. The proposed minimally invasive technique using laser light for tissue ablation offers a possibility of gentle scoliosis treatment. It is thought that an early removal of the epiphysial growth zone on the convex side over several vertebrae results in a straightening of the spine. In a first evaluation, four different laser systems including argon ion, Nd:YAG (Q-switched), Nd:YAG (cw), and Ho:YAG laser were compared with respect to thermal damage to adjacent tissue, ablation rates, efficiency and laser handling. For in-vivo investigation, fresh lamb spine was used. Comparison showed that the Ho:YAG laser is the most appropriate laser for the given goal, providing efficient photoablation with moderate thermal effects on the adjacent tissue. In a second step the proposed minimally invasive operation technique was performed in in-vivo experiments on young foxhounds using 3D- thoracoscopic operation techniques. During these operations temperature mapping was done using fiber-optic fluorescent probes. After 12 months of normal growth the animals were sacrificed and x-ray as well as MRI was performed on the spine. First results show a positive effect of scoliotic growth in two cases. Being able to produce a scoliosis by hemiepiphysiodesis on the vertebra, It is thought that this technique is successful for a straightening of the spine on patients with scoliosis.
El Tecle, Najib E; El Ahmadieh, Tarek Y; Patel, Biraj M; Lall, Rohan R; Bendok, Bernard R; Smith, Zachary A
Radiation use for diagnostic and therapeutic purposes has increased in parallel with advances in minimally invasive spinal techniques and endovascular neurosurgical procedures. This change in the exposure profile of the operator and radiology personnel has raised concerns about radiation side effects and long term complications of radiation exposure. In this review, the current literature regarding risks of radiation exposure and strategies to reduce these risks are summarized. Current standards in radiation risk reduction and specific techniques that can minimize radiation exposure are also discussed. Copyright © 2014 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.
Kaushik, Manu; Bhullar, Jasneet Singh; Bindroo, Sandiya; Singh, Hemindermeet; Mittal, Vijay K
Diverticulitis is a common condition which carries significant morbidity and socioeconomic burden (McGillicuddy et al in Arch Surg 144:1157-1162, 2009). The surgical management of diverticulitis has undergone significant changes in recent years. This article reviews the role of minimally invasive approach in management of complicated diverticulitis, with a focus on recent concepts and advances. A literature review of past 10 years (January 2004 to September 2014) was performed using the electronic database MEDLINE from PubMed which included articles only in English. We identified total of 139 articles, out of which 50 were excluded resulting in 89 full-text articles for review 16 retrospective studies, 7 prospective cohorts, 1 case-control series and 1 systematic review were included. These suggest that urgent surgery is performed for those with sepsis and diffuse peritonitis or those who fail to improve despite medical therapy and/or percutaneous drainage. In addition, 3 randomized control trials: DILALA, LapLAND and the Scandinavian Diverticulitis trial are working towards evaluating whether laparoscopic lavage is safe in management of complicated diverticular diseases. Growing trend toward conservative or minimally invasive treatment modality even in severe acute diverticulitis was noticed. Laparoscopic peritoneal lavage has evolved as a good alternative to invasive surgery, yet clear indications for its role in the management of complicated diverticulitis need to be established. Recent evidence suggests that existing guidelines for optimal management of complicated diverticulitis should be updated. Non-resectional radiographic techniques are likely to play a prominent role in the initial treatment of complicated diverticulitis in the near future.
Tolerton, Sarah K; Hugh, Thomas J; Cosman, Peter H
Audiovisual learning resources have become valuable adjuncts to formal teaching in surgical training. This report discusses the process and challenges of preparing an audiovisual teaching tool for laparoscopic cholecystectomy. The relative value in surgical education and training, for both the creator and viewer are addressed. This audiovisual teaching resource was prepared as part of the Master of Surgery program at the University of Sydney, Australia. The different methods of video production used to create operative teaching tools are discussed. Collating and editing material for an audiovisual teaching resource can be a time-consuming and technically challenging process. However, quality learning resources can now be produced even with limited prior video editing experience. With minimal cost and suitable guidance to ensure clinically relevant content, most surgeons should be able to produce short, high-quality education videos of both open and minimally invasive surgery. Despite the challenges faced during production of audiovisual teaching tools, these resources are now relatively easy to produce using readily available software. These resources are particularly attractive to surgical trainees when real time operative footage is used. They serve as valuable adjuncts to formal teaching, particularly in the setting of minimally invasive surgery. Copyright © 2012 Association of Program Directors in Surgery. Published by Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.
Antoniou, George A.; Antoniou, Athanasios I.; Granderath, Frank-Alexander
Laparoscopic surgery has generated a revolution in operative medicine during the past few decades. Although strongly criticized during its early years, minimization of surgical trauma and the benefits of minimization to the patient have been brought to our attention through the efforts and vision of a few pioneers in the recent history of medicine. The German gynecologist Kurt Semm (1927–2003) transformed the use of laparoscopy for diagnostic purposes into a modern therapeutic surgical concept, having performed the first laparoscopic appendectomy, inspiring Erich Mühe and many other surgeons around the world to perform a wide spectrum of procedures by minimally invasive means. Laparoscopic cholecystectomy soon became the gold standard, and various laparoscopic procedures are now preferred over open approaches, in the light of emerging evidence that demonstrates less operative stress, reduced pain, and shorter convalescence. Natural orifice transluminal endoscopic surgery (NOTES) and single-incision laparoscopic surgery (SILS) may be considered further steps toward minimization of surgical trauma, although these methods have not yet been standardized. Laparoscopic surgery with the use of a robotic platform constitutes a promising field of investigation. New technologies are to be considered under the prism of the history of surgery; they seem to be a step toward further minimization of surgical trauma, but not definite therapeutic modalities. Patient safety and medical ethics must be the cornerstone of future investigation and implementation of new techniques. PMID:26508823
Antoniou, Stavros A; Antoniou, George A; Antoniou, Athanasios I; Granderath, Frank-Alexander
Laparoscopic surgery has generated a revolution in operative medicine during the past few decades. Although strongly criticized during its early years, minimization of surgical trauma and the benefits of minimization to the patient have been brought to our attention through the efforts and vision of a few pioneers in the recent history of medicine. The German gynecologist Kurt Semm (1927-2003) transformed the use of laparoscopy for diagnostic purposes into a modern therapeutic surgical concept, having performed the first laparoscopic appendectomy, inspiring Erich Mühe and many other surgeons around the world to perform a wide spectrum of procedures by minimally invasive means. Laparoscopic cholecystectomy soon became the gold standard, and various laparoscopic procedures are now preferred over open approaches, in the light of emerging evidence that demonstrates less operative stress, reduced pain, and shorter convalescence. Natural orifice transluminal endoscopic surgery (NOTES) and single-incision laparoscopic surgery (SILS) may be considered further steps toward minimization of surgical trauma, although these methods have not yet been standardized. Laparoscopic surgery with the use of a robotic platform constitutes a promising field of investigation. New technologies are to be considered under the prism of the history of surgery; they seem to be a step toward further minimization of surgical trauma, but not definite therapeutic modalities. Patient safety and medical ethics must be the cornerstone of future investigation and implementation of new techniques.
Mohan, A M Vinu; Windmiller, Joshua Ray; Mishra, Rupesh K; Wang, Joseph
The present work describes an attractive skin-worn microneedle sensing device for the minimally invasive electrochemical monitoring of subcutaneous alcohol. The device consists of an assembly of pyramidal microneedle structures integrated with Pt and Ag wires, each with a microcavity opening. The microneedle aperture was modified by electropolymerizing o-phenylene diamine onto the Pt wire microtransducer, followed by the immobilization of alcohol oxidase (AOx) in an intermediate chitosan layer, along with an outer Nafion layer. The resulting microneedle-based enzyme electrode displays an interference-free ethanol detection in artificial interstitial fluid without compromising its sensitivity, stability and response time. The skin penetration ability and the efficaciousness of the biosensor performance towards subcutaneous alcohol monitoring was substantiated by the ex vivo mice skin model analysis. Our results reveal that the new microneedle sensor holds considerable promise for continuous non-invasive alcohol monitoring in real-life situations.
Abdelsalam, Mohamed E; Murthy, Ravi; Avritscher, Rony; Mahvash, Armeen; Wallace, Michael J; Kaseb, Ahmed O; Odisio, Bruno C
Hepatocellular carcinoma (HCC) is the fifth most frequently occurring cancer globally and predominantly develops in the setting of various grades of underlying chronic liver disease, which affects management decisions. Image-guided percutaneous ablative or transarterial therapies have acquired wide acceptance in HCC management as a single treatment modality or combined with other treatment options in patients who are not amenable for surgery. Recently, such treatment modalities have also been used for bridging or downsizing before definitive treatment (ie, surgical resection or liver transplantation). This review focuses on the use of minimally invasive image-guided locoregional therapies for HCC. Additionally, it highlights recent advancements in imaging and catheter technology, embolic materials, chemotherapeutic agents, and delivery techniques; all lead to improved patient outcomes, thereby increasing the interest in these invasive techniques. PMID:27785450
Deng, Han-Yu; Li, Zhi-Hui; Wang, Zhi-Qiang; Wang, Yun-Cang; Li, Gang; Liu, Lun-Xu
Background A challenge for resection of thoracic inlet tumors lies in that high risk of injuring vital blood vessels and brachial plexus still exists during the resection. And the standard surgical approach for resection of thoracic inlet tumors has not yet been well established. Methods Small cervical incision-assisted minimally invasive surgical technique was developed and carried out in patients with non-invasive thoracic inlet tumor in our department. Results We successfully performed the small cervical incision-assisted minimally invasive surgery in two patients with thoracic inlet tumors. The thoracic inlet tumors of the two patients were removed completely without any postoperative complications, and the patients achieved quick rehabilitation after surgery. This combined approach compensates the blind area of thoracoscope in visualizing the superior end of thoracic inlet tumors, and thus enables us to complete the resection safely and confidently. Conclusions Small cervical incision did facilitate the minimally invasive resection of non-invasive thoracic inlet tumor. Hopefully, this combined approach of video-assisted thoracoscopic surgery (VATS) with small cervical incision could be widely utilized in resecting thoracic inlet tumors by general thoracic surgeon. PMID:27867570
Madhani, Akhil Jiten
Minimally invasive surgery (MIS) is performed today using hand held instruments passed through small incisions into the body. The internal surgical site and instruments are viewed remotely on a monitor using images obtained with an endoscopic camera. It is well recognized that the marked therapeutic benefits of MIS must be weighed against the increased technical difficulty for the surgeon and the ensuing risk of surgical errors. Here I describe the design, construction, and operation of teleoperated surgical instruments that solve several key problems in current minimally invasive surgical practice. These improvements are primarily achieved through (1) an increase in dexterity and degrees of freedom, (2) force feedback to allow surgeons to feel instrument-tissue interactions, and (3) the elimination of geometrical discrepancies between actual and observed tool motions. I present the design of two teleoperator slave manipulators for minimally invasive surgery, the seven- degree-of-freedom Silver Falcon and the eight-degree-of- freedom Black Falcon. Both systems were tested using an existing PHANToM TM haptic interface which was modified for use as a master manipulator. Position based bilateral force-reflecting teleoperation was implemented using sound cable design principles, without force sensors. Through the design of system dynamics that accommodate a macro-micro control scheme, a substantial reduction was achieved in slave endpoint inertia and friction reflected to the user. The Black Falcon was successfully used to drive surgical sutures along arbitrarily oriented paths, a task which is rarely feasible using today's instruments. This test demonstrates successful kinematic design and range of motion, although the quality of force reflection was not sufficient to be helpful when suturing soft tissue. Force reflection was found to be more useful during rigid contact tasks where force information is not already available to the operator via visual cues. (Copies
Cher, Daniel J; Frasco, Melissa A; Arnold, Renée JG; Polly, David W
Background Sacroiliac joint (SIJ) disorders are common in patients with chronic lower back pain. Minimally invasive surgical options have been shown to be effective for the treatment of chronic SIJ dysfunction. Objective To determine the cost-effectiveness of minimally invasive SIJ fusion. Methods Data from two prospective, multicenter, clinical trials were used to inform a Markov process cost-utility model to evaluate cumulative 5-year health quality and costs after minimally invasive SIJ fusion using triangular titanium implants or non-surgical treatment. The analysis was performed from a third-party perspective. The model specifically incorporated variation in resource utilization observed in the randomized trial. Multiple one-way and probabilistic sensitivity analyses were performed. Results SIJ fusion was associated with a gain of approximately 0.74 quality-adjusted life years (QALYs) at a cost of US$13,313 per QALY gained. In multiple one-way sensitivity analyses all scenarios resulted in an incremental cost-effectiveness ratio (ICER) <$26,000/QALY. Probabilistic analyses showed a high degree of certainty that the maximum ICER for SIJ fusion was less than commonly selected thresholds for acceptability (mean ICER =$13,687, 95% confidence interval $5,162–$28,085). SIJ fusion provided potential cost savings per QALY gained compared to non-surgical treatment after a treatment horizon of greater than 13 years. Conclusion Compared to traditional non-surgical treatments, SIJ fusion is a cost-effective, and, in the long term, cost-saving strategy for the treatment of SIJ dysfunction due to degenerative sacroiliitis or SIJ disruption. PMID:26719717
Feng, Dongchuan; Zhu, Xiaoyu; Sun, Fang; Ma, Tongsheng; Li, Yuan; Chen, Shujing
The aim of the study was to summarize the preliminary experience of minimally invasive open nephrectomy operation on children with multicystic dysplastic kidney (MCDK). A retrospective review was performed on the clinical materials of the 15 children that had accepted consecutive minimally invasive open nephrectomies during the previous 2 years. The enrolled children were diagnosed with unilateral MCDK under computed tomography, emission computerized tomography and ultrasound and no anomaly in the contralateral functioning kidney was found. Of the 15 children, 12 were boys and 3 were girls, with 5 cases on the right and 10 cases on the left. Operations were completed at the retroperitoneal space in order to open an incision on the waists and ribs of the children, the length of which ranged from 1.5 to 2.0 cm (average 1.7 cm). The age of the children at operation ranged from 3 months to 5.6 years old, with an average of 2.4 years old. Surgery lasted for 30–50 min, with an average of 34.6 min. The estimated blood loss of each child was <5 ml. After operation, prophylactic intravenous antibiotics were administered for 2–4 days to prevent infection. All of the operations proved very successful. Following surgery the children were hospitalized for 2–4 days for observation, with an average of 2.8 days. No complications occurred during the follow-up period. In conclusion, minimally invasive open nephrectomy is effective for children with MCDK. The procedure is superior with regard to operative time, cosmesis, and length of stay. It is a safe and effective treatment choice for patietns with MCDK and can be easily performed on children. PMID:28101154
Sawaia, Rogério Naim; Galvão, Antonio Felipe Martensen; Oliveira, Fernando Machado; Secunho, Guilherme Rondinelli; Filho, Geraldo Vilela
Objective: The aim of this study was to present a minimally invasive anterolateral access route and to ascertain whether this enables total hip replacement without compromising the quality of the implant positioning, while maintaining the integrity of the gluteus muscles. Method: A retrospective study was conducted on 260 patients (186 females and 74 males) with an average age of 62 years. There were 18 bilateral cases, totaling 278 hips. All the patients had osteoarthritis and had undergone non-cemented total hip arthroplasty (metal-metal or metal-polyethylene) between October 2004 and December 2007. A minimally invasive anterolateral access route was used, measuring 7 to 10 cm in length, according to body weight and the size of the femoral head. The patients were assessed clinically regarding age, sex and presence of the Trendelenburg sign, and radiologically regarding acetabular and femoral positioning. Results: The acetabular inclination was between 30° and 40° in 78 patients, between 41° and 50° in 189 patients, and 51° or over in 11 patients. On anteroposterior radiographs to study femoral positioning, the positioning was central in 209 cases, 41 presented valgus deviation and 28 presented varus deviation. On lateral views, 173 were central, 67 anterior and 38 posterior. The mean duration of the procedure was 63 minutes. Regarding complications, there were five cases of infection, three of deep vein thrombosis, two of hip dislocation, 80 of lengthening of the lower limbs and five of shortening of the operated limb. The Trendelenburg sign was present in four cases, of which one showed superior gluteal nerve injury. Conclusion: The minimally invasive anterolateral access route made it possible to perform total hip arthroplasty without compromising the positioning of the implants, thereby maintaining the integrity of the gluteus muscles. PMID:27027008
Renner, Jochen; Grünewald, Matthias; Bein, Berthold
Over the past decades, there has been considerable progress in the field of less invasive haemodynamic monitoring technologies. Substantial evidence has accumulated, which supports the continuous measurement and optimization of flow-based variables such as stroke volume, that is, cardiac output, in order to prevent occult hypoperfusion and consequently to improve patients' outcome in the perioperative setting. However, there is a striking gap between the developments in haemodynamic monitoring and the increasing evidence to implement defined treatment protocols based on the measured variables, and daily clinical routine. Recent trials have shown that perioperative morbidity and mortality is higher than anticipated. This emphasizes the need for the anaesthesia community to address this issue and promotes the implementation of proven concepts into clinical practice in order to improve patients' outcome, especially in high-risk patients. The advances in minimally invasive and non-invasive monitoring techniques can be seen as a driving force in this respect, as the degree of invasiveness of any monitoring tool determines the frequency of its application, especially in the operating room (OR). From this point of view, we are very confident that some of these minimally invasive and non-invasive haemodynamic monitoring technologies will become an inherent part of our monitoring armamentarium in the OR and in the intensive care unit (ICU).
Parekh, J; Shepherd, DET; Hukins, DWL; Maffulli, N
A T-handle has been designed to be used for minimally invasive implantation of a dynamic hip screw to repair fractures of the proximal femur. It is capable of being used in two actions: (i) push and hold (while using an angle guide) and (ii) application of torque when using the insertion wrench and lag screw tap. The T-handle can be held in a power or precision grip. It is suitable for either single (sterilised by γ-irradiation) or multiple (sterilised by autoclaving) use. The principles developed here are applicable to handles for a wide range of surgical instruments. PMID:27326394
Richter, Grace M; Coleman, Anne L
Minimally invasive glaucoma surgery aims to provide a medication-sparing, conjunctival-sparing, ab interno approach to intraocular pressure reduction for patients with mild-to-moderate glaucoma that is safer than traditional incisional glaucoma surgery. The current approaches include: increasing trabecular outflow (Trabectome, iStent, Hydrus stent, gonioscopy-assisted transluminal trabeculotomy, excimer laser trabeculotomy); suprachoroidal shunts (Cypass micro-stent); reducing aqueous production (endocyclophotocoagulation); and subconjunctival filtration (XEN gel stent). The data on each surgical procedure for each of these approaches are reviewed in this article, patient selection pearls learned to date are discussed, and expectations for the future are examined. PMID:26869753
Pérez, David; Cano, Jose Ramón; Caballero, Jonathan; López, Luis
Osteochondroma of the scapula is a rare benign tumour that produces pain and mechanical dysfunction of the joint when settled on the ventral surface of the scapula. Surgical resection is the treatment of choice in symptomatic cases. Conventional open excision has been the traditional treatment of choice, while published cases involving a minimally-invasive approach are rare and restricted to descriptions of video-assisted procedures. We present a case of video-assisted surgical resection of a large osteochondroma from the ventral surface of the scapula in a young male patient with the snapping scapula syndrome. The technique and the postoperatory outcome are described.
Hess, Shane R; Satpathy, Jibanananda; Waligora, Andrew C; Ugwu-Oju, Obinna
A feared complication of temporary surgical drain placement is from the technical error of accidentally suturing the surgical drain into the wound. Postoperative discovery of a tethered drain can frequently necessitate return to the operating room if it cannot be successfully removed with nonoperative techniques. Formal wound exploration increases anesthesia and infection risk as well as cost and is best avoided if possible. We present a minimally invasive surgical technique that can avoid the morbidity associated with a full surgical wound exploration to remove a tethered drain when other nonoperative techniques fail.
Glaus, T M; Unterer, S; Tomsa, K; Baumgartner, C; Geissbühler, U; Gardelle, O; Reusch, C
The therapeutic possibilities in veterinary cardiology have developed rapidly in the past few years. Whereas until recently cardiac intervention in dogs could only be performed by thoracotomy, new minimally invasive techniques are adopted. Procedures like balloondilatation of pulmonic stenosis, coil embolisation of patent ductus arteriosus, pacemaker implantation in symptomatic bradyarrhyhtmia, and palliative balloon pericardiotomy are becoming more and more established. These alternative interventional methods are attractive, because no postsurgical pain and no complications potentially associated with thoracotomy ensue. The knowledge of such new treatment modalities and particularly the indications for an intervention are prerequisites to apply them optimally and broadly.
Cai, Yiyu; Chui, Cheekong K.; Ye, Xiuzi; Anderson, James H.; Wang, Yaoping
This paper describes a computerized simulation system for minimally invasive vascular interventions using Virtual-Reality (VR) based technology. A virtual human patient is constructed using the Visible Human Data (VHD). A knowledge-based human vascular network is developed to describe human vascular anatomy with diseased lesions for different interventional applications. A potential field method is applied to model the interaction between the blood vessels and vascular catheterization devices. A haptic interface is integrated with the computer simulation system to provide tactile sensations to the user during the simulated catheterization procedures. The system can be used for physician training and for pre-treatment planning of interventional vascular procedures.
Lewis, Harriet; Benedetto, Umberto; Caputo, Massimo; Angelini, Gianni; Vohra, Hunaid A.
Minimally invasive aortic valve replacement (AVR) aims to preserve the sternal integrity and improve postoperative outcomes. In low risk patients, this technique can be achieved with comparable mortality to the conventional approach and there is evidence of possible reduction in intensive care and hospital length of stay, transfusion requirement, renal dysfunction, improved respiratory function and increased patient satisfaction. In this review, we aim to asses if these benefits can be transferred to the high risk patient groups. We therefore, discuss the available evidence for the following high risk groups: elderly patients, re-operative surgery, poor lung function, pulmonary hypertension, obesity, concomitant procedures and high risk score cohorts. PMID:28740685
Stoyanov, Danail; Yang, Guang-Zhong
This paper presents a new framework for tracking soft tissue deformation in robotic assisted minimally invasive surgery. The method combines optical feature tracking based on stereo-laparoscope images and a constrained geometrical surface model that deforms with feature motion. This has the advantage of relying on reliable salient feature tracking while embedding underlying constraints on the tissue surface for deriving consistent temporal deformation. The proposed framework is resilient to occlusions and specular highlights. The accuracy and robustness of the proposed method are validated using a phantom heart model with known ground truth. To demonstrate the practical value of the method, example in vivo results are also provided.
Ruiz, Jose Luis; Finger, Werner J; Sasazaki, Hiromi; Komatsu, Masahi
Removal of Invisalign resin retention buttons without damaging underlying enamel is a major challenge. To date, the use of tungsten carbide burs is the most common and fastest--yet a risky-ablation method. Stainbuster, a fiber-reinforced resin bur, has been introduced for removal of surface stains and resin remnants from tooth surfaces. This comparative in vitro and in vivo study proved that a combined technique, using multifluted tungsten carbide burs for fast removal of the bulk of resin followed by Stainbuster grinding for gentle removal of the final resin layer, is a safe and minimally invasive procedure for removing composite buttons from enamel.
Gul, Vahit Onur; Destek, Sebahattin; Ozer, Serhat; Etkin, Ergin; Ahioglu, Serkan; Ince, Mehmet; Cimin, Vedat; Sen, Deniz; Erbil, Yesim
Pilonidal sinus is considered as a simple and frequently occurring disease localized at the sacrococcygeal area. However, at the intergluteal region, it can often turn into a chronic and complicated disease. In some cases, it can fistulize up to the gluteal region and appear at the secondary orifices. Minimally invasive surgical techniques are becoming widespread in recent years due to the increased experience and development of new instruments. Limited excision of the pilonidal sinus tract can be a better treatment option compared with large excisions in terms of recovery time and patient's comfort. This case study reports the single-phase surgical treatment of complicated and recurrent pilonidal sinus localized at the gluteal area, with minimal tissue loss and inflammation. PMID:26576314
Yip, Michael C.; Yuen, Shelten G.; Howe, Robert D.
This paper presents a novel miniature uniaxial force sensor for use within a beating heart during mitral valve annuloplasty. The sensor measures 5.5 mm in diameter and 12 mm in length and provides a hollow core to pass instrumentation. A soft elastomer flexure design maintains a waterproof seal. Fiber optic transduction eliminates electrical circuitry within the heart, and acetal components minimize ultrasound-imaging artifacts. Calibration uses a nonlinear viscoelastic method, and in vitro tests demonstrate a 0–4-N force range with rms errors of 0.13 N (<3.2%). In vivo tests provide the first endocardial measurements of tissue-minimally invasive surgery instrument interaction forces in a beating heart. PMID:20172798
Graham, Edith; Akl, Ahmed; Brubaker, Linda; Dhaher, Yasin; Fitzgerald, Colleen; Mueller, Elizabeth Rose
The aims of the study were to optimize surgical safety and to minimize vertebral disc puncture during sacral needle placement at the time of minimally invasive sacrocolpopexy. Cadaveric studies report that the anterior longitudinal ligament (ALL), which covers the vertebral disc and vertebrae, has a reported thickness of only 1.4 to 2.3 mm at L5-S1. Intervertebral disc puncture can accelerate disc degeneration, disc herniation, and loss of disc height, a risk that may be avoidable. After institutional review board approval, research consent was obtained from women undergoing primary laparoscopic sacrocolpopexy. Intraoperatively, sacral sutures were placed in the ALL with a 1.5 cm diameter CV-2 needle using Gore-Tex suture. Depth measurements were collected using a laparoscopic ultrasound transducer positioned on the sacral promontory (SP) between the 2 ends of the needle visible through the ALL. Two still-frame US images of the single needle were taken using the BK Medical software. Needle depth was calculated by measuring the distance from the top of the ALL to the needle. Two satisfactory intraoperative images were obtained for all 9 participants. The mean needle depth at the SP was 3.96 mm. The interpatient needle depth varied from 2.07 to 9.04 mm. In most participants (78%), the sacral needle depth exceeded 2.3 mm, suggesting that there may be risk to sacral suture placement without depth guidance at the promontory. During minimally invasive sacrocolpopexy, the depth of the ALL and the placement of the needle at the SP may result in inadvertent disc penetration. Surgeons should be conscious of the minimal depth of the ALL and consider placing the suture below the promontory to avoid the disc.
Thomas, Aaron C.; Grisez, Brian T.; McMillan, Kathleen; Chill, Nicholas; Harclerode, Tyler P.; Radabaugh, Rebecca; Jones, Ryan M.; Coad, James E.
Endometrial ablation has gained significant clinical acceptance over the last decade as a minimally invasive treatment for abnormal uterine bleeding. To improve upon current thermal injury modeling, it is important to better characterize the myometrium's thermotolerance. The extent of myometrial thermal injury was determined across a spectrum of thermal histories/doses (time-temperature combinations). Fresh extirpated human myometrium was obtained from 13 subjects who underwent a previous scheduled benign hysterectomy. Within two hours of hysterectomy, the unfixed myometrium was treated in a stabilized saline bath with temperatures ranging from 45-70 °C and time intervals from 30- 150 seconds. The time-temperature combinations were selected to simulate treatment times under 2.5 minutes. A total of six such thermal matrices, each comprised of 45 time-temperature combinations, were prepared for evaluation. The treated myometrium was cryosectioned for nitro blue tetrazolium (NBT) staining to assess for thermal respiratory enzyme inactivation. Image analysis was subsequently used to quantitatively assess the stained myometrium's capacity to metabolize the tetrazolium at each time-temperature combination. This colorimetric data was then used as marker of cellular viability and determine survival parameters with implications for developing minimally invasive uterine therapies.
Jia, T; Xing, L; Zhu, F; Jin, X; Liu, L; Tao, J; Chen, Y; Gao, Z; Zhang, H
We have developed a new method for minimally-invasive treatment of uncomplicated oral ranulas using a mucosal tunnel, and we report the clinical outcome. We constructed a mucosal tunnel for each of 35 patients who presented with an oral ranula, by making 2 parallel incisions across the top of the protruding ranula 2-3mm apart, and dissected the soft tissue along the incisions to its wall. The fluid was removed and the cavity irrigated with normal saline. The wall of the ranula was not treated. The first mucosal tunnel was made by suturing the base of the mucosal strip to the deepest part of the wall of the ranula. The mucosal base of the tunnel and the deepest part of the base of the ranula were fixed with absorbable sutures. The two external edges of the incisions were sutured together to form the second mucosal tunnel, and apposing sutures were inserted between the two parallel incisions to form two natural mucosal tunnels. The duration of follow-up ranged from 1 to 5 years. One patient was lost to follow-up and 34 patients were cured. Outcomes were satisfactory without relapse during the follow-up period and the patients were satisfied with the outcome. The mucosal tunnel is a safe, effective, simple, and minimally-invasive treatment for oral ranula.
van Empel, Pieter J; van der Veer, Willem M; van Rijssen, Lennart B; Cuesta, Miguel A; Scheele, Fedde; Bonjer, H Jaap; Meijerink, Wilhelmus J
Conforming to, among other considerations, legal and ethical concerns for patient safety, there is an increasing demand to assess a surgeon's skills prior to performance in the operating room in pursuit of higher-quality treatment. Training in minimally invasive surgery (MIS) must therefore be intensified, including team training. New methods to train and assess minimally invasive surgical skills are gaining interest. The goal of this review is to provide instructors with an overview of available MIS training tools. In this review, we discuss currently available simulators for MIS training. Applicability, validity, and construction of simulators are reviewed. Also, some of the leading training programs and assessment methods in MIS are reviewed. A literature search was performed on studies evaluating surgical task performance on a simulator, reviewing satisfaction with laparoscopic training programs, or validating simulators or assessment methods. Simulators may be divided into simple box trainers and computer-based systems, such as virtual and augmented simulators. All have advantages and disadvantages. An overview is provided of currently available training systems, validity, trainee assessment, and the importance of training programs in MIS. No simulator yet provides the ability to train the entire set of required psychomotor skills or procedures for MIS. A multiyear training program combining various simulators for multiple-level training, including team training, should be constructed.
Ramlawi, Basel; Gammie, James S
The mitral valve is a highly complex structure, the competency and function of which relies on the harmonious action of its component parts. Minimally invasive cardiac surgery (MICS) for mitral valve repair or replacement (MVR/r) has been performed successfully with incremental improvements in techniques over the past decade. These minimally invasive procedures, while attractive to patients and referring physicians, should meet the same high bar for optimal clinical outcomes and long-term durability of valve repair as traditional sternotomy procedures. The majority of MICS MVR/r procedures are performed via a right minithoracotomy approach with direct or camera-assisted visualization, with a minority of centers performing robotic MVR/r. Outcomes with MICS MVR/r have been shown to have similar morbidity and mortality rates as traditional sternotomy MV procedures but with the advantage of reduced transfusions, postoperative atrial fibrillation, and time to recovery. More recently, transcatheter mitral valve repair and replacement (TMVR/r) has become a reality. Percutaneous MV repair technology is currently FDA approved for patients with nonsurgical high-risk degenerative mitral regurgitation. Other TMVR/r technology is at various levels of preclinical and clinical investigation, although these devices are proving to be more challenging compared to transcatheter aortic valve replacement (TAVR) due to the significantly more complex mitral anatomy and the greater heterogeneity of mitral disease requiring treatment. In this article, we review current techniques for MICS MVR/r and upcoming catheter-based therapies for the mitral valve.
Büchi, Dominik; Fehmer, Vincent; Sailer, Irene; Wolleb, Karin; Jung, Ronald
This case report describes a minimally invasive step-by-step approach to treat a patient with amelogenesis imperfecta. This is a genetic developmental disorder of the dental enamel, which clinically manifests as white and dark discolorations of the teeth. The clinical examination did not reveal the true depth of the staining. Therefore, a step-wise treatment approach was chosen. The first step consisted of a home bleaching procedure, which led to a slight improvement of the esthetic appearance, but the stains were still clearly visible. The next step was the application of a microabrasion technique. This led to further improvement, but not to a satisfactory result for this patient who had high esthetic expectations. Thus, the third step was undertaken: it was planned to restore the maxillary incisors and canines with ceramic veneers. The dental technician prepared a wax-up, which served as a basis for a clinical mock-up. After discussing the mock-up and the treatment plan with the patient, crown lengthening was performed on teeth 11 and 23 to improve the pink esthetics. Subsequently, the teeth were prepared in a minimally invasive way and a final impression was taken. Following try-in, the six veneers were inserted with resin cement.
The role of laparoscopy has evolved from a diagnostic tool to an integral approach to management of gynecologic malignancies. This surgical approach has afforded patients the benefits of shorter hospitalizations, more rapid recoveries, smaller incisions, less need for analgesics, and fewer complications. Additionally, specific to gynecologic malignancies, improved visualization and shorter intervals to postoperative treatments are advantages to minimally invasive surgery. However, laparoscopy is limited by its long learning curve, counterintuitive motions, and two-dimensional views. To overcome these challenges of laparoscopy, technology has expanded to include computer-enhanced technology in the form of robotics. Robotic-assisted surgery provides three-dimensional views, intuitive motions, less operator fatigue, tremor filtration facilitating more precise movements, and possesses a shorter learning curve. Robotic-assisted surgery has also paved a pathway to telesurgery and telementoring. This may expand the availability of advanced minimally invasive surgeries throughout the globe. However, robotic-assisted procedures are not without limitations-cost, bulky size, lack of haptic feedback, limited instrumentation, and larger required incisions.
Kimball, Jon; Kusnezov, Nicholas A.; Pezeshkian, Patrick; Lu, Daniel C.
Background: The risk of significant morbidity and mortality often outweighs the benefit of surgical resection as palliative treatment for patients with high systemic disease burden, poor cardiopulmonary status, and previous spinal surgeries. Minimally invasive surgical (MIS) approaches to decompressing metastatic epidural cord compression (MECC) can address these issues and thereby make palliation a feasible option for these patients. Case Description: We present the cases of three consecutively collected patients with severe neurological compromise secondary to lumbar epidural metastases who underwent MIS decompression and achieved improved functional outcome and quality of life. The first patient is a 23-year-old female with metastatic Ewing's sarcoma who presented with 2 weeks of a right foot drop and radiculopathic pain. The next case is that of a 71-year-old male with metastatic prostate cancer who presented with significant radiculopathic L5-S1 pain and severe motor deficits in his lower extremities. The last case is that of a 73-year-old male with metastatic hepatocellular carcinoma who presented with worsening left leg weakness, paresthesia, and dysethesia. Postoperatively, each patient experienced significant improvement and almost complete enduring return of function, strength, and resolution of pain. Conclusion: We demonstrate that MIS approaches to spinal decompression as palliative treatment for metastatic disease is a viable treatment in patients with a focal symptomatic lesion and comes with the benefits of decreased surgical morbidity inherent to the minimally invasive approach as well as excellent functional outcomes. PMID:23869278
Mylonas, George P; Darzi, Ara; Yang, Guang Zhong
Recovering tissue depth and deformation during robotically assisted minimally invasive procedures is an important step towards motion compensation, stabilization and co-registration with preoperative data. This work demonstrates that eye gaze derived from binocular eye tracking can be effectively used to recover 3D motion and deformation of the soft tissue. A binocular eye-tracking device was integrated into the stereoscopic surgical console. After calibration, the 3D fixation point of the participating subjects could be accurately resolved in real time. A CT-scanned phantom heart model was used to demonstrate the accuracy of gaze-contingent depth extraction and motion stabilization of the soft tissue. The dynamic response of the oculomotor system was assessed with the proposed framework by using autoregressive modeling techniques. In vivo data were also used to perform gaze-contingent decoupling of cardiac and respiratory motion. Depth reconstruction, deformation tracking, and motion stabilization of the soft tissue were possible with binocular eye tracking. The dynamic response of the oculomotor system was able to cope with frequencies likely to occur under most routine minimally invasive surgical operations. The proposed framework presents a novel approach towards the tight integration of a human and a surgical robot where interaction in response to sensing is required to be under the control of the operating surgeon.
Blaschko, Sarah D.; Brooks, H. Mark; Dhuy, S. Michael; Charest-Shell, Cynthia; Clayman, Ralph V.
Background: The human cadaver remains the gold standard for anatomic training and is highly useful when incorporated into minimally invasive surgical training programs. However, this valuable resource is often not used to its full potential due to a lack of multidisciplinary cooperation. Herein, we propose the coordinated multiple use of individual cadavers to better utilize anatomical resources and potentiate the availability of cadaver training. Methods: Twenty-two postgraduate surgeons participated in a robot-assisted surgical training course that utilized shared cadavers. All participants completed a Likert 4-scale satisfaction questionnaire after their training session. Cadaveric tissue quality and the quality of the training session related to this material were assessed. Results: Nine participants rated the quality of the cadaveric tissue as excellent, 7 as good, 5 as unsatisfactory, and 1 as poor. Overall, 72% of participants who operated on a previously used cadaver were satisfied with their training experience and did not perceive the previous use deleterious to their training. Conclusion: The coordinated use of cadavers, which allows for multiple cadaver use for different teaching sessions, is an excellent training method that increases availability of human anatomical material for minimally invasive surgical training. PMID:18237501
Yang, Ping-Lin; He, Xi-Jing; Li, Hao-Peng; Zang, Quan-Jin; Wang, Guo-Yu
In order to provide effective options for minimally invasive treatment of spinal metastases, the present study retrospectively evaluated the efficacy and safety of image-guided minimally invasive percutaneous treatment of spinal metastases. Image-guided percutaneous vertebral body enhancement, radiofrequency ablation (RFA) and tumor debulking combined with other methods to strengthen the vertebrae were applied dependent on the indications. Percutaneous vertebroplasty (PVP) was used when vertebral body destruction was simple. In addition, RFA was used in cases where pure spinal epidural soft tissue mass or accessories (spinous process, vertebral plate and vertebral pedicle) were destroyed, but vertebral integrity and stability existed. Tumor debulking (also known as limited RFA) combined with vertebral augmentation were used in cases presenting destruction of the epidural soft tissue mass and accessories, and pathological vertebral fractures. A comprehensive assessment was performed through a standardized questionnaire and indicators including biomechanical stability of the spine, quality of life, neurological status and tumor progression status were assessed during the 6 weeks-6 months follow-up following surgery. After the most suitable treatment was used, the biomechanical stability of the spine was increased, the pain caused by spinal metastases within 6 weeks was significantly reduced, while the daily activities and quality of life were improved. The mean progression-free survival of tumors was 330±54 days, and no associated complications occurred. Therefore, the use of a combination of image-guided PVP, RFA and other methods is safe and effective for the treatment of spinal metastases. PMID:28352355
Marcinczak, Jan Marek; von Öhsen, Udo; Grigat, Rolf-Rainer
Laparoscopy is a reliable imaging method to examine the liver. However, due to the limited field of view, a lot of experience is required from the surgeon to interpret the observed anatomy. Reconstruction of organ surfaces provide valuable additional information to the surgeon for a reliable diagnosis. Without an additional external tracking system the structure can be recovered from feature correspondences between different frames. In laparoscopic images blurred frames, specular reflections and inhomogeneous illumination make feature tracking a challenging task. We propose an ego-motion estimation system for minimal invasive laparoscopy that can cope with specular reflection, inhomogeneous illumination and blurred frames. To obtain robust feature correspondence, the approach combines SIFT and specular reflection segmentation with a multi-frame tracking scheme. The calibrated five-point algorithm is used with the MSAC robust estimator to compute the motion of the endoscope from multi-frame correspondence. The algorithm is evaluated using endoscopic videos of a phantom. The small incisions and the rigid endoscope limit the motion in minimal invasive laparoscopy. These limitations are considered in our evaluation and are used to analyze the accuracy of pose estimation that can be achieved by our approach. The endoscope is moved by a robotic system and the ground truth motion is recorded. The evaluation on typical endoscopic motion gives precise results and demonstrates the practicability of the proposed pose estimation system.
Ramlawi, Basel; Gammie, James S.
The mitral valve is a highly complex structure, the competency and function of which relies on the harmonious action of its component parts. Minimally invasive cardiac surgery (MICS) for mitral valve repair or replacement (MVR/r) has been performed successfully with incremental improvements in techniques over the past decade. These minimally invasive procedures, while attractive to patients and referring physicians, should meet the same high bar for optimal clinical outcomes and long-term durability of valve repair as traditional sternotomy procedures. The majority of MICS MVR/r procedures are performed via a right minithoracotomy approach with direct or camera-assisted visualization, with a minority of centers performing robotic MVR/r. Outcomes with MICS MVR/r have been shown to have similar morbidity and mortality rates as traditional sternotomy MV procedures but with the advantage of reduced transfusions, postoperative atrial fibrillation, and time to recovery. More recently, transcatheter mitral valve repair and replacement (TMVR/r) has become a reality. Percutaneous MV repair technology is currently FDA approved for patients with nonsurgical high-risk degenerative mitral regurgitation. Other TMVR/r technology is at various levels of preclinical and clinical investigation, although these devices are proving to be more challenging compared to transcatheter aortic valve replacement (TAVR) due to the significantly more complex mitral anatomy and the greater heterogeneity of mitral disease requiring treatment. In this article, we review current techniques for MICS MVR/r and upcoming catheter-based therapies for the mitral valve. PMID:27127558
Scheuering, Michael; Schenk, Andrea; Schneider, Armin; Preim, Bernhard; Greiner, Guenther
Minimally invasive liver interventions demand a lot of experience due to the limited access to the field of operation. In particular, the correct placement of the trocar and the navigation within the patient's body are hampered. In this work, we present an intraoperative augmented reality system (IARS) that directly projects preoperatively planned information and structures extracted from CT data, onto the real laparoscopic video images. Our system consists of a preoperative planning tool for liver surgery and an intraoperative real time visualization component. The planning software takes into account the individual anatomy of the intrahepatic vessels and determines the vascular territories. Methods for fast segmentation of the liver parenchyma, of the intrahepatic vessels and of liver lesions are provided. In addition, very efficient algorithms for skeletonization and vascular analysis allowing the approximation of patient-individual liver vascular territories are included. The intraoperative visualization is based on a standard graphics adapter for hardware accelerated high performance direct volume rendering. The preoperative CT data is rigidly registered to the patient position by the use of fiducials that are attached to the patient's body, and anatomical landmarks in combination with an electro-magnetic navigation system. Our system was evaluated in vivo during a minimally invasive intervention simulation in a swine under anesthesia.
Greco, Mark K; Tong, Jenna; Soleimani, Manucher; Bell, Duncan; Schäfer, Marc O
The sensitivity of the honey bee, Apis mellifera L. (Hymeonoptera: Apidae), brain volume and density to behavior (plasticity) makes it a great model for exploring the interactions between experience, behavior, and brain structure. Plasticity in the adult bee brain has been demonstrated in previous experiments. This experiment was conducted to identify the potentials and limitations of MicroCT (micro computed tomograpy) scanning “live” bees as a more comprehensive, non-invasive method for brain morphology and physiology. Bench-top and synchrotron MicroCT were used to scan live bees. For improved tissue differentiation, bees were fed and injected with radiographic contrast. Images of optic lobes, ocelli, antennal lobes, and mushroom bodies were visualized in 2D and 3D rendering modes. Scanning of live bees (for the first time) enabled minimally-invasive imaging of physiological processes such as passage of contrast from gut to haemolymph, and preliminary brain perfusion studies. The use of microCT scanning for studying insects (collectively termed ‘diagnostic radioentomology’, or DR) is increasing. Our results indicate that it is feasible to observe plasticity of the honey bee brain in vivo using diagnostic radioentomology, and that progressive, real-time observations of these changes can be followed in individual live bees. Limitations of live bee scanning, such as movement errors and poor tissue differentiation, were identified; however, there is great potential for in-vivo, non-invasive diagnostic radioentomology imaging of the honey bee for brain morphology and physiology. PMID:23421752
Hughes-Hallett, A; Mayer, E K; Pratt, P J; Vale, J A; Darzi, A W
In the past 30 years surgical practice has changed considerably owing to the advent of minimally invasive surgery (MIS). This paper investigates the changing surgical landscape chronologically and quantitatively, examining the technologies that have played, and are forecast to play, the largest part in this shift in surgical practice. Electronic patent and publication databases were searched over the interval 1980-2011 for ('minimally invasive' OR laparoscopic OR laparoscopy OR 'minimal access' OR 'key hole') AND (surgery OR surgical OR surgeon). The resulting patent codes were allocated into technology clusters. Technology clusters referred to repeatedly in the contemporary surgical literature were also included in the analysis. Growth curves of patents and publications for the resulting technology clusters were then plotted. The initial search revealed 27,920 patents and 95,420 publications meeting the search criteria. The clusters meeting the criteria for in-depth analysis were: instruments, image guidance, surgical robotics, sutures, single-incision laparoscopic surgery (SILS) and natural-orifice transluminal endoscopic surgery (NOTES). Three patterns of growth were observed among these technology clusters: an S-shape (instruments and sutures), a gradual exponential rise (surgical robotics and image guidance), and a rapid contemporaneous exponential rise (NOTES and SILS). Technological innovation in MIS has been largely stagnant since its initial inception nearly 30 years ago, with few novel technologies emerging. The present study adds objective data to the previous claims that SILS, a surgical technique currently adopted by very few, represents an important part of the future of MIS. © 2015 BJS Society Ltd. Published by John Wiley & Sons Ltd.
Cucchi, Alessandro; Vignudelli, Elisabetta; Franco, Simonetta; Corinaldesi, Giuseppe
Extremely atrophic maxillae can be considered the most important indication for three-dimensional maxillary reconstruction. Different bone-augmentation techniques have been suggested to accomplish this. This article illustrates a minimally invasive approach to rehabilitation of the extremely atrophic maxilla. A 63-year-old male patient was referred for restoration of his totally edentulous maxilla with a fixed full-arch implant-prosthetic rehabilitation. Four short implants in the premaxillary region and 2 longer implants in the pterygomaxillary regions were inserted with piezoelectric implant site preparation. At the 1-year follow-up appointment, no clinical or radiographic changes in the soft-tissue contours or crestal bone levels were observed. This surgical approach, based on the combination of short implants in the premaxillary regions and pterygoid implants in the pterygomaxillary regions, represents a way to shorten treatment timing, minimize the risk of surgical complications, and reduce patient discomfort and costs.
Schaefer, Andreas; Reichart, Daniel; Bernhardt, Alexander M; Kubik, Mathias; Barten, Markus J; Wagner, Florian M; Reichenspurner, Hermann; Philipp, Sebastian A; Deuse, Tobias
Right ventricular failure (RVF) may still occur despite the benefits of minimally-invasive left ventricular assist device (MI-LVAD) implantation. Our center strategy aims to avoid aggressive postoperative inotrope use by utilizing mechanical support to facilitate RV recovery and adaptation. We herein report first outcomes of patients with minimally-invasive temporary right ventricular assist device (MI-t-RVAD) support for RVF during MI-LVAD implantation.RVF was defined as requiring more than moderate inotopic support after weaning from cardiopulmonary bypass according to INTERMACS adverse event definitions. All patients requiring MI-t-RVAD support for RVF during MI-LVAD implantation between 01/2012 and 04/2016 were retrospectively reviewed. Clinical endpoints were death or unsuccessful RVAD weaning.Overall 10 patients (90% male, mean age 49.6±14.8 years) underwent MI-t-RVAD implantation. Duration of MI-t-RVAD support was 16.2±11.6 days. RVAD weaning and subsequent uneventful awake device explantation was successful in all cases. The 30-day survival was 80%.Our results confirm safety and feasibility of MI-t-RVAD support for acute RVF in the setting of MI-LVAD implantation. The potential benefits of this strategy are more stable hemodynamics in the first postoperative days that usually are crucial for LVAD patients and reduced inotrope requirement.
Tyagi, N S; Meredith, M C; Lumb, J C; Cacdac, R G; Vanterpool, C C; Rayls, K R; Zerega, W D; Silbergleit, A
OBJECTIVE: The authors devised a minimally invasive technique for cholecystectomy via microceliotomy that provides safety attainable with the open conventional approach and postoperative results comparable to laparoscopic cholecystectomy. SUMMARY BACKGROUND DATA: Laparoscopic cholecystectomy has evolved as a minimally invasive outpatient procedure. Patients can return rapidly to preoperative status with minimal postoperative morbidity and pain, and the small scar size is cosmetically desirable. Unfortunately, there are reports of serious intraoperative complications, including injury to blood vessels, bowel, and the bile ducts, caused by failure to identify structures properly. The conventional cholecystectomy technique currently is relegated to patients on whom the laparoscopic procedure cannot be performed. METHODS: Cholecystectomy was performed through a 3-cm transverse high subxiphoid incision in the "minimal stress triangle." The location, anterior to Calot's triangle, was critical in providing a direct vertical view of the biliary ducts during dissection. Direct view cholecystectomy was performed using endoscopic instruments without pneumoperitoneum. Postoperative data were compared with both laparoscopic and open cholecystectomy results. RESULTS: Using the microceliotomy technique in the ambulatory setting, cholecystectomy was performed successfully in 99.3% (N = 143) of cases. Biliary leakage beyond the third postoperative day was caused by failure of clips or obstruction to bile flow. The postoperative morbidity, acceptability of scar, and analgesic requirements compare favorably with other techniques. Microceliotomy is cost effective. Portal hypertension is a contraindication for this procedure. CONCLUSIONS: The microceliotomy approach offers a viable, safe, and cost-effective alternative to the laparoscopic technique for cholecystectomy, especially when facilities for laparoscopy are not available or when the laparoscopic procedure cannot be performed
Subramanian, V A
To minimize the risk of standard and reoperative coronary artery bypass, we developed a minimally invasive approach. In this study we have evaluated the effectiveness of this technique. Between April 1994 and September 1995, 12 men and 6 women, aged 55-84 years (mean, 69 years) with chronic stable angina (4) and recent post-myocardial infarction unstable angina (14), with left ventricular ejection fractions ranging 17-60% (mean 37%), underwent reoperative coronary artery bypass grafting using 7-cm mini-left and right anterior thoracotomy and subxiphoid incisions. Coronary artery anastomoses were carried out on beating hearts with local coronary occlusion. Ischemic preconditioning, beta and calcium channel blockers and the maintenance of mean arterial pressure at 75-80 mm Hg, were used as adjuncts for myocardial protection. The internal mammary artery was isolated under direct vision up to the second rib with excision of the fourth costal cartilage. Coronary artery target sites were the left anterior descending in 12, right coronary artery in 4, obtuse marginal in 3, posterior descending in 1 and diagonal branch in 1 patient. Arterial grafts (mammary, right gastroepiploic, radial), either as single or composite grafts, were used liberally. Preoperative risk factors included congestive heart failure (7), chronic renal insufficiency (5), second reoperation (2), third reoperation (1), cerebrovascular disease (5), prior angioplasty (8) and preoperative intra-aortic balloon pumping in two patients. There was no perioperative mortality with minimal morbidity. Twelve patients underwent patency study of the grafts 48-72 h postoperatively. Ten of the twelve grafts were patent; one internal mammary artery graft to the left anterior descending coronary artery (<1.5 mm) early in our series was occluded and one additional left internal mammary graft had a kink several centimeters away from the anastomosis, which was successfully opened by angioplasty. At a mean follow
Pukacz, M; Kienzle, B; Braun, J
A simple method of minimally invasive surgery for ovariohysterectomy in the dog, without the use of laparoscopic equipment, was trialled. Fifty-nine client owned dogs of different breeds admitted for elective ovariohysterectomy were entered into the study. The tip of the left uterine horn and ovary were pulled into a cranial midline portal with the aid of a spay hook. The ovarian pedicle and the tip of the uterine horn were ligated and the ovary was dissected. The uterine horn was pulled backwards from a second midline portal, just cranial of the pubic bone, until the cervix was visible. After ligation and dissection of the cervix, the right uterine horn was pulled from the cranial portal until the right ovary was visible and could also be dissected. All 59 dogs underwent the intended procedure (mean duration 59 minutes, range 30 to 88 minutes). No haemorrhaging occurred during surgery and no serious complications were reported during the postoperative period.
Tagawa, Kazuyoshi; Tanaka, Hiromi T; Kurumi, Yoshimasa; Komori, Masaru; Morikawa, Shigehiro
In this paper, we report a result of an experiment of a field trial of our network-based minimally invasive surgery simulator. In our previous paper, we proposed a network-based visuohaptic surgery training system for laparoscopic surgery. In addition, we proposed a volume-based haptic communication approach, which allows participants at remote sites on the network to simultaneously interact with the same target object in virtual environments presented by multi-level computer performance systems, by only exchanging a small set of manipulation parameters for the target object and additional packet for synchronization of status of binary tree and deformation of shared volume model. We implemented the approach into our network-based surgery simulator, and field trial of the simulator at three locations was performed.
Bina, Robert W; Zoccali, Carmine; Skoch, Jesse; Baaj, Ali A
The lateral lumbar interbody fusion approach (LLIF), which encompasses the extreme lateral interbody fusion or direct lateral interbody fusion techniques, has gained popularity as an alternative to traditional posterior approaches. With rapidly expanding applications, this minimally invasive surgery (MIS) approach is now utilized in basic degenerative pathologies as well as complex lumbar degenerative deformities and tumors. Given the intimate relationship of the psoas muscle, and hence the lumbar plexus, to this MIS approach, several authors have examined the surgical anatomy of this approach. Understanding this regional neural anatomy is imperative given the potential for serious injuries to both the motor and sensory nerves of the lumbar plexus. In this review, we critically and comprehensively discuss all published studies detailing the surgical anatomy of the lateral lumbar approach with respect to the MIS LLIF techniques. This is a timely review given the rapidly growing number of surgeons utilizing this technique. Copyright © 2014 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.
Nguyen, Phuong-Bac; Oh, Jong-Seok; Choi, Seung-Bok
This paper introduces a novel 3-DOF haptic master device for minimally invasive surgery featuring magneto-rheological (MR) fluid. It consists of three rotational motions. These motions are constituted by two bi-directional MR (BMR) plus one conventional MR brakes. The BMR brake used in the system possesses a salient advantage that its range of braking torque varies from negative to positive values. Therefore, the device is expected to be able sense in a wide environment from very soft tissues to bones. In this paper, overall of the design of the device is presented from idea, modeling, optimal design, manufacturing to control of the device. Moreover, experimental investigation is undertaken to validate the effectiveness of the device.
Hsin, Michael K Y; Yim, Anthony P C
Minimally invasive thoracic surgery (MITS) has become part of the modern thoracic surgeon's armamentarium. Its applications include diagnostic and therapeutic procedures, and over the past one and a half decades, the scope of MITS has undergone rapid evolution. The role of MITS is well established in the management of pleural and mediastinal conditions, and it is beginning to move beyond diagnostic procedures for lung parenchyma conditions, to gain acceptance as a viable option for primary lung cancer treatment. However MITS poses technical challenges that are quite different from the conventional open surgical procedures. After a brief review of the history of MITS, an overview of the scope of MITS is given. Important examples of diagnostic and therapeutic indications are then discussed, with special emphasis on the potential complications specific to MITS, and their prevention and management.
Herrmann, David N
Peripheral neuropathies are diverse and require a multidimensional approach for detection and monitoring in a clinical and research setting. This review describes non- and minimally-invasive measures of distal predominantly sensory polyneuropathy (DSP), the most common form of neuropathy. A combination of clinical and electrophysiologic assessment with nerve-conduction studies (NCSs) suffices for the detection and characterization of most DSPs. NCS are insensitive to variants of DSP that predominantly affect small diameter sensory nerve fibers (SFNs) and cutaneous nerve terminals that subserve pain and thermal sensation. Skin biopsy with assessment of epidermal nerve fiber density permits objective detection and monitoring of SFNs. Conventional clinical and NCS measures have limitations as outcomes in experimental therapeutics in DSP. For clinical trials, biopsy evaluation of epidermal innervation and emerging noninvasive imaging approaches (in vivo confocal microscopy of corneal innervation and of Meissner corpuscles in the skin) hold promise as surrogate markers that are complementary to traditional DSP measures.
Spoor, A B; Öner, F C
Low back pain (LBP) is a common disorder with a lifetime prevalence of 85%. The pathophysiology of LBP can be various depending on the underlying problem. Only in about 10% of the patients specific underlying disease processes can be identified. Patients with scoliosis, spondylolisthesis, herniated discs, adjacent disc disease, disc degeneration, failed back surgery syndrome or pseudoartrosis all have symptoms of LBP in different ways. Chronic low back pain patients are advised to stay active, however, there is no strong evidence that exercise therapy is significantly different than other nonsurgical therapies. Not every patient with symptoms of LBP is an appropriate candidate for surgery. Even with thorough systematic reviews, no proof can be found for the benefit of surgery in patients with low back pain, without serious neurologic deficit. And subjects like psychologic and socio-demographic factors also seem to be influencing a patients perception of back pain, expectations of treatment, and outcomes of treatment. Open lumbar fusion procedures are typically lengthy procedures and require a long exposure, which may result in ischemic necrosis of the paraspinal musculature, atrophy, and prolonged back pain. Minimally invasive spine surgery needed to take care of a decrease in muscle injuries due to retraction and avoidance of disruption of the osseotendineous complex of the paraspinal muscles, especially the multifidus attachment to the spinous process and superior articular process. Therefore, effort has been made to develop percutaneous fusion, as well as fixation methods, which avoid the negative effects of open surgery. Several minimally invasive fusion strategies have been described, like anterior lumbar interbody fusion (ALIF), posterior lumbar interbody fusion (PLIF), transforaminal lumbar interbody fusion (TLIF) and two lateral approaches (XLIF and DLIF), all with pro's and con's compared to open surgery and each other. The effect of MIS of all type is
Binder, Jochen; Kramer, Wolfgang
A telerobotic device, the daVinci Surgical System (Intuitive Surgical, Inc., Mountain View, CA) is one of the recently developed, remotely operated systems for laparoscopic surgical procedures. This telemanipulation system consists of two components: a control console operated by the surgeon, and the surgical arm cart that holds a three-dimensional (3-D) 30 degrees laparoscope and two detachable laparoscopic surgical tools. The instruments are equipped with a wrist--a unique feature that provides additional dexterity. Since its clinical introduction in Europe in early 1999, this system has opened up a new era in minimally invasive surgery enhancing endoscopic vision and anastomosis suturing. For the first time, cardiac surgeons were able to perform a totally endoscopic coronary bypass procedure on a beating heart.
Yamazaki, Shintaro Kuramoto, Kenmei; Itoh, Yutaka; Watanabe, Yoshika; Ueda, Toshisada
Pancreas fistula is a well-known and severe complication of pancreaticoduodenectomy. It is difficult to control with conservative therapy, inducing further complications and severe morbidity. Until now, re-operation has been the only way to resolve pancreatic fistula causing complete dehiscence of the pancreatic-enteric anastomosis (complete pancreatic fistula). Percutaneous transgastric fistula drainage is one of the treatments for pancreatic fistula. This procedure allows both pancreas juice drainage and anastomosis re-construction at the same time. This is effective and minimally invasive but difficult to adapt to a long or complicated fistula. In particular, dilatation of the main pancreatic duct is indispensable. This paper reports the successful resolution of a postoperative pancreatic fistula by a two-way-approach percutaneous transgastric fistula drainage procedure. Using a snare catheter from the fistula and a flexible guidewire from the transgastric puncture needle, it can be performed either with or without main pancreatic duct dilatation.
Turrà, Francesco; Escolino, Maria; Farina, Alessandra; Settimi, Alessandro; Esposito, Ciro; Varlet, François
Hydronephrosis is the most common presentation of ureteropelvic junction (UPJ) obstruction. We reviewed literature, collecting data from Medline, to evaluate the current status of minimally invasive surgery (MIS) approach to pyeloplasty. Since the first pyeloplasty was described in 1939, several techniques has been applied to correct UPJ obstruction, but Anderson-Hynes dismembered pyeloplasty is established as the gold standard, to date also in MIS technique. According to literature several studies underline the safety and effectiveness of this approach for both trans- and retro-peritoneal routes, with a success rate between 81-100% and an operative time between 90-228 min. These studies have demonstrated the safety and efficacy of this procedure in the management of UPJ obstruction in children. Whether better the transperitoneal, than the retroperitoneal approach is still debated. A long learning curve is needed especially in suturing and knotting.
Tsai, Frank S.; Johnson, Daniel; Francis, Cameron S.; Cho, Sung Hwan; Qiao, Wen; Arianpour, Ashkan; Mintz, Yoav; Horgan, Santiago; Talamini, Mark; Lo, Yu-Hwa
This work reports a miniaturized laparoscopic zoom camera that can significantly improve vision for minimally invasive surgery (MIS), also known as laparoscopic surgery. The laparoscopic zoom camera contains bioinspired fluidic lenses that can change curvature and focal length in a manner similar to the crystalline lenses in human eyes. The traditional laparoscope is long, rigid, and made of fixed glass lenses with a fixed field of view. The constricted vision of a laparoscope is often an inconvenience and plays a role in many surgical injuries. To further advance MIS technology, we developed a new type of laparoscopic camera that has a total length of less than 17 mm, greater than 4× optical zoom, and 100 times higher sensitivity than today's laparoscope allowing it to work under illumination as low as 300 lux. All these unique features are enabled by the technology of bioinspired fluidic lenses having a dynamic range over 100 diopters and being convertible between a convex and concave shape.
Beller, S; Szinicz, G
Common bile duct stones may present a health hazard for our patients. Nevertheless, since the implementation of laparoscopic cholecystectomy optimal diagnostic and therapeutic algorithm are not yet defined. Symptomatic calculi can be assumed on the basis of pathological laboratory values or diagnosed by means of ultrasound, Intraoperative Cholangiography (IOC) or Magnetic-Resonance-Cholangio-Tomography (MRCT). For therapy of common bile duct stones endoscopic and laparoscopic minimally-invasive strategies are available. As any type of management may show some benefit, it is not yet evident which policy we should prefer. Specialists do not agree on the necessity of therapy in asymptomatic patients with common bile duct calculi at all. This article shows a current state of the opinion and art and tends to highlight trends and future perspectives.
Xu, Zhaohong; Song, Chengli; Wu, Wenwu
Haptic feedback plays a significant role in minimally invasive robotic surgery (MIRS). A major deficiency of the current MIRS is the lack of haptic perception for the surgeon, including the commercially available robot da Vinci surgical system. In this paper, a dynamics model of a haptic robot is established based on Newton-Euler method. Because it took some period of time in exact dynamics solution, we used a digital PID arithmetic dependent on robot dynamics to ensure real-time bilateral control, and it could improve tracking precision and real-time control efficiency. To prove the proposed method, an experimental system in which two Novint Falcon haptic devices acting as master-slave system has been developed. Simulations and experiments showed proposed methods could give instrument force feedbacks to operator, and bilateral control strategy is an effective method to master-slave MIRS. The proposed methods could be used to tele-robotic system.
O'Cearbhaill, Eoin D; Ng, Kelvin S; Karp, Jeffrey M
The past decade has seen the first wave of cell-based therapeutics undergo clinical trials with varying degrees of success. Although attention is increasingly focused on clinical trial design, owing to spiraling regulatory costs, tools used in delivering cells and sustaining the cells' viability and functions in vivo warrant careful scrutiny. While the clinical administration of cell-based therapeutics often requires additional safeguarding and targeted delivery compared with traditional therapeutics, there is significant opportunity for minimally invasive device-assisted cell therapy to provide the physician with new regenerative options at the point of care. Herein we detail exciting recent advances in medical devices that will aid in the safe and efficacious delivery of cell-based therapeutics.
Goossens, R. H. M.; van Eijk, D. J.; de Hingh, I. H. J. T.; Jakimowicz, J. J.
Background Laparoscopic surgery requires specially designed instruments. Bowel tissue damage is considered one of the most serious forms of lesion, specifically perforation of the bowel. Methods An experimental setting was used to manipulate healthy pig bowel tissue via two vacuum instruments. During the experiments, two simple manipulations were performed for both prototypes by two experienced surgeons. Each manipulation was repeated 20 times for each prototype at a vacuum level of 60 kPa and 20 times for each prototype at a vacuum level of 20 kPa. All the manipulations were macroscopically assessed by two experienced surgeons in terms of damage to the bowel. Results In 160 observations, 63 ecchymoses were observed. All 63 ecchymoses were classified as not relevant and negligible. No serosa or seromuscular damages and no perforations were observed. Conclusion Vacuum instruments such as the tested prototypes have the potential to be used as grasper instruments in minimally invasive surgery. PMID:20195640
Tsai, Frank S; Johnson, Daniel; Francis, Cameron S; Cho, Sung Hwan; Qiao, Wen; Arianpour, Ashkan; Mintz, Yoav; Horgan, Santiago; Talamini, Mark; Lo, Yu-Hwa
This work reports a miniaturized laparoscopic zoom camera that can significantly improve vision for minimally invasive surgery (MIS), also known as laparoscopic surgery. The laparoscopic zoom camera contains bioinspired fluidic lenses that can change curvature and focal length in a manner similar to the crystalline lenses in human eyes. The traditional laparoscope is long, rigid, and made of fixed glass lenses with a fixed field of view. The constricted vision of a laparoscope is often an inconvenience and plays a role in many surgical injuries. To further advance MIS technology, we developed a new type of laparoscopic camera that has a total length of less than 17 mm, greater than 4x optical zoom, and 100 times higher sensitivity than today's laparoscope allowing it to work under illumination as low as 300 lux. All these unique features are enabled by the technology of bioinspired fluidic lenses having a dynamic range over 100 diopters and being convertible between a convex and concave shape.
Vonck, D; Goossens, R H M; van Eijk, D J; de Hingh, I H J T; Jakimowicz, J J
Laparoscopic surgery requires specially designed instruments. Bowel tissue damage is considered one of the most serious forms of lesion, specifically perforation of the bowel. An experimental setting was used to manipulate healthy pig bowel tissue via two vacuum instruments. During the experiments, two simple manipulations were performed for both prototypes by two experienced surgeons. Each manipulation was repeated 20 times for each prototype at a vacuum level of 60 kPa and 20 times for each prototype at a vacuum level of 20 kPa. All the manipulations were macroscopically assessed by two experienced surgeons in terms of damage to the bowel. In 160 observations, 63 ecchymoses were observed. All 63 ecchymoses were classified as not relevant and negligible. No serosa or seromuscular damages and no perforations were observed. Vacuum instruments such as the tested prototypes have the potential to be used as grasper instruments in minimally invasive surgery.
Jones, Vinci S; Biesheuvel, Cornelis J; Cohen, Ralph C
We conducted a survey among pediatric surgeons to examine the impact of the advent of minimally invasive surgery (MIS) on the pediatric surgical profession with respect to job satisfaction and training challenges. An invitation to participate in a web-based questionnaire was sent out to 306 pediatric surgeons. Apart from demographic details and training recommendations, parameters relevant to job satisfaction, including patient interaction, peer pressure, ethical considerations, academic progress, ability to train residents, and financial remuneration, were studied. The response rate was 38.2%. Working in a unit performing MIS was identified by 71% of respondents as the most effective and feasible modality of training in MIS. Inability to get away from a busy practice was the most common reason cited for inability to acquire MIS training. The overall responses to the job satisfaction parameters showed a positive trend in the current MIS era for patient interaction, ethical considerations, academic progress, and training residents, with a negative trend for peer pressure and financial remuneration. The enthusiastic minimally invasive surgeons (EMIS) were defined as those having more than 5 years of MIS experience and also performing more than 10% of their work using MIS. Of the 113 responses analyzed, 67 belonged to the EMIS category. Those belonging to the EMIS group were less likely to feel inadequate in training their residents, in meeting the felt needs of the patients, or to complain about peer pressure. They were more likely to consider MIS to be as relevant and beneficial in children as in adults. Embracing MIS, as represented by the EMIS group, correlated with an overall greater job satisfaction.
McLemore, Elisabeth C; Coker, Alisa; Jacobsen, Garth; Talamini, Mark A; Horgan, Santiago
Transanal endoscopic microsurgical (TEM) resection is associated with improved outcomes compared to transanal excision of rectal lesions. However, TEM equipment requires additional operative setup time, and tumor location dictates patient positioning. In 2010, Drs. Attallah, Albert, and Larach developed an alternative technique, transanal minimally invasive surgery (TAMIS). Herein, we describe our novel experience using endoscopic visualization to perform TAMIS (eTAMIS) to remove a large rectal polyp. This is a technical note describing a new surgical technique, eTAMIS. The technique is performed with the Gelpoint Path TAMIS platform (Applied Medical, Rancho Santa Margarita, CA) and a standard single-channel endoscope for visualization. Patient demographics, operative data, and pathologic data were recorded. eTAMIS was initially performed in a 50-year-old woman with an endoscopically defiant rectal mass discovered on routine screening colonoscopy. The lesion was a tubulovillous adenoma, 10 cm from the anal verge, anterior, and occupied 15-20 % of the circumference. The rectal mass was removed by eTAMIS. The operative time was 101 minutes, and the patient was discharged within 24 h without event. Final pathology revealed a focus of well-differentiated rectal adenocarcinoma with focal invasion into the muscularis mucosa (Haggit level 0, pTis) arising in the head of a pedunculated tubulovillous adenoma. At 1-year follow-up endoscopy, the patient had no evidence of recurrent mass or polyp. This is the first technical report describing endoscopic visualization for TAMIS. Endoscopic visualization facilitates intraluminal articulation and lens cleaning while minimizing extraluminal instrument collisions. eTAMIS is a practical and logical evolution of the visual approach to natural orifice transluminal endoscopic surgery and laparoendoscopic surgery.
Virk, Sohrab S; Yu, Elizabeth
Bibliometric study of current literature. To catalog the most important minimally invasive spine (MIS) surgery articles using the amount of citations as a marker of relevance. MIS surgery is a relatively new tool used by spinal surgeons. There is a dynamic and evolving field of research related to MIS techniques, clinical outcomes, and basic science research. To date, there is no comprehensive review of the most cited articles related to MIS surgery. A systematic search was performed over three widely used literature databases: Web of Science, Scopus, and Google Scholar. There were four searches performed using the terms "minimally invasive spine surgery," "endoscopic spine surgery," "percutaneous spinal surgery," and "lateral interbody surgery." The amount of citations included was averaged amongst the three databases to rank each article. The query of the three databases was performed in November 2015. Fifty articles were selected based upon the amount of citations each averaged amongst the three databases. The most cited article was titled "Extreme Lateral Interbody Fusion (XLIF): a novel surgical technique for anterior lumbar interbody fusion" by Ozgur et al and was credited with 447, 239, and 279 citations in Google Scholar, Web of Science, and Scopus, respectively. Citations ranged from 27 to 239 for Web of Science, 60 to 279 for Scopus, and 104 to 462 for Google Scholar. There was a large variety of articles written spanning over 14 different topics with the majority dealing with clinical outcomes related to MIS surgery. The majority of the most cited articles were level III and level IV studies. This is likely due to the relatively recent nature of technological advances in the field. Furthermore level I and level II studies are required in MIS surgery in the years ahead. 5.
Glauber, Mattia; Karimov, Jamshid H; Farneti, Pier Andrea; Cerillo, Alfredo Giuseppe; Santarelli, Filippo; Ferrarini, Matteo; Del Sarto, Paolo; Murzi, Michele; Solinas, Marco
From early experience in cardiac surgery on the mitral valve, access was gained in different ways: through left and right antero-lateral extended thoracotomy for closed and correspondingly for open mitral commissurotomy, from right parasternal access with rib resection, and via median sternotomy. Median sternotomy remains the most common approach for mitral valve procedures, such as replacement or repair, allowing good visualisation, exposure and working field. Applying the largely spread access as median sternotomy, surgeons always wanted to overcome the necessity of large incisions, get a better surgical view, to dissect with better respect to structural integrity and have better aesthetic results. Enhanced understanding of surgical bases and technological development sourced a breakthrough in minimally-invasive approach for mitral valve surgery, offering several advantages such as less postoperative pain, lower morbidity and mortality, faster recovery and shorter hospital stay. In an effort to share the institutional experience in less invasive surgery, this article demonstrates our approach in mitral valve repair through a right minithoracotomy in the 3rd or 4th intercostal space.
Cuervo-Díaz, Alfonso; Aracil-Kessler, Luis
Sialolithiasis is the presence of stones in the ducts of the salivary glands. Most episodes are unique, and 60-80% are located exclusively in the main excretory duct. The main clinical manifestations are swelling and pain typically before, during or after meals that decreases if the obstruction is not complete. The highest prevalence of lithiasis is in the submandibular gland -87%-, whose secretion is more viscous, followed by the parotid gland -10%- and finally the sublingual gland -3%-. The most significant consequences are caused by the prolonged blockage of the duct by a stone, which can produce a persistent ductal dilatation with a swelling that does not subside, and could lead to the complete degeneration of the parenchyma, becoming a hot spot where secondary infections may occur, leading to acute bacterial sialadenitis or glandular abscesses. Treatment options range from a single probing extraction, extraction with sialographic control using the sialoendoscope, LASER intraductal lithotripsy, lithotripsy extracorporeal shock wave (ESWL), to the surgical techniques combining open duct with endoscopic or glandular removal. We propose, with regard to a case, the use of a simple piezoelectric device which, tunnelling through the glandular channel by the ostium, allows stone fragmentation, without damaging the surrounding soft tissue. Stone removal by this less invasive method reduces the need for more complex and expensive techniques. The postoperative course without retraction of the ostium, and the regaining of functionality is favourable. Key words:Calculus, lithotripsy, minimally invasive therapy, piezoelectric surgery, salivary glands, soft tissues. PMID:25136434
Hamed, Osama H; Gusani, Niraj J; Kimchi, Eric T; Kavic, Stephen M
After the widespread application of minimally invasive surgery for benign diseases and given its proven safety and efficacy, minimally invasive surgery for gastrointestinal cancer has gained substantial attention in the past several years. Despite the large number of publications on the topic and level I evidence to support its use in colon cancer, minimally invasive surgery for most gastrointestinal malignancies is still underused. We explore some of the challenges that face the fusion of minimally invasive surgery technology in the management of gastrointestinal malignancies and propose solutions that may help increase the utilization in the future. These solutions are based on extensive literature review, observation of current trends and practices in this field, and discussion made with experts in the field. We propose 4 different solutions to increase the use of minimally invasive surgery in the treatment of gastrointestinal malignancies: collaboration between surgical oncologists/hepatopancreatobiliary surgeons and minimally invasive surgeons at the same institution; a single surgeon performing 2 fellowships in surgical oncology/hepatopancreatobiliary surgery and minimally invasive surgery; establishing centers of excellence in minimally invasive gastrointestinal cancer management; and finally, using robotic technology to help with complex laparoscopic skills. Multiple studies have confirmed the utility of minimally invasive surgery techniques in dealing with patients with gastrointestinal malignancies. However, training continues to be the most important challenge that faces the use of minimally invasive surgery in the management of gastrointestinal malignancy; implementation of our proposed solutions may help increase the rate of adoption in the future.
Okamura, Allison M.
Purpose of Review Robot-assisted minimally invasive surgery (RMIS) holds great promise for improving the accuracy and dexterity of a surgeon while minimizing trauma to the patient. However, widespread clinical success with RMIS has been marginal. It is hypothesized that the lack of haptic (force and tactile) feedback presented to the surgeon is a limiting factor. This review explains the technical challenges of creating haptic feedback for robot-assisted surgery and provides recent results that evaluate the effectiveness of haptic feedback in mock surgical tasks. Recent Findings Haptic feedback systems for RMIS are still under development and evaluation. Most provide only force feedback, with limited fidelity. The major challenge at this time is sensing forces applied to the patient. A few tactile feedback systems for RMIS have been created, but their practicality for clinical implementation needs to be shown. It is particularly difficult to sense and display spatially distributed tactile information. The cost-benefit ratio for haptic feedback in RMIS has not been established. Summary The designs of existing commercial RMIS systems are not conducive for force feedback, and creative solutions are needed to create compelling tactile feedback systems. Surgeons, engineers, and neuroscientists should work together to develop effective solutions for haptic feedback in RMIS. PMID:19057225
Zavázalová, Šárka; Vorobiov, Olexii; Astl, Jaromír
Sialendoscopy (SE) represents nowadays one of the standard diagnostic and therapeutic procedures in the treatment of major salivary glands lithiasis. We know from experience that it is successful only in small percentage of patients, when used in monotherapy. However, it represents an indispensable part of all of the combined minimally invasive gland-preserving treatment techniques, the success rate of which is around 90%. In this work, we focused on the role of sialendoscopy in the treatment of patients with larger inflamed fixed stones in glandula parotis. We conducted a total of 364 sialendoscopy procedures in 332 patients on our site. We have confirmed lithiasis as a cause of salivary gland obstruction in 246 (74%) patients. In 9 patients there was larger, single, or multiple inflamed fixed lithiasis of glandula parotis. In this subgroup of patients endoscopically assisted sialolithectomy from external mini-incision has become the method of choice. In 9 of the 9 (100%) cases we have achieved complete elimination of stones, and in 8 of the 9 (89%) cases we have achieved complete elimination of complaints. Sialoendoscopically assisted sialolithectomy of glandula parotis from external mini-incision has proved to be highly effective technique to eliminate stones with minimal complications. PMID:27882318
Rosenberg, Aaron G
The traditional didactic approach to improving the skill set of surgeons has been shown to have minimal impact. Surgeons, like other adults, learn best by doing, by practicing what they do. and by challenging themselves to take on increasingly difficult scenarios. To be effective, surgical practice requires deconstruction of a procedure into key elements, each of which is repeated until optimal results are achieved before moving on to the next element. Given the multifactorial nature of a procedure such as minimally invasive surgery for total knee arthroplasty, surgeons need to introduce incremental changes into their operating environment to allow for realistic self-assessment during postoperative self-debriefing. One technique, visualization, can be used for virtual practice. In the future, surgical simulators may allow for true virtual practice as well as systematic recording of results. However, psychomotor skills are only one component of surgical success. Intuition and innovation are also key, but these components are more difficult to teach and to learn. The key ingredient to successful practice and ultimate self-improvement in surgery, as in other pursuits in life, is that a person be self-motivated and competitive and have a strong desire to improve coupled with appropriate practice routines that can lead to improvement.
Brown, Joseph E; Moreau, Jodie E; Berman, Alison M; McSherry, Heather J; Coburn, Jeannine M; Schmidt, Daniel F; Kaplan, David L
Porous silk protein scaffolds are designed to display shape memory characteristics and volumetric recovery following compression. Two strategies are utilized to realize shape recovery: addition of hygroscopic plasticizers like glycerol, and tyrosine modifications with hydrophilic sulfonic acid chemistries. Silk sponges are evaluated for recovery following 80% compressive strain, total porosity, pore size distribution, secondary structure development, in vivo volume retention, cell infiltration, and inflammatory responses. Glycerol-modified sponges recover up to 98.3% of their original dimensions following compression, while sulfonic acid/glycerol modified sponges swell in water up to 71 times their compressed volume, well in excess of their original size. Longer silk extraction times (lower silk molecular weights) and higher glycerol concentrations yielded greater flexibility and shape fidelity, with no loss in modulus following compression. Sponges are over 95% porous, with secondary structure analysis indicating glycerol-induced β-sheet physical crosslinking. Tyrosine modifications with sulfonic acid interfere with β-sheet formation. Glycerol-modified sponges exhibit improved rates of cellular infiltration at subcutaneous implant sites with minimal immune response in mice. They also degrade more rapidly than unmodified sponges, a result posited to be cell-mediated. Overall, this work suggests that silk sponges may be useful for minimally invasive deployment in soft tissue augmentation procedures.
Rotnágl, Jan; Zavázalová, Šárka; Vorobiov, Olexii; Astl, Jaromír
Sialendoscopy (SE) represents nowadays one of the standard diagnostic and therapeutic procedures in the treatment of major salivary glands lithiasis. We know from experience that it is successful only in small percentage of patients, when used in monotherapy. However, it represents an indispensable part of all of the combined minimally invasive gland-preserving treatment techniques, the success rate of which is around 90%. In this work, we focused on the role of sialendoscopy in the treatment of patients with larger inflamed fixed stones in glandula parotis. We conducted a total of 364 sialendoscopy procedures in 332 patients on our site. We have confirmed lithiasis as a cause of salivary gland obstruction in 246 (74%) patients. In 9 patients there was larger, single, or multiple inflamed fixed lithiasis of glandula parotis. In this subgroup of patients endoscopically assisted sialolithectomy from external mini-incision has become the method of choice. In 9 of the 9 (100%) cases we have achieved complete elimination of stones, and in 8 of the 9 (89%) cases we have achieved complete elimination of complaints. Sialoendoscopically assisted sialolithectomy of glandula parotis from external mini-incision has proved to be highly effective technique to eliminate stones with minimal complications.
Göpel, Tobias; Härtl, Felix; Schneider, Armin; Buss, Martin; Feussner, Hubertus
In minimally invasive surgery, hand suturing is categorized as a challenge in technique as well as in its duration. This calls for an easily manageable tool, permitting an all-purpose, cost-efficient, and secure viscerosynthesis. Such a tool for this field already exists: the Autosuture EndoStitch(®). In a series of studies the potential for the EndoStitch to accelerate suturing has been proven. However, its ergonomics still limits its applicability. The goal of this study was twofold: propose an optimized and partially automated EndoStitch and compare the conventional EndoStitch to the optimized and partially automated EndoStitch with respect to the speed and precision of suturing. Based on the EndoStitch, a partially automated suturing tool has been developed. With the aid of a DC motor, triggered by a button, one can suture by one-fingered handling. Using the partially automated suturing manipulator, 20 surgeons with different levels of laparoscopic experience successfully completed a continuous suture with 10 stitches using the conventional and the partially automated suture manipulator. Before that, each participant was given 1 min of instruction and 1 min for training. Absolute suturing time and stitch accuracy were measured. The quality of the automated EndoStitch with respect to manipulation was tested with the aid of a standardized questionnaire. To compare the two instruments, t tests were used for suturing accuracy and time. Of the 20 surgeons with laparoscopic experience (fewer than 5 laparoscopic interventions, n=9; fewer than 20 laparoscopic interventions, n=7; more than 20 laparoscopic interventions, n=4), there was no significant difference between the two tested systems with respect to stitching accuracy. However, the suturing time was significantly shorter with the Autostitch (P=0.01). The difference in accuracy and speed was not statistically significant considering the laparoscopic experience of the surgeons. The weight and size of the
Shah, Kaushik; Agrawal, Madhu Sudan; Mishra, Dilip Kumar
Introduction: Percutaneous nephrolithotomy (PCNL) has undergone significant changes in recent years in the quest for improving efficacy and reducing morbidity. Newer minimally-invasive modalities of PCNL such as mini-PCNL, ultra-mini PCNL, and micro-PCNL have evolved with advancement in optics and technology. However, with these newer advancements, migration of small fragments produced with laser lithotripsy remains a concern, which may result in incomplete stone clearance. We describe a new technique of PCNL termed “Superperc”, that utilizes suction to remove all the fragments and maintain one-way flow. Methods: This was a prospective observational study involving 52 consecutive patients who underwent PCNL with the Superperc technique from April 2014 to June 2015. Surgery was performed using a pediatric ureteroscope used as a nephroscope and a specially designed sheath with a suction attachment. The Superperc uses a 10/12 F tract size, specially designed Superperc sheath (Shah Sheath) with suction mechanism and a pediatric ureteroscope (4.5/6 Fr, Richard Wolf) as nephroscope. Results: The mean age of the group was 41.8 years (range 6–84) with 33 males and 19 females. Mean stone size was 19.11 mm (range 10–37 mm) and mean operative time was 40.9 min (range 26–92 min). Twenty-seven renal units had upper calyceal puncture, whereas 12 had middle, 8 lower calyceal and 5 had two punctures. DJ stent was placed in 20 patients, whereas 32 patients were totally tubeless. Only three patients required a nephrostomy tube. The mean hemoglobin drop was 0.32 g with no blood transfusion. Postoperatively, three patients had a mild fever and one had transient hematuria. The stone clearance rate in our study was 96.15% and the mean hospital stay was 31.5 h (range 22–76 h). Conclusion: Superperc is a new technique of minimally-invasive PCNL and can be successfully done with minimal modification in armamentarium, with the potential advantage of good stone clearance. PMID
Sharma, Richa; Amitava, Abadan K; Bani, Sadat AO
Introduction: Minimal access surgery is common in all fields of medicine. We compared a new minimally invasive strabismus surgery (MISS) approach with a standard paralimbal strabismus surgery (SPSS) approach in terms of post-operative course. Materials and Methods: This parallel design study was done on 28 eyes of 14 patients, in which one eye was randomized to MISS and the other to SPSS. MISS was performed by giving two conjunctival incisions parallel to the horizontal rectus muscles; performing recession or resection below the conjunctival strip so obtained. We compared post-operative redness, congestion, chemosis, foreign body sensation (FBS), and drop intolerance (DI) on a graded scale of 0 to 3 on post-operative day 1, at 2-3 weeks, and 6 weeks. In addition, all scores were added to obtain a total inflammatory score (TIS). Statistical Analysis: Inflammatory scores were analyzed using Wilcoxon's signed rank test. Results: On the first post-operative day, only FBS (P =0.01) and TIS (P =0.04) showed significant difference favoring MISS. At 2-3 weeks, redness (P =0.04), congestion (P =0.04), FBS (P =0.02), and TIS (P =0.04) were significantly less in MISS eye. At 6 weeks, only redness (P =0.04) and TIS (P =0.05) were significantly less. Conclusion: MISS is more comfortable in the immediate post-operative period and provides better cosmesis in the intermediate period. PMID:24088635
Streit, Marcus R; Streit, Julia; Walker, Tilman; Bruckner, Thomas; Philippe Kretzer, J; Ewerbeck, Volker; Merle, Christian; Aldinger, Peter R; Gotterbarm, Tobias
Advanced knee arthritis in young patients is a challenging problem that may necessitate surgical treatment. There are few published studies of mobile-bearing unicompartmental knee arthroplasty (UKA) in young patients, while indications have expanded to its use in this demanding patient group. The clinical and radiographic results of the first 118 consecutive Oxford medial UKAs (OUKA) using a minimally invasive technique (phase 3) in 101 patients 60 years of age or younger at the time of surgery were evaluated. Median age at surgery was 57 (25-60) years. Kaplan-Meier survivorship analysis was used to estimate implant survival. Mean time of follow-up evaluation was five (SD 1.6) years. At final follow-up, three patients (three knees) had died, and two patients (three knees) were lost to follow-up. Five knees were revised: three for unexplained pain, one for early infection and one for bearing fracture. There was one impending revision for progression of osteoarthritis in the lateral compartment. The radiographic review demonstrated that 5 % of the knees had progressive arthritis in the lateral knee compartment, of those 2 % with full joint space loss and pain. The Kaplan-Meier survival analysis, using revision for any reason as the endpoint, estimated the five-year survival rate at 97 % (95 % CI 91-99). Ninety-six per cent of the non-revised patients were satisfied with the outcome, and 4 % were dissatisfied. The mean Oxford knee score was 41 (SD 7), with 6 % of the knees having a poor result. The mean AKSS was 89 (SD 14), mean flexion was 129° (SD 13) and the mean UCLA score was 6.8 (SD 1.5). Minimally invasive Oxford medial UKA was reliable and effective in this young and active patient cohort providing high patient satisfaction at mid-term follow-up. Progressive arthritis in the lateral knee compartment was a relevant failure mode in this age group. Most revisions were performed for unexplained pain, while we did not find loosening or wear in any patient
Chang, Edward F.; Englot, Dario J.; Vadera, Sumeet
Surgery can be a highly effective treatment for medically refractory temporal lobe epilepsy (TLE). The emergence of minimally invasive resective and nonresective treatment options has led to interest in epilepsy surgery among patients and providers. Nevertheless, not all procedures are appropriate for all patients, and it is critical to consider seizure outcomes with each of these approaches, as seizure freedom is the greatest predictor of patient quality of life. Standard anterior temporal lobectomy (ATL) remains the gold standard in the treatment of TLE, with seizure freedom resulting in 60–80% of patients. It is currently the only resective epilepsy surgery supported by randomized controlled trials and offers the best protection against lateral temporal seizure onset. Selective amygdalohippocampectomy techniques preserve the lateral cortex and temporal stem to varying degrees and can result in favorable rates of seizure freedom but the risk of recurrent seizures appears slightly greater than with ATL, and it is not clear whether neuropsychological outcomes are improved with selective approaches. Stereotactic radiosurgery presents an opportunity to avoid surgery altogether, with seizure outcomes now under investigation. Stereotactic laser thermo-ablation allows destruction of the mesial temporal structures with low complication rates and minimal recovery time, and outcomes are also under study. Finally, while neuromodulatory devices such as responsive neurostimulation, vagus nerve stimulation, and deep brain stimulation have a role in the treatment of certain patients, these remain palliative procedures for those who are not candidates for resection or ablation, as complete seizure freedom rates are low. Further development and investigation of both established and novel strategies for the surgical treatment of TLE will be critical moving forward, given the significant burden of this disease. PMID:26017774
Plinkert, P K; Schurr, M O; Kunert, W; Flemming, E; Buess, G; Zenner, H P
Three fundamentals have to be fulfilled to optimize minimally, invasive surgery: three-dimensional imaging, free maneuverability of the instruments, sensorial feedback. Projection of two pictures from a stereoendoscope and subsequent separation with a LCD shutter allows three-dimensional videoendoscopy to be performed. A high-frequency shutter technique (100/120 Hz) presents pictures from the two video cameras to the right and left eye, respectively, so that the surgeon has spatial vision of the operative field. Steerable instruments have four component: a control unit, rigid shaft, steerable multi-joints, distal effector. The steerable multi-joints give two additional degrees of freedom compared to conventional rigid instruments in endoscopic surgery. For intuitive movements, however, an electronic control system is necessary that is comparable to the "master-slave" principle in remote technology. A remote manipulator system with six degrees of freedom is now available. Additionally, a multifunctional distal tip permits different surgical steps to be performed without changing the instrument. For better control of the instrument and the operative procedure tactile feedback can be achieved with appropriate microsensor systems. Recent projects suggest that an artificial sensor system can be established within the foreseeable future.
Al-Sadek, Tabet A.; Niklev, Desislav; Al-Sadek, Ahmed
BACKGROUND: Fractures of the clavicle are one of the most common fractures in modern orthopaedics and traumatology practice. Knowing the mechanism of trauma, and it’s pathophysiological elements, it’s clear distinction and it’s individual features are essential to the development of more new and effective methods for their treatment, and the minimising of postoperative complications. AIM: The aim of this paper was to present the results of our patients treated with minimally invasive plate osteosynthesis (MIPO). MATERIAL AND METHODS: Between January 2011 and March 2013, 12 patients were treated with MIPO technique. The mean age was 47.5 years (range, 16-79 years). Outcomes and complications of clinical treatment were reviewed. RESULTS: All fractures healed within a mean period of 4.9 months (range, 2-10 months). Regarding complications, there was no occurrence of implant failure or deep infection. There were no nonunions, but one 79-year-old man had a delayed union. Almost of all the cases didn’t need bending of the plate. Seven plates were removed by their hopes. And there weren’t any cases that required new incisions. CONCLUSIONS: A pre-contoured plate anatomically configured to fit the clavicle was easier to apply. MIPO technique for midshaft clavicle fractures may be a good option. PMID:28028406
I, Botezatu; D, Laptoiu
The term diabetic foot is usually used to indicate advanced foot pathology (complex clinical situations correlating diabetic foot ulcers, diabetic foot infections, Charcot foot, and critical limb ischemia). The early recognition of the etiology of these foot lesions is essential for the therapeutic decision in order to achieve a good functional result. Several surgical procedures involving the foot have been developed in order to promote healing and avoid complications. Traditionally, surgery has been performed in an open way. The literature regarding the performance and efficacy of classical osteotomies and arthrodesis is inconsistent. This can be attributed to several variables, such as differences in patient clinical aspects and the panel of surgical techniques utilized. As with other surgical specialties, fluoroscopic imaging and minimally invasive tools are now being incorporated in these procedures. The use of high speed burrs associated with specialized osteosynthesis implants, offers several advantages over classical techniques. The ability to associate these gestures to complex protocols is beginning to be currently developed. The respect for the soft tissues is considered one of the first advantages. Despite the limited time since they were introduced in clinical practice, functional results seemed to be consistent, supporting the use of this technology.
Raab, Jens; Schäfer, Henry; Brost, Alexander; Stamminger, Marc; Pfister, Marcus
Abdominal aortic aneurysms are a common disease of the aorta which are treated minimally invasive in about 33 % of the cases. Treatment is done by placing a stent graft in the aorta to prevent the aneurysm from growing. Guidance during the procedure is facilitated by fluoroscopic imaging. Unfortunately, due to low soft tissue contrast in X-ray images, the aorta itself is not visible without the application of contrast agent. To overcome this issue, advanced techniques allow to segment the aorta from pre-operative data, such as CT or MRI. Overlay images are then subsequently rendered from a mesh representation of the segmentation and fused to the live fluoroscopic images with the aim of improving the visibility of the aorta during the procedure. The current overlay images typically use forward projections of the mesh representation. This fusion technique shows deficiencies in both the 3-D information of the overlay and the visibility of the fluoroscopic image underneath. We present a novel approach to improve the visualization of the overlay images using non-photorealistic rendering techniques. Our method preserves the visibility of the devices in the fluoroscopic images while, at the same time, providing 3-D information of the fused volume. The evaluation by clinical experts shows that our method is preferred over current state-of-the-art overlay techniques. We compared three visualization techniques to the standard visualization. Our silhouette approach was chosen by clinical experts with 67 %, clearly showing the superiority of our new approach.
Martínez-Sanz, Elena; Varghese, Oommen P; Kisiel, Marta; Engstrand, Thomas; Reich, Karoline M; Bohner, Marc; Jonsson, Kenneth B; Kohler, Thomas; Müller, Ralph; Ossipov, Dmitri A; Hilborn, Jöns
Hyaluronic acid-based hydrogels are proven biocompatible materials and excellent carriers of bone morphogenetic protein-2 (BMP-2) that have been successfully tested for bone generation in vivo. Different formulations, with or without nanohydroxyapatite, have shown promise for craniofacial applications. In this study, 28 rats were used to investigate whether it is possible to achieve mandibular bone augmentation upon injection of novel hyaluronic acid-based hydrogels containing nanohydroxyapatite and different concentrations of BMP-2 (0, 5 and 150 µg/ml). The biomaterials were injected subperiosteally through fine needles into the innate mandibular diastema, imitating a clinical procedure for resorbed mandibles. No incisions, flaps or sutures were necessary. After 8 weeks the mandibles were evaluated by peripheral quantitative computed tomography (pQCT), micro-computed tomography (μCT), histology, immunohistochemistry and fluorochrome labelling. As a result, engineered bone was observed in all treated mandibles, with a statistically significant increase in mandibular bone volume correlated with the amount of BMP-2 loaded in the hydrogel formula. We therefore demonstrated that minimally invasive mandibular bone augmentation is possible upon injection in rats, when using the appropriate injectable scaffolds. This represents an attractive clinical alternative for oral implantology patients. Copyright © 2012 John Wiley & Sons, Ltd.
Kuo, Chin-Hsing; Dai, Jian S; Dasgupta, Prokar
Kinematic design is a predominant phase in the design of robotic manipulators for minimally invasive surgery (MIS). However, an extensive overview of the kinematic design issues for MIS robots is not yet available to both mechanisms and robotics communities. Hundreds of archival reports and articles on robotic systems for MIS are reviewed and studied. In particular, the kinematic design considerations and mechanism development described in the literature for existing robots are focused on. The general kinematic design goals, design requirements, and design preferences for MIS robots are defined. An MIS-specialized mechanism, namely the remote center-of-motion (RCM) mechanism, is revisited and studied. Accordingly, based on the RCM mechanism types, a classification for MIS robots is provided. A comparison between eight different RCM types is given. Finally, several open challenges for the kinematic design of MIS robotic manipulators are discussed. This work provides a detailed survey of the kinematic design of MIS robots, addresses the research opportunity in MIS robots for kinematicians, and clarifies the kinematic point of view to MIS robots as a reference for the medical community. Copyright © 2012 John Wiley & Sons, Ltd.
Brandão, Lívia M.; Grieshaber, Matthias C.
Traditional glaucoma surgery has been challenged by the advent of innovative techniques and new implants in the past few years. There is an increasing demand for safer glaucoma surgery offering patients a timely surgical solution in reducing intraocular pressure (IOP) and improving their quality of life. The new procedures and devices aim to lower IOP with a higher safety profile than fistulating surgery (trabeculectomy/drainage tubes) and are collectively termed “minimally invasive glaucoma surgery (MIGS).” The main advantage of MIGS is that they are nonpenetrating and/or bleb-independent procedures, thus avoiding the major complications of fistulating surgery related to blebs and hypotony. In this review, the clinical results of the latest techniques and devices are presented by their approach, ab interno (trabeculotomy, excimer laser trabeculotomy, trabecular microbypass, suprachoroidal shunt, and intracanalicular scaffold) and ab externo (canaloplasty, Stegmann Canal Expander, suprachoroidal Gold microshunt). The drawback of MIGS is that some of these procedures produce a limited IOP reduction compared to trabeculectomy. Currently, MIGS is performed in glaucoma patients with early to moderate disease and preferably in combination with cataract surgery. PMID:24369494
Khaimi, Mahmoud A.
Canaloplasty is a highly effective, minimally invasive, surgical technique indicated for the treatment of open-angle glaucoma that works by restoring the function of the eye's natural outflow system. The procedure's excellent safety profile and long-term efficacy make it a viable option for the majority of glaucoma patient types. It can be used in conjunction with existing drug based glaucoma treatments, after laser or other types of incisional surgery, and does not preclude or affect the outcome of future surgery. Numerous scientific studies have shown Canaloplasty to be safe and effective in lowering IOP whilst reducing medication dependence. A recent refinement of Canaloplasty, known as ab-interno Canaloplasty (ABiC), maintains the IOP-lowering and safety benefits of traditional (ab-externo) Canaloplasty using a more efficient, simplified surgical approach. This paper presents a review of Canaloplasty indications, clinical data, and complications, as well as comparisons with traditional incisional glaucoma techniques. It also addresses the early clinical evidence for ABiC. PMID:26495135
Ranzani, T; Gerboni, G; Cianchetti, M; Menciassi, A
This paper introduces a novel, bioinspired manipulator for minimally invasive surgery (MIS). The manipulator is entirely composed of soft materials, and it has been designed to provide similar motion capabilities as the octopus's arm in order to reach the surgical target while exploiting its whole length to actively interact with the biological structures. The manipulator is composed of two identical modules (each of them can be controlled independently) with multi-directional bending and stiffening capabilities, like an octopus arm. In the authors' previous works, the design of the single module has been addressed. Here a two-module manipulator is presented, with the final aim of demonstrating the enhanced capabilities that such a structure can have in comparison with rigid surgical tools currently employed in MIS. The performances in terms of workspace, stiffening capabilities, and generated forces are characterized through experimental tests. The combination of stiffening capabilities and manipulation tasks is also addressed to confirm the manipulator potential employment in a real surgical scenario.
Zgodziński, Witold; Masiak-Segit, Wioletta; Skoczylas, Tomasz; Dąbrowski, Andrzej
Open esophagectomy (OE) requires extensive surgery and is associated with significant morbidity and mortality. Furthermore, the long-term results of esophageal cancer surgery are not satisfactory; hence, the best surgical approach is constantly under debate. During the last twenty years, minimally invasive esophagectomy (MIE) employing laparoscopy and/or thoracoscopy has been introduced in a growing number of centers worldwide. To date, several studies have demonstrated that MIE has better outcomes than OE, as it results in shorter hospital stay and decreased overall morbidity. However, the length of operating time in MIE is increased in comparison to OE. The survival benefit has been demonstrated to be similar in OE and MIE. Highly advanced laparo-thoracoscopic skills are required to perform MIE; along with the relatively long learning curve, this makes MIE feasible only in high-volume, experienced university surgical centers. There is a need for further large-scale comparative studies to prove the superiority of MIE over open surgery. PMID:26336413
Manzoni, Alberto; Guerini, Francesca; Ramera, Marco; Aroldi, Francesca; Zaniboni, Alberto; Rosso, Edoardo
Background. For Tis and T1a gallbladder cancer (GbC), laparoscopic cholecystectomy can provide similar survival outcomes compared to open cholecystectomy. However, for patients affected by resectable T1b or more advanced GbC, open approach radical cholecystectomy (RC), consisting in gallbladder liver bed resection or segment 4b-5 bisegmentectomy, with locoregional lymphadenectomy, is considered the gold standard while minimally invasive RC (MiRC) is skeptically considered. Aim. To analyze current literature on perioperative and oncologic outcomes of MiRC for patients affected by GbC. Methods. A Medline review of published articles until June 2016 concerning MiRC for GbC was performed. Results. Data relevant for this review were presented in 13 articles, including 152 patients undergoing an attempt of MiRC for GbC. No randomized clinical trial was found. The approach was laparoscopic in 147 patients and robotic in five. Conversion was required in 15 (10%) patients. Postoperative complications rate was 10% with no mortality. Long-term survival outcomes were reported by 11 studies, two of them showing similar oncologic results when comparing MiRC with matched open RC. Conclusions. Although randomized clinical trials are still lacking and only descriptive studies reporting on limited number of patients are available, current literature seems suggesting that when performed at highly specialized centers, MiRC for GbC is safe and feasible and has oncologic outcomes comparable to open RC. PMID:27885325
Mathews, Sunish J.; Zhang, Edward Z.; Desjardins, Adrien E.; Beard, Paul C.
A miniature (175 μm) all-optical photoacoustic probe has been developed for minimally invasive sensing and imaging applications. The probe comprises a single optical fibre which delivers the excitation light and a broadband 50 MHz Fabry-Pérot (F-P) ultrasound sensor at the distal end for detecting the photoacoustic waves. A graded index lens proximal to the F-P sensor is used to reduce beam walk-off and thus increase sensitivity as well as confine the excitation beam in order to increase lateral spatial resolution. The probe was evaluated in non-scattering media and found to provide lateral and axial resolutions of < 100 μm and < 150 μm respectively for distances up to 1 cm from the tip of the probe. The ability of the probe to detect a blood vessel mimicking phantom at distances up to 7 mm from the tip was demonstrated in order to illustrate its potential suitability for needle guidance applications.
Inoue, Shogo; Kajiwara, Mitsuru; Teishima, Jun; Matsubara, Akio
Introduction: The aim of this study was to better understand the impact that public opinion might have on surgical approaches in urologic minimally invasive surgery (MIS). Methods: We collected surveys from 400 participants, including the general population (n = 220) and paramedical staff (n = 180). Participants were anonymous. The survey included 16 questions on the characteristics and preference for the surgical approach if a urologic MIS were performed on them. Results: The responders preferred the transumbilical approach (57.0%) to the subcostal approach (43.0%). In particular, the preference for a transumbilical approach was significantly higher in females (65.1% vs. 49.3%, p = 0.0014). Similarly, when participants were divided into two groups (<50 years and ≥50 years), the preference for the transumbilical approach was significantly higher in the younger group (60.8% vs. 48.0%, p = 0.0187). Logistic regression analysis revealed that preference for this approach was about 2 times more likely to rise in the females (p = 0.032). Conclusions: Preference for the transumbilical approach was significantly higher young female respondents. This patient subset most values the cosmetic benefits of transumbilical approach in urologic MIS. PMID:25624959
Cabrilo, Ivan; Schaller, Karl; Bijlenga, Philippe
The overlay of virtual images on the surgical field, defined as augmented reality, has been used for image guidance during various neurosurgical procedures. Although this technology could conceivably address certain inherent problems of extracranial-to-intracranial bypass procedures, this potential has not been explored to date. We evaluate the usefulness of an augmented reality-based setup, which could help in harvesting donor vessels through their precise localization in real-time, in performing tailored craniotomies, and in identifying preoperatively selected recipient vessels for the purpose of anastomosis. Our method was applied to 3 patients with Moya-Moya disease who underwent superficial temporal artery-to-middle cerebral artery anastomoses and 1 patient who underwent an occipital artery-to-posteroinferior cerebellar artery bypass because of a dissecting aneurysm of the vertebral artery. Patients' heads, skulls, and extracranial and intracranial vessels were segmented preoperatively from 3-dimensional image data sets (3-dimensional digital subtraction angiography, angio-magnetic resonance imaging, angio-computed tomography), and injected intraoperatively into the operating microscope's eyepiece for image guidance. In each case, the described setup helped in precisely localizing donor and recipient vessels and in tailoring craniotomies to the injected images. The presented system based on augmented reality can optimize the workflow of extracranial-to-intracranial bypass procedures by providing essential anatomical information, entirely integrated to the surgical field, and help to perform minimally invasive procedures. Copyright © 2015 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.
Kuo, Lindsay E; Murayama, Kenric; Simmons, Kristina D; Kelz, Rachel R
The goal of this study was to examine regional variation in use of minimally invasive surgical (MIS) operations. Regional variation exists in performance of surgical operations. Variation in the use of MIS has not been studied. Five operations that are performed open or MIS were selected: cholecystectomy, appendectomy, colectomy, antireflux, and bariatric. A 3-state database from 2008 to 2011 was used; states were divided into hospital service areas (HSAs). For each operation, the percentage of MIS operations was calculated. HSAs with less than 50% or more than 150% of the MIS average were considered outliers. Population demographics, geography, and hospital and physician presence were compared between HSAs. Rates of performance by patient disease and the presence of MIS surgeons were also investigated. MIS cholecystectomy was performed with low variation; MIS appendectomy, antireflux, and bariatric operations with medium variation; and MIS colectomy with high variation. With the exception of MIS colectomy, there were no differences in the patient demographics, geography, or disease types treated with an MIS approach between HSAs with low-, non-, or high utilization of MIS. There is no correlation between the number of MIS surgeons and the percentage of procedures performed MIS. Variation in utilization of MIS exists and differs by operation. Patient demographics, patient disease, and the ability to access care are associated only with variation in use of MIS for colectomy. For all other operations studied, these factors do not explain variation in MIS use. Further investigation is warranted to identify and eliminate causes of variation.
Coad, James E.
Currently, hyperthermic-based minimally invasive medical devices are available for the treatment of dysfunctional and neoplastic tissues in a variety of organ systems. These therapies employ a spectrum of modalities for delivering heat energy to the targeted tissue, including radiofrequency/microwave, high intensity focused ultrasound, conductive/convective sources and others. While differences in energy transfer and organ systems exist, hyperthermic treatment sites show a spectrum of changes that intimately correlate with the thermal history generated in the tissue (temperature-time dependence). As a result, these hyperthermic medical technologies can be viewed using a "gradient" approach. First, the thermal applications themselves can be globally categorized along a high-dose ablation to low-dose ablation to lowdose non-ablative rejuvenating slope. Second, the resultant tissue changes can be viewed along a decreasing thermal dose gradient from thermally/heat-fixed tissue necrosis to coagulative tissue necrosis to partial tissue necrosis (transition zone) to subtle non-necrotizing tissue changes. Finally, a gradient of cellular and structural protein denaturation is present, especially within the transition zone and adjacent viable tissue region. A hyperthermic treatment's location along these gradients depends more on the overall thermal history it generates than the amount of energy it deposits into the tissue. The features of these gradients are highlighted to provide a better understanding of hyperthermic device associated tissue changes and their associated healing responses.
Schmocker, Andreas M.; Khoushabi, Azadeh; Gantenbein-Ritter, Benjamin; Chan, Samantha; Bonél, Harald Marcel; Bourban, Pierre-Etienne; Mânson, Jan Anders; Schizas, Constantin; Pioletti, Dominique; Moser, Christophe
Photopolymerized hydrogels are commonly used for a broad range of biomedical applications. As long as the polymer volume is accessible, gels can easily be hardened using light illumination. However, in clinics, especially for minimally invasive surgery, it becomes highly challenging to control photopolymerization. The ratios between polymerizationvolume and radiating-surface-area are several orders of magnitude higher than for ex-vivo settings. Also tissue scattering occurs and influences the reaction. We developed a Monte Carlo model for photopolymerization, which takes into account the solid/liquid phase changes, moving solid/liquid-boundaries and refraction on these boundaries as well as tissue scattering in arbitrarily designable tissue cavities. The model provides a tool to tailor both the light probe and the scattering/absorption properties of the photopolymer for applications such as medical implants or tissue replacements. Based on the simulations, we have previously shown that by adding scattering additives to the liquid monomer, the photopolymerized volume was considerably increased. In this study, we have used bovine intervertebral disc cavities, as a model for spinal degeneration, to study photopolymerization in-vitro. The cavity is created by enzyme digestion. Using a custom designed probe, hydrogels were injected and photopolymerized. Magnetic resonance imaging (MRI) and visual inspection tools were employed to investigate the successful photopolymerization outcomes. The results provide insights for the development of novel endoscopic light-scattering polymerization probes paving the way for a new generation of implantable hydrogels.
Feng, Mei; Fu, Yili; Pan, Bo; Liu, Chang
Robot-assisted systems have been widely used in minimally invasive surgery (MIS) practice, and with them the precision and accuracy of surgical procedures can be significantly improved. Promoting the development of robot technology in MIS will improve robot performance and help in tackling problems from complex surgical procedures. A medical robot system with a new mechanism for MIS was proposed to achieve a two-dimensional (2D) remote centre of motion (RCM). An improved surgical instrument was designed to enhance manipulability and eliminate the coupling motion between the wrist and the grippers. The control subsystem adopted a master-slave control mode, upon which a new method with error compensation of repetitive feedback can be based for the inverse kinematics solution. A unique solution with less computation and higher satisfactory accuracy was also obtained. Tremor filtration and trajectory planning were also addressed with regard to the smoothness of the surgical instrument movement. The robot system was tested on pigs weighing 30-45 kg. The experimental results show that the robot can successfully complete a cholecystectomy and meet the demands of MIS. The results of the animal experiments were excellent, indicating a promising clinical application of the robot with high manipulability. Copyright © 2011 John Wiley & Sons, Ltd.
Hall, Sheldon K; Ooi, Ean Hin; Payne, Stephen J
Minimally invasive tumor ablations (MITAs) are an increasingly important tool in the treatment of solid tumors across multiple organs. The problems experienced in modeling different types of MITAs are very similar, but the development of mathematical models is mostly performed in isolation according to modality. Fundamental research into the modeling of specific types of MITAs is indeed required, but to choose the optimal treatment for an individual the primary clinical requirement is to have reliable predictions for a range of MITAs. In this review of the mathematical modeling of MITAs 4 modalities are considered: radiofrequency ablation, microwave ablation, cryoablation, and irreversible electroporation. The similarities in the mathematical modeling of these treatments are highlighted, and the analysis of the models within a general framework is discussed. This will aid in developing a deeper understanding of the sensitivity of MITA models to physiological parameters and the impact of uncertainty on predictions of the ablation zone. Through robust validation and analysis of the models it will be possible to choose the best model for a given application. This is important because many different models exist with no objective comparison of their performance. The collection of relevant in vivo experimental data is also critical to parameterize such models accurately. This approach will be necessary to translate the field into clinical practice.
Park, Adrian; Witzke, Donald; Donnelly, Michael
Patient preference has driven the adoption of minimally invasive surgery (MIS) techniques and altered surgical practice. MIS training in surgical residency programs must teach new skill sets with steep learning curves to enable residents to master key procedures. Because no nationally recognized MIS curriculum exists, this study asked experts in MIS which laparoscopic procedures should be taught and how many cases are required for competency. Expert recommendations were compared to the number of cases actually performed by residents (Residency Review Committee [RRC] data). A detailed survey was sent nationwide to all surgical residency programs (academic and private) known to offer training in MIS and/or have a leader in the field. The response rate was approximately 52%. RRC data were obtained from the resident statistics summary report for 1998-1999. Experts identified core procedures for MIS training and consistently voiced the opinion that to become competent, residents need to perform these procedures many more times than the RRC data indicate they currently do. At present, American surgical residency programs do not meet the suggested MIS case range or volume required for competency. Residency programs need to be restructured to incorporate sufficient exposure to core MIS procedures. More expert faculty must be recruited to train residents to meet the increasing demand for laparoscopy.
Dali, Dante; Howard, Trent; Mian Hashim, Hanif; Goldman, Charles D.
Background and Objectives: The safety of minimally invasive esophagectomy (MIE) outside of high-volume centers has not been studied. Therefore, we evaluated our experience with the introduction of MIE in the setting of a community teaching hospital. Methods: A retrospective cohort of all elective esophagectomy patients treated in a community hospital from 2008 through 2015 was evaluated (n = 57; open = 31 vs MIE = 26). Clavien-Dindo complication grades were recorded prospectively. Results: Mean age was 63 ± 11 years (range, 30–83), mean Charlson comorbidity index was 4.5 ± 1.7 and proportion of ASA score ≥3 was 87%. The groups did not differ in age, gender distribution, or comorbidity indices. There were 108 complications observed, including 2 deaths (3.5%, both coronary events). Postoperative complication rate was 77.1% and serious complication rate (grades 3 and 4) was 50.8% in the entire cohort. The rate of serious complications was similar (58% for open vs 42% for MIE group; 2-sided P = .089). MIE operations were longer (342 ± 109 vs 425 ± 74 minutes; P = .001). Length of stay trended toward not being significantly shorter among MIE cases (15 ± 13 vs 12 ± 12 days; P = .071). Logistic regression models including MIE status were not predictive of complications. Conclusions: Introduction of MIE esophagectomy in our community hospital was associated with prolonged operative time, but no detectable adverse outcomes. Length of stay was nonsignificantly shortened by the use of MIS esophagectomy. PMID:28144128
Cohen, Daniel; Mayer, Erik; Chen, Dongbin; Anstee, Ann; Vale, Justin; Yang, Guang-Zhong; Darzi, Ara; Edwards, Philip'eddie'
This paper presents our work aimed at providing augmented reality (AR) guidance of robot-assisted laparoscopic surgery (RALP) using the da Vinci system. There is a good clinical case for guidance due to the significant rate of complications and steep learning curve for this procedure. Patients who were due to undergo robotic prostatectomy for organ-confined prostate cancer underwent preoperative 3T MRI scans of the pelvis. These were segmented and reconstructed to form 3D images of pelvic anatomy. The reconstructed image was successfully overlaid onto screenshots of the recorded surgery post-procedure. Surgeons who perform minimally-invasive prostatectomy took part in a user-needs analysis to determine the potential benefits of an image guidance system after viewing the overlaid images. All surgeons stated that the development would be useful at key stages of the surgery and could help to improve the learning curve of the procedure and improve functional and oncological outcomes. Establishing the clinical need in this way is a vital early step in development of an AR guidance system. We have also identified relevant anatomy from preoperative MRI. Further work will be aimed at automated registration to account for tissue deformation during the procedure, using a combination of transrectal ultrasound and stereoendoscopic video.
Vigneswaran, Yalini; Ujiki, Michael B
Peroral endoscopic myotomy (POEM) is an emerging minimally invasive procedure for the treatment of achalasia. Due to the improvements in endoscopic technology and techniques, this procedure allows for submucosal tunneling to safely endoscopically create a myotomy across the hypertensive lower esophageal sphincter. In the hands of skilled operators and experienced centers, the most common complications of this procedure are related to insufflation and accumulation of gas in the chest and abdominal cavities with relatively low risks of devastating complications such as perforation or delayed bleeding. Several centers worldwide have demonstrated the feasibility of this procedure in not only early achalasia but also other indications such as redo myotomy, sigmoid esophagus and spastic esophagus. Short-term outcomes have showed great clinical efficacy comparable to laparoscopic Heller myotomy (LHM). Concerns related to postoperative gastroesophageal reflux remain, however several groups have demonstrated comparable clinical and objective measures of reflux to LHM. Although long-term outcomes are necessary to better understand durability of the procedure, POEM appears to be a promising new procedure.
Kumakiri, Jun; Matsuoka, Shozo; Takeda, Satoru
Background and Objects: To examine the learning curve of minimally invasive 2-port total laparoscopic myomectomy (TTLM). Methods: TTLM was performed by using only umbilicus and left inguinal ports, for 30 patients at our university affiliated hospital between May 2009 and February 2010. The times required for each of the 5 surgical phases of the early and late cases performed by the same surgeon were compared by using a DVD time counter. Results: The mean surgical time was 82.5±5.2 minutes, blood loss was 42.1±7.5mL, and weight of specimen was 65.3±13.3g. The eighth case was the first in which the surgical time fell below the overall mean surgical time. Comparison of the mean time of each phase between the 7 early and the subsequent (late) cases revealed significant differences in the times required for suturing. Conclusions: Although this was a feasibility study, the results suggest that this technique can be mastered after 7 cases. Learning curve, Suturing. PMID:22906339
Gómez-Chacón Villalba, J; Rodríguez Caraballo, L; Marco Macián, A; Segarra Llido, V; Vila Carbó, J J
To describe our experience using Minimally Invasive Surgery (MIS) techniques in tertiary center with specific oncological pediatric surgery unit. Retrospective review of patients undergoing MIS techniques in pediatric oncology surgery unit between January 2011 and December 2014. MIS procedures were considered made by both techniques such as laparoscopy and thoracoscopy with both diagnostic and therapeutic intent. 4 procedures were diagnostic and the rest were therapeutic: During the study, 56 procedures were performed by MIS. By type of technique, 13 were thoracoscopic (7 metastasectomies, 6 thoracic masses) and 43 laparoscopic (3 hepatic masses, 3 pancreatic masses 7 abdominal masses, 2 ovarian masses, 2 typhlitis 1 splenic mass and 25 oophorectomy for ovarian cryopreservation). In 5 cases (2 thoracic masses 1 pancreatic mass abdominal masses) conversion to open surgery to complete the procedure (2 for caution in the absence of vascular control bleeding 1 and 2 for lack of space) was necessary. In all cases safety principles of oncological surgery were respected. Providing an adecuate selection of patiens, MIS techniques are safe, reproducible and fulfill the objectives of quality of cancer surgery.
Rachbauer, Franz; Krismer, Martin
Minimally invasive total hip arthroplasty via direct anterior approach aims at reducing soft-tissue damage, diminishing blood loss and postoperative pain, shortening stay in hospital, accelerating rehabilitation, and keeping scars small. The technique is suitable for primary and secondary osteoarthritis as well as fractures of the femoral neck. Complex distortions of the proximal femur should be exempted. Complex malalignment of the proximal femur. The femoral neck is exposed in the interval between tensor fasciae latae, glutei medius and minimus muscles laterally, and sartorius and rectus femoris muscles medially. After osteotomy of the neck and extraction of the head the acetabulum is reamed to prepare for cup prosthesis. Following peritrochanteric capsulotomy the externally rotated, adducted and elevated femor is broached. Cemented and cementless implants may be used. The patients are allowed to walk full weight bearing beginning on the 1st postoperative day. As soon as they are able to safely master the transfers and stairs, they are discharged. The method is a safe procedure that allows correct placement of acetabular and femoral components. It may be performed in a reasonable time, the blood loss is little. The procedure preserves the muscles and leads to small, cosmetically pleasing scars. Patients usually do not suffer from pronounced pain, rehabilitation is accelerated. They therefore agree in an short postoperative stay in hospital.
Belhaoua, Abdelkrim; Moreau, Johan; Krebs, Alexandre; Waechter, Julien; Radoux, Jean-Pierre; Marescaux, Jacques
Hybrid operating rooms are an important development in the medical ecosystem. They allow integrating, in the same procedure, the advantages of radiological imaging and surgical tools. However, one of the challenges faced by clinical engineers is to support the connectivity and interoperability of medical-electrical point-of-care devices. A system that could enable plug-and-play connectivity and interoperability for medical devices would improve patient safety, save hospitals time and money, and provide data for electronic medical records. In this paper, we propose a hardware platform dedicated to collect and synchronize multiple videos captured from medical equipment in real-time. The final objective is to integrate augmented reality technology into an operation room (OR) in order to assist the surgeon during a minimally invasive operation. To the best of our knowledge, there is no prior work dealing with hardware based video synchronization for augmented reality applications on OR. Whilst hardware synchronization methods can embed temporal value, so called timestamp, into each sequence on-the-y and require no post-processing, they require specialized hardware. However the design of our hardware is simple and generic. This approach was adopted and implemented in this work and its performance is evaluated by comparison to the start-of-the-art methods.
Bogdanova, Rositsa; Boulanger, Pierre; Zheng, Bin
Minimally invasive surgery (MIS) poses visual challenges to the surgeons. In MIS, binocular disparity is not freely available for surgeons, who are required to mentally rebuild the 3-dimensional (3D) patient anatomy from a limited number of monoscopic visual cues. The insufficient depth cues from the MIS environment could cause surgeons to misjudge spatial depth, which could lead to performance errors thus jeopardizing patient safety. In this article, we will first discuss the natural human depth perception by exploring the main depth cues available for surgeons in open procedures. Subsequently, we will reveal what depth cues are lost in MIS and how surgeons compensate for the incomplete depth presentation. Next, we will further expand our knowledge by exploring some of the available solutions for improving depth presentation to surgeons. Here we will review the innovative approaches (multiple 2D camera assembly, shadow introduction) and devices (3D monitors, head-mounted devices, and auto-stereoscopic monitors) for 3D image presentation from the past few years. © The Author(s) 2016.
Costa, T N; Abdalla, R Z; Santo, M A; Tavares, R R F M; Abdalla, B M Z; Cecconello, I
The introduction of the minimally invasive approach changed the way abdominal surgery was carried out. Open suture and mesh reinforcement in ventral hernia repair used to be the surgeon's choice of procedure. Although the laparoscopic approach, with defect bridging and mesh fixation, has been described since 1993, the procedure remains largely unchanged. Evidence shows that defect closure and retro-muscular mesh positioning have the best outcomes and are the best surgical practice. We therefore aimed to develop and demonstrate a procedure which combined the good results of open surgery using the Rives-Stoppa principles, particularly in terms of recurrence, with all the benefits of minimally invasive surgery. Between October 2012 and February 2014, 15 post-bariatric surgery patients underwent laparoscopic midline incisional hernia repair. The peritoneal cavity was accessed through a 5-mm optical view cannula at the superior left quadrant. A suprapubic and two right and left lower quadrant cannulas were inserted for inferior access and dissection. The defect adhesions were released. The whole midline was closed with an endoscopic linear stapler, including the defect, from the lower abdomen, 4 cm below the umbilicus, until the epigastric region, including posterior sheath mechanical suturing and cutting in the same movement. A retrorectus space was created in which a retro-muscular mesh was deployed. Fixation was done using a hernia stapler against the posterior sheath from the peritoneal cavity to the abdominal wall muscles. Selection was based on xifo-umbilical incisional midline hernias post open bariatric surgery. Pregnant women, cancer patients, or patients with clinical contraindications were excluded. The patients mean age was 51.2 years (range 39-67). Four patients were men and eleven women. Two had well-compensated fibromyalgia, four had diabetes, and five had hypertension. The mean BMI was 29.5 kg/m2 (range 23-31.6). Surgery was performed successfully in all
Pisla, D; Gherman, B; Plitea, N; Gyurka, B; Vaida, C; Vlad, L; Graur, F; Radu, C; Suciu, M; Szilaghi, A; Stoica, A
This paper presents the parallel hybrid robot, PARASURG 9M, for robotically assisted surgery, a robot which was entirely designed and produced in Romania. It is a versatile robot, being composed of a positioning and orientation module, PARASURG 5M with five degrees of freedom, having the possibility of attaching at its end either a laparoscope or an active surgical instrument for cutting/grasping, PARASIM, with four degrees of freedom. Based on its mathematical modelling, the first low-cost experimental model of the surgical robot has been built. The robot is part of the surgical robotic system, PARAMIS, with three arms, one used as a laparoscope holder, and other two for manipulating active instruments. When it is used as a manipulator of the camera, the user has the possibility to give commands in a large area for the positioning of the laparoscope using different interfaces: joystick, microphone, keyboard & mouse and haptic device. If the active surgical instrument, PARASIM, is attached, the robot commands are given through a haptic device. The main features that make the PARASURG 9M surgical robot suited for minimally invasive surgery are: precision, the elimination of the natural tremor of the surgeon, direct control over a smooth, precise, stable view of the internal surgical field for the surgeon. It also eliminates the need of a second surgeon to be present for the entire procedure (in the case of using the robot as a camera holder). In addition, there is improvement of surgeon dexterity in the case of using the PARASIM active instrument and better ergonomics in using the robot (in the case of the classic laparoscopy, the surgeon must adopt a difficult position for a long period of time, while the robot never gets tired). Having a relatively easy to understand, intuitive commanding system, the surgeons can rapidly adapt to the use of the PARASURG 9M robot in surgical procedures.
Fankhauser, Grant T; Stone, William M; Naidu, Sailendra G; Oderich, Gustavo S; Ricotta, Joseph J; Bjarnason, Haraldur; Money, Samuel R
Minimally invasive methods (MIMs) are now available for the management of visceral artery aneurysms and pseudoaneurysms (visceral artery aneurysms [VAA]). The purpose of this study was to review our 10-year experience with the MIM of treating VAA. All patients evaluated from June 1999 to June 2009 with VAAs were reviewed. Demographics, therapy, and results were analyzed. MIM was attempted in 185 aneurysms in 176 patients. Initial intervention was successful in 98% ofaneurysms. Sixty-three (34%) aneurysms were located in the splenic artery, 56 (30%) in the hepatic, 28 (15%) in the gastroduodenal, 16 (8.6%) in the pancreaticoduodenal, six (3.2%) in the superior mesenteric, four (2.1%) in the gastric, four (2.1%) in the celiac, four (2.1%) in the gastroepiploic, two (1%) in the inferior mesenteric, and one (0.5%) in the middle colic artery. Pseudoaneurysms were more common than true aneurysms (64% vs 36%). Bleeding was the indication for intervention in 86 aneurysms (46%). Initial treatment was successful in 177 aneurysms (98%). Reintervention was required in five (3%) aneurysms within 30 days. Coiling was used alone in 139 aneurysms (75%) and in combination with at least one other technique in 20 (11%) cases. Thirty-day aneurysm-related mortality was 3.4% (six deaths). Five additional deaths occurred during 30-day follow-up, although none was related to complications of the aneurysms (2.8%). MIM for visceral artery aneurysms can be used alone or in combination to effectively treat VAAs in elective or emergent conditions. Copyright © 2011 Society for Vascular Surgery. Published by Mosby, Inc. All rights reserved.
Ota, Takeyoshi; Patronik, Nicholas A.; Schwartzman, David; Riviere, Cameron N.; Zenati, Marco A.
Background We have developed a novel miniature robotic device (HeartLander) that can navigate on the surface of the beating heart through a subxiphoid approach. This study investigates the ability of HeartLander to perform in vivo semiautonomous epicardial injections on the beating heart. Methods and Results The inchworm-like locomotion of HeartLander is generated using vacuum pressure for prehension of the epicardium and drive wires for actuation. The control system enables semiautonomous target acquisition by combining the joystick input with real-time 3-dimensional localization of the robot provided by an electromagnetic tracking system. In 12 porcine preparations, the device was inserted into the intrapericardial space through a subxiphoid approach. Ventricular epicardial injections of dye were performed with a custom injection system through HeartLander’s working channel. HeartLander successfully navigated to designated targets located around the circumference of the ventricles (mean path length=51±25 mm; mean speed=38±26 mm/min). Injections were successfully accomplished following the precise acquisition of target patterns on the left ventricle (mean injection depth=3.0±0.5 mm). Semiautonomous target acquisition was achieved within 1.0±0.9 mm relative to the reference frame of the tracking system. No fatal arrhythmia or bleeding was noted. There were no histological injuries to the heart due to the robot prehension, locomotion, or injection. Conclusions In this proof-of-concept study, HeartLander demonstrated semiautonomous, precise, and safe target acquisition and epicardial injection on a beating porcine heart through a subxiphoid approach. This technique may facilitate minimally invasive cardiac cell transplantation or polymer therapy in patients with heart failure. PMID:18824742
Merino, P; Blanco Domínguez, I; Gómez de Liaño, P
To study the outcomes of minimally invasive strabismus surgery (MISS) for treating horizontal deviation Case Series of the first 26 consecutive patients operated on using the MISS technique in our hospital from February 2010 to March 2014. A total of 40 eyes were included: 26 patients (mean age: 7.7 years old ± 4.9); 34.61%: male. A total of 43 muscles were operated on: 20 medial, and 23 lateral recti; 28 recessions (range: 3-7.5mm), 6 resections (6-7 mm), and 9 plications (6.5-7.5 mm) were performed. No significant difference was found (P>0.05) for visual acuity at postoperative day 1, and 6 months after surgery. A mild hyperaemia was observed in 29.27%, moderate in 48.78%, and severe in 21.95% at postoperative day 1 and in 63.41%, 31.70% and 4.87%, respectively, at 4 days after surgery. The complications observed were 4 intraoperative conjunctival haemorrhages, 1 scleral perforation, and 2 Tenon's prolapses. A conversion from MISS to a fornix approach was necessary in 1 patient because of bad visualization. The operating time range decreased from 30 to 15 minutes. The MISS technique has obtained good results in horizontal strabismus surgery. The conjunctival inflammation was mild in most of the cases at postoperative day 4. The visual acuity was stable during follow-up, and operating time decreased after a 4-year learning curve. Copyright © 2015 Sociedad Española de Oftalmología. Published by Elsevier España, S.L.U. All rights reserved.
Harrel, Stephen K; Abraham, Celeste M; Rivera-Hidalgo, Francisco; Shulman, Jay D; Nunn, Martha E
Small incision surgery has become routine in many areas of medicine but has not been widely accepted in periodontal therapy. A videoscope to assist minimally invasive surgery (MIS) has been developed. The clinical outcomes from MIS performed using this videoscope (V-MIS) are reported. Patients were evaluated for residual defects following non-surgical therapy consisting of root planing with local anaesthetic. Thirty patients having 110 sites with residual pocket probing depth (PPD) of at least 5 mm, 2 mm loss of clinical attachment level (CAL), and radiographic evidence of bone loss were surgically treated. V-MIS was performed utilizing the videoscope for surgical visualization. At re-evaluation 6 months post surgery, there was a statistically significant improvement (p < .001) in mean PPD and CAL (PPD 3.88 ± 1.02 mm, CAL 4.04 ± 1.38 mm) in 1, 2, and 3 wall defects. All PPD at re-evaluation were 3 mm or less. There was a mean post-surgical increase in soft tissue height (0.13 ± 0.61 mm, p = 0.168) with a decrease in recession. The improvement in PPD and CAL from V-MIS, in the authors' opinion, appears to be favourable when compared to previously reported results of periodontal regenerative surgery. The lack of post-surgical recession following V-MIS has not been reported with traditional regenerative surgery. © 2014 John Wiley & Sons A/S. Published by John Wiley & Sons Ltd.
Gu, Jiangning; Zhu, Yi; Qin, Kai; Zhan, Qian; Cheng, Dongfeng; Chen, Hao; Deng, Xiaxing; Shen, Baiyong; Peng, Chenghong
Background The most effective and radical treatment for pancreatic neuroendocrine tumors (PNETs) is surgical resection. Minimally invasive surgery has been increasingly used in pancreatectomy. Initial results in robotic distal pancreatectomy (RDP) have been encouraging. Nonetheless, data comparing outcomes of RDP with those of laparoscopic distal pancreatectomy (LDP) in treating PNETs are rare. The aim of this study was to compare the safety and efficacy of RDP and LDP for PNETs. Methods From September 2010 to January 2017, operative parameters and perioperative outcomes in an initial experience with 43 consecutive patients undergoing RDP were collected and compared with those in 31 patients undergoing LDP. Results Patients undergoing RDP and LDP demonstrated equivalent age, sex, ASA score, tumor location and tumor size. Operating time, length of resected pancreas, postoperative length of hospital stay and rates of conversion to open, pancreatic fistula, transfusion and reoperation were not statistically different. Patients in the RDP group were associated with significantly higher overall (79.1 vs. 48.4 %, P = 0.006) and Kimura spleen preservation rates (72.1 vs. 16.1%, P < 0.001) and had reduced risk of excessive blood loss (50 vs. 200mL, P < 0.001). Oncological outcomes in this series were superior for the RDP group with more lymph node harvest for G2 and G3 PNETs (3.5 vs. 2, P = 0.034). Conclusions Both RDP and LDP are efficacious and safe methods in treating PNETs located in the body or tail of pancreas. Robotic approach offers advantages with less intraoperative blood loss, higher spleen preservation rate and more lymph node harvest. It may be sensible to choose RDP for patients who fit indications for scheduled spleen preservation. PMID:28477012
Joos, Karen; Shah, Rohan; Shen, Jin
Purpose: Orbital tumors and pseudotumor cerebri are sometimes treated with surgical approaches. Our previous studies suggest that potentially endoscopy may be useful for minimally invasive orbital surgery. This study proposed to improve the approach technique for accessing the posterior orbital space via endoscopy, as well as assess visibility improvements with CO II insufflation to posterior orbital tissues. Methods: An inferior transconjunctival approach accessed the posterior orbital space in non-survival pigs. Various guidance tubes were compared to assess ability to guide the endoscope to the posterior orbit with the greatest ease and visibility. FEL energy application (6.1 μm, 2.7 +/- 0.5 mJ, 30 Hz, delivered via glass-hollow waveguide) was attempted via endoscopy. The effect of CO II gas insufflation was assessed by analyzing visibility of the stuctures before and after CO II application. Results: The posterior orbit was accessed via endoscopy in all except the first attempted eye. A beveled transparent butyrate tube provided the best guidance for the endoscope and an opaque metal tube provided the worst guidance. The optic nerve was encountered and FEL energy was applied with the butyrate tube in 8 orbits. Visibility was adequate without CO II insufflation, and did not improve with CO II. Conclusions: The posterior orbit was successfully accessed using endoscopy. The optic nerve was exposed and treated with FEL energy. CO II insufflation did not further enhance visibility in this study. Application of endoscopy for posterior orbital procedures is feasible, but extreme surgical care is required and further study with human cadaveric eyes is needed.
Altieri, Maria S; Frenkel, Catherine; Scriven, Richard; Thornton, Deborah; Halbert, Caitlin; Talamini, Mark; Telem, Dana A; Pryor, Aurora D
There is an increased need for surgical trainees to acquire advanced laparoscopic skills as laparoscopy becomes the standard of care in many areas of general surgery. Since the introduction of minimally invasive surgery (MIS) fellowships, there has been a continuing debate as to whether these fellowships adversely affect general surgery resident exposure to laparoscopic cases. The aim of our study was to examine whether the introduction of an MIS fellowship negatively impacts general surgery residents' experience at a single academic center. We describe the changes following establishment of MIS fellowship at an academic center. Resident case log system from the Accreditation Council for Graduate Medical Education was queried to obtain all PGY 1-5 resident operative case logs. Two-year time period preceding and following the institution of an MIS fellowship at our institution in 2012 was compared. P values less than 0.05 were considered statistically significant. Following initiation of the MIS fellowship, an MIS service was established. The service comprised of a fellow, midlevel resident, and intern. Operative experience was examined. From 2010-2012 to 2012-2014, residents logged a total of 272 and 585 complex laparoscopic cases, respectively. There were 43 residents from 2010 to 2013 and 44 residents from 2013 to 2014. When the two time periods were compared, a trend of increased numbers for all procedures was noted, except laparoscopic GYN/genito-urinary procedures. Average percent increase in complex general surgery procedures was 249 ± 179.8 %. Following establishment of a MIS fellowship, reported cases by residents were higher or similar to those reported nationally for laparoscopic procedures. Institution of an MIS fellowship had a favorable effect on general surgery resident operative education at a single academic training center. Residents may benefit from the presence of a fellowship at an academic center because they are able to participate in an
Silverstein, Herbert; Ojo, Rosemary; Daugherty, Julie; Nazarian, Ronen; Wazen, Jack
Objective: To evaluate the efficacy of a minimally invasive surgical procedure in patients with severe hyperacusis. Study Design: Prospective, longitudinal design. Setting: Tertiary referral center. Patients: Adult patients with history of severe hyperacusis. Intervention: Using a transcanal approach, the round and oval window was reinforced with temporalis fascia or tragal perichondrium in six subjects (nine ears) and was subdivided into two groups (unilateral or bilateral reinforcement procedure). Main Outcome Measures: Pre- and postoperative noise tolerance was measured using uncomfortable loudness level (ULL) test scores. In addition, a self-report hyperacusis questionnaire (HQ) was used to assess hypersensitivity to sound before and after the intervention. Results: Analysis of the data reveals improved postoperative mean ULL test scores of 14 dB (confidence interval [CI], 70–98 dB) in the unilateral group. For the bilateral group, improved mean scores were 13 dB (CI, 63–88 dB) in the first ear and 8 dB (CI, 71–86 dB) for the second ear. Further, a negative linear trend was observed in the mean subjective scores for the HQ when both groups measures were analyzed together decreasing from a mean score of 32.0 (standard deviation [SD] = 3.32) preoperative to a mean score of 11.5 (SD = 7.42) after surgery. Postoperatively, the patients reported no change in hearing and improved quality of life after the procedure. Conclusion: The results suggest that reinforcement of the round and oval window with temporalis fascia or tragal perichondrium may offer significant benefit for individuals with severe hyperacusis that has not responded to traditional therapy. ULL scores and self-report measures postoperatively demonstrate improved noise tolerance, high patient satisfaction, and enhanced quality of life. PMID:27668792
Eriksen, Kathrine Olaussen; Johal, Navroop Singh
Minimally invasive surgery (MIS) in the management of malignant and benign renal tumours in children is gradually becoming more common. Experience is limited and restricted to case reports, retrospective chart reviews and a few cohort studies. There are currently no randomized controlled trials or controlled clinical trials comparing the laparoscopic and open surgical approach for the management of renal tumours in children. MIS may offer the same oncologic outcome in malignant renal tumours whilst providing the advantages associated with MIS in correctly selected cases. The technique for tumour resection has been shown to be feasible in regards to the recommended oncologic principles, although lymph node sampling can be inadequate in some cases. Preliminary reports do not show an increased risk of tumour rupture or inferior oncologic outcomes after MIS. However, the sample size remains small and duration of follow-up inadequate to draw any firm conclusions. Implementation of MIS is lacking in the protocols of the major study groups, and standardized recommendations for the indications and contra-indications remain undefined. The objective of this article is to present a review of the literature on the role of MIS in the management of renal tumours in children, with the main focus on Wilms’ tumour (WT). Further studies on MIS in renal tumours are required to evaluate the incidence of oncological complications such as complete tumour resection and intra-operative tumour spillage. A long-term follow-up of patients managed by MIS is essential to compare recurrence rates and overall survival rates. PMID:27867856
Parker, Michael; Pfluke, Jason M; Shaddix, Kyle K; Asbun, Horacio J; Smith, C Daniel; Bowers, Steven P
Minimally invasive esophagectomy (MIE) may involve video-assisted thoracoscopic surgery (VATS) for mediastinal esophageal dissection. Usually, VATS requires single-lung ventilation and has associated cardiopulmonary morbidity [1-3]. Alternatively, transhiatal dissection can be performed, although its complications include vocal cord palsy , cardiac arrythmias , and increased bleeding [5, 6], the latter associated with mortality after esophagectomy . Therefore, the feasibility of MIE using transcervical videoscopic esophageal dissection (TVED) in swine was investigated. A simultaneous laparoscopic and TVED approach may decrease operative time and blood loss while improving visualization and avoiding single-lung ventilation. Two pigs (Sus domesticus) underwent two similar procedures. The methods were approved by the authors' Institutional Animal Care and Use Committee (no. A24209) under United States Department of Agriculture guidelines. Steps included a cervical incision to accommodate a modified hand-assist access device. The cervical esophagus was dissected. Trocars were placed through the modified access device, and pneumomediastinum was established. The tracheoesophageal plane was dissected into the thorax and beyond the mid esophagus, on which the pleura of the separate mediastinal compartment inserts itself. Vagal nerves were identified and divided distal to recurrent branches. Standard laparoscopic techniques were used for esophagogastric dissection. After specimen extraction, the animals were euthanized. A full circumferential dissection of the mediastinal esophagus was successfully accomplished in two animals using a single-incision TVED for MIE. A novel technique for mediastinal esophageal dissection using a TVED approach performed with instruments designed for single-port surgery is described. Fortunately, the human lacks the swine's separate mediastinal compartment, and this unique difference should facilitate the human version of this
Palacios, M García; Somoza, I; Lema, A; Molina, M E; Veiras, J Gómez; Tellado, M; Ríos, J; Dargallo, T; Pais, E; Vela, D
Helix valgus or procident ears is a common problem that affects about 5% of the population. The folds of the antehelix and the overdevelopment of the concha are the most commonly found anatomic alterations of the ear pavilion. In children this pathology usually causes anxiety and an emotional trauma that may interfere in their normal development. There are a few tipes of techniques to correct helix valgus. We present the application of the technique in our service. We conduct the otoplastia with an outer puntiform technique which allows us to cut the cartilage partially from the outside. Next we fold from the rear the antehelix and hide the concha. We analysed 7 years of the application of this technique and we now present 87 otoplastias conducted to 44 children. The 97% of them were bilateral. No precocious complications have been observed after the surgery. All cases except for one of them have been bilateral. All the patients were satisfied with the aesthetic results. None of them showed relapse. In one case there was a hypertrophic scar that required cutting and in 2 of the cases there was a slight hypercorrection. Procident ears may occasion a psychological trauma in children. We believe that this technique, which is minimally invasive, provides very satisfactory aesthetic results, the puntiform scar being hardly noticed fifteen days before surgery. The patients need to stay in hospital for a short period, 24-48 hours, and complications are very rare, recidiva has not been described. We strongly recommend this technique for the correction of procident ears.
Kenton, Kimberly; Mueller, Elizabeth R.; Tarney, Christopher; Bresee, Catherine; Anger, Jennifer T.
Objective The primary aim of this study was to report anatomic, symptom, and quality of life outcomes in women with symptomatic stage 2 or greater prolapse 1 year after randomization to robotic and laparoscopic sacrocolpopexy. Methods This is a planned ancillary analysis of the Abdominal Colpopexy: Comparison of Endoscopic Surgical Strategies trial, a randomized comparative effectiveness trial comparing costs and outcomes of robotic and laparoscopic sacrocolpopexy at 2 academic medical centers. At baseline and 1 year after surgery, women underwent standardized assessment including validated subjective pelvic floor outcomes and physical examination with prolapse assessment. Results Sixty six (85%) of 78 randomized participants completed 1-year follow-up: 33 (87%) of 38 in the laparoscopic arm and 33 (83%) of 40 in the robotic arm (P = 0.59). Ninety-seven percent (32/33) in the laparoscopic group and 100% (33/33) in the robotic arm considered that their prolapse symptoms improved (P = 0.999). The cohort had significant improvement in all pelvic floor symptom and quality of life measures, which did not differ by treatment arm. Of women who were sexually active at 1 year, sexual function improved in both cohorts. No new serious adverse events, including mesh exposure or reoperation for prolapse, were identified between 6 months and 1 year after surgery. No women had a sacrocolpopexy mesh complication or reoperation for mesh exposure. Conclusions Minimally invasive sacrocolpopexy is associated with significant improvement in pelvic floor symptoms, anatomy, and sexual function. In addition, mesh exposure rates with lightweight polypropylene mesh seem to be lower than those reported with multifilament and heavier polypropylene mesh. PMID:27403758
Tinawi-Aljundi, Rima; Knuth, Shannon T; Gildea, Michael; Khal, Joshua; Hafron, Jason; Kernen, Kenneth; Di Loreto, Robert; Aurich-Costa, Joan
Purpose The ability to test for and detect prostate cancer with minimal invasiveness has the potential to reduce unnecessary prostate biopsies. This study was conducted as part of a clinical investigation for the development of an OligoFISH® probe panel for more accurate detection of prostate cancer. Materials and methods One hundred eligible male patients undergoing transrectal ultrasound biopsies were enrolled in the study. After undergoing digital rectal examination with pressure, voided urine was collected in sufficient volume to prepare at least two slides using ThinPrep. Probe panels were tested on the slides, and 500 cells were scored when possible. From the 100 patients recruited, 85 had more than 300 cells scored and were included in the clinical performance calculations. Results Chromosomes Y, 7, 10, 20, 6, 8, 16, and 18 were polysomic in most prostate carcinoma cases. Of these eight chromosomes, chromosomes 7, 16, 18, and 20 were identified as having the highest clinical performance as a fluorescence in situ hybridization test and used to manufacture the fluorescence in situ hybridization probe panels. The OligoFISH® probes performed with 100% analytical specificity. When the OligoFISH® probes were compared with the biopsy results for each individual, the test results highly correlated with positive and negative prostate biopsy pathology findings, supporting their high specificity and accuracy. Probes for chromosomes 7, 16, 18, and 20 showed in the receiver operator characteristics analysis an area under the curve of 0.83, with an accuracy of 81% in predicting the biopsy result. Conclusion This investigation demonstrates the ease of use with high specificity, high predictive value, and accuracy in identifying prostate cancer in voided urine after digital rectal examination with pressure. The test is likely to have positive impact on clinical practice and advance approaches to the detection of prostate cancer. Further evaluation is warranted. PMID
Solinas, Marco; Farneti, Pier Andrea; Cerillo, Alfredo Giuseppe; Kallushi, Enkel; Santarelli, Filippo; Glauber, Mattia
Background This study reports the single center experience on minimally invasive aortic valve replacement (MIAVR), performed through a right anterior minithoracotomy or ministernotomy (MS). Methods Eight hundred and fifty-three patients, who underwent MIAVR from 2002 to 2014, were retrospectively analyzed. Survival was evaluated using the Kaplan-Meier method. The Cox multivariable proportional hazards regression model was developed to identify independent predictors of follow-up mortality. Results Median age was 73.8, and 405 (47.5%) of patients were female. The overall 30-day mortality was 1.9%. Four hundred and forty-three (51.9%) and 368 (43.1%) patients received biological and sutureless prostheses, respectively. Median cardiopulmonary bypass time and aortic cross-clamping time were 108 and 75 minutes, respectively. Nineteen (2.2%) cases required conversion to full median sternotomy. Thirty-seven (4.3%) patients required re-exploration for bleeding. Perioperative stroke occurred in 15 (1.8%) patients, while transient ischemic attack occurred postoperative in 11 (1.3%). New onset atrial fibrillation was reported for 243 (28.5%) patients. After a median follow-up of 29.1 months (2,676.0 patient-years), survival rates at 1 and 5 years were 96%±1% and 80%±3%, respectively. Cox multivariable analysis showed that advanced age, history of cardiac arrhythmia, preoperative chronic renal failure, MS approach, prolonged mechanical ventilation and hospital stay as well as wound revision were associated with higher mortality. Conclusions MIAVR via both approaches is safe and feasible with excellent outcomes, and is associated with low conversion rate and low perioperative morbidity. Long term survival is at least comparable to that reported for conventional sternotomy AVR. PMID:25870812
Matsuo, Takeshi; Kawasaki, Keisuke; Osada, Takahiro; Sawahata, Hirohito; Suzuki, Takafumi; Shibata, Masahiro; Miyakawa, Naohisa; Nakahara, Kiyoshi; Iijima, Atsuhiko; Sato, Noboru; Kawai, Kensuke; Saito, Nobuhito; Hasegawa, Isao
Electrocorticography (ECoG), multichannel brain-surface recording and stimulation with probe electrode arrays, has become a potent methodology not only for clinical neurosurgery but also for basic neuroscience using animal models. The highly evolved primate's brain has deep cerebral sulci, and both gyral and intrasulcal cortical regions have been implicated in important functional processes. However, direct experimental access is typically limited to gyral regions, since placing probes into sulci is difficult without damaging the surrounding tissues. Here we describe a novel methodology for intrasulcal ECoG in macaque monkeys. We designed and fabricated ultra-thin flexible probes for macaques with micro-electro-mechanical systems technology. We developed minimally invasive operative protocols to implant the probes by introducing cutting-edge devices for human neurosurgery. To evaluate the feasibility of intrasulcal ECoG, we conducted electrophysiological recording and stimulation experiments. First, we inserted parts of the Parylene-C-based probe into the superior temporal sulcus to compare visually evoked ECoG responses from the ventral bank of the sulcus with those from the surface of the inferior temporal cortex. Analyses of power spectral density and signal-to-noise ratio revealed that the quality of the ECoG signal was comparable inside and outside of the sulcus. Histological examination revealed no obvious physical damage in the implanted areas. Second, we placed a modified silicone ECoG probe into the central sulcus and also on the surface of the precentral gyrus for stimulation. Thresholds for muscle twitching were significantly lower during intrasulcal stimulation compared to gyral stimulation. These results demonstrate the feasibility of intrasulcal ECoG in macaques. The novel methodology proposed here opens up a new frontier in neuroscience research, enabling the direct measurement and manipulation of electrical activity in the whole brain.
Essayed, Walid I; Deb, Sayantan; Hoffman, Caitlin; Schwartz, Theodore H
Introduction We describe the feasibility of using minimally invasive robotic laser interstitial thermotherapy (LITT) for achieving an anterior two-thirds as well as a complete corpus callosotomy. Methods Ten probe trajectories were plotted on normal magentic resonance imaging (MRI) scans using the Brainlab Stereotactic Planning Software (Brainlab, Munich, Germany). The NeuroBlate® System (Monteris Medical, MN, USA) was used to conform the thermal burn to the corpus callosum along the trajectory of the probe. The distance of the ideal entry site from either the coronal suture and the torcula or nasion and the midline was calculated. The distance of the probe tip from the dorsal and ventral limits of the callosotomy in the sagittal plane were also calculated. Results Anterior two-thirds callosotomy was possible in all patients using a posterior parieto-occipital paramedian trajectory through the non-dominant lobe. The average entry point was 3.64 cm from the midline, 10.6 cm behind the coronal suture, and 9.2 cm above the torcula. The probe tip was an average of 1.4 cm from the anterior commissure. For a total callosotomy, an additional contralaterally placed frontal probe was used to target the posterior one-third of the corpus callosum. The average entry site was 3.3 cm from the midline and 9.1 cm above the nasion. The average distance of the probe tip from the base of the splenium was 0.94 cm. Conclusion The directional thermoablation capability of the NeuroBlate® system allows for targeted lesioning of the corpus callosum, to achieve a two-thirds or complete corpus callosotomy. A laser distance of < 2 cm is sufficient to reach the entire corpus callosum through one trajectory for an anterior two-thirds callosotomy and two trajectories for a complete callosotomy. PMID:28348940
Nicklas, André P; Schilling, David; Bader, Markus J; Herrmann, Thomas R W; Nagele, Udo
Percutaneous stone removal increasingly plays an important role among the different approaches of interventional stone therapy, particularly since the development of miniaturized instruments is resulting in lower morbidity for the patients. One major drawback of smaller instruments is the increased difficulty of stone retrieval after disintegration due to the reduced tract diameter. This results in longer operation time and the need of additional tools such as disposable retrieval baskets. One of the key factors in the development of minimally invasive percutaneous nephrolitholapaxy (MIP) was the design of an Amplatz sheath which provides a built-in vacuum cleaner effect for stone retrieval. A series of flow analyses with the gauges and shapes of the most commonly used nephroscopes and sheaths in percutaneous nephrolitholapaxy was performed by computational fluid dynamics. Flow velocity and direction in front of the nephroscope were computed and visualized by the software. In our study, the vacuum cleaner effect developed exclusively when a round-shaped nephroscope was used (Nagele Miniature Nephroscope System, Karl Storz GmbH & Co. KG) and depended on the relation between nephroscope diameter and inner sheath diameter. The strongest effect was observed with a 12 F nephroscope and an inner sheath diameter of 15 F. It did not develop when an oval- or crescent-shaped nephroscope was used. In front of the distal end of the round-shaped nephroscope, a slipstream develops, induced by the excursive change of width of the fluid flow on the outlet of the flushing canal. This allows the adhesion of a stone fragment in the eddy while the fluid flow is circulating around the stone. This study illustrates and explains the vacuum cleaner effect which has been detected in the development of the Nagele Miniature Nephroscope System used in MIP. It combines the reduced morbidity of smaller kidney puncture diameters with the benefit of quick and complete stone removal.
Ranucci, Marco; Isgrò, Giuseppe
Introduction Many innovative cardiopulmonary bypass (CPB) systems have recently been proposed by the industry. With few differences, they all share a philosophy based on priming volume reduction, closed circuit with separation of the surgical field suction, centrifugal pump, and biocompatible circuit and oxygenator. These minimally invasive CPB (MICPB) systems are intended to limit the deleterious effects of a conventional CPB. However, no evidence exists with respect to their effectiveness in improving the postoperative outcome in a large population of patients. This study aimed to verify the clinical impact of an MICPB in a large population of patients undergoing coronary artery revascularization. Methods We conducted a retrospective analysis of 1,663 patients treated with an MICPB. The control group (conventional CPB) was extracted from a series of 2,877 patients according to a propensity score analysis. Results Patients receiving an MICPB had a shorter intensive care unit (ICU) stay, had lower peak postoperative serum creatinine and bilirubin levels, and suffered less postoperative blood loss. Within a multivariable model, MICPB is independently associated with lower rates of atrial fibrillation (odds ratio [OR] 0.83, 95% confidence interval [CI] 0.69 to 0.99) and ventricular arrhythmias (OR 0.45, 95% CI 0.28 to 0.73) and with higher rates of early discharge from the ICU (OR 1.31, 95% CI 1.06 to 1.6) and from the hospital (OR 1.46, 95% CI 1.18 to 1.8). Hospital mortality did not differ between groups. Conclusion MICPBs are associated with reduced morbidity. However, these results will need to be confirmed in a large, prospective, randomized, controlled trial. PMID:17433112
Schmitto, Jan D; Rojas, Sebastian V; Hanke, Jasmin S; Avsar, Murat; Haverich, Axel
The new generation of left ventricular assist devices (LVADs) has enabled minimally invasive surgical procedures for implantation. Herein we present two alternative approaches for minimally invasive LVAD explantation following cardiac recovery, avoiding a sternotomy and improving patient safety. Copyright © 2013 International Center for Artificial Organs and Transplantation and Wiley Periodicals, Inc.
Kim, Sang-Min; Park, Youn-Soo; Ha, Chul-Won; Lim, Seung-Jae; Moon, Young-Wan
Minimally invasive and robot-assisted procedures have potential advantages when used for total knee arthroplasty (TKA). The purpose of this cadaveric study was to examine whether robot-assisted minimally invasive procedures improve TKA alignment after modifying the robotic techniques and instruments. Total knee arthroplasties were performed on 10 pairs of fresh cadaveric femora. Ten knees were replaced using the robot-assisted minimally invasive technique and 10 using the conventional minimally invasive technique. After prosthesis implantation, limb and prosthesis alignments were investigated by measuring mechanical axis deviation, femoral and tibial sagittal and coronal inclination, and femoral rotational alignment with 3-dimensional computed tomography scans. Postoperative alignment accuracy of the implanted prostheses was better in the robot-assisted minimally invasive TKA group than in the conventional minimally invasive TKA group as judged by the rotational alignment of the femoral component (0.7°±″.3° vs 3.6°±2.2°, respectively) and the tibial component sagittal angle (7.8°±1.1° vs 5.5°±3.6°, respectively). One sagittal inclination outlier for the tibial side existed in the robotic minimally invasive TKA group, and 2 outliers for the mechanical axis, 2 for the tibial side sagittal inclination, and 2 for the femoral rotational alignment existed in the conventional minimally invasive TKA group. Higher implanted prostheses accuracy and fewer outliers in postoperative radiographic alignments can be attained with robot-assisted TKA. Minimally invasive TKA in combination with an improved robot-assisted technique is an alternative option to compensate for the shortcomings of conventional minimally invasive TKA. Copyright 2012, SLACK Incorporated.
Castro, Josué Viana; Melo, Emanuel Carvalho; Silva, Juliana Fernandes; Rebouças, Leonardo Lemos; Corrêa, Larissa Chagas; Germano, Amanda de Queiroz; Machado, João José Aquino
Background Minimally invasive cardiovascular procedures have been progressively used in heart surgery. Objective To describe the techniques and immediate results of minimally invasive procedures in 5 years. Methods Prospective and descriptive study in which 102 patients were submitted to minimally invasive procedures in direct and video-assisted forms. Clinical and surgical variables were evaluated as well as the in hospital follow-up of the patients. Results Fourteen patients were operated through the direct form and 88 through the video-assisted form. Between minimally invasive procedures in direct form, 13 had aortic valve disease. Between minimally invasive procedures in video-assisted forms, 43 had mitral valve disease, 41 atrial septal defect and four tumors. In relation to mitral valve disease, we replaced 26 and reconstructed 17 valves. Aortic clamp, extracorporeal and procedure times were, respectively, 91,6 ± 21,8, 112,7 ± 27,9 e 247,1 ± 20,3 minutes in minimally invasive procedures in direct form. Between minimally invasive procedures in video-assisted forms, 71,6 ± 29, 99,7 ± 32,6 e 226,1 ± 42,7 minutes. Considering intensive care and hospitalization times, these were 41,1 ± 14,7 hours and 4,6 ± 2 days in minimally invasive procedures in direct and 36,8 ± 16,3 hours and 4,3 ± 1,9 days in minimally invasive procedures in video-assisted forms procedures. Conclusion Minimally invasive procedures were used in two forms - direct and video-assisted - with safety in the surgical treatment of video-assisted, atrial septal defect and tumors of the heart. These procedures seem to result in longer surgical variables. However, hospital recuperation was faster, independent of the access or pathology. PMID:24553983
Rittmeister, M; König, D P; Eysel, P; Kerschbaumer, F
The manuscript features the different minimally invasive approaches to the hip for joint replacement. These include medial, anterior, anterolateral, and posterior approaches. The concept of minimally invasive hip arthroplasty makes sense if it is an integral part of a larger concept to lower postoperative morbidity. Besides minimal soft tissue trauma, this concept involves preoperative patient education, preemptive analgesia, and postoperative physiotherapy. It is our belief that minimal incision techniques for the hip are not suited for all patients and all surgeons. The different minimally invasive approaches to the knee joint for implantation of a knee arthroplasty are described and discussed. There have been no studies published yet that fulfill EBM criteria. The data so far show that minimally invasive approaches and implantation techniques for total knee replacements lead to quicker rehabilitation of patients.
Greidanus, Nelson V; Chihab, Samir; Garbuz, Donald S; Masri, Bassam A; Tanzer, Michael; Gross, Allan E; Duncan, Clive P
There has been considerable interest in minimally invasive surgical (MIS) THA in recent years. The MIS anterolateral approach, or the MIS Watson-Jones approach, is a novel intermuscular abductor-sparing technique. Early reports from case series suggest the potential for superior function and reduced complications; however, the available information from clinical reports is inadequate to suggest surgeons should change from their accepted standard approach. We examined the potential superiority of this anterolateral approach, as judged by quality-of-life (QoL) measures, radiographic parameters, and complications, compared to limited-incision MIS direct lateral and MIS posterolateral approaches. We performed a prospective randomized controlled trial involving five surgeons at three centers, recruiting 156 patients undergoing primary THA to receive either the MIS anterolateral or the surgeon's preferred approach (direct lateral or posterolateral). For the 135 patients we report, we collected patient-reported WOMAC, SF-36, Paper Adaptive Test in 5 Domains of Quality of Life in Arthritis Questionnaire [PAT5D], and patient satisfaction scores. We recorded complications and evaluated radiographs for prosthetic component position, subsidence, and fracture. Minimum followup was 24 months (mean, 30 months; range, 24-42 months). QoL and patient-reported satisfaction were similar between groups. Radiographic evaluation demonstrated no differences in acetabular component positioning; however, mean stem subsidence was 4.6 mm for the MIS anterolateral group and 4.1 mm for the alternate group, with differences observed among the three centers for stem subsidence and fracture. One center had increased rate of fracture requiring treatment and need for revision in the MIS anterolateral group. We found no superiority of the MIS anterolateral approach but observed intersite differences in painful stem subsidence and fracture. We have returned to the standard surgical approaches in
Background A reduction in orthodontic treatment time can be attained using corticotomies. The aggressive nature of corticotomy due to the elevation of muco-periosteal flaps and to the duration of the surgery raised reluctance for its employ among patients and dental community. This study aims to provide detailed information on the design and manufacture of a 3D-printed CAD-CAM (computer-aided design and computer-aided manufacturing) surgical guide which can aid the clinician in achieving a minimally-invasive, flapless corticotomy. Material and Methods An impression of dental arches was created; the models were digitally-acquired using a 3D scanner and saved as STereoLithography ( STL ) files. The patient underwent cone beam computed tomography (CBCT): images of jaws and teeth were transformed into 3D models and saved as an STL file. An acrylic template with the design of a surgical guide was manufactured and scanned. The STLs of jaws, scanned casts, and acrylic templates were matched. 3D modeling software allowed the view of the 3D models from different perspectives and planes with perfect rendering. The 3D model of the acrylic template was transformed into a surgical guide with slots designed to guide, at first, a scalpel blade and then a piezoelectric cutting insert. The 3D STL model of the surgical guide was printed. Results This procedure allowed the manufacturing of a 3D-printed CAD/CAM surgical guide, which overcomes the disadvantages of the corticotomy, removing the need for flap elevation. No discomfort, early surgical complications or unexpected events were observed. Conclusions The effectiveness of this minimally-invasive surgical technique can offer the clinician a valid alternative to other methods currently in use. Key words:Corticotomy, orthodontics, CAD/CAM, minimally invasive, surgical template, 3D printer. PMID:27031067
Chu, Tianjiao; Shaw, Patricia A; Yeniterzi, Suveyda; Dunkel, Mary; Rajkovic, Aleksander; Hogge, W Allen; Bunce, Kimberly D; Peters, David G
Minimally Invasive Karyotyping (MINK) was communicated in 2009 as a novel method for the non-invasive detection of fetal copy number anomalies in maternal plasma DNA. The original manuscript illustrated the potential of MINK using a model system in which fragmented genomic DNA obtained from a trisomy 21 male individual was mixed with that of his karyotypically normal mother at dilutions representing fetal fractions found in maternal plasma. Although it has been previously shown that MINK is able to non-invasively detect fetal microdeletions, its utility for aneuploidy detection in maternal plasma has not previously been demonstrated. The current study illustrates the ability of MINK to detect common aneuploidy in early gestation, compares its performance to other published third party methods (and related software packages) for prenatal aneuploidy detection and evaluates the performance of these methods across a range of sequencing read inputs. Plasma samples were obtained from 416 pregnant women between gestational weeks 8.1 and 34.4. Shotgun DNA sequencing was performed and data analyzed using MINK RAPIDR and WISECONDOR. MINK performed with greater accuracy than RAPIDR and WISECONDOR, correctly identifying 60 out of 61 true trisomy cases, and reporting only one false positive in 355 normal pregnancies. Significantly, MINK achieved accurate detection of trisomy 21 using just 2 million aligned input reads, whereas WISECONDOR required 6 million reads and RAPIDR did not achieve complete accuracy at any read input tested. In conclusion, we demonstrate that MINK provides an analysis pipeline for the detection of fetal aneuploidy in samples of maternal plasma DNA.
Chu, Tianjiao; Shaw, Patricia A.; Yeniterzi, Suveyda; Dunkel, Mary; Rajkovic, Aleksander; Hogge, W. Allen; Bunce, Kimberly D.; Peters, David G.
Minimally Invasive Karyotyping (MINK) was communicated in 2009 as a novel method for the non-invasive detection of fetal copy number anomalies in maternal plasma DNA. The original manuscript illustrated the potential of MINK using a model system in which fragmented genomic DNA obtained from a trisomy 21 male individual was mixed with that of his karyotypically normal mother at dilutions representing fetal fractions found in maternal plasma. Although it has been previously shown that MINK is able to non-invasively detect fetal microdeletions, its utility for aneuploidy detection in maternal plasma has not previously been demonstrated. The current study illustrates the ability of MINK to detect common aneuploidy in early gestation, compares its performance to other published third party methods (and related software packages) for prenatal aneuploidy detection and evaluates the performance of these methods across a range of sequencing read inputs. Plasma samples were obtained from 416 pregnant women between gestational weeks 8.1 and 34.4. Shotgun DNA sequencing was performed and data analyzed using MINK RAPIDR and WISECONDOR. MINK performed with greater accuracy than RAPIDR and WISECONDOR, correctly identifying 60 out of 61 true trisomy cases, and reporting only one false positive in 355 normal pregnancies. Significantly, MINK achieved accurate detection of trisomy 21 using just 2 million aligned input reads, whereas WISECONDOR required 6 million reads and RAPIDR did not achieve complete accuracy at any read input tested. In conclusion, we demonstrate that MINK provides an analysis pipeline for the detection of fetal aneuploidy in samples of maternal plasma DNA. PMID:28306738
Seco, Michael; Cao, Christopher; Modi, Paul; Bannon, Paul G; Wilson, Michael K; Vallely, Michael P; Phan, Kevin; Misfeld, Martin; Mohr, Friedrich; Yan, Tristan D
Robotic telemanipulators have evolved to assist the challenges of minimally invasive mitral valve surgery (MVS). A systematic review was performed to provide a synopsis of the literature, focusing on clinical outcomes and cost-effectiveness. Structured searches of MEDLINE, Embase, and Cochrane databases were performed in August 2013. All original studies except case-reports were included in qualitative review. Studies with ≥50 patients were presented quantitatively. After applying inclusion and exclusion criteria to the search results, 27 studies were included in qualitative review, 16 of which had ≥50 patients. All studies were observational in nature, and thus the quality of evidence was rated low to medium. Patients generally had good left ventricular performance, were relatively asymptomatic, and mean patient age ranged from 52.6-58.4 years. Rates of intraoperative outcomes ranged from: 0.0-9.1% for conversion to non-robotic surgery, 106±22 to 188.5±53.8 min for cardiopulmonary bypass (CPB) time and 79±16 to 140±40 min for cross-clamp (XC) time. Rates of short-term postoperative outcomes ranged from: 0.0-3.0% for mortality, 0.0-3.2% for myocardial infarction (MI), 0.0-3.0% for permanent stroke, 1.6-15% for pleural effusion, 0.0-5.0% for reoperations for bleeding, 0.0-0.3% for infection, and 1.1-6% for prolonged ventilation (>48 hours), 1.5-5.4% for early repair failure, 12.3±6.7 to 36.6±24.7 hours for intensive care length of stay, 3.1±0.3 to 6.3±3.9 days for hospital length of stay (HLOS) and 81.7-97.6% had no or trivial mitral regurgitation (MR) before discharge. All subtypes of mitral valve prolapse are repairable with robotic techniques. CPB and XC times are long, and novel techniques such as the Cor-Knot, Nitinol clips or running sutures may reduce the time required. The overall rates of early postoperative mortality and morbidity are low. Improvements in postoperative quality of life (QoL) and expeditious return to work offset the increase in
Tang, H; Jia, P; Chen, H; Bao, L; Feng, F; Li, J J
and vertebral metastases. It can lead to satisfactory clinical effect, partial recovery of vertebral height. Besides, the bone filling mesh can reduce the risk of bone cement leakage, which can provide a new choice for minimally invasive treatment of vertebral fracture and metastases.
Bakkar, Sohail; Materazzi, Gabriele; Biricotti, Marco; De Napoli, Luigi; Conte, Massimo; Galleri, David; Aghababyan, Aleksandr; Miccoli, Paolo
A minimal access procedure does not necessarily mean that it is minimally invasive. However, as its name implies, MIVAT is a truly minimally invasive treatment modality. The advantages it offers over its conventional counterpart are indeed related to its minimally invasive nature. Furthermore, this nature has not compromised its ability to accomplish its purpose both safely and effectively. Ever since its introduction in the late 1990s, MIVAT has been progressively evolving. The indications for this procedure, which was initially surrounded by skepticism, have been expanding. Benign thyroid pathology is now considered only one of its indications among others. This article provides a detailed description of this minimally invasive, maximally effective and patient satisfying procedure so that it may be adopted by more surgeons around the globe for better patient care and to also encourage the development of further future advancements.
Kobiela, Jarek; Łaski, Dariusz; Stróżyk, Aneta; Proczko-Markuszewska, Monika; Stefaniak, Tomasz; Sworczak, Krzysztof; Łachiński, Andrzej J; Śledziński, Zbigniew
Complete surgical resection of hyperfunctioning parathyriod tissue is essential for the treatment of primary hyperparathyroidism. During recent years, minimally invasive surgery has been successfully applied in neck exploration, because of significant developments of guidance by intraoperative scans, the use of quick, intraoperative PTH assay, and also preoperative imaging procedures such as high resolution ultrasonography and sestamibi scintigraphy. The results of operations which are performed with minimally invasive techniques are comparable to those of conventional surgery, and provide advantages with regard to cosmetic result, length of hospitalisation, and reduced post-operative pain.
This article will outline how combining existing techniques in a new and unique manner can potentially redefine the traditional approach to smile design planning and execution. Alignment, tooth whitening and edge bonding with new highly polishable nano-hybrid composites can make cosmetic dentistry far simpler and less invasive. Patients' perceptions of their end smile result can change dramatically if they are allowed to see their teeth improve gradually. This technique will highlight a choice of pathways available in cosmetic dentistry making it much less invasive for the patient and less risky for dentists.
Son, Ji Ye; Lee, Ho Yun; Lee, Kyung Soo; Kim, Jae-Hun; Han, Joungho; Jeong, Ji Yun; Kwon, O Jung; Shim, Young Mog
Objectives We aimed to analyze the CT findings of ground-glass opacity nodules diagnosed pathologically as adenocarcinoma in situ (AIS), minimally invasive adenocarcinoma (MIA), and invasive adenocarcinoma in order to investigate whether quantitative CT parameters enable distinction of invasive adenocarcinoma from pre-invasive or minimally invasive adenocarcinoma. Methods We reviewed CT images and pathologic specimens from 191 resected ground-glass opacity nodules with little or no solid component at CT. Nodule size, volume, density, mass, skewness/kurtosis, and CT attenuation values at the 2.5th–97.5th percentiles on histogram, and texture parameters (uniformity and entropy) were assessed from CT datasets. Results Of 191 tumors, 38 were AISs (20%), 61 were MIAs (32%), and 92 (48%) were invasive adenocarcinomas. Multivariate logistic regression analysis helped identify the 75th percentile CT attenuation value (P = 0.04) and entropy (P<0.01) as independent predictors for invasive adenocarcinoma, with an area under the receiver operating characteristic curve of 0.780. Conclusion Quantitative analysis of preoperative CT imaging metrics can help distinguish invasive adenocarcinoma from pre-invasive or minimally invasive adenocarcinoma. PMID:25102064
Jacono, Andrew A; Rousso, Joseph J
Because modern facelift patients desire a less-invasive approach or minimally invasive approach to reduce visible scarring and decrease the recovery phase, achieving the surgeon's goal of optimal, reliable, and long-term aesthetic results with few complications becomes a challenge. The authors use the terms minimal access and traditional access to describe rhytidectomy approaches based solely on incision size. A short-incision, minimal-access approach with a deep-plane extended dissection is presented. A preoperative physical examination maneuver to evaluate a patient's candidacy for a minimal-access approach and guidelines for when to include platysmaplasty with the procedure to further improve cervicomental contour are described.
Papaspyridakos, Panos; Kang, Kiho; DeFuria, Catherine; Amin, Sarah; Kudara, Yukio; Weber, Hans-Peter
To illustrate a digital workflow in full-arch implant rehabilitation with minimally veneered monolithic zirconia and to report the outcomes including technical complications. Three patients (5 edentulous arches) received full-arch fixed implant rehabilitation with monolithic zirconia and mild facial porcelain veneering involving a digital workflow. The incisal edges and occluding surface areas were milled out of monolithic zirconia to reduce the possibility of chipping. Porcelain veneering was applied on the facial aspect to improve the esthetic result. Outcomes and technical complications are reported after 2 years of clinical and radiographic follow-up. Implant and prosthesis survival rates were 100% after a short-term follow-up of 2 years. Technical complications were encountered in one patient. They did not adversely affect prosthesis survival or patient satisfaction and were easily addressed. A digital workflow for the design and fabrication of full-arch monolithic zirconia implant fixed implant prostheses has benefits, but caution is necessary during CAD planning of the prosthesis to ensure a successful outcome. Long-term clinical studies are needed to corroborate the findings discussed in this report. This article presents an integrated digital workflow that was implemented for the implant-prosthodontic rehabilitation of three edentulous patients with monolithic zirconia prostheses. Monolithic zirconia has been successfully incorporated in implant prosthodontics in an effort to reduce the technical complications associated with bilayered ceramics. This workflow simplifies design and fabrication of the zirconia prostheses. However, caution should be taken during CAD planning of the prosthesis to make sure the zirconia cylinder is sufficiently thick at the interface with the titanium insert. Additionally, when cutback is planned for facial porcelain veneering, the functional occluding cusps and incisal edges should be fabricated in monolithic zirconia to avoid
Yu, Tao; Yang, Yunfeng; Yu, Guangrong
To review the application progress of minimally invasive technique in the treatment of calcaneus fractures and to analyze the advantages and disadvantages of each method as well as to predict the trend of development in the field. Domestic and abroad literature concerning the minimally invasive technique applied in calcaneus fractures in recent years was reviewed extensively and analyzed thoroughly. There are both advantages and limitations of each minimally invasive technique including percutaneous reduction and fixation, limited incision, external fixator, arthroscopic assisted reduction, and balloon expansion reduction. But every technique is developing rapidly and becoming more and more effective. A variety of minimally invasive technique can not only be used independently but also can be applied jointly to complement one another. It needs further study how to improve the effectiveness and expand the indications. And the theoretical basis of evidence-based medicine needs to be provided more.
Marescaux, Jacques; Diana, Michele
Surgery, interventional radiology, and advanced endoscopy have all developed minimally invasive techniques to effectively treat a variety of diseases with positive impact on patients' postoperative outcomes. However, those techniques are challenging and require extensive training. Robotics and computer sciences can help facilitate minimally invasive approaches. Furthermore, surgery, advanced endoscopy, and interventional radiology could converge towards a new hybrid specialty, hybrid image-guided minimally invasive therapies, in which the three fundamental disciplines could complement one another to maximize the positive effects and reduce the iatrogenic footprint on patients. The present manuscript describes the fundamental steps of this new paradigm shift in surgical therapies that, in our opinion, will be the next revolutionary step in minimally invasive approaches.
Gonzalez, Tyler; Chien, Bonnie; Ghorbanhoseini, Mohammad; Kwon, John Y.
Wound complications following ankle fracture surgery are a major concern. Through the use of minimally invasive surgical techniques some of these complications can be mitigated. Recent investigations have reported on percutaneous fixation of distal fibula fractures demonstrating similar radiographic and functional outcomes to traditional open approaches. The purpose of this manuscript is to describe in detail the minimally invasive surgical approach for distal fibula fractures. PMID:28271086
Therapy Hyperthermia is one of the modalities for cancer treatment , utilizing the difference of the thermal sensitivity between tumor and normal...structure of the coaxial-slot antenna. MINIMALLY INVASIVE THERMAL THERAPY FOR CANCER TREATMENT BY USING THIN COAXIAL ANTENNAS K. Ito1, K. Saito1, T...Minimally Invasive Thermal Therapy for Cancer Treatment by Using Thin Coaxial Antennas Contract Number Grant Number Program Element Number Author(s
Liu, Liyu; Duclos, Guillaume; Sun, Bo; Lee, Jeongseog; Wu, Amy; Kam, Yoonseok; Sontag, Eduardo D.; Stone, Howard A.; Sturm, James C.; Gatenby, Robert A.; Austin, Robert H.
Metastasis, the truly lethal aspect of cancer, occurs when metastatic cancer cells in a tumor break through the basement membrane and penetrate the extracellular matrix. We show that MDA-MB-231 metastatic breast cancer cells cooperatively invade a 3D collagen matrix while following a glucose gradient. The invasion front of the cells is a dynamic one, with different cells assuming the lead on a time scale of 70 h. The front cell leadership is dynamic presumably because of metabolic costs associated with a long-range strain field that precedes the invading cell front, which we have imaged using confocal imaging and marker beads imbedded in the collagen matrix. We suggest this could be a quantitative assay for an invasive phenotype tracking a glucose gradient and show that the invading cells act in a cooperative manner by exchanging leaders in the invading front. PMID:23319630
Wang, Wen Lin; Cai, Kai Can; Zeng, Wei Sheng; Jiang, Ren Chao
In order to reach a clear understanding of minimally invasive approaches in cardiac operations, the authors review clinical experience in using three such approaches: inferior partial median sternotomy, right anterolateral minor thoracotomy, and the right parasternal approach. Sternotomy and the three different minimally invasive approaches were applied in and 2431 and 323 patients respectively. The approaches were selected according to the circumstances of the individual case. Both external and internal cardiac structures were observed during the operations. The length of the incision, the postoperative drainage, operative time, and cardiopulmonary bypass time were investigated. The postoperative complications occurring after minimally invasive approaches were observed. In inferior partial median sternotomy, all structures except for the ascending aorta could be exposed well. In right anterolateral minor thoracotomy, only the structures on the right side of the heart could be exposed, but the mitral valve could also be exposed well. The exposure of the right parasternal approach was similar to that of right anterolateral minor thoracotomy. There were statistically significant differences between sternotomy and the minimally invasive approaches in terms of incision length and postoperative drainage, but no difference in operative time and cardiopulmonary bypass time. The postoperative complications of MIAs included air embolism (n = 3), chest pain (n = 9), chest wall malacia (n = 1), rib fracture (n = 2), and sternum fracture (n = 2). The total incidence of complications in minimally invasive approaches was 5.3%. The minimally invasive approaches can have satisfactory clinical results if the approaches are correctly chosen and performed.
Minimally invasive techniques in neurosurgery evolved in two steps. Many minimally invasive concepts like neuronavigation, endoscopy, or frame based stereotaxy were developed by the pioneers of neurosurgery, but it took decades till further technical developments made the realization and broad clinical application of these early ideas safe and possible. This thesis will be demonstrated by giving examples of the evolution of four minimally invasive techiques: neuronavigation, transsphenoidal pituitary surgery, neuroendoscopy and stereotaxy. The reasons for their early failure and also the crucial steps for the rediscovery of these minimally invasive techniques will be analysed. In the 80th of the 20th century endoscopy became increasingly applied in different surgical fields. The abdominal surgeons coined as first for their endoscopic procedures the term minimally invasive surgery in contrast to open surgery. In neurrosurgery the term minimally invasive surgery stood not in opposiotion to open procedures but was understood as a general concept and philosophy using the modern technology such as neuronavigation, endoscopy and planing computer workstations with the aim to make the procedures less traumatic. PMID:24455231
Celik, Orcun; Ilbey, Yusuf Ozlem
Introduction Over the last two decades, minimally invasive treatment options for ureteropelvic junction obstruction have been developed and are bcoming more popular. Multiple series of laparoscopic pyeloplasty have demonstrated high success rates and low perioperative morbidity in pediatric and adult populations, for both the transperitoneal and retroperitoneal approaches. In this review, we aimed to analyze the current status of minimally invasive therapy of ureteropelvic junction obstruction. Material and methods A PubMed database search was conducted to examine minimally invasive treatments of ureteropelvic junction obstruction. Results A large number of cases have been reported for adult patients, confirming that robotic pyeloplasty represents a viable option for either primary or secondary repair. Comparative studies demonstrate similar success and complication rates between minimally invasive and open pyeloplasty in both the adult and pediatric populations. A clear advantage, in terms of hospital stay, of minimally invasive over open pyeloplasty was observed only in the adult population. Conclusions Studies have shown that minimally invasive pyeloplasty techniques are a safe, effective, and feasible in adult and pediatric populations. PMID:26251754
Minimally invasive spine surgery is becoming more common in the treatment of adult lumbar degenerative disorders. Minimally invasive techniques have been utilized for multilevel pathology, including adult lumbar degenerative scoliosis. The next logical step is to apply minimally invasive surgical techniques to the treatment of adolescent idiopathic scoliosis (AIS). However, there are significant technical challenges of performing minimally invasive surgery on this patient population. For more than two years, we have been utilizing minimally invasive spine surgery techniques in patients with adolescent idiopathic scoliosis. We have developed the present technique to allow for utilization of all standard reduction maneuvers through three small midline skin incisions. Our technique allows easy passage of contoured rods, placement of pedicle screws without image guidance, and allows adequate facet osteotomy to enable fusion. There are multiple potential advantages of this technique, including: less blood loss, shorter hospital stay, earlier mobilization, and relatively less pain and need for pain medication. The operative time needed to complete this surgery is longer. We feel that a minimally invasive approach, although technically challenging, is a feasible option in patients with adolescent idiopathic scoliosis. Although there are multiple perceived benefits, long term data is needed before it can be recommended for routine use. PMID:21834988
Coste-Manière, Eve; Adhami, Louaï; Severac-Bastide, Renault; Boissonnat, Jean-Daniel; Carpentier, Alain
Due to their numerous advantages, mainly in terms of patient benefit, mini-invasive robotically assisted interventions are gaining in importance in various surgical fields. However, this conversion has its own challenges that stem from both its novelty and complexity. In this paper we propose to accompany the surgeons in their transition, by offering an integrated environment that enables them to make better use of this new technology. The proposed system is patient-dependent, and enables the planning, validation, simulation, teaching and archiving of robotically assisted interventions. The approach is illustrated for a coronary bypass graft using the daVinci tele-operated robot.
Blokker, Britt M; Wagensveld, Ivo M; Weustink, Annick C; Oosterhuis, J Wolter; Hunink, M G Myriam
Autopsies are used for healthcare quality control and improving medical knowledge. Because autopsy rates are declining worldwide, various non-invasive or minimally invasive autopsy methods are now being developed. To investigate whether these might replace the invasive autopsies conventionally performed in naturally deceased adults, we systematically reviewed original prospective validation studies. We searched six databases. Two reviewers independently selected articles and extracted data. Methods and patient groups were too heterogeneous for meaningful meta-analysis of outcomes. Sixteen of 1538 articles met our inclusion criteria. Eight studies used a blinded comparison; ten included less than 30 appropriate cases. Thirteen studies used radiological imaging (seven dealt solely with non-invasive procedures), two thoracoscopy and laparoscopy, and one sampling without imaging. Combining CT and MR was the best non-invasive method (agreement for cause of death: 70 %, 95%CI: 62.6; 76.4), but minimally invasive methods surpassed non-invasive methods. The highest sensitivity for cause of death (90.9 %, 95%CI: 74.5; 97.6, suspected duplicates excluded) was achieved in recent studies combining CT, CT-angiography and biopsies. Minimally invasive autopsies including biopsies performed best. To establish a feasible alternative to conventional autopsy and to increase consent to post-mortem investigations, further research in larger study groups is needed. • Health care quality control benefits from clinical feedback provided by (alternative) autopsies. • So far, sixteen studies investigated alternative autopsy methods for naturally deceased adults. • Thirteen studies used radiological imaging modalities, eight tissue biopsies, and three CT-angiography. • Combined CT, CT-angiography and biopsies were most sensitive diagnosing cause of death.
Abdollahi Fard, Seddigheh; Mostafa Gharabaghi, Parvin; Montazeri, Farnaz; Mashrabi, Omid
Background: Hysteroscopy is a safe and high efficient procedure so it is changing to a widespread procedure in dealing with many gynecologic and obstetrical conditions. Objective: This study aimed to evaluate the diagnostic and therapeutical efficiency of hysteroscopy in managing the common conditions including abnormal uterine bleeding, abortion and infertility. Materials and Methods: This was a descriptive cross-sectional study to compare hysteroscopy as a minimally invasive approach with conventional laparatomy and hysterectomy or repair of mulerian anomalies and watch the uterine cavity for intrauterine pathology in cases of infertility. Overall 277 women underwent hysteroscopy were evaluated in three groups: with AUB 226 cases, with infertility 34 cases and with recurrent abortions with septate uterus17 cases. The overall success rate was recorded and analyzed after six months in order of indication of hysteroscopy Results: Hysteroscopy as sole diagnostic procedure in 16.5, 8.8 and 14.3%of AUB, infertility and abortion cases, respectively. In AUB cases, curettage, myomectomy, polypectomy and hysterectomy were the main diagnostic-therapeutical approaches along with hysteroscopy. In infertiles, myomectomy, polypectomy were the main diagnostic-therapeutical approaches In abortion group, laparoscopy guided, septum resection adhessiolysis , curettage and myomectomy were the main aproach. There was not any major complication. The diagnostic-therapeutically measures accompanying with the hysteroscopy were successful in 73.5% of the bleeding group and 33.3% of the infertility group in follow-up period. Conclusion: Based on our results, hysteroscopy is a safe, accurate and highly-efficient procedure in managing women with abnormal uterine bleeding, recurrent abortion due to septate uterus PMID:25246901
Prieto, Lucia Trazzi; Araujo, Cintia Tereza Pimenta; de Oliveira, Dayane Carvalho Ramos Salles; de Azevedo Vaz, Sergio Lins; D'Arce, Maria Beatriz Freitas; Paulillo, Luis Alexandre Maffei Sartini
Discrepancies in tooth size and shape can interfere with smile harmony. Composite resin can be used to improve the esthetics of the smile at a low cost while offering good clinical performance. This article presents an approach for restoring and correcting functional, anatomic, and esthetic discrepancies with minimal intervention, using composites and a direct adhesive technique. This conservative restorative procedure provided the patient with maximum personal esthetic satisfaction.
Ruttkay, Tamas; Götte, Julia; Walle, Ulrike; Doll, Nicolas
We describe a minimally invasive heart surgery application of the EinsteinVision 2.0 3D high-definition endoscopic system (Aesculap AG, Tuttlingen, Germany) in an 81-year-old man with severe tricuspid valve insufficiency. Fourteen years ago, he underwent a Ross procedure followed by a DDD pacemaker implantation 4 years later for tachy-brady-syndrome. His biventricular function was normal. We recommended minimally invasive tricuspid valve repair. The application of the aformentioned endoscopic system was simple, and the impressive 3D depth view offered an easy and precise manipulation through a minimal thoracotomy incision, avoiding the need for a rib spreading retractor.
Ishikawa, Norihiko; Watanabe, Go
The recognition of the significant advantages of minimizing surgical trauma has resulted in the development of minimally invasive surgical procedures. Endoscopic surgery confers the benefits of minimally invasive surgery upon patients, and surgical robots have enhanced the ability and precision of surgeons. Consequently, technological advances have facilitated totally endoscopic robotic cardiac surgery, which has allowed surgeons to operate endoscopically, rather than through a median sternotomy, during cardiac surgery. Thus, repairs for structural heart conditions, including mitral valve plasty, atrial septal defect closure, multivessel minimally invasive direct coronary artery bypass grafting and totally endoscopic coronary artery bypass graft surgery (CABG), can be totally endoscopic. On the other hand, general anesthesia remains a risk in patients who have severe carotid artery stenosis before surgery, as well as in those with a history of severe cerebral infarction or respiratory failure. In this study, the potential of a new awake CABG protocol using only epidural anesthesia was investigated for realizing day surgery and was found to be a promising modality for ultra-minimally invasive cardiac surgery. We herein review robot-assisted cardiac surgery and awake off-pump coronary artery bypass grafting as ultra-minimally invasive cardiac surgeries.
Srikantha, Umesh; Khanapure, Kiran S; Jagannatha, Aniruddha T; Joshi, Krishna C; Varma, Ravi G; Hegde, Alangar S
OBJECTIVE Minimally invasive techniques are being increasingly used to treat disorders of the cervical spine. They have a potential to reduce the postoperative neck discomfort subsequent to extensive muscle dissection associated with conventional atlantoaxial fusion procedures. The aim of this paper was to elaborate on the technique and results of minimally invasive atlantoaxial fusion. MATERIALS Minimally invasive atlantoaxial fusion was done initially in 4 fresh-frozen cadavers and subsequently in 5 clinical cases. Clinical cases included patients with reducible atlantoaxial instability and undisplaced or minimally displaced odontoid fractures. The surgical technique is illustrated in detail. RESULTS Among the cadaveric specimens, all C-1 lateral mass screws were in the correct position and 2 of the 8 C-2 screws had a vertebral canal breach. Among clinical cases, all C-1 lateral mass screws were in the correct position. Only one C-2 screw had a Grade 2 vertebral canal breach, which was clinically insignificant. None of the patients experienced neurological worsening or implant-related complications at follow-up. Evidence of rib graft fusion or C1-2 joint fusion was successfully demonstrated in 4 cases, and flexion-extension radiographs done at follow-up did not show mobility in any case. CONCLUSIONS Minimally invasive atlantoaxial fusion is a safe and effective alternative to the conventional approach in selected cases. Larger series with direct comparison to the conventional approach will be required to demonstrate clinical benefit presumed to be associated with a minimally invasive approach.
Fader, Amanda N; Weise, R Matsuno; Sinno, Abdulrahman K; Tanner, Edward J; Borah, Bijan J; Moriarty, James P; Bristow, Robert E; Makary, Martin A; Pronovost, Peter J; Hutfless, Susan; Dowdy, Sean C
To describe case mix-adjusted hospital level utilization of minimally invasive surgery for hysterectomy in the treatment of early-stage endometrial cancer. In this retrospective cohort study, we analyzed the proportion of patients who had a minimally invasive compared with open hysterectomy for nonmetastatic endometrial cancer using the U.S. Nationwide Inpatient Sample database, 2007-2011. Hospitals were stratified by endometrial cancer case volumes (low=less than 10; medium=11-30; high=greater than 30 cases). Hierarchical logistic regression models were used to evaluate hospital and patient variables associated with minimally invasive utilization, complications, and costs. Overall, 32,560 patients were identified; 33.6% underwent a minimally invasive hysterectomy with an increase of 22.0-50.8% from 2007 to 2011. Low-volume cancer centers demonstrated the lowest minimally invasive utilization rate (23.6%; P<.001). After multivariable adjustment, minimally invasive surgery was less likely to be performed in patients with Medicaid compared with private insurance (adjusted odds ratio [OR] 0.67, 95% confidence interval [CI] 0.62-0.72), black and Hispanic compared with white patients (adjusted OR 0.43, 95% CI 0.41-0.46 for black and 0.77, 95% CI 0.72-0.82 for white patients), and more likely to be performed in high- compared with low-volume hospitals (adjusted OR 4.22, 95% CI 2.15-8.27). Open hysterectomy was associated with a higher risk of surgical site infection (adjusted OR 6.21, 95% CI 5.11-7.54) and venous thromboembolism (adjusted OR 3.65, 95% CI 3.12-4.27). Surgical cases with complications had higher mean hospitalization costs for all hysterectomy procedure types (P<.001). Hospital utilization of minimally invasive surgery for the treatment of endometrial cancer varies considerably in the United States, representing a disparity in the quality and cost of surgical care delivered nationwide.
Lian, Kejian; Wang, Lei; Lin, Dasheng; Chen, Zhiwen
Mid-distal third humeral shaft fractures can be effectively treated with minimally invasive plating osteosynthesis and intramedullary nailing (IMN). However, these 2 treatments have not been adequately compared. Forty-seven patients (47 fractures) with mid-distal third humeral shaft fractures were randomly allocated to undergo either minimally invasive plating osteosynthesis (n=24) or IMN (n=23). The 2 groups were similar in terms of fracture patterns, fracture location, age, and associated injuries. Intraoperative measurements included blood loss and operative time. Clinical outcome measurements included fracture healing, radial nerve recovery, and elbow and shoulder discomfort. Radiographic measurements included fracture alignment, time to healing, delayed union, and nonunion. Functional outcome was satisfactory in both groups. Mean American Shoulder and Elbow Surgeons score and Mayo score were both better for the minimally invasive plating osteosynthesis group than for the IMN group (98.2 vs 97.6, respectively, and 93.5 vs 94.1, respectively; P<.001). Operative time was shorter and less intraoperative blood loss occurred in the minimally invasive plating osteosynthesis group than in the IMN group. Average time to union was similar in both groups. Primary union was achieved in 23 of 24 patients in the minimally invasive plating osteosynthesis group and in 22 of 23 in the IMN group. Minimally invasive plating osteosynthesis may have outcomes comparable with IMN for the management of mid-distal third humeral shaft fractures. Minimally invasive plating osteosynthesis is more suitable for complex fractures, especially for radial protection and motion recovery of adjacent joints, compared with IMN for simple fractures.
Woodard, Gavitt A; Crockard, Jane C; Clary-Macy, Carolyn; Zoon-Besselink, Clara T; Jones, Kirk; Korn, Wolfgang Michael; Ko, Andrew H; Gottschalk, Alexander R; Rogers, Stanley J; Jablons, David M
There is a clear survival benefit to neoadjuvant chemoradiation prior to esophagectomy for patients with stages II-III esophageal cancer. A minimally invasive esophagectomy approach may decrease morbidity but is more challenging in a previously radiated field and therefore patients who undergo neoadjuvant chemoradiation may experience more postoperative complications. A prospective database of all esophageal cancer patients who underwent attempted hybrid minimally invasive Ivor Lewis esophagectomy was maintained between 2006 and 2015. The clinical characteristics, neoadjuvant treatments, perioperative complications, and survival outcomes were reviewed. Overall 30- and 90-day mortality rates were 0.8% (1/131) and 2.3% (3/131), respectively. The majority of patients 58% (76/131) underwent induction treatment without significant adverse impact on mortality, major complications, or hospital stay. Overall survival at 1, 3, and 5 years was 85.9%, 65.3%, and 53.9%. Five-year survival by pathologic stage was stage I 68.9%, stage II 54.0%, and stage III 29.6%. The hybrid minimally invasive Ivor Lewis esophagectomy approach results in low perioperative morbidity and mortality and is well tolerated after neoadjuvant chemoradiation. Good long-term overall survival rates likely resulted from combined concurrent neoadjuvant chemoradiation in the majority of patients, which did not impact the ability to safely perform the operation or postoperative complications rates. J. Surg. Oncol. 2016;114:838-847. © 2016 2016 Wiley Periodicals, Inc. © 2016 Wiley Periodicals, Inc.
Zhang, Chelsea; Havrilesky, Laura J; Broadwater, Gloria; Di Santo, Nicola; Ehrisman, Jessie A; Lee, Paula S; Berchuck, Andrew; Alvarez Secord, Angeles; Bean, Sarah; Bentley, Rex C; Valea, Fidel A
The aim of this study is to determine whether a minimally invasive approach to hysterectomy is associated with an increased rate of lymph vascular space invasion (LVSI) and/or malignant pelvic peritoneal cytology in endometrial cancer. We performed a single institution analysis of 458 women with endometrial cancer who underwent either total abdominal hysterectomy (TAH) or minimally invasive hysterectomy (MIH) with use of a disposable uterine manipulator. All patients had endometrial cancer diagnosed by endometrial biopsy at a single academic institution between 2002 and 2012. Exclusion criteria were pre-operative D&C and/or hysteroscopy, uterine perforation or morcellation, and conversion to laparotomy. Multivariate logistic regression models to determine if type of hysterectomy predicts either LVSI or presence of abnormal cytology were controlled for grade, stage, depth of invasion, tumor size, cervical and adnexal involvement. LVSI was identified in 39/214 (18%) MIH and 44/242 (18%) TAH (p=0.99). Pelvic washings were malignant in 14/203 (7%) MIH and 16/241 (7%) TAH (p=1.0). Washings were atypical or inconclusive in 16/203 (8%) MIH and 6/241 (2.5%) TAH (p=0.014). In multivariate analyses, type of hysterectomy was not a significant predictor of either LVSI (p=0.29) or presence of malignant washings (p=0.66), but was a predictor of atypical or inconclusive washings (p=0.03). Minimally invasive hysterectomy with use of a uterine manipulator for endometrial cancer is not associated with LVSI or malignant cytology. Algorithms that better determine the etiology and implications of inconclusive or atypical pelvic cytology are needed to inform the possible additional risk associated with a minimally invasive approach to endometrial cancer. Copyright © 2014. Published by Elsevier Inc.
Candrl, James S.; Papoulias, Diana M.; Tillitt, Donald E.
Fishery biologists, hatchery personnel, and caviar fishers routinely extract oocytes from sturgeon (Acipenseridae) to determine the stage of maturation by checking egg quality. Typically, oocytes are removed either by inserting a catheter into the oviduct or by making an incision in the body cavity. Both methods can be time-consuming and stressful to the fish. We describe a device to collect mature oocytes from sturgeons quickly and effectively with minimal stress on the fish. The device is made by creating a needle from stainless steel tubing and connecting it to a syringe with polyvinyl chloride tubing. The device is filled with saline solution or water, the needle is inserted into the abdominal wall, and eggs are extracted from the fish. Using this device, an oocyte sample can be collected in less than 30 s. Such sampling leaves a minute wound that heals quickly and does not require suturing. The extractor device can easily be used in the field or hatchery, reduces fish handling time, and minimizes stress.
(1) Infections following invasive endoscopy are rare and are usually of endogenous origin. Nevertheless, infections do occur due to inadequate cleaning and disinfection and the use of contaminated rinse water and processing equipment. (2) Rigid and flexible operative endoscopes and accessories should be thoroughly cleaned and preferably sterilized using properly validated processes. (3) Heat tolerant operative endoscopes and accessories should be sterilized using a vacuum assisted steam sterilizer. Use autoclavable instrument trays or containers to protect equipment during transit and processing. Small bench top sterilizers without vacuum assisted air removal are unsuitable for packaged and lumened devices. (4) Heat sensitive rigid and flexible endoscopes and accessories should preferably be sterilized using ethylene oxide, low temperature steam and formaldehyde (rigid only) or gas plasma (if appropriate). (5) If there are insufficient instruments or time to sterilize invasive endoscopes, or if no suitable method is available locally, they may be disinfected by immersion in 2% glutaraldehyde or a suitable alternative. An immersion time of at least 10 min should be adopted for glutaraldehyde. This is sufficient to inactivate most vegetative bacteria and viruses including HIV and hepatitis B virus (HBV). Longer contact times of 20 min or more may be necessary if a mycobacterial infection is known or suspected. At least 3 h immersion in glutaraldehyde is required to kill spores. (6) Glutaraldehyde is irritant and sensitizing to the skin, eyes and respiratory tract. Measures must be taken to ensure glutaraldehyde is used in a safe manner, i.e., total containment and/or extraction of harmful vapour and the provision of suitable personal protective equipment, i.e., gloves, apron and eye protection if splashing could occur. Health surveillance of staff is recommended and should include a pre-employment enquiry regarding asthma, skin and mucosal sensitivity problems and
Ogrinc, Urška B.; Senčar, Sabina
Background and Objective Urinary incontinence (UI) is a common disorder that affects women of various ages and impacts all aspects of life. Our aim was to evaluate the non‐invasive erbium:yttrium‐aluminum‐garnet (Er:YAG) laser that exploits its thermal effect and has been used in reconstructive and rejuvenation surgery as a potential treatment strategy for stress UI (SUI) and mixed UI (MUI). Study Design/Materials and Methods We included 175 women (aged 49.7 ± 10 years) with newly diagnosed SUI (66% of women) and MUI (34%), respectively. Patients were clinically examined and classified by incontinence types (SUI and MUI) and grades (mild, moderate, severe, and very severe) using International Consultation on Incontinence Modular Questionnaire (ICIQ) and assessing Incontinence Severity Index (ISI). Using Er:YAG laser, we performed on average 2.5 ± 0.5 procedures in each woman separated by a 2 month period. At each session, clinical examination was performed, ICIQ and ISI assessed and treatment discomfort measured with visual analog system (VAS) pain scale, and adverse effects and patients’ satisfaction were followed. Follow‐ups were performed at 2, 6, and 12 months after the treatment. Results After the treatment, ISI decreased for 2.6 ± 1.0 points in patients diagnosed with mild UI before the treatment, for 3.6 ± 1.4 points in those with moderate UI, for 5.7 ± 1.8 points in those with severe UI and for 8.4 ± 2.6 in those with very severe UI (P < 0.001, paired samples t‐test). Altogether, in 77% patients diagnosed with SUI, a significant improvement was found after treatment, while only 34% of women with MUI exhibited no UI at one year follow‐up. Age did not affect the outcome. No major adverse effects were noticed in either group. Conclusion The results of our study, have shown that new non‐invasive Er:YAG laser could be regarded as a promising additional treatment strategy for SUI with at least one year lasting
Ogrinc, Urška B; Senčar, Sabina; Lenasi, Helena
Urinary incontinence (UI) is a common disorder that affects women of various ages and impacts all aspects of life. Our aim was to evaluate the non-invasive erbium:yttrium-aluminum-garnet (Er:YAG) laser that exploits its thermal effect and has been used in reconstructive and rejuvenation surgery as a potential treatment strategy for stress UI (SUI) and mixed UI (MUI). We included 175 women (aged 49.7 ± 10 years) with newly diagnosed SUI (66% of women) and MUI (34%), respectively. Patients were clinically examined and classified by incontinence types (SUI and MUI) and grades (mild, moderate, severe, and very severe) using International Consultation on Incontinence Modular Questionnaire (ICIQ) and assessing Incontinence Severity Index (ISI). Using Er:YAG laser, we performed on average 2.5 ± 0.5 procedures in each woman separated by a 2 month period. At each session, clinical examination was performed, ICIQ and ISI assessed and treatment discomfort measured with visual analog system (VAS) pain scale, and adverse effects and patients' satisfaction were followed. Follow-ups were performed at 2, 6, and 12 months after the treatment. After the treatment, ISI decreased for 2.6 ± 1.0 points in patients diagnosed with mild UI before the treatment, for 3.6 ± 1.4 points in those with moderate UI, for 5.7 ± 1.8 points in those with severe UI and for 8.4 ± 2.6 in those with very severe UI (P < 0.001, paired samples t-test). Altogether, in 77% patients diagnosed with SUI, a significant improvement was found after treatment, while only 34% of women with MUI exhibited no UI at one year follow-up. Age did not affect the outcome. No major adverse effects were noticed in either group. The results of our study, have shown that new non-invasive Er:YAG laser could be regarded as a promising additional treatment strategy for SUI with at least one year lasting positive effects. On the other hand, it does not seem appropriate for treating MUI. © 2015 Wiley
Juluri, Abhishek; Modepalli, Naresh; Jo, Seongbong; Repka, Michael A; Shivakumar, H Nanjappa; Murthy, S Narasimha
Iron deficiency is one of the most prevalent and serious health issues among people all over the world. Iron-dextran (ID) colloidal solution is one among the very few US Food and Drug Administration (FDA)-approved iron sources for parenteral administration of iron. Parenteral route does not allow frequent administration because of its invasiveness and other associated complications. The main aim of this project was to investigate the plausibility of transdermal delivery of ID facilitated by microneedles, as an alternative to parenteral iron therapy. In vitro permeation studies were carried out using freshly excised hairless rat abdominal skin in a Franz diffusion apparatus. Iron repletion studies were carried out in hairless anemic rat model. The anemic rats were divided into intact skin (control), microneedle pretreated, and intraperitoneal (i.p.) groups depending on the mode of delivery of iron. The hematological parameters were measured intermittently during treatment. There was no improvement in the hematological parameters in case of control group, whereas, in case of microneedle pretreated and i.p. group, there was significant improvement within 2-3 weeks. The results suggest that microneedle-mediated delivery of ID could be developed as a potential treatment method for iron-deficiency anemia.
Minale, C; Reifschneider, H J; Schmitz, E; Uckmann, F P
The method of replacing the aortic valve via a minithoracotomy has been reported in the recent literature. Although this strategy has clear advantages, further refinements of the process make the procedure even less invasive. Aortic valve replacement was performed in 27 patients via a right parasternal minithoracotomy without rib resection. Cardiopulmonary bypass was connected through the same access site. Standard surgical technique and equipment were employed. There were no intraoperative complications. All patients survived and could be discharged home within 1 week, except 1. Cardiopulmonary bypass time, aortic cross-clamp time, and total operating time averaged 114 +/- 26, 76 +/- 19, and 190 +/- 40 minutes, respectively. Three patients could be extubated in the operative theater, the others in the intensive care unit at an average of 10 +/- 7 hours postoperatively. Chest drainage lost averaged 430 +/- 380 mL. The advantages of this method include further reduction of surgical trauma, early mobilization, and rehabilitation of the patient. Surgical technical improvements include avoidance of groin cannulation, simpler equipment, safe venting of the left ventricle, and preservation of chest wall integrity.
Kim, David; Pryor, Landon S; Broder, Kevin; Gosman, Amanda; Breithaupt, Andrew D; Meltzer, Hal S; Levy, Michael; Cohen, Steven R
Craniosynostosis, or the premature closure of the sutures of the skull, has historically been repaired in an open manner and included extensive cranial reconstruction. In recent years, technological advancements have given surgeons the ability to perform repairs with minimal surgical invasion. With the advent of endoscopy and bioresorbable plates, recent reports [J Craniofac Surg 2002;13(4):578-82] have emphasized attempts at decreased morbidity. Recently, researchers have been able to compare the results of traditional open and minimally invasive techniques in 45 craniosynostosis cases, demonstrating decreased operating room time, blood loss, transfusions, complications, and hospital stay in minimally invasive patients [Clin Plast Surg 2004;31(3):429-42]. Many of the parameters comparing the 2 types of procedures are easily quantified and comparable, but a variety of other considerations, such as the parent's reaction to the stress of surgery, arise. The purpose of this study was to compare the effects of these surgical procedures on the parent's level of stress at the time of operation. To accomplish this, we measured stress postoperatively using the Parenting Stress Index-Short Form. Subjects undergoing surgical treatment of craniosynostosis were placed into 2 groups: open versus minimally invasive. To test for confounding factors, subjects were subcategorized for sex, parent's sex, ethnicity, and parent's marital status. Analysis of our data reveals a statistically significant decrease in total stress in the households of minimally invasive patients.
Woods, Michael; Birkholz, Denise; MacBarb, Regina; Capobianco, Robyn; Woods, Adam
Study Design. Retrospective case series. Objective. To document the clinical utility of intraoperative neuromonitoring during minimally invasive surgical sacroiliac joint fusion for patients diagnosed with sacroiliac joint dysfunction (as a direct result of sacroiliac joint disruptions or degenerative sacroiliitis) and determine stimulated electromyography thresholds reflective of favorable implant position. Summary of Background Data. Intraoperative neuromonitoring is a well-accepted adjunct to minimally invasive pedicle screw placement. The utility of intraoperative neuromonitoring during minimally invasive surgical sacroiliac joint fusion using a series of triangular, titanium porous plasma coated implants has not been evaluated. Methods. A medical chart review of consecutive patients treated with minimally invasive surgical sacroiliac joint fusion was undertaken at a single center. Baseline patient demographics and medical history, intraoperative electromyography thresholds, and perioperative adverse events were collected after obtaining IRB approval. Results. 111 implants were placed in 37 patients. Sensitivity of EMG was 80% and specificity was 97%. Intraoperative neuromonitoring potentially avoided neurologic sequelae as a result of improper positioning in 7% of implants. Conclusions. The results of this study suggest that intraoperative neuromonitoring may be a useful adjunct to minimally invasive surgical sacroiliac joint fusion in avoiding nerve injury during implant placement.
MENG, KEXIN; TIAN, WEI; LV, ZHENYE; SONG, XIANGYANG
Horner's syndrome (HS), characterized by a combination of ptosis and miosis, is an uncommon complication of thyroid surgery, particularly in minimally invasive thyroid surgery. Two cases of HS were observed secondary to minimally invasive video-assisted thyroidectomy in the Department of Thyroid Breast Surgery of Zhejiang Provincial People's Hospital between August 2012 and July 2014. The two patients developed miosis and ptosis following total thyroidectomy; all symptoms had resolved at 1 and 11 months subsequent to surgery, respectively. HS has currently been reported secondary to numerous types of minimally invasive thyroid procedures. The literature was reviewed to identify cases of this iatrogenic complication secondary to each type of thyroidectomy and the possible injury mechanisms underlying the syndrome were summarized in the present study. In addition, factors that were associated with minimally invasive thyroidectomy, such as the limited endoscopic vision during the procedure, the retraction effect and the occurrence of thermal damage from the use of the harmonic scalpel, were emphasized. The present study concluded that close attention is required during minimally invasive thyroid surgery in order to avoid HS as a complication of the procedure. PMID:26171051
Meng, Kexin; Tian, Wei; Lv, Zhenye; Song, Xiangyang
Horner's syndrome (HS), characterized by a combination of ptosis and miosis, is an uncommon complication of thyroid surgery, particularly in minimally invasive thyroid surgery. Two cases of HS were observed secondary to minimally invasive video-assisted thyroidectomy in the Department of Thyroid Breast Surgery of Zhejiang Provincial People's Hospital between August 2012 and July 2014. The two patients developed miosis and ptosis following total thyroidectomy; all symptoms had resolved at 1 and 11 months subsequent to surgery, respectively. HS has currently been reported secondary to numerous types of minimally invasive thyroid procedures. The literature was reviewed to identify cases of this iatrogenic complication secondary to each type of thyroidectomy and the possible injury mechanisms underlying the syndrome were summarized in the present study. In addition, factors that were associated with minimally invasive thyroidectomy, such as the limited endoscopic vision during the procedure, the retraction effect and the occurrence of thermal damage from the use of the harmonic scalpel, were emphasized. The present study concluded that close attention is required during minimally invasive thyroid surgery in order to avoid HS as a complication of the procedure.
Zenoni, Scott A; Arnoletti, J Pablo; de la Fuente, Sebastian G
Over the past decade, minimally invasive surgery has been introduced as a means to allow manipulation of delicate tissues with outstanding visualization of the surgical field. The purpose of this article is to review the available literature regarding early postoperative outcomes and the technical challenges of minimally invasive pancreaticoduodenectomy, including robotic techniques. Herein, we provide a retrospective review of all published studies in the English literature in which a minimally invasive pancreaticoduodenectomy was performed. The reported advantages of minimally invasive pancreaticoduodenectomy include better visualization, faster recovery time, and decreased length of hospital stay. In cases of robotic approaches, some of the proposed advantages include increased dexterity and a superior ergonomic position for the operating surgeon. To our knowledge, few studies have reported results comparable to open techniques in oncologic outcomes with regard to the number of lymph nodes resected and clear margins obtained. An increasing number of pancreatic resections are being performed using minimally invasive approaches. It remains to be determined if the benefits of this technique outweigh its longer operative times and higher costs.
BARCHI, Leandro Cardoso; JACOB, Carlos Eduardos; BRESCIANI, Cláudio José Caldas; YAGI, Osmar Kenji; MUCERINO, Donato Roberto; LOPASSO, Fábio Pinatel; MESTER, Marcelo; RIBEIRO-JÚNIOR, Ulysses; DIAS, André Roncon; RAMOS, Marcus Fernando Kodama Pertille; CECCONELLO, Ivan; ZILBERSTEIN, Bruno
ABSTRACT Introduction: Minimally invasive surgery widely used to treat benign disorders of the digestive system, has become the focus of intense study in recent years in the field of surgical oncology. Since then, the experience with this kind of approach has grown, aiming to provide the same oncological outcomes and survival to conventional surgery. Regarding gastric cancer, surgery is still considered the only curative treatment, considering the extent of resection and lymphadenectomy performed. Conventional surgery remains the main modality performed worldwide. Notwithstanding, the role of the minimally invasive access is yet to be clarified. Objective: To evaluate and summarize the current status of minimally invasive resection of gastric cancer. Methods: A literature review was performed using Medline/PubMed, Cochrane Library and SciELO with the following headings: gastric cancer, minimally invasive surgery, robotic gastrectomy, laparoscopic gastrectomy, stomach cancer. The language used for the research was English. Results: 28 articles were considered, including randomized controlled trials, meta-analyzes, prospective and retrospective cohort studies. Conclusion: Minimally invasive gastrectomy may be considered as a technical option in the treatment of early gastric cancer. As for advanced cancer, recent studies have demonstrated the safety and feasibility of the laparoscopic approach. Robotic gastrectomy will probably improve outcomes obtained with laparoscopy. However, high cost is still a barrier to its use on a large scale. PMID:27438040
Scarpa, M; Cavallin, F; Saadeh, L M; Pinto, E; Alfieri, R; Cagol, M; Da Roit, A; Pizzolato, E; Noaro, G; Pozza, G; Castoro, C
The purpose of this case-control study was to evaluate the impact of hybrid minimally invasive esophagectomy for cancer on surgical stress response and nutritional status. All 34 consecutive patients undergoing hybrid minimally invasive esophagectomy for cancer at our surgical unit between 2008 and 2013 were retrospectively compared with 34 patients undergoing esophagectomy with open gastric tubulization (open), matched for neoadjuvant therapy, pathological stage, gender and age. Demographic data, tumor features and postoperative course (including quality of life and systemic inflammatory and nutritional status) were compared. Postoperative course was similar in terms of complication rate. Length of stay in intensive care unit was shorter in patients undergoing hybrid minimally invasive esophagectomy (P = 0.002). In the first postoperative day, patients undergoing hybrid minimally invasive esophagectomy had lower C-reactive protein levels (P = 0.001) and white cell blood count (P = 0.05), and higher albumin serum level (P = 0.001). In this group, albumin remained higher also at third (P = 0.06) and seventh (P = 0.008) postoperative day, and C-reactive protein resulted lower at third post day (P = 0.04). Hybrid minimally invasive esophagectomy significantly improved the systemic inflammatory and catabolic response to surgical trauma, contributing to a shorter length of stay in intensive care unit. © 2015 International Society for Diseases of the Esophagus.
Zou, Tiannan; Li, Qiaohong; Zhou, Xiaoxiao; Yang, Zhao; Wang, Ge; Liu, Wei; Zhang, Chao
To explore the fact that minimal invasive osteosynthesis surgery could promote patient rehabilitate quickly. Patients needed to remove fracture fixation plates and screws in clavicle/femur/tibia and fibular bones were totally divided into two groups (conventional surgery group and minimal invasive surgery group). The operation time, intra-operative blood loose, post-operation 48 hours analgesic need, VAS score of 24-hours and 72-hours post-operation, post operation incision healing conditions, incision infection, patients' satisfaction about incision scar, and resting days were measured. Patients in the minimal invasive surgery group were satisfied with their scar condition than the conventional surgery group. There were no much difference between conventional surgery group and minimal invasive surgery group in operation time (46.3±10.2 minutes Vs 48.0±11.8 minutes) (P>0.05) and the blood lose in these two groups were 4 ml Vs 47.4±20.1 ml (P>0.05), respectively. There were no screws broken in both groups and all the implants were removed out successfully. Remove four limb fracture fixation implant with minimal invasive surgery is good for patients' early rehabilitation.
Woods, Michael; Birkholz, Denise; MacBarb, Regina; Capobianco, Robyn; Woods, Adam
Study Design. Retrospective case series. Objective. To document the clinical utility of intraoperative neuromonitoring during minimally invasive surgical sacroiliac joint fusion for patients diagnosed with sacroiliac joint dysfunction (as a direct result of sacroiliac joint disruptions or degenerative sacroiliitis) and determine stimulated electromyography thresholds reflective of favorable implant position. Summary of Background Data. Intraoperative neuromonitoring is a well-accepted adjunct to minimally invasive pedicle screw placement. The utility of intraoperative neuromonitoring during minimally invasive surgical sacroiliac joint fusion using a series of triangular, titanium porous plasma coated implants has not been evaluated. Methods. A medical chart review of consecutive patients treated with minimally invasive surgical sacroiliac joint fusion was undertaken at a single center. Baseline patient demographics and medical history, intraoperative electromyography thresholds, and perioperative adverse events were collected after obtaining IRB approval. Results. 111 implants were placed in 37 patients. Sensitivity of EMG was 80% and specificity was 97%. Intraoperative neuromonitoring potentially avoided neurologic sequelae as a result of improper positioning in 7% of implants. Conclusions. The results of this study suggest that intraoperative neuromonitoring may be a useful adjunct to minimally invasive surgical sacroiliac joint fusion in avoiding nerve injury during implant placement. PMID:25544898
Steedman, D.; Seusy, F.E.; Gibbons, J.; Bratton, J.L.
This paper presents an improved for hazardous site characterization. The major components of the systems are: (1) an enhanced cone penetrometer test, (2) surface geophysical surveys and (3) a field database and visualization code. The objective of the effort was to develop a method of combining geophysical data with cone penetrometer data in the field to produce a synergistic effect. Various aspects of the method were tested at three sites. The results from each site are discussed and the data compared. This method allows the data to be interpreted more fully with greater certainty, is faster, cheaper and leads to a more accurate site characterization. Utilizing the cone penetrometer test rather than the standard drilling, sampling and laboratory testing reduces the workers exposure to hazardous materials and minimizes the hazardous material disposal problems. The technologies employed in this effort are, for the most part, state-of-the-art procedures. The approach of using data from various measurement systems to develop a synergistic effect was a unique contribution to environmental site characterization. The use of the cone penetrometer for providing ``ground truth`` data and as a platform for subsurface sensors in environmental site characterization represents a significant advancement in environmental site characterization.
Sang, Hongqiang; Yun, Jintian; Monfaredi, Reza; Wilson, Emmanuel; Fooladi, Hadi; Cleary, Kevin
Robotically assisted minimally invasive surgery can offer many benefits over open surgery and laparoscopic minimally invasive surgery. However, currently, there is no force sensing and force feedback. This research was implemented using the da Vinci research kit. An external force estimation and implementation method was proposed based on dynamics and motor currents. The dynamics of the Patient Side Manipulator was modeled. The dynamic model was linearly parameterized. The estimation principle of external force was derived. The dynamic parameters were experimentally identified using a least squares method. Several experiments including dynamic parameter identification, joint torque estimation, and external force estimation were performed. The results showed that the proposed method could implement force estimation without using a force sensor. The force estimation method was proposed and implemented and experimental results showed the method worked and was feasible. This method could be used for force sensing in minimally invasive surgical robotics in the future. Copyright © 2017 John Wiley & Sons, Ltd.
Yu, Peiwu; Hao, Yingxue
Laparoscopic gastrectomy is one of the main directions of minimally invasive surgery for gastric cancer. Since 1999, the first laparoscopic gastrectomy was reported, minimally invasive laparoscopic surgery for gastric cancer in China has undergone three stages: initial exploration period, rapid development period and gradual maturation period. The hospitals which performed laparoscopic gastrectomy and the reported cases have been increasing, at the same time the clinical efficacy is satisfied. However, there is still lack of standard and insufficient evidence in the treatment of gastric cancer by laparoscopic gastrectomy. The 3D laparoscopic and robotic gastrectomies still can not be performed in the most hospitals in China. So we should strengthen the standardization training of laparoscopic gastrectomy, develop the evidence-based medical research, promote the 3D laparoscopic and robotic gastrectomies to enhance the level of minimally invasive surgery for gastric cancer.
Bianchi, Paolo Pietro; Luca, Fabrizio; Petz, Wanda; Valvo, Manuela; Cenciarelli, Sabine; Zuccaro, Massimiliano; Biffi, Roberto
Laparoscopic rectal surgery is feasible, oncologically safe, and offers better short-term outcomes than traditional open procedures in terms of pain control, recovery of bowel function, length of hospital stay, and time until return to working activity. Nevertheless, laparoscopic techniques are not widely used in rectal surgery, mainly because they require a prolonged and demanding learning curve that is available only in high-volume and rectal cancer surgery centres experienced in minimally invasive surgery. Robotic surgery is a new technology that enables the surgeon to perform minimally invasive operations with better vision and more intuitive and precise control of the operating instruments, promising to overcome some of the technical difficulties associated with standard laparoscopy. The aim of this review is to summarise the current data on clinical and oncological outcomes of minimally invasive surgery in rectal cancer, focusing on robotic surgery, and providing original data from the authors’ centre. PMID:24101946
MacArthur, John W.; Cohen, Jeffrey E.; Goldstone, Andrew B.; Fairman, Alexander S.; Edwards, Bryan B.; Hornick, Matthew A.; Atluri, Pavan; Woo, Y. Joseph
Background Both leaflet resection and neochordal construction are effective mitral repair techniques, but they may become incrementally time-consuming when using minimally invasive approaches. We have used a single-suture leaflet-remodeling technique of inverting the prolapsed or flail segment tissue into the left ventricle. This repair is straightforward, expeditious, and facilitates a minimally invasive approach. Methods Ninety-nine patients with degenerative mitral regurgitation (MR) underwent a minimally invasive single-suture repair of the mitral valve from May 2007 through December 2012. Preoperative and perioperative echocardiograms as well as patient outcomes were analyzed and compared with those obtained from patients undergoing minimally invasive mitral valve repair using quadrangular resection at the same institution during the same period. Results All 99 patients had a successful mitral repair through a sternal-sparing minimally invasive approach. Ninety-one of the 99 patients had zero MR on postoperative echocardiogram, and 8 of 99 had trace to mild MR. Patients in the nonresectional group had significantly shorter cardiopulmonary bypass and cross-clamp times compared with the quadrangular resection group (115.8 ± 41.7 minutes versus 144.9 ± 38.2 minutes; p < 0.001; 76.2 ± 28.1 minutes versus 112.6 ± 33.5 minutes; p < 0.001, respectively). The mean length of stay was 7.5 ± 3 days. All patients were discharged alive and free from clinical symptoms of MR. There have been no reoperations for recurrent MR on subsequent average follow-up of 1 year. Conclusions An effective, highly efficient, and thus far durable single-suture mitral leaflet-remodeling technique facilitates minimally invasive repair of degenerative MR. PMID:23932318
Jazini, Ehsan; Weir, Tristan; Nwodim, Emeka; Tannous, Oliver; Saifi, Comron; Caffes, Nicholas; Costales, Timothy; Koh, Eugene; Banagan, Kelley; Gelb, Daniel; Ludwig, Steven C
Complex sacral fractures with vertical and anterior pelvic ring instability treated with traditional fixation methods are associated with high rates of failure and poor clinical outcomes. Supplemental lumbopelvic fixation (LPF) has been applied for additional stability to help with fracture union. The study aimed to determine whether minimally invasive LPF provides reliable fracture stability and acceptable complication rates in cases of complex sacral fractures. This is a retrospective cohort study at a single level I trauma center. The sample includes 24 patients who underwent minimally invasive LPF for complex sacral fracture with or without associated pelvic ring injury. Reoperation for all causes, loss of fixation, surgical time, transfusion requirements, length of hospital stay, postoperative day at mobilization, and mortality were evaluated. Patient charts from 2008 to 2014 were reviewed. Of the 32 patients who underwent minimally invasive LPF for complex sacral fractures, 24 (12 male, 12 female) met all inclusion and exclusion criteria. Outcome measures were assessed with a retrospective chart review and radiographic review. The authors did not receive external funding for this study. Acute reoperation was 12%, and elective reoperation was 29%. Two (8%) patients returned to the operating room for infection, one (4.2%) required revision for instrumentation malposition, and seven (29%) underwent elective removal of instrumentation. No patient experienced failure of instrumentation or loss of correction. Average surgical time was 3.6 hours, blood loss was 180 mL, transfusion requirement was 2.1 units of packed red blood cells, and postoperative mobilization was on postoperative day 5. No mortalities occurred as a result of the minimally invasive LPF procedure. Compared with historic reports of open LPF, our results demonstrate reliable maintenance of reduction and acceptable complication rates with minimally invasive LPF for complexsacral fractures. The
The purpose of this meeting is to highlight those advances in instrumentation and methodology that can be applied to the medical problems that will be encountered as the duration of manned space missions is extended. Information on work that is presently being done by NASA as well as other approaches in which NASA is not participating will be exchanged. The NASA-sponsored efforts that will be discussed are part of the overall Space Medicine Program that has been undertaken by NASA to address the medical problems of manned spaceflight. These problems include those that have been observed in the past as well as those which are anticipated as missions become longer, traverse different orbits, or are in any way different. This conference is arranged in order to address the types of instrumentation that might be used in several major medical problem areas. Instrumentation that will help in the cardiovascular, musculoskeletal, and psychological areas, among others will be presented. Interest lies in identifying instrumentation which will help in learning more about ourselves through experiments performed directly on humans. Great emphasis is placed on non-invasive approaches, although every substantial program basic to animal research will be needed in the foreseeable future. Space Medicine is a rather small affair in what is primarily an engineering organization. Space Medicine is conducted throughout NASA by a very small skeleton staff at the headquarters office in Washington and by our various field centers. These centers include the Johnson Space Center in Houston, Texas, the Ames Research Center in Moffett Field, California, the Jet Propulsion Laboratory in Pasadena, California, the Kennedy Space Center in Florida, and the Langley Research Center in Hampton, Virginia. Throughout these various centers, work is conducted in-house by NASA's own staff scientists, physicians, and engineers. In addition, various universities, industries, and other government laboratories
The purpose of this meeting is to highlight those advances in instrumentation and methodology that can be applied to the medical problems that will be encountered as the duration of manned space missions is extended. Information on work that is presently being done by NASA as well as other approaches in which NASA is not participating will be exchanged. The NASA-sponsored efforts that will be discussed are part of the overall Space Medicine Program that has been undertaken by NASA to address the medical problems of manned spaceflight. These problems include those that have been observed in the past as well as those which are anticipated as missions become longer, traverse different orbits, or are in any way different. This conference is arranged in order to address the types of instrumentation that might be used in several major medical problem areas. Instrumentation that will help in the cardiovascular, musculoskeletal, and psychological areas, among others will be presented. Interest lies in identifying instrumentation which will help in learning more about ourselves through experiments performed directly on humans. Great emphasis is placed on non-invasive approaches, although every substantial program basic to animal research will be needed in the foreseeable future. Space Medicine is a rather small affair in what is primarily an engineering organization. Space Medicine is conducted throughout NASA by a very small skeleton staff at the headquarters office in Washington and by our various field centers. These centers include the Johnson Space Center in Houston, Texas, the Ames Research Center in Moffett Field, California, the Jet Propulsion Laboratory in Pasadena, California, the Kennedy Space Center in Florida, and the Langley Research Center in Hampton, Virginia. Throughout these various centers, work is conducted in-house by NASA's own staff scientists, physicians, and engineers. In addition, various universities, industries, and other government laboratories
Vignon, François; de Rosny, Julien; Aubry, Jean-François; Fink, Mathias
The inverse filter is a technique used to adaptively focus waves through heterogeneous media. It is based on the inversion of the Green's functions matrix between the M transducers of a focusing array and N control points in the focal area. The inverse filter minimizes the pressure deposited around the focal point. However it is highly invasive, requiring the presence of N transducers or hydrophones in the focal area at the control points' locations to measure the Green's functions. This paper presents a way of reaching the inverse filter's focusing quality with a minimally invasive setup: only one transducer (at the desired focal location) is needed. This minimally invasive inverse filter takes advantage of the fact all the information about the propagation medium can be retrieved from the signals backscattered by the medium towards the focusing array, if the propagation medium is lossless. A numerical simulation is performed to test this minimally invasive inverse filter through a scattering, lossless medium. The focusing quality equals the conventional, highly invasive inverse filter's. The average spatial and temporal contrast is increased by up to 10 dB compared to the time reversal focusing.
Ordonez, Robert F.; Mittemeyer, Bernhard T.; Aronoff, David R.; de Riese, Werner T. W.
The use of minimally invasive treatments for benign prostatic hyperplasia (BPH) have been introduced into the medical community. Over the last decade several minimally invasive treatment techniques have been approved for use. In particular, interstitial laser coagulation (ILC) has shown pomise as an alternative to the current gold standard, transurethral resection of prostate (TURP). Studies show ILC to have equal efficacy as TURP while causing less side effects. Future technical advances as well as increased physician experience with ILC could lead to the replacement of TURP as the gold standard in trestment of BPH.
Berhouma, Moncef; Ni, Hongyang; Vallee, Bernard
The management of pineal cysts is still debatable, especially for asymptomatic incidental ones. For symptomatic cysts associated with hydrocephalus, the surgical management is mandatory and may include either classical microsurgical approaches to the pineal region or endoscopic trans-ventricular approaches in a minimally invasive philosophy. The authors expose a stepwise technique to treat a pineal cyst associated with an obstructive hydrocephalus in one procedure gathering a third ventriculostomy followed by an intraventricular marsupialisation of the pineal cyst. This endoscopic approach allows the treatment of the hydrocephalus and the pineal cyst in one short minimally invasive procedure.
Zhang, Zhenhua; Cao, Tong; Chen, Hua; Liu, Da; Shi, Zhenyun; Ma, Chen
The rapid development of minimally invasive surgery technology requires higher flexibility of surgical treatment and small volume of medical instrument. This paper proposed a new type of minimally invasive surgery wrist institution actuated by TiNi shape memory alloy (SMA) wire. The wrist institution has some advantages such as compact structure, flexible function, light weight, big movement space, and high output position precision. The paper briefly introduces the properties of TiNi SMA and describes the configuration of wrist institution. We also carried out mechanism simulation analysis to the mechanics model and set up kinematics equations, and finally presented the workspace of the institution.
Tobias, Anthony H; Stauthammer, Christopher D
With ever-increasing sophistication of veterinary cardiology, minimally invasive per-catheter occlusion and dilation procedures for the treatment of various congenital cardiovascular abnormalities in dogs have become not only available, but mainstream. Much new information about minimally invasive per-catheter patent ductus arteriosus occlusion has been published and presented during the past few years. Consequently, patent ductus arteriosus occlusion is the primary focus of this article. Occlusion of other less common congenital cardiac defects is also briefly reviewed. Balloon dilation of pulmonic stenosis, as well as other congenital obstructive cardiovascular abnormalities is discussed in the latter part of the article.
White, Abby; Swanson, Scott J
The era of minimally invasive surgery for lung cancer follows decades of research; the collection and interpretation of countless qualitative and quantitative data points; and tireless efforts by a few pioneering thoracic surgeons who believed they could deliver a safe and oncologically sound operation with less tissue trauma, an improved physiologic profile, and fewer complications than traditional open surgery. This review highlights those efforts and the role of minimally invasive surgery for early-stage lung cancer in light of evolving technology, the emerging understanding of the biology of early-stage lung cancer, and lung cancer screening.
Holtmann, Laura C; Eckstein, Anja; Stähr, Kerstin; Xing, Minzhi; Lang, Stephan; Mattheis, Stefan
Peripheral paralysis of the facial nerve is the most frequent of all cranial nerve disorders. Despite advances in facial surgery, the functional and aesthetic reconstruction of a paralyzed face remains a challenge. Graduated minimally invasive facial reanimation is based on a modular principle. According to the patients' needs, precondition, and expectations, the following modules can be performed: temporalis muscle transposition and facelift, nasal valve suspension, endoscopic brow lift, and eyelid reconstruction. Applying a concept of a graduated minimally invasive facial reanimation may help minimize surgical trauma and reduce morbidity. Twenty patients underwent a graduated minimally invasive facial reanimation. A retrospective chart review was performed with a follow-up examination between 1 and 8 months after surgery. The FACEgram software was used to calculate pre- and postoperative eyelid closure, the level of brows, nasal, and philtral symmetry as well as oral commissure position at rest and oral commissure excursion with smile. As a patient-oriented outcome parameter, the Glasgow Benefit Inventory questionnaire was applied. There was a statistically significant improvement in the postoperative score of eyelid closure, brow asymmetry, nasal asymmetry, philtral asymmetry as well as oral commissure symmetry at rest (p < 0.05). Smile evaluation revealed no significant change of oral commissure excursion. The mean Glasgow Benefit Inventory score indicated substantial improvement in patients' overall quality of life. If a primary facial nerve repair or microneurovascular tissue transfer cannot be applied, graduated minimally invasive facial reanimation is a promising option to restore facial function and symmetry at rest.
Suzuki, Shigeki; Sakurai, Hiroyuki; Masai, Kyohei; Asakura, Keisuke; Nakagawa, Kazuo; Motoi, Noriko; Watanabe, Shun-Ichi
Based on the current World Health Organization classification, adenocarcinoma with a predominantly lepidic pattern larger than 3.0 cm in diameter is considered to be invasive adenocarcinoma, specifically lepidic adenocarcinoma, even if it shows pathologic invasion of 0.5 cm or less. However, we sometimes encounter lepidic adenocarcinomas larger than 3.0 cm with a good prognosis as well as minimally invasive adenocarcinoma. Of 4,606 resected primary lung cancers at our institute between 1998 and 2011, this study focused on 18 lepidic adenocarcinomas with invasion of 0.5 cm or less. Clinicopathologic characteristics, including epidermal growth factor receptor mutation and anaplastic lymphoma kinase rearrangement status, and prognosis were evaluated. The median maximum pathologic tumor diameter was 3.4 cm (range, 3.1 to 4.7 cm) and the median maximum diameter of the invasive area within the tumor was 0.4 cm (range, 0 to 0.5 cm). No lymph node metastasis, vascular invasion, lymphatic permeation, or pleural invasion was pathologically confirmed in any of the 18 cases. Although epidermal growth factor receptor mutation was detected in 13 cases (72%), none of the patients showed anaplastic lymphoma kinase rearrangement. Recurrence was not observed in any of the 18 patients. The 5-year overall and cancer-specific survival rates were 94.4% and 100%, respectively. Lepidic adenocarcinoma with invasion of 0.5 cm or less had a good prognosis. Adenocarcinoma with a predominantly lepidic pattern and invasion of 0.5 cm or less can be regarded as minimally invasive adenocarcinoma even if the tumor is larger than 3.0 cm in diameter. Copyright © 2017 The Society of Thoracic Surgeons. Published by Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.
Comparing open and minimally invasive surgical procedures for oesophagectomy in the treatment of cancer: the ROMIO (Randomised Oesophagectomy: Minimally Invasive or Open) feasibility study and pilot trial.
Metcalfe, Chris; Avery, Kerry; Berrisford, Richard; Barham, Paul; Noble, Sian M; Fernandez, Aida Moure; Hanna, George; Goldin, Robert; Elliott, Jackie; Wheatley, Timothy; Sanders, Grant; Hollowood, Andrew; Falk, Stephen; Titcomb, Dan; Streets, Christopher; Donovan, Jenny L; Blazeby, Jane M
BACKGROUND Localised oesophageal cancer can be curatively treated with surgery (oesophagectomy) but the procedure is complex with a risk of complications, negative effects on quality of life and a recovery period of 6-9 months. Minimal-access surgery may accelerate recovery. OBJECTIVES The ROMIO (Randomised Oesophagectomy: Minimally Invasive or Open) study aimed to establish the feasibility of, and methodology for, a definitive trial comparing minimally invasive and open surgery for oesophagectomy. Objectives were to quantify the number of eligible patients in a pilot trial; develop surgical manuals as the basis for quality assurance; standardise pathological processing; establish a method to blind patients to their allocation in the first week post surgery; identify measures of postsurgical outcome of importance to patients and clinicians; and establish the main cost differences between the surgical approaches. DESIGN Pilot parallel three-arm randomised controlled trial nested within feasibility work. SETTING Two UK NHS departments of upper gastrointestinal surgery. PARTICIPANTS Patients aged ≥ 18 years with histopathological evidence of oesophageal or oesophagogastric junctional adenocarcinoma, squamous cell cancer or high-grade dysplasia, referred for oesophagectomy or oesophagectomy following neoadjuvant chemo(radio)therapy. INTERVENTIONS Oesophagectomy, with patients randomised to open surgery, a hybrid open chest and minimally invasive abdomen or totally minimally invasive access. MAIN OUTCOME MEASURE The primary outcome measure for the pilot trial was the number of patients recruited per month, with the main trial considered feasible if at least 2.5 patients per month were recruited. RESULTS During 21 months of recruitment, 263 patients were assessed for eligibility; of these, 135 (51%) were found to be eligible and 104 (77%) agreed to participate, an average of five patients per month. In total, 41 patients were allocated to open surgery, 43 to the
Park, Paul; La Marca, Frank
Surgery for scoliosis requires extensive exposure, resulting in significant tissue injury and longer recovery times. To minimize morbidity in scoliosis surgery, several studies have shown successful application of a combination of minimally invasive techniques; however, the extent of scoliosis treated has been modest. To achieve some of the benefits of minimally invasive surgery and yet treat curves of greater degree, we have used a combined approach, incorporating both open and minimally invasive techniques. We analyzed a prospectively acquired database in addition to reviewing electronic records of patients undergoing hybrid surgery for thoracolumbar scoliosis. Nine patients were identified. The minimally invasive portion involved the lumbar region in all cases. Pain was assessed by the visual analog scale and disability was measured by the Oswestry Disability Index. Mean preoperative scoliosis was 47.8 degrees, which was corrected to a mean 15.2 degrees. An average of 7.8 spinal levels was treated. Estimated blood loss averaged 1094.4 mL, and length of hospital stay averaged 7.2 days. Acute complications occurred in 2 patients. Longer term complications occurred in 2 patients, consisting of adjacent segment disease. The mean improvement in the visual analog scale score was 3.7 and the mean improvement on the Oswestry Disability Index was 30.5. Average follow-up was 29.2 months. The hybrid approach for the treatment of scoliosis results in acceptable radiographic and clinical outcomes. Complications did not appear increased compared with those expected with scoliosis surgery. Although decreased adjacent tissue injury was achieved with the minimally invasive component of the procedure, a larger comparative study is required to determine magnitude of this benefit.
Delucia, Patricia R.; Griswold, John A.
Minimally invasive surgery (MIS) is performed for a growing number of treatments. Whereas open surgery requires large incisions, MIS relies on small incisions through which instruments are inserted and tissues are visualized with a camera. MIS results in benefits for patients compared with open surgery, but degrades the surgeon's perceptual-motor…
Aliev, Iu G; Chinikov, M A; Panteleeva, I S; Kurbanov, F S; Popovich, V K; Sushko, A N
The article presents the results of surgical treatment of 1038 patients with cholelithiasis, acute and chronic calculous cholecystitis and complicated forms of the disease. Operations were performed with traditional laparotomic and minimally invasive approaches. Indications for choosing access, as well as the advantages and disadvantages of various options of surgery in patients with cholelithiasis are discussed.
Background Minimally invasive laminectomy is a very effective surgical method for treating lumbar stenosis. However, this technique can be technically difficult, especially in patients suffering from severe stenosis. The contralateral decompression from a unilateral approach can result in durotomy during removal of the hypertrophied ligamentum flavum. This complication can be difficult to treat through a small working channel. Objective To detail our group’s operative experience with the CO2 laser and discuss our results and previous studies in the literature reporting results. Methods The CO2 laser (Omniguide, Boston, MA) was investigated in the surgical ablation of the contralateral ligamentum flavum during minimally invasive laminectomies. Forty levels have been investigated thus far. The amount of voltage needed to adequately desiccate and remove the ligamentum flavum safely as well as the effectiveness of this technique were investigated. Results The contralateral ligamentum flavum could be removed effectively using the 9 to 11 watt continuous wavelength (10,600 nanometer) power setting on the CO2 laser. Shrinkage of the contralateral ligamentum flavum facilitated its removal using a number 2 Kerrison Punch. No durotomies occurred, and the use of the laser did not significantly lengthen operative times. Conclusions The CO2 laser appears to be a useful tool in the armamentarium of instruments available to the minimally invasive spine surgeon and may help to reduce the incidence of durotomies when performing minimally invasive laminectomies. PMID:27433407
Jones, Patrick; Rai, Bhavan P.; Aboumarzouk, Omar; Somani, Bhaskar K.
‘UroLift’ has emerged as a new minimally-invasive nonablative surgical technique for benign prostatic hyperplasia (BPH). We discuss the procedure, cost, evidence, advantages and disadvantages of this procedure. It is a novel technology suitable for a selected group of patients that allows for a bespoke treatment for men with BPH. PMID:27904652
Lujan, Henry J; Bisland, William B
Colonic gallstone ileus is an unusual cause of colonic obstruction. Management of these patients is not standardized and can be challenging. As these patients are often ill and frail at presentation, surgical management needs to be individualized to decrease morbidity and mortality. We report a case that was managed by staged minimally invasive techniques with an excellent outcome.
Lanzafame, Raymond J.
The face of surgery is changing rapidly since the advent of the laparoscopic cholecystectomy and the heightened interest in minimally invasive surgery. There is little question that the expansion of minimally invasive techniques and technology are driven by patients and industry. These factors are counter to the mainstream of general surgeons who remain reluctant to accept change despite declining numbers of general surgeons, an increasing trend toward sub-specialization and shrinking spectrum of diseases being treated. The enthusiasm for laser applications in general surgery is declining despite an ever-increasing array of wavelengths, increasingly complex and expensive technology and the availability of multiple delivery devices. The future of surgery holds several opportunities for the refinement of laser and minimally invasive surgical technologies and their application to routine problems. However, the challenge for the future must remain a balance between the availability of technology and cost containment. This paper examines the challenges and future directions for lasers and minimally invasive techniques in general surgery.
Metzlaff, S; Rosslenbroich, S; Forkel, P H; Schliemann, B; Arshad, H; Raschke, M; Petersen, W
This study was performed to compare the clinical results of a minimally invasive technique for acute acromioclavicular (AC) joint dislocation repair with the traditional hook plate fixation. Forty-four patients with an acute (within 2 weeks after trauma) complete AC joint separation (35 male, nine female; median age 36.2 years, range 18-56) underwent surgical repair with either a minimally invasive AC joint repair or a conventional hook plate. Functional outcome was evaluated using the Constant-Murley Score (CMS), the TAFT score and the AC joint instability score (ACJI). Radiographic evaluation was performed with bilateral anterior-posterior (a.p.) stress and Alexander views. All patients were available after a median follow-up of 32 months (range 24-51). There were no significant differences in the mean CMS, Taft score and the ACJI between the two groups. The radiological assessment revealed no significant difference in the coracoclavicular distance. In both groups, a slight loss of reduction was observed. Periarticular ossification was seen in 11 patients of the minimally invasive AC joint repair and eight patients of the hook plate group but this did not affect the final outcome. Hook plates were removed after a median interval of 11.9 weeks (range 10-13). Good clinical results can be achieved with both minimally invasive AC joint repair and hook plate fixation. However, in the hook plate group a second operation is mandatory for plate removal. III.
Delucia, Patricia R.; Griswold, John A.
Minimally invasive surgery (MIS) is performed for a growing number of treatments. Whereas open surgery requires large incisions, MIS relies on small incisions through which instruments are inserted and tissues are visualized with a camera. MIS results in benefits for patients compared with open surgery, but degrades the surgeon's perceptual-motor…
Wang, Lin; Cao, Lan; Shansky, Janet; Wang, Zheng; Mooney, David; Vandenburgh, Herman
Repair of injured skeletal muscle by cell therapies has been limited by poor survival of injected cells. Use of a carrier scaffold delivering cells locally, may enhance in vivo cell survival, and promote skeletal muscle regeneration. Biomaterial scaffolds are often implanted into muscle tissue through invasive surgeries, which can result in trauma that delays healing. Minimally invasive approaches to scaffold implantation are thought to minimize these adverse effects. This hypothesis was addressed in the context of a severe mouse skeletal muscle injury model. A degradable, shape-memory alginate scaffold that was highly porous and compressible was delivered by minimally invasive surgical techniques to injured tibialis anterior muscle. The scaffold controlled was quickly rehydrated in situ with autologous myoblasts and growth factors (either insulin-like growth factor-1 (IGF-1) alone or IGF-1 with vascular endothelial growth factor (VEGF)). The implanted scaffolds delivering myoblasts and IGF-1 significantly reduced scar formation, enhanced cell engraftment, and improved muscle contractile function. The addition of VEGF to the scaffold further improved functional recovery likely through increased angiogenesis. Thus, the delivery of myoblasts and dual local release of VEGF and IGF-1 from degradable scaffolds implanted through a minimally invasive procedure effectively promoted the functional regeneration of injured skeletal muscle. PMID:24769909
Hur, Jung-Woo; Kim, Jin-Sung; Shin, Myeong-Hoon; Ryu, Kyeong-Sik
Background: The aim of this work is to present a novel decompression technique that approaches cervical spine posteriorly, but through minimal invasive method using tubular retractor avoiding detachment of posterior musculature. Methods: Six patients underwent minimally invasive posterior cervical decompression using the tubular retractor system and surgical microscope. Minimally invasive access to the posterior cervical spine was performed with exposure through a paramedian muscle-splitting approach. With the assistance of a specialized tubular retraction system and deep soft tissue expansion mechanism, multilevel posterior cervical decompression could be accomplished. This approach also allows safe docking of the retractor system on the lateral mass, thus avoiding the cervical spinal canal during exposure. A standard operating microscope was used with ×10 magnification and 400 mm focal length. The hospital charts, magnetic resonance imaging studies, and follow-up records of all the patients were reviewed. Outcome was assessed by neurological status and visual analog scale (VAS) for neck and arm pain. Results: There was no significant complication related to operation. The follow-up time was 4-12 months (mean, 9 months). Muscle weakness improved in all patients; sensory deficits resolved in four patients and improved in two patients. Analysis of the mean VAS for radicular pain and VAS for neck pain showed significant improvement. Conclusions: The preliminary experiences with good clinical outcome seem to promise that this minimally invasive technique is a valid alternative option for the treatment of cervical spondylotic myelopathy. PMID:24778922
Qamruddin, Irfan; Alam, Mohammad Khursheed; Khamis, Mohd Fadhli; Husein, Adam
Objective. To evaluate various noninvasive and minimally invasive procedures for the enhancement of orthodontic tooth movement in animals. Materials and Methods. Literature was searched using NCBI (PubMed, PubMed Central, and PubMed Health), MedPilot (Medline, Catalogue ZB MED, Catalogue Medicine Health, and Excerpta Medica Database (EMBASE)), and Google Scholar from January 2009 till 31 December 2014. We included original articles related to noninvasive and minimally invasive procedures to enhance orthodontic tooth movement in animals. Extraction of data and quality assessments were carried out by two observers independently. Results. The total number of hits was 9195 out of which just 11 fulfilled the inclusion criteria. Nine articles were good and 5 articles were moderate in quality. Low level laser therapy (LLLT) was among the most common noninvasive techniques whereas flapless corticision using various instruments was among the commonest minimally invasive procedures to enhance velocity of tooth movement. Conclusions. LLLT, low intensity pulsed ultrasound (LIPUS), mechanical vibration, and flapless corticision are emerging noninvasive and minimally invasive techniques which need further researches to establish protocols to use them clinically with conviction. PMID:26881201
Dangwal, Ritu; Kapur, Preeti
The current paper provides insight into the learning strategies adopted by children working at Minimally Invasive Education (MIE) Learning Stations. Previous research has clearly indicated the attainment of basic computer literacy by groups of young children in the age groups of 7-14 years. This learning takes place due to the emergence and…
Rose, David; Irace, Francesco; Frati, Giacomo
Optimal exposure of the mitral valve is paramount in minimally invasive surgery (MIS) and a prerequisite for successful mitral valve repair or replacement. We report the concept of a new left atrial retractor (Karl Storz GmbH, Tuttlingen, Germany) dedicated to MIS. The effectiveness of the device was evaluated in a prospective series of 40 patients successfully operated at our institution. PMID:28149570
Traxel, Erica J; Minevich, Eugene A; Noh, Paul H
This paper is one-half of a 2 part review on minimally-invasive procedures in pediatric urology. This article focuses on upper tract procedures, including complete nephrectomy, partial nephrectomy, pyeloplasty, and ureterocalicostomy. We note important articles on pure laparoscopic as well as robotic-assisted laparoscopic upper urinary tract surgeries, concentrating on their techniques and outcomes.
Traxel, Erica J; Minevich, Eugene A; Noh, Paul H
This paper is one-half of a 2 part review on minimally-invasive procedures in pediatric urology. This article focuses on lower tract procedures, including ureteroureterostomy, anti-reflux surgeries, creation of continent catheterizable channels, and augmentation cystoplasty. We note important articles on pure laparoscopic as well as robotic-assisted laparoscopic lower urinary tract surgeries, concentrating on their techniques and outcomes.
Qamruddin, Irfan; Alam, Mohammad Khursheed; Khamis, Mohd Fadhli; Husein, Adam
To evaluate various noninvasive and minimally invasive procedures for the enhancement of orthodontic tooth movement in animals. Literature was searched using NCBI (PubMed, PubMed Central, and PubMed Health), MedPilot (Medline, Catalogue ZB MED, Catalogue Medicine Health, and Excerpta Medica Database (EMBASE)), and Google Scholar from January 2009 till 31 December 2014. We included original articles related to noninvasive and minimally invasive procedures to enhance orthodontic tooth movement in animals. Extraction of data and quality assessments were carried out by two observers independently. The total number of hits was 9195 out of which just 11 fulfilled the inclusion criteria. Nine articles were good and 5 articles were moderate in quality. Low level laser therapy (LLLT) was among the most common noninvasive techniques whereas flapless corticision using various instruments was among the commonest minimally invasive procedures to enhance velocity of tooth movement. LLLT, low intensity pulsed ultrasound (LIPUS), mechanical vibration, and flapless corticision are emerging noninvasive and minimally invasive techniques which need further researches to establish protocols to use them clinically with conviction.
Di Lorenzo, Nicola; Cenci, Livia; Simi, Massimiliano; Arcudi, Claudio; Tognoni, Valeria; Gaspari, Achille Lucio; Valdastri, Pietro
Minimally invasive surgery (MIS) is rising in popularity generating a revolution in operative medicine during the past few decades. Although laparoscopic techniques have not significantly changed in the last 10 years, several advances have been made in visualization devices and instrumentation. Our team, composed of surgeons and biomedical engineers, developed a magnetic levitation camera (MLC) with a magnetic internal mechanism dedicated to MIS. Three animal trials were performed. Porcine acute model has been chosen after animal ethical committee approval, and laparoscopic cholecystectomy, nephrectomy and hernioplastic repair have been performed. MLC permits to complete efficiently several two-port laparoscopy surgeries reducing patients' invasiveness and at the same time saving surgeon's dexterity. We strongly believe that insertable and softly tethered devices like MLS camera will be an integral part of future surgical systems, thus improving procedures efficiency, minimizing invasiveness and enhancing surgeon dexterity and versatility of visions angles.
Gonzalez-Calatayud, Mariel; Targarona, Eduardo M; Balague, Carmen; Rodriguez-Luppi, Carlos; Martin, Ana B; Trias, Manuel
INTRODUCTION: Epiphrenic diverticula (ED) are infrequent and conventional surgical treatment entails aggressive open or transthoracic surgery. Minimally invasive treatment has changed the surgical approach but some surgical controversies are not resolved. OBJECTIVE: The objective of this study is to describe our experience in minimally invasive treatment of the ED and to perform a systematic review of the current literature in this subject. MATERIALS AND METHODS: We reviewed all data from the Hospital de Sant Pau, focusing on patients that underwent minimally invasive treatment for an ED since 1998 to date. Furthermore, we performed a systematic literature review focused on the minimally invasive approach for ED. RESULTS: A total of 6 patients have been treated (5 transhiatal and 1 with abdominal and thoracic approach). We found a predominance of males with a median age of 63. The diagnosis was made with an endoscopy, barium swallow and manometry. Half of the manometry results were pathologic. The surgical technique involved a diverticulectomy, myotomy and a Dor partial founduplication. Two patients that presented suture line leakage (SLL) were treated conservatively. No mortality was reported. The systematic review was carried out under the Preferred Reporting Items for Systematic Reviews and Meta-analyses scheme, with a total of 20 studies where 189 patients were found. No comparative or prospective randomised trials were found. Overall morbidity was 24%, with a SLL rate of 12%, hospital stay of 5 days and mortality of 1.5%. After a median follow-up of 42 months, 81.5% of the patients were asymptomatic. CONCLUSION: The minimally invasive approach for ED is a safe and feasible procedure. PMID:25336815
Raygor, Kunal P; Than, Khoi D; Chou, Dean; Mummaneni, Praveen V
OBJECT Spinal tumor resection has historically been performed via open approaches, although minimally invasive approaches have recently been found to be effective in small cohort series. The authors compare surgical characteristics and clinical outcomes of surgery in patients undergoing mini-open and open approaches for intradural-extramedullary tumor resection. METHODS The authors retrospectively reviewed 65 consecutive intradural-extramedullary tumor resections performed at their institution from 2007 to 2014. Patients with cervical tumors or pathology demonstrating neurofibroma were excluded (n = 14). The nonparametric Mann-Whitney U-test and Pearson chi-square test were used to compare continuous and categorical variables, respectively. Statistical analyses were performed using SPSS, with significance set at p < 0.05. RESULTS Fifty-one thoracolumbar intradural-extramedullary tumor resections were included; 25 were performed via the minimally invasive transspinous approach. There were no statistically significant differences in age, sex, body mass index, preoperative American Spinal Injury Association (ASIA) score, preoperative symptom duration, American Society of Anesthesiologists (ASA) physical status class, tumor size, or tumor location. There was no statistically significant difference between groups with respect to the duration of the operation or extent of resection, but the mean estimated blood loss was significantly lower in the minimally invasive surgery (MIS) cohort (142 vs 320 ml, p < 0.05). In each group, the 2 most common tumor pathologies were schwannoma and meningioma. There were no statistically significant differences in length of hospitalization, ASIA score improvement, complication rate, or recurrence rate. The mean duration of follow-up was 2 years for the MIS group and 1.6 years for the open surgery group. CONCLUSIONS This is one of the largest comparisons of minimally invasive and open approaches to the resection of thoracolumbar
Senel, Ferda M; Demirelli, Mustafa; Oztek, Sehmuz
We aimed to analyze the outcome of circumcisions performed with a new minimally invasive circumcision device. This is the first study, which reports the results of 7,500 children circumcised with minimally invasive technique utilizing a plastic clamp device (Ali's clamp) in our country. The results of this technique are compared to those of 5,700 children who underwent conventional circumcision. The most common complication encountered after minimally invasive circumcision technique was found to be buried penis (1.04%). The second complication observed was infection (0.6%), which was significantly lower than the conventional group (p < 0.001). The third complication in plastic clamp group was bleeding with a rate of 0.4%. Bleeding was found to be the most common complication seen after conventional circumcision (5%) and was significantly higher than that of the plastic clamp group (p < 0.001). Total number of complications seen after plastic clamp technique was 2% when compared with 10.4% complication rate occurred after conventional circumcision (p < 0.001). The mean duration of circumcision time with plastic clamp technique was 4.5 +/- 1.5 min whereas with conventional circumcision it was 23 +/- 4 min (p < 0.0001). Minimally invasive circumcision technique utilizing plastic clamp significantly reduced the complication rates. The cosmetic appearance after circumcisions performed with this technique was observed to be better than the conventional circumcisions. Due to reduced complications, as well as short duration and ease of application, the minimally invasive technique is suggested as the circumcision procedure of choice.
Neumann, Philipp-Alexander; Rijcken, Emile
Patients with inflammatory bowel disease (IBD) comprise a population of patients that have a high likelihood of both surgical treatment at a young age and repetitive operative interventions. Therefore surgical procedures need to aim at minimizing operative trauma with best postoperative recovery. Minimally invasive techniques have been one of the major advancements in surgery in the last decades and are nowadays almost routinely performed in colorectal resections irrespective of underlying disease. However due to special disease related characteristics such as bowel stenosis, interenteric fistula, abscesses, malnutrition, repetitive surgeries, or immunosuppressive medications, patients with IBD represent a special cohort with specific needs for surgery. This review summarizes current evidence of minimally invasive surgery for patients with Crohn’s disease or ulcerative colitis and gives an outlook on the future perspective of technical advances in this highly moving field with its latest developments in single port surgery, robotics and trans-anal techniques. PMID:27158537
Neumann, Philipp-Alexander; Rijcken, Emile
Patients with inflammatory bowel disease (IBD) comprise a population of patients that have a high likelihood of both surgical treatment at a young age and repetitive operative interventions. Therefore surgical procedures need to aim at minimizing operative trauma with best postoperative recovery. Minimally invasive techniques have been one of the major advancements in surgery in the last decades and are nowadays almost routinely performed in colorectal resections irrespective of underlying disease. However due to special disease related characteristics such as bowel stenosis, interenteric fistula, abscesses, malnutrition, repetitive surgeries, or immunosuppressive medications, patients with IBD represent a special cohort with specific needs for surgery. This review summarizes current evidence of minimally invasive surgery for patients with Crohn's disease or ulcerative colitis and gives an outlook on the future perspective of technical advances in this highly moving field with its latest developments in single port surgery, robotics and trans-anal techniques.
Jernigan, Amelia M; Auer, Melinda; Fader, Amanda N; Escobar, Pedro F
Minimally invasive surgery is one of the newest and most exciting areas of development in procedural medicine. This field shows tremendous potential to increase therapeutic benefit while minimizing some of the painful or dangerous side effects of surgical interventions. Minimally invasive surgery has strong historic ties to the field of gynecology and has come a long way as technology and techniques have improved. This has increasingly allowed the application of laparoscopy to more complex procedures and the treatment of gynecologic malignancies. Three laparoscopic approaches, traditional laparoscopy, robotic assisted laparoscopy and laparoendoscopic single-site surgery are reviewed here. We discuss the basic approaches to these three laparoscopic techniques, and then review their applications in gynecologic oncology. We also touch on the evidence behind outcomes associated with their use.
Pommer, Bernhard; Mailath-Pokorny, Georg; Haas, Robert; Busenlechner, Dieter; Fürhauser, Rudolf; Watzek, Georg
To evaluate patient satisfaction, oral health-related quality of life, and patients' preferences towards minimally invasive treatment options for graftless rehabilitation of complete edentulism by means of dental implants. A MEDLINE search of literature in the English language up to the year 2013 was performed to summarise current evidence from the patient's perspective. The final selection included 37 studies reporting on minimally invasive implant treatment of 648 edentulous maxillae and 791 edentulous mandibles in 1328 patients, via a total of 5766 implants. Patient satisfaction averaged 91% with flapless implant placement (range: 77 to 100%), 89% with short implants, 87% with narrow-diameter implants (range: 80 to 93%), 90% with a reduced number of implants (range: 77 to 100%), 94% with tilted implant placement (range: 58 to 100%), and 83% with zygomatic fixtures (range: 50 to 97%). Indirect comparison yielded patient preference towards tilted implant placement compared to a reduced number of implants (P = 0.036), as well as to zygomatic implants (P = 0.001). While little evidence on patients' preferences towards minimally invasive treatment alternatives vs. bone augmentation surgery could be identified from within-study comparison, it may be concluded that patient satisfaction with graftless solutions for implant rehabilitation of completely edentulous jaws is generally high. Comparative effectiveness research is needed to substantiate their positive appeal to potential implant patients and possible reduction of the indication span for invasive bone graft surgery.
Canals Candela, F J; Vizcaíno Díaz, C; Ferrández Berenguer, M J; Serrano Robles, M I; Vázquez Gomis, C; Quiles Durá, J L
Surfactant delivered using a minimally invasive technique, known as MIST (Minimally Invasive Surfactant Therapy) is a method which allows surfactant to be administered to a patient connected to non-invasive respiratory support. This is an increasingly used therapy in Neonatal Units that reduces the intubation rate and the pathology associated with intubation and allows the surfactant to be administered to the patients who clinically need it. In years 2013 and 2014 in the Hospital General Universitario de Elche surfactant was delivered using this method to 19 patients, five of whom were 28 or less weeks of gestation age at birth. A comparison is made with a historical cohort consisting of 28 patients with Respiratory Distress Syndrome treated initially with non-invasive respiratory support. No incidents were recorded that caused the interruption of the administration. A reduction in the fraction of inspired oxygen was observed in all cases after surfactant administration. Fewer intubations in the first 72 hours of life were found in the treatment group compared to the control group (42% vs. 54%). The experience recorded in the Hospital General Universitario de Elche shows that the administration of surfactant using a MIST technique is a reproducible method of treatment, which allows the surfactant distribution during spontaneous breathing with non invasive respiratory support. Copyright © 2015 Asociación Española de Pediatría. Published by Elsevier España, S.L.U. All rights reserved.
Scranton, Robert A; Fung, Steve H; Britz, Gavin W
Cavernomas comprise 8%-15% of intracranial vascular lesions, usually supratentorial in location and superficial. Cavernomas in the thalamus or subcortical white matter represent a unique challenge for surgeons in trying to identify and then use a safe corridor to access and resect the pathology. Previous authors have described specific open microsurgical corridors based on pathology location, often with technical difficulty and morbidity. This series presents 2 cavernomas that were resected using a minimally invasive approach that is less technically demanding and has a good safety profile. The authors report 2 cases of cavernoma: one in the thalamus and brainstem with multiple hemorrhages and the other in eloquent subcortical white matter. These lesions were resected through a transulcal parafascicular approach with a port-based minimally invasive technique. In this series there was complete resection with no neurological complications. The transulcal parafascicular minimally invasive approach relies on image interpretation and trajectory planning, intraoperative navigation, cortical cannulation and subcortical space access, high-quality optics, and resection as key elements to minimize exposure and retraction and maximize tissue preservation. The authors applied this technique to 2 patients with cavernomas in eloquent locations with excellent outcomes.
Vistarini, Nicola; Laliberté, Eric; Beauchamp, Philippe; Bouhout, Ismail; Lamarche, Yoan; Cartier, Raymond; Carrier, Michel; Perrault, Louis; Bouchard, Denis; El-Hamamsy, Ismaïl; Pellerin, Michel; Demers, Philippe
The purpose of this study is to report our experience with del Nido cardioplegia (DNC) in the setting of minimally invasive aortic valve surgery. Forty-six consecutive patients underwent minimally invasive aortic valve replacement (AVR) through a "J" ministernotomy: twenty-five patients received the DNC (Group 1) and 21 patients received standard blood cardioplegia (SBC) (Group 2). The rate of ventricular fibrillation at unclamping was significantly lower in the DNC group (12% vs 52%, p=0.004), as well as postoperative creatinine kinase-MB (CK-MB) values (11.4±5.2 vs 17.7±6.9 µg/L, p=0.004). There were no deaths, myocardial infarctions or major complications in either group. Less postoperative use of intravenous insulin (28% vs 81%, p<0.001) was registered in the DNC group. In conclusion, the DNC is easy to use and safe during minimally invasive AVR, providing a myocardial protection at least equivalent to our SBC, improved surgical efficiency, minimal cost and less blood glucose perturbations.
Cleary, Kevin; Clifford, Mark; Stoianovici, Dan; Freedman, Matthew; Mun, Seong K; Watson, Vance
This paper reports on technology developments aimed at improving the state of the art for image-guided minimally invasive spine procedures. Back pain is a major health problem with serious economic consequences. Minimally invasive procedures to treat back pain are rapidly growing in popularity due to improvements in technique and the substantially reduced trauma to the patient versus open spinal surgery. Image guidance is an enabling technology for minimally invasive procedures, but technical problems remain that may limit the wider applicability of these techniques. The paper begins with a discussion of low back pain and the potential shortcomings of open back surgery. The advantages of minimally invasive procedures are enumerated, followed by a list of technical problems that must be overcome to enable the more widespread dissemination of these techniques. The technical problems include improved intraoperative imaging, fusion of images from multiple modalities, the visualization of oblique paths, percutaneous spine tracking, mechanical instrument guidance, and software architectures for technology integration. Technical developments to address some of these problems are discussed next. The discussion includes intraoperative computerized tomography (CT) imaging, magnetic resonance imaging (MRI)/CT image registration, three-dimensional (3-D) visualization, optical localization, and robotics for percutaneous instrument placement. Finally, the paper concludes by presenting several representative clinical applications: biopsy, vertebroplasty, nerve and facet blocks, and shunt placement. The program presented here is a first step to developing the physician-assist systems of the future, which will incorporate visualization, tracking, and robotics to enable the precision placement and manipulation of instruments with minimal trauma to the patient.
Kube, Richard A.; Muir, Jeffrey M.
Background: Recalcitrant sacroiliac joint pain responds well to minimally-invasive surgical (MIS) techniques, although long-term radiographic and fusion data are limited. Objective: To evaluate the one-year clinical results from a cohort of patients with chronic sacroiliac (SI) joint pain unresponsive to conservative therapies who have undergone minimally invasive SI joint fusion. Methods: SI joint fusion was performed between May 2011 and January 2014. Outcomes included radiographic assessment of fusion status, leg and back pain severity via visual analog scale (VAS), disability via Oswestry Disability Index (ODI) and complication rate. Outcomes were measured at baseline and at follow-up appointments 6 months and 12 months post-procedure. Results: Twenty minimally invasive SI joint fusion procedures were performed on 18 patients (mean age: 47.2 (14.2), mean BMI: 29.4 (5.3), 56% female). At 12 months, the overall fusion rate was 88%. Back and leg pain improved from 81.7 to 44.1 points (p<0.001) and from 63.6 to 27.7 points (p=0.001), respectively. Disability scores improved from 61.0 to 40.5 (p=0.009). Despite a cohort containing patients with multiple comorbidities and work-related injuries, eight patients (50%) achieved the minimal clinically important difference (MCID) in back pain at 12 months, with 9 (69%) patients realizing this improvement in leg pain and 8 (57%) realizing the MCID in ODI scores at 12 months. No major complications were reported. Conclusion: Minimally invasive SI joint surgery is a safe and effective procedure, with a high fusion rate, a satisfactory safety profile and significant improvements in pain severity and disability reported through 12 months post-procedure. PMID:28144378
Blanton, Emily; Lamvu, Georgine; Patanwala, Insiyyah; Barron, Kenneth I; Witzeman, Kathryn; Tu, Frank F; As-Sanie, Sawsan
Less postoperative pain typically is associated with a minimally invasive hysterectomy compared with a laparotomy approach; however, poor pain control can still be an issue. Multiple guidelines exist for managing postoperative pain, yet most are not specialty-specific and are based on procedures that bear little relevance to a minimally invasive hysterectomy. The purpose of this study was to determine whether there is enough quality evidence within the benign gynecology literature to make non-opioid pain control recommendations for women who undergo a benign minimally invasive hysterectomy. We queried PubMed, ClinicalTrials.gov, and Cochrane databases using MeSH terms: "postoperative pain," "perioperative pain," "postoperative analgesia," "pain management," "pain control," "minimally invasive gynecologic surgery," and "hysterectomy." A manual examination of references from identified studies was also performed. All PubMed published studies that involved minimally invasive hysterectomies through November 9, 2016, were included. This systematic review was conducted according to the Preferred Reporting Items for Systematic Reviews and Meta-Analyses guidelines. Studies were restricted to benign minimally invasive hysterectomies evaluating non-opioid pharmacologic therapies. Primary outcomes included amount of postoperative analgesics consumed and postoperative pain scores. Two reviewers independently completed an in-depth evaluation of each study for characteristics and results using an established database, according to inclusion/exclusion criteria. A risk assessment was performed, and a quality rating was assigned with the use of the Cochrane Collaboration's Grades of Recommendation, Assessment, Development and Evaluation approach. Initially 1155 studies were identified, and 24 studies met all inclusion criteria. Based on limited data of varying quality, intravenous acetaminophen, anticonvulsants and dexamethasone demonstrate opioid-sparing benefits; ketorolac shows
Stallkamp, J; Schraft, R D
In minimally invasive surgery, a higher degree of accuracy is required by surgeons both for current and for future applications. This could be achieved using either a manipulator or a robot which would undertake selected tasks during surgery. However, a manually-controlled manipulator cannot fully exploit the maximum accuracy and feasibility of three-dimensional motion sequences. Therefore, apart from being used to perform simple positioning tasks, manipulators will probably be replaced by robot systems more and more in the future. However, in order to use a robot, accurate, up-to-date and extensive data is required which cannot yet be acquired by typical sensors such as CT, MRI, US or common x-ray machines. This paper deals with a new sensor and a concept for its application in robot-assisted minimally invasive surgery on soft tissue which could be a solution for data acquisition in future. Copyright 2005 Robotic Publications Ltd.
Gorgutsa, Stepan; Bélanger-Garnier, Victor; Ung, Bora; Viens, Jeff; Gosselin, Benoit; LaRochelle, Sophie; Messaddeq, Younes
The ability to integrate multiple materials into miniaturized fiber structures enables the realization of novel biomedical textile devices with higher-level functionalities and minimally-invasive attributes. In this work, we present novel textile fabrics integrating unobtrusive multi-material fibers that communicate through 2.4 GHz wireless networks with excellent signal quality. The conductor elements of the textiles are embedded within the fibers themselves, providing electrical and chemical shielding against the environment, while preserving the mechanical and cosmetic properties of the garments. These multi-material fibers combine insulating and conducting materials into a well-defined geometry, and represent a cost-effective and minimally-invasive approach to sensor fabrics and bio-sensing textiles connected in real time to mobile communications infrastructures, suitable for a variety of health and life science applications.
Bélanger-Garnier, Victor; Gorgutsa, Stephan; Ung, Bora; Viens, Jeff; Gosselin, Benoit; LaRochelle, Sophie; Messaddeq, Younes
The ability to integrate multiple materials into miniaturized fiber structures enables the realization of novel biomedical textile devices with higher-level functionalities and minimally-invasive attributes. In this work, we present novel textile fabrics integrating unobtrusive multi-material fibers that communicate through 2.4 GHz wireless networks with excellent signal quality. The conductor elements of the textiles are embedded within the fibers themselves, providing electrical and chemical shielding against the environment, while preserving the mechanical and cosmetic properties of the garments. These multi-material fibers combine insulating and conducting materials into a well-defined geometry, and represent a cost-effective and minimally-invasive approach to sensor fabrics and bio-sensing textiles connected in real time to mobile communications infrastructures, suitable for a variety of health and life science applications.
Gorgutsa, Stepan; Bélanger-Garnier, Victor; Ung, Bora; Viens, Jeff; Gosselin, Benoit; LaRochelle, Sophie; Messaddeq, Younes
The ability to integrate multiple materials into miniaturized fiber structures enables the realization of novel biomedical textile devices with higher-level functionalities and minimally-invasive attributes. In this work, we present novel textile fabrics integrating unobtrusive multi-material fibers that communicate through 2.4 GHz wireless networks with excellent signal quality. The conductor elements of the textiles are embedded within the fibers themselves, providing electrical and chemical shielding against the environment, while preserving the mechanical and cosmetic properties of the garments. These multi-material fibers combine insulating and conducting materials into a well-defined geometry, and represent a cost-effective and minimally-invasive approach to sensor fabrics and bio-sensing textiles connected in real time to mobile communications infrastructures, suitable for a variety of health and life science applications. PMID:25325335
Paganini, Stefan; Thal, Dietmar R.; Werkmann, Klaus
The epicondylitis humeri radialis (EHR) (tennis elbow), is a common disease in elbow joint pain syndromes. We treated patients with chronic pain for at least one year and no improvement with conservative or operative therapies with a new minimal invasive method, the EHR-Laser radiation (EHR- LR). With this method periepicondylar coagulations were applied to the trigger points of the patients. For this the previously established technique of facet joint coagulation with the Nd:Yag-laser was modified. In a follow-up study of between 6 weeks and 2 years all patients reported either a significant pain reduction or were symptom free. EHR-LR is a new method situated between conservative and surgical treatments for minimal invasive therapy of EHR. Several therapeutic rationales were discussed for the resulting pain reduction.
Chatzipirpiridis, G; Erne, P; Ergeneman, O; Pane, S; Nelson, B J
This paper presents a magnetically guided catheter for minimally invasive surgery (MIS) with a magnetic force sensing tip. The force sensing element utilizes a magnetic Hall sensor and a miniature permanent magnet mounted on a flexible encapsulation acting as the sensing membrane. It is capable of high sensitivity and robust force measurements suitable for in-vivo applications. A second larger magnet placed on the catheter allows the catheter to be guided by applying magnetic fields. Precise orientation control can be achieved with an external magnetic manipulation system. The proposed device can be used in many applications of minimally invasive surgery (MIS) to detect forces applied on tissue during procedures or to characterize different types of tissue for diagnosis.
Dhumane, Parag W; Diana, Michele; Leroy, Joel; Marescaux, Jacques
Minimally Invasive Single Site (MISS) surgery is a better terminology to explain the novel concept of scarless surgery, which is increasingly making its way into clinical practice. But, there are some difficulties. We review the existing technologies for MISS surgery with regards to single-port devices, endoscope and camera, instruments, retractors and also the future perspectives for the evolution of MISS surgery. While we need to move ahead cautiously and wait for the development of appropriate technology, we believe that the “Ultimate form of Minimally Invasive Surgery” will be a hybrid form of MISS surgery and Natural Orifice Transluminal Endoscopic Surgery, complimented by technological innovations from the fields of robotics and computer-assisted surgery. PMID:21197242
Miller, Larry E; Block, Jon E
Chronic sacroiliac (SI) joint-related low back pain (LBP) is a common, yet under-diagnosed and undertreated condition due to difficulties in accurate diagnosis and highly variable treatment practices. In patients with debilitating SI-related LBP for at least 6 months duration who have failed conservative management, arthrodesis is a viable option. The SImmetry(®) SI Joint Fusion System is a novel therapy for SI joint fusion, not just fixation, which utilizes a minimally invasive surgical approach, instrumented fixation for immediate stability, and joint preparation with bone grafting for a secure construct in the long term. The purpose of this report is to describe the minimally invasive SI Joint Fusion System, including patient selection criteria, implant characteristics, surgical technique, postoperative recovery, and biomechanical testing results. Advantages and limitations of this system will be discussed.
Sang, Hongqiang; Yang, Chenghao; Liu, Fen; Yun, Jintian; Jin, Guoguang
It is very important for robotically assisted minimally invasive surgery to achieve a high-precision and smooth motion control. However, the surgical instrument tip will exhibit vibration caused by nonlinear friction and unmodeled dynamics, especially when the surgical robot system is attempting low-speed, fine motion. A fuzzy neural network sliding mode controller (FNNSMC) is proposed to suppress vibration of the surgical robotic system. Nonlinear friction and modeling uncertainties are compensated by a Stribeck model, a radial basis function (RBF) neural network and a fuzzy system, respectively. Simulations and experiments were performed on a 3 degree-of-freedom (DOF) minimally invasive surgical robot. The results demonstrate that the FNNSMC is effective and can suppress vibrations at the surgical instrument tip. The proposed FNNSMC can provide a robust performance and suppress the vibrations at the surgical instrument tip, which can enhance the quality and security of surgical procedures. Copyright © 2016 John Wiley & Sons, Ltd.
Lehr, Shannon C.
Background: The most frequent wound complication following repair of large incisional hernias is seroma formation, especially when the use of a mesh onlay requires extensive subcutaneous undermining. Treatment options for postoperative seromas include observation for spontaneous resolution, percutaneous aspiration, closed suction drainage, abdominal binders, and sclerosant. Methods: A novel technique for treating persistent postoperative seromas is presented herein. This technique involves a 3-puncture minimally invasive approach that can be performed in an outpatient setting. Evacuation of serous fluid and fibrinous debris is followed by argon beam scarification of the seroma cavity lining. Talc slurry is then introduced into the cavity. Three patients have been treated with this technique. Results: All 3 patients had successful ablation of seromas that had persisted despite standard treatment modalities. Conclusion: A minimally invasive approach is a reasonable and safe alternative for treating persistent postoperative seromas. PMID:11548834
Hofmann, Hans-Stefan; Neu, Reiner; Potzger, Tobias; Schemm, Rudolf; Grosser, Christian; Szöke, Tamas; Sziklavari, Zsolt
Enthusiasm for minimally invasive thoracic surgery is increasing. Thoracoscopy plays a significant therapeutic role in the fibrinopurulent stage (stage II) of empyema, in which loculated fluid cannot often be adequately drained by chest tube alone. For some debilitated and septic patients, further procedures such as open-window thoracostomy (OWT) with daily wound care or vacuum-assisted closure (VAC) therapy are necessary. In the present article, we propose a new option of minimally invasive VAC therapy including a topical solution of the empyema without open-window thoracostomy (Mini-VAC-instill). Three patients who underwent surgery using this technique are also presented. The discussion is focused on the advantages and disadvantages of the approach.
Kılıç, Burcu; Demirkaya, Ahmet; Turna, Akif; Kaynak, Kamil
The Nuss procedure is a minimally invasive surgical repair technique for pectus excavatum with fewer delayed complications compared to open procedures. We report the case of a 22-year-old man with deep pectus excavatum who developed vascular thoracic outlet syndrome after the Nuss procedure. Further evaluation demonstrated that the first rib was causing severe obstruction of the right subclavian artery. The patient showed clinical features of subclavian artery compression. A first rib resection, division of the anterior scalene muscle and fibrous bands provided complete relief of the complaints. The forced structural and spatial changes produced by the elevation of the depressed upper chest might have caused this complication. Vascular thoracic outlet syndrome should be kept in mind as a possible complication in patients who have undergone minimally invasive repair of pectus excavatum, and this complication can be treated by first rib resection.
Judson, Benjamin L.; Shaha, Ashok R.
Primary hyperparathyroidism is the most common cause of hypercalcemia, and the treatment is primarily surgical. Because of biochemical screening, more patients now present with asymptomatic primary hyperparathyroidism, and consensus guidelines have been developed for the treatment of these patients. There is now considerable interest in minimally invasive approaches to the treatment of hyperparathyroidism. Sestamibi scanning as a localizing study, used in combination with anatomic imaging and intraoperative rapid parathyroid hormone assays, has enabled focused surgical approaches. Patients with localizing studies that indicate a single parathyroid adenoma are candidates for such approaches, including unilateral neck exploration, minimally invasive single-gland exploration, or endoscopic exploration instead of the traditional approach of bilateral neck exploration. Nuclear imaging is also critical to the successful management of patients with persistent or recurrent hyperparathyroidism. PMID:18927330
Odagiri, Hiroyuki; Iizuka, Toshiro; Kikuchi, Daisuke; Kaise, Mitsuru; Takeda, Hidehiko; Ohashi, Kenichi; Yasunaga, Hideo
Previous studies reported that endoscopic resection is effective for the treatment of superficial pharyngeal cancers, as for digestive tract cancers. However, the optimal treatment for superficial cancer of the uvula has not been established because of the rarity of this condition. We present two male patients in their 70s with superficial cancer of the uvula, detected with upper gastrointestinal endoscopy. Both patients underwent surgical resection of the uvula under general anesthesia. The extent of the lesions was determined by means of gastrointestinal endoscopy by using magnifying observation with narrow-band imaging, enabling the performance of minimally invasive surgery. Endoscopic submucosal dissection was performed to achieve en bloc resection of the intramucosal carcinoma that had infiltrated the area adjacent to the uvula. Gastrointestinal endoscopists should carefully examine the laryngopharynx to avoid missing superficial cancers. Our minimally invasive treatment for superficial cancer of the uvula had favorable postoperative outcomes, and prevented postoperative loss of breathing, swallowing, and articulation functions.
Hirsch, N A; Hailey, D M
Minimally invasive therapies (MIT), developed as alternatives to open surgery, offer the promise of reduction in morbidity and mortality, quicker return of patients to their normal activities and lower overall costs to society. However, minimally invasive therapies cause concern in that their comparative advantage over older methods may not always be well defined, their introduction may result in additional costs and reorganization for the institutions where they are used, and achieving adequate training of all who use them may not be easy. In this paper, the Australian experience in the introduction and assessment of some MIT is considered to illustrate a number of the issues facing those who use and fund such methods. Examples include both high capital cost technologies, such as shock wave lithotripsy and stereotactic radiosurgery, and less expensive techniques such as laparoscopic surgery.
Nayak, Sandeep P; Jayaprasad, Kiran
Neck dissection leaves behind an aesthetically unacceptable scar over front of the neck. Various techniques, both endoscopic and robotic, have been tried to avoid this scar. Though comparatively more cases of robotic surgery are reported than endoscopic neck dissection, the cost and availability of robot precludes many patients from getting the benefit of minimally invasive neck dissection (MIND). We performed minimally invasive neck dissection for two carefully selected patients with early oral cancer and cN0. We used standard endoscopic equipment and ubiquitously available laparoscopic ports. We used gas insufflation to create the working space. Our results show that MIND is feasible and oncologically safe. The scars produced are aesthetically better than that of conventional open neck dissection. This procedure leaves no scars in the anterior aspect of the neck. This technique can be replicated at any center with endoscopic equipments without need for purchasing specialised retractors or a robot.
Hollensteiner, Marianne; Fuerst, David; Schrempf, Andreas
Vertebroplasty and kyphoplasty are commonly used minimally invasive methods to treat vertebral compression fractures. Novice surgeons gather surgical skills in different ways, mainly by "learning by doing" or training on models, specimens or simulators. Currently, a new training modality, an augmented reality simulator for minimally invasive spine surgeries, is going to be developed. An important step in investigating this simulator is the accurate establishment of artificial tissues. Especially vertebrae and muscles, reproducing a comparable haptical feedback during tool insertion, are necessary. Two artificial tissues were developed to imitate natural muscle tissue. The axial insertion force was used as validation parameter. It appropriates the mechanical properties of artificial and natural muscles. Validation was performed on insertion measurement data from fifteen artificial muscle tissues compared to human muscles measurement data. Based on the resulting forces during needle insertion into human muscles, a suitable material composition for manufacturing artificial muscles was found.
The history of Minimally Invasive Surgery in the thorax is one of evolution, not revolution. The concept of video-assisted thoracic surgery (VATS) to greatly reduce the trauma of chest operations was born over two decades ago. Since then, it has undergone a series of step-wise modifications and improvement. The original practice of three access ports in a ‘baseball diamond’ pattern was modified to suit operational needs, and gradually developed into ‘next generation’ approaches, including Needlescopic and 2-port VATS. The logical, incremental progression has culminated in the Uniportal VATS approach which has stirred considerable interest within the field of Thoracic Surgery in recent years. This measured, evolutionary process has significant implications on how the surgeon should approach, master and realize the full potential of the Uniportal technique. This article gives a précis of the evolutionary history of minimally invasive thoracic surgery, and highlights the lessons it provides about its future. PMID:25379198
Heilmann, R M
Minimally invasive interventional techniques are advancing fast in small animal medicine. These techniques utilize state-of-the-art diagnostic methods, including fluoroscopy, ultrasonography, endoscopy, and laparoscopy. Minimally invasive procedures are particularly attractive in the field of small animal urology because, in the past, treatment options for diseases of the urogenital tract were rather limited or associated with a high rate of complications. Most endourological interventions have a steep learning curve. With the appropriate equipment and practical training some of these procedures can be performed in most veterinary practices. However, most interventions require referral to a specialty clinic. This article summarizes the standard endourological equipment and materials as well as the different endourological interventions performed in dogs and cats with diseases of the kidneys/renal pelves, ureters, or lower urinary tract (urinary bladder and urethra).
Cheung, Carling L; Wedlake, Chris; Moore, John; Pautler, Stephen E; Peters, Terry M
The shift to minimally invasive abdominal surgery has increased reliance on image guidance during surgical procedures. However, these images are most often presented independently, increasing the cognitive workload for the surgeon and potentially increasing procedure time. When warm ischemia of an organ is involved, time is an important factor to consider. To address these limitations, we present a more intuitive visualization that combines images in a common augmented reality environment. In this paper, we assess surgeon performance under the guidance of the conventional visualization system and our fusion system using a phantom study that mimics the tumour resection of partial nephrectomy. The RMS error between the fused images was 2.43mm, which is sufficient for our purposes. A faster planning time for the resection was achieved using our fusion visualization system. This result is a positive step towards decreasing risks associated with long procedure times in minimally invasive abdominal interventions.
Miller, Larry E; Block, Jon E
Chronic sacroiliac (SI) joint-related low back pain (LBP) is a common, yet under-diagnosed and undertreated condition due to difficulties in accurate diagnosis and highly variable treatment practices. In patients with debilitating SI-related LBP for at least 6 months duration who have failed conservative management, arthrodesis is a viable option. The SImmetry® SI Joint Fusion System is a novel therapy for SI joint fusion, not just fixation, which utilizes a minimally invasive surgical approach, instrumented fixation for immediate stability, and joint preparation with bone grafting for a secure construct in the long term. The purpose of this report is to describe the minimally invasive SI Joint Fusion System, including patient selection criteria, implant characteristics, surgical technique, postoperative recovery, and biomechanical testing results. Advantages and limitations of this system will be discussed. PMID:24851059
Moss, Joshua D
Stroke prevention is of vital importance in the management of atrial fibrillation (AF), though the proven strategy of systemic anticoagulation for thromboembolic prophylaxis is underutilized for a variety of reasons. The left atrial appendage (LAA) has long been suspected as the principal source of arterial emboli, particularly in nonvalvular AF, and a variety of techniques for its exclusion from the circulation have been developed. This review highlights the history of the LAA as a target of intervention, and the parallel advances in three minimally invasive strategies for its exclusion: percutaneous occlusion of the LAA orifice from within the left atrium, closed-chest ligation via a percutaneous pericardial approach, and minimally invasive thoracoscopic surgery. While further study is necessary, available evidence suggests that effective LAA exclusion is becoming a viable alternative to anticoagulation for stroke prevention in nonvalvular AF.
Hartl, Dana M; Ferlito, Alfio; Silver, Carl E; Takes, Robert P; Stoeckli, Sandro J; Suárez, Carlos; Rodrigo, Juan P; Sesterhenn, Andreas M; Snyderman, Carl H; Terris, David J; Genden, Eric M; Rinaldo, Alessandra
The trend toward minimally invasive surgery, appropriately applied, has evolved over the past three decades to encompass all fields of surgery, including curative intent cancer surgery of the head and neck. Proper patient and tumor selection are fundamental to optimizing oncological and functional outcomes in such a personalized approach to cancer treatment. Training, experience, and appropriate technological equipment are prerequisites for any type of minimally invasive surgery. The aim of this review was to provide an overview of currently available techniques and the evidence justifying their use. Much evidence is in favor of routine use of transoral laser resection, transoral robot-assisted surgery, transnasal endoscopic resection, sentinel node biopsy, and endoscopic neck surgery for selected malignant tumors, by experienced surgical teams. Technological advances will enhance the scope of this type of surgery in the future and physicians need to be aware of the current applications and trends.
Purser, Molly F.; Richards, Andrew L.; Cook, Richard C.; Osborne, Jason A.; Cormier, Denis R.; Buckner, Gregory D.
Purpose An in vitro study using explanted porcine hearts was conducted to evaluate a novel annuloplasty band, reinforced with a two-phase, shape memory alloy, designed specifically for minimally invasive mitral valve repair. Description In its rigid (austenitic) phase, this band provides the same mechanical properties as the commercial semi-rigid bands. In its compliant (martensitic) phase, this band is flexible enough to be introduced through an 8-mm trocar and is easily manipulated within the heart. Evaluation In its rigid phase, the prototype band displayed similar mechanical properties to commercially available semi-rigid rings. Dynamic flow testing demonstrated no statistical differences in the reduction of mitral valve regurgitation. In its flexible phase, the band was easily deployed through an 8-mm trocar, robotically manipulated and sutured into place. Conclusions Experimental results suggest that the shape memory alloy reinforced band could be a viable alternative to flexible and semi-rigid bands in minimally invasive mitral valve repair. PMID:19766827
Verdú López, Francisco; Vanaclocha Vanaclocha, Vicente; Mayorga-Villa, Juan D
Although spinal infections have always been present recently their incidence has increased, in partly fostered by the advances in medicine (i.e. compromised 10 immunity, chronic diseases, increasingly complex spinal procedures...) and increased life expectancy. Using PubMed for this systematic review, the main spine infections types will be addressed focusing in the minimally invasive surgical techniques that can be used in their treatment. Spontaneous and iatrogenic pyogenic and non-pyogenic spine infections can be treated in many different ways depending on their extension and 15 location as well as on their causative microorganisms. The indications of percutaneous image-guided, endoscopic and microsurgical treatment techniques will be updated. In spine infections minimally invasive surgical techniques show a great potential as to be safe, effective, with low surgical morbidity and fast patients' recovery.
Tomasian, A; Wallace, A N; Jennings, J W
Minimally invasive percutaneous imaging-guided techniques have been shown to be safe and effective for the treatment of benign tumors of the spine. Techniques available include a variety of tumor ablation technologies, including radiofrequency ablation, cryoablation, microwave ablation, alcohol ablation, and laser photocoagulation. Vertebral augmentation may be performed after ablation as part of the same procedure for fracture stabilization or prevention. Typically, the treatment goal in benign spine lesions is definitive cure. Painful benign spine lesions commonly encountered in daily practice include osteoid osteoma, osteoblastoma, vertebral hemangioma, aneurysmal bone cyst, Paget disease, and subacute/chronic Schmorl node. This review discusses the most recent advancement and use of minimally invasive percutaneous therapeutic options for the management of benign spine lesions.
Zbyszewski, Dinusha; Challacombe, Benjamin; Liu, Hongbin; Seneviratne, Lakmal; Dasgupta, Prokar; Murphy, Declan; Althoefer, Kaspar
We propose a novel air-cushion force-sensitive indentation probe for rapidly locating abnormalities within soft tissues during minimally invasive surgery (MIS). This system comprises a spherical-tipped optical-based force-sensing device that employs an air-cushion technique to conduct continuous rolling indentation over the surface of soft tissues. The device combines rapid acquisition of tissue resistance forces with high manoeuvrability. To determine the stiffness variation, the interaction forces acquired during rolling indentation can be integrated to generate spatio-mechanical stiffness images that can be used for tissue diagnosis. Rolling indentation tests on the probe were carried out on excised porcine liver. The results demonstrate that the probe can be used to acquire force signals for constructing mechanical images, reliably indicating areas of variable stiffness. This probe could be used to characterize the force tissue deflection profile of soft tissues during minimally invasive surgery providing surgeons with enhanced haptic feedback.
GU, SI-PING; YOU, ZHI-YUAN; HUANG, YUNTENG; LU, YI-JIN; HE, CAOHUI; CAI, XIAO-DONG; ZHOU, XIAO-MING
The aim of this study was to investigate the effectiveness of minimally invasive percutaneous cystostomy with ureteroscopic pneumatic lithotripsy for treating calculus in bladder diverticula. Percutaneous cystostomy with ureteroscopic pneumatic lithotripsy was performed on six elderly male patients with calculi in bladder diverticula, who could not be treated with transurethral ureteroscopic lithotripsy. The stones were successfully removed from all patients, with no complications such as bladder perforation, rupture, urethritis or cystitis. The surgery time was 15–60 min, with an average time of 32 min. Postoperative ultrasound or X-ray examination showed no stone residues and the bladder stoma healed well. No recurrent stones were detected in the follow-up of 3–24 months (average, 16 months). Minimally invasive percutaneous cystostomy with ureteroscopic pneumatic lithotripsy is a safe, efficient and easy treatment for calculus in bladder diverticula. This method provides a new clinical approach for lithotripsy and we suggest that it is worthy of wider use. PMID:23837044
Okamoto, Kazuma; Kudo, Mikihiko; Shimizu, Hideyuki
Although minimally invasive cardiac surgery (MICS) via right minithoracotomy is attracting attention as a minimally invasive approach in cardiac surgery, it has not become a standard, routine approach for mitral valve repair. Although it has spread rapidly in Germany (43%) and USA (20.4%), the proportion of MICS in isolated mitral valve repair still comprises only 15.6% of mitral valve repair surgeries in Japan. For safe, assured introduction of MICS as a routine approach under quality control for good surgical and mid- and long-term results, surgeons experienced in mitral valve repair who perform at least 10 mitral valve repairs per year are necessary. A team approach with surgeons, anesthesiologists, perfusionists, and nurses who are highly motivated is also important.
Ramchandani, M; Bedeir, K
The revival of off-pump cardiac surgery and the exploration of less invasive techniques for coronary artery bypass grafting, have lead to an increasing technical difficulty, as compared to conventional surgery using cardiopulmonary bypass. The moving target vessel in off-pump coronary artery bypass surgery, as well as the increasingly limited space in minimally invasive cardiac surgery were not convenient to many surgeons, a fact that lead many surgeons to deprive their patients the potential benefits of these techniques. Since the 1950's, surgeons have attempted to make the anastomotic procedure less cumbersome and less time consuming. Many creative ideas and devices were made, but for many different reasons, they eventually faded away. Since then, hand-sewn anastomoses have been the standard of care in coronary artery bypass grafting. Today, with the obvious need for a facilitated and fast coronary anastomosis, interest in these anastomotic devices has been re-awakened. The exact geometry, physiology and dynamics of the perfect anastomosis have thus been studied, in an attempt to provide an understanding of reasons behind anastomosis and graft failure after coronary artery bypass surgery, and eventually design the best performing device. These devices would allow for a faster, more accurate and a more reproducible coronary anastomosis using minimally invasive techniques. Also, due to a short learning curve, the standardization of percutaneous devices would allow much more surgeons to more widely adopt less invasive techniques. In summary, we see anastomotic devices as a solution to the technical challenges surgeons encounter with minimally invasive coronary artery bypass grafting.
Park, Seung Hyun; Lee, Kang Ju; Lee, JiYong; Yoon, Jae Hyoung; Jo, Dong Hyun; Kim, Jeong Hun; Kang, Keonwook; Ryu, WonHyoung
The sclera provides the structural support of the eye and protects the intraocular contents. Since it covers a large portion of the eye surface and has relatively high permeability for most drugs, the sclera has been used as a major pathway for drug administration. Recently, microneedle (MN) technology has shown the possibility of highly local and minimally-invasive drug delivery to the eye by MN insertion through the sclera or the suprachoroidal space. Although ocular MN needs to be inserted through the sclera, there has been no systematic study to understand the mechanical properties of the sclera, which are important to design ocular MNs. In this study, we investigated a MN-based method to measure the puncture resistance and fracture toughness of the sclera. To reflect the conditions of MN insertion into the sclera, force-displacement curves obtained from MN-insertion tests were used to estimate the puncture resistance and fracture toughness of sclera tissue. To understand the effect of the insertion conditions, dependency of the mechanical properties on insertion speeds, pre-strain of the sclera, and MN sizes were analyzed and discussed. Measurement of mechanical property of soft biological tissue is challenging due to variations between tissue samples or lack of well-defined measurement techniques. Although non-invasive measurement techniques such as nano/micro indentation were employed to locally measure the elastic modulus of soft biological materials, mechanical properties such as puncture resistance or fracture toughness, which requires "invasive" measurement and is important for the application of "microneedles or hypodermic needles", has not been well studied. In this work, we report minimally-invasive measurement of puncture resistance and fracture toughness of sclera using a double MN insertion method. Parametric studies showed that use of MN proved to be advantageous because of minimally-invasive insertion into tissue as well as higher sensitivity to
Zaritsky, Eve; Tucker, Lue-Yen; Neugebauer, Romain; Chou, Tatiana; Flanagan, Tracy; Walter, Andrew J; Raine-Bennett, Tina
To examine trends in minimally invasive hysterectomy and power morcellation use over time and associated clinical characteristics. We conducted a trend analysis and retrospective cohort study of all women 18 years of age and older undergoing hysterectomy for benign conditions at Kaiser Permanente Northern California collected from electronic health records. Generalized estimating equations and Cochran-Armitage testing were used to assess the primary outcomes, hysterectomy incidence, and proportion of hysterectomies by surgical route and power morcellation. Logistic regression analysis was used to assess secondary outcomes, clinical characteristics, and complications associated with surgical route. There were 31,971 hysterectomies from 2008 to 2015; the incidence decreased slightly from 2.86 (95% confidence interval [CI] 2.85-2.87) to 2.60 (95% CI 2.59-2.61) per 1,000 women (P<.001). Minimally invasive hysterectomies increased from 39.8% to 93.1%, almost replacing abdominal hysterectomies entirely (P<.001). Vaginal hysterectomies decreased slightly from 26.6% to 23.4% (P<.001). The proportion of nonrobotic laparoscopic hysterectomies with power morcellation increased steadily from 3.7% in 2008 to a peak of 11.4% in 2013 and decreased to 0.02% in 2015 (P<.001). Robot-assisted laparoscopic hysterectomies remained a small proportion of all hysterectomies comprising 7.8% of hysterectomies in 2015. Women with large uteri (greater than 1,000 g) were more likely to receive abdominal hysterectomies than minimally invasive hysterectomy (adjusted relative risk 11.62, 95% CI 9.89-13.66) and laparoscopic hysterectomy with power morcellation than without power morcellation (adjusted relative risk 5.74, 95% CI 4.12-8.00). Laparoscopic supracervical hysterectomy was strongly associated with power morcellation use (adjusted relative risk 43.89, 95% CI 37.55-51.31). A high minimally invasive hysterectomy rate is primarily associated with uterine size and can be maintained without
Reston, Eduardo G; Corba, Vanessa D; Broliato, Gustavo; Saldini, Bruno P; Stefanello Busato, Adair L
The present article describes a minimally invasive technique used for the restoration of loss of tooth structure caused by erosion of intrinsic etiology. First, the cause of erosion was treated and controlled. Subsequently, taking into consideration patient characteristics, especially a young age, a more conservative technique was chosen for dental rehabilitation with the use of composite resin. The advantages and disadvantages of the technique employed are discussed.
Kondo, Nobuo; Totsugawa, Toshinori; Hiraoka, Arudo; Tamura, Kentaro; Yoshitaka, Hidenori; Sakaguchi, Taichi
Here, we report concomitant resection of the left atrial appendage through the transverse sinus during minimally invasive aortic valve replacement via right anterolateral thoracotomy. The left atrial appendage was exposed by raising the collapsed ascending aorta and was safely resected using a surgical stapling device. This procedure is a feasible option in elderly patients, for whom a percutaneous procedure would be inappropriate, and could be useful for preventing thromboembolic and hemorrhagic complications.
Hussain, S; Adams, C; Cleland, A; Jones, P M; Walsh, G; Kiaii, B
We describe an adverse event during minimally invasive cardiac surgery that resulted in a multi-disciplinary review of intra-operative errors and the creation of a procedural checklist. This checklist aims to prevent errors of omission and communication failures that result in increased morbidity and mortality. We discuss the application of the aviation - led "threats and errors model" to medical practice and the role of checklists and other strategies aimed at reducing medical errors.
Lundgren, Catharina Ihre; Stalberg, Peter; Grodski, Simon; Sidhu, Stan; Sywak, Mark; Delbridge, Leigh
Various techniques for minimally invasive thyroid surgery (MITS), including endoscopic and video-assisted procedures, have now been described. Based on our units experience with minimally invasive parathyroidectomy via a lateral incision, a similar technique for minimally invasive thyroid lobectomy has been developed and assessed. The last 203 consecutive thyroid procedures using the MITS technique, performed between July 2002 and June 2006, comprised the study group. Inclusion criteria for initial surgery were: initial nodule < 3.0 cm; no preoperative evidence of malignancy; absence of clinical multinodular change. A 2.5-cm lateral incision, using a headlight illumination, provided optimal exposure. A total of 202 patients underwent 203 MITS procedures over the 4-year period, with one patient undergoing bilateral MITS. The procedures included 155 thyroid lobectomies and 48 nodule excisions; 31 of the patients underwent a minimally invasive parathyroidectomy (MIP) during which an ipsilateral thyroid nodule was removed. The mean tumour size was 17.3 mm, but the mean size of the thyroid lobe removed was 39.5 mm. Final diagnoses included benign multinodular goitre (26%), follicular adenoma (22%) and carcinoma (20%). The complication rate was low, with one permanent recurrent laryngeal nerve (RLN) palsy (anterior division only) (0.5%), four RLN neuropraxias which recovered (2%), and one haematoma not requiring re-operation (0.5%). The rate of complications was not significantly different from 819 conventional open hemithyroidectomies performed over the same period. MITS is a safe and feasible alternative to open thyroid surgery in appropriately selected cases. It offers a valuable option for diagnostic excision biopsy in patients with thyroid nodules demonstrating an atypical fine-needle biopsy whilst avoiding the need for a standard cervical "collar" incision.
Ayala-Gamboa, U; Domínguez-Chacón, N D
Degenerative joint disease of the distal interphalangeal joint of the fingers precedes its occurrence in all the remaining regions of the body and produces major disability. We describe a distal interphalangeal arthrodesis technique performed with minimally invasive surgery. Case etiology was varied and mean follow-up was 10 months. All cases healed and functional recovery started at postoperative week two. This is a reproducible technique that produces satisfactory results in the short and medium term.
Shaligram, Abhijit; Meyer, Avishai; Simorov, Anton; Pallati, Pradeep; Oleynikov, Dmitry
Minimally invasive surgery fellowships offer experience in robotic surgery, the nature of which is poorly defined. The objective of this survey was to determine the current status and opportunities for robotic surgery training available to fellows training in the United States and Canada. Sixty-five minimally invasive surgery fellows, attending a fundamentals of fellowship conference, were asked to complete a questionnaire regarding their demographics and experiences with robotic surgery and training. Fifty-one of the surveyed fellows completed the questionnaire (83 % response). Seventy-two percent of respondents had staff surgeons trained in performing robotic procedures, with 55 % of respondents having general surgery procedures performed robotically at their institution. Just over half (53 %) had access to a simulation facility for robotic training. Thirty-three percent offered mechanisms for certification and 11 % offered fellowships in robotic surgery. One-third of the minimally invasive surgery fellows felt they had been trained in robotic surgery and would consider making it part of their practice after fellowship. However, most (80 %) had no plans to pursue robotic surgery fellowships. Although a large group (63 %) felt optimistic about the future of robotic surgery, most respondents (72.5 %) felt their current experience with robotic surgery training was poor or below average. There is wide variation in exposure to and training in robotic surgery in minimally invasive surgery fellowship programs in the United States and Canada. Although a third of trainees felt adequately trained for performing robotic procedures, most fellows felt that their current experience with training was not adequate.
Sun, Jingyuan; Yan, Zhiyuan; Du, Zhijiang
Surgical robot with a remote center-of-motion (RCM) plays an important role in minimally invasive surgery (MIS) field. To make the mechanism has high flexibility and meet the demand of movements during processing of operation, an optimized RCM mechanism is proposed in this paper. Then, the kinematic performance and workspace are analyzed. Finally, a new optimization objective function is built by using the condition number index and the workspace index.
Louis, Robert G.; Eisenberg, Amy; Barkhoudarian, Garni; Griffiths, Chester; Kelly, Daniel F.
Introduction Given advancements in endoscopic image quality, instrumentation, surgical navigation, skull base closure techniques, and anatomical understanding, the endonasal endoscopic approach has rapidly evolved into a widely utilized technique for removal of sellar and parasellar tumors. Although pituitary adenomas and Rathke cleft cysts constitute the majority of lesions removed via this route, craniopharyngiomas, clival chordomas, parasellar meningiomas, and other lesions are increasingly removed using this approach. Paralleling the evolution of the endonasal route to the parasellar region, the supraorbital eyebrow craniotomy has also been increasingly used as an alternative minimally invasive approach to reach this skull base region. Similar to the endonasal route, the supraorbital route has been greatly facilitated by advances in endoscopy, along with development of more refined, low-profile instrumentation and surgical navigation technology. Objectives This review, encompassing both transcranial and transsphenoidal routes, will recount the high points and advances that have made minimally invasive approaches to the sellar region possible, the evolution of these approaches, and their relative indications and technical nuances. Data Synthesis The literature is reviewed regarding the evolution of surgical approaches to the sellar region beginning with the earliest attempts and emphasizing technological advances, which have allowed the evolution of the modern technique. The surgical techniques for both endoscopic transsphenoidal and supraorbital approaches are described in detail. The relative indications for each approach are highlighted using case illustrations. Conclusions Although tremendous advances have been made in transitioning toward minimally invasive transcranial and transsphenoidal approaches to the sella, further work remains to be done. Together, the endonasal endoscopic and the supraorbital endoscope-assisted approaches are complementary
Peters, Christian; Hoop, Marcus; Pané, Salvador; Nelson, Bradley J; Hierold, Christofer
Superparamagnetic nanoparticles and a functional, degradable polymer matrix based on poly(ethylene glycol) are combined to enable fully degradable magnetic microdevices for minimally invasive biomedical applications. A bioinspired helical microrobot platform mimicking Escherichia coli bacteria is fabricated and actuated using weak rotating magnetic fields. Locomotion based on corkscrew propulsion, targeted drug delivery, and low-degradation-product cytotoxicity are demonstrated. © 2015 WILEY-VCH Verlag GmbH & Co. KGaA, Weinheim.
Lee, Ji-Hye; Kim, Dae-Gon; Park, Chan-Jin
This article describes the treatment provided to a patient with the maxillary anterior teeth exhibiting severe secondary caries beneath the previous restoration and a white spot lesion on the adjacent incisor. Two implants were placed after extraction of hopeless teeth with the guided bone regeneration technique. A white spot lesion of the adjacent incisor was treated with minimally invasive treatment. This clinical report describes the multidisciplinary treatment for the white spot lesion and esthetic restoration of missing anterior teeth. PMID:24049579
Haponiuk, Ireneusz; Kwasniak, Ewelina; Chojnicki, Maciej; Steffens, Mariusz; Sendrowska, Aneta; Gierat-Haponiuk, Katarzyna; Leszczyńska, Katarzyna; Paczkowski, Konrad; Zielinski, Jacek
Introduction Cardiac tamponade is excessive collection of fluid in the pericardial sac surrounding the heart that leads to restriction of cardiac function and causes critical cardiogenic shock and rapid circulatory depression. Despite the potential variety of different etiologies in the face of a dangerous decrease of cardiac output, the emergency life-saving procedure is surgical pericardial fluid evacuation. Aim To perform a retrospective analysis of clinical data and the results of minimally invasive transxiphoid pediatric cardiac tamponade evacuation procedures performed in a cardiac surgery center. Material and methods We performed a retrospective analysis of all consecutive patients referred for treatment in our department in a period of 6 years (15 patients) who underwent emergency pericardial drainage after an echocardiographically proven diagnosis. The procedure of choice was minimally invasive transxiphoid fluid evacuation with routine pericardial drainage. Retrospective operative data analysis was performed: clinical symptoms, pre-admission and initial emergency diagnostics and interventions, the morphology and total amount of drained pericardial fluid, length of stay, final results, and overall survival rate. We introduced an original pediatric tamponade index (PTI). The PTI was analyzed according to catecholamine support before the drainage and the length of hospital stay after the procedure. Results All patients survived the procedure. No early complications of the presented minimally invasive subxiphoid approach were noted. Mean PTI in patients with intensive catecholamine support before the operation was significantly higher than in patients without it. Conclusions Minimally invasive surgical transxiphoid interventions appear to be a safe and effective method to provide life-saving support with retrieval of the fluid for further laboratory investigations. PMID:25960801
Vicente, Jose Ricardo Negreiros; Croci, Alberto Tesconi; de Camargo, Olavo Pire
AIMS Our primary aim was to evaluate whether there is really less bleeding in patients for whom the minimally invasive posterior approach is used in comparison with the direct lateral approach for primary total hip arthroplasty. Our secondary aim was to evaluate the clinical functional results after six months as well as the postoperative radiographic result. METHODS In a comparative non-random prospective study, 76 adult patients underwent elective total hip arthroplasty using one of two approaches. The minimally invasive posterior approach (34 cases; mini-incision group) was compared with the standard direct lateral approach (42 cases; control group). RESULTS Lower total estimated bleeding (means of 1083.5 ml versus 1682.3 ml; p < 0.001) and lower intraoperative bleeding (means of 745.6 ml versus 1282.8 ml; p < 0.001) were found in the mini-incision group. There was, however, no difference in the volume of blood drained after the operation (means of 340 ml and 399 ml; p = 0.77). There was also a difference between the two groups regarding the need for allogenic transfusion (8.8% in the mini-incision group versus 28.6%, p = 0.02). We observed a better clinical result in the mini-incision group (p = 0.002) despite the lack of difference between the two groups in relation to the radiographic result. DISCUSSION Our results draw attention to the possibility that other authors may have underestimated blood losses when using minimally invasive approaches. CONCLUSION The minimally invasive approach gave rise to a positive final impression with regard to lower blood loss. PMID:18568245
Rojo-Manaute, Jose Manuel; Capa-Grasa, Alberto; Chana-Rodríguez, Francisco; Perez-Mañanes, Ruben; Rodriguez-Maruri, Guillermo; Sanz-Ruiz, Pablo; Muñoz-Ledesma, Jorge; Aburto-Bernardo, Mikel; Esparragoza-Cabrera, Luis; Cerro-Gutiérrez, Miguel Del; Vaquero-Martín, Javier
The purpose of this study was to compare the outcomes of 1-mm ultra-minimally invasive ultrasound-guided carpal tunnel release and 2-cm blind mini-open carpal tunnel release. We conducted a single-center individual parallel-group controlled-superiority randomized control trial in an ambulatory office-based setting at a third-level referral hospital. Eligible participants had clinical signs of primary carpal tunnel syndrome and positive electrodiagnostic test results and were followed for 12 months. Independent outcome assessors were blinded. Patients were randomized by concealed allocation (1:1) by an independent blocked computer-generated list. The postoperative score on the Quick-Disabilities of the Arm, Shoulder, and Hand (QuickDASH) questionnaire was the primary variable. Grip strength and time for discontinuation of oral analgesics, complete wrist flexion-extension, relief of paresthesia, and return to normal daily activities (including work) were assessed. Ninety-two of 128 eligible patients were randomly allocated and analyzed. QuickDASH scores were 2.2 to 3.3 times significantly lower in the ultra-minimally invasive group for the first 6 months: 23.6 [95% confidence interval (CI), 20.5, 27.4] versus 52.6 [95% CI, 49.4, 57.0] at the first week and 4.09 [95% CI, 1.5, 7.1] versus 13.0 [95% CI, 9.4, 18.9] at 6 months. Return to normal daily activities occurred significantly sooner in the ultra-minimally invasive group: 4.9 [95% CI, 3.2, 6.5] versus 25.4 [95% CI, 18.2, 32.6] days. Ultra-minimally invasive carpal tunnel release provides earlier functional return and less postoperative morbidity with the same neurologic recovery as mini-open carpal tunnel release for patients with symptomatic primary carpal tunnel syndrome. © 2016 by the American Institute of Ultrasound in Medicine.
Rajesh, Alugolu; Pelluru, Pavan Kumar; Kumar, Ashish
Case series. To reduce the cost of minimally invasive spinal fixation. Minimally invasive spine (MIS) surgery is an upcoming modality of managing a multitude of spinal pathologies. However, in a resource-limited situations, using fenestrated screws (FSs) may prove very costly for patients with poor affordability. We here in describe the Nizam's Institute of Medical Sciences (NIMS) experience of using routine non-FSs (NFSs) for transpedicular fixation by the minimally invasive way to bridge the economic gap. A total of 7 patients underwent NFS-minimally invasive spine (MIS) surgery. Male to female distribution was 6:1. The average blood loss was 50 ml and the mean operating time was 2 and 1/2 h. All patients were mobilized the very next day after confirming the position of implants on X-ray/computed tomography. All 7 patients are doing well in follow-up with no complaints of a backache or fresh neurological deficits. There was no case with pedicle breach or screw pullout. The average cost of a single level fixation by FS and NFS was ₹1, 30,000/patient and ₹32,000/patient respectively ('2166 and '530, respectively). At the end of 1-year follow-up, we had two cases of screw cap loosening and with a displacement of the rod cranio-caudally in one case which was revised through the same incisions. Transpedicular fixation by using NFS for thoracolumbar spinal pathologies is a cost-effective extension of MIS surgery. This may extend the benefits to a lower socioeconomic group who cannot afford the cost of fenestrated screw (FS).
Brown, Jackie E.
This paper reviews the literature published on minimally invasive techniques developed to treat benign salivary gland obstruction. Techniques reported include extracorporeal and intracorporeal salivary gland lithotripsy, endoscopy and radiologically guided techniques for the extraction of calculi and dilatation of duct strictures. These techniques are described, their advantages and disadvantages discussed and their success rates compared. Recommendations are made on the most appropriate application of each technique.
Brown, Jackie E
This paper reviews the literature published on minimally invasive techniques developed to treat benign salivary gland obstruction. Techniques reported include extracorporeal and intracorporeal salivary gland lithotripsy, endoscopy and radiologically guided techniques for the extraction of calculi and dilatation of duct strictures. These techniques are described, their advantages and disadvantages discussed and their success rates compared. Recommendations are made on the most appropriate application of each technique.
Goussous, Naeem; Hosseini, Motahar; Sill, Anne M; Cunningham, Steven C
Minimally invasive surgery is increasingly used for gallbladder cancer resection. Postoperative mortality at 30 days is low, but 90-day mortality is underreported. Using National Cancer Database (1998-2012), all resection patients were included. Thirty- and 90-day mortality rates were compared. A total of 36 067 patients were identified, 19 139 (53%) of whom underwent resection. Median age was 71 years and 70.7% were female. Ninety-day mortality following surgical resection was 2.3-fold higher than 30-mortality (17.1% vs 7.4%). There was a statistically significant increase in 30- and 90-day mortality with poorly differentiated tumors, presence of lymphovascular invasion, tumor stage, incomplete surgical resection and low-volume centers (P<0.001 for all). Even for the 1885 patients who underwent minimally invasive resection between 2010 and 2012, the 90-day mortality was 2.8-fold higher than the 30-day mortality (12.0% vs 4.3%). Ninety-day mortality following gallbladder cancer resection is significantly higher than 30-day mortality. Postoperative mortality is associated with tumor grade, lymphovascular invasion, tumor stage, type and completeness of surgical resection as well as type and volume of facility. Copyright © 2017 The Editorial Board of Hepatobiliary & Pancreatic Diseases International. Published by Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.
Mandel, Mauricio; Tutihashi, Rafael; Mandel, Suzana Abramovicz; Teixeira, Manoel Jacobsen; Figueiredo, Eberval Gadelha
Although recent technological advances have led to successful endovascular treatment, middle cerebral artery (MCA) aneurysms are still prone to surgery. Because minimally invasive options are limited and possess several functional and cosmetic drawbacks, a transpalpebral approach is proposed as a new alternative. To describe and assess surgical results of the minimally invasive transpalpebral approach in patients with MCA aneurysms. The data of 25 patients with unruptured MCA aneurysms from 2013 to 2016 were included in a cohort prospective database. We describe modifications of the approach and technique for MCA aneurysm clipping, in a step-by-step manner. The outcome was based on complications, procedural morbidity and mortality, and clinical and angiographic outcomes. All procedures were successfully performed in a standardized way, and no major complications related to the new approach were observed. Twenty-two patients were discharged the day after surgery (88%). The majority of aneurysms were 5 to 6 mm in diameter (mean, 7 mm; range 4-21 mm). All patients underwent postoperative angiographic control, which showed no significant residual neck. A 3-mo follow-up was sufficient to show no visible scars with excellent cosmetic results. The mean duration of follow-up was 16 mo. The transpalpebral approach comes as a minimally invasive, safe, definitive, and cosmetically adequate solution for MCA aneurysms at the present time.
Masala, Salvatore; Tarantino, Umberto; Nano, Giovanni; Iundusi, Riccardo; Fiori, Roberto Da Ros, Valerio Simonetti, Giovanni
Purpose. The purpose of this study was to evaluate the effectiveness of a new pedicle screw-based posterior dynamic stabilization device PDS Percudyn System Trade-Mark-Sign Anchor and Stabilizer (Interventional Spine Inc., Irvine, CA) as alternative minimally invasive treatment for patients with lumbar spine stenosis. Methods. Twenty-four consecutive patients (8 women, 16 men; mean age 61.8 yr) with lumbar spinal stenosis underwent implantation of the minimally invasive pedicle screw-based device for posterior dynamic stabilization. Inclusion criteria were lumbar stenosis without signs of instability, resistant to conservative treatment, and eligible to traditional surgical posterior decompression. Results. Twenty patients (83 %) progressively improved during the 1-year follow-up. Four (17 %) patients did not show any improvement and opted for surgical posterior decompression. For both responder and nonresponder patients, no device-related complications were reported. Conclusions. Minimally invasive PDS Percudyn System Trade-Mark-Sign has effectively improved the clinical setting of 83 % of highly selected patients treated, delaying the need for traditional surgical therapy.
Nau-Hermes, Maria; Schmitt, Robert; Becker, Meike; El-Hakimi, Wissam; Hansen, Stefan; Klenzner, Thomas; Schipper, Jörg
For multiport image-guided minimally invasive surgery at the lateral skull base a quality management is necessary to avoid the damage of closely spaced critical neurovascular structures. So far there is no standardized method applicable independently from the surgery. Therefore, we adapt a quality management method, the quality gates (QG), which is well established in, for example, the automotive industry and apply it to multiport image-guided minimally invasive surgery. QG divide a process into different sections. Passing between sections can only be achieved if previously defined requirements are fulfilled which secures the process chain. An interdisciplinary team of otosurgeons, computer scientists, and engineers has worked together to define the quality gates and the corresponding criteria that need to be fulfilled before passing each quality gate. In order to evaluate the defined QG and their criteria, the new surgery method was applied with a first prototype at a human skull cadaver model. We show that the QG method can ensure a safe multiport minimally invasive surgical process at the lateral skull base. Therewith, we present an approach towards the standardization of quality assurance of surgical processes. PMID:25105146
Fu, Chao-Feng; Zhuang, Yuan-Dong; Chen, Chun-Mei; Cai, Gang-Feng; Zhang, Hua-Bin; Zhao, Wei; Ahmada, Said Idrissa; Devi, Ramparsad Doorga; Kibria, Md Golam
Abstract To report a minimally invasive paraspinal approach in the treatment of a case of spontaneous spinal epidural hematoma (SSEH). We additionally aim to review the relevant literature to enhance our knowledge of this disease. SSEH is an uncommon but potentially catastrophic disease. Currently, most appropriate management is emergence decompression laminectomy and hematoma evacuation. An 81-year-old woman was admitted to the neurology department with a chief complaint of bilateral numbness and weakness of the lower limbs and difficulty walking for 4 days with progressive weakness developed over the following 3 days accompanied with pain in the lower limbs and lower back. No history of trauma was reported. Magnetic resonance imaging of the thoracolumbar spine demonstrated an epidural hematoma extending from T-12 to L-5 with thecal sac and cauda equina displacement anterior. The patient was treated in our department with a minimally invasive approach. This operation method had been approved by Chinese Independent Ethics Committee. Three months following the operation, the patient had regained the ability to walk with the aid of a cane and myodynamia tests revealed normal results for the left lower limb and a 4/5 grade for the right limb. Importantly, no complications were exhibited from the surgical operation. The minimally invasive paraspinal approach through tubular retractors is demonstrated here as an effective alternative method for the treatment of SSEH. PMID:27367986
Cheng, Han-Yi; Ou, Keng-Liang; Chiang, Hsi-Jen; Lin, Li-Hsiang
The purpose of the present study was to examine the extent of thermal injury in the brain after the use of a minimally invasive electrosurgical device with a nanostructured copper-doped diamond-like carbon (DLC-Cu) surface coating. To effectively utilize an electrosurgical device in clinical surgery, it is important to decrease the thermal injury to the adjacent tissues. The surface characteristics and morphology of DLC-Cu thin film was evaluated using a contact angle goniometer, scanning electron microscopy, and atomic force microscopy. Three-dimensional biomedical brain models were reconstructed using magnetic resonance images to simulate the electrosurgical procedure. Results indicated that the temperature was reduced significantly when a minimally invasive electrosurgical device with a DLC-Cu thin film coating (DLC-Cu-SS) was used. Temperatures decreased with the use of devices with increasing film thickness. Thermographic data revealed that surgical temperatures in an animal model were significantly lower with the DLC-Cu-SS electrosurgical device compared to an untreated device. Furthermore, the DLC-Cu-SS device created a relatively small region of injury and lateral thermal range. As described above, the biomedical nanostructured film reduced excessive thermal injury with the use of a minimally invasive electrosurgical device in the brain.
Lin, Chia-Cheng; Lin, Hao-Jan; Lin, Yun-Ho; Sugiatno, Erwan; Ruslin, Muhammad; Su, Chen-Yao; Ou, Keng-Liang; Cheng, Han-Yi
The purpose of the present study was to examine thermal damage and a sticking problem in the tissue after the use of a minimally invasive electrosurgical device with a nanostructured surface treatment that uses a femtosecond laser pulse (FLP) technique. To safely use an electrosurgical device in clinical surgery, it is important to decrease thermal damage to surrounding tissues. The surface characteristics and morphology of the FLP layer were evaluated using optical microscopy, scanning electron microscopy, and transmission electron microscopy; element analysis was performed using energy-dispersive X-ray spectroscopy, grazing incidence X-ray diffraction, and X-ray photoelectron spectroscopy. In the animal model, monopolar electrosurgical devices were used to create lesions in the legs of 30 adult rats. Animals were sacrificed for investigations at 0, 3, 7, 14, and 28 days postoperatively. Results indicated that the thermal damage and sticking situations were reduced significantly when a minimally invasive electrosurgical instrument with an FLP layer was used. Temperatures decreased while film thickness increased. Thermographic data revealed that surgical temperatures in an animal model were significantly lower in the FLP electrosurgical device compared with that in the untreated one. Furthermore, the FLP device created a relatively small area of thermal damage. As already mentioned, the biomedical nanostructured layer reduced thermal damage and promoted the antisticking property with the use of a minimally invasive electrosurgical device. © 2016 Wiley Periodicals, Inc. J Biomed Mater Res Part B: Appl Biomater, 2016.