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Sample records for minimizing common mode

  1. Common Cause Failure Modes

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Wetherholt, Jon; Heimann, Timothy J.; Anderson, Brenda

    2011-01-01

    High technology industries with high failure costs commonly use redundancy as a means to reduce risk. Redundant systems, whether similar or dissimilar, are susceptible to Common Cause Failures (CCF). CCF is not always considered in the design effort and, therefore, can be a major threat to success. There are several aspects to CCF which must be understood to perform an analysis which will find hidden issues that may negate redundancy. This paper will provide definition, types, a list of possible causes and some examples of CCF. Requirements and designs from NASA projects will be used in the paper as examples.

  2. Reducing Uncertainty About Common-Mode Failures

    DTIC Science & Technology

    1997-01-01

    other types of diversity such as functional diversity , independent and diverse sensors, and timing diversity. Clearly these two nuclear regulatory...programs from failing identically, or from failing simultaneously. To protect against common design errors, diversity in design is employed. Functional ... diversity involves specifying that different programs have different functional requirements. For example, one program might do a linear search, while

  3. Defense against common mode failures in protection system design

    SciTech Connect

    Wyman, R.H.; Johnson, G.L.

    1997-08-27

    The introduction of digital instrumentation and control into reactor safety systems creates a heightened concern about common-mode failure. This paper discusses the concern and methods to cope with the concern. Common-mode failures have been a ``fact-of-life`` in existing systems. The informal introduction of defense-in-depth and diversity (D-in-D&D)-coupled with the fact that hardware common-mode failures are often distributed in time-has allowed systems to deal with past common-mode failures. However, identical software operating in identical redundant systems presents the potential for simultaneous failure. Consequently, the use of digital systems raises the concern about common-mode failure to a new level. A more methodical approach to mitigating common-mode failure is needed to address these concerns. Purposeful introduction of D-in-D&D has been used as a defense against common-mode failure in reactor protection systems. At least two diverse systems are provided to mitigate any potential initiating event. Additionally, diverse displays and controls are provided to allow the operator to monitor plant status and manually initiate engineered safety features. A special form of conimon-mode failure analysis called ``defense-in-depth and diversity analysis`` has been developed to identify possible conimon-mode failure vulnerabilities in digital systems. An overview of this analysis technique is provided.

  4. Minimizing Modes for Smart Selection in Sketching/Drawing Interfaces

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Saund, Eric; Lank, Edward

    User interface modes are ubiquitous in both mouse-keyboard and pen-based user interfaces, but the requirement for prior setting of a user interface mode before performing an action imposes a persistent drag on system usability. This chapter reviews our research in approaches to avoiding prior deliberate mode setting while still allowing overloading of fundamental tap and gesture operations. We analyze the human-machine dynamics of UI protocols through a graphical notation called the Interaction Flow Diagram. Our framework offers a pyramid of methods ranging from simple UI design techniques, through recognition of gestures and canvas content, to modeling of user knowledge and goals. These are represented in four methods: Overloaded Loop Selection to infer rectangle versus lasso selection mode; the Inferred Mode Protocol for Inferring Draw/Select Mode; the Sloppy Selection method for inferring intended content of an ambiguous selection; and the Cycle Tap Selection Method for exploiting structure recognition.

  5. The Multigroup Common Factor Model with Minimal Uniqueness Constraints and the Power to Detect Uniform Bias

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Hessen, David J.; Dolan, Conor V.; Wicherts, Jelte M.

    2006-01-01

    An alternative formulation of the multigroup common factor model with minimal uniqueness constraints is considered. This alternative formulation is based on a simple identification constraint that is related to the standard maximum likelihood constraint used in single-group common factor analysis. It is argued that the alternative formulation…

  6. Minimizing influence of multi-modes and dispersion of electromagnetic ultrasonic lamb waves.

    PubMed

    Zhai, Guofu; Jiang, Tao; Kang, Lei; Wang, Shujuan

    2010-12-01

    Electromagnetic ultrasonic (EMU) Lamb waves excited by electromagnetic acoustic transducers (EMATs) possess many advantages in NDT. However, their characteristic multi-modes and dispersion are disadvantageous for inspection and restrict further improvements in their real applications. By deducing the excitation equation of EMU Lamb waves, the primary design parameters of EMATs and the characteristic equation of Lamb waves are combined, and excitation curves based on the excitation equation are plotted to aid the design of EMATs. The excitation characteristic of EMU Lamb waves on different thickness of plates is analyzed according to the excitation curves. The influence of multi-modes of EMU Lamb waves is minimized by choosing reasonable operating points and operating zones to excite a single-mode Lamb wave or multi-mode Lamb waves with identical or approximate propagation velocities. The influence of dispersion is minimized by searching corresponding points whose slope of group velocity tends to zero. The validity of the proposed method is verified by experiments.

  7. Coupling of Fast and Slow Modes in the Reaction Pathway of the Minimal Hammerhead Ribozyme Cleavage

    PubMed Central

    Radhakrishnan, Ravi

    2007-01-01

    By employing classical molecular dynamics, correlation analysis of coupling between slow and fast dynamical modes, and free energy (umbrella) sampling using classical as well as mixed quantum mechanics molecular mechanics force fields, we uncover a possible pathway for phosphoryl transfer in the self-cleaving reaction of the minimal hammerhead ribozyme. The significance of this pathway is that it initiates from the minimal hammerhead crystal structure and describes the reaction landscape as a conformational rearrangement followed by a covalent transformation. The delineated mechanism is catalyzed by two metal (Mg2+) ions, proceeds via an in-line-attack by CYT 17 O2′ on the scissile phosphorous (ADE 1.1 P), and is therefore consistent with the experimentally observed inversion configuration. According to the delineated mechanism, the coupling between slow modes involving the hammerhead backbone with fast modes in the cleavage site appears to be crucial for setting up the in-line nucleophilic attack. PMID:17545240

  8. Using benchmarking to minimize common DOE waste streams. Volume 1, Methodology and liquid photographic waste

    SciTech Connect

    Levin, V.

    1994-04-01

    Finding innovative ways to reduce waste streams generated at Department of Energy (DOE) sites by 50% by the year 2000 is a challenge for DOE`s waste minimization efforts. This report examines the usefulness of benchmarking as a waste minimization tool, specifically regarding common waste streams at DOE sites. A team of process experts from a variety of sites, a project leader, and benchmarking consultants completed the project with management support provided by the Waste Minimization Division EM-352. Using a 12-step benchmarking process, the team examined current waste minimization processes for liquid photographic waste used at their sites and used telephone and written questionnaires to find ``best-in-class`` industrv partners willing to share information about their best waste minimization techniques and technologies through a site visit. Eastman Kodak Co., and Johnson Space Center/National Aeronautics and Space Administration (NASA) agreed to be partners. The site visits yielded strategies for source reduction, recycle/recovery of components, regeneration/reuse of solutions, and treatment of residuals, as well as best management practices. An additional benefit of the work was the opportunity for DOE process experts to network and exchange ideas with their peers at similar sites.

  9. Single-session minimally invasive management of common bile duct stones.

    PubMed

    ElGeidie, Ahmed AbdelRaouf

    2014-11-07

    Up to 18% of patients submitted to cholecystectomy had concomitant common bile duct stones. To avoid serious complications, these stones should be removed. There is no consensus about the ideal management strategy for such patients. Traditionally, open surgery was offered but with the advent of endoscopic retrograde cholangiopancreatography (ERCP) and laparoscopic cholecystectomy (LC) minimally invasive approach had nearly replaced laparotomy because of its well-known advantages. Minimally invasive approach could be done in either two-session (preoperative ERCP followed by LC or LC followed by postoperative ERCP) or single-session (laparoscopic common bile duct exploration or LC with intraoperative ERCP). Most recent studies have found that both options are equivalent regarding safety and efficacy but the single-session approach is associated with shorter hospital stay, fewer procedures per patient, and less cost. Consequently, single-session option should be offered to patients with cholecysto-choledocholithiaisis provided that local resources and expertise do exist. However, the management strategy should be tailored according to many variables, such as available resources, experience, patient characteristics, clinical presentations, and surgical pathology.

  10. Single-session minimally invasive management of common bile duct stones

    PubMed Central

    ElGeidie, Ahmed AbdelRaouf

    2014-01-01

    Up to 18% of patients submitted to cholecystectomy had concomitant common bile duct stones. To avoid serious complications, these stones should be removed. There is no consensus about the ideal management strategy for such patients. Traditionally, open surgery was offered but with the advent of endoscopic retrograde cholangiopancreatography (ERCP) and laparoscopic cholecystectomy (LC) minimally invasive approach had nearly replaced laparotomy because of its well-known advantages. Minimally invasive approach could be done in either two-session (preoperative ERCP followed by LC or LC followed by postoperative ERCP) or single-session (laparoscopic common bile duct exploration or LC with intraoperative ERCP). Most recent studies have found that both options are equivalent regarding safety and efficacy but the single-session approach is associated with shorter hospital stay, fewer procedures per patient, and less cost. Consequently, single-session option should be offered to patients with cholecysto-choledocholithiaisis provided that local resources and expertise do exist. However, the management strategy should be tailored according to many variables, such as available resources, experience, patient characteristics, clinical presentations, and surgical pathology. PMID:25386063

  11. Preferred Exertion across Three Common Modes of Exercise Training.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Glass, Stephen C.; Chvala, Angela M.

    2001-01-01

    Examined the influence of exercise mode on self-selected exercise intensities. Participants performed three types of intensity tests. Researchers collected data on VO2 values continuously and recorded 1-minute averages several times for each submaximal test. Participants allowed to self-select exercise intensity chose work rates within the…

  12. A minimization principle for the description of modes associated with finite-time instabilities

    PubMed Central

    Babaee, H.

    2016-01-01

    We introduce a minimization formulation for the determination of a finite-dimensional, time-dependent, orthonormal basis that captures directions of the phase space associated with transient instabilities. While these instabilities have finite lifetime, they can play a crucial role either by altering the system dynamics through the activation of other instabilities or by creating sudden nonlinear energy transfers that lead to extreme responses. However, their essentially transient character makes their description a particularly challenging task. We develop a minimization framework that focuses on the optimal approximation of the system dynamics in the neighbourhood of the system state. This minimization formulation results in differential equations that evolve a time-dependent basis so that it optimally approximates the most unstable directions. We demonstrate the capability of the method for two families of problems: (i) linear systems, including the advection–diffusion operator in a strongly non-normal regime as well as the Orr–Sommerfeld/Squire operator, and (ii) nonlinear problems, including a low-dimensional system with transient instabilities and the vertical jet in cross-flow. We demonstrate that the time-dependent subspace captures the strongly transient non-normal energy growth (in the short-time regime), while for longer times the modes capture the expected asymptotic behaviour. PMID:27118900

  13. Minimally invasive transabdominal collection of preimplantation embryos from the common marmoset monkey (Callithrix jacchus).

    PubMed

    Hanazawa, K; Mueller, T; Becker, T; Heistermann, M; Behr, R; Sasaki, E

    2012-09-01

    A novel, minimally invasive, transabdominal embryo collection method (transabdominal method) was developed as an alternative to a standard abdominal incision for embryo collection in the common marmoset. The abdominal incision method was used for 304 flushes using 36 female animals, whereas the transabdominal method was used for 488 flushes using 48 females; successful embryo collection rates were 48.0% and 48.4% (P > 0.05), respectively. These techniques were successfully duplicated at another institute (German Primate Center, DPZ). At that institution, successful embryo collection rates were 88.9% and 77.8% for the abdominal incision and transabdominal methods, respectively (P > 0.05), whereas the average numbers of preimplantation embryos obtained per flush were (mean ± SD) 1.91 ± 0.35 and 1.71 ± 0.14 (P > 0.05). The transabdominal method reduced animal stress, did not require incisional wound healing, and enabled successive embryo recoveries to be done much sooner. More embryos in early developmental stages (zygotes/morulae) were recovered using the transabdominal method (76.1%) than the abdominal incision method (52.6%, P < 0.01). In contrast, recovery of arrested or abnormal embryos was not significantly different between these two methods (9.8% and 8.3%). To verify developmental ability of embryos recovered by the transabdominal method, transfer of 28 normal embryos to 14 surrogate mothers yielded a nidation rate of 57%. Five females sustained term pregnancies and eight neonates were born. This novel transabdominal method will facilitate progress in marmoset developmental biology and embryology.

  14. On the application of frequency selective common mode feedback for multifrequency EIT.

    PubMed

    Langlois, Peter J; Wu, Yu; Bayford, Richard H; Demosthenous, Andreas

    2015-06-01

    Common mode voltages are frequently a problem in electrical impedance tomography (EIT) and other bioimpedance applications. To reduce their amplitude common mode feedback is employed. Formalised analyses of both current and voltage feedback is presented in this paper for current drives. Common mode effects due to imbalances caused by the current drives, the electrode connections to the body load and the introduction of the body impedance to ground are considered. Frequency selective narrowband common mode feedback previously proposed to provide feedback stability is examined. As a step towards multifrequency applications the use of narrowband feedback is experimentally demonstrated for two simultaneous current drives. Measured results using standard available components show a reduction of 62 dB for current feedback and 31 dB for voltage feedback. Frequencies ranged from 50 kHz to 1 MHz.

  15. Nongrounded Common-Mode Equivalent Circuit for Brushless DC Motor Driven by PWM Inverter

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Maetani, Tatsuo; Isomura, Yoshinori; Watanabe, Akihiko; Iimori, Kenichi; Morimoto, Shigeo

    This paper describes nongrounded common-mode equivalent circuit for a motor driven by a voltage-source PWM inverter. When the capacitance of the rotor was small, the phenomenon that polarity of the common mode voltage and shaft voltage reversed was observed. In order to model this phenomenon, the bridge type equivalent circuit is proposed. It is verified with the calculation and experiment that shaft voltage values and polarity are accurately calculated with the proposed equivalent circuit.

  16. Effect of Bypass Capacitor in Common-mode Noise Reduction Technique for Automobile PCB

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Uno, Takanori; Ichikawa, Kouji; Mabuchi, Yuichi; Nakamura, Atushi

    In this letter, we studied the use of common mode noise reduction technique for in-vehicle electronic equipment, each comprising large-scale integrated circuit (LSI), printed circuit board (PCB), wiring harnesses, and ground plane. We have improved the model circuit of the common mode noise that flows to the wire harness to add the effect of by-pass capacitors located near an LSI.

  17. Common-mode differential-mode (CMDM) method for double-nuclear MR signal excitation and reception at ultrahigh fields.

    PubMed

    Pang, Yong; Zhang, Xiaoliang; Xie, Zhentian; Wang, Chunsheng; Vigneron, Daniel B

    2011-11-01

    Double-tuned radio-frequency (RF) coils for heteronuclear mangentic resonance (MR) require sufficient electromagnetic isolation between the two resonators operating at two Larmor frequencies and independent tuning in order to attain highly efficient signal acquisition at each frequency. In this work, a novel method for double-tuned coil design at 7T based on the concept of common-mode differential-mode (CMDM) was developed and tested. Common mode (CM) and differential mode (DM) currents exist within two coupled parallel transmission lines, e.g., microstrip lines, yielding two different current distributions. The electromagnetic (EM) fields of the CM and DM are orthogonal to each other, and thus, the two modes are intrinsically EM decoupled. The modes can be tuned independently to desired frequencies, thus satisfying the requirement of dual-frequency MR applications. To demonstrate the feasibility and efficiency of the proposed CMDM technique, CMDM surface coils and volume coils using microstrip transmission line for (1)H and (13)C MRI/MRSI were designed, constructed, and tested at 7T. Bench test results showed that the isolations between the two frequency channels of the CMDM surface coil and volume coil were better than -30 and -25 dB, respectively. High quality MR phantom images were also obtained using the CMDM coils. The performance of the CMDM technique was validated through a comparison with the conventional two-pole design method at 7T. The proposed CMDM technique can be also implemented by using other coil techniques such as lumped element method, and can be applied to designing double-tuned parallel imaging coil arrays. Furthermore, if the two resonant modes of a CMDM coil were tuned to the same frequency, the CMDM coil becomes a quadrature coil due to the intrinsic orthogonal field distribution of CM and DM.

  18. Minimization of Childhood Maltreatment Is Common and Consequential: Results from a Large, Multinational Sample Using the Childhood Trauma Questionnaire

    PubMed Central

    Sciolla, Andres F.; Schneider, Beacher; Pappas, Katherine; Bleijenberg, Gijs; Bohus, Martin; Bekh, Bradley; Carpenter, Linda; Carr, Alan; Dannlowski, Udo; Dorahy, Martin; Fahlke, Claudia; Finzi-Dottan, Ricky; Karu, Tobi; Gerdner, Arne; Glaesmer, Heide; Grabe, Hans Jörgen; Heins, Marianne; Kenny, Dianna T; Kim, Daeho; Knoop, Hans; Lobbestael, Jill; Lochner, Christine; Lauritzen, Grethe; Ravndal, Edle; Riggs, Shelley; Sar, Vedat; Schäfer, Ingo; Schlosser, Nicole; Schwandt, Melanie L; Stein, Murray B; Subic-Wrana, Claudia; Vogel, Mark; Wingenfeld, Katja

    2016-01-01

    Childhood maltreatment has diverse, lifelong impact on morbidity and mortality. The Childhood Trauma Questionnaire (CTQ) is one of the most commonly used scales to assess and quantify these experiences and their impact. Curiously, despite very widespread use of the CTQ, scores on its Minimization-Denial (MD) subscale—originally designed to assess a positive response bias—are rarely reported. Hence, little is known about this measure. If response biases are either common or consequential, current practices of ignoring the MD scale deserve revision. Therewith, we designed a study to investigate 3 aspects of minimization, as defined by the CTQ’s MD scale: 1) its prevalence; 2) its latent structure; and finally 3) whether minimization moderates the CTQ’s discriminative validity in terms of distinguishing between psychiatric patients and community volunteers. Archival, item-level CTQ data from 24 multinational samples were combined for a total of 19,652 participants. Analyses indicated: 1) minimization is common; 2) minimization functions as a continuous construct; and 3) high MD scores attenuate the ability of the CTQ to distinguish between psychiatric patients and community volunteers. Overall, results suggest that a minimizing response bias—as detected by the MD subscale—has a small but significant moderating effect on the CTQ’s discriminative validity. Results also may suggest that some prior analyses of maltreatment rates or the effects of early maltreatment that have used the CTQ may have underestimated its incidence and impact. We caution researchers and clinicians about the widespread practice of using the CTQ without the MD or collecting MD data but failing to assess and control for its effects on outcomes or dependent variables. PMID:26815788

  19. Using benchmarking to minimize common DOE waste streams: Volume 5. Office paper waste

    SciTech Connect

    Levin, V.

    1995-10-01

    Finding innovative ways to reduce waste streams generated at US Department of Energy (DOE) sites by 50% by the year 2000 is a challenge for DOE`s waste minimization efforts. A team composed of members from several DOE facilities used the quality tool known as benchmarking to improve waste minimization efforts. First the team examined office waste generation and handling processes at their sites. Then team members developed telephone and written questionnaires to help identify potential ``best-in-class`` industry partners willing to share information about their best waste minimization techniques and technologies. The team identified two benchmarking partners, NIKE, Inc., in Beaverton, Oregon, and Microsoft, Inc., in Redmond, Washington. Both companies have proactive, employee-driven environmental issues programs. Both companies report strong employee involvement, management commitment, and readily available markets for recyclable materials such as white paper and nonwhite assorted paper. The availability of markets, the initiative and cooperation of employees, and management support are the main enablers for their programs. At both companies, recycling and waste reduction programs often cut across traditional corporate divisions such as procurement, janitorial services, environmental compliance, grounds maintenance, cafeteria operations, surplus sales, and shipping and receiving. These companies exhibited good cooperation between these functions to design and implement recycling and waste reduction programs.

  20. Cultural Adaptation of Minimally Guided Interventions for Common Mental Disorders: A Systematic Review and Meta-Analysis

    PubMed Central

    Heim, Eva; Chowdhary, Neerja; Maercker, Andreas; Albanese, Emiliano

    2016-01-01

    Background Cultural adaptation of mental health care interventions is key, particularly when there is little or no therapist interaction. There is little published information on the methods of adaptation of bibliotherapy and e-mental health interventions. Objective To systematically search for evidence of the effectiveness of minimally guided interventions for the treatment of common mental disorders among culturally diverse people with common mental disorders; to analyze the extent and effects of cultural adaptation of minimally guided interventions for the treatment of common mental disorders. Methods We searched Embase, PubMed, the Cochrane Library, and PsycINFO for randomized controlled trials that tested the efficacy of minimally guided or self-help interventions for depression or anxiety among culturally diverse populations. We calculated pooled standardized mean differences using a random-effects model. In addition, we administered a questionnaire to the authors of primary studies to assess the cultural adaptation methods used in the included primary studies. We entered this information into a meta-regression to investigate effects of the extent of adaptation on intervention efficacy. Results We included eight randomized controlled trials (RCTs) out of the 4911 potentially eligible records identified by the search: four on e-mental health and four on bibliotherapy. The extent of cultural adaptation varied across the studies, with language translation and use of metaphors being the most frequently applied elements of adaptation. The pooled standardized mean difference for primary outcome measures of depression and anxiety was -0.81 (95% CI -0.10 to -0.62). Higher cultural adaptation scores were significantly associated with greater effect sizes (P=.04). Conclusions Our results support the results of previous systematic reviews on the cultural adaptation of face-to-face interventions: the extent of cultural adaptation has an effect on intervention efficacy

  1. Creation of a minimal tiling path of genomic clones for Drosophila: provision of a common resource.

    PubMed

    Hollich, Volker; Johnson, Eric; Furlong, Eileen E; Beckmann, Boris; Carlson, Joseph; Celniker, Susan E; Hoheisel, Jörg D

    2004-08-01

    On the basis of shotgun subclone libraries used in the sequencing of the Drosophila melanogaster genome, a minimal tiling path of subclones across much of the genome was determined. About 320,000 shotgun clones for chromosomes X(12-20), 2R, 2L, 3R, and 4 were available from the Berkeley Drosophila Genome Project. The clone inserts have an average length of 3.4 kb and are amenable to standard PCR amplification. The resulting tiling path covers 86.2% of chromosome X(12-20), 86.2% of chromosomal arm 2R, 79.0% of 2L, 89.6% of 3R, and 80.5% of chromosome 4. In total, the 25,135 clones represent 76.7 Mb--equivalent to about 67% of the genome--and would be suitable for producing a microarray on a single slide.

  2. An Optimization System with Parallel Processing for Reducing Common-Mode Current on Electronic Control Unit

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Okazaki, Yuji; Uno, Takanori; Asai, Hideki

    In this paper, we propose an optimization system with parallel processing for reducing electromagnetic interference (EMI) on electronic control unit (ECU). We adopt simulated annealing (SA), genetic algorithm (GA) and taboo search (TS) to seek optimal solutions, and a Spice-like circuit simulator to analyze common-mode current. Therefore, the proposed system can determine the adequate combinations of the parasitic inductance and capacitance values on printed circuit board (PCB) efficiently and practically, to reduce EMI caused by the common-mode current. Finally, we apply the proposed system to an example circuit to verify the validity and efficiency of the system.

  3. Common Carotid Artery Ligation to Minimize Blood Loss During Oral and Maxillofacial Surgery.

    PubMed

    Goodman, Alice E; Goodman, Andrew R

    2016-09-01

    Oral and maxillofacial surgery in veterinary medicine carries the risk of severe hemorrhage due to the great vascular supply of the head. Temporary hemostasis can be achieved with the application of pressure or hemostatic agents, but more definitive treatment may be needed to ensure bleeding will not resume once the patient is awake and normotensive. (1 , 2) Actively bleeding vessels encountered during maxillofacial surgery may be inaccessible, and vessels may recoil into bone, sometimes preventing definitive ligation. These scenarios may require ligation of the common carotid artery. (1) The purpose of this paper is to describe how to perform ligation of the common carotid artery in a step-by-step fashion. Both temporary and permanent ligation techniques are described.

  4. Common mode EMI prediction and research in induction motor for electric vehicles

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Gao, Yinhan; Wang, Juxian; Yang, Kaiyu; Wang, Tianhao; An, Zhanyang

    2015-02-01

    This paper presents an equivalent circuit of high frequency voltage-controlled switch model of IGBT, and a surge voltage absorption circuit as well. This model can not only significantly reduce the surge voltage, decrease EMI noise, but also obviously inhibit common mode voltage towards the DC power mains.

  5. Common mode frequency instability in internally phase-locked terahertz quantum cascade lasers.

    PubMed

    Wanke, M C; Grine, A D; Fuller, C T; Nordquist, C D; Cich, M J; Reno, J L; Lee, Mark

    2011-11-21

    Feedback from a diode mixer integrated into a 2.8 THz quantum cascade laser (QCL) was used to phase lock the difference frequencies (DFs) among the Fabry-Perot (F-P) longitudinal modes of a QCL. Approximately 40% of the DF power was phase locked, consistent with feedback loop bandwidth of 10 kHz and phase noise bandwidth ~0.5 MHz. While the locked DF signal has ≤ 1 Hz linewidth and negligible drift over ~30 min, mixing measurements between two QCLs and between a QCL and molecular gas laser show that the common mode frequency stability is no better than a free-running QCL.

  6. Fabrication of a Common-mode Noise Filter for Balanced-mode Signal Transmission using Mn-Zn Ferrite Particle/Polyimide Composite Thick Film

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Sato, Toshiro; Kokai, Takahiro; Moroishi, Masashi; Yamasawa, Kiyohito; Sakuma, Toshiyuki; Karasawa, Hiroki; Hirasawa, Koichi

    To develop a common-mode noise filter for balanced-mode digital signal interfaces such as USB ver. 2 and IEEE 1394, a Mn-Zn ferrite/Polyimide composite thick film was fabricated and applied to the filter device. The polycrystalline Mn-Zn ferrite powder and polyimide precursor liquid solution were used as the starting materials for the composite thick film. The composite film had a large imaginary part of complex permeability at high frequencies over 1GHz, and high permittivity. The common-mode noise filter using the composite film exhibited the common-mode suppression of over 10dB in the frequency range over 1GHz.

  7. CMOS common-mode rejection filter with floating active transformer operation

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Uchida, Daisuke; Ikebe, Masayuki; Motohisa, Junichi; Sano, Eiichi; Kondou, Akira

    2014-01-01

    We propose an inductorless common-mode rejection filter with a gyrator-C network for common-mode-noise reduction. By adopting a gyrator-C network and ladder structure, high-order and small filter circuits with active transformer operation were fabricated. The filter was designed and fabricated in a Taiwan Semiconductor Manufacturing Company (TSMC) 0.18 µm CMOS process. This filter exhibited a CMRR of 80 dB, output noise voltage of 103 nV/Hz1/2, third-order input intercept point of 8.8 dBm at 1 MHz operation, and cutoff frequency of under 6 MHz. The total power consumption was 14.8 mW with a 2.5 V supply, and the chip area was 0.7 × 0.4 mm2.

  8. Achieving Resiliency by Eliminating Common Mode Failures in the Smart Grid

    SciTech Connect

    Dagle, Jeffery E.

    2012-01-19

    Abstract—This panel presentation will provide perspectives of resiliency as it relates to smart grids. As smart grid technologies are deployed, the interconnected nature of these systems is becoming more prevalent and more complex, and while resilience is expected to be enhanced, the presence of common mode failures will thwart the ability of the smart grid to achieve full levels of resilience. Studying system behavior in the face of failures (e.g., cyber attacks) allows a characterization of the systems’ response to failure scenarios, loss of communications, and other changes in system environment (such as the need for emergent updates and rapid reconfiguration). The impact of such failures on the availability of the system can be assessed and mitigation strategies considered. This panel will consider measures to identify and eliminate common mode failure mechanisms that might be present in the deployment of smart grid systems.

  9. General Monte Carlo reliability simulation code including common mode failures and HARP fault/error-handling

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Platt, M. E.; Lewis, E. E.; Boehm, F.

    1991-01-01

    A Monte Carlo Fortran computer program was developed that uses two variance reduction techniques for computing system reliability applicable to solving very large highly reliable fault-tolerant systems. The program is consistent with the hybrid automated reliability predictor (HARP) code which employs behavioral decomposition and complex fault-error handling models. This new capability is called MC-HARP which efficiently solves reliability models with non-constant failures rates (Weibull). Common mode failure modeling is also a specialty.

  10. Tapered laser rods as a means of minimizing the path length of trapped barrel mode rays

    DOEpatents

    Beach, Raymond J.; Honea, Eric C.; Payne, Stephen A.; Mercer, Ian; Perry, Michael D.

    2005-08-30

    By tapering the diameter of a flanged barrel laser rod over its length, the maximum trapped path length of a barrel mode can be dramatically reduced, thereby reducing the ability of the trapped spontaneous emission to negatively impact laser performance through amplified spontaneous emission (ASE). Laser rods with polished barrels and flanged end caps have found increasing application in diode array end-pumped laser systems. The polished barrel of the rod serves to confine diode array pump light within the rod. In systems utilizing an end-pumping geometry and such polished barrel laser rods, the pump light that is introduced into one or both ends of the laser rod, is ducted down the length of the rod via the total internal reflections (TIRs) that occur when the light strikes the rod's barrel. A disadvantage of using polished barrel laser rods is that such rods are very susceptible to barrel mode paths that can trap spontaneous emission over long path lengths. This trapped spontaneous emission can then be amplified through stimulated emission resulting in a situation where the stored energy available to the desired lasing mode is effectively depleted, which then negatively impacts the laser's performance, a result that is effectively reduced by introducing a taper onto the laser rod.

  11. Identification of the "minimal triangle" and other common event-to-event transitions in conflict and containment incidents.

    PubMed

    Bowers, Len; James, Karen; Quirk, Alan; Wright, Steve; Williams, Hilary; Stewart, Duncan

    2013-07-01

    Although individual conflict and containment events among acute psychiatric inpatients have been studied in some detail, the relationship of these events to each other has not. In particular, little is known about the temporal order of events for individual patients. This study aimed to identify the most common pathways from event to event. A sample of 522 patients was recruited from 84 acute psychiatric wards in 31 hospital locations in London and the surrounding areas during 2009-2010. Data on the order of conflict and containment events were collected for the first two weeks of admission from patients' case notes. Event-to-event transitions were tabulated and depicted diagrammatically. Event types were tested for their most common temporal placing in sequences of events. Most conflict and containment occurs within and between events of the minimal triangle (verbal aggression, de-escalation, and PRN medication), and the majority of these event sequences conclude in no further events; a minority transition to other, more severe, events. Verbal abuse and medication refusal were more likely to start sequences of disturbed behaviour. Training in the prevention and management of violence needs to acknowledge that a gradual escalation of patient behaviour does not always occur. Verbal aggression is a critical initiator of conflict events, and requires more detailed and sustained research on optimal management and prevention strategies. Similar research is required into medication refusal by inpatients.

  12. Method of pedestal and common-mode noise correction for switched-capacitor analog memories

    DOEpatents

    Britton, C.L.

    1996-12-31

    A method and apparatus are disclosed for correcting common-mode noise and pedestal noise in a multichannel array of switched-capacitor analog memories wherein each analog memory is connected to an associated analog-to-digital converter. The apparatus comprises a single differential element in two different embodiments. In a first embodiment, the differential element is a reference analog memory connected to a buffer. In the second embodiment, the differential element is a reference analog memory connected to a reference analog-to-digital connected to an array of digital summing circuits. 4 figs.

  13. Method of pedestal and common-mode noise correction for switched-capacitor analog memories

    DOEpatents

    Britton, C.L.

    1997-09-23

    A method and apparatus are disclosed for correcting common-mode noise and pedestal noise in a multichannel array of switched-capacitor analog memories wherein each analog memory is connected to an associated analog-to-digital converter. The apparatus comprises a single differential element in two different embodiments. In a first embodiment, the differential element is a reference analog memory connected to a buffer. In the second embodiment, the differential dement is a reference analog memory connected to a reference analog-to-digital connected to an array of digital summing circuits. 4 figs.

  14. Common failure modes for composite aircraft structures due to secondary loads

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Rubin, A. M.

    The most common examples of composite laminate failure in typical aircraft structures are discussed, with particular consideration given to the effects of out-of-plane loads (and the resulting interlaminar shear/interlaminar tension) and bolted joint failure modes on the composite substructure and skins. It is noted that design allowables and environmental strength reduction factors for these types of failure model can be easily developed by performing simple element tests under RT/Dry and worst-case environmental conditions. The strength/stiffness factors identified during these tests may then be used to modify data obtained during full-scale RT/Dry tests.

  15. Method of pedestal and common-mode noise correction for switched-capacitor analog memories

    DOEpatents

    Britton, Charles L.

    1997-01-01

    A method and apparatus for correcting common-mode noise and pedestal noise in a multichannel array of switched-capacitor analog memories wherein each analog memory is connected to an associated analog-to-digital converter. The apparatus comprises a single differential element in two different embodiments. In a first embodiment, the differential element is a reference analog memory connected to a buffer. In the second embodiment, the differential dement is a reference analog memory connected to a reference analog-to-digital connected to an array of digital summing circuits.

  16. Method of pedestal and common-mode noise correction for switched-capacitor analog memories

    DOEpatents

    Britton, Charles L.

    1996-01-01

    A method and apparatus for correcting common-mode noise and pedestal noise in a multichannel array of switched-capacitor analog memories wherein each analog memory is connected to an associated analog-to-digital converter. The apparatus comprises a single differential element in two different embodiments. In a first embodiment, the differential element is a reference analog memory connected to a buffer. In the second embodiment, the differential element is a reference analog memory connected to a reference analog-to-digital connected to an array of digital summing circuits.

  17. Investigation into the common mode rejection ratio of the physiological signal conditioner circuit

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Obrien, Edward M.

    1992-01-01

    The common mode rejection ratio (CMRR) of the single operational amplifier (op amp) differential amplifier and of the three operational amplifier differential amplifier was investigated. The three op amp differential amplifier circuit is used in the signal conditioner circuit which amplifies signals such as the electromyograph or electrocardiogram. The investigation confirmed via SPICE modeling what has been observed by others in the recent literature that the CMRR for the circuit can be maximized without precision resistor values or precisely matched op amps. This can be done if one resistor in the final stage can be adjusted either by a potentiometer or by laser trimming in the case of hybrid circuit fabrication.

  18. In-line femtosecond common-path interferometer in reflection mode.

    PubMed

    Chandezon, J; Rampnoux, J-M; Dilhaire, S; Audoin, B; Guillet, Y

    2015-10-19

    An innovative method to perform femtosecond time-resolved interferometry in reflection mode is proposed. The experiment consists in the combined use of a pump-probe setup and of a fully passive in-line femtosecond common-path interferometer. The originality of this interferometer relies on the use of a single birefringent crystal first to generate a pair of phase-locked pulses and second to recombine them to interfere. As predicted by analytical modeling, this interferometer measures the temporal derivative of the ultrafast changes of the complex optical reflection coefficient of the sample. Working conditions are illustrated through picosecond opto-acoustic experiments on a thin film.

  19. Bumblebees minimize control challenges by combining active and passive modes in unsteady winds

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Ravi, Sridhar; Kolomenskiy, Dmitry; Engels, Thomas; Schneider, Kai; Wang, Chun; Sesterhenn, Jörn; Liu, Hao

    2016-10-01

    The natural wind environment that volant insects encounter is unsteady and highly complex, posing significant flight-control and stability challenges. It is critical to understand the strategies insects employ to safely navigate in natural environments. We combined experiments on free flying bumblebees with high-fidelity numerical simulations and lower-order modeling to identify the mechanics that mediate insect flight in unsteady winds. We trained bumblebees to fly upwind towards an artificial flower in a wind tunnel under steady wind and in a von Kármán street formed in the wake of a cylinder. Analysis revealed that at lower frequencies in both steady and unsteady winds the bees mediated lateral movement with body roll - typical casting motion. Numerical simulations of a bumblebee in similar conditions permitted the separation of the passive and active components of the flight trajectories. Consequently, we derived simple mathematical models that describe these two motion components. Comparison between the free-flying live and modeled bees revealed a novel mechanism that enables bees to passively ride out high-frequency perturbations while performing active maneuvers at lower frequencies. The capacity of maintaining stability by combining passive and active modes at different timescales provides a viable means for animals and machines to tackle the challenges posed by complex airflows.

  20. Bumblebees minimize control challenges by combining active and passive modes in unsteady winds

    PubMed Central

    Ravi, Sridhar; Kolomenskiy, Dmitry; Engels, Thomas; Schneider, Kai; Wang, Chun; Sesterhenn, Jörn; Liu, Hao

    2016-01-01

    The natural wind environment that volant insects encounter is unsteady and highly complex, posing significant flight-control and stability challenges. It is critical to understand the strategies insects employ to safely navigate in natural environments. We combined experiments on free flying bumblebees with high-fidelity numerical simulations and lower-order modeling to identify the mechanics that mediate insect flight in unsteady winds. We trained bumblebees to fly upwind towards an artificial flower in a wind tunnel under steady wind and in a von Kármán street formed in the wake of a cylinder. Analysis revealed that at lower frequencies in both steady and unsteady winds the bees mediated lateral movement with body roll - typical casting motion. Numerical simulations of a bumblebee in similar conditions permitted the separation of the passive and active components of the flight trajectories. Consequently, we derived simple mathematical models that describe these two motion components. Comparison between the free-flying live and modeled bees revealed a novel mechanism that enables bees to passively ride out high-frequency perturbations while performing active maneuvers at lower frequencies. The capacity of maintaining stability by combining passive and active modes at different timescales provides a viable means for animals and machines to tackle the challenges posed by complex airflows. PMID:27752047

  1. A minimal model for the mitochondrial rapid mode of Ca²+ uptake mechanism.

    PubMed

    Bazil, Jason N; Dash, Ranjan K

    2011-01-01

    Mitochondria possess a remarkable ability to rapidly accumulate and sequester Ca²⁺. One of the mechanisms responsible for this ability is believed to be the rapid mode (RaM) of Ca²⁺ uptake. Despite the existence of many models of mitochondrial Ca²⁺ dynamics, very few consider RaM as a potential mechanism that regulates mitochondrial Ca²⁺ dynamics. To fill this gap, a novel mathematical model of the RaM mechanism is developed herein. The model is able to simulate the available experimental data of rapid Ca²⁺ uptake in isolated mitochondria from both chicken heart and rat liver tissues with good fidelity. The mechanism is based on Ca²⁺ binding to an external trigger site(s) and initiating a brief transient of high Ca²⁺ conductivity. It then quickly switches to an inhibited, zero-conductive state until the external Ca²⁺ level is dropped below a critical value (∼100-150 nM). RaM's Ca²⁺- and time-dependent properties make it a unique Ca²⁺ transporter that may be an important means by which mitochondria take up Ca²⁺ in situ and help enable mitochondria to decode cytosolic Ca²⁺ signals. Integrating the developed RaM model into existing models of mitochondrial Ca²⁺ dynamics will help elucidate the physiological role that this unique mechanism plays in mitochondrial Ca²⁺-homeostasis and bioenergetics.

  2. Using dummy and pseudo-dummy amplifiers to correct for common mode CCD noise

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Steele, I. A.; Mottram, C. J.; Smith, R. J.; Barnsley, R. M.

    2014-07-01

    Some modern CCD designs provide a dummy readout amplifier that is designed to be operated with the same clock and bias signals as the true amplifier in order to provide a measurement of clock induced and other common-mode noise signals in the true amplifier readout. In general the dummy output signal is subtracted electronically from the true output signal in a differential input preamplifier before digitization. Here we report on an alternative approach where both signals are digitized and the subtraction done in software. We present the results of testing this method of operation using the ARC SDSU generation III CCD controllers and an e2v CCD231 device and find it works well, allowing a noise figure of ~ 2:2 electrons to be reached in the presence of significantly higher (~ 6 electrons) pickup noise. In addition we test the effectiveness of using unused (but still genuine) readout amplifiers on the detector to provide a pseudo-dummy output, which we also find effective in cancelling common mode noise. This provides the option of implementing noise reduction on CCDs that are not equipped with dummy outputs at the expense of overall readout speed.

  3. Development of a Low-Noise High Common-Mode-Rejection Instrumentation Amplifier. M.S. Thesis

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Rush, Kenneth; Blalock, T. V.; Kennedy, E. J.

    1975-01-01

    Several previously used instrumentation amplifier circuits were examined to find limitations and possibilities for improvement. One general configuration is analyzed in detail, and methods for improvement are enumerated. An improved amplifier circuit is described and analyzed with respect to common mode rejection and noise. Experimental data are presented showing good agreement between calculated and measured common mode rejection ratio and equivalent noise resistance. The amplifier is shown to be capable of common mode rejection in excess of 140 db for a trimmed circuit at frequencies below 100 Hz and equivalent white noise below 3.0 nv/square root of Hz above 1000 Hz.

  4. Production and delivery batch scheduling with a common due date and multiple vehicles to minimize total cost

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Prasetyaningsih, E.; Suprayogi; Samadhi, TMAA; Halim, AH

    2016-02-01

    This paper studies production and delivery batch scheduling problems for a single- supplier-to-a-single-manufacturer case, with multiple capacitated vehicles wherein different holding costs between in-process and completed parts are allowed. In the problem, the parts of a single item are first batched,then the resulting batches are processed on a single machine. All completed batches are transported in a number of deliveries in order to be received at a common due date. The objective is to find the integrated schedule of production and delivery batches so as to satisfy its due date and to minimize the total cost of associated in-process parts inventory, completed parts inventory and delivery. It should be noted that both holding costs constitute a derivation of the so-called actual flow time, and the delivery cost is proportional to the required number of deliveries. The problem can be formulated as an integer non-linier programming and it is solved optimally by Lingo 11.0 software. Numerical experiences show that there are two patterns of batch sizes affected by the ratio of holding costs of in-process and completed parts. It can be used by practitioners to solve the realistic integrated production and delivery batch scheduling problem.

  5. Differential microstrip lines with reduced crosstalk and common mode effect based on spoof surface plasmon polaritons.

    PubMed

    Wu, Jin Jei; Hou, Da Jun; Liu, Kexin; Shen, Linfang; Tsai, Chi An; Wu, Chien Jang; Tsai, Dichi; Yang, Tzong-Jer

    2014-11-03

    We apply the concept of spoof surface plasmon polaritons (SPPs) to the design of differential microstrip lines by introducing periodic subwavelength corrugations on their edges. The dispersion relation and field distribution of those lines are analyzed numerically. And then through designing practical coupling circuits, we found that compared with conventional differential microstrip lines, the electromagnetic field can be strongly confined inside the grooves of the corrugated microstrip lines, so the crosstalk between the differential pair and the adjacent microstrip lines is greatly reduced, and the conversion from the differential signal to the common mode signal can also be effectively suppressed. The propagation length of those lines is also very long in a wide band. Moreover, the experimental results in time domain demonstrate those lines perform very well in high-speed circuit. Therefore, those novel kinds of spoof SPPs based differential microstrip lines can be widely utilized in high-density microwave circuits and guarantee signal integrity in high-speed systems.

  6. Common mechanics of mode switching in locomotion of limbless and legged animals

    PubMed Central

    Kuroda, Shigeru; Kunita, Itsuki; Tanaka, Yoshimi; Ishiguro, Akio; Kobayashi, Ryo; Nakagaki, Toshiyuki

    2014-01-01

    Crawling using muscular waves is observed in many species, including planaria, leeches, nemertea, aplysia, snails, chitons, earthworms and maggots. Contraction or extension waves propagate along the antero-posterior axis of the body as the crawler pushes the ground substratum backward. However, the observation that locomotory waves can be directed forward or backward has attracted much attention over the past hundred years. Legged organisms such as centipedes and millipedes exhibit parallel phenomena; leg tips form density waves that propagate backward or forward. Mechanical considerations reveal that leg-density waves play a similar role to locomotory waves in limbless species, and that locomotory waves are used by a mechanism common to both legged and limbless species to achieve crawling. Here, we report that both mode switching of the wave direction and friction control were achieved when backward motion was induced in the laboratory. We show that the many variations of switching in different animals can essentially be classified in two types according to mechanical considerations. We propose that during their evolution, limbless crawlers first moved in a manner similar to walking before legs were obtained. Therefore, legged crawlers might have learned the mechanical mode of movement involved in walking long before obtaining legs. PMID:24718452

  7. Commuters' exposure to PM1 by common travel modes in Shanghai

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Yu, Qi; Lu, Yi; Xiao, Shan; Shen, Junxiu; Li, Xun; Ma, Weichun; Chen, Limin

    2012-11-01

    A study on commuter's exposure to PM1 in Shanghai was presented. Commuters' real-time exposure concentrations by the common travel modes (bus, walking, cycling, taxi and subway) were measured by DustTrak™ dust monitors, and the average exposure concentrations and inhalation doses were analyzed. The lengths of the routes were designed to be within 30-min walking distance. The average PM1 exposure concentrations during commuting were 0.147 ± 0.092 mg m-3, 0.145 ± 0.088 mg m-3, 0.140 ± 0.086 mg m-3, 0.139 ± 0.086 mg m-3 and 0.122 ± 0.077 mg m-3 for the bus, walking, cycling, taxi and subway trips respectively. The concentrations in the microenvironments were 0.147 ± 0.096 mg m-3, 0.155 ± 0.098 mg m-3, 0.142 ± 0.092 mg m-3 and 0.079 ± 0.051 mg m-3 for the bus station, bus, taxi and train respectively. The concentrations in the microenvironments were close to those in Guangzhou and higher compared to the results in London, Sydney, Florence, etc. The combined effect of exposure concentration, travel time and inhalation rate led to different inter-mode relationship of inhalation doses compared to that of exposure concentrations. The inhalation doses were 54.5 ± 38.9 μg, 45.2 ± 30.1 μg, 29.2 ± 25.4 μg, 28.6 ± 25.9 μg and 12.8 ± 13.4 μg for the cycling, walking, bus, subway and taxi trips respectively. The outdoor fractions of the inhalation doses by bus, taxi and subway were much higher than the indoor fractions.

  8. Reduction of Common-Mode Conducted Noise Emissions in PWM Inverter-fed AC Motor Drive Systems using Optimized Passive EMI Filter

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Jettanasen, C.; Ngaopitakkul, A.

    2010-10-01

    Conducted electromagnetic interference (EMI) generated by PWM inverter-fed induction motor drive systems, which are currently widely used in many industrial and/or avionic applications, causes severe parasitic current problems, especially at high frequencies (HF). These restrict power electronic drive's evolution. In order to reduce or minimize these EMI problems, several techniques can be applied. In this paper, insertion of an optimized passive EMI filter is proposed. This filter is optimized by taking into account real impedances of each part of a considered AC motor drive system contrarily to commercial EMI filters designed by considering internal impedance of disturbance source and load, equal to 50Ω. Employing the latter EMI filter would make EMI minimization less effective. The proposed EMI filter optimization is mainly dedicated to minimize common mode (CM) currents due to its most dominant effects in this kind of system. The efficiency of the proposed optimization method using two-port network approach is deduced by comparing the minimized CM current spectra to an applied normative level (ex. DO-160D in aeronautics).

  9. Common mode noise rejection properties of amplitude and phase noise in a heterodyne interferometer.

    PubMed

    Hechenblaikner, Gerald

    2013-05-01

    High precision metrology systems based on heterodyne interferometry can measure the position and attitude of objects to accuracies of picometer and nanorad, respectively. A frequently found feature of the general system design is the subtraction of a reference phase from the phase of the position interferometer, which suppresses low frequency common mode amplitude and phase fluctuations occurring in volatile optical path sections shared by both the position and reference interferometer. Spectral components of the noise at frequencies around or higher than the heterodyne frequency, however, are generally transmitted into the measurement band and may limit the measurement accuracy. Detailed analytical calculations complemented with Monte Carlo simulations show that high frequency noise components may also be entirely suppressed, depending on the relative difference of measurement and reference phase, which may be exploited by corresponding design provisions. While these results are applicable to any heterodyne interferometer with certain design characteristics, specific calculations and related discussions are given for the example of the optical metrology system of the LISA Pathfinder mission to space.

  10. Capacitively readout multi-element sensor array with common-mode cancellation

    DOEpatents

    Britton, Jr., Charles L.; Warmack, Robert J.; Bryan, William L.; Jones, Robert L.; Oden, Patrick Ian; Thundat, Thomas

    2001-01-01

    An improved multi-element apparatus for detecting the presence of at least one chemical, biological or physical component in a monitored area comprising an array or single set of the following elements: a capacitive transducer having at least one cantilever spring element secured thereto, the cantilever element having an area thereof coated with a chemical having an affinity for the component to be detected; a pick-up plate positioned adjacent to the cantilever element at a distance such that a capacitance between the cantilever element and the pick-up plate changes as the distance between the cantilever element and the pick-up plate varies, the change in capacitance being a measurable variation; a detection means for measuring the measurable variation in the capacitance between the cantilever element and the pick-up plate that forms a measurement channel signal; and at least one feedback cantilever spring element positioned apart from the coated cantilever element, the cantilever element substantially unaffected by the component being monitored and providing a reference channel signal to the detection means that achieves a common mode cancellation between the measurement channel signal and reference channel signal.

  11. Planar quadrature RF transceiver design using common-mode differential-mode (CMDM) transmission line method for 7T MR imaging.

    PubMed

    Li, Ye; Yu, Baiying; Pang, Yong; Vigneron, Daniel B; Zhang, Xiaoliang

    2013-01-01

    The use of quadrature RF magnetic fields has been demonstrated to be an efficient method to reduce transmit power and to increase the signal-to-noise (SNR) in magnetic resonance (MR) imaging. The goal of this project was to develop a new method using the common-mode and differential-mode (CMDM) technique for compact, planar, distributed-element quadrature transmit/receive resonators for MR signal excitation and detection and to investigate its performance for MR imaging, particularly, at ultrahigh magnetic fields. A prototype resonator based on CMDM method implemented by using microstrip transmission line was designed and fabricated for 7T imaging. Both the common mode (CM) and the differential mode (DM) of the resonator were tuned and matched at 298MHz independently. Numerical electromagnetic simulation was performed to verify the orthogonal B1 field direction of the two modes of the CMDM resonator. Both workbench tests and MR imaging experiments were carried out to evaluate the performance. The intrinsic decoupling between the two modes of the CMDM resonator was demonstrated by the bench test, showing a better than -36 dB transmission coefficient between the two modes at resonance frequency. The MR images acquired by using each mode and the images combined in quadrature showed that the CM and DM of the proposed resonator provided similar B1 coverage and achieved SNR improvement in the entire region of interest. The simulation and experimental results demonstrate that the proposed CMDM method with distributed-element transmission line technique is a feasible and efficient technique for planar quadrature RF coil design at ultrahigh fields, providing intrinsic decoupling between two quadrature channels and high frequency capability. Due to its simple and compact geometry and easy implementation of decoupling methods, the CMDM quadrature resonator can possibly be a good candidate for design blocks in multichannel RF coil arrays.

  12. Planar Quadrature RF Transceiver Design Using Common-Mode Differential-Mode (CMDM) Transmission Line Method for 7T MR Imaging

    PubMed Central

    Li, Ye; Yu, Baiying; Pang, Yong; Vigneron, Daniel B.; Zhang, Xiaoliang

    2013-01-01

    The use of quadrature RF magnetic fields has been demonstrated to be an efficient method to reduce transmit power and to increase the signal-to-noise (SNR) in magnetic resonance (MR) imaging. The goal of this project was to develop a new method using the common-mode and differential-mode (CMDM) technique for compact, planar, distributed-element quadrature transmit/receive resonators for MR signal excitation and detection and to investigate its performance for MR imaging, particularly, at ultrahigh magnetic fields. A prototype resonator based on CMDM method implemented by using microstrip transmission line was designed and fabricated for 7T imaging. Both the common mode (CM) and the differential mode (DM) of the resonator were tuned and matched at 298MHz independently. Numerical electromagnetic simulation was performed to verify the orthogonal B1 field direction of the two modes of the CMDM resonator. Both workbench tests and MR imaging experiments were carried out to evaluate the performance. The intrinsic decoupling between the two modes of the CMDM resonator was demonstrated by the bench test, showing a better than -36 dB transmission coefficient between the two modes at resonance frequency. The MR images acquired by using each mode and the images combined in quadrature showed that the CM and DM of the proposed resonator provided similar B1 coverage and achieved SNR improvement in the entire region of interest. The simulation and experimental results demonstrate that the proposed CMDM method with distributed-element transmission line technique is a feasible and efficient technique for planar quadrature RF coil design at ultrahigh fields, providing intrinsic decoupling between two quadrature channels and high frequency capability. Due to its simple and compact geometry and easy implementation of decoupling methods, the CMDM quadrature resonator can possibly be a good candidate for design blocks in multichannel RF coil arrays. PMID:24265823

  13. Commonality.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Beaton, Albert E., Jr.

    Commonality analysis is an attempt to understand the relative predictive power of the regressor variables, both individually and in combination. The squared multiple correlation is broken up into elements assigned to each individual regressor and to each possible combination of regressors. The elements have the property that the appropriate sums…

  14. Configuration of three distributed lines for reducing noise due to the coupling of the common and normal modes

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Jinno, Souma; Toki, Hiroshi; Abe, Masayoshi

    2017-02-01

    In this study, the coupling between the common and normal modes in distributed lines and the resulting electromagnetic noise were considered. The telegraph equations of three distributed lines with the boundary conditions of a lumped circuit reveal the presence of mode-coupling noise. To reduce the coupling noise, the geometrically and electrically symmetric configuration of the three distributed lines is proposed. The simulation results show that the proposed configuration can decrease the mode-coupling noise by a factor of 1 ×10-8 in comparison with that of asymmetric configurations.

  15. Spatio-temporal filtering for determination of common mode error in regional GNSS networks

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Bogusz, Janusz; Gruszczynski, Maciej; Figurski, Mariusz; Klos, Anna

    2015-04-01

    The spatial correlation between different stations for individual components in the regional GNSS networks seems to be significant. The mismodelling in satellite orbits, the Earth orientation parameters (EOP), largescale atmospheric effects or satellite antenna phase centre corrections can all cause the regionally correlated errors. This kind of GPS time series errors are referred to as common mode errors (CMEs). They are usually estimated with the regional spatial filtering, such as the "stacking". In this paper, we show the stacking approach for the set of ASG-EUPOS permanent stations, assuming that spatial distribution of the CME is uniform over the whole region of Poland (more than 600 km extent). The ASG-EUPOS is a multifunctional precise positioning system based on the reference network designed for Poland. We used a 5- year span time series (2008-2012) of daily solutions in the ITRF2008 from Bernese 5.0 processed by the Military University of Technology EPN Local Analysis Centre (MUT LAC). At the beginning of our analyses concerning spatial dependencies, the correlation coefficients between each pair of the stations in the GNSS network were calculated. This analysis shows that spatio-temporal behaviour of the GPS-derived time series is not purely random, but there is the evident uniform spatial response. In order to quantify the influence of filtering using CME, the norms L1 and L2 were determined. The values of these norms were calculated for the North, East and Up components twice: before performing the filtration and after stacking. The observed reduction of the L1 and L2 norms was up to 30% depending on the dimension of the network. However, the question how to define an optimal size of CME-analysed subnetwork remains unanswered in this research, due to the fact that our network is not extended enough.

  16. Modeling Stretching Modes of Common Organic Molecules with the Quantum Mechanical Harmonic Oscillator: An Undergraduate Vibrational Spectroscopy Laboratory Exercise

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Parnis, J. Mark; Thompson, Matthew G. K.

    2004-01-01

    An introductory undergraduate physical organic chemistry exercise that introduces the harmonic oscillator's use in vibrational spectroscopy is developed. The analysis and modeling exercise begins with the students calculating the stretching modes of common organic molecules with the help of the quantum mechanical harmonic oscillator (QMHO) model.

  17. 100-Gbit/s PDM-QPSK coherent receiver with wide dynamic range and excellent common-mode rejection ratio.

    PubMed

    Murata, Koichi; Saida, Takashi; Sano, Kimikazu; Ogawa, Ikuo; Fukuyama, Hiroyuki; Kasahara, Ryoichi; Muramoto, Yoshifumi; Nosaka, Hideyuki; Tsunashima, Satoshi; Mizuno, Takayuki; Tanobe, Hiromasa; Hattori, Kuninori; Yoshimatsu, Toshihide; Kawakami, Hiroto; Yoshida, Eiji

    2011-12-12

    We report the design and fabrication of a hybrid-integration-type coherent receiver. We optimize the receiver building blocks, and achieve a -25-dB common-mode rejection ratio and a 20-dB signal input power dynamic range.

  18. A minimal estimate for the gene content of the last universal common ancestor--exobiology from a terrestrial perspective.

    PubMed

    Ouzounis, Christos A; Kunin, Victor; Darzentas, Nikos; Goldovsky, Leon

    2006-01-01

    Using an algorithm for ancestral state inference of gene content, given a large number of extant genome sequences and a phylogenetic tree, we aim to reconstruct the gene content of the last universal common ancestor (LUCA), a hypothetical life form that presumably was the progenitor of the three domains of life. The method allows for gene loss, previously found to be a major factor in shaping gene content, and thus the estimate of LUCA's gene content appears to be substantially higher than that proposed previously, with a typical number of over 1000 gene families, of which more than 90% are also functionally characterized. More precisely, when only prokaryotes are considered, the number varies between 1006 and 1189 gene families while when eukaryotes are also included, this number increases to between 1344 and 1529 families depending on the underlying phylogenetic tree. Therefore, the common belief that the hypothetical genome of LUCA should resemble those of the smallest extant genomes of obligate parasites is not supported by recent advances in computational genomics. Instead, a fairly complex genome similar to those of free-living prokaryotes, with a variety of functional capabilities including metabolic transformation, information processing, membrane/transport proteins and complex regulation, shared between the three domains of life, emerges as the most likely progenitor of life on Earth, with profound repercussions for planetary exploration and exobiology.

  19. An Approach for Practical Use of Common-Mode Noise Reduction Technique for In-Vehicle Electronic Equipment

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Uno, Takanori; Ichikawa, Kouji; Mabuchi, Yuichi; Nakamura, Atsushi; Okazaki, Yuji; Asai, Hideki

    In this paper, we studied the use of common-mode noise reduction technique for in-vehicle electronic equipment in an actual instrument design. We have improved the circuit model of the common-mode noise that flows to the wire harness to add the effect of a bypass capacitor located near the LSI. We analyzed the improved circuit model using a circuit simulator and verified the effectiveness of the noise reduction condition derived from the circuit model. It was also confirmed that offsetting the impedance mismatch in the PCB section requires to make a circuit constant larger than that necessary for doing the impedance mismatch in the LSI section. An evaluation circuit board comprising an automotive microcomputer was prototyped to experiment on the common-mode noise reduction effect of the board. The experimental results showed the noise reduction effect of the board. The experimental results also revealed that the degree of impedance mismatch in the LSI section can be estimated by using a PCB having a known impedance. We further inquired into the optimization of impedance parameters, which is difficult for actual products at present. To satisfy the noise reduction condition composed of numerous parameters, we proposed a design method using an optimization algorithm and an electromagnetic field simulator, and confirmed its effectiveness.

  20. Single phase bi-directional AC-DC converter with reduced passive components size and common mode electro-magnetic interference

    DOEpatents

    Mi, Chris; Li, Siqi

    2017-01-31

    A bidirectional AC-DC converter is presented with reduced passive component size and common mode electro-magnetic interference. The converter includes an improved input stage formed by two coupled differential inductors, two coupled common and differential inductors, one differential capacitor and two common mode capacitors. With this input structure, the volume, weight and cost of the input stage can be reduced greatly. Additionally, the input current ripple and common mode electro-magnetic interference can be greatly attenuated, so lower switching frequency can be adopted to achieve higher efficiency.

  1. Synchronization in a mechanical resonator array coupled quadratically to a common electromagnetic field mode.

    PubMed

    León Aveleyra, G; Holmes, C A; Milburn, G J

    2014-06-01

    Optomechanical systems are based on the nonlinear coupling between the electromagnetic (EM) field in a resonator and one or more bulk mechanical resonators such that the frequency of the EM field resonator depends on the displacement coordinates of each of the mechanical resonators. In this paper we consider the case of multiple mechanical resonators interacting with a common field for which the frequency of the EM resonance is tuned to depend quadratically (to lowest order) on the displacement of the resonators. By using the method of amplitude equations around a critical point, it is shown that groups of near-identical bulk mechanical resonators with low driving fail to synchronize unless their natural frequencies are identical, in which case the resulting system can exhibit multistability.

  2. Cambrian Burgess Shale-type deposits share a common mode of fossilization

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Gaines, Robert R.; Briggs, Derek E. G.; Yuanlong, Zhao

    2008-10-01

    Although Cambrian Burgess Shale-type (BST) biotas arefundamental to understanding the radiation of metazoans, thenature of their extraordinary preservation remains controversial.There remains disagreement about the importance of the roleof early mineral replication of soft tissues versus the conservationof primary organic remains. Most prior work focused on soft-bodiedfossils from the two most important BST biotas, those of theBurgess Shale (Canada) and Maotianshan Shale (Chengjiang, China).Fossils from these two deposits do not provide ideal candidatesfor specimen-level taphonomic study because they have been altered:the Burgess Shale by greenschist facies metamorphism and theMaotianshan Shale by intensive subsurface weathering. Elementalmapping of soft-bodied fossils from 11 other BST deposits worldwidedemonstrates that BST preservation represents a single majortaphonomic pathway that may share a common cause wherever itoccurs. The conservation of organic tissues, and not early authigenicmineralization, is the primary mechanism responsible for thepreservation of BST assemblages. Early authigenic mineral replacementpreserves certain anatomical features of some specimens, butthe preservation of non-biomineralized BST fossils requiressuppression of the processes that normally lead to the degradationof organic remains in marine environments.

  3. MO-DE-207-04: Imaging educational program on solutions to common pediatric imaging challenges

    SciTech Connect

    Krishnamurthy, R.

    2015-06-15

    This imaging educational program will focus on solutions to common pediatric imaging challenges. The speakers will present collective knowledge on best practices in pediatric imaging from their experience at dedicated children’s hospitals. The educational program will begin with a detailed discussion of the optimal configuration of fluoroscopes for general pediatric procedures. Following this introduction will be a focused discussion on the utility of Dual Energy CT for imaging children. The third lecture will address the substantial challenge of obtaining consistent image post -processing in pediatric digital radiography. The fourth and final lecture will address best practices in pediatric MRI including a discussion of ancillary methods to reduce sedation and anesthesia rates. Learning Objectives: To learn techniques for optimizing radiation dose and image quality in pediatric fluoroscopy To become familiar with the unique challenges and applications of Dual Energy CT in pediatric imaging To learn solutions for consistent post-processing quality in pediatric digital radiography To understand the key components of an effective MRI safety and quality program for the pediatric practice.

  4. Allosteric Inhibitors Have Distinct Effects, but Also Common Modes of Action, in the HCV Polymerase

    PubMed Central

    Davis, Brittny C.; Brown, Jodian A.; Thorpe, Ian F.

    2015-01-01

    The RNA-dependent RNA polymerase from the Hepatitis C Virus (gene product NS5B) is a validated drug target because of its critical role in genome replication. There are at least four distinct allosteric sites on the polymerase to which several small molecule inhibitors bind. In addition, numerous crystal structures have been solved with different allosteric inhibitors bound to the polymerase. However, the molecular mechanisms by which these small molecules inhibit the enzyme have not been fully elucidated. There is evidence that allosteric inhibitors alter the intrinsic motions and distribution of conformations sampled by the enzyme. In this study we use molecular dynamics simulations to understand the structural and dynamic changes that result when inhibitors are bound at three different allosteric binding sites on the enzyme. We observe that ligand binding at each site alters the structure and dynamics of NS5B in a distinct manner. Nonetheless, our studies also highlight commonalities in the mechanisms of action of the different inhibitors. Each inhibitor alters the conformational states sampled by the enzyme, either by rigidifying the enzyme and preventing transitions between functional conformational states or by destabilizing the enzyme and preventing functionally relevant conformations from being adequately sampled. By illuminating the molecular mechanisms of allosteric inhibition, these studies delineate the intrinsic functional properties of the enzyme and pave the way for designing novel and more effective polymerase inhibitors. This information may also be important to understand how allosteric regulation occurs in related viral polymerases and other enzymes. PMID:25863069

  5. Binding Mode of Acetylated Histones to Bromodomains: Variations on a Common Motif.

    PubMed

    Marchand, Jean-Rémy; Caflisch, Amedeo

    2015-08-01

    Bromodomains, epigenetic readers that recognize acetylated lysine residues in histone tails, are potential drug targets in cancer and inflammation. Herein we review the crystal structures of human bromodomains in complex with histone tails and analyze the main interaction motifs. The histone backbone is extended and occupies, in one of the two possible orientations, the bromodomain surface groove lined by the ZA and BC loops. The acetyl-lysine side chain is buried in the cavity between the four helices of the bromodomain, and its oxygen atom accepts hydrogen bonds from a structural water molecule and a conserved asparagine residue in the BC loop. In stark contrast to this common binding motif, a large variety of ancillary interactions emerge from our analysis. In 10 of 26 structures, a basic side chain (up to five residues up- or downstream in sequence with respect to the acetyl-lysine) interacts with the carbonyl groups of the C-terminal turn of helix αB. Furthermore, the complexes reveal many heterogeneous backbone hydrogen bonds (direct or water-bridged). These interactions contribute unselectively to the binding of acetylated histone tails to bromodomains, which provides further evidence that specific recognition is modulated by combinations of multiple histone modifications and multiple modules of the proteins involved in transcription.

  6. Dynamical response of the Galileo Galilei on the ground rotor to test the equivalence principle: Theory, simulation, and experiment. II. The rejection of common mode forces

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Comandi, G. L.; Toncelli, R.; Chiofalo, M. L.; Bramanti, D.; Nobili, A. M.

    2006-03-01

    "Galileo Galilei on the ground" (GGG) is a fast rotating differential accelerometer designed to test the equivalence principle (EP). Its sensitivity to differential effects, such as the effect of an EP violation, depends crucially on the capability of the accelerometer to reject all effects acting in common mode. By applying the theoretical and simulation methods reported in Part I of this work, and tested therein against experimental data, we predict the occurrence of an enhanced common mode rejection of the GGG accelerometer. We demonstrate that the best rejection of common mode disturbances can be tuned in a controlled way by varying the spin frequency of the GGG rotor.

  7. Dynamical response of the Galileo Galilei on the ground rotor to test the equivalence principle: Theory, simulation, and experiment. II. The rejection of common mode forces

    SciTech Connect

    Comandi, G.L.; Toncelli, R.; Chiofalo, M.L.; Bramanti, D.; Nobili, A.M.

    2006-03-15

    'Galileo Galilei on the ground' (GGG) is a fast rotating differential accelerometer designed to test the equivalence principle (EP). Its sensitivity to differential effects, such as the effect of an EP violation, depends crucially on the capability of the accelerometer to reject all effects acting in common mode. By applying the theoretical and simulation methods reported in Part I of this work, and tested therein against experimental data, we predict the occurrence of an enhanced common mode rejection of the GGG accelerometer. We demonstrate that the best rejection of common mode disturbances can be tuned in a controlled way by varying the spin frequency of the GGG rotor.

  8. Minimally Invasive Sampling Method Identifies Differences in Taxonomic Richness of Nasal Microbiomes in Young Infants Associated with Mode of Delivery.

    PubMed

    Shilts, Meghan H; Rosas-Salazar, Christian; Tovchigrechko, Andrey; Larkin, Emma K; Torralba, Manolito; Akopov, Asmik; Halpin, Rebecca; Peebles, R Stokes; Moore, Martin L; Anderson, Larry J; Nelson, Karen E; Hartert, Tina V; Das, Suman R

    2016-01-01

    To date, there is a limited understanding of the role of the airway microbiome in the early life development of respiratory diseases such as asthma, partly due to a lack of simple and minimally invasive sample collection methods. In order to characterize the baseline microbiome of the upper respiratory tract (URT) in infants, a comparatively non-invasive method for sampling the URT microbiome suitable for use in infants was developed. Microbiome samples were collected by placing filter paper in the nostrils of 33 healthy, term infants enrolled as part of the Infant Susceptibility to Pulmonary Infections and Asthma Following RSV Exposure (INSPIRE) study. After bacterial genomic DNA was extracted from the filters, amplicons were generated with universal primers targeting the V1-V3 region of the 16S rRNA gene. This method was capable of capturing a wide variety of taxa expected to inhabit the nasal cavity. Analyses stratifying subjects by demographic and environmental factors previously observed or predicted to influence microbial communities were performed. Microbial community richness was found to be higher in infants who had been delivered via Cesarean section and in those who had been formula-fed; an association was observed between diet and delivery, which confounds this analysis. We have established a baseline URT microbiome using a non-invasive filter paper nasal sampling for this population, and future studies will be performed in this large observational cohort of infants to investigate the relationship between viral infections, the URT microbiota, and the development of childhood wheezing illnesses.

  9. Passive synchronization of erbium and thulium doped fiber mode-locked lasers enhanced by common graphene saturable absorber.

    PubMed

    Sotor, Jaroslaw; Sobon, Grzegorz; Tarka, Jan; Pasternak, Iwona; Krajewska, Aleksandra; Strupinski, Wlodek; Abramski, Krzysztof M

    2014-03-10

    In this work we present for the first time, to the best of our knowledge, a passively synchronized thulium (Tm) and erbium (Er) doped fiber laser mode-locked by a common graphene saturable absorber (GSA). The laser consists of two ring resonators combined with a 90 cm long common fiber branch incorporating the saturable absorber (SA). Such laser generates optical solitons centered at 1558.5 nm and 1938 nm with pulse durations of 915 fs and 1.57 ps, respectively. Both laser loops were passively synchronized at repetition frequency of 20.5025 MHz by nonlinear interaction (cross phase modulation, XPM) in common fiber branch between generated pulses. The maximum cavity mismatch of the Er-laser in synchronization regime was 0.78 mm. The synchronization mechanism was also investigated. We demonstrate that the third order nonlinearities of graphene enhance the synchronization range. In our case the range was increased about 85%. The integrated RMS timing jitter between the synchronized pulses was 67 fs.

  10. Inhibition of Voltage-Gated Calcium Channels as Common Mode of Action for (Mixtures of) Distinct Classes of Insecticides

    PubMed Central

    Meijer, Marieke; Dingemans, Milou M.L.; van den Berg, Martin; Westerink, Remco H.S.

    2014-01-01

    Humans are exposed to distinct structural classes of insecticides with different neurotoxic modes of action. Because calcium homeostasis is essential for proper neuronal function and development, we investigated the effects of insecticides from different classes (pyrethroid: (α-)cypermethrin; organophosphate: chlorpyrifos; organochlorine: endosulfan; neonicotinoid: imidacloprid) and mixtures thereof on the intracellular calcium concentration ([Ca2+]i). Effects of acute (20 min) exposure to (mixtures of) insecticides on basal and depolarization-evoked [Ca2+]i were studied in vitro with Fura-2-loaded PC12 cells and high resolution single-cell fluorescence microscopy. The data demonstrate that cypermethrin, α-cypermethrin, endosulfan, and chlorpyrifos concentration-dependently decreased depolarization-evoked [Ca2+]i, with 50% (IC50) at 78nM, 239nM, 250nM, and 899nM, respectively. Additionally, acute exposure to chlorpyrifos or endosulfan (10μM) induced a modest increase in basal [Ca2+]i, amounting to 68 ± 8nM and 53 ± 8nM, respectively. Imidacloprid did not disturb basal or depolarization-evoked [Ca2+]i at 10μM. Following exposure to binary mixtures, effects on depolarization-evoked [Ca2+]i were within the expected effect additivity range, whereas the effect of the tertiary mixture was less than this expected additivity effect range. These results demonstrate that different types of insecticides inhibit depolarization-evoked [Ca2+]i in PC12 cells by inhibiting voltage-gated calcium channels (VGCCs) in vitro at concentrations comparable with human occupational exposure levels. Moreover, the effective concentrations in this study are below those for earlier described modes of action. Because inhibition of VGCCs appears to be a common and potentially additive mode of action of several classes of insecticides, this target should be considered in neurotoxicity risk assessment studies. PMID:24913802

  11. Inhibition of voltage-gated calcium channels as common mode of action for (mixtures of) distinct classes of insecticides.

    PubMed

    Meijer, Marieke; Dingemans, Milou M L; van den Berg, Martin; Westerink, Remco H S

    2014-09-01

    Humans are exposed to distinct structural classes of insecticides with different neurotoxic modes of action. Because calcium homeostasis is essential for proper neuronal function and development, we investigated the effects of insecticides from different classes (pyrethroid: (α-)cypermethrin; organophosphate: chlorpyrifos; organochlorine: endosulfan; neonicotinoid: imidacloprid) and mixtures thereof on the intracellular calcium concentration ([Ca(2+)]i). Effects of acute (20 min) exposure to (mixtures of) insecticides on basal and depolarization-evoked [Ca(2+)]i were studied in vitro with Fura-2-loaded PC12 cells and high resolution single-cell fluorescence microscopy. The data demonstrate that cypermethrin, α-cypermethrin, endosulfan, and chlorpyrifos concentration-dependently decreased depolarization-evoked [Ca(2+)]i, with 50% (IC50) at 78nM, 239nM, 250nM, and 899nM, respectively. Additionally, acute exposure to chlorpyrifos or endosulfan (10μM) induced a modest increase in basal [Ca(2+)]i, amounting to 68 ± 8nM and 53 ± 8nM, respectively. Imidacloprid did not disturb basal or depolarization-evoked [Ca(2+)]i at 10μM. Following exposure to binary mixtures, effects on depolarization-evoked [Ca(2+)]i were within the expected effect additivity range, whereas the effect of the tertiary mixture was less than this expected additivity effect range. These results demonstrate that different types of insecticides inhibit depolarization-evoked [Ca(2+)]i in PC12 cells by inhibiting voltage-gated calcium channels (VGCCs) in vitro at concentrations comparable with human occupational exposure levels. Moreover, the effective concentrations in this study are below those for earlier described modes of action. Because inhibition of VGCCs appears to be a common and potentially additive mode of action of several classes of insecticides, this target should be considered in neurotoxicity risk assessment studies.

  12. Quantifying direct DQPSK receiver with integrated photodiode array by assessing an adapted common-mode rejection ratio

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Wang, J.; Lauermann, M.; Zawadzki, C.; Brinker, W.; Zhang, Z.; de Felipe, D.; Keil, N.; Grote, N.; Schell, M.

    2011-12-01

    In this work, a direct DQPSK receiver was fabricated, which comprises a polymer waveguide based delay-line interferometer (DLI); a polymer based optical hybrid, and two monolithic pairs of > 25 GHz bandwidth photodiodes that are vertically coupled to the polymer planar lightwave circuit (PLC) via integrated 45° mirrors. The common mode rejection ratio (CMRR) is used to characterize the performance of coherent receivers, by indicating the electrical power balance between the balanced detectors. However, the standard CMRR can only be measured when the PDs can be illuminated separately. Also, the standard CMRR does not take into account the errors in the relative phases of the receiver outputs. We introduce an adapted CMRR to characterize the direct receiver, which takes into account the unequal responsivities of the PDs, the uneven split of the input power by the DLI and hybrid, the phase error and the extinction ratio of the DLI and hybrid.

  13. Performance analysis of a common-mode signal based low-complexity crosstalk cancelation scheme in vectored VDSL

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Zafaruddin, SM; Prakriya, Shankar; Prasad, Surendra

    2012-12-01

    In this article, we propose a vectored system by using both common mode (CM) and differential mode (DM) signals in upstream VDSL. We first develop a multi-input multi-output (MIMO) CM channel by using the single-pair CM and MIMO DM channels proposed recently, and study the characteristics of the resultant CM-DM channel matrix. We then propose a low complexity receiver structure in which the CM and DM signals of each twisted-pair (TP) are combined before the application of a MIMO zero forcing (ZF) receiver. We study capacity of the proposed system, and show that the vectored CM-DM processing provides higher data-rates at longer loop-lengths. In the absence of alien crosstalk, application of the ZF receiver on the vectored CM-DM signals yields performance close to the single user bound (SUB). In the presence of alien crosstalk, we show that the vectored CM-DM processing exploits the spatial correlation of CM and DM signals and provides higher data rates than with DM processing only. Simulation results validate the analysis and demonstrate the importance of CM-DM joint processing in vectored VDSL systems.

  14. Differential accelerometer for equivalence principle tests: the common mode rejection factor and separation of signal from noise

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Iafolla, V.; Lucchesi, D. M.; Nozzoli, S.; Santoli, F.; Lorenzini, E. C.; Shapiro, I. I.; Ashenberg, J.; Bombardelli, C.; Glashow, S.

    Testing the Equivalence Principle EP with an accuracy higher than the present state of the art requires to detect a very small signal out of the instrument s intrinsic noise and to the quite high common mode signals acting on the pair of test masses constituting the differential accelerometer Usually the rotation of the experiment permits to modulate the violation signal at a frequency separated from other signals with frequencies associated with the motion orbital or not of the instrument carrier and gravity gradients The possibility to detect the very small violation signal is related with a very high value for the Common Mode Rejection Factor CMRF and the separation of the differential signal due to a possible EP violation from the differential signal due to the gravity gradients Will be presented an experiment under development by our team TEPEE GReAT to test for a violation of the EP in an Einstein Elevator Particular emphasis on the experimental activity concerning the implementation of the differential accelerometer to its CMRF and the indication on the algorithm to separate the signal from noise sources will be given A numerical simulation of the detector s dynamics in the presence of relevant perturbations having assumed realistic errors and construction imperfections will be also presented In the experiment the detector spins about a horizontal axis while free falling for about 25 s in vacuum inside a co-moving capsule released from a stratospheric balloon A possible EP violation signal of a few parts in 10 15 needs to be extracted from the

  15. A wideband high common mode rejection ratio amplifier and phase-locked loop demodulator for multifrequency impedance measurement.

    PubMed

    Goovaerts, H G; Faes, T J; Raaijmakers, E; Heethaar, R M

    1998-11-01

    Design considerations and implementation of a multifrequency measuring channel for application in the field of bio-impedance measurement are discussed in this paper. The input amplifier has a differential configuration which is electrically isolated from the remaining circuits. Transformer coupling provides improved common mode rejection when compared to non-isolated input stages. The frequency characteristic of the section between input and demodulator is flat within +/- 0.1 dB between 4 kHz and 1024 kHz. The synchronous demodulator is based on a wideband switched video amplifier. In contrast to commonly used lock--in techniques, the carrier for demodulation is recovered from the input signal by means of a phase-locked loop. This method ensures zero phase shift with respect to the input signal and improves the accuracy of measurement. The system has been developed primarily for thoracic impedance cardiography (TIC) but has also successfully been applied in the field of total body bio-impedance analysis (BIA). At present an electrical impedance tomograph is under development based on the instrumentation described. Results regarding the measurement range and accuracy are given and some recordings of patient data are shown.

  16. Evidence for potentials and limitations of brain plasticity using an atlas of functional resectability of WHO grade II gliomas: towards a "minimal common brain".

    PubMed

    Ius, Tamara; Angelini, Elsa; Thiebaut de Schotten, Michel; Mandonnet, Emmanuel; Duffau, Hugues

    2011-06-01

    Despite recent advances in non-invasive brain mapping imaging, the resectability of a given area in a patient harboring a WHO grade II glioma cannot be predicted preoperatively with high reliability, due to mechanisms of functional reorganization. Therefore, intraoperative mapping by direct electrical stimulation remains the gold standard for detection and preservation of eloquent areas during glioma surgery, because it enables to perform on-line anatomo-functional correlations. To study potentials and limitations of brain plasticity, we gathered 58 postoperative MRI of patients operated on for a WHO grade II glioma under direct electrical cortico-subcortical stimulation. Postoperative images were registered on the MNI template to construct an atlas of functional resectability for which each voxel represents the probability to observe residual non-resectable tumor, that is, non-compensable area. The resulting atlas offers a rigorous framework to identify areas with high plastic potential (i.e. with probabilities of residual tumor close to 0), with low compensatory capabilities (i.e. probabilities of residual tumor close to 1) and with intermediate level of resectability (probability around 0.5). The resulting atlas highlights the utmost importance of preserving a core of connectivity through the main associative pathways, namely, it supports the existence of a "minimal common brain" among patients.

  17. Minimal change disease

    MedlinePlus

    ... seen under a very powerful microscope called an electron microscope. Minimal change disease is the most common ... biopsy and examination of the tissue with an electron microscope can show signs of minimal change disease.

  18. Minimal Pairs: Minimal Importance?

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Brown, Adam

    1995-01-01

    This article argues that minimal pairs do not merit as much attention as they receive in pronunciation instruction. There are other aspects of pronunciation that are of greater importance, and there are other ways of teaching vowel and consonant pronunciation. (13 references) (VWL)

  19. Approaches to Suppressing Shaft Voltage in Brushless DC Motor Driven by PWM Inverter Based on Ungrounded Common-Mode Equivalent Circuit

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Maetani, Tatsuo; Isomura, Yoshinori; Watanabe, Akihiko; Iimori, Kenichi; Morimoto, Shigeo

    This paper describes an ungrounded common-mode equivalent circuit for a motor driven by a voltage-source PWM inverter. When the capacitance of the rotor was is small, the reversal of the polarities of the common-mode voltage and shaft voltage is observed. In order to model this reversal, a bridge-type equivalent circuit is proposed. On the basis of calculations and experiment, it is found the values and polarity of the shaft voltage can be are accurately determined with the proposed equivalent circuit. Furthermore, the capacitance value of the insulated rotor required to make the shaft voltage equal to or less than the dielectric breakdown voltage of the bearing grease is obtained.

  20. PEG Functionalization of Whispering Gallery Mode Optical Microresonator Biosensors to Minimize Non-Specific Adsorption during Targeted, Label-Free Sensing

    PubMed Central

    Wang, Fanyongjing; Anderson, Mark; Bernards, Matthew T.; Hunt, Heather K.

    2015-01-01

    Whispering Gallery Mode (WGM) optical microresonator biosensors are a powerful tool for targeted detection of analytes at extremely low concentrations. However, in complex environments, non-specific adsorption can significantly reduce their signal to noise ratio, limiting their accuracy. To overcome this, poly(ethylene glycol) (PEG) can be employed in conjunction with appropriate recognition elements to create a nonfouling surface capable of detecting targeted analytes. This paper investigates a general route for the addition of nonfouling elements to WGM optical biosensors to reduce non-specific adsorption, while also retaining high sensitivity. We use the avidin-biotin analyte-recognition element system, in conjunction with PEG nonfouling elements, as a proof-of-concept, and explore the extent of non-specific adsorption of lysozyme and fibrinogen at multiple concentrations, as well as the ability to detect avidin in a concentration-dependent fashion. Ellipsometry, contact angle measurement, fluorescence microscopy, and optical resonator characterization methods were used to study non-specific adsorption, the quality of the functionalized surface, and the biosensor’s performance. Using a recognition element ratio to nonfouling element ratio of 1:1, we showed that non-specific adsorption could be significantly reduced over the controls, and that high sensitivity could be maintained. Due to the frequent use of biotin-avidin-biotin sandwich complexes in functionalizing sensor surfaces with biotin-labeled recognition elements, this chemistry could provide a common basis for creating a non-fouling surface capable of targeted detection. This should improve the ability of WGM optical biosensors to operate in complex environments, extending their application towards real-world detection. PMID:26213937

  1. A novel counterpulse drive mode of continuous-flow left ventricular assist devices can minimize intracircuit backward flow during pump weaning.

    PubMed

    Ando, Masahiko; Nishimura, Takashi; Takewa, Yoshiaki; Ogawa, Daisuke; Yamazaki, Kenji; Kashiwa, Koichi; Kyo, Shunei; Ono, Minoru; Taenaka, Yoshiyuki; Tatsumi, Eisuke

    2011-03-01

    Recent developments in adjunct therapeutic options for end-stage heart failure have enabled us to remove implanted left ventricular assist devices (LVADs) from more patients than before. However, a safe and proper protocol for pump-off trials is yet to be established, because diastolic backward flow in a pump circuit turns up when it is driven at low-flow conditions. We have developed a novel drive mode of centrifugal pumps that can change its rotational speed in synchronization with the cardiac cycle of the native heart. The purpose of this study was to test-drive this novel system of a centrifugal pump in a mock circulation and to evaluate the effect of the counterpulse mode, which increases pump speed just in diastole, on the amount of this nonphysiological intracircuit retrograde flow. A rotary pump (EVAHEART, Sun Medical Technology Research Corporation) was connected to the mock circulation by left ventricular uptake and ascending aortic return. We drove it in the following four conditions: (A) continuous mode at 1500 rpm, (B) counterpulse mode (systolic 1500 rpm, diastolic 2500 rpm), (C) continuous mode at 2000 rpm, and (D) counterpulse mode (systolic 2000 rpm, diastolic 2500 rpm). Data concerning the rotation speed, pump flow, left ventricular pressure, aortic pressure, and pressure head (i.e., aortic pressure-left ventricular pressure) in each condition were collected. After data collection, we analyzed pump flow, and calculated its forward and backward flow. Counterpulse mode decreased the amounts of pump backward flow compared with the continuous mode [mean backward flow, -4, -1, -0.5, 0 l/min, in (A), (B), (C), and (D) conditions, respectively]. The actual amounts of mean backward flow can be different from those in clinical situations; however, this novel drive mode for rotary pumps can relatively decrease pump backward flow during pump weaning and can be beneficial for safe and proper pump-off trials. Further investigations in in vivo settings are

  2. Antifungal agents commonly used in the superficial and mucosal candidiasis treatment: mode of action and resistance development

    PubMed Central

    Bondaryk, Małgorzata; Kurzątkowski, Wiesław

    2013-01-01

    Recent progress in medical sciences and therapy resulted in an increased number of immunocompromised individuals. Candida albicans is the leading opportunistic fungal pathogen causing infections in humans, ranging from superficial mucosal lesions to disseminated or bloodstream candidiasis. Superficial candidiasis not always presents a risk to the life of the infected host, however it significantly lowers the quality of life. Superficial Candida infections are difficult to treat and their frequency of occurrence is currently rising. To implement successful treatment doctors should be up to date with better understanding of C. albicans resistance mechanisms. Despite high frequency of Candida infections there is a limited number of antimycotics available for therapy. This review focuses on current understanding of the mode of action and resistance mechanisms to conventional and emerging antifungal agents for treatment of superficial and mucosal candidiasis. PMID:24353489

  3. Dynamics of Bloch oscillating transistor near bifurcation threshold and its applicability for common mode rejection capability of a differential pair BOT

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Sarkar, Jayanta; Puska, Antti; Hassel, Juha; Hakonen, Pertti

    2014-03-01

    Bloch oscillating transistor (BOT) is mesoscopic current amplier based on a combination of a Josephson junction or a squid connected with a large resistor and a NIS junction. We have studied the dynamics of BOT near the bifurcation threshold. This is an important feature for an amplifier as this can be utilized to improve its performance characteristics. We have measured the I - V characteristics of the BOT with different base currents (IB) over a wide range of Josephson coupling energies (EJ) . The current gain (β) is found to be increasing with increasing IB and eventually diverging. We have found a record large β = 50 in our experiment. In order to determine the common mode rejection ratio (CMRR) of a differential pair BOT we have used two BOTs fabricated on the same chip. The common mode port is connected to the bases of the two BOTs and fed with varying voltages; simultaneously emitter currents of the two BOTs are recorded. In our experiment we found a 20dB of CMRR.

  4. Common, but complex, mode of resistance of Plutella xylostella to Bacillus thuringiensis toxins Cry1Ab and Cry1Ac.

    PubMed

    Sayyed, Ali H; Gatsi, Roxani; Ibiza-Palacios, M Sales; Escriche, Baltasar; Wright, Denis J; Crickmore, Neil

    2005-11-01

    A field collected population of Plutella xylostella (SERD4) was selected in the laboratory with Bacillus thuringiensis endotoxins Cry1Ac (Cry1Ac-SEL) and Cry1Ab (Cry1Ab-SEL). Both subpopulations showed similar phenotypes: high resistance to the Cry1A toxins and little cross-resistance to Cry1Ca or Cry1D. A previous analysis of the Cry1Ac-SEL showed incompletely dominant resistance to Cry1Ac with more than one factor, at least one of which was sex influenced. In the present study reciprocal mass crosses between Cry1Ab-SEL and a laboratory susceptible population (ROTH) provided evidence that Cry1Ab resistance was also inherited as incompletely dominant trait with more than one factor, and at least one of the factors was sex influenced. Analysis of single pair mating indicated that Cry1Ab-SEL was still heterogeneous for Cry1Ab resistance genes, showing genes with different degrees of dominance. Binding studies showed a large reduction of specific binding of Cry1Ab and Cry1Ac to midgut membrane vesicles of the Cry1Ab-SEL subpopulation. Cry1Ab-SEL was found to be more susceptible to trypsin-activated Cry1Ab toxin than protoxin, although no defect in toxin activation was found. Present and previous results indicate a common basis of resistance to both Cry1Ab and Cry1Ac in selected subpopulations and suggest that a similar set of resistance genes are responsible for resistance to Cry1Ab and Cry1Ac and are selected whichever toxin was used. The possibility of an incompletely dominant trait of resistant to these toxins should be taken into account when considering refuge resistance management strategies.

  5. Minimally invasive lumbar foraminotomy.

    PubMed

    Deutsch, Harel

    2013-07-01

    Lumbar radiculopathy is a common problem. Nerve root compression can occur at different places along a nerve root's course including in the foramina. Minimal invasive approaches allow easier exposure of the lateral foramina and decompression of the nerve root in the foramina. This video demonstrates a minimally invasive approach to decompress the lumbar nerve root in the foramina with a lateral to medial decompression. The video can be found here: http://youtu.be/jqa61HSpzIA.

  6. SVPWM Technique with Varying DC-Link Voltage for Common Mode Voltage Reduction in a Matrix Converter and Analytical Estimation of its Output Voltage Distortion

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Padhee, Varsha

    Common Mode Voltage (CMV) in any power converter has been the major contributor to premature motor failures, bearing deterioration, shaft voltage build up and electromagnetic interference. Intelligent control methods like Space Vector Pulse Width Modulation (SVPWM) techniques provide immense potential and flexibility to reduce CMV, thereby targeting all the afore mentioned problems. Other solutions like passive filters, shielded cables and EMI filters add to the volume and cost metrics of the entire system. Smart SVPWM techniques therefore, come with a very important advantage of being an economical solution. This thesis discusses a modified space vector technique applied to an Indirect Matrix Converter (IMC) which results in the reduction of common mode voltages and other advanced features. The conventional indirect space vector pulse-width modulation (SVPWM) method of controlling matrix converters involves the usage of two adjacent active vectors and one zero vector for both rectifying and inverting stages of the converter. By suitable selection of space vectors, the rectifying stage of the matrix converter can generate different levels of virtual DC-link voltage. This capability can be exploited for operation of the converter in different ranges of modulation indices for varying machine speeds. This results in lower common mode voltage and improves the harmonic spectrum of the output voltage, without increasing the number of switching transitions as compared to conventional modulation. To summarize it can be said that the responsibility of formulating output voltages with a particular magnitude and frequency has been transferred solely to the rectifying stage of the IMC. Estimation of degree of distortion in the three phase output voltage is another facet discussed in this thesis. An understanding of the SVPWM technique and the switching sequence of the space vectors in detail gives the potential to estimate the RMS value of the switched output voltage of any

  7. Passively synchronized Q-switched and mode-locked dual-band Tm3+:ZBLAN fiber lasers using a common graphene saturable absorber

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Jia, Chenglai; Shastri, Bhavin J.; Abdukerim, Nurmemet; Rochette, Martin; Prucnal, Paul R.; Saad, Mohammed; Chen, Lawrence R.

    2016-11-01

    Dual-band fiber lasers are emerging as a promising technology to penetrate new industrial and medical applications from their dual-band properties, in addition to providing compactness and environmental robustness from the waveguide structure. Here, we demonstrate the use of a common graphene saturable absorber and a single gain medium (Tm3+:ZBLAN fiber) to implement (1) a dual-band fiber ring laser with synchronized Q-switched pulses at wavelengths of 1480 nm and 1840 nm, and (2) a dual-band fiber linear laser with synchronized mode-locked pulses at wavelengths of 1480 nm and 1845 nm. Q-switched operation at 1480 nm and 1840 nm is achieved with a synchronized repetition rate from 20 kHz to 40.5 kHz. For synchronous mode-locked operation, pulses with full-width at half maximum durations of 610 fs and 1.68 ps at wavelengths of 1480 nm and 1845 nm, respectively, are obtained at a repetition rate of 12.3 MHz. These dual-band pulsed sources with an ultra-broadband wavelength separation of ~360 nm will add new capabilities in applications including optical sensing, spectroscopy, and communications.

  8. Passively synchronized Q-switched and mode-locked dual-band Tm(3+):ZBLAN fiber lasers using a common graphene saturable absorber.

    PubMed

    Jia, Chenglai; Shastri, Bhavin J; Abdukerim, Nurmemet; Rochette, Martin; Prucnal, Paul R; Saad, Mohammed; Chen, Lawrence R

    2016-11-02

    Dual-band fiber lasers are emerging as a promising technology to penetrate new industrial and medical applications from their dual-band properties, in addition to providing compactness and environmental robustness from the waveguide structure. Here, we demonstrate the use of a common graphene saturable absorber and a single gain medium (Tm(3+):ZBLAN fiber) to implement (1) a dual-band fiber ring laser with synchronized Q-switched pulses at wavelengths of 1480 nm and 1840 nm, and (2) a dual-band fiber linear laser with synchronized mode-locked pulses at wavelengths of 1480 nm and 1845 nm. Q-switched operation at 1480 nm and 1840 nm is achieved with a synchronized repetition rate from 20 kHz to 40.5 kHz. For synchronous mode-locked operation, pulses with full-width at half maximum durations of 610 fs and 1.68 ps at wavelengths of 1480 nm and 1845 nm, respectively, are obtained at a repetition rate of 12.3 MHz. These dual-band pulsed sources with an ultra-broadband wavelength separation of ~360 nm will add new capabilities in applications including optical sensing, spectroscopy, and communications.

  9. Passively synchronized Q-switched and mode-locked dual-band Tm3+:ZBLAN fiber lasers using a common graphene saturable absorber

    PubMed Central

    Jia, Chenglai; Shastri, Bhavin J.; Abdukerim, Nurmemet; Rochette, Martin; Prucnal, Paul R.; Saad, Mohammed; Chen, Lawrence R.

    2016-01-01

    Dual-band fiber lasers are emerging as a promising technology to penetrate new industrial and medical applications from their dual-band properties, in addition to providing compactness and environmental robustness from the waveguide structure. Here, we demonstrate the use of a common graphene saturable absorber and a single gain medium (Tm3+:ZBLAN fiber) to implement (1) a dual-band fiber ring laser with synchronized Q-switched pulses at wavelengths of 1480 nm and 1840 nm, and (2) a dual-band fiber linear laser with synchronized mode-locked pulses at wavelengths of 1480 nm and 1845 nm. Q-switched operation at 1480 nm and 1840 nm is achieved with a synchronized repetition rate from 20 kHz to 40.5 kHz. For synchronous mode-locked operation, pulses with full-width at half maximum durations of 610 fs and 1.68 ps at wavelengths of 1480 nm and 1845 nm, respectively, are obtained at a repetition rate of 12.3 MHz. These dual-band pulsed sources with an ultra-broadband wavelength separation of ~360 nm will add new capabilities in applications including optical sensing, spectroscopy, and communications. PMID:27804993

  10. Minimal Reduplication

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Kirchner, Jesse Saba

    2010-01-01

    This dissertation introduces Minimal Reduplication, a new theory and framework within generative grammar for analyzing reduplication in human language. I argue that reduplication is an emergent property in multiple components of the grammar. In particular, reduplication occurs independently in the phonology and syntax components, and in both cases…

  11. Minimizing DNA microarrays to a single molecule per spot: using zero-mode waveguide technology to obtain kinetic data for a large number of short oligonucleotide hybridization reactions

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Sobek, Jens; Rehrauer, Hubert; Kuhn, Gerrit; Schlapbach, Ralph

    2016-03-01

    We have shown recently that the hybridization of short oligonucleotides can be studied in a zero-mode waveguide nanostructure (ZMW) chip using a modified DNA sequencer.[1] Here we present an extension of this method enabling the parallel measurement of kinetic constants of a large number of hybridization reactions on a single chip. This can be achieved by immobilization of a mixture of oligonucleotides, which leads to a statistical and random distribution of single molecules in the 150'000 ZMWs of a SMRT™ cell. This setup is comparable to a classical microarray with ZMWs in place of spots but unknown allocation of probes. The probe surface density is reduced by a factor of ~1010 allowing the study of hybridization in the absence of interactions with neighboring probes. Hybridization with a dye labelled oligonucleotide results in trains of fluorescence pulses from which interpulse durations (IPDs) and pulse widths (PWs) can be extracted. Since the identity of a probe in a ZMW is unknown, the immobilized oligonucleotide is sequenced in a subsequent step. After mapping the fluorescence traces to the sequence, the association and dissociation rate constant for each oligonucleotide can be calculated. By selecting suitable probes, the method can be used to determine rate constants of hybridization for a large number of mismatch oligonucleotides in a single measurement and at single-molecule level.

  12. Measurement of the frequency response and common-mode gain of neonatal respiratory pressure and flow measurement systems. Part 1: Apparatus.

    PubMed

    Turner, M J; Macleod, I M; Rothberg, A D

    1989-08-01

    It is necessary, especially in neonatal work, for investigators to measure accurately the frequency response and common mode gain of respiratory pressure and flow transducers in air and other gas mixtures. Many of the systems designed for this task have been incompletely analysed and have unknown frequency responses themselves. We analyse aspects of systems employed previously and show that substantial amplitude and phase errors may have occurred. We describe a plethysmograph-based system which operates in any available gas mixture. A mathematical model of the acoustic microphone used as reference transducer, the microphone preamplifier, and the thermal behaviour of the plethysmograph, is developed to quantify the frequency response of the system. Maximum deviation from a perfect response is less than 1% in amplitude and 1 degree in phase for both pressure and flow measurements over the range 1-100 Hz. Measurements using a pressure transducer mounted on the tip of a catheter indicate that the error due to amplitude and phase variation in the plethysmograph is less than 0.1 dB and 0.4 degrees at 100 Hz.

  13. Minimal cosmography

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Piazza, Federico; Schücker, Thomas

    2016-04-01

    The minimal requirement for cosmography—a non-dynamical description of the universe—is a prescription for calculating null geodesics, and time-like geodesics as a function of their proper time. In this paper, we consider the most general linear connection compatible with homogeneity and isotropy, but not necessarily with a metric. A light-cone structure is assigned by choosing a set of geodesics representing light rays. This defines a "scale factor" and a local notion of distance, as that travelled by light in a given proper time interval. We find that the velocities and relativistic energies of free-falling bodies decrease in time as a consequence of cosmic expansion, but at a rate that can be different than that dictated by the usual metric framework. By extrapolating this behavior to photons' redshift, we find that the latter is in principle independent of the "scale factor". Interestingly, redshift-distance relations and other standard geometric observables are modified in this extended framework, in a way that could be experimentally tested. An extremely tight constraint on the model, however, is represented by the blackbody-ness of the cosmic microwave background. Finally, as a check, we also consider the effects of a non-metric connection in a different set-up, namely, that of a static, spherically symmetric spacetime.

  14. Identification and assessment of common errors in the admission process of patients in Isfahan Fertility and Infertility Center based on “failure modes and effects analysis”

    PubMed Central

    Dehghan, Ashraf; Abumasoudi, Rouhollah Sheikh; Ehsanpour, Soheila

    2016-01-01

    Background: Infertility and errors in the process of its treatment have a negative impact on infertile couples. The present study was aimed to identify and assess the common errors in the reception process by applying the approach of “failure modes and effects analysis” (FMEA). Materials and Methods: In this descriptive cross-sectional study, the admission process of fertility and infertility center of Isfahan was selected for evaluation of its errors based on the team members’ decision. At first, the admission process was charted through observations and interviewing employees, holding multiple panels, and using FMEA worksheet, which has been used in many researches all over the world and also in Iran. Its validity was evaluated through content and face validity, and its reliability was evaluated through reviewing and confirmation of the obtained information by the FMEA team, and eventually possible errors, causes, and three indicators of severity of effect, probability of occurrence, and probability of detection were determined and corrective actions were proposed. Data analysis was determined by the number of risk priority (RPN) which is calculated by multiplying the severity of effect, probability of occurrence, and probability of detection. Results: Twenty-five errors with RPN ≥ 125 was detected through the admission process, in which six cases of error had high priority in terms of severity and occurrence probability and were identified as high-risk errors. Conclusions: The team-oriented method of FMEA could be useful for assessment of errors and also to reduce the occurrence probability of errors. PMID:28194208

  15. One-Class Support Vector Machines Identify the Language and Default Mode Regions As Common Patterns of Structural Alterations in Young Children with Autism Spectrum Disorders

    PubMed Central

    Retico, Alessandra; Gori, Ilaria; Giuliano, Alessia; Muratori, Filippo; Calderoni, Sara

    2016-01-01

    The identification of reliable brain endophenotypes of autism spectrum disorders (ASD) has been hampered to date by the heterogeneity in the neuroanatomical abnormalities detected in this condition. To handle the complexity of neuroimaging data and to convert brain images in informative biomarkers of pathology, multivariate analysis techniques based on Support Vector Machines (SVM) have been widely used in several disease conditions. They are usually trained to distinguish patients from healthy control subjects by making a binary classification. Here, we propose the use of the One-Class Classification (OCC) or Data Description method that, in contrast to two-class classification, is based on a description of one class of objects only. This approach, by defining a multivariate normative rule on one class of subjects, allows recognizing examples from a different category as outliers. We applied the OCC to 314 regional features extracted from brain structural Magnetic Resonance Imaging (MRI) scans of young children with ASD (21 males and 20 females) and control subjects (20 males and 20 females), matched on age [range: 22–72 months of age; mean = 49 months] and non-verbal intelligence quotient (NVIQ) [range: 31–123; mean = 73]. We demonstrated that a common pattern of features characterize the ASD population. The OCC SVM trained on the group of ASD subjects showed the following performances in the ASD vs. controls separation: the area under the receiver operating characteristic curve (AUC) was 0.74 for the male and 0.68 for the female population, respectively. Notably, the ASD vs. controls discrimination results were maximized when evaluated on the subsamples of subjects with NVIQ ≥ 70, leading to AUC = 0.81 for the male and AUC = 0.72 for the female populations, respectively. Language regions and regions from the default mode network—posterior cingulate cortex, pars opercularis and pars triangularis of the inferior frontal gyrus, and transverse temporal

  16. Serotonergic Function, Two-Mode Models of Self-Regulation, and Vulnerability to Depression: What Depression Has in Common with Impulsive Aggression

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Carver, Charles S.; Johnson, Sheri L.; Joormann, Jutta

    2008-01-01

    Evidence from diverse literatures supports the viewpoint that two modes of self-regulation exist, a lower-order system that responds quickly to associative cues of the moment and a higher-order system that responds more reflectively and planfully; that low serotonergic function is linked to relative dominance of the lower-order system; that how…

  17. Serotonergic Function, Two-Mode Models of Self-Regulation, and Vulnerability to Depression: What Depression Has in Common With Impulsive Aggression

    PubMed Central

    Carver, Charles S.; Johnson, Sheri L.; Joormann, Jutta

    2010-01-01

    Evidence from diverse literatures supports the viewpoint that two modes of self-regulation exist, a lower-order system that responds quickly to associative cues of the moment and a higher-order system that responds more reflectively and planfully; that low serotonergic function is linked to relative dominance of the lower-order system; that how dominance of the lower-order system is manifested depends on additional variables; and that low serotonergic function therefore can promote behavioral patterns as divergent as impulsive aggression and lethargic depression. Literatures reviewed include work on two-mode models; studies of brain function supporting the biological plausibility of the two-mode view and the involvement of serotonergic pathways in functions pertaining to it; and studies relating low serotonergic function to impulsiveness, aggression (including extreme violence), aspects of personality, and depression vulnerability. Substantial differences between depression and other phenomena reviewed are interpreted by proposing that depression reflects both low serotonergic function and low reward sensitivity. The article closes with brief consideration of the idea that low serotonergic function relates to even more diverse phenomena, whose natures depend in part on sensitivities of other systems. PMID:18954161

  18. Large mode radius resonators

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Harris, Michael R.

    1987-01-01

    Resonator configurations permitting operation with large mode radius while maintaining good transverse mode discrimination are considered. Stable resonators incorporating an intracavity telescope and unstable resonator geometries utilizing an output coupler with a Gaussian reflectivity profile are shown to enable large radius single mode laser operation. Results of heterodyne studies of pulsed CO2 lasers with large (11mm e sup-2 radius) fundamental mode sizes are presented demonstrating minimal frequency sweeping in accordance with the theory of laser-induced medium perturbations.

  19. Esophagectomy - minimally invasive

    MedlinePlus

    Minimally invasive esophagectomy; Robotic esophagectomy; Removal of the esophagus - minimally invasive; Achalasia - esophagectomy; Barrett esophagus - esophagectomy; Esophageal cancer - esophagectomy - laparoscopic; Cancer of the ...

  20. An Object-oriented minimization package for HEP

    SciTech Connect

    Mark S Fischler and David Sachs

    2003-07-02

    A portion of the HEP community has perceived the need for a minimization package written in C++ and taking advantage of the Object-Oriented nature of that language. To be acceptable for HEP, such a package must at least encompass all the capabilities of Minuit. Aside from the slight plus of not relying on outside Fortran compilation, the advantages that a C++ package based on O-O design would confer over the multitude of available C++ Minuit-wrappers include: Easier extensibility to different algorithms and forms of constraints; and usage modes which would not be available in the global-common-based Minuit design. An example of the latter is a job pursuing two ongoing minimization problems simultaneously. We discuss the design and implementation of such a package, which extends Minuit only in minor ways but which greatly diminishes the programming effort (if not the algorithm thought) needed to make more significant extensions.

  1. Minimal covering problem and PLA minimization

    SciTech Connect

    Young, M.H.; Muroga, S.

    1985-12-01

    Solving the minimal covering problem by an implicit enumeration method is discussed. The implicit enumeration method in this paper is a modification of the Quine-McCluskey method tailored to computer processing and also its extension, utilizing some new properties of the minimal covering problem for speedup. A heuristic algorithm is also presented to solve large-scale problems. Its application to the minimization of programmable logic arrays (i.e., PLAs) is shown as an example. Computational experiences are presented to confirm the improvements by the implicit enumeration method discussed.

  2. Better Hyper-minimization

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Maletti, Andreas

    Hyper-minimization aims to compute a minimal deterministic finite automaton (dfa) that recognizes the same language as a given dfa up to a finite number of errors. Algorithms for hyper-minimization that run in time O(n logn), where n is the number of states of the given dfa, have been reported recently in [Gawrychowski and Jeż: Hyper-minimisation made efficient. Proc. Mfcs, Lncs 5734, 2009] and [Holzer and Maletti: An n logn algorithm for hyper-minimizing a (minimized) deterministic automaton. Theor. Comput. Sci. 411, 2010]. These algorithms are improved to return a hyper-minimal dfa that commits the least number of errors. This closes another open problem of [Badr, Geffert, and Shipman: Hyper-minimizing minimized deterministic finite state automata. Rairo Theor. Inf. Appl. 43, 2009]. Unfortunately, the time complexity for the obtained algorithm increases to O(n 2).

  3. Increasingly minimal bias routing

    DOEpatents

    Bataineh, Abdulla; Court, Thomas; Roweth, Duncan

    2017-02-21

    A system and algorithm configured to generate diversity at the traffic source so that packets are uniformly distributed over all of the available paths, but to increase the likelihood of taking a minimal path with each hop the packet takes. This is achieved by configuring routing biases so as to prefer non-minimal paths at the injection point, but increasingly prefer minimal paths as the packet proceeds, referred to herein as Increasing Minimal Bias (IMB).

  4. Minimal universal quantum heat machine.

    PubMed

    Gelbwaser-Klimovsky, D; Alicki, R; Kurizki, G

    2013-01-01

    In traditional thermodynamics the Carnot cycle yields the ideal performance bound of heat engines and refrigerators. We propose and analyze a minimal model of a heat machine that can play a similar role in quantum regimes. The minimal model consists of a single two-level system with periodically modulated energy splitting that is permanently, weakly, coupled to two spectrally separated heat baths at different temperatures. The equation of motion allows us to compute the stationary power and heat currents in the machine consistent with the second law of thermodynamics. This dual-purpose machine can act as either an engine or a refrigerator (heat pump) depending on the modulation rate. In both modes of operation, the maximal Carnot efficiency is reached at zero power. We study the conditions for finite-time optimal performance for several variants of the model. Possible realizations of the model are discussed.

  5. Minimal Doubling and Point Splitting

    SciTech Connect

    Creutz, M.

    2010-06-14

    Minimally-doubled chiral fermions have the unusual property of a single local field creating two fermionic species. Spreading the field over hypercubes allows construction of combinations that isolate specific modes. Combining these fields into bilinears produces meson fields of specific quantum numbers. Minimally-doubled fermion actions present the possibility of fast simulations while maintaining one exact chiral symmetry. They do, however, introduce some peculiar aspects. An explicit breaking of hyper-cubic symmetry allows additional counter-terms to appear in the renormalization. While a single field creates two different species, spreading this field over nearby sites allows isolation of specific states and the construction of physical meson operators. Finally, lattice artifacts break isospin and give two of the three pseudoscalar mesons an additional contribution to their mass. Depending on the sign of this mass splitting, one can either have a traditional Goldstone pseudoscalar meson or a parity breaking Aoki-like phase.

  6. Common Cold

    MedlinePlus

    ... nose, coughing - everyone knows the symptoms of the common cold. It is probably the most common illness. In ... avoid colds. There is no cure for the common cold. For relief, try Getting plenty of rest Drinking ...

  7. Minimal Cells-Real and Imagined.

    PubMed

    Glass, John I; Merryman, Chuck; Wise, Kim S; Hutchison, Clyde A; Smith, Hamilton O

    2017-03-27

    A minimal cell is one whose genome only encodes the minimal set of genes necessary for the cell to survive. Scientific reductionism postulates the best way to learn the first principles of cellular biology would be to use a minimal cell in which the functions of all genes and components are understood. The genes in a minimal cell are, by definition, essential. In 2016, synthesis of a genome comprised of only the set of essential and quasi-essential genes encoded by the bacterium Mycoplasma mycoides created a near-minimal bacterial cell. This organism performs the cellular functions common to all organisms. It replicates DNA, transcribes RNA, translates proteins, undergoes cell division, and little else. In this review, we examine this organism and contrast it with other bacteria that have been used as surrogates for a minimal cell.

  8. What is minimally invasive dentistry?

    PubMed

    Ericson, Dan

    2004-01-01

    Minimally Invasive Dentistry is the application of "a systematic respect for the original tissue." This implies that the dental profession recognizes that an artifact is of less biological value than the original healthy tissue. Minimally invasive dentistry is a concept that can embrace all aspects of the profession. The common delineator is tissue preservation, preferably by preventing disease from occurring and intercepting its progress, but also removing and replacing with as little tissue loss as possible. It does not suggest that we make small fillings to restore incipient lesions or surgically remove impacted third molars without symptoms as routine procedures. The introduction of predictable adhesive technologies has led to a giant leap in interest in minimally invasive dentistry. The concept bridges the traditional gap between prevention and surgical procedures, which is just what dentistry needs today. The evidence-base for survival of restorations clearly indicates that restoring teeth is a temporary palliative measure that is doomed to fail if the disease that caused the condition is not addressed properly. Today, the means, motives and opportunities for minimally invasive dentistry are at hand, but incentives are definitely lacking. Patients and third parties seem to be convinced that the only things that count are replacements. Namely, they are prepared to pay for a filling but not for a procedure that can help avoid having one.

  9. Minimizing Classroom Interruptions.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Partin, Ronald L.

    1987-01-01

    Offers suggestions for minimizing classroom interruptions, such as suggesting to the principal that announcements not be read over the intercom during class time and arranging desks and chairs so as to minimize visual distractions. Contains a school interruption survey form. (JC)

  10. DUPONT CHAMBERS WORKS WASTE MINIMIZATION PROJECT

    EPA Science Inventory

    In a joint U.S. Environmental Protection Agency (EPA) and DuPont waste minimization project, fifteen waste streams were-selected for assessment. The intent was to develop assessments diverse in terms of process type, mode of operation, waste type, disposal needed, and relative s...

  11. Unification of algorithms for minimum mode optimization

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Zeng, Yi; Xiao, Penghao; Henkelman, Graeme

    2014-01-01

    Minimum mode following algorithms are widely used for saddle point searching in chemical and material systems. Common to these algorithms is a component to find the minimum curvature mode of the second derivative, or Hessian matrix. Several methods, including Lanczos, dimer, Rayleigh-Ritz minimization, shifted power iteration, and locally optimal block preconditioned conjugate gradient, have been proposed for this purpose. Each of these methods finds the lowest curvature mode iteratively without calculating the Hessian matrix, since the full matrix calculation is prohibitively expensive in the high dimensional spaces of interest. Here we unify these iterative methods in the same theoretical framework using the concept of the Krylov subspace. The Lanczos method finds the lowest eigenvalue in a Krylov subspace of increasing size, while the other methods search in a smaller subspace spanned by the set of previous search directions. We show that these smaller subspaces are contained within the Krylov space for which the Lanczos method explicitly finds the lowest curvature mode, and hence the theoretical efficiency of the minimum mode finding methods are bounded by the Lanczos method. Numerical tests demonstrate that the dimer method combined with second-order optimizers approaches but does not exceed the efficiency of the Lanczos method for minimum mode optimization.

  12. Unification of algorithms for minimum mode optimization.

    PubMed

    Zeng, Yi; Xiao, Penghao; Henkelman, Graeme

    2014-01-28

    Minimum mode following algorithms are widely used for saddle point searching in chemical and material systems. Common to these algorithms is a component to find the minimum curvature mode of the second derivative, or Hessian matrix. Several methods, including Lanczos, dimer, Rayleigh-Ritz minimization, shifted power iteration, and locally optimal block preconditioned conjugate gradient, have been proposed for this purpose. Each of these methods finds the lowest curvature mode iteratively without calculating the Hessian matrix, since the full matrix calculation is prohibitively expensive in the high dimensional spaces of interest. Here we unify these iterative methods in the same theoretical framework using the concept of the Krylov subspace. The Lanczos method finds the lowest eigenvalue in a Krylov subspace of increasing size, while the other methods search in a smaller subspace spanned by the set of previous search directions. We show that these smaller subspaces are contained within the Krylov space for which the Lanczos method explicitly finds the lowest curvature mode, and hence the theoretical efficiency of the minimum mode finding methods are bounded by the Lanczos method. Numerical tests demonstrate that the dimer method combined with second-order optimizers approaches but does not exceed the efficiency of the Lanczos method for minimum mode optimization.

  13. Common cold

    MedlinePlus

    ... this page: //medlineplus.gov/ency/article/000678.htm Common cold To use the sharing features on this page, please enable JavaScript. The common cold most often causes a runny nose, nasal congestion, ...

  14. Minimal Orderings Revisited

    SciTech Connect

    Peyton, B.W.

    1999-07-01

    When minimum orderings proved too difficult to deal with, Rose, Tarjan, and Leuker instead studied minimal orderings and how to compute them (Algorithmic aspects of vertex elimination on graphs, SIAM J. Comput., 5:266-283, 1976). This paper introduces an algorithm that is capable of computing much better minimal orderings much more efficiently than the algorithm in Rose et al. The new insight is a way to use certain structures and concepts from modern sparse Cholesky solvers to re-express one of the basic results in Rose et al. The new algorithm begins with any initial ordering and then refines it until a minimal ordering is obtained. it is simple to obtain high-quality low-cost minimal orderings by using fill-reducing heuristic orderings as initial orderings for the algorithm. We examine several such initial orderings in some detail.

  15. Minimally invasive stomas.

    PubMed

    Hellinger, Michael D; Al Haddad, Abdullah

    2008-02-01

    Traditionally, stoma creation and end stoma reversal have been performed via a laparotomy incision. However, in many situations, stoma construction may be safely performed in a minimally invasive nature. This may include a trephine, laparoscopic, or combined approach. Furthermore, Hartmann's colostomy reversal, a procedure traditionally associated with substantial morbidity, may also be performed laparoscopically. The authors briefly review patient selection, preparation, and indications, and focus primarily on surgical techniques and results of minimally invasive stoma creation and Hartmann's reversal.

  16. Minimally Invasive Forefoot Surgery in France.

    PubMed

    Meusnier, Tristan; Mukish, Prikesht

    2016-06-01

    Study groups have been formed in France to advance the use of minimally invasive surgery. These techniques are becoming more frequently used and the technique nuances are continuing to evolve. The objective of this article was to advance the awareness of the current trends in minimally invasive surgery for common diseases of the forefoot. The percutaneous surgery at the forefoot is less developed at this time, but also will be discussed.

  17. Clays, common

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Virta, R.L.

    1998-01-01

    Part of a special section on the state of industrial minerals in 1997. The state of the common clay industry worldwide for 1997 is discussed. Sales of common clay in the U.S. increased from 26.2 Mt in 1996 to an estimated 26.5 Mt in 1997. The amount of common clay and shale used to produce structural clay products in 1997 was estimated at 13.8 Mt.

  18. Minimally invasive procedures

    PubMed Central

    Baltayiannis, Nikolaos; Michail, Chandrinos; Lazaridis, George; Anagnostopoulos, Dimitrios; Baka, Sofia; Mpoukovinas, Ioannis; Karavasilis, Vasilis; Lampaki, Sofia; Papaiwannou, Antonis; Karavergou, Anastasia; Kioumis, Ioannis; Pitsiou, Georgia; Katsikogiannis, Nikolaos; Tsakiridis, Kosmas; Rapti, Aggeliki; Trakada, Georgia; Zissimopoulos, Athanasios; Zarogoulidis, Konstantinos

    2015-01-01

    Minimally invasive procedures, which include laparoscopic surgery, use state-of-the-art technology to reduce the damage to human tissue when performing surgery. Minimally invasive procedures require small “ports” from which the surgeon inserts thin tubes called trocars. Carbon dioxide gas may be used to inflate the area, creating a space between the internal organs and the skin. Then a miniature camera (usually a laparoscope or endoscope) is placed through one of the trocars so the surgical team can view the procedure as a magnified image on video monitors in the operating room. Specialized equipment is inserted through the trocars based on the type of surgery. There are some advanced minimally invasive surgical procedures that can be performed almost exclusively through a single point of entry—meaning only one small incision, like the “uniport” video-assisted thoracoscopic surgery (VATS). Not only do these procedures usually provide equivalent outcomes to traditional “open” surgery (which sometimes require a large incision), but minimally invasive procedures (using small incisions) may offer significant benefits as well: (I) faster recovery; (II) the patient remains for less days hospitalized; (III) less scarring and (IV) less pain. In our current mini review we will present the minimally invasive procedures for thoracic surgery. PMID:25861610

  19. A better prediction of conformational changes of proteins using minimally connected network models

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Ahmadi Toussi, Cyrus; Soheilifard, Reza

    2016-12-01

    Elastic network models have recently been used for studying low-frequency collective motions of proteins. These models simplify the complexity that arises from normal mode analysis by considering a simplified potential involving a few parameters. Two common parameters in most of the elastic network models are cutoff radius and force constant. Although the latter has been studied extensively and even elaborate new models were introduced, for the former usually an ad-hoc cutoff radius is considered. Moreover, the quality of the network models is usually assessed by evaluating their prediction against experimental B-factors. In this work, we consider various common elastic network models with different cutoff radii and assess them by their ability to predict conformational changes of proteins in complexes from unbound to bound state. This prediction is performed by perturbing the unbound structure using a number of low-frequency normal modes of its network model to optimally fit the bound structure. We evaluated a dataset of 30 proteins with distinct unbound and bound structures using this criterion. The results showed that, opposed to the common calibration process based on B-factors, a meaningful relationship exists between the quality of the prediction and model parameters. It was shown that the cutoff radius has a major role in this prediction and minimally connected network models, which use the shortest cutoff radius for which the network is stable, give the best results. It was also shown that by considering the first ten normal modes, the conformational changes can be predicted by about 25 percent. Hence, the evaluation process was extended to the case of considering the contribution of all normal modes in the prediction. The results indicated that minimally connected network models are superior, despite their simplicity, when any number of modes are considered in the prediction.

  20. Student Commons

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Gordon, Douglas

    2010-01-01

    Student commons are no longer simply congregation spaces for students with time on their hands. They are integral to providing a welcoming environment and effective learning space for students. Many student commons have been transformed into spaces for socialization, an environment for alternative teaching methods, a forum for large group meetings…

  1. Common Cause Failures and Ultra Reliability

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Jones, Harry W.

    2012-01-01

    A common cause failure occurs when several failures have the same origin. Common cause failures are either common event failures, where the cause is a single external event, or common mode failures, where two systems fail in the same way for the same reason. Common mode failures can occur at different times because of a design defect or a repeated external event. Common event failures reduce the reliability of on-line redundant systems but not of systems using off-line spare parts. Common mode failures reduce the dependability of systems using off-line spare parts and on-line redundancy.

  2. Contemporary review of minimally invasive pancreaticoduodenectomy

    PubMed Central

    Dai, Rui; Turley, Ryan S; Blazer, Dan G

    2016-01-01

    AIM To assess the current literature describing various minimally invasive techniques for and to review short-term outcomes after minimally invasive pancreaticoduodenectomy (PD). METHODS PD remains the only potentially curative treatment for periampullary malignancies, including, most commonly, pancreatic adenocarcinoma. Minimally invasive approaches to this complex operation have begun to be increasingly reported in the literature and are purported by some to reduce the historically high morbidity of PD associated with the open technique. In this systematic review, we have searched the literature for high-quality publications describing minimally invasive techniques for PD-including laparoscopic, robotic, and laparoscopic-assisted robotic approaches (hybrid approach). We have identified publications with the largest operative experiences from well-known centers of excellence for this complex procedure. We report primarily short term operative and perioperative results and some short term oncologic endpoints. RESULTS Minimally invasive techniques include laparoscopic, robotic and hybrid approaches and each of these techniques has strong advocates. Consistently, across all minimally invasive modalities, these techniques are associated less intraoperative blood loss than traditional open PD (OPD), but in exchange for longer operating times. These techniques are relatively equivalent in terms of perioperative morbidity and short term oncologic outcomes. Importantly, pancreatic fistula rate appears to be comparable in most minimally invasive series compared to open technique. Impact of minimally invasive technique on length of stay is mixed compared to some traditional open series. A few series have suggested that initiation of and time to adjuvant therapy may be improved with minimally invasive techniques, however this assertion remains controversial. In terms of short-terms costs, minimally invasive PD is significantly higher than that of OPD. CONCLUSION Minimally

  3. Minimally invasive treatments for perforator vein insufficiency

    PubMed Central

    Salazar, Gloria Maria; Prabhakar, Anand M.; Ganguli, Suvranu

    2016-01-01

    Incompetent superficial veins are the most common cause of lower extremity superficial venous reflux and varicose veins; however, incompetent or insufficient perforator veins are the most common cause of recurrent varicose veins after treatment, often unrecognized. Perforator vein insufficiency can result in pain, skin changes, and skin ulcers, and often merit intervention. Minimally invasive treatments have replaced traditional surgical treatments for incompetent perforator veins. Current minimally invasive treatment options include ultrasound guided sclerotherapy (USGS) and endovascular thermal ablation (EVTA) with either laser or radiofrequency energy sources. Advantages and disadvantages of each modality and knowledge on these treatments are required to adequately address perforator venous disease. PMID:28123979

  4. Minimally invasive plate osteosynthesis: tibia and fibula.

    PubMed

    Beale, Brian S; McCally, Ryan

    2012-09-01

    Fractures of the tibia and fibula are common in dogs and cats and occur most commonly as a result of substantial trauma. Tibial fractures are often amenable to repair using the minimally invasive plate osteosynthesis (MIPO) technique because of the minimal soft tissue covering of the tibia and relative ease of indirect reduction and application of the implant system on the tibia. Treatment of tibial fractures by MIPO has been found to reduce surgical time, reduce the time for fracture healing, and decrease patient morbidity, while at the same time reducing complications compared with traditional open reduction and internal fixation.

  5. Minimally invasive valve surgery.

    PubMed

    Woo, Y Joseph

    2009-08-01

    Traditional cardiac valve replacement surgery is being rapidly supplanted by innovative, minimally invasive approaches toward the repair of these valves. Patients are experiencing benefits ranging from less bleeding and pain to faster recovery and greater satisfaction. These operations are proving to be safe, highly effective, and durable, and their use will likely continue to increase and become even more widely applicable.

  6. CONMIN- CONSTRAINED FUNCTION MINIMIZATION

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Vanderplaats, G. N.

    1994-01-01

    In many mathematical problems, it is necessary to determine the minimum and maximum of a function of several variables, limited by various linear and nonlinear inequality constraints. It is seldom possible, in practical applications, to solve these problems directly. In most cases, an iterative method must be used to numerically obtain a solution. The CONMIN program was developed to numerically perform the minimization of a multi-variable function subject to a set of inequality constraints. The function need not be a simple analytical equation; it may be any function which can be numerically evaluated. The basic analytic technique used by CONMIN is to minimize the function until one or more of the constraints become active. The minimization process then continues by following the constraint boundaries in a direction such that the value of the function continues to decrease. When a point is reached where no further decrease in the function can be obtained, the process is terminated. Function maximization may be achieved by minimizing the negative of the function. This program is written in FORTRAN IV for batch execution and has been implemented on a CDC 6000 series computer with a central memory requirement of approximately 43K (octal) of 60 bit words. The CONMIN program was originally developed in 1973 and last updated in 1978.

  7. Periodic minimal surfaces

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Mackay, Alan L.

    1985-04-01

    A minimal surface is one for which, like a soap film with the same pressure on each side, the mean curvature is zero and, thus, is one where the two principal curvatures are equal and opposite at every point. For every closed circuit in the surface, the area is a minimum. Schwarz1 and Neovius2 showed that elements of such surfaces could be put together to give surfaces periodic in three dimensions. These periodic minimal surfaces are geometrical invariants, as are the regular polyhedra, but the former are curved. Minimal surfaces are appropriate for the description of various structures where internal surfaces are prominent and seek to adopt a minimum area or a zero mean curvature subject to their topology; thus they merit more complete numerical characterization. There seem to be at least 18 such surfaces3, with various symmetries and topologies, related to the crystallographic space groups. Recently, glyceryl mono-oleate (GMO) was shown by Longley and McIntosh4 to take the shape of the F-surface. The structure postulated is shown here to be in good agreement with an analysis of the fundamental geometry of periodic minimal surfaces.

  8. Next-to-minimal SOFTSUSY

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Allanach, B. C.; Athron, P.; Tunstall, Lewis C.; Voigt, A.; Williams, A. G.

    2014-09-01

    We describe an extension to the SOFTSUSY program that provides for the calculation of the sparticle spectrum in the Next-to-Minimal Supersymmetric Standard Model (NMSSM), where a chiral superfield that is a singlet of the Standard Model gauge group is added to the Minimal Supersymmetric Standard Model (MSSM) fields. Often, a Z3 symmetry is imposed upon the model. SOFTSUSY can calculate the spectrum in this case as well as the case where general Z3 violating (denoted as =) terms are added to the soft supersymmetry breaking terms and the superpotential. The user provides a theoretical boundary condition for the couplings and mass terms of the singlet. Radiative electroweak symmetry breaking data along with electroweak and CKM matrix data are used as weak-scale boundary conditions. The renormalisation group equations are solved numerically between the weak scale and a high energy scale using a nested iterative algorithm. This paper serves as a manual to the NMSSM mode of the program, detailing the approximations and conventions used. Catalogue identifier: ADPM_v4_0 Program summary URL:http://cpc.cs.qub.ac.uk/summaries/ADPM_v4_0.html Program obtainable from: CPC Program Library, Queen's University, Belfast, N. Ireland Licensing provisions: Standard CPC licence, http://cpc.cs.qub.ac.uk/licence/licence.html No. of lines in distributed program, including test data, etc.: 154886 No. of bytes in distributed program, including test data, etc.: 1870890 Distribution format: tar.gz Programming language: C++, fortran. Computer: Personal computer. Operating system: Tested on Linux 3.x. Word size: 64 bits Classification: 11.1, 11.6. Does the new version supersede the previous version?: Yes Catalogue identifier of previous version: ADPM_v3_0 Journal reference of previous version: Comput. Phys. Comm. 183 (2012) 785 Nature of problem: Calculating supersymmetric particle spectrum and mixing parameters in the next-to-minimal supersymmetric standard model. The solution to the

  9. QCI Common

    SciTech Connect

    McCaskey, Alexander J.

    2016-11-18

    There are many common software patterns and utilities for the ORNL Quantum Computing Institute that can and should be shared across projects. Otherwise we find duplication of code which adds unwanted complexity. This is a software product seeks to alleviate this by providing common utilities such as object factories, graph data structures, parameter input mechanisms, etc., for other software products within the ORNL Quantum Computing Institute. This work enables pure basic research, has no export controlled utilities, and has no real commercial value.

  10. Minimizing broadband excitation under dissipative conditions

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Gelman, David; Kosloff, Ronnie

    2005-12-01

    Optimal control theory is employed for the task of minimizing the excited-state population of a dye molecule in solution. The spectrum of the excitation pulse is contained completely in the absorption band of the molecule. Only phase control is studied which is equivalent to optimizing the transmission of the pulse through the medium. The molecular model explicitly includes two electronic states and a single vibrational mode. The other degrees of freedom are classified as bath modes. The surrogate Hamiltonian method is employed to incorporate these bath degrees of freedom. Their influence can be classified as electronic dephasing and vibrational relaxation. In accordance with experimental results, minimal excitation is associated with a negatively chirped pulses. Optimal pulses with more complex transient structure are found to be superior to linearly chirped pulses. The difference is enhanced when the fluence is increased. The improvement degrades when dissipative effects become more dominant.

  11. On 3D minimal massive gravity

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Alishahiha, Mohsen; Qaemmaqami, Mohammad M.; Naseh, Ali; Shirzad, Ahmad

    2014-12-01

    We study linearized equations of motion of the newly proposed three dimensional gravity, known as minimal massive gravity, using its metric formulation. By making use of a redefinition of the parameters of the model, we observe that the resulting linearized equations are exactly the same as that of TMG. In particular the model admits logarithmic modes at critical points. We also study several vacuum solutions of the model, specially at a certain limit where the contribution of Chern-Simons term vanishes.

  12. Discrete Minimal Surface Algebras

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Arnlind, Joakim; Hoppe, Jens

    2010-05-01

    We consider discrete minimal surface algebras (DMSA) as generalized noncommutative analogues of minimal surfaces in higher dimensional spheres. These algebras appear naturally in membrane theory, where sequences of their representations are used as a regularization. After showing that the defining relations of the algebra are consistent, and that one can compute a basis of the enveloping algebra, we give several explicit examples of DMSAs in terms of subsets of sln (any semi-simple Lie algebra providing a trivial example by itself). A special class of DMSAs are Yang-Mills algebras. The representation graph is introduced to study representations of DMSAs of dimension d ≤ 4, and properties of representations are related to properties of graphs. The representation graph of a tensor product is (generically) the Cartesian product of the corresponding graphs. We provide explicit examples of irreducible representations and, for coinciding eigenvalues, classify all the unitary representations of the corresponding algebras.

  13. Minimal hepatic encephalopathy.

    PubMed

    Zamora Nava, Luis Eduardo; Torre Delgadillo, Aldo

    2011-06-01

    The term minimal hepatic encephalopathy (MHE) refers to the subtle changes in cognitive function, electrophysiological parameters, cerebral neurochemical/neurotransmitter homeostasis, cerebral blood flow, metabolism, and fluid homeostasis that can be observed in patients with cirrhosis who have no clinical evidence of hepatic encephalopathy; the prevalence is as high as 84% in patients with hepatic cirrhosis. Physician does generally not perceive cirrhosis complications, and neuropsychological tests and another especial measurement like evoked potentials and image studies like positron emission tomography can only make diagnosis. Diagnosis of minimal hepatic encephalopathy may have prognostic and therapeutic implications in cirrhotic patients. The present review pretends to explore the clinic, therapeutic, diagnosis and prognostic aspects of this complication.

  14. [Minimally invasive thymus surgery].

    PubMed

    Rückert, J C; Ismail, M; Swierzy, M; Braumann, C; Badakhshi, H; Rogalla, P; Meisel, A; Rückert, R I; Müller, J M

    2008-01-01

    There are absolute and relative indications for complete removal of the thymus gland. In the complex therapy of autoimmune-related myasthenia gravis, thymectomy plays a central role and is performed with relative indication. In case of thymoma with or without myasthenia, thymectomy is absolutely indicated. Thymus resection is further necessary for cases of hyperparathyroidism with ectopic intrathymic parathyroids or with certain forms of multiple endocrine neoplasia. The transcervical operation technique traditionally reflected the well-founded desire for minimal invasiveness for thymectomy. Due to the requirement of radicality however, most of these operations were performed using sternotomy. With the evolution of therapeutic thoracoscopy in thoracic surgery, several pure or extended minimally invasive operation techniques for thymectomy have been developed. At present uni- or bilateral, subxiphoid, and modified transcervical single or combination thoracoscopic techniques are in use. Recently a very precise new level of thoracoscopic operation technique was developed using robotic-assisted surgery. There are special advantages of this technique for thymectomy. An overview of the development and experiences with minimally invasive thymectomy is presented, including data from the largest series published so far.

  15. Waste Minimization Crosscut Plan

    SciTech Connect

    Not Available

    1992-05-13

    On November 27, 1991, the Secretary of Energy directed that a Department of Energy (DOE) crosscut plan for waste minimization (WMin) be prepared and submitted by March 1, 1992. This Waste Minimization Crosscut Plan responds to the Secretary's direction and supports the National Energy Strategy (NES) goals of achieving greater energy security, increasing energy and economic efficiency, and enhancing environmental quality. It provides a DOE-wide planning framework for effective coordination of all DOE WMin activities. This Plan was jointly prepared by the following Program Secretarial Officer (PSO) organizations: Civilian Radioactive Waste Management (RW); Conservation and Renewable Energy (CE); Defense Programs (DP); Environmental Restoration and Waste Management (EM), lead; Energy Research (ER); Fossil Energy (FE); Nuclear Energy (NE); and New Production Reactors (NP). Assistance and guidance was provided by the offices of Policy, Planning, and Analysis (PE) and Environment, Safety and Health (EH). Comprehensive application of waste minimization within the Department and in both the public and private sectors will provide significant benefits and support National Energy Strategy goals. These benefits include conservation of a substantial proportion of the energy now used by industry and Government, improved environmental quality, reduced health risks, improved production efficiencies, and longer useful life of disposal capacity. Taken together, these benefits will mean improved US global competitiveness, expanded job opportunities, and a better quality of life for all citizens.

  16. Waste Minimization Crosscut Plan

    SciTech Connect

    Not Available

    1992-05-13

    On November 27, 1991, the Secretary of Energy directed that a Department of Energy (DOE) crosscut plan for waste minimization (WMin) be prepared and submitted by March 1, 1992. This Waste Minimization Crosscut Plan responds to the Secretary`s direction and supports the National Energy Strategy (NES) goals of achieving greater energy security, increasing energy and economic efficiency, and enhancing environmental quality. It provides a DOE-wide planning framework for effective coordination of all DOE WMin activities. This Plan was jointly prepared by the following Program Secretarial Officer (PSO) organizations: Civilian Radioactive Waste Management (RW); Conservation and Renewable Energy (CE); Defense Programs (DP); Environmental Restoration and Waste Management (EM), lead; Energy Research (ER); Fossil Energy (FE); Nuclear Energy (NE); and New Production Reactors (NP). Assistance and guidance was provided by the offices of Policy, Planning, and Analysis (PE) and Environment, Safety and Health (EH). Comprehensive application of waste minimization within the Department and in both the public and private sectors will provide significant benefits and support National Energy Strategy goals. These benefits include conservation of a substantial proportion of the energy now used by industry and Government, improved environmental quality, reduced health risks, improved production efficiencies, and longer useful life of disposal capacity. Taken together, these benefits will mean improved US global competitiveness, expanded job opportunities, and a better quality of life for all citizens.

  17. Minimally Invasive Mitral Valve Surgery III

    PubMed Central

    Lehr, Eric J.; Guy, T. Sloane; Smith, Robert L.; Grossi, Eugene A.; Shemin, Richard J.; Rodriguez, Evelio; Ailawadi, Gorav; Agnihotri, Arvind K.; Fayers, Trevor M.; Hargrove, W. Clark; Hummel, Brian W.; Khan, Junaid H.; Malaisrie, S. Chris; Mehall, John R.; Murphy, Douglas A.; Ryan, William H.; Salemi, Arash; Segurola, Romualdo J.; Smith, J. Michael; Wolfe, J. Alan; Weldner, Paul W.; Barnhart, Glenn R.; Goldman, Scott M.; Lewis, Clifton T. P.

    2016-01-01

    Abstract Minimally invasive mitral valve operations are increasingly common in the United States, but robotic-assisted approaches have not been widely adopted for a variety of reasons. This expert opinion reviews the state of the art and defines best practices, training, and techniques for developing a successful robotics program. PMID:27662478

  18. [MINIMALLY INVASIVE AORTIC VALVE REPLACEMENT].

    PubMed

    Tabata, Minoru

    2016-03-01

    Minimally invasive aortic valve replacement (MIAVR) is defined as aortic valve replacement avoiding full sternotomy. Common approaches include a partial sternotomy right thoracotomy, and a parasternal approach. MIAVR has been shown to have advantages over conventional AVR such as shorter length of stay and smaller amount of blood transfusion and better cosmesis. However, it is also known to have disadvantages such as longer cardiopulmonary bypass and aortic cross-clamp times and potential complications related to peripheral cannulation. Appropriate patient selection is very important. Since the procedure is more complex than conventional AVR, more intensive teamwork in the operating room is essential. Additionally, a team approach during postoperative management is critical to maximize the benefits of MIAVR.

  19. A comparative study of energy minimization methods for Markov random fields with smoothness-based priors.

    PubMed

    Szeliski, Richard; Zabih, Ramin; Scharstein, Daniel; Veksler, Olga; Kolmogorov, Vladimir; Agarwala, Aseem; Tappen, Marshall; Rother, Carsten

    2008-06-01

    Among the most exciting advances in early vision has been the development of efficient energy minimization algorithms for pixel-labeling tasks such as depth or texture computation. It has been known for decades that such problems can be elegantly expressed as Markov random fields, yet the resulting energy minimization problems have been widely viewed as intractable. Recently, algorithms such as graph cuts and loopy belief propagation (LBP) have proven to be very powerful: for example, such methods form the basis for almost all the top-performing stereo methods. However, the tradeoffs among different energy minimization algorithms are still not well understood. In this paper we describe a set of energy minimization benchmarks and use them to compare the solution quality and running time of several common energy minimization algorithms. We investigate three promising recent methods graph cuts, LBP, and tree-reweighted message passing in addition to the well-known older iterated conditional modes (ICM) algorithm. Our benchmark problems are drawn from published energy functions used for stereo, image stitching, interactive segmentation, and denoising. We also provide a general-purpose software interface that allows vision researchers to easily switch between optimization methods. Benchmarks, code, images, and results are available at http://vision.middlebury.edu/MRF/.

  20. Minimally invasive mediastinal surgery

    PubMed Central

    Melfi, Franca M. A.; Mussi, Alfredo

    2016-01-01

    In the past, mediastinal surgery was associated with the necessity of a maximum exposure, which was accomplished through various approaches. In the early 1990s, many surgical fields, including thoracic surgery, observed the development of minimally invasive techniques. These included video-assisted thoracic surgery (VATS), which confers clear advantages over an open approach, such as less trauma, short hospital stay, increased cosmetic results and preservation of lung function. However, VATS is associated with several disadvantages. For this reason, it is not routinely performed for resection of mediastinal mass lesions, especially those located in the anterior mediastinum, a tiny and remote space that contains vital structures at risk of injury. Robotic systems can overcome the limits of VATS, offering three-dimensional (3D) vision and wristed instrumentations, and are being increasingly used. With regards to thymectomy for myasthenia gravis (MG), unilateral and bilateral VATS approaches have demonstrated good long-term neurologic results with low complication rates. Nevertheless, some authors still advocate the necessity of maximum exposure, especially when considering the distribution of normal and ectopic thymic tissue. In recent studies, the robotic approach has shown to provide similar neurological outcomes when compared to transsternal and VATS approaches, and is associated with a low morbidity. Importantly, through a unilateral robotic technique, it is possible to dissect and remove at least the same amount of mediastinal fat tissue. Preliminary results on early-stage thymomatous disease indicated that minimally invasive approaches are safe and feasible, with a low rate of pleural recurrence, underlining the necessity of a “no-touch” technique. However, especially for thymomatous disease characterized by an indolent nature, further studies with long follow-up period are necessary in order to assess oncologic and neurologic results through minimally

  1. The ZOOM minimization package

    SciTech Connect

    Fischler, Mark S.; Sachs, D.; /Fermilab

    2004-11-01

    A new object-oriented Minimization package is available for distribution in the same manner as CLHEP. This package, designed for use in HEP applications, has all the capabilities of Minuit, but is a re-write from scratch, adhering to modern C++ design principles. A primary goal of this package is extensibility in several directions, so that its capabilities can be kept fresh with as little maintenance effort as possible. This package is distinguished by the priority that was assigned to C++ design issues, and the focus on producing an extensible system that will resist becoming obsolete.

  2. Wake Vortex Minimization

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    1977-01-01

    A status report is presented on research directed at reducing the vortex disturbances of aircraft wakes. The objective of such a reduction is to minimize the hazard to smaller aircraft that might encounter these wakes. Inviscid modeling was used to study trailing vortices and viscous effects were investigated. Laser velocimeters were utilized in the measurement of aircraft wakes. Flight and wind tunnel tests were performed on scale and full model scale aircraft of various design. Parameters investigated included the effect of wing span, wing flaps, spoilers, splines and engine thrust on vortex attenuation. Results indicate that vortives may be alleviated through aerodynamic means.

  3. Minimally refined biomass fuel

    DOEpatents

    Pearson, Richard K.; Hirschfeld, Tomas B.

    1984-01-01

    A minimally refined fluid composition, suitable as a fuel mixture and derived from biomass material, is comprised of one or more water-soluble carbohydrates such as sucrose, one or more alcohols having less than four carbons, and water. The carbohydrate provides the fuel source; water solubilizes the carbohydrates; and the alcohol aids in the combustion of the carbohydrate and reduces the vicosity of the carbohydrate/water solution. Because less energy is required to obtain the carbohydrate from the raw biomass than alcohol, an overall energy savings is realized compared to fuels employing alcohol as the primary fuel.

  4. Making the Common Good Common

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Chase, Barbara

    2011-01-01

    How are independent schools to be useful to the wider world? Beyond their common commitment to educate their students for meaningful lives in service of the greater good, can they educate a broader constituency and, thus, share their resources and skills more broadly? Their answers to this question will be shaped by their independence. Any…

  5. Logarithmic superconformal minimal models

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Pearce, Paul A.; Rasmussen, Jørgen; Tartaglia, Elena

    2014-05-01

    The higher fusion level logarithmic minimal models {\\cal LM}(P,P';n) have recently been constructed as the diagonal GKO cosets {(A_1^{(1)})_k\\oplus (A_1^ {(1)})_n}/ {(A_1^{(1)})_{k+n}} where n ≥ 1 is an integer fusion level and k = nP/(P‧- P) - 2 is a fractional level. For n = 1, these are the well-studied logarithmic minimal models {\\cal LM}(P,P')\\equiv {\\cal LM}(P,P';1). For n ≥ 2, we argue that these critical theories are realized on the lattice by n × n fusion of the n = 1 models. We study the critical fused lattice models {\\cal LM}(p,p')_{n\\times n} within a lattice approach and focus our study on the n = 2 models. We call these logarithmic superconformal minimal models {\\cal LSM}(p,p')\\equiv {\\cal LM}(P,P';2) where P = |2p - p‧|, P‧ = p‧ and p, p‧ are coprime. These models share the central charges c=c^{P,P';2}=\\frac {3}{2}\\big (1-{2(P'-P)^2}/{P P'}\\big ) of the rational superconformal minimal models {\\cal SM}(P,P'). Lattice realizations of these theories are constructed by fusing 2 × 2 blocks of the elementary face operators of the n = 1 logarithmic minimal models {\\cal LM}(p,p'). Algebraically, this entails the fused planar Temperley-Lieb algebra which is a spin-1 Birman-Murakami-Wenzl tangle algebra with loop fugacity β2 = [x]3 = x2 + 1 + x-2 and twist ω = x4 where x = eiλ and λ = (p‧- p)π/p‧. The first two members of this n = 2 series are superconformal dense polymers {\\cal LSM}(2,3) with c=-\\frac {5}{2}, β2 = 0 and superconformal percolation {\\cal LSM}(3,4) with c = 0, β2 = 1. We calculate the bulk and boundary free energies analytically. By numerically studying finite-size conformal spectra on the strip with appropriate boundary conditions, we argue that, in the continuum scaling limit, these lattice models are associated with the logarithmic superconformal models {\\cal LM}(P,P';2). For system size N, we propose finitized Kac character formulae of the form q^{-{c^{P,P';2}}/{24}+\\Delta ^{P,P';2} _{r

  6. Minimally invasive valve surgery.

    PubMed

    Woo, Y Joseph; Seeburger, Joerg; Mohr, Friedrich W

    2007-01-01

    As alternatives to standard sternotomy, surgeons have developed innovative, minimally invasive approaches to conducting valve surgery. Through very small skin incisions and partial upper sternal division for aortic valve surgery and right minithoracotomy for mitral surgery, surgeons have become adept at performing complex valve procedures. Beyond cosmetic appeal, apparent benefits range from decreased pain and bleeding to improved respiratory function and recovery time. The large retrospective studies and few small prospective randomized studies are herein briefly summarized. The focus is then directed toward describing specific intraoperative technical details in current clinical use, covering anesthetic preparation, incision, mediastinal access, cardiovascular cannulation, valve exposure, and valve reconstruction. Finally, unique situations such as pulmonic valve surgery, reoperations, beating heart surgery, and robotics are discussed.

  7. Transanal Minimally Invasive Surgery

    PubMed Central

    deBeche-Adams, Teresa; Nassif, George

    2015-01-01

    Transanal minimally invasive surgery (TAMIS) was first described in 2010 as a crossover between single-incision laparoscopic surgery and transanal endoscopic microsurgery (TEM) to allow access to the proximal and mid-rectum for resection of benign and early-stage malignant rectal lesions. The TAMIS technique can also be used for noncurative intent surgery of more advanced lesions in patients who are not candidates for radical surgery. Proper workup and staging should be done before surgical decision-making. In addition to the TAMIS port, instrumentation and set up include readily available equipment found in most operating suites. TAMIS has proven its usefulness in a wide range of applications outside of local excision, including repair of rectourethral fistula, removal of rectal foreign body, control of rectal hemorrhage, and as an adjunct in total mesorectal excision for rectal cancer. TAMIS is an easily accessible, technically feasible, and cost-effective alternative to TEM. PMID:26491410

  8. Minimally invasive esophagectomy

    PubMed Central

    Herbella, Fernando A; Patti, Marco G

    2010-01-01

    Esophageal resection is associated with a high morbidity and mortality rate. Minimally invasive esophagectomy (MIE) might theoretically decrease this rate. We reviewed the current literature on MIE, with a focus on the available techniques, outcomes and comparison with open surgery. This review shows that the available literature on MIE is still crowded with heterogeneous studies with different techniques. There are no controlled and randomized trials, and the few retrospective comparative cohort studies are limited by small numbers of patients and biased by historical controls of open surgery. Based on the available literature, there is no evidence that MIE brings clear benefits compared to conventional esophagectomy. Increasing experience and the report of larger series might change this scenario. PMID:20698044

  9. Minimally invasive parathyroid surgery

    PubMed Central

    Noureldine, Salem I.; Gooi, Zhen

    2015-01-01

    Traditionally, bilateral cervical exploration for localization of all four parathyroid glands and removal of any that are grossly enlarged has been the standard surgical treatment for primary hyperparathyroidism (PHPT). With the advances in preoperative localization studies and greater public demand for less invasive procedures, novel targeted, minimally invasive techniques to the parathyroid glands have been described and practiced over the past 2 decades. Minimally invasive parathyroidectomy (MIP) can be done either through the standard Kocher incision, a smaller midline incision, with video assistance (purely endoscopic and video-assisted techniques), or through an ectopically placed, extracervical, incision. In current practice, once PHPT is diagnosed, preoperative evaluation using high-resolution radiographic imaging to localize the offending parathyroid gland is essential if MIP is to be considered. The imaging study results suggest where the surgeon should begin the focused procedure and serve as a road map to allow tailoring of an efficient, imaging-guided dissection while eliminating the unnecessary dissection of multiple glands or a bilateral exploration. Intraoperative parathyroid hormone (IOPTH) levels may be measured during the procedure, or a gamma probe used during radioguided parathyroidectomy, to ascertain that the correct gland has been excised and that no other hyperfunctional tissue is present. MIP has many advantages over the traditional bilateral, four-gland exploration. MIP can be performed using local anesthesia, requires less operative time, results in fewer complications, and offers an improved cosmetic result and greater patient satisfaction. Additional advantages of MIP are earlier hospital discharge and decreased overall associated costs. This article aims to address the considerations for accomplishing MIP, including the role of preoperative imaging studies, intraoperative adjuncts, and surgical techniques. PMID:26425454

  10. Phenomenology in minimal theory of massive gravity

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    De Felice, Antonio; Mukohyama, Shinji

    2016-04-01

    We investigate the minimal theory of massive gravity (MTMG) recently introduced. After reviewing the original construction based on its Hamiltonian in the vielbein formalism, we reformulate it in terms of its Lagrangian in both the vielbein and the metric formalisms. It then becomes obvious that, unlike previous attempts in the literature of Lorentz-violating massive gravity, not only the potential but also the kinetic structure of the action is modified from the de Rham-Gabadadze-Tolley (dRGT) massive gravity theory. We confirm that the number of physical degrees of freedom in MTMG is two at fully nonlinear level. This proves the absence of various possible pathologies such as superluminality, acausality and strong coupling. Afterwards, we discuss the phenomenology of MTMG in the presence of a dust fluid. We find that on a flat homogeneous and isotropic background we have two branches. One of them (self-accelerating branch) naturally leads to acceleration without the genuine cosmological constant or dark energy. For this branch both the scalar and the vector modes behave exactly as in general relativity (GR). The phenomenology of this branch differs from GR in the tensor modes sector, as the tensor modes acquire a non-zero mass. Hence, MTMG serves as a stable nonlinear completion of the self-accelerating cosmological solution found originally in dRGT theory. The other branch (normal branch) has a dynamics which depends on the time-dependent fiducial metric. For the normal branch, the scalar mode sector, even though as in GR only one scalar mode is present (due to the dust fluid), differs from the one in GR, and, in general, structure formation will follow a different phenomenology. The tensor modes will be massive, whereas the vector modes, for both branches, will have the same phenomenology as in GR.

  11. Phenomenology in minimal theory of massive gravity

    SciTech Connect

    Felice, Antonio De; Mukohyama, Shinji

    2016-04-15

    We investigate the minimal theory of massive gravity (MTMG) recently introduced. After reviewing the original construction based on its Hamiltonian in the vielbein formalism, we reformulate it in terms of its Lagrangian in both the vielbein and the metric formalisms. It then becomes obvious that, unlike previous attempts in the literature of Lorentz-violating massive gravity, not only the potential but also the kinetic structure of the action is modified from the de Rham-Gabadadze-Tolley (dRGT) massive gravity theory. We confirm that the number of physical degrees of freedom in MTMG is two at fully nonlinear level. This proves the absence of various possible pathologies such as superluminality, acausality and strong coupling. Afterwards, we discuss the phenomenology of MTMG in the presence of a dust fluid. We find that on a flat homogeneous and isotropic background we have two branches. One of them (self-accelerating branch) naturally leads to acceleration without the genuine cosmological constant or dark energy. For this branch both the scalar and the vector modes behave exactly as in general relativity (GR). The phenomenology of this branch differs from GR in the tensor modes sector, as the tensor modes acquire a non-zero mass. Hence, MTMG serves as a stable nonlinear completion of the self-accelerating cosmological solution found originally in dRGT theory. The other branch (normal branch) has a dynamics which depends on the time-dependent fiducial metric. For the normal branch, the scalar mode sector, even though as in GR only one scalar mode is present (due to the dust fluid), differs from the one in GR, and, in general, structure formation will follow a different phenomenology. The tensor modes will be massive, whereas the vector modes, for both branches, will have the same phenomenology as in GR.

  12. Genetic Research on Biospecimens Poses Minimal Risk

    PubMed Central

    Wendler, David S.; Rid, Annette

    2014-01-01

    Genetic research on human biospecimens is increasingly common. Yet, debate continues over the level of risk that this research poses to sample donors. Some argue that genetic research on biospecimens poses minimal risk; others argue that it poses greater than minimal risk and therefore needs additional requirements and limitations. This debate raises concern that some donors are not receiving appropriate protection or, conversely, that valuable research is being subject to unnecessary requirements and limitations. The present paper attempts to address this concern using the widely-endorsed ‘risks of daily life’ standard. The three extant versions of this standard all suggest that, with proper measures in place to protect donor confidentiality, most genetic research on human biospecimens poses minimal risk to donors. PMID:25530152

  13. Minimal Marking: A Success Story

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    McNeilly, Anne

    2014-01-01

    The minimal-marking project conducted in Ryerson's School of Journalism throughout 2012 and early 2013 resulted in significantly higher grammar scores in two first-year classes of minimally marked university students when compared to two traditionally marked classes. The "minimal-marking" concept (Haswell, 1983), which requires…

  14. Minimizing Errors in Numerical Analysis of Chemical Data.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Rusling, James F.

    1988-01-01

    Investigates minimizing errors in computational methods commonly used in chemistry. Provides a series of examples illustrating the propagation of errors, finite difference methods, and nonlinear regression analysis. Includes illustrations to explain these concepts. (MVL)

  15. Minimal model for spoof acoustoelastic surface states

    SciTech Connect

    Christensen, J. Willatzen, M.; Liang, Z.

    2014-12-15

    Similar to textured perfect electric conductors for electromagnetic waves sustaining artificial or spoof surface plasmons we present an equivalent phenomena for the case of sound. Aided by a minimal model that is able to capture the complex wave interaction of elastic cavity modes and airborne sound radiation in perfect rigid panels, we construct designer acoustoelastic surface waves that are entirely controlled by the geometrical environment. Comparisons to results obtained by full-wave simulations confirm the feasibility of the model and we demonstrate illustrative examples such as resonant transmissions and waveguiding to show a few examples of many where spoof elastic surface waves are useful.

  16. Discrete minimal flavor violation

    SciTech Connect

    Zwicky, Roman; Fischbacher, Thomas

    2009-10-01

    We investigate the consequences of replacing the global flavor symmetry of minimal flavor violation (MFV) SU(3){sub Q}xSU(3){sub U}xSU(3){sub D}x{center_dot}{center_dot}{center_dot} by a discrete D{sub Q}xD{sub U}xD{sub D}x{center_dot}{center_dot}{center_dot} symmetry. Goldstone bosons resulting from the breaking of the flavor symmetry generically lead to bounds on new flavor structure many orders of magnitude above the TeV scale. The absence of Goldstone bosons for discrete symmetries constitute the primary motivation of our work. Less symmetry implies further invariants and renders the mass-flavor basis transformation observable in principle and calls for a hierarchy in the Yukawa matrix expansion. We show, through the dimension of the representations, that the (discrete) symmetry in principle does allow for additional {delta}F=2 operators. If though the {delta}F=2 transitions are generated by two subsequent {delta}F=1 processes, as, for example, in the standard model, then the four crystal-like groups {sigma}(168){approx_equal}PSL(2,F{sub 7}), {sigma}(72{phi}), {sigma}(216{phi}) and especially {sigma}(360{phi}) do provide enough protection for a TeV-scale discrete MFV scenario. Models where this is not the case have to be investigated case by case. Interestingly {sigma}(216{phi}) has a (nonfaithful) representation corresponding to an A{sub 4} symmetry. Moreover we argue that the, apparently often omitted, (D) groups are subgroups of an appropriate {delta}(6g{sup 2}). We would like to stress that we do not provide an actual model that realizes the MFV scenario nor any other theory of flavor.

  17. Asymptotic safety, emergence and minimal length

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Percacci, Roberto; Vacca, Gian Paolo

    2010-12-01

    There seems to be a common prejudice that asymptotic safety is either incompatible with, or at best unrelated to, the other topics in the title. This is not the case. In fact, we show that (1) the existence of a fixed point with suitable properties is a promising way of deriving emergent properties of gravity, and (2) there is a sense in which asymptotic safety implies a minimal length. In doing so we also discuss possible signatures of asymptotic safety in scattering experiments.

  18. Differentially Private Empirical Risk Minimization.

    PubMed

    Chaudhuri, Kamalika; Monteleoni, Claire; Sarwate, Anand D

    2011-03-01

    Privacy-preserving machine learning algorithms are crucial for the increasingly common setting in which personal data, such as medical or financial records, are analyzed. We provide general techniques to produce privacy-preserving approximations of classifiers learned via (regularized) empirical risk minimization (ERM). These algorithms are private under the ε-differential privacy definition due to Dwork et al. (2006). First we apply the output perturbation ideas of Dwork et al. (2006), to ERM classification. Then we propose a new method, objective perturbation, for privacy-preserving machine learning algorithm design. This method entails perturbing the objective function before optimizing over classifiers. If the loss and regularizer satisfy certain convexity and differentiability criteria, we prove theoretical results showing that our algorithms preserve privacy, and provide generalization bounds for linear and nonlinear kernels. We further present a privacy-preserving technique for tuning the parameters in general machine learning algorithms, thereby providing end-to-end privacy guarantees for the training process. We apply these results to produce privacy-preserving analogues of regularized logistic regression and support vector machines. We obtain encouraging results from evaluating their performance on real demographic and benchmark data sets. Our results show that both theoretically and empirically, objective perturbation is superior to the previous state-of-the-art, output perturbation, in managing the inherent tradeoff between privacy and learning performance.

  19. Differentially Private Empirical Risk Minimization

    PubMed Central

    Chaudhuri, Kamalika; Monteleoni, Claire; Sarwate, Anand D.

    2011-01-01

    Privacy-preserving machine learning algorithms are crucial for the increasingly common setting in which personal data, such as medical or financial records, are analyzed. We provide general techniques to produce privacy-preserving approximations of classifiers learned via (regularized) empirical risk minimization (ERM). These algorithms are private under the ε-differential privacy definition due to Dwork et al. (2006). First we apply the output perturbation ideas of Dwork et al. (2006), to ERM classification. Then we propose a new method, objective perturbation, for privacy-preserving machine learning algorithm design. This method entails perturbing the objective function before optimizing over classifiers. If the loss and regularizer satisfy certain convexity and differentiability criteria, we prove theoretical results showing that our algorithms preserve privacy, and provide generalization bounds for linear and nonlinear kernels. We further present a privacy-preserving technique for tuning the parameters in general machine learning algorithms, thereby providing end-to-end privacy guarantees for the training process. We apply these results to produce privacy-preserving analogues of regularized logistic regression and support vector machines. We obtain encouraging results from evaluating their performance on real demographic and benchmark data sets. Our results show that both theoretically and empirically, objective perturbation is superior to the previous state-of-the-art, output perturbation, in managing the inherent tradeoff between privacy and learning performance. PMID:21892342

  20. What Are Common Treatments for Turner Syndrome?

    MedlinePlus

    ... Resources and Publications What are common treatments for Turner syndrome? Skip sharing on social media links Share this: Page Content Although there is no cure for Turner syndrome, some treatments can help minimize its symptoms. These ...

  1. Minimally Invasive Surgery for Inflammatory Bowel Disease

    PubMed Central

    Holder-Murray, Jennifer; Marsicovetere, Priscilla

    2015-01-01

    Abstract: Surgical management of inflammatory bowel disease is a challenging endeavor given infectious and inflammatory complications, such as fistula, and abscess, complex often postoperative anatomy, including adhesive disease from previous open operations. Patients with Crohn's disease and ulcerative colitis also bring to the table the burden of their chronic illness with anemia, malnutrition, and immunosuppression, all common and contributing independently as risk factors for increased surgical morbidity in this high-risk population. However, to reduce the physical trauma of surgery, technologic advances and worldwide experience with minimally invasive surgery have allowed laparoscopic management of patients to become standard of care, with significant short- and long-term patient benefits compared with the open approach. In this review, we will describe the current state-of the-art for minimally invasive surgery for inflammatory bowel disease and the caveats inherent with this practice in this complex patient population. Also, we will review the applicability of current and future trends in minimally invasive surgical technique, such as laparoscopic “incisionless,” single-incision laparoscopic surgery (SILS), robotic-assisted, and other techniques for the patient with inflammatory bowel disease. There can be no doubt that minimally invasive surgery has been proven to decrease the short- and long-term burden of surgery of these chronic illnesses and represents high-value care for both patient and society. PMID:25989341

  2. Guidelines for mixed waste minimization

    SciTech Connect

    Owens, C.

    1992-02-01

    Currently, there is no commercial mixed waste disposal available in the United States. Storage and treatment for commercial mixed waste is limited. Host States and compacts region officials are encouraging their mixed waste generators to minimize their mixed wastes because of management limitations. This document provides a guide to mixed waste minimization.

  3. Influenza SIRS with Minimal Pneumonitis.

    PubMed

    Erramilli, Shruti; Mannam, Praveen; Manthous, Constantine A

    2016-01-01

    Although systemic inflammatory response syndrome (SIRS) is a known complication of severe influenza pneumonia, it has been reported very rarely in patients with minimal parenchymal lung disease. We here report a case of severe SIRS, anasarca, and marked vascular phenomena with minimal or no pneumonitis. This case highlights that viruses, including influenza, may cause vascular dysregulation causing SIRS, even without substantial visceral organ involvement.

  4. Waste minimization handbook, Volume 1

    SciTech Connect

    Boing, L.E.; Coffey, M.J.

    1995-12-01

    This technical guide presents various methods used by industry to minimize low-level radioactive waste (LLW) generated during decommissioning and decontamination (D and D) activities. Such activities generate significant amounts of LLW during their operations. Waste minimization refers to any measure, procedure, or technique that reduces the amount of waste generated during a specific operation or project. Preventive waste minimization techniques implemented when a project is initiated can significantly reduce waste. Techniques implemented during decontamination activities reduce the cost of decommissioning. The application of waste minimization techniques is not limited to D and D activities; it is also useful during any phase of a facility`s life cycle. This compendium will be supplemented with a second volume of abstracts of hundreds of papers related to minimizing low-level nuclear waste. This second volume is expected to be released in late 1996.

  5. Power system commonality study

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Littman, Franklin D.

    1992-07-01

    A limited top level study was completed to determine the commonality of power system/subsystem concepts within potential lunar and Mars surface power system architectures. A list of power system concepts with high commonality was developed which can be used to synthesize power system architectures which minimize development cost. Examples of potential high commonality power system architectures are given in this report along with a mass comparison. Other criteria such as life cycle cost (which includes transportation cost), reliability, safety, risk, and operability should be used in future, more detailed studies to select optimum power system architectures. Nineteen potential power system concepts were identified and evaluated for planetary surface applications including photovoltaic arrays with energy storage, isotope, and nuclear power systems. A top level environmental factors study was completed to assess environmental impacts on the identified power system concepts for both lunar and Mars applications. Potential power system design solutions for commonality between Mars and lunar applications were identified. Isotope, photovoltaic array (PVA), regenerative fuel cell (RFC), stainless steel liquid-metal cooled reactors (less than 1033 K maximum) with dynamic converters, and in-core thermionic reactor systems were found suitable for both lunar and Mars environments. The use of SP-100 thermoelectric (TE) and SP-100 dynamic power systems in a vacuum enclosure may also be possible for Mars applications although several issues need to be investigated further (potential single point failure of enclosure, mass penalty of enclosure and active pumping system, additional installation time and complexity). There are also technical issues involved with development of thermionic reactors (life, serviceability, and adaptability to other power conversion units). Additional studies are required to determine the optimum reactor concept for Mars applications. Various screening

  6. Mode switching in volcanic seismicity: El Hierro 2011-2013

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Roberts, Nick S.; Bell, Andrew F.; Main, Ian G.

    2016-05-01

    The Gutenberg-Richter b value is commonly used in volcanic eruption forecasting to infer material or mechanical properties from earthquake distributions. Such studies typically analyze discrete time windows or phases, but the choice of such windows is subjective and can introduce significant bias. Here we minimize this sample bias by iteratively sampling catalogs with randomly chosen windows and then stack the resulting probability density functions for the estimated b>˜ value to determine a net probability density function. We examine data from the El Hierro seismic catalog during a period of unrest in 2011-2013 and demonstrate clear multimodal behavior. Individual modes are relatively stable in time, but the most probable b>˜ value intermittently switches between modes, one of which is similar to that of tectonic seismicity. Multimodality is primarily associated with intermittent activation and cessation of activity in different parts of the volcanic system rather than with respect to any systematic inferred underlying process.

  7. Minimum fuel mode evaluation

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Orme, John S.; Nobbs, Steven G.

    1995-01-01

    The minimum fuel mode of the NASA F-15 research aircraft is designed to minimize fuel flow while maintaining constant net propulsive force (FNP), effectively reducing thrust specific fuel consumption (TSFC), during cruise flight conditions. The test maneuvers were at stabilized flight conditions. The aircraft test engine was allowed to stabilize at the cruise conditions before data collection initiated; data were then recorded with performance seeking control (PSC) not-engaged, then data were recorded with the PSC system engaged. The maneuvers were flown back-to-back to allow for direct comparisons by minimizing the effects of variations in the test day conditions. The minimum fuel mode was evaluated at subsonic and supersonic Mach numbers and focused on three altitudes: 15,000; 30,000; and 45,000 feet. Flight data were collected for part, military, partial, and maximum afterburning power conditions. The TSFC savings at supersonic Mach numbers, ranging from approximately 4% to nearly 10%, are in general much larger than at subsonic Mach numbers because of PSC trims to the afterburner.

  8. Aortic valve surgery - minimally invasive

    MedlinePlus

    ... of the heart is reduced. This is called aortic stenosis. The aortic valve can be replaced using: Minimally ... RN, Wang A. Percutaneous heart valve replacement for aortic stenosis: state of the evidence. Ann Intern Med . 2010; ...

  9. Shapes of embedded minimal surfaces.

    PubMed

    Colding, Tobias H; Minicozzi, William P

    2006-07-25

    Surfaces that locally minimize area have been extensively used to model physical phenomena, including soap films, black holes, compound polymers, protein folding, etc. The mathematical field dates to the 1740s but has recently become an area of intense mathematical and scientific study, specifically in the areas of molecular engineering, materials science, and nanotechnology because of their many anticipated applications. In this work, we show that all minimal surfaces are built out of pieces of the surfaces in Figs. 1 and 2.

  10. Esophageal surgery in minimally invasive era

    PubMed Central

    Bencini, Lapo; Moraldi, Luca; Bartolini, Ilenia; Coratti, Andrea

    2016-01-01

    The widespread popularity of new surgical technologies such as laparoscopy, thoracoscopy and robotics has led many surgeons to treat esophageal diseases with these methods. The expected benefits of minimally invasive surgery (MIS) mainly include reductions of postoperative complications, length of hospital stay, and pain and better cosmetic results. All of these benefits could potentially be of great interest when dealing with the esophagus due to the potentially severe complications that can occur after conventional surgery. Moreover, robotic platforms are expected to reduce many of the difficulties encountered during advanced laparoscopic and thoracoscopic procedures such as anastomotic reconstructions, accurate lymphadenectomies, and vascular sutures. Almost all esophageal diseases are approachable in a minimally invasive way, including diverticula, gastro-esophageal reflux disease, achalasia, perforations and cancer. Nevertheless, while the limits of MIS for benign esophageal diseases are mainly technical issues and costs, oncologic outcomes remain the cornerstone of any procedure to cure malignancies, for which the long-term results are critical. Furthermore, many of the minimally invasive esophageal operations should be compared to pharmacologic interventions and advanced pure endoscopic procedures; such a comparison requires a difficult literature analysis and leads to some confounding results of clinical trials. This review aims to examine the evidence for the use of MIS in both malignancies and more common benign disease of the esophagus, with a particular emphasis on future developments and ongoing areas of research. PMID:26843913

  11. Minimal but non-minimal inflation and electroweak symmetry breaking

    SciTech Connect

    Marzola, Luca; Racioppi, Antonio

    2016-10-07

    We consider the most minimal scale invariant extension of the standard model that allows for successful radiative electroweak symmetry breaking and inflation. The framework involves an extra scalar singlet, that plays the rôle of the inflaton, and is compatibile with current experimental bounds owing to the non-minimal coupling of the latter to gravity. This inflationary scenario predicts a very low tensor-to-scalar ratio r≈10{sup −3}, typical of Higgs-inflation models, but in contrast yields a scalar spectral index n{sub s}≃0.97 which departs from the Starobinsky limit. We briefly discuss the collider phenomenology of the framework.

  12. Minimal Plasma Response Models for Design of Tokamak Equilibrium Controllers with High Dynamic Accuracy

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Humphreys, D. A.; Walker, M. L.; Leuer, J. A.

    1999-11-01

    We describe a model of linearized plasma shape and position response which is based on low poloidal mode number (m<=2, approximately vertical and major radial) displacements of the plasma current distribution. The model introduces minimal plasma degrees of freedom while providing sufficient accuracy for high performance controller design. The effects of significant variation in plasma poloidal beta, internal inductance, and separatrix configuration are taken into account. Models which can predict plasma shape and position variation with reasonable accuracy are particularly important for design of dynamic controllers in devices with significant variation in auxiliary heating input power and plasma shape --- conditions common in the DIII--D tokamak. Model predictions are validated using experimental response data from DIII--D. Application of the plasma response model to design of multivariable dynamic plasma controllers recently implemented on DIII--D is described.

  13. Minimally processed vegetable salads: microbial quality evaluation.

    PubMed

    Fröder, Hans; Martins, Cecília Geraldes; De Souza, Katia Leani Oliveira; Landgraf, Mariza; Franco, Bernadette D G M; Destro, Maria Teresa

    2007-05-01

    The increasing demand for fresh fruits and vegetables and for convenience foods is causing an expansion of the market share for minimally processed vegetables. Among the more common pathogenic microorganisms that can be transmitted to humans by these products are Listeria monocytogenes, Escherichia coli O157:H7, and Salmonella. The aim of this study was to evaluate the microbial quality of a selection of minimally processed vegetables. A total of 181 samples of minimally processed leafy salads were collected from retailers in the city of Sao Paulo, Brazil. Counts of total coliforms, fecal coliforms, Enterobacteriaceae, psychrotrophic microorganisms, and Salmonella were conducted for 133 samples. L. monocytogenes was assessed in 181 samples using the BAX System and by plating the enrichment broth onto Palcam and Oxford agars. Suspected Listeria colonies were submitted to classical biochemical tests. Populations of psychrotrophic microorganisms >10(6) CFU/g were found in 51% of the 133 samples, and Enterobacteriaceae populations between 10(5) and 106 CFU/g were found in 42% of the samples. Fecal coliform concentrations higher than 10(2) CFU/g (Brazilian standard) were found in 97 (73%) of the samples, and Salmonella was detected in 4 (3%) of the samples. Two of the Salmonella-positive samples had <10(2) CFU/g concentrations of fecal coliforms. L. monocytogenes was detected in only 1 (0.6%) of the 181 samples examined. This positive sample was simultaneously detected by both methods. The other Listeria species identified by plating were L. welshimeri (one sample of curly lettuce) and L. innocua (2 samples of watercress). The results indicate that minimally processed vegetables had poor microbiological quality, and these products could be a vehicle for pathogens such as Salmonella and L. monocytogenes.

  14. Minimally Invasive Laminectomy in Spondylolisthetic Lumbar Stenosis

    PubMed Central

    Caralopoulos, Ilias N.; Bui, Cuong J.

    2014-01-01

    Background Degenerative lumbar stenosis associated with spondylolisthesis is common in elderly patients. The most common symptoms are those of neurogenic claudication with leg pain. Surgery is indicated for those who fail conservative management. The generally accepted recommendation is to perform a laminectomy and a fusion at the involved level. Methods We reviewed our results for minimally invasive single-level decompression without fusion performed by the senior author in patients with symptomatic lumbar stenosis with spondylolisthesis with no dynamic instability from 2008 to 2011 at a single institution. Outcomes were measured using the visual analog scale (VAS), Prolo Economic Functional Rating Scale, and revised Oswestry Disability Index (ODI) at initial presentation and at 3-month, 6-month, and 1-year follow-up time points. Results Records for 28 patients (19 males, 9 females) were reviewed. The success rate, defined as improvement in pain and functional outcome without the need for surgical fusion, was 86%. VAS scores decreased by 6.3 points, Prolo scores increased by 3.5 points, and the ODI decreased by 31% at 1 year. All changes were statistically significant. Conclusion Minimally invasive decompression alone can be a reasonable alternative to decompression and fusion for patients with spondylolisthetic lumbar stenosis and neurogenic claudication with leg pain. Decompression without fusion should be considered for older patients and for patients who are not ideal fusion candidates. PMID:24688331

  15. The New Minimal Standard Model

    SciTech Connect

    Davoudiasl, Hooman; Kitano, Ryuichiro; Li, Tianjun; Murayama, Hitoshi

    2005-01-13

    We construct the New Minimal Standard Model that incorporates the new discoveries of physics beyond the Minimal Standard Model (MSM): Dark Energy, non-baryonic Dark Matter, neutrino masses, as well as baryon asymmetry and cosmic inflation, adopting the principle of minimal particle content and the most general renormalizable Lagrangian. We base the model purely on empirical facts rather than aesthetics. We need only six new degrees of freedom beyond the MSM. It is free from excessive flavor-changing effects, CP violation, too-rapid proton decay, problems with electroweak precision data, and unwanted cosmological relics. Any model of physics beyond the MSM should be measured against the phenomenological success of this model.

  16. Does Minimally Invasive Spine Surgery Minimize Surgical Site Infections?

    PubMed Central

    Patel, Ravish Shammi; Dutta, Shumayou

    2016-01-01

    Study Design Retrospective review of prospectively collected data. Purpose To evaluate the incidence of surgical site infections (SSIs) in minimally invasive spine surgery (MISS) in a cohort of patients and compare with available historical data on SSI in open spinal surgery cohorts, and to evaluate additional direct costs incurred due to SSI. Overview of Literature SSI can lead to prolonged antibiotic therapy, extended hospitalization, repeated operations, and implant removal. Small incisions and minimal dissection intrinsic to MISS may minimize the risk of postoperative infections. However, there is a dearth of literature on infections after MISS and their additional direct financial implications. Methods All patients from January 2007 to January 2015 undergoing posterior spinal surgery with tubular retractor system and microscope in our institution were included. The procedures performed included tubular discectomies, tubular decompressions for spinal stenosis and minimal invasive transforaminal lumbar interbody fusion (TLIF). The incidence of postoperative SSI was calculated and compared to the range of cited SSI rates from published studies. Direct costs were calculated from medical billing for index cases and for patients with SSI. Results A total of 1,043 patients underwent 763 noninstrumented surgeries (discectomies, decompressions) and 280 instrumented (TLIF) procedures. The mean age was 52.2 years with male:female ratio of 1.08:1. Three infections were encountered with fusion surgeries (mean detection time, 7 days). All three required wound wash and debridement with one patient requiring unilateral implant removal. Additional direct cost due to infection was $2,678 per 100 MISS-TLIF. SSI increased hospital expenditure per patient 1.5-fold after instrumented MISS. Conclusions Overall infection rate after MISS was 0.29%, with SSI rate of 0% in non-instrumented MISS and 1.07% with instrumented MISS. MISS can markedly reduce the SSI rate and can be an

  17. Shapes of embedded minimal surfaces

    PubMed Central

    Colding, Tobias H.; Minicozzi, William P.

    2006-01-01

    Surfaces that locally minimize area have been extensively used to model physical phenomena, including soap films, black holes, compound polymers, protein folding, etc. The mathematical field dates to the 1740s but has recently become an area of intense mathematical and scientific study, specifically in the areas of molecular engineering, materials science, and nanotechnology because of their many anticipated applications. In this work, we show that all minimal surfaces are built out of pieces of the surfaces in Figs. 1 and 2. PMID:16847265

  18. Diagonal dominance using function minimization algorithms. [multivariable control system design

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Leininger, G. G.

    1977-01-01

    A new approach to the design of multivariable control systems using the inverse Nyquist array method is proposed. The technique utilizes a conjugate direction function minimization algorithm to achieve dominance over a specified frequency range by minimizing the ratio of the moduli of the off-diagonal terms to the moduli of the diagonal term of the inverse open loop transfer function matrix. The technique is easily implemented in either a batch or interactive computer mode and will yield diagonalization when previously suggested methods fail. The proposed method has been successfully applied to design a control system for a sixteenth order state model of the F-100 turbofan engine with three inputs.

  19. Black hole temperature: Minimal coupling vs conformal coupling

    SciTech Connect

    Fazel, Mohamadreza; Mirza, Behrouz; Mansoori, Seyed Ali Hosseini

    2014-05-15

    In this article, we discuss the propagation of scalar fields in conformally transformed spacetimes with either minimal or conformal coupling. The conformally coupled equation of motion is transformed into a one-dimensional Schrödinger-like equation with an invariant potential under conformal transformation. In a second stage, we argue that calculations based on conformal coupling yield the same Hawking temperature as those based on minimal coupling. Finally, it is conjectured that the quasi normal modes of black holes are invariant under conformal transformation.

  20. Minimally invasive aortic valve surgery

    PubMed Central

    Castrovinci, Sebastiano; Emmanuel, Sam; Moscarelli, Marco; Murana, Giacomo; Caccamo, Giuseppa; Bertolino, Emanuela Clara; Nasso, Giuseppe; Speziale, Giuseppe; Fattouch, Khalil

    2016-01-01

    Aortic valve disease is a prevalent disorder that affects approximately 2% of the general adult population. Surgical aortic valve replacement is the gold standard treatment for symptomatic patients. This treatment has demonstrably proven to be both safe and effective. Over the last few decades, in an attempt to reduce surgical trauma, different minimally invasive approaches for aortic valve replacement have been developed and are now being increasingly utilized. A narrative review of the literature was carried out to describe the surgical techniques for minimally invasive aortic valve surgery and report the results from different experienced centers. Minimally invasive aortic valve replacement is associated with low perioperative morbidity, mortality and a low conversion rate to full sternotomy. Long-term survival appears to be at least comparable to that reported for conventional full sternotomy. Minimally invasive aortic valve surgery, either with a partial upper sternotomy or a right anterior minithoracotomy provides early- and long-term benefits. Given these benefits, it may be considered the standard of care for isolated aortic valve disease. PMID:27582764

  1. Wilson loops in minimal surfaces

    SciTech Connect

    Drukker, Nadav; Gross, David J.; Ooguri, Hirosi

    1999-04-27

    The AdS/CFT correspondence suggests that the Wilson loop of the large N gauge theory with N = 4 supersymmetry in 4 dimensions is described by a minimal surface in AdS{sub 5} x S{sup 5}. The authors examine various aspects of this proposal, comparing gauge theory expectations with computations of minimal surfaces. There is a distinguished class of loops, which the authors call BPS loops, whose expectation values are free from ultra-violet divergence. They formulate the loop equation for such loops. To the extent that they have checked, the minimal surface in AdS{sub 5} x S{sup 5} gives a solution of the equation. The authors also discuss the zig-zag symmetry of the loop operator. In the N = 4 gauge theory, they expect the zig-zag symmetry to hold when the loop does not couple the scalar fields in the supermultiplet. They will show how this is realized for the minimal surface.

  2. A Defense of Semantic Minimalism

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Kim, Su

    2012-01-01

    Semantic Minimalism is a position about the semantic content of declarative sentences, i.e., the content that is determined entirely by syntax. It is defined by the following two points: "Point 1": The semantic content is a complete/truth-conditional proposition. "Point 2": The semantic content is useful to a theory of…

  3. LLNL Waste Minimization Program Plan

    SciTech Connect

    Not Available

    1990-02-14

    This document is the February 14, 1990 version of the LLNL Waste Minimization Program Plan (WMPP). The Waste Minimization Policy field has undergone continuous changes since its formal inception in the 1984 HSWA legislation. The first LLNL WMPP, Revision A, is dated March 1985. A series of informal revision were made on approximately a semi-annual basis. This Revision 2 is the third formal issuance of the WMPP document. EPA has issued a proposed new policy statement on source reduction and recycling. This policy reflects a preventative strategy to reduce or eliminate the generation of environmentally-harmful pollutants which may be released to the air, land surface, water, or ground water. In accordance with this new policy new guidance to hazardous waste generators on the elements of a Waste Minimization Program was issued. In response to these policies, DOE has revised and issued implementation guidance for DOE Order 5400.1, Waste Minimization Plan and Waste Reduction reporting of DOE Hazardous, Radioactive, and Radioactive Mixed Wastes, final draft January 1990. This WMPP is formatted to meet the current DOE guidance outlines. The current WMPP will be revised to reflect all of these proposed changes when guidelines are established. Updates, changes and revisions to the overall LLNL WMPP will be made as appropriate to reflect ever-changing regulatory requirements. 3 figs., 4 tabs.

  4. Systems Biology Perspectives on Minimal and Simpler Cells

    PubMed Central

    Xavier, Joana C.; Patil, Kiran Raosaheb

    2014-01-01

    SUMMARY The concept of the minimal cell has fascinated scientists for a long time, from both fundamental and applied points of view. This broad concept encompasses extreme reductions of genomes, the last universal common ancestor (LUCA), the creation of semiartificial cells, and the design of protocells and chassis cells. Here we review these different areas of research and identify common and complementary aspects of each one. We focus on systems biology, a discipline that is greatly facilitating the classical top-down and bottom-up approaches toward minimal cells. In addition, we also review the so-called middle-out approach and its contributions to the field with mathematical and computational models. Owing to the advances in genomics technologies, much of the work in this area has been centered on minimal genomes, or rather minimal gene sets, required to sustain life. Nevertheless, a fundamental expansion has been taking place in the last few years wherein the minimal gene set is viewed as a backbone of a more complex system. Complementing genomics, progress is being made in understanding the system-wide properties at the levels of the transcriptome, proteome, and metabolome. Network modeling approaches are enabling the integration of these different omics data sets toward an understanding of the complex molecular pathways connecting genotype to phenotype. We review key concepts central to the mapping and modeling of this complexity, which is at the heart of research on minimal cells. Finally, we discuss the distinction between minimizing the number of cellular components and minimizing cellular complexity, toward an improved understanding and utilization of minimal and simpler cells. PMID:25184563

  5. No Common Opinion on the Common Core

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Henderson, Michael B.; Peterson, Paul E.; West, Martin R.

    2015-01-01

    According to the three authors of this article, the 2014 "EdNext" poll yields four especially important new findings: (1) Opinion with respect to the Common Core has yet to coalesce. The idea of a common set of standards across the country has wide appeal, and the Common Core itself still commands the support of a majority of the public.…

  6. Improved seismic profiling by minimally invasive multimodal surface wave method with standard penetration test source (MMSW-SPT)

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Lin, Shibin; Ashlock, Jeramy C.

    2017-03-01

    Surface waves propagating in layered media inherently possess multimodal dispersion characteristics. However, traditional surface wave testing methods employing measurements at the free surface usually capture only a single apparent dispersion curve, especially when using short geophone arrays common to near surface and geotechnical-scale investigations. Such single-mode or fragmented multimode apparent dispersion curves contain only a fraction of the possible dispersion information, thus limiting the accuracy of inverted profiles. To enable more robust measurement of higher Rayleigh-wave modes, a recently developed hybrid minimally invasive multimodal surface wave method is combined herein with the widely used geotechnical standard penetration test (SPT), which is employed as a practical and ubiquitous downhole source. Upon superimposing surface wave dispersion data for a range of SPT impact depths within the soil, higher modes can be measured more consistently and reliably relative to traditional non-invasive testing methods. As a result, misidentification of multiple dispersion modes can be practically eliminated, significantly improving the accuracy and certainty of inversion results.

  7. Shear mode grinding

    SciTech Connect

    Brown, N.J.; Fuchs, B.A.

    1989-04-24

    The thesis of this paper is that shear mode grinding of glass (1) occurs with abrasive particle sizes less than 1/mu/m, (2) that it is the mechanical limit of the the more common mechanical-chemical glass polishing, and (3) that the debris is insufficient in size to perform the function of eroding the binder in the grinding wheel and thus necessitates the addition of an abrasive and/or chemical additions to the coolant to effect wheel-dressing. 13 refs.

  8. Anaesthesia for minimally invasive surgery

    PubMed Central

    Dec, Marta

    2015-01-01

    Minimally invasive surgery (MIS) is rising in popularity. It offers well-known benefits to the patient. However, restricted access to the surgical site and gas insufflation into the body cavities may result in severe complications. From the anaesthetic point of view MIS poses unique challenges associated with creation of pneumoperitoneum, carbon dioxide absorption, specific positioning and monitoring a patient to whom the anaesthetist has often restricted access, in a poorly lit environment. Moreover, with refinement of surgical procedures and growing experience the anaesthetist is presented with patients from high-risk groups (obese, elderly, with advanced cardiac and respiratory disease) who once were deemed unsuitable for the laparoscopic technique. Anaesthetic management is aimed at getting the patient safely through the procedure, minimizing the specific risks arising from laparoscopy and the patient's coexisting medical problems, ensuring quick recovery and a relatively pain-free postoperative course with early return to normal function. PMID:26865885

  9. Non-minimal derivative couplings of the composite metric

    SciTech Connect

    Heisenberg, Lavinia

    2015-11-01

    In the context of massive gravity, bi-gravity and multi-gravity non-minimal matter couplings via a specific composite effective metric were investigated recently. Even if these couplings generically reintroduce the Boulware-Deser ghost, this composite metric is unique in the sense that the ghost reemerges only beyond the decoupling limit and the matter quantum loop corrections do not detune the potential interactions. We consider non-minimal derivative couplings of the composite metric to matter fields for a specific subclass of Horndeski scalar-tensor interactions. We first explore these couplings in the mini-superspace and investigate in which scenario the ghost remains absent. We further study these non-minimal derivative couplings in the decoupling-limit of the theory and show that the equation of motion for the helicity-0 mode remains second order in derivatives. Finally, we discuss preliminary implications for cosmology.

  10. Non-minimal derivative couplings of the composite metric

    SciTech Connect

    Heisenberg, Lavinia

    2015-11-04

    In the context of massive gravity, bi-gravity and multi-gravity non-minimal matter couplings via a specific composite effective metric were investigated recently. Even if these couplings generically reintroduce the Boulware-Deser ghost, this composite metric is unique in the sense that the ghost reemerges only beyond the decoupling limit and the matter quantum loop corrections do not detune the potential interactions. We consider non-minimal derivative couplings of the composite metric to matter fields for a specific subclass of Horndeski scalar-tensor interactions. We first explore these couplings in the mini-superspace and investigate in which scenario the ghost remains absent. We further study these non-minimal derivative couplings in the decoupling-limit of the theory and show that the equation of motion for the helicity-0 mode remains second order in derivatives. Finally, we discuss preliminary implications for cosmology.

  11. Principle of minimal work fluctuations.

    PubMed

    Xiao, Gaoyang; Gong, Jiangbin

    2015-08-01

    Understanding and manipulating work fluctuations in microscale and nanoscale systems are of both fundamental and practical interest. For example, in considering the Jarzynski equality 〈e-βW〉=e-βΔF, a change in the fluctuations of e-βW may impact how rapidly the statistical average of e-βW converges towards the theoretical value e-βΔF, where W is the work, β is the inverse temperature, and ΔF is the free energy difference between two equilibrium states. Motivated by our previous study aiming at the suppression of work fluctuations, here we obtain a principle of minimal work fluctuations. In brief, adiabatic processes as treated in quantum and classical adiabatic theorems yield the minimal fluctuations in e-βW. In the quantum domain, if a system initially prepared at thermal equilibrium is subjected to a work protocol but isolated from a bath during the time evolution, then a quantum adiabatic process without energy level crossing (or an assisted adiabatic process reaching the same final states as in a conventional adiabatic process) yields the minimal fluctuations in e-βW, where W is the quantum work defined by two energy measurements at the beginning and at the end of the process. In the classical domain where the classical work protocol is realizable by an adiabatic process, then the classical adiabatic process also yields the minimal fluctuations in e-βW. Numerical experiments based on a Landau-Zener process confirm our theory in the quantum domain, and our theory in the classical domain explains our previous numerical findings regarding the suppression of classical work fluctuations [G. Y. Xiao and J. B. Gong, Phys. Rev. E 90, 052132 (2014)].

  12. Outcomes After Minimally Invasive Esophagectomy

    PubMed Central

    Luketich, James D.; Pennathur, Arjun; Awais, Omar; Levy, Ryan M.; Keeley, Samuel; Shende, Manisha; Christie, Neil A.; Weksler, Benny; Landreneau, Rodney J.; Abbas, Ghulam; Schuchert, Matthew J.; Nason, Katie S.

    2014-01-01

    Background Esophagectomy is a complex operation and is associated with significant morbidity and mortality. In an attempt to lower morbidity, we have adopted a minimally invasive approach to esophagectomy. Objectives Our primary objective was to evaluate the outcomes of minimally invasive esophagectomy (MIE) in a large group of patients. Our secondary objective was to compare the modified McKeown minimally invasive approach (videothoracoscopic surgery, laparoscopy, neck anastomosis [MIE-neck]) with our current approach, a modified Ivor Lewis approach (laparoscopy, videothoracoscopic surgery, chest anastomosis [MIE-chest]). Methods We reviewed 1033 consecutive patients undergoing MIE. Elective operation was performed on 1011 patients; 22 patients with nonelective operations were excluded. Patients were stratified by surgical approach and perioperative outcomes analyzed. The primary endpoint studied was 30-day mortality. Results The MIE-neck was performed in 481 (48%) and MIE-Ivor Lewis in 530 (52%). Patients undergoing MIE-Ivor Lewis were operated in the current era. The median number of lymph nodes resected was 21. The operative mortality was 1.68%. Median length of stay (8 days) and ICU stay (2 days) were similar between the 2 approaches. Mortality rate was 0.9%, and recurrent nerve injury was less frequent in the Ivor Lewis MIE group (P < 0.001). Conclusions MIE in our center resulted in acceptable lymph node resection, postoperative outcomes, and low mortality using either an MIE-neck or an MIE-chest approach. The MIE Ivor Lewis approach was associated with reduced recurrent laryngeal nerve injury and mortality of 0.9% and is now our preferred approach. Minimally invasive esophagectomy can be performed safely, with good results in an experienced center. PMID:22668811

  13. Principle of minimal work fluctuations

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Xiao, Gaoyang; Gong, Jiangbin

    2015-08-01

    Understanding and manipulating work fluctuations in microscale and nanoscale systems are of both fundamental and practical interest. For example, in considering the Jarzynski equality =e-β Δ F , a change in the fluctuations of e-β W may impact how rapidly the statistical average of e-β W converges towards the theoretical value e-β Δ F, where W is the work, β is the inverse temperature, and Δ F is the free energy difference between two equilibrium states. Motivated by our previous study aiming at the suppression of work fluctuations, here we obtain a principle of minimal work fluctuations. In brief, adiabatic processes as treated in quantum and classical adiabatic theorems yield the minimal fluctuations in e-β W. In the quantum domain, if a system initially prepared at thermal equilibrium is subjected to a work protocol but isolated from a bath during the time evolution, then a quantum adiabatic process without energy level crossing (or an assisted adiabatic process reaching the same final states as in a conventional adiabatic process) yields the minimal fluctuations in e-β W, where W is the quantum work defined by two energy measurements at the beginning and at the end of the process. In the classical domain where the classical work protocol is realizable by an adiabatic process, then the classical adiabatic process also yields the minimal fluctuations in e-β W. Numerical experiments based on a Landau-Zener process confirm our theory in the quantum domain, and our theory in the classical domain explains our previous numerical findings regarding the suppression of classical work fluctuations [G. Y. Xiao and J. B. Gong, Phys. Rev. E 90, 052132 (2014), 10.1103/PhysRevE.90.052132].

  14. Minimal massive 3D gravity

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Bergshoeff, Eric; Hohm, Olaf; Merbis, Wout; Routh, Alasdair J.; Townsend, Paul K.

    2014-07-01

    We present an alternative to topologically massive gravity (TMG) with the same ‘minimal’ bulk properties; i.e. a single local degree of freedom that is realized as a massive graviton in linearization about an anti-de Sitter (AdS) vacuum. However, in contrast to TMG, the new ‘minimal massive gravity’ has both a positive energy graviton and positive central charges for the asymptotic AdS-boundary conformal algebra.

  15. Minimally invasive surgery for atrial fibrillation

    PubMed Central

    Suwalski, Piotr

    2013-01-01

    Atrial fibrillation (AF) remains the most common cardiac arrhythmia, affecting nearly 2% of the general population worldwide. Minimally invasive surgical ablation remains one of the most dynamically evolving fields of modern cardiac surgery. While there are more than a dozen issues driving this development, two seem to play the most important role: first, there is lack of evidence supporting percutaneous catheter based approach to treat patients with persistent and long-standing persistent AF. Paucity of this data offers surgical community unparalleled opportunity to challenge guidelines and change indications for surgical intervention. Large, multicenter prospective clinical studies are therefore of utmost importance, as well as honest, clear data reporting. Second, a collaborative methodology started a long-awaited debate on a Heart Team approach to AF, similar to the debate on coronary artery disease and transcatheter valves. Appropriate patient selection and tailored treatment options will most certainly result in better outcomes and patient satisfaction, coupled with appropriate use of always-limited institutional resources. The aim of this review, unlike other reviews of minimally invasive surgical ablation, is to present medical professionals with two distinctly different, approaches. The first one is purely surgical, Standalone surgical isolation of the pulmonary veins using bipolar energy source with concomitant amputation of the left atrial appendage—a method of choice in one of the most important clinical trials on AF—The Atrial Fibrillation Catheter Ablation Versus Surgical Ablation Treatment (FAST) Trial. The second one represents the most complex approach to this problem: a multidisciplinary, combined effort of a cardiac surgeon and electrophysiologist. The Convergent Procedure, which includes both endocardial and epicardial unipolar ablation bonds together minimally invasive endoscopic surgery with electroanatomical mapping, to deliver best of

  16. Minimal size of a barchan dune.

    PubMed

    Parteli, E J R; Durán, O; Herrmann, H J

    2007-01-01

    Barchans are dunes of high mobility which have a crescent shape and propagate under conditions of unidirectional wind. However, sand dunes only appear above a critical size, which scales with the saturation distance of the sand flux [P. Hersen, S. Douady, and B. Andreotti, Phys. Rev. Lett. 89, 264301 (2002); B. Andreotti, P. Claudin, and S. Douady, Eur. Phys. J. B 28, 321 (2002); G. Sauermann, K. Kroy, and H. J. Herrmann, Phys. Rev. E 64, 31305 (2001)]. It has been suggested by P. Hersen, S. Douady, and B. Andreotti, Phys. Rev. Lett. 89, 264301 (2002)] that this flux fetch distance is itself constant. Indeed, this could not explain the protosize of barchan dunes, which often occur in coastal areas of high litoral drift, and the scale of dunes on Mars. In the present work, we show from three-dimensional calculations of sand transport that the size and the shape of the minimal barchan dune depend on the wind friction speed and the sand flux on the area between dunes in a field. Our results explain the common appearance of barchans a few tens of centimeter high which are observed along coasts. Furthermore, we find that the rate at which grains enter saltation on Mars is one order of magnitude higher than on Earth, and is relevant to correctly obtain the minimal dune size on Mars.

  17. MR imaging guidance for minimally invasive procedures

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Wong, Terence Z.; Kettenbach, Joachim; Silverman, Stuart G.; Schwartz, Richard B.; Morrison, Paul R.; Kacher, Daniel F.; Jolesz, Ferenc A.

    1998-04-01

    Image guidance is one of the major challenges common to all minimally invasive procedures including biopsy, thermal ablation, endoscopy, and laparoscopy. This is essential for (1) identifying the target lesion, (2) planning the minimally invasive approach, and (3) monitoring the therapy as it progresses. MRI is an ideal imaging modality for this purpose, providing high soft tissue contrast and multiplanar imaging, capability with no ionizing radiation. An interventional/surgical MRI suite has been developed at Brigham and Women's Hospital which provides multiplanar imaging guidance during surgery, biopsy, and thermal ablation procedures. The 0.5T MRI system (General Electric Signa SP) features open vertical access, allowing intraoperative imaging to be performed. An integrated navigational system permits near real-time control of imaging planes, and provides interactive guidance for positioning various diagnostic and therapeutic probes. MR imaging can also be used to monitor cryotherapy as well as high temperature thermal ablation procedures sing RF, laser, microwave, or focused ultrasound. Design features of the interventional MRI system will be discussed, and techniques will be described for interactive image acquisition and tracking of interventional instruments. Applications for interactive and near-real-time imaging will be presented as well as examples of specific procedures performed using MRI guidance.

  18. Reflections concerning triply-periodic minimal surfaces.

    PubMed

    Schoen, Alan H

    2012-10-06

    In recent decades, there has been an explosion in the number and variety of embedded triply-periodic minimal surfaces (TPMS) identified by mathematicians and materials scientists. Only the rare examples of low genus, however, are commonly invoked as shape templates in scientific applications. Exact analytic solutions are now known for many of the low genus examples. The more complex surfaces are readily defined with numerical tools such as Surface Evolver software or the Landau-Ginzburg model. Even though table-top versions of several TPMS have been placed within easy reach by rapid prototyping methods, the inherent complexity of many of these surfaces makes it challenging to grasp their structure. The problem of distinguishing TPMS, which is now acute because of the proliferation of examples, has been addressed by Lord & Mackay (Lord & Mackay 2003 Curr. Sci. 85, 346-362).

  19. Reflections concerning triply-periodic minimal surfaces

    PubMed Central

    Schoen, Alan H.

    2012-01-01

    In recent decades, there has been an explosion in the number and variety of embedded triply-periodic minimal surfaces (TPMS) identified by mathematicians and materials scientists. Only the rare examples of low genus, however, are commonly invoked as shape templates in scientific applications. Exact analytic solutions are now known for many of the low genus examples. The more complex surfaces are readily defined with numerical tools such as Surface Evolver software or the Landau–Ginzburg model. Even though table-top versions of several TPMS have been placed within easy reach by rapid prototyping methods, the inherent complexity of many of these surfaces makes it challenging to grasp their structure. The problem of distinguishing TPMS, which is now acute because of the proliferation of examples, has been addressed by Lord & Mackay (Lord & Mackay 2003 Curr. Sci. 85, 346–362). PMID:24098851

  20. Light modular rig for minimal environment impact

    SciTech Connect

    Mehra, S.; Abedrabbo, A.

    1996-12-31

    The fast plenary meeting of United Nations on human Environment in 1972 considered the need for a common outlook and for common principles to inspire and guide the people and industries of the world in the preservation and enhancement of human environment. Since then many countries have, or am now enacting, environmental legislation`s covering the wide spectrum of environmental protection issues. Petroleum industry has not been immune to inch scrutiny, however, little has changed in land based drilling operations, especially in remote areas. A major aspect of the ongoing program in the design of a light modular land rig has been minimization of the environmental impact. Today, concerns for protection of the environment have spread in many drilling areas: the use of some traditional drilling techniques such as waste pits is now banned. When rethinking about rig hardware and design today, environment protection needs to be considered at an early stage. There are many incentives for implementation of environmental protection programs, in design and in operation, aside from the regulatory/compliance issue. Waste disposal costs have risen dramatically over the last few years and the trend is expected to continue. Improvements in environment conditions improves morale and image. Growing public awareness and realization of the man made harm in my regions of the earth : dangerous levels of pollution in water, air, earth and living beings; major and undesirable disturbances to the ecological balance of the biosphere; destruction and depletion of irreplaceable resources; and gross deficiencies harmful to the physical, mental and social health of man in the living and working environment. This paper discusses the steps taken, early on in the design stage and operations methodology, to minimize the environmental impact.

  1. Compensating Mechanisms That Minimize Flux Variability Through Unsaturated Fractures

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Nimmo, J. R.; Su, G. W.

    2001-12-01

    Fast flow in fractures and macropores is a major cause of discrepancy between measurements and unsaturated flow models. Most models treat preferential flow as diffuse Darcy-Richards flow, so it is important to ascertain whether the mechanisms of unsaturated fracture flow accord with Darcy's law. The key issue is whether water flux is directly proportional to driving force with a proportionality factor, the hydraulic conductivity (K), that is independent of flux and force. We consider flow in a partially water-filled fracture with continuously supplied (e.g. ponded) water, responding to a change in driving force such as a change in tilt angle with respect to gravity. Four general flow modes, alone or in combination, can account for the dominant portion of the flow for these conditions, as shown by the experimental studies of Su and others (1999) and Tokunaga and Wan (1997). (1) Film flow occurs within a sheet or film that contacts a wall of the fracture. (2) Connected rivulet flow occurs when a rivulet that bridges across the fracture aperture by capillary force is consistently connected across the domain of interest from the inflow point to the outflow point. (3) Snapping rivulet flow occurs if the rivulet sometimes but not always extends continuously across the domain. (4) Pulsating-blob flow occurs in isolated blobs that bridge across the fracture aperture and move across the domain of interest without ever extending completely between the inflow and outflow points. Where fractures are large enough that the air-water interfaces are free to change shape or position in response to an externally applied change, each flow mode has its own characteristic relation between force and flow rate. This contrasts with the air-water interfaces commonly visualized in fine-textured media, in which the interface is constrained to a particular shape and position by capillarity and adsorption, so that the consistent geometry of the effective flow conduits leads to Darcian flow. In

  2. A microneedle biosensor for minimally-invasive transdermal detection of nerve agents.

    PubMed

    Mishra, Rupesh K; Vinu Mohan, A M; Soto, Fernando; Chrostowski, Robert; Wang, Joseph

    2017-03-13

    A microneedle electrochemical biosensor for the minimally invasive detection of organophosphate (OP) chemical agents is described. The new sensor relies on the coupling of the effective biocatalytic action of organophosphorus hydrolase (OPH) with a hollow-microneedle modified carbon-paste array electrode transducer, and involves rapid square-wave voltammetric (SWV) measurements of the p-nitrophenol product of the OPH enzymatic reaction in the presence of the OP substrate. The scanning-potential SWV transduction mode offers an additional dimension of selectivity compared to common fixed-potential OPH-amperometric biosensors. The microneedle device offers a highly linear response for methyl paraoxon (MPOx) over the range of 20-180 μM, high selectivity in the presence of excess co-existing ascorbic acid and uric acid and a high stability sensor upon exposure to the interstitial fluid (ISF). The OPH microneedle sensor was successfully tested ex vivo using mice skin samples exposed to MPOx, demonstrating its promise for minimally-invasive monitoring of OP agents and pesticides and as a wearable sensor for detecting toxic compounds, in general.

  3. Common NICU Equipment

    MedlinePlus

    ... care unit (NICU) > Common NICU equipment Common NICU equipment E-mail to a friend Please fill in ... understand how they can help your baby. What equipment is commonly used in the NICU? Providers use ...

  4. Common Cause Failure Modeling

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Hark, Frank; Britton, Paul; Ring, Robert; Novack, Steven

    2015-01-01

    Space Launch System (SLS) Agenda: Objective; Key Definitions; Calculating Common Cause; Examples; Defense against Common Cause; Impact of varied Common Cause Failure (CCF) and abortability; Response Surface for various CCF Beta; Takeaways.

  5. Minimally invasive PCNL-MIP.

    PubMed

    Zanetti, Stefano Paolo; Boeri, Luca; Gallioli, Andrea; Talso, Michele; Montanari, Emanuele

    2017-01-01

    Miniaturized percutaneous nephrolithotomy (mini-PCNL) has increased in popularity in recent years and is now widely used to overcome the therapeutic gap between conventional PCNL and less-invasive procedures such as shock wave lithotripsy (SWL) or flexible ureterorenoscopy (URS) for the treatment of renal stones. However, despite its minimally invasive nature, the superiority in terms of safety, as well as the similar efficacy of mini-PCNL compared to conventional procedures, is still under debate. The aim of this chapter is to present one of the most recent advancements in terms of mini-PCNL: the Karl Storz "minimally invasive PCNL" (MIP). A literature search for original and review articles either published or e-published up to December 2016 was performed using Google and the PubMed database. Keywords included: minimally invasive PCNL; MIP. The retrieved articles were gathered and examined. The complete MIP set is composed of different sized rigid metallic fiber-optic nephroscopes and different sized metallic operating sheaths, according to which the MIP is categorized into extra-small (XS), small (S), medium (M) and large (L). Dilation can be performed either in one-step or with a progressive technique, as needed. The reusable devices of the MIP and vacuum cleaner efect make PCNL with this set a cheap procedure. The possibility to shift from a small to a larger instrument within the same set (Matrioska technique) makes MIP a very versatile technique suitable for the treatment of almost any stone. Studies in the literature have shown that MIP is equally effective, with comparable rates of post-operative complications, as conventional PCNL, independently from stone size. MIP does not represent a new technique, but rather a combination of the last ten years of PCNL improvements in a single system that can transversally cover all available techniques in the panorama of percutaneous stone treatment.

  6. Minimally Informative Prior Distributions for PSA

    SciTech Connect

    Dana L. Kelly; Robert W. Youngblood; Kurt G. Vedros

    2010-06-01

    A salient feature of Bayesian inference is its ability to incorporate information from a variety of sources into the inference model, via the prior distribution (hereafter simply “the prior”). However, over-reliance on old information can lead to priors that dominate new data. Some analysts seek to avoid this by trying to work with a minimally informative prior distribution. Another reason for choosing a minimally informative prior is to avoid the often-voiced criticism of subjectivity in the choice of prior. Minimally informative priors fall into two broad classes: 1) so-called noninformative priors, which attempt to be completely objective, in that the posterior distribution is determined as completely as possible by the observed data, the most well known example in this class being the Jeffreys prior, and 2) priors that are diffuse over the region where the likelihood function is nonnegligible, but that incorporate some information about the parameters being estimated, such as a mean value. In this paper, we compare four approaches in the second class, with respect to their practical implications for Bayesian inference in Probabilistic Safety Assessment (PSA). The most commonly used such prior, the so-called constrained noninformative prior, is a special case of the maximum entropy prior. This is formulated as a conjugate distribution for the most commonly encountered aleatory models in PSA, and is correspondingly mathematically convenient; however, it has a relatively light tail and this can cause the posterior mean to be overly influenced by the prior in updates with sparse data. A more informative prior that is capable, in principle, of dealing more effectively with sparse data is a mixture of conjugate priors. A particular diffuse nonconjugate prior, the logistic-normal, is shown to behave similarly for some purposes. Finally, we review the so-called robust prior. Rather than relying on the mathematical abstraction of entropy, as does the constrained

  7. Prepulse minimization in KALI-5000.

    PubMed

    Kumar, D Durga Praveen; Mitra, S; Senthil, K; Sharma, Vishnu K; Singh, S K; Roy, A; Sharma, Archana; Nagesh, K V; Chakravarthy, D P

    2009-07-01

    A pulse power system (1 MV, 50 kA, and 100 ns) based on Marx generator and Blumlein pulse forming line has been built for generating high power microwaves. The Blumlein configuration poses a prepulse problem and hence the diode gap had to be increased to match the diode impedance to the Blumlein impedance during the main pulse. A simple method to eliminate prepulse voltage using a vacuum sparkgap and a resistor is given. Another fundamental approach of increasing the inductance of Marx generator to minimize the prepulse voltage is also presented. Experimental results for both of these configurations are given.

  8. Prepulse minimization in KALI-5000

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Kumar, D. Durga Praveen; Mitra, S.; Senthil, K.; Sharma, Vishnu K.; Singh, S. K.; Roy, A.; Sharma, Archana; Nagesh, K. V.; Chakravarthy, D. P.

    2009-07-01

    A pulse power system (1 MV, 50 kA, and 100 ns) based on Marx generator and Blumlein pulse forming line has been built for generating high power microwaves. The Blumlein configuration poses a prepulse problem and hence the diode gap had to be increased to match the diode impedance to the Blumlein impedance during the main pulse. A simple method to eliminate prepulse voltage using a vacuum sparkgap and a resistor is given. Another fundamental approach of increasing the inductance of Marx generator to minimize the prepulse voltage is also presented. Experimental results for both of these configurations are given.

  9. Minimally invasive therapy in Denmark.

    PubMed

    Schou, I

    1993-01-01

    Minimally invasive therapy (MIT) is beginning to have impacts on health care in Denmark, although diffusion has been delayed compared to diffusion in other European countries. Now policy makers are beginning to appreciate the potential advantages in terms of closing hospitals and shifting treatment to the out-patient setting, and diffusion will probably go faster in the future. Denmark does not have a system for technology assessment, neither central nor regional, and there is no early warning mechanism to survey international developments. This implies lack of possibilities for the planning of diffusion, training, and criteria for treatment.

  10. About the ZOOM minimization package

    SciTech Connect

    Fischler, M.; Sachs, D.; /Fermilab

    2004-11-01

    A new object-oriented Minimization package is available for distribution in the same manner as CLHEP. This package, designed for use in HEP applications, has all the capabilities of Minuit, but is a re-write from scratch, adhering to modern C++ design principles. A primary goal of this package is extensibility in several directions, so that its capabilities can be kept fresh with as little maintenance effort as possible. This package is distinguished by the priority that was assigned to C++ design issues, and the focus on producing an extensible system that will resist becoming obsolete.

  11. Biomechanical Effects of a Unilateral Approach to Minimally Invasive Lumbar Decompression

    PubMed Central

    Smith, Zachary A.; Vastardis, Georgios A.; Carandang, Gerard; Havey, Robert M.; Hannon, Sean; Dahdaleh, Nader; Voronov, Leonard I.; Fessler, Richard G.; Patwardhan, Avinash G.

    2014-01-01

    Minimally invasive (MI) lumbar decompression became a common approach to treat lumbar stenosis. This approach may potentially mitigate postoperative increases in segmental motion. The goal of this study was to evaluate modifications to segmental motion in the lumbar spine following a MI unilateral approach as compared to traditional facet-sparing and non-facet sparing decompressions. Six human lumbar cadaveric specimens were used. Each specimen was tested in flexion-extension 0 N and 400 N of follower preload), axial rotation, and lateral bending. Each testing condition was evaluated following three separate interventions at L4–L5: 1) Minimally invasive decompression, 2) Facet-sparing, bilateral decompression, and 3) Bilateral decompression with a wide facetectomy. Range of motion following each testing condition was compared to intact specimens. Both MI and traditional decompression procedures create significant increases in ROM in all modes of loading. However, when compared to the MI approach, traditional decompression produces significantly larger increase in ROM in flexion-extension (p<0.005) and axial rotation (p<0.05). It additionally creates increased ROM with lateral bending on the approach side (p<0.05). Lateral bending on the non-approach side is not significantly changed. Lastly, wide medial facet removal (40% to 50%) causes significant hypermobility, especially in axial rotation. While both MI and traditional lumbar decompressions may increase post-operative ROM in all conditions, a MI approach causes significantly smaller increase in ROM. With an MI approach, increased movement with lateral bending is only toward the approach side. Further, non-facet sparing decompression is further destabilizing in all loading modes. PMID:24658010

  12. Minimizing travel claims cost with minimal-spanning tree model

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Jamalluddin, Mohd Helmi; Jaafar, Mohd Azrul; Amran, Mohd Iskandar; Ainul, Mohd Sharizal; Hamid, Aqmar; Mansor, Zafirah Mohd; Nopiah, Zulkifli Mohd

    2014-06-01

    Travel demand necessitates a big expenditure in spending, as has been proven by the National Audit Department (NAD). Every year the auditing process is carried out throughout the country involving official travel claims. This study focuses on the use of the Spanning Tree model to determine the shortest path to minimize the cost of the NAD's official travel claims. The objective is to study the possibility of running a network based in the Kluang District Health Office to eight Rural Clinics in Johor state using the Spanning Tree model applications for optimizing travelling distances and make recommendations to the senior management of the Audit Department to analyze travelling details before an audit is conducted. Result of this study reveals that there were claims of savings of up to 47.4% of the original claims, over the course of the travel distance.

  13. The minimal time detection algorithm

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Kim, Sungwan

    1995-01-01

    An aerospace vehicle may operate throughout a wide range of flight environmental conditions that affect its dynamic characteristics. Even when the control design incorporates a degree of robustness, system parameters may drift enough to cause its performance to degrade below an acceptable level. The object of this paper is to develop a change detection algorithm so that we can build a highly adaptive control system applicable to aircraft systems. The idea is to detect system changes with minimal time delay. The algorithm developed is called Minimal Time-Change Detection Algorithm (MT-CDA) which detects the instant of change as quickly as possible with false-alarm probability below a certain specified level. Simulation results for the aircraft lateral motion with a known or unknown change in control gain matrices, in the presence of doublet input, indicate that the algorithm works fairly well as theory indicates though there is a difficulty in deciding the exact amount of change in some situations. One of MT-CDA distinguishing properties is that detection delay of MT-CDA is superior to that of Whiteness Test.

  14. Less minimal supersymmetric standard model

    SciTech Connect

    de Gouvea, Andre; Friedland, Alexander; Murayama, Hitoshi

    1998-03-28

    Most of the phenomenological studies of supersymmetry have been carried out using the so-called minimal supergravity scenario, where one assumes a universal scalar mass, gaugino mass, and trilinear coupling at M{sub GUT}. Even though this is a useful simplifying assumption for phenomenological analyses, it is rather too restrictive to accommodate a large variety of phenomenological possibilities. It predicts, among other things, that the lightest supersymmetric particle (LSP) is an almost pure B-ino, and that the {mu}-parameter is larger than the masses of the SU(2){sub L} and U(1){sub Y} gauginos. We extend the minimal supergravity framework by introducing one extra parameter: the Fayet'Iliopoulos D-term for the hypercharge U(1), D{sub Y}. Allowing for this extra parameter, we find a much more diverse phenomenology, where the LSP is {tilde {nu}}{sub {tau}}, {tilde {tau}} or a neutralino with a large higgsino content. We discuss the relevance of the different possibilities to collider signatures. The same type of extension can be done to models with the gauge mediation of supersymmetry breaking. We argue that it is not wise to impose cosmological constraints on the parameter space.

  15. Common Career Technical Core: Common Standards, Common Vision for CTE

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Green, Kimberly

    2012-01-01

    This article provides an overview of the National Association of State Directors of Career Technical Education Consortium's (NASDCTEc) Common Career Technical Core (CCTC), a state-led initiative that was created to ensure that career and technical education (CTE) programs are consistent and high quality across the United States. Forty-two states,…

  16. Dip-pen nanolithography in tapping mode.

    PubMed

    Agarwal, Gunjan; Sowards, Laura A; Naik, Rajesh R; Stone, Morley O

    2003-01-15

    Dip-pen nanolithography (DPN) is becoming a popular nano-patterning technique for depositing materials onto a substrate using the probe of an atomic force microscope (AFM). Here, we demonstrate the deposition of a short synthetic peptide by DPN using the Tapping Mode of AFM rather than the commonly used contact mode. DPN in Tapping Mode requires drive amplitude modifications for deposition, yet allows for gentle imaging of the deposited material and enables deposition on soft surfaces.

  17. Method of minimizing the effects of parasitic currents

    DOEpatents

    Chi, Michael C.; Carr, Peter

    1983-02-01

    A method of minimizing the effect of parasitic currents in secondary batteries having a plurality of cells connected electrically in series and a common electrolyte in communication with the cells is described. Specifically, the parasitic currents flowing through the battery cause a cell imbalance over the charge/discharge cycle. This cell imbalance is minimized by first separating the cells of the battery into two equal groups. Then the battery is charged with the two groups of cells connected electrically in series, and subsequently discharged with the two groups of cells reconnected electrically in series in an inverted sequence.

  18. Update on designing and building minimal cells

    PubMed Central

    Jewett, Michael C.; Forster, Anthony C.

    2010-01-01

    Summary Minimal cells comprise only the genes and biomolecular machinery necessary for basic life. Synthesizing minimal and minimized cells will improve understanding of core biology, enhance development of biotechnology strains of bacteria, and enable evolutionary optimization of natural and unnatural biopolymers. Design and construction of minimal cells is proceeding in two different directions: “top-down” reduction of bacterial genomes in vivo and “bottom-up” integration of DNA/RNA/protein/membrane syntheses in vitro. Major progress in the last 5 years has occurred in synthetic genomics, minimization of the Escherichia coli genome, sequencing of minimal bacterial endosymbionts, identification of essential genes, and integration of biochemical systems. PMID:20638265

  19. Strategies to Minimize Antibiotic Resistance

    PubMed Central

    Lee, Chang-Ro; Cho, Ill Hwan; Jeong, Byeong Chul; Lee, Sang Hee

    2013-01-01

    Antibiotic resistance can be reduced by using antibiotics prudently based on guidelines of antimicrobial stewardship programs (ASPs) and various data such as pharmacokinetic (PK) and pharmacodynamic (PD) properties of antibiotics, diagnostic testing, antimicrobial susceptibility testing (AST), clinical response, and effects on the microbiota, as well as by new antibiotic developments. The controlled use of antibiotics in food animals is another cornerstone among efforts to reduce antibiotic resistance. All major resistance-control strategies recommend education for patients, children (e.g., through schools and day care), the public, and relevant healthcare professionals (e.g., primary-care physicians, pharmacists, and medical students) regarding unique features of bacterial infections and antibiotics, prudent antibiotic prescribing as a positive construct, and personal hygiene (e.g., handwashing). The problem of antibiotic resistance can be minimized only by concerted efforts of all members of society for ensuring the continued efficiency of antibiotics. PMID:24036486

  20. Minimally packed phases in holography

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Donos, Aristomenis; Gauntlett, Jerome P.

    2016-03-01

    We numerically construct asymptotically AdS black brane solutions of D = 4 Einstein-Maxwell theory coupled to a pseudoscalar. The solutions are holographically dual to d = 3 CFTs at finite chemical potential and in a constant magnetic field, which spontaneously break translation invariance leading to the spontaneous formation of abelian and momentum magnetisation currents flowing around the plaquettes of a periodic Bravais lattice. We analyse the three-dimensional moduli space of lattice solutions, which are generically oblique, and show, for a specific value of the magnetic field, that the free energy is minimised by the triangular lattice, associated with minimal packing of circles in the plane. We show that the average stress tensor for the thermodynamically preferred phase is that of a perfect fluid and that this result applies more generally to spontaneously generated periodic phases. The triangular structure persists at low temperatures indicating the existence of novel crystalline ground states.

  1. Minimally Invasive Spigelian Hernia Repair

    PubMed Central

    Baucom, Catherine; Nguyen, Quan D.; Hidalgo, Marco

    2009-01-01

    Introduction: Spigelian hernia is an uncommon ventral hernia characterized by a defect in the linea semilunaris. Repair of spigelian hernia has traditionally been accomplished via an open transverse incision and primary repair. The purpose of this article is to present 2 case reports of incarcerated spigelian hernia that were successfully repaired laparoscopically using Gortex mesh and to present a review of the literature regarding laparoscopic repair of spigelian hernias. Methods: Retrospective chart review and Medline literature search. Results: Two patients underwent laparoscopic mesh repair of incarcerated spigelian hernias. Both were started on a regular diet on postoperative day 1 and discharged on postoperative days 2 and 3. One patient developed a seroma that resolved without intervention. There was complete resolution of preoperative symptoms at the 12-month follow-up. Conclusion: Minimally invasive repair of spigelian hernias is an alternative to the traditional open surgical technique. Further studies are needed to directly compare the open and the laparoscopic repair. PMID:19660230

  2. Strategies to minimize antibiotic resistance.

    PubMed

    Lee, Chang-Ro; Cho, Ill Hwan; Jeong, Byeong Chul; Lee, Sang Hee

    2013-09-12

    Antibiotic resistance can be reduced by using antibiotics prudently based on guidelines of antimicrobial stewardship programs (ASPs) and various data such as pharmacokinetic (PK) and pharmacodynamic (PD) properties of antibiotics, diagnostic testing, antimicrobial susceptibility testing (AST), clinical response, and effects on the microbiota, as well as by new antibiotic developments. The controlled use of antibiotics in food animals is another cornerstone among efforts to reduce antibiotic resistance. All major resistance-control strategies recommend education for patients, children (e.g., through schools and day care), the public, and relevant healthcare professionals (e.g., primary-care physicians, pharmacists, and medical students) regarding unique features of bacterial infections and antibiotics, prudent antibiotic prescribing as a positive construct, and personal hygiene (e.g., handwashing). The problem of antibiotic resistance can be minimized only by concerted efforts of all members of society for ensuring the continued efficiency of antibiotics.

  3. Development of Transverse Modes Damped DLA Structure

    SciTech Connect

    Jing, C.; Kanareykin, A.; Schoessow, P.; Gai, W.; Konecny, R.; Power, J. G.; Conde, M.

    2009-01-22

    As the dimensions of accelerating structures become smaller and beam intensities higher, the transverse wakefields driven by the beam become quite large with even a slight misalignment of the beam from the geometric axis. These deflection modes can cause inter-bunch beam breakup and intra-bunch head-tail instabilities along the beam path, and thus BBU control becomes a critical issue. All new metal based accelerating structures, like the accelerating structures developed at SLAC or power extractors at CLIC, have designs in which the transverse modes are heavily damped. Similarly, minimizing the transverse wakefield modes (here the HEMmn hybrid modes in Dielectric-Loaded Accelerating (DLA) structures) is also very critical for developing dielectric based high energy accelerators. In this paper, we present the design of a 7.8 GHz transverse mode damped DLA structure currently under construction, along with plans for the experimental program.

  4. Minimally Invasive Mitral Valve Surgery II

    PubMed Central

    Wolfe, J. Alan; Malaisrie, S. Chris; Farivar, R. Saeid; Khan, Junaid H.; Hargrove, W. Clark; Moront, Michael G.; Ryan, William H.; Ailawadi, Gorav; Agnihotri, Arvind K.; Hummel, Brian W.; Fayers, Trevor M.; Grossi, Eugene A.; Guy, T. Sloane; Lehr, Eric J.; Mehall, John R.; Murphy, Douglas A.; Rodriguez, Evelio; Salemi, Arash; Segurola, Romualdo J.; Shemin, Richard J.; Smith, J. Michael; Smith, Robert L.; Weldner, Paul W.; Lewis, Clifton T. P.; Barnhart, Glenn R.; Goldman, Scott M.

    2016-01-01

    Abstract Techniques for minimally invasive mitral valve repair and replacement continue to evolve. This expert opinion, the second of a 3-part series, outlines current best practices for nonrobotic, minimally invasive mitral valve procedures, and for postoperative care after minimally invasive mitral valve surgery. PMID:27654406

  5. Mini-Med School Planning Guide

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    National Institutes of Health, Office of Science Education, 2008

    2008-01-01

    Mini-Med Schools are public education programs now offered by more than 70 medical schools, universities, research institutions, and hospitals across the nation. There are even Mini-Med Schools in Ireland, Malta, and Canada! The program is typically a lecture series that meets once a week and provides "mini-med students" information on some of the…

  6. Anticipated Degradation Modes of Metallic Engineered Barriers for High-Level Nuclear Waste Repositories

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Rodríguez, Martín A.

    2014-03-01

    Metallic engineered barriers must provide a period of absolute containment to high-level radioactive waste in geological repositories. Candidate materials include copper alloys, carbon steels, stainless steels, nickel alloys, and titanium alloys. The national programs of nuclear waste management have to identify and assess the anticipated degradation modes of the selected materials in the corresponding repository environment, which evolves in time. Commonly assessed degradation modes include general corrosion, localized corrosion, stress-corrosion cracking, hydrogen-assisted cracking, and microbiologically influenced corrosion. Laboratory testing and modeling in metallurgical and environmental conditions of similar and higher aggressiveness than those expected in service conditions are used to evaluate the corrosion resistance of the materials. This review focuses on the anticipated degradation modes of the selected or reference materials as corrosion-resistant barriers in nuclear repositories. These degradation modes depend not only on the selected alloy but also on the near-field environment. The evolution of the near-field environment varies for saturated and unsaturated repositories considering backfilled and unbackfilled conditions. In saturated repositories, localized corrosion and stress-corrosion cracking may occur in the initial aerobic stage, while general corrosion and hydrogen-assisted cracking are the main degradation modes in the anaerobic stage. Unsaturated repositories would provide an oxidizing environment during the entire repository lifetime. Microbiologically influenced corrosion may be avoided or minimized by selecting an appropriate backfill material. Radiation effects are negligible provided that a thick-walled container or an inner shielding container is used.

  7. Common Tests for Arrhythmia

    MedlinePlus

    ... Venous Thromboembolism Aortic Aneurysm More Common Tests for Arrhythmia Updated:Dec 21,2016 Several tests can help ... View an animation of arrhythmia . Common Tests for Arrhythmia Holter monitor (continuous ambulatory electrocardiographic monitor) Suspected arrhythmias ...

  8. Finding Common Ground with the Common Core

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Moisan, Heidi

    2015-01-01

    This article examines the journey of museum educators at the Chicago History Museum in understanding the Common Core State Standards and implementing them in our work with the school audience. The process raised questions about our teaching philosophy and our responsibility to our audience. Working with colleagues inside and outside of our…

  9. How Common Is the Common Core?

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Thomas, Amande; Edson, Alden J.

    2014-01-01

    Since the introduction of the Common Core State Standards for Mathematics (CCSSM) in 2010, stakeholders in adopting states have engaged in a variety of activities to understand CCSSM standards and transition from previous state standards. These efforts include research, professional development, assessment and modification of curriculum resources,…

  10. Design of a Multi-mode Flight Deck Decision Support System for Airborne Conflict Management

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Barhydt, Richard; Krishnamurthy, Karthik

    2004-01-01

    NASA Langley has developed a multi-mode decision support system for pilots operating in a Distributed Air-Ground Traffic Management (DAG-TM) environment. An Autonomous Operations Planner (AOP) assists pilots in performing separation assurance functions, including conflict detection, prevention, and resolution. Ongoing AOP design has been based on a comprehensive human factors analysis and evaluation results from previous human-in-the-loop experiments with airline pilot test subjects. AOP considers complex flight mode interactions and provides flight guidance to pilots consistent with the current aircraft control state. Pilots communicate goals to AOP by setting system preferences and actively probing potential trajectories for conflicts. To minimize training requirements and improve operational use, AOP design leverages existing alerting philosophies, displays, and crew interfaces common on commercial aircraft. Future work will consider trajectory prediction uncertainties, integration with the TCAS collision avoidance system, and will incorporate enhancements based on an upcoming air-ground coordination experiment.

  11. Canonical Commonality Analysis.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Leister, K. Dawn

    Commonality analysis is a method of partitioning variance that has advantages over more traditional "OVA" methods. Commonality analysis indicates the amount of explanatory power that is "unique" to a given predictor variable and the amount of explanatory power that is "common" to or shared with at least one predictor…

  12. Knowledge representation for commonality

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Yeager, Dorian P.

    1990-01-01

    Domain-specific knowledge necessary for commonality analysis falls into two general classes: commonality constraints and costing information. Notations for encoding such knowledge should be powerful and flexible and should appeal to the domain expert. The notations employed by the Commonality Analysis Problem Solver (CAPS) analysis tool are described. Examples are given to illustrate the main concepts.

  13. Minimal hepatic encephalopathy: A review.

    PubMed

    Nardone, Raffaele; Taylor, Alexandra C; Höller, Yvonne; Brigo, Francesco; Lochner, Piergiorgio; Trinka, Eugen

    2016-10-01

    Minimal hepatic encephalopathy (MHE) is the earliest form of hepatic encephalopathy and can affect up to 80% of patients with liver cirrhosis. By definition, MHE is characterized by cognitive function impairment in the domains of attention, vigilance and integrative function, but obvious clinical manifestation are lacking. MHE has been shown to affect daily functioning, quality of life, driving and overall mortality. The diagnosis can be achieved through neuropsychological testing, recently developed computerized psychometric tests, such as the critical flicker frequency and the inhibitory control tests, as well as neurophysiological procedures. Event related potentials can reveal subtle changes in patients with normal neuropsychological performances. Spectral analysis of electroencephalography (EEG) and quantitative analysis of sleep EEG provide early markers of cerebral dysfunction in cirrhotic patients with MHE. Neuroimaging, in particular MRI, also increasingly reveals diffuse abnormalities in intrinsic brain activity and altered organization of functional connectivity networks. Medical treatment for MHE to date has been focused on reducing serum ammonia levels and includes non-absorbable disaccharides, probiotics or rifaximin. Liver transplantation may not reverse the cognitive deficits associated with MHE. We performed here an updated review on epidemiology, burden and quality of life, neuropsychological testing, neuroimaging, neurophysiology and therapy in subjects with MHE.

  14. Against Explanatory Minimalism in Psychiatry

    PubMed Central

    Thornton, Tim

    2015-01-01

    The idea that psychiatry contains, in principle, a series of levels of explanation has been criticized not only as empirically false but also, by Campbell, as unintelligible because it presupposes a discredited pre-Humean view of causation. Campbell’s criticism is based on an interventionist-inspired denial that mechanisms and rational connections underpin physical and mental causation, respectively, and hence underpin levels of explanation. These claims echo some superficially similar remarks in Wittgenstein’s Zettel. But attention to the context of Wittgenstein’s remarks suggests a reason to reject explanatory minimalism in psychiatry and reinstate a Wittgensteinian notion of levels of explanation. Only in a context broader than the one provided by interventionism is that the ascription of propositional attitudes, even in the puzzling case of delusions, justified. Such a view, informed by Wittgenstein, can reconcile the idea that the ascription mental phenomena presupposes a particular level of explanation with the rejection of an a priori claim about its connection to a neurological level of explanation. PMID:26696908

  15. Against Explanatory Minimalism in Psychiatry.

    PubMed

    Thornton, Tim

    2015-01-01

    The idea that psychiatry contains, in principle, a series of levels of explanation has been criticized not only as empirically false but also, by Campbell, as unintelligible because it presupposes a discredited pre-Humean view of causation. Campbell's criticism is based on an interventionist-inspired denial that mechanisms and rational connections underpin physical and mental causation, respectively, and hence underpin levels of explanation. These claims echo some superficially similar remarks in Wittgenstein's Zettel. But attention to the context of Wittgenstein's remarks suggests a reason to reject explanatory minimalism in psychiatry and reinstate a Wittgensteinian notion of levels of explanation. Only in a context broader than the one provided by interventionism is that the ascription of propositional attitudes, even in the puzzling case of delusions, justified. Such a view, informed by Wittgenstein, can reconcile the idea that the ascription mental phenomena presupposes a particular level of explanation with the rejection of an a priori claim about its connection to a neurological level of explanation.

  16. Lesson Planning with the Common Core

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Estes, Linda A.; McDuffie, Amy Roth; Tate, Cathie

    2014-01-01

    Planning a lesson can be similar to planning a road trip--a metaphor the authors use to describe how they applied research and theory to their lesson planning process. A map and mode of transportation, the Common Core State Standards for Mathematics (CCSSM) and textbooks as resources, can lead to desired destinations, such as students engaging in…

  17. Effect of Minimal Hearing Loss on Children's Ability to Multitask in Quiet and in Noise

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    McFadden, Brittany; Pittman, Andrea

    2008-01-01

    Purpose: The purpose of the present study was to examine the effect of minimal hearing loss (HL) on children's ability to perform simultaneous tasks in quiet and in noise. Method: Ten children with minimal HL and 11 children with normal hearing (NH) participated. Both groups ranged in age from 8 to 12 years. The children categorized common words…

  18. Temporal structure of consciousness and minimal self in schizophrenia.

    PubMed

    Martin, Brice; Wittmann, Marc; Franck, Nicolas; Cermolacce, Michel; Berna, Fabrice; Giersch, Anne

    2014-01-01

    The concept of the minimal self refers to the consciousness of oneself as an immediate subject of experience. According to recent studies, disturbances of the minimal self may be a core feature of schizophrenia. They are emphasized in classical psychiatry literature and in phenomenological work. Impaired minimal self-experience may be defined as a distortion of one's first-person experiential perspective as, for example, an "altered presence" during which the sense of the experienced self ("mineness") is subtly affected, or "altered sense of demarcation," i.e., a difficulty discriminating the self from the non-self. Little is known, however, about the cognitive basis of these disturbances. In fact, recent work indicates that disorders of the self are not correlated with cognitive impairments commonly found in schizophrenia such as working-memory and attention disorders. In addition, a major difficulty with exploring the minimal self experimentally lies in its definition as being non-self-reflexive, and distinct from the verbalized, explicit awareness of an "I." In this paper, we shall discuss the possibility that disturbances of the minimal self observed in patients with schizophrenia are related to alterations in time processing. We shall review the literature on schizophrenia and time processing that lends support to this possibility. In particular we shall discuss the involvement of temporal integration windows on different time scales (implicit time processing) as well as duration perception disturbances (explicit time processing) in disorders of the minimal self. We argue that a better understanding of the relationship between time and the minimal self as well of issues of embodiment require research that looks more specifically at implicit time processing. Some methodological issues will be discussed.

  19. Temporal structure of consciousness and minimal self in schizophrenia

    PubMed Central

    Martin, Brice; Wittmann, Marc; Franck, Nicolas; Cermolacce, Michel; Berna, Fabrice; Giersch, Anne

    2014-01-01

    The concept of the minimal self refers to the consciousness of oneself as an immediate subject of experience. According to recent studies, disturbances of the minimal self may be a core feature of schizophrenia. They are emphasized in classical psychiatry literature and in phenomenological work. Impaired minimal self-experience may be defined as a distortion of one’s first-person experiential perspective as, for example, an “altered presence” during which the sense of the experienced self (“mineness”) is subtly affected, or “altered sense of demarcation,” i.e., a difficulty discriminating the self from the non-self. Little is known, however, about the cognitive basis of these disturbances. In fact, recent work indicates that disorders of the self are not correlated with cognitive impairments commonly found in schizophrenia such as working-memory and attention disorders. In addition, a major difficulty with exploring the minimal self experimentally lies in its definition as being non-self-reflexive, and distinct from the verbalized, explicit awareness of an “I.” In this paper, we shall discuss the possibility that disturbances of the minimal self observed in patients with schizophrenia are related to alterations in time processing. We shall review the literature on schizophrenia and time processing that lends support to this possibility. In particular we shall discuss the involvement of temporal integration windows on different time scales (implicit time processing) as well as duration perception disturbances (explicit time processing) in disorders of the minimal self. We argue that a better understanding of the relationship between time and the minimal self as well of issues of embodiment require research that looks more specifically at implicit time processing. Some methodological issues will be discussed. PMID:25400597

  20. Maze permutations during minimally invasive mitral valve surgery

    PubMed Central

    2015-01-01

    Surgical ablation for atrial fibrillation is most frequently done in the concomitant setting, and most commonly with mitral valve surgery. Minimally invasive surgical techniques for the treatment of atrial fibrillation have developed contemporaneously with techniques for minimally invasive mitral valve surgery. As in traditional surgery for atrial fibrillation, there are many different permutations of ablations for the less invasive approaches. Lesion sets can vary from simple pulmonary vein isolation (PVI) to full bi-atrial lesions that completely reproduce the traditional cut-and-sew Cox Maze III procedure with variable efficacy in restoring sinus rhythm. Additionally, treatment of the atrial appendage can be done through minimally invasive approaches without any ablation at all in an attempt to mitigate the risk of stroke. Finally, hybrid procedures combining minimally invasive surgery and catheter-based ablation are being developed that might augment surgical treatment of atrial fibrillation at the time of minimally invasive mitral valve repair. These various permutations and their results are reviewed. PMID:26539352

  1. Commonality of Ground Systems in Launch Operations

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Quinn, Shawn M.

    2008-01-01

    NASA is examining the utility of requiring a certain degree of commonality in both flight and ground systems in the Constellation Program. While the benefits of commonality seem obvious in terms of minimizing upfront development and long-term operations and maintenance costs, success in real, large-scale engineering systems used to support launch operations is relatively unknown. A broad literature review conducted for this paper did not yield a single paper specifically addressing the application of commonality for ground systems at any launch site in the United States or abroad. This paper provides a broad overview of the ground systems, captures historical and current application of commonality at the launch site, and offers suggestions for additional research to further develop commonality approaches.

  2. Minimal breast cancer: a clinical appraisal.

    PubMed Central

    Peters, T G; Donegan, W L; Burg, E A

    1977-01-01

    Eighty-five patients with a diagnosis of minimal breast cancer were evaluated. The predominant lesion was intraductal carcinoma, and axillary metastases occurred in association with minimal breast cancer in seven of 96 cases. One death occurred due to minimal breast cancer. Bilateral mammary carcinoma was evident in 24% and bilateral minimal breast cancer in 13% of the patients. The component lesions of minimal breast cancer have varied biologic activity, but prognosis is good with a variety of operations. The multifocal nature of minimal breast cancer and the potential for metastases should be recognized. Therapy should include removal of the entire mammary parenchyma and low axillary nodes. The high incidence of bilateral malignancy supports elective contralateral biopsy at the time of therapy for minimal breast cancer. Images Fig. 1. Fig. 2. Fig. 3. Fig. 5. PMID:203233

  3. Onychomycosis: Strategies to Minimize Recurrence.

    PubMed

    Gupta, Aditya K; Elewski, Boni E; Rosen, Ted; Caldwell, Bryan; Pariser, David M; Kircik, Leon H; Bhatia, Neal; Tosti, Antonella

    2016-03-01

    Recurrence (relapse or re-infection) in onychomycosis is common, occurring in 10% to 53% of patients. However, data on prevalence is limited as few clinical studies follow patients beyond 12 months. It has been suggested that recurrence after continuous terbinafine treatment may be less common than with intermittent or continuous itraconazole therapy, probably due to the fungicidal activity of terbinafine, although these differences tended not to be significant. Relapse rates also increase with time, peaking at month 36. Although a number of factors have been suggested to play a role in recurrence, only the co-existence of diabetes has been shown to have a significant impact. Data with topical therapy is sparse; a small study showed amorolfine prophylaxis may delay recurrence. High concentrations of efinaconazole have been reported in the nail two weeks' post-treatment suggesting twice monthly prophylaxis with topical treatments may be a realistic option, and may be an important consideration in diabetic patients with onychomycosis. Data suggest that prophylaxis may need to be continued for up to three years for optimal effect. Treating tinea pedis and any immediate family members is also critical. Other preventative strategies include avoiding communal areas where infection can spread (such as swimming pools), and decontaminating footwear.

  4. Minimal Models of Multidimensional Computations

    PubMed Central

    Fitzgerald, Jeffrey D.; Sincich, Lawrence C.; Sharpee, Tatyana O.

    2011-01-01

    The multidimensional computations performed by many biological systems are often characterized with limited information about the correlations between inputs and outputs. Given this limitation, our approach is to construct the maximum noise entropy response function of the system, leading to a closed-form and minimally biased model consistent with a given set of constraints on the input/output moments; the result is equivalent to conditional random field models from machine learning. For systems with binary outputs, such as neurons encoding sensory stimuli, the maximum noise entropy models are logistic functions whose arguments depend on the constraints. A constraint on the average output turns the binary maximum noise entropy models into minimum mutual information models, allowing for the calculation of the information content of the constraints and an information theoretic characterization of the system's computations. We use this approach to analyze the nonlinear input/output functions in macaque retina and thalamus; although these systems have been previously shown to be responsive to two input dimensions, the functional form of the response function in this reduced space had not been unambiguously identified. A second order model based on the logistic function is found to be both necessary and sufficient to accurately describe the neural responses to naturalistic stimuli, accounting for an average of 93% of the mutual information with a small number of parameters. Thus, despite the fact that the stimulus is highly non-Gaussian, the vast majority of the information in the neural responses is related to first and second order correlations. Our results suggest a principled and unbiased way to model multidimensional computations and determine the statistics of the inputs that are being encoded in the outputs. PMID:21455284

  5. George Combe and common sense.

    PubMed

    Dyde, Sean

    2015-06-01

    This article examines the history of two fields of enquiry in late eighteenth- and early nineteenth-century Scotland: the rise and fall of the common sense school of philosophy and phrenology as presented in the works of George Combe. Although many previous historians have construed these histories as separate, indeed sometimes incommensurate, I propose that their paths were intertwined to a greater extent than has previously been given credit. The philosophy of common sense was a response to problems raised by Enlightenment thinkers, particularly David Hume, and spurred a theory of the mind and its mode of study. In order to succeed, or even to be considered a rival of these established understandings, phrenologists adapted their arguments for the sake of engaging in philosophical dispute. I argue that this debate contributed to the relative success of these groups: phrenology as a well-known historical subject, common sense now largely forgotten. Moreover, this history seeks to question the place of phrenology within the sciences of mind in nineteenth-century Britain.

  6. List mode multichannel analyzer

    DOEpatents

    Archer, Daniel E.; Luke, S. John; Mauger, G. Joseph; Riot, Vincent J.; Knapp, David A.

    2007-08-07

    A digital list mode multichannel analyzer (MCA) built around a programmable FPGA device for onboard data analysis and on-the-fly modification of system detection/operating parameters, and capable of collecting and processing data in very small time bins (<1 millisecond) when used in histogramming mode, or in list mode as a list mode MCA.

  7. A la Mode II.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Stowe, Richard A.

    This paper describes two modes of educational decision-making: Mode I, in which the instructor makes such decisions as what to teach, to whom, when, in what order, at what pace, and at what complexity level; and Mode II, in which the learner makes the decisions. While Mode I comprises most of what is regarded as formal education, the learner in…

  8. Minimal predicted distance: a common metric for collision avoidance during pairwise interactions between walkers.

    PubMed

    Olivier, Anne-Hélène; Marin, Antoine; Crétual, Armel; Pettré, Julien

    2012-07-01

    This study investigated collision avoidance between two walkers by focusing on the conditions that lead to avoidance manoeuvres in locomotor trajectories. Following the hypothesis of a reciprocal interaction, we suggested a mutual variable as a continuous function of the two walkers' states, denoted minimum predicted distance (MPD). This function predicts the risk of collision, and its evolution over time captures the motion adaptations performed by the walkers. By groups of two, 30 walkers were assigned locomotion tasks which lead to potential collisions. Results showed that walkers adapted their motions only when required, i.e., when MPD is too low (<1 m). We concluded that walkers are able (i) to accurately estimate their reciprocal distance at the time the crossing will occur, and (ii) to mutually adapt this distance. Furthermore, the study of MPD evolution showed three successive phases in the avoidance interaction: observation where MPD(t) is constant, reaction where MPD(t) increases to acceptable values by adapting locomotion and regulation where MPD(t) reaches a plateau and slightly decreases. This final phase demonstrates that collision avoidance is actually performed with anticipation. Future work would consist in inspecting individual motion adaptations and relating them with the variations of MPD.

  9. Campus Common Law

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Bakken, Gordon Morris

    1976-01-01

    Discusses the legal principle of common law as it applies to the personnel policies of colleges and universities in an attempt to define the parameters of campus common law and to clarify its relationship to written university policies and relevant state laws. (JG)

  10. Conceptualizing an Information Commons.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Beagle, Donald

    1999-01-01

    Concepts from Strategic Alignment, a technology-management theory, are used to discuss the Information Commons as a new service-delivery model in academic libraries. The Information Commons, as a conceptual, physical, and instructional space, involves an organizational realignment from print to the digital environment. (Author)

  11. Common Eye Disorders

    MedlinePlus

    ... eye,” is the most common cause of vision impairment in children. Amblyopia is the medical term used ... the most common cause of permanent one-eye vision impairment among children and young and middle-aged adults. ...

  12. The environmental cost of subsistence: Optimizing diets to minimize footprints.

    PubMed

    Gephart, Jessica A; Davis, Kyle F; Emery, Kyle A; Leach, Allison M; Galloway, James N; Pace, Michael L

    2016-05-15

    The question of how to minimize monetary cost while meeting basic nutrient requirements (a subsistence diet) was posed by George Stigler in 1945. The problem, known as Stigler's diet problem, was famously solved using the simplex algorithm. Today, we are not only concerned with the monetary cost of food, but also the environmental cost. Efforts to quantify environmental impacts led to the development of footprint (FP) indicators. The environmental footprints of food production span multiple dimensions, including greenhouse gas emissions (carbon footprint), nitrogen release (nitrogen footprint), water use (blue and green water footprint) and land use (land footprint), and a diet minimizing one of these impacts could result in higher impacts in another dimension. In this study based on nutritional and population data for the United States, we identify diets that minimize each of these four footprints subject to nutrient constraints. We then calculate tradeoffs by taking the composition of each footprint's minimum diet and calculating the other three footprints. We find that diets for the minimized footprints tend to be similar for the four footprints, suggesting there are generally synergies, rather than tradeoffs, among low footprint diets. Plant-based food and seafood (fish and other aquatic foods) commonly appear in minimized diets and tend to most efficiently supply macronutrients and micronutrients, respectively. Livestock products rarely appear in minimized diets, suggesting these foods tend to be less efficient from an environmental perspective, even when nutrient content is considered. The results' emphasis on seafood is complicated by the environmental impacts of aquaculture versus capture fisheries, increasing in aquaculture, and shifting compositions of aquaculture feeds. While this analysis does not make specific diet recommendations, our approach demonstrates potential environmental synergies of plant- and seafood-based diets. As a result, this study

  13. Minimization of transient emissions from rotary-kiln incinerators, 1990

    SciTech Connect

    Lemieux, P.M.; Linak, W.P.; McSorley, J.A.; Wendt, J.O.L.; Dunn, J.E.

    1990-01-01

    The paper discusses combining experimental results from a pilot-scale rotary kiln incinerator simulator with a theoretical model in order to explore the potential of minimizing transient emissions through changes in kiln rotation speed and temperature, steady state oxygen enrichment, and oxygen enrichment in a dynamic mode. Results indicate that transient organic emissions can indeed be minimized by changes in these kiln operating parameters but, because of the complex interactions of physical and chemical processes controlling emissions, the appropriate abatement procedures must be implemented carefully. Transient emissions of organics occur from rotary kiln incinerators when drums containing liquid wastes bound on sorbents are introduced in batches. Physical processes controlling the release of waste from the sorbent material are greatly affected by the rotation speed and temperature of the kiln. Local partial pressure of oxygen influences the rate of oxidation of the puff formed inside the kiln. These physical and chemical phenomena can be used to control transient emissions by oxygen enrichment, where it is done in either a steady or a dynamic mode.

  14. Mesiodens--diagnosis and management of a common supernumerary tooth.

    PubMed

    Russell, Kathleen A; Folwarczna, Magdalena A

    2003-06-01

    Mesiodentes are the most common supernumerary teeth, occurring in 0.15% to 1.9% of the population. Given this high frequency, the general dentist should be knowledgeable about the signs and symptoms of mesiodentes and appropriate treatment. The cause of mesiodentes is not fully understood, although proliferation of the dental lamina and genetic factors have been implicated. Mesiodentes can cause delayed or ectopic eruption of the permanent incisors, which can further alter occlusion and appearance. It is therefore important for the clinician to diagnose a mesiodens early in development to allow for optimal yet minimal treatment. Treatment options may include surgical extraction of the mesiodens. If the permanent teeth do not erupt in a reasonable period after the extraction, surgical exposure and orthodontic treatment may be required to ensure eruption and proper alignment of the teeth. In some instances, fixed orthodontic therapy is also required to create sufficient arch space before eruption and alignment of the incisor(s). Early diagnosis allows the most appropriate treatment, often reducing the extent of surgery, orthodontic treatment and possible complications. This paper outlines the causes and modes of presentation of mesiodentes, and presents guidelines for diagnosis and management of nonsyndromic mesiodentes.

  15. Communication and common interest.

    PubMed

    Godfrey-Smith, Peter; Martínez, Manolo

    2013-01-01

    Explaining the maintenance of communicative behavior in the face of incentives to deceive, conceal information, or exaggerate is an important problem in behavioral biology. When the interests of agents diverge, some form of signal cost is often seen as essential to maintaining honesty. Here, novel computational methods are used to investigate the role of common interest between the sender and receiver of messages in maintaining cost-free informative signaling in a signaling game. Two measures of common interest are defined. These quantify the divergence between sender and receiver in their preference orderings over acts the receiver might perform in each state of the world. Sampling from a large space of signaling games finds that informative signaling is possible at equilibrium with zero common interest in both senses. Games of this kind are rare, however, and the proportion of games that include at least one equilibrium in which informative signals are used increases monotonically with common interest. Common interest as a predictor of informative signaling also interacts with the extent to which agents' preferences vary with the state of the world. Our findings provide a quantitative description of the relation between common interest and informative signaling, employing exact measures of common interest, information use, and contingency of payoff under environmental variation that may be applied to a wide range of models and empirical systems.

  16. Network for minimizing current imbalances in a faradaic battery

    DOEpatents

    Wozniak, Walter; Haskins, Harold J.

    1994-01-01

    A circuit for connecting a faradaic battery with circuitry for monitoring the condition of the battery includes a plurality of voltage divider networks providing battery voltage monitoring nodes and includes compensating resistors connected with the networks to maintain uniform discharge currents through the cells of the battery. The circuit also provides a reduced common mode voltage requirement for the monitoring circuitry by referencing the divider networks to one-half the battery voltage.

  17. Compact spatial multiplexers for mode division multiplexing.

    PubMed

    Chen, Haoshuo; van Uden, Roy; Okonkwo, Chigo; Koonen, Ton

    2014-12-29

    Spatial multiplexer (SMUX) for mode division multiplexing (MDM) has evolved from mode-selective excitation, multiple-spot and photonic-lantern based solutions in order to minimize both mode-dependent loss (MDL) and coupler insertion loss (CIL). This paper discusses the implementation of all the three solutions by compact components in a small footprint. Moreover, the compact SMUX can be manufactured in mass production and packaged to assure high reliability. First, push-pull scheme and center launch based SMUXes are demonstrated on two mostly-popular photonic integration platforms: Silicon-on-insulator (SOI) and Indium Phosphide (InP) for selectively exciting LP01 and LP11 modes. 2-dimensional (2D) top-coupling by using vertical emitters is explored to provide a coupling interface between a few-mode fiber (FMF) and the photonic integrated SMUX. SOI-based grating couplers and InP-based 45° vertical mirrors are proposed and researched as vertical emitters in each platform. Second, a 3-spot SMUX is realized on an InP-based circuit through employing 45° vertical mirrors. Third, as a newly-emerging photonic integration platform, laser-inscribed 3D waveguide (3DW) technology is applied for a fully-packaged dual-channel 6-mode SMUX including two 6-core photonic lantern structures as mode multiplexer and demultiplexer, respectively.

  18. Energy minimization in medical image analysis: Methodologies and applications.

    PubMed

    Zhao, Feng; Xie, Xianghua

    2016-02-01

    Energy minimization is of particular interest in medical image analysis. In the past two decades, a variety of optimization schemes have been developed. In this paper, we present a comprehensive survey of the state-of-the-art optimization approaches. These algorithms are mainly classified into two categories: continuous method and discrete method. The former includes Newton-Raphson method, gradient descent method, conjugate gradient method, proximal gradient method, coordinate descent method, and genetic algorithm-based method, while the latter covers graph cuts method, belief propagation method, tree-reweighted message passing method, linear programming method, maximum margin learning method, simulated annealing method, and iterated conditional modes method. We also discuss the minimal surface method, primal-dual method, and the multi-objective optimization method. In addition, we review several comparative studies that evaluate the performance of different minimization techniques in terms of accuracy, efficiency, or complexity. These optimization techniques are widely used in many medical applications, for example, image segmentation, registration, reconstruction, motion tracking, and compressed sensing. We thus give an overview on those applications as well.

  19. Instantaneous Normal Modes and the Protein Glass Transition

    SciTech Connect

    Schultz, Roland; Krishnan, Marimuthu; Daidone, Isabella; Smith, Jeremy C

    2009-01-01

    In the instantaneous normal mode method, normal mode analysis is performed at instantaneous configurations of a condensed-phase system, leading to modes with negative eigenvalues. These negative modes provide a means of characterizing local anharmonicities of the potential energy surface. Here, we apply instantaneous normal mode to analyze temperature-dependent diffusive dynamics in molecular dynamics simulations of a small protein (a scorpion toxin). Those characteristics of the negative modes are determined that correlate with the dynamical (or glass) transition behavior of the protein, as manifested as an increase in the gradient with T of the average atomic mean-square displacement at 220 K. The number of negative eigenvalues shows no transition with temperature. Further, although filtering the negative modes to retain only those with eigenvectors corresponding to double-well potentials does reveal a transition in the hydration water, again, no transition in the protein is seen. However, additional filtering of the protein double-well modes, so as to retain only those that, on energy minimization, escape to different regions of configurational space, finally leads to clear protein dynamical transition behavior. Partial minimization of instantaneous configurations is also found to remove nondiffusive imaginary modes. In summary, examination of the form of negative instantaneous normal modes is shown to furnish a physical picture of local diffusive dynamics accompanying the protein glass transition.

  20. Minimally Invasive Mitral Valve Surgery I

    PubMed Central

    Ailawadi, Gorav; Agnihotri, Arvind K.; Mehall, John R.; Wolfe, J. Alan; Hummel, Brian W.; Fayers, Trevor M.; Farivar, R. Saeid; Grossi, Eugene A.; Guy, T. Sloane; Hargrove, W. Clark; Khan, Junaid H.; Lehr, Eric J.; Malaisrie, S. Chris; Murphy, Douglas A.; Rodriguez, Evelio; Ryan, William H.; Salemi, Arash; Segurola, Romualdo J.; Shemin, Richard J.; Smith, J. Michael; Smith, Robert L.; Weldner, Paul W.; Goldman, Scott M.; Lewis, Clifton T. P.; Barnhart, Glenn R.

    2016-01-01

    Abstract Widespread adoption of minimally invasive mitral valve repair and replacement may be fostered by practice consensus and standardization. This expert opinion, first of a 3-part series, outlines current best practices in patient evaluation and selection for minimally invasive mitral valve procedures, and discusses preoperative planning for cannulation and myocardial protection. PMID:27654407

  1. Minimizing electrode contamination in an electrochemical cell

    DOEpatents

    Kim, Yu Seung; Zelenay, Piotr; Johnston, Christina

    2014-12-09

    An electrochemical cell assembly that is expected to prevent or at least minimize electrode contamination includes one or more getters that trap a component or components leached from a first electrode and prevents or at least minimizes them from contaminating a second electrode.

  2. MINIMIZATION OF CARBON LOSS IN COAL REBURNING

    SciTech Connect

    Vladimir Zamansky; Vitali Lissianski; Pete Maly; Richard Koppang

    2002-09-10

    This project develops Fuel-Flexible Reburning (FFR) technology that is an improved version of conventional reburning. In FFR solid fuel is partially gasified before injection into the reburning zone of a boiler. Partial gasification of the solid fuel improves efficiency of NO{sub x} reduction and decreases LOI by increasing fuel reactivity. Objectives of this project were to develop engineering and scientific information and know-how needed to improve the cost of reburning via increased efficiency and minimized LOI and move the FFR technology to the demonstration and commercialization stage. All project objectives and technical performance goals have been met, and competitive advantages of FFR have been demonstrated. The work included a combination of experimental and modeling studies designed to identify optimum process conditions, confirm the process mechanism and to estimate cost effectiveness of the FFR technology. Experimental results demonstrated that partial gasification of a solid fuel prior to injection into the reburning zone improved the efficiency of NO{sub x} reduction and decreased LOI. Several coals with different volatiles content were tested. Testing suggested that incremental increase in the efficiency of NO{sub x} reduction due to coal gasification was more significant for coals with low volatiles content. Up to 14% increase in the efficiency of NO{sub x} reduction in comparison with basic reburning was achieved with coal gasification. Tests also demonstrated that FFR improved efficiency of NO{sub x} reduction for renewable fuels with high fuel-N content. Modeling efforts focused on the development of the model describing reburning with gaseous gasification products. Modeling predicted that the composition of coal gasification products depended on temperature. Comparison of experimental results and modeling predictions suggested that the heterogeneous NO{sub x} reduction on the surface of char played important role. Economic analysis confirmed

  3. ACS: ALMA Common Software

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Chiozzi, Gianluca; Šekoranja, Matej

    2013-02-01

    ALMA Common Software (ACS) provides a software infrastructure common to all ALMA partners and consists of a documented collection of common patterns and components which implement those patterns. The heart of ACS is based on a distributed Component-Container model, with ACS Components implemented as CORBA objects in any of the supported programming languages. ACS provides common CORBA-based services such as logging, error and alarm management, configuration database and lifecycle management. Although designed for ALMA, ACS can and is being used in other control systems and distributed software projects, since it implements proven design patterns using state of the art, reliable technology. It also allows, through the use of well-known standard constructs and components, that other team members whom are not authors of ACS easily understand the architecture of software modules, making maintenance affordable even on a very large project.

  4. Common Misconceptions about Cholesterol

    MedlinePlus

    ... Venous Thromboembolism Aortic Aneurysm More Common Misconceptions about Cholesterol Updated:Apr 3,2017 Cholesterol can be both ... misconceptions about cholesterol. Click on each misconception about cholesterol to see the truth: My choices about diet ...

  5. How Common Is PTSD?

    MedlinePlus

    ... Z) Hepatitis HIV Mental Health Mental Health Home Suicide Prevention Substance Abuse Military Sexual Trauma PTSD Research ( ... Public, Family, & Friends How Common Is PTSD? Posttraumatic stress disorder (PTSD) can occur after you have been ...

  6. Barry Commoner Assails Petrochemicals

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Chemical and Engineering News, 1973

    1973-01-01

    Discusses Commoner's ideas on the social value of the petrochemical industry and his suggestions for curtailment or elimination of its productive operation to produce a higher environmental quality for mankind at a relatively low loss in social benefit. (CC)

  7. Common clay and shale

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Virta, R.L.

    2004-01-01

    Part of the 2003 industrial minerals review. The legislation, production, and consumption of common clay and shale are discussed. The average prices of the material and outlook for the market are provided.

  8. Common Causes of Stillbirth

    MedlinePlus

    ... one of the most common placental problems. The placenta separates (partially or completely) from the uterine wall ... or abnormal placement of the cord into the placenta. This can deprive the baby of oxygen. Infectious ...

  9. Commonly Consumed Food Commodities

    EPA Pesticide Factsheets

    Commonly consumed foods are those ingested for their nutrient properties. Food commodities can be either raw agricultural commodities or processed commodities, provided that they are the forms that are sold or distributed for human consumption. Learn more.

  10. Common Mental Health Issues

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Stock, Susan R.; Levine, Heidi

    2016-01-01

    This chapter provides an overview of common student mental health issues and approaches for student affairs practitioners who are working with students with mental illness, and ways to support the overall mental health of students on campus.

  11. Common peroneal nerve dysfunction

    MedlinePlus

    Neuropathy - common peroneal nerve; Peroneal nerve injury; Peroneal nerve palsy ... type of peripheral neuropathy (damage to nerves outside the brain ... nerve injuries. Damage to the nerve disrupts the myelin sheath ...

  12. Genomic Data Commons launches

    Cancer.gov

    The Genomic Data Commons (GDC), a unified data system that promotes sharing of genomic and clinical data between researchers, launched today with a visit from Vice President Joe Biden to the operations center at the University of Chicago.

  13. Mode Transitions in Magnetically Shielded Hall Effect Thrusters

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Sekerak, Michael J.; Longmier, Benjamin W.; Gallimore, Alec D.; Huang, Wensheng; Kamhawi, Hani; Hofer, Richard R.; Jorns, Benjamin A.; Polk, James E.

    2014-01-01

    A mode transition study is conducted in magnetically shielded thrusters where the magnetic field magnitude is varied to induce mode transitions. Three different oscillatory modes are identified with the 20-kW NASA-300MS-2 and the 6-kW H6MS: Mode 1) global mode similar to unshielded thrusters at low magnetic fields, Mode 2) cathode oscillations at nominal magnetic fields, and Mode 3) combined spoke, cathode and breathing mode oscillations at high magnetic fields. Mode 1 exhibits large amplitude, low frequency (1-10 kHz), breathing mode type oscillations where discharge current mean value and oscillation amplitude peak. The mean discharge current is minimized while thrust-to-power and anode efficiency are maximized in Mode 2, where higher frequency (50-90 kHz), low amplitude, cathode oscillations dominate. Thrust is maximized in Mode 3 and decreases by 5-6% with decreasing magnetic field strength. The presence or absence of spokes and strong cathode oscillations do not affect each other or discharge current. Similar to unshielded thrusters, mode transitions and plasma oscillations affect magnetically shielded thruster performance and should be characterized during system development.

  14. Finding A Minimally Informative Dirichlet Prior Using Least Squares

    SciTech Connect

    Dana Kelly

    2011-03-01

    In a Bayesian framework, the Dirichlet distribution is the conjugate distribution to the multinomial likelihood function, and so the analyst is required to develop a Dirichlet prior that incorporates available information. However, as it is a multiparameter distribution, choosing the Dirichlet parameters is less straightforward than choosing a prior distribution for a single parameter, such as p in the binomial distribution. In particular, one may wish to incorporate limited information into the prior, resulting in a minimally informative prior distribution that is responsive to updates with sparse data. In the case of binomial p or Poisson \\lambda, the principle of maximum entropy can be employed to obtain a so-called constrained noninformative prior. However, even in the case of p, such a distribution cannot be written down in the form of a standard distribution (e.g., beta, gamma), and so a beta distribution is used as an approximation in the case of p. In the case of the multinomial model with parametric constraints, the approach of maximum entropy does not appear tractable. This paper presents an alternative approach, based on constrained minimization of a least-squares objective function, which leads to a minimally informative Dirichlet prior distribution. The alpha-factor model for common-cause failure, which is widely used in the United States, is the motivation for this approach, and is used to illustrate the method. In this approach to modeling common-cause failure, the alpha-factors, which are the parameters in the underlying multinomial model for common-cause failure, must be estimated from data that are often quite sparse, because common-cause failures tend to be rare, especially failures of more than two or three components, and so a prior distribution that is responsive to updates with sparse data is needed.

  15. Finding a Minimally Informative Dirichlet Prior Distribution Using Least Squares

    SciTech Connect

    Dana Kelly; Corwin Atwood

    2011-03-01

    In a Bayesian framework, the Dirichlet distribution is the conjugate distribution to the multinomial likelihood function, and so the analyst is required to develop a Dirichlet prior that incorporates available information. However, as it is a multiparameter distribution, choosing the Dirichlet parameters is less straight-forward than choosing a prior distribution for a single parameter, such as p in the binomial distribution. In particular, one may wish to incorporate limited information into the prior, resulting in a minimally informative prior distribution that is responsive to updates with sparse data. In the case of binomial p or Poisson, the principle of maximum entropy can be employed to obtain a so-called constrained noninformative prior. However, even in the case of p, such a distribution cannot be written down in closed form, and so an approximate beta distribution is used in the case of p. In the case of the multinomial model with parametric constraints, the approach of maximum entropy does not appear tractable. This paper presents an alternative approach, based on constrained minimization of a least-squares objective function, which leads to a minimally informative Dirichlet prior distribution. The alpha-factor model for common-cause failure, which is widely used in the United States, is the motivation for this approach, and is used to illustrate the method. In this approach to modeling common-cause failure, the alpha-factors, which are the parameters in the underlying multinomial aleatory model for common-cause failure, must be estimated from data that is often quite sparse, because common-cause failures tend to be rare, especially failures of more than two or three components, and so a prior distribution that is responsive to updates with sparse data is needed.

  16. Common clay and shale

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Virta, R.L.

    2011-01-01

    The article discusses the latest developments in the global common clay and shale industry, particularly in the U.S. It claims that common clay and shale is mainly used in the manufacture of heavy clay products like brick, flue tile and sewer pipe. The main producing states in the U.S. include North Carolina, New York and Oklahoma. Among the firms that manufacture clay and shale-based products are Mid America Brick & Structural Clay Products LLC and Boral USA.

  17. Common clay and shale

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Virta, R.L.

    2006-01-01

    At present, 150 companies produce common clay and shale in 41 US states. According to the United States Geological Survey (USGS), domestic production in 2005 reached 24.8 Mt valued at $176 million. In decreasing order by tonnage, the leading producer states include North Carolina, Texas, Alabama, Georgia and Ohio. For the whole year, residential and commercial building construction remained the major market for common clay and shale products such as brick, drain tile, lightweight aggregate, quarry tile and structural tile.

  18. Compact two-photon laser-scanning microscope made from minimally modified commercial components

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Iyer, Vijay; Hoogland, Tycho; Losavio, Bradley E.; McQuiston, A. R.; Saggau, Peter

    2002-06-01

    A compact two-photon laser-scanning microscope (TPLSM) was constructed using a diode-pumped, mode-locked Nd:YLF laser (Biolight 1000, Coherent Laser Group) and a small confocal laser scan-head (PCM2000, Nikon Bioscience). The laser emits at 1047nm and is fiber-coupled to a compact compressor unit producing a pulse-width of ~175fsec. Both the pulse compressor and confocal scan head were interfaced on a small optical breadboard that was directly attached to an upright research microscope (Eclipse E600FN, Nikon Bioscience). Two-photon fluorescence emitted from the specimen was collected into a multimode fiber and transmitted directly to an external PMT supplied with the Nikon confocal system. The modifications to the scanhead were minimal (a single mirror replacement) and did not interfere with its confocal function. The resulting system offers several advantages: compact size, turnkey operation, and the ability to translate the microscope rather than an often delicate specimen. In addition, it is possible to switch between confocal and two-photon operation, allowing for straightforward comparison. Using this compact TPLSM, we obtained structural and functional images from hippocampal neurons in living brain slices using commonly available fluorophores.

  19. Few-mode fibers for mode division multiplexing transmission

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Kubota, Hirokazu; Morioka, Toshio

    2012-01-01

    A study is presented of the fiber properties needed to achieve 10-mode multiplexing transmission. A combination of MIMO processing with optical LP mode separation is proposed to prevent the need for massive MIMO computation. The impact of mode crosstalk, differential mode delay, and the mode dependent loss of the few-mode fibers on mode multiplexing are discussed.

  20. Integrated mode converter for mode division multiplexing

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Perez-Galacho, Diego; Alonso-Ramos, Carlos Alberto; Marris-Morini, Delphine; Vakarin, Vladyslav; Le Roux, Xavier; Ortega-Moñux, Alejandro; Wangüemert-Perez, Juan Gonzalo; Vivien, Laurent

    2016-05-01

    The ever growing demands of bandwidth in optical communication systems are making traditional Wavelength Division Multiplexing (WDM) based systems to reach its limit. In order to cope with future bandwidth demand is necessary to use new levels of orthogonality, such as the waveguide mode or the polarization state. Mode Division Multiplexing (MDM) has recently attracted attention as a possible solution to increase aggregate bandwidth. In this work we discuss the proposition a of mode converter that can cover the whole C-Band of optical communications. The Mode Converter is based on two Multimode Interference (MMI) couplers and a phase shifter. Insertion loss (IL) below 0.2 dB and Extinction ratio (ER) higher than 20 dB in a broad bandwidth range of 1.5 μm to 1.6 μm have been estimated. The total length of the device is less than 30 μm.

  1. Failure modes in surface micromachined microelectromechanical actuators

    SciTech Connect

    Miller, S.L.; Rodgers, M.S.; LaVigne, G.; Sniegowski, J.J.; Clews, P.; Tanner, D.M.; Peterson, K.A.

    1998-03-01

    In order for the rapidly emerging field of MicroElectroMechanical Systems (MEMS) to meet its extraordinary expectations regarding commercial impact, issues pertaining to how they fail must be understood. The authors identify failure modes common to a broad range of MEMS actuators, including adhesion (stiction) and friction induced failures caused by improper operational methods, mechanical instabilities, and electrical instabilities. Demonstrated methods to mitigate these failure modes include implementing optimized designs, model based operational methods, and chemical surface treatments.

  2. Minimally Invasive Liver Surgery for Hepatic Colorectal Metastases

    PubMed Central

    Nassour, Ibrahim; Polanco, Patricio M.

    2016-01-01

    Minimally invasive surgery has been cautiously introduced in surgical oncology over the last two decades due to a concern of compromised oncological outcomes. Recently, it has been adopted in liver surgery for colorectal metastases. Colorectal cancer is a major cause of cancer-related death in the USA. In addition, liver metastasis is the most common site of distant disease and its resection improves survival. While open resection was the standard of care, laparoscopic liver surgery has become the standard of care for minor liver resections. Laparoscopic liver surgery provides equivalent oncological outcomes with better perioperative results compared to open liver surgery. Robotic liver surgery has been introduced as it is believed to overcome some of the limitations of laparoscopy. Finally, laparoscopic radio-frequency ablation and microwave coagulation can be used as adjuncts in minimally invasive surgery to complement or replace surgical resection when not possible. PMID:27570500

  3. Minimally Invasive Liver Surgery for Hepatic Colorectal Metastases.

    PubMed

    Nassour, Ibrahim; Polanco, Patricio M

    2016-04-01

    Minimally invasive surgery has been cautiously introduced in surgical oncology over the last two decades due to a concern of compromised oncological outcomes. Recently, it has been adopted in liver surgery for colorectal metastases. Colorectal cancer is a major cause of cancer-related death in the USA. In addition, liver metastasis is the most common site of distant disease and its resection improves survival. While open resection was the standard of care, laparoscopic liver surgery has become the standard of care for minor liver resections. Laparoscopic liver surgery provides equivalent oncological outcomes with better perioperative results compared to open liver surgery. Robotic liver surgery has been introduced as it is believed to overcome some of the limitations of laparoscopy. Finally, laparoscopic radio-frequency ablation and microwave coagulation can be used as adjuncts in minimally invasive surgery to complement or replace surgical resection when not possible.

  4. Common cardiac arrhythmias: recognition and treatment.

    PubMed

    Talmers, F N; Kinhal, V; Sabharwal, S; Weissler, A M

    1981-04-01

    Cardiac arrhythmias are commonly seen in the everyday practice of medicine by the physician. Although certain arrhythmias may be suspected clinically, precise diagnosis is made by electrocardiographic recording of the abnormal rhythm. Once the arrhythmia has been recorded, the next steps are proper electrocardiographic diagnosis and selection of proper treatment. The specific mode of therapy and the speed with which it is delivered will depend not only on the type of arrhythmia, but also on the hemodynamic consequences of the rhythm abnormality on the patient's cardiovascular system. The purpose of this paper is to discuss the electrocardiographic criteria of common cardiac arrhythmias as well as current concepts regarding therapy.

  5. Dual FOV infrared lens design with the laser common aperture optics

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Chang, Wei-jun; Zhang, Xuan-zhi; Luan, Ya-dong; Zhang, Bo

    2015-02-01

    With the demand of autonomous precision guidance of air defense missile, the system scheme of the IR imaging/Ladar dual-mode seeker with a common aperture was proposed, and the optical system used in was designed. The system had a common receiving aperture, and its structure was very compact, so it could meet the requirement for the miniaturization of the seeker. Besides, it also could meet the demands of a wide field of view for searching target, and the demands for accurately recognizing and tracking the target at the same time. In order to increase the narrow FOV tracking performance, the dual FOV infrared optical used the zooming mode which some components flip in or out the optical system to firm the target signal. The dual FOV optics are divided into the zooming part, with dual variable focal length, and the reimaging part which was chosen in such a way to minimize the objective lens while maintaining 100% cold shield efficiency. The final infrared optics including 4°×3°(NFOV) and 16°×12°(WFOV) was designed. The NFOV lens composed of two common IR/Ladar lens, three relay lens, a beam splitter and two reflective fold mirrors, while WFOV lens increased two lens such as Germanium and Silicon. The common IR/Ladar lens ZnS and ZnSe could refractive the IR optics and Laser optics. The beam splitter which refractived IR optics and reflected Laser optics was located in the middle of Germanium and Silicon. The designed optical system had good image quality, and fulfilled the performance requirement of seeker system.

  6. Minimal representations, geometric quantization, and unitarity.

    PubMed Central

    Brylinski, R; Kostant, B

    1994-01-01

    In the framework of geometric quantization we explicitly construct, in a uniform fashion, a unitary minimal representation pio of every simply-connected real Lie group Go such that the maximal compact subgroup of Go has finite center and Go admits some minimal representation. We obtain algebraic and analytic results about pio. We give several results on the algebraic and symplectic geometry of the minimal nilpotent orbits and then "quantize" these results to obtain the corresponding representations. We assume (Lie Go)C is simple. PMID:11607478

  7. Minimal covariant observables identifying all pure states

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Carmeli, Claudio; Heinosaari, Teiko; Toigo, Alessandro

    2013-09-01

    It has been recently shown by Heinosaari, Mazzarella and Wolf (2013) [1] that an observable that identifies all pure states of a d-dimensional quantum system has minimally 4d-4 outcomes or slightly less (the exact number depending on d). However, no simple construction of this type of minimal observable is known. We investigate covariant observables that identify all pure states and have minimal number of outcomes. It is shown that the existence of this kind of observables depends on the dimension of the Hilbert space.

  8. Technology applications for radioactive waste minimization

    SciTech Connect

    Devgun, J.S.

    1994-07-01

    The nuclear power industry has achieved one of the most successful examples of waste minimization. The annual volume of low-level radioactive waste shipped for disposal per reactor has decreased to approximately one-fifth the volume about a decade ago. In addition, the curie content of the total waste shipped for disposal has decreased. This paper will discuss the regulatory drivers and economic factors for waste minimization and describe the application of technologies for achieving waste minimization for low-level radioactive waste with examples from the nuclear power industry.

  9. Streaming tearing mode

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Shigeta, M.; Sato, T.; Dasgupta, B.

    1985-01-01

    The magnetohydrodynamic stability of streaming tearing mode is investigated numerically. A bulk plasma flow parallel to the antiparallel magnetic field lines and localized in the neutral sheet excites a streaming tearing mode more strongly than the usual tearing mode, particularly for the wavelength of the order of the neutral sheet width (or smaller), which is stable for the usual tearing mode. Interestingly, examination of the eigenfunctions of the velocity perturbation and the magnetic field perturbation indicates that the streaming tearing mode carries more energy in terms of the kinetic energy rather than the magnetic energy. This suggests that the streaming tearing mode instability can be a more feasible mechanism of plasma acceleration than the usual tearing mode instability.

  10. 3-D Mixed Mode Delamination Fracture Criteria - An Experimentalist's Perspective

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Reeder, James R.

    2006-01-01

    Many delamination failure criteria based on fracture toughness have been suggested over the past few decades, but most only covered the region containing mode I and mode II components of loading because that is where toughness data existed. With new analysis tools, more 3D analyses are being conducted that capture a mode III component of loading. This has increased the need for a fracture criterion that incorporates mode III loading. The introduction of a pure mode III fracture toughness test has also produced data on which to base a full 3D fracture criterion. In this paper, a new framework for visualizing 3D fracture criteria is introduced. The common 2D power law fracture criterion was evaluated to produce unexpected predictions with the introduction of mode III and did not perform well in the critical high mode I region. Another 2D criterion that has been shown to model a wide range of materials well was used as the basis for a new 3D criterion. The new criterion is based on assumptions that the relationship between mode I and mode III toughness is similar to the relation between mode I and mode II and that a linear interpolation can be used between mode II and mode III. Until mixed-mode data exists with a mode III component of loading, 3D fracture criteria cannot be properly evaluated, but these assumptions seem reasonable.

  11. Finding the Common Ground.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Wallace, Dawn

    1980-01-01

    Describes an attempt to combine secondary English instruction emphasizing United States literature with science and history by finding "common ground" between these disciplines in (1) the separation of truth from falsehood and (2) logical thinking. Biographies combined history and literature, and science fiction combined science and English;…

  12. Common Standards for All

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Principal, 2010

    2010-01-01

    About three-fourths of the states have already adopted the Common Core State Standards, which were designed to provide more clarity about and consistency in what is expected of student learning across the country. However, given the brief time since the standards' final release in June, questions persist among educators, who will have the…

  13. Navagating the Common Core

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    McShane, Michael Q.

    2014-01-01

    This article presents a debate over the Common Core State Standards Initiative as it has rocketed to the forefront of education policy discussions around the country. The author contends that there is value in having clear cross state standards that will clarify the new online and blended learning that the growing use of technology has provided…

  14. Information Commons to Go

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Bayer, Marc Dewey

    2008-01-01

    Since 2004, Buffalo State College's E. H. Butler Library has used the Information Commons (IC) model to assist its 8,500 students with library research and computer applications. Campus Technology Services (CTS) plays a very active role in its IC, with a centrally located Computer Help Desk and a newly created Application Support Desk right in the…

  15. Space station commonality analysis

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    1988-01-01

    This study was conducted on the basis of a modification to Contract NAS8-36413, Space Station Commonality Analysis, which was initiated in December, 1987 and completed in July, 1988. The objective was to investigate the commonality aspects of subsystems and mission support hardware while technology experiments are accommodated on board the Space Station in the mid-to-late 1990s. Two types of mission are considered: (1) Advanced solar arrays and their storage; and (2) Satellite servicing. The point of departure for definition of the technology development missions was a set of missions described in the Space Station Mission Requirements Data Base. (MRDB): TDMX 2151 Solar Array/Energy Storage Technology; TDMX 2561 Satellite Servicing and Refurbishment; TDMX 2562 Satellite Maintenance and Repair; TDMX 2563 Materials Resupply (to a free-flyer materials processing platform); TDMX 2564 Coatings Maintenance Technology; and TDMX 2565 Thermal Interface Technology. Issues to be addressed according to the Statement of Work included modularity of programs, data base analysis interactions, user interfaces, and commonality. The study was to consider State-of-the-art advances through the 1990s and to select an appropriate scale for the technology experiments, considering hardware commonality, user interfaces, and mission support requirements. The study was to develop evolutionary plans for the technology advancement missions.

  16. Commonalities across Effective Collaboratives.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Russell, Jill F.; Flynn, Richard B.

    2000-01-01

    Examined effective collaborations involving schools and colleges of education and other organizations, identifying commonly voiced reasons for collaboration and factors perceived as important in collaboration. Data come from research, case descriptions, survey responses, and input from collaborators. Willingness to listen, mutual respect,…

  17. The Common School

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Pring, Richard

    2007-01-01

    The paper is concerned with the conflicting principles revealed respectively by those who argue for the common school and by those who seek to promote a system of schools that, though maintained by the state, might reflect the different religious beliefs within the community. The philosopher, John Dewey, is appealed to in defence of the common…

  18. Solving Common Mathematical Problems

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Luz, Paul L.

    2005-01-01

    Mathematical Solutions Toolset is a collection of five software programs that rapidly solve some common mathematical problems. The programs consist of a set of Microsoft Excel worksheets. The programs provide for entry of input data and display of output data in a user-friendly, menu-driven format, and for automatic execution once the input data has been entered.

  19. Pleasure: the common currency.

    PubMed

    Cabanac, M

    1992-03-21

    At present as physiologists studying various homeostatic behaviors, such as thermoregulatory behavior and food and fluid intake, we have no common currency that allows us to equate the strength of the motivational drive that accompanies each regulatory need, in terms of how an animal or a person will choose to satisfy his needs when there is a conflict between two or more of them. Yet the behaving organism must rank his priorities and needs a common currency to achieve the ranking (McFarland & Sibly, 1975, Phil. Trans. R. Soc. Lond. 270 Biol 265-293). A theory is proposed here according to which pleasure is this common currency. The perception of pleasure, as measured operationally and quantitatively by choice behavior (in the case of animals), or by the rating of the intensity of pleasure or displeasure (in the case of humans) can serve as such a common currency. The tradeoffs between various motivations would thus be accomplished by simple maximization of pleasure. In what follows, the scientific work arising recently on this subject, with be reviewed briefly and our recent experimental findings will be presented. This will serve as the support for the theoretical position formulated in this essay.

  20. Common Magnets, Unexpected Polarities

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Olson, Mark

    2013-01-01

    In this paper, I discuss a "misconception" in magnetism so simple and pervasive as to be typically unnoticed. That magnets have poles might be considered one of the more straightforward notions in introductory physics. However, the magnets common to students' experiences are likely different from those presented in educational…

  1. Common Carrier Services.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Federal Communications Commission, Washington, DC.

    This bulletin outlines the Federal Communications Commission's (FCC) responsibilities in regulating the interstate and foreign common carrier communication via electrical means. Also summarized are the history, technological development, and current capabilities and prospects of telegraph, wire telephone, radiotelephone, satellite communications,…

  2. Common clay and shale

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Virta, R.L.

    2003-01-01

    Part of the 2002 industrial minerals review. The production, consumption, and price of shale and common clay in the U.S. during 2002 are discussed. The impact of EPA regulations on brick and structural clay product manufacturers is also outlined.

  3. Human Commonalities and Art

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Passmore, Kaye

    2008-01-01

    Educator Ernest Boyer believed that well-educated students should do more than master isolated facts. They should understand the "connectedness of things." He suggested organizing curriculum thematically around eight commonalities shared by people around the world. In the book "The Basic School: A Community for Learning," Boyer recommends that…

  4. Does Common Enrollment Work?

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Carpenter, Dick M., II; Clayton, Grant

    2016-01-01

    In this article, researchers Dick M. Carpenter II and Grant Clayton explore common enrollment systems (CESs)--how they work and what school leaders can learn from districts that have implemented CESs. Denver, New Orleans, and Newark (New Jersey) have rolled out this centralized enrollment process for all district-run and charter schools in their…

  5. Common clay and shale

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Virta, R.L.

    2001-01-01

    Part of the 2000 annual review of the industrial minerals sector. A general overview of the common clay and shale industry is provided. In 2000, U.S. production increased by 5 percent, while sales or use declined to 23.6 Mt. Despite the slowdown in the economy, no major changes are expected for the market.

  6. Common File Formats.

    PubMed

    Mills, Lauren

    2014-03-21

    An overview of the many file formats commonly used in bioinformatics and genome sequence analysis is presented, including various data file formats, alignment file formats, and annotation file formats. Example workflows illustrate how some of the different file types are typically used.

  7. Common Carrier Services.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Federal Communications Commission, Washington, DC.

    After outlining the Federal Communications Commission's (FCC) responsibility for regulating interstate common carrier communication (non-broadcast communication whose carriers are required by law to furnish service at reasonable charges upon request), this information bulletin reviews the history, technological development, and current…

  8. Math, Literacy, & Common Standards

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Education Week, 2012

    2012-01-01

    Nearly every state has signed on to use the Common Core State Standards as a framework for teaching English/language arts and mathematics to students. Translating them for the classroom, however, requires schools, teachers, and students to change the way they approach teaching and learning. This report examines the progress some states have made…

  9. Degreasing of titanium to minimize stress corrosion

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Carpenter, S. R.

    1967-01-01

    Stress corrosion of titanium and its alloys at elevated temperatures is minimized by replacing trichloroethylene with methanol or methyl ethyl ketone as a degreasing agent. Wearing cotton gloves reduces stress corrosion from perspiration before the metal components are processed.

  10. Academic Achievement and Minimal Brain Dysfunction

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Edwards, R. Philip; And Others

    1971-01-01

    The investigation provided no evidence that a diagnosis of minimal brain dysfunction based on a pediatric neurological evaluation and/or visual-motor impairment as measured by the Bender-Gestalt, is a useful predictor of academic achievement. (Author)

  11. Controlling molecular transport in minimal emulsions

    PubMed Central

    Gruner, Philipp; Riechers, Birte; Semin, Benoît; Lim, Jiseok; Johnston, Abigail; Short, Kathleen; Baret, Jean-Christophe

    2016-01-01

    Emulsions are metastable dispersions in which molecular transport is a major mechanism driving the system towards its state of minimal energy. Determining the underlying mechanisms of molecular transport between droplets is challenging due to the complexity of a typical emulsion system. Here we introduce the concept of ‘minimal emulsions', which are controlled emulsions produced using microfluidic tools, simplifying an emulsion down to its minimal set of relevant parameters. We use these minimal emulsions to unravel the fundamentals of transport of small organic molecules in water-in-fluorinated-oil emulsions, a system of great interest for biotechnological applications. Our results are of practical relevance to guarantee a sustainable compartmentalization of compounds in droplet microreactors and to design new strategies for the dynamic control of droplet compositions. PMID:26797564

  12. Genetic algorithms for minimal source reconstructions

    SciTech Connect

    Lewis, P.S.; Mosher, J.C.

    1993-12-01

    Under-determined linear inverse problems arise in applications in which signals must be estimated from insufficient data. In these problems the number of potentially active sources is greater than the number of observations. In many situations, it is desirable to find a minimal source solution. This can be accomplished by minimizing a cost function that accounts from both the compatibility of the solution with the observations and for its ``sparseness``. Minimizing functions of this form can be a difficult optimization problem. Genetic algorithms are a relatively new and robust approach to the solution of difficult optimization problems, providing a global framework that is not dependent on local continuity or on explicit starting values. In this paper, the authors describe the use of genetic algorithms to find minimal source solutions, using as an example a simulation inspired by the reconstruction of neural currents in the human brain from magnetoencephalographic (MEG) measurements.

  13. Heart bypass surgery - minimally invasive - discharge

    MedlinePlus

    ... thrombosis, 9th ed: American College of Chest Physicians evidence-based clinical practice guidelines. Chest . 2012;141(2 ... bypass surgery - minimally invasive Heart failure - overview High blood cholesterol ...

  14. Waste minimization and pollution prevention awareness plan

    SciTech Connect

    Not Available

    1991-05-31

    The purpose of this plan is to document the Lawrence Livermore National Laboratory (LLNL) Waste Minimization and Pollution Prevention Awareness Program. The plan specifies those activities and methods that are or will be employed to reduce the quantity and toxicity of wastes generated at the site. The intent of this plan is to respond to and comply with (DOE's) policy and guidelines concerning the need for pollution prevention. The Plan is composed of a LLNL Waste Minimization and Pollution Prevention Awareness Program Plan and, as attachments, Program- and Department-specific waste minimization plans. This format reflects the fact that waste minimization is considered a line management responsibility and is to be addressed by each of the Programs and Departments. 14 refs.

  15. Mixed waste minimization in a research environment

    SciTech Connect

    Kirner, N.

    1994-12-31

    This presentation describes minimization efforts and processes for mixed waste generated by research facilities. Waste stream assessment and treatment, and database management for various research-related waste streams is detailed.

  16. Controlling molecular transport in minimal emulsions

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Gruner, Philipp; Riechers, Birte; Semin, Benoît; Lim, Jiseok; Johnston, Abigail; Short, Kathleen; Baret, Jean-Christophe

    2016-01-01

    Emulsions are metastable dispersions in which molecular transport is a major mechanism driving the system towards its state of minimal energy. Determining the underlying mechanisms of molecular transport between droplets is challenging due to the complexity of a typical emulsion system. Here we introduce the concept of `minimal emulsions', which are controlled emulsions produced using microfluidic tools, simplifying an emulsion down to its minimal set of relevant parameters. We use these minimal emulsions to unravel the fundamentals of transport of small organic molecules in water-in-fluorinated-oil emulsions, a system of great interest for biotechnological applications. Our results are of practical relevance to guarantee a sustainable compartmentalization of compounds in droplet microreactors and to design new strategies for the dynamic control of droplet compositions.

  17. Laser mode control using leaky plasma channels

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Djordjević, B. Z.; Benedetti, C.; Schroeder, C. B.; Esarey, E.; Leemans, W. P.

    2017-03-01

    The evolution and propagation of a non-Gaussian laser pulse in matched parabolic channels as well as leaky channels are investigated. It has previously been shown for a Gaussian pulse that matched guiding can be achieved using such channels. In the low power regime, analytical work demonstrates that, for multi-mode pulses, there is significant transverse beating. The interaction between different modes may have an adverse effect on the laser pulse as it propagates through the primary channel, in which plasma wakefield acceleration of the electron beam is to occur, and this effect can be shown in numerical simulations of high-power laser-plasma interactions. To improve guiding of the pulse, we propose using leaky channels. Higher order mode content is minimized through the leaky channel, while the fundamental mode remains well-guided. In addition to numerical simulations, it can be qualitatively shown, through the Wentzel-Kramers-Brillouin (WKB) method and the Source Dependent Expansion (SDE) analysis, that in finite channels, higher order modes either leak out or transfer energy to the fundamental. In conclusion, an idealized plasma filter based on leaky channels is found to filter out the higher order modes and leave a near-Gaussian profile before the pulse enters the primary channel.

  18. Flower-petal mode converter for NLC

    SciTech Connect

    Hoag, H.A.; Tantawi, S.G.; Callin, R.

    1993-04-01

    It is important to minimize power loss in the waveguide system connecting klystron, pulse-compressor, and accelerator in an X-Band NLC. However, existing designs of klystron output cavity circuits and accelerator input couplers utilize rectangular waveguide which has relatively high transmission loss. It is therefore necessary to convert to and from the low-loss mode in circular waveguide at each end of the system. A description is given of development work on high-power, high-vacuum `flower-petal` transducers, which convert the TE{sub 10} mode in rectangular guide to the TE{sub 01} mode in circular guide. A three-port modification of the flower petal device, which can be used as either a power combiner at the klystron or a power divider at the accelerator is also described.

  19. Current research in sonic-boom minimization

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Darden, C. M.; Mack, R. J.

    1976-01-01

    A review is given of several questions as yet unanswered in the area of sonic-boom research. Efforts, both here at Langley and elsewhere, in the area of minimization, human response, design techniques and in developing higher order propagation methods are discussed. In addition, a wind-tunnel test program being conducted to assess the validity of minimization methods based on a forward spike in the F-function is described.

  20. Mesonic spectroscopy of minimal walking technicolor

    SciTech Connect

    Del Debbio, Luigi; Lucini, Biagio; Patella, Agostino; Pica, Claudio; Rago, Antonio

    2010-07-01

    We investigate the structure and the novel emerging features of the mesonic nonsinglet spectrum of the minimal walking technicolor theory. Precision measurements in the nonsinglet pseudoscalar and vector channels are compared to the expectations for an IR-conformal field theory and a QCD-like theory. Our results favor a scenario in which minimal walking technicolor is (almost) conformal in the infrared, while spontaneous chiral symmetry breaking seems less plausible.

  1. Minimally invasive treatment of infected pancreatic necrosis

    PubMed Central

    Cebulski, Włodzimierz; Słodkowski, Maciej; Krasnodębski, Ireneusz W.

    2014-01-01

    Infected pancreatic necrosis is a challenging complication that worsens prognosis in acute pancreatitis. For years, open necrosectomy has been the mainstay treatment option in infected pancreatic necrosis, although surgical debridement still results in high morbidity and mortality rates. Recently, many reports on minimally invasive treatment in infected pancreatic necrosis have been published. This paper presents a review of minimally invasive techniques and attempts to define their role in the management of infected pancreatic necrosis. PMID:25653725

  2. A modified secant method for unconstrained minimization

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Polak, E.

    1972-01-01

    A gradient-secant algorithm for unconstrained optimization problems is presented. The algorithm uses Armijo gradient method iterations until it reaches a region where the Newton method is more efficient, and then switches over to a secant form of operation. It is concluded that an efficient method for unconstrained minimization has been developed, and that any convergent minimization method can be substituted for the Armijo gradient method.

  3. Minimally Invasive Osteotomies of the Calcaneus.

    PubMed

    Guyton, Gregory P

    2016-09-01

    Osteotomies of the calcaneus are powerful surgical tools, representing a critical component of the surgical reconstruction of pes planus and pes cavus deformity. Modern minimally invasive calcaneal osteotomies can be performed safely with a burr through a lateral incision. Although greater kerf is generated with the burr, the effect is modest, can be minimized, and is compatible with many fixation techniques. A hinged jig renders the procedure more reproducible and accessible.

  4. Gravitino problem in minimal supergravity inflation

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Hasegawa, Fuminori; Mukaida, Kyohei; Nakayama, Kazunori; Terada, Takahiro; Yamada, Yusuke

    2017-04-01

    We study non-thermal gravitino production in the minimal supergravity inflation. In this minimal model utilizing orthogonal nilpotent superfields, the particle spectrum includes only graviton, gravitino, inflaton, and goldstino. We find that a substantial fraction of the cosmic energy density can be transferred to the longitudinal gravitino due to non-trivial change of its sound speed. This implies either a breakdown of the effective theory after inflation or a serious gravitino problem.

  5. Minimally invasive osteosynthesis technique for articular fractures.

    PubMed

    Beale, Brian S; Cole, Grayson

    2012-09-01

    Articular fractures require accurate reduction and rigid stabilization to decrease the chance of osteoarthritis and joint dysfunction. Articular fractures have been traditionally repaired by arthrotomy and internal fixation. Recently, minimally invasive techniques have been introduced to treat articular fractures, reducing patient morbidity and improving the accuracy of reduction. A variety of techniques, including distraction, radiographic imaging, and arthroscopy, are used with the minimally invasive osteosynthesis technique of articular fractures to achieve a successful repair and outcome.

  6. Alternating minimization and Boltzmann machine learning.

    PubMed

    Byrne, W

    1992-01-01

    Training a Boltzmann machine with hidden units is appropriately treated in information geometry using the information divergence and the technique of alternating minimization. The resulting algorithm is shown to be closely related to gradient descent Boltzmann machine learning rules, and the close relationship of both to the EM algorithm is described. An iterative proportional fitting procedure for training machines without hidden units is described and incorporated into the alternating minimization algorithm.

  7. Single-Mode VCSELs

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Larsson, Anders; Gustavsson, Johan S.

    The only active transverse mode in a truly single-mode VCSEL is the fundamental mode with a near Gaussian field distribution. A single-mode VCSEL produces a light beam of higher spectral purity, higher degree of coherence and lower divergence than a multimode VCSEL and the beam can be more precisely shaped and focused to a smaller spot. Such beam properties are required in many applications. In this chapter, after discussing applications of single-mode VCSELs, we introduce the basics of fields and modes in VCSELs and review designs implemented for single-mode emission from VCSELs in different materials and at different wavelengths. This includes VCSELs that are inherently single-mode as well as inherently multimode VCSELs where higher-order modes are suppressed by mode selective gain or loss. In each case we present the current state-of-the-art and discuss pros and cons. At the end, a specific example with experimental results is provided and, as a summary, the most promising designs based on current technologies are identified.

  8. Removal of Invisalign retention attachments: a new minimally invasive method.

    PubMed

    Ruiz, Jose Luis; Finger, Werner J; Sasazaki, Hiromi; Komatsu, Masahi

    2009-01-01

    Removal of Invisalign resin retention buttons without damaging underlying enamel is a major challenge. To date, the use of tungsten carbide burs is the most common and fastest--yet a risky-ablation method. Stainbuster, a fiber-reinforced resin bur, has been introduced for removal of surface stains and resin remnants from tooth surfaces. This comparative in vitro and in vivo study proved that a combined technique, using multifluted tungsten carbide burs for fast removal of the bulk of resin followed by Stainbuster grinding for gentle removal of the final resin layer, is a safe and minimally invasive procedure for removing composite buttons from enamel.

  9. Shoulder Arthroplasty: Key Steps to Improve Outcomes and Minimize Complications.

    PubMed

    Cheung, Emilie V; Diaz, Roberto; Athwal, George S; Sanchez-Sotelo, Joaquin; Sperling, John W

    2016-01-01

    Advances in shoulder replacement surgery have allowed for the successful treatment of various shoulder conditions. As the elderly population increases and the surgical indications for shoulder replacement surgery continue to expand, the number of shoulder replacements performed annually will continue to increase. Accordingly, the number of complications also will be expected to increase. Successful shoulder replacement outcomes require surgeons to have a thorough understanding of the surgical indications, surgical technique, and potential complications of the procedure. By reviewing the key aspects of shoulder replacement surgery and focusing on the surgical technique and common complications for both anatomic and reverse total shoulder arthroplasty, surgeons can help improve outcomes and minimize complications.

  10. Minimalism in Art, Medical Science and Neurosurgery.

    PubMed

    Ökten, Ali İhsan

    2016-12-21

    The word ''minimalism'' is a word derived from French the word ''minimum''. Whereas the lexical meaning of minimum is ''the least or the smallest quantity necessary for something'', its expression in mathematics can be described as ''the lowest step a variable number can descend, least, minimal''. Minimalism, which advocates an extreme simplicity of the artistic form, is a current in modern art and music whose origins go to 1960s and which features simplicity and objectivity. Although art, science and philosophy are different disciplines, they support each other from time to time, sometimes they intertwine and sometimes they copy each other. A periodic schools or teaching in one of them can take the others into itself, so, they proceed on their ways empowering each other. It is also true for the minimalism in art and the minimal invasive surgical approaches in science. Concepts like doing with less, avoiding unnecessary materials and reducing the number of the elements in order to increase the effect in the expression which are the main elements of the minimalism in art found their equivalents in medicine and neurosurgery. Their equivalents in medicine or neurosurgery have been to protect the physical integrity of the patient with less iatrogenic injury, minimum damage and the same therapeutic effect in the most effective way and to enable the patient to regain his health in the shortest span of time.

  11. Economic impact of minimally invasive lumbar surgery

    PubMed Central

    Hofstetter, Christoph P; Hofer, Anna S; Wang, Michael Y

    2015-01-01

    Cost effectiveness has been demonstrated for traditional lumbar discectomy, lumbar laminectomy as well as for instrumented and noninstrumented arthrodesis. While emerging evidence suggests that minimally invasive spine surgery reduces morbidity, duration of hospitalization, and accelerates return to activites of daily living, data regarding cost effectiveness of these novel techniques is limited. The current study analyzes all available data on minimally invasive techniques for lumbar discectomy, decompression, short-segment fusion and deformity surgery. In general, minimally invasive spine procedures appear to hold promise in quicker patient recovery times and earlier return to work. Thus, minimally invasive lumbar spine surgery appears to have the potential to be a cost-effective intervention. Moreover, novel less invasive procedures are less destabilizing and may therefore be utilized in certain indications that traditionally required arthrodesis procedures. However, there is a lack of studies analyzing the economic impact of minimally invasive spine surgery. Future studies are necessary to confirm the durability and further define indications for minimally invasive lumbar spine procedures. PMID:25793159

  12. Mode Transitions in Hall Effect Thrusters

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Sekerak, Michael J.; Longmier, Benjamin W.; Gallimore, Alec D.; Brown, Daniel L.; Hofer, Richard R.; Polk, James E.

    2013-01-01

    Mode transitions have been commonly observed in Hall Effect Thruster (HET) operation where a small change in a thruster operating parameter such as discharge voltage, magnetic field or mass flow rate causes the thruster discharge current mean value and oscillation amplitude to increase significantly. Mode transitions in a 6-kW-class HET called the H6 are induced by varying the magnetic field intensity while holding all other operating parameters constant and measurements are acquired with ion saturation probes and ultra-fast imaging. Global and local oscillation modes are identified. In the global mode, the entire discharge channel oscillates in unison and azimuthal perturbations (spokes) are either absent or negligible. Downstream azimuthally spaced probes show no signal delay between each other and are very well correlated to the discharge current signal. In the local mode, signals from the azimuthally spaced probes exhibit a clear delay indicating the passage of "spokes" and are not well correlated to the discharge current. These spokes are localized oscillations propagating in the ExB direction that are typically 10-20% of the mean value. In contrast, the oscillations in the global mode can be 100% of the mean value. The transition between global and local modes occurs at higher relative magnetic field strengths for higher mass flow rates or higher discharge voltages. The thrust is constant through mode transition but the thrust-to-power decreased by 25% due to increasing discharge current. The plume shows significant differences between modes with the global mode significantly brighter in the channel and the near-field plasma plume as well as exhibiting a luminous spike on thruster centerline. Mode transitions provide valuable insight to thruster operation and suggest improved methods for thruster performance characterization.

  13. Sequential unconstrained minimization algorithms for constrained optimization

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Byrne, Charles

    2008-02-01

    The problem of minimizing a function f(x):RJ → R, subject to constraints on the vector variable x, occurs frequently in inverse problems. Even without constraints, finding a minimizer of f(x) may require iterative methods. We consider here a general class of iterative algorithms that find a solution to the constrained minimization problem as the limit of a sequence of vectors, each solving an unconstrained minimization problem. Our sequential unconstrained minimization algorithm (SUMMA) is an iterative procedure for constrained minimization. At the kth step we minimize the function G_k(x)=f(x)+g_k(x), to obtain xk. The auxiliary functions gk(x):D ⊆ RJ → R+ are nonnegative on the set D, each xk is assumed to lie within D, and the objective is to minimize the continuous function f:RJ → R over x in the set C=\\overline D , the closure of D. We assume that such minimizers exist, and denote one such by \\hat x . We assume that the functions gk(x) satisfy the inequalities 0\\leq g_k(x)\\leq G_{k-1}(x)-G_{k-1}(x^{k-1}), for k = 2, 3, .... Using this assumption, we show that the sequence {f(xk)} is decreasing and converges to f({\\hat x}) . If the restriction of f(x) to D has bounded level sets, which happens if \\hat x is unique and f(x) is closed, proper and convex, then the sequence {xk} is bounded, and f(x^*)=f({\\hat x}) , for any cluster point x*. Therefore, if \\hat x is unique, x^*={\\hat x} and \\{x^k\\}\\rightarrow {\\hat x} . When \\hat x is not unique, convergence can still be obtained, in particular cases. The SUMMA includes, as particular cases, the well-known barrier- and penalty-function methods, the simultaneous multiplicative algebraic reconstruction technique (SMART), the proximal minimization algorithm of Censor and Zenios, the entropic proximal methods of Teboulle, as well as certain cases of gradient descent and the Newton-Raphson method. The proof techniques used for SUMMA can be extended to obtain related results for the induced proximal

  14. Common tester platform concept.

    SciTech Connect

    Hurst, Michael James

    2008-05-01

    This report summarizes the results of a case study on the doctrine of a common tester platform, a concept of a standardized platform that can be applicable across the broad spectrum of testing requirements throughout the various stages of a weapons program, as well as across the various weapons programs. The common tester concept strives to define an affordable, next-generation design that will meet testing requirements with the flexibility to grow and expand; supporting the initial development stages of a weapons program through to the final production and surveillance stages. This report discusses a concept investing key leveraging technologies and operational concepts combined with prototype tester-development experiences and practical lessons learned gleaned from past weapons programs.

  15. Common medical pains

    PubMed Central

    Jacobson, Sheila

    2007-01-01

    Pain in infancy and childhood is extremely common. Sources of pain include illness, injury, and medical and dental procedures. Over the past two decades, tremendous progress has been made in the assessment, prevention and treatment of pain. It is important for the paediatric health care provider to be aware of the implications and consequences of pain in childhood. A multitude of interventions are available to reduce or alleviate pain in children of all ages, including neonates. These include behavioural and psychological methods, as well as a host of pharmacological preparations, which are safe and effective when used as indicated. Many complementary and alternative treatments appear to be promising in treating and relieving pain, although further research is required. The present article reviews the most common sources of pain in childhood and infancy, as well as current treatment strategies and options. PMID:19030348

  16. Common drive unit

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Ellis, R. C.; Fink, R. A.; Moore, E. A.

    1987-01-01

    The Common Drive Unit (CDU) is a high reliability rotary actuator with many versatile applications in mechanism designs. The CDU incorporates a set of redundant motor-brake assemblies driving a single output shaft through differential. Tachometers provide speed information in the AC version. Operation of both motors, as compared to the operation of one motor, will yield the same output torque with twice the output speed.

  17. Common Skin Cancers

    PubMed Central

    Ho, Vincent C.

    1992-01-01

    Melanoma, basal cell carcinoma, and squamous cell carcinoma are the three most common forms of skin cancer. The incidence of skin cancer is increasing at an alarming rate. Early detection is the key to successful management. In this article, the salient clinical features and diagnostic clues for these tumors and their precursor lesions are presented. Current management guidelines are also discussed. ImagesFigure 1Figures 2-3Figures 4-6Figures 7-9 PMID:21221380

  18. Common Cause Failure Modeling

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Hark, Frank; Britton, Paul; Ring, Rob; Novack, Steven D.

    2015-01-01

    Common Cause Failures (CCFs) are a known and documented phenomenon that defeats system redundancy. CCFS are a set of dependent type of failures that can be caused by: system environments; manufacturing; transportation; storage; maintenance; and assembly, as examples. Since there are many factors that contribute to CCFs, the effects can be reduced, but they are difficult to eliminate entirely. Furthermore, failure databases sometimes fail to differentiate between independent and CCF (dependent) failure and data is limited, especially for launch vehicles. The Probabilistic Risk Assessment (PRA) of NASA's Safety and Mission Assurance Directorate at Marshall Space Flight Center (MFSC) is using generic data from the Nuclear Regulatory Commission's database of common cause failures at nuclear power plants to estimate CCF due to the lack of a more appropriate data source. There remains uncertainty in the actual magnitude of the common cause risk estimates for different systems at this stage of the design. Given the limited data about launch vehicle CCF and that launch vehicles are a highly redundant system by design, it is important to make design decisions to account for a range of values for independent and CCFs. When investigating the design of the one-out-of-two component redundant system for launch vehicles, a response surface was constructed to represent the impact of the independent failure rate versus a common cause beta factor effect on a system's failure probability. This presentation will define a CCF and review estimation calculations. It gives a summary of reduction methodologies and a review of examples of historical CCFs. Finally, it presents the response surface and discusses the results of the different CCFs on the reliability of a one-out-of-two system.

  19. Common neuropathic itch syndromes.

    PubMed

    Oaklander, Anne Louise

    2012-03-01

    Patients with chronic itch are diagnosed and treated by dermatologists. However, itch is a neural sensation and some forms of chronic itch are the presenting symptoms of neurological diseases. Dermatologists need some familiarity with the most common neuropathic itch syndromes to initiate diagnostic testing and to know when to refer to a neurologist. This review summarizes current knowledge, admittedly incomplete, on neuropathic itch caused by diseases of the brain, spinal cord, cranial or spinal nerve-roots, and peripheral nerves.

  20. Common Cause Failure Modeling

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Hark, Frank; Britton, Paul; Ring, Rob; Novack, Steven D.

    2016-01-01

    Common Cause Failures (CCFs) are a known and documented phenomenon that defeats system redundancy. CCFS are a set of dependent type of failures that can be caused by: system environments; manufacturing; transportation; storage; maintenance; and assembly, as examples. Since there are many factors that contribute to CCFs, the effects can be reduced, but they are difficult to eliminate entirely. Furthermore, failure databases sometimes fail to differentiate between independent and CCF (dependent) failure and data is limited, especially for launch vehicles. The Probabilistic Risk Assessment (PRA) of NASA's Safety and Mission Assurance Directorate at Marshal Space Flight Center (MFSC) is using generic data from the Nuclear Regulatory Commission's database of common cause failures at nuclear power plants to estimate CCF due to the lack of a more appropriate data source. There remains uncertainty in the actual magnitude of the common cause risk estimates for different systems at this stage of the design. Given the limited data about launch vehicle CCF and that launch vehicles are a highly redundant system by design, it is important to make design decisions to account for a range of values for independent and CCFs. When investigating the design of the one-out-of-two component redundant system for launch vehicles, a response surface was constructed to represent the impact of the independent failure rate versus a common cause beta factor effect on a system's failure probability. This presentation will define a CCF and review estimation calculations. It gives a summary of reduction methodologies and a review of examples of historical CCFs. Finally, it presents the response surface and discusses the results of the different CCFs on the reliability of a one-out-of-two system.

  1. Common Anorectal Disorders

    PubMed Central

    Foxx-Orenstein, Amy E.; Umar, Sarah B.; Crowell, Michael D.

    2014-01-01

    Anorectal disorders result in many visits to healthcare specialists. These disorders include benign conditions such as hemorrhoids to more serious conditions such as malignancy; thus, it is important for the clinician to be familiar with these disorders as well as know how to conduct an appropriate history and physical examination. This article reviews the most common anorectal disorders, including hemorrhoids, anal fissures, fecal incontinence, proctalgia fugax, excessive perineal descent, and pruritus ani, and provides guidelines on comprehensive evaluation and management. PMID:24987313

  2. Ordinary electromagnetic mode instability

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Cheng, C. Z.

    1974-01-01

    The instability of the ordinary electromagnetic mode propagating perpendicular to an external magnetic field is studied for a single-species plasma with ring velocity distribution. The marginal instability boundaries for both the purely growing mode and the propagating growing modes are calculated from the instability criteria. The dispersion characteristics for various sets of plasma parameters are also given. The typical growth rates are of the order of the cyclotron frequency.

  3. Design of Compact Multi-Megawatt Mode Converter

    SciTech Connect

    Dolgashev, V.A.; Tantawi, S.G.; Nantista, C.D.; /SLAC

    2006-03-21

    Experience gained during recent operation of high power 11.424 GHz rf sources for accelerators led to new, more strict requirements on system components. One of the basic components of such a system is a mode converter that transforms the rectangular waveguide mode into the TE{sub 01} mode in circular waveguide. With such a converter, it is possible to minimize the use of WR90 rectangular waveguide which was shown to be a weak part of the previous system at power levels higher than 100 MW and pulse lengths on the order of a microsecond. We used several methods to design a mode converter with extremely low parasitic mode conversion and compact size. These methods employ HFSS[4] and include multi-parameter searches, concurrent optimization with a mode-matching code Cascade[2], cascading of resulting S-matrices, and tolerance analysis using perturbation techniques. This report describes the design methods and presents results.

  4. Common Geometry Module

    SciTech Connect

    Tautges, Timothy J.

    2005-01-01

    The Common Geometry Module (CGM) is a code library which provides geometry functionality used for mesh generation and other applications. This functionality includes that commonly found in solid modeling engines, like geometry creation, query and modification; CGM also includes capabilities not commonly found in solid modeling engines, like geometry decomposition tools and support for shared material interfaces. CGM is built upon the ACIS solid modeling engine, but also includes geometry capability developed beside and on top of ACIS. CGM can be used as-is to provide geometry functionality for codes needing this capability. However, CGM can also be extended using derived classes in C++, allowing the geometric model to serve as the basis for other applications, for example mesh generation. CGM is supported on Sun Solaris, SGI, HP, IBM, DEC, Linux and Windows NT platforms. CGM also indudes support for loading ACIS models on parallel computers, using MPI-based communication. Future plans for CGM are to port it to different solid modeling engines, including Pro/Engineer or SolidWorks. CGM is being released into the public domain under an LGPL license; the ACIS-based engine is available to ACIS licensees on request.

  5. Minimal supergravity scalar neutrino dark matter and inverse seesaw neutrino masses.

    PubMed

    Arina, C; Bazzocchi, F; Fornengo, N; Romao, J C; Valle, J W F

    2008-10-17

    We show that within the inverse seesaw mechanism for generating neutrino masses, minimal supergravity naturally provides the scalar neutrino as the lightest superparticle. We also demonstrate that such schemes naturally reconcile the small neutrino masses with the correct relic scalar neutrino dark matter abundance and accessible direct detection rates in nuclear recoil experiments. This way, inverse seesaw minimal supergravity offers a common solution to the generation of the neutrino mass and to the origin of dark matter.

  6. Dual-Mode Combustor

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Trefny, Charles J (Inventor); Dippold, Vance F (Inventor)

    2013-01-01

    A new dual-mode ramjet combustor used for operation over a wide flight Mach number range is described. Subsonic combustion mode is usable to lower flight Mach numbers than current dual-mode scramjets. High speed mode is characterized by supersonic combustion in a free-jet that traverses the subsonic combustion chamber to a variable nozzle throat. Although a variable combustor exit aperture is required, the need for fuel staging to accommodate the combustion process is eliminated. Local heating from shock-boundary-layer interactions on combustor walls is also eliminated.

  7. SAMPEX special pointing mode

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Markley, F. Landis; Flatley, Thomas W.; Leoutsakos, Theodore

    1995-01-01

    A new pointing mode has been developed for the Solar, Anomalous, and Magnetospheric Particle Explorer (SAMPEX) spacecraft. This pointing mode orients the instrument boresights perpendicular to the field lines of the Earth's magnetic field in regions of low field strength and parallel to the field lines in regions of high field strength, to allow better characterization of heavy ions trapped by the field. The new mode uses magnetometer signals and is algorithmically simpler than the previous control mode, but it requires increased momentum wheel activity. It was conceived, designed, tested, coded, uplinked to the spacecraft, and activated in less than seven months.

  8. Minimization of color shift generated in RGBW quad structure.

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Kim, Hong Chul; Yun, Jae Kyeong; Baek, Heume-Il; Kim, Ki Duk; Oh, Eui Yeol; Chung, In Jae

    2005-03-01

    The purpose of RGBW Quad Structure Technology is to realize higher brightness than that of normal panel (RGB stripe structure) by adding white sub-pixel to existing RGB stripe structure. However, there is side effect called 'color shift' resulted from increasing brightness. This side effect degrades general color characteristics due to change of 'Hue', 'Brightness' and 'Saturation' as compared with existing RGB stripe structure. Especially, skin-tone colors show a tendency to get darker in contrast to normal panel. We"ve tried to minimize 'color shift' through use of LUT (Look Up Table) for linear arithmetic processing of input data, data bit expansion to 12-bit for minimizing arithmetic tolerance and brightness weight of white sub-pixel on each R, G, B pixel. The objective of this study is to minimize and keep Δu'v' value (we commonly use to represent a color difference), quantitative basis of color difference between RGB stripe structure and RGBW quad structure, below 0.01 level (existing 0.02 or higher) using Macbeth colorchecker that is general reference of color characteristics.

  9. Complications of Minimally Invasive Cosmetic Procedures: Prevention and Management

    PubMed Central

    Levy, Lauren L; Emer, Jason J

    2012-01-01

    Over the past decade, facial rejuvenation procedures to circumvent traditional surgery have become increasingly popular. Office-based, minimally invasive procedures can promote a youthful appearance with minimal downtime and low risk of complications. Injectable botulinum toxin (BoNT), soft-tissue fillers, and chemical peels are among the most popular non-invasive rejuvenation procedures, and each has unique applications for improving facial aesthetics. Despite the simplicity and reliability of office-based procedures, complications can occur even with an astute and experienced injector. The goal of any procedure is to perform it properly and safely; thus, early recognition of complications when they do occur is paramount in dictating prevention of long-term sequelae. The most common complications from BoNT and soft-tissue filler injection are bruising, erythema and pain. With chemical peels, it is not uncommon to have erythema, irritation and burning. Fortunately, these side effects are normally transient and have simple remedies. More serious complications include muscle paralysis from BoNT, granuloma formation from soft-tissue filler placement and scarring from chemical peels. Thankfully, these complications are rare and can be avoided with excellent procedure technique, knowledge of facial anatomy, proper patient selection, and appropriate pre- and post-skin care. This article reviews complications of office-based, minimally invasive procedures, with emphasis on prevention and management. Practitioners providing these treatments should be well versed in this subject matter in order to deliver the highest quality care. PMID:23060707

  10. A Pathogen-Selective Antibiotic Minimizes Disturbance to the Microbiome

    PubMed Central

    Yao, Jiangwei; Carter, Robert A.; Vuagniaux, Grégoire; Barbier, Maryse; Rosch, Jason W.

    2016-01-01

    Broad-spectrum antibiotic therapy decimates the gut microbiome, resulting in a variety of negative health consequences. Debio 1452 is a staphylococcus-selective enoyl-acyl carrier protein reductase (FabI) inhibitor under clinical development and was used to determine whether treatment with pathogen-selective antibiotics would minimize disturbance to the microbiome. The effect of oral Debio 1452 on the microbiota of mice was compared to the effects of four commonly used broad-spectrum oral antibiotics. During the 10 days of oral Debio 1452 treatment, there was minimal disturbance to the gut bacterial abundance and composition, with only the unclassified S24-7 taxon reduced at days 6 and 10. In comparison, broad-spectrum oral antibiotics caused ∼100- to 4,000-fold decreases in gut bacterial abundance and severely altered the microbial composition. The gut bacterial abundance and composition of Debio 1452-treated mice were indistinguishable from those of untreated mice 2 days after the antibiotic treatment was stopped. In contrast, the bacterial abundance in broad-spectrum-antibiotic-treated mice took up to 7 days to recover, and the gut composition of the broad-spectrum-antibiotic-treated mice remained different from that of the control group 20 days after the cessation of antibiotic treatment. These results illustrate that a pathogen-selective approach to antibiotic development will minimize disturbance to the gut microbiome. PMID:27161626

  11. ToF-SIMS Depth Profiling Of Insulating Samples, Interlaced Mode Or Non-interlaced Mode?

    SciTech Connect

    Wang, Zhaoying; Jin, Ke; Zhang, Yanwen; Wang, Fuyi; Zhu, Zihua

    2014-11-01

    Dual beam depth profiling strategy has been widely adopted in ToF-SIMS depth profiling, in which two basic operation modes, interlaced mode and non-interlaced mode, are commonly used. Generally, interlaced mode is recommended for conductive or semi-conductive samples, whereas non-interlaced mode is recommended for insulating samples, where charge compensation can be an issue. Recent publications, however, show that the interlaced mode can be used effectively for glass depth profiling, despite the fact that glass is an insulator. In this study, we provide a simple guide for choosing between interlaced mode and non-interlaced mode for insulator depth profiling. Two representative cases are presented: (1) depth profiling of a leached glass sample, and (2) depth profiling of a single crystal MgO sample. In brief, the interlaced mode should be attempted first, because (1) it may provide reasonable-quality data, and (2) it is time-saving for most cases, and (3) it introduces low H/C/O background. If data quality is the top priority and measurement time is flexible, non-interlaced mode is recommended because interlaced mode may suffer from low signal intensity and poor mass resolution. A big challenge is tracking trace H/C/O in a highly insulating sample (e.g., MgO), because non-interlaced mode may introduce strong H/C/O background but interlaced mode may suffer from low signal intensity. Meanwhile, a C or Au coating is found to be very effective to improve the signal intensity. Surprisingly, the best analyzing location is not on the C or Au coating, but at the edge (outside) of the coating.

  12. Blackfolds, plane waves and minimal surfaces

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Armas, Jay; Blau, Matthias

    2015-07-01

    Minimal surfaces in Euclidean space provide examples of possible non-compact horizon geometries and topologies in asymptotically flat space-time. On the other hand, the existence of limiting surfaces in the space-time provides a simple mechanism for making these configurations compact. Limiting surfaces appear naturally in a given space-time by making minimal surfaces rotate but they are also inherent to plane wave or de Sitter space-times in which case minimal surfaces can be static and compact. We use the blackfold approach in order to scan for possible black hole horizon geometries and topologies in asymptotically flat, plane wave and de Sitter space-times. In the process we uncover several new configurations, such as black helicoids and catenoids, some of which have an asymptotically flat counterpart. In particular, we find that the ultraspinning regime of singly-spinning Myers-Perry black holes, described in terms of the simplest minimal surface (the plane), can be obtained as a limit of a black helicoid, suggesting that these two families of black holes are connected. We also show that minimal surfaces embedded in spheres rather than Euclidean space can be used to construct static compact horizons in asymptotically de Sitter space-times.

  13. A variable stiffness transverse mode shape memory alloy actuator as a minimally invasive organ positioner

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Anderson, W.; Eshghinejad, A.; Azadegan, R.; Cooper, C.; Elahinia, M.

    2013-09-01

    Smart materials have gained a great deal of attention in recent years because of their unique actuation properties. Actuators are needed in the medical field where space is limited. Presented within this work is an organ positioner used to position the esophagus away from the left atrium to avoid the development of an esophageal fistula during atrial fibrillation (afib) ablation procedures. Within this work, a subroutine was implemented into the finite element framework to predict the midspan load capacity of a near equiatomic NiTi specimen in both the super elastic and shape memory regimes. The purpose of the simulations and experimental results was to develop a design envelope for the organ positioning device. The transverse loading experiments were conducted at several different temperatures leading to the ability to design a variable stiffness actuator. This is essential because the actuator must not be too stiff to injure the organ it is positioning. Extended further, geometric perturbations were applied in the virtual model and the entire design envelope was developed. Further, nitinol was tested for safety in the radio-frequency environment (to ensure that local heating will not occur in the ablation environment). With the safety of the device confirmed, a primitive prototype was manufactured and successfully tested in a cadaver. The design of the final device is also presented. The contribution of this work is the presentation of a new type of positoning device for medical purposes (NiTiBOP). In the process a comprehensive model for transverse actuation of an SMA actuator was developed and experimentally verified.

  14. Necessity of capillary modes in a minimal model of nanoscale hydrophobic solvation

    PubMed Central

    Vaikuntanathan, Suriyanarayanan; Rotskoff, Grant; Hudson, Alexander; Geissler, Phillip L.

    2016-01-01

    Modern theories of the hydrophobic effect highlight its dependence on length scale, emphasizing the importance of interfaces in the vicinity of sizable hydrophobes. We recently showed that a faithful treatment of such nanoscale interfaces requires careful attention to the statistics of capillary waves, with significant quantitative implications for the calculation of solvation thermodynamics. Here, we show that a coarse-grained lattice model like that of Chandler [Chandler D (2005) Nature 437(7059):640–647], when informed by this understanding, can capture a broad range of hydrophobic behaviors with striking accuracy. Specifically, we calculate probability distributions for microscopic density fluctuations that agree very well with results of atomistic simulations, even many SDs from the mean and even for probe volumes in highly heterogeneous environments. This accuracy is achieved without adjustment of free parameters, because the model is fully specified by well-known properties of liquid water. As examples of its utility, we compute the free-energy profile for a solute crossing the air–water interface, as well as the thermodynamic cost of evacuating the space between extended nanoscale surfaces. These calculations suggest that a highly reduced model for aqueous solvation can enable efficient multiscale modeling of spatial organization driven by hydrophobic and interfacial forces. PMID:26957607

  15. Diagonal dominance for the multivariable Nyquist array using function minimization

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Leininger, G. G.

    1977-01-01

    A new technique for the design of multivariable control systems using the multivariable Nyquist array method was developed. A conjugate direction function minimization algorithm is utilized to achieve a diagonal dominant condition over the extended frequency range of the control system. The minimization is performed on the ratio of the moduli of the off-diagonal terms to the moduli of the diagonal terms of either the inverse or direct open loop transfer function matrix. Several new feedback design concepts were also developed, including: (1) dominance control parameters for each control loop; (2) compensator normalization to evaluate open loop conditions for alternative design configurations; and (3) an interaction index to determine the degree and type of system interaction when all feedback loops are closed simultaneously. This new design capability was implemented on an IBM 360/75 in a batch mode but can be easily adapted to an interactive computer facility. The method was applied to the Pratt and Whitney F100 turbofan engine.

  16. Multimodal Word Meaning Induction From Minimal Exposure to Natural Text.

    PubMed

    Lazaridou, Angeliki; Marelli, Marco; Baroni, Marco

    2017-03-21

    By the time they reach early adulthood, English speakers are familiar with the meaning of thousands of words. In the last decades, computational simulations known as distributional semantic models (DSMs) have demonstrated that it is possible to induce word meaning representations solely from word co-occurrence statistics extracted from a large amount of text. However, while these models learn in batch mode from large corpora, human word learning proceeds incrementally after minimal exposure to new words. In this study, we run a set of experiments investigating whether minimal distributional evidence from very short passages suffices to trigger successful word learning in subjects, testing their linguistic and visual intuitions about the concepts associated with new words. After confirming that subjects are indeed very efficient distributional learners even from small amounts of evidence, we test a DSM on the same multimodal task, finding that it behaves in a remarkable human-like way. We conclude that DSMs provide a convincing computational account of word learning even at the early stages in which a word is first encountered, and the way they build meaning representations can offer new insights into human language acquisition.

  17. A minimal model for the structural energetics of VO2

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Kim, Chanul; Marianetti, Chris; The Marianetti Group Team

    Resolving the structural, magnetic, and electronic structure of VO2 from the first-principles of quantum mechanics is still a forefront problem despite decades of attention. Hybrid functionals have been shown to qualitatively ruin the structural energetics. While density functional theory (DFT) combined with cluster extensions of dynamical mean-field theory (DMFT) have demonstrated promising results in terms of the electronic properties, structural phase stability has not yet been addressed. In order to capture the basic physics of the structural transition, we propose a minimal model of VO2 based on the one dimensional Peierls-Hubbard model and parameterize this based on DFT calculations of VO2. The total energy versus dimerization in the minimal mode is then solved numerically exactly using density matrix renormalization group (DMRG) and compared to the Hartree-Fock solution. We demonstrate that the Hartree-Fock solution exhibits the same pathologies as DFT+U, and spin density functional theory for that matter, while the DMRG solution is consistent with experimental observation. Our results demonstrate the critical role of non-locality in the total energy, and this will need to be accounted for to obtain a complete description of VO2 from first-principles. The authors acknowledge support from FAME, one of six centers of STARnet, a Semiconductor Research Corporation program sponsored by MARCO and DARPA.

  18. Common surgical complications in degenerative spinal surgery.

    PubMed

    Papadakis, Michael; Aggeliki, Lianou; Papadopoulos, Elias C; Girardi, Federico P

    2013-04-18

    The rapid growth of spine degenerative surgery has led to unrelenting efforts to define and prevent possible complications, the incidence of which is probably higher than that reported and varies according to the region of the spine involved (cervical and thoracolumbar) and the severity of the surgery. Several issues are becoming progressively clearer, such as complication rates in primary versus revision spinal surgery, complications in the elderly, the contribution of minimally invasive surgery to the reduction of complication rate. In this paper the most common surgical complications in degenerative spinal surgery are outlined and discussed.

  19. Irradiation treatment of minimally processed carrots for ensuring microbiological safety

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Ashraf Chaudry, Muhammad; Bibi, Nizakat; Khan, Misal; Khan, Maazullah; Badshah, Amal; Jamil Qureshi, Muhammad

    2004-09-01

    Minimally processed fruits and vegetables are very common in developed countries and are gaining popularity in developing countries due to their convenience and freshness. However, minimally processing may result in undesirable changes in colour, taste and appearance due to the transfer of microbes from skin to the flesh. Irradiation is a well-known technology for elimination of microbial contamination. Food irradiation has been approved by 50 countries and is being applied commercially in USA. The purpose of this study was to evaluate the effect of irradiation on the quality of minimally processed carrots. Fresh carrots were peeled, sliced and PE packaged. The samples were irradiated (0, 0.5, 1.0, 2.0, 2.5, 3.0 kGy) and stored at 5°C for 2 weeks. The samples were analyzed for hardness, organoleptic acceptance and microbial load at 0, 7th and 15th day. The mean firmness of the control and all irradiated samples remained between 4.31 and 4.42 kg of force, showing no adverse effect of radiation dose. The effect of storage (2 weeks) was significant ( P< 0.05) with values ranging between 4.28 and 4.39 kg of force. The total bacterial counts at 5°C for non-irradiated and 0.5 kGy irradiated samples were 6.3×10 5 cfu/g, 3.0×10 2 and few colonies(>10) in all other irradiated samples(1.0, 2.0, 2.5 and 3.0 kGy) after 2 weeks storage. No coliform or E. coli were detected in any of the samples (radiated or control) immediately after irradiation and during the entire storage period in minimally processed carrots. A dose of 2.0 kGy completely controlled the fungal and bacterial counts. The irradiated samples (2.0 kGy) were also acceptable sensorially.

  20. Modes, Genres, and Formats, Oh My!

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Culham, Ruth

    2016-01-01

    The precision of terminology and language used with students can be a help or a hindrance to teaching writing. This article explores the writing instruction terms mode, genre, and format, and establishes the need for a common language to understand and apply them consistently across teachers and grades.

  1. Approximate error conjugation gradient minimization methods

    DOEpatents

    Kallman, Jeffrey S

    2013-05-21

    In one embodiment, a method includes selecting a subset of rays from a set of all rays to use in an error calculation for a constrained conjugate gradient minimization problem, calculating an approximate error using the subset of rays, and calculating a minimum in a conjugate gradient direction based on the approximate error. In another embodiment, a system includes a processor for executing logic, logic for selecting a subset of rays from a set of all rays to use in an error calculation for a constrained conjugate gradient minimization problem, logic for calculating an approximate error using the subset of rays, and logic for calculating a minimum in a conjugate gradient direction based on the approximate error. In other embodiments, computer program products, methods, and systems are described capable of using approximate error in constrained conjugate gradient minimization problems.

  2. One-dimensional Gromov minimal filling problem

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Ivanov, Alexandr O.; Tuzhilin, Alexey A.

    2012-05-01

    The paper is devoted to a new branch in the theory of one-dimensional variational problems with branching extremals, the investigation of one-dimensional minimal fillings introduced by the authors. On the one hand, this problem is a one-dimensional version of a generalization of Gromov's minimal fillings problem to the case of stratified manifolds. On the other hand, this problem is interesting in itself and also can be considered as a generalization of another classical problem, the Steiner problem on the construction of a shortest network connecting a given set of terminals. Besides the statement of the problem, we discuss several properties of the minimal fillings and state several conjectures. Bibliography: 38 titles.

  3. Waste Minimization Measurement and Progress Reporting

    SciTech Connect

    Stone, K.A.

    1995-02-13

    Westinghouse Savannah River Company is implementing productivity improvement concepts into the Waste Minimization Program by focusing on the positive initiatives taken to reduce waste generation at the Savannah River Site. Previous performance measures, based only on waste generation rates, proved to be an ineffective metric for measuring performance and promoting continuous improvements within the Program. Impacts of mission changes and non-routine operations impeded development of baseline waste generation rates and often negated waste generation trending reports. A system was developed to quantify, document and track innovative activities that impact waste volume and radioactivity/toxicity reductions. This system coupled with Management-driven waste disposal avoidance goals is proving to be a powerful tool to promote waste minimization awareness and the implementation of waste reduction initiatives. Measurement of waste not generated, in addition to waste generated, increases the credibility of the Waste Minimization Program, improves sharing of success stories, and supports development of regulatory and management reports

  4. Minimal Length Scale Scenarios for Quantum Gravity.

    PubMed

    Hossenfelder, Sabine

    2013-01-01

    We review the question of whether the fundamental laws of nature limit our ability to probe arbitrarily short distances. First, we examine what insights can be gained from thought experiments for probes of shortest distances, and summarize what can be learned from different approaches to a theory of quantum gravity. Then we discuss some models that have been developed to implement a minimal length scale in quantum mechanics and quantum field theory. These models have entered the literature as the generalized uncertainty principle or the modified dispersion relation, and have allowed the study of the effects of a minimal length scale in quantum mechanics, quantum electrodynamics, thermodynamics, black-hole physics and cosmology. Finally, we touch upon the question of ways to circumvent the manifestation of a minimal length scale in short-distance physics.

  5. Minimal perceptrons for memorizing complex patterns

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Pastor, Marissa; Song, Juyong; Hoang, Danh-Tai; Jo, Junghyo

    2016-11-01

    Feedforward neural networks have been investigated to understand learning and memory, as well as applied to numerous practical problems in pattern classification. It is a rule of thumb that more complex tasks require larger networks. However, the design of optimal network architectures for specific tasks is still an unsolved fundamental problem. In this study, we consider three-layered neural networks for memorizing binary patterns. We developed a new complexity measure of binary patterns, and estimated the minimal network size for memorizing them as a function of their complexity. We formulated the minimal network size for regular, random, and complex patterns. In particular, the minimal size for complex patterns, which are neither ordered nor disordered, was predicted by measuring their Hamming distances from known ordered patterns. Our predictions agree with simulations based on the back-propagation algorithm.

  6. PRIME: Phase Retrieval via Majorization-Minimization

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Qiu, Tianyu; Babu, Prabhu; Palomar, Daniel P.

    2016-10-01

    This paper considers the phase retrieval problem in which measurements consist of only the magnitude of several linear measurements of the unknown, e.g., spectral components of a time sequence. We develop low-complexity algorithms with superior performance based on the majorization-minimization (MM) framework. The proposed algorithms are referred to as PRIME: Phase Retrieval vIa the Majorization-minimization techniquE. They are preferred to existing benchmark methods since at each iteration a simple surrogate problem is solved with a closed-form solution that monotonically decreases the original objective function. In total, four algorithms are proposed using different majorization-minimization techniques. Experimental results validate that our algorithms outperform existing methods in terms of successful recovery and mean square error under various settings.

  7. Minimally invasive neurosurgery for cerebrospinal fluid disorders.

    PubMed

    Guillaume, Daniel J

    2010-10-01

    This article focuses on minimally invasive approaches used to address disorders of cerebrospinal fluid (CSF) circulation. The author covers the primary CSF disorders that are amenable to minimally invasive treatment, including aqueductal stenosis, fourth ventricular outlet obstruction (including Chiari malformation), isolated lateral ventricle, isolated fourth ventricle, multiloculated hydrocephalus, arachnoid cysts, and tumors that block CSF flow. General approaches to evaluating disorders of CSF circulation, including detailed imaging studies, are discussed. Approaches to minimally invasive management of such disorders are described in general, and for each specific entity. For each procedure, indications, surgical technique, and known outcomes are detailed. Specific complications as well as strategies for their avoidance and management are addressed. Lastly, future directions and the need for structured outcome studies are discussed.

  8. Cost-effectiveness of minimally invasive sacroiliac joint fusion

    PubMed Central

    Cher, Daniel J; Frasco, Melissa A; Arnold, Renée JG; Polly, David W

    2016-01-01

    Background Sacroiliac joint (SIJ) disorders are common in patients with chronic lower back pain. Minimally invasive surgical options have been shown to be effective for the treatment of chronic SIJ dysfunction. Objective To determine the cost-effectiveness of minimally invasive SIJ fusion. Methods Data from two prospective, multicenter, clinical trials were used to inform a Markov process cost-utility model to evaluate cumulative 5-year health quality and costs after minimally invasive SIJ fusion using triangular titanium implants or non-surgical treatment. The analysis was performed from a third-party perspective. The model specifically incorporated variation in resource utilization observed in the randomized trial. Multiple one-way and probabilistic sensitivity analyses were performed. Results SIJ fusion was associated with a gain of approximately 0.74 quality-adjusted life years (QALYs) at a cost of US$13,313 per QALY gained. In multiple one-way sensitivity analyses all scenarios resulted in an incremental cost-effectiveness ratio (ICER) <$26,000/QALY. Probabilistic analyses showed a high degree of certainty that the maximum ICER for SIJ fusion was less than commonly selected thresholds for acceptability (mean ICER =$13,687, 95% confidence interval $5,162–$28,085). SIJ fusion provided potential cost savings per QALY gained compared to non-surgical treatment after a treatment horizon of greater than 13 years. Conclusion Compared to traditional non-surgical treatments, SIJ fusion is a cost-effective, and, in the long term, cost-saving strategy for the treatment of SIJ dysfunction due to degenerative sacroiliitis or SIJ disruption. PMID:26719717

  9. Minimally invasive surgical techniques in periodontal regeneration.

    PubMed

    Cortellini, Pierpaolo

    2012-09-01

    A review of the current scientific literature was undertaken to evaluate the efficacy of minimally invasive periodontal regenerative surgery in the treatment of periodontal defects. The impact on clinical outcomes, surgical chair-time, side effects and patient morbidity were evaluated. An electronic search of PUBMED database from January 1987 to December 2011 was undertaken on dental journals using the key-word "minimally invasive surgery". Cohort studies, retrospective studies and randomized controlled clinical trials referring to treatment of periodontal defects with at least 6 months of follow-up were selected. Quality assessment of the selected studies was done through the Strength of Recommendation Taxonomy Grading (SORT) System. Ten studies (1 retrospective, 5 cohorts and 4 RCTs) were included. All the studies consistently support the efficacy of minimally invasive surgery in the treatment of periodontal defects in terms of clinical attachment level gain, probing pocket depth reduction and minimal gingival recession. Six studies reporting on side effects and patient morbidity consistently indicate very low levels of pain and discomfort during and after surgery resulting in a reduced intake of pain-killers and very limited interference with daily activities in the post-operative period. Minimally invasive surgery might be considered a true reality in the field of periodontal regeneration. The observed clinical improvements are consistently associated with very limited morbidity to the patient during the surgical procedure as well as in the post-operative period. Minimally invasive surgery, however, cannot be applied at all cases. A stepwise decisional algorithm should support clinicians in choosing the treatment approach.

  10. Mode decomposition evolution equations

    PubMed Central

    Wang, Yang; Wei, Guo-Wei; Yang, Siyang

    2011-01-01

    Partial differential equation (PDE) based methods have become some of the most powerful tools for exploring the fundamental problems in signal processing, image processing, computer vision, machine vision and artificial intelligence in the past two decades. The advantages of PDE based approaches are that they can be made fully automatic, robust for the analysis of images, videos and high dimensional data. A fundamental question is whether one can use PDEs to perform all the basic tasks in the image processing. If one can devise PDEs to perform full-scale mode decomposition for signals and images, the modes thus generated would be very useful for secondary processing to meet the needs in various types of signal and image processing. Despite of great progress in PDE based image analysis in the past two decades, the basic roles of PDEs in image/signal analysis are only limited to PDE based low-pass filters, and their applications to noise removal, edge detection, segmentation, etc. At present, it is not clear how to construct PDE based methods for full-scale mode decomposition. The above-mentioned limitation of most current PDE based image/signal processing methods is addressed in the proposed work, in which we introduce a family of mode decomposition evolution equations (MoDEEs) for a vast variety of applications. The MoDEEs are constructed as an extension of a PDE based high-pass filter (Europhys. Lett., 59(6): 814, 2002) by using arbitrarily high order PDE based low-pass filters introduced by Wei (IEEE Signal Process. Lett., 6(7): 165, 1999). The use of arbitrarily high order PDEs is essential to the frequency localization in the mode decomposition. Similar to the wavelet transform, the present MoDEEs have a controllable time-frequency localization and allow a perfect reconstruction of the original function. Therefore, the MoDEE operation is also called a PDE transform. However, modes generated from the present approach are in the spatial or time domain and can be

  11. Common Variable Immunodeficiency.

    PubMed

    Saikia, Biman; Gupta, Sudhir

    2016-04-01

    Common variable immunodeficiency (CVID) is the most common primary immunodeficiency of young adolescents and adults which also affects the children. The disease remains largely under-diagnosed in India and Southeast Asian countries. Although in majority of cases it is sporadic, disease may be inherited in a autosomal recessive pattern and rarely, in autosomal dominant pattern. Patients, in addition to frequent sino-pulmonary infections, are also susceptible to various autoimmune diseases and malignancy, predominantly lymphoma and leukemia. Other characteristic lesions include lymphocytic and granulomatous interstitial lung disease, and nodular lymphoid hyperplasia of gut. Diagnosis requires reduced levels of at least two immunoglobulin isotypes: IgG with IgA and/or IgM and impaired specific antibody response to vaccines. A number of gene mutations have been described in CVID; however, these genetic alterations account for less than 20% of cases of CVID. Flow cytometry aptly demonstrates a disturbed B cell homeostasis with reduced or absent memory B cells and increased CD21(low) B cells and transitional B cell populations. Approximately one-third of patients with CVID also display T cell functional defects. Immunoglobulin therapy remains the mainstay of treatment. Immunologists and other clinicians in India and other South East Asian countries need to be aware of CVID so that early diagnosis can be made, as currently, majority of these patients still go undiagnosed.

  12. Excursions through KK modes

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Furuuchi, Kazuyuki

    2016-07-01

    In this article we study Kaluza-Klein (KK) dimensional reduction of massive Abelian gauge theories with charged matter fields on a circle. Since local gauge transformations change position dependence of the charged fields, the decomposition of the charged matter fields into KK modes is gauge dependent. While whole KK mass spectrum is independent of the gauge choice, the mode number depends on the gauge. The masses of the KK modes also depend on the field value of the zero-mode of the extra dimensional component of the gauge field. In particular, one of the KK modes in the KK tower of each massless 5D charged field becomes massless at particular values of the extra-dimensional component of the gauge field. When the extra-dimensional component of the gauge field is identified with the inflaton, this structure leads to recursive cosmological particle productions.

  13. Zero-mode waveguides

    DOEpatents

    Levene, Michael J.; Korlach, Jonas; Turner, Stephen W.; Craighead, Harold G.; Webb, Watt W.

    2007-02-20

    The present invention is directed to a method and an apparatus for analysis of an analyte. The method involves providing a zero-mode waveguide which includes a cladding surrounding a core where the cladding is configured to preclude propagation of electromagnetic energy of a frequency less than a cutoff frequency longitudinally through the core of the zero-mode waveguide. The analyte is positioned in the core of the zero-mode waveguide and is then subjected, in the core of the zero-mode waveguide, to activating electromagnetic radiation of a frequency less than the cut-off frequency under conditions effective to permit analysis of the analyte in an effective observation volume which is more compact than if the analysis were carried out in the absence of the zero-mode waveguide.

  14. Excursions through KK modes

    SciTech Connect

    Furuuchi, Kazuyuki

    2016-07-07

    In this article we study Kaluza-Klein (KK) dimensional reduction of massive Abelian gauge theories with charged matter fields on a circle. Since local gauge transformations change position dependence of the charged fields, the decomposition of the charged matter fields into KK modes is gauge dependent. While whole KK mass spectrum is independent of the gauge choice, the mode number depends on the gauge. The masses of the KK modes also depend on the field value of the zero-mode of the extra dimensional component of the gauge field. In particular, one of the KK modes in the KK tower of each massless 5D charged field becomes massless at particular values of the extra-dimensional component of the gauge field. When the extra-dimensional component of the gauge field is identified with the inflaton, this structure leads to recursive cosmological particle productions.

  15. Minimally destructive Doppler measurement of a quantized, superfluid flow

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Anderson, Neil; Kumar, Avinash; Eckel, Stephen; Stringari, Sandro; Campbell, Gretchen

    2016-05-01

    Ring shaped Bose-Einstein condensates are of interest because they support the existence of quantized, persistent currents. These currents arise because in a ring trap, the wavefunction of the condensate must be single valued, and thus the azimuthal velocity is quantized. Previously, these persistent current states have only been measured in a destructive fashion via either interference with a phase reference or using the size of a central vortex-like structure that appears in time of flight. Here, we demonstrate a minimally destructive, in-situ measurement of the winding number of a ring shaped BEC. We excite a standing wave of phonon modes in the ring BEC using a perturbation. If the condensate is in a nonzero circulation state, then the frequency of these phonon modes are Doppler shifted, causing the standing wave to precess about the ring. From the direction and velocity of this precession, we can infer the winding number of the flow. For certain parameters, this technique can detect individual winding numbers with approximately 90% fidelity.

  16. Minimally Invasive Treatment of Spine Trauma.

    PubMed

    McGowan, Jason E; Ricks, Christian B; Kanter, Adam S

    2017-01-01

    The role for minimally invasive surgery (MIS) continues to expand in the management of spinal pathology. In the setting of trauma, operative techniques that can minimize morbidity without compromising clinical efficacy have significant value. MIS techniques are associated with decreased intraoperative blood loss, operative time, and morbidity, while providing patients with comparable outcomes when compared with conventional open procedures. MIS interventions further enable earlier mobilization, decreased hospital stay, decreased pain, and an earlier return to baseline function when compared with traditional techniques. This article reviews patient selection and select MIS techniques for those who have suffered traumatic spinal injury.

  17. The Parisi Formula has a Unique Minimizer

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Auffinger, Antonio; Chen, Wei-Kuo

    2015-05-01

    In 1979, Parisi (Phys Rev Lett 43:1754-1756, 1979) predicted a variational formula for the thermodynamic limit of the free energy in the Sherrington-Kirkpatrick model, and described the role played by its minimizer. This formula was verified in the seminal work of Talagrand (Ann Math 163(1):221-263, 2006) and later generalized to the mixed p-spin models by Panchenko (Ann Probab 42(3):946-958, 2014). In this paper, we prove that the minimizer in Parisi's formula is unique at any temperature and external field by establishing the strict convexity of the Parisi functional.

  18. Minimally invasive treatments for venous compression syndromes

    PubMed Central

    Hulsberg, Paul C.; McLoney, Eric; Partovi, Sasan; Davidson, Jon C.

    2016-01-01

    The management of venous compression syndromes has historically been reliant on surgical treatment when conservative measures fail. There are, however, several settings in which endovascular therapy can play a significant role as an adjunct or even a replacement to more invasive surgical methods. We explore the role of minimally invasive treatment options for three of the most well-studied venous compression syndromes. The clinical aspects and pathophysiology of Paget-Schroetter syndrome (PSS), nutcracker syndrome, and May-Thurner syndrome are discussed in detail, with particular emphasis on the role that interventionalists can play in minimally invasive treatment. PMID:28123978

  19. Instabilities and Solitons in Minimal Strips.

    PubMed

    Machon, Thomas; Alexander, Gareth P; Goldstein, Raymond E; Pesci, Adriana I

    2016-07-01

    We show that highly twisted minimal strips can undergo a nonsingular transition, unlike the singular transitions seen in the Möbius strip and the catenoid. If the strip is nonorientable, this transition is topologically frustrated, and the resulting surface contains a helicoidal defect. Through a controlled analytic approximation, the system can be mapped onto a scalar ϕ^{4} theory on a nonorientable line bundle over the circle, where the defect becomes a topologically protected kink soliton or domain wall, thus establishing their existence in minimal surfaces. Demonstrations with soap films confirm these results and show how the position of the defect can be controlled through boundary deformation.

  20. Reversible Rings with Involutions and Some Minimalities

    PubMed Central

    Fakieh, W. M.; Nauman, S. K.

    2013-01-01

    In continuation of the recent developments on extended reversibilities on rings, we initiate here a study on reversible rings with involutions, or, in short, ∗-reversible rings. These rings are symmetric, reversible, reflexive, and semicommutative. In this note we will study some properties and examples of ∗-reversible rings. It is proved here that the polynomial rings of ∗-reversible rings may not be ∗-reversible. A criterion for rings which cannot adhere to any involution is developed and it is observed that a minimal noninvolutary ring is of order 4 and that a minimal noncommutative ∗-reversible ring is of order 16. PMID:24489510

  1. Pattern Search Methods for Linearly Constrained Minimization

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Lewis, Robert Michael; Torczon, Virginia

    1998-01-01

    We extend pattern search methods to linearly constrained minimization. We develop a general class of feasible point pattern search algorithms and prove global convergence to a Karush-Kuhn-Tucker point. As in the case of unconstrained minimization, pattern search methods for linearly constrained problems accomplish this without explicit recourse to the gradient or the directional derivative. Key to the analysis of the algorithms is the way in which the local search patterns conform to the geometry of the boundary of the feasible region.

  2. Minimizing radiation damage in nonlinear optical crystals

    DOEpatents

    Cooke, D.W.; Bennett, B.L.; Cockroft, N.J.

    1998-09-08

    Methods are disclosed for minimizing laser induced damage to nonlinear crystals, such as KTP crystals, involving various means for electrically grounding the crystals in order to diffuse electrical discharges within the crystals caused by the incident laser beam. In certain embodiments, electrically conductive material is deposited onto or into surfaces of the nonlinear crystals and the electrically conductive surfaces are connected to an electrical ground. To minimize electrical discharges on crystal surfaces that are not covered by the grounded electrically conductive material, a vacuum may be created around the nonlinear crystal. 5 figs.

  3. Minimizing radiation damage in nonlinear optical crystals

    DOEpatents

    Cooke, D. Wayne; Bennett, Bryan L.; Cockroft, Nigel J.

    1998-01-01

    Methods are disclosed for minimizing laser induced damage to nonlinear crystals, such as KTP crystals, involving various means for electrically grounding the crystals in order to diffuse electrical discharges within the crystals caused by the incident laser beam. In certain embodiments, electrically conductive material is deposited onto or into surfaces of the nonlinear crystals and the electrically conductive surfaces are connected to an electrical ground. To minimize electrical discharges on crystal surfaces that are not covered by the grounded electrically conductive material, a vacuum may be created around the nonlinear crystal.

  4. Instabilities and Solitons in Minimal Strips

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Machon, Thomas; Alexander, Gareth P.; Goldstein, Raymond E.; Pesci, Adriana I.

    2016-07-01

    We show that highly twisted minimal strips can undergo a nonsingular transition, unlike the singular transitions seen in the Möbius strip and the catenoid. If the strip is nonorientable, this transition is topologically frustrated, and the resulting surface contains a helicoidal defect. Through a controlled analytic approximation, the system can be mapped onto a scalar ϕ4 theory on a nonorientable line bundle over the circle, where the defect becomes a topologically protected kink soliton or domain wall, thus establishing their existence in minimal surfaces. Demonstrations with soap films confirm these results and show how the position of the defect can be controlled through boundary deformation.

  5. Linearized non-minimal higher curvature supergravity

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Farakos, Fotis; Kehagias, Alex; Koutrolikos, Konstantinos

    2015-05-01

    In the framework of linearized non-minimal supergravity (20/20), we present the embedding of the R +R2 model and we analyze its field spectrum. As usual, the auxiliary fields of the Einstein theory now become propagating, giving rise to additional degrees of freedom, which organize themselves into on-shell irreducible supermultiplets. By performing the analysis both in component and superspace formulations we identify the new supermultiplets. On top of the two massive chiral superfields reminiscent of the old-minimal supergravity embedding, the spectrum contains also a consistent physical, massive, vector supermultiplet and a tachyonic ghost, massive, vector supermultiplet.

  6. Common cutaneous disorders in athletes.

    PubMed

    Conklin, R J

    1990-02-01

    Athletic activity may cause or aggravate skin disorders, which in turn may diminish athletic performance. Since many sporting activities necessitate prolonged exposure to the sun, athletes must avoid painful sunburn which will adversely affect their performance. Drugs and chemicals also may cause photoallergic and/or phototoxic reactions, including polymorphous light eruption and athletes should thus avoid photosensitising drugs and chemicals. The effects of chronic ultraviolet exposure include ageing, pigmentation and skin cancers. The most effective protection against excessive exposure to sunlight is the use of sunscreens, although inadequate application and poor protection in the UVA spectrum may diminish their effectiveness and contact allergies may create other problems. Viral, bacterial and fungal infections are common in athletes due to heat, friction and contact with others. Herpes simplex may be treated with any drying agents (e.g. alcohol) as they are as effective as more expensive topical agents such as acyclovir. Molluscum contagiosum may be spread by close contact or water contact and is treated by superficial incision, cryotherapy or standard wart varnishes. Plantar wart infection is transmitted by swimming pool decks, changing rooms and hand-to-hand from weights in gymnasiums. Plantar warts presenting with pain may be aggressively treated, by blunt dissection, but painless ones are best treated conservatively. Impetigo and folliculitis often develop after trauma. Antibiotics are effective against mild infections while abrasions and lacerations should be cleansed and dressed with occlusive dressings. Diphtheroid bacteria in moist footwear may produce pitted keratolysis and erythrasma. Tinea pedis is common in athletes and probably originates in swimming pools, gymnasium floors and locker rooms. Interdigital, dry-moccasin and pustular-midsole forms can be distinguished. The latter two forms respond to topical antifungal agents, while the interdigital

  7. Breathable Medicine: Pulmonary Mode of Drug Delivery.

    PubMed

    Gandhimathi, Chinnasamy; Venugopal, Jayarama Reddy; Sundarrajan, Subramanian; Sridhar, Radhakrishnan; Tay, Samuel Sam Wah; Ramakrishna, Seeram; Kumar, Srinivasan Dinesh

    2015-04-01

    Pharmaceutically active compounds require different modes of drug delivery systems to accomplish therapeutic activity without loss of its activity and lead to exhibit no adverse effects. Originating from ancient days, pulmonary mode of drug delivery is gaining much importance compared to other modes of drug delivery systems with respect to specific diseases. Pulmonary drug delivery is a non-invasive route for local and systemic therapies together with more patient convenience, compliance and is a needleless system. In this review, we addressed the vaccine delivery via non- or minimally invasive routes. Polymeric nanoparticles are preferred for use in the pulmonary delivery devices owing to a prolonged retention in lungs. Small site for absorption, mucociliary clearance, short residence time and low bioavailability are some of the limitations in pulmonary drug delivery have been resolved by generating micro- and nano-sized aerosol particles. We have classified the breathable medicine on the basis of available devices for inhalation and also prominent diseases treated through pulmonary mode of drug delivery. Owing to increasing toxicity of pharmacological drugs, the use of natural medicines has been rapidly gaining importance recently. The review article describes breathability of medicines or the pulmonary mode of drug delivery system and their drug release profile, absorption, distribution and efficacy to cure asthma and diabetes.

  8. Mode identification of whistler mode, Z-mode, and Langmuir/Upper Hybrid mode waves observed in an auroral sounding rocket experiment

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Colpitts, C. A.; Labelle, J.

    2008-04-01

    The SIERRA (Sounding of the Ion Energization Region - Resolving Ambiguities) rocket was launched to 735 km over an active auroral substorm from Poker Flat, Alaska, on 14 January 2002. A wealth of wave modes at frequencies from below 100 kHz to above 2000 kHz were detected with a dipole electric field antenna that was alternately parallel and perpendicular to Earth's magnetic field. At least two types of whistler mode waves were detected: unstructured broadband whistler waves commonly referred to as auroral hiss occurring at frequencies from <100 kHz up to 1000 kHz, and structured narrowband features in the whistler mode at frequencies of 100 kHz to 600 kHz (Samara and LaBelle, 2006a). Other waves detected in the frequency range 1200 to 2000 kHz were interpreted as Langmuir-upper hybrid waves and Z-mode waves. For the unstructured whistler mode waves, comparison of the observed spin dependence of the wave electric fields with Monte Carlo simulations of the expected spin dependence for various polarizations suggests that these waves propagate on or near the resonance cone, which is consistent with previous measurements. Similar analyses of the presumed Langmuir and Z-mode waves show their electric fields are preferentially parallel and perpendicular to the ambient magnetic field, respectively. These characteristics, together with the relation of the wave frequencies to the Z cutoff frequency, serve to confirm the mode identification of these waves.

  9. New Measurements of Radial Mode Eigenfrequencies

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Laske, G.; Masters, G.; Dziewonski, A. M.

    2001-12-01

    Radial mode eigenfrequencies are commonly thought to be measured with great ease and precision. The reason for this is that these modes have no geographic pattern so one should be able to measure frequencies from a spectrum observed at any station in the world. Yet, radial modes often seem inconsistent with spherical Earth models that fit all other mode frequencies. It turns out that radial modes are sometimes strongly coupled. The strongest coupling is predicted to be with l=2 modes which is caused by the Earth's hydrostatic ellipticity and aspherical structure of harmonic degree 2. In such cases, mode-coupling due to ellipticity alone can cause a frequency shift for the radial modes by more than 4 microHz. Given that mode frequencies can be measured to within 0.1 microHz, this shift is significant, and some singlets of l=2 modes have indeed been misidentified as the radial mode in the past. Including the spectra of the June 23, 2001 Southern Peru Earthquake we have re-analyzed radial mode eigenfrequencies and present a mode dataset that is internally more consistent than previous ones. We construct spherical Earth models that are consistent with our new data, the Earth's mass and moment of inertia and the current best estimates of ``Reference Normal Mode Data'' (available on the Reference Earth Model web site: //mahi.ucsd.edu/Gabi/rem.html). We seek the smallest perturbation to PREM but update the Q-structure as well as the depths of the upper mantle discontinuities (418~km and 660~km as first order discontinuities; 520~km as change in gradient). The best fitting 1D model is transversely isotropic but we also show isotropic models that fit the data to within their errors. We show that the 220~km discontinuity is not required in the isotropic model but that there exists a trade-off between high shear-velocities in the lid and a low-density zone beneath it. We also investigate ways of truncating transverse isotropy without the 220.

  10. Common hair loss disorders.

    PubMed

    Springer, Karyn; Brown, Matthew; Stulberg, Daniel L

    2003-07-01

    Hair loss (alopecia) affects men and women of all ages and often significantly affects social and psychologic well-being. Although alopecia has several causes, a careful history, dose attention to the appearance of the hair loss, and a few simple studies can quickly narrow the potential diagnoses. Androgenetic alopecia, one of the most common forms of hair loss, usually has a specific pattern of temporal-frontal loss in men and central thinning in women. The U.S. Food and Drug Administration has approved topical minoxidil to treat men and women, with the addition of finasteride for men. Telogen effluvium is characterized by the loss of "handfuls" of hair, often following emotional or physical stressors. Alopecia areata, trichotillomania, traction alopecia, and tinea capitis have unique features on examination that aid in diagnosis. Treatment for these disorders and telogen effluvium focuses on resolution of the underlying cause.

  11. [Common anemias in neonatology].

    PubMed

    Humbert, J; Wacker, P

    1999-01-28

    We describe the four most common groups of neonatal anemia and their treatments, with particular emphasis on erythropoietin therapy. The hemolytic anemias include the ABO incompatibility (much more frequent, nowadays, than the Rh incompatibility, which has nearly disappeared following the use of anti-D immunoglobulin in postpartum Rh-negative mothers), hereditary spherocytosis and G-6-PD deficiency. Among hypoplastic anemias, that caused by Parvovirus B19 predominates, by far, over Diamond-Blackfan anemia, alpha-thalassemia and the rare sideroblastic anemias. "Hemorrhagic" anemias occur during twin-to-twin transfusions, or during feto-maternal transfusions. Finally, the multifactorial anemia of prematurity develops principally as a result of the rapid expansion of the blood volume in this group of patients. Erythropoietin therapy, often at doses much higher than those used in the adult, should be seriously considered in most cases of non-hypoplastic neonatal anemias, to minimise maximally the use of transfusions.

  12. TMT common software update

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Gillies, Kim; Brighton, Allan; Buur, Hanne

    2016-08-01

    TMT Common Software (CSW). CSW consists of software services and library code that is used by developers to create the subsystems and components that participate in the software system. CSW also defines the types of components that can be constructed and their functional roles in the software system. TMT CSW has recently passed its preliminary design review. The unique features of CSW include its use of multiple, open-source products as the basis for services, and an approach that works to reduce the amount of CSW-provided infrastructure code. Considerable prototyping was completed during this phase to mitigate risk with results that demonstrate the validity of this design approach and the selected service implementation products. This paper describes the latest design of TMT CSW, key features, and results from the prototyping effort.

  13. Common Superficial Bursitis.

    PubMed

    Khodaee, Morteza

    2017-02-15

    Superficial bursitis most often occurs in the olecranon and prepatellar bursae. Less common locations are the superficial infrapatellar and subcutaneous (superficial) calcaneal bursae. Chronic microtrauma (e.g., kneeling on the prepatellar bursa) is the most common cause of superficial bursitis. Other causes include acute trauma/hemorrhage, inflammatory disorders such as gout or rheumatoid arthritis, and infection (septic bursitis). Diagnosis is usually based on clinical presentation, with a particular focus on signs of septic bursitis. Ultrasonography can help distinguish bursitis from cellulitis. Blood testing (white blood cell count, inflammatory markers) and magnetic resonance imaging can help distinguish infectious from noninfectious causes. If infection is suspected, bursal aspiration should be performed and fluid examined using Gram stain, crystal analysis, glucose measurement, blood cell count, and culture. Management depends on the type of bursitis. Acute traumatic/hemorrhagic bursitis is treated conservatively with ice, elevation, rest, and analgesics; aspiration may shorten the duration of symptoms. Chronic microtraumatic bursitis should be treated conservatively, and the underlying cause addressed. Bursal aspiration of microtraumatic bursitis is generally not recommended because of the risk of iatrogenic septic bursitis. Although intrabursal corticosteroid injections are sometimes used to treat microtraumatic bursitis, high-quality evidence demonstrating any benefit is unavailable. Chronic inflammatory bursitis (e.g., gout, rheumatoid arthritis) is treated by addressing the underlying condition, and intrabursal corticosteroid injections are often used. For septic bursitis, antibiotics effective against Staphylococcus aureus are generally the initial treatment, with surgery reserved for bursitis not responsive to antibiotics or for recurrent cases. Outpatient antibiotics may be considered in those who are not acutely ill; patients who are acutely ill

  14. Latent common genetic components of obesity traits

    PubMed Central

    Harders, R; Luke, A; Zhu, X; Cooper, RS

    2008-01-01

    Background Obesity is rapidly becoming a global epidemic. Unlike many complex human diseases, obesity is defined not just by a single trait or phenotype, but jointly by measures of anthropometry and metabolic status. Methods We applied maximum likelihood factor analysis to identify common latent factors underlying observed covariance in multiple obesity-related measures. Both the genetic components and the mode of inheritance of the common factors were evaluated. A total of 1775 participants from 590 families for whom measures on obesity-related traits were available were included in this study. Results The average age of participants was 37 years, 39% of the participants were obese (body mass index ≥ 30.0 kg/m2) and 26% were overweight (body mass index 25.0 - 29.9 kg/m2). Two latent common factors jointly accounting for over 99% of the correlations among obesity-related traits were identified. Complex segregation analysis of the age and sex-adjusted latent factors provide evidence for a Mendelian mode of inheritance of major genetic effect with heritability estimates of 40.4% and 47.5% for the first and second factors, respectively. Conclusions These findings provide a support for multivariate-based approach for investigating pleiotropic effects on obesity-related traits which can be applied in both genetic linkage and association mapping. PMID:18936762

  15. A streamlined failure mode and effects analysis

    SciTech Connect

    Ford, Eric C. Smith, Koren; Terezakis, Stephanie; Croog, Victoria; Gollamudi, Smitha; Gage, Irene; Keck, Jordie; DeWeese, Theodore; Sibley, Greg

    2014-06-15

    Purpose: Explore the feasibility and impact of a streamlined failure mode and effects analysis (FMEA) using a structured process that is designed to minimize staff effort. Methods: FMEA for the external beam process was conducted at an affiliate radiation oncology center that treats approximately 60 patients per day. A structured FMEA process was developed which included clearly defined roles and goals for each phase. A core group of seven people was identified and a facilitator was chosen to lead the effort. Failure modes were identified and scored according to the FMEA formalism. A risk priority number,RPN, was calculated and used to rank failure modes. Failure modes with RPN > 150 received safety improvement interventions. Staff effort was carefully tracked throughout the project. Results: Fifty-two failure modes were identified, 22 collected during meetings, and 30 from take-home worksheets. The four top-ranked failure modes were: delay in film check, missing pacemaker protocol/consent, critical structures not contoured, and pregnant patient simulated without the team's knowledge of the pregnancy. These four failure modes hadRPN > 150 and received safety interventions. The FMEA was completed in one month in four 1-h meetings. A total of 55 staff hours were required and, additionally, 20 h by the facilitator. Conclusions: Streamlined FMEA provides a means of accomplishing a relatively large-scale analysis with modest effort. One potential value of FMEA is that it potentially provides a means of measuring the impact of quality improvement efforts through a reduction in risk scores. Future study of this possibility is needed.

  16. Banach spaces that realize minimal fillings

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Bednov, B. B.; Borodin, P. A.

    2014-04-01

    It is proved that a real Banach space realizes minimal fillings for all its finite subsets (a shortest network spanning a fixed finite subset always exists and has the minimum possible length) if and only if it is a predual of L_1. The spaces L_1 are characterized in terms of Steiner points (medians). Bibliography: 25 titles.

  17. The Biochemical Basis of Minimal Brain Dysfunction

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Shaywitz, Sally E.; And Others

    1978-01-01

    Available from: C. V. Mosby Company 11830 Westline Industrial Drive St. Louis, Missouri 63141 The research review examines evidence suggesting a biochemical basis for minimal brain dysfunction (MBD), which includes both a relationship between MBD and metabolic abnormalities and a significant genetic influence on the disorder in children. (IM)

  18. Botulinum toxin to minimize facial scarring.

    PubMed

    Jablonka, Eric M; Sherris, David A; Gassner, Holger G

    2012-10-01

    Chemoimmobilization with botulinum toxin A is an ideal biochemical agent that allows near-total elimination of muscle pull on the healing facial wound. The goal of chemoimmobilization of facial cutaneous wounds is to eliminate dynamic tension on the healing tissues to improve wound healing and minimize scarring for optimal aesthetic results.

  19. Probabilistic inspection strategies for minimizing service failures

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Brot, Abraham

    1994-09-01

    The INSIM computer program is described which simulates the 'limited fatigue life' environment in which aircraft structures generally operate. The use of INSIM to develop inspection strategies which aim to minimize service failures is demonstrated. Damage-tolerance methodology, inspection thresholds and customized inspections are simulated using the probability of failure as the driving parameter.

  20. Banach spaces that realize minimal fillings

    SciTech Connect

    Bednov, B. B.; Borodin, P. A. E-mail: pborodin@inbox.ru

    2014-04-30

    It is proved that a real Banach space realizes minimal fillings for all its finite subsets (a shortest network spanning a fixed finite subset always exists and has the minimum possible length) if and only if it is a predual of L{sub 1}. The spaces L{sub 1} are characterized in terms of Steiner points (medians). Bibliography: 25 titles. (paper)

  1. Minimization of Salmonella Contamination on Raw Poultry

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Many reviews have discussed Salmonella in poultry and suggested best practices to minimize this organism on raw poultry meat. Despite years of research and conscientious control efforts by industry and regulatory agencies, human salmonellosis rates have declined only modestly and Salmonella is stil...

  2. Minimal Guidelines for Authors of Web Pages.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    ADE Bulletin, 2002

    2002-01-01

    Presents guidelines that recommend the minimal reference information that should be provided on Web pages intended for use by students, teachers, and scholars in the modern languages. Suggests the inclusion of information about responsible parties, copyright declaration, privacy statements, and site information. Makes a note on Web page style. (SG)

  3. MULTIOBJECTIVE PARALLEL GENETIC ALGORITHM FOR WASTE MINIMIZATION

    EPA Science Inventory

    In this research we have developed an efficient multiobjective parallel genetic algorithm (MOPGA) for waste minimization problems. This MOPGA integrates PGAPack (Levine, 1996) and NSGA-II (Deb, 2000) with novel modifications. PGAPack is a master-slave parallel implementation of a...

  4. Challenging the minimal supersymmetric SU(5) model

    SciTech Connect

    Bajc, Borut; Lavignac, Stéphane; Mede, Timon

    2014-06-24

    We review the main constraints on the parameter space of the minimal renormalizable supersymmetric SU(5) grand unified theory. They consist of the Higgs mass, proton decay, electroweak symmetry breaking and fermion masses. Superpartner masses are constrained both from below and from above, giving hope for confirming or definitely ruling out the theory in the future. This contribution is based on Ref. [1].

  5. Mixed waste minimization/mixed waste avoidance

    SciTech Connect

    Todisco, L.R.

    1994-12-31

    This presentation describes methods for the minimization and volume reduction of low-level radioactive and mixed wastes. Many methods are presented including: source reduction, better waste monitoring activities, waste segregation, recycling, administrative controls, and optimization of waste-generating processes.

  6. Minimizing risk in anonymous egg donation.

    PubMed

    Ahuja, K K; Simons, E G; Nair, S; Rimington, M R; Armar, N A

    2003-11-01

    Assisted conception carries with it known and putative medical and surgical risks. Exposing healthy women to these risks in order to harvest eggs for donation when a safer alternative exists is morally and ethically unacceptable. Egg sharing minimizes risk and provides a source of eggs for donation. Anonymity protects all parties involved and should not be removed.

  7. Minimal Interventions in the Teaching of Mathematics

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Foster, Colin

    2014-01-01

    This paper addresses ways in which mathematics pedagogy can benefit from insights gleaned from counselling. Person-centred counselling stresses the value of genuineness, warm empathetic listening and minimal intervention to support people in solving their own problems and developing increased autonomy. Such an approach contrasts starkly with the…

  8. New Diagnostic Terminology for Minimal Brain Dysfunction.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Shaywitz, Bennett A.; And Others

    1979-01-01

    Minimal brain dysfunction has been redefined by the American Psychological Association as attention deficit disorder (ADD) and subdivided into categories with and without hyperactivity. The revised 'Diagnostic and Statistical Manual' (DSM III) is now undergoing field trials. Journal Availability: C. V. Mosby Company, 11830 Westline Industrial…

  9. Minimal Mimicry: Mere Effector Matching Induces Preference

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Sparenberg, Peggy; Topolinski, Sascha; Springer, Anne; Prinz, Wolfgang

    2012-01-01

    Both mimicking and being mimicked induces preference for a target. The present experiments investigate the minimal sufficient conditions for this mimicry-preference link to occur. We argue that mere effector matching between one's own and the other person's movement is sufficient to induce preference, independent of which movement is actually…

  10. Some experiences using wind-tunnel models in active control studies. [minimization of aeroelastic response

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Doggett, R. V., Jr.; Abel, I.; Ruhlin, C. L.

    1976-01-01

    A status report and review of wind tunnel model experimental techniques that have been developed to study and validate the use of active control technology for the minimization of aeroelastic response are presented. Modeling techniques, test procedures, and data analysis methods used in three model studies are described. The studies include flutter mode suppression on a delta-wing model, flutter mode suppression and ride quality control on a 1/30-size model of the B-52 CCV airplane, and an active lift distribution control system on a 1/22 size C-5A model.

  11. REPRESENTING COMMON-CAUSE FAILURES IN THE SAPHIRE SOFTWARE

    SciTech Connect

    Curtis L. Smith

    2008-11-01

    Currently, the risk analysis software SAPHIRE has implemented a common-cause failure (CCF) module to represent standard CCF methods such as alpha-factor and multiple Greek letter approaches. However, changes to SAPHIRE are required to support the Nuclear Regulatory Commission’s 2007 “Risk Assessment Standardization Project” CCF analysis guidance for events assessment. This guidance provides an outline of how both the nominal CCF probabilities and conditional (e.g., after a redundant component has failed) CCF probabilities should be calculated. Based upon user-provided input and extending the limitations in the current version of SAPHIRE, the CCF module calculations will be made consistent with the new guidance. The CCF modifications will involve changes to (1) the SAPHIRE graphical user interface directing how end-users and modelers interface with PRA models and (2) algorithmic changes as required. Included in the modifications will be the possibility to treat CCF probability adjustments based upon failure types (e.g., independent versus dependent) and failure modes (e.g., failure-to-run versus failure-to-start). In general, SAPHIRE is being modified to allow the risk analyst to define a CCF object. This object is defined in terms of a basic event. For the CCF object, the analyst would need to specify a minimal set of information, including: - The number of redundant components - The failure criteria (how many component have to fail) - The CCF model type (alpha-factor, MGL, or beta-factor) - The parameters (e.g., the alpha-factors) associated with the model - Staggered or non-staggered testing assumption - Default level of detail (expanded, showing all of the specific failure combinations, or not) This paper will outline both the theory behind the probabilistic calculations and the resulting implementation in the SAPHIRE software.

  12. Waste minimization in environmental sampling and analysis

    SciTech Connect

    Brice, D.A.; Nixon, J. . Fernald Environmental Management Project); Lewis, E.T. )

    1992-01-01

    Environmental investigations of the extent and effect of contamination, and projects to remediate such contamination, are designed to mitigate perceived threats to human health and the environment. During the course of these investigations, excavations, borings, and monitoring wells are constructed: monitoring wells are developed and purged prior to sampling; samples are collected; equipment is decontaminated; constituents extracted and analyzed; and personal protective equipment is used to keep workers safe. All of these activities generate waste. A large portion of this waste may be classified as hazardous based on characteristics or constituent components. Waste minimization is defined as reducing the volume and/or toxicity of waste generated by a process. Waste minimization has proven to be an effective means of cost reduction and improving worker health, safety, and environmental awareness in the industrial workplace through pollution prevention. Building waste minimization goals into a project during the planning phase is both cost effective and consistent with total quality management principles. Application of waste minimization principles should be an integral part of the planning and conduct of environmental investigations. Current regulatory guidance on planning environmental investigations focuses on data quality and risk assessment objectives. Waste minimization should also be a scoping priority, along with meeting worker protection requirements, protection of human health and the environment, and achieving data quality objectives. Waste volume or toxicity can be reduced through the use of smaller sample sizes, less toxic extraction solvents, less hazardous decontamination materials, smaller excavations and borings, smaller diameter monitoring wells, dedicated sampling equipment, well-fitting personal protective equipment, judicious use of screening technologies, and analyzing only for parameters of concern.

  13. Waste minimization in environmental sampling and analysis

    SciTech Connect

    Brice, D.A.; Nixon, J.; Lewis, E.T.

    1992-03-01

    Environmental investigations of the extent and effect of contamination, and projects to remediate such contamination, are designed to mitigate perceived threats to human health and the environment. During the course of these investigations, excavations, borings, and monitoring wells are constructed: monitoring wells are developed and purged prior to sampling; samples are collected; equipment is decontaminated; constituents extracted and analyzed; and personal protective equipment is used to keep workers safe. All of these activities generate waste. A large portion of this waste may be classified as hazardous based on characteristics or constituent components. Waste minimization is defined as reducing the volume and/or toxicity of waste generated by a process. Waste minimization has proven to be an effective means of cost reduction and improving worker health, safety, and environmental awareness in the industrial workplace through pollution prevention. Building waste minimization goals into a project during the planning phase is both cost effective and consistent with total quality management principles. Application of waste minimization principles should be an integral part of the planning and conduct of environmental investigations. Current regulatory guidance on planning environmental investigations focuses on data quality and risk assessment objectives. Waste minimization should also be a scoping priority, along with meeting worker protection requirements, protection of human health and the environment, and achieving data quality objectives. Waste volume or toxicity can be reduced through the use of smaller sample sizes, less toxic extraction solvents, less hazardous decontamination materials, smaller excavations and borings, smaller diameter monitoring wells, dedicated sampling equipment, well-fitting personal protective equipment, judicious use of screening technologies, and analyzing only for parameters of concern.

  14. Ground-roll attenuation using modified common-offset-common-reflection-surface stacking

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Rastegar, Seyyed Ali Fa'al; Javaherian, Abdolrahim; Farajkhah, Naser Keshavarz; Monfared, Mehrdad Soleimani; Zarei, Abbas

    2016-06-01

    We modified the common-offset-common-reflection-surface (COCRS) method to attenuate ground roll, the coherent noise typically generated by a low-velocity, low-frequency, and high-amplitude Rayleigh wave. The COCRS operator is based on hyperbolas, thus it fits events with hyperbolic traveltimes such as reflection events in prestack data. Conversely, ground roll is linear in the common-midpoint (CMP) and common-shot gathers and can be distinguished and attenuated by the COCRS operator. Thus, we search for the dip and curvature of the reflections in the common-shot gathers prior to the common-offset section. Because it is desirable to minimize the damage to the reflection amplitudes, we only stack the multicoverage data in the ground-roll areas. Searching the CS gathers before the CO section is another modification of the conventional COCRS stacking. We tested the proposed method using synthetic and real data sets from western Iran. The results of the ground-roll attenuation with the proposed method were compared with results of the f-k filtering and conventional COCRS stacking after f-k filtering. The results show that the proposed method attenuates the aliased and nonaliased ground roll better than the f-k filtering and conventional CRS stacking. However, the computation time was higher than other common methods such as f-k filtering.

  15. Mode II fatigue crack propagation.

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Roberts, R.; Kibler, J. J.

    1971-01-01

    Fatigue crack propagation rates were obtained for 2024-T3 bare aluminum plates subjected to in-plane, mode I, extensional loads and transverse, mode II, bending loads. These results were compared to the results of Iida and Kobayashi for in-plane mode I-mode II extensional loads. The engineering significance of mode I-mode II fatigue crack growth is considered in view of the present results. A fatigue crack growth equation for handling mode I-mode II fatigue crack growth rates from existing mode I data is also discussed.

  16. Separate assessment of gluteus medius and minimus: B-mode or M-mode ultrasound?

    PubMed

    Dieterich, Angela V; Deshon, Louise; Pickard, Christine M; Strauss, Geoffrey R; McKay, Janice

    2014-08-01

    The hip abductors gluteus medius (Gmed) and minimus (Gmin) differ slightly in function and how they are affected by hip joint pathology. A separate assessment of Gmed and Gmin is feasible by ultrasound (US) imaging. B-mode and M-mode US can be used to measure muscle thickness. Two B- and two M-mode scans of Gmed and Gmin thickness were taken in relaxation on 16 asymptomatic volunteers, repeated within 4 days on 11 subjects. Three types of intra-rater reliability of muscle thickness measurements were examined: (1) within-session reliability comparing two scans from the same session, (2) between-days reliability comparing thickness from two scanning occasion within 4 days and (3) reliability of taking thickness measurements by re-measuring the same US scans after 1 week. Thickness measurements on B- and M-mode images provided ICC3,1 >0.96 for within-session reliability. ICC3,k >0.89 for between-days reliability and ICC3,1 >0.85 for re-reading the same scans were estimated. Minimal detectable changes >1.0 mm within-session, >2.4 mm between-days and >1.7 mm for re-reading scans indicated that small thickness changes are not detectable. The investigation suggests a slight advantage for fascia recognition in B-mode and the advantage of visual control of muscle relaxation in M-mode.

  17. Reason and Condition for Mode Kissing in MASW Method

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Gao, Lingli; Xia, Jianghai; Pan, Yudi; Xu, Yixian

    2016-05-01

    Identifying correct modes of surface waves and picking accurate phase velocities are critical for obtaining an accurate S-wave velocity in MASW method. In most cases, inversion is easily conducted by picking the dispersion curves corresponding to different surface-wave modes individually. Neighboring surface-wave modes, however, will nearly meet (kiss) at some frequencies for some models. Around the frequencies, they have very close roots and energy peak shifts from one mode to another. At current dispersion image resolution, it is difficult to distinguish different modes when mode-kissing occurs, which is commonly seen in near-surface earth models. It will cause mode misidentification, and as a result, lead to a larger overestimation of S-wave velocity and error on depth. We newly defined two mode types based on the characteristics of the vertical eigendisplacements calculated by generalized reflection and transmission coefficient method. Rayleigh-wave mode near the kissing points (osculation points) change its type, that is to say, one Rayleigh-wave mode will contain different mode types. This mode type conversion will cause the mode-kissing phenomenon in dispersion images. Numerical tests indicate that the mode-kissing phenomenon is model dependent and that the existence of strong S-wave velocity contrasts increases the possibility of mode-kissing. The real-world data shows mode misidentification caused by mode-kissing phenomenon will result in higher S-wave velocity of bedrock. It reminds us to pay attention to this phenomenon when some of the underground information is known.

  18. Alfvén modes in the Madison Symmetric Torus

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Li, M.; Breizman, B. N.; Zheng, L. J.; Lin, L.; Ding, W. X.; Brower, D. L.

    2014-08-01

    This work presents a theoretical and computational analysis of core-localized energetic particle driven modes observed near the magnetic axis in the Madison Symmetric Torus [L. Lin, W. X. Ding, D. L. Brower et al., Phys. Plasmas 20, 030701 (2013)]. Using measured safety factor and plasma pressure profiles as input, the linear ideal MHD code Adaptive EiGenfunction Independent Solution (AEGIS) [L. J. Zheng and M. Kotschenreuther, J. Comput. Phys. 211, 748 (2006)] reveals Alfvénic modes close to the measured frequencies. The AEGIS results together with a reduced analytical model demonstrate that the modes are essentially "cylindrical" and dominated by a single poloidal component (m = 1). The modes are localized at the plasma core where the magnetic shear is weak and continuum damping is minimal. Detailed analysis establishes constraints on the safety factor and plasma pressure, under which two modes can exist simultaneously.

  19. Supersymmetric mode converters

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Heinrich, Matthias; Miri, Mohammad-Ali; Stützer, Simon; Nolte, Stefan; Szameit, Alexander; Christodoulides, Demetrios N.

    2015-08-01

    In recent years, the ever-increasing demand for high-capacity transmission systems has driven remarkable advances in technologies that encode information on an optical signal. Mode-division multiplexing makes use of individual modes supported by an optical waveguide as mutually orthogonal channels. The key requirement in this approach is the capability to selectively populate and extract specific modes. Optical supersymmetry (SUSY) has recently been proposed as a particularly elegant way to resolve this design challenge in a manner that is inherently scalable, and at the same time maintains compatibility with existing multiplexing strategies. Supersymmetric partners of multimode waveguides are characterized by the fact that they share all of their effective indices with the original waveguide. The crucial exception is the fundamental mode, which is absent from the spectrum of the partner waveguide. Here, we demonstrate experimentally how this global phase-matching property can be exploited for efficient mode conversion. Multimode structures and their superpartners are experimentally realized in coupled networks of femtosecond laser-written waveguides, and the corresponding light dynamics are directly observed by means of fluorescence microscopy. We show that SUSY transformations can readily facilitate the removal of the fundamental mode from multimode optical structures. In turn, hierarchical sequences of such SUSY partners naturally implement the conversion between modes of adjacent order. Our experiments illustrate just one of the many possibilities of how SUSY may serve as a building block for integrated mode-division multiplexing arrangements. Supersymmetric notions may enrich and expand integrated photonics by versatile optical components and desirable, yet previously unattainable, functionalities.

  20. The problems of the minimal surface and minimal lineal measure in three dimensions

    SciTech Connect

    Christensen, R.M.

    1994-02-01

    A solution is given to the classical problem of the minimal surface in three dimensions formed from a repeating cell microstructure under isotropic conditions. The solution is found through a global/local minimization procedure and the resulting basic cell is composed of 14 faces. At the junctions where the intersections between faces meet at a point, half of the junctions involve 4 intersections and half involve 3 intersections. The same general solution also applies tot he related minimal lineal measure problem where the measure is that of the length of the intersections connecting the junctions. Some implications and applications for materials science are given.

  1. Minimal Left-Right Symmetric Dark Matter.

    PubMed

    Heeck, Julian; Patra, Sudhanwa

    2015-09-18

    We show that left-right symmetric models can easily accommodate stable TeV-scale dark matter particles without the need for an ad hoc stabilizing symmetry. The stability of a newly introduced multiplet either arises accidentally as in the minimal dark matter framework or comes courtesy of the remaining unbroken Z_{2} subgroup of B-L. Only one new parameter is introduced: the mass of the new multiplet. As minimal examples, we study left-right fermion triplets and quintuplets and show that they can form viable two-component dark matter. This approach is, in particular, valid for SU(2)×SU(2)×U(1) models that explain the recent diboson excess at ATLAS in terms of a new charged gauge boson of mass 2 TeV.

  2. Waste Minimization Program. Air Force Plant 6.

    DTIC Science & Technology

    1986-02-01

    636 WASTE RNIZTXOM P76RW AIR F T L INC / DOYNTON SEACH FL It Of ISD/o fl" FOM3-4--142-SCS1 LSIFIEEEFIGh24/ . son hhshmhhhEEI II 1202 L6 0 2O s 4 111...2-9 3.0 Waste Minimization Program, AFP 6 3-1 3.1 Machine Coolant Waste 3-1 3.2 Engine Oil and Hydraulic Fluid Waste 3-12 3.3 Paint Sludge 3-14 3.4...Beach, Florida, for the purpose of aiding in minimizing waste generation from Air Force industrial facilities. It is not an endorsement of any product

  3. [Invasive and minimally invasive hemodynamic monitoring].

    PubMed

    Hansen, Matthias

    2016-10-01

    Advanced hemodynamic monitoring is necessary for adequate management of high-risk patients or patients with derangement of circulation. Studies demonstrate a benefit of early goal directed therapy in unstable cardiopulmonary situations. In these days we have different possibilities of minimally invasive or invasive hemodynamic monitoring. Minimally invasive measurements like pulse conture analysis or pulse wave analysis being less accurate under some circumstances, however only an artery catheter is needed for cardiac output monitoring. Pulmonary artery, transpulmonary thermodilution and lithium dilution technology have acceptable accuracy in cardiac output measurement. For therapy of unstable circulation there are additionally parameters to obtain. The pulmonary artery catheter is the device with the largest rate of complications, used by a trained crew and with a correct indication, his use is unchained justified.

  4. Advances in minimally invasive neonatal colorectal surgery

    PubMed Central

    Bandi, Ashwath S; Bradshaw, Catherine J; Giuliani, Stefano

    2016-01-01

    Over the last two decades, advances in laparoscopic surgery and minimally invasive techniques have transformed the operative management of neonatal colorectal surgery for conditions such as anorectal malformations (ARMs) and Hirschsprung’s disease. Evolution of surgical care has mainly occurred due to the use of laparoscopy, as opposed to a laparotomy, for intra-abdominal procedures and the development of trans-anal techniques. This review describes these advances and outlines the main minimally invasive techniques currently used for management of ARMs and Hirschsprung’s disease. There does still remain significant variation in the procedures used and this review aims to report the current literature comparing techniques with an emphasis on the short- and long-term clinical outcomes. PMID:27830038

  5. Minimal walking technicolor: Setup for collider physics

    SciTech Connect

    Foadi, Roshan; Frandsen, Mads T.; Ryttov, Thomas A.; Sannino, Francesco

    2007-09-01

    Different theoretical and phenomenological aspects of the minimal and nonminimal walking technicolor theories have recently been studied. The goal here is to make the models ready for collider phenomenology. We do this by constructing the low energy effective theory containing scalars, pseudoscalars, vector mesons, and other fields predicted by the minimal walking theory. We construct their self-interactions and interactions with standard model fields. Using the Weinberg sum rules, opportunely modified to take into account the walking behavior of the underlying gauge theory, we find interesting relations for the spin-one spectrum. We derive the electroweak parameters using the newly constructed effective theory and compare the results with the underlying gauge theory. Our analysis is sufficiently general such that the resulting model can be used to represent a generic walking technicolor theory not at odds with precision data.

  6. The Minimal Supersymmetric Fat Higgs Model

    SciTech Connect

    Harnik, Roni; Kribs, Graham D.; Larson, Daniel T.; Murayama, Hitoshi

    2003-11-26

    We present a calculable supersymmetric theory of a composite"fat'" Higgs boson. Electroweak symmetry is broken dynamically through a new gauge interaction that becomes strong at an intermediate scale. The Higgs mass can easily be 200-450 GeV along with the superpartner masses, solving the supersymmetric little hierarchy problem. We explicitly verify that the model is consistent with precision electroweak data without fine-tuning. Gauge coupling unification can be maintained despite the inherently strong dynamics involved in electroweak symmetry breaking. Supersymmetrizing the Standard Model therefore does not imply a light Higgs mass, contrary to the lore in the literature. The Higgs sector of the minimal Fat Higgs model has a mass spectrum that is distinctly different from the Minimal Supersymmetric Standard Model.

  7. A Minimal Periods Algorithm with Applications

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Xu, Zhi

    Kosaraju in "Computation of squares in a string" briefly described a linear-time algorithm for computing the minimal squares starting at each position in a word. Using the same construction of suffix trees, we generalize his result and describe in detail how to compute the minimal α power, with a period of length longer than s, starting at each position in a word w for arbitrary exponent α> 1 and integer s ≥ 0. The algorithm runs in O(α|w|)-time for s = 0 and in O(|w|2)-time otherwise. We provide a complete proof of the correctness and computational complexity of the algorithm. The algorithm can be used to detect certain types of pseudo-patterns in words, which was our original goal in studying this generalization.

  8. Towards synthesis of a minimal cell.

    PubMed

    Forster, Anthony C; Church, George M

    2006-01-01

    Construction of a chemical system capable of replication and evolution, fed only by small molecule nutrients, is now conceivable. This could be achieved by stepwise integration of decades of work on the reconstitution of DNA, RNA and protein syntheses from pure components. Such a minimal cell project would initially define the components sufficient for each subsystem, allow detailed kinetic analyses and lead to improved in vitro methods for synthesis of biopolymers, therapeutics and biosensors. Completion would yield a functionally and structurally understood self-replicating biosystem. Safety concerns for synthetic life will be alleviated by extreme dependence on elaborate laboratory reagents and conditions for viability. Our proposed minimal genome is 113 kbp long and contains 151 genes. We detail building blocks already in place and major hurdles to overcome for completion.

  9. A perturbation technique for shield weight minimization

    SciTech Connect

    Watkins, E.F.; Greenspan, E. )

    1993-01-01

    The radiation shield optimization code SWAN (Ref. 1) was originally developed for minimizing the thickness of a shield that will meet a given dose (or another) constraint or for extremizing a performance parameter of interest (e.g., maximizing energy multiplication or minimizing dose) while maintaining the shield volume constraint. The SWAN optimization process proved to be highly effective (e.g., see Refs. 2, 3, and 4). The purpose of this work is to investigate the applicability of the SWAN methodology to problems in which the weight rather than the volume is the relevant shield characteristic. Such problems are encountered in shield design for space nuclear power systems. The investigation is carried out using SWAN with the coupled neutron-photon cross-section library FLUNG (Ref. 5).

  10. Topological minimally entangled states via geometric measure

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Buerschaper, Oliver; García-Saez, Artur; Orús, Román; Wei, Tzu-Chieh

    2014-11-01

    Here we show how the Minimally Entangled States (MES) of a 2d system with topological order can be identified using the geometric measure of entanglement. We show this by minimizing this measure for the doubled semion, doubled Fibonacci and toric code models on a torus with non-trivial topological partitions. Our calculations are done either quasi-exactly for small system sizes, or using the tensor network approach in Orús et al (arXiv:1406.0585) for large sizes. As a byproduct of our methods, we see that the minimisation of the geometric entanglement can also determine the number of Abelian quasiparticle excitations in a given model. The results in this paper provide a very efficient and accurate way of extracting the full topological information of a 2d quantum lattice model from the multipartite entanglement structure of its ground states.

  11. [Minimally invasive operations in vascular surgery].

    PubMed

    Stádler, Petr; Sedivý, Petr; Dvorácek, Libor; Slais, Marek; Vitásek, Petr; El Samman, Khaled; Matous, Pavel

    2011-01-01

    Minimally invasive surgery provides an attractive alternative compared with conventional surgical approaches and is popular with patients, particularly because of its favourable cosmetic results. Vascular surgery has taken its inspiration from general surgery and, over the past few years, has also been reducing the invasiveness of its operating methods. In addition to traditional laparoscopic techniques, we most frequently encounter the endovascular treatment of aneurysms of the thoracic and abdominal aorta and, most recently, robot-assisted surgery in the area of the abdominal aorta and pelvic arteries. Minimally invasive surgical interventions also have other advantages, including less operative trauma, a reduction in post-operative pain, shorter periods spent in the intensive care unit and overall hospitalization times, an earlier return to normal life and, finally, a reduction in total treatment costs.

  12. Minimize reference sideband generation in microwave PLLs

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Goldman, Stan

    1991-02-01

    The processes responsible for producing reference sidebands are outlined, and the sources of coupling to the microwave voltage-controlled oscillator (VCO) tune line including power-supply-generated signals, TTL-controlled interface signals, intermediate programmable-divider signals, and radiated TTL signals are discussed. It is noted that filtering alone is inadequate for reference-sideband suppression, while minimizing the tuning slope and maximizing the reference frequency will result in a reduced reference-sideband level. Minimizing offset currents by using a differential amplifier connection may reduce the reference-sideband level aggravated by an opamp. The selection of a TTL, ECL, or GaAs phase/frequency detector can determine the level of reference sidebands, as well as PCB isolation techniques.

  13. The Sense of Commitment: A Minimal Approach

    PubMed Central

    Michael, John; Sebanz, Natalie; Knoblich, Günther

    2016-01-01

    This paper provides a starting point for psychological research on the sense of commitment within the context of joint action. We begin by formulating three desiderata: to illuminate the motivational factors that lead agents to feel and act committed, to pick out the cognitive processes and situational factors that lead agents to sense that implicit commitments are in place, and to illuminate the development of an understanding of commitment in ontogeny. In order to satisfy these three desiderata, we propose a minimal framework, the core of which is an analysis of the minimal structure of situations which can elicit a sense of commitment. We then propose a way of conceptualizing and operationalizing the sense of commitment, and discuss cognitive and motivational processes which may underpin the sense of commitment. PMID:26779080

  14. Tall sections from non-minimal transformations

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Morrison, David R.; Park, Daniel S.

    2016-10-01

    In previous work, we have shown that elliptic fibrations with two sections, or Mordell-Weil rank one, can always be mapped birationally to a Weierstrass model of a certain form, namely, the Jacobian of a P^{112} model. Most constructions of elliptically fibered Calabi-Yau manifolds with two sections have been carried out assuming that the image of this birational map was a "minimal" Weierstrass model. In this paper, we show that for some elliptically fibered Calabi-Yau manifolds with Mordell-Weil rank-one, the Jacobian of the P^{112} model is not minimal. Said another way, starting from a Calabi-Yau Weierstrass model, the total space must be blown up (thereby destroying the "Calabi-Yau" property) in order to embed the model into P^{112} . In particular, we show that the elliptic fibrations studied recently by Klevers and Taylor fall into this class of models.

  15. The Transition to Minimal Consciousness through the Evolution of Associative Learning

    PubMed Central

    Bronfman, Zohar Z.; Ginsburg, Simona; Jablonka, Eva

    2016-01-01

    The minimal state of consciousness is sentience. This includes any phenomenal sensory experience – exteroceptive, such as vision and olfaction; interoceptive, such as pain and hunger; or proprioceptive, such as the sense of bodily position and movement. We propose unlimited associative learning (UAL) as the marker of the evolutionary transition to minimal consciousness (or sentience), its phylogenetically earliest sustainable manifestation and the driver of its evolution. We define and describe UAL at the behavioral and functional level and argue that the structural-anatomical implementations of this mode of learning in different taxa entail subjective feelings (sentience). We end with a discussion of the implications of our proposal for the distribution of consciousness in the animal kingdom, suggesting testable predictions, and revisiting the ongoing debate about the function of minimal consciousness in light of our approach. PMID:28066282

  16. Real-Time Adaptive Least-Squares Drag Minimization for Performance Adaptive Aeroelastic Wing

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Ferrier, Yvonne L.; Nguyen, Nhan T.; Ting, Eric

    2016-01-01

    This paper contains a simulation study of a real-time adaptive least-squares drag minimization algorithm for an aeroelastic model of a flexible wing aircraft. The aircraft model is based on the NASA Generic Transport Model (GTM). The wing structures incorporate a novel aerodynamic control surface known as the Variable Camber Continuous Trailing Edge Flap (VCCTEF). The drag minimization algorithm uses the Newton-Raphson method to find the optimal VCCTEF deflections for minimum drag in the context of an altitude-hold flight control mode at cruise conditions. The aerodynamic coefficient parameters used in this optimization method are identified in real-time using Recursive Least Squares (RLS). The results demonstrate the potential of the VCCTEF to improve aerodynamic efficiency for drag minimization for transport aircraft.

  17. [Minimally invasive spine surgery: past and present].

    PubMed

    Corniola, M V; Stienen, M N; Tessitore, E; Schaller, K; Gautschi, O P

    2015-11-18

    In the early twentieth century, the understanding of spine biomechanics and the advent of surgical techniques of the lumbar spine, led to the currently emerging concept of minimal invasive spine surgery, By reducing surgical access, blood loss, infection rate and general morbidity, functional prognosis of patients is improved. This is a real challenge for the spine surgeon, who has to maintain a good operative result by significantly reducing surgical collateral damages due to the relatively traumatic conventional access.

  18. Heroin-associated anthrax with minimal morbidity.

    PubMed

    Black, Heather; Chapman, Ann; Inverarity, Donald; Sinha, Satyajit

    2017-03-08

    In 2010, during an outbreak of anthrax affecting people who inject drugs, a heroin user aged 37 years presented with soft tissue infection. He subsequently was found to have anthrax. We describe his management and the difficulty in distinguishing anthrax from non-anthrax lesions. His full recovery, despite an overall mortality of 30% for injectional anthrax, demonstrates that some heroin-related anthrax cases can be managed predominately with oral antibiotics and minimal surgical intervention.

  19. Minimally invasive aesthetic procedures in young adults

    PubMed Central

    Wollina, Uwe; Goldman, Alberto

    2011-01-01

    Age is a significant factor in modifying specific needs when it comes to medical aesthetic procedures. In this review we will focus on young adults in their third decade of life and review minimally invasive aesthetic procedures other than cosmetics and cosmeceuticals. Correction of asymmetries, correction after body modifying procedures, and facial sculpturing are important issues for young adults. The implication of aesthetic medicine as part of preventive medicine is a major ethical challenge that differentiates aesthetic medicine from fashion. PMID:21673871

  20. Minimal Basis for Gauge Theory Amplitudes

    SciTech Connect

    Bjerrum-Bohr, N. E. J.; Damgaard, Poul H.; Vanhove, Pierre

    2009-10-16

    Identities based on monodromy for integrations in string theory are used to derive relations between different color-ordered tree-level amplitudes in both bosonic and supersymmetric string theory. These relations imply that the color-ordered tree-level n-point gauge theory amplitudes can be expanded in a minimal basis of (n-3)exclamation amplitudes. This result holds for any choice of polarizations of the external states and in any number of dimensions.

  1. Cigarette price minimization strategies used by adults.

    PubMed

    Pesko, Michael F; Kruger, Judy; Hyland, Andrew

    2012-09-01

    We used multivariate logistic regressions to analyze data from the 2006 to 2007 Tobacco Use Supplement of the Current Population Survey, a nationally representative sample of adults. We explored use of cigarette price minimization strategies, such as purchasing cartons of cigarettes, purchasing in states with lower after-tax cigarette prices, and purchasing on the Internet. Racial/ethnic minorities and persons with low socioeconomic status used these strategies less frequently at last purchase than did White and high-socioeconomic-status respondents.

  2. Minimally Invasive Diagnosis of Secondary Intracranial Lymphoma

    PubMed Central

    Healy, G. M.; Redmond, C. E.; Stocker, E.; Connaghan, G.; Skehan, S. J.; Killeen, R. P.

    2016-01-01

    Diffuse large B cell lymphomas (DLBCL) are an aggressive group of non-Hodgkin lymphoid malignancies which have diverse presentation and can have high mortality. Central nervous system relapse is rare but has poor survival. We present the diagnosis of primary mandibular DLBCL and a unique minimally invasive diagnosis of secondary intracranial recurrence. This case highlights the manifold radiological contributions to the diagnosis and management of lymphoma. PMID:28018686

  3. Smooth GERBS, orthogonal systems and energy minimization

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Dechevsky, Lubomir T.; Zanaty, Peter

    2013-12-01

    New results are obtained in three mutually related directions of the rapidly developing theory of generalized expo-rational B-splines (GERBS) [7, 6]: closed-form computability of C∞-smooth GERBS in terms of elementary and special functions, Hermite interpolation and least-squares best approximation via smooth GERBS, energy minimizing properties of smooth GERBS similar to those of the classical cubic polynomial B-splines.

  4. Smooth GERBS, orthogonal systems and energy minimization

    SciTech Connect

    Dechevsky, Lubomir T. E-mail: pza@hin.no; Zanaty, Peter E-mail: pza@hin.no

    2013-12-18

    New results are obtained in three mutually related directions of the rapidly developing theory of generalized expo-rational B-splines (GERBS) [7, 6]: closed-form computability of C{sup ∞}-smooth GERBS in terms of elementary and special functions, Hermite interpolation and least-squares best approximation via smooth GERBS, energy minimizing properties of smooth GERBS similar to those of the classical cubic polynomial B-splines.

  5. Nonlinear transient analysis via energy minimization

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Kamat, M. P.; Knight, N. F., Jr.

    1978-01-01

    The formulation basis for nonlinear transient analysis of finite element models of structures using energy minimization is provided. Geometric and material nonlinearities are included. The development is restricted to simple one and two dimensional finite elements which are regarded as being the basic elements for modeling full aircraft-like structures under crash conditions. The results indicate the effectiveness of the technique as a viable tool for this purpose.

  6. Physically constrained maximum likelihood mode filtering.

    PubMed

    Papp, Joseph C; Preisig, James C; Morozov, Andrey K

    2010-04-01

    Mode filtering is most commonly implemented using the sampled mode shapes or pseudoinverse algorithms. Buck et al. [J. Acoust. Soc. Am. 103, 1813-1824 (1998)] placed these techniques in the context of a broader maximum a posteriori (MAP) framework. However, the MAP algorithm requires that the signal and noise statistics be known a priori. Adaptive array processing algorithms are candidates for improving performance without the need for a priori signal and noise statistics. A variant of the physically constrained, maximum likelihood (PCML) algorithm [A. L. Kraay and A. B. Baggeroer, IEEE Trans. Signal Process. 55, 4048-4063 (2007)] is developed for mode filtering that achieves the same performance as the MAP mode filter yet does not need a priori knowledge of the signal and noise statistics. The central innovation of this adaptive mode filter is that the received signal's sample covariance matrix, as estimated by the algorithm, is constrained to be that which can be physically realized given a modal propagation model and an appropriate noise model. Shallow water simulation results are presented showing the benefit of using the PCML method in adaptive mode filtering.

  7. [Minimally Invasive Treatment of Esophageal Benign Diseases].

    PubMed

    Inoue, Haruhiro

    2016-07-01

    As a minimally invasive treatment of esophageal achalasia per-oral endoscopic myotomy( POEM) was developed in 2008. More than 1,100 cases of achalasia-related diseases received POEM. Success rate of the procedure was more than 95%(Eckerdt score improvement 3 points and more). No serious( Clavian-Dindo classification III b and more) complication was experienced. These results suggest that POEM becomes a standard minimally invasive treatment for achalasia-related diseases. As an off-shoot of POEM submucosal tumor removal through submucosal tunnel (per-oral endoscopic tumor resection:POET) was developed and safely performed. Best indication of POET is less than 5 cm esophageal leiomyoma. A novel endoscopic treatment of gastroesophageal reflux disease (GERD) was developed. Anti-reflux mucosectomy( ARMS) is nearly circumferential mucosal reduction of gastric cardia mucosa. ARMS is performed in 56 consecutive cases of refractory GERD. No major complications were encountered and excellent clinical results. Best indication of ARMS is a refractory GERD without long sliding hernia. Longest follow-up case is more than 10 years. Minimally invasive treatments for esophageal benign diseases are currently performed by therapeutic endoscopy.

  8. Minimally invasive thyroidectomy: a ten years experience

    PubMed Central

    Viani, Lorenzo; Montana, Chiara Montana; Cozzani, Federico; Sianesi, Mario

    2016-01-01

    Background The conventional thyroidectomy is the most frequent surgical procedure for thyroidal surgical disease. From several years were introduced minimally invasive approaches to thyroid surgery. These new procedures improved the incidence of postoperative pain, cosmetic results, patient’s quality of life, postoperative morbidity. The mini invasive video-assisted thyroidectomy (MIVAT) is a minimally invasive procedure that uses a minicervicotomy to treat thyroidal diseases. Methods We present our experience on 497 consecutively treated patients with MIVAT technique. We analyzed the mean age, sex, mean operative time, rate of bleeding, hypocalcemia, transitory and definitive nerve palsy (6 months after the procedure), postoperative pain scale from 0 to 10 at 1 hour and 24 hours after surgery, mean hospital stay. Results The indications to treat were related to preoperative diagnosis: 182 THYR 6, 184 THYR 3–4, 27 plummer, 24 basedow, 28 toxic goiter, 52 goiter. On 497 cases we have reported 1 case of bleeding (0,2%), 12 (2,4%) cases of transitory nerve palsy and 4 (0,8%) definitive nerve palsy. The rate of serologic hypocalcemia was 24.9% (124 cases) and clinical in 7.2% (36 cases); 1 case of hypoparathyroidism (0.2%). Conclusions The MIVAT is a safe approach to surgical thyroid disease, the cost are similar to CT as the adverse events. The minicervicotomy is really a minimally invasive tissue dissection. PMID:27294036

  9. The non-minimal ekpyrotic trispectrum

    SciTech Connect

    Fertig, Angelika; Lehners, Jean-Luc E-mail: jlehners@aei.mpg.de

    2016-01-01

    Employing the covariant formalism, we derive the evolution equations for two scalar fields with non-canonical field space metric up to third order in perturbation theory. These equations can be used to derive predictions for local bi- and trispectra of multi-field cosmological models. Our main application is to ekpyrotic models in which the primordial curvature perturbations are generated via the non-minimal entropic mechanism. In these models, nearly scale-invariant entropy perturbations are generated first due to a non-minimal kinetic coupling between two scalar fields, and subsequently these perturbations are converted into curvature perturbations. Remarkably, the entropy perturbations have vanishing bi- and trispectra during the ekpyrotic phase. However, as we show, the conversion process to curvature perturbations induces local non-Gaussianity parameters f{sub NL} and g{sub NL} at levels that should be detectable by near-future observations. In fact, in order to obtain a large enough amplitude and small enough bispectrum of the curvature perturbations, as seen in current measurements, the conversion process must be very efficient. Interestingly, for such efficient conversions the trispectrum parameter g{sub NL} remains negative and typically of a magnitude O(10{sup 2})–O(10{sup 3}), resulting in a distinguishing feature of non-minimally coupled ekpyrotic models.

  10. Waste minimization in an autobody repair shop

    SciTech Connect

    Baria, D.N.; Dorland, D.; Bergeron, J.T.

    1994-12-31

    This work was done to document the waste minimization incorporated in a new autobody repair facility in Hermantown, Minnesota. Humes Collision Center incorporated new waste reduction techniques when it expanded its old facilities in 1992 and it was able to achieve the benefits of cost reduction and waste reduction. Humes Collision Center repairs an average of 500 cars annually and is a very small quantity generator (VSQG) of hazardous waste, as defined by the Minnesota Pollution Control Agency (MPCA). The hazardous waste consists of antifreeze, batteries, paint sludge, refrigerants, and used oil, while the nonhazardous waste consists of cardboard, glass, paint filters, plastic, sanding dust, scrap metal, and wastewater. The hazardous and nonhazardous waste output were decreased by 72%. In addition, there was a 63% reduction in the operating costs. The waste minimization includes antifreeze recovery and recycling, reduction in unused waste paint, reduction, recovery and recycle of waste lacquer thinner for cleaning spray guns and paint cups, elimination of used plastic car bags, recovery and recycle of refrigerant, reduction in waste sandpaper and elimination of sanding dust, and elimination of waste paint filters. The rate of return on the investment in waste minimization equipment is estimated from 37% per year for the distillation unit, 80% for vacuum sanding, 146% for computerized paint mixing, 211% for the refrigerant recycler, to 588% per year for the gun washer. The corresponding payback time varies from 3 years to 2 months.

  11. The non-minimal ekpyrotic trispectrum

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Fertig, Angelika; Lehners, Jean-Luc

    2016-01-01

    Employing the covariant formalism, we derive the evolution equations for two scalar fields with non-canonical field space metric up to third order in perturbation theory. These equations can be used to derive predictions for local bi- and trispectra of multi-field cosmological models. Our main application is to ekpyrotic models in which the primordial curvature perturbations are generated via the non-minimal entropic mechanism. In these models, nearly scale-invariant entropy perturbations are generated first due to a non-minimal kinetic coupling between two scalar fields, and subsequently these perturbations are converted into curvature perturbations. Remarkably, the entropy perturbations have vanishing bi- and trispectra during the ekpyrotic phase. However, as we show, the conversion process to curvature perturbations induces local non-Gaussianity parameters fNL and gNL at levels that should be detectable by near-future observations. In fact, in order to obtain a large enough amplitude and small enough bispectrum of the curvature perturbations, as seen in current measurements, the conversion process must be very efficient. Interestingly, for such efficient conversions the trispectrum parameter gNL remains negative and typically of a magnitude Script O(102)-Script O(103), resulting in a distinguishing feature of non-minimally coupled ekpyrotic models.

  12. The diagnostic utility of the minimal carcinoma triple stain in breast carcinomas.

    PubMed

    Ross, Dara S; Liu, Yi-Fang; Pipa, Jennifer; Shin, Sandra J

    2013-01-01

    Pathologists are expected to accurately diagnose increasingly smaller breast carcinomas. Correct classification (ie, lobular vs ductal or in situ vs invasive) directly affects subsequent management, especially when the focus is near a surgical margin or present in a needle core biopsy and is further challenging if the lesion is morphologically ambiguous. We assessed the diagnostic utility of a multiplex, trichromogen immunostain of 3 commonly employed antibodies (CK7, p63, and E-cadherin) developed in our laboratory to evaluate these small lesions. Of the 147 specimens containing minimal (defined as ≤3 mm in size) invasive carcinoma, 81 also contained in situ carcinoma. In each case, the Minimal Carcinoma Triple Stain was prepared with a parallel H&E-stained slide. Observations of staining characteristics in the focus of interest were recorded. The Minimal Carcinoma Triple Stain was diagnostically useful in all but 1 case. In a case of invasive lobular carcinoma in an excisional biopsy, the Minimal Carcinoma Triple Stain stained only the surrounding breast tissue (appropriately) and not the focus of interest. Also, a subset of 29 of 81 excisional biopsies had minimal invasive carcinoma located 2 mm or less from the inked surgical margin, in which in all cases the Minimal Carcinoma Triple Stain was fully interpretable despite morphologic distortion due to concomitant cautery artifact and tissue disruption in some cases. The Minimal Carcinoma Triple Stain offers an accurate and tissue-conserving method to diagnose small, morphologically problematic foci of breast carcinoma while ideally leaving more tissue for additional adjunctive studies.

  13. Improved Productivity of Neutral Lipids in Chlorella sp. A2 by Minimal Nitrogen Supply

    PubMed Central

    Zhu, Junying; Chen, Weixian; Chen, Hui; Zhang, Xin; He, Chenliu; Rong, Junfeng; Wang, Qiang

    2016-01-01

    Nitrogen starvation is an efficient environmental pressure for increasing lipid accumulation in microalgae, but it could also significantly lower the biomass productivity, resulting in lower lipid productivity. In this study, green alga Chlorella sp. A2 was cultivated by using a minimal nitrogen supply strategy under both laboratory and outdoor cultivation conditions to evaluate biomass accumulation and lipid production. Results showed that minimal nitrogen supply could promote neutral lipid accumulation of Chlorella sp. A2 without a significant negative effect on cell growth. In laboratory cultivation mode, alga cells cultured with 18 mg L−1 d−1 urea addition could generate 74 and 416% (w/w) more neutral lipid productivity than cells cultured with regular BG11 and nitrogen starvation media, respectively. In outdoor cultivation mode, lipid productivity of cells cultured with 18 mg L−1 d−1 urea addition is approximately 10 and 88% higher than the one with regular BG11 and nitrogen starvation media, respectively. Notably, the results of photosynthetic analysis clarified that minimal nitrogen supply reduced the loss of photosynthetic capacity to keep CO2 fixation during photosynthesis for biomass production. The minimal nitrogen supply strategy for microalgae cultivation could promote neutral lipid accumulation without a significant negative effect on cell growth, resulting in a significant improvement in the lipid productivity. PMID:27148237

  14. Minimal entropy probability paths between genome families.

    PubMed

    Ahlbrandt, Calvin; Benson, Gary; Casey, William

    2004-05-01

    We develop a metric for probability distributions with applications to biological sequence analysis. Our distance metric is obtained by minimizing a functional defined on the class of paths over probability measures on N categories. The underlying mathematical theory is connected to a constrained problem in the calculus of variations. The solution presented is a numerical solution, which approximates the true solution in a set of cases called rich paths where none of the components of the path is zero. The functional to be minimized is motivated by entropy considerations, reflecting the idea that nature might efficiently carry out mutations of genome sequences in such a way that the increase in entropy involved in transformation is as small as possible. We characterize sequences by frequency profiles or probability vectors, in the case of DNA where N is 4 and the components of the probability vector are the frequency of occurrence of each of the bases A, C, G and T. Given two probability vectors a and b, we define a distance function based as the infimum of path integrals of the entropy function H( p) over all admissible paths p(t), 0 < or = t< or =1, with p(t) a probability vector such that p(0)=a and p(1)=b. If the probability paths p(t) are parameterized as y(s) in terms of arc length s and the optimal path is smooth with arc length L, then smooth and "rich" optimal probability paths may be numerically estimated by a hybrid method of iterating Newton's method on solutions of a two point boundary value problem, with unknown distance L between the abscissas, for the Euler-Lagrange equations resulting from a multiplier rule for the constrained optimization problem together with linear regression to improve the arc length estimate L. Matlab code for these numerical methods is provided which works only for "rich" optimal probability vectors. These methods motivate a definition of an elementary distance function which is easier and faster to calculate, works on non

  15. Physics on the Smallest Scales: An Introduction to Minimal Length Phenomenology

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Sprenger, Martin; Nicolini, Piero; Bleicher, Marcus

    2012-01-01

    Many modern theories which try to unify gravity with the Standard Model of particle physics, such as e.g. string theory, propose two key modifications to the commonly known physical theories: the existence of additional space dimensions; the existence of a minimal length distance or maximal resolution. While extra dimensions have received a wide…

  16. Microbial mats and the search for minimal ecosystems.

    PubMed

    Guerrero, R; Piqueras, M; Berlanga, M

    2002-12-01

    This article reviews some ecological concepts common to all kinds of ecosystems, describes the characteristics of microbial mats, and focuses on the description of the Ebro Delta microbial mats, to assess whether they fit the concept of a minimal ecosystem. First, microorganisms as components of ecosystems are considered, and some features of microbial life, including ubiquity, size and metabolism, genetic versatility, and strategies to overcome unfavorable conditions, are discussed. Models for ecosystems, regardless of their size, have the same basic components; tropical forests, multilayered planktonic microbial communities, and benthic microbial mats are analogous ecosystems at different scales. The structure--in terms of populations and communities--and ecophysiology of microbial mats are also discussed. The linear distribution of microbial populations along steep gradients of light and hydrogen sulfide allows for the simultaneous presence of different microbial populations. Defining the minimal ecosystem requirements necessary for the survival and proliferation of organisms is crucial in the search for extraterrestrial life and for establishing ecosystems beyond the Earth.

  17. [Clinical importance and diagnostic methods of minimal hepatic encephalopathy].

    PubMed

    Stawicka, Agnieszka; Zbrzeźniak, Justyna; Świderska, Aleksandra; Kilisińska, Natalia; Świderska, Magdalena; Jaroszewicz, Jerzy; Flisiak, Robert

    2016-02-01

    Minimal hepatic encephalopathy (MHE) encompasses a number of neuropsychological and neurophysiological disorders in patients suffering from liver cirrhosis, who do not display abnormalities during a medical interview or physical examination. A negative influence of MHE on the quality of life of patients suffering from liver cirrhosis was confirmed, which include retardation of ability of operating motor vehicles and disruption of multiple health-related areas, as well as functioning in the society. The data on frequency of traffic offences and accidents amongst patients diagnosed with MHE in comparison to patients diagnosed with liver cirrhosis without MHE, as well as healthy persons is alarming. Those patients are unaware of their disorder and retardation of their ability to operate vehicles, therefore it is of utmost importance to define this group. The term minimal hepatic encephalopathy (formerly "subclinical" encephalopathy) erroneously suggested the unnecessity of diagnostic and therapeutic procedures in patients with liver cirrhosis. Diagnosing MHE is an important predictive factor for occurrence of overt encephalopathy - more than 50% of patients with this diagnosis develop overt encephalopathy during a period of 30 months after. Early diagnosing MHE gives a chance to implement proper treatment which can be a prevention of overt encephalopathy. Due to continuing lack of clinical research there exist no commonly agreed-upon standards for definition, diagnostics, classification and treatment of hepatic encephalopathy. This article introduces the newest findings regarding the importance of MHE, scientific recommendations and provides detailed descriptions of the most valuable diagnostic methods.

  18. Onychomycosis: Practical Approaches to Minimize Relapse and Recurrence

    PubMed Central

    Tosti, Antonella; Elewski, Boni E.

    2016-01-01

    Introduction Toenail onychomycosis is a common disease in which treatment options are limited and treatment failures and disease recurrence are frequently encountered. It usually requires many months of treatment, and recurrence may occur in more than half of the patients within 1 year or more after the infection has been eradicated. Data on long-term treatment, follow-up and recurrence are limited. Objective Our objective is to interpret these data and recommend practical approaches that should minimize recurrence based on our clinical experience. Results Several factors have been suggested to play a role in the high incidence of recurrence, but only the extent of nail involvement and co-existing diabetes mellitus have been shown to have a significant impact. Conclusion The use of topical antifungals to prevent recurrences after complete cure was achieved has been suggested by various workers and used successfully in our practice. However, it has never been validated through clinical studies. Topical prophylaxis once weekly or twice monthly would seem appropriate in those patients most at risk. Prompt treatment of tinea pedis is essential, as is ensuring family members are free from disease. Patient education and pharmacologic intervention are equally important, and there are a number of simple strategies patients can employ. Managing onychomycosis is a significant long-term commitment for any patient, and minimizing recurrence is critical to meet their expectations. PMID:27843933

  19. Minimally Conjoined Omphalopagus Twins with a Body Stalk Anomaly

    PubMed Central

    Maruyama, Hidehiko; Inagaki, Takeshi; Nakata, Yusei; Kanazawa, Akane; Iwasaki, Yuka; Sasaki, Kiyoshi; Nagai, Ryuhei; Kinoshita, Hiromi; Iwata, Jun; Kikkawa, Kiyoshi

    2015-01-01

    Introduction This report will discuss a case of minimally conjoined omphalopagus twins (MCOTs) with a body stalk anomaly (BSA). Case Report We experienced monochorionic diamniotic (MD) twins born at 31 weeks. One infant was suspicious of BSA before birth, and another infant was normal. But normal infant had anal atresia with small intestine which was inserted behind the umbilicus. Twins had very short common umbilicus and infant with BSA had intestinal conjunction, two appendixes at the site of the colon, and a blind-ending colon. We diagnosed MCOTs. Discussion On the basis of the Spencer hypothesis, the etiology of MCOTs was that MD twins shared a yolk sac. However, this could not explain the presence of a BSA. It is necessary to consider the possible reasons for a singleton BSA. In addition, intestinal fusion occurred unequally in this case, although two appendixes were found in the same place, which might have occurred because of the balanced fusion. PMID:26495169

  20. Noninvasive and minimally invasive detection and monitoring of peripheral neuropathies.

    PubMed

    Herrmann, David N

    2008-12-01

    Peripheral neuropathies are diverse and require a multidimensional approach for detection and monitoring in a clinical and research setting. This review describes non- and minimally-invasive measures of distal predominantly sensory polyneuropathy (DSP), the most common form of neuropathy. A combination of clinical and electrophysiologic assessment with nerve-conduction studies (NCSs) suffices for the detection and characterization of most DSPs. NCS are insensitive to variants of DSP that predominantly affect small diameter sensory nerve fibers (SFNs) and cutaneous nerve terminals that subserve pain and thermal sensation. Skin biopsy with assessment of epidermal nerve fiber density permits objective detection and monitoring of SFNs. Conventional clinical and NCS measures have limitations as outcomes in experimental therapeutics in DSP. For clinical trials, biopsy evaluation of epidermal innervation and emerging noninvasive imaging approaches (in vivo confocal microscopy of corneal innervation and of Meissner corpuscles in the skin) hold promise as surrogate markers that are complementary to traditional DSP measures.

  1. Optimal Antiviral Switching to Minimize Resistance Risk in HIV Therapy

    PubMed Central

    Luo, Rutao; Piovoso, Michael J.; Martinez-Picado, Javier; Zurakowski, Ryan

    2011-01-01

    The development of resistant strains of HIV is the most significant barrier to effective long-term treatment of HIV infection. The most common causes of resistance development are patient noncompliance and pre-existence of resistant strains. In this paper, methods of antiviral regimen switching are developed that minimize the risk of pre-existing resistant virus emerging during therapy switches necessitated by virological failure. Two distinct cases are considered; a single previous virological failure and multiple virological failures. These methods use optimal control approaches on experimentally verified mathematical models of HIV strain competition and statistical models of resistance risk. It is shown that, theoretically, order-of-magnitude reduction in risk can be achieved, and multiple previous virological failures enable greater success of these methods in reducing the risk of subsequent treatment failures. PMID:22073250

  2. Untangled modes in multimode waveguides

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Plöschner, Martin; Tyc, TomáÅ.¡; Čižmár, TomáÅ.¡

    2016-03-01

    Small, fibre-based endoscopes have already improved our ability to image deep within the human body. A novel approach introduced recently utilised disordered light within a standard multimode optical fibre for lensless imaging. Importantly, this approach brought very significant reduction of the instruments footprint to dimensions below 100 μm. The most important limitations of this exciting technology is the lack of bending flexibility - imaging is only possible as long as the fibre remains stationary. The only route to allow flexibility of such endoscopes is in trading-in all the knowledge about the optical system we have, particularly the cylindrical symmetry of refractive index distribution. In perfect straight step-index cylindrical waveguides we can find optical modes that do not change their spatial distribution as they propagate through. In this paper we present a theoretical background that provides description of such modes in more realistic model of real-life step-index multimode fibre taking into account common deviations in distribution of the refractive index from its ideal step-index profile. Separately, we discuss how to include the influence of fibre bending.

  3. Characteristics of liquid stannum anode fuel cell operated in battery mode and CO/H2/carbon fuel mode

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Wang, Hongjian; Shi, Yixiang; Cai, Ningsheng

    2014-01-01

    A liquid Stannum (Sn) anode fuel cell is fabricated by using smooth single crystal Yttria Stabilized Zirconia (YSZ) electrolyte and porous Pt cathode. The cell performance in the battery mode is tested to identify the intrinsic reaction kinetics of the Sn electrochemical oxidation reaction. The cell performance characteristics in the gas fuel mode and carbon fuel mode are experimentally measured to identify limiting steps in different operating modes. The results show that in the battery mode, the SnO2 film formation blocks the transportation path of the liquid Sn and oxygen ions to the reactive interface. In the gas fuel modes, the cell performance operating in the H2 fuel mode is much higher than that in the CO fuel mode which is ascribing to the effective reaction of the formed SnO2 at the reactive interface between electrolyte and anode. In the carbon fuel mode, the carbon black fuel can directly or indirectly reduce part of the SnO2 at the interface between anode and electrolyte. It apparently indicates that the performance improvements of liquid Sn anode direct carbon fuel cell rely on minimizing the effects of formed SnO2 layer and accelerating species transportation processes within the liquid Sn electrode.

  4. Selecting Processes to Minimize Hexavalent Chromium from Stainless Steel Welding

    PubMed Central

    KEANE, M.; SIERT, A.; STONE, S.; CHEN, B.; SLAVEN, J.; CUMPSTON, A.; ANTONINI, J.

    2015-01-01

    Eight welding processes/shielding gas combinations were assessed for generation of hexavalent chromium (Cr6+) in stainless steel welding fumes. The processes examined were gas metal arc welding (GMAW) (axial spray, short circuit, and pulsed spray modes), flux cored arc welding (FCAW), and shielded metal arc welding (SMAW). The Cr6+ fractions were measured in the fumes; fume generation rates, Cr6+ generation rates, and Cr6+ generation rates per unit mass of welding wire were determined. A limited controlled comparison study was done in a welding shop including SMAW, FCAW, and three GMAW methods. The processes studied were compared for costs, including relative labor costs. Results indicate the Cr6+ in the fume varied widely, from a low of 2800 to a high of 34,000 ppm. Generation rates of Cr6+ ranged from 69 to 7800 μg/min, and Cr6+ generation rates per unit of wire ranged from 1 to 270 μg/g. The results of field study were similar to the findings in the laboratory. The Cr6+ (ppm) in the fume did not necessarily correlate with the Cr6+ generation rate. Physical properties were similar for the processes, with mass median aerodynamic diameters ranging from 250 to 336 nm, while the FCAW and SMAW fumes were larger (360 and 670 nm, respectively). Conclusion: The pulsed axial spray method was the best choice of the processes studied based on minimal fume generation, minimal Cr6+ generation, and cost per weld. This method is usable in any position, has a high metal deposition rate, and is relatively simple to learn and use. PMID:26690276

  5. Whispering-mode waveguide

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Kurnit, N. A.

    Properties of a relatively new type of waveguide structure of potential use of confining infrared radiation to a small mode volume over long path lengths are reviewed. A single guiding surface with curvature radius rho and band radius R allows propagation of a near-grazing incidence whispering mode of transverse width approximately (lambda square root of rho R/pi) sup 1/2 and radial width approximately 1/2 (sq lambda R)/sup 1/3. For sufficiently large rho, the loss per revolution for TE mode propagation is approximately pi A/sub N/, where A/sub N/ is the normal-incidence reflection loss. Results on a number of prototype structures in general agreement with these considerations are described.

  6. Violin plate modes.

    PubMed

    Gough, Colin

    2015-01-01

    As the first step toward developing a generic model for the acoustically radiating vibrational modes of the violin and related instruments, the modes of both freely supported and edge-constrained top and back plates have been investigated as functions of shape, arching height, elastic anisotropy, the f-holes and associated island area, thickness graduations, and the additional boundary constraints of the ribs, soundpost, and bass-bar present in the assembled instrument. Comsol shell structure finite element software has been used as a quasi-experimental tool, with physical and geometric properties varied smoothly, often over several orders of magnitude, allowing the development of the plate modes to be followed continuously from those of an initially square plate to those of doubly-arched, guitar-shaped, orthotropic plates and their dependence on all the above factors.

  7. Whispering Bloch modes

    PubMed Central

    Craster, R. V.

    2016-01-01

    We investigate eigenvalue problems for the planar Helmholtz equation in open systems with a high order of rotational symmetry. The resulting solutions have similarities with the whispering gallery modes exploited in photonic micro-resonators and elsewhere, but unlike these do not necessarily require a surrounding material boundary, with confinement instead resulting from the geometry of a series of inclusions arranged in a ring. The corresponding fields exhibit angular quasi-periodicity reminiscent of Bloch waves, and hence we refer to them as whispering Bloch modes (WBMs). We show that if the geometry of the system is slightly perturbed such that the rotational symmetry is broken, modes with asymmetric field patterns can be observed, resulting in field enhancement and other potentially desirable effects. We investigate the WBMs of two specific geometries first using expansion methods and then by applying a two-scale asymptotic scheme. PMID:27493564

  8. Infernal Fishbone Mode

    SciTech Connect

    Ya.I. Kolesnichenko; V.S. Marchenko; R.B. White

    2003-02-11

    A new kind of fishbone instability associated with circulating energetic ions is predicted. The considered instability is essentially the energetic particle mode; it is characterized by m/n not equal to 1 (m and n are the poloidal and toroidal mode numbers, respectively). The mode is localized inside the flux surface where the safety factor (q) is q* = m/n, its amplitude being maximum near q*. The instability arises in plasmas with small shear inside the q* surface and q(0) > 1. A possibility to explain recent experimental observations of the m = 2 fishbone oscillations accompanied by strong changes of the neutron emission during tangential neutral-beam injection in the National Spherical Torus Experiment [M. Ono, et al., Nucl. Fusion 40 (2000) 557] is shown.

  9. Using minimal spanning trees to compare the reliability of network topologies

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Leister, Karen J.; White, Allan L.; Hayhurst, Kelly J.

    1990-01-01

    Graph theoretic methods are applied to compute the reliability for several types of networks of moderate size. The graph theory methods used are minimal spanning trees for networks with bi-directional links and the related concept of strongly connected directed graphs for networks with uni-directional links. A comparison is conducted of ring networks and braided networks. The case is covered where just the links fail and the case where both links and nodes fail. Two different failure modes for the links are considered. For one failure mode, the link no longer carries messages. For the other failure mode, the link delivers incorrect messages. There is a description and comparison of link-redundancy versus path-redundancy as methods to achieve reliability. All the computations are carried out by means of a fault tree program.

  10. Cofunctional Subpathways Were Regulated by Transcription Factor with Common Motif, Common Family, or Common Tissue.

    PubMed

    Su, Fei; Shang, Desi; Xu, Yanjun; Feng, Li; Yang, Haixiu; Liu, Baoquan; Su, Shengyang; Chen, Lina; Li, Xia

    2015-01-01

    Dissecting the characteristics of the transcription factor (TF) regulatory subpathway is helpful for understanding the TF underlying regulatory function in complex biological systems. To gain insight into the influence of TFs on their regulatory subpathways, we constructed a global TF-subpathways network (TSN) to analyze systematically the regulatory effect of common-motif, common-family, or common-tissue TFs on subpathways. We performed cluster analysis to show that the common-motif, common-family, or common-tissue TFs that regulated the same pathway classes tended to cluster together and contribute to the same biological function that led to disease initiation and progression. We analyzed the Jaccard coefficient to show that the functional consistency of subpathways regulated by the TF pairs with common motif, common family, or common tissue was significantly greater than the random TF pairs at the subpathway level, pathway level, and pathway class level. For example, HNF4A (hepatocyte nuclear factor 4, alpha) and NR1I3 (nuclear receptor subfamily 1, group I, member 3) were a pair of TFs with common motif, common family, and common tissue. They were involved in drug metabolism pathways and were liver-specific factors required for physiological transcription. In short, we inferred that the cofunctional subpathways were regulated by common-motif, common-family, or common-tissue TFs.

  11. Generation of two-mode squeezed states for two separated atomic ensembles via coupled cavities

    SciTech Connect

    Zheng Shibiao; Yang Zhenbiao; Xia Yan

    2010-01-15

    We propose an efficient scheme for the generation of two-mode squeezed states for two separated atomic ensembles trapped in distant cavities. The scheme is based on selective couplings between the collective atomic modes and two linearly transformed common field modes mediated by an optical fiber or a third cavity. The quanta of the transformed atomic modes are exhausted due to the linear coupling with the transformed field modes, bringing the original atomic modes into the two-mode squeezed states. The experimental implementation of the scheme would be an important step toward quantum communication and networking with continuous variables.

  12. Observation of Spontaneous Neoclassical Tearing Modes

    SciTech Connect

    E.D. Fredrickson

    2001-10-03

    We present data in this paper from the Tokamak Fusion Test Reactor (TFTR) which challenges the commonly held belief that extrinsic MHD events such as sawteeth or ELMs [edge localized modes] are required to provide the seed islands that trigger Neoclassical Tearing Modes (NTMs). While sawteeth are reported to provide the trigger for most of the NTMs on DIII-D [at General Atomics in San Diego, California] and ASDEX-U [at Max-Planck-Institut fuer Plasmaphysik in Garching, Germany], the majority of NTMs seen in TFTR occur in plasmas without sawteeth, that is which are above the beta threshold for sawtooth stabilization. Examples of NTMs appearing in the absence of any detectable extrinsic MHD activity will be shown. Conversely, large n=1 modes in plasmas above the NTM beta threshold generally do not trigger NTMs. An alternative mechanism for generating seed islands will be discussed.

  13. Minimal formulation of joint motion for biomechanisms

    PubMed Central

    Seth, Ajay; Sherman, Michael; Eastman, Peter; Delp, Scott

    2010-01-01

    Biomechanical systems share many properties with mechanically engineered systems, and researchers have successfully employed mechanical engineering simulation software to investigate the mechanical behavior of diverse biological mechanisms, ranging from biomolecules to human joints. Unlike their man-made counterparts, however, biomechanisms rarely exhibit the simple, uncoupled, pure-axial motion that is engineered into mechanical joints such as sliders, pins, and ball-and-socket joints. Current mechanical modeling software based on internal-coordinate multibody dynamics can formulate engineered joints directly in minimal coordinates, but requires additional coordinates restricted by constraints to model more complex motions. This approach can be inefficient, inaccurate, and difficult for biomechanists to customize. Since complex motion is the rule rather than the exception in biomechanisms, the benefits of minimal coordinate modeling are not fully realized in biomedical research. Here we introduce a practical implementation for empirically-defined internal-coordinate joints, which we call “mobilizers.” A mobilizer encapsulates the observations, measurement frame, and modeling requirements into a hinge specification of the permissible-motion manifold for a minimal set of internal coordinates. Mobilizers support nonlinear mappings that are mathematically equivalent to constraint manifolds but have the advantages of fewer coordinates, no constraints, and exact representation of the biomechanical motion-space—the benefits long enjoyed for internal-coordinate models of mechanical joints. Hinge matrices within the mobilizer are easily specified by user-supplied functions, and provide a direct means of mapping permissible motion derived from empirical data. We present computational results showing substantial performance and accuracy gains for mobilizers versus equivalent joints implemented with constraints. Examples of mobilizers for joints from human biomechanics

  14. Sensorless Force Sensing for Minimally Invasive Surgery

    PubMed Central

    Zhao, Baoliang; Nelson, Carl A.

    2015-01-01

    Robotic minimally invasive surgery (R-MIS) has achieved success in various procedures; however, the lack of haptic feedback is considered by some to be a limiting factor. The typical method to acquire tool–tissue reaction forces is attaching force sensors on surgical tools, but this complicates sterilization and makes the tool bulky. This paper explores the feasibility of using motor current to estimate tool-tissue forces and demonstrates acceptable results in terms of time delay and accuracy. This sensorless force estimation method sheds new light on the possibility of equipping existing robotic surgical systems with haptic interfaces that require no sensors and are compatible with existing sterilization methods. PMID:27222680

  15. Functional minimization problems in image processing

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Kim, Yunho; Vese, Luminita A.

    2008-02-01

    In this work we wish to recover an unknown image from a blurry version. We solve this inverse problem by energy minimization and regularization. We seek a solution of the form u + v, where u is a function of bounded variation (cartoon component), while v is an oscillatory component (texture), modeled by a Sobolev function with negative degree of differentiability. Experimental results show that this cartoon + texture model better recovers textured details in natural images, by comparison with the more standard models where the unknown is restricted only to the space of functions of bounded variation.

  16. Nonunity gain minimal-disturbance measurement

    SciTech Connect

    Sabuncu, Metin; Andersen, Ulrik L.; Mista, Ladislav Jr.; Fiurasek, Jaromir; Filip, Radim; Leuchs, Gerd

    2007-09-15

    We propose and experimentally demonstrate an optimal nonunity gain Gaussian scheme for partial measurement of an unknown coherent state that causes minimal disturbance of the state. The information gain and the state disturbance are quantified by the noise added to the measurement outcomes and to the output state, respectively. We derive the optimal trade-off relation between the two noises and we show that the tradeoff is saturated by nonunity gain teleportation. Optimal partial measurement is demonstrated experimentally using a linear optics scheme with feedforward.

  17. Minimal Hepatic Encephalopathy Impairs Quality of Life

    PubMed Central

    Agrawal, Swastik; Umapathy, Sridharan; Dhiman, Radha K.

    2015-01-01

    Minimal hepatic encephalopathy (MHE) is the mildest form of the spectrum of neurocognitive impairment in cirrhosis. It is a frequent occurrence in patients of cirrhosis and is detectable only by specialized neurocognitive testing. MHE is a clinically significant disorder which impairs daily functioning, driving performance, work capability and learning ability. It also predisposes to the development of overt hepatic encephalopathy, increased falls and increased mortality. This results in impaired quality of life for the patient as well as significant social and economic burden for health providers and care givers. Early detection and treatment of MHE with ammonia lowering therapy can reverse MHE and improve quality of life. PMID:26041957

  18. Minimally invasive splenectomy: an update and review.

    PubMed

    Gamme, Gary; Birch, Daniel W; Karmali, Shahzeer

    2013-08-01

    Laparoscopic splenectomy (LS) has become an established standard of care in the management of surgical diseases of the spleen. The present article is an update and review of current procedures and controversies regarding minimally invasive splenectomy. We review the indications and contraindications for LS as well as preoperative considerations. An individual assessment of the procedures and outcomes of multiport laparoscopic splenectomy, hand-assisted laparoscopic splenectomy, robotic splenectomy, natural orifice transluminal endoscopic splenectomy and single-port splenectomy is included. Furthermore, this review examines postoperative considerations after LS, including the postoperative course of uncomplicated patients, postoperative portal vein thrombosis, infections and malignancy.

  19. Strategies for minimizing nosocomial measles transmission.

    PubMed Central

    Biellik, R. J.; Clements, C. J.

    1997-01-01

    As a result of the highly contagious nature of measles before the onset of rash, nosocomial transmission will remain a threat until the disease is eradicated. However, a number of strategies can minimize its nosocomial spread. It is therefore vital to maximize awareness among health care staff that an individual with measles can enter a health facility at any time and that a continual risk of the nosocomial transmission of measles exists. The present review makes two groups of recommendations: those which are generally applicable to all countries, and certain additional recommendations which may be suitable only for industrialized countries. PMID:9342896

  20. Solar array stepping to minimize array excitation

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Bhat, Mahabaleshwar K. P. (Inventor); Liu, Tung Y. (Inventor); Plescia, Carl T. (Inventor)

    1989-01-01

    Mechanical oscillations of a mechanism containing a stepper motor, such as a solar-array powered spacecraft, are reduced and minimized by the execution of step movements in pairs of steps, the period between steps being equal to one-half of the period of torsional oscillation of the mechanism. Each pair of steps is repeated at needed intervals to maintain desired continuous movement of the portion of elements to be moved, such as the solar array of a spacecraft. In order to account for uncertainty as well as slow change in the period of torsional oscillation, a command unit may be provided for varying the interval between steps in a pair.

  1. Qualifying and quantifying minimal hepatic encephalopathy.

    PubMed

    Morgan, Marsha Y; Amodio, Piero; Cook, Nicola A; Jackson, Clive D; Kircheis, Gerald; Lauridsen, Mette M; Montagnese, Sara; Schiff, Sami; Weissenborn, Karin

    2016-12-01

    Minimal hepatic encephalopathy is the term applied to the neuropsychiatric status of patients with cirrhosis who are unimpaired on clinical examination but show alterations in neuropsychological tests exploring psychomotor speed/executive function and/or in neurophysiological variables. There is no gold standard for the diagnosis of this syndrome. As these patients have, by definition, no recognizable clinical features of brain dysfunction, the primary prerequisite for the diagnosis is careful exclusion of clinical symptoms and signs. A large number of psychometric tests/test systems have been evaluated in this patient group. Of these the best known and validated is the Portal Systemic Hepatic Encephalopathy Score (PHES) derived from a test battery of five paper and pencil tests; normative reference data are available in several countries. The electroencephalogram (EEG) has been used to diagnose hepatic encephalopathy since the 1950s but, once popular, the technology is not as accessible now as it once was. The performance characteristics of the EEG are critically dependent on the type of analysis undertaken; spectral analysis has better performance characteristics than visual analysis; evolving analytical techniques may provide better diagnostic information while the advent of portable wireless headsets may facilitate more widespread use. A large number of other diagnostic tools have been validated for the diagnosis of minimal hepatic encephalopathy including Critical Flicker Frequency, the Inhibitory Control Test, the Stroop test, the Scan package and the Continuous Reaction Time; each has its pros and cons; strengths and weaknesses; protagonists and detractors. Recent AASLD/EASL Practice Guidelines suggest that the diagnosis of minimal hepatic encephalopathy should be based on the PHES test together with one of the validated alternative techniques or the EEG. Minimal hepatic encephalopathy has a detrimental effect on the well-being of patients and their care

  2. The minimal length and quantum partition functions

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Abbasiyan-Motlaq, M.; Pedram, P.

    2014-08-01

    We study the thermodynamics of various physical systems in the framework of the generalized uncertainty principle that implies a minimal length uncertainty proportional to the Planck length. We present a general scheme to analytically calculate the quantum partition function of the physical systems to first order of the deformation parameter based on the behavior of the modified energy spectrum and compare our results with the classical approach. Also, we find the modified internal energy and heat capacity of the systems for the anti-Snyder framework.

  3. Minimally Invasive Approach of a Retrocaval Ureter

    PubMed Central

    Pinheiro, Hugo; Ferronha, Frederico; Morales, Jorge; Campos Pinheiro, Luís

    2016-01-01

    The retrocaval ureter is a rare congenital entity, classically managed with open pyeloplasty techniques. The experience obtained with the laparoscopic approach of other more frequent causes of ureteropelvic junction (UPJ) obstruction has opened the method for the minimally invasive approach of the retrocaval ureter. In our paper, we describe a clinical case of a right retrocaval ureter managed successfully with laparoscopic dismembered pyeloplasty. The main standpoints of the procedure are described. Our results were similar to others published by other urologic centers, which demonstrates the safety and feasibility of the procedure for this condition. PMID:27635277

  4. Area Minimizing Discs in Metric Spaces

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Lytchak, Alexander; Wenger, Stefan

    2017-03-01

    We solve the classical problem of Plateau in the setting of proper metric spaces. Precisely, we prove that among all disc-type surfaces with prescribed Jordan boundary in a proper metric space there exists an area minimizing disc which moreover has a quasi-conformal parametrization. If the space supports a local quadratic isoperimetric inequality for curves we prove that such a solution is locally Hölder continuous in the interior and continuous up to the boundary. Our results generalize corresponding results of Douglas Radò and Morrey from the setting of Euclidean space and Riemannian manifolds to that of proper metric spaces.

  5. Periodical cicadas: A minimal automaton model

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    de O. Cardozo, Giovano; de A. M. M. Silvestre, Daniel; Colato, Alexandre

    2007-08-01

    The Magicicada spp. life cycles with its prime periods and highly synchronized emergence have defied reasonable scientific explanation since its discovery. During the last decade several models and explanations for this phenomenon appeared in the literature along with a great deal of discussion. Despite this considerable effort, there is no final conclusion about this long standing biological problem. Here, we construct a minimal automaton model without predation/parasitism which reproduces some of these aspects. Our results point towards competition between different strains with limited dispersal threshold as the main factor leading to the emergence of prime numbered life cycles.

  6. Minimal relativistic three-particle equations

    SciTech Connect

    Lindesay, J.

    1981-07-01

    A minimal self-consistent set of covariant and unitary three-particle equations is presented. Numerical results are obtained for three-particle bound states, elastic scattering and rearrangement of bound pairs with a third particle, and amplitudes for breakup into states of three free particles. The mathematical form of the three-particle bound state equations is explored; constraints are set upon the range of eigenvalues and number of eigenstates of these one parameter equations. The behavior of the number of eigenstates as the two-body binding energy decreases to zero in a covariant context generalizes results previously obtained non-relativistically by V. Efimov.

  7. Minimally invasive surgery for esophageal achalasia.

    PubMed

    Chen, Huan-Wen; Du, Ming

    2016-07-01

    Esophageal achalasia is due to the esophagus of neuromuscular dysfunction caused by esophageal functional disease. Its main feature is the lack of esophageal peristalsis, the lower esophageal sphincter pressure and to reduce the swallow's relaxation response. Lower esophageal muscular dissection is one of the main ways to treat esophageal achalasia. At present, the period of muscular layer under the thoracoscope esophagus dissection is one of the treatment of esophageal achalasia. Combined with our experience in minimally invasive esophageal surgery, to improved incision and operation procedure, and adopts the model of the complete period of muscular layer under the thoracoscope esophagus dissection in the treatment of esophageal achalasia.

  8. 6 Common Cancers - Skin Cancer

    MedlinePlus

    ... Bar Home Current Issue Past Issues 6 Common Cancers - Skin Cancer Past Issues / Spring 2007 Table of Contents For ... AP Photo/Herald-Mail, Kevin G. Gilbert Skin Cancer Skin cancer is the most common form of ...

  9. Common Core State Standards 101

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Rothman, Robert

    2013-01-01

    The Common Core State Standards (CCSS) represent the first time that nearly every state has set common expectations for what students should know and be able to do. In the past, each state set its own standards, and the results varied widely. And while states collectively developed these common standards, decisions about the curriculum and…

  10. Study Mode Negotiation.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Vasan, Mani Le; Sargunan, Rajeswary

    This paper outlines a model of study mode negotiation between clients and English Language Training providers that has been developed at the University of Malaya, specifically related to English language writing skills as taught to corporate clients. Negotiation is used to reach decisions concerning the goals and methodology of learning to ensure…

  11. Two Modes of Sexuality.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Firestone, Robert W.

    This paper describes the essential difference between two modes of sexual relating: (1) a personal, outward style of interaction that is the natural extension of affection, tenderness, and companionship between two people; and (2) an impersonal, inward, more masturbatory expression in which sex is used primarily as a narcotic. The origins of…

  12. Mode conversion in ITER

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Jaeger, E. F.; Berry, L. A.; Myra, J. R.

    2006-10-01

    Fast magnetosonic waves in the ion cyclotron range of frequencies (ICRF) can convert to much shorter wavelength modes such as ion Bernstein waves (IBW) and ion cyclotron waves (ICW) [1]. These modes are potentially useful for plasma control through the generation of localized currents and sheared flows. As part of the SciDAC Center for Simulation of Wave-Plasma Interactions project, the AORSA global-wave solver [2] has been ported to the new, dual-core Cray XT-3 (Jaguar) at ORNL where it demonstrates excellent scaling with the number of processors. Preliminary calculations using 4096 processors have allowed the first full-wave simulations of mode conversion in ITER. Mode conversion from the fast wave to the ICW is observed in mixtures of deuterium, tritium and helium3 at 53 MHz. The resulting flow velocity and electric field shear will be calculated. [1] F.W. Perkins, Nucl. Fusion 17, 1197 (1977). [2] E.F. Jaeger, L.A. Berry, J.R. Myra, et al., Phys. Rev. Lett. 90, 195001-1 (2003).

  13. Theories and Modes

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Apsche, Jack A.

    2005-01-01

    In his work on the Theory of Modes, Beck (1996) suggested that there were flaws with his cognitive theory. He suggested that though there are shortcomings to his cognitive theory, there were not similar shortcomings to the practice of Cognitive Therapy. The author suggests that if there are shortcomings to cognitive theory the same shortcomings…

  14. Thermodynamics of Radiation Modes

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Pina, Eduardo; de la Selva, Sara Maria Teresa

    2010-01-01

    We study the equilibrium thermodynamics of the electromagnetic radiation in a cavity of a given volume and temperature. We found three levels of description, the thermodynamics of one mode, the thermodynamics of the distribution of frequencies in a band by summing over the frequencies in it and the global thermodynamics by summing over all the…

  15. Synthesize Modes and Correlate

    SciTech Connect

    Mayes, Randall Lee; Hensley, Daniel P.

    2005-10-01

    SMAC is an automated experimental modal parameter extraction package which determines the natural frequencies of vibration, viscous damping ratios and mode shapes from experimental accelerance frequency response functions (FRFs). It is written in the MATLAB interpretive matrix language and has a graphical user interface.

  16. Vibrational modes of nanolines

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Heyliger, Paul R.; Flannery, Colm M.; Johnson, Ward L.

    2008-04-01

    Brillouin-light-scattering spectra previously have been shown to provide information on acoustic modes of polymeric lines fabricated by nanoimprint lithography. Finite-element methods for modeling such modes are presented here. These methods provide a theoretical framework for determining elastic constants and dimensions of nanolines from measured spectra in the low gigahertz range. To make the calculations feasible for future incorporation in inversion algorithms, two approximations of the boundary conditions are employed in the calculations: the rigidity of the nanoline/substrate interface and sinusoidal variation of displacements along the nanoline length. The accuracy of these approximations is evaluated as a function of wavenumber and frequency. The great advantage of finite-element methods over other methods previously employed for nanolines is the ability to model any cross-sectional geometry. Dispersion curves and displacement patterns are calculated for modes of polymethyl methacrylate nanolines with cross-sectional dimensions of 65 nm × 140 nm and rectangular or semicircular tops. The vibrational displacements and dispersion curves are qualitatively similar for the two geometries and include a series of flexural, Rayleigh-like, and Sezawa-like modes. This paper is a contribution of the National Institute of Standards and Technology and is not subject to copyright in the United States.

  17. List-mode likelihood

    PubMed Central

    Barrett, Harrison H.; White, Timothy; Parra, Lucas C.

    2010-01-01

    As photon-counting imaging systems become more complex, there is a trend toward measuring more attributes of each individual event. In various imaging systems the attributes can include several position variables, time variables, and energies. If more than about four attributes are measured for each event, it is not practical to record the data in an image matrix. Instead it is more efficient to use a simple list where every attribute is stored for every event. It is the purpose of this paper to discuss the concept of likelihood for such list-mode data. We present expressions for list-mode likelihood with an arbitrary number of attributes per photon and for both preset counts and preset time. Maximization of this likelihood can lead to a practical reconstruction algorithm with list-mode data, but that aspect is covered in a separate paper [IEEE Trans. Med. Imaging (to be published)]. An expression for lesion detectability for list-mode data is also derived and compared with the corresponding expression for conventional binned data. PMID:9379247

  18. Flavored dark matter beyond Minimal Flavor Violation

    DOE PAGES

    Agrawal, Prateek; Blanke, Monika; Gemmler, Katrin

    2014-10-13

    We study the interplay of flavor and dark matter phenomenology for models of flavored dark matter interacting with quarks. We allow an arbitrary flavor structure in the coupling of dark matter with quarks. This coupling is assumed to be the only new source of violation of the Standard Model flavor symmetry extended by a U(3) χ associated with the dark matter. We call this ansatz Dark Minimal Flavor Violation (DMFV) and highlight its various implications, including an unbroken discrete symmetry that can stabilize the dark matter. As an illustration we study a Dirac fermionic dark matter χ which transforms asmore » triplet under U(3) χ , and is a singlet under the Standard Model. The dark matter couples to right-handed down-type quarks via a colored scalar mediator Φ with a coupling λ. We identify a number of “flavor-safe” scenarios for the structure of λ which are beyond Minimal Flavor Violation. Also, for dark matter and collider phenomenology we focus on the well-motivated case of b-flavored dark matter. Furthermore, the combined flavor and dark matter constraints on the parameter space of λ turn out to be interesting intersections of the individual ones. LHC constraints on simplified models of squarks and sbottoms can be adapted to our case, and monojet searches can be relevant if the spectrum is compressed.« less

  19. Flavored dark matter beyond Minimal Flavor Violation

    SciTech Connect

    Agrawal, Prateek; Blanke, Monika; Gemmler, Katrin

    2014-10-13

    We study the interplay of flavor and dark matter phenomenology for models of flavored dark matter interacting with quarks. We allow an arbitrary flavor structure in the coupling of dark matter with quarks. This coupling is assumed to be the only new source of violation of the Standard Model flavor symmetry extended by a U(3) χ associated with the dark matter. We call this ansatz Dark Minimal Flavor Violation (DMFV) and highlight its various implications, including an unbroken discrete symmetry that can stabilize the dark matter. As an illustration we study a Dirac fermionic dark matter χ which transforms as triplet under U(3) χ , and is a singlet under the Standard Model. The dark matter couples to right-handed down-type quarks via a colored scalar mediator Φ with a coupling λ. We identify a number of “flavor-safe” scenarios for the structure of λ which are beyond Minimal Flavor Violation. Also, for dark matter and collider phenomenology we focus on the well-motivated case of b-flavored dark matter. Furthermore, the combined flavor and dark matter constraints on the parameter space of λ turn out to be interesting intersections of the individual ones. LHC constraints on simplified models of squarks and sbottoms can be adapted to our case, and monojet searches can be relevant if the spectrum is compressed.

  20. One hospital's road to waste minimization.

    PubMed

    Hooper, D M

    1994-05-01

    There are many new and exciting waste minimization programs being offered to healthcare facilities. Companies are now making reusable operating packs and gowns that are more efficient than disposables. The selling point is that the system will save healthcare money! The reusable programs do save disposal costs for an institution. Shore Memorial has scheduled a trial evaluation for reusable operating room linens to begin May 1, 1994. The concept has not been difficult to sell to physicians and staff. Perhaps this is because people are generally more aware of their environment and the reasons why it should be protected. The hospital will also be evaluating an IV bottle and bag recycling program. The New Jersey Department of Environmental Protection Agency has given approval to proceed with this type of recycling program, and Shore Memorial is in the process of scheduling this trial program with a local vendor. Waste reduction and recycling in healthcare settings will continue to be challenging because of the diversity of the wastestream and the changing environment facing healthcare. Certainly, healthcare has as much of a responsibility to the well-being of patients as it does to keeping the environment healthy. Returning to the "old way" of doing things, such as reusables, does not have a negative impact on people, but it does have an impact on the environment. Shore Memorial believes it is moving in the right direction with its waste minimization program to make a positive environmental impact.