Science.gov

Sample records for minimum postupleniya cs

  1. CS Informativeness Governs CS-US Associability

    PubMed Central

    Ward, Ryan D.; Gallistel, C. R.; Jensen, Greg; Richards, Vanessa L.; Fairhurst, Stephen; Balsam, Peter D

    2012-01-01

    In a conditioning protocol, the onset of the conditioned stimulus (CS) provides information about when to expect reinforcement (the US). There are two sources of information from the CS in a delay conditioning paradigm in which the CS-US interval is fixed. The first depends on the informativeness, the degree to which CS onset reduces the average expected time to onset of the next US. The second depends only on how precisely a subject can represent a fixed-duration interval (the temporal Weber fraction). In three experiments with mice, we tested the differential impact of these two sources of information on rate of acquisition of conditioned responding (CS-US associability). In Experiment 1, we show that associability (the inverse of trials to acquisition) increases in proportion to informativeness. In Experiment 2, we show that fixing the duration of the US-US interval or the CS-US interval or both has no effect on associability. In Experiment 3, we equated the increase in information produced by varying the C̅/T̅ ratio with the increase produced by fixing the duration of the CS-US interval. Associability increased with increased informativeness, but, as in Experiment 2, fixing the CS-US duration had no effect on associability. These results are consistent with the view that CS-US associability depends on the increased rate of reward signaled by CS onset. The results also provide further evidence that conditioned responding is temporally controlled when it emerges. PMID:22468633

  2. Solar Minimum

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Lopresto, James C.; Mathews, John; Manross, Kevin

    1995-12-01

    Calcium K plage, H alpha plage and sunspot area have been monitored daily on the INTERNET since November of 1992. The plage and sunspot area have been measured by image processing. The purpose of the project is to investigate the degree of correlation between plage area and solar irradiance. The plage variation shows the expected variation produced by solar rotation and the longer secular changes produced by the solar cycle. The H alpha and sunspot plage area reached a minimum in about late 1994 or early 1995. This is in agreement with the K2 spectral index obtained daily from Sacramento Peak Observatory. The Calcium K plage area minimum seems delayed with respect to the others mentioned above. The minimum of the K line plage area is projected to come within the last few months of 1995.

  3. EXTRAGALACTIC CS SURVEY

    SciTech Connect

    Bayet, E.; Viti, S.; Aladro, R.; MartIn, S.; MartIn-Pintado, J.

    2009-12-10

    We present a coherent and homogeneous multi-line study of the CS molecule in nearby (D < 10 Mpc) galaxies. We include, from the literature, all the available observations from the J = 1-0 to the J = 7-6 transitions toward NGC 253, NGC 1068, IC 342, Henize 2-10, M 82, the Antennae Galaxies, and M 83. We have, for the first time, detected the CS(7-6) line in NGC 253, M 82 (both in the northeast and southwest molecular lobes), NGC 4038, M 83 and tentatively in NGC 1068, IC 342, and Henize 2-10. We use the CS molecule as a tracer of the densest gas component of the interstellar medium in extragalactic star-forming regions, following previous theoretical and observational studies by Bayet et al. In this first paper out of a series, we analyze the CS data sample under both local thermodynamical equilibrium (LTE) and non-LTE (large velocity gradient) approximations. We show that except for M 83 and Overlap (a shifted gas-rich position from the nucleus NGC 4039 in the Antennae Galaxies), the observations in NGC 253, IC 342, M 82-NE, M 82-SW, and NGC 4038 are not well reproduced by a single set of gas component properties and that, at least, two gas components are required. For each gas component, we provide estimates of the corresponding kinetic temperature, total CS column density, and gas density.

  4. Near-yrast structure of Cs142 and Cs144

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Rząca-Urban, T.; Genevey, J.; Materna, T.; Urban, W.; Smith, A. G.; Pinston, J. A.; Simpson, G. S.; Sadowski, M. P.; Köster, U.; Faust, H.; Bail, A.; Mathieu, L.; Serot, O.; Michel-Sendis, F.; Ahmad, I.

    2009-12-01

    Excited states in Cs142 and Cs144, populated in the spontaneous fission of Cm248 and Cf252 and in thermal neutron-induced fission of U235 and Am242 were studied by means of γ spectroscopy using the EUROGAM2 and Gammasphere multidetector Ge arrays and the LOHENGRIN fission-fragment separator, respectively. In Cs142, a band and an isomer with a half-life of T1/2=11(3) ns have been identified. Spins and parities have been proposed for excited levels in this nucleus. In Cs144 excited levels have been observed. A T1/2=1.1(1) μs isomer was found with a γ cascade, which probably feeds this isomer. There is also an indication of a nanosecond isomer in Cs144. Quasiparticle-rotor model calculations done in this work allowed proton-neutron configurations to be proposed for levels in Cs142 and Cs144.

  5. Development of Jacketing Technologies for Iter CS and TF Conductor

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Hamada, K.; Nakajima, H.; Matsui, K.; Kawano, K.; Takano, K.; Tsutsumi, F.; Okuno, K.; Teshima, O.; Soejima, K.

    2008-03-01

    The Japan Atomic Energy Agency (JAEA) has developed jacketing technologies for ITER Toroidal Field (TF) and Central Solenoid (CS) conductor. Full scale TF and CS conduits were fabricated using carbon-reduced SUS316LN and boron-added (˜40 ppm) high manganese stainless steel (0.025C -22Mn -13Cr -9Ni -0.12N: JK2LB), respectively. Welding condition was optimized so that back bead does not interfere a cable insertion. The weld joint samples were compacted by a compaction machine that was newly constructed and tested at 4.2 K. Mechanical characteristics at 4K of CS, TF conduits and CS welded joint satisfied ITER mechanical requirements. TF welded joint shows slightly lower value of 0.2% yield strength (885 MPa) than that of ITER requirement (900 MPa). The TF conduit contains nitrogen content of 0.14%, which is minimum value in ITER specification. The lower nitrogen content may be caused by the release of nitrogen from molten metal during non-filler welding resulting in a 4 K strength decrease. To satisfy the ITER requirements, minimum nitrogen contents of conduit should be increased from 0.14% to 0.15% at least. Therefore, JAEA successfully developed TF and CS conduits with welding technologies and finalized the procurement specification for ITER conductor jacketing.

  6. Surface Dipole Formation and Lowering of the Work Function by Cs Adsorption on InP(100) Surface

    SciTech Connect

    Sun, Y.; Liu, Z.; Pianetta, P.

    2007-06-08

    The Cs adsorption on InP(100) surface is studied with Synchrotron Radiation Photoelectron Spectroscopy. The charge transfer from Cs to the InP substrate is observed from the Cs induced In4d and P2p components, and this charge transfer results in surface dipole formation and lowering of the work function. The Cs4d intensity saturates at coverage of one monolayer (ML). However, a break point is observed at 0.5 ML, which coincides with the achievement of the minimum work function. This break point is due to the different vertical placement of the first and the second half monolayer of Cs atoms. Based on this information, a simple bi-layer structure for the Cs layer is presented. This bi-layer structure is consistent with the behavior of the charge transfer from the Cs to the InP substrate at different Cs coverages. This, in turn, explains why the work function decreases to a minimum at 0.5 ML of Cs and remains almost constant beyond this coverage. The depolarization of the surface dipoles is attributed to the saturation of charge transfer to the surface In atoms and the polarization of the Cs atoms in the second half monolayer induced by the positively charged Cs atoms in the first half monolayer.

  7. Bandhead Energies in 125Cs

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Sun, Ji; Hu, Xue-Yuan; Ma, Ying-Jun; Liu, Yun-Zuo; Tetsuro, Komatsubara; Kohei, Furuno; Zhang, Yu-Hu; Zhou, Wen-Ping; Wang, Shou-Yu

    Excited states in 125Cs have been studied with the fusion-evaporation-reaction 116Cd(14N,5n)125Cs at 65 MeV beam energy, using the Nordball-multidetector-system at the Niels-Bohr-Institute in Denmark. The level scheme of 125Cs was extended with the addition of more than 40 new γ-transitions. Moreover, the bandhead excitation energies of the previously known g9/2 and h11/2 bands were unambiguously corrected with plenty of hard evidence.

  8. Operation of static and flowing Cs DPAL with different buffer gas mixtures

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Knize, R. J.; Zhdanov, B. V.; Rotondaro, M. T.; Shaffer, M. K.

    2016-03-01

    Cs DPAL operation using Ethane, Methane and mixtures of these hydrocarbons with noble gases He and Ar as a buffer gases for spin-orbit relaxation was studied in this work. The best Cs DPAL performance in continuous wave operation with flowing gain medium was achieved using pure Methane, pure Ethane or a mixture of Ethane (minimum of 200 Torr) and He with a total buffer gas pressure of 300 torr.

  9. 2011 Sea Ice Minimum

    NASA Video Gallery

    This video shows Arctic sea ice from March 7, 2011, to Sept. 9, 2011, ending with a comparison of the 30-year average minimum extent, shown in yellow, and the Northwest Passage, in red. (no audio) ...

  10. Reactive barriers for 137Cs retention.

    PubMed

    Krumhansl, J L; Brady, P V; Anderson, H L

    2001-02-01

    137Cs was dispersed globally by cold war activities and, more recently, by the Chernobyl accident. Engineered extraction of 137Cs from soils and groundwaters is exceedingly difficult. Because the half-life of 137Cs is only 30.2 years, remediation might be more effective (and less costly) if 137Cs bioavailability could be demonstrably limited for even a few decades by use of a reactive barrier. Essentially permanent isolation must be demonstrated in those few settings where high nuclear level wastes contaminated the environment with 135Cs (half-life 2.3 x 10(6) years) in addition to 137Cs. Clays are potentially a low-cost barrier to Cs movement, though their long-term effectiveness remains untested. To identify optimal clays for Cs retention, Cs desorption was measured for five common clays: Wyoming Montmorillonite (SWy-1), Georgia Kaolinites (KGa-1 and KGa-2), Fithian Illite (F-Ill), and K-Metabentonite (K-Mbt). Exchange sites were pre-saturated with 0.16 M CsCl for 14 days and readily exchangeable Cs was removed by a series of LiNO3 and LiCl washes. Washed clays were then placed into dialysis bags and the Cs release to the deionized water outside the bags measured. Release rates from 75 to 139 days for SWy-1, K-Mbt and F-Ill were similar; 0.017% to 0.021% sorbed Cs released per day. Both kaolinites released Cs more rapidly (0.12% to 0.05% of the sorbed Cs per day). In a second set of experiments, clays were Cs-doped for 110 days and subjected to an extreme and prolonged rinsing process. All the clays exhibited some capacity for irreversible Cs uptake. However, the residual loading was greatest on K-Mbt (approximately 0.33 wt.% Cs). Thus, this clay would be the optimal material for constructing artifical reactive barriers. PMID:11288579

  11. Reactive barriers for 137Cs retention.

    PubMed

    Krumhansl, J L; Brady, P V; Anderson, H L

    2001-02-01

    137Cs was dispersed globally by cold war activities and, more recently, by the Chernobyl accident. Engineered extraction of 137Cs from soils and groundwaters is exceedingly difficult. Because the half-life of 137Cs is only 30.2 years, remediation might be more effective (and less costly) if 137Cs bioavailability could be demonstrably limited for even a few decades by use of a reactive barrier. Essentially permanent isolation must be demonstrated in those few settings where high nuclear level wastes contaminated the environment with 135Cs (half-life 2.3 x 10(6) years) in addition to 137Cs. Clays are potentially a low-cost barrier to Cs movement, though their long-term effectiveness remains untested. To identify optimal clays for Cs retention, Cs desorption was measured for five common clays: Wyoming Montmorillonite (SWy-1), Georgia Kaolinites (KGa-1 and KGa-2), Fithian Illite (F-Ill), and K-Metabentonite (K-Mbt). Exchange sites were pre-saturated with 0.16 M CsCl for 14 days and readily exchangeable Cs was removed by a series of LiNO3 and LiCl washes. Washed clays were then placed into dialysis bags and the Cs release to the deionized water outside the bags measured. Release rates from 75 to 139 days for SWy-1, K-Mbt and F-Ill were similar; 0.017% to 0.021% sorbed Cs released per day. Both kaolinites released Cs more rapidly (0.12% to 0.05% of the sorbed Cs per day). In a second set of experiments, clays were Cs-doped for 110 days and subjected to an extreme and prolonged rinsing process. All the clays exhibited some capacity for irreversible Cs uptake. However, the residual loading was greatest on K-Mbt (approximately 0.33 wt.% Cs). Thus, this clay would be the optimal material for constructing artifical reactive barriers.

  12. Record Sea Ice Minimum

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    2007-01-01

    Arctic sea ice reached a record low in September 2007, below the previous record set in 2005 and substantially below the long-term average. This image shows the Arctic as observed by the Advanced Microwave Scanning Radiometer for EOS (AMSR-E) aboard NASA's Aqua satellite on September 16, 2007. In this image, blue indicates open water, white indicates high sea ice concentration, and turquoise indicates loosely packed sea ice. The black circle at the North Pole results from an absence of data as the satellite does not make observations that far north. Three contour lines appear on this image. The red line is the 2007 minimum, as of September 15, about the same time the record low was reached, and it almost exactly fits the sea ice observed by AMSR-E. The green line indicates the 2005 minimum, the previous record low. The yellow line indicates the median minimum from 1979 to 2000.

  13. Minimum Critical Values Study

    SciTech Connect

    Fox, P.B.

    2005-07-11

    This report provides minimum critical values for various 30-cm water-reflected uranium and plutonium oxide and nitrate aqueous mixtures as calculated by the SCALE CSAS1X sequence using the 238-group ENDF/B-V neutron cross-section library. The minimum values were determined through parametric searches in one-dimensional geometry. The calculations have been performed to obtain the minimum values: critical volume and mass for spheres, critical radius for cylinders, critical thickness for slabs, and minimum critical concentration (infinite geometry) for the following homogeneous mixtures: (1) UO{sub 2}-H{sub 2}O for 3, 4, 5, 20, and 100 wt % {sup 235}U; (2) UNH for 3, 4, 5, 20, and 100 wt % {sup 235}U; (3) PuO{sub 2}-H{sub 2}O for 100/0/0, 95/5/0, 90/5/5, 80/10/10, and 71/17/11/1 wt % of {sup 239}Pu/{sup 240}Pu/{sup 241}Pu(/{sup 242}Pu); and (4) PuNH for 100/0/0, 95/5/0, 90/5/5, 80/10/10, and 71/17/11/1 wt % of {sup 239}Pu/{sup 240}Pu/{sup 241}Pu(/{sup 242}Pu). All bounding surfaces were fully reflected by 30 cm of H{sub 2}O.

  14. Minimum variance geographic sampling

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Terrell, G. R. (Principal Investigator)

    1980-01-01

    Resource inventories require samples with geographical scatter, sometimes not as widely spaced as would be hoped. A simple model of correlation over distances is used to create a minimum variance unbiased estimate population means. The fitting procedure is illustrated from data used to estimate Missouri corn acreage.

  15. CS2SAT Desktop Tool

    2006-03-15

    The Idaho National Laboratory (INL) has developed a Control System Cyber Security Self-Assessment Tool (CS2SAT) desktop tool that provides a repeatable and systematic approach for control system users to assess the cyber security posture of their control system networks. The tool assists users in identifying the cyber security parameters of their systems and then offers security objectives, in the form of requirements, for improving the security of their specific network. Each requirement is linked tomore » a series of associated recommendations for compliance dependent upon the desired level of security protection. Each requirement is supported by links to the original standards document and recommendations are supported by links to whitepapers and other help documents. Package also includes two back-end supporting codes: CS2SAT Requirements Matrix and Control System Security Information System.« less

  16. Cs diffusion in cubic silicon carbide

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Shrader, David; Szlufarska, Izabela; Morgan, Dane

    2012-02-01

    Undesired release of Cs through a silicon carbide coating of nuclear fuel is a significant concern for the design of the Very High Temperature Reactor (VHTR). However, mechanisms of Cs transport are currently unclear. To better understand the possible mechanisms of Cs release here we use density functional theory to study diffusion of Cs in crystalline bulk SiC. Cs point defects and Cs - vacancy clusters have been investigated for stability and structure. The most stable state for the Cs impurity in SiC, under n-type doping conditions, is found to be a negatively charged Cs atom substituting for a C atom and bound to two Si vacancies ( Cs-2VSi3-). Bulk diffusion coefficients are estimated for several Cs impurity states. The Cs-2VSi3- defect structure is found to have the lowest overall activation energy for diffusion with a value of approximately 5.14 eV. This activation energy agrees well with diffusion activation energies estimated for Cs in SiC based on high temperature integral release experiments.

  17. Comparison Of NaI And HPGe Minimum Detectable Activities

    SciTech Connect

    Bailey, Paul

    2002-11-30

    The Minimum Detectable Activity of a 76 mm by 76 mm (3" by 3") sodium iodide (NaI) crystal and 18 %, 42 % and 68 % efficient HPGe detectors were calculated and compared for gamma-ray spectrometry with count times in the range of 1 second to 15 minutes. All cases were for in situ measurements with a surface distribution source and a detector height of 1 meter. The radionuclides considered were 137Cs and 60Co.

  18. Rising above the Minimum Wage.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Even, William; Macpherson, David

    An in-depth analysis was made of how quickly most people move up the wage scale from minimum wage, what factors influence their progress, and how minimum wage increases affect wage growth above the minimum. Very few workers remain at the minimum wage over the long run, according to this study of data drawn from the 1977-78 May Current Population…

  19. Measurements and Observations of 134Cs and 137Cs around a Nuclear Power Plant in Busan, South Korea

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Chong, H. Y.; Park, J. N.; Kim, J. S.

    2015-12-01

    The purpose of this study is to know the change of representative species 134Cs and 137Cs of artificial radionuclides from the nuclear power station nearby for the last five years(2010~2014). The Kori Nuclear Power Plant, nuclear power facility located near Busan, is located in the south-east coast of Korea and about 21km north-east away from the Haeundae and about 25km south away from the Ulsan. An administrative district is Jangan-eup, Gijang-gun, Busan, Korea. A point was selected on the basis of the "Environmental Radiation Monitoring Plan around Nuclear Power Plants" and periodically samples were collected and analyzed. The samples were collected from the soils of the surface in the Wolnae area (NW, 1.7km). The soil samples were analyzed by gamma spectrometer with High Purity Germanium detector (HPGe) of 40% relative efficiency and were measured for 80,000 sec. As a results of soil analysis, 137Cs were detected in samples only selected in March 2013. The activity concentration of 137Cs founded in the soil sample was 0.513±0.052Bq/kg-dry. In the other hands, the concentration of 137Cs in the year 2010, 2011, 2012, and 2014 were below the minimum detectable activity (MDA). 40K, natural radionuclides which is widely present, was detected in the soil samples and other artificial radionuclides were not detected. The result of overall comparison of the environmental radioactivity survey around Kori Nuclear Power Plant for the last five years is that radioactivity levels are within average range. However, it is necessary to continue to carefully observe a fine change in regional or the monthly radiation concentration.

  20. Cs based photocathodes for gaseous detectors

    SciTech Connect

    Borovick-Romanov, A.; Peskov, V.

    1993-08-01

    We demonstrated that some standard photocathodes SbCs, GaAs(Cs), Au(Cs) can easily be manufactured for use inside gaseous detectors. When filed with clean quenched gases such detectors have a quantum efficiency of a few percent in the visible region of the spectra and can operate at a gain >10{sup 3}. We tried to make these photocathodes more air stable by protecting their surfaces with a thin layer of CsI or liquid TMAE. The most air stable were photocathodes with a CsI protective layer. A wavelengths {le}185 nm such photocathodes have the highest quantum efficiency among all known air stable photocathodes, including CsI. Gaseous detectors with such photocathodes can operate at a gain of 10{sup 5}. Results of first tests of doped CsI photocathode are also presented. Possible fields of application of new photocathodes are discussed.

  1. The electronic structure of CsI adlayers on W(110)

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Hitzke, A.; Pülm, S.; Müller, H.; Hausmann, R.; Günster, J.; Dieckhoff, S.; Maus-Friedrichs, W.; Kempter, V.

    1993-07-01

    The electronic structure of thin CsI adlayers deposited on W(110) at room temperature is studied by ion impact electron spectroscopy (IIES) with He + and He 2+ ions, metastable impact electron spectroscopy (MIES) with He ∗ atoms, ultraviolet photoelectron spectroscopy (UPS), work function measurements, and to some extent with electron energy loss spectroscopy (EELS). The transition from the eletronic structure of single adsorbed molecules to that of the bulk structure could be studied by following the emergence of bulk properties, in particular the bandgap, as a function of the CsI exposure. The experimental results are consistent with the following conclusions: The first step in the layer growth is molecular adsorption of CsI perpendicular to the surface with the iodine end of the molecule pointing toward the substrate accompanied by decrease of the surface work function. The next step, starting with the occurrence of a pronounced work function minimum, is the formation of two-dimensional islands formed by CsI molecules. The results are consistent with lateral growth of the islands until the substrate is largely covered by CsI. The electronic structure of the adlayer cannot be distinguished anymore from that of CsI bulk material by means of electron spectroscopic techniques at exposures which are more than three times that of the occurrence of the work function minimum. The production of vacancies in the I - (5p) and Cs + (5p) orbitals under the influence of the ionizing radiation is studied as a function of the CsI exposure. Their relevance for the desorption process induced by electronic transitions (DIET) is discussed.

  2. Reactive barriers for {sup 137}Cs retention

    SciTech Connect

    KRUMHANSL,JAMES L.; BRADY,PATRICK V.; ANDERSON,HOWARD L.

    2000-05-19

    {sup 137}Cs was dispersed globally by cold war activities and, more recently, by the Chernobyl accident. Engineered extraction of {sup 137}Cs from soils and groundwaters is exceedingly difficult. Because the half life of {sup 137}Cs is only 30.2 years, remediation might be more effective (and less costly) if {sup 137}Cs bioavailability could be demonstrably limited for even a few decades by use of a reactive barrier. Essentially permanent isolation must be demonstrated in those few settings where high nuclear level wastes contaminated the environment with {sup 135}Cs (half life 2.3x10{sup 6} years) in addition to {sup 137}Cs. Clays are potentially a low-cost barrier to Cs movement, though their long-term effectiveness remains untested. To identify optimal clays for Cs retention Cs resorption was measured for five common clays: Wyoming Montmorillonite (SWy-1), Georgia Kaolinites (KGa-1 and KGa-2), Fithian Illite (F-Ill), and K-Metabentonite (K-Mbt). Exchange sites were pre-saturated with 0.16 M CsCl for 14 days and readily exchangeable Cs was removed by a series of LiNO{sub 3} and LiCl washes. Washed clay were then placed into dialysis bags and the Cs release to the deionized water outside the bags measured. Release rates from 75 to 139 days for SWy-1, K-Mbt and F- 111 were similar; 0.017 to 0.021% sorbed Cs released per day. Both kaolinites released Cs more rapidly (0.12 to 0.05% of the sorbed Cs per day). In a second set of experiments, clays were doped for 110 days and subjected to an extreme and prolonged rinsing process. All the clays exhibited some capacity for irreversible Cs uptake so most soils have some limited ability to act as a natural barrier to Cs migration. However, the residual loading was greatest on K-Mbt ({approximately} 0.33 wt% Cs). Thus, this clay would be the optimal material for constructing artificial reactive barriers.

  3. Formation of Stoichiometric CsFn Compounds

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Zhu, Qiang; Oganov, Artem R.; Zeng, Qingfeng

    2015-01-01

    Alkali halides MX, have been viewed as typical ionic compounds, characterized by 1:1 ratio necessary for charge balance between M+ and X-. It was proposed that group I elements like Cs can be oxidized further under high pressure. Here we perform a comprehensive study for the CsF-F system at pressures up to 100 GPa, and find extremely versatile chemistry. A series of CsFn (n >= 1) compounds are predicted to be stable already at ambient pressure. Under pressure, 5p electrons of Cs atoms become active, with growing tendency to form Cs (III) and (V) valence states at fluorine-rich conditions. Although Cs (II) and (IV) are not energetically favoured, the interplay between two mechanisms (polyfluoride anions and polyvalent Cs cations) allows CsF2 and CsF4 compounds to be stable under pressure. The estimated defluorination temperatures of CsFn (n = 2,3,5) compounds at atmospheric pressure (218°C, 150°C, -15°C, respectively), are attractive for fluorine storage applications.

  4. Minimum fuel mode evaluation

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Orme, John S.; Nobbs, Steven G.

    1995-01-01

    The minimum fuel mode of the NASA F-15 research aircraft is designed to minimize fuel flow while maintaining constant net propulsive force (FNP), effectively reducing thrust specific fuel consumption (TSFC), during cruise flight conditions. The test maneuvers were at stabilized flight conditions. The aircraft test engine was allowed to stabilize at the cruise conditions before data collection initiated; data were then recorded with performance seeking control (PSC) not-engaged, then data were recorded with the PSC system engaged. The maneuvers were flown back-to-back to allow for direct comparisons by minimizing the effects of variations in the test day conditions. The minimum fuel mode was evaluated at subsonic and supersonic Mach numbers and focused on three altitudes: 15,000; 30,000; and 45,000 feet. Flight data were collected for part, military, partial, and maximum afterburning power conditions. The TSFC savings at supersonic Mach numbers, ranging from approximately 4% to nearly 10%, are in general much larger than at subsonic Mach numbers because of PSC trims to the afterburner.

  5. P-wave [cs][cs] tetraquark state: Y(4260) or Y(4660)?

    SciTech Connect

    Zhang Jianrong; Huang Mingqiu

    2011-02-01

    The mass of a P-wave cs-scalar-diquark cs-scalar-antidiquark state is computed in the framework of QCD sum rules. The result 4.69{+-}0.36 GeV is in good agreement with the experimental value of Y(4660) but higher than Y(4260)'s, which supports the P-wave [cs][cs] configuration for Y(4660) while disfavors the interpretation of Y(4260) as the P-wave [cs][cs] state. In the same picture, the mass of P-wave [bs][bs] is predicted to be 11.19{+-}0.49 GeV.

  6. Theoretical study of the CS2+ dication

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Šedivcová, T.; Špirko, V.; Fišer, J.

    2006-10-01

    The potential energy and spin-orbit coupling functions of 11 lowest electronic states of CS2+ dication have been calculated using internally contracted multireference configuration method. Using these functions, the positions and widths of the corresponding vibronic levels have been evaluated by means of the stabilization and log-phase-amplitude methods. The states governing the second step in the sequential pathway CS23+→ S++CS2+→S++C++S+ of the overall three-body Coulomb explosion of CS23+ have been determined.

  7. Minimum Competency in Secondary Education.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    De Landsheere, Viviane

    1987-01-01

    Discusses issues related to the movement toward minimum competency in secondary education. Addresses the problem of defining minimum competency and the dangers of imposed standardization. Identifies three conceptualizations of minimum competency as: (1) the narrowly educational standpoint, (2) the concern with functional literacy, and (3) a more…

  8. Multiphoton dissociative ionization of CS+

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Rajput, Jyoti; Jochim, Bethany; Zohrabi, M.; Betsch, K. J.; Ablikim, U.; Berry, Ben; Severt, T.; Summers, A. M.; Armstrong, G. S. J.; Esry, B. D.; Carnes, K. D.; Ben-Itzhak, I.

    2015-05-01

    We have studied the dissociative photoionization of a CS+ molecular ion beam in the strong-field regime using <50 fs IR laser pulses (λ ~ 790 nm) from a 10 kHz, ~2 mJ (per pulse) Ti:Sapphire laser system. A coincidence three-dimensional momentum imaging method was used to measure all ions and neutrals formed during this multiphoton process. Two prominent channels were observed: charge-symmetric dissociation, yielding C+ + S+, and charge-asymmetric dissociation, yielding C + S2+. The differences between these two channels with reference to their relative production probability, energetics, and angular distributions is the focus of this work. This work was supported by the Chemical Sciences, Geosciences, and Biosciences Division, Office of Basic Energy Sciences, Office of Science, U.S. Department of Energy. BJ is also supported by DOE-SCGF (DE-AC05-06OR23100).

  9. Design for Minimum Risk

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Wetherholt, Jon; Heimann, Timothy J.

    2010-01-01

    Design for Minimum Risk (DFMR) is a term used by NASA programs as an expansion of the general hazard reduction process where if an identified hazard cannot be eliminated, the design is modified to reduce the associated mishap risk to an acceptable level. DFMR is a set of specific requirements to minimize risk. DFMR is not well understood and there are many misconceptions concerning the meaning and use. This paper will provide insight into the use of DFMR for space applications; it s comparison to other hazard mitigation strategies and examples of how the approach has been used in the past. It will also highlight documents used by NASA on various programs to determine DFMR.

  10. 134Cs: 137Cs and 106Ru: 137Cs ratios in intertidal sediments from the Cumbria and Lancashire coasts England

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Stanners, D. A.; Aston, S. R.

    1981-10-01

    The distributions of 134Cs, 137Cs and 106Ru in intertidal surface sediments from the coasts of Cumbria and Lancashire, north-west England, are reported. The ratios of 134Cs: 137Cs and 106Ru: 137Cs activities have been used together with the isotopic composition of the Windscale radioactive effluents to examine the contamination history of sediments. Distinct differences between the activities and time of contamination of muds, silts and sands are found, and the apparent lag times of transport of radioactive wastes to different sediment localities are estimated. The relatively high activities in fine sediments reflect recent discharges indicating a rapid response to discharge, while the sands contain low levels of older contamination. Apparent lag times of up to 6 years are estimated for the study area; the transport to the south is generally more rapid than to the north. These results have consequences for the operation and interpretation of radiological monitoring in coastal areas.

  11. A hybrid metaheuristic DE/CS algorithm for UCAV three-dimension path planning.

    PubMed

    Wang, Gaige; Guo, Lihong; Duan, Hong; Wang, Heqi; Liu, Luo; Shao, Mingzhen

    2012-01-01

    Three-dimension path planning for uninhabited combat air vehicle (UCAV) is a complicated high-dimension optimization problem, which primarily centralizes on optimizing the flight route considering the different kinds of constrains under complicated battle field environments. A new hybrid metaheuristic differential evolution (DE) and cuckoo search (CS) algorithm is proposed to solve the UCAV three-dimension path planning problem. DE is applied to optimize the process of selecting cuckoos of the improved CS model during the process of cuckoo updating in nest. The cuckoos can act as an agent in searching the optimal UCAV path. And then, the UCAV can find the safe path by connecting the chosen nodes of the coordinates while avoiding the threat areas and costing minimum fuel. This new approach can accelerate the global convergence speed while preserving the strong robustness of the basic CS. The realization procedure for this hybrid metaheuristic approach DE/CS is also presented. In order to make the optimized UCAV path more feasible, the B-Spline curve is adopted for smoothing the path. To prove the performance of this proposed hybrid metaheuristic method, it is compared with basic CS algorithm. The experiment shows that the proposed approach is more effective and feasible in UCAV three-dimension path planning than the basic CS model. PMID:23193383

  12. Distributions of (137)Cs and (210)Pb in moss collected from Belarus and Slovakia.

    PubMed

    Aleksiayenak, Yu V; Frontasyeva, M V; Florek, M; Sykora, I; Holy, K; Masarik, J; Brestakova, L; Jeskovsky, M; Steinnes, E; Faanhof, A; Ramatlhape, K I

    2013-03-01

    In the present work, moss samples collected in Slovakia and Belarus were assayed with respect to gamma-emitting radionuclides. The results for (137)Cs and (210)Pb are discussed. Moss was used for the first time in Belarus, as a biological indicator of radioactive environmental pollution in consequence of the Chernobyl accident in 1986. In Belarus, the maximum activity of (137)Cs was observed in the Gomel region near Mazyr (6830 Bq/kg) and the minimum activity in the Vitebsyevsk Region near Luzhki-Yazno (5 Bq/kg). "Hot spots" were also observed near the towns Borisow and Yuratsishki. The results of measurements of (137)Cs in moss samples collected in 2000, 2006 and 2009 in the same localities of Slovakia are presented and compared with the results of air monitoring of (137)Cs carried out in Slovakia from 1977 until 2010. Measurements of the (210)Pb concentration in moss samples collected over the territory of Slovakia showed, that the median value exceed 2.3 times median value of (210)Pb obtained for Belarus moss. For that reason, the inhalation dose for man from (210)Pb and (137)Cs in Slovakia is more than twice as high as in Belarus, in spite of the initially very high (137)Cs exposure in the latter country.

  13. A Hybrid Metaheuristic DE/CS Algorithm for UCAV Three-Dimension Path Planning

    PubMed Central

    Wang, Gaige; Guo, Lihong; Duan, Hong; Wang, Heqi; Liu, Luo; Shao, Mingzhen

    2012-01-01

    Three-dimension path planning for uninhabited combat air vehicle (UCAV) is a complicated high-dimension optimization problem, which primarily centralizes on optimizing the flight route considering the different kinds of constrains under complicated battle field environments. A new hybrid metaheuristic differential evolution (DE) and cuckoo search (CS) algorithm is proposed to solve the UCAV three-dimension path planning problem. DE is applied to optimize the process of selecting cuckoos of the improved CS model during the process of cuckoo updating in nest. The cuckoos can act as an agent in searching the optimal UCAV path. And then, the UCAV can find the safe path by connecting the chosen nodes of the coordinates while avoiding the threat areas and costing minimum fuel. This new approach can accelerate the global convergence speed while preserving the strong robustness of the basic CS. The realization procedure for this hybrid metaheuristic approach DE/CS is also presented. In order to make the optimized UCAV path more feasible, the B-Spline curve is adopted for smoothing the path. To prove the performance of this proposed hybrid metaheuristic method, it is compared with basic CS algorithm. The experiment shows that the proposed approach is more effective and feasible in UCAV three-dimension path planning than the basic CS model. PMID:23193383

  14. A hybrid metaheuristic DE/CS algorithm for UCAV three-dimension path planning.

    PubMed

    Wang, Gaige; Guo, Lihong; Duan, Hong; Wang, Heqi; Liu, Luo; Shao, Mingzhen

    2012-01-01

    Three-dimension path planning for uninhabited combat air vehicle (UCAV) is a complicated high-dimension optimization problem, which primarily centralizes on optimizing the flight route considering the different kinds of constrains under complicated battle field environments. A new hybrid metaheuristic differential evolution (DE) and cuckoo search (CS) algorithm is proposed to solve the UCAV three-dimension path planning problem. DE is applied to optimize the process of selecting cuckoos of the improved CS model during the process of cuckoo updating in nest. The cuckoos can act as an agent in searching the optimal UCAV path. And then, the UCAV can find the safe path by connecting the chosen nodes of the coordinates while avoiding the threat areas and costing minimum fuel. This new approach can accelerate the global convergence speed while preserving the strong robustness of the basic CS. The realization procedure for this hybrid metaheuristic approach DE/CS is also presented. In order to make the optimized UCAV path more feasible, the B-Spline curve is adopted for smoothing the path. To prove the performance of this proposed hybrid metaheuristic method, it is compared with basic CS algorithm. The experiment shows that the proposed approach is more effective and feasible in UCAV three-dimension path planning than the basic CS model.

  15. Vertical profile of 137Cs in soil.

    PubMed

    Krstić, D; Nikezić, D; Stevanović, N; Jelić, M

    2004-12-01

    In this paper, a vertical distribution of 137Cs in undisturbed soil was investigated experimentally and theoretically. Soil samples were taken from the surroundings of the city of Kragujevac in central Serbia during spring-summer of 2001. The sampling locations were chosen in such a way that the influence of soil characteristics on depth distribution of 137Cs in soil could be investigated. Activity of 137Cs in soil samples was measured using a HpGe detector and multi-channel analyzer. Based on vertical distribution of 137Cs in soil which was measured for each of 10 locations, the diffusion coefficient of 137Cs in soil was determined. In the next half-century, 137Cs will remain as the source of the exposure. Fifteen years after the Chernobyl accident, and more than 30 years after nuclear probes, the largest activity of 137Cs is still within 10 cm of the upper layer of the soil. This result confirms that the penetration of 137Cs in soil is a very slow process. Experimental results were compared with two different Green functions and no major differences were found between them. While both functions fit experimental data well in the upper layer of soil, the fitting is not so good in deeper layers. Although the curves obtained by these two functions are very close to each other, there are some differences in the values of parameters acquired by them. PMID:15388151

  16. Cs(2)UPd(3)Se(6).

    PubMed

    Oh, George N; Ibers, James A

    2011-01-12

    Dicaesium uranium(IV) tripalladium(II) hexa-selenide, Cs(2)UPd(3)Se(6), crystallizes in the space group Fmmm in the Ba(2)NaCu(3)O(6) structure type. The asymmetric unit comprises the following atoms with site symmetries as shown: U1 (mm2), Cs1 (222), Cs2 (m2m), Pd1 (.m.), Pd2 (2mm), Se1 (m..), and Se2 (1). This layered structure contains six edge-sharing square-planar [PdSe(4)] units that form a hexa-gon. These, in turn, edge-share with [USe(6)] trigonal-prismatic units, forming an extended layer parallel to (010). The layers are stacked along [010]. They are staggered, and are separated by the Cs atoms. The Cs atoms are either coordinated in a square anti-prism of Se atoms or are ten-coordinate, with one square face and the opposite face hexa-gonal.

  17. Memory Is Not Extinguished along with CS Presentation but within a Few Seconds after CS-Offset

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Perez-Cuesta, Luis Maria; Hepp, Yanil; Pedreira, Maria Eugenia; Maldonado, Hector

    2007-01-01

    Prior work with the crab's contextual memory model showed that CS-US conditioned animals undergoing an unreinforced CS presentation would either reconsolidate or extinguish the CS-US memory, depending on the length of the reexposure to the CS. Either memory process is only triggered once the CS is terminated. Based on these results, the following…

  18. Potential value of Cs-137 capsules

    SciTech Connect

    Bloomster, C.H.; Brown, D.R.; Bruno, G.A.; Hazelton, R.F.; Hendrickson, P.L.; Lezberg, A.J.; Tingey, G.L.; Wilfert, G.L.

    1985-04-01

    We determined the value of Cs-137 compared to Co-60 as a source for the irradiation of fruit (apples and cherries), pork and medical supplies. Cs-137, in the WESF capsule form, had a value of approximately $0.40/Ci as a substitute for Co-60 priced at approximately $1.00/Ci. The comparison was based on the available curies emitted from the surface of each capsule. We developed preliminary designs for fourteen irradiation facilities; seven were based on Co-60 and seven were based on Cs-137. These designs provided the basis for estimating capital and operating costs which, in turn, provided the basis for determining the value of Cs-137 relative to Co-60 in these applications. We evaluated the effect of the size of the irradiation facility on the value of Cs-137. The cost of irradiation is low compared to the value of the product. Irradiation of apples for disinfestation costs $.01 to .02 per pound. Irradiation for trichina-safe pork costs $.02 per pound. Irradiation of medical supplies for sterilization costs $.07 to .12 per pound. The cost of the irradiation source, either Co-60 or Cs-137, contributed only a minor amount to the total cost of irradiation, about 5% for the fruit and hog cases and about 20% for the medical supply cases. We analyzed the sensitivity of the irradiation costs and Cs-137 value to several key assumptions.

  19. The "Seven Cs" for Employee Retention.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Taguchi, Sherrie Gong

    2001-01-01

    Defines the "Seven Cs," traditional yet effective business fundamentals used to engage employees. Discusses how many companies are leveraging the basics of good employee relations in order to inspire staff productivity and loyalty. (GCP)

  20. 135Cs activity and 135Cs/137Cs atom ratio in environmental samples before and after the Fukushima Daiichi Nuclear Power Plant accident

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Yang, Guosheng; Tazoe, Hirofumi; Yamada, Masatoshi

    2016-04-01

    135Cs/137Cs is a potential tracer for radiocesium source identification. However, due to the challenge to measure 135Cs, there were no 135Cs data available for Japanese environmental samples before the Fukushima Daiichi Nuclear Power Plant (FDNPP) accident. It was only 3 years after the accident that limited 135Cs values could be measured in heavily contaminated environmental samples. In the present study, activities of 134Cs, 135Cs, and 137Cs, along with their ratios in 67 soil and plant samples heavily and lightly contaminated by the FDNPP accident were measured by combining γ spectrometry with ICP-MS/MS. The arithmetic means of the 134Cs/137Cs activity ratio (1.033 ± 0.006) and 135Cs/137Cs atom ratio (0.334 ± 0.005) (decay corrected to March 11, 2011), from old leaves of plants collected immediately after the FDNPP accident, were confirmed to represent the FDNPP derived radiocesium signature. Subsequently, for the first time, trace 135Cs amounts before the FDNPP accident were deduced according to the contribution of global and FDNPP accident-derived fallout. Apart from two soil samples with a tiny global fallout contribution, contributions of global fallout radiocesium in other soil samples were observed to be 0.338%–52.6%. The obtained 135Cs/137Cs database will be useful for its application as a geochemical tracer in the future.

  1. 135Cs activity and 135Cs/137Cs atom ratio in environmental samples before and after the Fukushima Daiichi Nuclear Power Plant accident.

    PubMed

    Yang, Guosheng; Tazoe, Hirofumi; Yamada, Masatoshi

    2016-04-07

    (135)Cs/(137)Cs is a potential tracer for radiocesium source identification. However, due to the challenge to measure (135)Cs, there were no (135)Cs data available for Japanese environmental samples before the Fukushima Daiichi Nuclear Power Plant (FDNPP) accident. It was only 3 years after the accident that limited (135)Cs values could be measured in heavily contaminated environmental samples. In the present study, activities of (134)Cs, (135)Cs, and (137)Cs, along with their ratios in 67 soil and plant samples heavily and lightly contaminated by the FDNPP accident were measured by combining γ spectrometry with ICP-MS/MS. The arithmetic means of the (134)Cs/(137)Cs activity ratio (1.033 ± 0.006) and (135)Cs/(137)Cs atom ratio (0.334 ± 0.005) (decay corrected to March 11, 2011), from old leaves of plants collected immediately after the FDNPP accident, were confirmed to represent the FDNPP derived radiocesium signature. Subsequently, for the first time, trace (135)Cs amounts before the FDNPP accident were deduced according to the contribution of global and FDNPP accident-derived fallout. Apart from two soil samples with a tiny global fallout contribution, contributions of global fallout radiocesium in other soil samples were observed to be 0.338%-52.6%. The obtained (135)Cs/(137)Cs database will be useful for its application as a geochemical tracer in the future.

  2. 135Cs activity and 135Cs/137Cs atom ratio in environmental samples before and after the Fukushima Daiichi Nuclear Power Plant accident

    PubMed Central

    Yang, Guosheng; Tazoe, Hirofumi; Yamada, Masatoshi

    2016-01-01

    135Cs/137Cs is a potential tracer for radiocesium source identification. However, due to the challenge to measure 135Cs, there were no 135Cs data available for Japanese environmental samples before the Fukushima Daiichi Nuclear Power Plant (FDNPP) accident. It was only 3 years after the accident that limited 135Cs values could be measured in heavily contaminated environmental samples. In the present study, activities of 134Cs, 135Cs, and 137Cs, along with their ratios in 67 soil and plant samples heavily and lightly contaminated by the FDNPP accident were measured by combining γ spectrometry with ICP-MS/MS. The arithmetic means of the 134Cs/137Cs activity ratio (1.033 ± 0.006) and 135Cs/137Cs atom ratio (0.334 ± 0.005) (decay corrected to March 11, 2011), from old leaves of plants collected immediately after the FDNPP accident, were confirmed to represent the FDNPP derived radiocesium signature. Subsequently, for the first time, trace 135Cs amounts before the FDNPP accident were deduced according to the contribution of global and FDNPP accident-derived fallout. Apart from two soil samples with a tiny global fallout contribution, contributions of global fallout radiocesium in other soil samples were observed to be 0.338%–52.6%. The obtained 135Cs/137Cs database will be useful for its application as a geochemical tracer in the future. PMID:27052481

  3. 135Cs activity and 135Cs/137Cs atom ratio in environmental samples before and after the Fukushima Daiichi Nuclear Power Plant accident.

    PubMed

    Yang, Guosheng; Tazoe, Hirofumi; Yamada, Masatoshi

    2016-01-01

    (135)Cs/(137)Cs is a potential tracer for radiocesium source identification. However, due to the challenge to measure (135)Cs, there were no (135)Cs data available for Japanese environmental samples before the Fukushima Daiichi Nuclear Power Plant (FDNPP) accident. It was only 3 years after the accident that limited (135)Cs values could be measured in heavily contaminated environmental samples. In the present study, activities of (134)Cs, (135)Cs, and (137)Cs, along with their ratios in 67 soil and plant samples heavily and lightly contaminated by the FDNPP accident were measured by combining γ spectrometry with ICP-MS/MS. The arithmetic means of the (134)Cs/(137)Cs activity ratio (1.033 ± 0.006) and (135)Cs/(137)Cs atom ratio (0.334 ± 0.005) (decay corrected to March 11, 2011), from old leaves of plants collected immediately after the FDNPP accident, were confirmed to represent the FDNPP derived radiocesium signature. Subsequently, for the first time, trace (135)Cs amounts before the FDNPP accident were deduced according to the contribution of global and FDNPP accident-derived fallout. Apart from two soil samples with a tiny global fallout contribution, contributions of global fallout radiocesium in other soil samples were observed to be 0.338%-52.6%. The obtained (135)Cs/(137)Cs database will be useful for its application as a geochemical tracer in the future. PMID:27052481

  4. Social Security's special minimum benefit.

    PubMed

    Olsen, K A; Hoffmeyer, D

    Social Security's special minimum primary insurance amount (PIA) provision was enacted in 1972 to increase the adequacy of benefits for regular long-term, low-earning covered workers and their dependents or survivors. At the time, Social Security also had a regular minimum benefit provision for persons with low lifetime average earnings and their families. Concerns were rising that the low lifetime average earnings of many regular minimum beneficiaries resulted from sporadic attachment to the covered workforce rather than from low wages. The special minimum benefit was seen as a way to reward regular, low-earning workers without providing the windfalls that would have resulted from raising the regular minimum benefit to a much higher level. The regular minimum benefit was subsequently eliminated for workers reaching age 62, becoming disabled, or dying after 1981. Under current law, the special minimum benefit will phase out over time, although it is not clear from the legislative history that this was Congress's explicit intent. The phaseout results from two factors: (1) special minimum benefits are paid only if they are higher than benefits payable under the regular PIA formula, and (2) the value of the regular PIA formula, which is indexed to wages before benefit eligibility, has increased faster than that of the special minimum PIA, which is indexed to inflation. Under the Social Security Trustees' 2000 intermediate assumptions, the special minimum benefit will cease to be payable to retired workers attaining eligibility in 2013 and later. Their benefits will always be larger under the regular benefit formula. As policymakers consider Social Security solvency initiatives--particularly proposals that would reduce benefits or introduce investment risk--interest may increase in restoring some type of special minimum benefit as a targeted protection for long-term low earners. Two of the three reform proposals offered by the President's Commission to Strengthen

  5. Fast CsI-phoswich detector

    DOEpatents

    Langenbrunner, James R.

    1996-01-01

    An improved phoswich radiation detector used pure CsI crystal and a fast plastic scintillator and a single photomultiplier tube. The plastic is arranged to receive incident radiation, and that which passed through then strikes the CsI crystal. Scintillation light from both the plastic and CsI crystal are applied to the photomultiplier tube, with the light from the plastic passing through the crystal without absorption therein. Electronics are provided for analyzing the output of the photomultiplier tube to discriminate responses due to the plastic and the CsI crystal, through short gate and long gate integration, to produce results which are indicative of the characteristics of the different types of incident radiation, even in the presence of large amounts of radiation. The phoswich detector has excellent timing resolution. The scintillators of the CsI- phoswich were chosen for their fast risetimes, of about 3 ns for NE102A, and 30 ns for the pure CsI.

  6. Fast CsI-phoswich detector

    DOEpatents

    Langenbrunner, J.R.

    1996-05-07

    An improved phoswich radiation detector used pure CsI crystal and a fast plastic scintillator and a single photomultiplier tube. The plastic is arranged to receive incident radiation, and that which passed through then strikes the CsI crystal. Scintillation light from both the plastic and CsI crystal are applied to the photomultiplier tube, with the light from the plastic passing through the crystal without absorption therein. Electronics are provided for analyzing the output of the photomultiplier tube to discriminate responses due to the plastic and the CsI crystal, through short gate and long gate integration, to produce results which are indicative of the characteristics of the different types of incident radiation, even in the presence of large amounts of radiation. The phoswich detector has excellent timing resolution. The scintillators of the CsI- phoswich were chosen for their fast risetimes, of about 3 ns for NE102A, and 30 ns for the pure CsI. 5 figs.

  7. Distribution of radioactive cesium ((134)Cs plus (137)Cs) in rice fractions during polishing and cooking.

    PubMed

    Hachinohe, Mayumi; Okunishi, Tomoya; Hagiwara, Shoji; Todoriki, Setsuko; Kawamoto, Shinichi; Hamamatsu, Shioka

    2015-03-01

    We investigated the distribution of cesium-134 ((134)Cs) and cesium-137 ((137)Cs) during polishing and cooking of rice to obtain their processing factors (Pf) and food processing retention factors (Fr) to make the information available for an adequate understanding of radioactive Cs dynamics. Polishing brown rice resulted in a decreased radioactive Cs concentration of the polished rice, but the bran and germ (outer layers) exhibited higher concentrations than brown rice. The Pf values for 100% polished rice and outer layers ranged from 0.47 to 0.48 and 6.5 to 7.8, respectively. The Fr values for 100% polished rice and outer layers were 0.43 and 0.58 to 0.60, respectively. The distribution of radioactive Cs in polished rice and outer layers was estimated at approximately 40 and 60%, respectively. On the other hand, cooked rice showed significantly lower levels of radioactive Cs than polished rice, and transfer of radioactive Cs into wash water was observed. The Pf and Fr values for cooked rice were 0.28 and 0.65 to 0.66, respectively. From these results, we can calculate that if the radioactive Cs concentration in brown rice is 100 Bq/kg, the concentrations of Cs in polished rice and cooked rice will be 47 to 48 Bq/kg and 13 Bq/kg, respectively. PMID:25719881

  8. Distribution of radioactive cesium ((134)Cs plus (137)Cs) in rice fractions during polishing and cooking.

    PubMed

    Hachinohe, Mayumi; Okunishi, Tomoya; Hagiwara, Shoji; Todoriki, Setsuko; Kawamoto, Shinichi; Hamamatsu, Shioka

    2015-03-01

    We investigated the distribution of cesium-134 ((134)Cs) and cesium-137 ((137)Cs) during polishing and cooking of rice to obtain their processing factors (Pf) and food processing retention factors (Fr) to make the information available for an adequate understanding of radioactive Cs dynamics. Polishing brown rice resulted in a decreased radioactive Cs concentration of the polished rice, but the bran and germ (outer layers) exhibited higher concentrations than brown rice. The Pf values for 100% polished rice and outer layers ranged from 0.47 to 0.48 and 6.5 to 7.8, respectively. The Fr values for 100% polished rice and outer layers were 0.43 and 0.58 to 0.60, respectively. The distribution of radioactive Cs in polished rice and outer layers was estimated at approximately 40 and 60%, respectively. On the other hand, cooked rice showed significantly lower levels of radioactive Cs than polished rice, and transfer of radioactive Cs into wash water was observed. The Pf and Fr values for cooked rice were 0.28 and 0.65 to 0.66, respectively. From these results, we can calculate that if the radioactive Cs concentration in brown rice is 100 Bq/kg, the concentrations of Cs in polished rice and cooked rice will be 47 to 48 Bq/kg and 13 Bq/kg, respectively.

  9. Safe Minimum Internal Temperature Chart

    MedlinePlus

    ... JSR 286) Actions ${title} Loading... Safe Minimum Internal Temperature Chart Safe steps in food handling, cooking, and ... from other foods. Cook —Cook to the right temperature. Chill —Refrigerate food promptly. Cook all food to ...

  10. Arctic Sea Ice Minimum, 2015

    NASA Video Gallery

    This animation shows the evolution of the Arctic sea ice cover from its wintertime maximum extent, which was reached on Feb. 25, 2015, and was the lowest on record, to its apparent yearly minimum, ...

  11. Ozone Minimums, 1979 to 2013

    NASA Video Gallery

    Minimum concentration of ozone in the southern hemisphere for each year from 1979-2013 (there is no data from 1995). Each image is the day of the year with the lowest concentration of ozone. A grap...

  12. 2013 Arctic Sea Ice Minimum

    NASA Video Gallery

    After an unusually cold summer in the northernmost latitudes, Arctic sea ice appears to have reached its annual minimum summer extent for 2013 on Sept. 13, the NASA-supported National Snow and Ice ...

  13. Minimum Principles in Motor Control.

    PubMed

    Engelbrecht, Sascha E.

    2001-06-01

    Minimum (or minimal) principles are mathematical laws that were first used in physics: Hamilton's principle and Fermat's principle of least time are two famous example. In the past decade, a number of motor control theories have been proposed that are formally of the same kind as the minimum principles of physics, and some of these have been quite successful at predicting motor performance in a variety of tasks. The present paper provides a comprehensive review of this work. Particular attention is given to the relation between minimum theories in motor control and those used in other disciplines. Other issues around which the review is organized include: (1) the relation between minimum principles and structural models of motor planning and motor control, (2) the empirically-driven development of minimum principles and the danger of circular theorizing, and (3) the design of critical tests for minimum theories. Some perspectives for future research are discussed in the concluding section of the paper. Copyright 2001 Academic Press. PMID:11401453

  14. Potential role of CS2 photooxidation in tropospheric sulfur chemistry

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Wine, P. H.; Chameides, W. L.; Ravishankara, A. R.

    1981-01-01

    Absorption cross section measurements and model calculations indicate that CS2 photooxidation may be an important tropospheric sink for the CS2, giving a lifetime on the order of a week or two. If background CS2 levels are 10-20 pptv, then CS2 photooxidation may be an important global source of OCS as well.

  15. A biokinetic model for {sup 137}Cs

    SciTech Connect

    Melo, D.R.; Lipsztein, J.L.; Oliveira, C.A.N.; Lundgren, D.L.

    1997-08-01

    An improved biokinetic model for {sup 137}Cs in humans was developed based on an analysis of data obtained from individuals internally contaminated during an accident in Goiania, Brazil, and other data. Seventeen children (ten girls and seven boys 1-10 y old), ten adolescents (four females and six males), and thirty adults, (fifteen females and fifteen males) contaminated in the accident in Goiania contributed to this study. {sup 137}Cs retention was determined through periodic measurements in a whole-body counter. In addition to the data on {sup 137}Cs retention from these individuals, data from a study on the metabolism of {sup 137}Cs in immature, adult, and aged Beagle dogs and data from the literature were used in the formulation of the {sup 137}Cs biokinetic model presented. Mathematically, the retention of cesium is described by three exponential terms, and the retention model is based on a step function of body weight. When the ICRP Publication 56 model for cesium was compared to the model suggested in this paper, it was determined that the ICRP model predicts lower effective doses in 5-y-old children and higher effective doses in infants, adolescents, and adults.

  16. CS Unplugged and Middle-School Students' Views, Attitudes, and Intentions regarding CS

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Taub, Rivka; Armoni, Michal; Ben-Ari, Mordechai

    2012-01-01

    Many students hold incorrect ideas and negative attitudes about computer science (CS). In order to address these difficulties, a series of learning activities called Computer Science Unplugged was developed by Tim Bell and his colleagues. These activities expose young people to central concepts in CS in an entertaining way without requiring a…

  17. ACSB: A minimum performance assessment

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Jones, Lloyd Thomas; Kissick, William A.

    1988-01-01

    Amplitude companded sideband (ACSB) is a new modulation technique which uses a much smaller channel width than does conventional frequency modulation (FM). Among the requirements of a mobile communications system is adequate speech intelligibility. This paper explores this aspect of minimum required performance. First, the basic principles of ACSB are described, with emphasis on those features that affect speech quality. Second, the appropriate performance measures for ACSB are reviewed. Third, a subjective voice quality scoring method is used to determine the values of the performance measures that equate to the minimum level of intelligibility. It is assumed that the intelligibility of an FM system operating at 12 dB SINAD represents that minimum. It was determined that ACSB operating at 12 dB SINAD with an audio-to-pilot ratio of 10 dB provides approximately the same intelligibility as FM operating at 12 dB SINAD.

  18. The Maunder minimum: a revision

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Zolotova, Nadezhda; Ponyavin, Dmitri

    2015-08-01

    One of the most enigmatic features of the solar history in the past was the Maunder minimum (1645-1715). We estimated the daily nominal sunspot counts of each observer individually from 1610 to 1720. Simultaneous comparison of textual reports, tables, and sunspot drawings reveals a significant difference between them. Some observers (among whom were Jean Picard and Giovanni Domenico Cassini, both from the Royal Observatory in Paris) systematically made gaps in reports when others noticed sunspots. Philippe de La Hire announced only fewer sunspot groups compared with the other observers. We argue that different points of view of observers of the seventeenth-century on the origin of sunspots resulted in strong underestimation of sunspot groups. Our findings suggest that the Maunder minimum was an ordinary secular minimum with reduced but non-stopped solar cyclicity.

  19. 135Cs/137Cs isotopic composition of environmental samples across Europe: Environmental transport and source term emission applications

    DOE PAGES

    Snow, Mathew S.; Snyder, Darin C.

    2015-11-02

    135Cs/137Cs isotopic analyses represent an important tool for studying the fate and transport of radiocesium in the environment; in this work the 135Cs/137Cs isotopic composition in environmental samples taken from across Europe is reported. Surface soil and vegetation samples from western Russia, Ukraine, Austria, and Hungary show consistent aged thermal fission product 135Cs/137Cs isotope ratios of 0.58 ± 0.01 (age corrected to 1/1/15), with the exception of one sample of soil-moss from Hungary which shows an elevated 135Cs/137Cs ratio of 1.78 ± 0.12. With the exception of the outlier sample from Hungary, surface soil/vegetation data are in quantitative agreement withmore » values previously reported for soils within the Chernobyl exclusion zone, suggesting that radiocesium at these locations is primarily composed of homogenous airborne deposition from Chernobyl. Seawater samples taken from the Irish Sea show 135Cs/137Cs isotope ratios of 1.22 ± 0.11 (age corrected to 1/1/15), suggesting aged thermal fission product Cs discharged from Sellafield. Furthermore, the differences in 135Cs/137Cs isotope ratios between Sellafield, Chernobyl, and global nuclear weapons testing fallout indicate that 135Cs/137Cs isotope ratios can be utilized to discriminate between and track radiocesium transport from different nuclear production source terms, including major emission sources in Europe.« less

  20. (135)Cs/(137)Cs isotopic composition of environmental samples across Europe: Environmental transport and source term emission applications.

    PubMed

    Snow, Mathew S; Snyder, Darin C

    2016-01-01

    (135)Cs/(137)Cs isotopic analyses represent an important tool for studying the fate and transport of radiocesium in the environment; in this work the (135)Cs/(137)Cs isotopic composition in environmental samples taken from across Europe is reported. Surface soil and vegetation samples from western Russia, Ukraine, Austria, and Hungary show consistent aged thermal fission product (135)Cs/(137)Cs isotope ratios of 0.58 ± 0.01 (age corrected to 1/1/15), with the exception of one sample of soil-moss from Hungary which shows an elevated (135)Cs/(137)Cs ratio of 1.78 ± 0.12. With the exception of the outlier sample from Hungary, surface soil/vegetation data are in quantitative agreement with values previously reported for soils within the Chernobyl exclusion zone, suggesting that radiocesium at these locations is primarily composed of homogenous airborne deposition from Chernobyl. Seawater samples taken from the Irish Sea show (135)Cs/(137)Cs isotope ratios of 1.22 ± 0.11 (age corrected to 1/1/15), suggesting aged thermal fission product Cs discharged from Sellafield. The differences in (135)Cs/(137)Cs isotope ratios between Sellafield, Chernobyl, and global nuclear weapons testing fallout indicate that (135)Cs/(137)Cs isotope ratios can be utilized to discriminate between and track radiocesium transport from different nuclear production source terms, including major emission sources in Europe.

  1. (135)Cs/(137)Cs isotopic composition of environmental samples across Europe: Environmental transport and source term emission applications.

    PubMed

    Snow, Mathew S; Snyder, Darin C

    2016-01-01

    (135)Cs/(137)Cs isotopic analyses represent an important tool for studying the fate and transport of radiocesium in the environment; in this work the (135)Cs/(137)Cs isotopic composition in environmental samples taken from across Europe is reported. Surface soil and vegetation samples from western Russia, Ukraine, Austria, and Hungary show consistent aged thermal fission product (135)Cs/(137)Cs isotope ratios of 0.58 ± 0.01 (age corrected to 1/1/15), with the exception of one sample of soil-moss from Hungary which shows an elevated (135)Cs/(137)Cs ratio of 1.78 ± 0.12. With the exception of the outlier sample from Hungary, surface soil/vegetation data are in quantitative agreement with values previously reported for soils within the Chernobyl exclusion zone, suggesting that radiocesium at these locations is primarily composed of homogenous airborne deposition from Chernobyl. Seawater samples taken from the Irish Sea show (135)Cs/(137)Cs isotope ratios of 1.22 ± 0.11 (age corrected to 1/1/15), suggesting aged thermal fission product Cs discharged from Sellafield. The differences in (135)Cs/(137)Cs isotope ratios between Sellafield, Chernobyl, and global nuclear weapons testing fallout indicate that (135)Cs/(137)Cs isotope ratios can be utilized to discriminate between and track radiocesium transport from different nuclear production source terms, including major emission sources in Europe. PMID:26540258

  2. Advancing atomic nanolithography: cold atomic Cs beam exposure of alkanethiol self-assembled monolayers

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    O'Dwyer, C.; Gay, G.; Viaris de Lesegno, B.; Weiner, J.; Mützel, M.; Haubrich, D.; Meschede, D.; Ludolph, K.; Georgiev, G.; Oesterschulze, E.

    2005-01-01

    We report the results of a study into the quality of functionalized surfaces for nanolithographic imaging. Self-assembled monolayer (SAM) coverage, subsequent post-etch pattern definition and minimum feature size all depend on the quality of the Au substrate used in atomic nanolithographic experiments. We find sputtered Au substrates yield much smoother surfaces and a higher density of {111} oriented grains than evaporated Au surfaces. A detailed study of the self-assembly mechanism using molecular resolution AFM and STM has shown that the monolayer is composed of domains with sizes typically of 5-25 nm, and multiple molecular domains can exist within one Au grain. Exposure of the SAM to an optically-cooled atomic Cs beam traversing a two-dimensional array of submicron material masks ans also standing wave optical masks allowed determination of the minimum average Cs dose (2 Cs atoms per SAM molecule) and the realization of < 50 nm structures. The SAM monolayer contains many non-uniformities such as pin-holes, domain boundaries and monoatomic depressions which are present in the Au surface prior to SAM adsorption. These imperfections limit the use of alkanethiols as a resist in atomic nanolithography experiments. These studies have allowed us to realize an Atom Pencil suitable for deposition of precision quantities of material at the microand nanoscale to an active surface.

  3. Properties of CsI and CsI-TMAE photocathodes

    SciTech Connect

    Anderson, D.F.; Kwan, S.; Peskov, V.; Hoeneisen, B.

    1992-06-01

    The importance of heating the CsI or CsI-TMAE photocathodes during preparation, as well as the importance of the gas environment on the quantum efficiency is presented. The dependence of the aging characteristics of these photocathodes on the operating temperature, on the presence of gas, and on the charge amplification of the chamber is also discussed. For CsI photocathodes charges in excess of 2{times}10{sup 14} e{sup {minus}}/mm{sup 2} can be collected with little degradation of performance. A timing resolution of 0.55 ns is also achieved for single photoelectrons suggesting a possible time-of-flight detector.

  4. Cs and Ag co-incorporation in cubic silicon carbide

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Londono-Hurtado, Alejandro; Heim, Andrew J.; Kim, Sungtae; Szlufarska, Izabela; Morgan, Dane

    2013-08-01

    finite size effects [25]. Based on finite size scaling studies of our largest charged cluster (CsC-OC-2VSi)4-, we estimate these effects lead to errors on the scale of 1.9 eV. Due to the fact that DFT formalism is unable to reproduce experimental band gaps in materials, underestimation of the band gap is expected. This can have an effect on the calculation of the charged defect formation energies. Therefore, the energetics and charge states of the defects must be treated as somewhat approximate. In this work, the value of the Fermi level is taken to be at the conduction band minimum, a choice that is consistent with an n-type material. This is justified by the fact that as-prepared SiC is generally n-type, with a low concentration of electron carriers [26-29]. It is also important to note that, even if SiC had an intrinsically lower Fermi level, under irradiation conditions long lived electronic excitations might provide effectively higher Fermi levels in the system. Irradiation induced defects such as vacancies and interstitials have been reported to lead to Fermi levels at the middle of the band gap [30,31]. For the case of negatively charged defects, having a Fermi level closer to the middle of the band gap will result in lower defect formation energies. This aspect is not critical for our study since our goal is not to calculate highly accurate formation energies or defect charge states but to compare these energies to identify qualitative trends of co-incorporate for the different defect clusters. Based on the above comments, results presented in this paper can be expected to have some quantitative inaccuracies but the conclusions drawn from these results are still of qualitative value. Furthermore, as will be shown in the result section, formation energy differences between competing energy clusters are above 1 eV for most cases. The main goals of this work are to identify whether Cs and Ag co-incorporation with O and I into SiC can lead to more stable defects than

  5. Minimum Library Use Skills Survey.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Huang, Joyce L.; Mandernack, Scott

    A follow-up study was conducted in 1987 to assess the use and effectiveness of "Minimum Library Use Skills: Standards, Test, and Bibliography" (MLUS), which had been distributed to all members of the Wisconsin Association of Academic Librarians in 1985. Some copies of this publication had been sold, and it is also available in ERIC microfiche. A…

  6. Tennessee Minimum School Bus Standards.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Tennessee State Board of Education, 2004

    2004-01-01

    The School Bus Specifications and Procedures adopted by the 2000 National Conference on School Transportation and the Federal Motor Vehicle Safety Standards (FMVSS) were used as guides by the Tennessee State Board of Education Pupil Transportation Advisory Committee in developing the revised minimum specifications for school bus chassis and school…

  7. Low level detection of Cs-135 and Cs-137 in environmental samples by ICP-MS

    SciTech Connect

    Liezers, Martin; Farmer, Orville T.; Thomas, Linda MP

    2009-10-01

    The measurement of the fission product cesium isotopes 135Cs and 137Cs at low femtogram (fg) 10-15 levels in ground water by Inductively Coupled Plasma-Mass Spectrometry ICP-MS is reported. To eliminate the potential natural barium isobaric interference on the cesium isotopes, in-line chromatographic separation of the cesium from barium was performed followed by high sensitivity ICP-MS analysis. A high efficiency desolvating nebulizer system was employed to maximize ICP-MS sensitivity ~10cps/femtogram. The three sigma detection limit measured for 135Cs was 2fg/ml (0.1uBq/ml) and for 137Cs 0.9fg/ml (0.0027Bq/ml) with analysis time of less than 30 minutes/sample. Cesium detection and 135/137 isotope ratio measurement at very low femtogram levels using this method in a ground water matrix is also demonstrated.

  8. Determination of ¹³⁵Cs and ¹³⁷Cs in environmental samples: A review.

    PubMed

    Russell, B C; Croudace, Ian W; Warwick, Phil E

    2015-08-26

    Radionuclides of caesium are environmentally important since they are formed as significant high yield fission products ((135)Cs and (137)Cs) and activation products ((134)Cs and (136)Cs) during nuclear fission. They originate from a range of nuclear activities such as weapons testing, nuclear reprocessing and nuclear fuel cycle discharges and nuclear accidents. Whilst (137)Cs, (134)Cs and (136)Cs are routinely measurable at high sensitivity by gamma spectrometry, routine detection of long-lived (135)Cs by radiometric methods is challenging. This measurement is, however, important given its significance in long-term nuclear waste storage and disposal. Furthermore, the (135)Cs/(137)Cs ratio varies with reactor, weapon and fuel type, and accurate measurement of this ratio can therefore be used as a forensic tool in identifying the source(s) of nuclear contamination. The shorter-lived activation products (134)Cs and (136)Cs have a limited application but provide useful early information on fuel irradiation history and have importance in health physics. Detection of (135)Cs (and (137)Cs) is achievable by mass spectrometric techniques; most commonly inductively coupled plasma mass spectrometry (ICP-MS), as well as thermal ionisation (TIMS), accelerator (AMS) and resonance ionisation (RIMS) techniques. The critical issues affecting the accuracy and detection limits achievable by this technique are effective removal of barium to eliminate isobaric interferences arising from (135)Ba and (137)Ba, and elimination of peak tailing of stable (133)Cs on (135)Cs. Isobaric interferences can be removed by chemical separation, most commonly ion exchange chromatography, and/or instrumental separation using an ICP-MS equipped with a reaction cell. The removal of the peak tailing interference is dependent on the instrument used for final measurement. This review summarizes and compares the analytical procedures developed for determination of (135)Cs/(137)Cs, with particular focus on

  9. Determination of ¹³⁵Cs and ¹³⁷Cs in environmental samples: A review.

    PubMed

    Russell, B C; Croudace, Ian W; Warwick, Phil E

    2015-08-26

    Radionuclides of caesium are environmentally important since they are formed as significant high yield fission products ((135)Cs and (137)Cs) and activation products ((134)Cs and (136)Cs) during nuclear fission. They originate from a range of nuclear activities such as weapons testing, nuclear reprocessing and nuclear fuel cycle discharges and nuclear accidents. Whilst (137)Cs, (134)Cs and (136)Cs are routinely measurable at high sensitivity by gamma spectrometry, routine detection of long-lived (135)Cs by radiometric methods is challenging. This measurement is, however, important given its significance in long-term nuclear waste storage and disposal. Furthermore, the (135)Cs/(137)Cs ratio varies with reactor, weapon and fuel type, and accurate measurement of this ratio can therefore be used as a forensic tool in identifying the source(s) of nuclear contamination. The shorter-lived activation products (134)Cs and (136)Cs have a limited application but provide useful early information on fuel irradiation history and have importance in health physics. Detection of (135)Cs (and (137)Cs) is achievable by mass spectrometric techniques; most commonly inductively coupled plasma mass spectrometry (ICP-MS), as well as thermal ionisation (TIMS), accelerator (AMS) and resonance ionisation (RIMS) techniques. The critical issues affecting the accuracy and detection limits achievable by this technique are effective removal of barium to eliminate isobaric interferences arising from (135)Ba and (137)Ba, and elimination of peak tailing of stable (133)Cs on (135)Cs. Isobaric interferences can be removed by chemical separation, most commonly ion exchange chromatography, and/or instrumental separation using an ICP-MS equipped with a reaction cell. The removal of the peak tailing interference is dependent on the instrument used for final measurement. This review summarizes and compares the analytical procedures developed for determination of (135)Cs/(137)Cs, with particular focus on

  10. Cs-137 K-39 Distribution and Cycling in some Forest Ecosystems 25 Years after the Chernobyl Accident

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Shcheglov, Alexey; Tsvetnova, Ol'ga; Klyashtorin, Alexey; Kasatskiy, Andrey

    2014-05-01

    Cs-137 accumulated in the above-ground tree components depends on the total biomass as well as the elements concentration in each tree component; the largest proportion of both elements is attributed to wood, while minimum amount is contained in the external bark. At the same time, both Cs-137 and K-39 accumulated in the annual tree increment are mainly attributed to young assimilative organs (leaves and young needles). In the pine ecosystem, the proportion of both Cs-137 and potassium that returns annually to the soil with litterfall is about 45% of the total element amount in the tree stand, which is about 47% of the annual element accumulation in the phytomass. In the birch ecosystem, Cs-137 return to the soil is 49% and exceeds that of K-39 40%. In both ecosystems, the assimilative organs (leaves and needles) make the most significant contribution to annual return of Cs-137. Thus, the parameters of biological cycle of K-39 ? Cs-137 in the investigated ecosystems are comparable, as forecasted. It can be concluded that the annual cycles of K-39 and Cs-137 in these ecosystems are in a quasi steady state, and only a small proportion of these elements is retained annually in the forest stand compared to their annual return to the soil.

  11. Monitoring 137Cs and 134Cs at marine coasts in Indonesia between 2011 and 2013.

    PubMed

    Suseno, Heny; Prihatiningsih, Wahyu Retno

    2014-11-15

    Environmental samples (seawater, sediments and biota) were collected along the eastern and western Indonesian coasts between 2011 and 2013 to anticipate the possible impacts of the Fukushima radioactive releases in Indonesia. On the eastern coasts (south and north Sulawesi), the (137)Cs concentrations in the seawater and sediments were 0.12-0.32 Bq m(-3) and 0.10-1.03 Bq kg(-1), respectively. On the western coasts (West Sumatra, Bangka Island, North Java, South Java and Madura island), the (137)Cs concentrations in the seawater and sediments were 0.12-0.66 Bq m(-3) and 0.19-1.64 Bq kg(-1), respectively. In general, the (137)Cs concentrations in the fish from several Indonesian coasts were Cs concentrations in mollusk, crab and prawn were 10.65-38.78, 4.02 and 6.16 mBq kg(-1), respectively. (134)Cs was not detected in the seawater, sediments or biota. Thus, it was concluded that (137)Cs on the eastern and western Indonesian coasts originated from global fallout.

  12. Understanding the Minimum Wage: Issues and Answers.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Employment Policies Inst. Foundation, Washington, DC.

    This booklet, which is designed to clarify facts regarding the minimum wage's impact on marketplace economics, contains a total of 31 questions and answers pertaining to the following topics: relationship between minimum wages and poverty; impacts of changes in the minimum wage on welfare reform; and possible effects of changes in the minimum wage…

  13. 5 CFR 551.301 - Minimum wage.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-01-01

    ... 5 Administrative Personnel 1 2014-01-01 2014-01-01 false Minimum wage. 551.301 Section 551.301... FAIR LABOR STANDARDS ACT Minimum Wage Provisions Basic Provision § 551.301 Minimum wage. (a)(1) Except... employees wages at rates not less than the minimum wage specified in section 6(a)(1) of the Act for...

  14. 5 CFR 551.301 - Minimum wage.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-01-01

    ... 5 Administrative Personnel 1 2010-01-01 2010-01-01 false Minimum wage. 551.301 Section 551.301... FAIR LABOR STANDARDS ACT Minimum Wage Provisions Basic Provision § 551.301 Minimum wage. (a)(1) Except... employees wages at rates not less than the minimum wage specified in section 6(a)(1) of the Act for...

  15. 5 CFR 551.301 - Minimum wage.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-01-01

    ... 5 Administrative Personnel 1 2011-01-01 2011-01-01 false Minimum wage. 551.301 Section 551.301... FAIR LABOR STANDARDS ACT Minimum Wage Provisions Basic Provision § 551.301 Minimum wage. (a)(1) Except... employees wages at rates not less than the minimum wage specified in section 6(a)(1) of the Act for...

  16. 5 CFR 551.301 - Minimum wage.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-01-01

    ... 5 Administrative Personnel 1 2013-01-01 2013-01-01 false Minimum wage. 551.301 Section 551.301... FAIR LABOR STANDARDS ACT Minimum Wage Provisions Basic Provision § 551.301 Minimum wage. (a)(1) Except... employees wages at rates not less than the minimum wage specified in section 6(a)(1) of the Act for...

  17. 5 CFR 551.301 - Minimum wage.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-01-01

    ... 5 Administrative Personnel 1 2012-01-01 2012-01-01 false Minimum wage. 551.301 Section 551.301... FAIR LABOR STANDARDS ACT Minimum Wage Provisions Basic Provision § 551.301 Minimum wage. (a)(1) Except... employees wages at rates not less than the minimum wage specified in section 6(a)(1) of the Act for...

  18. 5 CFR 630.206 - Minimum charge.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-01-01

    ... 5 Administrative Personnel 1 2010-01-01 2010-01-01 false Minimum charge. 630.206 Section 630.206... and General Provisions for Annual and Sick Leave § 630.206 Minimum charge. (a) Unless an agency establishes a minimum charge of less than one hour, or establishes a different minimum charge...

  19. GMTI radar minimum detectable velocity.

    SciTech Connect

    Richards, John Alfred

    2011-04-01

    Minimum detectable velocity (MDV) is a fundamental consideration for the design, implementation, and exploitation of ground moving-target indication (GMTI) radar imaging modes. All single-phase-center air-to-ground radars are characterized by an MDV, or a minimum radial velocity below which motion of a discrete nonstationary target is indistinguishable from the relative motion between the platform and the ground. Targets with radial velocities less than MDV are typically overwhelmed by endoclutter ground returns, and are thus not generally detectable. Targets with radial velocities greater than MDV typically produce distinct returns falling outside of the endoclutter ground returns, and are thus generally discernible using straightforward detection algorithms. This document provides a straightforward derivation of MDV for an air-to-ground single-phase-center GMTI radar operating in an arbitrary geometry.

  20. A new imminent grand minimum?

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Cionco, Rodolfo G.; Compagnucci, Rosa H.

    2012-07-01

    The planetary hypothesis of solar cycle is an old idea by which the planetary gravity acting on the Sun might have a non-negligible effect on the solar magnetic cycle. The advance of this hypothesis is based on phenomenological correlations between dynamical parameters of the Sun's movement around the barycenter of the Solar System and sunspots time series. In addition, several authors have proposed, using different methodologies that the first Grand Minima (GM) event of the new millennium is coming or has already begun. We present new fully three dimensional N-body simulations of the solar inertial motion (SIM) around the barycentre of the solar system in order to perform a phenomenological comparison between relevant SIM dynamical parameters and the occurrences of the last GM events (i.e., Maunder and Dalton). Our fundamental result is that the Sun acceleration decomposed in a co-orbital reference system shows a very particular behaviour that is common to Maunder minimum, Dalton minimum and the maximum of cycle 22 (around 1990), before the present prolonged minimum. We discuss our results in terms of a dynamical characterization of GM with relation to Sun dynamics and possible implications for a new GM event.

  1. IR-Improved DGLAP-CS Theory

    DOE PAGES

    Ward, B. F. L.

    2008-01-01

    We show that it is possible to improve the infrared aspects of the standard treatment of the DGLAP-CS evolution theory to take into account a large class of higher-order corrections that significantly improve the precision of the theory for any given level of fixed-order calculation of its respective kernels. We illustrate the size of the effects we resum using the moments of the parton distributions.

  2. Communications satellite no. 2 (CS-2)

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    1982-01-01

    The purpose of the Japanese CS-2 satellite is to provide national communications and industrial communications, such as special emergency and remote communications, and to contribute to the development of technology pertaining to communications satellites. Description and operating parameters of the following satellite components are presented: structure, communications system, telemetry/command system, electric power system, attitude and antenna control system, secondary propulsion system, apogee motor, framework, and heat control system.

  3. Teaching Algorithm Efficiency at CS1 Level: A Different Approach

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Gal-Ezer, Judith; Vilner, Tamar; Zur, Ela

    2004-01-01

    Realizing the importance of teaching efficiency at early stages of the program of study in computer science (CS) on one hand, and the difficulties encountered when introducing this concept on the other, we advocate a different didactic approach in the introductory CS course (CS1). This paper describes the approach as it is used at the Open…

  4. Developments towards detection of 135Cs at VERA

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Lachner, Johannes; Kasberger, Magdalena; Martschini, Martin; Priller, Alfred; Steier, Peter; Golser, Robin

    2015-10-01

    Radioisotopes produced in natural or anthropogenic fission are widely used for tracer studies of environmental processes, in nuclear forensics, and are important for nuclear waste disposal. Besides the well-known 137Cs, the longer-lived sister isotope 135Cs (T1/2 = 2.3 Myr) is also produced, and the combined measurement of the two isotopes would allow for assessment of contaminating sources. The insufficient suppression of the stable isobar 135Ba presently prevents AMS measurements down to expected natural levels of 135Cs/133Cs ≈ 10-11. Via the difference in electron affinities between Cs and Ba further isobar suppression should be achievable after the installation of the Ion-Laser-Interaction System (ILIAS) at VERA. We present a preparatory study on the performance of the 3 MV VERA AMS facility for 135Cs concerning ion formation, transmission and detection. Since the usual Cs sputtering would obscure the 135Cs/133Cs ratio of a sample, Rb sputtering was successfully applied and tested also for various other typical AMS elements. Partial suppression of 135Ba is possible with the extraction of Cs- and negative Cs-fluorides. Cs- currents of several 10 nA were extracted over hours from mg amounts of Cs2SO4 material. The transmission to various charge states was tested with gas (Ar, He) and foil stripping. Experiments showed that no suppression in the detection system is possible at high beam energies with the VERA facility. For this reason, gas stripping to low charge states (2+, 3+) with transmissions up to 30% is favorable to guarantee optimal beam transport to the detector. In the present setup, utilizing a simple Bragg-type detector, the blank 135Cs/133Cs ratios from chemically pure samples are determined by the 135Ba background to a value of (4.0 ± 1.3)·10-9.

  5. Pressure-induced metathesis reaction to sequester Cs.

    PubMed

    Im, Junhyuck; Seoung, Donghoon; Lee, Seung Yeop; Blom, Douglas A; Vogt, Thomas; Kao, Chi-Chang; Lee, Yongjae

    2015-01-01

    We report here a pressure-driven metathesis reaction where Ag-exchanged natrolite (Ag16Al16Si24O80·16H2O, Ag-NAT) is pressurized in an aqueous CsI solution, resulting in the exchange of Ag(+) by Cs(+) in the natrolite framework forming Cs16Al16Si24O80·16H2O (Cs-NAT-I) and, above 0.5 GPa, its high-pressure polymorph (Cs-NAT-II). During the initial cation exchange, the precipitation of AgI occurs. Additional pressure and heat at 2 GPa and 160 °C transforms Cs-NAT-II to a pollucite-related, highly dense, and water-free triclinic phase with nominal composition CsAlSi2O6. At ambient temperature after pressure release, the Cs remains sequestered in a now monoclinic pollucite phase at close to 40 wt % and a favorably low Cs leaching rate under back-exchange conditions. This process thus efficiently combines the pressure-driven separation of Cs and I at ambient temperature with the subsequent sequestration of Cs under moderate pressures and temperatures in its preferred waste form suitable for long-term storage at ambient conditions. The zeolite pollucite CsAlSi2O6·H2O has been identified as a potential host material for nuclear waste remediation of anthropogenic (137)Cs due to its chemical and thermal stability, low leaching rate, and the large amount of Cs it can contain. The new water-free pollucite phase we characterize during our process will not display radiolysis of water during longterm storage while maintaining the Cs content and low leaching rate. PMID:25515673

  6. Free energy of formation of Cs 3PuCl 6 and CsPu 2Cl 7

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Williamson, M. A.; Kleinschmidt, P. D.

    The free energy, enthalpy and entropy of formation of the compounds Cs 3PuCl 6 and CsPu 2Cl 7 have been determined by measuring the sublimation pressures for the reactions CsCl( s) / aiCsCl( g), {2}/{5}Cs 3PuCl 6(s) /ai {1}/{5}CsPu 2Cl 7(s) + CsCl(g) , and CsPu2Cl7( s) / ai 2 PuCl3( s) + CsCl( g). The pressures are measured using Knudsen effusion mass spectrometry over the temperature range 600 to 850 K. For the formation of Cs 3PuCl 6 from CsCl and PuCl 3, ΔG0298 = -77.3 ± 8.5 kJ/ mol, ΔH0298 = -82.1 ± 7.8 kJ/ mol, and ΔS0298 = -16.2 ± 10.9 J/ Kmol. For CsPu 2Cl 7, ΔG0298 = -39.4 ± 3.5 kJ/ mol, ΔH0298 = -40.8 ± 3.2 kJ/ mol, and ΔS0298 = -4.6 ± 4.2 J/ Kmol.

  7. Ceramic veneers with minimum preparation.

    PubMed

    da Cunha, Leonardo Fernandes; Reis, Rachelle; Santana, Lino; Romanini, Jose Carlos; Carvalho, Ricardo Marins; Furuse, Adilson Yoshio

    2013-10-01

    The aim of this article is to describe the possibility of improving dental esthetics with low-thickness glass ceramics without major tooth preparation for patients with small to moderate anterior dental wear and little discoloration. For this purpose, a carefully defined treatment planning and a good communication between the clinician and the dental technician helped to maximize enamel preservation, and offered a good treatment option. Moreover, besides restoring esthetics, the restorative treatment also improved the function of the anterior guidance. It can be concluded that the conservative use of minimum thickness ceramic laminate veneers may provide satisfactory esthetic outcomes while preserving the dental structure.

  8. Ceramic veneers with minimum preparation

    PubMed Central

    da Cunha, Leonardo Fernandes; Reis, Rachelle; Santana, Lino; Romanini, Jose Carlos; Carvalho, Ricardo Marins; Furuse, Adilson Yoshio

    2013-01-01

    The aim of this article is to describe the possibility of improving dental esthetics with low-thickness glass ceramics without major tooth preparation for patients with small to moderate anterior dental wear and little discoloration. For this purpose, a carefully defined treatment planning and a good communication between the clinician and the dental technician helped to maximize enamel preservation, and offered a good treatment option. Moreover, besides restoring esthetics, the restorative treatment also improved the function of the anterior guidance. It can be concluded that the conservative use of minimum thickness ceramic laminate veneers may provide satisfactory esthetic outcomes while preserving the dental structure. PMID:24932126

  9. Electrochemical immobilization of Cs in single-crystalline SYNROC

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Abe, Hideki; Satoh, Akira; Nishida, Kenji; Abe, Eiji; Naka, Takashi; Imai, Motoharu; Kitazawa, Hideaki

    2006-05-01

    The development of a disposal technique for the radiotoxic 137Cs in nuclear wastes is one of the most urgent issues in nuclear fuel technology. An effective disposal method of 137Cs is to immobilize it in a synthetic rock (SYNROC) material: cesium titanate hollandite, 137Cs xTi 8O 16 ( I4/ m, a=10.2866(3) Å, c=2.9669(1) Å). Practical applications of 137Cs xTi 8O 16 have been restricted so far because the conventional synthetic method requires strong chemical reducers and reaction temperatures higher than 1250 °C. In this report, we present a milder preparation method of Cs xTi 8O 16 by electrolysis of a mixture of Cs 2MoO 4 and TiO 2 in ambient atmosphere at 900 °C. The Cs content in the resultant single-crystalline Cs 1.35Ti 8O 16 is competitive with the highest value in polycrystalline Cs 1.36±0.03Ti 8O 16 prepared by the conventional synthetic method. The electrochemical preparation of Cs 1.35Ti 8O 16 is a promising way to immobilize a high quantity of 137Cs ions in a stable form of single-crystalline SYNROC.

  10. Bacterial CS2 hydrolases from Acidithiobacillus thiooxidans strains are homologous to the archaeal catenane CS2 hydrolase.

    PubMed

    Smeulders, Marjan J; Pol, Arjan; Venselaar, Hanka; Barends, Thomas R M; Hermans, John; Jetten, Mike S M; Op den Camp, Huub J M

    2013-09-01

    Carbon disulfide (CS(2)) and carbonyl sulfide (COS) are important in the global sulfur cycle, and CS(2) is used as a solvent in the viscose industry. These compounds can be converted by sulfur-oxidizing bacteria, such as Acidithiobacillus thiooxidans species, to carbon dioxide (CO(2)) and hydrogen sulfide (H2S), a property used in industrial biofiltration of CS(2)-polluted airstreams. We report on the mechanism of bacterial CS(2) conversion in the extremely acidophilic A. thiooxidans strains S1p and G8. The bacterial CS(2) hydrolases were highly abundant. They were purified and found to be homologous to the only other described (archaeal) CS(2) hydrolase from Acidianus strain A1-3, which forms a catenane of two interlocked rings. The enzymes cluster in a group of β-carbonic anhydrase (β-CA) homologues that may comprise a subclass of CS(2) hydrolases within the β-CA family. Unlike CAs, the CS(2) hydrolases did not hydrate CO(2) but converted CS(2) and COS with H(2)O to H(2)S and CO(2). The CS(2) hydrolases of A. thiooxidans strains G8, 2Bp, Sts 4-3, and BBW1, like the CS(2) hydrolase of Acidianus strain A1-3, exist as both octamers and hexadecamers in solution. The CS(2) hydrolase of A. thiooxidans strain S1p forms only octamers. Structure models of the A. thiooxidans CS(2) hydrolases based on the structure of Acidianus strain A1-3 CS(2) hydrolase suggest that the A. thiooxidans strain G8 CS(2) hydrolase may also form a catenane. In the A. thiooxidans strain S1p enzyme, two insertions (positions 26 and 27 [PD] and positions 56 to 61 [TPAGGG]) and a nine-amino-acid-longer C-terminal tail may prevent catenane formation.

  11. Genotypic difference in (137)Cs accumulation and transfer from the contaminated field in Fukushima to azuki bean (Vigna angularis).

    PubMed

    Win, Khin Thuzar; Oo, Aung Zaw; Kojima, Katsuhiro; Salem, Djedidi; Yamaya, Hiroko; Bellingrath-Kimura, Sonoko Dorothea; Tomooka, Norihiko; Kaga, Akito; Ohkama-Ohtsu, Naoko; Yokoyama, Tadashi

    2016-07-01

    The screening of mini-core collection of azuki bean accessions (Vigna angularis (Willd.) Ohwi & Ohashi) for comparative uptake of (137)Cs in their edible portions was done in field trials on land contaminated by the Fukushima Daiichi Nuclear Power Plant (FDNPP) accident. Ninety seven azuki bean accessions including their wild relatives from a Japanese gene bank, were grown in a field in the Fukushima prefecture, which is located approximately 51 km north of FDNPP. The contamination level of the soil was 3665 ± 480 Bq kg(-1) dry weight ((137)Cs, average ± SD). The soil type comprised clay loam, where the sand: silt: clay proportion was 42:21:37. There was a significant varietal difference in the biomass production, radiocaesium accumulation and transfer factor (TF) of radiocaesium from the soil to edible portion. Under identical agricultural practice, the extent of (137)Cs accumulation by seeds differed between the accessions by as much as 10-fold. Inter-varietal variation was expressed at the ratio of the maximum to minimum observed (137)Cs transfer factor for seeds ranged from 0.092 to 0.009. The total biomass, time to flowering and maturity, and seed yield had negative relationship to (137)Cs activity concentration in seeds. The results suggest that certain variety/varieties of azuki bean which accumulated less (137)Cs in edible portion with preferable agronomic traits are suitable to reduce the (137)Cs accumulation in food chain on contaminated land. PMID:27105146

  12. Solvothermal synthesis, structure and physical properties of Cs[Cr(en)2MSe4] (M = Ge, Sn) with [MSe4](4-) tetrahedra as chelating ligand.

    PubMed

    Wang, Yingqi; Wang, Ruiqi; Liu, Qinglong; Lai, Xiaofang; Zhang, Xian; Chen, Haijie; Zheng, Chong; Lin, Jianhua; Huang, Fuqiang

    2016-05-31

    Two chromium chalcogenide Cs[Cr(en)2GeSe4] () and Cs[Cr(en)2SnSe4] () have been synthesized by a solvothermal method. Both compounds crystallize in the monoclinic space group P21/n. The structures of the two compounds are characterized by isolated [Cr(en)2MSe4](-) clusters separated by Cs(+) ions. The optical properties of the two compounds were measured which indicate a similar band gap of 1.58 eV. DFT calculations demonstrated that the valance band maximum (VBM) consist of Cr 3d orbitals and Se 4p orbitals while the conductive band minimum (CBM) are composed of Cr 3d orbitals for both compounds, which explains their similar optical band gap energies. Both compounds possess paramagnetic behaviors with the effective magnetic moment of 3.97μB for Cs[Cr(en)2GeSe4] and 3.91μB for Cs[Cr(en)2SnSe4], respectively. Field-dependent magnetization measurements demonstrated their potential as magnetocaloric materials, with the magnetic entropy change of 11.6 J (kg K)(-1) for Cs[Cr(en)2GeSe4], and 14.2 J (kg K)(-1) for Cs[Cr(en)2SnSe4].

  13. Nanocrystalline Cs{sub x}WO{sub 3} particles: Effects of N{sub 2} annealing on microstructure and near-infrared shielding characteristics

    SciTech Connect

    Liu, Jing-Xiao; Shi, Fei; Dong, Xiao-Li; Xu, Qiang; Yin, Shu; Sato, Tsugio

    2013-10-15

    In order to further improve the near-infrared shielding properties of cesium tungsten bronze (Cs{sub x}WO{sub 3}) for solar filter applications, Cs{sub x}WO{sub 3} particles were prepared by solvothermal reaction method and the effects of nitrogen annealing on the microstructure and near-infrared shielding properties of Cs{sub x}WO{sub 3} were investigated. The obtained Cs{sub x}WO{sub 3} samples were characterized by X-ray diffraction, scanning electron microscopy, transmission electron microscopy, X-ray photoelectron spectroscopy and spectrophotometer. The results indicate that nanosheet-like Cs{sub x}WO{sub 3} particles with hexagonal structure began to transform into nanorods after annealed at temperature higher than 600 °C. The near-infrared shielding properties of Cs{sub x}WO{sub 3} particles could be further improved by N{sub 2} annealing at 500–700 °C. Particularly, the 500 °C-annealed Cs{sub x}WO{sub 3} samples in the N{sub 2} atmosphere showed best near-infrared shielding properties. It was suggested that the excellent near-infrared shielding ability of the 500 °C-annealed Cs{sub x}WO{sub 3} samples is correlated with its minimum O/W atomic ratio and most oxygen vacancies. Highlights: • N{sub 2} annealing could further improve the near-infrared (NIR) shielding of Cs{sub x}WO{sub 3}. • Effects of N{sub 2} annealing on microstructure and NIR shielding of Cs{sub x}WO{sub 3} were studied. • The 500 °C-N{sub 2}-annealed Cs{sub x}WO{sub 3} exhibited minimum O/W ratio and most oxygen vacancies. • The 500 °C-N{sub 2}-annealed Cs{sub x}WO{sub 3} particles exhibited best NIR shielding properties.

  14. Size-induced effect on cathode luminescence spectra of CsI(Na) and CsI(Tl) crystals

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Liu, Fang; Ouyang, XiaoPing; Liu, Bin; Liu, JinLiang; Chen, Liang; Zhang, ZhongBing; Zhang, XueBin; Feng, Yi

    2014-09-01

    We investigated the cathode luminescence characteristics of CsI(Na) and CsI(Tl) crystals by the spectrum and structure properties at room temperature. We fabricated three different sizes of CsI(Na) and CsI(Tl) crystals and measured their luminescence spectra under cathode rays. We found that CsI(Na) cathode luminescence peaks appear at 420 and 305 nm, and CsI(Tl) cathode luminescence peaks are 540 and 410 nm, the grain size affects CsI(Na) luminescence significantly, and the Na-related 420 nm luminescence intensified relatively when the average grain size reaches ˜20 μm, which becomes weak when the grain size is down to nano-scale. But the cathode luminescence spectra of CsI(Tl) crystals with different size have no obvious changes. Our explanations for these phenomena are that the different impurities in the same host material CsI lead to different luminescence mechanisms. These cathode luminescence characteristics indicate the suitability of CsI(Na) and CsI(Tl) crystals to match photomultiplier tube for large area crystal detector development.

  15. (135)Cs/(137)Cs isotopic ratio as a new tracer of radiocesium released from the Fukushima nuclear accident.

    PubMed

    Zheng, Jian; Tagami, Keiko; Bu, Wenting; Uchida, Shigeo; Watanabe, Yoshito; Kubota, Yoshihisa; Fuma, Shoichi; Ihara, Sadao

    2014-05-20

    Since the Fukushima Daiichi nuclear power plant (FDNPP) accident in 2011, intensive studies of the distribution of released fission products, in particular (134)Cs and (137)Cs, in the environment have been conducted. However, the release sources, that is, the damaged reactors or the spent fuel pools, have not been identified, which resulted in great variation in the estimated amounts of (137)Cs released. Here, we investigated heavily contaminated environmental samples (litter, lichen, and soil) collected from Fukushima forests for the long-lived (135)Cs (half-life of 2 × 10(6) years), which is usually difficult to measure using decay-counting techniques. Using a newly developed triple-quadrupole inductively coupled plasma tandem mass spectrometry method, we analyzed the (135)Cs/(137)Cs isotopic ratio of the FDNPP-released radiocesium in environmental samples. We demonstrated that radiocesium was mainly released from the Unit 2 reactor. Considering the fact that the widely used tracer for the released Fukushima accident-sourced radiocesium in the environment, the (134)Cs/(137)Cs activity ratio, will become unavailable in the near future because of the short half-life of (134)Cs (2.06 years), the (135)Cs/(137)Cs isotopic ratio can be considered as a new tracer for source identification and long-term estimation of the mobility of released radiocesium in the environment.

  16. 30 CFR 202.53 - Minimum royalty.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-07-01

    ... 30 Mineral Resources 2 2010-07-01 2010-07-01 false Minimum royalty. 202.53 Section 202.53 Mineral Resources MINERALS MANAGEMENT SERVICE, DEPARTMENT OF THE INTERIOR MINERALS REVENUE MANAGEMENT ROYALTIES Oil, Gas, and OCS Sulfur, General § 202.53 Minimum royalty. For leases that provide for minimum...

  17. 7 CFR 4280.136 - Minimum retention.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-01-01

    ... 7 Agriculture 15 2010-01-01 2010-01-01 false Minimum retention. 4280.136 Section 4280.136 Agriculture Regulations of the Department of Agriculture (Continued) RURAL BUSINESS-COOPERATIVE SERVICE AND... Efficiency Improvements Program Section B. Guaranteed Loans § 4280.136 Minimum retention. Minimum...

  18. 7 CFR 4280.136 - Minimum retention.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-01-01

    ... 7 Agriculture 15 2011-01-01 2011-01-01 false Minimum retention. 4280.136 Section 4280.136 Agriculture Regulations of the Department of Agriculture (Continued) RURAL BUSINESS-COOPERATIVE SERVICE AND... Efficiency Improvements Program Section B. Guaranteed Loans § 4280.136 Minimum retention. Minimum...

  19. Do Some Workers Have Minimum Wage Careers?

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Carrington, William J.; Fallick, Bruce C.

    2001-01-01

    Most workers who begin their careers in minimum-wage jobs eventually gain more experience and move on to higher paying jobs. However, more than 8% of workers spend at least half of their first 10 working years in minimum wage jobs. Those more likely to have minimum wage careers are less educated, minorities, women with young children, and those…

  20. Does the Minimum Wage Affect Welfare Caseloads?

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Page, Marianne E.; Spetz, Joanne; Millar, Jane

    2005-01-01

    Although minimum wages are advocated as a policy that will help the poor, few studies have examined their effect on poor families. This paper uses variation in minimum wages across states and over time to estimate the impact of minimum wage legislation on welfare caseloads. We find that the elasticity of the welfare caseload with respect to the…

  1. Antibodies derived from an enterotoxigenic Escherichia coli (ETEC) adhesin tip MEFA (multiepitope fusion antigen) against adherence of nine ETEC adhesins: CFA/I, CS1, CS2, CS3, CS4, CS5, CS6, CS21 and EtpA.

    PubMed

    Nandre, Rahul M; Ruan, Xiaosai; Duan, Qiangde; Sack, David A; Zhang, Weiping

    2016-06-30

    Diarrhea continues to be a leading cause of death in children younger than 5 years in developing countries. Enterotoxigenic Escherichia coli (ETEC) is a leading bacterial cause of children's diarrhea and travelers' diarrhea. ETEC bacteria initiate diarrheal disease by attaching to host receptors at epithelial cells and colonizing in small intestine. Therefore, preventing ETEC attachment has been considered the first line of defense against ETEC diarrhea. However, developing vaccines effectively against ETEC bacterial attachment encounters challenge because ETEC strains produce over 23 immunologically heterogeneous adhesins. In this study, we applied MEFA (multiepitope fusion antigen) approach to integrate epitopes from adhesin tips or adhesive subunits of CFA/I, CS1, CS2, CS3, CS4, CS5, CS6, CS21 and EtpA adhesins and to construct an adhesin tip MEFA peptide. We then examined immunogenicity of this tip MEFA in mouse immunization, and assessed potential application of this tip MEFA for ETEC vaccine development. Data showed that mice intraperitoneally immunized with this adhesin tip MEFA developed IgG antibody responses to all nine ETEC adhesins. Moreover, ETEC and E. coli bacteria expressing these nine adhesins, after incubation with serum of the immunized mice, exhibited significant reduction in attachment to Caco-2 cells. These results indicated that anti-adhesin antibodies induced by this adhesin tip MEFA blocked adherence of the most important ETEC adhesins, suggesting this multivalent tip MEFA may be useful for developing a broadly protective anti-adhesin vaccine against ETEC diarrhea. PMID:27228947

  2. Minimum distance classification in remote sensing

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Wacker, A. G.; Landgrebe, D. A.

    1972-01-01

    The utilization of minimum distance classification methods in remote sensing problems, such as crop species identification, is considered. Literature concerning both minimum distance classification problems and distance measures is reviewed. Experimental results are presented for several examples. The objective of these examples is to: (a) compare the sample classification accuracy of a minimum distance classifier, with the vector classification accuracy of a maximum likelihood classifier, and (b) compare the accuracy of a parametric minimum distance classifier with that of a nonparametric one. Results show the minimum distance classifier performance is 5% to 10% better than that of the maximum likelihood classifier. The nonparametric classifier is only slightly better than the parametric version.

  3. Thermionic work function of /Cs/ZnO

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Sommer, A. H.; Briere, T. R.

    1976-01-01

    The collector electrode of a thermionic converter requires a material having a low thermionic work function and chemical stability in a Cs atmosphere in the 800-K range. This letter reports that ZnO with an adsorbed Cs film meets these requirements. The work function is approximately 1.3 eV. Various methods of preparing the ZnO film are described as well as an experiment in which Cs was replaced by K.

  4. Electrical conductivity of Cs2CuCl4 crystals

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Sorokin, N. I.

    2016-05-01

    The electrical conductivity of Cs2CuCl4 single crystals, synthesized by crystallization from aqueous solutions in the CsCl-CuCl2-H2O system, has been investigated. The temperature dependence of the electrical conductivity of crystals in a temperature range of 338-584 K exhibits no anomalies. The electrical transfer activation enthalpy is Δ H σ = 0.72 ± 0.05 eV and the conductivity is σ = 3 × 10-4 S/cm at 584 K. The most likely carriers in Cs2CuCl4 are Cs+ cations, which transfer electric charge according to the vacancy mechanism.

  5. Improved TV-CS Approaches for Inverse Scattering Problem

    PubMed Central

    Bevacqua, M. T.; Di Donato, L.

    2015-01-01

    Total Variation and Compressive Sensing (TV-CS) techniques represent a very attractive approach to inverse scattering problems. In fact, if the unknown is piecewise constant and so has a sparse gradient, TV-CS approaches allow us to achieve optimal reconstructions, reducing considerably the number of measurements and enforcing the sparsity on the gradient of the sought unknowns. In this paper, we introduce two different techniques based on TV-CS that exploit in a different manner the concept of gradient in order to improve the solution of the inverse scattering problems obtained by TV-CS approach. Numerical examples are addressed to show the effectiveness of the method. PMID:26495420

  6. Microhydration of caesium compounds: Cs, CsOH, CsI and Cs₂I₂ complexes with one to three H₂O molecules of nuclear safety interest.

    PubMed

    Sudolská, Mária; Cantrel, Laurent; Cernušák, Ivan

    2014-04-01

    Structure and thermodynamic properties (standard enthalpies of formation and Gibbs free energies) of hydrated caesium species of nuclear safety interest, Cs, CsOH, CsI and its dimer Cs₂I₂, with one up to three water molecules, are calculated to assess their possible existence in severe accident occurring to a pressurized water reactor. The calculations were performed using the coupled cluster theory including single, double and non-iterative triple substitutions (CCSD(T)) in conjunction with the basis sets (ANO-RCC) developed for scalar relativistic calculations. The second-order spin-free Douglas-Kroll-Hess Hamiltonian was used to account for the scalar relativistic effects. Thermodynamic properties obtained by these correlated ab initio calculations (entropies and thermal capacities at constant pressure as a function of temperature) are used in nuclear accident simulations using ASTEC/SOPHAEROS software. Interaction energies, standard enthalpies and Gibbs free energies of successive water molecules addition determine the ordering of the complexes. CsOH forms the most hydrated stable complexes followed by CsI, Cs₂I₂, and Cs. CsOH still exists in steam atmosphere even at quite high temperature, up to around 1100 K.

  7. Standardization of 134Cs by three methods.

    PubMed

    García-Toraño, E; Rodríguez, Barquero L; Roteta, M

    2002-01-01

    The nuclide 34Cs decays by beta-emission followed by gamma-deexcitation to 134Ba with a half-life T(1/2) = 2.065 a. It has been standardized by three methods: liquid scintillation counting (LSC), 4pi beta-gamma coincidence counting and 4pi gamma counting. In the LSC measurements, the CIEMAT/NIST method was used to calculate the efficiency. For the coincidence measurements, a conventional 4pi beta (proportional counter)-gamma(NaI) system was used. For the 4pi gamma standardization, a well-type Nal(Tl) detector was modeled with the Monte Carlo package PENELOPE, and the counting efficiency obtained by calculation. Results of the three methods agree within 0.65%.

  8. Thermal ionization of Cs Rydberg states

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Glukhov, I. L.; Ovsiannikov, V. D.

    2009-01-01

    Rates Pnl of photoionization from Rydberg ns-, np-, nd-states of a valence electron in Cs, induced by black-body radiation, were calculated on the basis of the modified Fues model potential method. The numerical data were approximated with a three-term expression which reproduces in a simple analytical form the dependence of Pnl on the ambient temperature T and on the principal quantum number n. The comparison between approximate and exactly calculated values of the thermal ionization rate demonstrates the applicability of the proposed approximation for highly excited states with n from 20 to 100 in a wide temperature range of T from 100 to 10,000 K. We present coefficients of this approximation for the s-, p- and d-series of Rydberg states.

  9. CS-Studio Scan System Parallelization

    SciTech Connect

    Kasemir, Kay; Pearson, Matthew R

    2015-01-01

    For several years, the Control System Studio (CS-Studio) Scan System has successfully automated the operation of beam lines at the Oak Ridge National Laboratory (ORNL) High Flux Isotope Reactor (HFIR) and Spallation Neutron Source (SNS). As it is applied to additional beam lines, we need to support simultaneous adjustments of temperatures or motor positions. While this can be implemented via virtual motors or similar logic inside the Experimental Physics and Industrial Control System (EPICS) Input/Output Controllers (IOCs), doing so requires a priori knowledge of experimenters requirements. By adding support for the parallel control of multiple process variables (PVs) to the Scan System, we can better support ad hoc automation of experiments that benefit from such simultaneous PV adjustments.

  10. Multiple band structures of {sup 131}Cs

    SciTech Connect

    Sihotra, S.; Palit, R.; Naik, Z.; Joshi, P. K.; Deo, A. Y.; Jain, H. C.; Singh, K.; Goswamy, J.; Mehta, D.; Singh, N.; Malik, S. S.; Praharaj, C. R.

    2008-09-15

    Excited states in {sup 131}Cs were investigated through in-beam {gamma}-ray spectroscopic techniques following its population in the {sup 124}Sn({sup 11}B, 4n) fusion-evaporation reaction at a beam energy of 46 MeV. The previously known level scheme has been substantially extended up to {approx}9 MeV excitation energy and 49/2({Dirac_h}/2{pi}) spin with the addition of seven new band structures. The present level scheme consisting of 15 bands exhibits a variety of collective features in this nucleus at intermediate spin. The excitation energies of the observed levels in different bands and the corresponding ratios of transition strengths, i.e., B(M1)/B(E2), have been compared with the results of projected deformed Hartree-Fock calculations based on various quasiparticle configurations. A strongly coupled band has been reassigned a high-K three-quasiparticle {pi}h{sub 11/2} x {nu}(h{sub 11/2}d{sub 3/2}) configuration based on the properties of this band and that of its new coupled side band. The configurations of these bands are also discussed in the framework of tilted-axis cranking model calculations and the systematics of the odd-A Cs isotopes. Additional three energetically closely placed coupled bands have been assigned different unpaired three-quasiparticle configurations. {gamma}-vibrational bands coupled to the {pi}h{sub 11/2} and {pi}g{sub 7/2} single-particle configurations have been reported in this nucleus. Observation of new E1 transitions linking the opposite-parity {pi}h{sub 11/2} and {pi}d{sub 5/2} bands provides fingerprints of possible octupole correlations.

  11. Memory is not extinguished along with CS presentation but within a few seconds after CS-offset.

    PubMed

    Pérez-Cuesta, Luis María; Hepp, Yanil; Pedreira, María Eugenia; Maldonado, Héctor

    2007-01-01

    Prior work with the crab's contextual memory model showed that CS-US conditioned animals undergoing an unreinforced CS presentation would either reconsolidate or extinguish the CS-US memory, depending on the length of the reexposure to the CS. Either memory process is only triggered once the CS is terminated. Based on these results, the following questions are raised. First, when is extinction memory acquired, if not along extinction training, and how long does it take? Second, can acquisition and consolidation of extinction memory be pharmacologically dissected? Here we address these questions performing three series of experiments: a first one aimed to study systematically the relationship between extinction and increasing periods of unreinforced CS presentations, a second one to determine the time boundaries of the extinction memory acquisition, and the third one to assay the requirement for protein synthesis and NMDA-like receptors of acquisition and consolidation of extinction memory. Our results confirm that it is CS-offset and not the mere retrieval (CS-onset) that triggers acquisition of extinction memory and that it is completed in less than 45 sec after CS-offset. In addition, protein synthesis is required for consolidation but not for acquisition of this memory and, conversely, NMDA-like receptor activity is required for its acquisition but not for its consolidation. Finally, we offer an interpretative scheme of our results and we discuss to what extent it could apply to multitrial extinction.

  12. Transfer of Chernobyl 134Cs and 137Cs in cows from silage to milk.

    PubMed

    Voors, P I; Van Weers, A W

    1989-09-01

    The transfer of Chernobyl Cs-134 and Cs-137 to milk in dairy cows from a diet, predominated by silage, was studied under normal farming conditions. The study was carried out in the period December 1986 till August 1987 and comprised three periods with different levels of radioactive contamination of the silage. Transfer coefficients for both radionuclides were derived from measured radiocaesium concentrations in the diet components and in mixed milk samples. Average silage intake was calculated on basis of total need which depends on milk production. The transfer coefficients calculated for Cs-134 and Cs-137 after a 6 weeks feeding period of high-level post-Chernobyl silage were 0.26 and 0.27% d/l, respectively. These results indicate that a transfer coefficient of 1.2% d/l, from tracer and fallout studies and recommended for predictive purposes, is a conservative estimate in view of the post-Chernobyl experience. The transfer of caesium isotopes from silage to milk in dairy cows is dynamically described with a simple two-compartment model of Pelletier and Voilleque. The most important choices of parameter values to be made in matching calculated and measured concentrations in milk, are those for F and u/m. F is the fraction of ingested activity that is excreted in milk plus urine, and u/m is the ratio between the transfer rates to urine and milk, respectively. The study was carried out with financial support from the Dutch Ministry of Agriculture and Fishery.

  13. 7 CFR 35.11 - Minimum requirements.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-01-01

    ..., Europe (defined to mean the following countries: Albania, Austria, Belgium, Bulgaria, Czechoslovakia..., Switzerland, Wales, West Germany, Yugoslavia), or Greenland shall meet each applicable minimum requirement...

  14. Narrating Data Structures: The Role of Context in CS2

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Yarosh, Svetlana; Guzdial, Mark

    2008-01-01

    Learning computing with respect to the context of its use has been linked in previous reports to student motivation in introductory Computer Science (CS) courses. In this report, we consider the role of context in a second course. We present a case study of a CS2 data structures class that uses a media computation context. In this course, students…

  15. Occasion Setting Is Specific to the CS-US Association

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Bonardi, Charlotte

    2007-01-01

    In Experiment 1, rats were trained on a discrimination in which one occasion setter, A, signaled that one cue (conditioned stimulus, CS), x, would be followed by one outcome, p (unconditioned stimulus, US), and a second CS, y, by a different outcome, q (x [right arrow] p and y [right arrow] q); a second occasion setter, B signalled the reverse…

  16. Observation of interspecies 6Li-133Cs Feshbach resonances

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Repp, M.; Pires, R.; Ulmanis, J.; Heck, R.; Kuhnle, E. D.; Weidemüller, M.; Tiemann, E.

    2013-01-01

    We report on the observation of 19 interspecies Feshbach resonances in an optically trapped ultracold Bose-Fermi mixture of 133Cs and 6Li in the two energetically lowest spin states. We assign the resonances to s- and p-wave molecular channels by a coupled-channels calculation, resulting in an accurate determination of LiCs ground-state potentials. Fits of the resonance position based on the undressed asymptotic bound state model do not provide the same level of accuracy as the coupled-channels calculation. Several broad s-wave resonances provide prospects to create fermionic LiCs molecules with a large dipole moment via Feshbach association followed by stimulated Raman passage. Two of the s-wave resonances overlap with a zero crossing of the Cs scattering length, which offers prospects for the investigation of polarons in an ultracold Li-Cs mixture.

  17. Determination of 135Cs by accelerator mass spectrometry

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    MacDonald, C. M.; Charles, C. R. J.; Zhao, X.-L.; Kieser, W. E.; Cornett, R. J.; Litherland, A. E.

    2015-10-01

    The ratio of anthropogenic 135Cs and 137Cs isotopes is characteristic of a uranium fission source. This research evaluates the technique of isotope dilution (yield tracing) for the purpose of quantifying 135Cs by accelerator mass spectrometry with on-line isobar separation. Interferences from Ba, Zn2, and isotopes of equal mass to charge ratios were successfully suppressed. However, some sample crosstalk from source contamination remains. The transmission and di-fluoride ionization efficiencies of Cs isotopes were found to be 8 × 10-3 and 1.7 × 10-7 respectively. This quantification of 135Cs using yield tracing by accelerator mass spectrometry shows promise for future environmental sample analysis once the issues of sample crosstalk and low efficiency can be resolved.

  18. CS (5-4) survey towards nearby infrared bright galaxies

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Wang, Junzhi; Zhang, Zhiyu; Shi, Yong

    2011-09-01

    With the observations of the CS (5-4) line towards a sample of 24 infrared bright galaxies using Heinrich Hertz Submillimeter Telescope (HHSMT), we detected CS (5-4) emission in 14 galaxies, including 12 ultraluminous infrared galaxies (ULIRGs)/luminous infrared galaxies (LIRGs) and two nearby normal galaxies. As a good dense gas tracer, which has been well used for studying star formation in the Milky Way, CS (5-4) can trace the active star-forming gas in galaxies. The correlation between CS (5-4) luminosity, which is estimated with detected CS (5-4) line emission, and the infrared luminosity in these 14 galaxies, is fitted with a correlation coefficient of 0.939 and a slope close to unity. This correlation confirms that dense gas, which is closely linked to star formation, is very important for understanding star formation in galaxies.

  19. Transformation of Sintered CsPbBr3 Nanocrystals to Cubic CsPbI3 and Gradient CsPbBrxI3-x through Halide Exchange.

    PubMed

    Hoffman, Jacob B; Schleper, A Lennart; Kamat, Prashant V

    2016-07-13

    All-inorganic cesium lead halide (CsPbX3, X = Br(-), I(-)) perovskites could potentially provide comparable photovoltaic performance with enhanced stability compared to organic-inorganic lead halide species. However, small-bandgap cubic CsPbI3 has been difficult to study due to challenges forming CsPbI3 in the cubic phase. Here, a low-temperature procedure to form cubic CsPbI3 has been developed through a halide exchange reaction using films of sintered CsPbBr3 nanocrystals. The reaction was found to be strongly dependent upon temperature, featuring an Arrhenius relationship. Additionally, film thickness played a significant role in determining internal film structure at intermediate reaction times. Thin films (50 nm) showed only a small distribution of CsPbBrxI3-x species, while thicker films (350 nm) exhibited much broader distributions. Furthermore, internal film structure was ordered, featuring a compositional gradient within film. Transient absorption spectroscopy showed the influence of halide exchange on the excited state of the material. In thicker films, charge carriers were rapidly transferred to iodide-rich regions near the film surface within the first several picoseconds after excitation. This ultrafast vectorial charge-transfer process illustrates the potential of utilizing compositional gradients to direct charge flow in perovskite-based photovoltaics. PMID:27322132

  20. Minimum detectable concentration as a function of gamma walkover survey technique.

    PubMed

    King, David A; Altic, Nickolas; Greer, Colt

    2012-02-01

    Gamma walkover surveys are often performed by swinging the radiation detector (e.g., a 2-inch by 2-inch sodium iodide) in a serpentine pattern at a near constant height above the ground surface. The objective is to survey an approximate 1-m swath with 100% coverage producing an equal probability of detecting contamination at any point along the swing. In reality, however, the detector height will vary slightly along the swing path, and in some cases the detector may follow a pendulum-like motion significantly reducing the detector response and increasing the minimum detectable concentration. This paper quantifies relative detector responses for fixed and variable height swing patterns and demonstrates negative impacts on the minimum detectable concentration. Minimum detectable concentrations are calculated for multiple contaminated surface areas (0.1, 1.0, 3, 10, and 30 m2), multiple contaminants (60Co, 137Cs, 241Am, and 226Ra), and two minimum heights (5 and 10 cm). Exposure rate estimates used in minimum detectable concentration calculations are produced using MicroShield™ v.7.02 (Grove Software, Inc., 4925 Boonsboro Road #257, Lynchberg, VA 24503) and MDCs are calculated as outlined in NUREG-1575. Results confirm a pendulum-like detector motion can significantly increase MDCs relative to a low flat trajectory, especially for small areas of elevated activity--up to a 47% difference is observed under worst-modeled conditions. PMID:22249469

  1. Epiphytic fruticose lichens as biomonitors for retrospective evaluation of the (134)Cs/(137)Cs ratio in Fukushima fallout.

    PubMed

    Ramzaev, V; Barkovsky, A; Gromov, A; Ivanov, S; Kaduka, M

    2014-12-01

    In 2011-2013, sampling of epiphytic fruticose lichens of the genera Usnea, Bryoria and Alectoria was carried out on Sakhalin and Kuril Islands (the Sakhalin region, Russia) to investigate contamination of these organisms with the Fukushima-derived (134)Cs and (137)Cs. Activities of the radionuclides were determined in all 56 samples of lichens taken for the analysis. After correction for radioactive decay (on 15 March 2011), the activity concentrations ranged from 2.1 Bq kg(-1) (d.w.) to 52 Bq kg(-1) for (134)Cs and from 2.3 Bq kg(-1) to 52 Bq kg(-1) for (137)Cs. Cesium-134 and (137)Cs activities for the whole set of lichens (n = 56) were strongly positively correlated; Spearman's rank correlation coefficient was calculated as 0.991 (P < 0.01). The activity concentrations of (134)Cs and (137)Cs in Usnea lichens from the Sakhalin and Kunashir islands declined with a factor of three in the period from 2011 to 2013. The average biological half-time for both cesium radionuclides in lichens of the genus Usnea is estimated as 1.3 y. The mean of 0.99 ± 0.10 and median of 0.99 were calculated for the decay corrected (134)Cs/(137)Cs activities ratios in the lichens (n = 56). The radionuclides ratio in the lichens did not depend on location of sampling site, species and the time that had passed after the Fukushima accident. The regression analysis has shown the background pre-Fukushima level of (137)Cs of 0.4 ± 0.3 Bq kg(-1), whereas the ratio between the Fukushima-borne (134)Cs and (137)Cs in the lichens was estimated as 1.04. The (134)Cs/(137)Cs activities ratio in lichens from the Sakhalin region is consistent with the ratios reported by others for the heavy contaminated areas on Honshu Island in Japan following the Fukushima accident. The activity concentrations of natural (7)Be in lichens from the Sakhalin region varied between 100 Bq kg(-1) and 600 Bq kg(-1); the activity concentrations did not exhibit temporal variations during a 2y

  2. Optimal shock isolation with minimum settling time

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Pilkey, W. D.; Lim, T. W.

    1987-01-01

    It is shown how unique isolator forces and corresponding forces can be chosen by superimposing a minimum settling time onto the limiting performance of the shock isolation system. Basically, this means that the system which has reached the peak value of the performance index is settled to rest in minimum time.

  3. 14 CFR 205.5 - Minimum coverage.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-01-01

    ... 14 Aeronautics and Space 4 2013-01-01 2013-01-01 false Minimum coverage. 205.5 Section 205.5... REGULATIONS AIRCRAFT ACCIDENT LIABILITY INSURANCE § 205.5 Minimum coverage. (a) Insurance contracts and self... maintain the following coverage: (1) Third-party aircraft accident liability coverage for bodily injury...

  4. 14 CFR 205.5 - Minimum coverage.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-01-01

    ... 14 Aeronautics and Space 4 2012-01-01 2012-01-01 false Minimum coverage. 205.5 Section 205.5... REGULATIONS AIRCRAFT ACCIDENT LIABILITY INSURANCE § 205.5 Minimum coverage. (a) Insurance contracts and self... maintain the following coverage: (1) Third-party aircraft accident liability coverage for bodily injury...

  5. 30 CFR 202.352 - Minimum royalty.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-07-01

    ... 30 Mineral Resources 2 2010-07-01 2010-07-01 false Minimum royalty. 202.352 Section 202.352 Mineral Resources MINERALS MANAGEMENT SERVICE, DEPARTMENT OF THE INTERIOR MINERALS REVENUE MANAGEMENT ROYALTIES Geothermal Resources § 202.352 Minimum royalty. In no event shall the lessee's annual...

  6. The minimum flux corona; theory or concept

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Underwood, J. H.; Antiochos, S. K.

    1980-01-01

    The reply to the criticisms of the minimum flux theory is discussed. These criticisms are correct in substance, as well as in detail. Counter arguments that the minimum flux corona theory is untenable, because of errors in its formulation, are presented.

  7. 30 CFR 1202.53 - Minimum royalty.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-07-01

    ... 30 Mineral Resources 3 2011-07-01 2011-07-01 false Minimum royalty. 1202.53 Section 1202.53 Mineral Resources OFFICE OF SURFACE MINING RECLAMATION AND ENFORCEMENT, DEPARTMENT OF THE INTERIOR Natural Resources Revenue ROYALTIES Oil, Gas, and OCS Sulfur, General § 1202.53 Minimum royalty. For leases...

  8. 30 CFR 281.30 - Minimum royalty.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-07-01

    ... 30 Mineral Resources 2 2010-07-01 2010-07-01 false Minimum royalty. 281.30 Section 281.30 Mineral Resources MINERALS MANAGEMENT SERVICE, DEPARTMENT OF THE INTERIOR OFFSHORE LEASING OF MINERALS OTHER THAN OIL, GAS, AND SULPHUR IN THE OUTER CONTINENTAL SHELF Financial Considerations § 281.30 Minimum...

  9. Minimum Wage Effects in the Longer Run

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Neumark, David; Nizalova, Olena

    2007-01-01

    Exposure to minimum wages at young ages could lead to adverse longer-run effects via decreased labor market experience and tenure, and diminished education and training, while beneficial longer-run effects could arise if minimum wages increase skill acquisition. Evidence suggests that as individuals reach their late 20s, they earn less the longer…

  10. New Minimum Wage Research: A Symposium.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Ehrenberg, Ronald G.; And Others

    1992-01-01

    Includes "Introduction" (Ehrenberg); "Effect of the Minimum Wage [MW] on the Fast-Food Industry" (Katz, Krueger); "Using Regional Variation in Wages to Measure Effects of the Federal MW" (Card); "Do MWs Reduce Employment?" (Card); "Employment Effects of Minimum and Subminimum Wages" (Neumark, Wascher); and "Wage Mobility of MW Workers" (Smith,…

  11. Minimum Competency Program, Citizenship: Suggestions for Implementation.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Virginia State Dept. of Education, Richmond.

    This monograph explains the need for graduating high school seniors to demonstrate minimum competence in citizenship and suggests performance-related assessment tasks to help school authorities determine whether these competency requirements have been met. Minimum citizenship competencies are interpreted to include essential skills and concepts…

  12. 50 CFR 648.143 - Minimum sizes.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-10-01

    ... 50 Wildlife and Fisheries 8 2010-10-01 2010-10-01 false Minimum sizes. 648.143 Section 648.143 Wildlife and Fisheries FISHERY CONSERVATION AND MANAGEMENT, NATIONAL OCEANIC AND ATMOSPHERIC ADMINISTRATION, DEPARTMENT OF COMMERCE FISHERIES OF THE NORTHEASTERN UNITED STATES Management Measures for the Black Sea Bass Fishery § 648.143 Minimum sizes....

  13. Minimum Conditions for Congruence of Quadrilaterals.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Vance, Irvin E.

    1982-01-01

    A complete characterization of minimum conditions for congruence of quadrilaterals is presented. Convex quadrilaterals are treated first, then concave quadrilaterals are considered. A study of such minimum conditions is seen to provide some interesting and important activities for students. Only background in triangle congruence is necessary. (MP)

  14. 30 CFR 1202.352 - Minimum royalty.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-07-01

    ... 30 Mineral Resources 3 2011-07-01 2011-07-01 false Minimum royalty. 1202.352 Section 1202.352 Mineral Resources OFFICE OF SURFACE MINING RECLAMATION AND ENFORCEMENT, DEPARTMENT OF THE INTERIOR Natural Resources Revenue ROYALTIES Geothermal Resources § 1202.352 Minimum royalty. In no event shall the...

  15. 30 CFR 1202.352 - Minimum royalty.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-07-01

    ... 30 Mineral Resources 3 2013-07-01 2013-07-01 false Minimum royalty. 1202.352 Section 1202.352 Mineral Resources OFFICE OF NATURAL RESOURCES REVENUE, DEPARTMENT OF THE INTERIOR NATURAL RESOURCES REVENUE ROYALTIES Geothermal Resources § 1202.352 Minimum royalty. In no event shall the lessee's...

  16. 30 CFR 1202.352 - Minimum royalty.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-07-01

    ... 30 Mineral Resources 3 2014-07-01 2014-07-01 false Minimum royalty. 1202.352 Section 1202.352 Mineral Resources OFFICE OF NATURAL RESOURCES REVENUE, DEPARTMENT OF THE INTERIOR NATURAL RESOURCES REVENUE ROYALTIES Geothermal Resources § 1202.352 Minimum royalty. In no event shall the lessee's...

  17. 30 CFR 1202.352 - Minimum royalty.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-07-01

    ... 30 Mineral Resources 3 2012-07-01 2012-07-01 false Minimum royalty. 1202.352 Section 1202.352 Mineral Resources OFFICE OF NATURAL RESOURCES REVENUE, DEPARTMENT OF THE INTERIOR NATURAL RESOURCES REVENUE ROYALTIES Geothermal Resources § 1202.352 Minimum royalty. In no event shall the lessee's...

  18. 50 CFR 648.143 - Minimum sizes.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-10-01

    ... 50 Wildlife and Fisheries 10 2011-10-01 2011-10-01 false Minimum sizes. 648.143 Section 648.143 Wildlife and Fisheries FISHERY CONSERVATION AND MANAGEMENT, NATIONAL OCEANIC AND ATMOSPHERIC ADMINISTRATION, DEPARTMENT OF COMMERCE FISHERIES OF THE NORTHEASTERN UNITED STATES Management Measures for the Black Sea Bass Fishery § 648.143 Minimum...

  19. Volunteer challenge with enterotoxigenic Escherichia coli that express intestinal colonization factor fimbriae CS17 and CS19.

    PubMed

    McKenzie, Robin; Porter, Chad K; Cantrell, Joyce A; Denearing, Barbara; O'Dowd, Aisling; Grahek, Shannon L; Sincock, Stephanie A; Woods, Colleen; Sebeny, Peter; Sack, David A; Tribble, David R; Bourgeois, A Louis; Savarino, Stephen J

    2011-07-01

    Human challenges with enterotoxigenic Escherichia coli (ETEC) have broadened our understanding of this important enteropathogen. We report findings from the first challenge studies using ETEC-expressing colonization factor fimbria CS17 and CS19. LSN03-016011/A (LT, CS17) elicited a dose-dependent effect, with the upper dose (6 × 10(9) organisms) causing diarrhea in 88% of recipients. WS0115A (LTSTp, CS19) also showed a dose response, with a 44% diarrhea rate at 9 × 10(9) organisms. Both strains elicited homologous antifimbrial and anti-LT antibody seroconversion. These studies establish the relative pathogenicity of ETEC expressing newer class 5 fimbriae and suggest suitability of the LT|CS17-ETEC challenge model for interventional trials. PMID:21628659

  20. 137Cs in the western South Pacific Ocean.

    PubMed

    Yamada, Masatoshi; Wang, Zhong-Liang

    2007-09-01

    The 137Cs activities were determined for seawater samples from the East Caroline, Coral Sea, New Hebrides, South Fiji and Tasman Sea (two stations) Basins of the western South Pacific Ocean by gamma spectrometry using a low background Ge detector. The 137Cs activities ranged from 1.4 to 2.3 Bq m(-3) over the depth interval 0-250 m and decreased exponentially from the subsurface to 1000 m depth. The distribution profiles of 137Cs activity at these six western South Pacific Ocean stations did not differ from each other significantly. There was a remarkable difference for the vertical profiles of 137Cs activity between the East Caroline Basin station in this study and the GEOSECS (Geochemical Ocean Sections Study) station at the same latitude in the Equatorial Pacific Ocean; the 137Cs inventory over the depth interval 100-1000 m increased from 400+/-30 Bq m(-2) to 560+/-30 Bq m(-2) during the period from 1973 to 1992. The total 137Cs inventories in the western South Pacific Ocean ranged from 850+/-70 Bq m(-2) in the Coral Sea Basin to 1270+/-90 Bq m(-2) in the South Fiji Basin. Higher 137Cs inventories were observed at middle latitude stations in the subtropical gyre than at low latitude stations. The 137Cs inventories were 1.9-4.5 times (2.9+/-0.7 on average) and 1.7-4.3 times (3.1+/-0.7 on average) higher than that of the expected deposition density of atmospheric global fallout at the same latitude and that of the estimated 137Cs deposition density in 10 degrees latitude by 10 degrees longitude grid data obtained by Aoyama et al. [Aoyama M, Hirose K, Igarashi Y. Re-construction and updating our understanding on the global weapons tests 137Cs fallout. J Environ Monit 2006;8:431-438], respectively. The possible processes for higher 137Cs inventories in the western South Pacific Ocean than that of the expected deposition density of atmospheric global fallout may be attributable to the inter-hemisphere dispersion of the atmospheric nuclear weapons testing 137Cs from

  1. 137Cs in the western South Pacific Ocean.

    PubMed

    Yamada, Masatoshi; Wang, Zhong-Liang

    2007-09-01

    The 137Cs activities were determined for seawater samples from the East Caroline, Coral Sea, New Hebrides, South Fiji and Tasman Sea (two stations) Basins of the western South Pacific Ocean by gamma spectrometry using a low background Ge detector. The 137Cs activities ranged from 1.4 to 2.3 Bq m(-3) over the depth interval 0-250 m and decreased exponentially from the subsurface to 1000 m depth. The distribution profiles of 137Cs activity at these six western South Pacific Ocean stations did not differ from each other significantly. There was a remarkable difference for the vertical profiles of 137Cs activity between the East Caroline Basin station in this study and the GEOSECS (Geochemical Ocean Sections Study) station at the same latitude in the Equatorial Pacific Ocean; the 137Cs inventory over the depth interval 100-1000 m increased from 400+/-30 Bq m(-2) to 560+/-30 Bq m(-2) during the period from 1973 to 1992. The total 137Cs inventories in the western South Pacific Ocean ranged from 850+/-70 Bq m(-2) in the Coral Sea Basin to 1270+/-90 Bq m(-2) in the South Fiji Basin. Higher 137Cs inventories were observed at middle latitude stations in the subtropical gyre than at low latitude stations. The 137Cs inventories were 1.9-4.5 times (2.9+/-0.7 on average) and 1.7-4.3 times (3.1+/-0.7 on average) higher than that of the expected deposition density of atmospheric global fallout at the same latitude and that of the estimated 137Cs deposition density in 10 degrees latitude by 10 degrees longitude grid data obtained by Aoyama et al. [Aoyama M, Hirose K, Igarashi Y. Re-construction and updating our understanding on the global weapons tests 137Cs fallout. J Environ Monit 2006;8:431-438], respectively. The possible processes for higher 137Cs inventories in the western South Pacific Ocean than that of the expected deposition density of atmospheric global fallout may be attributable to the inter-hemisphere dispersion of the atmospheric nuclear weapons testing 137Cs from

  2. Waste forms based on Cs-loaded silicotitanates

    SciTech Connect

    Balmer, M.L.; Bunker, B.C.

    1995-04-01

    Silicotitanate ion exchange materials are being considered for removal of radioactive Cs and Sr from tank wastes at the Hanford site. The phase evolution as a function of heat treatment temperature for several sol gel derived compositions within the Cs{sub 2}O-SiO{sub 2}-TiO{sub 2} system was investigated, in order to determine if an adequate waste form can be achieved by direct thermal conversion. The Cs leach rates and Cs loss during heat treatment of select materials were measured. Some compositions which contain large amounts of Ti melt to form a glass with reasonably low aqueous leach rates. A new Cs-silicotitanate material with a structure isomorphous to pollucite was discovered. This material forms at low temperatures (700--800 C) where Cs volatility is negligible. The silicotitanate-pollucite exhibits extremely low leach rates (1.42 g/m{sup 2}day ) at 90 C, and has been identified as a promising waste form for Cs containment.

  3. Radioactive Cs capture in the early solar system

    PubMed Central

    Hidaka, Hiroshi; Yoneda, Shigekazu

    2013-01-01

    Barium isotopic compositions of primitive materials in the solar system are generally affected by s- and r-process nucleosynthetic components that hide the contribution of the isotopic excess of 135Ba formed by decay of radioactive 135Cs. However, the Ba isotopic composition of the chemical separates from chondrules in the Sayama CM2 chondrite shows an excess of 135Ba isotopic abundance up to (0.33 ± 0.06)%, which is independent of the isotopic components from s- and r-process nucleosyntheses. The isotopic excesses of 135Ba correlate with the elemental abundance of Ba relative to Cs, providing chemical and isotopic evidence for the existence of the presently extinct radionuclide 135Cs (t1/2 = 2.3 million years) in the early solar system. The estimated abundance of 135Cs/133Cs = (6.8 ± 1.9) × 10−4 is more than double that expected from the uniform production model of the short-lived radioisotopes, suggesting remobilization of Cs including 135Cs in the chondrules of the meteorite parent body. PMID:23435551

  4. Antimicrobial activity of CS-940, a new trifluorinated quinolone.

    PubMed Central

    Biedenbach, D J; Sutton, L D; Jones, R N

    1995-01-01

    The antimicrobial activity of CS-940, a new trifluorinated quinolone drug, was tested against 761 clinical isolates. CS-940 activity against members of the family Enterobacteriaceae was most similar to that of ciprofloxacin and ofloxacin, with a large range of MICs inhibiting 90% of isolates tested (MIC90S) of 0.015 to 16 micrograms/ml (median MIC90, 0.06 micrograms/ml). CS-940 had greater activity than ciprofloxacin or ofloxacin when they were tested against Acinetobacter spp. (MIC90S, 0.03 micrograms/ml) and Stenotrophomonas (Xanthomonas) maltophilia (MIC90S, 2 micrograms/ml). CS-940 demonstrated a high degree of potency against Haemophilus influenzae, Moraxella catarrhalis, and Neisseria spp. (MIC90S, < or = 0.06 micrograms/ml). CS-940 was two- to eightfold more active than ciprofloxacin or ofloxacin against oxacillin-susceptible Staphylococcus aureus, Staphylococcus epidermidis, Staphylococcus haemolyticus, and coagulase-negative Staphylococcus spp. CS-940 was also very active against Streptococcus spp. and enterococci, for which MIC90S were < or = 2 micrograms/ml; for Enterococcus faecium, however, the MIC90 was 4 micrograms/ml. CS-940 was generally less active than a comparison investigational fluoroquinolone, clinafloxacin. This compound appears promising by in vitro test analysis and warrants further in vivo trials. PMID:8619590

  5. The Density Structure of UCHII Regions: CS Observations

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Butner, H. M.; Lauwers, T. L.

    2000-12-01

    Ultra-compact HII (UCHII) regions are sites of massive star formation. As yet, the physical conditions inside these regions are still poorly known. Submillimeter observations offer one way of probing the gas density and temperature. As part of an extensive study of the chemistry and physical conditions inside UCHII regions, we undertook a project to map several UCHII regions in CS. CS is an abundant molecule, and is an excellent density probe. Using the Submillimeter Telescope Observatory (SMTO), we are mapping ten UCHII regions in detail at a variety of CS transitions, including the CS 5-4, 7-6 and C34S 5-4 and 7-6 lines. The regions chosen also have far-infrared data and submm data available, so we will be able to compare the dust and gas properties. We report the first results of the CS mapping program for CS 5-4 and CS 7-6 lines. We compare our conclusions with other studies of these regions. T. L. Lauwers was supported by the University of Arizona/NASA Space Grant Undergraduate Research Internship Program.

  6. Radioactive Cs capture in the early solar system.

    PubMed

    Hidaka, Hiroshi; Yoneda, Shigekazu

    2013-01-01

    Barium isotopic compositions of primitive materials in the solar system are generally affected by s- and r-process nucleosynthetic components that hide the contribution of the isotopic excess of (135)Ba formed by decay of radioactive (135)Cs. However, the Ba isotopic composition of the chemical separates from chondrules in the Sayama CM2 chondrite shows an excess of (135)Ba isotopic abundance up to (0.33 ± 0.06)%, which is independent of the isotopic components from s- and r-process nucleosyntheses. The isotopic excesses of (135)Ba correlate with the elemental abundance of Ba relative to Cs, providing chemical and isotopic evidence for the existence of the presently extinct radionuclide (135)Cs (t(1/2) = 2.3 million years) in the early solar system. The estimated abundance of (135)Cs/(133)Cs = (6.8 ± 1.9) × 10(-4) is more than double that expected from the uniform production model of the short-lived radioisotopes, suggesting remobilization of Cs including (135)Cs in the chondrules of the meteorite parent body. PMID:23435551

  7. First Test Results on ITER CS Model Coil and CS Insert

    SciTech Connect

    Martovetsky, N; Michael, P; Minervini, J; Radovinsky, A; Takayasu, M; Thome, R; Ando, T; Isono, T; Kato, T; Nakajima, H; Nishijima, G; Nunoya, Y; Sugimoto, M; Takahashi, Y; Tsuji, H; Bessette, D; Okuno, K; Ricci, M; Maix, R

    2000-10-12

    The Inner and Outer modules of the Central Solenoid Model Coil (CSMC) were built by US and Japanese home teams in collaboration with European and Russian teams to demonstrate the feasibility of a superconducting Central Solenoid for ITER and other large tokamak reactors. The CSMC mass is about 120 t, OD is about 3.6 m and the stored energy is 640 MJ at 46 kA and peak field of 13 T. Testing of the CSMC and the CS Insert took place at the Japan Atomic Energy Research Institute (JAERI) from mid March until mid August 2000. This paper presents the main results of the tests performed.

  8. Influence of water management and fertilizer application on (137)Cs and (133)Cs uptake in paddy rice fields.

    PubMed

    Wakabayashi, Shokichi; Itoh, Sumio; Kihou, Nobuharu; Matsunami, Hisaya; Hachinohe, Mayumi; Hamamatsu, Shioka; Takahashi, Shigeru

    2016-06-01

    Cesium-137 derived from the Tokyo Electric Power Company's Fukushima Dai-ichi Nuclear Power Plant (FDNPP) accident contaminated large areas of agricultural land in Eastern Japan. Previous studies before the accident have indicated that flooding enhances radiocesium uptake in rice fields. We investigated the influence of water management in combination with fertilizers on (137)Cs concentrations in rice plants at two fields in southern Ibaraki Prefecture. Stable Cs ((133)Cs) in the plants was also determined as an analogue for predicting (137)Cs behavior after long-term aging of soil (137)Cs. The experimental periods comprised 3 y starting from 2012 in one field, and 2 y from 2013 in another field. These fields were divided into three water management sections: a long-flooding section without midsummer drainage, and medial-flooding, and short-flooding sections with one- or two-week midsummer drainage and earlier end of flooding than the long-flooding section. Six or four types of fertilizer subsections (most differing only in potassium application) were nested in each water management section. Generally, the long-flooding treatment led to higher (137)Cs and (133)Cs concentrations in both straw and brown rice than medial- and short-flooding treatments, although there were some notable exceptions in the first experimental year at each site. Effects of differing potassium fertilizer treatments were cumulative; the effects on (137)Cs and (133)Cs concentrations in rice plants were not obvious in 2012 and 2013, but in 2014, these concentrations were highest where potassium fertilizer had been absent and lowest where basal dressings of K had been tripled. The relationship between (137)Cs and (133)Cs in rice plants was not correlative in the first experimental year at each site, but correlation became evident in the subsequent year(s). This study demonstrates a novel finding that omitting midsummer drainage and/or delaying drainage during the grain-filling period enhances

  9. Physics Design for ARIES-CS

    SciTech Connect

    L.P. Ku, P.R. Garabedian, J. Lyon, A. Turnbull, A. Grossman, T.K. Mau, M. Zarnstorff, and the ARIES Team

    2007-10-10

    Novel stellarator configurations have been developed for ARIES-CS. These configurations are optimized to provide good plasma confinement and flux surface integrity at high beta. Modular coils have been designed for them in which the space needed for the breeding blanket and radiation shielding was specifically targeted such that reactors generating GW electrical powers would require only moderate major radii (<10 m). These configurations are quasi-axially symmetric in the magnetic field topology and have small number of field periods (≤3) and low aspect ratios (≤6). The baseline design chosen for detailed systems and power plant studies has 3 field periods, aspect ratio 4.5 and major radius 7.5 m operating at β~6.5% to yield 1 GW electric power. The shaping of the plasma accounts for ≥75% of the rotational transform. The effective helical ripples are very small (< 0.6% everywhere) and the energy loss of alpha particles is calculated to be ≤5% when operating in high density regimes. An interesting feature in this configuration is that instead of minimizing all residues in the magnetic spectrum, we preferentially retained a small amount of the non-axisymmetric mirror field. The presence of this mirror and its associated helical field alters the ripple distribution, resulting in the reduced ripple-trapped loss of alpha particles despite the long connection length in a tokamak-like field structure. Additionally, we discuss two other potentially attractive classes of configurations, both quasi-axisymmetric: one with only two field periods, very low aspect ratios (~2.5), and less complex coils, and the other with the plasma shaping designed to produce low shear rotational transform so as to assure the robustness and integrity of flux surfaces when operating at high β.

  10. Production of low radioactivity CsI(Tl) crystals for WIMP searches

    SciTech Connect

    Kim, Y.D.; Kang, W.G.; Lee, H.S.; Lee, J.I.; Lee, J.Y.; Hahn, I.S.; Lee, E.K.; Hwang, M.J.; Kwon, Y.J.; Jin, Li; Kim, H.J.; Kim, S.C.; Kim, S.K.; Kim, S.Y.; Kim, T.Y.; Kwak, J.W.; Lee, M.J.; Myung, S.S.; Yang, H.Y.; Park, H.

    2005-09-08

    We have extensively studied the mechanism of the 137Cs and 134Cs contamination in CsI compounds. The nuclei 137Cs and 134Cs in various samples have been studied using a HPGe detector at deep underground. The main source of the 137Cs contamination in CsI powder was desolved 137Cs in the water used in the chemical process of cesium extraction at company side. We also found that 134Cs was produced mainly from 133Cs by neutron capture. We have successfully produced CsI powder containing no more than 2 mBq/kg of 137Cs by using only ultra-pure water for whole extraction process from raw ore(pollucite)

  11. Altimeter Products for the Sentinel-6/Jason-CS Mission

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Scharroo, Remko; Bonekamp, Hans; Ponsard, Christelle; Nogueira Loddo, Carolina

    2015-12-01

    The Sentinel-6 mission will be developed and implemented through a partnership between the EU, ESA, EUMETSAT and NOAA . Its aim is to secure the continuity until 2030+ of critical high precision observations of ocean surface topography beyond Jason-3. The European contribution will be implemented through the combination of the ESA Copernicus Space Component, the EUMETSAT Jason-CS optional programme, and the EU Copernicus programme, for the joint benefits of the meteorological and Copernicus user communities in Europe. NASA and CNES will be supporting partners. The mission will start with the launch of Jason-CS A in 2020, followed by Jason-CS B in 2025.

  12. The transfer of {sup 137}Cs from barley to beer

    SciTech Connect

    Proehl, G.; Mueller, H.; Voigt, G.

    1997-01-01

    Beer has been brewed from barley contaminated with {sup 137}Cs as a consequence of the Chernobyl accident. The {sup 137}Cs activity has been measured in all intermediate steps and in the by-products of the production process. About 35 % of the {sup 137}Cs in barley were recovered in beer. Processing factors defined as the concentration ratio of processed and raw products were determined to be 0.61, 3.3, 0.1 and 0.11 for malt, malt germs, spent grains and beer, respectively. 4 refs., 2 tabs.

  13. The KTeV Pure CsI Calorimeter

    SciTech Connect

    Ray, R.E.

    1994-12-01

    KTeV is currently building a state-of-the-art pure CsI electromagnetic calorimeter with a sophisticated digital readout. The CsI array is expected to have better than 1% resolution over a dynamic range of 2--64 GeV. The design of the CsI array is driven by the difficult physics goal of attempting to measure the CP violation parameter Re({epsilon}{prime}/{epsilon}) to 1 part in 10000 in a high-rate neutral beam environment. The physics requirements and their impact on the final design will be discussed.

  14. Temporal changes of 7Be, 137Cs and 210Pb activity concentrations in surface air at Monaco and their correlation with meteorological parameters.

    PubMed

    Pham, Mai K; Betti, Maria; Nies, Hartmut; Povinec, Pavel P

    2011-11-01

    Results of analysis of (7)Be, (137)Cs and (210)Pb on aerosol filters carried out from 1998 to 2010 in Monaco show that a weak correlation between activity concentrations of these radionuclides in the atmosphere and meteorological parameters has been found for (7)Be and temperature (r = 0.50), (210)Pb and temperature and humidity (r = 0.43 and 0.41, respectively), and (137)Cs and precipitation (r = 0.51). The minimum and maximum (7)Be activity concentrations were observed during 2000 and 2009, corresponding with the maximum and minimum solar activity, respectively. The maximum (137)Cs activity concentration found in May-June 1998 was due to the accident at Algeciras in Spain. The deposition velocities of (7)Be, (137)Cs and (210)Pb depended on the precipitation rate, and attained maximum values during dry seasons. The investigated radionuclides may be used as atmospheric tracers, especially in long-term periods.

  15. Experimental Studies of the 43 Π Electronic State of NaCs

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Steely, Andrew; Whipp, Ciara; Faust, Carl; Kortyna, Andrew; Richter, Kara; Huennekens, John

    2016-05-01

    We present results from experimental studies of the 43 Π electronic state of the NaCs molecule. This electronic state is interesting in that its potential energy curve likely exhibits a double minimum. As a result, interference effects are observed in the resolved bound-free fluorescence spectra. The optical-optical double resonance method was used to obtain Doppler-free excitation spectra for the 43 Π state. This dataset of measured level energies was expanded largely by observing fluorescence from levels populated by collisions. Simulations of resolved bound-free fluorescence spectra were calculated using the BCONT program (R. J. Le Roy, University of Waterloo). Spectroscopic constants are presented as a preliminary step toward an experimental potential energy curve. Work supported by NSF and Susquehanna University.

  16. Minimum emittance in TBA and MBA lattices

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Xu, Gang; Peng, Yue-Mei

    2015-03-01

    For reaching a small emittance in a modern light source, triple bend achromats (TBA), theoretical minimum emittance (TME) and even multiple bend achromats (MBA) have been considered. This paper derived the necessary condition for achieving minimum emittance in TBA and MBA theoretically, where the bending angle of inner dipoles has a factor of 31/3 bigger than that of the outer dipoles. Here, we also calculated the conditions attaining the minimum emittance of TBA related to phase advance in some special cases with a pure mathematics method. These results may give some directions on lattice design.

  17. Status and prospect of the Swiss continuous Cs fountain FoCS-2

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Jallageas, A.; Devenoges, L.; Petersen, M.; Morel, J.; Bernier, L.-G.; Thomann, P.; Südmeyer, T.

    2016-06-01

    The continuous cesium fountain clock FoCS-2 at METAS presents many unique characteristics and challenges in comparison with standard pulsed fountain clocks. For several years FoCS-2 was limited by an unexplained frequency sensitivity on the velocity of the atoms, in the range of 140 • 10-15. Recent experiments allowed us to identify the origin of this problem as undesirable microwave surface currents circulating on the shield of the coaxial cables that feed the microwave cavity. A strong reduction of this effect was obtained by adding microwave absorbing coatings on the coaxial cables and absorbers inside of the vacuum chamber. This breakthrough opens the door to a true metrological validation of the fountain. A series of simulation tools have already been developed and proved their efficiency in the evaluation of some of the uncertainties of the continuous fountain. With these recent improvements, we are confident in the future demonstration of an uncertainty budget at the 10-15 level and below.

  18. Kinetic Monte Carlo Model of Scintillation Mechanisms in CsI and CsI(Tl)

    SciTech Connect

    Kerisit, Sebastien N.; Rosso, Kevin M.; Cannon, Bret D.

    2008-06-01

    We have developed a computational model of energy transfer processes in scintillators using the kinetic Monte Carlo (KMC) approach. In this publication, we focus on the alkali halide compound CsI both pure and doped with a range of thallium concentrations. The KMC model makes use of an explicit atomistic representation of the crystal lattice, activator sites, defect sites, and individual electron-hole pairs. The probability of individual diffusion, recombination, and scintillation events is calculated from rate equations parameterized with data published in the literature. Scintillation decay curves, relative intensities of emission peaks, and light yields are computed and found to be in good agreement with experimental data for a range of temperatures and thallium concentrations. This demonstrates that the KMC scintillation model is capable of reproducing both the kinetics and the efficiency of the scintillation process in CsI. In addition, novel predictions emerge from our simulations such as the diffusion distance distributions of self-trapped holes and excitons. Finally, the KMC scintillation model provides a framework for probing possible physical processes responsible for the nonlinear relationship between scintillation light yield and incident gamma-ray energy.

  19. Computer Simulation of Electron Thermalization in CsI and CsI(Tl)

    SciTech Connect

    Wang, Zhiguo; Xie, YuLong; Cannon, Bret D.; Campbell, Luke W.; Gao, Fei; Kerisit, Sebastien N.

    2011-09-15

    A Monte Carlo (MC) model was developed and implemented to simulate the thermalization of electrons in inorganic scintillator materials. The model incorporates electron scattering with both longitudinal optical and acoustic phonons. In this paper, the MC model was applied to simulate electron thermalization in CsI, both pure and doped with a range of thallium concentrations. The inclusion of internal electric fields was shown to increase the fraction of recombined electron-hole pairs and to broaden the thermalization distance and thermalization time distributions. The MC simulations indicate that electron thermalization, following {gamma}-ray excitation, takes place within approximately 10 ps in CsI and that electrons can travel distances up to several hundreds of nanometers. Electron thermalization was studied for a range of incident {gamma}-ray energies using electron-hole pair spatial distributions generated by the MC code NWEGRIM (NorthWest Electron and Gamma Ray Interaction in Matter). These simulations revealed that the partition of thermalized electrons between different species (e.g., recombined with self-trapped holes or trapped at thallium sites) vary with the incident energy. Implications for the phenomenon of nonlinearity in scintillator light yield are discussed.

  20. Longitudinal uniformity, time performances and irradiation test of pure CsI crystals

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Angelucci, M.; Atanova, O.; Baccaro, S.; Cemmi, A.; Cordelli, M.; Donghia, R.; Giovannella, S.; Happacher, F.; Miscetti, S.; Sarra, I.; Soleti, S. R.

    2016-07-01

    To study an alternative to BaF2, as the crystal choice for the Mu2e calorimeter, 13 pure CsI crystals from Opto Materials and ISMA producers have been characterized by determining their light yield (LY) and longitudinal response uniformity (LRU), when read with a UV extended PMT. The crystals show a LY of ~100 p.e./MeV (~150 p.e./MeV) when wrapped with Tyvek and coupled to the PMT without (with) optical grease. The LRU is well represented by a linear slope that is on average δ~ -0.6%/cm. The timing performances of the Opto Materials crystal, read with a UV extended MPPC, have been evaluated with minimum ionizing particles. A timing resolution of ~330 ps (~ 440 ps) is achieved when connecting the photosensor to the MPPC with (without) optical grease. The crystal radiation hardness to a ionization dose has also been studied for one pure CsI crystal from SICCAS. After exposing it to a dose of 900 Gy, a decrease of 33% in the LY is observed while the LRU remains unchanged.

  1. Accumulation of 137Cs in puddle sediments within urban ecosystem.

    PubMed

    Seleznev, Andrian A; Yarmoshenko, Ilia V; Ekidin, Alexey A

    2010-08-01

    The role of puddle sediments as a final depot of (137)Cs horizontal migration within the urban landscape is studied using the example of Ekaterinburg city, Russia. Radioactive contamination in the city appeared due to fallout after atmospheric testing of nuclear weapons and nuclear accidents. Contamination density of (137)Cs in the region was assessed from archive data to be about 5.1 kBq/m(2), of which the maximum activity concentration (<30 Bq/kg) is associated with the upper 15 cm soil layer. Results of the survey reported here indicate a mean (137)Cs activity concentration in puddle sediments of 80 Bq/kg, with a maximum value of 540 Bq/kg. It is estimated that horizontal migration has led to about a fourfold concentration of (137)Cs in puddle sediments. PMID:20417997

  2. On the Minimum Induced Drag of Wings

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Bowers, Albion H.

    2007-01-01

    This viewgraph presentation reviews the minimum induced drag of wings. The topics include: 1) The History of Spanload Development of the optimum spanload Winglets and their implications; 2) Horten Sailplanes; and 3) Flight Mechanics & Adverse yaw.

  3. Impact of the Minimum Wage on Compression.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Wolfe, Michael N.; Candland, Charles W.

    1979-01-01

    Assesses the impact of increases in the minimum wage on salary schedules, provides guidelines for creating a philosophy to deal with the impact, and outlines options and presents recommendations. (IRT)

  4. Quantitative Research on the Minimum Wage

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Goldfarb, Robert S.

    1975-01-01

    The article reviews recent research examining the impact of minimum wage requirements on the size and distribution of teenage employment and earnings. The studies measure income distribution, employment levels and effect on unemployment. (MW)

  5. Minimum-cost control of complex networks

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Li, Guoqi; Hu, Wuhua; Xiao, Gaoxi; Deng, Lei; Tang, Pei; Pei, Jing; Shi, Luping

    2016-01-01

    Finding the solution for driving a complex network at the minimum energy cost with a given number of controllers, known as the minimum-cost control problem, is critically important but remains largely open. We propose a projected gradient method to tackle this problem, which works efficiently in both synthetic and real-life networks. The study is then extended to the case where each controller can only be connected to a single network node to have the lowest connection complexity. We obtain the interesting insight that such connections basically avoid high-degree nodes of the network, which is in resonance with recent observations on controllability of complex networks. Our results provide the first technical path to enabling minimum-cost control of complex networks, and contribute new insights to locating the key nodes from a minimum-cost control perspective.

  6. How unprecedented a solar minimum was it?

    PubMed

    Russell, C T; Jian, L K; Luhmann, J G

    2013-05-01

    The end of the last solar cycle was at least 3 years late, and to date, the new solar cycle has seen mainly weaker activity since the onset of the rising phase toward the new solar maximum. The newspapers now even report when auroras are seen in Norway. This paper is an update of our review paper written during the deepest part of the last solar minimum [1]. We update the records of solar activity and its consequent effects on the interplanetary fields and solar wind density. The arrival of solar minimum allows us to use two techniques that predict sunspot maximum from readings obtained at solar minimum. It is clear that the Sun is still behaving strangely compared to the last few solar minima even though we are well beyond the minimum phase of the cycle 23-24 transition. PMID:25685425

  7. How unprecedented a solar minimum was it?

    PubMed

    Russell, C T; Jian, L K; Luhmann, J G

    2013-05-01

    The end of the last solar cycle was at least 3 years late, and to date, the new solar cycle has seen mainly weaker activity since the onset of the rising phase toward the new solar maximum. The newspapers now even report when auroras are seen in Norway. This paper is an update of our review paper written during the deepest part of the last solar minimum [1]. We update the records of solar activity and its consequent effects on the interplanetary fields and solar wind density. The arrival of solar minimum allows us to use two techniques that predict sunspot maximum from readings obtained at solar minimum. It is clear that the Sun is still behaving strangely compared to the last few solar minima even though we are well beyond the minimum phase of the cycle 23-24 transition.

  8. How unprecedented a solar minimum was it?

    PubMed Central

    Russell, C.T.; Jian, L.K.; Luhmann, J.G.

    2012-01-01

    The end of the last solar cycle was at least 3 years late, and to date, the new solar cycle has seen mainly weaker activity since the onset of the rising phase toward the new solar maximum. The newspapers now even report when auroras are seen in Norway. This paper is an update of our review paper written during the deepest part of the last solar minimum [1]. We update the records of solar activity and its consequent effects on the interplanetary fields and solar wind density. The arrival of solar minimum allows us to use two techniques that predict sunspot maximum from readings obtained at solar minimum. It is clear that the Sun is still behaving strangely compared to the last few solar minima even though we are well beyond the minimum phase of the cycle 23–24 transition. PMID:25685425

  9. Surface adsorption of Cs137 ions on quartz crystals

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Antkiw, Stephen; Waesche, H.; Senftle, F.

    1954-01-01

    Adsorption tests were made on four large synthetic and three natural quartz crystals to see if surface defects might be detected by subsequent autoradiography techniques. The adsorbent used was radioactive Cs137 in a solution of Cs 137Cl. Natural quartz crystals adsorbed more cesium than the synthetic crystals. Certain surface defects were made evident by this method, but twinning features could not be detected.

  10. Mapping CS in starburst galaxies: Disentangling and characterising dense gas

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Kelly, G.; Viti, S.; Bayet, E.; Aladro, R.; Yates, J.

    2015-06-01

    Aims: We observe the dense gas tracer CS in two nearby starburst galaxies to determine how the conditions of the dense gas varies across the circumnuclear regions in starburst galaxies. Methods: Using the IRAM-30m telescope, we mapped the distribution of the CS(2-1) and CS(3-2) lines in the circumnuclear regions of the nearby starburst galaxies NGC 3079 and NGC 6946. We also detected formaldehyde (H2CO) and methanol (CH3OH) in both galaxies. We marginally detect the isotopologue C34S. Results: We calculate column densities under LTE conditions for CS and CH3OH. Using the detections accumulated here to guide our inputs, we link a time and depth dependent chemical model with a molecular line radiative transfer model; we reproduce the observations, showing how conditions where CS is present are likely to vary away from the galactic centres. Conclusions: Using the rotational diagram method for CH3OH, we obtain a lower limit temperature of 14 K. In addition to this, by comparing the chemical and radiative transfer models to observations, we determine the properties of the dense gas as traced by CS (and CH3OH). We also estimate the quantity of the dense gas. We find that, provided there are between 105 and 106 dense cores in our beam, for both target galaxies, emission of CS from warm (T = 100-400 K), dense (n(H2) = 105-6 cm-3) cores, possibly with a high cosmic ray ionisation rate (ζ = 100ζ0) best describes conditions for our central pointing. In NGC 6946, conditions are generally cooler and/or less dense further from the centre, whereas in NGC 3079, conditions are more uniform. The inclusion of shocks allows for more efficient CS formation, which means that gas that is less dense by an order of magnitude is required to replicate observations in some cases.

  11. /sup 137/Cs radioactive dating of Lake Ontario sediment cores

    SciTech Connect

    Ward, T.E.; Breeden, J.; Komisarcik, K.; Porter, R.; Czuczwa, J.; Kaminski, R.; McVeety, B.D.

    1987-12-01

    The distribution of /sup 137/Cs in sediment cores from Lake Ontario provides estimates of the sediment accumulation rates. Geochronology with /sup 210/Pb dating and distribution of Ambrosia (ragweed) pollen compare well with /sup 137/Cs dating. These methods can determine with precision, changes in sedimentation occurring over the past 100 years or so. Typical sedimentation rates of 0.18-0.36 cm/yr were measured. 16 refs., 3 figs., 2 tabs.

  12. Microbial cleavage of organic C-S bonds

    DOEpatents

    Kilbane, II, John J.

    1994-01-01

    A microbial process for selective cleavage of organic C--S bonds which may be used for reducing the sulfur content of sulfur-containing organic carbonaceous materials, Microorganisms of Rhodococcus rhodochrous and Bacillus sphaericus have been found which have the ability of selective cleavage of organic C--S bonds. Particularly preferred microorganisms are Rhodococcus rhodochrous strain ATCC 53968 and Bacillus sphaericus strain ATCC 53969 and their derivatives.

  13. Microbial cleavage of organic C-S bonds

    DOEpatents

    Kilbane, J.J. II.

    1994-10-25

    A microbial process is described for selective cleavage of organic C-S bonds which may be used for reducing the sulfur content of sulfur-containing organic carbonaceous materials. Microorganisms of Rhodococcus rhodochrous and Bacillus sphaericus have been found which have the ability of selective cleavage of organic C-S bonds. Particularly preferred microorganisms are Rhodococcus rhodochrous strain ATCC 53968 and Bacillus sphaericus strain ATCC 53969 and their derivatives.

  14. Solvent Extraction of Tc and Cs from Alkaline Nitrate Wastes

    SciTech Connect

    Bonnesen, P.V.; Conner, C.; Delmau, L.H.; Haverlock, T.J.; Leonard, R.A.; Lumetta, G.J.; Moyer, B.A.; Sachleben, R.A.

    1999-07-11

    This paper summarizes progress at three collaborating US national laboratories on the extraction of the fission products {sup 99}Tc and {sup 137}Cs from alkaline high-level wastes (HLW). Efficient, economical processes for Tc and Cs extraction (SRTALK and alkaline-side CSEX, respectively) have been developed, and testing has progressed through batch tests on actual wastes and continuous countercurrent centrifugal-contactor tests on simulants.

  15. Minimum entropy deconvolution and blind equalisation

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Satorius, E. H.; Mulligan, J. J.

    1992-01-01

    Relationships between minimum entropy deconvolution, developed primarily for geophysics applications, and blind equalization are pointed out. It is seen that a large class of existing blind equalization algorithms are directly related to the scale-invariant cost functions used in minimum entropy deconvolution. Thus the extensive analyses of these cost functions can be directly applied to blind equalization, including the important asymptotic results of Donoho.

  16. Minimum Disclosure Counting for the Alternative Vote

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Wen, Roland; Buckland, Richard

    Although there is a substantial body of work on preventing bribery and coercion of voters in cryptographic election schemes for plurality electoral systems, there are few attempts to construct such schemes for preferential electoral systems. The problem is preferential systems are prone to bribery and coercion via subtle signature attacks during the counting. We introduce a minimum disclosure counting scheme for the alternative vote preferential system. Minimum disclosure provides protection from signature attacks by revealing only the winning candidate.

  17. The Transfer of Dissolved Cs-137 from Soil to Plants

    SciTech Connect

    Prorok, V.V.; Melnichenko, L.Yu.; Mason, C.F.V.; Ageyev, V.A.; Ostashko, V.V.

    2006-07-01

    Rapidly maturing plants were grown simultaneously at the same experimental sites under natural conditions at the Chernobyl Exclusion Zone. Roots of the plants were side by side in the soil. During two seasons we selected samples of the plants and of the soils several times every season. Content of Cs-137 in the plant and in the soil solution extracted from the samples of soils was measured. Results of measurements of the samples show that, for the experimental site, Cs-137 content in the plant varies with date of the sample selection. The plant:soil solution Cs-137 concentration ratio depends strongly on the date of selection and also on the type of soil. After analysis of the data we conclude that Cs-137 plant uptake is approximately proportional to the content of dissolved Cs-137 in the soil per unit of volume, and the plant:soil solution Cs-137 concentration ratio for the soil is approximately proportional to the soil moisture. (authors)

  18. Syntheses, structures, and optical properties of the indium/germanium selenides Cs{sub 4}In{sub 8}GeSe{sub 16}, CsInSe{sub 2}, and CsInGeSe{sub 4}

    SciTech Connect

    Ward, Matthew D.; Pozzi, Eric A.; Van Duyne, Richard P.; Ibers, James A.

    2014-04-01

    The three solid-state indium/germanium selenides Cs{sub 4}In{sub 8}GeSe{sub 16}, CsInSe{sub 2}, and CsInGeSe{sub 4} have been synthesized at 1173 K. The structure of Cs{sub 4}In{sub 8}GeSe{sub 16} is a three-dimensional framework whereas those of CsInSe{sub 2} and CsInGeSe{sub 4} comprise sheets separated by Cs cations. Both Cs{sub 4}In{sub 8}GeSe{sub 16} and CsInGeSe{sub 4} display In/Ge disorder. From optical absorption measurements these compounds have band gaps of 2.20 and 2.32 eV, respectively. All three compounds are charge balanced. - Graphical abstract: Structure of Cs{sub 4}In{sub 8}GeSe{sub 16}. - Highlights: • The solid-state In/Ge selenides Cs{sub 4}In{sub 8}GeSe{sub 16}, CsInSe{sub 2}, and CsInGeSe{sub 4} have been synthesized. • Both Cs{sub 4}In{sub 8}GeSe{sub 16} and CsInGeSe{sub 4} display In/Ge disorder. • Cs{sub 4}In{sub 8}GeSe{sub 16} and CsInGeSe{sub 4} have band gaps of 2.20 eV and 2.32 eV, respectively.

  19. Properties of CsI, CsBr and GaAs thin films grown by pulsed laser deposition

    SciTech Connect

    Brendel, V M; Garnov, S V; Yagafarov, T F; Iskhakova, L D; Ermakov, R P

    2014-09-30

    CsI, CsBr and GaAs thin films have been grown by pulsed laser deposition on glass substrates. The morphology and structure of the films have been studied using X-ray diffraction and scanning electron microscopy. The CsI and CsBr films were identical in stoichiometry to the respective targets and had a polycrystalline structure. Increasing the substrate temperature led to an increase in the density of the films. All the GaAs films differed in stoichiometry from the target. An explanation was proposed for this fact. The present results demonstrate that, when the congruent transport condition is not fulfilled, films identical in stoichiometry to targets can be grown by pulsed laser deposition in the case of materials with a low melting point and thermal conductivity. (interaction of laser radiation with matter)

  20. Measurement of airborne 131I, 134)Cs and 137Cs due to the Fukushima reactor incident in Milan (Italy).

    PubMed

    Clemenza, M; Fiorini, E; Previtali, E; Sala, E

    2012-12-01

    After the earthquake and the tsunami occurred in Japan on March 2011, four of the Fukushima reactors had released in air a large amount of radioactive isotopes that diffused all over the world. The presence of airborne (131)I, (134)Cs, and (137)Cs in air particulate due to this accident were detected and measured in the Low Radioactivity Laboratory operating in the Department of Environmental Sciences of the University of Milano-Bicocca. The sensitivity of the detecting apparatus is of 0.2 uBq/m(3) of air. Concentration and time distribution of these radiocontaminations ranging from a few to 400 uBq/m(3) for the (131)I and of a few tens of uBq/m(3) for the (137)Cs and (134)Cs.

  1. The third-generation turbocharged engine for the Audi 5000 CS and 5000 CS Quattro

    SciTech Connect

    Stock, D.

    1986-01-01

    In September 1985 the new Audi 5000 CS Quattro was introduced to the American market. This luxurious high performance touring sedan has been equipped with a more advanced turbocharged engine with intercooler and electronic engine management giving improved performance, excellent torque, faster response and better fuel economy. The basic engine is the tried-and-tested Audi 5-cylinder unit. The turbocharged engine's ancillary systems, the electronic ignition control and fuel injection have all been newly developed, carefully optimized and well matched in the special demands of a turbocharged engine. The ignition system controls the engine and fuel injection and delivers analog and digital signals to the car's instrument panel display. The system also has an integrated self-diagnostic function.

  2. Update global budget of 134Cs and 137Cs derived from Fukushima NPP1 accident

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Aoyama, Michio; Tsumune, Daisuke; Tsubono, Takaki; Misuimi, Kazuhiro; Inomata, Yayoi; Kumamoto, Yuichiro; Hamajima, Yasunori

    2014-05-01

    134Cs and 137Cs, hereafter radiocaesium, were released from the Fukushima NPP1 accident on March 2011 and to evaluate total amount of released radiocaesium is essential to assess impacts of released radiocaesium to iur environment. We however still have wide range of reports about total amount of released radiocaesium after the accident till today. Released radiocasium were injected in the North Pacific Ocean by two major pathways, direct discharge from the accident site and atmospheric pathway to the ocean while there was only atmospheric deposition on land. We summarize estimations of budget of radiocasium based on both observations and model studies for land deposition, deposition on the North Pacific Ocean and inventory in the North Pacific Ocean, an inventory of sediment close to the site. The major portion of released radiocaesium can be believed to be deposited mainly in the western North Pacific Ocean because deposition density at west coast of US continent was only at an order of 100 Bq m-2 while that at close to accident site was MBq m-2. An inventory in the North Pacific Ocean by some of the authors was 15-18 PBq on April-May 2011 by model-observation comparison and that in the mode water in the western North Pacific Ocean based on the observations on January- February 2012 was 6 PBq. The second portion might be on main land Japan and it is rather easy to evaluate total amount of deposited radiocaesium because there are good observation both by direct sampling of soil and aerial survey. A result of integration for land deposition was about 2.5 PBq. The third portion is in the sediment and an inventory in the sediment by observation showed 42 TBq at close to the site while the total inventory of 137Cs in sediments off the Fukushima coast is thus estimated to be the order of 0.1 PBq by a model study by some of the authors. Estimations of direct discharge from the site also still varied much from 3 PBq to 27 PBq. Two larger estimations did the backward

  3. Dynamics of anions and cations in cesium hydrogensulfide (CsHS, CsDS): Neutron and x-ray diffraction, calorimetry and proton NMR investigations

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Haarmann, F.; Jacobs, H.; Kockelmann, W.; Senker, J.; Muller, P.; Kennedy, C. A.; Marriott, R. A.; Qiu, L.; White, M. A.

    2002-09-01

    Protonated and deuterated samples of the hydrogensulfide of cesium were studied by high-resolution neutron powder diffraction, calorimetry and proton NMR investigations in a wide temperature range. Primarily due to reorientational disorder of the anions, three modifications of the title compounds are known: an ordered low-temperature modification--LTM (tetragonal, I4/m, Z=8), a dynamically disordered middle-temperature modification--MTM (tetragonal, P4/mbm, Z=2), and a high-temperature modification--HTM (cubic, Pm3m, Z=1). The LTM[rightleft arrows]MTM phase transition is continuous. Its order parameter, related to an order/disorder and to a displacive part of the phase transition, coupled bilinearly, follows a critical law. The critical temperature TC=123.2plus-or-minus0.5 K determined by neutron diffraction of CsDS is in good agreement with TC=121plus-or-minus2 K obtained by calorimetric investigations. For the protonated title compound a shift to TC=129plus-or-minus2 K was observed by calorimetric measurements. The entropy change of this transition is (0.24plus-or-minus0.04) R and (0.27plus-or-minus0.04) R for CsHS and CsDS, respectively. The MTM[rightleft arrows]HTM phase transition is clearly of first order. The transition temperatures of CsHS and CsDS are T=207.9plus-or-minus0.3 K and T=213.6plus-or-minus0.3 K with entropy changes of (0.86plus-or-minus0.01) R and (0.81plus-or-minus0.01) R, respectively. Second moments (M2) of the proton NMR absorption signal of MTM and HTM are in reasonable agreement with M2 calculated for the known crystal structures. A minimum in spin-lattice relaxation times (T1) in the MTM could not be assigned by dipolar coupling to a two-site 180deg reorientation of the anions, a model of motion presumed by the knowledge of the crystal structure. The activation enthalpies determined by fits of T1 presuming a thermal activated process are in the order of molecular reorientations (Ea=13.5plus-or-minus0.5 kJ mol-1 for the MTM and Ea=9.3plus

  4. Enterotoxigenic Escherichia coli CS6 gene products and their roles in CS6 structural protein assembly and cellular adherence.

    PubMed

    Wajima, Takeaki; Sabui, Subrata; Fukumoto, Megumi; Kano, Shigeyuki; Ramamurthy, Thandavarayan; Chatterjee, Nabendu Sekhar; Hamabata, Takashi

    2011-10-01

    Enterotoxigenic Escherichia coli (ETEC) produces a variety of colonization factors necessary for attachment to the host cell, among which CS6 is one of the most prevalent in ETEC isolates from developing countries. The CS6 operon is composed of 4 genes, cssA, cssB, cssC, and cssD. The molecular mechanism of CS6 assembly and cell surface presentation, and the contribution of each protein to the attachment of the bacterium to intestinal cells remain unclear. In the present study, a series of css gene-deletion mutants of the CS6 operon were constructed in the ETEC genetic background, and their effect on adhesion to host cells and CS6 assembly was studied. Each subunit deletion resulted in a reduction in the adhesion to intestinal cells to the same level of laboratory E. coli strains, and this effect was restored by complementary plasmids, suggesting that the 4 proteins are necessary for CS6 expression. Bacterial cell fractionation and western blotting of the mutant strains suggested that the formation of a CssA-CssB-CssC complex is necessary for recognition by CssD and transport of CssA-CssB to the outer membrane as a colonization factor. PMID:21729748

  5. Three new phosphates with isolated P2O7 units: noncentrosymmetric Cs2Ba3(P2O7)2 and centrosymmetric Cs2BaP2O7 and LiCsBaP2O7.

    PubMed

    Li, Lin; Han, Shujuan; Lei, Bing-Hua; Wang, Ying; Li, Hongyi; Yang, Zhihua; Pan, Shilie

    2016-03-01

    Three new phosphates, a noncentrosymmetric (NCS) Cs2Ba3(P2O7)2 and centrosymmetric (CS) Cs2BaP2O7 and LiCsBaP2O7, have been synthesized from high-temperature solutions for the first time. Analysis of the structures determined by single-crystal X-ray diffraction showed that although the three compounds contained isolated P2O7 units, they yielded different three-dimensional (3D) networks: Cs2Ba3(P2O7)2 crystallized in the NCS Orthorhombic space group P212121, Cs2BaP2O7 in the CS monoclinic space group P21/n, and LiCsBaP2O7, having an identical stoichiometry with Cs2BaP2O7, crystallized in monoclinic space group, P21/c. Structural comparisons suggested the differences between their 3D frameworks to be due to differences between the sizes and coordination environments of the cations. Characterizations including thermal and optical analyses showed Cs2Ba3(P2O7)2 and Cs2BaP2O7 to melt congruently, and Cs2Ba3(P2O7)2 to exhibit a wide transparent region with a cut-off edge below 176 nm. The NLO properties and electronic structures of these compounds were investigated using first-principles calcualtions. PMID:26831497

  6. Mapping of the putative epitope domain of Clonorchis sinensis paramyosin (CsPmy) recognized by CsPmy-specific immunoglobulin G in sera of human clonorchiasis.

    PubMed

    Kang, Jung-Mi; Ju, Hye-Lim; Lee, Jinyoung; Kim, Tae Im; Cho, Shin-Hyeong; Kim, Tong-Soo; Sohn, Woon-Mok; Na, Byoung-Kuk

    2015-05-01

    Paramyosin of Clonorchis sinensis (CsPmy) is a myofibrillar protein localized in subtegumental muscle, tegument, and the muscle layer surrounding the intestine of the parasite. Previously, we have identified that CsPmy reacted with sera of human clonorchiasis and this protein had a potential as a candidate antigen for serodiagnosis of clonorchiasis. However, we also found that CsPmy is able to bind to human immunoglobulin G (IgG) in non-specific manners, which can affect the diagnostic value of the protein. Here, we mapped CsPmy-specific IgG binding site on CsPmy to analyze the putative epitopes recognized by CsPmy-specific IgG in sera of human clonorchiasis. The fragmental expression of CsPmy followed by immunoblot analyses with sera from patients with clonorchiasis and non-specific human IgG revealed that the middle portion of CsPmy (CsPmyC: 301-600 amino acid residues) had epitopes responsible for CsPmy-specific IgG recognition. The precise CsPmy-specific IgG binding site was further narrowed down to a fragment (CsPmyC-2), which harbors 151 amino acid residues (375-525) of CsPmy. Specific antibodies for CsPmyC-2 were produced in rats after two-weeks of post-experimental infection. The CsPmyC-2 showed low levels of cross reactivity against the sera from patients with other helminth parasites. Our results suggested that CsPmyC-2 has real epitopes recognized by CsPmy-specific IgG in sera of human clonorchiasis and the fragment can be useful as a reliable serodiagnostic antigen to develop a serodiagnostic method for clonorchiasis. PMID:26099940

  7. Inducible Mixotrophy in the Dinoflagellate Prorocentrum minimum.

    PubMed

    Johnson, Matthew D

    2015-01-01

    Prorocentrum minimum is a neritic dinoflagellate that forms seasonal blooms and red tides in estuarine ecosystems. While known to be mixotrophic, previous attempts to document feeding on algal prey have yielded low grazing rates. In this study, growth and ingestion rates of P. minimum were measured as a function of nitrogen (-N) and phosphorous (-P) starvation. A P. minimum isolate from Chesapeake Bay was found to ingest cryptophyte prey when in stationary phase and when starved of N or P. Prorocentrum minimum ingested two strains of Teleaulax amphioxeia at higher rates than six other cryptophyte species. In all cases -P treatments resulted in the highest grazing. Ingestion rates of -P cells on T. amphioxeia saturated at ~5 prey per predator per day, while ingestion by -N cells saturated at 1 prey per predator per day. In the presence of prey, -P treated cells reached a maximum mixotrophic growth rate (μmax ) of 0.5 d(-1), while -N cells had a μmax of 0.18 d(-1). Calculations of ingested C, N, and P due to feeding on T. amphioxeia revealed that phagotrophy can be an important source of all three elements. While P. minimum is a proficient phototroph, inducible phagotrophy is an important nutritional source for this dinoflagellate. PMID:25510417

  8. Photoelectron Emission Studies in CsBr at 257 nm

    SciTech Connect

    Maldonado, Juan R.; Liu, Zhi; Sun, Yun; Pianetta, Piero A.; Pease, Fabian W.; /Stanford U., Elect. Eng. Dept. /SLAC, SSRL

    2006-09-28

    CsBr/Cr photocathodes were found [1,2] to meet the requirements of a multi-electron beam lithography system operating with a light energy of 4.8 eV (257nm). The fact that photoemission was observed with a light energy below the reported 7.3 eV band gap for CsBr was not understood. This paper presents experimental results on the presence of intra-band gap absorption sites (IBAS) in CsBr thin film photo electron emitters, and presents a model based on IBAS to explain the observed photoelectron emission behavior at energies below band gap. A fluorescence band centered at 330 nm with a FWHM of about 0.34 eV was observed in CsBr/Cr samples under 257 nm laser illumination which can be attributed to IBAS and agrees well with previously obtained synchrotron photoelectron spectra[1] from the valence band of CsBr films.

  9. Electron induced surface chemistry at the Cs/sapphire interface

    SciTech Connect

    Zavadil, K.R.; Ing, J.L.

    1995-11-01

    Electron induced etching of sapphire in the presence of Cs has been studied using a variety of surface analytical techniques. We find that this process occurs on both the (0001) and (1102) orientations of sapphire. Monolayer amounts of Al and sub-oxides of Al are thermally desorbed from the surface at temperatures as low as 1000 K when the surface is irradiated with electrons in the presence of Cs. Etching is highly dependent on Cs coverage with the (0001) and (1102) surfaces requiring 2.0 {times} 10{sup 14} and 3.4 {times} 10{sup 14} atoms/cm{sup 2} to support etching, respectively. Adsorption profiles demonstrate that these coverages correspond to initial saturation of the surface with Cs. Electron damage of the surface in the absence of Cs also produces desorption of Al and sub-oxides of Al indicating a possible mechanism for etching. The impact of etching on the surface is to increase the adsorption capacity on the (0001) surface while decreasing both initial adsorption probability and capacity on the (1102) surface.

  10. 30 CFR 75.1431 - Minimum rope strength.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-07-01

    ... used for hoisting shall meet the minimum rope strength values obtained by the following formulas in... or greater: Minimum Value=Static Load×5.0 (c) Tail ropes (balance ropes). Minimum Value=Weight...

  11. In situ7Li and 133Cs nuclear magnetic resonance investigations on the role of Cs+ additive in lithium-metal deposition process

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Hu, Jian Zhi; Zhao, Zhenchao; Hu, Mary Y.; Feng, Ju; Deng, Xuchu; Chen, Xilin; Xu, Wu; Liu, Jun; Zhang, Ji-Guang

    2016-02-01

    Cesium ion (Cs+) has been reported to be an effective electrolyte additive to suppress Li dendrite growth which prevents the application of lithium (Li) metal as an anode for rechargeable Li batteries. In this work, we investigated the effect of Cs+ additive on Li depositions using quantitative in situ7Li and 133Cs nuclear magnetic resonance (NMR) with planar symmetric Li cells. It's found that the addition of Cs+ can significantly enhance both the formation of well aligned Li nanorods and reversibility of the Li electrode. In situ133Cs NMR directly confirms that Cs+ migrates to Li electrode to form a positively charged electrostatic shield during the charging process. Much more electrochemical "active" Li was found in Li films deposited with Cs+ additive, while more electrochemical "dead" and thicker Li rods were identified in Li films deposited without Cs+. Combining the in situ and the previous ex-situ results, a Li deposition model has been proposed to explain these observations.

  12. Deep solar minimum and global climate changes.

    PubMed

    Hady, Ahmed A

    2013-05-01

    This paper examines the deep minimum of solar cycle 23 and its potential impact on climate change. In addition, a source region of the solar winds at solar activity minimum, especially in the solar cycle 23, the deepest during the last 500 years, has been studied. Solar activities have had notable effect on palaeoclimatic changes. Contemporary solar activity are so weak and hence expected to cause global cooling. Prevalent global warming, caused by building-up of green-house gases in the troposphere, seems to exceed this solar effect. This paper discusses this issue.

  13. Deep solar minimum and global climate changes

    PubMed Central

    Hady, Ahmed A.

    2013-01-01

    This paper examines the deep minimum of solar cycle 23 and its potential impact on climate change. In addition, a source region of the solar winds at solar activity minimum, especially in the solar cycle 23, the deepest during the last 500 years, has been studied. Solar activities have had notable effect on palaeoclimatic changes. Contemporary solar activity are so weak and hence expected to cause global cooling. Prevalent global warming, caused by building-up of green-house gases in the troposphere, seems to exceed this solar effect. This paper discusses this issue. PMID:25685420

  14. The minimum temperature of the 'vortex' cryocooler

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Hendricks, John B.

    The 'vortex' cryocooler originally developed by Staas and Severijns, uses flowing He II to produce a cooling effect. The device is an attractive candidate for zero-gravity applications as there are no liquid/vapor interfaces that create fluid control problems. Experimentally, the minimum temperature produced by the device is approximately 0.7 K. It is shown that this temperature limit is due to the Joule-Thomson effect in the flowing He II. It is thus an intrinsic limit. The minimum temperature is weakly dependent on the system pressure and on exit capillary diameter.

  15. Optimized laser turrets for minimum phase distortion

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Vanderplaats, G. N.; Fuhs, A. E.; Blaisdell, G. A.

    1980-01-01

    An analysis and computer program which optimizes laser turret geometry to obtain minimum phase distortion is described. Phase distortion due to compressible, inviscid flow over small perturbation laser turrets in subsonic or supersonic flow is calculated. The turret shape is determined by a two dimensional Fourier series; in a similar manner, the flow properties are given by a Fourier series. Phase distortion is calcualted for propagation at serveral combinations of elevation and azimuth angles. A sum is formed from the set of values, and this sum becomes the objective function for an optimization computer program. The shape of the turret is varied to provide minimum phase distortion.

  16. The minimum distance approach to classification

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Wacker, A. G.; Landgrebe, D. A.

    1971-01-01

    The work to advance the state-of-the-art of miminum distance classification is reportd. This is accomplished through a combination of theoretical and comprehensive experimental investigations based on multispectral scanner data. A survey of the literature for suitable distance measures was conducted and the results of this survey are presented. It is shown that minimum distance classification, using density estimators and Kullback-Leibler numbers as the distance measure, is equivalent to a form of maximum likelihood sample classification. It is also shown that for the parametric case, minimum distance classification is equivalent to nearest neighbor classification in the parameter space.

  17. Image Data Compression Having Minimum Perceptual Error

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Watson, Andrew B. (Inventor)

    1997-01-01

    A method is presented for performing color or grayscale image compression that eliminates redundant and invisible image components. The image compression uses a Discrete Cosine Transform (DCT) and each DCT coefficient yielded by the transform is quantized by an entry in a quantization matrix which determines the perceived image quality and the bit rate of the image being compressed. The quantization matrix comprises visual masking by luminance and contrast technique all resulting in a minimum perceptual error for any given bit rate, or minimum bit rate for a given perceptual error.

  18. Atomic sites and stability of Cs+ captured within zeolitic nanocavities.

    PubMed

    Yoshida, Kaname; Toyoura, Kazuaki; Matsunaga, Katsuyuki; Nakahira, Atsushi; Kurata, Hiroki; Ikuhara, Yumi H; Sasaki, Yukichi

    2013-01-01

    Zeolites have potential application as ion-exchangers, catalysts and molecular sieves. Zeolites are once again drawing attention in Japan as stable adsorbents and solidification materials of fission products, such as (137)Cs(+) from damaged nuclear-power plants. Although there is a long history of scientific studies on the crystal structures and ion-exchange properties of zeolites for practical application, there are still open questions, at the atomic-level, on the physical and chemical origins of selective ion-exchange abilities of different cations and detailed atomic structures of exchanged cations inside the nanoscale cavities of zeolites. Here, the precise locations of Cs(+) ions captured within A-type zeolite were analyzed using high-resolution electron microscopy. Together with theoretical calculations, the stable positions of absorbed Cs(+) ions in the nanocavities are identified, and the bonding environment within the zeolitic framework is revealed to be a key factor that influences the locations of absorbed cations.

  19. Atomic sites and stability of Cs+ captured within zeolitic nanocavities

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Yoshida, Kaname; Toyoura, Kazuaki; Matsunaga, Katsuyuki; Nakahira, Atsushi; Kurata, Hiroki; Ikuhara, Yumi H.; Sasaki, Yukichi

    2013-08-01

    Zeolites have potential application as ion-exchangers, catalysts and molecular sieves. Zeolites are once again drawing attention in Japan as stable adsorbents and solidification materials of fission products, such as 137Cs+ from damaged nuclear-power plants. Although there is a long history of scientific studies on the crystal structures and ion-exchange properties of zeolites for practical application, there are still open questions, at the atomic-level, on the physical and chemical origins of selective ion-exchange abilities of different cations and detailed atomic structures of exchanged cations inside the nanoscale cavities of zeolites. Here, the precise locations of Cs+ ions captured within A-type zeolite were analyzed using high-resolution electron microscopy. Together with theoretical calculations, the stable positions of absorbed Cs+ ions in the nanocavities are identified, and the bonding environment within the zeolitic framework is revealed to be a key factor that influences the locations of absorbed cations.

  20. Spin-exchange-relaxation-free magnetometry with Cs vapor

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Ledbetter, M. P.; Savukov, I. M.; Acosta, V. M.; Budker, D.; Romalis, M. V.

    2008-03-01

    We describe a Cs atomic magnetometer operating in the spin-exchange-relaxation-free (SERF) regime. With a vapor cell temperature of 103°C we achieve intrinsic magnetic resonance widths ΔB=17μG corresponding to an electron spin-relaxation rate of 300s-1 when the spin-exchange rate is ΓSE=14000s-1 . We also observe an interesting narrowing effect due to diffusion. Signal-to-noise measurements yield a sensitivity of about 400pG/Hz . Based on photon shot noise, we project a sensitivity of 40pG/Hz . A theoretical optimization of the magnetometer indicates sensitivities on the order of 2pG/Hz should be achievable in a 1cm3 volume. Because Cs has a higher saturated vapor pressure than other alkali metals, SERF magnetometers using Cs atoms are particularly attractive in applications requiring lower temperatures.

  1. CsBr/GaN Heterojunction Photoelectron Source

    SciTech Connect

    Maldonado, J.R.; Liu, Z.; Sun, Y.; Schuetter, S.; Pianetta, P.; Pease, R.F.W.; /Stanford U., Elect. Eng. Dept.

    2009-04-30

    Experimental results on a new CsBr/GaN heterojunction photocathode structure are presented. The results indicate a fourfold improvement in photoyield relative to CsBr/Cr photocathodes. A model is presented based on intraband states in CsBr and electron injection from the GaN (with 1% addition of indium) substrate to explain the observed photoyield enhancement. The photocathode lifetime at high current density (>40 A/cm{sup 2}) is limited by laser heating of the small illuminated area. Calculations are presented for sapphire and diamond substrates, indicating a factor of 20 reduction in temperature for the latter. The results are encouraging for the realization of a high photoyield photocathode operating at high current density with long lifetime.

  2. Quantum Efficiency Enhancement in CsI/Metal Photocathodes

    SciTech Connect

    Kong, Lingmei; Joly, Alan G.; Droubay, Timothy C.; Hess, Wayne P.

    2015-02-01

    High quantum efficiency enhancement is found for hybrid metal-insulator photocathodes consisting of thin films of CsI deposited on Cu(100), Ag(100), Au(111) and Au films irradiated by 266 nm laser pulses. Low work functions (near or below 2 eV) are observed following ultraviolet laser activation. Work functions are reduced by roughly 3 eV from that of clean metal surfaces. We discuss various mechanisms of quantum efficiency enhancement for alkali halide/metal photocathode systems and conclude that the large change in work function, due to Cs accumulation of Cs metal at the metal-alkali halide interface, is the dominant mechanism for quantum efficiency enhancement

  3. Quasi-freestanding graphene on Ni(111) by Cs intercalation

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Alattas, M.; Schwingenschlögl, U.

    2016-05-01

    A possible approach to achieve quasi-freestanding graphene on a substrate for technological purpose is the intercalation of alkali metal atoms. Cs intercalation between graphene and Ni(111) therefore is investigated using density functional theory, incorporating van der Waals corrections. It is known that direct contact between graphene and Ni(111) perturbs the Dirac states. We find that Cs intercalation restores the linear dispersion characteristic of Dirac fermions, which agrees with experiments, but the Dirac cone is shifted to lower energy, i.e., the graphene sheet is n-doped. Cs intercalation therefore decouples the graphene sheet from the substrate except for a charge transfer. On the other hand, the spin polarization of Ni(111) does not extend through the intercalated atoms to the graphene sheet, for which we find virtually spin-degeneracy.

  4. Energetics and structural stability of Cs3C60

    SciTech Connect

    Saito, Susumu; Umemoto, Koichiro; Louie, Steven G.; Cohen, MarvinL.

    2003-12-15

    Using the ab initio pseudo potential total-energy method and the density-functional theory, we study the energetics of face-centered-cubic Cs3C60 which is a material of great interest as a possible high transition-temperature superconductor. At the optimized lattice constant the volume per C60 is found to be smaller than the most stable hexagon-coordination A15 phase, while the total energy of the fcc phase is about 0.9 eV higher than the A15 phase. These results indicate that a low-temperature and high-pressure synthesis method might be a possible way to produce the fcc Cs3C60 phase. In addition, it is also found that the A15 Cs3C60 should show a phase transformation from a hexagon-coordination phase to a pentagon-coordination phase under hydrostatic pressure.

  5. Accumulation of K+ and Cs+ in Tropical Plant Species

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Velasco, H.; Anjos, R. M.; Zamboni, C. B.; Macario, K. D.; Rizzotto, M.; Cid, A. S.; Medeiros, I. M. A.; Fernández, J.; Rubio, L.; Audicio, P.; Lacerda, T.

    2010-08-01

    Concentrations of K+ and 137Cs+ in tissues of the Citrus aurantifolia were measured both by gamma spectrometry and neutron activation analysis, aiming to understand the behavior of monovalent inorganic cations in plants as well as its capability to store these elements. In contrast to K+, Cs+ ions are not essential elements to plants, what might explain the difference in bioavailability. However, our results have shown that 137Cs+ is positively correlated to 40K+ concentration within tropical plant species, suggesting that these elements might be assimilated in a similar way, and that they pass through the biological cycle together. A simple mathematical model was also proposed to describe the temporal evolution of 40K activity concentration in such tropical woody fruit species. This model exhibited close agreement with the 40K experimental results in the fruit ripening processes of lemon trees.

  6. Fundamental studies on the Cs dynamics under ion source conditions

    SciTech Connect

    Friedl, R. Fantz, U.

    2014-02-15

    The performance of surface conversion based negative hydrogen ion sources is mainly determined by the caesium dynamics. Therefore, fundamental investigations in vacuum and plasma are performed at a flexible laboratory setup with ion source parameters. Studies on the influence of Cs on the plasma parameters of H{sub 2} and D{sub 2} plasmas showed that n{sub e} and T{sub e} in the bulk plasma are not affected by relevant amounts of Cs and no isotopic differences could be observed. The coating of the vessel surfaces with Cs, however, leads to a considerable gettering of hydrogen atoms from the plasma volume and to the decrease of n{sub e} close to a sample surface due to the formation of negative ions.

  7. Estimation of average burnup of damaged fuels loaded in Fukushima Dai-ichi reactors by using the {sup 134}Cs/{sup 137}Cs ratio method

    SciTech Connect

    Endo, T.; Sato, S.; Yamamoto, A.

    2012-07-01

    Average burnup of damaged fuels loaded in Fukushima Dai-ichi reactors is estimated, using the {sup 134}Cs/{sup 137}Cs ratio method for measured radioactivities of {sup 134}Cs and {sup 137}Cs in contaminated soils within the range of 100 km from the Fukushima Dai-ichi nuclear power plants. As a result, the measured {sup 134}Cs/{sup 137}Cs ratio from the contaminated soil is 0.996{+-}0.07 as of March 11, 2011. Based on the {sup 134}Cs/{sup 137}Cs ratio method, the estimated burnup of damaged fuels is approximately 17.2{+-}1.5 [GWd/tHM]. It is noted that the numerical results of various calculation codes (SRAC2006/PIJ, SCALE6.0/TRITON, and MVP-BURN) are almost the same evaluation values of {sup 134}Cs/ {sup 137}Cs ratio with same evaluated nuclear data library (ENDF-B/VII.0). The void fraction effect in depletion calculation has a major impact on {sup 134}Cs/{sup 137}Cs ratio compared with the differences between JENDL-4.0 and ENDF-B/VII.0. (authors)

  8. Comparison of resonance ionization mass spectrometry systems for the determination of 135Cs/137Cs isotope ratios

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Pibida, Leticia S.; McMahon, C. A.; Nortershauser, Wilfried; Bushaw, Bruce A.

    2002-03-01

    The performance of the Resonance Ionization Mass Spectrometry (RIMS) system at the National Institute of Standards and Technology (NIST) has been compared to a similar system at Pacific Northwest National Laboratory (PNNL). Efficiency and selectivity measurements were performed with both systems and compared to conventional thermal ionization mass spectrometry (TIMS). Determination of the 135Cs / 137Cs ratio was performed using single-resonance excitation 6s 2S1/2 (F equals 4) to 6p 2P3/2 (F equals 5) with an extended cavity diode laser followed by photoionization with the 488 nm line of an argon ion laser. Optical selectivity of more than 2 orders of magnitude against stable 133Cs was attained for 135Cs and 137Cs for both systems with an overall selectivity of 109 for the PNNL system and 108 for the NIST system. Overall efficiencies of 2x10-6 and 5x10-7 were measured for the PNNL and NIST systems respectively. Measurements to determine the chronological age of a nuclear burn-up sample have been performed using both RIMS systems as well as TIMS.

  9. Cs-137 concentration in reindeer and its fodder plants.

    PubMed

    Rissanen, K; Rahola, T

    1989-09-01

    Radionuclides, especially the long-lived 137Cs (physical half-life 30 years), are accumulated efficiently in the northern, subarctic, lichen-reindeer-man foodchain. Until the Chernobyl accident the fallout nuclides studied originated from nuclear weapons tests. After this accident some fresh fallout was deposited in Finnish Lapland. Lichens grow very slowly and collect nutrients very efficiently from air, rain and snow. During winter the basic fodder plants for reindeer are lichens and some winter-green plants, shrubs and dry leaves. During the bare-ground season, the reindeer eat various grasses, herbs and leaves etc. Lichens constitute 30-50 per cent of the entire vegetable mass consumed by the reindeer in a year. The highest 137Cs-concentration 2500 Bq/kg dry weight was found in lichen in the middle of the 1960s. In 1985 the concentration had decreased to about 240 Bq/kg dry weight. After the Chernobyl accident the 137Cs-concentration in lichen varied from 200 to 2000 Bq/kg dry weight in Finnish Lapland. In reindeer fodder plant samples collected in the 1980s before the Chernobyl accident the 137Cs-concentration varied from 5 to 970 Bq/kg dry weight. The highest 137Cs-concentration in reindeer meat, about 2500 Bq/kg fresh weight, was found in 1965 and thereafter decreased to about 300 Bq/kg fresh weight in the winter before the Chernobyl accident. After the accident the mean 137Cs-concentration in reindeer meat from the 1986-87 slaughtering period was 720 Bq/kg fresh weight and in 1987-88, 630 Bq/kg fresh weight. PMID:2814447

  10. 7 CFR 35.13 - Minimum quantity.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-01-01

    ... 7 Agriculture 2 2010-01-01 2010-01-01 false Minimum quantity. 35.13 Section 35.13 Agriculture Regulations of the Department of Agriculture AGRICULTURAL MARKETING SERVICE (Standards, Inspections, Marketing Practices), DEPARTMENT OF AGRICULTURE COMMODITY STANDARDS AND STANDARD CONTAINER REGULATIONS EXPORT...

  11. 78 FR 63873 - Minimum Internal Control Standards

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2013-10-25

    ... NIGC published a final rule in the Federal Register called Minimum Internal Control Standards. 64 FR... technology and has substantively amended them numerous times, most recently on September 21, 2012. 77 FR... surveillance standards to Part 543 on February 20, 2013 (78 FR 11793). The Commission received...

  12. Minimum Standards for Tribal Child Care Centers.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Administration on Children, Youth, and Families (DHHS), Washington, DC. Child Care Bureau.

    These minimum standards for tribal child care centers are being issued as guidance. An interim period of at least 1 year will allow tribal agencies to identify implementation issues, ensure that the standards reflect tribal needs, and guarantee that the standards provide adequate protection for children. The standards will be issued as regulations…

  13. 7 CFR 905.141 - Minimum exemption.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-01-01

    ... 7 Agriculture 8 2011-01-01 2011-01-01 false Minimum exemption. 905.141 Section 905.141 Agriculture Regulations of the Department of Agriculture (Continued) AGRICULTURAL MARKETING SERVICE (Marketing Agreements... area during any one day by any person or by the occupants of one vehicle exempt from the...

  14. 24 CFR 35.155 - Minimum requirements.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-04-01

    ... 24 Housing and Urban Development 1 2011-04-01 2011-04-01 false Minimum requirements. 35.155 Section 35.155 Housing and Urban Development Office of the Secretary, Department of Housing and Urban Development LEAD-BASED PAINT POISONING PREVENTION IN CERTAIN RESIDENTIAL STRUCTURES General Lead-Based...

  15. 24 CFR 35.155 - Minimum requirements.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-04-01

    ... 24 Housing and Urban Development 1 2012-04-01 2012-04-01 false Minimum requirements. 35.155 Section 35.155 Housing and Urban Development Office of the Secretary, Department of Housing and Urban Development LEAD-BASED PAINT POISONING PREVENTION IN CERTAIN RESIDENTIAL STRUCTURES General Lead-Based...

  16. 24 CFR 35.155 - Minimum requirements.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-04-01

    ... 24 Housing and Urban Development 1 2014-04-01 2014-04-01 false Minimum requirements. 35.155 Section 35.155 Housing and Urban Development Office of the Secretary, Department of Housing and Urban Development LEAD-BASED PAINT POISONING PREVENTION IN CERTAIN RESIDENTIAL STRUCTURES General Lead-Based...

  17. 24 CFR 35.155 - Minimum requirements.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-04-01

    ... 24 Housing and Urban Development 1 2013-04-01 2013-04-01 false Minimum requirements. 35.155 Section 35.155 Housing and Urban Development Office of the Secretary, Department of Housing and Urban Development LEAD-BASED PAINT POISONING PREVENTION IN CERTAIN RESIDENTIAL STRUCTURES General Lead-Based...

  18. 24 CFR 35.155 - Minimum requirements.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-04-01

    ... 24 Housing and Urban Development 1 2010-04-01 2010-04-01 false Minimum requirements. 35.155 Section 35.155 Housing and Urban Development Office of the Secretary, Department of Housing and Urban Development LEAD-BASED PAINT POISONING PREVENTION IN CERTAIN RESIDENTIAL STRUCTURES General Lead-Based...

  19. Minimum Wage Effects throughout the Wage Distribution

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Neumark, David; Schweitzer, Mark; Wascher, William

    2004-01-01

    This paper provides evidence on a wide set of margins along which labor markets can adjust in response to increases in the minimum wage, including wages, hours, employment, and ultimately labor income. Not surprisingly, the evidence indicates that low-wage workers are most strongly affected, while higher-wage workers are little affected. Workers…

  20. 7 CFR 33.10 - Minimum requirements.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-01-01

    ... ISSUED UNDER AUTHORITY OF THE EXPORT APPLE ACT Regulations § 33.10 Minimum requirements. No person shall... shipment of apples to any foreign destination unless: (a) Apples grade at least U.S. No. 1 or U.S. No. 1 Early: Provided, That apples for export to Pacific ports of Russia shall grade at least U.S. Utility...

  1. 7 CFR 33.10 - Minimum requirements.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-01-01

    ... ISSUED UNDER AUTHORITY OF THE EXPORT APPLE ACT Regulations § 33.10 Minimum requirements. No person shall... shipment of apples to any foreign destination unless: (a) Apples grade at least U.S. No. 1 or U.S. No. 1 Early: Provided, That apples for export to Pacific ports of Russia shall grade at least U.S. Utility...

  2. 7 CFR 33.10 - Minimum requirements.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-01-01

    ... ISSUED UNDER AUTHORITY OF THE EXPORT APPLE ACT Regulations § 33.10 Minimum requirements. No person shall... shipment of apples to any foreign destination unless: (a) Apples grade at least U.S. No. 1 or U.S. No. 1 Early: Provided, That apples for export to Pacific ports of Russia shall grade at least U.S. Utility...

  3. 7 CFR 33.10 - Minimum requirements.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-01-01

    ... ISSUED UNDER AUTHORITY OF THE EXPORT APPLE ACT Regulations § 33.10 Minimum requirements. No person shall... shipment of apples to any foreign destination unless: (a) Apples grade at least U.S. No. 1 or U.S. No. 1 Early: Provided, That apples for export to Pacific ports of Russia shall grade at least U.S. Utility...

  4. 7 CFR 33.10 - Minimum requirements.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-01-01

    ... ISSUED UNDER AUTHORITY OF THE EXPORT APPLE ACT Regulations § 33.10 Minimum requirements. No person shall... shipment of apples to any foreign destination unless: (a) Apples grade at least U.S. No. 1 or U.S. No. 1 Early: Provided, That apples for export to Pacific ports of Russia shall grade at least U.S. Utility...

  5. Minimum-B mirrors plus EBT principles

    SciTech Connect

    Yoshikawa, S.

    1983-08-01

    Electrons are heated at the minimum-B location(s) created by the multiple field and the toroidal field. Resulting hot electrons can assist plasma confinement by (i) providing mirror, (ii) creating azimuthally symmetric toroidal confinement, or (iii) creating a modified bumpy torus.

  6. Missouri Minimum Standards for School Buses

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Nicastro, Chris L.

    2008-01-01

    The revised minimum standards for school bus chassis and school bus bodies have been prepared in conformity with the Revised Statutes of Missouri (RSMo) for school bus transportation. The standards recommended by the 2005 National Conference on School Transportation and the Federal Motor Vehicle Safety Standards (FMVSS) promulgated by the U. S.…

  7. 2013 Missouri Minimum Standards for School Buses

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Nicastro, Chris L.

    2012-01-01

    The revised minimum standards for school bus chassis and school bus bodies have been prepared in conformity with the Revised Statutes of Missouri (RSMo) for school bus transportation. The standards recommended by the 2010 National Conference on School Transportation and the Federal Motor Vehicle Safety Standards (FMVSS) promulgated by the U. S.…

  8. 5 CFR 838.133 - Minimum awards.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-01-01

    ... Administrative Personnel OFFICE OF PERSONNEL MANAGEMENT (CONTINUED) CIVIL SERVICE REGULATIONS (CONTINUED) COURT ORDERS AFFECTING RETIREMENT BENEFITS Court Orders Generally Procedures Applicable to All Court Orders § 838.133 Minimum awards. Payments under this part will not be less than one dollar per month. Any...

  9. 5 CFR 838.133 - Minimum awards.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-01-01

    ... Administrative Personnel OFFICE OF PERSONNEL MANAGEMENT (CONTINUED) CIVIL SERVICE REGULATIONS (CONTINUED) COURT ORDERS AFFECTING RETIREMENT BENEFITS Court Orders Generally Procedures Applicable to All Court Orders § 838.133 Minimum awards. Payments under this part will not be less than one dollar per month. Any...

  10. 5 CFR 838.133 - Minimum awards.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-01-01

    ... Administrative Personnel OFFICE OF PERSONNEL MANAGEMENT (CONTINUED) CIVIL SERVICE REGULATIONS (CONTINUED) COURT ORDERS AFFECTING RETIREMENT BENEFITS Court Orders Generally Procedures Applicable to All Court Orders § 838.133 Minimum awards. Payments under this part will not be less than one dollar per month. Any...

  11. 5 CFR 838.133 - Minimum awards.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-01-01

    ... Administrative Personnel OFFICE OF PERSONNEL MANAGEMENT (CONTINUED) CIVIL SERVICE REGULATIONS (CONTINUED) COURT ORDERS AFFECTING RETIREMENT BENEFITS Court Orders Generally Procedures Applicable to All Court Orders § 838.133 Minimum awards. Payments under this part will not be less than one dollar per month. Any...

  12. 5 CFR 838.133 - Minimum awards.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-01-01

    ... Administrative Personnel OFFICE OF PERSONNEL MANAGEMENT (CONTINUED) CIVIL SERVICE REGULATIONS (CONTINUED) COURT ORDERS AFFECTING RETIREMENT BENEFITS Court Orders Generally Procedures Applicable to All Court Orders § 838.133 Minimum awards. Payments under this part will not be less than one dollar per month. Any...

  13. 77 FR 32444 - Minimum Internal Control Standards

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2012-06-01

    ... Minimum Internal Control Standards. 64 FR 590. The rule added a new part to the Commission's regulations..., 2002 (67 FR 43390), August 12, 2005 (70 FR 47108), and October 10, 2008 (73 FR 60498). In addition to... regulations, and the process NIGC should utilize to make revisions. 75 FR 70680 (Nov. 18, 2010). On April...

  14. 7 CFR 966.53 - Minimum quantities.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-01-01

    ... 7 Agriculture 8 2010-01-01 2010-01-01 false Minimum quantities. 966.53 Section 966.53 Agriculture Regulations of the Department of Agriculture (Continued) AGRICULTURAL MARKETING SERVICE (Marketing Agreements and Orders; Fruits, Vegetables, Nuts), DEPARTMENT OF AGRICULTURE TOMATOES GROWN IN FLORIDA...

  15. 7 CFR 966.53 - Minimum quantities.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-01-01

    ... 7 Agriculture 8 2011-01-01 2011-01-01 false Minimum quantities. 966.53 Section 966.53 Agriculture Regulations of the Department of Agriculture (Continued) AGRICULTURAL MARKETING SERVICE (Marketing Agreements and Orders; Fruits, Vegetables, Nuts), DEPARTMENT OF AGRICULTURE TOMATOES GROWN IN FLORIDA...

  16. 7 CFR 966.53 - Minimum quantities.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-01-01

    ... 7 Agriculture 8 2012-01-01 2012-01-01 false Minimum quantities. 966.53 Section 966.53 Agriculture Regulations of the Department of Agriculture (Continued) AGRICULTURAL MARKETING SERVICE (Marketing Agreements and Orders; Fruits, Vegetables, Nuts), DEPARTMENT OF AGRICULTURE TOMATOES GROWN IN FLORIDA...

  17. 7 CFR 966.53 - Minimum quantities.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-01-01

    ... 7 Agriculture 8 2014-01-01 2014-01-01 false Minimum quantities. 966.53 Section 966.53 Agriculture Regulations of the Department of Agriculture (Continued) AGRICULTURAL MARKETING SERVICE (MARKETING AGREEMENTS AND ORDERS; FRUITS, VEGETABLES, NUTS), DEPARTMENT OF AGRICULTURE TOMATOES GROWN IN FLORIDA...

  18. 7 CFR 966.53 - Minimum quantities.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-01-01

    ... 7 Agriculture 8 2013-01-01 2013-01-01 false Minimum quantities. 966.53 Section 966.53 Agriculture Regulations of the Department of Agriculture (Continued) AGRICULTURAL MARKETING SERVICE (MARKETING AGREEMENTS AND ORDERS; FRUITS, VEGETABLES, NUTS), DEPARTMENT OF AGRICULTURE TOMATOES GROWN IN FLORIDA...

  19. 24 CFR 3280.703 - Minimum standards.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-04-01

    ... DEVELOPMENT MANUFACTURED HOME CONSTRUCTION AND SAFETY STANDARDS Heating, Cooling and Fuel Burning Systems § 3280.703 Minimum standards. Heating, cooling and fuel burning appliances and systems in manufactured... 181, 1996 with 1998 revisions. Standard for Safety Closure Systems for use with Rigid Air Ducts...

  20. 7 CFR 35.11 - Minimum requirements.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-01-01

    ... Practices), DEPARTMENT OF AGRICULTURE COMMODITY STANDARDS AND STANDARD CONTAINER REGULATIONS EXPORT GRAPES... species table grapes unless such grapes meet the following quality and container marking requirements... shall meet each applicable minimum requirement of the U.S. Fancy Table grape grade as specified in the...

  1. 7 CFR 905.141 - Minimum exemption.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-01-01

    ... AND ORDERS; FRUITS, VEGETABLES, NUTS), DEPARTMENT OF AGRICULTURE ORANGES, GRAPEFRUIT, TANGERINES, AND TANGELOS GROWN IN FLORIDA Rules and Regulations Non-Regulated Fruit § 905.141 Minimum exemption. Any shipment of fruit which meets each of the following requirements may be transported from the...

  2. 7 CFR 905.141 - Minimum exemption.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-01-01

    ... and Orders; Fruits, Vegetables, Nuts), DEPARTMENT OF AGRICULTURE ORANGES, GRAPEFRUIT, TANGERINES, AND TANGELOS GROWN IN FLORIDA Rules and Regulations Non-Regulated Fruit § 905.141 Minimum exemption. Any shipment of fruit which meets each of the following requirements may be transported from the...

  3. Genetic effects of testicular incorporation of 137Cs in mice.

    PubMed

    Ramaiya, L K; Pomerantseva, M D; Chekhovich, A V; Lyaginskaya, A M; Kuznetsov, A S

    1994-08-01

    A comparative estimation of the frequencies of genetic disorders induced in germ cells of male mice by a single or long-term exposure to incorporated 137Cs or to external gamma-radiation has been carried out. The frequencies of dominant lethal mutations induced by a single exposure were similar with both types of radiation. In stem cell spermatogonia the frequency of reciprocal translocations was significantly lower in the case of single 137Cs administration than upon external gamma-radiation. Upon long-term administration the genetic efficiencies of both types of radiation were similar. PMID:7519738

  4. Naphthomycins L-N, ansamycin antibiotics from Streptomyces sp. CS.

    PubMed

    Yang, Yin-He; Fu, Xiao-Li; Li, Liang-Qun; Zeng, Ying; Li, Cheng-Yun; He, Yi-Neng; Zhao, Pei-Ji

    2012-07-27

    Previous analyses of the naphthomycin biosynthetic gene cluster and a comparison with known naphthomycin-type products from Streptomyces sp. CS have suggested that new products can be found from this strain. In this study, screening by LC-MS of Streptomyces sp. CS products formed under different culture conditions revealed several unknown peaks in the product spectra of extracts derived from oatmeal medium cultures. Three new naphthomycins, naphthomycins L (1), M (2), and N (3), and the known naphthomycins A (4), E (5), and D (6) were obtained. The structures were elucidated using spectroscopic data from 1D and 2D NMR and HRESIMS experiments. PMID:22742732

  5. Photoemission from Ag, Cu, and CsI

    SciTech Connect

    Srinivasan-Rao, T.; Fischer, J.; Tsang, T.

    1992-06-01

    Photoemission characteristics of three different cathodes, CsI, Ag film and Cu were investigated. CsI, upon irradiation by 213 nm, 10ps laser pulse yields a quantum efficiency of 4% at O.2[mu]J input energy. The saturation mechanism observed at higher input energies require further investigation. Ag film, upon irradiation by 630 nm, 300 fs laser emit prompt photoelectrons after absorbing 2 photons. There was no evidence of optical damage of the film up to 10[sup 11] W/cm[sup 2]. At low intensities, photoemission from Cu is a simple [nu]-e[sup [minus

  6. Collisional frequency shifts in 133Cs fountain clocks.

    PubMed

    Leo, P J; Julienne, P S; Mies, F H; Williams, C J

    2001-04-23

    We present a theoretical analysis of the density dependent frequency shift in Cs fountain clocks using the highly constrained binary collision model described by Leo et al. [Phys. Rev. Lett. 85, 2721 (2000)]. We predict a reversal in the clock shift at temperatures near 0.08 microK. Our results show that s waves dominate the collision process. However, as a consequence of the large scattering lengths in Cs the clock shift is strongly temperature dependent and does not reach a constant Wigner-law value until temperatures are less than 0.1 nK.

  7. A winning combination: the 3Cs of business continuity.

    PubMed

    Glendon, Lee

    2013-01-01

    Contingency planning is a natural part of business life and is used across identified strategic, financial and operational risks. But is it being done well and is it the right approach all of the time? This paper shows how contingency planning forms one layer of a three-line defence termed 'the 3Cs of business continuity': contingency planning; continuity capability; crisis response. Collectively, 'the 3Cs' help organisations deliver a robust response to the risks that can be seen and those that cannot. PMID:24113636

  8. A winning combination: the 3Cs of business continuity.

    PubMed

    Glendon, Lee

    2013-01-01

    Contingency planning is a natural part of business life and is used across identified strategic, financial and operational risks. But is it being done well and is it the right approach all of the time? This paper shows how contingency planning forms one layer of a three-line defence termed 'the 3Cs of business continuity': contingency planning; continuity capability; crisis response. Collectively, 'the 3Cs' help organisations deliver a robust response to the risks that can be seen and those that cannot.

  9. Rotational quenching of CS in ultracold 3He collisions

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Kaur, Rajwant; Dhilip Kumar, T. J.

    2016-08-01

    Quantum mechanical scattering calculations of rotational quenching of CS (v = 0) collision with 3He are performed at ultracold temperatures and results are compared with isotopic 4He collision. Rotational quenching cross sections and rate coefficients have been calculated in the ultracold region for rotational levels up to j = 10 using the He-CS potential energy surface computed at the CCSD(T)/aug-cc-pVQZ level of theory. The quenching cross sections are found to be two orders of magnitude larger for the 3He than the 4He isotope under ultracold conditions. Wigner threshold law is found to be valid below 10-3 K temperature.

  10. The periodicity of Grand Solar Minimum

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Velasco Herrera, Victor Manuel

    2016-07-01

    The sunspot number is the most used index to quantify the solar activity. Nevertheless, the sunspot is a syn- thetic index and not a physical index. Therefore, we should be careful to use the sunspot number to quantify the low (high) solar activity. One of the major problems of using sunspot to quantify solar activity is that its minimum value is zero. This zero value hinders the reconstruction of the solar cycle during the Maunder minimum. All solar indexes can be used as analog signals, which can be easily converted into digital signals. In con- trast, the conversion of a digital signal into an analog signal is not in general a simple task. The sunspot number during the Maunder minimum can be studied as a digital signal of the solar activity In 1894, Maunder published a discovery that has maintained the Solar Physics in an impasse. In his fa- mous work on "A Prolonged Sunspot Minimum" Maunder wrote: "The sequence of maximum and minimum has, in fact, been unfailing during the present century [..] and yet there [..], the ordinary solar cycle was once interrupted, and one long period of almost unbroken quiescence prevailed". The search of new historical Grand solar minima has been one of the most important questions in Solar Physics. However, the possibility of estimating a new Grand solar minimum is even more valuable. Since solar activity is the result of electromagnetic processes; we propose to employ the power to quantify solar activity: this is a fundamental physics concept in electrodynamics. Total Solar Irradiance is the primary energy source of the Earth's climate system and therefore its variations can contribute to natural climate change. In this work, we propose to consider the fluctuations in the power of the Total Solar Irradiance as a physical measure of the energy released by the solar dynamo, which contributes to understanding the nature of "profound solar magnetic field in calm". Using a new reconstruction of the Total Solar Irradiance we found the

  11. 135Cs/137Cs isotopic composition of environmental samples across Europe: Environmental transport and source term emission applications

    SciTech Connect

    Snow, Mathew S.; Snyder, Darin C.

    2015-11-02

    135Cs/137Cs isotopic analyses represent an important tool for studying the fate and transport of radiocesium in the environment; in this work the 135Cs/137Cs isotopic composition in environmental samples taken from across Europe is reported. Surface soil and vegetation samples from western Russia, Ukraine, Austria, and Hungary show consistent aged thermal fission product 135Cs/137Cs isotope ratios of 0.58 ± 0.01 (age corrected to 1/1/15), with the exception of one sample of soil-moss from Hungary which shows an elevated 135Cs/137Cs ratio of 1.78 ± 0.12. With the exception of the outlier sample from Hungary, surface soil/vegetation data are in quantitative agreement with values previously reported for soils within the Chernobyl exclusion zone, suggesting that radiocesium at these locations is primarily composed of homogenous airborne deposition from Chernobyl. Seawater samples taken from the Irish Sea show 135Cs/137Cs isotope ratios of 1.22 ± 0.11 (age corrected to 1/1/15), suggesting aged thermal fission product Cs discharged from Sellafield. Furthermore, the differences in 135Cs/137Cs isotope ratios between Sellafield, Chernobyl, and global nuclear weapons testing fallout indicate that 135Cs/137Cs isotope ratios can be utilized to discriminate between and track radiocesium transport from different nuclear production source terms, including major emission sources in Europe.

  12. The Maunder minimum (1645-1715) was indeed a grand minimum: A reassessment of multiple datasets

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Usoskin, Ilya G.; Arlt, Rainer; Asvestari, Eleanna; Hawkins, Ed; Käpylä, Maarit; Kovaltsov, Gennady A.; Krivova, Natalie; Lockwood, Michael; Mursula, Kalevi; O'Reilly, Jezebel; Owens, Matthew; Scott, Chris J.; Sokoloff, Dmitry D.; Solanki, Sami K.; Soon, Willie; Vaquero, José M.

    2015-09-01

    Aims: Although the time of the Maunder minimum (1645-1715) is widely known as a period of extremely low solar activity, it is still being debated whether solar activity during that period might have been moderate or even higher than the current solar cycle #24. We have revisited all existing evidence and datasets, both direct and indirect, to assess the level of solar activity during the Maunder minimum. Methods: We discuss the East Asian naked-eye sunspot observations, the telescopic solar observations, the fraction of sunspot active days, the latitudinal extent of sunspot positions, auroral sightings at high latitudes, cosmogenic radionuclide data as well as solar eclipse observations for that period. We also consider peculiar features of the Sun (very strong hemispheric asymmetry of the sunspot location, unusual differential rotation and the lack of the K-corona) that imply a special mode of solar activity during the Maunder minimum. Results: The level of solar activity during the Maunder minimum is reassessed on the basis of all available datasets. Conclusions: We conclude that solar activity was indeed at an exceptionally low level during the Maunder minimum. Although the exact level is still unclear, it was definitely lower than during the Dalton minimum of around 1800 and significantly below that of the current solar cycle #24. Claims of a moderate-to-high level of solar activity during the Maunder minimum are rejected with a high confidence level.

  13. Satellite bands of the RbCs molecule in the range of highly excited states

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Rakić, Mario; Beuc, Robert; Bouloufa-Maafa, Nadia; Dulieu, Olivier; Vexiau, Romain; Pichler, Goran; Skenderović, Hrvoje

    2016-05-01

    We report on the observation of three RbCs satellite bands in the blue and green ranges of the visible spectrum. Absorption measurements are performed using all-sapphire cell filled with a mixture of Rb and Cs. We compare high resolution absorption spectrum of Rb-Cs vapor mixture with pure Rb and Cs vapor spectra from the literature. After detailed analysis, the new satellite bands of RbCs molecule at 418.3 nm, 468.3, and 527.5 nm are identified. The origin of these bands is discussed by direct comparison with difference potentials derived from quantum chemistry calculations of RbCs potential energy curves. These bands originate from the lower Rydberg states of the RbCs molecule. This study thus provides further insight into photoassociation of lower Rydberg molecular states, approximately between Cs(7s) + Rb(5s) and Cs(6s) + Rb(6p) asymptotes, in ultracold gases.

  14. Nowcasting daily minimum air and grass temperature

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Savage, M. J.

    2016-02-01

    Site-specific and accurate prediction of daily minimum air and grass temperatures, made available online several hours before their occurrence, would be of significant benefit to several economic sectors and for planning human activities. Site-specific and reasonably accurate nowcasts of daily minimum temperature several hours before its occurrence, using measured sub-hourly temperatures hours earlier in the morning as model inputs, was investigated. Various temperature models were tested for their ability to accurately nowcast daily minimum temperatures 2 or 4 h before sunrise. Temperature datasets used for the model nowcasts included sub-hourly grass and grass-surface (infrared) temperatures from one location in South Africa and air temperature from four subtropical sites varying in altitude (USA and South Africa) and from one site in central sub-Saharan Africa. Nowcast models used employed either exponential or square root functions to describe the rate of nighttime temperature decrease but inverted so as to determine the minimum temperature. The models were also applied in near real-time using an open web-based system to display the nowcasts. Extrapolation algorithms for the site-specific nowcasts were also implemented in a datalogger in an innovative and mathematically consistent manner. Comparison of model 1 (exponential) nowcasts vs measured daily minima air temperatures yielded root mean square errors (RMSEs) <1 °C for the 2-h ahead nowcasts. Model 2 (also exponential), for which a constant model coefficient ( b = 2.2) was used, was usually slightly less accurate but still with RMSEs <1 °C. Use of model 3 (square root) yielded increased RMSEs for the 2-h ahead comparisons between nowcasted and measured daily minima air temperature, increasing to 1.4 °C for some sites. For all sites for all models, the comparisons for the 4-h ahead air temperature nowcasts generally yielded increased RMSEs, <2.1 °C. Comparisons for all model nowcasts of the daily grass

  15. Anticipating Cycle 24 Minimum and Its Consequences

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Wilson, Robert M.; Hathaway, David H.

    2007-01-01

    On the basis of the 12-mo moving average of monthly mean sunspot number (R) through November 2006, cycle 23 has persisted for 126 mo, having had a minimum of 8.0 in May 1996, a peak of 120.8 in April 2000, and an ascent duration of 47 mo. In November 2006, the 12-mo moving average of monthly mean sunspot number was 12.7, a value just outside the upper observed envelope of sunspot minimum values for the most recent cycles 16-23 (range 3.4-12.3), but within the 90-percent prediction interval (7.8 +/- 6.7). The first spotless day during the decline of cycle 23 occurred in January 2004, and the first occurrence of 10 or more and 20 or more spotless days was February 2006 and April 2007, respectively, inferring that sunspot minimum for cycle 24 is imminent. Through May 2007, 121 spotless days have accumulated. In terms of the weighted mean latitude (weighed by spot area) (LAT) and the highest observed latitude spot (HLS) in November 2006, 12-mo moving averages of these parameters measured 7.9 and 14.6 deg, respectively, these values being the lowest values yet observed during the decline of cycle 23 and being below corresponding mean values found for cycles 16-23. As yet, no high-latitude new-cycle spots have been seen nor has there been an upturn in LAT and HLS, these conditions having always preceded new cycle minimum by several months for past cycles. Together, these findings suggest that cycle 24 s minimum amplitude still lies well beyond November 2006. This implies that cycle 23 s period either will lie in the period "gap" (127-134 mo), a first for a sunspot cycle, or it will be longer than 134 mo, thus making cycle 23 a long-period cycle (like cycle 20) and indicating that cycle 24 s minimum will occur after July 2007. Should cycle 23 prove to be a cycle of longer period, a consequence might be that the maximum amplitude for cycle 24 may be smaller than previously predicted.

  16. ¹³⁴Cs and ¹³⁷Cs radioactivity in soil and moss samples of Jeju Island after Fukushima nuclear reactor accident.

    PubMed

    Park, Kyung-Ho; Kang, Tae-Woo; Kim, Won-Jik; Park, Jae Woo

    2013-11-01

    Specific activities of (134)Cs and (137)Cs in surface soil and moss samples were investigated at 12 locations of Jeju Island, Korea. Specific activities of (134)Cs and (137)Cs in the surface soil vary from less than MDA to 17 Bq/kg and from 12 Bq/kg to 109 Bq/kg, respectively. Specific activities of (134)Cs and (137)Cs in moss samples lie in the range 6 Bq/kg-39 Bq/kg and 15 Bq/kg-41 Bq/kg, respectively. The activity ratios (134)Cs/(137)Cs in the soil samples are much less than the reference value of about 1.0, but they are close to 1.0 in the moss samples. Average amount of (137)Cs added to the surface soil after the Fukushima accident is estimated to be 7.8 ± 1.7 Bq/kg. The depth profile of (137)Cs specific activity has a lognormal shape with a peak between 5 cm and 7.5 cm below the ground. For the cored soil sample, (134)Cs was detected up to 3 cm below the ground.

  17. 137 Cs Activities and 135 Cs/ 137 Cs Isotopic Ratios from Soils at Idaho National Laboratory: A Case Study for Contaminant Source Attribution in the Vicinity of Nuclear Facilities

    SciTech Connect

    Snow, Mathew S.; Snyder, Darin C.; Clark, Sue B.; Kelley, Morgan; Delmore, James E.

    2015-03-03

    Radiometric and mass spectrometric analyses of Cs contamination in the environment can reveal the location of Cs emission sources, release mechanisms, modes of transport, prediction of future contamination migration, and attribution of contamination to specific generator(s) and/or process(es). The Subsurface Disposal Area (SDA) at Idaho National Laboratory (INL) represents a complicated case study for demonstrating the current capabilities and limitations to environmental Cs analyses. 137Cs distribution patterns, 135Cs/137Cs isotope ratios, known Cs chemistry at this site, and historical records enable narrowing the list of possible emission sources and release events to a single source and event, with the SDA identified as the emission source and flood transport of material from within Pit 9 and Trench 48 as the primary release event. These data combined allow refining the possible number of waste generators from dozens to a single generator, with INL on-site research and reactor programs identified as the most likely waste generator. A discussion on the ultimate limitations to the information that 135Cs/137Cs ratios alone can provide is presented and includes (1) uncertainties in the exact date of the fission event and (2) possibility of mixing between different Cs source terms (including nuclear weapons fallout and a source of interest).

  18. 137Cs activities and 135Cs/137Cs isotopic ratios from soils at Idaho National Laboratory: a case study for contaminant source attribution in the vicinity of nuclear facilities.

    PubMed

    Snow, Mathew S; Snyder, Darin C; Clark, Sue B; Kelley, Morgan; Delmore, James E

    2015-03-01

    Radiometric and mass spectrometric analyses of Cs contamination in the environment can reveal the location of Cs emission sources, release mechanisms, modes of transport, prediction of future contamination migration, and attribution of contamination to specific generator(s) and/or process(es). The Subsurface Disposal Area (SDA) at Idaho National Laboratory (INL) represents a complicated case study for demonstrating the current capabilities and limitations to environmental Cs analyses. (137)Cs distribution patterns, (135)Cs/(137)Cs isotope ratios, known Cs chemistry at this site, and historical records enable narrowing the list of possible emission sources and release events to a single source and event, with the SDA identified as the emission source and flood transport of material from within Pit 9 and Trench 48 as the primary release event. These data combined allow refining the possible number of waste generators from dozens to a single generator, with INL on-site research and reactor programs identified as the most likely waste generator. A discussion on the ultimate limitations to the information that (135)Cs/(137)Cs ratios alone can provide is presented and includes (1) uncertainties in the exact date of the fission event and (2) possibility of mixing between different Cs source terms (including nuclear weapons fallout and a source of interest). PMID:25633972

  19. 137Cs activities and 135Cs/137Cs isotopic ratios from soils at Idaho National Laboratory: a case study for contaminant source attribution in the vicinity of nuclear facilities.

    PubMed

    Snow, Mathew S; Snyder, Darin C; Clark, Sue B; Kelley, Morgan; Delmore, James E

    2015-03-01

    Radiometric and mass spectrometric analyses of Cs contamination in the environment can reveal the location of Cs emission sources, release mechanisms, modes of transport, prediction of future contamination migration, and attribution of contamination to specific generator(s) and/or process(es). The Subsurface Disposal Area (SDA) at Idaho National Laboratory (INL) represents a complicated case study for demonstrating the current capabilities and limitations to environmental Cs analyses. (137)Cs distribution patterns, (135)Cs/(137)Cs isotope ratios, known Cs chemistry at this site, and historical records enable narrowing the list of possible emission sources and release events to a single source and event, with the SDA identified as the emission source and flood transport of material from within Pit 9 and Trench 48 as the primary release event. These data combined allow refining the possible number of waste generators from dozens to a single generator, with INL on-site research and reactor programs identified as the most likely waste generator. A discussion on the ultimate limitations to the information that (135)Cs/(137)Cs ratios alone can provide is presented and includes (1) uncertainties in the exact date of the fission event and (2) possibility of mixing between different Cs source terms (including nuclear weapons fallout and a source of interest).

  20. Accumulation and distribution of 137Cs in tropical plants

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Anjos, R. M.; Carvalho, C.; Mosquera, B.; Veiga, R.; Sanches, N.; Bastos, J.; Macario, K.

    2007-02-01

    The accumulation and distribution of 40K and 137Cs in several tropical plant species were studied through measurements of gamma-ray spectra, focusing on establishing the suitability of using radiocesium to trace the plant uptake of nutrients such as potassium.

  1. Polarization analysis of magnons in CsMnI3

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Tun, Z.; Hsu, T. C.; Lussier, J.-G.

    1994-05-01

    A polarized neutron scattering experiment on CsMnI3 shows previously unseen magnons at wave vectors (1/3,1/3,1) and (001), and also shows that the single-ion anisotropy for this material is substantially larger than previously reported. Linear spin wave theory can adequately describe the observed magnon frequencies.

  2. CHeCS: International Space Station Medical Hardware Catalog

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    2008-01-01

    The purpose of this catalog is to provide a detailed description of each piece of hardware in the Crew Health Care System (CHeCS), including subpacks associated with the hardware, and to briefly describe the interfaces between the hardware and the ISS. The primary user of this document is the Space Medicine/Medical Operations ISS Biomedical Flight Controllers (ISS BMEs).

  3. Equation of state and metallization of CsI

    SciTech Connect

    Aidun, J.; Bukowinski, M.S.T.; Ross, M.

    1984-03-01

    Self-consistent, nonrelativistic augmented-plane-wave (APW) calculations for CsI were carried out to generate the band structure, the static-lattice equation of state (EOS), and the volume dependence of the electronic energy-band gap. The theoretical room-temperature isothermal compression curve agrees well with static and ultrasonic measurements at low pressure. Our calculations do not agree with two recent sets of diamond-anvil-cell measurements above 10 GPa. The calculated band gaps are too small at low pressure, but, at high pressure, are consistent with both the experimental results and the Herzfeld-model prediction. These results suggest that the insulator-to-metal transition occurs in the range 100 +- 10 GPa. A calculation of the shock compression curve of CsI shows that the thermally excited electrons cause a significant softening of the Hugoniot curve. The experimental zero-pressure band gaps of the isoelectronic compounds Xe, CsI, and BaTe are linearly correlated with ln(v/v/sub H/), where v/sub H/ is the specific volume of metallization predicted by the Herzfeld model. Based on this correlation, and on the similarity of the APW calculated EOS's of Xe and CsI, which agree closely with experimental compression measurements, we predict that BaTe will become metallic at approximately 30 GPa.

  4. Teaching a CS Introductory Course: An Active Approach

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Moura, Isabel C.; van Hattum-Janssen, Natascha

    2011-01-01

    Computer Science (CS) introductory courses that are offered by the Department of Information Systems at the University of Minho (UM), Portugal, seem to abound in non-motivated students. They are characterized by high failure and withdrawal rates and use mainly deductive teaching approaches. Deductive instruction begins with theories and progresses…

  5. Reflection of thermal Cs atoms grazing a polished glass surface

    SciTech Connect

    Anderson, A.; Haroche, S.; Hinds, E.A.; Jhe, W.; Meschede, D.; Moi, L.

    1986-10-01

    We present an experimental study which shows that a large fraction (> or =50%) of thermal Cs atoms are nearly specularly reflected by polished glass surfaces at grazing incidence. This effect is interesting in the context of projects aimed at storing cold alkali-metal atoms in boxes.

  6. Isoform Specificity of Protein Kinase Cs in Synaptic Plasticity

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Sossin, Wayne S.

    2007-01-01

    Protein kinase Cs (PKCs) are implicated in many forms of synaptic plasticity. However, the specific isoform(s) of PKC that underlie(s) these events are often not known. We have used "Aplysia" as a model system in order to investigate the isoform specificity of PKC actions due to the presence of fewer isoforms and a large number of documented…

  7. CsRAV1 induces sylleptic branching in hybrid poplar.

    PubMed

    Moreno-Cortés, Alicia; Hernández-Verdeja, Tamara; Sánchez-Jiménez, Paloma; González-Melendi, Pablo; Aragoncillo, Cipriano; Allona, Isabel

    2012-04-01

    • Sylleptic branching in trees may increase significantly branch number, leaf area and the general growth of the tree, particularly in its early years. Although this is a very important trait, so far little is known about the genes that control this process. • This article characterizes the Castanea sativa RAV1 gene, homologous to Arabidopsis TEM genes, by analyzing its circadian behavior and examining its winter expression in chestnut stems and buds. Transgenic hybrid poplars over-expressing CsRAV1 or showing RNA interference down-regulated PtaRAV1 and PtaRAV2 expression were produced and analyzed. • Over-expression of the CsRAV1 gene induces the early formation of sylleptic branches in hybrid poplar plantlets during the same growing season in which the lateral buds form. Only minor growth differences and no changes in wood anatomy are produced. • The possibility of generating trees with a greater biomass by manipulating the CsRAV1 gene makes CsRAV1 transgenic plants promising candidates for bioenergy production.

  8. Accumulation and distribution of 137Cs in tropical plants

    SciTech Connect

    Anjos, R. M.; Carvalho, C.; Mosquera, B.; Veiga, R.; Sanches, N.; Bastos, J.; Macario, K.

    2007-02-12

    The accumulation and distribution of 40K and 137Cs in several tropical plant species were studied through measurements of gamma-ray spectra, focusing on establishing the suitability of using radiocesium to trace the plant uptake of nutrients such as potassium.

  9. Fallout 137Cs in reindeer herders in Arctic Norway.

    PubMed

    Skuterud, Lavrans; Thørring, Håvard

    2015-03-01

    Reindeer herders in the Arctic were among the most heavily exposed populations to the global fallout from nuclear weapons testing in the 1950s and 1960s, due to high transfer of radionuclides in the lichens-reindeer-human food chain. Annual studies of (137)Cs in reindeer herders in Kautokeino, Norway, were initiated in 1965 to monitor radiation doses and follow environmental (137)Cs behavior. The (137)Cs concentrations declined from the peak in 1965 with effective half-times of 6-8 years, only interrupted by a temporary doubling in levels from 1986 to 1987 due to the Chernobyl fallout. During the period of 1950-2010 an average herder received an integrated effective dose from incorporated (137)Cs of about 18 mSv. This dose represents an insignificant increase in the risk for developing cancer. Health studies even show a significantly lower cancer incidence among Sámis and reindeer herders in northern Norway compared to other populations in the same area. PMID:25671344

  10. Web-CS: Infrastructure for Web-Based Competitions.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Aerts, A. T. M.; Bierhoff, P. F. M.; De Bra, P. M. E.

    This paper presents a World Wide Web-based infrastructure for cooperation between many different parties. The infrastructure is designed for Web-based competitions involving an editorial board, designers of assignments or events, evaluators, different organizational layers, and contestants. Web-CS is entirely Web-based: all the communication…

  11. There and Back Again?: The Disappearing Pulsations of CS 1246

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Vasquez Soto, Alan; Barlow, Brad

    2016-01-01

    Hot subdwarf stars were once main sequence stars, like the sun, that deviated from normal stellar evolution due to binary interactions and evolved into extreme horizontal branch stars. Several of these stars exhibit rapid pulsations driven by iron opacity instabilities. CS 1246 is a rapidly pulsating hot subdwarf discovered in 2009 that is dominated by a single 371 second pulsation. At the time of its discovery, the pulsational amplitude was one of the largest known, making CS 1246 an ideal candidate for follow up studies. Observations in 2013 implied that the pulsational amplitude had decreased significantly. Since then we have continued monitoring the star using the robotic SKYNET telescopes in Chile, in order to further characterize any changes. Our recent observations show that the pulsational amplitude has gone down by a factor of six: CS 1246 is barely a pulsator anymore. The decay in amplitude over time is reminiscent of a damped harmonic oscillator. Here we present six years of photometry for CS 1246 and discuss possible scenarios that might explain its interesting behavior.

  12. A CS1 Pedagogical Approach to Parallel Thinking

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Rague, Brian William

    2010-01-01

    Almost all collegiate programs in Computer Science offer an introductory course in programming primarily devoted to communicating the foundational principles of software design and development. The ACM designates this introduction to computer programming course for first-year students as CS1, during which methodologies for solving problems within…

  13. Fallout 137Cs in reindeer herders in Arctic Norway.

    PubMed

    Skuterud, Lavrans; Thørring, Håvard

    2015-03-01

    Reindeer herders in the Arctic were among the most heavily exposed populations to the global fallout from nuclear weapons testing in the 1950s and 1960s, due to high transfer of radionuclides in the lichens-reindeer-human food chain. Annual studies of (137)Cs in reindeer herders in Kautokeino, Norway, were initiated in 1965 to monitor radiation doses and follow environmental (137)Cs behavior. The (137)Cs concentrations declined from the peak in 1965 with effective half-times of 6-8 years, only interrupted by a temporary doubling in levels from 1986 to 1987 due to the Chernobyl fallout. During the period of 1950-2010 an average herder received an integrated effective dose from incorporated (137)Cs of about 18 mSv. This dose represents an insignificant increase in the risk for developing cancer. Health studies even show a significantly lower cancer incidence among Sámis and reindeer herders in northern Norway compared to other populations in the same area.

  14. Measurements of Cs absorption and retention in man

    SciTech Connect

    Henrichs, H.; Paretzke, H.G.; Voigt, G.; Berg, D. )

    1989-10-01

    One of the consequences of the Chernobyl reactor accident in 1986 was a comparatively high contamination of foodstuffs in Southern Federal Republic of Germany. In order to test radioecological models predicting the radiological consequences of such accidents, several thousand measurements were performed to determine Cs body burdens in members of the public. For the interpretation of these data and as a contribution to the improvement of the available database on the biokinetics of Cs isotopes in humans, we followed a small group of volunteers after their consumption of highly contaminated venison. Intakes, excretion rates and total body activities were measured during a period of more than 200 d. The data obtained were evaluated in terms of a compartment model to derive gastrointestinal uptakes, biological half-lives and dose conversion factors. The resulting uptake factors range from 65-90%, the half-lives of the long-term retention from 45 to 200 d. The majority of the resulting dose conversion factors lie below the values recommended by the ICRP, showing that the ICRP model is a reasonable and safe description of the Cs biokinetics in our study group, while the great variability of the results shows that it is not an accurate representation of the individual Cs retention.

  15. Changing CS Features Alters Evaluative Responses in Evaluative Conditioning

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Unkelbach, Christian; Stahl, Christoph; Forderer, Sabine

    2012-01-01

    Evaluative conditioning (EC) refers to changes in people's evaluative responses toward initially neutral stimuli (CSs) by mere spatial and temporal contiguity with other positive or negative stimuli (USs). We investigate whether changing CS features from conditioning to evaluation also changes people's evaluative response toward these CSs. We used…

  16. Identification and transcript analysis of two glutamate decarboxylase genes, CsGAD1 and CsGAD2, reveal the strong relationship between CsGAD1 and citrate utilization in citrus fruit.

    PubMed

    Liu, Xiao; Hu, Xiao-Mei; Jin, Long-Fei; Shi, Cai-Yun; Liu, Yong-Zhong; Peng, Shu-Ang

    2014-09-01

    Glutamate decarboxylase (GAD, EC 4.1.1.15) has been suggested to be a key, regulatory point in the biosynthesis of γ-aminobutyrate (GABA) and in the utilization of citric acid through GABA shunt pathway. In this study we discovered two GAD genes, named as CsGAD1 and CsGAD2, in citrus genome database and then successfully cloned. Both CsGAD1 and CsGAD2 have a putative pyridoxal 5-phosphate binding domain in the middle region and a putative calmodulin-binding domain at the carboxyl terminus. Gene structure analysis showed that much difference exists in the size of exons and introns or in cis-regulatory elements in promoter region between the two GAD genes. Gene expression indicated that CsGAD1 transcript was predominantly expressed in flower and CsGAD2 transcript was predominantly expressed in fruit juice sacs; in the ripening fruit, CsGAD1 transcript level was at least 2-time higher than CsGAD2 transcript level. Moreover, CsGAD1 transcript level was increased significantly along with the increase of GAD activity and accompanied by a significant decrease of titratable acid (TA), suggesting that it is CsGAD1 rather than CsGAD2 plays a role in the citric acid utilization during fruit ripening. In addition, injection of abscisic acid and foliar spray of K2SO4 significantly increased the TA content of Satsuma mandarin, and significantly decreased GAD activity as well as CsGAD1 transcript, further suggesting the important role of CsGAD1 in the citrate utilization of citrus fruit.

  17. 50 CFR 648.83 - Multispecies minimum fish sizes.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-10-01

    ... 50 Wildlife and Fisheries 10 2011-10-01 2011-10-01 false Multispecies minimum fish sizes. 648.83... Measures for the NE Multispecies and Monkfish Fisheries § 648.83 Multispecies minimum fish sizes. (a) Minimum fish sizes. (1) Minimum fish sizes for recreational vessels and charter/party vessels that are...

  18. 50 CFR 648.103 - Minimum fish sizes.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-10-01

    ... 50 Wildlife and Fisheries 8 2010-10-01 2010-10-01 false Minimum fish sizes. 648.103 Section 648... Summer Flounder Fisheries § 648.103 Minimum fish sizes. (a) The minimum size for summer flounder is 14... carrying more than five crew members. (c) The minimum sizes in this section apply to whole fish or to...

  19. 50 CFR 648.83 - Multispecies minimum fish sizes.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-10-01

    ... 50 Wildlife and Fisheries 12 2014-10-01 2014-10-01 false Multispecies minimum fish sizes. 648.83... Measures for the NE Multispecies and Monkfish Fisheries § 648.83 Multispecies minimum fish sizes. (a) Minimum fish sizes. (1) Minimum fish sizes for recreational vessels and charter/party vessels that are...

  20. 49 CFR 387.9 - Financial responsibility, minimum levels.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-10-01

    ... 49 Transportation 5 2010-10-01 2010-10-01 false Financial responsibility, minimum levels. 387.9... MINIMUM LEVELS OF FINANCIAL RESPONSIBILITY FOR MOTOR CARRIERS Motor Carriers of Property § 387.9 Financial responsibility, minimum levels. The minimum levels of financial responsibility referred to in § 387.7 of...

  1. 49 CFR 387.9 - Financial responsibility, minimum levels.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-10-01

    ... 49 Transportation 5 2011-10-01 2011-10-01 false Financial responsibility, minimum levels. 387.9... MINIMUM LEVELS OF FINANCIAL RESPONSIBILITY FOR MOTOR CARRIERS Motor Carriers of Property § 387.9 Financial responsibility, minimum levels. The minimum levels of financial responsibility referred to in § 387.7 of...

  2. 49 CFR 387.33 - Financial responsibility, minimum levels.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-10-01

    ... 49 Transportation 5 2011-10-01 2011-10-01 false Financial responsibility, minimum levels. 387.33... MINIMUM LEVELS OF FINANCIAL RESPONSIBILITY FOR MOTOR CARRIERS Motor Carriers of Passengers § 387.33 Financial responsibility, minimum levels. The minimum levels of financial responsibility referred to...

  3. 49 CFR 387.33 - Financial responsibility, minimum levels.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-10-01

    ... 49 Transportation 5 2010-10-01 2010-10-01 false Financial responsibility, minimum levels. 387.33... MINIMUM LEVELS OF FINANCIAL RESPONSIBILITY FOR MOTOR CARRIERS Motor Carriers of Passengers § 387.33 Financial responsibility, minimum levels. The minimum levels of financial responsibility referred to...

  4. 14 CFR 25.149 - Minimum control speed.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-01-01

    ... 14 Aeronautics and Space 1 2014-01-01 2014-01-01 false Minimum control speed. 25.149 Section 25... Minimum control speed. (a) In establishing the minimum control speeds required by this section, the method... prevent a heading change of more than 20 degrees. (e) VMCG, the minimum control speed on the ground,...

  5. 14 CFR 25.149 - Minimum control speed.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-01-01

    ... 14 Aeronautics and Space 1 2013-01-01 2013-01-01 false Minimum control speed. 25.149 Section 25... Minimum control speed. (a) In establishing the minimum control speeds required by this section, the method... prevent a heading change of more than 20 degrees. (e) VMCG, the minimum control speed on the ground,...

  6. 14 CFR 25.149 - Minimum control speed.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-01-01

    ... 14 Aeronautics and Space 1 2012-01-01 2012-01-01 false Minimum control speed. 25.149 Section 25... Minimum control speed. (a) In establishing the minimum control speeds required by this section, the method... prevent a heading change of more than 20 degrees. (e) VMCG, the minimum control speed on the ground,...

  7. 14 CFR 25.149 - Minimum control speed.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-01-01

    ... 14 Aeronautics and Space 1 2011-01-01 2011-01-01 false Minimum control speed. 25.149 Section 25... Minimum control speed. (a) In establishing the minimum control speeds required by this section, the method... prevent a heading change of more than 20 degrees. (e) VMCG, the minimum control speed on the ground,...

  8. 14 CFR 25.149 - Minimum control speed.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-01-01

    ... 14 Aeronautics and Space 1 2010-01-01 2010-01-01 false Minimum control speed. 25.149 Section 25... Minimum control speed. (a) In establishing the minimum control speeds required by this section, the method... prevent a heading change of more than 20 degrees. (e) VMCG, the minimum control speed on the ground,...

  9. Minimum Wage Laws and the Distribution of Employment.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Lang, Kevin

    The desirability of raising the minimum wage long revolved around just one question: the effect of higher minimum wages on the overall level of employment. An even more critical effect of the minimum wage rests on the composition of employment--who gets the minimum wage job. An examination of employment in eating and drinking establishments…

  10. 5 CFR 551.601 - Minimum age standards.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-01-01

    ... 5 Administrative Personnel 1 2013-01-01 2013-01-01 false Minimum age standards. 551.601 Section... ADMINISTRATION UNDER THE FAIR LABOR STANDARDS ACT Child Labor § 551.601 Minimum age standards. (a) 16-year minimum age. The Act, in section 3(l), sets a general 16-year minimum age, which applies to all...

  11. 5 CFR 551.601 - Minimum age standards.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-01-01

    ... 5 Administrative Personnel 1 2010-01-01 2010-01-01 false Minimum age standards. 551.601 Section... ADMINISTRATION UNDER THE FAIR LABOR STANDARDS ACT Child Labor § 551.601 Minimum age standards. (a) 16-year minimum age. The Act, in section 3(l), sets a general 16-year minimum age, which applies to all...

  12. 5 CFR 551.601 - Minimum age standards.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-01-01

    ... 5 Administrative Personnel 1 2011-01-01 2011-01-01 false Minimum age standards. 551.601 Section... ADMINISTRATION UNDER THE FAIR LABOR STANDARDS ACT Child Labor § 551.601 Minimum age standards. (a) 16-year minimum age. The Act, in section 3(l), sets a general 16-year minimum age, which applies to all...

  13. 5 CFR 551.601 - Minimum age standards.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-01-01

    ... 5 Administrative Personnel 1 2014-01-01 2014-01-01 false Minimum age standards. 551.601 Section... ADMINISTRATION UNDER THE FAIR LABOR STANDARDS ACT Child Labor § 551.601 Minimum age standards. (a) 16-year minimum age. The Act, in section 3(l), sets a general 16-year minimum age, which applies to all...

  14. 5 CFR 551.601 - Minimum age standards.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-01-01

    ... 5 Administrative Personnel 1 2012-01-01 2012-01-01 false Minimum age standards. 551.601 Section... ADMINISTRATION UNDER THE FAIR LABOR STANDARDS ACT Child Labor § 551.601 Minimum age standards. (a) 16-year minimum age. The Act, in section 3(l), sets a general 16-year minimum age, which applies to all...

  15. 50 CFR 648.83 - Multispecies minimum fish sizes.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-10-01

    ... 50 Wildlife and Fisheries 8 2010-10-01 2010-10-01 false Multispecies minimum fish sizes. 648.83... Measures for the NE Multispecies and Monkfish Fisheries § 648.83 Multispecies minimum fish sizes. (a) Minimum fish sizes. (1) Minimum fish sizes for recreational vessels and charter/party vessels that are...

  16. 49 CFR 538.5 - Minimum driving range.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-10-01

    ... 49 Transportation 6 2010-10-01 2010-10-01 false Minimum driving range. 538.5 Section 538.5... Minimum driving range. (a) The minimum driving range that a passenger automobile must have in order to be... electricity. (b) The minimum driving range that a passenger automobile using electricity as an...

  17. 49 CFR 538.5 - Minimum driving range.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-10-01

    ... 49 Transportation 6 2012-10-01 2012-10-01 false Minimum driving range. 538.5 Section 538.5... Minimum driving range. (a) The minimum driving range that a passenger automobile must have in order to be... electricity. (b) The minimum driving range that a passenger automobile using electricity as an...

  18. 49 CFR 538.5 - Minimum driving range.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-10-01

    ... 49 Transportation 6 2014-10-01 2014-10-01 false Minimum driving range. 538.5 Section 538.5... Minimum driving range. (a) The minimum driving range that a passenger automobile must have in order to be... electricity. (b) The minimum driving range that a passenger automobile using electricity as an...

  19. 49 CFR 538.5 - Minimum driving range.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-10-01

    ... 49 Transportation 6 2011-10-01 2011-10-01 false Minimum driving range. 538.5 Section 538.5... Minimum driving range. (a) The minimum driving range that a passenger automobile must have in order to be... electricity. (b) The minimum driving range that a passenger automobile using electricity as an...

  20. 49 CFR 538.5 - Minimum driving range.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-10-01

    ... 49 Transportation 6 2013-10-01 2013-10-01 false Minimum driving range. 538.5 Section 538.5... Minimum driving range. (a) The minimum driving range that a passenger automobile must have in order to be... electricity. (b) The minimum driving range that a passenger automobile using electricity as an...

  1. 50 CFR 648.72 - Minimum surf clam size.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-10-01

    ... 50 Wildlife and Fisheries 8 2010-10-01 2010-10-01 false Minimum surf clam size. 648.72 Section 648... Atlantic Surf Clam and Ocean Quahog Fisheries § 648.72 Minimum surf clam size. (a) Minimum length. The minimum length for surf clams is 4.75 inches (12.065 cm). (b) Determination of compliance. No more than...

  2. 50 CFR 648.72 - Minimum surf clam size.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-10-01

    ... 50 Wildlife and Fisheries 10 2011-10-01 2011-10-01 false Minimum surf clam size. 648.72 Section... Atlantic Surf Clam and Ocean Quahog Fisheries § 648.72 Minimum surf clam size. Link to an amendment published at 76 FR 60622, Sept. 29, 2011. (a) Minimum length. The minimum length for surf clams is...

  3. Octupole excitations in 141,144Cs and the pronounced decrease of dipole moments with neutron number in odd- Z neutron-rich 141,143,144Cs

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Luo, Y. X.; Rasmussen, J. O.; Hamilton, J. H.; Ramayya, A. V.; Liu, S. H.; Jones, E. F.; Gore, P. M.; Goodin, C.; Stone, N. J.; Zhu, S. J.; Hwang, J. K.; Li, Ke; Crowell, H. L.; Lee, I. Y.; Ter-Akopian, G. M.; Daniel, A. V.; Stoyer, M. A.; Donangelo, R.; Ma, W. C.; Cole, J. D.

    2010-07-01

    The level scheme of odd- Z neutron-rich 141Cs ( Z=55, N=86) was extended and expanded and that of 144Cs ( N=89) was identified for the first time by means of γ-γ-γ coincidence measurements of prompt γ rays in the spontaneous fission of 252Cf with Gammasphere. Spin/parity was assigned to the levels based on angular correlations and level systematics in 141,143Cs. Parity doublets characteristic of both simplex quantum number s=+i and s=-i were proposed in 141Cs. The tests by using rotational frequency ratio ω(I)/ω(I) imply octupole vibrations in 141Cs and 143Cs. B(E1)/B(E2) values and electric dipole moments D were calculated for 141Cs, and re-determined for 143Cs. It was found that B(E1)/B(E2) values of 141Cs are simplex-dependent and the average value is one order of magnitude larger than that of 143Cs, and the deduced dipole moment D of 141Cs is considerably larger than that of 143Cs, and comparable to the N=86 isotone 142Ba. For 144Cs the yrast sequence looks like a well-deformed rotational band, but no octupole band structure was identified in this nucleus. The overall variations of D in 141,143,144Cs exhibit a pronounced drop of dipole moment with increasing neutron number in this odd- Z isotopic chain, which may be analogous in nature to the quenching of D observed in even-even 146Ba ( Z=56, N=90) and 224Ra ( Z=88, N=136), and to the drop of D in the odd- Z neutron-rich 147La ( Z=57, N=90) reported by our collaboration.

  4. The minimum delta-V Lambert's problem

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Bertachinidealmeidaprado, Antonio Fernando; Broucke, Roger A.

    This paper formulates and solves a new version of the well-known 'Lambert's problem,' one of the most important topics in celestial mechanics. The idea is to replace the requirement that the transfer must be completed in a given time (original problem) by the requirement that the fuel expenditure involved in this transfer must be minimum. This problem is solved by developing analytical equations for the components of the impulse applied and theory of minimization of functions. Next, simulations are made to compare the results obtained from this theory with results available in the literature. Those results are easily extended to the study of bi-impulsive transfers between two Keplerian and coplanar orbits with minimum expenditure of fuel.

  5. Low Streamflow Forcasting using Minimum Relative Entropy

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Cui, H.; Singh, V. P.

    2013-12-01

    Minimum relative entropy spectral analysis is derived in this study, and applied to forecast streamflow time series. Proposed method extends the autocorrelation in the manner that the relative entropy of underlying process is minimized so that time series data can be forecasted. Different prior estimation, such as uniform, exponential and Gaussian assumption, is taken to estimate the spectral density depending on the autocorrelation structure. Seasonal and nonseasonal low streamflow series obtained from Colorado River (Texas) under draught condition is successfully forecasted using proposed method. Minimum relative entropy determines spectral of low streamflow series with higher resolution than conventional method. Forecasted streamflow is compared to the prediction using Burg's maximum entropy spectral analysis (MESA) and Configurational entropy. The advantage and disadvantage of each method in forecasting low streamflow is discussed.

  6. On the Minimum Induced Drag of Wings

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Bowers, Albion H.

    2015-01-01

    Birds do not require the use of vertical tails. They do not appear to have any mechanism by which to control their yaw. As an example the albatross is notable in this regard. The authors believe this is possible because of a unique adaptation by which there exists a triple-optimal solution that provides the maximum aerodynamic efficiency, the minimum structural weight, and it provides for coordination of control in roll and yaw. Until now, this solution has eluded researchers, and remained unknown. Here it is shown that the correct specification of spanload provides for all three solutions at once, maximum aerodynamic efficiency, minimum structural weight, and coordinated control. The implications of this result has far reaching effects on the design of aircraft, as well as dramatic efficiency improvement.

  7. A fast tool for minimum hybridization networks

    PubMed Central

    2012-01-01

    Background Due to hybridization events in evolution, studying two different genes of a set of species may yield two related but different phylogenetic trees for the set of species. In this case, we want to combine the two phylogenetic trees into a hybridization network with the fewest hybridization events. This leads to three computational problems, namely, the problem of computing the minimum size of a hybridization network, the problem of constructing one minimum hybridization network, and the problem of enumerating a representative set of minimum hybridization networks. The previously best software tools for these problems (namely, Chen and Wang’s HybridNet and Albrecht et al.’s Dendroscope 3) run very slowly for large instances that cannot be reduced to relatively small instances. Indeed, when the minimum size of a hybridization network of two given trees is larger than 23 and the problem for the trees cannot be reduced to relatively smaller independent subproblems, then HybridNet almost always takes longer than 1 day and Dendroscope 3 often fails to complete. Thus, a faster software tool for the problems is in need. Results We develop a software tool in ANSI C, named FastHN, for the following problems: Computing the minimum size of a hybridization network, constructing one minimum hybridization network, and enumerating a representative set of minimum hybridization networks. We obtain FastHN by refining HybridNet with three ideas. The first idea is to preprocess the input trees so that the trees become smaller or the problem becomes to solve two or more relatively smaller independent subproblems. The second idea is to use a fast algorithm for computing the rSPR distance of two given phylognetic trees to cut more branches of the search tree in the exhaustive-search stage of the algorithm. The third idea is that during the exhaustive-search stage of the algorithm, we find two sibling leaves in one of the two forests (obtained from the given trees by cutting

  8. How Deep Was the Maunder Minimum?

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Zolotova, N. V.; Ponyavin, D. I.

    2016-08-01

    One of the most enigmatic features of the solar history is the Maunder minimum (MM). We analyze reports of solar observers from the group-sunspot-number database. Particular attention is given to short notes that resulted in an underestimation of the sunspot activity. These reports by Derham, Flamsteed, Hevelius, Picard, G.D. Cassini, and Fogel are found to address the absence of sunspots of great significance, which could signify a secular minimum with a majority of small short-lived spots. Up to Schwabe's discovery of the solar cycle, sunspots were considered as an irregular phenomenon; sunspot observations were not dedicated to the task of sunspot monitoring and counting. Here, we argue that the level of the solar activity in the past is significantly underestimated.

  9. Microbial ecology of expanding oxygen minimum zones.

    PubMed

    Wright, Jody J; Konwar, Kishori M; Hallam, Steven J

    2012-06-01

    Dissolved oxygen concentration is a crucial organizing principle in marine ecosystems. As oxygen levels decline, energy is increasingly diverted away from higher trophic levels into microbial metabolism, leading to loss of fixed nitrogen and to production of greenhouse gases, including nitrous oxide and methane. In this Review, we describe current efforts to explore the fundamental factors that control the ecological and microbial biodiversity in oxygen-starved regions of the ocean, termed oxygen minimum zones. We also discuss how recent advances in microbial ecology have provided information about the potential interactions in distributed co-occurrence and metabolic networks in oxygen minimum zones, and we provide new insights into coupled biogeochemical processes in the ocean.

  10. On finding minimum-diameter clique trees

    SciTech Connect

    Blair, J.R.S. . Dept. of Computer Science); Peyton, B.W. )

    1991-08-01

    It is well-known that any chordal graph can be represented as a clique tree (acyclic hypergraph, join tree). Since some chordal graphs have many distinct clique tree representations, it is interesting to consider which one is most desirable under various circumstances. A clique tree of minimum diameter (or height) is sometimes a natural candidate when choosing clique trees to be processed in a parallel computing environment. This paper introduces a linear time algorithm for computing a minimum-diameter clique tree. The new algorithm is an analogue of the natural greedy algorithm for rooting an ordinary tree in order to minimize its height. It has potential application in the development of parallel algorithms for both knowledge-based systems and the solution of sparse linear systems of equations. 31 refs., 7 figs.

  11. Bistable dielectric elastomer minimum energy structures

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Zhao, Jianwen; Wang, Shu; McCoul, David; Xing, Zhiguang; Huang, Bo; Liu, Liwu; Leng, Jinsong

    2016-07-01

    Dielectric elastomer minimum energy structures (DEMES) can realize large angular deformations by small voltage-induced strains, which make them an attractive candidate for use as soft actuators. If the task only needs binary action, the bistable structure will be an efficient solution and can save energy because it requires only a very short duration of voltage to switch its state. To obtain bistable DEMES, a method to realize the two stable states of traditional DEMES is provided in this paper. Based on this, a type of symmetrical bistable DEMES is proposed, and the required actuation pulse duration is shorter than 0.1 s. When a suitable mass is attached to end of the DEMES, or two layers of dielectric elastomer are affixed to both sides of the primary frame, the DEMES can realize two stable states and can be switched by a suitable pulse duration. To calculate the required minimum pulse duration, a mathematical model is provided and validated by experiment.

  12. Prescription dose in permanent {sup 131}Cs seed prostate implants

    SciTech Connect

    Yue Ning; Heron, Dwight E.; Komanduri, Krishna; Huq, M. Saiful

    2005-08-15

    Recently, {sup 131}Cs seeds have been introduced for prostate permanent seed implants. This type of seed has a relatively short half-life of 9.7 days and has its most prominent emitted photon energy peaks in the 29-34 keV region. Traditionally, 145 and 125 Gy have been prescribed for {sup 125}I and {sup 103}Pd seed prostate implants, respectively. Since both the half-life and dosimetry characteristics of {sup 131}Cs seed are quite different from those of {sup 125}I and {sup 103}Pd, the appropriate prescription dose for {sup 131}Cs seed prostate implant may well be different. This study was designed to use a linear quadratic radiobiological model to determine an appropriate dose prescription scheme for permanent {sup 131}Cs seed prostate implants. In this model, prostate edema was taken into consideration. Calculations were also performed for tumors of different doubling times and for other related radiobiological parameters of different values. As expected, the derived prescription dose values were dependent on type of tumors and types of edema. However, for prostate cancers in which tumor cells are relatively slow growing and are reported to have a mean potential doubling time of around 40 days, the appropriate prescription dose for permanent {sup 131}Cs seed prostate implants was determined to be: 127{sub -12}{sup +5}Gy if the experiences of {sup 125}I seed implants were followed and 121{sub -3}{sup +0}Gy if the experiences of {sup 103}Pd seed implants were followed.

  13. Could a future "Grand Solar Minimum" like the Maunder Minimum stop global warming?

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Meehl, Gerald A.; Arblaster, Julie M.; Marsh, Daniel R.

    2013-05-01

    A future Maunder Minimum type grand solar minimum, with total solar irradiance reduced by 0.25% over a 50 year period from 2020 to 2070, is imposed in a future climate change scenario experiment (RCP4.5) using, for the first time, a global coupled climate model that includes ozone chemistry and resolved stratospheric dynamics (Whole Atmosphere Community Climate Model). This model has been shown to simulate two amplifying mechanisms that produce regional signals of decadal climate variability comparable to observations, and thus is considered a credible tool to simulate the Sun's effects on Earth's climate. After the initial decrease of solar radiation in 2020, globally averaged surface air temperature cools relative to the reference simulation by up to several tenths of a degree Centigrade. By the end of the grand solar minimum in 2070, the warming nearly catches up to the reference simulation. Thus, a future grand solar minimum could slow down but not stop global warming.

  14. Minimum distortion quantizers. [determined by max algorithm

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Jones, H. W., Jr.

    1977-01-01

    The well-known algorithm of Max is used to determine the minimum distortion quantizers for normal, two-sided exponential, and specialized two-sided gamma input distributions and for mean-square, magnitude, and relative magnitude error distortion criteria. The optimum equally-spaced and unequally-spaced quantizers are found, with the resulting quantizer distortion and entropy. The quantizers, and the quantizers with entropy coding, are compared to the rate distortion bounds for mean-square and magnitude error.

  15. Is the new Grand minimum in progress?

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Zolotova, N. V.; Ponyavin, D. I.

    2014-05-01

    The sunspot numbers and polar faculae are analyzed to demonstrate that the current solar activity is close to the Grand minimum. Notably protracted Cycle 23 is found to be similar to the cycles on the eve of the Dalton and Gleissberg-Gnevyshev minima. The polar faculae as proxy of the polar field replicate variations of the sunspot cycle amplitude over the last 100 years. The weak sunspot activity of Cycle 24 is assumed to result in the weak polar field.

  16. Two variants of minimum discarded fill ordering

    SciTech Connect

    D'Azevedo, E.F. ); Forsyth, P.A.; Tang, Wei-Pai . Dept. of Computer Science)

    1991-01-01

    It is well known that the ordering of the unknowns can have a significant effect on the convergence of Preconditioned Conjugate Gradient (PCG) methods. There has been considerable experimental work on the effects of ordering for regular finite difference problems. In many cases, good results have been obtained with preconditioners based on diagonal, spiral or natural row orderings. However, for finite element problems having unstructured grids or grids generated by a local refinement approach, it is difficult to define many of the orderings for more regular problems. A recently proposed Minimum Discarded Fill (MDF) ordering technique is effective in finding high quality Incomplete LU (ILU) preconditioners, especially for problems arising from unstructured finite element grids. Testing indicates this algorithm can identify a rather complicated physical structure in an anisotropic problem and orders the unknowns in the preferred'' direction. The MDF technique may be viewed as the numerical analogue of the minimum deficiency algorithm in sparse matrix technology. At any stage of the partial elimination, the MDF technique chooses the next pivot node so as to minimize the amount of discarded fill. In this work, two efficient variants of the MDF technique are explored to produce cost-effective high-order ILU preconditioners. The Threshold MDF orderings combine MDF ideas with drop tolerance techniques to identify the sparsity pattern in the ILU preconditioners. These techniques identify an ordering that encourages fast decay of the entries in the ILU factorization. The Minimum Update Matrix (MUM) ordering technique is a simplification of the MDF ordering and is closely related to the minimum degree algorithm. The MUM ordering is especially for large problems arising from Navier-Stokes problems. Some interesting pictures of the orderings are presented using a visualization tool. 22 refs., 4 figs., 7 tabs.

  17. Minimum-time running: a numerical approach.

    PubMed

    Maroński, Ryszard; Rogowski, Krzysztof

    2011-01-01

    The article deals with the minimum-time running problem. The time of covering a given distance is minimized. The Hill-Keller model of running employed is based on Newton's second law and the equation of power balance. The problem is formulated in optimal control. The unknown function is the runner's velocity that varies with the distance. The problem is solved applying the direct Chebyshev's pseudospectral method.

  18. Minimum Contradiction Matrices in Whole Genome Phylogenies

    PubMed Central

    Thuillard, Marc

    2008-01-01

    Minimum contradiction matrices are a useful complement to distance-based phylogenies. A minimum contradiction matrix represents phylogenetic information under the form of an ordered distance matrix Yi, jn. A matrix element corresponds to the distance from a reference vertex n to the path (i, j). For an X-tree or a split network, the minimum contradiction matrix is a Robinson matrix. It therefore fulfills all the inequalities defining perfect order: Yi, jn ≥ Yi,kn, Yk jn ≥ Yk, In, i ≤ j ≤ k < n. In real phylogenetic data, some taxa may contradict the inequalities for perfect order. Contradictions to perfect order correspond to deviations from a tree or from a split network topology. Efficient algorithms that search for the best order are presented and tested on whole genome phylogenies with 184 taxa including many Bacteria, Archaea and Eukaryota. After optimization, taxa are classified in their correct domain and phyla. Several significant deviations from perfect order correspond to well-documented evolutionary events. PMID:19204821

  19. On the Minimum Induced Drag of Wings

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Bowers, Albion H.

    2011-01-01

    Of all the types of drag, induced drag is associated with the creation and generation of lift over wings. Induced drag is directly driven by the span load that the aircraft is flying at. The tools by which to calculate and predict induced drag we use were created by Ludwig Prandtl in 1903. Within a decade after Prandtl created a tool for calculating induced drag, Prandtl and his students had optimized the problem to solve the minimum induced drag for a wing of a given span, formalized and written about in 1920. This solution is quoted in textbooks extensively today. Prandtl did not stop with this first solution, and came to a dramatically different solution in 1932. Subsequent development of this 1932 solution solves several aeronautics design difficulties simultaneously, including maximum performance, minimum structure, minimum drag loss due to control input, and solution to adverse yaw without a vertical tail. This presentation lists that solution by Prandtl, and the refinements by Horten, Jones, Kline, Viswanathan, and Whitcomb.

  20. On the Minimum Induced Drag of Wings

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Bowers, Albion H.

    2010-01-01

    Of all the types of drag, induced drag is associated with the creation and generation of lift over wings. Induced drag is directly driven by the span load that the aircraft is flying at. The tools by which to calculate and predict induced drag we use were created by Ludwig Prandtl in 1903. Within a decade after Prandtl created a tool for calculating induced drag, Prandtl and his students had optimized the problem to solve the minimum induced drag for a wing of a given span, formalized and written about in 1920. This solution is quoted in textbooks extensively today. Prandtl did not stop with this first solution, and came to a dramatically different solution in 1932. Subsequent development of this 1932 solution solves several aeronautics design difficulties simultaneously, including maximum performance, minimum structure, minimum drag loss due to control input, and solution to adverse yaw without a vertical tail. This presentation lists that solution by Prandtl, and the refinements by Horten, Jones, Kline, Viswanathan, and Whitcomb

  1. The minimum entropy principle and task performance.

    PubMed

    Guastello, Stephen J; Gorin, Hillary; Huschen, Samuel; Peters, Natalie E; Fabisch, Megan; Poston, Kirsten; Weinberger, Kelsey

    2013-07-01

    According to the minimum entropy principle, efficient cognitive performance is produced with a neurocognitive strategy that involves a minimum of degrees of freedom. Although high performance is often regarded as consistent performance as well, some variability in performance still remains which allows the person to adapt to changing goal conditions or fatigue. The present study investigated the connection between performance, entropy in performance, and four task-switching strategies. Fifty-one undergraduates performed 7 different computer-based cognitive tasks producing sets of 49 responses under instructional conditions requiring task quotas or no quotas. The temporal patterns of performance were analyzed using orbital decomposition to extract pattern types and lengths, which were then compared with regard to Shannon entropy, topological entropy, and overall performance. Task switching strategies from a previous study were available for the same participants as well. Results indicated that both topological entropy and Shannon entropy were negatively correlated with performance. Some task-switching strategies produced lower entropy in performance than others. Stepwise regression showed that the top three predictors of performance were Shannon entropy and arithmetic and spatial abilities. Additional implications for the prediction of work performance with cognitive ability measurements and the applicability of the minimum entropy principle to multidimensional performance criteria and team work are discussed.

  2. Design for minimum energy in interstellar communication

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Messerschmitt, David G.

    2015-02-01

    Microwave digital communication at interstellar distances is the foundation of extraterrestrial civilization (SETI and METI) communication of information-bearing signals. Large distances demand large transmitted power and/or large antennas, while the propagation is transparent over a wide bandwidth. Recognizing a fundamental tradeoff, reduced energy delivered to the receiver at the expense of wide bandwidth (the opposite of terrestrial objectives) is advantageous. Wide bandwidth also results in simpler design and implementation, allowing circumvention of dispersion and scattering arising in the interstellar medium and motion effects and obviating any related processing. The minimum energy delivered to the receiver per bit of information is determined by cosmic microwave background alone. By mapping a single bit onto a carrier burst, the Morse code invented for the telegraph in 1836 comes closer to this minimum energy than approaches used in modern terrestrial radio. Rather than the terrestrial approach of adding phases and amplitudes increases information capacity while minimizing bandwidth, adding multiple time-frequency locations for carrier bursts increases capacity while minimizing energy per information bit. The resulting location code is simple and yet can approach the minimum energy as bandwidth is expanded. It is consistent with easy discovery, since carrier bursts are energetic and straightforward modifications to post-detection pattern recognition can identify burst patterns. Time and frequency coherence constraints leading to simple signal discovery are addressed, and observations of the interstellar medium by transmitter and receiver constrain the burst parameters and limit the search scope.

  3. 29 CFR 516.2 - Employees subject to minimum wage or minimum wage and overtime provisions pursuant to section 6...

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-07-01

    ... 29 Labor 3 2014-07-01 2014-07-01 false Employees subject to minimum wage or minimum wage and... Regulations Relating to Labor (Continued) WAGE AND HOUR DIVISION, DEPARTMENT OF LABOR REGULATIONS RECORDS TO BE KEPT BY EMPLOYERS General Requirements § 516.2 Employees subject to minimum wage or minimum...

  4. 29 CFR 516.2 - Employees subject to minimum wage or minimum wage and overtime provisions pursuant to section 6...

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-07-01

    ... 29 Labor 3 2010-07-01 2010-07-01 false Employees subject to minimum wage or minimum wage and... Regulations Relating to Labor (Continued) WAGE AND HOUR DIVISION, DEPARTMENT OF LABOR REGULATIONS RECORDS TO BE KEPT BY EMPLOYERS General Requirements § 516.2 Employees subject to minimum wage or minimum...

  5. 29 CFR 516.2 - Employees subject to minimum wage or minimum wage and overtime provisions pursuant to section 6...

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-07-01

    ... 29 Labor 3 2012-07-01 2012-07-01 false Employees subject to minimum wage or minimum wage and... Regulations Relating to Labor (Continued) WAGE AND HOUR DIVISION, DEPARTMENT OF LABOR REGULATIONS RECORDS TO BE KEPT BY EMPLOYERS General Requirements § 516.2 Employees subject to minimum wage or minimum...

  6. 29 CFR 516.2 - Employees subject to minimum wage or minimum wage and overtime provisions pursuant to section 6...

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-07-01

    ... 29 Labor 3 2011-07-01 2011-07-01 false Employees subject to minimum wage or minimum wage and... Regulations Relating to Labor (Continued) WAGE AND HOUR DIVISION, DEPARTMENT OF LABOR REGULATIONS RECORDS TO BE KEPT BY EMPLOYERS General Requirements § 516.2 Employees subject to minimum wage or minimum...

  7. 29 CFR 516.2 - Employees subject to minimum wage or minimum wage and overtime provisions pursuant to section 6...

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-07-01

    ... 29 Labor 3 2013-07-01 2013-07-01 false Employees subject to minimum wage or minimum wage and... Regulations Relating to Labor (Continued) WAGE AND HOUR DIVISION, DEPARTMENT OF LABOR REGULATIONS RECORDS TO BE KEPT BY EMPLOYERS General Requirements § 516.2 Employees subject to minimum wage or minimum...

  8. Measurement of intrinsic radioactive backgrounds from the 137Cs and U/Th chains in CsI(Tl) crystals

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Liu, Shu-Kui; Yue, Qian; Lin, Shin-Ted; Li, Yuan-Jing; Tang, Chang-Jian; Wong Tsz-King, Henry; Xing, Hao-Yang; Yang, Chao-Wen; Zhao, Wei; Zhu, Jing-Jun

    2015-04-01

    The inorganic CsI(Tl) crystal scintillator is a candidate anti-compton detector for the China Dark matter Experiment. Studying the intrinsic radiopurity of the CsI(Tl) crystal is an issue of major importance. The timing, energy and spatial correlations, as well as the capability of pulse shape discrimination provide powerful methods for the measurement of intrinsic radiopurities. The experimental design, detector performance and event-selection algorithms are described. A total of 359×3 kg-days data from three prototypes of CsI(Tl) crystals were taken at China Jinping Underground Laboratory (CJPL), which offers a good shielding environment. The contamination levels of internal isotopes from 137Cs, 232Th and 238U series, as well as the upper bounds of 235U series are reported. Identification of the whole α peaks from U/Th decay chains and derivation of those corresponding quenching factors are achieved. Supported by National Natural Science Foundation of China (11275107, 11175099)

  9. Effect of redox potential on fixation of sup 137 Cs in lake sediment

    SciTech Connect

    Pardue, J.H.; DeLaune, R.D.; Patrick, W.H. Jr.; Whitcomb, J.H. )

    1989-11-01

    Fixation of 137Cs was determined in lake sediment suspensions under controlled redox potentials in the laboratory. The activity of previously added 137Cs on various clay sites was determined by time-series selective extractions. Monovalent cations, particularly NH+4, were much more effective at displacing 137Cs than divalent cations or Na+. Ammonium ion (NH+4) and Na+ were used to extract 137Cs from selective and non-selective 137Cs-binding sites, respectively. The activity of water-soluble 137Cs and Na-extractable 137Cs was significantly higher under anaerobic redox conditions (-200 mV), when soluble NH+4 concentrations in the anaerobic suspensions were 1000 microM or higher. Activities of 137Cs were highest (initially 40-50% of the 137Cs added) on the NH+4-extractable site. Over the long term, activities of NH+4-extractable 137Cs decreased linearly to below 10% as 137Cs was fixed on inter-lattice sites. Water-soluble 137Cs was significantly correlated with Na-extractable 137Cs in short-term experiments, suggesting the existence of an equilibrium between the different clay sites. High concentrations of NH+4 under anaerobic redox conditions could shift this equilibrium, resulting in increases in water-soluble 137Cs and increases in the activities of 137Cs bound on non-selective clay sites. Additional studies are necessary to evaluate the interaction of 137Cs with sulfides, iron oxides, and other reactive chemical species which may attenuate 137Cs in sediment.

  10. Expression characteristics of CS-ACS1, CS-ACS2 and CS-ACS3, three members of the 1-aminocyclopropane-1-carboxylate synthase gene family in cucumber (Cucumis sativus L.) fruit under carbon dioxide stress.

    PubMed

    Mathooko, F M; Mwaniki, M W; Nakatsuka, A; Shiomi, S; Kubo, Y; Inaba, A; Nakamura, R

    1999-02-01

    We investigated the expression pattern of three 1-aminocyclopropane-1-carboxylate (ACC) synthase genes, CS-ACS1, CS-ACS2 and CS-ACS3 in cucumber (Cucumis sativus L.) fruit under CO2 stress. CO2 stress-induced ethylene production paralleled the accumulation of only CS-ACS1 transcripts which disappeared upon withdrawal of CO2. Cycloheximide inhibited the CO2 stress-induced ethylene production but superinduced the accumulation of CS-ACS1 transcript. At higher concentrations, cycloheximide also induced the accumulation of CS-ACS2 and CS-ACS3 transcripts. In the presence of CO2 and cycloheximide, the accumulation of CS-ACS2 transcript occurred within 1 h, disappeared after 3 h and increased greatly upon withdrawal of CO2. Inhibitors of protein kinase and types 1 and 2A protein phosphatases which inhibited and stimulated, respectively, CO2 stress-induced ethylene production had little effect on the expression of these genes. The results presented here identify CS-ACS1 as the main ACC synthase gene responsible for the increased ethylene biosynthesis in cucumber fruit under CO2 stress and suggest that this gene is a primary response gene and its expression is under negative control since it is expressed by treatment with cycloheximide. The results further suggest that the regulation of CO2 stress-induced ethylene biosynthesis by reversible protein phosphorylation does not result from enhanced ACC synthase transcription. PMID:10202812

  11. Contribution of Asian dust to atmospheric deposition of radioactive cesium ((137)Cs).

    PubMed

    Fukuyama, Taijiro; Fujiwara, Hideshi

    2008-11-01

    Both Asian dust (kosa) transported from the East Asian continent and locally suspended dust near monitoring sites contribute to the observed atmospheric deposition of (137)Cs in Japan. To estimate the relative contribution of these dust phenomena to the total (137)Cs deposition, we monitored weekly deposition of mineral particles and (137)Cs in spring. Deposition of (137)Cs from a single Asian dust event was 62.3 mBq m(-2) and accounted for 67% of the total (137)Cs deposition during the entire monitoring period. Furthermore, we found high (137)Cs specific activity in the Asian dust deposition sample. Although local dust events contributed to (137)Cs deposition, their contribution was considerably smaller than that of Asian dust. We conclude that the primary source of atmospheric (137)Cs in Japan is dust transported from the East Asian continent.

  12. Phytoremediation of stable Cs from solutions by Calendula alata, Amaranthus chlorostachys and Chenopodium album.

    PubMed

    Moogouei, Roxana; Borghei, Mehdi; Arjmandi, Reza

    2011-10-01

    Uptake rate of (133)Cs, at three different concentrations of CsCl, by Calendula alata, Amaranthus chlorostachys and Chenopodium album plants grown outdoors was studied. These plants grow abundantly in semi-arid regions and their varieties exist in many parts of the world. When exposed to lowest Cs concentration 68 percent Cs was remediated by Chenopodium album.(133)Cs accumulation in shoots of Amaranthus chlorostachys reached its highest value of 2146.2 mg kg(-1) at a (133)Cs supply level of 3.95 mg l(-1) of feed solution. The highest concentration ratio value was 4.89 for Amaranthus chlorostachys, whereas for the other tests it ranged from 0.74 to 3.33. Furthermore uptake of (133)Cs by all three species increased with increasing metal concentrations. The results also indicated that hydroponically grown Calendula alata, Amaranthus chlorostachys and Chenopodium album could be used as potential candidate plants for phytoremediation of solutions contaminated with Cs.

  13. Ba isotopic signature for early differentiation between Cs and Ba in natural fission reactors

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Hidaka, Hiroshi; Gauthier-Lafaye, François

    2008-08-01

    Ba isotopic studies of the Oklo and Bangombé natural fission reactors in east Gabon provide information on the geochemical behavior of radioactive Cs ( 135Cs and 137Cs) in a geological medium. Large isotopic deviations derived from fissiogenic Ba were found in chemical leachates of the reactor uraninites. The fissiogenic Ba isotopic patterns calculated by subtracting the non-fissiogenic component are classified into three types that show different magnifications of chemical fractionation between Cs and Ba. In addition, the isotopic signatures of fissiogenic 135Ba, 137Ba and 138Ba suggest an early differentiation between Cs and Ba of less than 20 years after the production of fissiogenic Cs and Ba. On the other hand, only small excesses of 135Ba ( ɛ < +1.8) and/or 137Ba ( ɛ < +1.3) were identified in some clay samples, which might have resulted from selective adsorption of 135Cs and 137Cs that migrated from the reactors by differentiation.

  14. Ablation of CsI by XUV Capillary Discharge Laser

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Pira, Peter; Zelinger, Zdenek; Burian, Tomas; Vysin, Ludek; Wild, Jan; Juha, Libor; Lancok, Jan; Nevrly, Vaclav

    2015-09-01

    XUV capillary discharge laser (CDL) is suitable source for ablation of ionic crystals as material which is difficult to ablate by conventional laser. Single crystal of CsI was irradiated by 2.5 ns pulses of a 46.9 nm radiation at 2 Hz. The CDL beam was focused by Sc/Si multilayer spherical mirror. Attenuation length of CsI for this wavelength is 38 nm. Ablation rate was calculated after irradiation of 10, 20, 30, 50 and 100 pulses. Depth of the craters was measured by optical profiler (white light interferometry). Ablation threshold was determined from craters after irradiation with the changing fluence and compared with modeling by XUV-ABLATOR.

  15. Pretreatment/Radionuclide Separations of Cs/Tc from Supernates

    SciTech Connect

    Thompson, M.C.

    1998-09-01

    Significant improvements have been made in ion exchange and solvent extraction materials and processes available for separation of the radionuclides cesium and technetium from both acid and alkaline waste solutions. New ion exchange materials and solvent extraction reagents are more selective for Cs over sodium and potassium than previous materials. The higher selectivity gives higher Cs capacity and improved separation processes. Technetium removal has been improved by new ion exchange resins, which have either improved capacity or easier elution. Several different crown ethers have been shown to extract pertechnetate ion selectively over other anions. Organic complexants in some waste solutions reduce pertechnetate ion and stabilize the reduced species. Selective oxidation allows conversion to pertechnetate without oxidation of the organic complexants.

  16. Absorption spectra of shocked liquid CS/sub 2/

    SciTech Connect

    Dallman, J.C.

    1985-01-01

    The importance of shock initiation of high explosives (HE) was understood as early as 1863 when Alfred Nobel introduced the detonator as a means of detonating nitroglycerine. The critical pressure rise times required to achieve shock initiation and steady propagation of detonation are determined by the chemical and mechanical properties of an explosive. Although progress has been made in the understanding of the effects of mechanical properties, the detailed effects of high pressures on chemical reaction mechanisms are still only poorly understood. This paper reports the results of two experiments using CS/sub 2/, which is known to undergo electronic state transitions when shocked to high pressures. The goal of these experiments was to examine the known shock-generated expansion of CS/sub 2/ absorption bands while generating the shocks with a flyer plate system driven by high explosives.

  17. Photoemission from Ag, Cu, and CsI

    SciTech Connect

    Srinivasan-Rao, T.; Fischer, J.; Tsang, T.

    1992-06-01

    Photoemission characteristics of three different cathodes, CsI, Ag film and Cu were investigated. CsI, upon irradiation by 213 nm, 10ps laser pulse yields a quantum efficiency of 4% at O.2{mu}J input energy. The saturation mechanism observed at higher input energies require further investigation. Ag film, upon irradiation by 630 nm, 300 fs laser emit prompt photoelectrons after absorbing 2 photons. There was no evidence of optical damage of the film up to 10{sup 11} W/cm{sup 2}. At low intensities, photoemission from Cu is a simple {nu}-e{sup {minus}} interaction, the nonlinearity of the process depending strongly on trace impurities. At higher intensities, there appears to be a change in the emission mechanism.

  18. [Effect of soil microflora on 137Cs transition to plants].

    PubMed

    Pareniuk, O Yu; Shavanova, K E; Ilienko, V V; Tytova, L V; Levchuk, S E; Gudkov, I N

    2015-01-01

    The impact of certain types of microorganisms on 137Cs transfer from the substrate into the plant was analyzed in the experiment on artificial mediums. It was found that certain types of microorganisms could either reduce or increase the ratio of 137Cs transfer from the substrate to the plant. It is shown that this property is independent of the localization of the microorganism on the surface of the root, for all the analyzed bacteria belonging to the rhizospheric group. Azotobacter chroococcum UKM B-6003 stimulated the radionuclide transfer to plants up to 1.5 times, while the best bacteria for reducing its accumulation is Burkholderia sp IMER-B1 -53 - 1.3 times in comparison with the control. It was shown that the strain Bacillus megaterium UKM B-5724 from the collection of the Institute of Microbiology and Virology of NASU has a high ability to accumulate radionuclides.

  19. Interlaboratory comparison on 137Cs activity concentration in fume dust

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Tzika, Faidra; Hult, Mikael; Burda, Oleksiy; Arnold, Dirk; Sibbens, Goedele; Caro Marroyo, Belén; Gómez-Mancebo, Maria Belén; Peyrés, Virginia; Moser, Hannah; Ferreux, Laurent; Šolc, Jaroslav; Dryák, Pavel; Fazio, Aldo; Luca, Aurelian; Vodenik, Branko; Reis, Mario; Tyminski, Zbigniew; Klemola, Seppo

    2015-11-01

    A comparison was conducted, between 11 European National Metrology Institutes and EC-JRC, on measurement of 137Cs activity concentration in fume dust. As test material an activity standard produced from real contaminated fume dust was used. The standard material consisted of 13 cylindrical samples of compressed fume dust. The material contained 137Cs and 60Co of reference activity concentrations of (9.72±0.10) Bq/g and (0.450±0.018) Bq/g, respectively, for the reference date of 1 June 2013, determined using the comparison results. The organization and results of the intercomparison, as well as the process of obtaining reliable reference values are presented.

  20. Minimum energy information fusion in sensor networks

    SciTech Connect

    Chapline, G

    1999-05-11

    In this paper we consider how to organize the sharing of information in a distributed network of sensors and data processors so as to provide explanations for sensor readings with minimal expenditure of energy. We point out that the Minimum Description Length principle provides an approach to information fusion that is more naturally suited to energy minimization than traditional Bayesian approaches. In addition we show that for networks consisting of a large number of identical sensors Kohonen self-organization provides an exact solution to the problem of combing the sensor outputs into minimal description length explanations.

  1. Effect of tree thinning and litter removal on the radiocesium (Cs-134, 137) discharge rates in the Kawauchi forest plantation (Fukushima Prefecture, northern Japan)

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    López-Vicente, Manuel; Onda, Yuichi; Takahashi, Junko; Kato, Hiroaki; Hisadome, Keigo

    2016-04-01

    were collected every three weeks. Litter removal and tree thinning were done twice. The minimum of ground and vegetation coverages occurred in May and June 2013 and between February and April 2014. The maximum coverages appeared in September-October 2013 and between July and September 2014. The radioactivities of Cs-134 and Cs-137 were determined in the soil and litter fractions by gamma-ray spectrometry. Emissions were measured using a high purity n-type Ge coaxial detector coupled to an amplified and multichannel analyser at the CRiED laboratory of the University of Tsukuba. The activity concentration (Bq / kg) of Cs-134 and Cs-137 were calculated as well as the inventory (Bq / m2) and daily inventory (Bq / m2 day) of Cs-137. A total of 70 correlations were analysed: between the dry weight of the leaf and soil and the corresponding activity of Cs-134 and Cs-137 as well as between the total movement and total daily movement of leaf and soil and the inventory and daily inventory of Cs-137. The amount of soil and caesium movement in the experimental slopes was considerably decreased in the year 2014 than in 2013 due to the vegetation recovery after the operations in each plot.

  2. Evaluation of Resonance Ionization Mass Spectrometry for the Determination of 135Cs / 137Cs Isotope Ratios in Low-Level Samples

    SciTech Connect

    Pibida, L.; Nortershauser, W.; Hutchinson, J.M.R.; Bushaw, Bruce A.

    2001-01-01

    Determination of the ratio of 135Cs / 137Cs radioisotopes using resonance ionization mass spectrometry (RIMS) has been evaluated for measurements requiring extreme background suppression characteristics. Single-resonance excitation of Cs 6s 2S1/2 (F = 4) ® 6p 2P3/2 (F¢ = 5) with an extended cavity diode laser was followed by photoionization with the 488 nm line of an argon ion laser. While the principal objective was to avoid isobaric interferences, an optical selectivity of ~ 3 orders of magnitude against stable 133Cs was attained for both 135Cs and 137Cs. The overall RIMS efficiency was found to be ~ 2´10-6 with a combined (mass spectrometer and laser) selectivity of ~ 1010. The performance with respect to efficiency, selectivity, and isobar suppression has been compared to conventional thermal ionization mass spectrometry (TIMS). Measurements to determine the chronological age of a burn-up sample have been performed using both methods.

  3. Duration Test Report for the Viryd CS8 Wind Turbine

    SciTech Connect

    Roadman, J.; Murphy, M.; van Dam, J.

    2013-06-01

    This report summarizes the results of a duration noise test that the National Renewable Energy Laboratory (NREL) conducted on the Viryd CS8 wind turbine. This test was conducted in accordance with Clause 9.4 of the International Electrotechnical Commission's (IEC) standard, Wind turbines - Part 2: Design requirements for small wind turbines, IEC 61400-2 Ed. 2.0:2006-03. NREL researchers evaluated the turbine based on structural integrity and material degradation, quality of environmental protection, and dynamic behavior.

  4. High gradient rf gun studies of CsBr photocathodes

    DOE PAGES

    Vecchione, Theodore; Maldonado, Juan R.; Gierman, Stephen; Corbett, Jeff; Hartmann, Nick; Pianetta, Piero A.; Hesselink, Lambertus; Schmerge, John F.

    2015-04-03

    CsBr photocathodes have 10 times higher quantum efficiency with only 3 times larger intrinsic transverse emittance than copper. They are robust and can withstand 80 MV/m fields without breaking down or emitting dark current. They can operate in 2×10⁻⁹ torr vacuum and survive exposure to air. They are well suited for generating high pulse charge in rf guns without a photocathode transfer system.

  5. High gradient rf gun studies of CsBr photocathodes

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Vecchione, Theodore; Maldonado, Juan R.; Gierman, Stephen; Corbett, Jeff; Hartmann, Nick; Pianetta, Piero A.; Hesselink, Lambertus; Schmerge, John F.

    2015-04-01

    CsBr photocathodes have 10 times higher quantum efficiency with only 3 times larger intrinsic transverse emittance than copper. They are robust and can withstand 80 MV /m fields without breaking down or emitting dark current. They can operate in 2 ×10-9 torr vacuum and survive exposure to air. They are well suited for generating high pulse charge in rf guns without a photocathode transfer system.

  6. Protection from Extinction by Concurrent Presentation of an Excitor or an Extensively Extinguished CS

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Pineno, Oskar

    2007-01-01

    One conditioned taste aversion experiment with rats assessed the impact of extinguishing a target conditioned stimulus (CS), S, in compound with a second CS, A, upon conditioned responding elicited by CS S when presented alone at test. Following initial conditioning treatment with CSs A and S, the experiment manipulated number of extinction trials…

  7. Elastic scattering of electrons from Rb, Cs and Fr atoms

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Gangwar, R. K.; Tripathi, A. N.; Sharma, L.; Srivastava, R.

    2010-04-01

    Differential, integrated elastic, momentum-transfer and total cross sections as well as differential S, T and U spin parameters for scattering of electrons from rubidium, caesium and francium atoms in the incident energy range up to 300 eV are calculated using a relativistic Dirac equation. The projectile electron-target atom interaction is represented by both real and complex parameter-free optical potentials for obtaining the solution of a Dirac equation for scattered electrons. The Dirac-Fock wavefunctions have been used to represent the Rb, Cs and Fr target atoms. The results of differential cross sections and spin asymmetry parameter S for e-Rb and e-Cs have been compared with the available experimental and theoretical results. Detailed results are reported for the elastic scattering of electrons from the ground states of a francium atom for the first time in the wide range of incident electron energies. The results of electron-Fr elastic scattering show the similar features to those obtained in the case of e-Rb and e-Cs elastic scattering.

  8. The USMLE Step 2 CS: Time for a change.

    PubMed

    Alvin, Matthew D

    2016-08-01

    The United States Medical Licensing Examination (USMLE(®)) Steps are a series of mandatory licensing assessments for all allopathic (MD degree) medical students in their transition from student to intern to resident physician. Steps 1, 2 Clinical Knowledge (CK), and 3 are daylong multiple-choice exams that quantify a medical student's basic science and clinical knowledge as well as their application of that knowledge using a three-digit score. In doing so, these Steps provide a standardized assessment that residency programs use to differentiate applicants and evaluate their competitiveness. Step 2 Clinical Skills (CS), the only other Step exam and the second component of Step 2, was created in 2004 to test clinical reasoning and patient-centered skills. As a Pass/Fail exam without a numerical scoring component, Step 2 CS provides minimal differentiation among applicants for residency programs. In this personal view article, it is argued that the current Step 2 CS exam should be eliminated for US medical students and propose an alternative consistent with the mission and purpose of the exam that imposes less of a burden on medical students.

  9. Matched field localization based on CS-MUSIC algorithm

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Guo, Shuangle; Tang, Ruichun; Peng, Linhui; Ji, Xiaopeng

    2016-04-01

    The problem caused by shortness or excessiveness of snapshots and by coherent sources in underwater acoustic positioning is considered. A matched field localization algorithm based on CS-MUSIC (Compressive Sensing Multiple Signal Classification) is proposed based on the sparse mathematical model of the underwater positioning. The signal matrix is calculated through the SVD (Singular Value Decomposition) of the observation matrix. The observation matrix in the sparse mathematical model is replaced by the signal matrix, and a new concise sparse mathematical model is obtained, which means not only the scale of the localization problem but also the noise level is reduced; then the new sparse mathematical model is solved by the CS-MUSIC algorithm which is a combination of CS (Compressive Sensing) method and MUSIC (Multiple Signal Classification) method. The algorithm proposed in this paper can overcome effectively the difficulties caused by correlated sources and shortness of snapshots, and it can also reduce the time complexity and noise level of the localization problem by using the SVD of the observation matrix when the number of snapshots is large, which will be proved in this paper.

  10. Electron Impact Ionization Cross Sections in Rb and Cs.

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Reddish, T. J.; Lukomski, M.; Sutton, S.; Kedzierski, W.; McConkey, J. W.; Bartschat, K.; Bartlett, P. L.; Stelbovics, A. T.; Bray, I.

    2006-05-01

    We present a new atom trapping technique for determining absolute, total ionisation cross sections (TICS) out of an excited atom. The novel feature of this method is in utilizing Doppler cooling of neutral atoms to determine ionisation cross sections. This fluorescence-monitoring experiment, which is a variant of the `trap loss' technique, has enabled us to obtain the experimental electron impact ionisation cross sections out of the Cs 6^2P3/2 excited state between 7 - 400 eV. New CCC, R-Matrix with Pseudo-States (RMPS), and Born approximation single ionisation cross sections (SICS) are also presented for both the ground and excited states of Cs and Rb, and compared with the available experimental data. The comparison of the results reveals the importance of the autoionisation and multiple ionisation contributions to the TICS. The autoionisation contribution appears to be substantial for ionisation out of the Cs 6^2P and Rb 5^2P excited states; ˜ 3-4 larger than the direct ionisation contribution predicted by CCC at ˜ 30-50 eV. This surprising result shows the importance of multi-electron processes in determining the ionisation cross sections of heavy alkali atoms.

  11. A (137)Cs erosion model with moving boundary.

    PubMed

    Yin, Chuan; Ji, Hongbing

    2015-12-01

    A novel quantitative model of the relationship between diffused concentration changes and erosion rates using assessment of soil losses was developed. It derived from the analysis of surface soil (137)Cs flux variation under persistent erosion effect and based on the principle of geochemistry kinetics moving boundary. The new moving boundary model improves the basic simplified transport model (Zhang et al., 2008), and mainly applies to uniform rainfall areas which show a long-time soil erosion. The simulation results for this kind of erosion show under a long-time soil erosion, the influence of (137)Cs concentration will decrease exponentially with increasing depth. Using the new model fit to the measured (137)Cs depth distribution data in Zunyi site, Guizhou Province, China which has typical uniform rainfall provided a good fit with R(2) = 0.92. To compare the soil erosion rates calculated by the simple transport model and the new model, we take the Kaixian reference profile as example. The soil losses estimated by the previous simplified transport model are greater than those estimated by the new moving boundary model, which is consistent with our expectations. PMID:26327366

  12. Uptake of 137Cs and 90Sr in rice plants.

    PubMed

    Leung, J K C; Shang, Z R

    2003-02-01

    In order to study the transfer of water-borne 137Cs and 90Sr into rice plants, pot experiments were done by growing rice plants on soils taken from rice beds near two nuclear power plants: Qinshan Nuclear Power Plant and Daya Bay Nuclear Power Plant in China. The vertical migration of 137Cs and 90Sr in the soil samples was studied, and results show that almost all the contaminants were retained in the top 1 cm of soil with at most a few percent down to 3 cm of soil. The areal transfer factors of 137Cs and 90Sr were studied by adding various activity concentrations of the two radionuclides to the irrigation water and then measuring the activity concentration in the various rice tissues. The areal transfer factors were also analyzed for their dependence on soil characteristics, time and duration of the contamination. The areal transfer factors obtained in this study refer to the absorption of the fallout nuclides deposited in the irrigation water in a rice field as opposed to other studies that deal with uniform activity concentration in the soils.

  13. A (137)Cs erosion model with moving boundary.

    PubMed

    Yin, Chuan; Ji, Hongbing

    2015-12-01

    A novel quantitative model of the relationship between diffused concentration changes and erosion rates using assessment of soil losses was developed. It derived from the analysis of surface soil (137)Cs flux variation under persistent erosion effect and based on the principle of geochemistry kinetics moving boundary. The new moving boundary model improves the basic simplified transport model (Zhang et al., 2008), and mainly applies to uniform rainfall areas which show a long-time soil erosion. The simulation results for this kind of erosion show under a long-time soil erosion, the influence of (137)Cs concentration will decrease exponentially with increasing depth. Using the new model fit to the measured (137)Cs depth distribution data in Zunyi site, Guizhou Province, China which has typical uniform rainfall provided a good fit with R(2) = 0.92. To compare the soil erosion rates calculated by the simple transport model and the new model, we take the Kaixian reference profile as example. The soil losses estimated by the previous simplified transport model are greater than those estimated by the new moving boundary model, which is consistent with our expectations.

  14. Microstructure of Cs-implanted zirconia: Role of temperature

    SciTech Connect

    Vincent, L.; Thome, L.; Garrido, F.; Kaitasov, O.; Houdelier, F.

    2008-12-01

    The aim of this study was to identify experimentally the phase which includes cesium in yttria stabilized zirconia (YSZ). The solubility and retention of cesium in YSZ were studied at high temperature (HT). Cesium was ion implanted (at 300 keV) into YSZ at room temperature (RT), 750 deg. C, or 900 deg. C at fluences up to 5x10{sup 16} cm{sup -2}. The temperature dependence of the radiation-induced damage and of the cesium distribution in YSZ single crystals was investigated by Rutherford backscattering spectrometry and ion channeling. Transmission electron microscopy (TEM) studies were performed in order to determine the damage nature and search for a predicted ternary phase of cesium zirconate. Whatever the implantation temperature, the thickness of the damaged layer increases inwards with ion fluence. At RT, amorphization occurs, caused by the high Cs concentration (7 at. %). In situ TEM during postannealing shows recrystallization of cubic zirconia after release of cesium. A high implantation temperature has a significant influence on the nature of radiation defects and on the retained Cs concentration. At HT, dislocation loops and voids are formed but no amorphization is observed whereas polygonization occurs at high fluence. The implanted cesium concentration reaches a saturation value of 1.5 at. % above which Cs can no longer be retained in the matrix and is then released at the surface. At that concentration, cesium forms a solid solution in YSZ; no other phase is formed, neither during irradiation nor after thermal annealing.

  15. The Rorschach Comprehensive System (CS) Psychometric Validity of Individual Variables.

    PubMed

    Tibon Czopp, Shira; Zeligman, Ruth

    2016-01-01

    Since the publication of the Rorschach Inkblot Method (Rorschach, 1921/1942 ), theorists, researchers, and practitioners have been debating the nature of the task, its conceptual foundation, and most important its psychometric properties. The validity of the Rorschach Comprehensive System (CS; Exner, 1974 , 2003; Exner & Weiner, 1995 ) has been supported by several meta-analyses that used different types of nontest external criterion for validating individual variables. In a recent meta-analysis, Mihura, Meyer, Dumitrascu, and Bombel ( 2013 ) found coefficients ranging from modest to excellent for most of the selected CS variables, with 13 of them reported as showing "little to no support." This article focuses on these variables. Although endorsing Mihura et al.'s mainly validating findings, we also suggest that the evidence presented for the little or no validity of these 13 variables is not quite compelling enough to warrant changing their definition or coding, or removing them from the system. We point to some issues concerning the description and interpretation of these variables and the appropriateness of the external criteria used for exploring their validity, and suggest considering these issues in further CS research. Implications of Mihura et al.'s meta-analysis for clinical and forensic practice are discussed. PMID:27153465

  16. A retrieved upper limit of CS in Neptune's atmosphere

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Iino, T.; Mizuno, A.; Nagahama, T.; Hirota, A.; Nakajima, T.

    2012-12-01

    We present our new result of CS(J=7-6), CO(J=3-2) observations of Neptune's atmosphere carried out with 10-m ASTE sub-mm waveband telescope on August 2010. As a result, while CS line was not detected with 6.4 mK 1-sigma r.m.s. noise level, CO line was detected as 282 mK with 9.7 mK noise level in antenna temperature scale. All of the observations were carried out with 512 MHz bandwidth and 500 kHz resolution, the total integration time for CS and CO were 23 m 40 s and 11 m 00 s, respectively. Abundances have been obtained from the comparison between the intensity and the synthesis spectra modeled by plane parallel 1-D radiative transfer code assuming various mixing ratio of each gas. The retrieved upper limit of CS mixing ratio was 0.03 ppb throughout tropopause to stratosphere. CO mixing ratio have been retrieved 1.0 ppm with errors +0.3 and -0.2 ppm, and the result was consistent with previous observation [1]. The origin of abundant CO in Neptune's atmosphere has been long discussed since its mixing ratio is 30 - 500 times higher than the value of other gas giants [2][3][4]. Assuming that all of CO is produced by thermochemical equilibrium process in deep interior of Neptune, required O/H value in interior is 440 times higher than the solar value [5]. For this reason, it is claimed that the external CO supply source, such as the impact of comet or asteroid, is also the possible candidates of the origin of CO along with the internal supply source [6]. In this observation, we searched the remnant gas of cometary impact in Neptune's atmosphere. Along with CO and HCN, CS could be one of the possible candidate of the remnant gas of cometary impact since CS was largely produced after the impact of comet SL/9 on Jupiter while many other major sulfur compounds have not been detected. Actually, derived < 0.00003 [CS]/[CO] value from our observations is 1000 times more smaller than the value of Jupiter of 0.037 [7]. Our observation result shows the depletion of CS in

  17. Functional and Biochemical Characterization of Cucumber Genes Encoding Two Copper ATPases CsHMA5.1 and CsHMA5.2*

    PubMed Central

    Migocka, Magdalena; Posyniak, Ewelina; Maciaszczyk-Dziubinska, Ewa; Papierniak, Anna; Kosieradzaka, Anna

    2015-01-01

    Plant copper P1B-type ATPases appear to be crucial for maintaining copper homeostasis within plant cells, but until now they have been studied mostly in model plant systems. Here, we present the molecular and biochemical characterization of two cucumber copper ATPases, CsHMA5.1 and CsHMA5.2, indicating a different function for HMA5-like proteins in different plants. When expressed in yeast, CsHMA5.1 and CsHMA5.2 localize to the vacuolar membrane and are activated by monovalent copper or silver ions and cysteine, showing different affinities to Cu+ (Km ∼1 or 0.5 μm, respectively) and similar affinity to Ag+ (Km ∼2.5 μm). Both proteins restore the growth of yeast mutants sensitive to copper excess and silver through intracellular copper sequestration, indicating that they contribute to copper and silver detoxification. Immunoblotting with specific antibodies revealed the presence of CsHMA5.1 and CsHMA5.2 in the tonoplast of cucumber cells. Interestingly, the root-specific CsHMA5.1 was not affected by copper stress, whereas the widely expressed CsHMA5.2 was up-regulated or down-regulated in roots upon copper excess or deficiency, respectively. The copper-induced increase in tonoplast CsHMA5.2 is consistent with the increased activity of ATP-dependent copper transport into tonoplast vesicles isolated from roots of plants grown under copper excess. These data identify CsHMA5.1 and CsHMA5.2 as high affinity Cu+ transporters and suggest that CsHMA5.2 is responsible for the increased sequestration of copper in vacuoles of cucumber root cells under copper excess. PMID:25963145

  18. Free energy of formation of Cs{sub 3}PuCl{sub 6} and CsPu{sub 2}Cl{sub 7}

    SciTech Connect

    Willamson, M.A.; Kleinschmidt, P.D.

    1992-09-01

    The free energy, enthalpy and entropy of formation of the compounds Cs{sub 3}PuCl{sub 6} and CsPu{sub 2}Cl{sub 7} have been determined by measuring the sublimation pressures for the reactions: CsCl(s) = CsCl(g), 2/5 Cs{sub 3}PuCl{sub 6}(s) = 1/5 CsPu{sub 2}Cl{sub 7}(s) + CsCl(g), and CsPu{sub 2}Cl{sub 7}(s) = 2 PuCl{sub 3}(s) + CsCl(g). The pressures are measured using Knudsen effusion mass spectrometry over the temperature range 600 to 850 K. For the formation of Cs{sub 3}PuCl{sub 6} from CsCl and PuCl{sub 3}, {Delta}G{sub 298}{sup 0} = {minus}77.3 +/{minus} 8.5 kJ/mole, {Delta}H{sub 298}{sup 0} = {minus}82.1 +/{minus} 7.8 kJ mole, and {Delta}S{sup 298}{sup 0} = {minus}16.2 +/{minus} 10.9 J/K mole. For CsPu{sub 2}Cl{sub 7}, {Delta}G{sub 298}{sup 0} = {minus}39.4 +/{minus} 3.5 kJ/mole, {Delta}H{sub 298}{sup 0} = {minus}40.8 +/{minus} 3.2 kJ/mole, and {Delta}S{sub 298}{sup 0} = {minus}4.6 +/{minus} 4.2 J/K mole.

  19. Free energy of formation of Cs sub 3 PuCl sub 6 and CsPu sub 2 Cl sub 7

    SciTech Connect

    Willamson, M.A.; Kleinschmidt, P.D.

    1992-01-01

    The free energy, enthalpy and entropy of formation of the compounds Cs{sub 3}PuCl{sub 6} and CsPu{sub 2}Cl{sub 7} have been determined by measuring the sublimation pressures for the reactions: CsCl(s) = CsCl(g), 2/5 Cs{sub 3}PuCl{sub 6}(s) = 1/5 CsPu{sub 2}Cl{sub 7}(s) + CsCl(g), and CsPu{sub 2}Cl{sub 7}(s) = 2 PuCl{sub 3}(s) + CsCl(g). The pressures are measured using Knudsen effusion mass spectrometry over the temperature range 600 to 850 K. For the formation of Cs{sub 3}PuCl{sub 6} from CsCl and PuCl{sub 3}, {Delta}G{sub 298}{sup 0} = {minus}77.3 +/{minus} 8.5 kJ/mole, {Delta}H{sub 298}{sup 0} = {minus}82.1 +/{minus} 7.8 kJ mole, and {Delta}S{sup 298}{sup 0} = {minus}16.2 +/{minus} 10.9 J/K mole. For CsPu{sub 2}Cl{sub 7}, {Delta}G{sub 298}{sup 0} = {minus}39.4 +/{minus} 3.5 kJ/mole, {Delta}H{sub 298}{sup 0} = {minus}40.8 +/{minus} 3.2 kJ/mole, and {Delta}S{sub 298}{sup 0} = {minus}4.6 +/{minus} 4.2 J/K mole.

  20. Constrained length minimum inductance gradient coil design.

    PubMed

    Chronik, B A; Rutt, B K

    1998-02-01

    A gradient coil design algorithm capable of controlling the position of the homogeneous region of interest (ROI) with respect to the current-carrying wires is required for many advanced imaging and spectroscopy applications. A modified minimum inductance target field method that allows the placement of a set of constraints on the final current density is presented. This constrained current minimum inductance method is derived in the context of previous target field methods. Complete details are shown and all equations required for implementation of the algorithm are given. The method has been implemented on computer and applied to the design of both a 1:1 aspect ratio (length:diameter) central ROI and a 2:1 aspect ratio edge ROI gradient coil. The 1:1 design demonstrates that a general analytic method can be used to easily obtain very short gradient coil designs for use with specialized magnet systems. The edge gradient design demonstrates that designs that allow imaging of the neck region with a head sized gradient coil can be obtained, as well as other applications requiring edge-of-cylinder regions of uniformity.

  1. Axisymmetric inlet minimum weight design method

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Nadell, Shari-Beth

    1995-01-01

    An analytical method for determining the minimum weight design of an axisymmetric supersonic inlet has been developed. The goal of this method development project was to improve the ability to predict the weight of high-speed inlets in conceptual and preliminary design. The initial model was developed using information that was available from inlet conceptual design tools (e.g., the inlet internal and external geometries and pressure distributions). Stiffened shell construction was assumed. Mass properties were computed by analyzing a parametric cubic curve representation of the inlet geometry. Design loads and stresses were developed at analysis stations along the length of the inlet. The equivalent minimum structural thicknesses for both shell and frame structures required to support the maximum loads produced by various load conditions were then determined. Preliminary results indicated that inlet hammershock pressures produced the critical design load condition for a significant portion of the inlet. By improving the accuracy of inlet weight predictions, the method will improve the fidelity of propulsion and vehicle design studies and increase the accuracy of weight versus cost studies.

  2. Minimum fan turbine inlet temperature mode evaluation

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Orme, John S.; Nobbs, Steven G.

    1995-01-01

    Measured reductions in turbine temperature which resulted from the application of the F-15 performance seeking control (PSC) minimum fan turbine inlet temperature (FTIT) mode during the dual-engine test phase is presented as a function of net propulsive force and flight condition. Data were collected at altitudes of 30,000 and 45,000 feet at military and partial afterburning power settings. The FTIT reductions for the supersonic tests are less than at subsonic Mach numbers because of the increased modeling and control complexity. In addition, the propulsion system was designed to be optimized at the mid supersonic Mach number range. Subsonically at military power, FTIT reductions were above 70 R for either the left or right engines, and repeatable for the right engine. At partial afterburner and supersonic conditions, the level of FTIT reductions were at least 25 R and as much as 55 R. Considering that the turbine operates at or very near its temperature limit at these high power settings, these seemingly small temperature reductions may significantly lengthen the life of the turbine. In general, the minimum FTIT mode has performed well, demonstrating significant temperature reductions at military and partial afterburner power. Decreases of over 100 R at cruise flight conditions were identified. Temperature reductions of this magnitude could significantly extend turbine life and reduce replacement costs.

  3. Effects of gamma-ray irradiation on leaching of simulated 133Cs+ radionuclides from geopolymer wasteforms

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Deng, Ning; An, Hao; Cui, Hao; Pan, Yang; Wang, Bing; Mao, Linqiang; Zhai, Jianping

    2015-04-01

    Leaching of simulated 133Cs+ radionuclides from geopolymer wasteforms was examined with regard to effects from gamma-ray irradiation. Specifically, the compressive strengths, microstructures, pore structures, and leaching resistance of geopolymer wasteforms before and after irradiation were characterized. The leaching experiments were performed by immersion of wasteforms in deionized water, ground water, and seawater. It was found that gamma rays did not produce significant morphological changes, except for changes in the pore size distribution. The cumulative leaching fraction of all the leachants from the irradiated samples increased relative to the non-radiated samples, particularly during long leaching periods (11-42 days). These results, and those from a mercury intrusion porosimeter analysis, can be attributed to irradiation-induced changes in pore structure. All the leaching indexes were greater than the minimum acceptable value of 6.0 set by the American Nuclear Society Standards committee, which indicated that the fly-ash geopolymers are suitable for radionuclide immobilization. However, the effects of gamma-ray irradiation on the immobilization of radionuclides cannot be ignored.

  4. Dry deposition velocity of 137Cs and 134Cs in Spain after the Fukushima Dai-Ichi Nuclear Power Plant accident.

    PubMed

    Vargas, A; Camacho, A; Laubenstein, M; Plastino, W

    2016-03-01

    Aerosol samples collected at the Technical University of Catalonia in Barcelona were analysed for traces of 134Cs and 137Cs emitted during the Fukushima Dai-ichi Nuclear Power Plant accident in March 2011. Samples were collected with a high-volume airborne particulate sampling system, and with a dry and wet deposition collection system for subsequent analysis. Due to the very low activities, the filters were measured in an underground ultra-low background laboratory. This has enabled the characterization of dry velocity deposition for 134Cs and 137Cs. Results show a dry velocity deposition of 0.07 cm s−1. PMID:27358945

  5. Ingestion doses in Finland due to (90)Sr, (134)Cs, and (137)Cs from nuclear weapons testing and the Chernobyl accident.

    PubMed

    Rantavaara, A

    2008-11-01

    (90)Sr and (137)Cs in domestic foodstuffs and water have been analysed in Finland since the early 1960s, and (134)Cs since 1986. Using data on radionuclide deposition levels, agricultural production, and the processing and consumption of foodstuffs, the average intake and radiation dose from the ingestion of these radionuclides have been assessed. The estimated committed effective dose from the ingestion of (90)Sr, (137)Cs, and (134)Cs in food and water for the period 1960-2005 is 2.2 mSv, and for the period since the Chernobyl accident in 1986 it is 1.3 mSv.

  6. Atmospheric flux, transport and mass balance of (210)Pb and (137)Cs radiotracers in different regions of Romania.

    PubMed

    Begy, R Cs; Kovacs, T; Veres, D; Simon, H

    2016-05-01

    This study focuses on the determination of (210)Pb and (137)Cs fluxes from different areas in Transylvania, Romania and on the determination of transport and mass balance within the lacustrine system of Red Lake. In order to achieve this, samples were taken from six different locations (Bihor County area, Ighiel area, Red Lake area, Mluha Peatbog, Mohos Peatbog and Zanoaga Rosie Peat bog in the Semenic Mountains) throughout Romania, these being compared to the values of the Danube Delta area. The activity concentrations of the soil samples were measured by gamma spectrometry (HPGe detector) for both (210)Pbtotal, (210)Pbsup ((226)Ra) and (137)Cs, while peat samples were measured by both alpha ((210)Po) spectrometry (PIPS detectors) as well. The mean value for the (210)Pb flux was measured in the Danube Delta region (42±8Bqm(-2) yr(-1)), while the highest was measured in the Semenic Peatbog (227±54Bqm(-2) yr(-1)); the average being 132±8Bqm(-2) yr(-1). In case of (137)Cs the mean was 298±3Bqm(-2) yr(-1), maximum being 1683±15Bqm(-2) yr(-1) in case of Ighiel area and minimum being 32±1Bqm(-2) yr(-1) in the Danube Delta region. In case of the Red Lake, from the total inventory of 410±23Bqm(-2) yr(-1) in the sediments, the loss by outflows is 100±12Bqm(-2) yr(-1), the catchment to lake transfer factor being 0.84%. PMID:26922393

  7. Quantum spin transport through magnetic superatom dimer (Cs{sub 8}V-Cs{sub 8}V)

    SciTech Connect

    Zhu Lin; Khanna, Shiv N.

    2012-10-28

    Theoretical studies of the spin transport through a magnetic superatom dimer (Cs{sub 8}V)-(Cs{sub 8}V) have been carried out within a density functional theory combined with nonequilibrium Green's-function formalism. It is shown that the electronic transport is sensitive to the binding site as well as the contact distance between the dimer and the electrode, and that the conductance at zero bias exhibits an oscillatory behavior as a function of the contact distance. The conductance in ferromagnetic state shows an unusually high spin polarization that exceeds 80% at large separations. The I-V curve shows negative differential resistance for specific contact distances, whose origin lies in the shift of frontier energy levels as well as the charged state of the superatom, under external bias.

  8. [Rapid determination of 137Cs in environmental samples--purification of 137Cs by ammonium molybdophosphate column separation].

    PubMed

    Nonaka, N; Sato, K; Higuchi, H; Hamaguchi, H

    1976-10-01

    A rapid method for the determination of 137Cs in environmental samples was proposed. The principal technic employed in this study is based on column separation of 137Cs using ammonium molybdophosphate mixed with glass fiber to eliminate contribution of natural radionuclides such as 40K and 87Rb. The separation of cesium from potassium and rubidium was performed by the elution with 0.5m ammonium nitrate solution. The time required for separation of cesium was five hours as compared with the conventional cation exchange separation which required thirteen hours. The chemical yield of cesium carrier was normally more than 90 percent. The results obtained were compared with that by the conventional methods using Bio-Rex cation exchange separation and the good agreement between the two methods was obtained. PMID:1037401

  9. 12 CFR 3.10 - Minimum capital requirements.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-01-01

    ... individual assessment of numerous factors, including those listed at this section (national banks), 12 CFR... Capital Ratio Requirements and Buffers § 3.10 Minimum capital requirements. (a) Minimum...

  10. 50 CFR 648.124 - Minimum fish sizes.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-10-01

    ... 50 Wildlife and Fisheries 8 2010-10-01 2010-10-01 false Minimum fish sizes. 648.124 Section 648... Scup Fishery § 648.124 Minimum fish sizes. (a) The minimum size for scup is 9 inches (22.9 cm) TL for... charter boat, or more than five crew members if a party boat. (c) The minimum size applies to whole...

  11. 12 CFR 3.6 - Minimum capital ratios.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-01-01

    ... 12 Banks and Banking 1 2012-01-01 2012-01-01 false Minimum capital ratios. 3.6 Section 3.6 Banks and Banking COMPTROLLER OF THE CURRENCY, DEPARTMENT OF THE TREASURY MINIMUM CAPITAL RATIOS; ISSUANCE OF DIRECTIVES Minimum Capital Ratios § 3.6 Minimum capital ratios. (a) Risk-based capital ratio. All national banks must have and maintain the...

  12. 12 CFR 3.6 - Minimum capital ratios.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-01-01

    ... 12 Banks and Banking 1 2013-01-01 2013-01-01 false Minimum capital ratios. 3.6 Section 3.6 Banks and Banking COMPTROLLER OF THE CURRENCY, DEPARTMENT OF THE TREASURY MINIMUM CAPITAL RATIOS; ISSUANCE OF DIRECTIVES Minimum Capital Ratios § 3.6 Minimum capital ratios. (a) Risk-based capital ratio. All national banks must have and maintain the...

  13. Control of competence by related non-coding csRNAs in Streptococcus pneumoniae R6

    PubMed Central

    Laux, Anke; Sexauer, Anne; Sivaselvarajah, Dineshan; Kaysen, Anne; Brückner, Reinhold

    2015-01-01

    The two-component regulatory system CiaRH of Streptococcus pneumoniae is involved in β-lactam resistance, maintenance of cell integrity, bacteriocin production, host colonization, virulence, and competence. The response regulator CiaR controls, among other genes, expression of five highly similar small non-coding RNAs, designated csRNAs. These csRNAs control competence development by targeting comC, encoding the precursor of the competence stimulating peptide, which is essential to initiate the regulatory cascade leading to competence. In addition, another gene product of the CiaR regulon, the serine protease HtrA, is also involved in competence control. In the absence of HtrA, five csRNAs could suppress competence, but one csRNA alone was not effective. To determine if all csRNAs are needed, reporter gene fusions to competence genes were used to monitor competence gene expression in the presence of different csRNAs. These experiments showed that two csRNAs were not enough to prevent competence, but combinations of three csRNAs, csRNA1,2,3, or csRNA1,2,4 were sufficient. In S. pneumoniae strains expressing only csRNA5, a surprising positive effect was detected on the level of early competence gene expression. Hence, the role of the csRNAs in competence regulation is more complex than anticipated. Mutations in comC (comC8) partially disrupting predicted complementarity to the csRNAs led to competence even in the presence of all csRNAs. Reconstitution of csRNA complementarity to comC8 restored competence suppression. Again, more than one csRNA was needed. In this case, even two mutated csRNAs complementary to comC8, csRNA1–8 and csRNA2–8, were suppressive. In conclusion, competence in S. pneumoniae is additively controlled by the csRNAs via post-transcriptional regulation of comC. PMID:26257773

  14. Effect of selective sorptive agents on leachability of {sup 137}Cs and {sup 90}Sr

    SciTech Connect

    Spence, R.D.

    1998-06-01

    Decades ago it was established that illite effectively improves {sup 137}Cs leach resistance. Subsequently, illite has become a standard ingredient used at Oak Ridge National Laboratory in grouts developed to stabilize {sup 137}Cs. Adding illite improves {sup 137}Cs leach resistance by three orders of magnitude, and increasing the illite concentration can add another order of magnitude improvement. Adding crystalline silicotitanate, a selective sorptive agent developed more recently for {sup 137}Cs, not only improves {sup 137}Cs leach resistance by an order-of-magnitude over that obtained using illite but also improves {sup 85}Sr leach resistance by two orders of magnitude.

  15. The minimum scale of grooving on faults

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Candela, T.; Brodsky, E. E.

    2015-12-01

    The roughness of fault surfaces is the fingerprint of past slip events and a major parameter controlling the resistance to slip. The most obvious slip indicator and record of tractions are the grooves and striations with elongate axes in the direction of slip. We focus on this roughness feature by analyzing the micro-roughness of slip surfaces from natural and experimental fault zones at scales of several millimeters down to one micron. For each topographic map acquired by White Light Interferometry, an average Fourier spectrum is computed in the slip parallel and slip perpendicular direction seeking to define the scale dependence of the roughness anisotropy. We show that natural and experimental fault surfaces have a minimum scale of grooving at 4-500 micrometers. Below this scale, fault surfaces are isotropic. We have systematically measured this minimum scale of grooving on 42 topographic maps of eight different natural fault zones and 25 topographic maps of nine experimental fault zones. Our results are interpreted in terms of the aspect ratio H/L with H the average asperity height and L the observation scale. This aspect ratio is proportional to the strain necessary to completely flatten the asperities. H/L systematically increases with the decreasing of L. The transition between anisotropic and isotropic is well predicted by a critical aspect ratio. With the scale of observation decreasing the grooves become steeper and once they reach a critical aspect ratio they fail. At all scales, evidence of failure of the slip surfaces are observed and we interpret the minimum scale of grooving as a manifestation of the change in deformation mode from brittle- to plastic-dominated. As the scale of observation decreases, the aspect ratio of the grooves increases and the resulting higher stress concentrations at micro-asperities favor plasticity. The transition is dependent on the rock properties and faulting history, and for each fault one unique critical aspect ratio

  16. 47 CFR 73.807 - Minimum distance separation between stations.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-10-01

    ... 47 Telecommunication 4 2011-10-01 2011-10-01 false Minimum distance separation between stations... separation between stations. Minimum separation requirements for LP100 and LP10 stations, as defined in §§ 73... these separations are met. Minimum distances for co-channel and first-adjacent channel are...

  17. 47 CFR 73.807 - Minimum distance separation between stations.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-10-01

    ... 47 Telecommunication 4 2010-10-01 2010-10-01 false Minimum distance separation between stations... separation between stations. Minimum separation requirements for LP100 and LP10 stations, as defined in §§ 73... these separations are met. Minimum distances for co-channel and first-adjacent channel are...

  18. 14 CFR 91.177 - Minimum altitudes for IFR operations.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-01-01

    ... 14 Aeronautics and Space 2 2012-01-01 2012-01-01 false Minimum altitudes for IFR operations. 91... Instrument Flight Rules § 91.177 Minimum altitudes for IFR operations. (a) Operation of aircraft at minimum altitudes. Except when necessary for takeoff or landing, or unless otherwise authorized by the FAA,...

  19. 14 CFR 91.177 - Minimum altitudes for IFR operations.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-01-01

    ... 14 Aeronautics and Space 2 2011-01-01 2011-01-01 false Minimum altitudes for IFR operations. 91... Instrument Flight Rules § 91.177 Minimum altitudes for IFR operations. (a) Operation of aircraft at minimum altitudes. Except when necessary for takeoff or landing, or unless otherwise authorized by the FAA,...

  20. 14 CFR 91.177 - Minimum altitudes for IFR operations.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-01-01

    ... 14 Aeronautics and Space 2 2013-01-01 2013-01-01 false Minimum altitudes for IFR operations. 91... Instrument Flight Rules § 91.177 Minimum altitudes for IFR operations. (a) Operation of aircraft at minimum altitudes. Except when necessary for takeoff or landing, or unless otherwise authorized by the FAA,...

  1. 10 CFR 862.6 - Voluntary minimum altitude.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-01-01

    ... 10 Energy 4 2011-01-01 2011-01-01 false Voluntary minimum altitude. 862.6 Section 862.6 Energy... § 862.6 Voluntary minimum altitude. In addition to complying with all applicable FAA prohibitions or restrictions, aircraft are requested to maintain a minimum altitude of 2,000 feet above the terrain of...

  2. 10 CFR 862.6 - Voluntary minimum altitude.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-01-01

    ... 10 Energy 4 2012-01-01 2012-01-01 false Voluntary minimum altitude. 862.6 Section 862.6 Energy... § 862.6 Voluntary minimum altitude. In addition to complying with all applicable FAA prohibitions or restrictions, aircraft are requested to maintain a minimum altitude of 2,000 feet above the terrain of...

  3. 10 CFR 862.6 - Voluntary minimum altitude.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-01-01

    ... 10 Energy 4 2014-01-01 2014-01-01 false Voluntary minimum altitude. 862.6 Section 862.6 Energy... § 862.6 Voluntary minimum altitude. In addition to complying with all applicable FAA prohibitions or restrictions, aircraft are requested to maintain a minimum altitude of 2,000 feet above the terrain of...

  4. 14 CFR 91.177 - Minimum altitudes for IFR operations.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-01-01

    ... 14 Aeronautics and Space 2 2014-01-01 2014-01-01 false Minimum altitudes for IFR operations. 91... Instrument Flight Rules § 91.177 Minimum altitudes for IFR operations. (a) Operation of aircraft at minimum altitudes. Except when necessary for takeoff or landing, or unless otherwise authorized by the FAA,...

  5. 10 CFR 862.6 - Voluntary minimum altitude.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-01-01

    ... 10 Energy 4 2013-01-01 2013-01-01 false Voluntary minimum altitude. 862.6 Section 862.6 Energy... § 862.6 Voluntary minimum altitude. In addition to complying with all applicable FAA prohibitions or restrictions, aircraft are requested to maintain a minimum altitude of 2,000 feet above the terrain of...

  6. 27 CFR 19.184 - Scale tank minimum graduations.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-04-01

    ... pounds (b) For scales having a capacity greater than 2,000 pounds, the minimum quantity which may be... 27 Alcohol, Tobacco Products and Firearms 1 2014-04-01 2014-04-01 false Scale tank minimum... Requirements Tank Requirements § 19.184 Scale tank minimum graduations. (a) The beams or dials on scale...

  7. 27 CFR 19.184 - Scale tank minimum graduations.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-04-01

    ... pounds (b) For scales having a capacity greater than 2,000 pounds, the minimum quantity which may be... 27 Alcohol, Tobacco Products and Firearms 1 2012-04-01 2012-04-01 false Scale tank minimum... Requirements Tank Requirements § 19.184 Scale tank minimum graduations. (a) The beams or dials on scale...

  8. 27 CFR 19.184 - Scale tank minimum graduations.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-04-01

    ... pounds (b) For scales having a capacity greater than 2,000 pounds, the minimum quantity which may be... 27 Alcohol, Tobacco Products and Firearms 1 2011-04-01 2011-04-01 false Scale tank minimum... Requirements Tank Requirements § 19.184 Scale tank minimum graduations. (a) The beams or dials on scale...

  9. 27 CFR 19.184 - Scale tank minimum graduations.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-04-01

    ... pounds (b) For scales having a capacity greater than 2,000 pounds, the minimum quantity which may be... 27 Alcohol, Tobacco Products and Firearms 1 2013-04-01 2013-04-01 false Scale tank minimum... Requirements Tank Requirements § 19.184 Scale tank minimum graduations. (a) The beams or dials on scale...

  10. 12 CFR 263.82 - Establishment of minimum capital levels.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-01-01

    ... Maintain Adequate Capital § 263.82 Establishment of minimum capital levels. The Board has established minimum capital levels for state member banks and bank holding companies in its Capital Adequacy... 12 Banks and Banking 3 2010-01-01 2010-01-01 false Establishment of minimum capital levels....

  11. 50 CFR 648.126 - Scup minimum fish sizes.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-10-01

    ... 50 Wildlife and Fisheries 12 2013-10-01 2013-10-01 false Scup minimum fish sizes. 648.126 Section... Scup Fishery § 648.126 Scup minimum fish sizes. (a) Moratorium (commercially) permitted vessels. The... whole fish or any part of a fish found in possession, e.g., fillets. These minimum sizes may be...

  12. 50 CFR 648.93 - Monkfish minimum fish sizes.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-10-01

    ... 50 Wildlife and Fisheries 10 2011-10-01 2011-10-01 false Monkfish minimum fish sizes. 648.93... Measures for the NE Multispecies and Monkfish Fisheries § 648.93 Monkfish minimum fish sizes. (a) General... fish size requirements established in this section. Minimum Fish Sizes (Total Length/Tail Length)...

  13. 50 CFR 648.165 - Bluefish minimum fish sizes.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-10-01

    ... 50 Wildlife and Fisheries 12 2012-10-01 2012-10-01 false Bluefish minimum fish sizes. 648.165... Measures for the Atlantic Bluefish Fishery § 648.165 Bluefish minimum fish sizes. If the MAFMC determines through its annual review or framework adjustment process that minimum fish sizes are necessary to...

  14. 50 CFR 648.165 - Bluefish minimum fish sizes.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-10-01

    ... 50 Wildlife and Fisheries 12 2014-10-01 2014-10-01 false Bluefish minimum fish sizes. 648.165... Measures for the Atlantic Bluefish Fishery § 648.165 Bluefish minimum fish sizes. If the MAFMC determines through its annual review or framework adjustment process that minimum fish sizes are necessary to...

  15. 50 CFR 648.162 - Minimum fish sizes.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-10-01

    ... 50 Wildlife and Fisheries 8 2010-10-01 2010-10-01 false Minimum fish sizes. 648.162 Section 648... Atlantic Bluefish Fishery § 648.162 Minimum fish sizes. If the Council determines through its annual review or framework adjustment process that minimum fish sizes are necessary to assure that the...

  16. 50 CFR 648.165 - Bluefish minimum fish sizes.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-10-01

    ... 50 Wildlife and Fisheries 12 2013-10-01 2013-10-01 false Bluefish minimum fish sizes. 648.165... Measures for the Atlantic Bluefish Fishery § 648.165 Bluefish minimum fish sizes. If the MAFMC determines through its annual review or framework adjustment process that minimum fish sizes are necessary to...

  17. 50 CFR 648.104 - Summer flounder minimum fish sizes.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-10-01

    ... 50 Wildlife and Fisheries 12 2014-10-01 2014-10-01 false Summer flounder minimum fish sizes. 648... Measures for the Summer Flounder Fisheries § 648.104 Summer flounder minimum fish sizes. (a) Moratorium... minimum sizes in this section apply to whole fish or to any part of a fish found in possession,...

  18. 50 CFR 648.104 - Summer flounder minimum fish sizes.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-10-01

    ... 50 Wildlife and Fisheries 12 2013-10-01 2013-10-01 false Summer flounder minimum fish sizes. 648... Measures for the Summer Flounder Fisheries § 648.104 Summer flounder minimum fish sizes. (a) Moratorium... minimum sizes in this section apply to whole fish or to any part of a fish found in possession,...

  19. 50 CFR 648.93 - Monkfish minimum fish sizes.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-10-01

    ... 50 Wildlife and Fisheries 12 2014-10-01 2014-10-01 false Monkfish minimum fish sizes. 648.93... Measures for the NE Multispecies and Monkfish Fisheries § 648.93 Monkfish minimum fish sizes. (a) General provisions. All monkfish caught by vessels issued a valid Federal monkfish permit must meet the minimum...

  20. 50 CFR 648.162 - Minimum fish sizes.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-10-01

    ... 50 Wildlife and Fisheries 10 2011-10-01 2011-10-01 false Minimum fish sizes. 648.162 Section 648... Atlantic Bluefish Fishery § 648.162 Minimum fish sizes. Link to an amendment published at 76 FR 60639, Sept... minimum fish sizes are necessary to assure that the fishing mortality rate is not exceeded, or to...

  1. 50 CFR 648.126 - Scup minimum fish sizes.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-10-01

    ... 50 Wildlife and Fisheries 12 2014-10-01 2014-10-01 false Scup minimum fish sizes. 648.126 Section... Scup Fishery § 648.126 Scup minimum fish sizes. (a) Moratorium (commercially) permitted vessels. The... whole fish or any part of a fish found in possession, e.g., fillets. These minimum sizes may be...

  2. 50 CFR 648.103 - Minimum fish sizes.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-10-01

    ... 50 Wildlife and Fisheries 10 2011-10-01 2011-10-01 false Minimum fish sizes. 648.103 Section 648... Summer Flounder Fisheries § 648.103 Minimum fish sizes. Link to an amendment published at 76 FR 60628... members. (c) The minimum sizes in this section apply to whole fish or to any part of a fish found...

  3. 24 CFR 232.586 - Minimum principal loan amount.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-04-01

    ... 24 Housing and Urban Development 2 2010-04-01 2010-04-01 false Minimum principal loan amount. 232... of Fire Safety Equipment Eligible Security Instruments § 232.586 Minimum principal loan amount. A... subpart, that the principal amount of the mortgage exceed a minimum amount established by the...

  4. 29 CFR 102.172 - Minimum referral amount.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-07-01

    ... 29 Labor 2 2010-07-01 2010-07-01 false Minimum referral amount. 102.172 Section 102.172 Labor... Procedures By Federal Income Tax Refund Offset § 102.172 Minimum referral amount. The minimum amount of a... business debtors. The amount referred may include the principal portion of the debt, as well as any...

  5. 29 CFR 20.105 - Minimum referral amount.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-07-01

    ... 29 Labor 1 2011-07-01 2011-07-01 false Minimum referral amount. 20.105 Section 20.105 Labor Office... referral amount. The IRS annually establishes the minimum amount for debts otherwise eligible for referral. Minimum referral amounts are established separately for individual debts and business debts, as set...

  6. 24 CFR 242.92 - Minimum principal loan amount.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-04-01

    ... 24 Housing and Urban Development 2 2010-04-01 2010-04-01 false Minimum principal loan amount. 242... MORTGAGE INSURANCE FOR HOSPITALS Miscellaneous Requirements § 242.92 Minimum principal loan amount. A..., that the principal amount of the mortgage exceed a minimum amount established by the mortgagee....

  7. 14 CFR 23.1513 - Minimum control speed.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-01-01

    ... 14 Aeronautics and Space 1 2012-01-01 2012-01-01 false Minimum control speed. 23.1513 Section 23.1513 Aeronautics and Space FEDERAL AVIATION ADMINISTRATION, DEPARTMENT OF TRANSPORTATION AIRCRAFT... Information § 23.1513 Minimum control speed. The minimum control speed V MC, determined under § 23.149,...

  8. 14 CFR 25.1513 - Minimum control speed.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-01-01

    ... 14 Aeronautics and Space 1 2014-01-01 2014-01-01 false Minimum control speed. 25.1513 Section 25.1513 Aeronautics and Space FEDERAL AVIATION ADMINISTRATION, DEPARTMENT OF TRANSPORTATION AIRCRAFT... Limitations § 25.1513 Minimum control speed. The minimum control speed V MC determined under § 25.149 must...

  9. 14 CFR 25.1513 - Minimum control speed.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-01-01

    ... 14 Aeronautics and Space 1 2012-01-01 2012-01-01 false Minimum control speed. 25.1513 Section 25.1513 Aeronautics and Space FEDERAL AVIATION ADMINISTRATION, DEPARTMENT OF TRANSPORTATION AIRCRAFT... Limitations § 25.1513 Minimum control speed. The minimum control speed V MC determined under § 25.149 must...

  10. 14 CFR 23.1513 - Minimum control speed.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-01-01

    ... 14 Aeronautics and Space 1 2010-01-01 2010-01-01 false Minimum control speed. 23.1513 Section 23.1513 Aeronautics and Space FEDERAL AVIATION ADMINISTRATION, DEPARTMENT OF TRANSPORTATION AIRCRAFT... Information § 23.1513 Minimum control speed. The minimum control speed V MC, determined under § 23.149,...

  11. 14 CFR 29.49 - Performance at minimum operating speed.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-01-01

    ... 14 Aeronautics and Space 1 2012-01-01 2012-01-01 false Performance at minimum operating speed. 29... minimum operating speed. (a) For each Category A helicopter, the hovering performance must be determined... than helicopters, the steady rate of climb at the minimum operating speed must be determined over...

  12. 14 CFR 27.49 - Performance at minimum operating speed.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-01-01

    ... 14 Aeronautics and Space 1 2012-01-01 2012-01-01 false Performance at minimum operating speed. 27... minimum operating speed. (a) For helicopters— (1) The hovering ceiling must be determined over the ranges... climb at the minimum operating speed must be determined over the ranges of weight, altitude,...

  13. 14 CFR 29.49 - Performance at minimum operating speed.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-01-01

    ... 14 Aeronautics and Space 1 2010-01-01 2010-01-01 false Performance at minimum operating speed. 29... minimum operating speed. (a) For each Category A helicopter, the hovering performance must be determined... than helicopters, the steady rate of climb at the minimum operating speed must be determined over...

  14. 14 CFR 23.1513 - Minimum control speed.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-01-01

    ... 14 Aeronautics and Space 1 2011-01-01 2011-01-01 false Minimum control speed. 23.1513 Section 23.1513 Aeronautics and Space FEDERAL AVIATION ADMINISTRATION, DEPARTMENT OF TRANSPORTATION AIRCRAFT... Information § 23.1513 Minimum control speed. The minimum control speed V MC, determined under § 23.149,...

  15. 14 CFR 25.1513 - Minimum control speed.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-01-01

    ... 14 Aeronautics and Space 1 2010-01-01 2010-01-01 false Minimum control speed. 25.1513 Section 25.1513 Aeronautics and Space FEDERAL AVIATION ADMINISTRATION, DEPARTMENT OF TRANSPORTATION AIRCRAFT... Limitations § 25.1513 Minimum control speed. The minimum control speed V MC determined under § 25.149 must...

  16. 14 CFR 29.49 - Performance at minimum operating speed.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-01-01

    ... 14 Aeronautics and Space 1 2013-01-01 2013-01-01 false Performance at minimum operating speed. 29... minimum operating speed. (a) For each Category A helicopter, the hovering performance must be determined... than helicopters, the steady rate of climb at the minimum operating speed must be determined over...

  17. 14 CFR 25.1513 - Minimum control speed.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-01-01

    ... 14 Aeronautics and Space 1 2013-01-01 2013-01-01 false Minimum control speed. 25.1513 Section 25.1513 Aeronautics and Space FEDERAL AVIATION ADMINISTRATION, DEPARTMENT OF TRANSPORTATION AIRCRAFT... Limitations § 25.1513 Minimum control speed. The minimum control speed V MC determined under § 25.149 must...

  18. 14 CFR 23.1513 - Minimum control speed.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-01-01

    ... 14 Aeronautics and Space 1 2013-01-01 2013-01-01 false Minimum control speed. 23.1513 Section 23.1513 Aeronautics and Space FEDERAL AVIATION ADMINISTRATION, DEPARTMENT OF TRANSPORTATION AIRCRAFT... Information § 23.1513 Minimum control speed. The minimum control speed V MC, determined under § 23.149,...

  19. 14 CFR 25.1513 - Minimum control speed.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-01-01

    ... 14 Aeronautics and Space 1 2011-01-01 2011-01-01 false Minimum control speed. 25.1513 Section 25.1513 Aeronautics and Space FEDERAL AVIATION ADMINISTRATION, DEPARTMENT OF TRANSPORTATION AIRCRAFT... Limitations § 25.1513 Minimum control speed. The minimum control speed V MC determined under § 25.149 must...

  20. 14 CFR 29.49 - Performance at minimum operating speed.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-01-01

    ... 14 Aeronautics and Space 1 2014-01-01 2014-01-01 false Performance at minimum operating speed. 29... minimum operating speed. (a) For each Category A helicopter, the hovering performance must be determined... than helicopters, the steady rate of climb at the minimum operating speed must be determined over...

  1. 14 CFR 27.49 - Performance at minimum operating speed.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-01-01

    ... 14 Aeronautics and Space 1 2011-01-01 2011-01-01 false Performance at minimum operating speed. 27... minimum operating speed. (a) For helicopters— (1) The hovering ceiling must be determined over the ranges... climb at the minimum operating speed must be determined over the ranges of weight, altitude,...

  2. 14 CFR 27.49 - Performance at minimum operating speed.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-01-01

    ... 14 Aeronautics and Space 1 2010-01-01 2010-01-01 false Performance at minimum operating speed. 27... minimum operating speed. (a) For helicopters— (1) The hovering ceiling must be determined over the ranges... climb at the minimum operating speed must be determined over the ranges of weight, altitude,...

  3. 14 CFR 29.49 - Performance at minimum operating speed.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-01-01

    ... 14 Aeronautics and Space 1 2011-01-01 2011-01-01 false Performance at minimum operating speed. 29... minimum operating speed. (a) For each Category A helicopter, the hovering performance must be determined... than helicopters, the steady rate of climb at the minimum operating speed must be determined over...

  4. 14 CFR 27.49 - Performance at minimum operating speed.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-01-01

    ... 14 Aeronautics and Space 1 2013-01-01 2013-01-01 false Performance at minimum operating speed. 27... minimum operating speed. (a) For helicopters— (1) The hovering ceiling must be determined over the ranges... climb at the minimum operating speed must be determined over the ranges of weight, altitude,...

  5. 14 CFR 27.49 - Performance at minimum operating speed.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-01-01

    ... 14 Aeronautics and Space 1 2014-01-01 2014-01-01 false Performance at minimum operating speed. 27... minimum operating speed. (a) For helicopters— (1) The hovering ceiling must be determined over the ranges... climb at the minimum operating speed must be determined over the ranges of weight, altitude,...

  6. 14 CFR 23.1513 - Minimum control speed.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-01-01

    ... 14 Aeronautics and Space 1 2014-01-01 2014-01-01 false Minimum control speed. 23.1513 Section 23.1513 Aeronautics and Space FEDERAL AVIATION ADMINISTRATION, DEPARTMENT OF TRANSPORTATION AIRCRAFT... Information § 23.1513 Minimum control speed. The minimum control speed V MC, determined under § 23.149,...

  7. 7 CFR 953.43 - Minimum standards of quality.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-01-01

    ... 7 Agriculture 8 2011-01-01 2011-01-01 false Minimum standards of quality. 953.43 Section 953.43... SOUTHEASTERN STATES Order Regulating Handling Regulations § 953.43 Minimum standards of quality. (a) Recommendation. Whenever the committee deems it advisable to establish and maintain minimum standards of...

  8. 7 CFR 4290.830 - Minimum term of Financing.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-01-01

    ... 7 Agriculture 15 2011-01-01 2011-01-01 false Minimum term of Financing. 4290.830 Section 4290.830... Financing of Enterprises by RBICs Structuring Rbic Financing of Eligible Enterprises-Types of Financings § 4290.830 Minimum term of Financing. (a) General rule. The minimum term of each of your Financings...

  9. 29 CFR 505.3 - Prevailing minimum compensation.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-07-01

    ... 29 Labor 3 2010-07-01 2010-07-01 false Prevailing minimum compensation. 505.3 Section 505.3 Labor... HUMANITIES § 505.3 Prevailing minimum compensation. (a)(1) In the absence of an alternative determination...)(2) of this section, the prevailing minimum compensation required to be paid under the Act to...

  10. 9 CFR 147.51 - Authorized laboratory minimum requirements.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-01-01

    ... 9 Animals and Animal Products 1 2010-01-01 2010-01-01 false Authorized laboratory minimum... Authorized Laboratories and Approved Tests § 147.51 Authorized laboratory minimum requirements. These minimum requirements are intended to be the basis on which an authorized laboratory of the Plan can be evaluated...

  11. 9 CFR 147.51 - Authorized laboratory minimum requirements.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-01-01

    ... 9 Animals and Animal Products 1 2011-01-01 2011-01-01 false Authorized laboratory minimum... Authorized Laboratories and Approved Tests § 147.51 Authorized laboratory minimum requirements. These minimum requirements are intended to be the basis on which an authorized laboratory of the Plan can be evaluated...

  12. 9 CFR 147.51 - Authorized laboratory minimum requirements.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-01-01

    ... 9 Animals and Animal Products 1 2014-01-01 2014-01-01 false Authorized laboratory minimum... Authorized Laboratories and Approved Tests § 147.51 Authorized laboratory minimum requirements. These minimum requirements are intended to be the basis on which an authorized laboratory of the Plan can be evaluated...

  13. 29 CFR 783.43 - Computation of seaman's minimum wage.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-07-01

    ... 29 Labor 3 2011-07-01 2011-07-01 false Computation of seaman's minimum wage. 783.43 Section 783.43...'s minimum wage. Section 6(b) requires, under paragraph (2) of the subsection, that an employee...'s minimum wage requirements by reason of the 1961 Amendments (see §§ 783.23 and 783.26)....

  14. 29 CFR 4.159 - General minimum wage.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-07-01

    ... 29 Labor 1 2013-07-01 2013-07-01 false General minimum wage. 4.159 Section 4.159 Labor Office of... General minimum wage. The Act, in section 2(b)(1), provides generally that no contractor or subcontractor... a contract less than the minimum wage specified under section 6(a)(1) of the Fair Labor...

  15. 29 CFR 4.159 - General minimum wage.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-07-01

    ... 29 Labor 1 2010-07-01 2010-07-01 true General minimum wage. 4.159 Section 4.159 Labor Office of... General minimum wage. The Act, in section 2(b)(1), provides generally that no contractor or subcontractor... a contract less than the minimum wage specified under section 6(a)(1) of the Fair Labor...

  16. 29 CFR 783.43 - Computation of seaman's minimum wage.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-07-01

    ... 29 Labor 3 2014-07-01 2014-07-01 false Computation of seaman's minimum wage. 783.43 Section 783.43...'s minimum wage. Section 6(b) requires, under paragraph (2) of the subsection, that an employee...'s minimum wage requirements by reason of the 1961 Amendments (see §§ 783.23 and 783.26)....

  17. 29 CFR 4.159 - General minimum wage.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-07-01

    ... 29 Labor 1 2011-07-01 2011-07-01 false General minimum wage. 4.159 Section 4.159 Labor Office of... General minimum wage. The Act, in section 2(b)(1), provides generally that no contractor or subcontractor... a contract less than the minimum wage specified under section 6(a)(1) of the Fair Labor...

  18. 29 CFR 783.43 - Computation of seaman's minimum wage.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-07-01

    ... 29 Labor 3 2012-07-01 2012-07-01 false Computation of seaman's minimum wage. 783.43 Section 783.43...'s minimum wage. Section 6(b) requires, under paragraph (2) of the subsection, that an employee...'s minimum wage requirements by reason of the 1961 Amendments (see §§ 783.23 and 783.26)....

  19. 41 CFR 50-201.1101 - Minimum wages.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-07-01

    ... 41 Public Contracts and Property Management 1 2010-07-01 2010-07-01 true Minimum wages. 50-201... Contracts PUBLIC CONTRACTS, DEPARTMENT OF LABOR 201-GENERAL REGULATIONS § 50-201.1101 Minimum wages. Determinations of prevailing minimum wages or changes therein will be published in the Federal Register by...

  20. 41 CFR 50-201.1101 - Minimum wages.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-07-01

    ... 41 Public Contracts and Property Management 1 2012-07-01 2009-07-01 true Minimum wages. 50-201... Contracts PUBLIC CONTRACTS, DEPARTMENT OF LABOR 201-GENERAL REGULATIONS § 50-201.1101 Minimum wages. Determinations of prevailing minimum wages or changes therein will be published in the Federal Register by...

  1. 29 CFR 783.43 - Computation of seaman's minimum wage.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-07-01

    ... 29 Labor 3 2013-07-01 2013-07-01 false Computation of seaman's minimum wage. 783.43 Section 783.43...'s minimum wage. Section 6(b) requires, under paragraph (2) of the subsection, that an employee...'s minimum wage requirements by reason of the 1961 Amendments (see §§ 783.23 and 783.26)....

  2. 29 CFR 4.159 - General minimum wage.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-07-01

    ... 29 Labor 1 2014-07-01 2013-07-01 true General minimum wage. 4.159 Section 4.159 Labor Office of... General minimum wage. The Act, in section 2(b)(1), provides generally that no contractor or subcontractor... a contract less than the minimum wage specified under section 6(a)(1) of the Fair Labor...

  3. 29 CFR 4.159 - General minimum wage.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-07-01

    ... 29 Labor 1 2012-07-01 2012-07-01 false General minimum wage. 4.159 Section 4.159 Labor Office of... General minimum wage. The Act, in section 2(b)(1), provides generally that no contractor or subcontractor... a contract less than the minimum wage specified under section 6(a)(1) of the Fair Labor...

  4. 41 CFR 50-201.1101 - Minimum wages.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-07-01

    ... 41 Public Contracts and Property Management 1 2014-07-01 2014-07-01 false Minimum wages. 50-201... Contracts PUBLIC CONTRACTS, DEPARTMENT OF LABOR 201-GENERAL REGULATIONS § 50-201.1101 Minimum wages. Determinations of prevailing minimum wages or changes therein will be published in the Federal Register by...

  5. Minimum Wage Effects on Educational Enrollments in New Zealand

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Pacheco, Gail A.; Cruickshank, Amy A.

    2007-01-01

    This paper empirically examines the impact of minimum wages on educational enrollments in New Zealand. A significant reform to the youth minimum wage since 2000 has resulted in some age groups undergoing a 91% rise in their real minimum wage over the last 10 years. Three panel least squares multivariate models are estimated from a national sample…

  6. 41 CFR 50-201.1101 - Minimum wages.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-07-01

    ... 41 Public Contracts and Property Management 1 2013-07-01 2013-07-01 false Minimum wages. 50-201... Contracts PUBLIC CONTRACTS, DEPARTMENT OF LABOR 201-GENERAL REGULATIONS § 50-201.1101 Minimum wages. Determinations of prevailing minimum wages or changes therein will be published in the Federal Register by...

  7. Minimum Wages and Skill Acquisition: Another Look at Schooling Effects.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Neumark, David; Wascher, William

    2003-01-01

    Examines the effects of minimum wage on schooling, seeking to reconcile some of the contradictory results in recent research using Current Population Survey data from the late 1970s through the 1980s. Findings point to negative effects of minimum wages on school enrollment, bolstering the findings of negative effects of minimum wages on enrollment…

  8. Employment Effects of Minimum and Subminimum Wages. Recent Evidence.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Neumark, David

    Using a specially constructed panel data set on state minimum wage laws and labor market conditions, Neumark and Wascher (1992) presented evidence that countered the claim that minimum wages could be raised with no cost to employment. They concluded that estimates indicating that minimum wages reduced employment on the order of 1-2 percent for a…

  9. 29 CFR 783.43 - Computation of seaman's minimum wage.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-07-01

    ... 29 Labor 3 2010-07-01 2010-07-01 false Computation of seaman's minimum wage. 783.43 Section 783.43...'s minimum wage. Section 6(b) requires, under paragraph (2) of the subsection, that an employee...'s minimum wage requirements by reason of the 1961 Amendments (see §§ 783.23 and 783.26)....

  10. 41 CFR 50-201.1101 - Minimum wages.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-07-01

    ... 41 Public Contracts and Property Management 1 2011-07-01 2009-07-01 true Minimum wages. 50-201... Contracts PUBLIC CONTRACTS, DEPARTMENT OF LABOR 201-GENERAL REGULATIONS § 50-201.1101 Minimum wages. Determinations of prevailing minimum wages or changes therein will be published in the Federal Register by...

  11. 14 CFR 23.1523 - Minimum flight crew.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-01-01

    ... 14 Aeronautics and Space 1 2013-01-01 2013-01-01 false Minimum flight crew. 23.1523 Section 23... Information § 23.1523 Minimum flight crew. The minimum flight crew must be established so that it is... commuter category airplanes, each crewmember workload determination must consider the following: (1)...

  12. 14 CFR 23.1523 - Minimum flight crew.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-01-01

    ... 14 Aeronautics and Space 1 2012-01-01 2012-01-01 false Minimum flight crew. 23.1523 Section 23... Information § 23.1523 Minimum flight crew. The minimum flight crew must be established so that it is... commuter category airplanes, each crewmember workload determination must consider the following: (1)...

  13. 14 CFR 23.1523 - Minimum flight crew.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-01-01

    ... 14 Aeronautics and Space 1 2011-01-01 2011-01-01 false Minimum flight crew. 23.1523 Section 23... Information § 23.1523 Minimum flight crew. The minimum flight crew must be established so that it is... commuter category airplanes, each crewmember workload determination must consider the following: (1)...

  14. 14 CFR 23.1523 - Minimum flight crew.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-01-01

    ... 14 Aeronautics and Space 1 2014-01-01 2014-01-01 false Minimum flight crew. 23.1523 Section 23... Information § 23.1523 Minimum flight crew. The minimum flight crew must be established so that it is... commuter category airplanes, each crewmember workload determination must consider the following: (1)...

  15. 14 CFR 25.1523 - Minimum flight crew.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-01-01

    ... 14 Aeronautics and Space 1 2014-01-01 2014-01-01 false Minimum flight crew. 25.1523 Section 25.1523 Aeronautics and Space FEDERAL AVIATION ADMINISTRATION, DEPARTMENT OF TRANSPORTATION AIRCRAFT... Limitations § 25.1523 Minimum flight crew. The minimum flight crew must be established so that it...

  16. 14 CFR 29.1523 - Minimum flight crew.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-01-01

    ... 14 Aeronautics and Space 1 2014-01-01 2014-01-01 false Minimum flight crew. 29.1523 Section 29.1523 Aeronautics and Space FEDERAL AVIATION ADMINISTRATION, DEPARTMENT OF TRANSPORTATION AIRCRAFT... Limitations § 29.1523 Minimum flight crew. The minimum flight crew must be established so that it...

  17. 14 CFR 27.1523 - Minimum flight crew.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-01-01

    ... 14 Aeronautics and Space 1 2014-01-01 2014-01-01 false Minimum flight crew. 27.1523 Section 27.1523 Aeronautics and Space FEDERAL AVIATION ADMINISTRATION, DEPARTMENT OF TRANSPORTATION AIRCRAFT... § 27.1523 Minimum flight crew. The minimum flight crew must be established so that it is sufficient...

  18. 27 CFR 40.256 - Minimum manufacturing and activity requirements.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-04-01

    ... 27 Alcohol, Tobacco Products and Firearms 2 2014-04-01 2014-04-01 false Minimum manufacturing and... Provisions Relating to Operations § 40.256 Minimum manufacturing and activity requirements. The minimum manufacturing and activity requirement prescribed in § 40.61(c) of this part is a continuing condition of...

  19. 27 CFR 40.256 - Minimum manufacturing and activity requirements.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-04-01

    ... 27 Alcohol, Tobacco Products and Firearms 2 2010-04-01 2010-04-01 false Minimum manufacturing and... Provisions Relating to Operations § 40.256 Minimum manufacturing and activity requirements. The minimum manufacturing and activity requirement prescribed in § 40.61(b) of this part is a continuing condition of...

  20. 27 CFR 40.256 - Minimum manufacturing and activity requirements.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-04-01

    ... 27 Alcohol, Tobacco Products and Firearms 2 2012-04-01 2011-04-01 true Minimum manufacturing and... Provisions Relating to Operations § 40.256 Minimum manufacturing and activity requirements. The minimum manufacturing and activity requirement prescribed in § 40.61(b) of this part is a continuing condition of...

  1. 27 CFR 40.256 - Minimum manufacturing and activity requirements.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-04-01

    ... 27 Alcohol, Tobacco Products and Firearms 2 2013-04-01 2013-04-01 false Minimum manufacturing and... Provisions Relating to Operations § 40.256 Minimum manufacturing and activity requirements. The minimum manufacturing and activity requirement prescribed in § 40.61(c) of this part is a continuing condition of...

  2. 27 CFR 40.256 - Minimum manufacturing and activity requirements.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-04-01

    ... 27 Alcohol, Tobacco Products and Firearms 2 2011-04-01 2011-04-01 false Minimum manufacturing and... Provisions Relating to Operations § 40.256 Minimum manufacturing and activity requirements. The minimum manufacturing and activity requirement prescribed in § 40.61(b) of this part is a continuing condition of...

  3. 24 CFR 241.535 - Loan multiples-minimum principal.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-04-01

    ... 24 Housing and Urban Development 2 2010-04-01 2010-04-01 false Loan multiples-minimum principal... Security Instruments § 241.535 Loan multiples—minimum principal. The loan shall involve a principal obligation in multiples of $100, and the minimum principal obligation shall be $10,000....

  4. 24 CFR 232.535 - Loan multiples-minimum principal.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-04-01

    ... 24 Housing and Urban Development 2 2010-04-01 2010-04-01 false Loan multiples-minimum principal... of Fire Safety Equipment Eligible Security Instruments § 232.535 Loan multiples—minimum principal. The loan shall involve a principal obligation in multiples of $100, and the minimum...

  5. 29 CFR 570.2 - Minimum age standards.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-07-01

    ... 29 Labor 3 2011-07-01 2011-07-01 false Minimum age standards. 570.2 Section 570.2 Labor... REGULATIONS, ORDERS AND STATEMENTS OF INTERPRETATION General § 570.2 Minimum age standards. (a) All occupations except in agriculture. (1) The Act, in section 3(1), sets a general 16-year minimum age...

  6. 29 CFR 570.2 - Minimum age standards.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-07-01

    ... 29 Labor 3 2014-07-01 2014-07-01 false Minimum age standards. 570.2 Section 570.2 Labor... REGULATIONS, ORDERS AND STATEMENTS OF INTERPRETATION General § 570.2 Minimum age standards. (a) All occupations except in agriculture. (1) The Act, in section 3(1), sets a general 16-year minimum age...

  7. 29 CFR 570.2 - Minimum age standards.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-07-01

    ... 29 Labor 3 2010-07-01 2010-07-01 false Minimum age standards. 570.2 Section 570.2 Labor... REGULATIONS, ORDERS AND STATEMENTS OF INTERPRETATION General § 570.2 Minimum age standards. (a) All occupations except in agriculture. (1) The Act, in section 3(1), sets a general 16-year minimum age...

  8. 29 CFR 570.2 - Minimum age standards.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-07-01

    ... 29 Labor 3 2013-07-01 2013-07-01 false Minimum age standards. 570.2 Section 570.2 Labor... REGULATIONS, ORDERS AND STATEMENTS OF INTERPRETATION General § 570.2 Minimum age standards. (a) All occupations except in agriculture. (1) The Act, in section 3(1), sets a general 16-year minimum age...

  9. 29 CFR 570.2 - Minimum age standards.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-07-01

    ... 29 Labor 3 2012-07-01 2012-07-01 false Minimum age standards. 570.2 Section 570.2 Labor... REGULATIONS, ORDERS AND STATEMENTS OF INTERPRETATION General § 570.2 Minimum age standards. (a) All occupations except in agriculture. (1) The Act, in section 3(1), sets a general 16-year minimum age...

  10. 7 CFR 701.10 - Qualifying minimum cost of restoration.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-01-01

    ... 7 Agriculture 7 2010-01-01 2010-01-01 false Qualifying minimum cost of restoration. 701.10 Section... RELATED PROGRAMS PREVIOUSLY ADMINISTERED UNDER THIS PART § 701.10 Qualifying minimum cost of restoration... restoration. Each affected State may be allowed to establish a higher minimum qualifying cost of...

  11. 20 CFR 404.260 - Special minimum primary insurance amounts.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-04-01

    ... 20 Employees' Benefits 2 2011-04-01 2011-04-01 false Special minimum primary insurance amounts... AND DISABILITY INSURANCE (1950- ) Computing Primary Insurance Amounts Special Minimum Primary Insurance Amounts § 404.260 Special minimum primary insurance amounts. Regardless of the method we use...

  12. 20 CFR 404.260 - Special minimum primary insurance amounts.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-04-01

    ... 20 Employees' Benefits 2 2010-04-01 2010-04-01 false Special minimum primary insurance amounts... AND DISABILITY INSURANCE (1950- ) Computing Primary Insurance Amounts Special Minimum Primary Insurance Amounts § 404.260 Special minimum primary insurance amounts. Regardless of the method we use...

  13. 14 CFR 91.157 - Special VFR weather minimums.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-01-01

    ... 14 Aeronautics and Space 2 2011-01-01 2011-01-01 false Special VFR weather minimums. 91.157... Flight Rules § 91.157 Special VFR weather minimums. (a) Except as provided in appendix D, section 3, of this part, special VFR operations may be conducted under the weather minimums and requirements of...

  14. 14 CFR 91.157 - Special VFR weather minimums.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-01-01

    ... 14 Aeronautics and Space 2 2010-01-01 2010-01-01 false Special VFR weather minimums. 91.157... Flight Rules § 91.157 Special VFR weather minimums. (a) Except as provided in appendix D, section 3, of this part, special VFR operations may be conducted under the weather minimums and requirements of...

  15. 14 CFR 91.157 - Special VFR weather minimums.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-01-01

    ... 14 Aeronautics and Space 2 2013-01-01 2013-01-01 false Special VFR weather minimums. 91.157... Flight Rules § 91.157 Special VFR weather minimums. (a) Except as provided in appendix D, section 3, of this part, special VFR operations may be conducted under the weather minimums and requirements of...

  16. 14 CFR 91.157 - Special VFR weather minimums.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-01-01

    ... 14 Aeronautics and Space 2 2014-01-01 2014-01-01 false Special VFR weather minimums. 91.157... Flight Rules § 91.157 Special VFR weather minimums. (a) Except as provided in appendix D, section 3, of this part, special VFR operations may be conducted under the weather minimums and requirements of...

  17. 14 CFR 91.157 - Special VFR weather minimums.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-01-01

    ... 14 Aeronautics and Space 2 2012-01-01 2012-01-01 false Special VFR weather minimums. 91.157... Flight Rules § 91.157 Special VFR weather minimums. (a) Except as provided in appendix D, section 3, of this part, special VFR operations may be conducted under the weather minimums and requirements of...

  18. 7 CFR 953.43 - Minimum standards of quality.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-01-01

    ... 7 Agriculture 8 2010-01-01 2010-01-01 false Minimum standards of quality. 953.43 Section 953.43... SOUTHEASTERN STATES Order Regulating Handling Regulations § 953.43 Minimum standards of quality. (a) Recommendation. Whenever the committee deems it advisable to establish and maintain minimum standards of...

  19. Mass spectrometry for the determination of fission products 135Cs, 137Cs and 90Sr: A review of methodology and applications

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Bu, Wenting; Zheng, Jian; Liu, Xuemei; Long, Kaiming; Hu, Sheng; Uchida, Shigeo

    2016-05-01

    The radioactive fission products 135Cs, 137Cs and 90Sr have been released into the environment by human activities such as nuclear weapon tests, nuclear fuel reprocessing and nuclear power plant accidents. Monitoring of these radionuclides is important for dose assessment. Moreover, the 135Cs/137Cs isotopic ratio can be used as an important long-term fingerprint for radioactive source identification as it varies with weapon, reactor and fuel types. In recent years, mass spectrometry has become a powerful method for the determination of 135Cs, 137Cs and 90Sr in environmental samples. Mass spectrometry is characterized by the high sensitivity and low detection limit and the relatively shorter sample preparation and analysis times compared with radiometric methods. However, the mass spectrometric determination of radiocesium and 90Sr is affected by the peak tailings of the stable nuclides 133Cs and 88Sr, respectively, and the related isobaric and polyatomic interferences. Chemical separation and optimization of the mass spectrometry instrumental setup are strongly needed prior to the mass spectrometry detection. In this paper, we have reviewed the published works about the determination of 135Cs, 137Cs and 90Sr by mass spectrometry. The mass spectrometric techniques we cover are resonance ionization mass spectrometry (RIMS), thermal ionization mass spectrometry (TIMS), accelerator mass spectrometry (AMS) and inductively coupled plasma mass spectrometry (ICP-MS). For each technique, the principles or strategies used for the analysis of these radionuclides are discussed; these included the abundance sensitivity, ways to suppress the interference signals, and the instrumental setup. In particular, the chemical procedures for eliminating the interferences are also summarized. To date, triple quadrupole ICP-MS (ICP-QQQ) showed great ability for the analysis of these radionuclides and the detection limits were as low as 0.01 pg/mL levels. Finally, some investigations on the

  20. CsPLDalpha1 and CsPLDgamma1 are differentially induced during leaf and fruit abscission and diurnally regulated in Citrus sinensis.

    PubMed

    Malladi, Anish; Burns, Jacqueline K

    2008-01-01

    Understanding leaf and fruit abscission is essential in order to develop strategies for controlling the process in fruit crops. Mechanisms involved in signalling leaf and fruit abscission upon induction by abscission agents were investigated in Citrus sinensis cv. 'Valencia'. Previous studies have suggested a role for phospholipid signalling; hence, two phospholipase D cDNA sequences, CsPLDalpha1 and CsPLDgamma1, were isolated and their role was examined. CsPLDalpha1 expression was reduced in leaves but unaltered in fruit peel tissue treated with an ethylene-releasing compound (ethephon), or a fruit-specific abscission agent, 5-chloro-3-methyl-4-nitro-1H-pyrazole (CMNP). By contrast, CsPLDgamma1 expression was up-regulated within 6 h (leaves) and 24 h (fruit peel) after treatment with ethephon or CMNP, respectively. CsPLDalpha1 expression was diurnally regulated in leaf blade but not fruit peel. CsPLDgamma1 exhibited strong diurnal oscillation in expression in leaves and fruit peel with peak expression around midday. While diurnal fluctuation in CsPLDalpha1 expression appeared to be light-entrained in leaves, CsPLDgamma1 expression was regulated by light and the circadian clock. The diurnal expression of both genes was modulated by ethylene-signalling. The ethephon-induced leaf abscission and the ethephon- and CMNP-induced decrease in fruit detachment force were enhanced by application during rising diurnal expression of CsPLDgamma1. The results indicate differential regulation of CsPLDalpha1 and CsPLDgamma1 in leaves and fruit, and suggest possible roles for PLD-dependent signalling in regulating abscission responses in citrus.

  1. The chemical logic of a minimum protocell

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Morowitz, Harold J.; Heinz, Bettina; Deamer, David W.

    1988-09-01

    Traditional schemes for the origin of cellular life on earth generally suppose that the chance assembly of polymer synthesis systems was the initial event, followed by incorporation into a membrane-enclosed volume to form the earliest cells. Here we discuss an alternative system consisting of replicating membrane vesicles, which we define as minimum protocells. These consist of vesicular bilayer membranes that self-assemble from relatively rare organic amphiphiles present in the prebiotic environment. If some of the amphiphiles are primitive pigment molecules asymmetrically oriented in the bilayer, light energy can be captured in the form of electrochemical ion gradients. This energy could then be used to convert relatively common precursor molecules into membrane amphiphiles, thereby providing an initial photosynthetic growth process, as well as an appropriate microenvironment for incorporation and evolution of polymer synthesis systems.

  2. Galactic Archaeology and Minimum Spanning Trees

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    MacFarlane, B. A.; Gibson, B. K.; Flynn, C. M. L.

    2016-10-01

    Chemical tagging of stellar debris from disrupted open clusters and associations underpins the science cases for next-generation multi-object spectroscopic surveys. As part of the Galactic Archaeology project TraCD (Tracking Cluster Debris), a preliminary attempt at reconstructing the birth clouds of now phase-mixed thin disk debris is undertaken using a parametric minimum spanning tree (MST) approach. Empirically-motivated chemical abundance pattern uncertainties (for a 10-dimensional chemistry-space) are applied to NBODY6-realized stellar associations dissolved into a background sea of field stars, all evolving in a Milky Way potential. We demonstrate that significant population reconstruction degeneracies appear when the abundance uncertainties approach ˜0.1 dex and the parameterized MST approach is employed; more sophisticated methodologies will be required to ameliorate these degeneracies.

  3. Minimum free-energy pathway of nucleation.

    PubMed

    Philippe, T; Blavette, D

    2011-10-01

    Nucleation in a two-component incompressible system was studied by examining the topology of the free-energy landscape. The properties of a single nucleus during nucleation were derived from the minimum free-energy pathway (MFEP) within the Cahn-Hilliard continuum theory of nucleation. MFEPs were computed using the string method. In particular, we have provided a detailed description of the nucleation process for a regular solution (T/T(c) = 0.8656) for increasing supersaturation up to the spinodal line. Two original results were found in terms of the physics of nucleation. A universal two-step behaviour was found whatever the supersaturation: nuclei sharply enrich up to equilibrium and then grow. Embryos show diffuse interfaces along the MFEP. The width of interfaces quickly saturates to its value at the critical nuclei and stays constant afterwards. PMID:21992325

  4. On a Minimum Problem in Smectic Elastomers

    SciTech Connect

    Buonsanti, Michele; Giovine, Pasquale

    2008-07-08

    Smectic elastomers are layered materials exhibiting a solid-like elastic response along the layer normal and a rubbery one in the plane. Balance equations for smectic elastomers are derived from the general theory of continua with constrained microstructure. In this work we investigate a very simple minimum problem based on multi-well potentials where the microstructure is taken into account. The set of polymeric strains minimizing the elastic energy contains a one-parameter family of simple strain associated with a micro-variation of the degree of freedom. We develop the energy functional through two terms, the first one nematic and the second one considering the tilting phenomenon; after, by developing in the rubber elasticity framework, we minimize over the tilt rotation angle and extract the engineering stress.

  5. Minimum wear tube support hole design

    DOEpatents

    Glatthorn, Raymond H.

    1986-01-01

    A minimum-wear through-bore (16) is defined within a heat exchanger tube support plate (14) so as to have an hourglass configuration as determined by means of a constant radiused surface curvature (18) as defined by means of an external radius (R3), wherein the surface (18) extends between the upper surface (20) and lower surface (22) of the tube support plate (14). When a heat exchange tube (12) is disposed within the tube support plate (14) so as to pass through the through-bore (16), the heat exchange tube (12) is always in contact with a smoothly curved or radiused portion of the through-bore surface (16) whereby unacceptably excessive wear upon the heat exchange tube (12), as normally developed by means of sharp edges, lands, ridges, or the like conventionally part of the tube support plates, is eliminated or substantially reduced.

  6. CS1 is a novel topoisomerase IIα inhibitor with favorable drug resistance profiles

    SciTech Connect

    Shen, Yan; Chen, Wang; Zhao, Baobing; Hao, Huilin; Li, Zhenyu; Lu, Chunhua; Shen, Yuemao

    2014-10-24

    Highlights: • CS1 is a novel nonintercalating topoisomerase IIα poison. • CS1 shows potent in vitro and in vivo antitumor activity. • CS1 shows 6–10-fold less toxicity to normal cells compared with etoposide. • CS1 is not a substrate of P-glycoprotein and multidrug resistance irrelevant. - Abstract: DNA topoisomerase II (Topo II) is an essential nuclear enzyme and a validated target for anticancer agent screening. CS1, a novel 2-phenylnaphthalene, had potent cytotoxicity against nine tested tumor cell lines and showed 6–10-fold less toxicity against normal cell lines compared with etoposide. In addition, CS1 showed potential anti-multidrug resistance capabilities. kDNA decatenation, DNA relaxation and cleavage complex assays indicated that CS1 acted as a nonintercalating topoisomerase IIα (Topo IIα) inhibitor by stabilizing the DNA-Topo IIα cleavage complex. CS1 also induced DNA breaks in MDA-MB-231 cells evidenced by comet tails and the accumulation of γH2AX foci. The ability of CS1 in inducing DNA breaks mediated by Topo II resulted in G2/M phase arrest and apoptosis. Moreover, CS1 exhibited dramatic in vivo antitumor activity and lower toxicity compared with etoposide. This work supports the development of CS1 as a promising candidate for the treatment of cancer by targeting Topo IIα.

  7. Effect of minerals on accumulation of Cs by fungus Saccaromyces cerevisiae.

    PubMed

    Ohnuki, Toshihiko; Sakamoto, Fuminori; Yamasaki, Shinya; Kozai, Naofumi; Shiotsu, Hiroyuki; Utsunomiya, Satoshi; Watanabe, Naoko; Kozaki, Tamotsu

    2015-06-01

    The accumulation of Cs by unicellular fungus of Saccharomyces cerevisiae in the presence of minerals has been studied to elucidate the role of microorganisms in the migration of radioactive Cs in the environment. Two different types of experiments were employed: experiments using stable Cs to examine the effect of a carbon source on the accumulation of Cs, and accumulation experiments of radioactive Cs from agar medium containing (137)Cs and zeolite, vermiculite, phlogopite, smectite, mica, or illite as mineral supplements. In the former type of experiments, the Cs-accumulated cells were analyzed by scanning electron microscopy equipped with energy dispersive X-ray analysis (SEM-EDS). In the latter type, the radioactivity in the yeast cells was measured by an autoradiography technique. When a carbon source was present, higher amounts of Cs accumulated in the cells than in the resting condition without a carbon source. Analyses with SEM-EDS showed that no mineral formed on the cell surface. These results indicate that the yeast cells accumulate Cs by adsorption on the cell surface and intracellular accumulation. In the presence of minerals in the agar medium, the radioactivity in the yeast cells was in the order of mica > smectite, illite > vermiculite, phlogopite, zeolite. This order is inversely correlated to the ratio of the concentration of radioactive Cs between the minerals and the medium solution. These results strongly suggest that the yeast accumulates radioactive Cs competitively with minerals.

  8. Effect of minerals on accumulation of Cs by fungus Saccaromyces cerevisiae.

    PubMed

    Ohnuki, Toshihiko; Sakamoto, Fuminori; Yamasaki, Shinya; Kozai, Naofumi; Shiotsu, Hiroyuki; Utsunomiya, Satoshi; Watanabe, Naoko; Kozaki, Tamotsu

    2015-06-01

    The accumulation of Cs by unicellular fungus of Saccharomyces cerevisiae in the presence of minerals has been studied to elucidate the role of microorganisms in the migration of radioactive Cs in the environment. Two different types of experiments were employed: experiments using stable Cs to examine the effect of a carbon source on the accumulation of Cs, and accumulation experiments of radioactive Cs from agar medium containing (137)Cs and zeolite, vermiculite, phlogopite, smectite, mica, or illite as mineral supplements. In the former type of experiments, the Cs-accumulated cells were analyzed by scanning electron microscopy equipped with energy dispersive X-ray analysis (SEM-EDS). In the latter type, the radioactivity in the yeast cells was measured by an autoradiography technique. When a carbon source was present, higher amounts of Cs accumulated in the cells than in the resting condition without a carbon source. Analyses with SEM-EDS showed that no mineral formed on the cell surface. These results indicate that the yeast cells accumulate Cs by adsorption on the cell surface and intracellular accumulation. In the presence of minerals in the agar medium, the radioactivity in the yeast cells was in the order of mica > smectite, illite > vermiculite, phlogopite, zeolite. This order is inversely correlated to the ratio of the concentration of radioactive Cs between the minerals and the medium solution. These results strongly suggest that the yeast accumulates radioactive Cs competitively with minerals. PMID:25841115

  9. A minimum income for healthy living

    PubMed Central

    Morris, J; Donkin, A; Wonderling, D; Wilkinson, P; Dowler, E

    2000-01-01

    BACKGROUND—Half a century of research has provided consensual evidence of major personal requisites of adult health in nutrition, physical activity and psychosocial relations. Their minimal money costs, together with those of a home and other basic necessities, indicate disposable income that is now essential for health.
METHODS—In a first application we identified such representative minimal costs for healthy, single, working men aged 18-30, in the UK. Costs were derived from ad hoc survey, relevant figures in the national Family Expenditure Survey, and by pragmatic decision for the few minor items where survey data were not available.
RESULTS—Minimum costs were assessed at £131.86 per week (UK April 1999 prices). Component costs, especially those of housing (which represents around 40% of this total), depend on region and on several assumptions. By varying these a range of totals from £106.47 to £163.86 per week was detailed. These figures compare, 1999, with the new UK national minimum wage, after statutory deductions, of £105.84 at 18-21 years and £121.12 at 22+ years for a 38 hour working week. Corresponding basic social security rates are £40.70-£51.40 per week.
INTERPRETATION—Accumulating science means that absolute standards of living, "poverty", minimal official incomes and the like, can now be assessed by objective measurement of the personal capacity to meet the costs of major requisites of healthy living. A realistic assessment of these costs is presented as an impetus to public discussion. It is a historical role of public health as social medicine to lead in public advocacy of such a national agenda.


Keywords: income; public health; lifestyle; nutrition; housing; exercise; social exclusion; inequalities PMID:11076983

  10. Fukushima 137Cs at the base of planktonic food webs off Japan

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Baumann, Z.; Fisher, N. S.; Gobler, C. J.; Buesseler, K. O.; George, J. A.; Breier, C. F.; Nishikawa, J.

    2015-12-01

    The potential bioaccumulation of 137Cs in marine food webs off Japan became a concern following the release of radioactive contaminants from the damaged Fukushima nuclear power plant into the coastal ocean. Previous studies suggest that 137Cs activities increase with trophic level in pelagic food webs, however, the bioaccumulation of 137Cs from seawater to primary producers, to zooplankton has not been evaluated in the field. Since phytoplankton are frequently the largest component of suspended particulate matter (SPM) we used SPM concentrations and particle-associated 137Cs to understand bioaccumulation of 137Cs in through trophic pathways in the field. We determined particle-associated 137Cs for samples collected at 20 m depth from six stations off Japan three months after the initial release from the Fukushima nuclear power plant. At 20 m SPM ranged from 0.65 to 1.60 mg L-1 and rapidly declined with depth. The ratios of particulate organic carbon to chlorophyll a suggested that phytoplankton comprised much of the SPM in these samples. 137Cs activities on particles accounted for on average 0.04% of the total 137Cs in seawater samples, and measured concentration factors of 137Cs on small suspended particles were comparatively low (∼102). However, when 137Cs in crustacean zooplankton was derived based only on modeling dietary 137Cs uptake, we found predicted and measured 137Cs concentrations in good agreement. We therefore postulate the possibility that the dietary route of 137Cs bioaccumulation (i.e., phytoplankton ingestion) could be largely responsible for the measured levels in the copepod-dominated (%) zooplankton assemblages in Japanese coastal waters. Finally, our data did not support the notion that zooplankton grazing on phytoplankton results in a biomagnification of 137Cs.

  11. First observation of sol-gel derived Al:CsZnO/CsZnO bilayer thin film for solar cells application

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Ahmadi, Mehdi; Rashidi Dafeh, Sajjad; Alinazmabadi, Saeid

    2016-10-01

    In this research, we fabricated CsZnO and Al:CsZnO/CsZnO bilayer thin films grown by the spin-coating-assisted sol-gel method on ITO substrate. The influence of diverse velocity of spin-coating (500, 1000, 1500, 2000, 2500 and 3000RPM) and also annealing times (30, 60, 90, 120, 150 and 180min) on the characteristics of the ZnO thin film was examined. The samples were examined by X-ray diffraction, scanning electron microscopy, Uv-Vis spectrometer and conductivity measurement. With the optimization of the velocity of spin-coating (2500RPM) and annealing times (60min), we fabricated Al:CsZnO/CsZnO bilayer thin films with diverse dopant concentration. By comparing the effect of dopant concentration with different dopant ratio (0, 0.5, 1.0 and 2%), 0.5% of CsZnO and Al:CsZnO/CsZnO bilayer was found as the most effective doping level with the best conductivity properties among the selected doping concentrations.

  12. Band Structure Parameters and Fermi Resonances of Exciton-Polaritons in CsI and CsBr under Hydrostatic Pressure

    SciTech Connect

    Lipp, M J; Yoo, C H; Strachan, D; Daniels, W B

    2005-11-29

    Most alkali halides crystallize in the fcc sodium chloride structure. In contrast, with the exception of CsF, the Cs-halides form the simple cubic cesium chloride (CsCl) structure at ambient conditions and they have a substantially different electronic structure than other alkali halides; in particular, they have several nearly degenerate electronic levels near the Brillouin zone center. Highly resolved Three-Photon Spectroscopy (TPS) measurements allow direct observation of the near band edge structure and, in the case of CsI, probe more states than one-photon techniques. A number of interesting phenomena, among them level repulsion (Fermi resonance), occur as these levels are tuned through one another by application of hydrostatic pressure. To the best of our knowledge, this has been observed for CsBr for the first time. Doubling the photon energy range compared to a previous publication [see Yoo et al. PRL 84, 3875 (2000)] allows direct observation of the n=1, 2 and 3 exciton-polariton members of the {Lambda}{sub 8}{sup -}-{Lambda}{sub 6}{sup +} transition in CsI and lets us establish unambiguous values for the bandgap (6.139 eV), binding energy (0.265 eV) and their pressure dependence up to 7 kbar. Similarly to CsI, the CsBr linewidth of the lowest {Lambda}{sub 4}{sup -} polariton (A) decreases upon compression.

  13. Distribution of the 134Cs/137Cs ratio around the Fukushima Daiichi nuclear power plant using an unmanned helicopter radiation monitoring system

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Torii, T.; Nishizawa, Y.

    2015-12-01

    Many radioactive substances were released by the Fukushima Daiichi nuclear power plant accident occurred on March 11, 2011 in the atmosphere. A lot of short half-life nuclides which are 131I, 132Te (132I) and 133I, etc., in addition to longer half-lived nuclides such as 134Cs and 137Cs. The estimated release amount of these nuclides from the reactor 1st to 3rd unit is reported, but it's found to be quite different in the short half-lived nuclides by the reactor units. Because the radioactivity ratio of 134Cs and 137Cs was slight different between the reactor units, it can be considered that the valuable source is obtained by the measurement of 134Cs/137Cs ratio in the environment around the Fukushima Daiichi nuclear power station at the present stage when the nuclides with short half-lives had already decayed. We have measured high-resolution gamma-ray spectrum using an unmanned helicopter equipped with LaBr3(Ce) detector in a 3-km range from the power station which was near to the release source of the radioactive cesium. Because the LaBr3(Ce) detector has high resolution of gamma rays, the discrimination of many nuclides is possible. In addition, there is extremely much number of the data provided by the distribution measurement with the unmanned helicopter. Because a new map was illustrated by the analysis of the 134Cs/137Cs ratio, we report the outline.

  14. Southwest intrusion of 134Cs and 137Cs derived from the Fukushima Dai-ichi nuclear power plant accident in the Western North Pacific.

    PubMed

    Kaeriyama, Hideki; Shimizu, Yugo; Ambe, Daisuke; Masujima, Masachika; Shigenobu, Yuya; Fujimoto, Ken; Ono, Tsuneo; Nishiuchi, Kou; Taneda, Takeshi; Kurogi, Hiroaki; Setou, Takashi; Sugisaki, Hiroya; Ichikawa, Tadafumi; Hidaka, Kiyotaka; Hiroe, Yutaka; Kusaka, Akira; Kodama, Taketoshi; Kuriyama, Mikiko; Morita, Hiroshi; Nakata, Kaoru; Morinaga, Kenji; Morita, Takami; Watanabe, Tomowo

    2014-03-18

    Enormous quantities of radionuclides were released into the ocean via both atmospheric deposition and direct release as a result of the Fukushima Dai-ichi Nuclear Power Plant (FNPP) accident. This study discusses the southward dispersion of FNPP-derived radioactive cesium (Cs) in subsurface waters. The southernmost point where we found the FNPP-derived (134)Cs (1.5-6.8 Bq m(-3)) was 18 °N, 135 °E, in September 2012. The potential density at the subsurface peaks of (134)Cs (100-500 m) and the increased water column inventories of (137)Cs between 0 and 500 m after the winter of 2011-2012 suggested that the main water mass containing FNPP-derived radioactive Cs was the North Pacific Subtropical Mode Water (NPSTMW), formed as a result of winter convection. We estimated the amount of (134)Cs in core waters of the western part of the NPSTMW to be 0.99 PBq (decay-corrected on 11 March 2011). This accounts for 9.0% of the (134)Cs released from the FNPP, with our estimation revealing that a considerable amount of FNPP-derived radioactive Cs has been transported to the subtropical region by the formation and circulation of the mode water.

  15. Pre-assessment of dose rates of (134)Cs, (137)Cs, and (60)Co for marine biota from discharge of Haiyang Nuclear Power Plant, China.

    PubMed

    Li, Jingjing; Liu, Senlin; Zhang, Yongxing; Chen, Ling; Yan, Yuan; Cheng, Weiya; Lou, Hailin; Zhang, Yongbao

    2015-09-01

    Haiyang Nuclear Power Plant to be built in China was selected as a case for the dose pre-assessment for marine biota in this study. The concentrations of Cs and Co in organisms (turbot, yellow croaker, swimming crab, abalone, sea cucumber, and sea lettuce), seawater, and bottom sediment sampled on-site were measured by neutron activation analysis, and the site-specific transfer parameters (concentration ratios and distribution coefficients) of Cs and Co were calculated. (134)Cs, (137)Cs, and (60)Co activity concentrations in the organisms and the sediment at the site were calculated with the site-specific transfer parameters and the anticipated activity concentrations in the liquid effluent of the nuclear power plant. The ERICA tool was used to estimate the dose rates of (134)Cs, (137)Cs, and (60)Co to the selected organisms based on the biological models developed. The total dose rates of (134)Cs, (137)Cs, and (60)Co to the six organisms were all <0.001 μGy h(-1). PMID:26005771

  16. Root endophytic bacteria of a (137)Cs and Mn accumulator plant, Eleutherococcus sciadophylloides, increase (137)Cs and Mn desorption in the soil.

    PubMed

    Yamaji, Keiko; Nagata, Satoshi; Haruma, Toshikatsu; Ohnuki, Toshihiko; Kozaki, Tamotsu; Watanabe, Naoko; Nanba, Kenji

    2016-03-01

    We found that root endophytes of (137)Cs accumulator plant produce siderophores, resulting in the desorption of (137)Cs from the contaminated soil collected at Fukushima, Japan. We selected an endemic Japanese deciduous tree, Eleutherococcus sciadophylloides (Franch. et Sav), that accumulates high concentrations of (137)Cs and Mn. Root endophytic bacteria were isolated from E. sciadophylloides and microbial siderophore production was evaluated via chrome azurol S (CAS) Fe and CAS Al assays. Of the 463 strains that we isolated, 107 (23.1%) produced the siderophores. Using eight strains that showed high siderophore production in our assays, we examined desorption of (137)Cs, Mn, Fe and Al by the bacterial culture filtrates from (137)Cs-contaminated soil after decomposing the soil organic matter using hydrogen peroxide. We found (137)Cs and Mn desorption concomitant with Al and Fe desorption, as well as a decrease of pH. We also detected succinic acid, a well-known siderophore, in the bacterial culture filtrates of our two root endophytic bacteria. Our results strongly suggest that the root endophytic bacteria of E. sciadophylloides produce the siderophores that enhance (137)Cs and Mn desorption in the rhizosphere, making the resulting (137)Cs and Mn ions easier for E. sciadophylloides to absorb from the rhizosphere. PMID:26760221

  17. Pre-assessment of dose rates of (134)Cs, (137)Cs, and (60)Co for marine biota from discharge of Haiyang Nuclear Power Plant, China.

    PubMed

    Li, Jingjing; Liu, Senlin; Zhang, Yongxing; Chen, Ling; Yan, Yuan; Cheng, Weiya; Lou, Hailin; Zhang, Yongbao

    2015-09-01

    Haiyang Nuclear Power Plant to be built in China was selected as a case for the dose pre-assessment for marine biota in this study. The concentrations of Cs and Co in organisms (turbot, yellow croaker, swimming crab, abalone, sea cucumber, and sea lettuce), seawater, and bottom sediment sampled on-site were measured by neutron activation analysis, and the site-specific transfer parameters (concentration ratios and distribution coefficients) of Cs and Co were calculated. (134)Cs, (137)Cs, and (60)Co activity concentrations in the organisms and the sediment at the site were calculated with the site-specific transfer parameters and the anticipated activity concentrations in the liquid effluent of the nuclear power plant. The ERICA tool was used to estimate the dose rates of (134)Cs, (137)Cs, and (60)Co to the selected organisms based on the biological models developed. The total dose rates of (134)Cs, (137)Cs, and (60)Co to the six organisms were all <0.001 μGy h(-1).

  18. Root endophytic bacteria of a (137)Cs and Mn accumulator plant, Eleutherococcus sciadophylloides, increase (137)Cs and Mn desorption in the soil.

    PubMed

    Yamaji, Keiko; Nagata, Satoshi; Haruma, Toshikatsu; Ohnuki, Toshihiko; Kozaki, Tamotsu; Watanabe, Naoko; Nanba, Kenji

    2016-03-01

    We found that root endophytes of (137)Cs accumulator plant produce siderophores, resulting in the desorption of (137)Cs from the contaminated soil collected at Fukushima, Japan. We selected an endemic Japanese deciduous tree, Eleutherococcus sciadophylloides (Franch. et Sav), that accumulates high concentrations of (137)Cs and Mn. Root endophytic bacteria were isolated from E. sciadophylloides and microbial siderophore production was evaluated via chrome azurol S (CAS) Fe and CAS Al assays. Of the 463 strains that we isolated, 107 (23.1%) produced the siderophores. Using eight strains that showed high siderophore production in our assays, we examined desorption of (137)Cs, Mn, Fe and Al by the bacterial culture filtrates from (137)Cs-contaminated soil after decomposing the soil organic matter using hydrogen peroxide. We found (137)Cs and Mn desorption concomitant with Al and Fe desorption, as well as a decrease of pH. We also detected succinic acid, a well-known siderophore, in the bacterial culture filtrates of our two root endophytic bacteria. Our results strongly suggest that the root endophytic bacteria of E. sciadophylloides produce the siderophores that enhance (137)Cs and Mn desorption in the rhizosphere, making the resulting (137)Cs and Mn ions easier for E. sciadophylloides to absorb from the rhizosphere.

  19. Brachytherapy dosimetry parameters calculated for a {sup 131}Cs source

    SciTech Connect

    Rivard, Mark J.

    2007-02-15

    A comprehensive analysis of the IsoRay Medical model CS-1 Rev2 {sup 131}Cs brachytherapy source was performed. Dose distributions were simulated using Monte Carlo methods (MCNP5) in liquid water, Solid{sup TM}, and Virtual Water{sup TM} spherical phantoms. From these results, the in-water brachytherapy dosimetry parameters have been determined, and were compared with those of Murphy et al. [Med. Phys. 31, 1529-1538 (2004)] using measurements and simulations. Our results suggest that calculations obtained using erroneous cross-section libraries should be discarded as recommended by the 2004 AAPM TG-43U1 report. Our {sub MC}{lambda} value of 1.046{+-}0.019 cGy h{sup -1} U{sup -1} is within 1.3% of that measured by Chen et al. [Med. Phys. 32, 3279-3285 (2005)] using TLDs and the calculated results of Wittman and Fisher [Med. Phys. 34, 49-54 (2007)] using MCNP5. Using the discretized energy approach of Rivard [Appl. Radiat. Isot. 55, 775-782 (2001)] to ascertain the impact of individual {sup 131}Cs photons on radial dose function and anisotropy functions, there was virtual equivalence of results for 29.461{<=}E{sub {gamma}}{<=}34.419 keV and for a mono-energetic 30.384 keV photon source. Comparisons of radial dose function and 2D anisotropy function data are also included, and an analysis of material composition and cross-section libraries was performed.

  20. Doubly Magic Optical Trapping for Cs Atom Hyperfine Clock Transitions

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Carr, A. W.; Saffman, M.

    2016-10-01

    We analyze doubly magic trapping of Cs hyperfine transitions including previously neglected contributions from the ground state hyperpolarizability and the interaction of the laser light and a static magnetic field. Extensive numerical searches do not reveal any doubly magic trapping conditions for any pair of hyperfine states. However, including the hyperpolarizability reveals light intensity insensitive traps for a wide range of wavelengths at specific intensities. We then investigate the use of bichromatic trapping light fields. Deploying a bichromatic scheme, we demonstrate doubly magic red and blue detuned traps for pairs of states separated by one or two single photon transitions.