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Sample records for mining chemistry geology

  1. Geology, petrology, and chemistry of the Leadville Dolomite: host for uranium at the Pitch Mine, Saguache County, Colorado

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Nash, J. Thomas

    1979-01-01

    Newly documented uranium ore in the Pitch Mine occurs chiefly in brecciated Mississippian Leadville Dolomite along the Chester reverse fault zone, and to a lesser extent in sandstone, siltstone, and carbonaceous shale of the Pennsylvanian Belden Formation and in Precambrian granitic rocks and schist. Uranium-mineralized zones are generally thicker, more consistent, and of higher grade in dolomite than in other hosts, and roughly 50 percent of the new reserves are in dolomite. Strong physical control by dolomite is evident, as this is the only lithology that is pervasively brecciated within the fault slices that make up the footwall of the reverse fault zone. Other lithologies tend to either remain unbroken or undergo ductile deformation. Chemical controls are subtle and appear to involve chiefly formation of FeS2 as pyrite and marcasite, which accompany uranium. Leadville Dolomite in the area is about 130 m thick and is predominantly nonfossiliferous dolomicrite. In the Pitch Mine, Leadville Dolomite is bound by faults and maximum known thickness is about 17 m. Mud texture, paucity of fossils and other allochems, thin laminations, and probable algal mat structures suggest sedimentation in a tidal-flat (possibly supratidal) environment. Preservation of mud texture and lack of replacement features indicate that dolomitization was an early, prelithification process, as in modern tidal flats, and produced a chemically and texturally uniform rock over tens of meters with relatively few limestone beds surviving. The sedimentary and diagenetic environment of the tidal-flat dolomite, apparently most favorable for uranium deposits, probably obtained over a large area and should consistute an exploration target over a broad area of central Colorado. Carbonate rocks of the Belden Formation, in contrast to those of the Leadville, contain calcite in great excess of dolomite, more than 5 percent silt-size quartz and clay, and abundant fossils and oolites. Belden limestones

  2. Estimating natural background groundwater chemistry, Questa molybdenum mine, New Mexico

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Verplanck, Phillip L.; Nordstrom, D. Kirk; Plumlee, Geoffrey S.; Walker, Bruce M.; Morgan, Lisa A.; Quane, Steven L.

    2010-01-01

    This 2 1/2 day field trip will present an overview of a U.S. Geological Survey (USGS) project whose objective was to estimate pre-mining groundwater chemistry at the Questa molybdenum mine, New Mexico. Because of intense debate among stakeholders regarding pre-mining groundwater chemistry standards, the New Mexico Environment Department and Chevron Mining Inc. (formerly Molycorp) agreed that the USGS should determine pre-mining groundwater quality at the site. In 2001, the USGS began a 5-year, multidisciplinary investigation to estimate pre-mining groundwater chemistry utilizing a detailed assessment of a proximal natural analog site and applied an interdisciplinary approach to infer pre-mining conditions. The trip will include a surface tour of the Questa mine and key locations in the erosion scar areas and along the Red River. The trip will provide participants with a detailed understanding of geochemical processes that influence pre-mining environmental baselines in mineralized areas and estimation techniques for determining pre-mining baseline conditions.

  3. Gold and other mines - History, Chemistry and Environment

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Ribeiro, Carla; Moutinho, Amélia

    2016-04-01

    The Castromil gold mines is near to our school, and they were explored by the Romans around 2000 years ago, which sows the seeds of an eTwinning project about mines. Although an important source of resources, mines and their industry can lead to a negative impact on the environment. It is important for students to understand the pros and cons of the mining industry using the Castromil gold mine as an example. With a European project as eTwinning, students can share the stories of "their" mines from different countries and since it is a trans-disciplinary subject, it can involve different subjects, from Chemistry to Environment Education, from Geology to ITC. The project's profile can be found at https://www.etwinning.net/en/pub/profile.cfm?f=2&l=en&n=121456 and because the project is ongoing, we expect that more schools will join us.

  4. Bedrock geology and chemistry of rivers basins

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Peucker-Ehrenbrink, B.; Miller, M. W.

    2003-04-01

    The lack of modern quantitative estimates of the Earth’s surface geology, one of the key parameters influencing river and ocean chemistry, is striking. While some attempts have been made to quantify the lithologic composition of bedrock in individual river basins (e.g., Reeder et al., 1972; Amiotte-Suchet et al., 2002), the geologic age distribution of bedrock in river basins has not been investigated. We have therefore initiated a project aimed at generating a worldwide dataset on the bedrock lithology and age distribution of river basins, using the latest digital geologic maps and modern geographic information system technology. To date we have completed analysis of the digital geologic maps North America. These data have been used in conjunction with digital river basin polygons (Revenga et al., 1998, World Resources Institute) to compute the lithologic composition and geologic age structure of major river basins in North America. The lithologic composition of 14 large river basins range from predominantly igneous rocks dominated (Frazer, Columbia), to those dominated by sedimentary rocks (Brazos, Susquehanna, Mississippi), to basins with an equal mix of igneous, metamorphic and sedimentary bedrock (Thelon). Subdividing sedimentary rocks into marine and continental rocks reveals that continental sediments account for no more than 25% of sedimentary rocks in these river basins (e.g., Nelson, Colorado, Mississippi). A further subdivision of igneous rocks into intrusive and volcanic rocks reveals the entire range of igneous composition, from basins dominated by intrusive rocks (Hudson, Mackenzie, Nelson) to those dominated by volcanic rocks (Susquehanna, Colorado, Frazer, Columbia). We are currently analyzing the age distribution of major lithologic units in each river basin. In cases where detailed hydrochemical data is available for major tributaries we will expand the analysis to sub-basins (e.g., Frazer, Mississippi). Basins smaller than about 40,000 km^2

  5. Geologic processes influence the effects of mining on aquatic ecosystems.

    PubMed

    Schmidt, Travis S; Clements, William H; Wanty, Richard B; Verplanck, Philip L; Church, Stanley E; San Juan, Carma A; Fey, David L; Rockwell, Barnaby W; DeWitt, Ed H; Klein, Terry L

    2012-04-01

    Geologic processes strongly influence water and sediment quality in aquatic ecosystems but rarely are geologic principles incorporated into routine biomonitoring studies. We test if elevated concentrations of metals in water and sediment are restricted to streams downstream of mines or areas that may discharge mine wastes. We surveyed 198 catchments classified as "historically mined" or "unmined," and based on mineral-deposit criteria, to determine whether water and sediment quality were influenced by naturally occurring mineralized rock, by historical mining, or by a combination of both. By accounting for different geologic sources of metals to the environment, we were able to distinguish aquatic ecosystems limited by metals derived from natural processes from those due to mining. Elevated concentrations of metals in water and sediment were not restricted to mined catchments; depauperate aquatic communities were found in unmined catchments. The type and intensity of hydrothermal alteration and the mineral deposit type were important determinants of water and sediment quality as well as the aquatic community in both mined and unmined catchments. This study distinguished the effects of different rock types and geologic sources of metals on ecosystems by incorporating basic geologic processes into reference and baseline site selection, resulting in a refined assessment. Our results indicate that biomonitoring studies should account for natural sources of metals in some geologic environments as contributors to the effect of mines on aquatic ecosystems, recognizing that in mining-impacted drainages there may have been high pre-mining background metal concentrations.

  6. Geologic considerations in underground coal mining system design

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Camilli, F. A.; Maynard, D. P.; Mangolds, A.; Harris, J.

    1981-01-01

    Geologic characteristics of coal resources which may impact new extraction technologies are identified and described to aid system designers and planners in their task of designing advanced coal extraction systems for the central Appalachian region. These geologic conditions are then organized into a matrix identified as the baseline mine concept. A sample region, eastern Kentucy is analyzed using both the developed baseline mine concept and the traditional geologic investigative approach.

  7. Geologic processes influence the effects of mining on aquatic ecosystems

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Schmidt, Travis S.; Clements, William H.; Wanty, Richard B.; Verplanck, Philip L.; Church, Stanley E.; San Juan, Carma A.; Fey, David L.; Rockwell, Barnaby W.; DeWitt, Ed H.; Klein, Terry L.

    2012-01-01

    Geologic processes strongly influence water and sediment quality in aquatic ecosystems but rarely are geologic principles incorporated into routine biomonitoring studies. We test if elevated concentrations of metals in water and sediment are restricted to streams downstream of mines or areas that may discharge mine wastes. We surveyed 198 catchments classified as “historically mined” or “unmined,” and based on mineral-deposit criteria, to determine whether water and sediment quality were influenced by naturally occurring mineralized rock, by historical mining, or by a combination of both. By accounting for different geologic sources of metals to the environment, we were able to distinguish aquatic ecosystems limited by metals derived from natural processes from those due to mining. Elevated concentrations of metals in water and sediment were not restricted to mined catchments; depauperate aquatic communities were found in unmined catchments. The type and intensity of hydrothermal alteration and the mineral deposit type were important determinants of water and sediment quality as well as the aquatic community in both mined and unmined catchments. This study distinguished the effects of different rock types and geologic sources of metals on ecosystems by incorporating basic geologic processes into reference and baseline site selection, resulting in a refined assessment. Our results indicate that biomonitoring studies should account for natural sources of metals in some geologic environments as contributors to the effect of mines on aquatic ecosystems, recognizing that in mining-impacted drainages there may have been high pre-mining background metal concentrations.

  8. Chemistry Rocks: Redox Chemistry as a Geologic Tool.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Burns, Mary Sue

    2001-01-01

    Applies chemistry to earth science, uses rocks in chemistry laboratories, and teaches about transition metal chemistry, oxidation states, and oxidation-reduction reactions from firsthand experiences. (YDS)

  9. Chemistry Rocks: Redox Chemistry as a Geologic Tool.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Burns, Mary Sue

    2001-01-01

    Applies chemistry to earth science, uses rocks in chemistry laboratories, and teaches about transition metal chemistry, oxidation states, and oxidation-reduction reactions from firsthand experiences. (YDS)

  10. Geologic considerations in underground coal mining system design

    SciTech Connect

    Camilli, F.A.; Maynard, D.P.; Mangolds, A.; Harris, J.

    1981-10-01

    Geologic characteristics of coal resources which may impact new extraction technologies are identified and described to aid system designers and planners in their task of designing advanced coal extraction systems for the central Appalachian region. These geologic conditions are then organized into a matrix identified as the baseline mine concept. A sample region, eastern Kentucky, is next analyzed, using both the new baseline mine concept and traditional geologic investigative approach. The baseline mine concept presented is intended as a framework, providing a consistent basis for further analyses to be subsequently conducted in other geographic regions. The baseline mine concept is intended as a tool to give system designers a more realistic feel of the mine environment and will hopefully lead to acceptable alternatives for advanced coal extraction system.

  11. Water chemistry-based classification of streams and implications for restoring mined Appalachian watersheds

    SciTech Connect

    Merovich, G.T.; Stiles, J.M.; Petty, J.T.; Ziemkiewicz, P.F.; Fulton, J.B.

    2007-07-15

    We analyzed seasonal water samples from the Cheat and Tygart Valley river basins, West Virginia, USA, in an attempt to classify streams based on water chemistry in this coal-mining region. We also examined temporal variability among water samples. Principal component analysis identified two important dimensions of variation in water chemistry. This variation was determined largely by mining-related factors (elevated metals, sulfates, and conductivity) and an alkalinity-hardness gradient. Cluster analysis grouped water samples into six types that we described as reference, soft, hard, transitional, moderate acid mine drainage, and severe acid mine drainage. These types were statistically distinguishable in multidimensional space. Classification tree analysis confirmed that chemical constituents related to acid mine drainage and acid rain distinguished these six groups. Hard, soft, and severe acid mine drainage type streams were temporally constant compared to streams identified as reference, transitional, and moderate acid mine drainage type, which had a greater tendency to shift to a different water type between seasons. Our research is the first to establish a statistically supported stream classification system in mined watersheds. The results suggest that human-related stressors superimposed on geology are responsible for producing distinct water quality types in this region as opposed to more continuous variation in chemistry that would be expected in an unimpacted setting. These findings provide a basis for simplifying stream monitoring efforts, developing generalized remediation strategies, and identifying specific remediation priorities in mined Appalachian watersheds.

  12. Water chemistry-based classification of streams and implications for restoring mined Appalachian watersheds.

    PubMed

    Merovich, George T; Stiles, James M; Petty, J Todd; Ziemkiewicz, Paul F; Fulton, Jennifer B

    2007-07-01

    We analyzed seasonal water samples from the Cheat and Tygart Valley river basins, West Virginia, USA, in an attempt to classify streams based on water chemistry in this coal-mining region. We also examined temporal variability among water samples. Principal component analysis identified two important dimensions of variation in water chemistry. This variation was determined largely by mining-related factors (elevated metals, sulfates, and conductivity) and an alkalinity-hardness gradient. Cluster analysis grouped water samples into six types that we described as reference, soft, hard, transitional, moderate acid mine drainage, and severe acid mine drainage. These types were statistically distinguishable in multidimensional space. Classification tree analysis confirmed that chemical constituents related to acid mine drainage and acid rain distinguished these six groups. Hard, soft, and severe acid mine drainage type streams were temporally constant compared to streams identified as reference, transitional, and moderate acid mine drainage type, which had a greater tendency to shift to a different water type between seasons. Our research is the first to establish a statistically supported stream classification system in mined watersheds. The results suggest that human-related stressors superimposed on geology are responsible for producing distinct water quality types in this region as opposed to more continuous variation in chemistry that would be expected in an unimpacted setting. These findings provide a basis for simplifying stream monitoring efforts, developing generalized remediation strategies, and identifying specific remediation priorities in mined Appalachian watersheds.

  13. Geological modelling of mineral deposits for prediction in mining

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Sides, E. J.

    Accurate prediction of the shape, location, size and properties of the solid rock materials to be extracted during mining is essential for reliable technical and financial planning. This is achieved through geological modelling of the three-dimensional (3D) shape and properties of the materials present in mineral deposits, and the presentation of results in a form which is accessible to mine planning engineers. In recent years the application of interactive graphics software, offering 3D database handling, modelling and visualisation, has greatly enhanced the options available for predicting the subsurface limits and characteristics of mineral deposits. A review of conventional 3D geological interpretation methods, and the model struc- tures and modelling methods used in reserve estimation and mine planning software packages, illustrates the importance of such approaches in the modern mining industry. Despite the widespread introduction and acceptance of computer hardware and software in mining applications, in recent years, there has been little fundamental change in the way in which geology is used in orebody modelling for predictive purposes. Selected areas of current research, aimed at tackling issues such as the use of orientation data, quantification of morphological differences, incorporation of geological age relationships, multi-resolution models and the application of virtual reality hardware and software, are discussed.

  14. Mineralogical transformations controlling acid mine drainage chemistry

    SciTech Connect

    Peretyazhko, Tetyana; Zachara, John M.; Boily, Jean F.; Xia, Yuanxian; Gassman, Paul L.; Arey, Bruce W.; Burgos, William D.

    2009-05-30

    The role of Fe(III) minerals in controlling acid mine drainage (AMD) chemistry was studied using samples from two AMD sites [Gum Boot (GB) and Fridays-2 (FR)] located in northern Pennsylvania. Chemical extractions, X-ray diffraction (XRD), scanning electron microscopy (SEM), and Fourier transform infrared spectroscopy (FTIR) were used to identify and characterize Fe(III) phases. The mineralogical analysis revealed that schwertmannite and goethite were the principal Fe(III) phases in the sediments. Schwertmannite transformation occurred at the GB site where poorly-crystallized goethite rich in surface-bound sulfate was initially formed. In contrast, no schwertmannite transformation occurred at the FR site. The goethite in GB sediments had spherical morphology due to preservation of schwertmannite structure by adsorbed sulfate. Results of chemical extractions showed that poorly-crystallized goethite was subject to further crystallization accompanied by sulfate desorption. Changes in sulfate speciation preceded its desorption, with a conversion of bidentate- to monodentate-bound sulfate surface complexes. Laboratory sediment incubation experiments were conducted to evaluate the effect of mineral transformation on water chemistry. Incubation experiments were carried out with schwertmannite-containing sediments and AMD waters with different pH and chemical composition. The pH decreased to 1.9-2.2 in all suspensions and the concentrations of dissolved Fe and S increased significantly. Regardless of differences in the initial water composition, pH, Fe and S were similar in suspensions of the same sediment. XRD measurements revealed that schwertmannite transformed into goethite in GB and FR sediments during laboratory incubation. The incubation experiment demonstrated that schwertmannite transformation controlled AMD water chemistry during “closed system” laboratory contact.

  15. Mined Geologic Disposal System Concept of Operations

    SciTech Connect

    Heidt, R.M.

    1995-06-08

    A Concept of Operations has been developed for the disposal of high-level radioactive waste in the potential geologic repository at Yucca Mountain. The Concept of Operations has been developed to document a cormion understanding of how the repository is to be operated. It is based on the repository architecture identified in the Initial Summary Report for Repository/Waste Package Advanced Conceptual Design and describes the operation of the repository from the initial receipt of waste through repository closure. Also described are operations for waste retrieval.

  16. Geology and mining industry of Leadville, Colorado, with atlas

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Emmons, Samuel Franklin

    1886-01-01

    The present work was undertaken at the instance of the Ron. Clarence King, first Director of the United States Geological Survey, in 1879. Itwas his intention that it should form part of a series of monographs which would in time include all the important mining districts of the country, and thus furnish an accurate and permanent record of the manner of occurrence and geological relation of the metallic deposits of the United States, as well a of all substantial improvement in the methods of obtaining the metals from their ores.

  17. Asbestos: Geology, Mineralogy, Mining, and Uses

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Virta, Robert L.

    2002-01-01

    The term asbestos is a generic designation referring usually to six types of naturally occurring mineral fibers that are or have been commercially exploited. These fibers belong to two mineral groups: serpentines and amphiboles. The serpentine group contains a single asbestiform variety: chrysotile; five asbestiform varieties of amphiboles are known: anthophyllite asbestos, grunerite asbestos (amosite), riebeckite asbestos (crocidolite), tremolite asbestos, and actinolite asbestos. These fibrous minerals share several properties which qualify them as asbestiform fibers: they are found in bundles of fibers which can be easily separated from the host matrix or cleaved into thinner fibers; the fibers exhibit high tensile strengths, they show high length: diameter (aspect) ratios, from a minimum of 20 up to greater than 1000; they are sufficiently flexible to be spun; and macroscopically, they resemble organic fibers such as cellulose. Since asbestos fibers are all silicates, they exhibit several other common properties, such as incombustibility, thermal stability, resistance to biodegradation, chemical inertia toward most chemicals, and low electrical conductivity. The term asbestos has traditionally been attributed only to those varieties that are commercially exploited. The industrial applications of asbestos fibers have now shifted almost exclusively to chrysotile. Two types of amphiboles, commonly designated as amosite and crocidolite are no longer mined. The other three amphibole varieties, anthophyllite asbestos, actinolite asbestos, and tremolite asbestos, have no significant industrial applications presently.

  18. Seismology program; California Division of Mines and Geology

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Sherburne, R. W.

    1981-01-01

    The year 1980 marked the centennial of the California Division of Mines and Geology (CDMG) and a decade of the Division's involvement in seismology. Factors which contributed to the formation of a Seismology Group within CDMG included increased concerns for environmental and earthquake safety, interest in earthquake prediction, the 1971 San Fernando earthquake and the 1973 publication by CDMG of an urban geology master plan for California. Reasons to be concerned about California's earthquake problem are demonstrated by the accompanying table and the figures. Recent seismicity in California, the Southern California uplift reflecting changes in crustal strain, and other possible earthquake precursors have heightened concern among scientific and governmental groups about the possible occurrence of a major damaging earthquake )M>7) in California. 

  19. Mined Geologic Disposal System Requirements Document. Revision 1

    SciTech Connect

    Not Available

    1994-03-01

    This Mined Geologic Disposal System Requirements Document (MGDS-RD) describes the functions to be performed by, and the requirements for, a Mined Geologic Disposal System (MGDS) for the permanent disposal of spent nuclear fuel (SNF) (including SNF loaded in multi-purpose canisters (MPCs)) and commercial and defense high-level radioactive waste (HLW) in support of the Civilian Radioactive Waste Management System (CRWMS). The purpose of the MGDS-RD is to define the program-level requirements for the design of the Repository, the Exploratory Studies Facility (ESF), and Surface Based Testing Facilities (SBTF). These requirements include design, operation, and decommissioning requirements to the extent they impact on the physical development of the MGDS. The document also presents an overall description of the MGDS, its functions (derived using the functional analysis documented by the Physical System Requirements (PSR) documents as a starting point), its segments as described in Section 3.1.3, and the requirements allocated to the segments. In addition, the program-level interfaces of the MGDS are identified. As such, the MGDS-RD provides the technical baseline for the design of the MGDS.

  20. Underground mining and deep geologic disposal - Two compatible and complementary activities

    SciTech Connect

    Rempe, N.T.

    1995-12-31

    Active and mature underground mining districts offer conditions favorable to deep geologic disposal because their geology is known in more detail, the feasibility of underground excavations has already been demonstrated, mining leaves distinctive footprints and records that alert subsequent generations to the anthropogenic alterations of the underground environment, and subsequent exploration and production proceeds with great care and accuracy to locate and generally to avoid old mine workings. Compatibility of mining with deep geologic waste disposal has been proven by decades of experience with safe storage and disposal in former mines and in the mined-out areas of still active mining operations. Mineral extraction around an intended repository reduces the incentive for future disturbance. Incidental features of mineral exploration and extraction such as lost circulation zones, allochthonous backfill, and permanent surface markers can deter future intrusion into a repository. Thus exploration and production of mineral resources should be compatible with, and complementary to, deep geologic waste disposal.

  1. Map showing potential metal-mine drainage hazards in Colorado, based on mineral-deposit geology

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Plumlee, Geoffrey S.; Streufert, Randall K.; Smith, Kathleen S.; Smith, Steven M.; Wallace, Alan R.; Toth, Margo I.; Nash, J. Thomas; Robinson, Rob A.; Ficklin, Walter H.; Lee, Gregory K.

    1995-01-01

    This map, compiled by the U.S. Geological Survey (USGS) in cooperation with the Colorado Geological Survey (CGS) and the U. S. Bureau of Land Management (BLM), shows potential mine-drainage hazards that may exist in Colorado metal-mining districts, as indicated by the geologic characteristics of the mineral deposits that occur in the respective districts. It was designed to demonstrate how geologic and geochemical information can be used on a regional scale to help assess the potential for mining-related and natural drainage problems in mining districts, unmined mineralized areas, and surrounding watersheds. The map also provides information on the distribution of different mineral deposit types across Colorado. A GIS (Geographic Information System) format was used to integrate geologic, geochemical, water-quality, climate, landuse, and ecological data from diverse sources. Likely mine-drainage signatures were defined for each mining district based on: (1) a review of the geologic characteristics of the mining district, including mineralogy, trace-element content, host-rock lithology, and wallrock alteration, and; (2) results of site specific studies on the geologic controls on mine-drainage composition.

  2. Geology of the Eymir iron mine, Edremit, Turkey

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Jacobson, Herbert Samuel; Turet, Erdogan

    1972-01-01

    The Eymir mine near Edremit on Turkey's Aegean coast (long 27?30'E.,1at 39?36'N.) was investigated as part of the Maden Tetkik ve Arama Enstitutsu (MTA)-U. S. Geological Survey (USGS) mineral exploration and training project, for the purpose of increasing the known mineral reserves. Geologic mapping of the mine area indicates that hematite is restricted to argillized, silicified, and pyritized dacite and possibly andesite. Hematite is present as massive replacements, impregnations, disseminations, and fracture fillings. Most of the upper part of the iron deposit consists of a breccia composed mostly of silicifiled dacite fragments in a hematite matrix. The iron deposit was apparently formed in three steps: 1. Argillation, silicification, and pyritization of the andesitic lava and dacite units as a result of a regional intrusion. 2. Intrusion of the Dere Oren dacite stock, with associated faulting, fracturing, and breccia formation at the surface. 3. Deposition of hematite by oxidation of pyrite, and transfer of iron via fractures and faults by hydrothermal or meteoric fluids. The Eymir iron deposit is a blanketlike deposit on the crest of the Sivritepe-Eymir ridge. It is 1300 meters long, 80 to 450 meters wide, and has an average thickness of 18.6 meters. Drill holes in the deposit show the iron content to range from 32.0 to 57.6 percent, and to average 46.5 percent. Most of the gangue is silica, and an arsenic impurity averaging 0.39 percent is present. Most of the deposit cannot be utilized as iron ore because of low iron content, high silica content, and high arsenic content. Ore-dressing tests have shown that it is feasible to concentrate the low-grade material, producing a concentrate having increased iron content and reduced silica content. Tests have shown also that the arsenic content of the ore can be reduced substantially by sintering. Further tests and economic feasibility studies are necessary to determine whether an economic marketable iron ore can be

  3. Remote sensing evaluation of the Klondike Mining District, Nevada. Part 1: Geology, photography and infrared

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Brennan, P. A.; Chapman, P. E.; Chipp, E. R.

    1971-01-01

    During August of 1970 Mission 140 was flown with the NASA P3A aircraft over the Klondike Mining District, Nevada. High quality metric photography, thermal infrared imagery, multispectral photography and multichannel microwave radiometry were obtained. Geology and ground truth data are presented and relationships of the physical attributes of geologic materials to remotely sensed data is discussed. It is concluded that remote sensing data was valuable in the geologic evaluation of the Klondike Mining District and would be of value in other mining districts.

  4. Hydrogeologic inferences from geophysical and geologic investigation of the Standard Mine site, Elk Basin, Colorado

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Minsley, B. J.; Caine, J. S.; Ball, L. B.; Burton, B.; Curry-Elrod, E.; Manning, A. H.; Verplanck, P. L.

    2009-12-01

    Geophysical and geologic data were collected at the Standard Mine in Elk Basin near Crested Butte, CO, to improve our understanding of the hydrogeologic controls in the basin and how they influence surface and groundwater interactions with nearby mine workings. The Tertiary Ohio Creek and Wasatch formations are the bedrock geologic units; both are primarily sandstones, but with differences in weathering and fracturing. Dikes, near-vertical normal faults, and polymetallic quartz veins with varying degrees of lateral continuity cut the sedimentary units. The net impact of these features, along with basin topography, makes it difficult to predict the behavior of the surface and groundwater systems. This integrated study utilizes geologic observations to help constrain subsurface information obtained from the analysis of surface geophysical measurements. This is a critical step toward using the geophysical data in a meaningful hydrogeologic framework. The approach combines the benefit of direct, but sparse, field observations with spatially continuous, but indirect, measurements of physical properties through the use of geophysics. Surface geophysical data includes electrical resistivity profiles aimed at imaging variability in subsurface structural properties and fluid content; self-potentials, which are sensitive to mineralized zones at this site and, to a lesser extent, shallow flow patterns; and magnetic measurements, which provide information on lateral variability in near-surface geologic features, although the minerals at this site are not strongly magnetized. Downhole caliper and optical televiewer logs were acquired in one well and provide valuable information on fracture properties. Field geologic observations include hand sample mineralogy and detailed mapping and characterization of faults, joints, and veins. Analyses of representative rock samples include magnetic susceptibility, mercury injection capillary pressure, semi-quantitative x-ray diffraction

  5. Underground geotechnical and geological investigations at Ekati Mine-Koala North: case study

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Jakubec, Jaroslav; Long, Larry; Nowicki, Tom; Dyck, Darren

    2004-09-01

    Since 1998, BHP Billiton has mined diamonds at the Ekati Diamond Mine™ near Lac de Gras in the Northwest Territories of Canada. Current operations are based on mining multiple pipes by the open-pit method, but as some pits deepen, converting to underground mining is being considered. As a test of underground mining methods and to provide access to the lower elevations of the Panda and Koala pipes, the Koala North pipe is being developed for underground mining. Initially, the top 40 m of the pipe were mined as an open pit to provide grade information and a prepared surface for the transition to underground mining. Currently, Koala North is being developed as an open-benching, mechanized, trackless operation. Although the method was successfully used at several De Beers diamond operations in South Africa, it has never been tested in an Arctic environment. This case study describes basic geology, mining method layout and ongoing geological and geotechnical investigation. From the beginning of underground development, geotechnical daily routines have been fully integrated within the technical services department, which supports the operation. Geotechnical, geological and structural information obtained from underground mapping and core logging is compiled, processed, reviewed and analyzed on site by the geotechnical staff. Conclusions and recommendations are implemented as part of the operations in a timely manner. This ongoing "live" process enables the operators to make the most efficient use of resources both for ground support and excavations as well as to address safety issues, which are the top priority.

  6. Geology of the Midnite uranium mine area, Washington: maps, description, and interpretation

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Nash, J. Thomas

    1977-01-01

    Bedrock geology of about 12 km2 near the Midnite mine has been mapped at the surface, in mine exposures, and from drilling, at scales from 1:600 to 1:12,000 and is presented here at 1:12,000 to provide description of the setting of uranium deposits. Oldest rocks in the area are metapelitic and metacarbonate rocks of the Precambrian (Y) Togo Formation. The chief host for uranium deposits is graphitic and pyritic mica phyllite and muscovite schist. Ore also occurs in calc-silicate hornfels and marble at the western edge of a calcareous section about 1,150 m thick. Calcareous rocks of the Togo are probably older than the pelitic as they are interpreted to be near the axis of a broad anticline. The composition and structural position of the calcareous unit suggests correlation with less metamorphosed carbonate-bearing rocks of the Lower Wallace Formation, Belt Supergroup, about 200 km to the east. Basic sills intrusive into the Togo have been metamorphosed to amphibolite. Unmetamorphosed rocks in the mine area are Cretaceous(?) and Eocene igneous rocks. Porphyritic quartz monzonite of Cretaceous age, part of the Loon Lake batholith, is exposed over one third of the mine area. It underlies the roof pendant of Precambrian rocks in which the Midnite mine occurs at depths of generally less than 300 m. The pluton is a two-mica granite and exhibits pegmatitic and aplitic textural features indicative of water saturation and pressure quenching. Eocene intrusive and extrusive rocks in the area provide evidence that the Eocene surface was only a short distance above the present uranium deposits. Speculative hypotheses are presented for penesyngenetic, hydrothermal, and supergene modes of uranium emplacement. The Precambrian Stratigraphy, similar in age and pre-metamorphic lithology to that of rocks hosting large uranium deposits in Saskatchewan and Northern Territory, Australia, suggests the possibility of uranium accumulation along with diagenetic pyrite in carbonaceous muds in

  7. Integration of multi spectrum and high resolution remote sensing image for detecting geological disasters in mining areas

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Zhang, Jin

    Now detection of geological disasters and environment is one of the most important tasks in mining area in China Through the investigation of the mineral geological environment the present situation and the influence of geological disasters on the ecological environment in mining area are found out which will be of great benefit to the reasonable development of mineral resources and help to protect mining ecological environment and realize the mine ecology restoration and reconstruction The goal of adopting the remote sensing technology for detection of the mineral geological environment is to use multi-phases and multi-scale remote sensing image to interpret the typical features of geological disasters and analyze the law of transition and destruction of geological disasters and provide instructional data reports and atlas for the protection of the mining geological environment The typical geological disasters are opencast working site gangue accumulation and waste residue sites land crack landslide and ground subsidence Research working sites are Dongshan mining area about 500 square kilometers and Pingshuo opencast mine area about 100 square kilometers in middle of China The remote sensing data used for Dongshan mining area is TM SPOT and high resolution aviation images and for Pingshuo opencast mine area is IKONOS and Quickbird images We also use some of relative GIS data for assistance interpretation in above two working sites The RTK GPS is used in field surveying for getting the geometry correction control points and precision

  8. Engineering-geological conditions of the effect of a landslide from mining activity

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Marschalko, M.; Hofrichterová, L.; Lahuta, H.

    2010-12-01

    The paper deals with a slope deformation in Řepiště (Paskov), which is located between the towns of Ostrava and Frýdek Místek; Řepiště is situated in the Ostrava-Karviná District within the reach of the effects of mining activity. The deformation involves the Paskov Mine, which is the only active mine in the Ostrava section of the district. The study included mapping complemented with a geophysical survey using resistance tomography; along with the information obtained from the inspection, it provided an overview of the engineering-geological conditions of the slope deformation. The interpretation of the data obtained identified a very complicated structure, including several levels of slip surfaces. The landslide is thus a textbook example of slope movements with a very complicated geological structure occupying an extensive spatial area in the mining landscape and affecting the stability of a road running directly through its body.

  9. ECONOMIC GEOLOGY: Lessons Learned from Deep-Sea Mining.

    PubMed

    Glasby, G P

    2000-07-28

    The first attempt to exploit deep-sea manganese nodules ended in failure as a result of the collapse of world metal prices, the onerous provisions imposed by the U. N. Conference on the Law of the Sea (UNCLOS), and the overoptimistic assumptions about the viability of nodule mining. Attention then focused on cobalt-rich manganese crusts from seamounts. Since the mid-1980s, a number of new players have committed themselves to long-term programs to establish the viability of mining deep-sea manganese nodules. These programs require heavy subsidy by host governments. Gold-rich submarine hydrothermal deposits located at convergent plate margins are now emerging as a more promising prospect for mining than deep-sea manganese deposits.

  10. Deep-Sea Mining: Integrating Geology, Oceanography, and Engineering

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Meyer, F. Michael; Halbach, Peter E.; Martens, Peer N.; Hein, James R.; Scott, Steve

    2008-09-01

    Shaping the Future: Deep-Sea Minerals and Mining Congress; Aachen, Germany, 9-13 March 2008; A strong increase in the global demand for metallic raw materials, coupled with rising market prices, has heightened interest in marine seabed mineral deposits and the feasibility of their extraction for many marine scientists, engineers, and mining companies. This interest focuses not only on base and precious metals but also on strategically important elements needed for high-technology applications, such as cobalt, nickel, molybdenum, titanium, gallium, selenium, telurium, indium, and the rare earth elements.

  11. Geology of the Starr molybdenum mine, Okanogan County, Washington

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Creasey, S.C.

    1954-01-01

    The Starr molybdenum mine, Okanogan County, Wash., is about 5 airline miles west of Tonasket in the north-central part of the State. The mineralized zone has been explored to a depth of 250 feet by means of three adit levels, one sublevel, and a raise which connects two of the adits and the sublevel. In all, there are about 2,700 feet of underground workings. The mine has neither machinery nor a developed water supply adequate for any work other than a small exploratory program.

  12. A Stock-Market Game Using Mining Stocks for Economic-Geology Students.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Mossman, David John

    1988-01-01

    Described is a game especially for senior economic geology students. The game challenges them to test their skills under present market conditions in an area of high consumer risk. Discussed are preparation and management of a portfolio, conducting research on various mining companies, and final accounting for results achieved in light of…

  13. A Stock-Market Game Using Mining Stocks for Economic-Geology Students.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Mossman, David John

    1988-01-01

    Described is a game especially for senior economic geology students. The game challenges them to test their skills under present market conditions in an area of high consumer risk. Discussed are preparation and management of a portfolio, conducting research on various mining companies, and final accounting for results achieved in light of…

  14. Lessons learned from the U.S. Geological Survey abandoned mine lands initiative: 1997-2002

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Kimball, Briant A.; Church, Stanley E.; Besser, John M.

    2006-01-01

    Growth of the United States has been facilitated, in part, by hard-rock mining in the Rocky Mountains. Abandoned and inactive mines cause many significant environmental concerns in hundreds of watersheds. Those who have responsibility to address these environmental concerns must have a basic level of scientific information about mining and mine wastes in a watershed prior to initiating remediation activities. To demonstrate what information is needed and how to obtain that information, the U.S. Geological Survey implemented the Abandoned Mine Lands (AML) Initiative from 1997 to 2002 with demonstration studies in the Boulder River watershed in Montana and the Animas River watershed in Colorado. The AML Initiative included collection and analysis of geologic, hydrologic, geochemical, geophysical, and biological data. The synergy of this interdisciplinary analysis produced a perspective of the environmental concerns that could not have come from a single discipline. Two examples of these perspectives include (1) the combination of hydrological tracer techniques, structural geology, and geophysics help to understand the spatial distribution of loading to the streams in a way that cannot be evaluated by monitoring at a catchment outlet, and (2) the combination of toxicology and hydrology combine to illustrate that seasonal variability of toxicity conditions occurs. Lessons have been learned by listening to and collaborating with land-management agencies to understand their needs and by applying interdisciplinary methods to answer their questions.

  15. Lessons learned from the U.S. Geological Survey abandoned mine lands initiative: 1997-2002

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Kimball, Briant A.; Church, Stan E.; Besser, John M.

    2006-01-01

    Growth of the United States has been facilitated, in part, by hard-rock mining in the Rocky Mountains. Abandoned and inactive mines cause many significant environmental concerns in hundreds of watersheds. Those who have responsibility to address these environmental concerns must have a basic level of scientific information about mining and mine wastes in a watershed prior to initiating remediation activities. To demonstrate what information is needed and how to obtain that information, the U.S. Geological Survey implemented the Abandoned Mine Lands (AML) Initiative from 1997 to 2002 with demonstration studies in the Boulder River watershed in Montana and the Animas River watershed in Colorado. The AML Initiative included collection and analysis of geologic, hydrologic, geochemical, geophysical, and biological data. The synergy of this interdisciplinary analysis produced a perspective of the environmental concerns that could not have come from a single discipline. Two examples of these perspectives include (1) the combination of hydrological tracer techniques, structural geology, and geophysics help to understand the spatial distribution of loading to the streams in a way that cannot be evaluated by monitoring at a catchment outlet, and (2) the combination of toxicology and hydrology combine to illustrate that seasonal variability of toxicity conditions occurs. Lessons have been learned by listening to and collaborating with land-management agencies to understand their needs and by applying interdisciplinary methods to answer their questions.

  16. New software for visualizing 3D geological data in coal mines

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Lee, Sungjae; Choi, Yosoon

    2015-04-01

    This study developed new software to visualize 3D geological data in coal mines. The Visualization Tool Kit (VTK) library and Visual Basic.NET 2010 were used to implement the software. The software consists of several modules providing functionalities: (1) importing and editing borehole data; (2) modelling of coal seams in 3D; (3) modelling of coal properties using 3D ordinary Kriging method; (4) calculating economical values of 3D blocks; (5) pit boundary optimization for identifying economical coal reserves based on the Lerchs-Grosmann algorithm; and (6) visualizing 3D geological, geometrical and economical data. The software has been applied to a small-scale open-pit coal mine in Indonesia revealed that it can provide useful information supporting the planning and design of open-pit coal mines.

  17. Geologic site characterization requirements for storage and mining in salt

    SciTech Connect

    Neal, J.T.; Magorian, T.R.

    1995-04-01

    Geologic Site Characterization should be a dynamic, continuing process, not an event. Its successes and failures are legion and can make or break an operator. A balanced approach must be sought to provide adequate information for safety of operations, neither slighting nor overdoing the effort. The evolving nature of study methods and geologic knowledge essentially mandates that characterization efforts be reviewed periodically. However, indifference, nonchallance, and even outright disdain describe attitudes witnessed in some circles regarding this subject. Unawareness may also be a factor. Unfortunately, several unanticipated events have led to severe economic consequences for the operators. The hard-learned lessons involving several unanticipated geotechnical occurrences at several Gulf Coast salt domes are discussed. The ultimate benefit of valuing site characterization efforts may be more than just enhanced safety and health--costs not expended in lost facilities and litigation can become profit.

  18. Information Retrieval and Text Mining Technologies for Chemistry.

    PubMed

    Krallinger, Martin; Rabal, Obdulia; Lourenço, Anália; Oyarzabal, Julen; Valencia, Alfonso

    2017-06-28

    Efficient access to chemical information contained in scientific literature, patents, technical reports, or the web is a pressing need shared by researchers and patent attorneys from different chemical disciplines. Retrieval of important chemical information in most cases starts with finding relevant documents for a particular chemical compound or family. Targeted retrieval of chemical documents is closely connected to the automatic recognition of chemical entities in the text, which commonly involves the extraction of the entire list of chemicals mentioned in a document, including any associated information. In this Review, we provide a comprehensive and in-depth description of fundamental concepts, technical implementations, and current technologies for meeting these information demands. A strong focus is placed on community challenges addressing systems performance, more particularly CHEMDNER and CHEMDNER patents tasks of BioCreative IV and V, respectively. Considering the growing interest in the construction of automatically annotated chemical knowledge bases that integrate chemical information and biological data, cheminformatics approaches for mapping the extracted chemical names into chemical structures and their subsequent annotation together with text mining applications for linking chemistry with biological information are also presented. Finally, future trends and current challenges are highlighted as a roadmap proposal for research in this emerging field.

  19. Mercury contamination in agricultural soils from abandoned metal mines classified by geology and mineralization.

    PubMed

    Kim, Han Sik; Jung, Myung Chae

    2012-01-01

    This survey aimed to compare mercury concentrations in soils related to geology and mineralization types of mines. A total of 16,386 surface soils (0~15 cm in depth) were taken from agricultural lands near 343 abandoned mines (within 2 km from each mine) and analyzed for Hg by AAS with a hydride-generation device. To meaningfully compare mercury levels in soils with geology and mineralization types, three subclassification criteria were adapted: (1) five mineralization types, (2) four valuable ore mineral types, and (3) four parent rock types. The average concentration of Hg in all soils was 0.204 mg kg(-1) with a range of 0.002-24.07 mg kg(-1). Based on the mineralization types, average Hg concentrations (mg kg(-1)) in the soils decreased in the order of pegmatite (0.250) > hydrothermal vein (0.208) > hydrothermal replacement (0.166) > skarn (0.121) > sedimentary deposits (0.045). In terms of the valuable ore mineral types, the concentrations decreased in the order of Au-Ag-base metal mines ≈ base metal mines > Au-Ag mines > Sn-W-Mo-Fe-Mn mines. For parent rock types, similar concentrations were found in the soils derived from sedimentary rocks and metamorphic rocks followed by heterogeneous rocks with igneous and metamorphic processes. Furthermore, farmland soils contained relatively higher Hg levels than paddy soils. Therefore, it can be concluded that soils in Au, Ag, and base metal mines derived from a hydrothermal vein type of metamorphic rocks and pegmatite deposits contained relatively higher concentrations of mercury in the surface environment.

  20. Youthful Geologic Terrains with Anomalous Surface Chemistry on Europa

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Shirley, James H.; Dalton, J. B., III; Prockter, L. M.; Kamp, L. W.

    2010-10-01

    Geologic mapping of Europa's Argadnel Regio has identified more than a dozen distinctive geologic terrains. We have assembled and registered spacecraft imaging, geologic mapping, and spectroscopic mapping datasets for part of this region. We have obtained linear mixture modeling compositional solutions for more than 40 non-overlapping exposures of ridged plains, low albedo plains, chaos, dark spots, and crater ejecta (Dalton et al., LPSC XL #2511, 2009; Shirley et al., 2010, Icarus, in press). This work has uncovered a well-defined spatial gradient of sulfuric acid hydrate abundance, with concentrations of this material increasing in the direction of Europa's trailing-side apex. Surprisingly, the gradient appears to be independent of the nature of the underlying terrain (Shirley et al., LPSC XLI, 2010). This suggests that the H2SO4 hydrate abundance may be closely linked with magnetospheric bombardment processes, which supply both sulfur ions and energy for driving the chemical reactions of the sulfur cycle (Carlson et al., Science 286, 97, 1999; Dalton et al., this meeting). Stratigraphic relationships indicate that the low albedo plains are among the youngest geologic terrains within our study area. Compositional solutions for four contiguous non-overlapping exposures of low albedo plains materials exhibit abundances of the H2SO4 hydrate that are lower than those of their immediate neighbors by up to 33%. We suggest that these particular exposures may not have been exposed to the surface radiation environment long enough to reach radiolytic chemical equilibrium; if so, this would suggest that these deposits may have been emplaced quite recently. We will touch on implications for chemical models of Europa's subsurface fluids, for observing strategies for future missions to Europa, and for astrobiological investigations. This work was supported by NASA's Outer Planets Research Program, and was performed at the California Institute of Technology-Jet Propulsion

  1. Synthetic Precipitation Leaching Procedure (SPLP) leachate chemistry data for solid mine-waste composite samples from southwestern New Mexico, and Leadville, Colorado

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Hageman, Philip L.; Briggs, Paul H.; Desborough, George A.; Lamothe, Paul J.; Theodorakos, Peter M.

    2000-01-01

    This report details chemistry data derived from leaching of mine-waste composite samples using a modification of E.P.A. Method 1312, Synthetic Precipitation Leaching Procedure (SPLP). In 1998, members of the U.S. Geological Survey Mine Waste Characterization Project collected four mine-waste composite samples from mining districts in southwestern New Mexico (CAR and PET) and near Leadville, Colorado (TUC and MII). Resulting leachate pH values for the four composites ranged from 5.45 to 8.84 and ranked in the following order: CAR < TUC < MII < PET. Specific conductivity values ranged from 85 uS/cm to 847 uS/cm in the following order: PET < MII < CAR < TUC. Geochemical data generated from this investigation reveal that leachate from the CAR composite contains the highest concentrations of Pb, Zn, Ni, Mn, Cu, Cd, and Al

  2. The College Commissions - Agriculture, Biology, Chemistry, Engineering, Geography, Geology, Mathematics, Physics.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Fooks, Joyce Lane

    Information concerning the eight science college commissions now in existence is provided. These commissions encompass the fields of agriculture, biology, chemistry, engineering, geography, geology, mathematics and physics. An overview of the primary functions and commitments of the commissions and consulting services offered is presented. Also…

  3. Economic geology of the Bingham mining district, Utah, with a section on areal geology, and an introduction on general geology

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Boutwell, J.M.; Keith, Arthur; Emmons, S.F.

    1905-01-01

    The field work of which this report represents the final results was first undertaken in the summer of the year 1900. This district had long been selected by the writer as worthy of special economic investigation, as well on account of the importance of its products as because of its geological structure and the peculiar relations of its ore deposits. It was not, however, until the summer mentioned above that the means at the disposal of the Survey, both pecuniary and scientific, justified its undertaking. As originally planned, the areal or surface geology was to have been worked out by Mr. Keith, who had already spent many years in unraveling the complicated geological structure of the Appalachian province, while Mr. Boutwell, who had more recently become attached to the Survey, was to have charge of the underground geology, or a study of the ore deposits, under the immediate supervision of the writer. When the time came for actually taking the field, it was found that the pressure of other work would not permit Mr. Keith to carry out fully the part allotted to him, and in consequence a part of his field work has fallen to Mr. Boutwell. Field work was commenced by the writer and Mr. Boutwell early in July, 1900. Mr. Keith joined the party on August 10, but was obliged to leave for other duties early in September. Mr. Boutwell carried on his field work continuously from July until December, taking up underground work after the snowfall had rendered work on the surface geology impracticable. The geological structure had proved to be unexpectedly intricate and complicated, so that, on the opening of the field season of 1901, it was found necessary to make further study in the light of results already worked out, and Mr. Boutwell spent some weeks in the district in the early summer of 1901. His field work that year, partly in California and partly in Arizona, as assistant to Mr. Waldemar Lindgren, lasted through the summer and winter and well into the spring of 1902

  4. Analyses of geological and hydrodynamic controls on methane emissions experienced in a Lower Kittanning coal mine

    PubMed Central

    Karacan, C. Özgen; Goodman, Gerrit V.R.

    2015-01-01

    This paper presents a study assessing potential factors and migration paths of methane emissions experienced in a room-and-pillar mine in Lower Kittanning coal, Indiana County, Pennsylvania. Methane emissions were not excessive at idle mining areas, but significant methane was measured during coal mining and loading. Although methane concentrations in the mine did not exceed 1% limit during operation due to the presence of adequate dilution airflow, the source of methane and its migration into the mine was still a concern. In the course of this study, structural and depositional properties of the area were evaluated to assess complexity and sealing capacity of roof rocks. Composition, gas content, and permeability of Lower Kittanning coal, results of flotation tests, and geochemistry of groundwater obtained from observation boreholes were studied to understand the properties of coal and potential effects of old abandoned mines within the same area. These data were combined with the data obtained from exploration boreholes, such as depths, elevations, thicknesses, ash content, and heat value of coal. Univariate statistical and principal component analyses (PCA), as well as geostatistical simulations and co-simulations, were performed on various spatial attributes to reveal interrelationships and to establish area-wide distributions. These studies helped in analyzing groundwater quality and determining gas-in-place (GIP) of the Lower Kittanning seam. Furthermore, groundwater level and head on the Lower Kittanning coal were modeled and flow gradients within the study area were examined. Modeling results were interpreted with the structural geology of the Allegheny Group of formations above the Lower Kittanning coal to understand the potential source of gas and its migration paths. Analyses suggested that the source of methane was likely the overlying seams such as the Middle and Upper Kittanning coals and Freeport seams of the Allegheny Group. Simulated ground

  5. Analyses of geological and hydrodynamic controls on methane emissions experienced in a Lower Kittanning coal mine.

    PubMed

    Karacan, C Özgen; Goodman, Gerrit V R

    2012-08-01

    This paper presents a study assessing potential factors and migration paths of methane emissions experienced in a room-and-pillar mine in Lower Kittanning coal, Indiana County, Pennsylvania. Methane emissions were not excessive at idle mining areas, but significant methane was measured during coal mining and loading. Although methane concentrations in the mine did not exceed 1% limit during operation due to the presence of adequate dilution airflow, the source of methane and its migration into the mine was still a concern. In the course of this study, structural and depositional properties of the area were evaluated to assess complexity and sealing capacity of roof rocks. Composition, gas content, and permeability of Lower Kittanning coal, results of flotation tests, and geochemistry of groundwater obtained from observation boreholes were studied to understand the properties of coal and potential effects of old abandoned mines within the same area. These data were combined with the data obtained from exploration boreholes, such as depths, elevations, thicknesses, ash content, and heat value of coal. Univariate statistical and principal component analyses (PCA), as well as geostatistical simulations and co-simulations, were performed on various spatial attributes to reveal interrelationships and to establish area-wide distributions. These studies helped in analyzing groundwater quality and determining gas-in-place (GIP) of the Lower Kittanning seam. Furthermore, groundwater level and head on the Lower Kittanning coal were modeled and flow gradients within the study area were examined. Modeling results were interpreted with the structural geology of the Allegheny Group of formations above the Lower Kittanning coal to understand the potential source of gas and its migration paths. Analyses suggested that the source of methane was likely the overlying seams such as the Middle and Upper Kittanning coals and Freeport seams of the Allegheny Group. Simulated ground

  6. Influence of Geological Structure on Coal and Gas Outburst Occurrences in Turkish Underground Coal Mines

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Esen, Olgun; Özer, Samet Can; Fişne, Abdullah

    2015-04-01

    Coal and gas outbursts are sudden and violent releases of gas and in company with coal that result from a complex function of geology, stress regime with gas pressure and gas content of the coal seam. The phenomena is referred to as instantaneous outbursts and have occurred in virtually all the major coal producing countries and have been the cause of major disasters in the world mining industry. All structures from faults to joints and cleats may supply gas or lead to it draining away. Most geological structures influence the way in which gas can drain within coal seams. From among all the geological factors two groups can be distinguished: parameters characterising directly the occurrence and geometry of the coal seams; parameters characterising the tectonic disturbances of the coal seams and neighbouring rocks. Also dykes may act as gas barriers. When the production of the coal seam is advanced in mine working areas, these barriers are failed mostly in the weak and mylonitized zones. Geology also plays a very important role in the outburst process. Coal seams of complex geological structure including faults, folds, and fractured rocks are liable to outbursts if coal seams and neighbouring rocks have high gas content level. The purpose of the study is to enlighten the coal industry in Turkey to improving mine safety in underground coal production and decrease of coal and gas outburst events due to increasing depth of mining process. In Turkey; the years between 1969 and 2013, the number of 90 coal and gas outbursts took place in Zonguldak Hard Coal Basin in both Kozlu and Karadon Collieries. In this study the liability to coal and gas outburst of the coal seams are investigated by measuring the strength of coal and the rock pressure. The correlation between these measurements and the event locations shows that the geological structures resulted in 52 events out of 90 events; 19 events close to the fault zones, 25 events thorough the fault zones and 8 events in

  7. Geologic maps and cross sections of mine levels at the Pea Ridge iron mine, Washington County, Missouri

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Seeger, C.M.; Nuelle, L.M.; Sidder, G.B.; Marikos, M.A.; Smith, D.C.

    2001-01-01

    This geologic mapping and interpretation of the Pea Ridge iron mine, Missouri, is part of a cooperative effort between the U.S. Geological Survey (USGS) and the Missouri Department of Natural Resources, Division of Geology and Land Survey (DGLS), under the auspices of the USGS Midcontinent Strategic and Critical Minerals Project. The goal of the Pea Ridge study is to compare the Middle Proterozoic iron deposits of Missouri with the Middle Proterozoic Olympic Dam deposit and similar deposits of the Stuart Shelf, South Australia. This effort developed from work by Sims and others (1987), who recognized the many similarities between the St. Francois terrane in southeastern Missouri and the Stuart Shelf and also the potential for Olympic Dam-type deposits in the Middle Proterozoic granite-rhyolite terranes of the Midcontinent. Detailed descriptions of the map units are given in Nuelle and others (1992). Results of stable-isotope, fluid-inclusion, and traceelement studies that focus on the origin of the ore deposit are presented in Day and others (1991, 1992, and 1993), Sidder and others (1991, 1993a, b), and Cordell and others (1993).

  8. Geological and anthropogenic factors influencing mercury speciation in mine wastes: An EXAFS spectroscopy study

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Kim, C.S.; Rytuba, J.J.; Brown, Gordon E.

    2004-01-01

    The speciation of Hg is a critical determinant of its mobility, reactivity, and potential bioavailability in mine-impacted regions. Furthermore, Hg speciation in these complex natural systems is influenced by a number of physical, geological, and anthropogenic variables. In order to investigate the degree to which several of these variables may affect Hg speciation, extended X-ray absorption fine structure (EXAFS) spectroscopy was used to determine the Hg phases and relative proportions of these phases present in Hg-bearing wastes from selected mine-impacted regions in California and Nevada. The geological origin of Hg ore has a significant effect on Hg speciation in mine wastes. Specifically, samples collected from hot-spring Hg deposits were found to contain soluble Hg-chloride phases, while such phases were largely absent in samples from silica-carbonate Hg deposits; in both deposit types, however, Hg-sulfides in the form of cinnabar (HgS, hex.) and metacinnabar (HgS, cub.) dominate. Calcined wastes in which Hg ore was crushed and roasted in excess of 600??C, contain high proportions of metacinnabar while the main Hg-containing phase in unroasted waste rock samples from the same mines is cinnabar. The calcining process is thought to promote the reconstructive phase transformation of cinnabar to metacinnabar, which typically occurs at 345??C. The total Hg concentration in calcines is strongly correlated with particle size, with increases of nearly an order of magnitude in total Hg concentration between the 500-2000 ??m and <45 ??m size fractions (e.g., from 97-810 mg/kg Hg in calcines from the Sulphur Bank Mine, CA). The proportion of Hg-sulfides present also increased by 8-18% as particle size decreased over the same size range. This finding suggests that insoluble yet soft Hg-sulfides are subject to preferential mechanical weathering and become enriched in the fine-grained fraction, while soluble Hg phases are leached out more readily as particle size decreases

  9. Environmental control technology survey of selected US strip mining sites. Volume 2B. Alabama. Water quality impacts and overburden chemistry of Alabama study site

    SciTech Connect

    Henricks, J D; Bogner, J E; Olsen, R D; Schubert, J P; Sobek, A A; Johnson, D O

    1980-05-01

    As part of a program to examine the ability of existing control technologies to meet federal guidelines for the quality of aqueous effluents from coal mines, an intensive study of water, coal, and overburden chemistry was conducted at a surface coal mine in Alabama from May 1976 through July 1977. Sampling sites included the pit sump, a stream downgrade from the mine, the discharge from the water treatment facility, and a small stream outside the mine drainage. Water samples were collected every two weeks by Argonne subcontractors at the Alabama Geological Survey and analysed for the following parameters: specific conductance, pH, temperature, acidity, bicarbonate, carbonate, chloride, total dissolved solids, suspended solids, sulfate, and 20 metals. Analysis of the coal and overburden shows that no potential acid problem exists at this mine. Water quality is good in both streams sampled, and high levels of dissolved elements are found only in water collected from the pit sump. The mine effluent is in compliance with Office of Surface Mining water quality standards.

  10. Memoranda reports on the geologic spot examinations of mines and prospects in Iran, February 1954, through June, 1955

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Gibson, Russell

    1956-01-01

    A series of twenty-nine geological spot examinations of mines and prospects in Iran were carried out by Dr. Russell Gibson, Geologist, U.S. Geological Survey between February 1954 and June 1955. These studies were under the joint auspices of the U.S. Operation Mission of the International Cooperation Administration and the Iranian Ministry of National Economy. Dr. Gibson acted as Advisor in economic geology to both the Mission and the Government of Iran during this period. All mine or prospect visits including those two properties owned by private operators were made at the request of the agencies of the Government of Iran.

  11. Application of geologic modeling to overburden characterization and special handling at a Texas lignite mine

    SciTech Connect

    Behum, P.T. Jr.; Joseph, W.

    1998-12-31

    The US Department of the Interior Office of Surface Mining provides permit reviewers and reclamation specialists with a set of engineering and scientific software tools to assist in the regulation and reclamation of coal mines in the United States. This software is available on UNIX workstations in Federal, State, and Tribal regulatory agency offices in all coal producing states and is known as the Technical Information Processing System (TIPS). One of these software packages, earthVision by Dynamic Graphics, Inc. of Alameda, California, Can be used to visualize the three-dimensional characteristics of subsurface overburden units, modeling geologic characteristics such as texture or environmental factors like pH or concentrations of potentially toxic elements. The three-dimensional models allow not only visualization of the subsurface geochemistry, but can be used to accurately estimate the volumes of overburden materials that are potentially acid-forming.

  12. NWTS program criteria for mined geologic disposal of nuclear wasite: site performance criteria

    SciTech Connect

    1981-02-01

    This report states ten criteria governing the suitability of sites for mined geologic disposal of high-level radioactive waste. The Department of Energy will use these criteria in its search for sites and will reevaluate their use when the Nuclear Regulatory Commission issues radioactive waste repository rules. These criteria encompass site geometry, geohydrology, geochemistry, geologic characteristics, tectonic environment, human intrusion, surface characteristics, environment, and potential socioeconomic impacts. The contents of this document include background discussion, site performance criteria, and appendices. The background section describes the waste disposal system, the application of the site criteria, and applicable criteria from NWTS-33(1) - Program Objectives, Functional Requirements and System Performance Criteria. Appendix A, entitled Comparison with Other Siting Criteria compares the NWTS criteria with those recommended by other agencies. Appendix B contains DOE responses to public comments received on the January 1980 draft of this document. Appendix C is a glossary.

  13. Coal mine bumps as related to geologic features in the northern part of the Sunnyside District, Carbon County, Utah

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Osterwald, Frank W.; Dunrud, C. Richard; Collins, Donley S.

    1993-01-01

    Coal mine bumps, which are violent, spontaneous, and often catastrophic disruptions of coal and rock, were common in the Sunnyside coal mining district, Utah, before the introduction of protective-engineering methods, modern room-and-pillar retreat mining with continuous mining machines, and particularly modern longwall mining. The coal at Sunnyside, when stressed during mining, fails continuously with many popping, snapping, and banging noises. Although most of the bumps are beneficial because they make mining easier, many of the large ones are dangerous and in the past caused injuries and fatalities, particularly with room- and-pillar mining methods used in the early mining operations. Geologic mapping of underground mine openings revealed many types of deformational features, some pre-mine and some post-mine in age. Stresses resulting from mining are concentrated near the mine openings; if openings are driven at large angles to small pre-mine deformational features, particularly shatter zones in coal, abnormal stress buildups may occur and violent bumps may result. Other geologic features, such as ripple marks, oriented sand grains, intertongued rock contacts, trace fossils, and load casts, also influence the occurrence of bumps by impeding slip of coal and rocks along bedding planes. The stress field in the coal also varies markedly because of the rough ridge and canyon topography. These features may allow excessively large stress components to accumulate. At many places, the stresses that contribute to deformation and failures of mine openings are oriented horizontally. The stratigraphy of the rocks immediately above and below the mined coal bed strongly influences the deformation of the mine openings in response to stress accumulations. Triaxial compressive testing of coal from the Sunnyside No.1 and No.3 Mines indicates that the strength of the coal increases several times as the confining (lateral) stress is increased. Strengths of cores cut from single

  14. Changes of groundwater chemistry caused by the flooding of iron mines (Czestochowa Region, Southern Poland)

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Razowska, L.

    2001-04-01

    Underground mining always causes disturbances of the hydrogeological environment, primarily due to the dewatering of mine workings. The flooding of abandoned mines contributes to the rebound of the cone of depression developed previously, but it also leads to significant pollution of groundwater in the mined areas. The Middle Jurassic aquifer in the Czestochowa region of the flooded iron mines has been investigated with respect to patterns of water movement and groundwater chemistry. Basing on eight years of studies including field measurements, data collection and physicochemical analyses of groundwaters, two models has been developed: a hydrological model of water flow and a hydrochemical speciation model. Additionally, in order to validate the results, stable isotopes of hydrogen and oxygen, together with tritium and radiocarbon, have been analysed. Four distinct hydrochemical zones has been identified within this aquifer based on the results of these studies: Zones I and II — where the groundwater is influenced by iron mining, and Zones III and IV — where the groundwater in the Middle Jurassic aquifer is uncontaminated. The results indicate that the changes in groundwater chemistry within the flooded iron mines area are significant. Maximum SO 42- contents reach 1103.0 mg l -1 and are 6 times higher than the acceptable levels for human consumption of water (Polish Drinking-Water Limits), Mn 2+ contents reach 6.61 mg l -1 and are 70 times higher, and Fe tot reach 271.4 mg l -1 and are 500 times higher. Water flow modelling and hydrogeochemical interpretations suggest that waters in the zone III, in spite of their occurrence within the area of the cone of depression caused by the iron mining, are not influenced by the polluted mine waters. This is corroborated by the isotopic investigations. The age of waters from this zone has been determined as Early Holocene, which strongly suggests that these waters had recharged before the dewatering began. The results

  15. Evaluation of stream chemistry trends in US Geological Survey reference watersheds, 1970-2010

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Mast, M. Alisa

    2013-01-01

    The Hydrologic Benchmark Network (HBN) is a long-term monitoring program established by the US Geological Survey in the 1960s to track changes in the streamflow and stream chemistry in undeveloped watersheds across the USA. Trends in stream chemistry were tested at 15 HBN stations over two periods (1970–2010 and 1990–2010) using the parametric Load Estimator (LOADEST) model and the nonparametric seasonal Kendall test. Trends in annual streamflow and precipitation chemistry also were tested to help identify likely drivers of changes in stream chemistry. At stations in the northeastern USA, there were significant declines in stream sulfate, which were consistent with declines in sulfate deposition resulting from the reductions in SO2 emissions mandated under the Clean Air Act Amendments. Sulfate declines in stream water were smaller than declines in deposition suggesting sulfate may be accumulating in watershed soils and thereby delaying the stream response to improvements in deposition. Trends in stream chemistry at stations in other part of the country generally were attributed to climate variability or land disturbance. Despite declines in sulfate deposition, increasing stream sulfate was observed at several stations and appeared to be linked to periods of drought or declining streamflow. Falling water tables might have enhanced oxidation of organic matter in wetlands or pyrite in mineralized bedrock thereby increasing sulfate export in surface water. Increasing sulfate and nitrate at a station in the western USA were attributed to release of soluble salts and nutrients from soils following a large wildfire in the watershed.

  16. Evaluation of stream chemistry trends in US Geological Survey reference watersheds, 1970-2010.

    PubMed

    Mast, M Alisa

    2013-11-01

    The Hydrologic Benchmark Network (HBN) is a long-term monitoring program established by the US Geological Survey in the 1960s to track changes in the streamflow and stream chemistry in undeveloped watersheds across the USA. Trends in stream chemistry were tested at 15 HBN stations over two periods (1970-2010 and 1990-2010) using the parametric Load Estimator (LOADEST) model and the nonparametric seasonal Kendall test. Trends in annual streamflow and precipitation chemistry also were tested to help identify likely drivers of changes in stream chemistry. At stations in the northeastern USA, there were significant declines in stream sulfate, which were consistent with declines in sulfate deposition resulting from the reductions in SO₂ emissions mandated under the Clean Air Act Amendments. Sulfate declines in stream water were smaller than declines in deposition suggesting sulfate may be accumulating in watershed soils and thereby delaying the stream response to improvements in deposition. Trends in stream chemistry at stations in other part of the country generally were attributed to climate variability or land disturbance. Despite declines in sulfate deposition, increasing stream sulfate was observed at several stations and appeared to be linked to periods of drought or declining streamflow. Falling water tables might have enhanced oxidation of organic matter in wetlands or pyrite in mineralized bedrock thereby increasing sulfate export in surface water. Increasing sulfate and nitrate at a station in the western USA were attributed to release of soluble salts and nutrients from soils following a large wildfire in the watershed.

  17. Geology and ore deposits of the Whitepine area, Tomichi mining district, Gunnison County, Colorado

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Robinson, Charles Sherwood

    1956-01-01

    The Tomichi mining district is on the western slope of the Continental Divide near the southern end of the Sawatch Range in southeastern Gunnison County, Colorado. The most productive part of the Tomichi district was the Whitepine area. It is estimated that since the discovery of ore in 1879 the area has produced approximately $7,000,000, principally in lead and zinc, with lesser amounts of silver, copper, and gold. Geologically, the Whitepine area is a faulted syncline of Paleozoic rocks that was intruded by Tertiary igneous rocks. The oldest rock of the area is the Silver Plume granite of pre-Cambrian age. Deposited upon this successively were the Sawatch quartzite (Late Cambrian), Manitou dolomite (Early Ordovician), Harding quartzite (Middle Ordovician), Fremont dolomite (Lade Ordovician), Chaffee formation (Late Devonian), Leadville limestone (Late Mississippian), and Beldon shale (Late Pennsylvanian); a total thickness of about 1,450 feet. During the Laramide Revolution, the sedimentary rocks were folded into a broad northward-plunging syncline, faulted, and intruded by a series of igneous rocks. The igneous rocks, in order of relative age from oldest to youngest, are: a rhyolite stock, the Princeton quartz monzonite batholith, quartz monzonite or quartz latite porphyry dikes, and rhyolite or pitchstone porphyry dikes. The ore deposits of the Whitepine area may be classified into replacement deposits, vein deposits, and contact metamorphic deposits. The replacement deposits may be further subdivided into deposits along faults and bedded deposits. Of the types of deposits, the most productive have been the replacement deposits along faults. The major replacement deposits along faults are those of the Akron, Morning Star, and Victor mines. The ore deposits of these mines are in the foot wall of the Star faults in the Akron mine in the Manitou dolomite and in the Morning Star and Victor mines in the Leadville limestone. The chief bedded replacement deposits are

  18. Assessing Recharge and Geological Model Uncertainty at the Climax Mine Area of the Nevada Test Site

    SciTech Connect

    M. Ye; K. Pohlmann; J. Chapman; G. Pohll

    2007-11-08

    Hydrologic analyses are commonly based on a single conceptual-mathematical model. Yet hydrologic environments are open and complex, rendering them prone to multiple interpretations and mathematical descriptions. Considering conceptual model uncertainty is a critical process in hydrologic uncertainty assessment. This study assesses recharge and geologic model uncertainty for the Climax mine area of the Nevada Test Site, Nevada. Five alternative recharge models have been independently developed for Nevada and the Death Valley area of California. These models are (1) the Maxey-Eakin model, (2 and 3) a distributed parameter watershed model with and without a runon-runoff component, and (4 and 5) a chloride mass-balance model with two zero-recharge masks, one for alluvium and one for both alluvium and elevation. Similarly, five geological models have been developed based on different interpretations of available geologic information. One of them was developed by the U.S. Geological Survey for the Death Valley Regional Flow System (DVRFS) model; the other four were developed by Bechtel Nevada for the Yucca Flat Corrective Action Unit (CAU). The Climax mine area is in the northern part of the Yucca Flat CAU, which is within the DVRFS. A total of 25 conceptual models are thus formulated based on the five recharge and five geologic models. The objective of our work is to evaluate the conceptual model uncertainty, and quantify its propagation through the groundwater modeling process. A model averaging method is applied that formally incorporates prior information and field measurements into our evaluation. The DVRFS model developed by the U.S. Geological Survey is used as the modeling framework, into which the 25 models are incorporated. Conceptual model uncertainty is first evaluated through expert elicitation based on prior information possessed by two expert panels. Their perceptions of model plausibility are quantified as prior model probabilities, which are then updated

  19. Reversed mining and reversed-reversed mining: the irrational context of geological disposal of nuclear waste

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    van Loon, A. J.

    2000-06-01

    Man does not only extract material from the Earth but increasingly uses the underground for storage and disposal purposes. One of the materials that might be disposed of this way is high-level nuclear waste. The development of safe disposal procedures, the choice of suitable host rocks, and the design of underground facilities have taken much time and money, but commissions in several countries have presented reports showing that — and how — safe geological disposal will be possible in such a way that definite isolation from the biosphere is achieved. Political views have changed in the past few years, however, and there is a strong tendency now to require that the high-level waste disposed of will be retrievable. Considering the underlying arguments for isolation from the biosphere, and also considering waste policy in general, this provides an irrational context. The development of new procedures and the design of new disposal facilities that allow retrieval will take much time again. A consequence may be that the high-active, heat-generating nuclear waste will be stored temporarily for a much longer time than objectively desirable. The delay in disposal and the counterproductive requirement of retrievability are partly due to the fact that earth-science organisations have failed to communicate in the way they should, possibly fearing public (and financial) reactions if taking a position that is (was?) considered as politically incorrect. Such an attitude should not be maintained in modern society, which has the right to be informed reliably by the scientific community.

  20. Linking geology and health sciences to assess childhood lead poisoning from artisanal gold mining in Nigeria

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Plumlee, Geoffrey S.; Durant, James T.; Morman, Suzette A.; Neri, Antonio; Wolf, Ruth E.; Dooyema, Carrie A.; Hageman, Philip L.; Lowers, Heather; Fernette, Gregory L.; Meeker, Gregory P.; Benzel, William M.; Driscoll, Rhonda L.; Berry, Cyrus J.; Crock, James G.; Goldstein, Harland L.; Adams, Monique; Bartrem, Casey L.; Tirima, Simba; Behrooz, Behbod; von Lindern, Ian; Brown, Mary Jean

    2013-01-01

    Background: In 2010, Médecins Sans Frontières discovered a lead poisoning outbreak linked to artisanal gold processing in northwestern Nigeria. The outbreak has killed approximately 400 young children and affected thousands more. Objectives: Our aim was to undertake an interdisciplinary geological- and health-science assessment to clarify lead sources and exposure pathways, identify additional toxicants of concern and populations at risk, and examine potential for similar lead poisoning globally. Methods: We applied diverse analytical methods to ore samples, soil and sweep samples from villages and family compounds, and plant foodstuff samples. Results: Natural weathering of lead-rich gold ores before mining formed abundant, highly gastric-bioaccessible lead carbonates. The same fingerprint of lead minerals found in all sample types confirms that ore processing caused extreme contamination, with up to 185,000 ppm lead in soils/sweep samples and up to 145 ppm lead in plant foodstuffs. Incidental ingestion of soils via hand-to-mouth transmission and of dusts cleared from the respiratory tract is the dominant exposure pathway. Consumption of water and foodstuffs contaminated by the processing is likely lesser, but these are still significant exposure pathways. Although young children suffered the most immediate and severe consequences, results indicate that older children, adult workers, pregnant women, and breastfed infants are also at risk for lead poisoning. Mercury, arsenic, manganese, antimony, and crystalline silica exposures pose additional health threats. Conclusions: Results inform ongoing efforts in Nigeria to assess lead contamination and poisoning, treat victims, mitigate exposures, and remediate contamination. Ore deposit geology, pre-mining weathering, and burgeoning artisanal mining may combine to cause similar lead poisoning disasters elsewhere globally.

  1. Linking geological and health sciences to assess childhood lead poisoning from artisanal gold mining in Nigeria.

    PubMed

    Plumlee, Geoffrey S; Durant, James T; Morman, Suzette A; Neri, Antonio; Wolf, Ruth E; Dooyema, Carrie A; Hageman, Philip L; Lowers, Heather A; Fernette, Gregory L; Meeker, Gregory P; Benzel, William M; Driscoll, Rhonda L; Berry, Cyrus J; Crock, James G; Goldstein, Harland L; Adams, Monique; Bartrem, Casey L; Tirima, Simba; Behbod, Behrooz; von Lindern, Ian; Brown, Mary Jean

    2013-06-01

    In 2010, Médecins Sans Frontières discovered a lead poisoning outbreak linked to artisanal gold processing in northwestern Nigeria. The outbreak has killed approximately 400 young children and affected thousands more. Our aim was to undertake an interdisciplinary geological- and health-science assessment to clarify lead sources and exposure pathways, identify additional toxicants of concern and populations at risk, and examine potential for similar lead poisoning globally. We applied diverse analytical methods to ore samples, soil and sweep samples from villages and family compounds, and plant foodstuff samples. Natural weathering of lead-rich gold ores before mining formed abundant, highly gastric-bioaccessible lead carbonates. The same fingerprint of lead minerals found in all sample types confirms that ore processing caused extreme contamination, with up to 185,000 ppm lead in soils/sweep samples and up to 145 ppm lead in plant foodstuffs. Incidental ingestion of soils via hand-to-mouth transmission and of dusts cleared from the respiratory tract is the dominant exposure pathway. Consumption of water and foodstuffs contaminated by the processing is likely lesser, but these are still significant exposure pathways. Although young children suffered the most immediate and severe consequences, results indicate that older children, adult workers, pregnant women, and breastfed infants are also at risk for lead poisoning. Mercury, arsenic, manganese, antimony, and crystalline silica exposures pose additional health threats. Results inform ongoing efforts in Nigeria to assess lead contamination and poisoning, treat victims, mitigate exposures, and remediate contamination. Ore deposit geology, pre-mining weathering, and burgeoning artisanal mining may combine to cause similar lead poisoning disasters elsewhere globally.

  2. Linking Geological and Health Sciences to Assess Childhood Lead Poisoning from Artisanal Gold Mining in Nigeria

    PubMed Central

    Durant, James T.; Morman, Suzette A.; Neri, Antonio; Wolf, Ruth E.; Dooyema, Carrie A.; Hageman, Philip L.; Lowers, Heather A.; Fernette, Gregory L.; Meeker, Gregory P.; Benzel, William M.; Driscoll, Rhonda L.; Berry, Cyrus J.; Crock, James G.; Goldstein, Harland L.; Adams, Monique; Bartrem, Casey L.; Tirima, Simba; Behbod, Behrooz; von Lindern, Ian; Brown, Mary Jean

    2013-01-01

    Background: In 2010, Médecins Sans Frontières discovered a lead poisoning outbreak linked to artisanal gold processing in northwestern Nigeria. The outbreak has killed approximately 400 young children and affected thousands more. Objectives: Our aim was to undertake an interdisciplinary geological- and health-science assessment to clarify lead sources and exposure pathways, identify additional toxicants of concern and populations at risk, and examine potential for similar lead poisoning globally. Methods: We applied diverse analytical methods to ore samples, soil and sweep samples from villages and family compounds, and plant foodstuff samples. Results: Natural weathering of lead-rich gold ores before mining formed abundant, highly gastric-bioaccessible lead carbonates. The same fingerprint of lead minerals found in all sample types confirms that ore processing caused extreme contamination, with up to 185,000 ppm lead in soils/sweep samples and up to 145 ppm lead in plant foodstuffs. Incidental ingestion of soils via hand-to-mouth transmission and of dusts cleared from the respiratory tract is the dominant exposure pathway. Consumption of water and foodstuffs contaminated by the processing is likely lesser, but these are still significant exposure pathways. Although young children suffered the most immediate and severe consequences, results indicate that older children, adult workers, pregnant women, and breastfed infants are also at risk for lead poisoning. Mercury, arsenic, manganese, antimony, and crystalline silica exposures pose additional health threats. Conclusions: Results inform ongoing efforts in Nigeria to assess lead contamination and poisoning, treat victims, mitigate exposures, and remediate contamination. Ore deposit geology, pre-mining weathering, and burgeoning artisanal mining may combine to cause similar lead poisoning disasters elsewhere globally. PMID:23524139

  3. Expanding opportunities for mining bioactive chemistry from patents.

    PubMed

    Southan, Christopher

    2015-07-01

    Bioactive structures published in medicinal chemistry patents typically exceed those in papers by at least twofold and may precede them by several years. The Big-Bang of open automated extraction since 2012 has contributed to over 15 million patent-derived compounds in PubChem. While mapping between chemical structures, assay results and protein targets from patent documents is challenging, these relationships can be harvested using open tools and are beginning to be curated into databases.

  4. Expanding opportunities for mining bioactive chemistry from patents

    PubMed Central

    Southan, Christopher

    2015-01-01

    Bioactive structures published in medicinal chemistry patents typically exceed those in papers by at least twofold and may precede them by several years. The Big-Bang of open automated extraction since 2012 has contributed to over 15 million patent-derived compounds in PubChem. While mapping between chemical structures, assay results and protein targets from patent documents is challenging, these relationships can be harvested using open tools and are beginning to be curated into databases. PMID:26194581

  5. Geology of the Humboldt region and the Iron King mine, Bigbug mining district, Yavapai County, Arizona

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Creasey, Saville Cyrus

    1951-01-01

    The Humboldt region is in central Yavapai County, Arizona. The intersection of the 112? 15' meridian and the 34? 30' N parallel is in the approximate geographical center of the region, and the Iron King mine is about 2000 feet west-northwest of the intersection. Pre-Cambrian rocks form the bedrock in the Humboldt region. Late Cenozoic unconsolidated river wash and valley fill, including some interbedded basalt, locally mantle the pre-Cambrian rocks, especially in the north-central part of the region (Lonesome Valley). The pre-Cambrian rocks consist of five newly defined metavolcanic formations derived from flows and tuff s, and of six intrusive units ranging in composition from granite to gabbro or perhaps more mafic types. Relic bedding-and pillow structures are locally prominent in the metavolcanics; geopetal structures are uncommon, but where present, generally indicate that the top is toward the west, though the evidence is too meager to be conclusive. Low-grade dynamothermal metamorphism altered the metavolcanics and to a lesser extent the intrusive rocks, forming textures, structures, and mineral assemblages characteristic of low temperature and moderate stress. The Texas Gulch formation, which is the easternmost metavolcanic formation, consists of five lithologic units. Arranged in the general order of their appearance from east to west they are meta-andesite breccia, purple slate, metarhyolite tuff, meta-andesite, and green slate. The boundary between the Texas Gulch formation and the Iron King meta-andesite is apparently gradational. The Iron King meta-andesite consists of three meta-andesite tuff units, two meta-andesite flow units and one metarhyolite tuff and conglomerate unit. The assemblage chlorite-albite-epitode with or without quartz is dominant in the meta-andesites. Mafic intrusive rocks, which may be approximately contemporaneous with metamorphism, may explain the presence of actinolitic hornblende in the central part of the formation. Toward

  6. Mining geology of the Pond Creek seam, Pikeville Formation, Middle Pennsylvanian, in part of the Eastern Kentucky Coal Field, USA

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Greb, S.F.; Popp, J.T.

    1999-01-01

    The Pond Creek seam is one of the leading producers of coal in the Eastern Kentucky Coal Field. The geologic factors that affect mining were investigated in several underground mines and categorized in terms of coal thickness, coal quality, and roof control. The limits of mining and thick coal are defined by splitting along the margin of the coal body. Within the coal body, local thickness variation occurs because of (1) leader coal benches filling narrow, elongated depressions, (2) rider coal benches coming near to or merging with the main bench, (3) overthrust coal benches being included along paleochannel margins, (4) cutouts occuring beneath paleochannels, and (5) very hard and unusual rock partings occuring along narrow, elongated trends. In the study area, the coal is mostly mined as a compliance product: sulfur contents are less than 1% and ash yields are less than 10%. Local increases in sulfur occur beneath sandstones, and are inferred to represent post-depositional migration of fluids through porous sands into the coal. Run-of-mine quality is also affected by several mine-roof conditions and trends of densely concentrated rock partings, which lead to increased in- and out-of-seam dilution and overall ash content of the mined coal. Roof control is largely a function of a heterolithic facies mosaic of coastal-estuarine origin, regional fracture trends, and unloading stress related to varying mine depth beneath the surface. Lateral variability of roof facies is the rule in most mines. The largest falls occur beneath modern valleys and parallel fractures, along paleochannel margins, within tidally affected 'stackrock,' and beneath rider coals. Shale spalling, kettlebottoms, and falls within other more isolated facies also occur. Many of the lithofacies, and falls related to bedding weaknesses within or between lithofacies, occur along northeast-southwest trends, which can be projected in advance of mining. Fracture-related falls occur independently of

  7. Geology and ore deposits of the Section 23 Mine, Ambrosia Lake District, New Mexico

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Granger, H.C.; Santos, E.S.

    1982-01-01

    The section 23 mine is one of about 18 large uranium mines opened in sandstones of the fluvial Westwater Canyon Member of the Jurassic Morrison Formation in the Ambrosia Lake mining district during the early 1960s. The Ambrosia Lake district is one of several mining districts within the Grants mineral belt, an elongate zone containing many uranium deposits along the southern flank of the San Juan basin. Two distinct types of ore occur in the mine. Primary ore occurs as peneconcordant layers of uranium-rich authigenic organic matter that impregnates parts of the reduced sandstone host rocks and which are typically elongate in an east-southeast direction subparallel both to the sedimentary trends and to the present-day regional strike of the strata. These are called prefault or trend ores because of their early genesis and their elongation and alinement. A second type of ore in the mine is referred to as postfault, stacked, or redistributed ore. Its genesis was similar to that of the roll-type deposits in Tertiary rocks of Wyoming and Texas. Oxidation, related to the development of a large tongue of oxidized rock extending from Gallup to Ambrosia Lake, destroyed much of the primary ore and redistributed it as massive accumulations of lower grade ores bordering the redox interface at the edge of the tongue. Host rocks in the southern half of sec. 23 (T. 14 N., R. 10 W.) are oxidized and contain only remnants of the original, tabular, organic-rich ore. Thick bodies of roll-type ore are distributed along the leading edge of the oxidized zone, and pristine primary ore is found only near the north edge of the section. Organic matter in the primary ore was derived from humic acids that precipitated in the pores of the sandstones and fixed uranium as both coffinite and urano-organic compounds. Vanadium, molybdenum, and selenium are also associated with the ore. The secondary or roll-type ores are essentially free of organic carbon and contain uranium both as coffinite and

  8. Geology

    SciTech Connect

    Reidel, Stephen P.

    2008-01-17

    This chapter summarizes the geology of the single-shell tank (SST) farms in the context of the region’s geologic history. This chapter is based on the information in the geology data package for the SST waste management areas and SST RFI Appendix E, which builds upon previous reports on the tank farm geology and Integrated Disposal Facility geology with information available after those reports were published.

  9. Use of structural geology in exploration for and mining of sedimentary rock-hosted Au deposits

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Peters, Stephen G.

    2001-01-01

    Structural geology is an important component in regional-, district- and orebody-scale exploration and development of sedimentary rock-hosted Au deposits.Identification of timing of important structural events in an ore district allows analysis and classification of fluid conduits and construction of genetic models for ore formation.The most practical uses of structural geology deal with measurement and definition of various elements that comprise orebodies, which can then be directly applied to ore-reserve estimation,ground control,grade control, safety issues,and mine planning.District- and regional-scale structural studies are directly applicable to long-term strategic planning,economic analysis,and land ownership. Orebodies in sedimentary rock-hosted Au deposits are discrete, hypogene, epigenetic masses usually hosted in a fault zone,breccia mass, or lithologic bed or unit. These attributes allow structural geology to be directly applied to the mining and exploration of sedimentary rock-hosted Au deposits. Internal constituents in orebodies reflect unique episodes relating to ore formation.The main internal constituents in orebodies are ore minerals, gangue, and alteration minerals that usually are mixed with one another in complex patterns, the relations among which may be used to interpret the processes of orebody formation and control.Controls of orebody location and shape usually are due to structural dilatant zones caused by changes in attitude, splays, lithologic contacts,and intersections of the host conduit or unit.In addition,conceptual parameters such as district fabric,predictable distances, and stacking also are used to understand the geometry of orebodies.Controls in ore districts and location and geometry of orebodies in ore districts can be predicted to various degrees by using a number of qualitative concepts such as internal and external orebody plunges,district plunge, district stacking, conduit classification, geochemical, geobarometric and

  10. Two-step web-mining approach to study geology/geophysics-related open-source software projects

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Behrends, Knut; Conze, Ronald

    2013-04-01

    Geology/geophysics is a highly interdisciplinary science, overlapping with, for instance, physics, biology and chemistry. In today's software-intensive work environments, geoscientists often encounter new open-source software from scientific fields that are only remotely related to the own field of expertise. We show how web-mining techniques can help to carry out systematic discovery and evaluation of such software. In a first step, we downloaded ~500 abstracts (each consisting of ~1 kb UTF-8 text) from agu-fm12.abstractcentral.com. This web site hosts the abstracts of all publications presented at AGU Fall Meeting 2012, the world's largest annual geology/geophysics conference. All abstracts belonged to the category "Earth and Space Science Informatics", an interdisciplinary label cross-cutting many disciplines such as "deep biosphere", "atmospheric research", and "mineral physics". Each publication was represented by a highly structured record with ~20 short data attributes, the largest authorship-record being the unstructured "abstract" field. We processed texts of the abstracts with the statistics software "R" to calculate a corpus and a term-document matrix. Using R package "tm", we applied text-mining techniques to filter data and develop hypotheses about software-development activities happening in various geology/geophysics fields. Analyzing the term-document matrix with basic techniques (e.g., word frequencies, co-occurences, weighting) as well as more complex methods (clustering, classification) several key pieces of information were extracted. For example, text-mining can be used to identify scientists who are also developers of open-source scientific software, and the names of their programming projects and codes can also be identified. In a second step, based on the intermediate results found by processing the conference-abstracts, any new hypotheses can be tested in another webmining subproject: by merging the dataset with open data from github

  11. Traditional Geology Field Camp: A capstone course at South Dakota School of Mines and Technology (BHNSFS)

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Uzunlar, N.; Lisenbee, A. L.

    2012-12-01

    The Black Hills Natural Sciences Field Station (BHNSFS) has provided field training in geology and geological engineering for more than 40 years, and since the 1980's as a consortium serving five schools with South Dakota School of Mines and Technology as the coordinator. The traditional summer geology field camp is a five week long, intense program aimed to prepare students for subsequent professional geologic experiences. It is delivered from two separate facilities, one in the Black Hills (South Dakota) from a beautiful log lodge along Sand Creek, in eastern Wyoming, and a second from the town of Taskesti along the North Anatolian fault approximately 200 km east of Istanbul, Turkey. At both locations, the courses maintain a strong emphasis on basic field applications, including the use of GPS as a mapping tool in most exercises. The preparation of well-written reports, based on field descriptions supplemented by research on the web or through published documents, is strongly emphasized. Projects at the Black Hills field camp includes mapping of Precambrian basement, Paleozoic stratigraphy, and Laramide Tertiary plutons and structural features as welll as post-Laramide,, faulted continental strata. The popular Taskesti field camp utilizes the diverse geology of the Tethyan realm, as well as the culture and history, of central Turkey (Anatolia). The course is based at a Turkish Government Earthquake Research Center facility along the North Anatolian fault. Students examine and map selected locations across the Izmir-Ankara suture including: 1) Deformed Cretaceous and Tertiary carbonate and clastic strata of the Sakarya micro-continent in a fore-arc basin; 2) Marble and skarn surrounding Eocene, subduction-related granite intruded into a passive margin sequence in the Sivrihisar region of central Anatolia; 3) Faulted and folded Neogene strata in the northern flank of the post-Tethyan, Haymana Basin and the contrasting terrains across the North Anatolian fault (J

  12. Effects of iron on arsenic speciation and redox chemistry in acid mine water

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Bednar, A.J.; Garbarino, J.R.; Ranville, J.F.; Wildeman, T.R.

    2005-01-01

    Concern about arsenic is increasing throughout the world, including areas of the United States. Elevated levels of arsenic above current drinking-water regulations in ground and surface water can be the result of purely natural phenomena, but often are due to anthropogenic activities, such as mining and agriculture. The current study correlates arsenic speciation in acid mine drainage and mining-influenced water with the important water-chemistry properties Eh, pH, and iron(III) concentration. The results show that arsenic speciation is generally in equilibrium with iron chemistry in low pH AMD, which is often not the case in other natural-water matrices. High pH mine waters and groundwater do not always hold to the redox predictions as well as low pH AMD samples. The oxidation and precipitation of oxyhydroxides deplete iron from some systems, and also affect arsenite and arsenate concentrations through sorption processes. ?? 2004 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  13. Geologic map of the Kechumstuk fault zone in the Mount Veta area, Fortymile mining district, east-central Alaska

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Day, Warren C.; O’Neill, J. Michael; Dusel-Bacon, Cynthia; Aleinikoff, John N.; Siron, Christopher R.

    2014-01-01

    This map was developed by the U.S. Geological Survey Mineral Resources Program to depict the fundamental geologic features for the western part of the Fortymile mining district of east-central Alaska, and to delineate the location of known bedrock mineral prospects and their relationship to rock types and structural features. This geospatial map database presents a 1:63,360-scale geologic map for the Kechumstuk fault zone and surrounding area, which lies 55 km northwest of Chicken, Alaska. The Kechumstuk fault zone is a northeast-trending zone of faults that transects the crystalline basement rocks of the Yukon-Tanana Upland of the western part of the Fortymile mining district. The crystalline basement rocks include Paleozoic metasedimentary and metaigneous rocks as well as granitoid intrusions of Triassic, Jurassic, and Cretaceous age. The geologic units represented by polygons in this dataset are based on new geologic mapping and geochronological data coupled with an interpretation of regional and new geophysical data collected by the Alaska Department of Natural Resources, Division of Geological and Geophysical Surveys. The geochronological data are reported in the accompanying geologic map text and represent new U-Pb dates on zircons collected from the igneous and metaigneous units within the map area.

  14. Geology of the Shinarump No. 1 uranium mine, Seven Mile Canyon area, Grand County, Utah

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Finch, Warren Irvin

    1954-01-01

    The geology of the Shinarump No. 1 uranium mine, located about 12 miles northwest of Moab, Utah, in the Seven Mile Canyon area, Grand County, Utah, was studied to determine the habits, ore controls, and possible origin of the deposit. Rocks of Permian, Triassic, and Jurassic age crop out in the area mapped, and uranium deposits are found in three zones in the lower 25 feet of the Chinle formation of Late Triassic age. The Shinarump No. 1 mine, which is in the lowermost zone, is located on the west flank of the Moab anticline near the Moab fault. The Shinarump No. 1 uranium deposit consists of discontinuous lenticular layers of mineralized rock, irregular in outline, that, in general, follow the bedding. Ore minerals, mainly uraninite, impregnate the rock. High-grade ore seams of uraninite and chalcocite occur along bedding planes. Uraninite formed later than, or simultaneous with, most sulfides, and the chalcocite may be of two ages, with some being later than uraninite. Uraninite and chalcocite are concentrated in the more poorly sorted parts of siltstones. In the Seven Mile Canyon area guides to ore inferred from the study of the Shinarump No. 1 deposit are the presence of bleached siltstone, carbonaceous matter, and copper sulfides. Results of spectrographic analysis indicate that the mineralizing solutions contained important amounts of barium, vanadium, uranium, and copper, as well as lesser amounts of strontium, chromium, boron, yttrium, lead, and zinc. The origin of the Shinarump No. 1 deposit is thought to be hydrothermal.

  15. Integrating geological uncertainty in long-term open pit mine production planning by ant colony optimization

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Gilani, Seyed-Omid; Sattarvand, Javad

    2016-02-01

    Meeting production targets in terms of ore quantity and quality is critical for a successful mining operation. In-situ grade uncertainty causes both deviations from production targets and general financial deficits. A new stochastic optimization algorithm based on ant colony optimization (ACO) approach is developed herein to integrate geological uncertainty described through a series of the simulated ore bodies. Two different strategies were developed based on a single predefined probability value (Prob) and multiple probability values (Pro bnt) , respectively in order to improve the initial solutions that created by deterministic ACO procedure. Application at the Sungun copper mine in the northwest of Iran demonstrate the abilities of the stochastic approach to create a single schedule and control the risk of deviating from production targets over time and also increase the project value. A comparison between two strategies and traditional approach illustrates that the multiple probability strategy is able to produce better schedules, however, the single predefined probability is more practical in projects requiring of high flexibility degree.

  16. Atmospheric mercury emissions from mine wastes and surrounding geologically enriched terrains

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Gustin, M.S.; Coolbaugh, M.F.; Engle, M.A.; Fitzgerald, B.C.; Keislar, R.E.; Lindberg, S.E.; Nacht, D.M.; Quashnick, J.; Rytuba, J.J.; Sladek, C.; Zhang, H.; Zehner, R.E.

    2003-01-01

    Waste rock and ore associated with Hg, precious and base metal mining, and their surrounding host rocks are typically enriched in mercury relative to natural background concentrations (<0.1 ??g Hg g-1). Mercury fluxes to the atmosphere from mineralized areas can range from background rates (0-15 ng m-2 h-1) to tens of thousands of ng m-2 h-1. Mercury enriched substrate constitutes a long-term source of mercury to the global atmospheric mercury pool. Mercury emissions from substrate are influenced by light, temperature, precipitation, and substrate mercury concentration, and occur during the day and night. Light-enhanced emissions are driven by two processes: desorption of elemental mercury accumulated at the soil:air interface, and photo reduction of mercury containing phases. To determine the need for and effectiveness of regulatory controls on short-lived anthropogenic point sources the contribution of mercury from geologic non-point sources to the atmospheric mercury pool needs to be quantified. The atmospheric mercury contribution from small areas of mining disturbance with relatively high mercury concentrations are, in general, less than that from surrounding large areas of low levels of mercury enrichment. In the arid to semi-arid west-ern United States volatilization is the primary means by which mercury is released from enriched sites.

  17. Geology of the Shinarump No. 1 uranium mine, Seven Mile Canyon area, Grand County, Utah

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Finch, Warren Irvin

    1953-01-01

    The Shinarump No. 1 uranium mine is located about 12 miles northwest of Moab, Utah, in the Seven Mile Canyon area, Grand County, Utah. A study was made of the geology of the Shinarump No. 1 mine in order to determine the habits, ore controls, and possible origin of the deposit. Rocks of Permain, Triassic, and Jurassic age crop out in the area mapped. Uranium deposits are found in three zones in the lower 25 feet of the Upper Triassic Chinle formation. The Shinarump No. 1 mine, which is in the lowermost zone, is located on the west flank of the Moab anticline near the Moab fault. The Shinarump No. 1 uranium deposit consists of discontinuous lenticular layers of mineralized rock, irregular in outline, that, in general, follow the bedding. Ore minerals, mainly uranite, impregnate the rock. High-grade seams of uranite and chalcocite occur along bedding planes. Formation of unraninite is later than or simultaneous with most sulfides. Chalcocite may be of two ages, with some being later than uraninite. Uraninite and chalcocite are concentrated in the poorer sorted parts of siltstones. Guides to ore in the Seven Mile Canyon area inferred from the study of the Shinarump No. 1 deposit are the presence of bleached siltstone, copper sulfides, and carbonaceous matter. Results of spectrographic analysis indicated that the mineralizing solutions contained important amounts of barium, vanadium, uranium, and copper as well as lesser amounts of strontium, chromium, boron, yttrium, lead, and zinc. The origin of the Shinarump No. 1 deposit is thought to be hydrothermal, dated as later or early.

  18. Structural geology mapping using PALSAR data in the Bau gold mining district, Sarawak, Malaysia

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Pour, Amin Beiranvand; Hashim, Mazlan

    2014-08-01

    The application of optical remote sensing data for geological mapping is difficult in the tropical environment. The persistent cloud coverage, dominated vegetation in the landscape and limited bedrock exposures are constraints imposed by the tropical climate. Structural geology investigations that are searching for epithermal or polymetallic vein-type ore deposits can be developed using Synthetic Aperture Radar (SAR) remote sensing data in tropical/sub-tropical regions. The Bau gold mining district in the State of Sarawak, East Malaysia, on the island of Borneo has been selected for this study. The Bau is a gold field similar to Carlin style gold deposits, but gold mineralization at Bau is much more structurally controlled. Geological analyses coupled with the Phased Array type L-band Synthetic Aperture Radar (PALSAR) remote sensing data were used to detect structural elements associated with gold mineralization. The PALSAR data were used to perform lithological-structural mapping of mineralized zones in the study area and surrounding terrain. Structural elements were detected along the SSW to NNE trend of the Tuban fault zone and Tai Parit fault that corresponds to the areas of occurrence of the gold mineralization in the Bau Limestone. Most of quartz-gold bearing veins occur in high-angle faults, fractures and joints within massive units of the Bau Limestone. The results show that four deformation events (D1-D4) in the structures of the Bau district and structurally controlled gold mineralization indicators, including faults, joints and fractures are detectable using PALSAR data at both regional and district scales. The approach used in this study can be more broadly applicable to provide preliminary information for exploration potentially interesting areas of epithermal or polymetallic vein-type mineralization using the PALSAR data in the tropical/sub-tropical regions.

  19. Geology and mining history of the Southeast Missouri Barite District and the Valles Mines, Washington, Jefferson, and St. Francois Counties, Missouri

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Mugel, Douglas N.

    2017-03-09

    The Southeast Missouri Barite District and the Valles Mines are located in Washington, Jefferson, and St. Francois Counties, Missouri, where barite and lead ore are present together in surficial and near-surface deposits. Lead mining in the area began in the early 1700’s and extended into the early 1900’s. Hand mining of lead in the residuum resulted in widespread pits (also called shafts or diggings), and there was some underground mining of lead in bedrock. By the 1860’s barite was recovered from the residuum by hand mining, also resulting in widespread diggings, but generally not underground mines in bedrock. Mechanized open-pit mining of the residuum for barite began in the 1920’s. Barite production slowed by the 1980’s, and there has not been any barite mining since 1998. Mechanized barite mining resulted in large mined areas and tailings ponds containing waste from barite mills.The U.S. Environmental Protection Agency (EPA) has determined that lead is present in surface soils in Washington and Jefferson Counties at concentrations exceeding health-based screening levels. Also, elevated concentrations of barium, arsenic, and cadmium have been identified in surface soils, and lead concentrations exceeding the Federal drinking-water standard of 15 micrograms per liter have been identified in private drinking-water wells. Potential sources of these contaminants are wastes associated with barite mining, wastes associated with lead mining, or unmined natural deposits of barium, lead, and other metals. As a first step in helping EPA determine the source of soil and groundwater contamination, the U.S. Geological Survey (USGS), in cooperation with the EPA, investigated the geology and mining history of the Southeast Missouri Barite District and the Valles Mines.Ore minerals are barite (barium sulfate), galena (lead sulfide), cerussite (lead carbonate), anglesite (lead sulfate), sphalerite (zinc sulfide), smithsonite (zinc carbonate), and chalcopyrite (copper

  20. Geochemical investigations by the U.S. Geological Survey on uranium mining, milling, and environmental restoration

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Landa, Edward R.; Cravotta, Charles A.; Naftz, David L.; Verplanck, Philip L.; Nordstrom, D. Kirk; Zielinski, Robert A.

    2000-01-01

    Recent research by the U.S. Geological Survey has characterized contaminant sources and identified important geochemical processes that influence transport of radionuclides from uranium mining and milling wastes. 1) Selective extraction studies indicated that alkaline earth sulfates and hydrous ferric oxides are important hosts of 226Ra in uranium mill tailings. The action of sulfate-reducing and ironreducing bacteria on these phases was shown to enhance release of radium, and this adverse result may temper decisions to dispose of uranium mill tailings in anaerobic environments. 2) Field studies have shown that although surface-applied sewage sludge/wood chip amendments aid in revegetating pyritic spoil, the nitrogen in sludge leachate can enhance pyrite oxidation, acidification of groundwater, and the consequent mobilization of metals and radionuclides. 3) In a U.S. Environmental Protection Agencyfunded study, three permeable reactive barriers consisting of phosphate-rich material, zero-valent iron, or amorphous ferric oxyhydroxide have been installed at an abandoned uranium upgrader facility near Fry Canyon, UT. Preliminary results indicate that each of the permeable reactive barriers is removing the majority of the uranium from the groundwater. 4) Studies on the geochemistry of rare earth elements as analogues for actinides such as uranium and thorium in acid mine drainage environments indicate high mobility under acid-weathering conditions but measurable attenuation associated with iron and aluminum colloid formation. Mass balances from field and laboratory studies are being used to quantify the amount of attenuation. 5) A field study in Colorado demonstrated the use of 234U/238U isotopic ratio measurements to evaluate contamination of shallow groundwater with uranium mill effluent.

  1. US Geological Survey research on the environmental fate of uranium mining and milling wastes

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Landa, E.R.; Gray, J.R.

    1995-01-01

    Studies by the US Geological Survey (USGS) of uranium mill tailings (UMT) have focused on characterizing the forms in which radionuclides are retained and identifying factors influencing the release of radionuclides to air and water. Selective extraction studies and studies of radionuclide sorption by and leaching from components of UMT showed alkaline earth sulfate and hydrous ferric oxides to be important hosts of radium-226 (226Ra) in UMT. Extrapolating from studies of barite dissolution in anerobic lake sediments, the leaching of 226Ra from UMT by sulfate-reducing bacteria was investigated; a marked increase in 226Ra release to aqueous solution as compared to sterile controls was demonstrated. A similar action of iron(III)-reducing bacteria was later shown. Ion exchangers such as clay minerals can also promote the dissolution of host-phase minerals and thereby influence the fate of radionuclides such as 226Ra. Radon release studies examined particle size and ore composition as variables. Aggregation of UMT particles was shown to mask the higher emanating fraction of finer particles. Studies of various ores and ore components showed that UMT cannot be assumed to have the same radon-release characteristics as their precursor ores, nor can 226Ra retained by various substrates be assumed to emanate the same fraction of radon. Over the last decade, USGS research directed at offsite mobility of radionuclides from uranium mining and milling processes has focused on six areas: the Midnite Mine in Washington; Ralston Creek and Reservoir, Colorado; sites near Canon City, Colorado; the Monument Valley District of Arizona and Utah; the Cameron District of Arizona; and the Puerco River basin of Arizona and New Mexico.

  2. US Geological Survey research on the environmental fate of uranium mining and milling wastes

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Landa, E. R.; Gray, J. R.

    1995-07-01

    Studies by the US Geological Survey (USGS) of uranium mill tailings (UMT) have focused on characterizing the forms in which radionuclides are retained and identifying factors influencing the release of radionuclides to air and water. Selective extraction studies and studies of radionuclide sorption by and leaching from components of UMT showed alkaline earth sulfate and hydrous ferric oxides to be important hosts of radium-226 (226Ra) in UMT. Extrapolating from studies of barite dissolution in anerobic lake sediments, the leaching of226Ra from UMT by sulfate-reducing bacteria was investigated; a marked increase in226Ra release to aqueous solution as compared to sterile controls was demonstrated. A similar action of iron(III)-reducing bacteria was later shown. Ion exchangers such as clay minerals can also promote the dissolution of host-phase minerals and thereby influence the fate of radionuclides such as226Ra. Radon release studies examined particle size and ore composition as variables. Aggregation of UMT particles was shown to mask the higher emanating fraction of finer particles. Studies of various ores and ore components showed that UMT cannot be assumed to have the same radon-release characteristics as their precursor ores, nor can226Ra retained by various substrates be assumed to emanate the same fraction of radon. Over the last decade, USGS research directed at offsite mobility of radionuclides from uranium mining and milling processes has focused on six areas: the Midnite Mine in Washington; Ralston Creek and Reservoir, Colorado; sites near Canon City, Colorado; the Monument Valley District of Arizona and Utah; the Cameron District of Arizona; and the Puerco River basin of Arizona and New Mexico.

  3. NWTS program criteria for mined geologic disposal of nuclear waste: repository performance and development criteria. Public draft

    SciTech Connect

    1982-07-01

    This document, DOE/NWTS-33(3) is one of a series of documents to establish the National Waste Terminal Storage (NWTS) program criteria for mined geologic disposal of high-level radioactive waste. For both repository performance and repository development it delineates the criteria for design performance, radiological safety, mining safety, long-term containment and isolation, operations, and decommissioning. The US Department of Energy will use these criteria to guide the development of repositories to assist in achieving performance and will reevaluate their use when the US Nuclear Regulatory Commission issues radioactive waste repository rules.

  4. Conditioning sulfidic mine waste for growth of Agrostis capillaris--impact on solution chemistry.

    PubMed

    Sjöberg, Viktor; Karlsson, Stefan; Grandin, Anna; Allard, Bert

    2014-01-01

    Contamination of the environment due to mining and mineral processing is an urgent problem worldwide. It is often desirable to establish a grass cover on old mine waste since it significantly decreases the production of leachates. To obtain sustainable growth, it is often necessary to improve several properties of the waste such as water-holding capacity, nutrient status, and toxicity. This can be done by addition of organic materials such as wood residues, e.g., compost. In this study, we focus on the solution chemistry of the leachates when a substrate containing historic sulfidic mine waste mixed with 30 % (volume) bark compost is overgrown by Agrostis capillaris. The pot experiments also included other growth-promoting additives (alkaline material, mycorrhiza, and metabolizable carbon) to examine whether a more sustainable growth could be obtained. Significant changes in the plant growth and in the leachates composition were observed during 8 weeks of growth. It was concluded that in this time span, the growth of A. capillaris did not affect the composition of the leachates from the pots. Instead, the composition of the leachates was determined by interactions between the bark compost and the mine waste. Best growth of A. capillaris was obtained when alkaline material and mycorrhiza or metabolizable carbon was added to the substrate.

  5. Stream water chemistry in the arsenic-contaminated Baccu Locci mine watershed (Sardinia, Italy) after remediation.

    PubMed

    Ardau, Carla; Podda, Francesca; Da Pelo, Stefania; Frau, Franco

    2013-11-01

    The abandoned Pb-As Baccu Locci mine represents the first and only case of mine site remediation in Sardinia, Italy. Arsenic is the most relevant environmental concern in the Baccu Locci stream watershed, with concentrations in surface waters up to and sometimes over 1 mg/L. The main remediation action consisted in creation of a "storage site", for the collection of contaminated materials from different waste-rock dumps and most of tailings piles occurring along the Baccu Locci stream. This paper reports preliminary results on the level of contamination in the Baccu Locci stream after the completion of remediation measures. Post-remediation stream water chemistry has not substantially changed compared to the pre-remediation situation. In particular, dissolved As maintains an increasing trend along the Baccu Locci stream, with a concentration of about 400 μg/L measured at a distance of 7 km from the storage site. Future monitoring will provide fundamental information on the effectiveness of remediation actions conducted and their applicability to other mine sites in Sardinia. At the stage of mine site characterisation of future remediation plans, it is recommended to pay more attention to the understanding of mineralogical and geochemical processes responsible for pollution. Moreover, mixing of materials with different composition and reactivity in a storage site should require careful consideration and long-term leaching tests.

  6. Geology, Streamflow, and Water Chemistry of the Talufofo Stream Basin, Saipan, Northern Mariana Islands

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Izuka, Scot K.; Ewart, Charles J.

    1995-01-01

    A study of the geology, streamflow, and water chemistry of Talufofo Stream Basin, Saipan, Commonwealth of the Northern Mariana Islands, was undertaken to determine the flow characteristics of Talufofo Stream and the relation to the geology of the drainage basin. The Commonwealth government is exploring the feasibility of using water from Talufofo Stream to supplement Saipan's stressed municipal water supply. Streamflow records from gaging stations on the principal forks of Talufofo Stream indicate that peak streamflows and long-term average flow are higher at the South Fork gaging station than at the Middle Fork gaging station because the drainage area of the South Fork gaging station is larger, but persistent base flow from ground-water discharge during dry weather is greater in the Middle Fork gaging station. The sum of the average flows at the Middle Fork and South Fork gaging stations, plus an estimate of the average flow at a point in the lower reaches of the North Fork, is about 2.96 cubic feet per second or 1.91 million gallons per day. Although this average represents the theoretical maximum long-term draft rate possible from the Talufofo Stream Basin if an adequate reservoir can be built, the actual amount of surface water available will be less because of evaporation, leaks, induced infiltration, and reservoir-design constraints. Base-flow characteristics, such as stream seepage and spring discharge, are related to geology of the basin. Base flow in the Talufofo Stream Basin originates as discharge from springs near the base of limestones located in the headwaters of Talufofo Stream, flows over low-permeability volcanic rocks in the middle reaches, and seeps back into the high-permeability limestones in the lower reaches. Water sampled from Talufofo Stream during base flow had high dissolved-calcium concentrations (between 35 and 98 milligrams per liter), characteristic of water from a limestone aquifer. Concentrations of potassium, sodium, and chloride

  7. Underground reconnaissance and environmental monitoring related to geologic CO2 sequestration studies at the DUSEL Facility, Homestake Mine, South Dakota

    SciTech Connect

    Dobson, Patrick F.; Salve, Rohit

    2009-11-20

    Underground field reconnaissance was carried out in the Deep Underground Science and Engineering Laboratory (DUSEL) to identify potential locations for the planned geologic carbon sequestration experimental facility known as DUSEL CO{sub 2}. In addition, instrumentation for continuous environmental monitoring of temperature, pressure, and relative humidity was installed at various locations within the Homestake mine. The motivation for this work is the need to locate and design the DUSEL CO{sub 2} facility currently being planned to host CO{sub 2} and water flow and reaction experiments in long column pressure vessels over large vertical length scales. Review of existing geologic data and reconnaissance underground revealed numerous potential locations for vertical experimental flow columns, with limitations of existing vertical boreholes arising from limited vertical extent, poor continuity between drifts, and small diameter. Results from environmental monitoring over 46 days reveal spatial and temporal variations related to ventilation, weather, and ongoing dewatering of the mine.

  8. The geology and emplacement history of the Pigeon kimberlite, EKATI Diamond Mine, Northwest Territories, Canada

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Crawford, Barbara; Hetman, Casey; Nowicki, Tom; Baumgartner, Mike; Harrison, Sara

    2009-11-01

    The Pigeon kimberlite is located approximately 6 km to the northwest of the Koala cluster of the EKATI Diamond Mine, and is presently one of ten kimberlite occurrences in the EKATI resource development plan. It was emplaced along a regional lithological contact between syn-Yellowknife Supergroup granitoid rocks and Yellowknife Supergroup metasedimentary rocks that were covered by a now eroded veneer of poorly consolidated muddy sediments. Detailed age dating has not been undertaken, however the emplacement age is inferred from sedimentary xenoliths present within the pipe to range between 45-75 Ma. Pigeon is a small kimberlite body, estimated to be approximately 3.5 ha at surface, consisting of a steep-sided pipe that can be separated into four main geological domains that are characterized by contrasting textures, different diamond characteristics and unique mineral abundance and compositional signatures. The uppermost portion of the body consists of mud-rich resedimented volcaniclastic kimberlite that was formed by the deposition of extra crater deposits by debris flow type processes into an open diatreme. Texturally complex kimberlite is present within the lower portion of the kimberlite and includes rocks that display a range of features consistent with coherent (magmatic) and less common volcaniclastic (fragmental) rocks. This texturally complex zone is interpreted to represent a clastogenic deposit formed by a low energy eruption within an open diatreme.

  9. U.S. Geological Survey Field Leach Test for Assessing Water Reactivity and Leaching Potential of Mine Wastes, Soils, and Other Geologic and Environmental Materials

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Hageman, Philip L.

    2007-01-01

    The U. S. Geological Survey (USGS) has developed a fast (5-minute), effective, simple, and cost-effective leach test that can be used to simulate the reactions that occur when materials are leached by water. The USGS Field Leach Test has been used to predict, assess, and characterize the geochemical interactions between water and a broad variety of geologic and environmental matrices. Examples of some of the samples leached include metal mine wastes, various types of dusts, biosolids (processed sewage sludge), flood and wetland sediments, volcanic ash, forest-fire burned soils, and many other diverse matrices. The Field Leach Test has been an integral part of these investigations and has demonstrated its value as a geochemical characterization tool. It has enabled investigators to identify which constituents are water reactive, soluble, mobilized, and made bioaccessible because of leaching by water, and to understand potential impacts of these interactions on the surrounding environment.

  10. Methods of seismic zone localization in the highly stressed geological environment in mining natural-engineering system

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Kozyrev, A.; Fedotova, Iu.; Zhuravleva, O.

    2012-04-01

    During developing mineral deposits in the geological environment the anomalous energy-saturated zones (parts of highly stressed rocks) are being formed. As a result in the rock mass rockbursts and mining-induced earthquakes occur. The largest mining-induced earthquakes (M 4.0 - 4.2) were registered at the mines of the Khibiny and Lovozersky massifs of the Kola Peninsula. The energy-saturated zones migrate subject to displacement of front of working faces. Location and dimensions of the zones are estimated according to data of analytical investigations and experimental determinations in the rock mass. In some cases (for example, when developing blocks-pillars and transition zones between open and underground mining operations or adjacent mines) all the mining area is a united energy-saturated zone, where the main problems occur concerning mining workings stability management, and under rockbursts hazardous conditions there occur problems concerning mining-induced seismicity manifestations. Parameters of geological environment seismic emission are objective indicators of geological environment energy-saturation. The assessment of their changing is a basis of methods of seismic zones localization and detection of their migration during mining operations development. To assess a current state and determine conditions of transition of geological environment parts into the critical state there carried out investigations concerning space-time regularities of rock mass seismicity parameters changing in the mines' geomechanical space. The following parameters are considered as characteristics of rock mass seismicity: fractal criterion, dip angle criterion for seismic events recurrence graph, concentration criterion, and criterion of fissures' average length. A complex assessment of single parameters range is applied to get the better results. The analysis also takes into account influence of deterministic factors: fracture disturbances and stope face boundaries. Analysis

  11. Geological disaster survey based on Curvelet transform with borehole Ground Penetrating Radar in Tonglushan old mine site.

    PubMed

    Tang, Xinjian; Sun, Tao; Tang, Zhijie; Zhou, Zenghui; Wei, Baoming

    2011-06-01

    Tonglushan old mine site located in Huangshi City, China, is very famous in the world. However, some of the ruins had suffered from geological disasters such as local deformation, surface cracking, in recent years. Structural abnormalities of rock-mass in deep underground were surveyed with borehole ground penetrating radar (GPR) to find out whether there were any mined galleries or mined-out areas below the ruins. With both the multiresolution analysis and sub-band directional of Curvelet transform, the feature information of targets' GPR signals were studied on Curvelet transform domain. Heterogeneity of geotechnical media and clutter jamming of complicated background of GPR signals could be conquered well, and the singularity characteristic information of typical rock mass signals could be extracted. Random noise had be removed by thresholding combined with Curvelet and the statistical characteristics of wanted signals and the noise, then direct wave suppression and the spatial distribution feature extraction could obtain a better result by making use of Curvelet transform directional. GprMax numerical modeling and analyzing of the sample data have verified the feasibility and effectiveness of our method. It is important and applicable for the analyzing of the geological structure and the disaster development about the Tonglushan old mine site.

  12. Influence of site-specific geology on oil shale fragmentation experiments at the Colony Mine, Garfield County, Colorado

    SciTech Connect

    Ray, J.M.; Harper, M.D.; Craig, J.L.; Edwards, C.L.

    1982-01-01

    The Los Alamos National Laboratory executed 19 intermediate scale cratering experiments in oil shale at the Colony Mine in Garfield County, Colorado. These experiments have led to a better understanding of fracture characteristics and fragmentation of in situ oil shale by use of a conventional high explosive. Geologic site characterization included detailed mapping, coring, and sample analyses. Site-specific geology was observed to be a major influence on the resulting crater geometry. The joint patterns at the experimental site frequently defined the final crater symmetry. Secondary influences included vugs, lithology changes, and grade fluctuations in the local stratigraphy. Most experiments, in both the rib and floor, were conducted to obtain data to investigate the fragmentation results within the craters. The rubble was screened for fragment-size distributions. Geologic features in proximity to the explosive charge had minimal effect on the rubble due to the overpowering effect of the detonation. However, these same features became more influential on the fracture and rubble characteristics with greater distances from the shothole. Postshot cores revealed a direct relationship between the grade of the oil shale and its susceptibility to fracturing. The Colony Mine experiments have demonstrated the significant role of geology in high explosive/oil shale interaction. It is probable that this role will have to be considered for larger applications to blast patterns and potential problems in retort stability in the future of oil shale development.

  13. Data set of world phosphate mines, deposits, and occurrences: Part A. geologic data; Part B. location and mineral economic data

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Chernoff, Carlotta B.; Orris, G.J.

    2002-01-01

    An inventory of more than 1,600 world phosphate mines, deposits, and occurrences was compiled from smaller data sets collected as part of multiple research efforts by Carlotta Chernoff, University of Arizona, and Greta Orris, U.S. Geological Survey. These data have been utilized during studies of black shale depositional environments and to construct phosphate deposit models. The compiled data have been edited for consistency and additional location information has been added where possible. The database of compiled phosphate information is being released in two sections; the geologic data in one section and the location and mineral economic data in the second. This report, U.S. Geological Survey Open-File Report 02–156–A, contains the geologic data and is best used with the complimentary data contained in Open-File Report 02–156–B. U.S. Geological Survey Open-File Report 02–156–B contains commodity data, location and analytical data, a variety of mineral economic data, reference information, and pointers to related records in the U.S. Geological Survey National mineral databases—MASMILS and MRDS.

  14. Geology, hydrology, chemistry, and microbiology of the in situ bioremediation demonstration site

    SciTech Connect

    Newcomer, D.R.; Doremus, L.A.; Hall, S.H.; Truex, M.J.; Vermeul, V.R.; Engelman, R.E.

    1995-03-01

    This report summarizes characterization information on the geology, hydrology, microbiology, contaminant distribution, and ground-water chemistry to support demonstration of in situ bioremediation at the Hanford Site. The purpose of this information is to provide baseline conditions, including a conceptual model of the aquifer being utilized for in situ bioremediation. Data were collected from sampling and other characterization activities associated with three wells drilled in the upper part of the suprabasalt aquifer. Results of point-dilution tracer tests, conducted in the upper 9 m (30 ft) of the aquifer, showed that most ground-water flow occurs in the upper part of this zone, which is consistent with hydraulic test results and geologic and geophysical data. Other tracer test results indicated that natural ground-water flow velocity is equal to or less than about 0.03 m/d (0.1 ft/d). Laboratory hydraulic conductivity measurements, which represent the local distribution of vertical hydraulic conductivity, varied up to three orders of magnitude. Based on concentration data from both the vadose and saturated zone, it is suggested that most, if not all, of the carbon tetrachloride detected is representative of the aqueous phase. Concentrations of carbon tetrachloride, associated with a contaminant plume in the 200-West Area, ranged from approximately 500 to 3,800 {mu}g/L in the aqueous phase and from approximately 10 to 290 {mu}g/L in the solid phase at the demonstration site. Carbon tetrachloride gas was detected in the vadose zone, suggesting volatilization and subsequent upward migration from the saturated zone.

  15. Geology

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Stewart, R. K.; Sabins, F. F., Jr.; Rowan, L. C.; Short, N. M.

    1975-01-01

    Papers from private industry reporting applications of remote sensing to oil and gas exploration were presented. Digitally processed LANDSAT images were successfully employed in several geologic interpretations. A growing interest in digital image processing among the geologic user community was shown. The papers covered a wide geographic range and a wide technical and application range. Topics included: (1) oil and gas exploration, by use of radar and multisensor studies as well as by use of LANDSAT imagery or LANDSAT digital data, (2) mineral exploration, by mapping from LANDSAT and Skylab imagery and by LANDSAT digital processing, (3) geothermal energy studies with Skylab imagery, (4) environmental and engineering geology, by use of radar or LANDSAT and Skylab imagery, (5) regional mapping and interpretation, and digital and spectral methods.

  16. Text Influenced Molecular Indexing (TIMI): a literature database mining approach that handles text and chemistry.

    PubMed

    Singh, Suresh B; Hull, Richard D; Fluder, Eugene M

    2003-01-01

    We present an application of a novel methodology called Text Influenced Molecular Indexing (TIMI) to mine the information in the scientific literature. TIMI is an extension of two existing methodologies: (1) Latent Semantic Structure Indexing (LaSSI), a method for calculating chemical similarity using two-dimensional topological descriptors, and (2) Latent Semantic Indexing (LSI), a method for generating correlations between textual terms. The singular value decomposition (SVD) of a feature/object matrix is the fundamental mathematical operation underlying LSI, LaSSI, and TIMI and is used in the identification of associations between textual and chemical descriptors. We present the results of our studies with a database containing 11,571 PubMed/MEDLINE abstracts which show the advantages of merging textual and chemical descriptors over using either text or chemistry alone. Our work demonstrates that searching text-only databases limits retrieved documents to those that explicitly mention compounds by name in the text. Similarly, searching chemistry-only databases can only retrieve those documents that have chemical structures in them. TIMI, however, enables search and retrieval of documents with textual, chemical, and/or text- and chemistry-based queries. Thus, the TIMI system offers a powerful new approach to uncovering the contextual scientific knowledge sought by the medical research community.

  17. Summary of seismic activity and its relation to geology and mining in the Sunnyside mining district, Carbon and Emery Counties, Utah, during 1967-1970

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Dunrud, C. Richard; Osterwald, Frank W.; Hernandez, Jerome

    1973-01-01

    In the Sunnyside mining district, Utah, coal is mined under thick and variable overburden which is locally weakened by faults and other structural discontinuities. Stress changes and local stress concentrations produced by mining under these conditions often cause sudden and violent ruptures in the coal and surrounding rock mass. The strain energy released by this type of failure, which can produce shock waves and may discharge coal and rock with explosive force, is often a serious threat to life and property. These releases of strain energy are called bumps or bounces by miners if they occur in the coal, and rock bursts if they occur in the surrounding rock mass. Many of these releases are so violent that they generate seismic waves that can be felt, or at least detected by seismic instruments, miles from the site of the rupture, whereas others are smaller and can be detected only by those sensitive seismic instruments within a few thousand feet of the site of the rupture. In 1969 and 1970, about 27,000 and about 15,000 earth tremors, respectively, were recorded by the five-station seismic monitoring network that is located at the surface and encompasses most of the mine workings in the district. Of these totals, 512 and 524 earth tremors, respectively, were of sufficient magnitude (greater than 1. 5 on the Richter scale) so that the hypocenters could be accurately located. In 1968 about 20,000 tremors were recorded, with 281 large enough to plot, but in 1967 over 50,000 were recorded, of which 540 were plotted. In this report we discuss the way in which seismic activity, geology, and mining are related or seem to be related for the period 1967 through 1970, with emphasis on the period 1969-70. We also suggest certain mining procedures which, based on studies during the period, might increase the safety and efficiency of mining operations in the Sunnyside district. A complete tabulation of the larger magnitude earth tremors which occurred during 1969-70 and

  18. Geology and ore deposits of the South Silverton mining area, San Juan County, Colorado

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Varnes, David J.

    1963-01-01

    The South Silverton mining area is immediately southeast of the town of Silverton, San Juan County, in southwestern Colorado (fig. 1). The town of Silverton itself lies in a relatively flat and open reach of the Animas Valley, called Bakers Park, in the western part of the San Juan Mountains. (See figs. 2 and 8.) The roughly circular area of the geologic map map (pl. 1) includes about 18½ square miles of the mountainous country southeast of Silverton. It is bounded on the west and north by the Animas River, on the east by Cunningham Creek, and on the south by Mountaineer Creek and Deer Park Creek. Altitudes range from 9,125 feet above sea level in the canyon of the Animas, at the southwest corner of the area, to 13,451 feet on Kendall Peak, 2¾ miles to the northeast.Within this area nearly a dozen horn-like peaks and sharp ridges separated by deep glacial cirques rise to altitudes of 13,000 feet or more. (See figs. 3, 7, 10, and 24.) Exposures are excellent along the crests and upper flanks of the ridges, but the bedrock along the lower parts of the valley walls and floors of the cirques is largely concealed by accumulations of talus. The timbered slopes along the south side of the Animas Valley are extensively covered with glacial moraine. Several of the high basins within the cirques hold ponds or small lakes; the largest is Silver Lake (fig. 23).Roads skirt the northern and eastern edges of the area but none give good access into the interior. Silverton is adjacent to U.S. Highway 550, which passes over the mountains by way of Red Mountain Pass from Ouray, 24 miles to the north, to Durango, 53 miles to the south. The community is also served by the narrow-gage line of the Denver and Rio Grande Western Railroad that follows the Animas River upstream from Durango. A gravel road, State Highway 110, follows the Animas River upstream, eastward from Silverton. From this highway a side road branches off to Cunningham Gulch as far as the Highland Mary mill, and

  19. Geology and ore deposits of the South Silverton mining area, San Juan County, Colorado

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Varnes, David J.

    1963-01-01

    The South Silverton mining area is immediately southeast of the town of Silverton, San Juan County, in southwestern Colorado (fig. 1). The town of Silverton itself lies in a relatively flat and open reach of the Animas Valley, called Bakers Park, in the western part of the San Juan Mountains. (See figs. 2 and 8.) The roughly circular area of the geologic map map (pl. 1) includes about 18½ square miles of the mountainous country southeast of Silverton. It is bounded on the west and north by the Animas River, on the east by Cunningham Creek, and on the south by Mountaineer Creek and Deer Park Creek. Altitudes range from 9,125 feet above sea level in the canyon of the Animas, at the southwest corner of the area, to 13,451 feet on Kendall Peak, 2¾ miles to the northeast.Within this area nearly a dozen horn-like peaks and sharp ridges separated by deep glacial cirques rise to altitudes of 13,000 feet or more. (See figs. 3, 7, 10, and 24.) Exposures are excellent along the crests and upper flanks of the ridges, but the bedrock along the lower parts of the valley walls and floors of the cirques is largely concealed by accumulations of talus. The timbered slopes along the south side of the Animas Valley are extensively covered with glacial moraine. Several of the high basins within the cirques hold ponds or small lakes; the largest is Silver Lake (fig. 23).Roads skirt the northern and eastern edges of the area but none give good access into the interior. Silverton is adjacent to U.S. Highway 550, which passes over the mountains by way of Red Mountain Pass from Ouray, 24 miles to the north, to Durango, 53 miles to the south. The community is also served by the narrow-gage line of the Denver and Rio Grande Western Railroad that follows the Animas River upstream from Durango. A gravel road, State Highway 110, follows the Animas River upstream, eastward from Silverton. From this highway a side road branches off to Cunningham Gulch as far as the Highland Mary mill, and

  20. Geologic characterization of fractures as an aid to hydrologic modeling of the SCV block at the Stripa mine

    SciTech Connect

    Martel, S.J.

    1992-04-01

    A series of hydrologic tests have been conducted at the Stripa research mine in Sweden to develop hydrologic characterization techniques for rock masses in which fractures form the primary flow paths. The structural studies reported here were conducted to aid in the hydrologic examination of a cubic block of granite with dimensions of 150 m on a side. This block (the SCV block) is located between the 310- and 460-m depth levels at the Stripa mine. this report describes and interprets the fracture system geology at Stripa as revealed in drift exposures, checks the interpretive model against borehole records and discusses the hydrologic implications of the model, and examines the likely effects of stress redistribution around a drift (the Validation drift) on inflow to the drift along a prominent fracture zone.

  1. Massive sulfide exploration models of the Iberian Pyrite Belt Neves Corvo mine region, based in a 3D geological, geophysical and geochemical ProMine study

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Inverno, Carlos; Matos, João Xavier; Rosa, Carlos; Mário Castelo-Branco, José; Granado, Isabel; Carvalho, João; João Baptista, Maria; Represas, Patrícia; Pereira, Zélia; Oliveira, Tomás; Araujo, Vitor

    2013-04-01

    The Iberian Pyrite Belt (IPB) hosts one of the largest concentrations of massive sulfides in the Earth's crust. This highly productive VMS belt contains more than 85 massive sulfide deposits, totalling an estimate of 1600 Mt of massive ore and about 250 Mt of stockwork ore (Leistel et al., 1998; Oliveira et al., 2005; Tornos, 2006). Included in the South Portuguese Zone the IPB is represented by the Phyllite-Quartzite Group (PQG) composed of shales and quartzites of late Devonian age followed by the Volcanic-Sedimentary Complex (VSC) a submarine succession of sediments and felsic and basic volcanic rocks (late Famennian-late Viséan age). Above the IPB a turbidite sedimentary unit occurs being represented by the Baixo Alentejo Flysch Group (BAFG). The ore deposits are hosted by felsic volcanic rocks and sediments that are dominant in the lower part of the VSC succession. The Neves Corvo (ProMine, EU FP7) project area is focused on the Neves Corvo deposit, an active copper mine. The project area is located between the Messejana Fault and the Portuguese/Spanish border which has been selected for the 3D geological and geophysical modelling study, based on high exploration potential of the Neves Corvo area (Oliveira et al. 2006, Relvas et al. 2006, Pereira et al. 2008, Rosa et al. 2008, Matos et al. 2011, Oliveira et al. 2013). In this study existing LNEG and AGC geological, geophysical and geochemistry databases were considered. New surveys were done: i) - A physical volcanology and palynostratigraphic age data study and log of the Cotovio drill-hole core (1,888 m, drilled by AGC). ii) - Interpretation of 280 km of Squid TEM performed by AGC. Based on the TEM data, significant conductors have been identified related with: shallow conductive cover, graphitic shale, black shale and sulphide mineralizations. The most important TEM conductors are related with the Neves Corvo massive sulphides lenses (1-10 Ωm). iii) - Ground and residual gravimetry studies including

  2. Response of fish and macroinvertebrate bioassessment indices to water chemistry in a mined Appalachian watershed.

    PubMed

    Freund, Jason G; Petty, J Todd

    2007-05-01

    Multimetric indices based on fish and benthic macroinvertebrate assemblages are commonly used to assess the biological integrity of aquatic ecosystems. However, their response to specific stressors is rarely known. We quantified the response of a fish-based index (Mid-Atlantic Highlands Index of Biotic Integrity, MAH-IBI) and a benthic invertebrate-based index (West Virginia Stream Condition Index, WV-SCI) to acid mine drainage (AMD)-related stressors in 46 stream sites within the Cheat River watershed, West Virginia. We also identified specific stressor concentrations at which biological impairment was always or never observed. Water chemistry was extremely variable among tributaries of the Cheat River, and the WV-SCI was highly responsive across a range of AMD stressor levels. Furthermore, impairment to macroinvertebrate communities was observed at relatively low stressor concentrations, especially when compared to state water quality standards. In contrast to the WV-SCI, we found that the MAH-IBI was significantly less responsive to local water quality conditions. Low fish diversity was observed in several streams that possessed relatively good water quality. This pattern was especially pronounced in highly degraded subwatersheds, suggesting that regional conditions may have a strong influence on fish assemblages in this system. Our results indicate that biomonitoring programs in mined watersheds should include both benthic invertebrates, which are consistent indicators of local conditions, and fishes, which may be indicators of regional conditions. In addition, remediation programs must address the full suite of chemical constituents in AMD and focus on improving linkages among streams within drainage networks to ensure recovery of invertebrate and fish assemblages. Future research should identify the precise chemical conditions necessary to maintain biological integrity in mined Appalachian watersheds.

  3. U.S. Geological Survey and Afghanistan Ministry of Mines and Industry cooperative assessment of Afghanistan's undiscovered oil and gas

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Wandrey, Craig J.; Ulmishek, Gregory; Agena, Warren; Klett, Timothy R.; ,

    2006-01-01

    Results of the U.S. Geological Survey and Afghanistan Ministry of Mines and Industry cooperative assessment of undiscovered petroleum resources of northern Afghanistan were first released through this presentation on March 14, 2006, at the Afghan Embassy in Washington, D.C. On March 15 the results were presented in Kabul, Afghanistan. The purpose of the assessment and release of the results is to provide energy data required to implement the rebuilding and development of Afghanistan's energy infrastructure. This presentation includes a summary of the goals, process, methodology, results, and accomplishments of the assessment. It provides context for Fact Sheet 2006-3031, a summary of assessment results provided in the presentations.

  4. Relation of geology to mine roof conditions in the Pocahontas No. 3 coalbed. Information circular/1982

    SciTech Connect

    Moebs, N.N.; Fern, J.C.

    1982-03-01

    Bureau of Mines studies of mine roof fall problems in the Pocahontas No. 3 Coalbed of southern West Virginia and southwestern Virginia have established that type and sequence of rock are significant factors in roof competence. The poorest conditions occur where the immediate roof consists of slump structures and slickensided rock. The best conditions occur where the roof consists of a sequence that coarsens upward from shale to massive sandy shale. A small manual of color photographs of rock types was devised to aid in identifying drill cores. Proper identifications should enhance the prediction of areas of potential roof problems in advance of mining.

  5. Geological survey of Maryland using EREP flight data. [mining, mapping, Chesapeake Bay islands, coastal water features

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Weaver, K. N. (Principal Investigator)

    1973-01-01

    The author has identified the following significant results. Underflight photography has been used in the Baltimore County mined land inventory to determine areas of disturbed land where surface mining of sand and ground clay, or stone has taken place. Both active and abandoned pits and quarries were located. Aircraft data has been used to update cultural features of Calvert, Caroline, St. Mary's, Somerset, Talbot, and Wicomico Counties. Islands have been located and catalogued for comparison with older film and map data for erosion data. Strip mined areas are being mapped to obtain total area disturbed to aid in future mining and reclamation problems. Coastal estuarine and Atlantic Coast features are being studied to determine nearshore bedforms, sedimentary, and erosional patterns, and manmade influence on natural systems.

  6. Heavy crude and tar sands: Hydrocarbons for the 21st century. Volume 1, Geology, characterization and mining

    SciTech Connect

    Meyer, R.F.

    1991-12-31

    Volume 1 is concerned with the geology of the resources and with the mining of those occurring at or near the earth`s surface. The chemical characterization of natural bitumens and heavy oil is the subject of 15 papers. These concentrate on those properties which govern the exploitability and use of these hydrocarbons. Six reports deal with exploration for bitumens and certain aspects of their later development. No less than three of the papers investigate the trace metals and their possible role in comprehending the occurrence of the bitumens and, therefore, the clues they may offer for the location of additional deposits. Another eight reports are concerned directly with the geologic occurrence of specific resource accumulations. These deposits are found in Canada, China, Madagascar, Nigeria, and Venezuela. One report describes a model that may be applied in basin analysis for predicting the composition of heavy oils expelled from the sources rocks of the basin. Additional papers then characterize the resources found in Indonesia, Iran, and the USA. Volume 1 concludes with the reports on the many kinds of bitumen extraction and use. Not only are innovative techniques evolving for the extraction of the material but also for its economic enhancement through the exploitation of coproducts. Ten papers deal with bitumen mining and its present, or prospective, utilization in places like the Mongolia Republic, the State of Utah in the USA, Trinidad in Latin America or Nigeria in Africa. Each paper has been processed separately for the Energy Science and Technology Database.

  7. Questa baseline and pre-mining ground-water quality investigation. 10. Geologic influences on ground and surface waters in the lower Red River watershed, New Mexico

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Ludington, Steve; Plumlee, Geoff; Caine, Jonathan S.; Bove, Dana; Holloway, JoAnn; Livo, Eric

    2005-01-01

    Introduction: This report is one in a series that presents results of an interdisciplinary U.S. Geological Survey (USGS) study of ground-water quality in the lower Red River watershed prior to open-pit and underground molybdenite mining at Molycorp's Questa mine. The stretch of the Red River watershed that extends from just upstream of the town of Red River, N. Mex., to just above the town of Questa includes several mineralized areas in addition to the one mined by Molycorp. Natural erosion and weathering of pyrite-rich rocks in the mineralized areas has created a series of erosional scars along this stretch of the Red River that contribute acidic waters, as well as mineralized alluvial material and sediments, to the river. The overall goal of the USGS study is to infer the premining ground-water quality at the Molycorp mine site. An integrated geologic, hydrologic, and geochemical model for ground water in the mineralized-but unmined-Straight Creek drainage (a tributary of the Red River) is being used as an analog for the geologic, geochemical, and hydrologic conditions that influenced ground-water quality and quantity in the Red River drainage prior to mining. This report provides an overall geologic framework for the Red River watershed between Red River and Questa, in northern New Mexico, and summarizes key geologic, mineralogic, structural and other characteristics of various mineralized areas (and their associated erosional scars and debris fans) that likely influence ground- and surface-water quality and hydrology. The premining nature of the Sulphur Gulch and Goat Hill Gulch scars on the Molycorp mine site can be inferred through geologic comparisons with other unmined scars in the Red River drainage.

  8. Response of fish and macroinvertebrate bioassessment indices to water chemistry in a mined Appalachian watershed

    SciTech Connect

    Freund, Jason; Petty, J.

    2007-05-15

    Multimetric indices based on fish and benthic macroinvertebrate assemblages are commonly used to assess the biological integrity of aquatic ecosystems. However, their response to specific stressors is rarely known. We quantified the response of a fish-based index (Mid-Atlantic Highlands Index of Biotic Integrity, MAH-IBI) and a benthic invertebrate-based index (West Virginia Stream Condition Index, WV-SCI) to acid mine drainage (AMD)-related stressors in 46 stream sites within the Cheat River watershed, West Virginia. We also identified specific stressor concentrations at which biological impairment was always or never observed. Water chemistry was extremely variable among tributaries of the Cheat River, and the WV-SCI was highly responsive across a range of AMD stressor levels. Furthermore, impairment to macroinvertebrate communities was observed at relatively low stressor concentrations, especially when compared to state water quality standards. In contrast to the WV-SCI, we found that the MAH-IBI was significantly less responsive to local water quality conditions. Low fish diversity was observed in several streams that possessed relatively good water quality. This pattern was especially pronounced in highly degraded subwatersheds, suggesting that regional conditions may have a strong influence on fish assemblages in this system. Our results indicate that biomonitoring programs in mined watersheds should include both benthic invertebrates, which are consistent indicators of local conditions, and fishes, which may be indicators of regional conditions. In addition, remediation programs must address the full suite of chemical constituents in AMD and focus on improving linkages among streams within drainage networks to ensure recovery of invertebrate and fish assemblages.

  9. Mineralogy and geochemistry of efflorescent minerals on mine tailings and their potential impact on water chemistry.

    PubMed

    Grover, B P C; Johnson, R H; Billing, D G; Weiersbye, I M G; Tutu, H

    2016-04-01

    In the gold mining Witwatersrand Basin of South Africa, efflorescent mineral crusts are a common occurrence on and nearby tailings dumps during the dry season. The crusts are readily soluble and generate acidic, metal- and sulphate-rich solutions on dissolution. In this study, the metal content of efflorescent crusts at an abandoned gold mine tailings dump was used to characterise surface and groundwater discharges from the site. Geochemical modelling of the pH of the solution resulting from the dissolution of the crusts was used to better understand the crusts' potential impact on water chemistry. The study involved two approaches: (i) conducting leaching experiments on oxidised and unoxidised tailings using artificial rainwater and dilute sulphuric acid and correlating the composition of crusts to these leachates and (ii) modelling the dissolution of the crusts in order to gain insight into their mineralogy and their potential impact on receiving waters. The findings suggested that there were two chemically distinct discharges from the site, namely an aluminium- and magnesium-rich surface water plume and an iron-rich groundwater plume. The first plume was observed to originate from the oxidised tailings following leaching with rainwater while the second plume originated from the underlying unoxidised tailings with leaching by sulphuric acid. Both groups of minerals forming from the respective plumes were found to significantly lower the pH of the receiving water with simulations of their dissolution found to be within 0.2 pH units of experimental values. It was observed that metals in a low abundance within the crust (for example, iron) had a stronger influence on the pH of the resulting solutions than metals in a greater abundance (aluminium or magnesium). Techniques such as powder X-ray diffraction (PXRD) and in situ mineral determination techniques such as remote sensing can effectively determine the dominant mineralogy. However, the minerals or metals

  10. Geologic map of the Mine Mountain area, Nevada Test Site, southern Nevada

    SciTech Connect

    Cashman, P.H.; Cole, J.C.

    1998-10-05

    The Mine Mountain area is a small range of hills on the west side of the central Yucca Flat basin on the Nevada Test Site, Nye County, Nevada. This map portrays the very complex relationships among the pre-Tertiary stratigraphic units of the region. Rocks and structures of the Mine Mountain area record the compounded effects of: (1) eastward-directed, foreland-vergent thrusting; (2) younger folds and thrusts formed by hinterland vergence in a general westerly direction; and (3) low-angle normal faulting formed by extension along a northeast-southwest trend. All of these structures are older than the oldest middle Miocene volcanic rocks that were deposited on the flanks of the Mine Mountain terrane. High-angle faults that post-date these volcanic rocks locally show displacements of several hundred meters, but do not strongly affect patterns in the pre-Tertiary rocks.

  11. Report of activities, 1997, Resident Geologist program, southern Ontario regional Resident Geologist`s report: Southeastern and Southwestern districts, Mines and Minerals Information Centre, and Petroleum Resources Centre. Ontario Geological Survey open file report number 5974

    SciTech Connect

    Sangster, P.J.

    1998-10-01

    This report reviews activities in the Southeastern and Southwestern Ontario Resident Geologist districts for the year, including mining and exploration activity, mineral property examinations, recommendations for exploration, and Ontario Geological Survey activities and research by others. It also reviews activities at the Ontario Geological Survey Mines and Minerals Information Centre and exploration and development activity in the province`s oil and gas sector.

  12. Geology of the Copper King Mine area, Prairie Divide, Larimer County, Colorado (Part 1)

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Sims, Paul Kibler; Phair, George

    1952-01-01

    The Copper King mine, in Larimer County, Colo., in the northern part of the Front Range of Colorado, was operated for a short time prior to World War II for copper and zino, but since 1949, when pitchblende was discovered on the mine dump, it has been worked for uranium. The bedrock in the mine area consists predominantly of pre-Cambrian (Silver Plums) granite with minor migmatite and metasediments--biotite-quartz-plagioclase gneiss, biotite schist, quartzite, amphibolite, amphibole skarn, and biotite skols. The metasediments occur as inclusions that trend northeast in the granite. This trend is essentially parallel to the prevailing foliation in the granite. At places the metasediments are crosscut sharply by the granite to form angular, partly discordant, steep-walled bodies in the granite. Faults, confined to a narrow zone that extends through the mine, cut both the pre-Cambrian rocks and the contained sulfide deposits. The Copper King fault, a breccia zone, contains a deposit of pitchblende; the other faults are believed to be later than the ore. The two types of mineral deposits--massive sulfide and pitchblende deposits--in the mine area, are of widely different mineralogy, age, and origin. The massive sulfide deposits are small and consist of pyrite, sphalerite, chalcopyrite, pyrrhotite, and in places magnetite in amphibole skarn, mice skols, and quartzite. The deposit at the Copper King mine has yielded small quantities of high-grade sphalerite ore. The massive sulfides are pyrometasomatic deposits of pre-Cambrian age. The pitchblende at the Copper King mine is principally in the Copper King vein, a tight, hard breccia zone that cuts through both granite and the massive sulfide deposit. A small part of the pitchblende is in small fractures near the vein and in boxwork pyrite adjacent to the vein; the post-ore faults, close to their intersection with the Copper King vein, contain some radioactive material, but elsewhere, so far as is known, they are barren

  13. Geologic, geochemical, and geophysical investigations in the northern part of the Gilmore mining district, Lemhi County, Idaho

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Ruppel, Edward Thompson; Watts, K.C.; Peterson, Donald L.

    1970-01-01

    Geologic, geochemical, and geophysical investigations in the northern part of the Gilmore (Texas) mining district, Lemhi County, Idaho, indicate an area of anomalous concentrations of lead and silver in glacial deposits. These deposits overlie the probable extensions of the main veins as them are projected northward from the central part of the district. The anomalous area is underlain by the Jefferson Formation, which is the most favorable host rock for mineral deposits in the district, and by quartz diorite and granodiorite of the Gilmore stock. The stock also appears to underlie part of the gravel-covered area east of the district, which suggests that this area is of possible interest for geochemical and geophysical prospecting.

  14. Mineral surveys by the Geological Survey and the Bureau of Mines of Bureau of Land Management Wilderness Study Areas

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Beikman, Helen M.; Hinkle, Margaret E.; Frieders, Twila; Marcus, Susan M.; Edward, James R.

    1983-01-01

    The Federal Land Policy and Management Act of 1976 instructed the Bureau of Land Management (BLM) to review all public lands under its jurisdiction and to determine their suitability or nonsuitability for wilderness designation. As part of this process, the Geological Survey and the Bureau of Mines conduct mineral surveys of areas for which a preliminary determination of wilderness suitability has been made. The BLM has completed its wilderness inventory phase and has found that 23.2 million acres deserve further study for wilderness consideration. These 23.2 million acres of wilderness study areas include 1 million acres of natural and primitive areas (Instant Study Areas), 5.7 million acres in the California Desert Conservation Area, and 16.5 million acres in other wilderness study areas. Mineral surveys on all areas recommended for wilderness will be completed by 1990.

  15. Geology of the Ar Rahail ancient gold mine, Kingdom of Saudi Arabia

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    White, Willis H.; Samater, Rashid M.; Doebrich, Jeff L.

    1987-01-01

    Pre-existing northwest-trending faults, possibly re-opened by stock emplacement, were invaded by later fluids that precipitated barren quartz veins and, in the adjacent faulted wall rocks, anomalous gold and arsenic. Gold, however, is restricted to the narrow structures, and, although values as much as 4.2 g/t are present, the tonnages are inadequate for profitable mining. No further work is recommended, because the hoped for dissemination of gold between faults does not exist.

  16. M-X Environmental Technical Report. Environmental Characteristics of Alternative Designated Deployment Areas, Mining and Geology.

    DTIC Science & Technology

    1980-12-22

    dollar value plus court time represented. A rounded figure of $49 million for real estate acquisition in the Great Basin (Nevada and Utah) area has...distribution on minerals industry activity in Nevada. 15 3.3.1-1 Distribution of patented and unpatented mining claims. 49 4.2.2-1 Earthquake...to 15 percent with the steeper slopes closer to the mountains. The valley floors most frequently have slopes between I and 5 percent while the playas

  17. Steady activity of microfractures on geological faults loaded by mining stress

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Naoi, Makoto; Nakatani, Masao; Otsuki, Kenshiro; Yabe, Yasuo; Kgarume, Thabang; Murakami, Osamu; Masakale, Thabang; Ribeiro, Luiz; Ward, Anthony; Moriya, Hirokazu; Kawakata, Hironori; Durrheim, Raymond; Ogasawara, Hiroshi

    2015-05-01

    Acoustic Emissions (AE) down to MW -4 were recorded at a site 1 km beneath the surface in the Cooke 4 Mine, South Africa. Several planar AE clusters with lateral extent of 10-100 m were identified. Most of them were located several tens of meters away from the mining front, and exhibited steady activity during the analysis period of about two months. Some of the clusters coincided with mapped faults. The planar-cluster AEs were sharply aggregated within a thickness of several decimeters, likely delineating the fracture interface of the fault and its higher-order morphology such as branches, bends, and stepovers. The composite focal mechanism evaluated for each cluster was consistent with slip events on the fracture interface. These results imply that numerous shear microfractures occur steadily on a natural fault surface subjected to a mining-related stress increase. The planar clusters consist of very small AEs (99.7% were smaller than MW -2), exhibiting high b-values much exceeding unity. This contrasts with the more usual b-values of the stope-cluster AEs, which were aggregated within 20 m of the mining front and exhibited a more scattered distribution. The size distribution of microfractures on a fracture interface may directly reflect fine-scale irregularities of the interface. On the other hand, many other mapped faults near the planar AE clusters were not accompanied by AE activities, despite the fact that these quiet faults were subjected to a similar stress history. The presence or absence of AE activities on a fault may reflect different states of the fault, including stress and strength.

  18. Groundwater solute chemistry and arsenic fate in aquifer of Brahmaputra river basin, India: Controls of geology and tectonic setting

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Verma, S.; Mukherjee, A.; Mahanta, C.

    2015-12-01

    Elevated arsenic (As) concentrations in groundwater of the river Brahmaputra basin of India has been largely undocumented, and unexplored. Hydrogeochemical investigations in three different tectono-geomorphic settings of the basin i.e. the northwestern and northern part (located along foothills of the Eastern Himalayas) and southern part (in vicinity of Naga-thrust belt) demonstrate regional variability of groundwater chemistry and redox conditions with geology. Shallow alluvial aquifers of southern part, which are mainly composed of black/dark grey clay and fine sands are affected by high arsenic concentration whereas groundwater from sandy aquifer in the northwestern and northern part have comparatively lower As concentrations. Stable isotopes (δ2H and δ18O) in groundwater indicate suggest that some evaporation may have taken place through recharging water in the study areas. The major-ion composition shows that groundwater of northwestern and northern part are dominated by Ca2+-HCO3-, Ca2+-Na+-HCO3 while southern part is dominated by Na+-Ca2+-HCO3- hydrochemical facies. Molar ratios suggested that most groundwater solutes of northwestern and northern parts were derived from both silicate weathering and carbonate dissolution and have not been affected by cation exchange, while silicate weathering process dominates in aquifers of southern where cation exchange probably has little influence on water chemistry. Thermodynamic calculations show that most of samples fall along the equilibrium line between kaolinite and smectite. While, positive correlations of As with Fe, Mn and HCO3 were observed in northwestern and northern parts aquifers, no consistent correlation of As with any parameter was observed in the aquifers of southern part. Therefore, the results of the study clearly indicate geological control (i.e. change in lithofacies, tectonic set-up) on groundwater chemistry and distribution of redox-sensitive solutes such as As.

  19. Morphology, geology and water quality assessment of former tin mining catchment.

    PubMed

    Ashraf, Muhammad Aqeel; Maah, Mohd Jamil; Yusoff, Ismail

    2012-01-01

    Bestari Jaya, former tin mining catchment covers an area of 2656.31 hectares comprised of four hundred and forty-two different-size lakes and ponds. The present study area comprise of 92 hectares of the catchment that include four large size lakes. Arc GIS version 9.2 used to develop bathymetric map, Global Positioning System (GPS) for hydrographical survey and flow meter was utilized for water discharge analysis (flow routing) of the catchment. The water quality parameters (pH, temperature, electric conductivity, dissolved oxygen DO, total dissolved solids TDS, chlorides, ammonium, nitrates) were analyzed by using Hydrolab. Quality assurance (QA) and quality control (QC) procedures were strictly followed throughout the field work and data analysis. Different procedures were employed to evaluate the analytical data and to check for possible transcription or dilution errors, changes during analysis, or unusual or unlikely values. The results obtained are compared with interim national water quality standards for Malaysia indicates that water quality of area is highly degraded. It is concluded that Bestri Jaya ex-mining catchment has a high pollution potential due to mining activities and River Ayer Hitam, recipient of catchment water, is a highly polluted river.

  20. Morphology, Geology and Water Quality Assessment of Former Tin Mining Catchment

    PubMed Central

    Ashraf, Muhammad Aqeel; Maah, Mohd. Jamil; Yusoff, Ismail

    2012-01-01

    Bestari Jaya, former tin mining catchment covers an area of 2656.31 hectares comprised of four hundred and forty-two different-size lakes and ponds. The present study area comprise of 92 hectares of the catchment that include four large size lakes. Arc GIS version 9.2 used to develop bathymetric map, Global Positioning System (GPS) for hydrographical survey and flow meter was utilized for water discharge analysis (flow routing) of the catchment. The water quality parameters (pH, temperature, electric conductivity, dissolved oxygen DO, total dissolved solids TDS, chlorides, ammonium, nitrates) were analyzed by using Hydrolab. Quality assurance (QA) and quality control (QC) procedures were strictly followed throughout the field work and data analysis. Different procedures were employed to evaluate the analytical data and to check for possible transcription or dilution errors, changes during analysis, or unusual or unlikely values. The results obtained are compared with interim national water quality standards for Malaysia indicates that water quality of area is highly degraded. It is concluded that Bestri Jaya ex-mining catchment has a high pollution potential due to mining activities and River Ayer Hitam, recipient of catchment water, is a highly polluted river. PMID:22761549

  1. A data viewer for stream-sediment and surface-water chemistry, geology, and geography of the Humboldt River basin, northern Nevada. Chapter F.

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Yager, Douglas B.; Folger, Helen W.; Stillings, Lisa L.

    2006-01-01

    The data and software utilized in this product permit the user to view and analyze the geographic relationships among chemistry of stream sediments and surface waters, geology, and various cartographic base information such as but not limited to cities, county boundaries, and land ownership. Data for this product were compiled and or produced as part of a mineral and environmental assessment of the Humboldt River basin conducted by the U.S. Geological Survey between 1995 - 2000.

  2. Questa Baseline and Pre-Mining Ground-Water Quality Investigation. 13. Mineral Microscopy and Chemistry of Mined and Unmined Porphyry Molybdenum Mineralization Along the Red River, New Mexico: Implications for Ground- and Surface-Water Quality

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Plumlee, Geoff; Lowers, Heather; Ludington, Steve; Koenig, Alan; Briggs, Paul

    2005-01-01

    This report is one in a series presenting results of an interdisciplinary U.S. Geological Survey (USGS) study of ground-water quality in the lower Red River watershed prior to open-pit and underground molybdenite mining at Molycorp's Questa mine. The stretch of the Red River watershed that extends from just upstream of the town of Red River to just above the town of Questa includes several mineralized areas in addition to the one mined by Molycorp. Natural erosion and weathering of pyrite-rich rocks in the mineralized areas has created a series of erosional scars along this stretch of the Red River that contribute acidic waters, as well as mineralized alluvial material and sediments, to the river. The overall goal of the USGS study is to infer the pre-mining ground-water quality at the Molycorp mine site. An integrated geologic, hydrologic, and geochemical model for ground water in the mineralized but unmined Straight Creek drainage is being used as an analogue for the geologic, geochemical, and hydrologic conditions that influenced ground-water quality and quantity at the mine site prior to mining. This report summarizes results of reconnaissance mineralogical and chemical characterization studies of rock samples collected from the various scars and the Molycorp open pit, and of drill cuttings or drill core from bedrock beneath the scars and adjacent debris fans.

  3. Investigating the Influence of Riparian Zone Geology on Stream Water Chemistry in the Scottish Highlands Using a GIS Framework.

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Soulsby, C.; Smart, R.; Cresser, M.; Wade, A.

    2001-12-01

    The glaciated watersheds of the Scottish highlands are characterized by high precipitation, resistant geologies, steep hillslopes and thin acidic soils. Streams draining these watersheds are often prone to "acid-episodes" during frequent high flow events which can result in damage to salmon fisheries, particularly in areas subject to forest management. Traditional hydrological studies assumed that such watersheds are dominated by rapid, near-surface hydrological pathways and have limited groundwater influence. However, recent hydrometric and tracer-based process investigations in experimental watersheds have shown that groundwater makes a significant contribution to streamflow generation even during hydrological events. Moreover, it exerts a strong influence on stream water chemistry throughout the storm hydrograph, often buffering the effects of acid soil waters. The riparian zones of watersheds in these areas are usually distinct topographic features in the landscape. They are clearly differentiated from surrounding hillslopes in terms of drift geology, soils and vegetation. This differentiation is usually apparent in the riparian zones of streams draining watersheds that vary in size from ca. 1km2 to ca. 2000km2. Thus, at a range of spatial scales, hillslope waters appear to be hydraulically de-coupled from the channel network and must pass through the riparian zone, usually via subsurface flow paths, on route to streams. To examine more extensively the influence of riparian zones on stream hydrochemistry, a GIS was used to combine geospatial data sets and simple hydrological models at a range of scales within a large Scottish watershed. The study, based in the 2300km2 Dee catchment in NE Scotland, found that digitized geological maps and associated weathering indices provided a suitable framework for predicting water quality parameters associated with weathering and acid sensitivity (alkalinity, Ca and other base cations). In particular, it was found that the

  4. Geology and Mineral Resources of the North Absaroka Wilderness and Vicinity, Park County, Wyoming, with Sections on Mineralization of the Sunlight Mining Region and Geology and Mineralization of the Cooke City Mining District, and a Section on Aeromagnetic Survey

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Nelson, Willis H.; Prostka, Harold J.; Williams, Frank E.; Elliott, James E.; Peterson, Donald L.

    1980-01-01

    SUMMARY The North Absaroka Wilderness is approximately 560 square miles (1,450 km 2 ) of rugged scenic mountainous terrain that adjoins the eastern boundary of Yellowstone National Park in northwestern Wyoming. The area was studied during 1970, 1971, and 1972 by personnel of the U. S. Geological Survey and the U. S. Bureau of Mines to evaluate its mineral-resource potential as required by the Wilderness Act of 1964. This evaluation is based on a search of the literature courthouse and production records, geologic field mapping, field inspection of claims and prospects, analyses of bedrock and stream-sediment samples, and an aeromagnetic survey. The North Absaroka Wilderness is underlain almost entirely by andesitic and basaltic volcanic rocks of Eocene age. These volcanics rest on deformed sedimentary rocks of Paleozoic and, locally, of Mesozoic age that are exposed at places along the northern and eastern edges of the wilderness. Dikes and other igneous intrusive bodies cut both the volcanic and sedimentary rocks. A nearly flat detachment fault, the Heart Mountain fault, and a related steep break-away fault have displaced middle and upper Paleozoic rocks and some of the older part of the volcanic sequence to the southeast. A much greater thickness of volcanic rocks was found to be involved in Heart Mountain faulting than had previously been recognized; however, most of the volcanic rocks and many of the intrusives were emplaced after Heart Mountain faulting. Local folding and high-angle faulting in mid-Eocene time have deformed all but the youngest part of the volcanic sequence in the southeastern part of the wilderness. This deformation is interpreted as the last pulse of Laramide orogeny. The results of this study indicate that the mineral-resource potential of the wilderness is minimal. Bentonite, petroleum, low-quality coal, and localized deposits of uranium and chromite have been produced in the surrounding region from rocks that underlie the volcanic rocks

  5. Fieldtrip stop #2-6 Twin Lakes glacial geology and mining history

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Ruleman, C.A.; Shorba, R.R.; Edited by Simmons, Beth

    2013-01-01

    The area of Twin Lakes has been of interest to geologists going back to the days of the Hayden Survey (1874) and continues to be studied for its spectacular glacial geology. Twin Lakes (2747 m; 9015 ft) was settled in 1879 (Scott, 2003) as the Leadville silver rush began, when prospectors found the first traces and outcrops of the Gordon, Tiger, Little Joe, and other rich lodes west of Twin Lakes. Between 1860 and 1950, the Twin Lakes area produced at least 2.5 million dollars in placer gold, much of which was produced when the official U.S. Government price of gold was $20.67 per troy once.

  6. Limits on the thermal energy release from radioactive wastes in a mined geologic repository

    SciTech Connect

    Scott, J.A.

    1983-03-01

    The theraml energy release of nuclear wastes is a major factor in the design of geologic repositories. Thermal limits need to be placed on various aspets of the geologic waste disposal system to avoid or retard the degradation of repository performance because of increased temperatures. The thermal limits in current use today are summarized in this report. These limits are placed in a hierarchial structure of thermal criteria consistent with the failure mechanism they are trying to prevent. The thermal criteria hierarchy is used to evaluate the thermal performance of a sample repository design. The design consists of disassembled BWR spent fuel, aged 10 years, close packed in a carbon steel canister with 15 cm of crushed salt backfill. The medium is bedded salt. The most-restrictive temperature for this design is the spent-fuel centerline temperature limit of 300/sup 0/C. A sensitivity study on the effects of additional cooling prior to disposal on repository thermal limits and design is performed.

  7. The geology and mineralogy of the W. Wilson mine near Clancey, Jefferson County, Montana

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Meschter, D.Y.

    1953-01-01

    The W. Wilson mine, near Clancey, Mont., explores a siliceous vein in quartz monzonite of the Boulder batholith. The vein is a composite structure that consists of several closely spaced veinlets of quartz and chalcedony separated by silicified quartz monzonite. The vein has been recurrently brecciated and silicified. Typically, the quartz monzonite has been hydrothermally altered in zones of decreasing intensity outward from the vein. Pitchblende was deposited in and along the vein during one stage of the silicification that is characterized by fine-grained disseminated pyrite in black chalcedony. Subsequently most of the pitchblende was oxidized and hydrated to form a series of brightly colored secondary uranium minerals that exhibit a zonal relationship. Most of the known uranium minerals are localized in two small elongate ore bodies.

  8. Geology and ore deposits of Johnny M mine, Ambrosia Lake District

    SciTech Connect

    Falkowski, S.K.

    1980-01-01

    The Johnny M mine is one of very few mines in the Ambrosia Lake district with uranium ore in two members of the Morrison Formation (Jurassic); these members are the Westwater Canyon Sandstone and the Brushy Basin Shale. The Westwater Canyon ore is contained in the two upper sandstone units of the member, and the Brushy Basin ore is contained in the Poison Canyon sandstone (informal usage). The sedimentary features and structures in the Westwater Canyon sandstones indicate that the sediments were deposited by a system of aggrading braided streams, possibly at the distal end of coalescing alluvial fans. The Poison Canyon sandstone was probably the result of deposition in a complex environment of meandering and braided streams. Paleocurrent-direction indicators, such as fossilized-log orientation, foreset azimuths, and the axes of crossbeds and channel scours, suggest that the local palostream flow was to the east and southeast. The uranium mineralization is closely associated with 1) local accumulations of carbonaceous (humate) matter derived from the decay of organic material and 2) paleostream channels preserved in the rocks. The ore elements were derived from the leaching of volcanic air-fall tuffs and ash, which were introduced into the fluvial system during volcanic activity in the western United States. The mobile ore-element ions were reduce and concentrated by humic acids and bacteria present in the fluvial system and ultimately remobilized into the forms present today. The uranium is thus envisioned as forming either essentially on the surface as the sediments were being deposited or at very shallow depth.

  9. Preliminary geophysical interpretations of regional subsurface geology near the Questa Mine Tailing Facility and Guadalupe Mountain, Taos County, New Mexico

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Grauch, V.J.S.; Drenth, Benjamin J.; Thompson, Ren A.; Bauer, Paul W.

    2015-08-01

    This report presents geophysical interpretations of regional subsurface geology in the vicinity of the Tailing Facility of the Questa Mine near Guadalupe Mountain, Taos County, New Mexico, in cooperation with the New Mexico Environment Department. The interpretations were developed from aeromagnetic data, regional gravity data, data from four ground magnetic traverses, geologic mapping, a digital elevation model, and information from a few shallow wells. The resolution of the geophysical data is only appropriate for a broad assessment of the regional setting. Aeromagnetic data provided the most comprehensive information for interpretation. Qualitative and semiquantitative interpretations indicate the nature and extent of volcanic rocks, their relative depths, and inferred contacts between them, as well as conjectured locations of faults. In particular, the aeromagnetic data indicate places where volcanic rocks extend at shallow depths under sedimentary cover. Trachydacites of Guadalupe Mountain are magnetic, but their associated aeromagnetic anomalies are opposite in sign over the northern versus the southern parts of the mountain. The difference indicates that lavas erupted during different magnetic-polarity events in the north (reverse polarity) versus the south (normal polarity) and therefore have different ages. We postulate a buried volcano with reverse-polarity magnetization lies under the northeast side of Guadalupe Mountain, which likely predated the exposed trachydacites. Faults interpreted for the study area generally align with known fault zones. We interpret a northern extension to one of these faults that crosses northwesterly underneath the Tailing Facility. Gravity data indicate that Guadalupe Mountain straddles the western margin of a subbasin of the Rio Grande rift and that significant (>400 meters) thicknesses of both volcanic and sedimentary rocks underlie the mountain.

  10. Geology of the Midnite uranium mine, Stevens County, Washington; a preliminary report

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Nash, J. Thomas; Lehrman, Norman J.

    1975-01-01

    The Midnite mine is one of only two mines in the United States currently producing uranium from discordant deposits in crystalline host rocks. Ore bodies are in metamorphosed steeply dipping Precambrian pelitic and calcareous rocks of a roof pendant adjacent to a Cretaceous(?) porphyritic quartz monzonite pluton. Production during 14 years, of operation has been about 8 million pounds of U3O8 from oxidized and reduced ores averaging 0.23 percent U3O8. Uranium deposits are generally tabular in form and dimensions range up to 380 m long, 210 m wide, and 50 m thick. Deposits are bounded on at least one side by unmineralized intrusive ribs of granitic rock, and thickest mineralized zones invariably occur at depressions in the intrusive contact. Upper limits of some deposits are nearly horizontal, and upper elevations of adjacent mineralized zones separated by ribs of granite are similar. Near surface ore is predominantly autunite, but ore at depth consists of pitchblende and coffinite with abundant pyrite and marcasite. Uranium minerals occur as .disseminations along foliation, replacements, and stockwork fracture-fillings. No stratigraphic controls on ore deposition are recognized. Rather, mineralized zones cut across lithologic boundaries if permeability is adequate. Most ore is in muscovite schist and mica phyllite, but important deposits occur in calc-silicate hornfels. Amphibolite sills and mid-Tertiary dacite dikes locally, carry ore where intensely fractured. High content of iron and sulfur, contained chiefly in FeS2, appear to be an important feature of favorable host rocks. Geometry of deposits, structural, and geochemical features suggest that uranium minerals were deposited over a span of time from late Cretaceous to late Tertiary. Ore occurs in but is not offset by a shear zone that displaces mid-Tertiary rocks.. Economic zones of uranium are interpreted to have been secondarily enriched in late Tertiary time by downward and lateral migration of uranium

  11. Analysis of the cost of mined geologic repositories in alternative media

    SciTech Connect

    Clark, L.L.; Cole, B.M.

    1982-02-01

    IN 1981, the Pacific Northwest Laboratory (PNL) conducted an analysis of the costs of using salt, granite, basalt or tuff to isolate spent nuclear fuel. Preliminary cost estimates were made and the conditions affecting cost in each medium were examined parametrically. The analysis was conducted using a repository cost model named RECON, created for this project. Data for the model were gathered from recent conceptual design studies completed and under way, from the Generic Environmental Impact Statement on Commercial Radioactive Waste Management (GEIS), and from reports on specific, related topics. These data were current through Jun 1981. The study approach was to select reference repository descriptions and costs for each of the previously mentioned media. These descriptions were used as baselines to evaluate the cost sensitivity of key repository design parameters such as package design, thermal loading limits, additional radionuclide migration barriers, repository size, and emplacement design. The sensitivity of input cost parameters such as cost of money, mining, and hole drilling was also examined. Following the sensitivity analyses, the cost model was used to explore cost-effective alternative emplacement designs for the different media.

  12. Geology of epithermal silver-gold bulk-mining targets, bodie district, Mono County, California

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Hollister, V.F.; Silberman, M.L.

    1995-01-01

    The Bodie mining district in Mono County, California, is zoned with a core polymetallic-quartz vein system and silver- and gold-bearing quartz-adularia veins north and south of the core. The veins formed as a result of repeated normal faulting during doming shortly after extrusion of felsic flows and tuffs, and the magmatic-hydrothermal event seems to span at least 2 Ma. Epithermal mineralization accompanied repeated movement of the normal faults, resulting in vein development in the planes of the faults. The veins occur in a very large area of argillic alteration. Individual mineralized structures commonly formed new fracture planes during separate fault movements, with resulting broad zones of veinlets growing in the walls of the major vein-faults. The veinlet swarms have been found to constitute a target estimated at 75,000,000 tons, averaging 0.037 ounce gold per ton. The target is amenable to bulkmining exploitation. The epithermal mineralogy is simple, with electrum being the most important precious metal mineral. The host veins are typical low-sulfide banded epithermal quartz and adularia structures that filled voids created by the faulting. Historical data show that beneficiation of the simple vein mineralogy is very efficient. ?? 1995 Oxford University Press.

  13. Longwall mining

    SciTech Connect

    1995-03-14

    As part of EIA`s program to provide information on coal, this report, Longwall-Mining, describes longwall mining and compares it with other underground mining methods. Using data from EIA and private sector surveys, the report describes major changes in the geologic, technological, and operating characteristics of longwall mining over the past decade. Most important, the report shows how these changes led to dramatic improvements in longwall mining productivity. For readers interested in the history of longwall mining and greater detail on recent developments affecting longwall mining, the report includes a bibliography.

  14. Geology and mining industry of the Tintic district, Utah: Section in Nineteenth Annual Report of the United States Geological Survey to the Secretary of the Interior 1897 - 1898: Part III - Economic Geology

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Tower, George Warren; Smith, George Otis

    1899-01-01

    The field work upon which this report is based was begun in July, 1897, and continued without interruption until December of the same year. The area studied is approximately 15 miles square and contains 234 square miles. The topographic maps, which are two in number, were prepared under the direction of Mr. R. U. Goode, Mr. S. S. Gannett doing the triangulation and Messrs. Marshall and Griswold the topography in the fall of 1896 and summer of 1897. The mapping is done on two scales; the larger area, approximately 15 miles square, is mapped on a scale of 1: 62,500. This map is designed to form a part of the Geologic Atlas of the United States. The other map represents the portion of the larger area in which the majority of the mines are located. It is on a scale of 1: 9,600, and covers an area of 12 square miles. The work has been greatly facilitated through the assistance rendered by the mining men of the district, among whom special thanks are due to Messrs. G. H. Robinson, W. J. Craig, W. M. Nesbit, and C. H. Blanchard. The chemical work on the ores and country rocks from the district has been done in the laboratory of the Survey by Messrs. H. N. Stokes and George Steiger, and the determination of the fossils collected is to be credited to Mr. G. H. Girty, also of the Geological Survey. In the field work the authors have cooperated constantly on every phase of the varied problems. The same is true for the office work, except that the stratigraphic and economic problems have been the especial studies of Mr. Tower, while the petrologic and remaining problems have been the special studies of Mr. Smith. In pursuance of this system of work the introduction has been written conjointly, Chapter II of Part I and all of Part II have been written by Mr. Tower, and Chapters I and III to VII of Part I by Mr. Smith.

  15. Geology and Ore Deposits of the Uncompahgre (Ouray) Mining District, Southwestern Colorado

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Burbank, Wilbur Swett; Luedke, Robert G.

    2008-01-01

    The Uncompahgre mining district, part of the Ouray mining district, includes an area of about 15 square miles (mi2) on the northwestern flank of the San Juan Mountains in southwestern Colorado from which ores of gold, silver, copper, lead, and zinc have had a gross value of $14 to 15 million. Bedrock within the district ranges in age from Proterozoic to Cenozoic. The oldest or basement rocks, the Uncompahgre Formation of Proterozoic age, consist of metamorphic quartzite and slate and are exposed in a small erosional window in the southern part of the district. Overlying those rocks with a profound angular unconformity are Paleozoic marine sedimentary rocks consisting mostly of limestones and dolomites and some shale and sandstone that are assigned to the Elbert Formation and Ouray Limestone, both of Devonian age, and the Leadville Limestone of Mississippian age. These units are, in turn, overlain by rocks of marine transitional to continental origin that are assigned to the Molas and Hermosa Formations of Pennsylvanian age and the Cutler Formation of Permian age; these three formations are composed predominantly of conglomerates, sandstones, and shales that contain interbedded fossiliferous limestones within the lower two-thirds of the sequence. The overlying Mesozoic strata rest also on a pronounced angular unconformity upon the Paleozoic section. This thick Mesozoic section, of which much of the upper part was eroded before the region was covered by rocks of Tertiary age, consists of the Dolores Formation of Triassic age, the Entrada Sandstone, Wanakah Formation, and Morrison Formation all of Jurassic age, and the Dakota Sandstone and Mancos Shale of Cretaceous age. These strata dominantly consist of shales, mudstones, and sandstones and minor limestones, breccias, and conglomerates. In early Tertiary time the region was beveled by erosion and then covered by a thick deposit of volcanic rocks of mid-Tertiary age. These volcanic rocks, assigned to the San Juan

  16. Geology of the Wood and East Calhoun mines, Central City District, Gilpin County, Colorado

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Drake, Avery Ala

    1955-01-01

    The Wood-East Calhoun mine area is underlain by complexly folded Precambrian gneiss and pegmatite. The major fold in the area is an anticline that trends about N. 60° E. The Precambrian rocks are intruded by bostonite porphyry dikes of Tertiary age. All the rocks are cut by east- to northeast - trending faults that have been filled by precious metal-sulfide veins which have been worked chiefly for gold. The Wood vein occurs in an east-trending fault; the Calhoun vein occurs in a northeast-trending fault. Much of the uranium production of the Central City district has come from the Wood vein on Quartz Hill. The veins consist chiefly of quartz; pyrite is the chief metallic mineral and chalcopyrite is next in abundance. Sphalerite, galena, tetrahedrite-tennantite, and pitchblende are locally present. Deposition began with alteration-stage quartz and pyrite followed in order by pitchblend, light-yellow pyrite, massive quartz, yellow pyrite, shalerite, comb quartz, chalcopyrite, tetrahedrite-tennantite, galena, chalcopyrite, pyrite, and gray to light-brown fine-grained quartz. The veins of the Central City district are zoned, with quartz-pyrite veins near the center and galena-sphalerite veins on the periphery. The known pitchblende bodies are in the transition between these, but paragenetically, the pitchblende is earlier than all other metallic minerals. A trace element study of the ore indicates an association of zirconium and molybdenum with uranium, of bismuth, antimony, and arsenic with copper, and of cadmium with zinc. The pitchblende and other ore minerals are concentrated in ore shoots. The shoots are in open spaces controlled by the competency of the wall rocks, the presence of a prevailing direction of weakness in the rocks, and changes in strike and dip of the vein. The pitchblende is thought to be a local constituent of the quartz-pyrite ores and to owe its origin to residual solutions from the quartz bostonite magma.

  17. Hydrochemical evaluation of the influences of mining activities on river water chemistry in central northern Mongolia.

    PubMed

    Batsaikhan, Bayartungalag; Kwon, Jang-Soon; Kim, Kyoung-Ho; Lee, Young-Joon; Lee, Jeong-Ho; Badarch, Mendbayar; Yun, Seong-Taek

    2017-01-01

    Although metallic mineral resources are most important in the economy of Mongolia, mining activities with improper management may result in the pollution of stream waters, posing a threat to aquatic ecosystems and humans. In this study, aiming to evaluate potential impacts of metallic mining activities on the quality of a transboundary river (Selenge) in central northern Mongolia, we performed hydrochemical investigations of rivers (Tuul, Khangal, Orkhon, Haraa, and Selenge). Hydrochemical analysis of river waters indicates that, while major dissolved ions originate from natural weathering (especially, dissolution of carbonate minerals) within watersheds, they are also influenced by mining activities. The water quality problem arising from very high turbidity is one of the major environmental concerns and is caused by suspended particles (mainly, sediment and soil particles) from diverse erosion processes, including erosion of river banks along the meandering river system, erosion of soils owing to overgrazing by livestock, and erosion by human activities, such as mining and agriculture. In particular, after passing through the Zaamar gold mining area, due to the disturbance of sediments and soils by placer gold mining, the Tuul River water becomes very turbid (up to 742 Nephelometric Turbidity Unit (NTU)). The Zaamar area is also the contamination source of the Tuul and Orkhon rivers by Al, Fe, and Mn, especially during the mining season. The hydrochemistry of the Khangal River is influenced by heavy metal (especially, Mn, Al, Cd, and As)-loaded mine drainage that originates from a huge tailing dam of the Erdenet porphyry Cu-Mo mine, as evidenced by δ(34)S values of dissolved sulfate (0.2 to 3.8 ‰). These two contaminated rivers (Tuul and Khangal) merge into the Orkhon River that flows to the Selenge River near the boundary between Mongolia and Russia and then eventually flows into Lake Baikal. Because water quality problems due to mining can be critical

  18. Sudbury project (University of Muenster-Ontario Geological Survey): Petrology, chemistry, and origin of breccia formations

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Stoeffler, D.; Deutsch, A.; Avermann, M.; Brockmeyer, P.; Lakomy, R.; Mueller-Mohr, V.

    1992-01-01

    Within the Sudbury Project of the University of Muenster and the Ontario Geological Survey special emphasis was put on the breccia formations exposed at the Sudbury structure (SS) because of their crucial role for the impact hypothesis. They were mapped and sampled in selected areas of the north, east, and south ranges of the SS. The relative stratigraphic positions of these units are summarized. Selected samples were analyzed by optical microscopy, SEM, microprobe, XRF and INAA, Rb-Sr and SM-Nd-isotope geochemistry, and carbon isotope analysis. The results of petrographic and chemical analysis for those stratigraphic units that were considered the main structural elements of a large impact basin are summarized.

  19. The relationships between geology and soil chemistry at the Apollo 17 landing site

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Rhodes, J. M.; Rodgers, K. V.; Bansal, B. M.; Wiesmann, H.; Shih, C.; Nyquist, L. E.; Hubbard, N. J.

    1974-01-01

    Within the wide compositional range of the Apollo 17 soils, three distinct chemical groups have been recognized, each one corresponding broadly with a major geological and physiographic unit. These groups are: (1) Valley Floor type soils, (2) South Massif type soils, and (3) North Massif type soils. The observed chemical variations within and between these three groups is interpreted by means of mixing models in terms of lateral transport and mixing of prevailing local rock types, such as high-titanium basalts, KREEP-like noritic breccias, anorthositic gabbro breccias and orange glass. According to these models, North Nassif types evolved on the lower slopes of the North Massif and Sculptured Hills where anorthositic gabbro predominates over noritic breccia and where lateral mixing with basalt is effective, whereas the South Massif type soils originally developed on the upper slopes of the South Massif, where anorthositic breccia and noritic breccias are equally abundant, and where lateral mixing with basalt was minimal.

  20. Effects of a reactive barrier and aquifer geology on metal distribution and mobility in a mine drainage impacted aquifer.

    PubMed

    Doerr, Nora A; Ptacek, Carol J; Blowes, David W

    2005-06-01

    The Nickel Rim aquifer has been impacted for five decades by a metal-rich plume generated from the Nickel Rim mine tailings impoundment. Metals released by the oxidation of pyrrhotite in the unsaturated zone of the tailings migrate into the downgradient aquifer, affecting both the groundwater and the aquifer solids. A reactive barrier has been installed in the aquifer to remove sulfate and metals from the groundwater. The effect of the reactive barrier on metal concentrations in the aquifer solids has not previously been studied. In this study, a series of selective extraction procedures was applied to cores of aquifer sediment, to ascertain the distribution of metals among various solid phases present in the aquifer. Extraction results were combined with groundwater chemistry, geochemical modelling and solid-phase microanalyses, to assess the potential mobility of metals under changing geochemical conditions. Reactions within the reactive barrier caused an increase in the solid-phase carbonate content downgradient from the barrier. The concentrations of poorly crystalline, oxidized phases of Mn and Fe, as well as concentrations of Cr(III) associated with oxidized Fe, and poorly crystalline Zn, are lower downgradient from the barrier, whereas total solid-phase metal concentrations remain constant. Iron and Mn accumulate as oxidized, easily extractable forms in a peat layer overlying the aquifer. Although these oxides may buffer reducing plumes, they also have the potential to release metals to the groundwater, should a reduced condition be imposed on the aquifer by remedial actions.

  1. Some topics in English newsmagazines in autumn to winter, 2010, with special reference to the mining redevelopment of Afghanistan, review of rare earth elements mineral resources and current geological mapping

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Takahashi, Yuhei

    Some topics in English newsmagazines in autumn to winter, 2010, with special reference to the mining redevelopment of Afghanistan, review of rare earth elements mineral resources and current geological mapping

  2. 3D geological to geophysical modelling and seismic wave propagation simulation: a case study from the Lalor Lake VMS (Volcanogenic Massive Sulphides) mining camp

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Miah, Khalid; Bellefleur, Gilles

    2014-05-01

    The global demand for base metals, uranium and precious metals has been pushing mineral explorations at greater depth. Seismic techniques and surveys have become essential in finding and extracting mineral rich ore bodies, especially for deep VMS mining camps. Geophysical parameters collected from borehole logs and laboratory measurements of core samples provide preliminary information about the nature and type of subsurface lithologic units. Alteration halos formed during the hydrothermal alteration process contain ore bodies, which are of primary interests among geologists and mining industries. It is known that the alteration halos are easier to detect than the ore bodies itself. Many 3D geological models are merely projection of 2D surface geology based on outcrop inspections and geochemical analysis of a small number of core samples collected from the area. Since a large scale 3D multicomponent seismic survey can be prohibitively expensive, performance analysis of such geological models can be helpful in reducing exploration costs. In this abstract, we discussed challenges and constraints encountered in geophysical modelling of ore bodies and surrounding geologic structures from the available coarse 3D geological models of the Lalor Lake mining camp, located in northern Manitoba, Canada. Ore bodies in the Lalor lake VMS camp are rich in gold, zinc, lead and copper, and have an approximate weight of 27 Mt. For better understanding of physical parameters of these known ore bodies and potentially unknown ones at greater depth, we constructed a fine resolution 3D seismic model with dimensions: 2000 m (width), 2000 m (height), and 1500 m (vertical depth). Seismic properties (P-wave, S-wave velocities, and density) were assigned based on a previous rock properties study of the same mining camp. 3D finite-difference elastic wave propagation simulation was performed in the model using appropriate parameters. The generated synthetic 3D seismic data was then compared to

  3. Geological controls on refractory ore in an orogenic gold deposit, Macraes mine, New Zealand

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Petrie, B. S.; Craw, D.; Ryan, C. G.

    2005-07-01

    The Macraes mine is hosted in an orogenic (mesothermal) gold deposit in metasedimentary rocks of the Otago Schist belt. Much gold occurs within altered schist with minimal silica-addition, and this study focuses on altered schist ore types. The unmineralized host schists are chemically and mineralogically uniform in composition, but include two end-member rock types: feldspathic schist and micaceous schist. Both rock types have undergone hydrothermal alteration along a shallow-dipping foliation-parallel shear zone, but their different rheological properties have affected the style of mineralisation. Micaceous schist has been extensively recrystallized and hydrothermally altered during ductile deformation, to form ores characterized by abundant, disseminated millimetre-scale pyrite cubes (typically 1 2 wt% S) and minor silicification. The earliest pyrite contained Ni and/or As in solid solution and no gold was imaged in these pyrites or later arsenopyrite grains. The ore type is refractory and gold recovery by cyanide leaching is less than 50%, with lowest recovery in rocks that have been less affected by later brittle deformation. In contrast, hydrothermally altered feldspathic schist is characterized by mineralised black microshears and veinlets formed during shear-zone related brittle deformation. Microsheared ore has relatively low sulphur content (<0.7 wt%) and muscovite has been illitised during hydrothermal alteration. Pyrite and arsenopyrite in microshears are fractured and deformed, and contain 1 10 μm blebs of gold. Later pyrite veinlets also contain micron- to submicron-scale inclusions of sphalerite, chalcopyrite, galena, and gold (≤10 microns). Gold in microsheared ore is more readily recoverable than in the refractory ore, although encapsulation of the fine gold grains inhibits cyanidation. Both microsheared ore and disseminated pyritic ore pass laterally into mineralised black shears, which contain hydrothermal graphite and late-stage cataclastic

  4. Characterization of Geologic Structures and Host Rock Properties Relevant to the Hydrogeology of the Standard Mine in Elk Basin, Gunnison County, Colorado

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Caine, Jonathan S.; Manning, Andrew H.; Berger, Byron R.; Kremer, Yannick; Guzman, Mario A.; Eberl, Dennis D.; Schuller, Kathryn

    2010-01-01

    The Standard Mine Superfund Site is a source of mine drainage and associated heavy metal contamination of surface and groundwaters. The site contains Tertiary polymetallic quartz veins and fault zones that host precious and base metal sulfide mineralization common in Colorado. To assist the U.S. Environmental Protection Agency in its effort to remediate mine-related contamination, we characterized geologic structures, host rocks, and their potential hydraulic properties to better understand the sources of contaminants and the local hydrogeology. Real time kinematic and handheld global positioning systems were used to locate and map precisely the geometry of the surface traces of structures and mine-related features, such as portals. New reconnaissance geologic mapping, field and x-ray diffraction mineralogy, rock sample collection, thin-section analysis, and elemental geochemical analysis were completed to characterize hydrothermal alteration, mineralization, and subsequent leaching of metallic phases. Surface and subsurface observations, fault vein and fracture network characterization, borehole geophysical logging, and mercury injection capillary entry pressure data were used to document potential controls on the hydrologic system.

  5. Aluminum forms in stream sediment: Relation to bedrock geology and water chemistry

    SciTech Connect

    Turner, R.R.; Bogle, M.A.; Zeiler, M.A.; Mulholland, P.J.; Elwood, J.W.; Cook, R.B.

    1987-01-01

    Longitudinal gradients in sediment and water chemistry were characterized in a high elevation stream in the southern Appalachian Mountains, USA, to elucidate the geochemical behavior of aluminum across gradients in pH (4.5 to 6.5) and elevation (1120 to 1895 m). Observed gradients are driven in part by the presence of pyritic bedrock, which occurs at higher elevations and yields acidity when exposed to oxidation by landslide activity. Exchangeable Al in sediment (estimated using potassium chloride) varied in response to monomeric Al in streamwater and thus decreased downstream. Organic Al in sediment (estimated using sodium pyrophosphate) did not vary in proportion to the organic carbon content of sediment. Amorphous Al in sediment (estimated as the difference between oxalate- and pyrophosphate-extractable Al) and Al extractable with acidified streamwater (pH 4.5) was lowest at the more acidic sites. These results suggest that increases in soluble Al in downstream reaches during episodic pH depressions could be due in part to the release of adsorbed and/or precipitated Al in sediment.

  6. Groundwater and pollution chemistry of the Silurian reef at Carey, Ohio: Geological influences

    SciTech Connect

    Richards, R.P. . Water Quality Lab.); Lu, Jun; Ruedisili, L. . Dept. of Geology)

    1992-01-01

    The Ridge, located northwest of Carey, Ohio, is an arcuate topographic high with thin soils overlying massive to poorly bedded, reef core and reef flank limestones and dolostones of the Lockport and Salina groups. The reef core facies is porous, and solution channels are well developed locally. In the area adjacent to the Ridge, 20--50 + feet of drift overlies carbonates belonging to the same strata, but of unknown facies. Land use is agricultural/residential, and residents rely on private wells for their water supply. Groundwater on the Ridge has been contaminated with nitrate at least since 1965. Recent studies, done in cooperation with the Ohio Department of Natural Resources, Division of Water, show that nitrate contamination ([gt] 3 mg/l as N) is widespread on the topographic high but confined to it; wells less than 1 km from the Ridge show no nitrate. Other chemical differences between groundwater on the Ridge and that adjacent to it are equally sharp, and include ammonia, dissolved silica, and sulfate (all lower on the Ridge); and dissolved oxygen concentrations (higher on the Ridge). Weekly samples in five wells show that these concentrations are stable over the course of a year. Seeking to understand these patterns, the authors examined the inferred ground-water flow paths, the thickness of the Lockport (as a proxy for the location of reef facies), the outcrop patterns of the formations, and the drift thickness. Only drift thickness was spatially related to groundwater chemistry. Apparently the drift supplies the silica and sulfate, and, when sufficiently thick, is a locus of oxygen reduction and denitrification.

  7. Mineral Chemistry and Precipitation Kinetics of Dawsonite in the Geological Sequestration of CO2

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Duan, R.; Carey, J. W.; Kaszuba, J. P.

    2005-12-01

    Dawsonite [NaAl(OH)2CO3] is a relatively rare mineral that may play an important role in the geological sequestration of CO2: thermodynamic and reactive transport calculations predict that dawsonite should precipitate under a variety of CO2 injection scenarios by dissolution of Al-bearing minerals in Na-bearing brine. The precipitation of dawsonite is potentially beneficial as a means of fixing the CO2 in solid form but could also modify porosity and permeability. The relative rarity of natural dawsonite occurrences, however, indicates that either appropriate CO2-rich environments are rare in nature or that dawsonite formation is inhibited or more complex than the simplified geochemical systems used in the model calculations. We have conducted synthesis experiments and dissolution studies to help understand precipitation dynamics, Na-K substitution, and solubility. Both Na- and K-dawsonite were readily synthesized from mixtures of (Na,K)HCO3 and gibbsite [Al(OH)3] at 150°C for 24 hours. [Syntheses were made in unstirred, closed ParrTM reaction vessels and consisted generally of 15 ml of H2O with 6 g (Na,K)HCO3 and sufficient Al-bearing mineral to achieve a (Na,K)/Al ratio of 8.] At lower temperatures, a 41% yield of dawsonite was achieved at 120°C; 1% at 94°C; and no reaction was observed at ≤75°C. In contrast, other Al-bearing minerals including albite, analcime and pyrophyllite at 150°C (28 days) and albite, pyrophyllite, and clinoptilolite at 200°C (66 days) showed no evidence of dawsonite formation but did yield analcime. Kaolinite, however, did produce 1% dawsonite at 75°C (40 days), 37% at 150°C (90 days), and some dawsonite in addition to a complex mixture of albite, cancrisilite, and other phases at 200°C (66 days). Thermodynamic calculations suggest that silica activity restricts the range of dawsonite stability and synthesis experiments with gibbsite-quartz and gibbsite-opal-CT were significantly different than gibbsite alone. At 150°C, the

  8. The geology, botany and chemistry of selected peat-forming environments from temperate and tropical latitudes

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Cameron, C.C.; Esterle, J.S.; Palmer, C.A.

    1989-01-01

    Peat has been studied in several geologic settings: (1) glaciated terrain in cold temperate Maine and Minnesota, U.S.A.; (2) an island in the Atlantic Ocean off the coast of Maine, where sea level is rising; (3) the warm temperate U.S. Atlantic and Gulf Coastal Plains, where sea level has changed often; and (4) the tropical coast of Sarawak, Malaysia, and the tropical delta of the Batang Hari River, Sumatra, Indonesia. Most of these deposits are domed (ombrotrophic or partly ombrotrophic) bogs in which peat accumulation continued above the surface of the surrounding soil. However, the bogs of the U.S. Atlantic and Gulf Coastal Plains are comparatively not as domed, and many have almost level surfaces. In some bogs, aquatic or semi-aquatic plant materials accumulated, replaced water in the depressions, and formed a surface on which marsh or swamp vegetation could subsequently live, die, and accumulate. In others, the plant materials accumulated initially on level silt or sand surfaces supporting marshes or swamps. As the peat dome formed, plants growing on it changed from luxuriant ones near the base of the dome, where nutrients were brought into the bog by surface and ground water, to stunted ones at the top of the dome, where the raised bogs are fed by nutrient-poor precipitation. The physical and chemical changes that take place in the sequence of environments from the pond stage of deposit development, through the grassy marsh stage, through the forested swamp stage, and finally through the heath dome stage can be measured in terms of acidity and ash, volatile matter, carbon, hydrogen, nitrogen, sulfur and oxygen contents, as well as in the kind and distribution of trace elements. The organic and inorganic contents of the deposits relate to geomorphology, and geomorphology relates to their settings. As models of coal formation, some domed peat deposits may help in solving problems of distribution and character of ancient coal beds. But clearly not all peat

  9. Chlorine-bearing amphiboles from the Fraser mine, Sudbury, Ontario, Canada: Description and crystal chemistry

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    McCormick, K.A.; McDonald, A.M.

    1999-01-01

    Three chemically distinct populations of Cl-bearing amphibole have been recognized in association with contact Ni-Cu ore deposits in Footwall Breccia at the Fraser mine, Sudbury, Ontario. The first population, defined as halogen-poor (700 ppm) and F (2500 ppm). These rocks thus may have been a significant contributor to the fluids.

  10. Fundamental Science Tools for Geologic Carbon Sequestration and Mineral Carbonation Chemistry: In Situ Magic Angle Spinning (MAS) Nuclear Magnetic Resonance

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Hoyt, D. W.; Turcu, R. V.; Sears, J. A.; Rosso, K. M.; Burton, S. D.; Kwak, J.; Felmy, A. R.; Hu, J.

    2010-12-01

    GCS is one of the most promising ways of mitigating atmospheric greenhouse gases. Mineral carbonation reactions are potentially important to the long-term sealing effectiveness of caprock but remain poorly predictable, particularly reactions occurring in low-water supercritical CO2(scCO2)-dominated environments where the chemistry has not been adequately explored. In situ probes that provide molecular-level information is desirable for investigating mechanisms and rates of GCS mineral carbonation reactions. MAS-NMR is a powerful tool for obtaining detailed molecular structure and dynamics information of a system regardless whether the system is in a solid, a liquid, a gaseous, or a supercritical state, or a mixture thereof. However, MAS NMR under scCO2 conditions has never been realized due to the tremendous technical difficulties of achieving and maintaining high pressure within a fast spinning MAS rotor. In this work, we report development of a unique high pressure MAS NMR capability, and its application to mineral carbonation chemistry in scCO2 under geologically relevant temperatures and pressures. Our high pressure MAS rotor has successfully maintained scCO2 conditions with minimal leakage over a period of 72 hours. Mineral carbonation reactions of a model magnesium silicate (forsterite) reacted with 96 bars scCO2 containing varying amounts of H2O (both below and above saturation of the scCO2) were investigated at 50○C. Figure 1 shows typical in situ 13C MAS NMR spectra demonstrating that the peaks corresponding to the reactants, intermediates, and the magnesium carbonation products are all observed in a single spectrum. For example, the scCO2 peak is located at 126.1 ppm. Reaction intermediates include the aqueous species HCO3-(160 ppm), partially hydrated/hydroxylated magnesium carbonates(166-168 ppm), and can easily be distinguished from final product magnesite(170 ppm). The new capability and this model mineral carbonation process will be overviewed in

  11. Solubility and chemistry of materials encountered by beryllium mine and ore extraction workers: relation to risk.

    PubMed

    Deubner, David C; Sabey, Philip; Huang, Wenjie; Fernandez, Diego; Rudd, Abigail; Johnson, William P; Storrs, Jason; Larson, Rod

    2011-10-01

    Beryllium mine and ore extraction mill workers have low rates of beryllium sensitization and chronic beryllium disease relative to the level of beryllium exposure. The objective was to relate these rates to the solubility and composition of the mine and mill materials. Medical surveillance and exposure data were summarized. Dissolution of BeO, ore materials and beryllium hydroxide, Be(OH)(2) was measured in synthetic lung fluid. The ore materials were more soluble than BeO at pH 7.2 and similar at pH 4.5. Be(OH)(2) was more soluble than BeO at both pH. Aluminum dissolved along with beryllium from ore materials. Higher solubility of beryllium ore materials and Be(OH)(2) at pH 7.2 might shorten particle longevity in the lung. The aluminum content of the ore materials might inhibit the cellular immune response to beryllium.

  12. Exploring Geology

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Geissman, John W.

    2008-09-01

    I am willing to bet a nice bottle of chardonnay that much of the Eos readership has lugged around, fondled, and fumbled through an introductory physical geology textbook of some form or another, once upon a time. Mine, in 1970, was Physical Geology, by Longwell, Flint, and Sanders, which I still have, by the way. Most of us know how ``classical'' physical geology textbooks have been organized: first, a broad overview of Earth processes, then several sections devoted to groups of more specific subjects (e.g., mineralogy, sedimentary rocks, and environments, with one chapter per subject), then several sections devoted to a synthesis of geologic processes in the context of plate tectonics, and finally, typically, a discussion of Earth resources and environment- related issues. Some relatively new textbooks have ventured into new pedagogical formats, for example, emphasizing how we know what we know (e.g., How Does Earth Work: Physical Geology and the Process of Science by Smith and Pun).

  13. Effects of biosolids and compost amendment on chemistry of soils contaminated with copper from mining activities.

    PubMed

    Sidhu, Virinder; Sarkar, Dibyendu; Datta, Rupali

    2016-03-01

    Several million metric tons of mining wastes, called stamp sands, were generated in the Upper Peninsula of Michigan during extensive copper (Cu) mining activities in the past. These materials, containing large amounts of Cu, were discharged into various offshoots of Lake Superior. Due to evidences of Cu toxicity on aquatic organisms, in due course, the materials were dredged and dumped on lake shores, thus converting these areas into vast, fallow lands. Erosion of these Cu-contaminated stamp sands back to the lakes is severely affecting aquatic life. A lack of uniform vegetation cover on stamp sands is facilitating this erosion. Understanding the fact that unless the stamp sands are fertilized to the point of sustaining vegetation growth, the problem with erosion and water quality degradation will continue, amending the stamp sands with locally available biosolids and composts, was considered. The purpose of the reported study was to assess potential effects of such organic fertilizer amendments on soil quality. As the first step of a combined laboratory and greenhouse study, a 2-month-long incubation experiment was performed to investigate the effects of biosolids and compost addition on the soil nutrient profile of stamp sands and organic matter content. Results showed that both biosolids and compost amendments resulted in significant increase in nitrogen and phosphorus concentrations and organic matter contents of stamp sands. Sequential extraction data demonstrated that Cu was mostly present as bound forms in stamp sands, and there was no significant increase in the plant available fraction of Cu because of fertilizer application.

  14. Value of Geological Information in Exploitation Management: the Case of Exploitation Units of the Polkowice-Sieroszowice Mine

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Krzak, Mariusz; Panajew, Paweł

    2014-03-01

    The application of mathematical techniques of management is particularly significant in managing mineral deposits as well as generally in the mining industry, in which the execution of geological-mining projects is usually time-consuming and expensive. Such projects are usually undertaken in conditions of uncertainty, and the incurred expenses do not always generate satisfactory revenues. Mineral deposit management requires close cooperation between the geologist providing necessary information about the deposit and the miner conducting exploitation work. A real decision-making problem was undertaken, in which three exploitation divisions of a certain area in the Polkowice-Sieroszowice mine, differing in ore quality, could be developed in an order which would guarantee maximisation of income. First, the ore price was calculated with the NSR formula; next, the decision-making problem was presented as a kind of game between the geologist (the mine) and states of Nature. Projekty geologiczno-górnicze (surowcowe) różnią się znacznie od innych form aktywności gospodarczej człowieka, ponieważ wiedza o przedmiocie zainteresowań opiera się głównie na ocenach, zaś samo złoże kopalin jest obiektem przyrodniczym i trudno jest jednoznacznie przewidzieć rzeczywiste efekty jego odkrycia. Geologiczna niepewność związana z modelem złoża i jego zasobami znajduje odzwierciedlenie w technicznych planach kopalni i przygotowaniu rozcinki złoża odpowiednim systemem i sposobem eksploatacji. Kwantyfikacja, ocena i zarządzanie niepewnością geologiczną jest kluczowe w strategicznym planowaniu działania kopalni. Podstawowym celem, dla którego wykonuje się wyrobiska udostępniające jest przygotowanie złoża do eksploatacji górniczej. Wyrobiska udostępniające stanowią główne drogi transportu ludzi i urobku oraz spływu wód kopalnianych. Część z nich stanowi drogi jezdne i wentylacyjne, na innych zostaje ulokowany przenośnik taśmowy, a jeszcze innymi

  15. Geological and geothermal data use investigations for Application Explorer Mission-A (Heat Capacity Mapping Mission). [Yerington, Nevada mine area

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Lyon, R. J. P.; Prelat, A. E. (Principal Investigator)

    1980-01-01

    Further digital processing of HCMM digital data was performed to extract the temperature from the day/night passes to calculate the apparent delta T in the Yerington, Nevada mine area. Further processing is needed to observe the atmospheric effect.

  16. The chemistry of conventional and alternative treatment systems for the neutralization of acid mine drainage.

    PubMed

    Kalin, Margarete; Fyson, Andrew; Wheeler, William N

    2006-08-01

    The oxidation of pyritic mining waste is a self-perpetuating corrosive process which generates acid mine drainage (AMD) effluent for centuries or longer. The chemical neutralization of these complex, buffered effluents result in unstable, metal-laden sludges, which require disposal to minimize long-term environmental consequences. A variety of passive treatment systems for AMD, developed in the past two decades, combine limestone and organic substrates in constructed wetlands. These systems work well initially but over the longer term fail due to clogging with and the depletion of available organic carbon. However, some ecologically engineered systems, which exploit the activities of acid reducing microbes in the sediment, rely on photosynthesis in the water column as a source of organic matter. The primary productivity in the water column, which also generates some alkalinity, provides electron donors for the microbial reduction processes in the sediment. In its consideration of 'passive' systems, the literature has placed undue emphasis on sulphate reduction; thermodynamical iron reduction is equally important as is the need to prevent iron oxidation. Secondary precipitates of iron play a significant role in sediment-driven biomineralization processes, which affect the anaerobic degradation of organic matter and the stability of the resulting metal sulfides. One such passive system, which utilized a floating root mass as a source of organic carbon, is described. An extensive review of the literature and the chemical and biogeochemical reactions of AMD treatment systems, lead to the conclusion, that sediment based ecological systems offer the greatest potential for the sustainable treatment of AMD.

  17. A review of scientific literature examining the mining history, geology, mineralogy, and amphibole asbestos health effects of the Rainy Creek igneous complex, Libby, Montana, USA.

    PubMed

    Bandli, Bryan R; Gunter, Mickey E

    2006-11-01

    This article reviews the past 90 yr of scientific research directed on multiple aspects of the unique geology and environmental health issues surrounding the vermiculite deposit found at Libby, MT. Hydrothermal alteration and extensive weathering of the ultramafic units resulted in the formation of a rich deposit of vermiculite that was mined for 67 yr and used in numerous consumer products in its expanded form. Later intrusions of alkaline units caused hydrothermal alteration of the pyroxenes, resulting in formation of amphiboles. Some of these amphiboles occur in the asbestiform habit and have been associated with pulmonary disease in former miners and mill workers. Identification of these amphibole asbestos minerals has received little attention in the past, but recent work shows that the majority of the amphibole mineral species present may not be any of the amphibole species currently regulated by government agencies. Epidemiological studies on former miners have, nevertheless, shown that the amphibole asbestos from the Rainy Creek igneous complex is harmful; also, a recent study by the Agency for Toxic Substances and Disease Registry shows that residents of Libby who had not been employed in the vermiculite mining or milling operations also appear to have developed asbestos-related pulmonary diseases at a higher rate than the general public elsewhere. Since November 1999, the U.S. Environmental Protection Agency has been involved in the cleanup of asbestos-contaminated sites in and around Libby associated with the mining and processing of vermiculite.

  18. Geographical and geological data from caves and mines infected with white-nose syndrome (WNS) before September 2009 in the eastern United States

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Swezey, Christopher S.; Garrity, Christopher P.

    2011-01-01

    Since 2006, a white fungus named Geomyces destructans has been observed on the muzzles, noses, ears, and (or) wings of bats in the eastern United States, and bat colonies that are infected with this fungus have experienced dramatic incidences of mortality. Although it is not exactly certain how and why these bats are dying, this condition has been named white-nose syndrome (WNS). WNS appears to have spread from an initial infection site at a cave that is connected to a commercial cave in New York, and by the end of August 2009 was identified in at least 74 other sites in the eastern United States. Although detailed geographical and geological data are limited, a review of the available data shows that sites infected with WNS before September 2009 include both natural caves and mines. These infected sites extend from New Hampshire to Virginia, and known site elevations range from 84 to 2693 feet above sea level. In terms of geological setting, the infected sites include sedimentary, metamorphic, and igneous rocks of ages ranging from Precambrian to Jurassic. However, by the end of August 2009, no infected sites had been identified in strata of Mississippian, Cretaceous, or Triassic age. Meteorological data are sparse, but most of the recorded air temperatures in the known WNS-infected caves and mines range from 0 to 13.9 degrees C, and humidity measurements range from 68 to 100 percent. Although it is not certain which environmental parameters are important for WNS, it is hoped that the geographical and geological information presented in this paper will inform and clarify some of the debate about WNS, lead to greater understanding of the environmental parameters associated with WNS, and highlight the paucity of scientific data from caves in the eastern United States.

  19. A Data mining and Meta-Analysis of Geodiversity and Geological Preservation Studies: Pedodiversity, the Other Side of the Coin

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Ibáñez, Juanjo; Brevik, Eric C.; Cerdà, Artemi

    2017-04-01

    Land degradation processes are complex and diverse (Yan and Cai, 2015; Álvarez-Martínez et al., 2016; Zhang et al., 2016). To understand the processes of degradation there is the need to understand a wide range of factors, including the sociological, biological, hydrological and geological components of the ecosystems (de Araujo et al., 2015; Li et al., 2016; Muñoz Rojas et al., 2016; Rodrigo Comino et al., 2016). Although the most widely accepted definitions of geodiversity include geology, landforms and soils, in practice published studies on the preservation of geodiversity typically ignore the soil resource and pay more attention to other items, while many others do not include soils in such definitions. Soils are a key component of the Earth system as they regulate the hydrological, erosional, biological and geochemical Earth cycles (Keesstra et al., 2012; Brevik et al., 2015), offer resources, goods and services to human societies (Mol and Keesstra, 2012), and are a key issue in the United Nations goals to achieve sustainability (Keesstra et al., 2016). The preservation of pedodiversity is practically ignored by governments. The same can be said in the acceptance of geoparks by UNESCO, when soils are ignored. A few researchers have paid attention to geodiversity (Ibáñez et al., 2016; Stavi et al., 2016). In this study a data mining and metanalysis of this topic has been carried out using four different sources; Google, Google Scholar, Scopus, and the contents of Geoheritage journal. The results obtained show the same trends in all four studied sources. Soil resources are neglected in geodiversity studies as well as in the preservation of geological heritage against the scientific rationality inherent in the definition of geodiversity. Furthermore, pedodiversity studies have been carried out by a small set of interested pedologists following the same conceptual frames and mathematical tools reaching interesting universal patterns and a common language

  20. Effectiveness of a mining simulation cooperative learning activity on the cognitive and affective achievement of students in a lower division physical geology course: A confluent approach

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Tolhurst, Jeffrey Wayne

    Most students enrolled in lower division physical geology courses are non-majors and tend to finish the course with little appreciation of what it is geologists really do. They may also be expected to analyze, synthesize, and apply knowledge from previous laboratory experiences with little or no instruction and/or practice in utilizing the critical thinking skills necessary to do so. This study sought to answer two research questions: (1) do physical geology students enrolled in a course designed around a mining simulation activity perform better cognitively than students who are taught the same curriculum in the traditional fashion; and (2) do students enrolled in the course gain a greater appreciation of physical geology and the work that geologists do. Eighty students enrolled in the course at Columbia College, Sonora, California over a two year period. During the first year, thirty-one students were taught the traditional physical geology curriculum. During the second year, forty-nine students were taught the traditional curriculum up until week nine, then they were taught a cooperative learning mining simulation activity for three weeks. A static group, split plot, repeated measures design was used. Pre- and post-tests were administered to students in both the control and treatment groups. The cognitive assessment instrument was validated by content area experts in the University of South Carolina Geological Sciences Department. Students were given raw lithologic, gravimetric, topographic, and environmental data with which to construct maps and perform an overlay analysis. They were tested on the cognitive reasoning and spatial analysis they used to make decisions about where to test drill for valuable metallic ores. The affective instrument used a six point Likert scale to assess students' perceived enjoyment, interest, and importance of the material. Gains scores analysis of cognitive achievement data showed a mean of 2.43 for the control group and 4.47 for

  1. Similar bacterial community composition in acidic mining lakes with different pH and lake chemistry.

    PubMed

    Kampe, Heike; Dziallas, Claudia; Grossart, Hans-Peter; Kamjunke, Norbert

    2010-10-01

    As extreme environmental conditions strongly affect bacterial community composition (BCC), we examined whether differences in pH-even at low pH-and in iron and sulfate concentrations lead to changes in BCC of acidic mining lakes. Thereby, we tested the following hypotheses: (1) diversity of the bacterial community in acidic lakes decreases with reducing pH, (2) BCC differs between epilimnion and hypolimnion, and (3) BCC in extremely acidic environments does not vary much over time. Therefore, we investigated the BCC of three acidic lakes with different pH values (2.3, 2.7, and 3.2) by denaturing gradient gel electrophoresis (DGGE) and subsequent sequencing of DGGE bands as well as catalyzed reporter deposition-FISH (CARD-FISH). BCC did not significantly vary among the studied lakes nor differ much between water layers. In contrast, BCC significantly changed over time, which is contradictory to our hypotheses. Bacterial communities were dominated by Alpha-, Beta-, and Gammaproteobacteria, whereas Actino- and Acidobacteria rarely occurred. Cell numbers of both free and attached bacteria were positively related to DOC concentration. Overall, low pH and extreme chemical conditions of the studied lakes led to similar assemblages of bacteria with pronounced temporal differences. This notion indicates that temporal changes in environmental conditions including food web structure also affect unique communities of bacteria thriving at low pH.

  2. Assessing the State of Contamination in a Historic Mining Town Using Sediment Chemistry.

    PubMed

    Gutiérrez, Mélida; Wu, Shuo-Sheng; Rodriguez, Jameelah R; Jones, Ashton D; Lockwood, Benjamin E

    2016-05-01

    The United States town of Aurora, Missouri, USA, stockpiled lead (Pb) and zinc (Zn) mining wastes from the early to mid-1900s in the form of chat piles. Clean-up actions were undertaken at intervals in subsequent years including land leveling and removal of chat. This study assessed the current state of contamination by identifying areas where metals are present at toxic levels. For this purpose, stream sediment samples (N = 100) were collected over a 9 × 12 km area in and around Aurora. Their content of cadmium (Cd), Pb, and Zn were measured, and concentration maps were generated using ArcGIS to categorize affected areas. Metal concentrations varied over a wide range of values with the overall highest values observed in the north-northeast part of Aurora where abundant chat piles had been present. Comparison between observed concentrations and sediment-quality guidelines put the contaminated areas mentioned are above-toxic levels for Cd, Pb and Zn. In contrast, levels in rural areas and the southern part of Aurora were at background levels, thus posing no threat to aquatic habitats. The fact that contamination is constrained to a relatively small area can be advantageously used to implement further remediation and, by doing so, to help protect the underlying karst aquifer.

  3. Spring runoff water-chemistry data from the Standard Mine and Elk Creek, Gunnison County, Colorado, 2010

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Manning, Andrew H.; Verplanck, Philip L.; Mast, M. Alisa; Marsik, Joseph; McCleskey, R. Blaine

    2011-01-01

    mouth of Elk Creek did not display the pronounced increase observed during high flow in 2007, again perhaps due to remedial activities at the mine site or greater dilution in 2010. Zinc and cadmium loads near the mouth of Elk Creek were generally greater than those at the Level 1 portal for the six sample days in 2010. Whereas metal loads in September 2007 suggested that Level 1 portal discharge was the primary source of metals to the creek, metal loads computed for this study suggest that this may not have been the case in the spring of 2010. d18O values are well correlated with flow, becoming lighter (more negative) during snowmelt in both Level 1 discharge and Elk Creek. Seasonal variations in the chemistry of Level 1 discharge, along with portal flow tracking very closely with creek flow, are consistent with geochemical and environmental tracer data from 2007 that indicate short residence times (<1 year) for groundwater discharging from the Standard Mine.

  4. ChemicalTagger: A tool for semantic text-mining in chemistry

    PubMed Central

    2011-01-01

    Background The primary method for scientific communication is in the form of published scientific articles and theses which use natural language combined with domain-specific terminology. As such, they contain free owing unstructured text. Given the usefulness of data extraction from unstructured literature, we aim to show how this can be achieved for the discipline of chemistry. The highly formulaic style of writing most chemists adopt make their contributions well suited to high-throughput Natural Language Processing (NLP) approaches. Results We have developed the ChemicalTagger parser as a medium-depth, phrase-based semantic NLP tool for the language of chemical experiments. Tagging is based on a modular architecture and uses a combination of OSCAR, domain-specific regex and English taggers to identify parts-of-speech. The ANTLR grammar is used to structure this into tree-based phrases. Using a metric that allows for overlapping annotations, we achieved machine-annotator agreements of 88.9% for phrase recognition and 91.9% for phrase-type identification (Action names). Conclusions It is possible parse to chemical experimental text using rule-based techniques in conjunction with a formal grammar parser. ChemicalTagger has been deployed for over 10,000 patents and has identified solvents from their linguistic context with >99.5% precision. PMID:21575201

  5. The Hybrid Expert in the "Bergstaat": Anton Von Ruprecht as a Professor of Chemistry and Mining and as a Mining Official, 1779-1814

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Konecny, Peter

    2012-01-01

    In the course of the 18th century a new type of scientifically educated functional elites developed, who were trained to administer mines. The educational project that led to the formation of a corps of mining engineers was part of a programme of administrative and economic reforms that led to a new configuration of bonds between state, economy…

  6. The Hybrid Expert in the "Bergstaat": Anton Von Ruprecht as a Professor of Chemistry and Mining and as a Mining Official, 1779-1814

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Konecny, Peter

    2012-01-01

    In the course of the 18th century a new type of scientifically educated functional elites developed, who were trained to administer mines. The educational project that led to the formation of a corps of mining engineers was part of a programme of administrative and economic reforms that led to a new configuration of bonds between state, economy…

  7. Geologic remote sensing study of the Hayden pass-Orient Mine Area, Northern Sangre de Cristo Mountains, Colorado

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Wychgram, D. C.

    1972-01-01

    Remote sensor data from a NASA Convair 990 radar flight and Mission 101 and 105 have been interpreted and evaluated. Based on interpretation of the remote sensor data, a geologic map has been prepared and compared with a second geologic map, prepared from interpretation of both remote sensor data and field data. Comparison of the two maps gives one indication of the usefulness and reliability of the remote sensor data. Color and color infrared photography provided the largest amount of valuable information. Multiband photography was of lesser value and side-looking radar imagery provided no new information that was not available on small scale photography. Thermal scanner imagery proved to be a very specialized remote sensing tool that should be applied to areas of low relief and sparse vegetation where geologic features produce known or suspected thermal contrast. Low sun angle photography may be a good alternative to side-looking radar imagery but must be flown with critical timing.

  8. Radiation chemistry of salt-mine brines and hydrates. [Gamma radiation

    SciTech Connect

    Jenks, G.H.; Walton, J.R.; Bronstein, H.R.; Baes, C.F. Jr.

    1981-07-01

    Certain aspects of the radiation chemistry of NaCl-saturated MgCl/sub 2/ solutions and MgCl/sub 2/ hydrates at temperatures in the range of 30 to 180/sup 0/C were investigated through experiments. A principal objective was to establish the values for the yields of H/sub 2/ (G(H/sub 2/)) and accompanying oxidants in the gamma-ray radiolysis of concentrated brines that might occur in waste repositories in salt. We concluded that G(H/sub 2/) from gamma-irradiated brine solution into a simultaneously irradiated, deaerated atmosphere above the solution is between 0.48 and 0.49 over most of the range 30 to 143/sup 0/C. The yield is probably somewhat lower at the lower end of this range, averaging 0.44 at 30 to 45/sup 0/C. Changes in the relative amounts of MgCl/sub 2/ and NaCl in the NaCl-saturated solutions have negligible effects on the yield. The yield of O/sub 2/ into the same atmosphere averages 0.13, independent of the temperature and brine composition, showing that only about 50% of the radiolytic oxidant that was formed along with the H/sub 2/ was present as O/sub 2/. We did not identify the species that compose the remainder of the oxidant. We concluded that the yield of H/sub 2/ from a gamma-irradiated brine solution into a simultaneously irradiated atmosphere containing 5 to 8% air in He may be greater than the yield in deaerated systems by amounts ranging from 0% for temperatures of 73 to 85/sup 0/C, to about 30 and 40% for temperatures in the ranges 100 to 143/sup 0/C and 30 to 45/sup 0/C, respectively. We did not establish the mechanism whereby the air affected the yields of H/sub 2/ and O/sub 2/. The values found in this work for G(H/sub 2/) in deaerated systems are in approximate agreement with the value of 0.44 for the gamma-irradiation yield of H/sub 2/ in pure H/sub 2/O at room temperature. They are also in agreement with the values predicted by extrapolation from the findings of previous researchers for the value for G(H/sub 2/) in 2 M NaCl solutions

  9. Questa baseline and pre-mining ground-water quality investigation. 20. Water chemistry of the Red River and selected seeps, tributaries, and precipitation, Taos County, New Mexico, 2000-2004

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Verplanck, P.L.; McCleskey, R.B.; Nordstrom, D.K.

    2006-01-01

    As part of a multi-year project to infer the pre-mining ground-water quality at Molycorp's Questa mine site, surface-water samples of the Red River, some of its tributaries, seeps, and snow samples were collected for analysis of inorganic solutes and of water and sulfate stable isotopes in selected samples. The primary aim of this study was to document diel, storm event, and seasonal variations in water chemistry for the Red River and similar variations in water chemistry for Straight Creek, a natural analog site similar in topography, hydrology, and geology to the mine site for inferring pre-mining water-quality conditions. Red River water samples collected between 2000 and 2004 show that the largest variations in water chemistry occur during late summer rainstorms, often monsoonal in nature. Within hours, discharge of the Red River increased from 8 to 102 cubic feet per second and pH decreased from 7.80 to 4.83. The highest concentrations of metals (iron, aluminum, zinc, manganese) and sulfate also occur during such events. Low-pH and high-solute concentrations during rainstorm runoff are derived primarily from alteration 'scar' areas of naturally high mineralization combined with steep topography that exposes continually altered rock because erosion is too rapid for vegetative growth. The year 2002 was one of the driest on record, and Red River discharge reflected the low seasonal snow pack. No snowmelt peak appeared in the hydrograph record, and a late summer storm produced the highest flow for the year. Snowmelt was closer to normal during 2003 and demonstrated the dilution effect of snowmelt on water chemistry. Two diel sampling events were conducted for the Red River, one during low flow and the other during high flow, at two locations, at the Red River gaging station and just upstream from Molycorp's mill site. No discernible diel trends were observed except for dissolved zinc and manganese at the upstream site during low flow. Straight Creek drainage water

  10. Update and revisions for Open-File Report 98-624, synthetic precipitation leaching procedure (SPLP) leachate chemistry data for solid mine-waste composite samples from the Silverton and Leadville districts in Colorado

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Hageman, Philip L.; Desborough, George A.; Lamothe, Paul J.; Theodorakos, Peter M.

    2000-01-01

    This report supersedes, revises, and updates information and data previously released in Open-File Report 98-624 (Montour and others, 1998). Data for this report were derived from leaching of mine-waste composite samples using a modification of E.P. A. Method 1312, Synthetic Precipitation Leaching Procedure (SPLP). In 1997, members of the U.S. Geological Survey Mine Waste Characterization Project collected four mine-waste composite samples from mining districts near Silverton, Colorado (MAY and YUK), and near Leadville, Colorado (VEN and SUN). This report presents analytical results from these sites.

  11. 30 CFR 780.22 - Geologic information.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-07-01

    ...) Geologic information shall include, at a minimum the following: (1) A description of the geology of the... adversely impacted by mining. The description shall include the areal and structural geology of the permit...

  12. 30 CFR 780.22 - Geologic information.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-07-01

    ...) Geologic information shall include, at a minimum the following: (1) A description of the geology of the... adversely impacted by mining. The description shall include the areal and structural geology of the permit...

  13. 30 CFR 780.22 - Geologic information.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-07-01

    ...) Geologic information shall include, at a minimum the following: (1) A description of the geology of the... adversely impacted by mining. The description shall include the areal and structural geology of the permit...

  14. 30 CFR 780.22 - Geologic information.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-07-01

    ...) Geologic information shall include, at a minimum the following: (1) A description of the geology of the... adversely impacted by mining. The description shall include the areal and structural geology of the permit...

  15. Marinas, mines, and mudpots. Building a feature-based production system at the U.S. geological survey

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Chappell, Gary B.; Neff, Kathryn C.

    1991-01-01

    By the mid-1990's, the U.S. Geological Survey expects to produce spatial data according to its new data model, Digital Line Graph-Enhanced (DLG-E). This new data model currently defines more than 200 unique feature types that describe the geographic phenomena portrayed on the series of 1:24,000-scale topographic maps. Characteristics of features are encoded as attributes, and linkages between features are expressed as relationships. Ultimately, features are tied to the spatial components that represent their location and (or) shape. Developing the ability to manipulate the features that compose the DLG-E world presents many new challenges in the design of a data production system. Primary among these challenges is controlling the attribution and value of each feature type to ensure consistency in data content. Methods are under development at the U.S. Geological Survey to provide automated control over the DLG-E data production process.

  16. Influence of bedrock geology on water chemistry of slope wetlands and headwater streams in the southern Rocky Mountains

    Treesearch

    Monique LaPerriere Nelson; Charles C. Rhoades; Kathleen A. Dwire

    2011-01-01

    We characterized the water chemistry of nine slope wetlands and adjacent headwater streams in Colorado subalpine forests and compared sites in basins formed on crystalline bedrock with those formed in basins with a mixture of crystalline and sedimentary bedrock. The pH, Ca2+, Mg2+, NH4 +, acid neutralizing capacity, and electrical conductivity of wetland porewater and...

  17. Geology of the area adjacent to the Free Enterprise uranium-silver Mine, Boulder District, Jefferson County, Montana

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Roberts, W.A.; Gude, A.J.

    1952-01-01

    Uranium minerals.occur in pods associated with cryptocrystalline silica, silver minerals, and scattered sulfide mineral grains in a hydrothermal vein that cuts quartz monzonite and alaskite at the Free Enterprise mine, 2 miles west of Boulder, Mont. The Free Enterprise vein is one of many silicified reef-like structures in this area, most of which trend about N. 60° E. The cryptocrystalline silica zones of the area are lenticular and are bordered by an altered zone where quartz monzonite is the wall rock. No alteration was noticed where alaskite is adjacent to silica zones. No uranium minerals were observed at the surface, but radioactivity anomalies were noted at 57 outcrops. Underground mining has shown that leaching by downward percolating waters has removed most of the uranium from the near-surface part of the Free Enterprise vein and probably has enriched slightly, parts of the vein and the adjacent wall rock from the bottom of the leached zone to the ground-water level. It is possible that other veins that show low to moderate radioactivity at the surface may contain significant concentrations of uranium minerals at relatively shallow depth. The quartz monzonite appears to be a more favorable host rock for the cryptocrystalline silica and associated uranium minerals than the alaskite. The alaskite occurs as vertical_dikes plug-like masses, and as irregularly shaped, gently dipping masses that are believed to have been intruded into open fractures formed during the cooling of the quartz monzonite.

  18. Geological controls on groundwater chemistry and arsenic mobilization: Hydrogeochemical study along an E-W transect in the Meghna basin, Bangladesh

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Aziz Hasan, M.; Bhattacharya, Prosun; Sracek, Ondra; Ahmed, Kazi Matin; von Brömssen, Mattias; Jacks, Gunnar

    2009-11-01

    SummaryHydrogeochemical investigations along an E-W transect in the middle Meghna basin show groundwater chemistry and redox condition vary considerably with the change in geology. Groundwater in the Holocene shallow (<150 m bgl) alluvial aquifer in western part of the transect is affected by high arsenic concentration (As > 10 μg/l) and salinity. On the other hand, groundwater from the Pliocene Dupi Tila sandy aquifer in the eastern part is fresh and low in As (<10 μg/l). The Holocene shallow aquifers are high in dissolved As, HCO3-, Fe and dissolved organic carbon (DOC), but generally low in SO42- and NO3-. High HCO3- concentrations (250-716 mg/l) together with high DOC concentrations (1.4-21.7 mg/l) in these aquifers reflect active sources of degradable natural organic matter that drives the biogeochemical process. There is generally de-coupling of As from other redox-sensitive elements. In contrast, the Pliocene aquifers are low in As, HCO3- and DOC. Molar ratio of HCO3-/H 4SiO 4 suggests that silicate weathering is dominant in the deeper Holocene aquifers and in the Pliocene aquifers. Molar ratios of Cl -/ HCO3- and Na +/Cl - suggest mixing of relict seawater with the fresh water as the origin of groundwater salinity. Speciation calculations show that saturation indices for siderite and rhodochrosite vary significantly between the Holocene and Pliocene aquifers. Stable isotopes (δ 2H and δ 18O) in groundwater indicate rapid infiltration without significant effects of evaporation. The isotopic data also indicates groundwater recharge from monsoonal precipitation with some impact of altitude effect at the base of the Tripura Hills in the east. The results of the study clearly indicate geological control (i.e. change in lithofacies) on groundwater chemistry and distribution of redox-sensitive elements such as As along the transect.

  19. Updated operational protocols for the U.S. Geological Survey Precipitation Chemistry Quality Assurance Project in support of the National Atmospheric Deposition Program

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Wetherbee, Gregory A.; Martin, RoseAnn

    2017-02-06

    The U.S. Geological Survey Branch of Quality Systems operates the Precipitation Chemistry Quality Assurance Project (PCQA) for the National Atmospheric Deposition Program/National Trends Network (NADP/NTN) and National Atmospheric Deposition Program/Mercury Deposition Network (NADP/MDN). Since 1978, various programs have been implemented by the PCQA to estimate data variability and bias contributed by changing protocols, equipment, and sample submission schemes within NADP networks. These programs independently measure the field and laboratory components which contribute to the overall variability of NADP wet-deposition chemistry and precipitation depth measurements. The PCQA evaluates the quality of analyte-specific chemical analyses from the two, currently (2016) contracted NADP laboratories, Central Analytical Laboratory and Mercury Analytical Laboratory, by comparing laboratory performance among participating national and international laboratories. Sample contamination and stability are evaluated for NTN and MDN by using externally field-processed blank samples provided by the Branch of Quality Systems. A colocated sampler program evaluates the overall variability of NTN measurements and bias between dissimilar precipitation gages and sample collectors.This report documents historical PCQA operations and general procedures for each of the external quality-assurance programs from 2007 to 2016.

  20. Artificial soils from alluvial tin mining wastes in Malaysia--a study of soil chemistry following experimental treatments and the impact of mycorrhizal treatment on growth and foliar chemistry.

    PubMed

    Tompkins, David S; Bakar, Baki B; Hill, Steve J

    2012-01-01

    For decades Malaysia was the world's largest producer of Sn, but now the vast open cast mining operations have left a legacy of some 100,000 ha of what is effectively wasteland, covered with a mosaic of tailings and lagoons. Few plants naturally recolonise these areas. The demand for such land for both urban expansion and agricultural use has presented an urgent need for better characterisation. This study reports on the formation of artificial soils from alluvial Sn mining waste with a focus on the effects of experimental treatments on soil chemistry. Soil organic matter, clay, and pH were manipulated in a controlled environment. Adding both clay tailings and peat enhanced the cation exchange capacity of sand tailings but also reduced the pH. The addition of peat reduced the extractable levels of some elements but increased the availability of Ca and Mg, thus proving beneficial. The use of clay tailings increased the levels of macro and micronutrients but also released Al, As, La, Pb and U. Additionally, the effects of soil mix and mycorrhizal treatments on growth and foliar chemistry were studied. Two plant species were selected: Panicum milicaeum and Pueraria phaseoloides. Different growth patterns were observed with respect to the additions of peat and clay. The results for mycorrhizal treatment (live inoculum or sterile carrier medium) are more complex, but both resulted in improved growth. The use of mycorrhizal fungi could greatly enhance rehabilitation efforts on sand tailings.

  1. Role of Brine Chemistry and Sorption in Potential Long-Term Storage of Radioactive Waste in Geologic Salt Formations: Experimental Evaluation of Sorption Parameters

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Dittrich, T. M.; Emerson, H. P.; Michael, D. P.; Reed, D. T.

    2016-12-01

    Bedded geologic salt formations have been shown to have many favorable properties for the disposal of radioactive waste (i.e., reducing conditions, fracture healing). Performance assessment (PA) modeling for a 10,000 year period for the Waste Isolation Pilot Plant (WIPP) near Carlsbad, NM have predicted an extremely low risk of radioactive material reaching the surrounding environment after the 100 year period required for creep to seal the waste panels and access shafts. Human intrusion caused by drilling operations for oil and gas exploration is the main pathway of concern for environmental release of radioactive material due to pressurized brine pockets located within the salt formation below the repository. Our work focuses on the long-term capability of salt repositories and the associated geologic media to safely isolate stored radioactive waste from the surrounding environment, even in the event of a human intrusion scenario such as a direct brine release (DBR) due to a drilling operation intersecting a brine pocket. In particular, we are revisiting the degree of conservatism in the estimated sorption partition coefficients (Kds) used in the PA model based on complementary batch and column experimental methods (Dittrich and Reimus, 2016). The main focus of this work is to investigate the role of ionic strength, solution chemistry, and oxidation state (III-VI) in actinide sorption to dolomite rock. Based on redox conditions and solution chemistry expected in the WIPP, possible actinide species include Pu(III), Pu(IV), U(IV), U(VI), Np(IV), Np(V), Am(III), and Th(IV). We will present (1) a conceptual overview of Kd use in the PA model, (2) background and evolution of the Kd ranges used, and (3) results from batch and column experiments and model predictions for Kds with WIPP-relevant geologic media. We will also briefly discuss the challenges of upscaling from lab experiments to field scale predictions, the presence of ligands (e.g., acetate, citrate, EDTA

  2. Particle size distributions, size concentration relationships, and adherence to hands of selected geologic media derived from mining, smelting, and quarrying activities.

    PubMed

    Bergstrom, Carolyn; Shirai, Jeffry; Kissel, John

    2011-09-15

    Hand-to-mouth activity, especially in children, is a potentially significant pathway of exposure to soil contaminants. Hand-mouthing behavior is of particular concern in areas impacted by mining, smelting, and quarrying activities as these activities may lead to elevated levels of heavy metals in soil. In order to estimate potential exposures to contaminated geologic media attributable to hand-to-mouth contact, it is useful to characterize adherence of those media to skin, as contaminant concentrations in adhered media may differ greatly from unfractionated, whole media concentrations. Such an investigation has been undertaken to aid estimation of exposures to arsenic, cadmium, lead, and zinc in nine different geologic media collected in the Pacific Northwest region of the United States. After establishing the particle size distribution of each medium (fractions <63 μm, 63-150 μm, 150-250 μm, and 250 μm-2mm were determined) and target elemental concentrations within each particle size fraction, an active handling protocol involving six volunteers was conducted. Wet media always adhered to a greater extent than dry media and adhered media generally had higher elemental concentrations than bulk media. Regression analyses suggest smaller particle fractions may have higher elemental concentrations. Results of application of a maximum likelihood estimation technique generally indicate that handling of dry media leads to preferential adherence of smaller particle sizes, while handling of wet media does not. Because adhered material can differ greatly in particle size distribution from that found in bulk material, use of bulk concentrations in exposure calculations may lead to poor estimation of actual exposures. Since lead has historically been a metal of particular concern, EPA's Integrated Exposure Uptake Biokinetic (IEUBK) Model was used to examine the potential consequences of evaluating ingestion of the selected media assuming concentrations in adhering versus

  3. Recovery and reprocessing of legacy geophysical data from the archives of the State Company of Geology and Mining (GEOSURV) of Iraq and Iraq Petroleum Company (IPC)

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Smith, D.V.; Drenth, B.R.; Fairhead, J.D.; Lei, K.; Dark, J.A.; Al-Bassam, K.

    2011-01-01

    Aeromagnetic data belonging to the State Company of Geology and Mining of Iraq (GEOSURV) have been recovered from magnetic tapes and early paper maps. In 1974 a national airborne survey was flown by the French firm Compagnie General de Geophysique (CGG). Following the survey the magnetic data were stored on magnetic tapes within an air conditioned archive run by GEOSURV. In 1990, the power supply to the archive was cut resulting in the present-day poor condition of the tapes. Frontier Processing Company and the U.S. Geological Survey (USGS) have been able to recover over 99 percent of the original digital data from the CGG tapes. Preliminary reprocessing of the data yielded a total magnetic field anomaly map that reveals fine structures not evident in available published maps. Successful restoration of these comprehensive, high quality digital datasets obviates the need to resurvey the entire country, thereby saving considerable time and money. These data were delivered to GEOSURV in a standard format for further analysis and interpretation. A parallel effort by GETECH concentrated on recovering the legacy gravity data from the original field data sheets archived by IPC (Iraq Petroleum Company). These data have been compiled with more recent GEOSURV sponsored surveys thus allowing for the first time a comprehensive digital and unified national gravity database to be constructed with full principal facts. Figure 1 shows the final aeromagnetic and gravity data coverage of Iraq. The only part of Iraq lacking gravity and aeromagnetic data coverage is the mountainous areas of the Kurdish region of northeastern Iraq. Joint interpretation of the magnetic and gravity data will help guide future geophysical investigations by GEOSURV, whose ultimate aim is to discover economical mineral and energy resources. ?? 2011 Society of Exploration Geophysicists.

  4. Sources of coal-mine drainage and their effects on surface-water chemistry in the Claybank Creek basin and vicinity, north-central Missouri, 1983-84

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Blevins, Dale W.

    1989-01-01

    Eighteen sources of drainage related to past coal-mining activity were identified in the Claybank Creek, Missouri, study area, and eight of them were considered large enough to have detectable effects on receiving streams. However, only three sources (two coal-waste sites and one spring draining an underground mine) significantly affected the chemistry of water in receiving streams. Coal wastes in the Claybank Creek basin contributed large quantities of acid drainage to receiving streams during storm runoff. The pH of coal-waste runoff ranged from 2.1 to 2.8. At these small pH values, concentrations of some dissolved metals and dissolved sulfate were a few to several hundred times larger than Federal and State water-quality standards established for these constituents. Effects of acid storm runoff were detected near the mouth of North Fork Claybank Creek where the pH during a small storm was 3.9. Coal wastes in the streambeds and seepage from coal wastes also had significant effects on receiving streams during base flows. The receiving waters had pH values between 2.8 and 3.5, and concentrations of some dissolved metals and dissolved sulfate were a few to several hundred times larger than Federal and State water-quality standards. Most underground mines in the North Fork Claybank Creek basin seem to be hydraulically connected, and about 80 percent of their discharge surfaced at one site. Drainage from the underground mines contributed most of the dissolved constituents in North Fork Claybank Creek during dry weather. Underground-mine water always had a pH near 5.9 and was well-buffered. It had a dissolved-sulfate concentration of about 2,400 milligrams per liter, dissolved-manganese concentrations ranging from 4.0 to 5.3 milligrams per liter, and large concentrations of ferrous iron. Iron was in the ferrous state because of reducing conditions in the mines. When underground-mine drainage reached the ground surface, the ferrous iron was oxidized and precipitated to

  5. The hydrothermal and structural history of the Cuprite mining district, southwestern Nevada: An integrated geological and geophysical approach

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Swayze, Gregg Alan

    The Cuprite area consists of two acid-sulfate hydrothermal alteration centers straddling U.S. Highway 95 in southwestern Nevada, with alteration involving Tertiary volcanic rocks in the eastern center and Cambrian metasedimentary rocks in the western center. The purpose of this study was to determine if these late-Miocene hydrothermal centers developed independently or whether they were created by lystric-faulting of a single conduit along an east-dipping detachment that moved the cooler upper portion of the system to the east relative to the hotter lower portion. The answer has implications for mineral exploration. Geology of the area was studied using imaging spectroscopy, isotopic dates, geologic maps, drill hole data, and D-C resistivity soundings. The western center lacks a siliceous cap, has a core of low-grade kaolinite-muscovite and propylitic rock surrounded by a high temperature alunite zone, and that this center was eroded to a deep level, exposing the high temperature kaolinite polymorph dickite and a pyrite-rich zone. Spectral maps indicate that the eastern center has an extensive siliceous cap surrounded by a high to intermediate temperature alunite zone, lacks a propylitic core (at least at the present level of exposure), has extensive kaolinite zones lacking dickite, and has volumetrically insignificant jarosite, all consistent with present exposure near the top of the hydrothermal system. Tabular clasts of Cambrian phyllite, altered to alunite, eroded from the western center, and deposited in a conglomerate below the Spearhead member of the Stonewall Flat Tuff in the eastern center, are evidence that the western center had formed, was uplifted, and eroded prior to 7.6 Ma. Continuous exposures of the Stonewall Flat Tuff and underlying conglomerate can be traced from the argillic zone into the alunite and siliceous zones of the eastern center, implying that this center formed after 7.6 Ma. New sp{40}Ar-sp{39}Ar isotopic dates indicate that the

  6. The Influence of Surface Coal Mining on Runoff Processes and Stream Chemistry in the Elk Valley, British Colubmbia, Canada

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Carey, S. K.; Wellen, C. C.; Shatilla, N. J.

    2015-12-01

    Surface mining is a common method of accessing coal. In high-elevation environments, vegetation and soils are typically removed prior to the blasting of overburden rock, thereby allowing access to mineable ore. Following this, the removed overburden rock is deposited in adjacent valleys as waste rock spoils. Previous research has identified that areas downstream of surface coal mining have impaired water quality, yet there is limited information about the interaction of hydrology and geochemistry across a range of mining conditions, particularly at the headwater scale. Here, we provide an analysis of an extensive long-term data set of geochemistry and flows across a gradient of coal mining in the Elk Valley, British Columbia, Canada. This work is part of a broader R&D program examining the influence of surface coal mining on hydrological and water quality responses in the Elk Valley aimed at informing effective management responses. Results indicate that water from waste rock piles has an ionic profile distinct from unimpacted catchments. While the concentration of geochemicals increased with the degree of mine impact, the control of hydrological transport capacity over geochemical export did not vary with degree of mine impact. Geochemical export in mine-influenced catchments was limited more strongly by transport capacity than supply, implying that more water moving through the waste rock mobilized more geochemicals. Placement of waste rock within the catchment (headwaters or outlet) did not affect chemical concentrations but did alter the timing with which chemically distinct water mixed. This work advances on results reported earlier using empirical models of selenium loading and further highlights the importance of limiting water inputs into waste rock piles.

  7. Proceedings, 24th international conference on ground control in mining

    SciTech Connect

    Peng, S.S.; Mark, C.; Finfinger, G.; Tadolini, S.; Wahab Khair, A.; Heasley, K.

    2005-07-01

    Topics covered: longwall mining; multiple seam mining; pillar/pillar extraction; surface subsidence; roof falls; geology; high horizontal stresses; highwall mining/slope stability; mine/roof support design; roof bolting; and detection of ground conditions.

  8. Description of sediment data collected by the U.S. Geological Survey in small watersheds in coal-mining areas of the eastern United States, 1980-84

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Arihood, L.D.

    1986-01-01

    Hydrologic data were collected by the U.S. Geological Survey from 20 small watersheds in the surface-mining areas of the eastern United States from 1980 through 1984 as part of the Survey1 s coal-hydrology program. Each data set includes sediment-concentration, streamflow, and precipitation data collected at 5- or 15-minute intervals. One reason for collecting the data was to test the sediment component of a watershed model. However, adequate testing requires reliable calibration data collected at several points during the rise and fall of hydrographs of several storms. Therefore, the quantity and quality of the data sets needed to be described to determine which sets could be used to test a model adequately. The data sets are described in a table that presents information about watershed characteristics, period of record, and amount of useful sediment data. Also, similar data sets collected by 10 Survey project offices during other Survey programs are described in a similar table.

  9. Geologic and geochemical study of the Picacho gold mine, California: gold in a low-angle normal fault environment

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Losh, Steven; Purvance, Dan; Sherlock, Ross; Jowett, E. Craig

    2005-03-01

    The Picacho gold deposit, located in southeasternmost California, is a low-grade gold deposit in a nearly flat-lying denudational fault of regional extent and probable Oligocene age. The deposit is hosted by intensely fractured and faulted Mesozoic leucogranite and by chloritic augen gneiss and schist, and is overlain unconformably and in fault contact by unmineralized late Oligocene Quechan volcanic rocks. The deposit is structurally characterized by normal and normal-oblique faults of low to high dip at shallow depths in the mine, merging downward with a synchronous, low-dipping ore-stage extensional fault system (the Chocolate Mountains/Gatuna Fault) of probable Oligocene age in deeper portions of the deposit. The fault system was infiltrated during much of its active life by hot, dilute, highly exchanged meteoric water having temperatures of 170°-210° C, salinity <2 wt% NaCl equivalent and calculated δ18Ofluid between -2.6‰ and 5.2‰. This main-stage fluid precipitated quartz, pyrite, and specular hematite, accompanied by silicification and sericitization. Auriferous ore-stage pyrite was precipitated late in the fault evolution probably by mixing of reducing ore fluid with relatively oxidized main-stage fluid during regional Oligocene extension on the Chocolate Mountains/Gatuna Fault. The Picacho deposit is characterized by a gold-arsenic-antimony geochemical signature consistent with bisulfide complexing of gold in reducing fluid, in contrast with typical denudation fault-hosted base-metal-rich deposits associated with high-salinity fluids elsewhere in the southwestern United States. The deposit is overprinted by Miocene normal faults having a wide range of dips. These postore faults are associated with red earthy hematite precipitation, pyrite oxidation, and supergene enrichment of gold.

  10. Geologic setting and water quality of selected basins in the active coal-mining areas of Ohio, 1987-88

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Sedam, A.C.

    1991-01-01

    This report presents hydrologic data from selected drainage basins in the active coal-mining areas of Ohio from July 1987 through October 1988. The study area is mostly within the unglaciated part of eastern Ohio along the western edge of the Appalachian Plateaus physiographic province. The 1987-88 work is the second phase of a 7-year study to assess baseline water quality in Ohio's coal region. The data collection network consisted of 41 long-term surface-water sites in 21 basins. The sites were measured and sampled twice yearly at low flow. In addition, six individual basins (three each year) selected for a more detailed representation of surface-water and ground-water quality. In 1987, the Sandy Creek, Middle Tuscarawas River and Sugar Creek, and Lower Tuscarawas River basins were chosen. In 1988, the Short and Wheeling Creeks, Upper Wills Creek, and Upper Raccoon Creek basins were chosen. Because of their proximity to the glaciated region and outwash drainage, the basins studied intensively in 1987 contain more shallow productive aquifers than do the basins studied in detail for 1988, in which shallow ground-water sources are very localized. Chemical analyses for 202 surface-water and 24 ground-water samples are presented. For field measurements made at surface-water sites, the specific conductance ranged from 295 to 3150 ? S/cm (microsiemens per centimeter at 25 degrees Celsius). For pH, the range was 2.8 to 8.6. Alkalinity ranged from 5 to 305 mg/L (milligrams per liter) as CaCO3.

  11. Acid-generating salts and their relationship to the chemistry of groundwater and storm runoff at an abandoned mine site in southwestern Indiana, U.S.A.

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Randall Bayless, E.; Olyphant, Greg A.

    1993-04-01

    Cation distributions in twenty samples of acid-generating salts were compared to those in groundwater and storm runoff from a coal-refuse deposit in an effort to identify source-product relationships. Two mineral suites, one primarily composed of melanterite, rozenite and szomolnokite, and the other composed almost entirely of copiapite, were found to be most abundant at the study site. Comparisons of cation distributions in salts with those in water samples lead to an hypothesis that a copiapite-rich suite precipitated from vadose-zone ground-water that was brought to the surface by evaporative forcing. The copiapite-rich suite, which contained larger concentrations of aluminum, calcium and zinc that the melanterite-rozenite-szomolnokite mineral suite, was the primary source of solutes in captured storm runoff. An analysis of samples collected during a summer thunderstorm indicated that the chemistry of surface runoff varied little with time or with distance downstream. The cation distributions in samples of groundwater indicated that iron-rich pore waters observed near the surface in late autumn may have influenced water chemistry in the deeper portions of the unsaturated zone during the 1989 recharge season. The results of this study show that the solutes produced by the two observed salt suites can be distinguished by their mole percent iron and that the source-product relationships can explain observed variability in mine drainage chemistry at the study site.

  12. Reconnaissance for determining effects of land use and surficial geology on concentrations of selected elements on streambed materials from the coal-mining region, southwestern Indiana, October 1979 to March 1980

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Wilber, W.G.; Boje, Rita R.

    1982-01-01

    Streambed materials were collected in October 1979 from 69 watersheds in Southwest Indiana having predominantly forested, agricultural, reclaimed, and unreclaimed mined land use to determine whether concentrations of sorbed and acid-soluble metals and trace elements were affected by land use and surficial geology. Analysis of variance indicated that 10% or more of the total variation in aluminum, arsenic, cobalt, iron, nickel, selenium, and zinc concentrations on streambed materials was accounted for by differences in land use. Concentrations of aluminum, cobalt, iron, nickel, selenium, and zinc on streambed materials smaller than 0.062-millimeter from mined watersheds were significantly greater than the concentrations of these elements on streambed materials from agricultural and forested watersheds. The greater concentrations of these elements on streambed materials are due to (1) their concentrations in mine drainage and their subsequent absorption and (or) copecipitation with the oxides and hydroxides of aluminum and iron and (2) their concentrations in coal and pyritic material in streambed materials. (USGS)

  13. Geologic, water-chemistry, and hydrologic data from multiple-well monitoring sites and selected water-supply wells in the Santa Clara Valley, California, 1999-2003

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Newhouse, M.W.; Hanson, R.T.; Wentworth, C.M.; Everett, Rhett; Williams, C.F.; Tinsley, J.C.; Noce, T.E.; Carkin, B.A.

    2004-01-01

    To better identify the three-dimensional geohydrologic framework of the Santa Clara Valley, lithologic, geologic, geophysical, geomechanical, hydraulic, and water-chemistry data were collected from eight ground-water multiple-well monitoring sites constructed in Santa Clara County, California, as part of a series of cooperative studies between the U.S. Geological Survey and the Santa Clara Valley Water District. The data are being used to update and improve the three-dimensional geohydrologic framework of the basin and to address issues related to water supply, water chemistry, sequence stratigraphy, geology, and geological hazards. This report represents a compilation of data collected from 1999 to 2003, including location and design of the monitoring sites, cone penetrometer borings, geologic logs, lithologic logs, geophysical logs, core analysis, water-chemistry analysis, ground-water-level measurements, and hydraulic and geomechanical properties from wells and core samples. Exploratory cone penetrometer borings taken in the upper 17 to 130 feet at six of the monitoring sites identified the base of Holocene as no deeper than 75 feet in the central confined area and no deeper than 35 feet in the southern unconfined areas of the valley. Generalized lithologic characterization from the monitoring sites indicates about four to six different aquifer units separated by relatively fine-grained units occur within the alluvial deposits shallower than 860 feet deep. Analysis of geophysical logs indicates that coarse-grained units varied in thickness between 10 and 25 feet in the southeastern unconfined area of the valley and between 50 and 200 feet in the south-central and southwestern areas of the valley. Deviations from temperature-gradient logs indicate that the majority of horizontal ground-water flow occurs above a depth of 775 feet in the south central and above 510 feet in the southeastern areas of the valley. Bulk physical properties from more than 1,150 feet of

  14. A Data Mining Approach to Study the Impact of the Methodology Followed in Chemistry Lab Classes on the Weight Attributed by the Students to the Lab Work on Learning and Motivation

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Figueiredo, M.; Esteves, L.; Neves, J.; Vicente, H.

    2016-01-01

    This study reports the use of data mining tools in order to examine the influence of the methodology used in chemistry lab classes, on the weight attributed by the students to the lab work on learning and own motivation. The answer frequency analysis was unable to discriminate the opinions expressed by the respondents according to the type of the…

  15. A Data Mining Approach to Study the Impact of the Methodology Followed in Chemistry Lab Classes on the Weight Attributed by the Students to the Lab Work on Learning and Motivation

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Figueiredo, M.; Esteves, L.; Neves, J.; Vicente, H.

    2016-01-01

    This study reports the use of data mining tools in order to examine the influence of the methodology used in chemistry lab classes, on the weight attributed by the students to the lab work on learning and own motivation. The answer frequency analysis was unable to discriminate the opinions expressed by the respondents according to the type of the…

  16. Evaluation of selected static methods used to estimate element mobility, acid-generating and acid-neutralizing potentials associated with geologically diverse mining wastes

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Hageman, Philip L.; Seal, Robert R.; Diehl, Sharon F.; Piatak, Nadine M.; Lowers, Heather

    2015-01-01

    A comparison study of selected static leaching and acid–base accounting (ABA) methods using a mineralogically diverse set of 12 modern-style, metal mine waste samples was undertaken to understand the relative performance of the various tests. To complement this study, in-depth mineralogical studies were conducted in order to elucidate the relationships between sample mineralogy, weathering features, and leachate and ABA characteristics. In part one of the study, splits of the samples were leached using six commonly used leaching tests including paste pH, the U.S. Geological Survey (USGS) Field Leach Test (FLT) (both 5-min and 18-h agitation), the U.S. Environmental Protection Agency (USEPA) Method 1312 SPLP (both leachate pH 4.2 and leachate pH 5.0), and the USEPA Method 1311 TCLP (leachate pH 4.9). Leachate geochemical trends were compared in order to assess differences, if any, produced by the various leaching procedures. Results showed that the FLT (5-min agitation) was just as effective as the 18-h leaching tests in revealing the leachate geochemical characteristics of the samples. Leaching results also showed that the TCLP leaching test produces inconsistent results when compared to results produced from the other leaching tests. In part two of the study, the ABA was determined on splits of the samples using both well-established traditional static testing methods and a relatively quick, simplified net acid–base accounting (NABA) procedure. Results showed that the traditional methods, while time consuming, provide the most in-depth data on both the acid generating, and acid neutralizing tendencies of the samples. However, the simplified NABA method provided a relatively fast, effective estimation of the net acid–base account of the samples. Overall, this study showed that while most of the well-established methods are useful and effective, the use of a simplified leaching test and the NABA acid–base accounting method provide investigators fast

  17. What do you mean my stream is clogged? How geology, heat and streambed chemistry define surface water - ground water interactions in a Great Basin mountain stream. (Invited)

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Hatch, C. E.; Prudic, D. E.; Jackson, T.; Dotson, K. E.; Tyler, S. W.

    2010-12-01

    In the early 1980’s, water “prospectors” around the state of Nevada applied for groundwater rights on the fringes of large basins, predicting that population growth and diminishing resources from the Colorado River system would soon be insufficient to supply municipal from the south. Owners of senior water rights sought to quantify how groundwater export from these eastern Nevada basins might affect their existing surface or groundwater allotment. Snake Creek is one such locale; a fully-allocated small, mountain stream (with average discharge from 0.03 to 0.5 m3/s) that runs from crystalline and metamorphic rocks high in the southern Snake Range (Great Basin National Park, Nevada), crosses the Southern Snake Range décollement, and continues east into Utah, passing through a structurally complex region containing limestone, quartzite, and cemented alluvial materials. To locate, quantify and understand surface water - groundwater interactions along an experimental reach, we applied a range of independent techniques. A geologic cross-section underlying the channel was constructed to predict gaining and losing sections, streamflows were measured at multiple locations, streambed piezometers were installed at depths up to 1 m along the reach, and were tested for hydraulic conductivity (slug tests), hydraulic gradient (manually and with pressure transducers), and instrumented with temperature loggers. Pairs of thermal time series were used to estimate seepage rates and directions within the streambed sediments, combined with gradient measurements to estimate time series of K. Distributed temperature sensing was used along a 1 km section to assess the character and location of groundwater inflows. Water chemistry was analyzed from stream, spring well and piezometer sites. Finally, numerical (MODLFOW) and chemical (PHREEQC) models simulated observed conditions in the stream. We found that permeable streambed sediments with hydraulic conductivities ranging from K = 10

  18. Groundtruthing and potential for predicting acid deposition impacts in headwater streams using bedrock geology, GIS, angling, and stream chemistry.

    PubMed

    Kirby, C S; McInerney, B; Turner, M D

    2008-04-15

    Atmospheric acid deposition is of environmental concern worldwide, and the determination of impacts in remote areas can be problematic. Rainwater in central Pennsylvania, USA, has a mean pH of approximately 4.4. Bedrock varies dramatically in its ability to neutralize acidity. A GIS database simplified reconnaissance of non-carbonate bedrock streams in the Valley and Ridge Province and identified potentially chronically impacted headwater streams, which were sampled for chemistry and brook trout. Stream sites (n=26) that originate in and flow through the Tuscarora had a median pH of 5.0 that was significantly different from other formations. Shawangunk streams (n=6) and non-Tuscarora streams (n=20) had a median pH of 6.0 and 6.3, respectively. Mean alkalinity for non-Tuscarora streams (2.6 mg/L CaCO(3)) was higher than the mean for Tuscarora streams (0.5 mg/L). Lower pH and alkalinity suggest that the buffering capability of the Tuscarora is inferior to that of adjacent sandstones. Dissolved aluminum concentrations were much higher for Tuscarora streams (0.2 mg/L; approximately the lethal limit for brook trout) than for non-Tuscarora streams (0.03 mg/L) or Shawangunk streams (0.02 mg/L). Hook-and-line methods determined the presence/absence of brook trout in 47 stream reaches with suitable habitat. Brook trout were observed in 21 of 22 non-Tuscarora streams, all 6 Shawangunk streams, and only 9 of 28 Tuscarora stream sites. Carefully-designed hook-and-line sampling can determine the presence or absence of brook trout and help confirm biological impacts of acid deposition. 15% of 334 km of Tuscarora stream lengths are listed as "impaired" due to atmospheric deposition by the Pennsylvania Department of Environmental Protection. 65% of the 101 km of Tuscarora stream lengths examined in this study were impaired.

  19. San Jacinto Intrusive Complex: 1. Geology and mineral chemistry, and a model for intermittent recharge of tonalitic magma chambers

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Hill, R. I.

    1988-09-01

    Geological mapping within the San Jacinto Mountains of southern California has delineated three major and numerous minor plutons of the Cretaceous Peninsular Ranges batholith. Early minor intrusives emplaced into quartz-rich metasedimentary sequences span the compositional range olivine gabbro to granite. The three large (to 250 km2) plutons span a limited compositional range between mafic tonalite (color index (CI) > 15) and K-feldspar-poor granodiorite (CI ≃ 10). All units are composed of plagioclase (An30-40) (50-55%), quartz (20-30%), K-feldspar (1-8%), biotite (10-15%), hornblende (0-5%), titanite (0-2%), and accessory zircon, apatite, allanite, and ilmenite. Variations in mineral abundances are geographically systematic only within the youngest major mass (unit III), which grades from marginal mafic tonalite to central K-feldsparpoor granodiorite. Mineral foliations and banding, schlieren, and inclusion orientation within each unit usually parallel the nearest contact. Alignment of foliations and apparent flow-sorting and scour features are interpreted as reflecting flow patterns within each chamber. Mafic synplutonic dykes (of quartz diorite and tonalite) intruded the tonalites and were broken up to form extensive inclusion trains. Dyke-tonalite relations are interpreted as showing that (1) magma adjacent to the pluton wall had considerable yield strength, (2) magmatic flow adjacent to pluton walls was capable of moving material some distance (up to kilometers) to form the inclusion trains, and (3) the dykes represent conduits through which a considerable amount of liquid was added to the inflating magma chambers. Mineral compositions throughout the major plutons are relatively uniform. Mean plagioclase composition ranges from An40 in the most mafic tonalites to An30 in the most felsic granodiorites; the total microprobe-observed range is An44 to An25 (and to An47 in a mafic inclusion). Mg/(Mg + Fe + Mn) of biotite and hornblende drop similarly from 0

  20. Geology of Nicholson's point granite, Natal Metamorphic Province, South Africa: the chemistry of charnockitic alteration and origin of the granite

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Grantham, G. H.; Allen, A. R.; Cornell, D. H.; Harris, C.

    1996-10-01

    In the Port Edward area of southern Kwa-Zulu Natal, South Africa, charnockitic aureoles up to ˜4 m in width are developed adjacent to contacts with Port Edward enderbite and pegmatites intruded into the normally garnetiferous Nicholson's Point granite. Other mineralogical differences between the aureoles and the granite include increased myrmekite and significantly less biotite in the former and the replacement of pyrite by pyrrhotite in the charnockitic rocks. No significant differences in major element chemistry between the garnet-biotite Nicholson's Point granite and charnockitic Nicholson's Point granite are seen, except possibly for higher CaO and TiO 2 in the charnockite. Higher Rb, Th, Nb and Y contents in the garnet-biotite granite suggest that these elements have been locally depleted from garnet-biotite granite during char nockitisation. This depletion is considered to be related to the reduction in biotite. Strontium and Ba contents are significantly higher in the charnockite. Generally higher S contents in the charnockite suggest S metasomatism, with S possibly being added from the enderbite. No differences in δ18O isotope data are seen between the garnetiferous and hypersthene bearing granite. In the charnockite the LREEs are weakly depleted whereas the HREEs show greater depletion compared to the garnetiferous granite. The depletions in REEs are thought to be related to the breakdown of garnet. Europium is marginally enriched or unchanged in the charnockite relative to the garnetiferous granite. Two-pyroxene thermometry on the Port Edward enderbite suggests that it was intruded at temperatures of ˜1000-1100°C. The replacement of pyrite by pyrrhotite is also consistent with a thermal auroele. Consequently the charnockitic zones developed around the intrusions of Port Edward enderbite may result from the thermally driven dehydration of biotite. The aureoles developed adjacent to pegmatites are not considered to have resulted from heat but probably

  1. Mine wastes and human health

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Plumlee, Geoffrey S.; Morman, Suzette A.

    2011-01-01

    Historical mining and mineral processing have been linked definitively to health problems resulting from occupational and environmental exposures to mine wastes. Modern mining and processing methods, when properly designed and implemented, prevent or greatly reduce potential environmental health impacts. However, particularly in developing countries, there are examples of health problems linked to recent mining. In other cases, recent mining has been blamed for health problems but no clear links have been found. The types and abundances of potential toxicants in mine wastes are predictably influenced by the geologic characteristics of the deposit being mined. Hence, Earth scientists can help understand, anticipate, and mitigate potential health issues associated with mining and mineral processing.

  2. Graphene Oxide as Mine of Knowledge: Using Graphene Oxide to Teach Undergraduate Students Core Chemistry and Nanotechnology Concepts

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Kondratowicz, Izabela; Z?elechowska, Kamila

    2017-01-01

    The aim of this laboratory experiment is to utilize graphene oxide (GO) material to introduce undergraduate students to many well-known concepts of general chemistry. GO is a new nanomaterial that has generated worldwide interest and can be easily produced in every well-equipped undergraduate chemical laboratory. An in-depth examination of GO…

  3. Stream Response to Storm Events Downstream of Mine Tailings: Identifying Contaminant Sources Using Hydrograph Separation and Stream Chemistry

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Holmes, J.; Renshaw, C. E.; Feng, X.

    2001-05-01

    Quantifying sources of contamination is paramount to good remediation plans at abandoned mine sites. We collected surface water samples from Copperas Brook, a second order stream draining over 16 ha (40 acres) of mine tailings from the abandoned Elizabeth Copper Mine in east central Vermont. Streamflow exhibits a rapid response to rain events. Hydrograph separations using oxygen isotopes consistently indicate considerably higher percentages of new water during rain events compared to a nearby control catchment and to other northeastern U.S. catchments. We attribute most of the new water to direct precipitation on low-infiltration hardpans at the base of the mine tailings, as well as to direct precipitation on to the stream channel itself. In stormflow, base cations (Ca, Mg, Na, K) are diluted, consistent with other studies. By contrast, heavy metal concentrations (Cu, Zn, Cd, Co) increase by up to an order of magnitude. Other studies have suggested that the increased metals in stormflow may be the result of rapid dissolution and transport of the soluble efflorescent sulfate minerals coating the hardpans. Copperas Brook could be highly susceptible to this process given the high percentage of new water in its stormflow. However, multiple regression of stormflow chemical source end-members shows that neither dissolved sulfur salts nor groundwater seeps from the major tailings pile are primarily responsible for the increased metals concentrations at this site. Rather, the majority of heavy metals derive from an isolated 2 ha (5 acres) tailings pile via a pathway that is not connected with the major tailings. This may have profound implications for prioritizing the remediation of this site.

  4. Effects of long-term application of biosolids for mine land reclamation on groundwater chemistry: trace metals.

    PubMed

    Oladeji, Olawale O; Tian, Guanglong; Cox, Albert E; Granato, Thomas C; Pietz, Richard I; Carlson, Carl R; Abedin, Zainul

    2012-01-01

    Data collected for 35 yr from a 1790-ha strip mine reclamation site in Fulton County, Illinois, where biosolids were applied from 1972 to 2004, were used to evaluate the impacts of long-term biosolids application on metal concentrations in groundwater. Groundwater samples were collected between 1972 and 2006 from wells installed in seven strip-mined fields treated with biosolids at cumulative loading rates of 801 to 1815 dry Mg ha and from another seven fields (also strip mined) treated with mineral fertilizer. Samples were collected monthly between 1972 and 1986 and quarterly between 1987 and 2004 and were analyzed for total metals. The concentrations of metals in groundwater were generally below regulatory limits. Lead, Cd, Cu, Cr, Ni, and Hg concentrations in groundwater were similar for the biosolids-amended and fertilizer-treated sites across all sampling intervals. Zinc concentration was increased by biosolids application only for samples collected before the 1993 promulgation of the USEPA 40 CFR Part 503 rule. Iron and Mn were the only metals that were consistently increased after biosolids application; however, Mn concentrations did not exceed the 10 mg L regulatory limits. Zinc, Cu, Cd, Pb, Fe, Al, and Mn concentrations in groundwater decreased with time, coupled with the change from pre-part 503 to post-Part 503 biosolids. The concentrations of other metals, including Ni, Cr, and Hg, did not increase in groundwater with the prolonged biosolids application. The study suggests that the long-term application of biosolids at high loading rates does not result in trace metal pollution of groundwater. Copyright © by the American Society of Agronomy, Crop Science Society of America, and Soil Science Society of America, Inc.

  5. Acid base accounting--An improved method of interpreting overburden chemistry to predict the quality of coal-mine drainage

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Brady, Keith; Cravotta, Charles A.

    1992-01-01

    Acidic mine drainage (AMD), which results from the accelerated oxidation of pyrite (FeS2 ) in mined coal and overburden, has contaminated thousands of miles of streams in the Appalachian region of the United States. Acid‐base accounting (ABA), which simplifies the complex hydrogeochemical system through use of a limited number of variables, commonly is used to predict the post‐mining occurrence of AMD. ABA involves the measurement of sulfur (S) and carbonate (CO3) concentrations in coal‐bearing rocks and the computation of overburden net‐neutralization potential (NNP) in units of tons of calcium carbonate per thousand tons of rock (tons CaCO3/1,000 ton) (Sobek and others, 1978). ABA was developed on the assumption that the stoichiometry of the following overall reaction of FeS2 and CaCO3 can be used to convert acid (H+) into units of CaCO3:FeS2 + CaCO3 + 3.75 O2 + 1.5 H2O --> Fe(OH)3 + 2 SO4-2 + 2 Ca+2 + 2 CO2(g), (1) where the H + from 1 mol (mole) of FeS2 [64 g (gram) of S] is neutralized by 2 mol of CaCO3 (200 g). This method presumes that gaseous carbon dioxide (CO2 ) will exsolve. Thus 3.125 g CaCO3 will neutralize the acid from 1 g S; or 31.25 tons of CaCO3 will neutralize the acid from 1,000 tons of rock that contains 1.0 percent pyritic S. The total S concentration, in percent, is multiplied by 31.25 and is assumed to be pyritic and acid‐producing in order to compute maximum potential acidity (MPA) for comparison with neutralization potential (NP), in units of tons CaCO3 /1,000 ton (Sobek and others, 1978). NNP is computed by subtracting mass‐ weighted MPA from NP (Smith and Brady, 1990). if the value of NNP is less than zero, the acid‐producing potential of the rock exceeds its neutralization potential and if mined, therefore, would be expected to produce AMD.

  6. Geologic mapping can boost productivity, safety underground

    SciTech Connect

    Ledvina, C.T.

    1986-04-01

    Geologic mapping in hardrock mines is old hat, but in the coal industry it's a relatively new management tool, Only during the past eight to 10 years have some of the larger coal operators been convinced that mapping of macro- and micro-structures in their mines may help to make the mines more productive, more profitable and more safe. In most underground coal mines, roof conditions-indeed, mining conditions in general-are dependent upon geologic factors. Of special significance are the roof falls, almost always a function of roof geology. Unfortunately, many important geologic factors that may provide clues to areas prone to roof falls are frequently too small or too local to be detected by drilling programs and go undected until mining reveals them. By applying basic techniques of geologic mapping, using simple tools and little time, many important relationships between geologic factors and actual roof and mining conditions can be more easily understood. And by understanding these relationships, mining and roof control plans can be adjusted to accommodate or avoid poor conditions, often in advance of mining. Mapping thus benefits not only operating mines but supplements exploration or pre-mining investigation.

  7. Mine seepage problems in drift mine operations

    SciTech Connect

    DeRossett, C.; Johnson, D.E.; Bradshaw, D.B.

    1996-12-31

    Extensive mining in the Eastern Kentucky Coal Region has occurred in coal deposits located above valley floors. Underground mines present unique stability problems resulting from the creation of mine pools in abandoned works. {open_quotes}Blowouts{close_quotes} occur when hydrostatic pressures result in the cataclysmic failure of an outcrop-barrier. Additionally, seepage from flooded works results in saturation of colluvium, which may ultimately mobilize as landslides. Several case studies of both landslides and blowouts illustrate that considerations should be taken into account to control or prevent these problems. Underground mine maps and seepage conditions at the individual sites were examined to determine the mine layouts, outcrop-barrier widths, and structure of the mine floors. Discharge monitoring points were established in and near the landslides. These studies depict how mine layout, operation, and geology influence drainage conditions. The authors suggest that mine designs should incorporate drainage control to insure long-term stability and limit liability. The goal of the post-mining drainage plan is control of the mine drainage, which will reduce the size of mine pools and lower the hydrostatic pressure. Recommendations are made as to several methods that may be useful in controlling mine drainage.

  8. Memoirs of the Geological Survey of Great Britain and of the Museum of Practical Geology: Mining records: Mineral statistics of the United Kingdom of Great Britain and Ireland for the year 1856

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Hunt, Robert

    1857-01-01

    Ten years since, the publication of Mineral Statistics of a reliable character was commenced, by issuing from the Mining Record Office returns of the produce of the Lead Mines of the United Kingdom.  With each year, efforts have been made to enlarge the circle of inquiry; and it is with much satisfaction that I find myself enabled, in the Mineral Statistics for 1856, to embrace every important branch of our Mineral Industries.

  9. Applied Geochemistry Special Issue on Environmental geochemistry of modern mining

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Seal, Robert R.; Nordstrom, D. Kirk

    2015-01-01

    challenges of current and future mines share similarities with abandoned mines, but differences also exist. Mining and ore processing techniques have changed; the environmental footprint of waste materials has changed; environmental protection has become a more integral part of the mine planning process; and most historical mining was done with limited regard for the environment. The 17 papers in this special issue evolved from the Society of Economic Geologists’ short course.The relevant geochemical processes encompass the source, transport, and fate of contaminants related to the life cycle of a mine. Contaminants include metals and other inorganic species derived from geologic sources such as ore and solid mine waste, and substances brought to the site for ore processing, such as cyanide to leach gold. Factors, such as mine-waste mineralogy, hydrologic setting, mine-drainage chemistry, and microbial activity, that affect the hydrochemical risks from mining are reviewed by Nordstrom et al. In another paper, Nordstrom discusses baseline characterization at mine sites in a regulatory framework, and emphasizes the influence of mineral deposits in producing naturally elevated concentrations of many trace elements in surface water and groundwater. Surface water quality in mineralized watersheds is influenced by a number of processes that act on daily (diel) cycles and can produce dramatic variations in trace element concentrations as described by Gammons et al. Pre-mining baseline characterization studies should strive to capture the magnitude of these diel variations. Desbarats et al., using a case study of mine drainage from a gold mine, illustrate how elements that commonly occur as negatively charged species (anions) in solution, such as arsenic as arsenate, behave in an opposite fashion than most metals, which occur as positively charged species (cations). Significant improvement in the understanding of factors that influence the toxicity of metals to aquatic organisms

  10. Coastal mining

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Bell, Peter M.

    The Exclusive Economic Zone (EEZ) declared by President Reagan in March 1983 has met with a mixed response from those who would benefit from a guaranteed, 200-nautical-mile (370-km) protected underwater mining zone off the coasts of the United States and its possessions. On the one hand, the U.S. Department of the Interior is looking ahead and has been very successful in safeguarding important natural resources that will be needed in the coming decades. On the other hand, the mining industry is faced with a depressed metals and mining market.A report of the Exclusive Economic Zone Symposium held in November 1983 by the U.S. Geological Survey, the Mineral Management Service, and the Bureau of Mines described the mixed response as: “ … The Department of Interior … raring to go into promotion of deep-seal mining but industrial consortia being very pessimistic about the program, at least for the next 30 or so years.” (Chemical & Engineering News, February 5, 1983).

  11. Mineralogy, petrology, and chemistry studies to evaluate oxide copper ores for heap leaching in Sarcheshmeh copper mine, Kerman, Iran.

    PubMed

    Shayestehfar, M R; Nasab, S Karimi; Mohammadalizadeh, H

    2008-06-15

    In recent years, as a result of biological, environmental, and economic considerations, available copper in copper oxide ores that could not be recovered by pyrometallurgical methods was accumulated in so-called oxide dumps. Suitable material is treated with dilute sulfuric acid in a heap-leaching process, whereupon the copper content of the rock slowly dissolves in the acidic solution. The performed investigations show that one needs to consider the action of the acid on the copper oxide-containing rocks at the microscopic level. In this paper, we describe research carried out on oxide samples from the western dump of the Sarcheshmeh copper mine. Each sample was split into two parts and a portion of each was exposed to heap-leaching conditions in a column. Subsequently, polished sections, thin sections, and powdered samples were subjected to chemical analysis as well as petrographic and mineralogical considerations. Changes in the weight percentages of non-metal and metal minerals before and after acid treatment were measured. Microscopic studies have indicated that chemical analyses do not provide a complete picture of the effects of acid on the rock. Thus, microscopic studies on sections are shown to be a necessary requirement, neglection of which can have negative economic and environmental effects.

  12. Geological fakes and frauds

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Ruffell, Alastair; Majury, Niall; Brooks, William E.

    2012-02-01

    Some geological fakes and frauds are carried out solely for financial gain (mining fraud), whereas others maybe have increasing aesthetic appeal (faked fossils) or academic advancement (fabricated data) as their motive. All types of geological fake or fraud can be ingenious and sophisticated, as demonstrated in this article. Fake gems, faked fossils and mining fraud are common examples where monetary profit is to blame: nonetheless these may impact both scientific theory and the reputation of geologists and Earth scientists. The substitution or fabrication of both physical and intellectual data also occurs for no direct financial gain, such as career advancement or establishment of belief (e.g. evolution vs. creationism). Knowledge of such fakes and frauds may assist in spotting undetected geological crimes: application of geoforensic techniques helps the scientific community to detect such activity, which ultimately undermines scientific integrity.

  13. Memoirs of the Geological Survey of Great Britain and of the Museum of Practical Geology: Mining records: Mineral statistics of the United Kingdom of Great Britain and Ireland for the year 1855

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Hunt, Robert

    1856-01-01

    In the Introduction to the Mineral Statistics of 1853 and 1854 the principal sources through which information had been obtained for the Mining Record Office were distinctly stated.  these were made available for the present returns, and during the year no effort has been spared to secure the most exact statistics on every point of interest connected with our mineral industries.

  14. Regional baseline geochemistry and environmental effects of gold placer mining operations on the Fortymile River, eastern Alaska: A section in Geologic studies in Alaska by the U.S. Geological Survey, 1998

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Wanty, Richard B.; Wang, Bronwen; Vohden, Jim; Briggs, Paul H.; Meier, Allen L.

    2000-01-01

    A systematic water-quality study of the Fortymile River and many of its major tributaries in eastern Alaska was conducted in June of 1997 and 1998. Surface-water samples were collected for chemical analyses to establish regional baseline geochemistry values and to evaluate the possible environmental effects of suction-dredge placer gold mining and bulldozer-operated placer gold mining (commonly referred to as “cat mining”). In general, the water quality of the Fortymile River is very good, with low total dissolved solids and only two cases in which the concentration of any element exceeded primary or secondary drinking-water quality standards. In both cases, iron exceeded secondary drinking-water limits. At the time this work was conducted, only a handful of suction dredges were operating on the lower Fortymile River, and cat mining was being conducted along Uhler Creek and Canyon Creek, two major tributaries to the river. Based on the water-quality and turbidity data, the suction dredges have no apparent impact on the Fortymile River system, although possible effects on biota have not been evaluated in this study. In contrast, the cat-mining operations in Canyon Creek appear to have a dramatic impact on water quality and stream-bed morphology, based on the field water-quality and turbidity measurements, on comparisons to adjacent unmined drainages, and on field observations of stream-bed morphology. The cat mining in Uhler Creek appears to have had less impact, perhaps because the main stream channel was not as heavily disrupted by the bulldozers, and the stability of the channel was mostly preserved.

  15. Closedure - Mine Closure Technologies Resource

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Kauppila, Päivi; Kauppila, Tommi; Pasanen, Antti; Backnäs, Soile; Liisa Räisänen, Marja; Turunen, Kaisa; Karlsson, Teemu; Solismaa, Lauri; Hentinen, Kimmo

    2015-04-01

    Closure of mining operations is an essential part of the development of eco-efficient mining and the Green Mining concept in Finland to reduce the environmental footprint of mining. Closedure is a 2-year joint research project between Geological Survey of Finland and Technical Research Centre of Finland that aims at developing accessible tools and resources for planning, executing and monitoring mine closure. The main outcome of the Closedure project is an updatable wiki technology-based internet platform (http://mineclosure.gtk.fi) in which comprehensive guidance on the mine closure is provided and main methods and technologies related to mine closure are evaluated. Closedure also provides new data on the key issues of mine closure, such as performance of passive water treatment in Finland, applicability of test methods for evaluating cover structures for mining wastes, prediction of water effluents from mine wastes, and isotopic and geophysical methods to recognize contaminant transport paths in crystalline bedrock.

  16. Mine-induced sinkholes over the U.S. Strategic Petroleum Reserve (SPR) Storage Facility at Weeks Island, Louisiana: geological mitigation and environmental monitoring

    SciTech Connect

    Neal, J.T.

    1997-03-01

    A sinkhole formed over the former salt mine used for crude oil storage by the U.S. Strategic Petroleum Reserve at Weeks Island, Louisiana. This created a dilemma because in-mine grouting was not possible, and external grouting, although possible, was impractical. However, environmental protection during oil withdrawal and facility decommissioning was considered critical and alternative solutions were essential. Mitigation of, the sinkhole growth over the salt mine was accomplished by injecting saturated brine directly into the sinkhole throat, and by constructing a cylindrical freeze curtain around and into the dissolution orifice at the top of the salt dome. These measures vastly reduced the threat of major surface collapse around the sinkhole during oil transfer and subsequent brine backfill. The greater bulk of the crude oil was removed from the mine during 1995-6. Final skimming operations will remove residual oil trapped in low spots, concurrent with initiating backfill of the mine with saturated brine. Environmental monitoring during 1995-9 will assure that environmental surety is achieved.

  17. 30 CFR 784.22 - Geologic information.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-07-01

    ..., at a minimum, the following: (1) A description of the geology of the proposed permit and adjacent... mining. This description shall include the areal and structural geology of the permit and adjacent areas... structural geology may affect the occurrence, availability, movement, quantity and quality of potentially...

  18. 30 CFR 784.22 - Geologic information.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-07-01

    ..., at a minimum, the following: (1) A description of the geology of the proposed permit and adjacent... mining. This description shall include the areal and structural geology of the permit and adjacent areas... structural geology may affect the occurrence, availability, movement, quantity and quality of potentially...

  19. 30 CFR 784.22 - Geologic information.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-07-01

    ..., at a minimum, the following: (1) A description of the geology of the proposed permit and adjacent... mining. This description shall include the areal and structural geology of the permit and adjacent areas... structural geology may affect the occurrence, availability, movement, quantity and quality of potentially...

  20. Challenges in recovering resources from acid mine drainage

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Nordstrom, D. Kirk; Bowell, Robert J.; Campbell, Kate M.; Alpers, Charles N.

    2017-01-01

    Metal recovery from mine waters and effluents is not a new approach but one that has occurred largely opportunistically over the last four millennia. Due to the need for low-cost resources and increasingly stringent environmental conditions, mine waters are being considered in a fresh light with a designed, deliberate approach to resource recovery often as part of a larger water treatment evaluation. Mine water chemistry is highly dependent on many factors including geology, ore deposit composition and mineralogy, mining methods, climate, site hydrology, and others. Mine waters are typically Ca-Mg-SO4±Al±Fe with a broad range in pH and metal content. The main issue in recovering components of these waters having potential economic value, such as base metals or rare earth elements, is the separation of these from more reactive metals such as Fe and Al. Broad categories of methods for separating and extracting substances from acidic mine drainage are chemical and biological. Chemical methods include solution, physicochemical, and electrochemical technologies. Advances in membrane techniques such as reverse osmosis have been substantial and the technique is both physical and chemical. Biological methods may be further divided into microbiological and macrobiological, but only the former is considered here as a recovery method, as the latter is typically used as a passive form of water treatment.

  1. Evaluation of geological conditions for coalbed methane occurrence based on 3D seismic information: a case study in Fowa region, Xinjing coal mine, China

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Li, Juanjuan; Li, Fanjia; Hu, Mingshun; Zhang, Wei; Pan, Dongming

    2017-04-01

    The research on geological conditions of coalbed methane (CBM) occurrence is of great significance for predicting the high abundance CBM rich region and gas outburst risk area pre-warning. The No. 3 coal seam, in Yangquan coalfield of Qinshui basin, is the research target studied by 3D seismic exploration technique. The geological factors which affect CBM occurrence are interpreted based on the 3D seismic information. First, the geological structure (faults, folds, and collapse columns) is found out by the 3D seismic structural interpretation and the information of buried depth and thickness of the coal seam is calculated by the seismic horizons. Second, 3D elastic impedance (EI) and natural gamma attribute volumes are generated by prestack EI inversion and multi-attribute probabilistic neural network (PNN) inversion techniques which reflect the information of coal structure types and lithology of the roof and floor. Then, the information of metamorphic degree of seam and hydrogeology conditions can be obtained by the geological data. Consequently, geological conditions of CBM occurrence in No. 3 coal seam are evaluated which will provide scientific reference for high abundance CBM rich region prediction and gas outburst risk area pre-warning.

  2. Evaluation of geological conditions for coalbed methane occurrence based on 3D seismic information: a case study in Fowa region, Xinjing coal mine, China

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Li, Juanjuan; Li, Fanjia; Hu, Mingshun; Zhang, Wei; Pan, Dongming

    2017-03-01

    The research on geological conditions of coalbed methane (CBM) occurrence is of great significance for predicting the high abundance CBM rich region and gas outburst risk area pre-warning. The No. 3 coal seam, in Yangquan coalfield of Qinshui basin, is the research target studied by 3D seismic exploration technique. The geological factors which affect CBM occurrence are interpreted based on the 3D seismic information. First, the geological structure (faults, folds, and collapse columns) is found out by the 3D seismic structural interpretation and the information of buried depth and thickness of the coal seam is calculated by the seismic horizons. Second, 3D elastic impedance (EI) and natural gamma attribute volumes are generated by prestack EI inversion and multi-attribute probabilistic neural network (PNN) inversion techniques which reflect the information of coal structure types and lithology of the roof and floor. Then, the information of metamorphic degree of seam and hydrogeology conditions can be obtained by the geological data. Consequently, geological conditions of CBM occurrence in No. 3 coal seam are evaluated which will provide scientific reference for high abundance CBM rich region prediction and gas outburst risk area pre-warning.

  3. Presidential Green Chemistry Challenge: 2016 Academic Award

    EPA Pesticide Factsheets

    Presidential Green Chemistry Challenge 2016 award winner, Professor Chirik, discovered a class of catalysts used to produce silicones for consumer goods without using hard-to-mine platinum (less mining, reduces costs, greenhouse gas emissions, and waste).

  4. Sources of coal-mine drainage and their effects on surface-water chemistry in the Claybank Creek basin and vicinity, north-central Missouri, 1983-84

    SciTech Connect

    Blevins, D.W.

    1989-01-01

    Eighteen sources of coal-mine drainage are identified; eight sources are considered large enough to have detectable effects on receiving streams. Coal wastes contribute large quantities of acid drainage to receiving streams during storm runoff; coal wastes in streambeds and seepage from coal wastes also have significant effects on receiving streams during base flows. Effects of drainage from strip mines on receiving streams are minimal compared to drainage from coal wastes and underground mines.

  5. Geology's Impact on Culture

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Pizzorusso, Ann

    2017-04-01

    Most people consider geology boring, static and difficult. The fields of astronomy and physics have "rebranded" themselves with exciting programs formatted so as to be readily understandable to the general public. The same thing can be done for geology. My research on geology's influence on other disciplines has resulted in a book, Tweeting da Vinci, in which I was able to show how geology affected Italy's art, architecture, medicine, religion, literature, engineering and just about everything else. The reaction to the book and my lectures by both students and the general public has been very positive, including four gold medals, with reviews and comments indicating that they never knew geology could be so exciting. The book is very user friendly, packed with facts, full-color photos, paintings, sketches and illustrations. Complex aspects of geology are presented in an easily understandable style. Widely diverse topics—such as gemology, folk remedies, grottoes, painting, literature, physics and religion—are stitched together using geology as a thread. Quoting everyone from Pliny the Elder to NASA physicist Friedemann Freund, the work is solidly backed scholarship that reads as easily as a summer novel. The book can be used in classes such as physics, chemistry, literature, art history, medicine, Classical Studies, Latin, Greek and Italian. By incorporating a "geologic perspective" in these courses, it can be perceived as a more "all encompassing" discipline and encourage more students to study it. The lectures I have given on college campuses have resulted in students seeing their own majors from a different perspective and some have even signed up for introductory geology courses. One college organized summer course to the Bay of Naples based on the book. We followed the geology as well as the culture of the area and the students were profoundly moved. To encourage dialog, the book is linked to Facebook, Twitter and Instagram. This has enabled followers from

  6. Proceedings 1985 symposium on surface mining, hydrology, sedimentology, and reclamation

    SciTech Connect

    Graves, D.H.

    1985-01-01

    This conference presents papers relating to surface mining of coal and the surface effects caused by underground mining of coal. Methods of predicting and mitigating acid mine drainage is provided. Various papers on the hydrology of spoils and reclaimed mine sites are presented. Papers also include information on mining regulations, overburden chemistry, revegetation species, post-mining land use changes, bonding procedures, and environmental problems often associated with mine reclamation. Individual articles have been entered separately into the Energy Data Base.

  7. Economic geology of the Mercur mining district, Utah: Section in Sixteenth Annual Report of the United States Geological Survey to the Secretary of the Interior, 1894-1895: Part II - Papers of an economic character

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Spurr, Josiah Edward; Emmons, S.F.

    1896-01-01

    From the base of the Wasatch Mountains on the east to that of the Sierra Nevada on the west stretches an arid region known to the early geographers as the Great American Desert, but more recently and accurately called the Great Basin, for the reason that it has no external drainage to the ocean. Geological investigation has shown that this region was once occupied by two large and distinct fresh-water seas, which have gradually disappeared by evaporation under the influence of slowly changing climatic conditions, until at the present day they are represented by relatively small saline lakes at the eastern and western extremities of the region, respectively.

  8. Geology Exchange Program

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Because geology professors cannot bring ore deposits from around the globe into their classrooms, the next best thing is to take their students to the deposits, according to David Norman, an associate professor of geochemistry at New Mexico Tech and Angus Moore of the Royal School of Mines. They organized a new exchange program between the New Mexico Institute of Mining and Technology in Socorro, N.M., and the Royal School of Mines in London, England. In May, 14 students from England toured deposits in New Mexico, Arizona, Utah, and Colorado; in the photograph, Norman (on the right) describes a rock from a New Mexico ore deposit to some of the visitors from England. In early June a contingency from New Mexico Tech began studying deposits in England, Spain, and Portugal. Norman and Moore say that the exchange program may be expanded next year.

  9. Chemistry, radiation and histopathology data in support of manuscript "Pre-mining trace element and radiation exposure to biota from a breccia pipe uranium mine in the Grand Canyon (Arizona, USA) watershed"

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Hinck, Jo E.; Cleveland, Danielle; Lankton, Julia S.

    2017-01-01

    The risks to wildlife and humans from uranium (U) mining to the Grand Canyon watershed are largely unknown. In addition to U, other co-occurring ore constituents contribute to risks to biological receptors depending on their toxicological profiles. This data was collected to characterize the pre-mining concentrations of total arsenic (As), cadmium (Cd), copper (Cu), lead (Pb), mercury (Hg), nickel (Ni), selenium (Se), thallium (Tl), U, and zinc (Zn); radiation levels; and histopathologies in biota (vegetation, invertebrates, amphibians, birds, and mammals) at the Canyon Mine.

  10. Structural Geology and Map Interpretation

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Helper, Mark A.

    1998-06-01

    Geological maps lay flat the three-dimensional architecture of a region's rock record. In doing so, they reveal and document geometrical relationships and geological histories that would otherwise be difficult, if not impossible, to visualize. They are a primary data source for a wide range of practical applications, from civil engineering, mining, and energy resource exploration to urban planning and geologic hazard mitigation, and are literally the "ground truth" for understanding environments and processes of the Earth's past. Their utility resides not only in a plan-view portrayal of surface geology, but in the geometrical information they contain that allows projection of surface geology to the subsurface, or into regions where surface control is lacking. Understanding this predictive capacity and being able to read and truly appreciate a geological map's three-dimensional character are among the most unique and important skills a geologist masters. These same skills are unfortunately among the most difficult for students to learn.

  11. Geomechanical analysis applied to geological carbon dioxide sequestration, induced seismicity in deep mines, and detection of stress-induced velocity anisotropy in sub-salt environments

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Lucier, Amie Marie

    and injection induced micro-seismicity are implemented. The second issue to which we apply geomechanical analysis in this thesis is mining-induced stress perturbations and induced seismicity in the TauTona gold mine, which is located in the Witwatersrand Basin of South Africa and is one of the deepest underground mines in the world. In the first investigation, we developed and tested a new technique for determining the virgin stress state near the TauTona gold mine. This technique follows an iterative forward modeling approach that combines observations of drilling induced borehole failures in borehole images, boundary element modeling of the mining-induced stress perturbations, and forward modeling of borehole failures based on the results of the boundary element modeling. The final result was a well constrained range of principal stress orientations and magnitudes that are consistent with all the observed failures and other stress indicators. In the second investigation, we used this constrained stress state to examine the likelihood of faulting to occur both on pre-existing fault planes that are optimally oriented to the virgin stress state and on faults affected by the mining-perturbed stress field, the latter of which is calculated with boundary element modeling. We made several recommendations that could potentially increase safety in deep South African mines as development continues. Finally, the third issue addressed in this thesis is the detection of stress-induced shear wave velocity anisotropy in a sub-salt environment. In this study, we tested a technique proposed by Boness and Zoback (2006) to identify structure-induced velocity anisotropy and isolate possible stress-induced velocity anisotropy. The investigation used cross-dipole sonic data from three deep water sub-salt wells in the Gulf of Mexico. First, we determined the parameters necessary to ensure the quality of the fast azimuth data used in our analysis. We then characterized the quality

  12. New mines of Kuzbass

    SciTech Connect

    Yalevsky, V.D.; Shimotyuk, V.D.

    1996-12-31

    The Kuznetsky coal basin (Kuzbass), with respect to coal quality, natural conditions of the coal seams occurrence in the majority of the coal-bearing area, and reserves, may be referred to one of the best in the world coal mining industry. Being located in the Southern part of Western Siberia the coal basin quite closely falls within the borderline of Kemerovo Region, which has population of 3.2 million people, This region is characteristic of highly developed industrial infrastructure providing 18% of industrial national income of Russia. Coal mining, ferrous metallurgy, and chemical industry are among basic industries in there. Kuzbass coal mining covers 36% of demand in entire Russia, and 66% of the demand for coking coals. Mining conditions are vary throughout the region. Geological reserves are evaluated about 700 billion ton. 25 billion ton reserves among them are thoroughly explored and developed for commercial mining, including 12 billion ton of coking coals.

  13. Planetary geology in the 1980s

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Veverka, J.

    1984-01-01

    The geologic aspects of solar system studies are defined and the goals of planetary geology are discussed. Planetary geology is the study of the origin, evolution, and distribution of matter condensed in the form of planets, satellites, asteroids, and comets. It is a multidisciplinary effort involving investigators with backgrounds in geology, chemistry, physics, astronomy, geodesy, cartography, and other disciplines concerned with the solid planets. The report is primarily restricted to the kinds of experiments and observations made through unmanned missions.

  14. International Geology

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Hoover, Linn

    1977-01-01

    Briefly discusses recent international programs in various areas of geology, including land-use problems, coping with geological hazards, and conserving the environment while searching for energy and mineral resources. (MLH)

  15. International Geology

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Hoover, Linn

    1977-01-01

    Briefly discusses recent international programs in various areas of geology, including land-use problems, coping with geological hazards, and conserving the environment while searching for energy and mineral resources. (MLH)

  16. Engineering Geology.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Ivey, John B.

    1983-01-01

    Engineering geology activities in government and the private sector are highlighted. Also highlighted are conferences in this field, awards presented at conferences (including an award to an undergraduate geology student), and a new publication "Geotechnology in Massachusetts." (JN)

  17. Environmental Geology

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Dunn, James R.

    1977-01-01

    Discusses ways that geologic techniques can be used to help evaluate our environment, make economic realities and environmental requirements more compatible, and expand the use of geology in environmental analyses. (MLH)

  18. Mathematical Geology.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Jones, Thomas A.

    1983-01-01

    Mathematical techniques used to solve geological problems are briefly discussed (including comments on use of geostatistics). Highlights of conferences/meetings and conference papers in mathematical geology are also provided. (JN)

  19. Archeological Geology

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Rapp, George

    1977-01-01

    Describes the rapid expansion of archeological geology, especially in the area of archeological excavations, where geologists use dating techniques and knowledge of geological events to interpret archeological sites. (MLH)

  20. Archeological Geology

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Rapp, George

    1977-01-01

    Describes the rapid expansion of archeological geology, especially in the area of archeological excavations, where geologists use dating techniques and knowledge of geological events to interpret archeological sites. (MLH)

  1. Data Mining and Discovery of Chemical Knowledge

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Wencong, Lu

    In this chapter, the Data mining methods adopted are briefly introduced. The main focuses are on the successful applications of data mining methods in chemistry and chemical engineering. The discoveries of chemical knowledge cover the formation of ternary Intermetallic compounds, structure activity relationships of drugs, and industrial optimization based on chemical data mining methods, especially by using statistical pattern recognition and support vector machine.

  2. Geological occurrence response to trace elemental migration in coal liquefaction based on SPSS: take no. 11 coalbed in Antaibao mine for example

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Xia, Xiaohong; Qin, Yong; Yang, Weifeng

    2013-03-01

    Coal liquefaction is an adoptable method to transfer the solid fossil energy into liquid oil in large scale, but the dirty material in which will migrate to different step of liquefaction. The migration rule of some trace elements is response to the react activity of macerals in coal and the geological occurrence of the element nature of itself. In this paper, from the SPSS data correlation analysis and hierarchical clustering dendrogram about the trace elements with macerals respond to coal liquefaction yield, it shows the trace elements in No.11 Antaibao coal seam originated from some of lithophile and sulphophle elements. Correlation coefficient between liquefaction yield of three organic macerals and migration of the elements in liquefaction residue indicated that the lithophile are easy to transfer to residue, while sulphophle are apt to in the liquid products. The activated macerals are response to sulphophle trace elements. The conclusion is useful to the coal blending and environmental effects on coal direct liquefaction.

  3. Compilation of data on the uranium and equivalent uranium content of samples analyzed by U.S. Geological Survey during a program of sampling mine, mill, and smelter products

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Hall, Marlene Louise; Butler, Arthur Pierce

    1952-01-01

    In 1942 the Geological Survey began to collect, in response to a request made by the War Production Board, samples of mine, mill, and smelter products. About 1,400 such samples were collected and analyzed spectrographically for about 20 elements that were of strategic importance, in order to determine whether any of the products analyzed might be possible sources of some of the needed elements. When attention was directed to radioactive elements in 1943, most of the samples were scanned for radioactivity. Part of the work was done on behalf of the Division of Raw Materials of the Atomic Energy Commission. The sources, mine mill, smelter, or prospect, from which these samples were collected, the kind of material sampled, i.e. ores, concentrates, middlings, tailings, flue dusts, and so forth, and the radioactivity of the samples are listed in this report. Samples of the materials collected in the course of the Geological Survey’s investigations for uranium are excluded, but about 500 such samples were analyzed spectrographically for some or all of the same 20 elements sought in the samples that are the subject of this report. Most of the samples were tested only for their radioactivity, but a few were analyzed chemically for uranium. The radioactivity of many of the samples tested in the early screening was determined only qualitatively. Several samples were tested at one time, and if the count obtained did not exceed a predetermined minimum above background, the samples were not tested individually. If the count was more than this minimum, the samples were tested individually to identify the radioactive sample or samples and to obtain a quantitative value for the radioactivity. In general, the rough screening served as a basis for separating samples in which the radioactivity amount to less than 0.003 percent equivalent uranium from those in which it exceeded that amount. Some aspects of various phases of the investigation of radioactivity in these samples have

  4. The geology and mineral deposits of part of the western half of the Hailey 1 degree x 2 degrees quadrangle, Idaho; with sections on the Neal mining district and the Dixie mining district

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Bennett, Earl H.

    2001-01-01

    hundred mines and prospects in 18 mining districts. The deposits range in age from Cretaceous to Eocene, and many were developed for precious metals. Most of the deposits are in quartz veins in shear zones in granitic rocks of the batholith. Several districts were actively being explored for low-grade, bulk-minable, precious-metal deposits in the late 1980s and early 1990s.

  5. Do morphometric parameters and geological conditions determine chemistry of glacier surface ice? Spatial distribution of contaminants present in the surface ice of Spitsbergen glaciers (European Arctic).

    PubMed

    Lehmann, Sara; Gajek, Grzegorz; Chmiel, Stanisław; Polkowska, Żaneta

    2016-12-01

    The chemism of the glaciers is strongly determined by long-distance transport of chemical substances and their wet and dry deposition on the glacier surface. This paper concerns spatial distribution of metals, ions, and dissolved organic carbon, as well as the differentiation of physicochemical parameters (pH, electrical conductivity) determined in ice surface samples collected from four Arctic glaciers during the summer season in 2012. The studied glaciers represent three different morphological types: ground based (Blomlibreen and Scottbreen), tidewater which evolved to ground based (Renardbreen), and typical tidewater glacier (Recherchebreen). All of the glaciers are functioning as a glacial system and hence are subject to the same physical processes (melting, freezing) and the process of ice flowing resulting from the cross-impact force of gravity and topographic conditions. According to this hypothesis, the article discusses the correlation between morphometric parameters, changes in mass balance, geological characteristics of the glaciers and the spatial distribution of analytes on the surface of ice. A strong correlation (r = 0.63) is recorded between the aspect of glaciers and values of pH and ions, whereas dissolved organic carbon (DOC) depends on the minimum elevation of glaciers (r = 0.55) and most probably also on the development of the accumulation area. The obtained results suggest that although certain morphometric parameters largely determine the spatial distribution of analytes, also the geology of the bed of glaciers strongly affects the chemism of the surface ice of glaciers in the phase of strong recession.

  6. Effects of land use and surficial geology on flow and water quality of streams in the coal-mining region of southwestern Indiana, October 1979 through September 1980

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Wilber, William G.; Renn, Danny E.; Crawford, Charles G.

    1985-01-01

    The effect of surficial geology on stream quality was evident for several dissolved constituents in forested and agricultural watersheds. In general, pH and concentrations of alkalinity and calcium were significantly higher in streams draining the Wisconsin glacial province than in streams draining the Illinoian glacial province and unglaciated regions. The higher pH and concentrations of these constituents suggests that there is greater dissolution of carbonate minerals in the Wisconsin glacial province than the other regions. Median concentrations of arsenic, lead, and manganese for streams draining the Wisconsin glacial province were significantly lower than for those constituents in streams draining the Illinoian province and unglaciated region. The median cadmium concentration for streams draining the Wisconsin glacial province was lower than for streams draining the unglaciated region. These differences may have been due to lower solubilities of metal and trace elements at higher pH values in the Wisconsin glacial province than in the Illinoian glacial province and the unglaciated region.

  7. Fractionation of rare-earth elements in allanite and monazite as related to geology of the Mt. Wheeler mine area, Nevada

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Lee, D.E.; Bastron, H.

    1967-01-01

    Rare-earth contents of 20 allanites and 13 monazites, accessory minerals from a restricted outcrop area of intrusive granitic rocks, are reported. A quantity called sigma (??), which is the sum of the atomic percentages of La, Ce and Pr, is used as an index of composition with respect to the rare-earth elements. Values of sigma vary from 61.3 to 80.9 at.% for these allanites and monazites, representing an appreciable range of composition in terms of the rare-earth elements. Degree of fractionation of rare earths varies directly with CaO content of the granitic rocks, which in turn depends largely on proximity of limestone. Four xenoliths included in the study suggest that spotty mosaic equilibria are superimposed on the regional gradients and that locally the degree of fractionation of rare earths responds to whole rock composition over distances of a few yards or less. The chemistry of the granitic rocks under study appears to be similar in some respects to that of alkalio rocks and carbonatites. Allanites from the most calcium-rich rocks show a pronounced concentration of the most basic rare earths, and whole-rock concentrations of such rare constituents as total cerium earths, Zr, F, Ti, Ba and Sr increase sympathetically with whole-rock calcium. The explanation for the concentration gradients observed in this chemical system must involve assimilation more than magmatic differentiation. ?? 1967.

  8. Geology and geochemistry of the Mammoth breccia pipe, Copper Creek mining district, southeastern Arizona: Evidence for a magmatic-hydrothermal origin

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Anderson, E.D.; Atkinson, W.W.; Marsh, T.; Iriondo, A.

    2009-01-01

    The Copper Creek mining district, southeastern Arizona, contains more than 500 mineralized breccia pipes, buried porphyry-style, copper-bearing stockworks, and distal lead-silver veins. The breccia pipes are hosted by the Copper Creek Granodiorite and the Glory Hole volcanic rocks. The unexposed Mammoth breccia pipe, solely recognized by drilling, has a vertical extent of 800 m and a maximum width of 180 m. The pipe consists of angular clasts of granodiorite cemented by quartz, chalcopyrite, bornite, anhydrite, and calcite. Biotite 40Ar/ 39Ar dates suggest a minimum age of 61.5??0.7 Ma for the host Copper Creek Granodiorite and 40Ar/39Ar dates on hydrothermal sericite indicate an age of 61.0??0.5 Ma for copper mineralization. Fluid inclusion studies suggest that a supercritical fluid with a salinity of approximately 10 wt.% NaCl equiv. condensed to a dilute aqueous vapor (1-2.8 wt.% NaCl equiv.) and a hypersaline brine (33.4-35.1 wt.% NaCl equiv.). Minimum trapping temperatures are 375??C and trapping depths are estimated at 2 km. Sulfur isotope fractionation of cogenetic anhydrite and chalcopyrite yields a temperature of mineralization of 469??25??C. Calculated oxygen and hydrogen isotope values for fluids in equilibrium with quartz and sericite range from 10.2??? to 13.4??? and -60??? to -39???, respectively, suggesting that the mineralizing fluid was dominantly magmatic. Evidence from the stable isotope and fluid inclusion analyses suggests that the fluids responsible for Cu mineralization within the Mammoth breccia pipe exsolved from a gray porphyry phase found at the base of the breccia pipe. ?? Springer-Verlag 2008.

  9. The geology and 40Ar/ 39Ar geochronology of magmatic activity and related mineralization in the Nevados del Famatina mining district, La Rioja province, Argentina

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Losada-Calderón, A. J.; McBride, S. L.; Bloom, M. S.

    1994-01-01

    The Nevados del Famatina mining district (NFMD) is located in La Rioja province, Argentina. This district contains porphyry-style mineralization (Nevados del Famatina) and high sulfidation veins (La Mejicana). The stratigraphic column in the NFMD begins with Cambrian siltstones which were metamorphosed during the Late Ordovician - Early Silurian and intruded by Late Ordovician-Silurian granitic rocks. These units were covered by Upper Paleozoic and Tertiary continental sedimentary rocks which are intercalated with and overlain by dacitic-rhyodacitic porphyritic rocks (Mogote Formation) emplaced during the Pliocene. All these units are covered by Pleistocene sediments and Quaternary alluvial and colluvial deposits. Magmatic activity and related mineralization in the NFMD have been dated by the 40Ar/ 39Ar technique. Step heating studies of orthoclase and biotite phenocrysts from the Mogote Formation in the NFMD suggest that the igneous rocks were emplaced around 5.0±0.3 Ma ago. However, plateau ages of biotite from the outer carapace of the subjacent granodioritic magma chamber and of muscovite from quartz-sericite alteration at both Nevados del Famatina and La Mejicana are around 3.8±0.2 Ma. Emplacement of the shallow stocks is separated from cooling of the outer carapace of the subjacent granodioritic magma chamber to temperatures below 350° C by a time span of approximately 1 Ma. During this interval, a convective hydrothermal system was established proximal to the granodioritic magma chamber, which resulted in porphyry molybdenumcoppergold mineralization adjacent to the igneous rocks and more distal high sulfidation veins located in fault zones.

  10. Geology and geochemistry of the Mammoth breccia pipe, Copper Creek mining district, southeastern Arizona: evidence for a magmatic-hydrothermal origin

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Anderson, Eric D.; Atkinson, William W.; Marsh, Timothy; Iriondo, Alexander

    2009-02-01

    The Copper Creek mining district, southeastern Arizona, contains more than 500 mineralized breccia pipes, buried porphyry-style, copper-bearing stockworks, and distal lead-silver veins. The breccia pipes are hosted by the Copper Creek Granodiorite and the Glory Hole volcanic rocks. The unexposed Mammoth breccia pipe, solely recognized by drilling, has a vertical extent of 800 m and a maximum width of 180 m. The pipe consists of angular clasts of granodiorite cemented by quartz, chalcopyrite, bornite, anhydrite, and calcite. Biotite 40Ar/39Ar dates suggest a minimum age of 61.5 ± 0.7 Ma for the host Copper Creek Granodiorite and 40Ar/39Ar dates on hydrothermal sericite indicate an age of 61.0 ± 0.5 Ma for copper mineralization. Fluid inclusion studies suggest that a supercritical fluid with a salinity of approximately 10 wt.% NaCl equiv. condensed to a dilute aqueous vapor (1-2.8 wt.% NaCl equiv.) and a hypersaline brine (33.4-35.1 wt.% NaCl equiv.). Minimum trapping temperatures are 375°C and trapping depths are estimated at 2 km. Sulfur isotope fractionation of cogenetic anhydrite and chalcopyrite yields a temperature of mineralization of 469 ± 25°C. Calculated oxygen and hydrogen isotope values for fluids in equilibrium with quartz and sericite range from 10.2‰ to 13.4‰ and -60‰ to -39‰, respectively, suggesting that the mineralizing fluid was dominantly magmatic. Evidence from the stable isotope and fluid inclusion analyses suggests that the fluids responsible for Cu mineralization within the Mammoth breccia pipe exsolved from a gray porphyry phase found at the base of the breccia pipe.

  11. Questa baseline and pre-mining ground-water quality investigation. 23. Quantification of mass loading from mined and unmined areas along the Red River, New Mexico

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Kimball, Briant A.; Nordstrom, D. Kirk; Runkel, Robert L.; Vincent, Kirk R.; Verplanck, Phillip L.

    2006-01-01

    Along the course of the Red River, between the town of Red River, New Mexico, and the U.S. Geological Survey streamflow-gaging station near Questa, New Mexico, there are several catchments that contain hydrothermally altered bedrock. Some of these alteration zones have been mined and others have not, presenting an opportunity to evaluate differences that may exist in the mass loading of metals from mined and unmined sections. Such differences may help to define pre-mining conditions. Spatially detailed chemical sampling at stream and inflow sites occurred during low-flow conditions in 2001 and 2002, and during the synoptic sampling, stream discharge was calculated by tracer dilution. Discharge from most catchments, particularly those with alteration scars, occurred as ground water in large debris fans, which generally traveled downstream in an alluvial aquifer until geomorphic constraints caused it to discharge at several locations along the study reach. Locations of discharge zones were indicated by the occurrence of numerous inflows as seeps and springs. Inflows were classified into four groups, based on differences in chemical character, which ranged from near-neutral water showing no influence of mining or alteration weathering to acidic water with high concentrations of metals and sulfate. Acidic, metal-rich inflows occurred from mined and unmined areas, but the most-acidic inflow water that had the highest concentrations of metals and sulfate only occurred downstream from the mine. Locations of ground-water inflow also corresponded to substantial changes in stream chemistry and mass loading of metals and sulfate. The greatest loading occurred in the Cabin Springs, Thunder Bridge, and Capulin Canyon sections, which all occur downstream from the mine. A distinct chemical character and substantially greater loading in water downstream from the mine suggest that there could be impacts from mining that can be distinguished from the water draining from unmined

  12. Geohydrology and water chemistry of abandoned uranium mines and radiochemistry of spoil-material leachate, Monument Valley and Cameron areas, Arizona and Utah

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Longsworth, S.A.

    1994-01-01

    Uranium mines in the Monument Valley area were established predominately in channel-fill deposits within the Shinarump Member of the Chinle Formation. The Shinarump Member yields ground water to wells and may yield water to the Moonlight and Radium Hill mines. In the study area near Cameron, uranium was mined from channel-fill deposits within the Petrified Forest Member of the Chinle Formation. Units of the Petrified Forest Member do not yield ground water to wells in the area, but fractures in the lower part of the Petrified Forest Member are probable pathways for upward flow of water from the Shinarump Member. Most of the mines receive water from surface inflow of rainfall runoff, but ground water also may be transmitted to open pits and drill holes in the subsurface through fractures or along faults in the Petrified Forest Member. Uranium-238 activities in shallow ground water from mines ranged from 150 to 14,000 picocuries per liter. Radionuclide activities in well and spring water were less than in shallow ground water near mines; however, in some samples, radionuclide activities in wells and springs were greater than activities in pit water. Uranium concentrations in leachate samples ranged from 20 to 7,700 micrograms per liter. Batch tests were done with material that was 2.00 millimeters and smaller. The radiochemistry of leachate from coarser material was not determined, and the specific rate and magnitude of radionuclide leaching depends on site-specific conditions that include the amounts of oxygen and organic material present, temperature, spoil mineralogy, and local ground-water composition.

  13. Environmental control on water quality; cases studies from Battle Mountain mining district, north-central Nevada. Chapter A.

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Tuttle, Michele L.W.; Wanty, Richard B.; Berger, Byron R.; Stillings, Lisa L.

    2003-01-01

    The environmental controls on water quality were the focus of our study in a portion of the Battle Mountain mining district, north-central Nevada. Samples representing areas outside known mineralized areas, in undisturbed mineralized areas, and in mined areas were chemically and isotopically analyzed. The results are related to geologic, hydrologic, and climatic data. Streams in background areas outside the mineralized zones reflect normal weathering of volcanically derived rocks. The waters are generally dilute, slightly alkaline in pH, and very low in metals. As these streams flow into mineralized zones, their character changes. In undisturbed mineralized areas, discharge into streams of ground water through hydrologically conductive fractures can be traced with chemistry and, even more effectively, with sulfur isotopic composition of dissolved sulfate. Generally, these tracers are much more subtle than in those areas where mining has produced adits and mine-waste piles. The influence of drainage from these mining relicts on water quality is often dramatic, especially in unusually wet conditions. In one heavily mined area, we were able to show that the unusually wet weather in the winter and spring greatly degraded water quality. Addition of calcite to the acid, metalrich mine drainage raised the stream pH and nearly quantitatively removed the metals through coprecipitation and (or) adsorption onto oxyhydroxides. This paper is divided into four case studies used to demonstrate our results. Each addresses the role of geology, hydrology, mining activity and (or) local climate on water quality. Collectively, they provide a comprehensive look at the important factors affecting water quality in this portion of the Battle Mountain mining district.

  14. County digital geologic mapping. Final report

    SciTech Connect

    Hess, R.H.; Johnson, G.L.; dePolo, C.M.

    1995-12-31

    The purpose of this project is to create quality-county wide digital 1:250,000-scale geologic maps from existing published 1:250,000-scale Geologic and Mineral Resource Bulletins published by the Nevada Bureau of Mines and Geology (NBMG). An additional data set, based on current NBMG research, Major and Significant Quaternary and Suspected Quaternary Faults of Nevada, at 1:250,000 scale has also been included.

  15. Introduction to ore geology

    SciTech Connect

    Evans, A.M.

    1987-01-01

    This textbook on ore geology is for second and third year undergraduates and closely parallels the undergraduate course given in this subject at England's University of Leicester. The volume covers three major areas: (1) principles of ore geology, (2) examples of the most important types of ore deposits, and (3) mineralization in space and time. Many chapters have been thoroughly revised for this edition and a chapter on diamonds has been added. Chapters on greisen and pegmatite have also been added, the former in response to the changing situation in tin mining following the recent tin crisis, and the latter in response to suggestions from geologists in a number of overseas countries. Some chapters have been considerably expanded and new sections added, including disseminated gold deposits and unconformity-associated uranium deposits. The author also expands on the importance of viewing mineral deposits from an economic standpoint.

  16. Understanding the mobilisation of metal pollution associated with historical mining in a carboniferous upland catchment.

    PubMed

    Valencia-Avellan, Magaly; Slack, Rebecca; Stockdale, Anthony; Mortimer, Robert John George

    2017-08-16

    Point and diffuse pollution from metal mining has led to severe environmental damage worldwide. Mine drainage is a significant problem for riverine ecosystems, it is commonly acidic (AMD), but neutral mine drainage (NMD) can also occur. A representative environment for studying metal pollution from NMD is provided by carboniferous catchments characterised by a circumneutral pH and high concentrations of carbonates, supporting the formation of secondary metal-minerals as potential sinks of metals. The present study focuses on understanding the mobility of metal pollution associated with historical mining in a carboniferous upland catchment. In the uplands of the UK, river water, sediments and spoil wastes were collected over a period of fourteen months, samples were chemically analysed to identify the main metal sources and their relationships with geological and hydrological factors. Correlation tests and principal component analysis suggest that the underlying limestone bedrock controls pH and weathering reactions. Significant metal concentrations from mining activities were measured for zinc (4.3 mg l(-1)), and lead (0.3 mg l(-1)), attributed to processes such as oxidation of mined ores (e.g. sphalerite, galena) or dissolution of precipitated secondary metal-minerals (e.g. cerussite, smithsonite). Zinc and lead mobility indicated strong dependence on biogeochemistry and hydrological conditions (e.g. pH and flow) at specific locations in the catchment. Annual loads of zinc and lead (2.9 and 0.2 tonnes per year) demonstrate a significant source of both metals to downstream river reaches. Metal pollution results in a large area of catchment having a depleted chemical status with likely effects on the aquatic ecology. This study provides an improved understanding of geological and hydrological processes controlling water chemistry, which is critical to assessing metal sources and mobilization, especially in neutral mine drainage areas.

  17. Questa Baseline and Pre-Mining Ground-Water Quality Investigation. 25. Summary of Results and Baseline and Pre-Mining Ground-Water Geochemistry, Red River Valley, Taos County, New Mexico, 2001-2005

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Nordstrom, D. Kirk

    2008-01-01

    -sediment chemistry; geomorphology and its effect on ground-water flow; geophysical studies on depth to ground-water table and depth to bedrock; bedrock fractures and their potential influence on ground-water flow; leaching studies of scars and waste-rock piles; mineralogy and mineral chemistry and their effect on ground-water quality; debris-flow hazards; hydrology and water balance for the Red River Valley; ground-water geochemistry of selected wells undisturbed by mining in the Red River Valley; and quality assurance and quality control of water analyses. Studies aimed specifically at the Straight Creek natural-analog site include electrical surveys; high-resolution seismic survey; age-dating with tritium/helium; water budget; ground-water hydrology and geochemistry; and comparison of mineralogy and lithology to that of the mine site. The highly mineralized and hydrothermally altered volcanic rocks of the Red River Valley contain several percent pyrite in the quartz-sericite-pyrite (QSP) alteration zone, which weather naturally to acid-sulfate surface and ground waters that discharge to the Red River. Weathering of waste-rock piles containing pyrite also contributes acid water that eventually discharges into the Red River. These acid discharges are neutralized by circumneutral-pH, carbonate-buffered surface and ground waters of the Red River. The buffering capacity of the Red River, however, decreases from the town of Red River to the U.S. Geological Survey (USGS) gaging station near Questa. During short, but intense, storm events, the buffering capacity is exceeded and the river becomes acid from the rapid flushing of acidic materials from natural scar areas. The lithology, mineralogy, elevation, and hydrology of the Straight Creek proximal analog site were found to closely approximate those of the mine site with the exception of the mine site?s Sulphur Gulch catchment. Sulphur Gulch contains three subcatchments?upper Sulphur Gulch, Blind Gulch, and Spring Gulc

  18. Engineering Geology

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Hatheway, Allen W.

    1978-01-01

    Engineering geology remains a potpourri of applied classical geology, and 1977 witnessed an upswing in demand for these services. Traditional foundation-related work was slight, but construction related to national needs increased briskly. Major cities turned to concerns of transit waste-water treatment and solid-waste disposal. (Author/MA)

  19. Geological gyrocompass

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    McKeown, M. H.; Beason, S. C.

    1988-08-01

    The geological gyrocompass is an accurate, portable instrument useful for geologic mapping and surveying which employs an aircraft gyrocompass, strike reference bars, a pair of sights and levelling devices for horizontally levelling the instrument. A clinometer graduated in degrees indicates the dip of the surface being measured.

  20. Physical geology

    SciTech Connect

    Skinner, B.; Porter, S.

    1987-01-01

    The book integrates current thinking on processes (plate techtonics, chemical cycles, changes throughout geologic time). It is an introduction to investigations into the way the earth works, how mountains are formed, how the atmosphere, hydrosphere, crust and mantle interact with each other. Treatments on climate, paleoclimatology and landscape evolution are included, as is a discussion on how human activity affects geological interactions.

  1. Engineering Geology

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Hatheway, Allen W.

    1978-01-01

    Engineering geology remains a potpourri of applied classical geology, and 1977 witnessed an upswing in demand for these services. Traditional foundation-related work was slight, but construction related to national needs increased briskly. Major cities turned to concerns of transit waste-water treatment and solid-waste disposal. (Author/MA)

  2. Geologic Time.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Newman, William L.

    One of a series of general interest publications on science topics, the booklet provides those interested in geologic time with an introduction to the subject. Separate sections discuss the relative time scale, major divisions in geologic time, index fossils used as guides for telling the age of rocks, the atomic scale, and the age of the earth.…

  3. Alchemy and mining: metallogenesis and prospecting in early mining books.

    PubMed

    Dym, Warren Alexander

    2008-11-01

    Historians have assumed that alchemy had a close association with mining, but exactly how and why miners were interested in alchemy remains unclear. This paper argues that alchemical theory began to be synthesised with classical and Christian theories of the earth in mining books after 1500, and served an important practical function. The theory of metals that mining officials addressed spoke of mineral vapours (Witterungen) that left visible markings on the earth's surface. The prospector searched for mineral ore in part by studying these indications. Mineral vapours also explained the functioning of the dowsing rod, which prospectors applied to the discovery of ore. Historians of early chemistry and mining have claimed that mining had a modernising influence by stripping alchemy of its theoretical component, but this paper shows something quite to the contrary: mining officials may have been sceptical of the possibility of artificial transmutation, but they were interested in a theory of the earth that could translate into prospecting knowledge.

  4. Geologic time

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Newman, William L.

    2000-01-01

    The Earth is very old 4 1/2 billion years or more according to recent estimates. This vast span of time, called geologic time by earth scientists, is difficult to comprehend in the familiar time units of months and years, or even centuries. How then do scientists reckon geologic time, and why do they believe the Earth is so old? A great part of the secret of the Earth's age is locked up in its rocks, and our centuries-old search for the key led to the beginning and nourished the growth of geologic science.

  5. Mathematical Geology.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    McCammon, Richard B.

    1979-01-01

    The year 1978 marked a continued trend toward practical applications in mathematical geology. Developments included work in interactive computer graphics, factor analysis, the vanishing tons problem, universal kriging, and resource estimating. (BB)

  6. Engineering Geology

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Lee, Fitzhugh T.

    1974-01-01

    Briefly reviews the increasing application of geologic principles, techniques and data to engineering practices in the areas of land use and zoning controls, resource management energy programs and other fields. (BR)

  7. Engineering Geology

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Lee, Fitzhugh T.

    1974-01-01

    Briefly reviews the increasing application of geologic principles, techniques and data to engineering practices in the areas of land use and zoning controls, resource management energy programs and other fields. (BR)

  8. Geology, summary

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Sabins, F. F., Jr.

    1975-01-01

    Trends in geologic application of remote sensing are identified. These trends are as follows: (1) increased applications of orbital imagery in fields such as engineering and environmental geology - some specific applications include recognition of active earthquake faults, site location for nuclear powerplants, and recognition of landslide hazards; (2) utilization of remote sensing by industry, especially oil and gas companies, and (3) application of digital image processing to mineral exploration.

  9. Provincial geology and the Industrial Revolution.

    PubMed

    Veneer, Leucha

    2006-06-01

    In the early nineteenth century, geology was a new but rapidly growing science, in the provinces and among the gentlemen scientists of London, Oxford and Cambridge. Industry, particularly mining, often motivated local practical geologists, and the construction of canals and railways exposed the strata for all to see. The most notable of the early practical men of geology was the mineral surveyor William Smith; his geological map of England and Wales, published in 1815, was the first of its kind. He was not alone. The contributions of professional men, and the provincial societies with which they were connected, are sometimes underestimated in the history of geology.

  10. Synthetic geology - Exploring the "what if?" in geology

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Klump, J. F.; Robertson, J.

    2015-12-01

    The spatial and temporal extent of geological phenomena makes experiments in geology difficult to conduct, if not entirely impossible and collection of data is laborious and expensive - so expensive that most of the time we cannot test a hypothesis. The aim, in many cases, is to gather enough data to build a predictive geological model. Even in a mine, where data are abundant, a model remains incomplete because the information at the level of a blasting block is two orders of magnitude larger than the sample from a drill core, and we have to take measurement errors into account. So, what confidence can we have in a model based on sparse data, uncertainties and measurement error? Synthetic geology does not attempt to model the real world in terms of geological processes with all their uncertainties, rather it offers an artificial geological data source with fully known properties. On the basis of this artificial geology, we can simulate geological sampling by established or future technologies to study the resulting dataset. Conducting these experiments in silico removes the constraints of testing in the field or in production, and provides us with a known ground-truth against which the steps in a data analysis and integration workflow can be validated.Real-time simulation of data sources can be used to investigate crucial questions such as the potential information gain from future sensing capabilities, or from new sampling strategies, or the combination of both, and it enables us to test many "what if?" questions, both in geology and in data engineering. What would we be able to see if we could obtain data at higher resolution? How would real-time data analysis change sampling strategies? Does our data infrastructure handle many new real-time data streams? What feature engineering can be deducted for machine learning approaches? By providing a 'data sandbox' able to scale to realistic geological scenarios we hope to start answering some of these questions.

  11. Appalachian basin bituminous coal: sulfur content and potential sulfur dioxide emissions of coal mined for electrical power generation: Chapter G.5 in Coal and petroleum resources in the Appalachian basin: distribution, geologic framework, and geochemical character

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Trippi, Michael H.; Ruppert, Leslie F.; Attanasi, E.D.; Milici, Robert C.; Freeman, P.A.

    2014-01-01

    Data from 157 counties in the Appalachian basin of average sulfur content of coal mined for electrical power generation from 1983 through 2005 show a general decrease in the number of counties where coal mining has occurred and a decrease in the number of counties where higher sulfur coals (>2 percent sulfur) were mined. Calculated potential SO2 emissions (assuming no post-combustion SO2 removal) show a corresponding decrease over the same period of time.

  12. Destination: Geology?

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Price, Louise

    2016-04-01

    "While we teach, we learn" (Roman philosopher Seneca) One of the most beneficial ways to remember a theory or concept is to explain it to someone else. The offer of fieldwork and visits to exciting destinations is arguably the easiest way to spark a students' interest in any subject. Geology at A-Level (age 16-18) in the United Kingdom incorporates significant elements of field studies into the curriculum with many students choosing the subject on this basis and it being a key factor in consolidating student knowledge and understanding. Geology maintains a healthy annual enrollment with interest in the subject increasing in recent years. However, it is important for educators not to loose sight of the importance of recruitment and retention of students. Recent flexibility in the subject content of the UK curriculum in secondary schools has provided an opportunity to teach the basic principles of the subject to our younger students and fieldwork provides a valuable opportunity to engage with these students in the promotion of the subject. Promotion of the subject is typically devolved to senior students at Hessle High School and Sixth Form College, drawing on their personal experiences to engage younger students. Prospective students are excited to learn from a guest speaker, so why not use our most senior students to engage and promote the subject rather than their normal subject teacher? A-Level geology students embarking on fieldwork abroad, understand their additional responsibility to promote the subject and share their understanding of the field visit. They will typically produce a series of lessons and activities for younger students using their newly acquired knowledge. Senior students also present to whole year groups in seminars, sharing knowledge of the location's geology and raising awareness of the exciting destinations offered by geology. Geology fieldwork is always planned, organised and led by the member of staff to keep costs low, with recent visits

  13. Sustainable rehabilitation of mining waste and acid mine drainage using geochemistry, mine type, mineralogy, texture, ore extraction and climate knowledge.

    PubMed

    Anawar, Hossain Md

    2015-08-01

    The oxidative dissolution of sulfidic minerals releases the extremely acidic leachate, sulfate and potentially toxic elements e.g., As, Ag, Cd, Cr, Cu, Hg, Ni, Pb, Sb, Th, U, Zn, etc. from different mine tailings and waste dumps. For the sustainable rehabilitation and disposal of mining waste, the sources and mechanisms of contaminant generation, fate and transport of contaminants should be clearly understood. Therefore, this study has provided a critical review on (1) recent insights in mechanisms of oxidation of sulfidic minerals, (2) environmental contamination by mining waste, and (3) remediation and rehabilitation techniques, and (4) then developed the GEMTEC conceptual model/guide [(bio)-geochemistry-mine type-mineralogy- geological texture-ore extraction process-climatic knowledge)] to provide the new scientific approach and knowledge for remediation of mining wastes and acid mine drainage. This study has suggested the pre-mining geological, geochemical, mineralogical and microtextural characterization of different mineral deposits, and post-mining studies of ore extraction processes, physical, geochemical, mineralogical and microbial reactions, natural attenuation and effect of climate change for sustainable rehabilitation of mining waste. All components of this model should be considered for effective and integrated management of mining waste and acid mine drainage.

  14. Geochemical Results of Lysimeter Sampling at the Manning Canyon Repository in the Mercur Mining District, Utah

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Earle, John; Choate, LaDonna

    2010-01-01

    This report presents chemical characteristics of transient unsaturated-zone water collected by lysimeter from the Manning Canyon repository site in Utah. Data collected by U.S. Geological Survey and U.S. Department of the Interior, Bureau of Land Management scientists under an intragovernmental order comprise the existing body of hydrochemical information on unsaturated-zone conditions at the site and represent the first effort to characterize the chemistry of the soil pore water surrounding the repository. Analyzed samples showed elevated levels of arsenic, barium, chromium, and strontium, which are typical of acidic mine drainage. The range of major-ion concentrations generally showed expected soil values. Although subsequent sampling is necessary to determine long-term effects of the repository, current results provide initial data concerning reactive processes of precipitation on the mine tailings and waste rock stored at the site and provide information on the effectiveness of reclamation operations at the Manning Canyon repository.

  15. Structural Geology

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Weber, John; Frankel, Kurt L.

    2011-05-01

    Structural geology and continental tectonics were ushered in to the modern quantitative age of geosciences with the arrival of the global plate tectonics paradigm (circa 1968), derived using new data from the oceans' depths, and John Ramsay's 1967 seminal work, Folding and Fracturing of Rocks. Fossen is to be applauded for crafting a unique, high-caliber, and accessible undergraduate textbook on structural geology that faithfully reflects this advance and the subsequent evolution of the discipline. This well-written text draws on Fossen's wealth of professional experience, including his broad and diverse academic research and experience in the petroleum industry. This book is beautifully illustrated, with excellent original color diagrams and with impressive color field photographs that are all keyed to locations and placed into geologic context.

  16. 43 CFR 3836.13 - What are geological, geochemical, or geophysical surveys?

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-10-01

    ... 43 Public Lands: Interior 2 2012-10-01 2012-10-01 false What are geological, geochemical, or... ASSESSMENT WORK REQUIREMENTS FOR MINING CLAIMS Performing Assessment Work § 3836.13 What are geological, geochemical, or geophysical surveys? (a) Geological surveys are surveys of the geology of mineral deposits...

  17. 43 CFR 3836.13 - What are geological, geochemical, or geophysical surveys?

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-10-01

    ... 43 Public Lands: Interior 2 2013-10-01 2013-10-01 false What are geological, geochemical, or... ASSESSMENT WORK REQUIREMENTS FOR MINING CLAIMS Performing Assessment Work § 3836.13 What are geological, geochemical, or geophysical surveys? (a) Geological surveys are surveys of the geology of mineral deposits...

  18. 43 CFR 3836.13 - What are geological, geochemical, or geophysical surveys?

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-10-01

    ... 43 Public Lands: Interior 2 2011-10-01 2011-10-01 false What are geological, geochemical, or... ASSESSMENT WORK REQUIREMENTS FOR MINING CLAIMS Performing Assessment Work § 3836.13 What are geological, geochemical, or geophysical surveys? (a) Geological surveys are surveys of the geology of mineral deposits...

  19. 43 CFR 3836.13 - What are geological, geochemical, or geophysical surveys?

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-10-01

    ... 43 Public Lands: Interior 2 2014-10-01 2014-10-01 false What are geological, geochemical, or... ASSESSMENT WORK REQUIREMENTS FOR MINING CLAIMS Performing Assessment Work § 3836.13 What are geological, geochemical, or geophysical surveys? (a) Geological surveys are surveys of the geology of mineral deposits...

  20. Physiography and Quaternary geology of the San Juan Mountains, Colorado

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Atwood, Wallace W.; Mather, Kirtley F.

    1932-01-01

    appeared from time to time as folios"' of the Geologic Atlas and reports on the economic geology of the mining districts, published by the United States Geological Survey between 1899 and 1910. Gradually the concept of the geologic problems was changed. Instead of considering individual mining districts as the units of investigation it became apparent that the San Juan region must itself be the unit. In 1908 Mr. Cross drafted plans for the completion of the San Juan studies on this enlarged basis. His aim was to arrange for the publication of papers on different subjects rather than one huge monograph on the region as a whole.

  1. Geological Gyrocompass

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    McKeown, M. H.; Beason, S. C.

    1990-10-01

    The invention relates to a new and improved geologic mapping and surveying apparatus for providing accurate, dependable, and portable measurement of attitudes of planar surfaces in situations where magnetic compasses will not work. The invention provides a unique arrangement of the gyrocompass and power supply in a portable carrying case. A gyroscope is not dependent on the earth's magnetic field for a reference as is a magnetic compass. Therefore, the invention of a geological gyrocompass is immune to disturbances in the earth's magnetic field and nearly duplicates the Brunton compass accuracy but does not require an environment free of magnetic anomalies.

  2. Revitalizing chemistry laboratory instruction

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    McBride, Phil Blake

    This dissertation involves research in three major domains of chemical education as partial fulfillment of the requirements for the Ph.D. program in chemistry at Miami University with a major emphasis on chemical education, and concurrent study in organic chemistry. Unit I, Development and Assessment of a Column Chromatography Laboratory Activity, addresses the domain of Instructional Materials Development and Testing. This unit outlines the process of developing a publishable laboratory activity, testing and revising that activity, and subsequently sharing that activity with the chemical education community. A laboratory activity focusing on the separation of methylene blue and sodium fluorescein was developed to demonstrate the effects of both the stationary and mobile phase in conducting a separation. Unit II, Bringing Industry to the Laboratory, addresses the domain of Curriculum Development and Testing. This unit outlines the development of the Chemistry of Copper Mining module, which is intended for use in high school or undergraduate college chemistry. The module uses the learning cycle approach to present the chemistry of the industrial processes of mining copper to the students. The module includes thirteen investigations (three of which are web-based and ten which are laboratory experiments) and an accompanying interactive CD-ROM, which provides an explanation of the chemistry used in copper mining with a virtual tour of an operational copper mine. Unit III, An Alternative Method of Teaching Chemistry. Integrating Lecture and the Laboratory, is a project that addresses the domain of Research in Student Learning. Fundamental Chemistry was taught at Eastern Arizona College as an integrated lecture/laboratory course that met in two-hour blocks on Monday, Wednesday, and Friday. The students taking this integrated course were compared with students taking the traditional 1-hour lectures held on Monday, Wednesday, and Friday, with accompanying 3-hour lab on

  3. A Dictionary of Mining, Mineral and Related Terms.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Thrush, Paul W., Comp.

    This dictionary contains about 55,000 terms with approximately 150,000 definitions. These terms are of both a technical and local nature and apply to metal mining, coal mining, quarrying, geology, metallurgy, ceramics and clays, glassmaking, minerals and mineralogy, and general terminology. Petroleum, natural gas, and legal mining terminology,…

  4. Theoretical geology

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Mikeš, Daniel

    2010-05-01

    Theoretical geology Present day geology is mostly empirical of nature. I claim that geology is by nature complex and that the empirical approach is bound to fail. Let's consider the input to be the set of ambient conditions and the output to be the sedimentary rock record. I claim that the output can only be deduced from the input if the relation from input to output be known. The fundamental question is therefore the following: Can one predict the output from the input or can one predict the behaviour of a sedimentary system? If one can, than the empirical/deductive method has changes, if one can't than that method is bound to fail. The fundamental problem to solve is therefore the following: How to predict the behaviour of a sedimentary system? It is interesting to observe that this question is never asked and many a study is conducted by the empirical/deductive method; it seems that the empirical method has been accepted as being appropriate without question. It is, however, easy to argument that a sedimentary system is by nature complex and that several input parameters vary at the same time and that they can create similar output in the rock record. It follows trivially from these first principles that in such a case the deductive solution cannot be unique. At the same time several geological methods depart precisely from the assumption, that one particular variable is the dictator/driver and that the others are constant, even though the data do not support such an assumption. The method of "sequence stratigraphy" is a typical example of such a dogma. It can be easily argued that all the interpretation resulting from a method that is built on uncertain or wrong assumptions is erroneous. Still, this method has survived for many years, nonwithstanding all the critics it has received. This is just one example of the present day geological world and is not unique. Even the alternative methods criticising sequence stratigraphy actually depart from the same

  5. Data Mining as a Guide for the Construction of Crosslinked Nanoparticles with Low Immunotoxicity via Controlling Polymer Chemistry and Supramolecular Assembly

    PubMed Central

    Elsabahy, Mahmoud; Wooley, Karen L.

    2015-01-01

    CONSPECTUS The potential immunotoxicity of nanoparticles that are currently being approved or in different phases of clinical trials or under rigorous in vitro and in vivo characterizations in several laboratories has recently raised special attention. Products with no apparent in vitro or in vivo toxicity may still trigger the various components of the immune system, unintentionally, and lead to serious adverse reactions. Cytokines are one of the useful biomarkers to predict the effect of biotherapeutics on modulating the immune system and for screening the immunotoxicity of nanoparticles, both in vitro and in vivo, and were found recently to partially predict the in vivo pharmacokinetics and biodistribution of nanomaterials. Control of polymer chemistry and supramolecular assembly provides a great opportunity for construction of biocompatible nanoparticles for biomedical clinical applications. However, the sources of data collected regarding immunotoxicities of nanomaterials are diverse and experiments are usually conducted using different assays and under specific conditions, making direct comparisons nearly impossible and, thus, tailoring properties of nanomaterials based on the available data is challenging. In this account, the effects of chemical structure, crosslinking, degradability, morphology, concentration and surface chemistry on the immunotoxicity of an expansive array of polymeric nanomaterials will be highlighted, with focus being given on assays conducted using the same in vitro and in vivo models and experimental conditions. Furthermore, numerical descriptive values have been utilized, uniquely, to stand for induction of cytokines by nanoparticles. This treatment of available data provides a simple and easy way to compare the immunotoxicity of various nanomaterials, and the values were found to correlate-well with published data. Based on the investigated polymeric systems in this study, valuable information has been collected that aids in the

  6. Geologic Time.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Albritton, Claude C., Jr.

    1984-01-01

    Discusses the historical development of the concept of geologic time. Develops the topic by using the major discoveries of geologists, beginning with Steno and following through to the discovery and use of radiometric dating. An extensive reference list is provided. (JM)

  7. City Geology.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Markle, Sandra

    1989-01-01

    This article provides information on the evolution of the building material, concrete, and suggests hands-on activities that allow students to experience concrete's qualities, test the heat absorbency of various ground surface materials, discover how an area's geology changes, and search for city fossils. A reproducible activity sheet is included.…

  8. Geologic Time.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Albritton, Claude C., Jr.

    1984-01-01

    Discusses the historical development of the concept of geologic time. Develops the topic by using the major discoveries of geologists, beginning with Steno and following through to the discovery and use of radiometric dating. An extensive reference list is provided. (JM)

  9. Data Mining as a Guide for the Construction of Cross-Linked Nanoparticles with Low Immunotoxicity via Control of Polymer Chemistry and Supramolecular Assembly.

    PubMed

    Elsabahy, Mahmoud; Wooley, Karen L

    2015-06-16

    The potential immunotoxicity of nanoparticles that are currently being approved, in different phases of clinical trials, or undergoing rigorous in vitro and in vivo characterizations in several laboratories has recently raised special attention. Products with no apparent in vitro or in vivo toxicity may still trigger various components of the immune system unintentionally and lead to serious adverse reactions. Cytokines are one of the useful biomarkers for predicting the effect of biotherapeutics on modulation of the immune system and for screening the immunotoxicity of nanoparticles both in vitro and in vivo, and they were recently found to partially predict the in vivo pharmacokinetics and biodistribution of nanomaterials. Control of polymer chemistry and supramolecular assembly provides a great opportunity for the construction of biocompatible nanoparticles for biomedical clinical applications. However, the sources of data collected regarding immunotoxicities of nanomaterials are diverse, and experiments are usually conducted using different assays under specific conditions. As a result, making direct comparisons nearly impossible, and thus, tailoring the properties of nanomaterials on the basis of the available data is challenging. In this Account, the effects of chemical structure, cross-linking, degradability, morphology, concentration, and surface chemistry on the immunotoxicity of an expansive array of polymeric nanomaterials will be highlighted, with a focus on assays conducted using the same in vitro and in vivo models and experimental conditions. Furthermore, numerical descriptive values have been utilized uniquely to stand for induction of cytokines by nanoparticles. This treatment of available data provides a simple way to compare the immunotoxicities of various nanomaterials, and the values were found to correlate well with published data. On the basis of the polymeric systems investigated in this study, valuable information has been collected that

  10. Topographic Maps and Coal Mining.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Raitz, Karl B.

    1984-01-01

    Geography teachers can illustrate the patterns associated with mineral fuel production, especially coal, by using United States Geological Survey topographic maps, which are illustrated by symbols that indicate mine-related features, such as shafts and tailings. Map reading exercises are presented; an interpretative map key that can facilitate…

  11. Topographic Maps and Coal Mining.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Raitz, Karl B.

    1984-01-01

    Geography teachers can illustrate the patterns associated with mineral fuel production, especially coal, by using United States Geological Survey topographic maps, which are illustrated by symbols that indicate mine-related features, such as shafts and tailings. Map reading exercises are presented; an interpretative map key that can facilitate…

  12. Web Mining

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Fürnkranz, Johannes

    The World-Wide Web provides every internet citizen with access to an abundance of information, but it becomes increasingly difficult to identify the relevant pieces of information. Research in web mining tries to address this problem by applying techniques from data mining and machine learning to Web data and documents. This chapter provides a brief overview of web mining techniques and research areas, most notably hypertext classification, wrapper induction, recommender systems and web usage mining.

  13. Text Mining.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Trybula, Walter J.

    1999-01-01

    Reviews the state of research in text mining, focusing on newer developments. The intent is to describe the disparate investigations currently included under the term text mining and provide a cohesive structure for these efforts. A summary of research identifies key organizations responsible for pushing the development of text mining. A section…

  14. Data Mining.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Benoit, Gerald

    2002-01-01

    Discusses data mining (DM) and knowledge discovery in databases (KDD), taking the view that KDD is the larger view of the entire process, with DM emphasizing the cleaning, warehousing, mining, and visualization of knowledge discovery in databases. Highlights include algorithms; users; the Internet; text mining; and information extraction.…

  15. Surface mining

    Treesearch

    Robert Leopold; Bruce Rowland; Reed Stalder

    1979-01-01

    The surface mining process consists of four phases: (1) exploration; (2) development; (3) production; and (4) reclamation. A variety of surface mining methods has been developed, including strip mining, auger, area strip, open pit, dredging, and hydraulic. Sound planning and design techniques are essential to implement alternatives to meet the myriad of laws,...

  16. Data Mining.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Benoit, Gerald

    2002-01-01

    Discusses data mining (DM) and knowledge discovery in databases (KDD), taking the view that KDD is the larger view of the entire process, with DM emphasizing the cleaning, warehousing, mining, and visualization of knowledge discovery in databases. Highlights include algorithms; users; the Internet; text mining; and information extraction.…

  17. Geology Fulbrights

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Fulbright grants in geology for 1988-89 remain open. Specific opportunities are available in Egypt, German Democratic Republic, Hungary, Iceland, Iraq, Kuwait, Morocco, Mozambique, Oman, Poland, Sudan, Syria, Tanzania, Turkey, U.S.S.R., West Bank, Yemen, and Zimbabwe. Other countries are also open to applications in any discipline, and geology is among their preferred fields.The grants are available until awarded and are open only to U.S. citizens. In Central and South America and French-speaking Africa, knowledge of host-country language is required. For more information, contact the Council for International Exchange of Scholars (CIES), 11 Dupont Circle N.W., Suite 300, Washington, DC 20036; tel. 202-939-5401.

  18. Geology team

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    1982-01-01

    Evaluating of the combined utility of narrowband and multispectral imaging in both the infrared and visible for the lithologic identification of geologic materials, and of the combined utility of multispectral imaging in the visible and infrared for lithologic mapping on a global bases are near term recommendations for future imaging capabilities. Long term recommendations include laboratory research into methods of field sampling and theoretical models of microscale mixing. The utility of improved spatial and spectral resolutions and radiometric sensitivity is also suggested for the long term. Geobotanical remote sensing research should be conducted to (1) separate geological and botanical spectral signatures in individual picture elements; (2) study geobotanical correlations that more fully simulate natural conditions; and use test sites designed to test specific geobotanical hypotheses.

  19. New constraints on the subsurface geology of the Mexico City Basin: The San Lorenzo Tezonco deep well, on the basis of 40Ar/39Ar geochronology and whole-rock chemistry

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Arce, J. L.; Layer, P. W.; Morales-Casique, E.; Benowitz, J. A.; Rangel, E.; Escolero, O.

    2013-10-01

    The San Lorenzo Tezonco deep well, drilled in 2012 by "Sistema de Aguas de la Ciudad de México" (Water Supply System of Mexico City) in the Mexico Basin to a depth of 2008 m, offers an excellent opportunity to explore the subsurface stratigraphy and general geology of the region. Unfortunately, only chipped samples from this well were recovered, which were examined and analyzed for whole-rock chemistry, 40Ar/39Ar, and U-Pb zircon geochronology, in order to reconstruct the lithology of the well. Contrary to previous deep wells of the Mexico Basin, no basement sedimentary rocks were found in this one. While the upper 70 m are composed of lacustrine sediments associated with Lake Texcoco, volcanic rocks make up the majority of the well and range in age from more than 18 Ma to 0.25 Ma. Andesitic lavas are the most abundant products of the stratigraphic column, followed by acidic products represented by dacitic and rhyolitic lavas and ignimbrite deposits. Less abundant are basaltic andesite lavas appearing in the upper and lower parts of the column. The thickest sequence of the well is represented not only by Miocene volcanic rocks ranging from 5 to 17 Ma, suggesting a period of intense volcanic activity in this area producing mainly andesitic lavas, but also by thick rhyolitic ignimbrite deposits dated at 5 Ma. These deposits suggest the presence of a caldera structure, probably buried by subsequent volcanic products and lacustrine sediments. Trace element concentrations suggest that volcanism is likely produced in a subduction environment with typical negative anomalies of Nb, Ta, Ti, and P and positive anomalies in Pb and Cs. We correlated the well units with units outcropping in mountain ranges in the surrounding area, with the recognition of the following units or formations: Eocene Andesite, San Nicolás Basaltic Andesite, Tepoztlán Formation, Miocene Volcanism, Sierra de las Cruces, and Chichinautzin Volcanic Field products. By correlating the two closest deep

  20. An overview of mining-related environmental and human health issues, Marinduque Island, Philippines: observations from a joint U.S. Geological Survey - Armed Forces Institute of Pathology reconnaissance field evaluation, May 12-19, 2000

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Plumlee, Geoffrey S.; Morton, Robert A.; Boyle, Terence P.; Medlin, Jack H.; Centeno, Jose A.

    2000-01-01

    This report summarizes results of a visit by the report authors to Marinduque Island, Philippines, in May 2000. The purpose of the visit was to conduct a preliminary examination of environmental problems created by a 1996 tailings spill from the Marcopper open-pit copper mine. The mine was operated from 1969-1996 by Macropper Mining Corperation, under 39.9% ownership, and design and management control of Placer Dome, Inc. Our trip expenses to and from the Philippines were funded by the USGS. In-country expenses were paid by the offices of Congressman Reyes and the Governor of Marinduque, Carmencita O. Reyes. This report includes observations we made based on our relatively short visit to the island, and observations based upon a preliminary review of the literature available on the islanda??s mining-environmental issues. In addition, we have included preliminary interpretations and analytical results of some water, sediment, and mine waste samples collected during our trip. We also highlight the environmental and human health issues we fell are in need of further study and consideration for mitigation or remediation. This report is preliminary and is not intended to be a comprehensive or final review of the islanda??s mining-environmental issues; many areas of further study are clearly neededa?|

  1. Nuclear analytical chemistry

    SciTech Connect

    Brune, D.; Forkman, B.; Persson, B.

    1984-01-01

    This book covers the general theories and techniques of nuclear chemical analysis, directed at applications in analytical chemistry, nuclear medicine, radiophysics, agriculture, environmental sciences, geological exploration, industrial process control, etc. The main principles of nuclear physics and nuclear detection on which the analysis is based are briefly outlined. An attempt is made to emphasise the fundamentals of activation analysis, detection and activation methods, as well as their applications. The book provides guidance in analytical chemistry, agriculture, environmental and biomedical sciences, etc. The contents include: the nuclear periodic system; nuclear decay; nuclear reactions; nuclear radiation sources; interaction of radiation with matter; principles of radiation detectors; nuclear electronics; statistical methods and spectral analysis; methods of radiation detection; neutron activation analysis; charged particle activation analysis; photon activation analysis; sample preparation and chemical separation; nuclear chemical analysis in biological and medical research; the use of nuclear chemical analysis in the field of criminology; nuclear chemical analysis in environmental sciences, geology and mineral exploration; and radiation protection.

  2. Analytical Chemistry in Russia.

    PubMed

    Zolotov, Yuri

    2016-09-06

    Research in Russian analytical chemistry (AC) is carried out on a significant scale, and the analytical service solves practical tasks of geological survey, environmental protection, medicine, industry, agriculture, etc. The education system trains highly skilled professionals in AC. The development and especially manufacturing of analytical instruments should be improved; in spite of this, there are several good domestic instruments and other satisfy some requirements. Russian AC has rather good historical roots.

  3. Effect of mining rate on the working face with high-intensity mining based on microseismic monitoring: a case study

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Li, Yang; Yang, Tian-hong; Liu, Hong-lei; Hou, Xian-gang; Wang, Hong

    2017-03-01

    Serious geological disasters and environmental damage have been caused by the high-intensity mining in Western China. The mining rate of the working face is one of the important factors of high-intensity mining. In order to study the effect of mining rate on the working face in high-intensity mining, we introduced the microseismic (MS) monitoring system in Xiaojihan coal mine, which is a typical high-intensity mine in Western China. This research indicates that the number of MS events and the stress redistribution zones induced by coal excavation reduced with the increase in mining rate. Consequently, the volume of rock with inelastic change and failure zones decreased. Since the uniformity of stress redistribution was even worse, the energy release was unstable and dynamic geological disasters could occur. Determining the reasonable mining rate of a working face by analyzing the characteristics of MS parameters is feasible, and could provide some technical guidance for mining production activities.

  4. Geologic investigations in the Lake Valley area, Sierra County, New Mexico

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    O'Neill, J. M.

    2002-01-01

    At the request of the Bureau of Land Management, the U.S. Geological Survey evaluated the area of the historic Lake Valley mining district and townsite, Sierra County, New Mexico, for its potential for undiscovered mineral resources. The four chapters of this report describe the geology of the area, present the results of geophysical investigations carried out to aid in interpreting subsurface geology, describe the mining history and character of the region's ore deposits, and present geochemical data on potential for contamination from abandoned mine dumps in the mining district.

  5. Pennsylvania's approach to underground coal mine permitting and long-term mine pool management

    SciTech Connect

    Callaghan, T.; Koricich, J.

    1999-07-01

    Pennsylvania's underground coal mine permitting process has two goals: first, to ensure that the mining and reclamation plan is designed to minimize adverse environmental impacts; and second, to minimize interference with the applicant's recovery of coal. A successful review process includes the consistent evaluation of mine site hydrology through scrutiny of key indicators of mining-induced, adverse hydrologic consequences. This allows the regulatory agency to assess the potential for mining-related impacts as well as cumulative impacts throughout the proposed mine area and adjacent area. General trends have been identified regarding quality of underground mine drainage versus coal seam mined. However, the large number of factors controlling the final mine pool chemistry along with the lack of focused research have combined to stunt the development of reliable methodologies for the prediction of postmining water quality. Absent reliable predictive methodologies, mine layout has become the best demonstrated technology for pollution prevention. Strategies include: (1) promotion of postmining inundation by down-dip development with proper location of mine openings and sizing and location of barriers; (2) restriction of mining to zones within the groundwater system where flow is relatively lethargic and time of travel is great when compared to natural mine pool amelioration time frames; and (3) mining in zones remote from groundwater discharge areas and features which may serve to short-circuit mine water to nearby existing water-supply aquifers or to the surface. This paper discusses Pennsylvania's application process for underground bituminous coal mines. It briefly outlines Pennsylvania's statutory history relating to mine discharges, touches on some of the tools permit reviewers use to evaluate the hydrology of proposed underground mining sites, and discusses the key factors that permit reviewers consider in assessing potential postmining mine pool levels.

  6. North Dakota geology school receives major gift

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Showstack, Randy

    2012-10-01

    Petroleum geology and related areas of study at the University of North Dakota (UND) received a huge financial boost with the announcement on 24 September of $14 million in private and public partnership funding. The university announced the naming of the Harold Hamm School of Geology and Geological Engineering, formerly a department within the College of Engineering and Mines, in recognition of $10 million provided as a gift by oilman Harold Hamm and Continental Resources, Inc. Hamm is the chair and chief executive officer of Continental, the largest leaseholder in the Bakken Play oil formation in North Dakota and Montana, and he is also an energy policy advisor to Republican presidential candidate Mitt Romney. UND also received $4 million from the Oil and Gas Research Program of the North Dakota Industrial Commission to support geology and geological engineering education and research.

  7. Breccia-pipe uranium mining in northern Arizona; estimate of resources and assessment of historical effects

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Bills, Donald J.; Brown, Kristin M.; Alpine, Andrea E.; Otton, James K.; Van Gosen, Bradley S.; Hinck, Jo Ellen; Tillman, Fred D

    2011-01-01

    About 1 million acres of Federal land in the Grand Canyon region of Arizona were temporarily withdrawn from new mining claims in July 2009 by the Secretary of the Interior because of concern that increased uranium mining could have negative impacts on the land, water, people, and wildlife. During a 2-year interval, a Federal team led by the Bureau of Land Management is evaluating the effects of withdrawing these lands for extended periods. As part of this team, the U.S. Geological Survey (USGS) conducted a series of short-term studies to examine the historical effects of breccia-pipe uranium mining in the region. The USGS studies provide estimates of uranium resources affected by the possible land withdrawal, examine the effects of previous breccia-pipe mining, summarize water-chemistry data for streams and springs, and investigate potential biological pathways of exposure to uranium and associated contaminants. This fact sheet summarizes results through December 2009 and outlines further research needs.

  8. Geochemical study of acid mine drainage of the Big Lick Tunnel area, Williamstown, PA

    SciTech Connect

    Tollin, S. . Dept. of Geosciences)

    1993-03-01

    Acid mine drainage in the anthracite region of Pennsylvania continues to be a significant environmental problem. This study examines the acid mine outflow from the Big Lick Tunnel, north of Williamstown, Dauphin County, Pennsylvania. The tunnel drains abandoned mines on the north side of the Big Lick Mountain. Mining ceased in the area circa 1940, and the tunnel has been in operation since that time. The water, soil and stream bed sediment geochemistry has been studied to determine their changes in chemistry over distance. The pH, TDS and metal concentrations were the primary focus. Metal concentrations were determined using an ICP unit. Data indicates the pH of the outflow to range between 6.7 and 7.3 Fe and Mn concentrations are as high as 9.7 ppb. Extensive metal precipitation ( yellow boy'') occurs within the tunnel and for several hundred meters from the mouth of the tunnel. The combination of near neutral pH and high metal concentration suggest that the drainage is in contact with highly alkaline materials prior to discharge from the tunnel. The geology of the area does not suggest bedrock as the possible source of alkaline material. One hypothesis is that the acidic water is reacting with the concrete tunnel and being neutralized. Data also suggests that the Fe precipitates much quicker than the Mn, resulting in a zonation between Fe-rich and Mn-rich sediments along the length of the drainage.

  9. Integrated investigations of environmental effects of historical mining in the Basin and Boulder Mining Districts, Boulder River watershed, Jefferson County, Montana

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Nimick, David A.; Church, Stan E.; Finger, Susan E.

    2004-01-01

    The Boulder River watershed is one of many watersheds in the western United States where historical mining has left a legacy of acid mine drainage and elevated concentrations of potentially toxic trace elements. Abandoned mine lands commonly are located on or affect Federal land. Cleaning up these Federal lands will require substantial investment of resources. As part of a cooperative effort with Federal land-management agencies, the U.S. Geological Survey implemented an Abandoned Mine Lands Initiative in 1997. The goal of the initiative was to use the watershed approach to develop a strategy for gathering and communicating the scientific information needed to formulate effective and cost-efficient remediation of affected lands in a watershed. The watershed approach is based on the premise that contaminated sites that have the most profound effect on water and ecosystem quality within an entire watershed should be identified, characterized, and ranked for remediation.The watershed approach provides an effective means to evaluate the overall status of affected resources and helps to focus remediation at sites where the most benefit will be gained in the watershed. Such a large-scale approach can result in the collection of extensive information on the geology and geochemistry of rocks and sediment, the hydrology and water chemistry of streams and ground water, and the diversity and health of aquatic and terrestrial organisms. During the assessment of the Boulder River watershed, we inventoried historical mines, defined geological conditions, assessed fish habitat, collected and chemically analyzed hundreds of water and sediment samples, conducted toxicity tests, analyzed fish tissue and indicators of physiological malfunction, examined invertebrates and biofilm, and defined hydrological regimes. Land- and resource-management agencies are faced with evaluating risks associated with thousands of potentially harmful mine sites, and this level of effort is not always

  10. Pilot monitoring program: geologic input for the hillslope component (includes a discussion of Caspar Creek geology and geomorphology)

    Treesearch

    T. E. Spittler

    1995-01-01

    The California Department of Conservation, Division of Mines and Geology (DMG) is submitting this report and accompanying maps to the California Department of Forestry and Fire Protection (CDF) to fulfill Interagency Agreement number 8CA38400, Pilot Monitoring Program -- Geologic Input for the Hillslope Component. Under this agreement, DMG has assisted CDF in the...

  11. Geologic nozzles

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Werner, Kieffer S.

    1989-01-01

    The importance of the low characteristic velocities of geologic fluids has not been widely recognized, and as a result, the importance of supercritical and supersonic flow in geological processes has generally been underestimated. The lateral blast at Mount St. Helens, Washington, propelled a gas heavily laden with dust into the atmosphere. Because of the low sound speed in this gas (about 100 m/s), the flow was internally supersonic. Old Faithful Geyser, Wyoming, is a converging-diverging nozzle in which liquid water refilling the conduit during the recharge cycle changes during eruption into a two-phase liquid-vapor mixture with a very low sound velocity. The high sound speed of liquid water determines the characteristics of harmonic tremor observed at the geyser during the recharge interval, whereas the low sound speed of the liquid-vapor mixture influences the fluid flow characteristics of the eruption. At the rapids of the Colorado River in the Grand Canyon, Arizona, the channel is constricted into the shape of a converging-diverging nozzle by the debris flows that enter from tributary canyons. Both subcritical and supercritical flow occur within the rapids. -from Author

  12. Geologic coal assessment: The interface with economics

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Attanasi, E.D.

    2001-01-01

    Geologic resource assessments describe the location, general characteristics, and estimated volumes of resources, whether in situ or technically recoverable. Such compilations are only an initial step in economic resource evaluation. This paper identifies, by examples from the Illinois and Appalachian basins, the salient features of a geologic assessment that assure its usefulness to downstream economic analysis. Assessments should be in sufficient detail to allocate resources to production units (mines or wells). Coal assessments should include the spatial distribution of coal bed characteristics and the ability to allocate parts of the resource to specific mining technologies. For coal bed gas assessment, the production well recoveries and well deliverability characteristics must be preserved and the risk structure should be specified so dryholes and noncommercial well costs are recovered by commercially successful wells. ?? 2001 International Association for Mathematical Geology.

  13. The use of fluoride as a natural tracer in water and the relationship to geological features: Examples from the Animas River Watershed, San Juan Mountains, Silverton, Colorado

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Bove, D.J.; Walton-Day, K.; Kimball, B.A.

    2009-01-01

    Investigations within the Silverton caldera, in southwestern Colorado, used a combination of traditional geological mapping, alteration-assemblage mapping, and aqueous geochemical sampling that showed a relationship between geological and hydrologic features that may be used to better understand the provenance and evolution of the water. Veins containing fluorite, huebnerite, and elevated molybdenum concentrations are temporally and perhaps genetically associated with the emplacement of high-silica rhyolite intrusions. Both the rhyolites and the fluorite-bearing veins produce waters containing elevated concentrations of F-, K and Be. The identification of water samples with elevated F/Cl molar ratios (> 10) has also aided in the location of water draining F-rich sources, even after these waters have been diluted substantially. These unique aqueous geochemical signatures can be used to relate water chemistry to key geological features and mineralized source areas. Two examples that illustrate this relationship are: (1) surface-water samples containing elevated F-concentrations (> 1.8 mg/l) that closely bracket the extent of several small high-silica rhyolite intrusions; and (2) water samples containing elevated concentrations of F-(> 1.8 mg/ l) that spatially relate to mines or areas that contain late-stage fluorite/huebnerite veins. In two additional cases, the existence of high F-concentrations in water can be used to: (1) infer interaction of the water with mine waste derived from systems known to contain the fluorite/huebnerite association; and (2) relate changes in water quality over time at a high elevation mine tunnel to plugging of a lower elevation mine tunnel and the subsequent rise of the water table into mineralized areas containing fluorite/huebnerite veining. Thus, the unique geochemical signature of the water produced from fluorite veins indicates the location of high-silica rhyolites, mines, and mine waste containing the veins. Existence of high F

  14. Marine Geology

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    van Andel, Tjeerd H.

    Marine geology was blessed early, about 30 years ago, with two great textbooks, one by P.H. Kuenen, the other by Francis P. Shepard, but in more recent years, no one has dared synthesize a field that has become so diverse and is growing so rapidly. There are many texts written for the beginning undergraduate student, mostly by marine geologists, but none can be handed conveniently to a serious advanced student or given to a colleague interested in what the field has wrought. The reason for this regrettable state is obvious; only an active, major scholar could hope to write such a book well, but the years would pass, his students dwindle, his grants vanish. He himself might be out of date before his book was. Kennett has earned a large measure of gratitude for his attempt to undertake this task. His personal price must have been high but so are our rewards.

  15. Geological exploration of Angola from Sumbe to Namibe: A review at the frontier between geology, natural resources and the history of geology

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Masse, Pierre; Laurent, Olivier

    2016-01-01

    This paper provides a review of the Geological exploration of the Angola Coast (from Sumbe to Namibe) from pioneer's first geological descriptions and mining inventory to the most recent publications supported by the oil industry. We focus our attention on the following periods: 1875-1890 (Paul Choffat's work, mainly), 1910-1949 (first maps at country scale), 1949-1974 (detailed mapping of the Kwanza-Namibe coastal series), 1975-2000, with the editing of the last version of the Angola geological map at 1:1 million scale and the progressive completion of previous works. Since 2000, there is a renewal in geological fieldwork publications on the area mainly due to the work of university teams. This review paper thus stands at the frontier between geology, natural resources and the history of geology. It shows how geological knowledge has progressed in time, fueled by economic and scientific reasons.

  16. Coal Mine Roof Rating (CMRR): A practical rock mass classification for coal mines. Information circular/1994

    SciTech Connect

    Molinda, G.M.; Mark, C.

    1994-01-01

    The Coal Mine Roof Rating (CMRR) was developed by the U.S. Bureau of Mines as an engineering tool to quantify descriptive geologic information for use in coal mine design and roof support selection. The CMRR system combines the results of many years of geologic ground control research with worldwide experience with rock mass classification systems. Like other classification systems, the CMRR begins with the premise that the structural competence of mine roof rock is determined primarily by the discontinuities that weaken the rock fabric. The CMRR makes four unique contributions: (1) it is specifically designed for bedded coal measure rocks, (2) it concentrates on the bolted interval and its ability to form a stable mine structure, (3) it is applicable to all U.S. coal seams, and (4) it provides a methodology for data collection. Using only simple field tests and observations, the CMRR can be calculated from roof falls, overcasts, and highwall exposures.

  17. Application of remote sensor data to geologic analysis of the Bonanza Test Site Colorado

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Lee, K. (Compiler)

    1973-01-01

    A geologic map of the Bonanza Test Site is nearing completion. Using published large scale geologic maps from various sources, the geology of the area is being compiled on a base scaled at 1:250,000. Sources of previously published geologic mapping include: (1) USGS Bulletins; (2) professional papers and geologic quadrangle maps; (3) Bureau of Mines reports; (4) Colorado School of Mines quarterlies; and (5) Rocky Mountain Association of Geologist Guidebooks. This compilation will be used to evaluate ERTS, Skylab, and remote sensing underflight data.

  18. African mining

    SciTech Connect

    Not Available

    1987-01-01

    This book contains papers presented at a conference addressing the development of the minerals industry in Africa. Topics covered include: A review - past, present and future - of Zimbabwe's mining industry; Geomorphological processes and related mineralization in Tanzania; and Rock mechanics investigations at Mufulira mine, Zambia.

  19. Old Geology and New Geology

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    2003-01-01

    [figure removed for brevity, see original site]

    Released 28 May 2003

    Mangala Vallis one of the large outflow channels that channeled large quantities of water into the northern lowlands, long ago on geological timescales. This valley is one of the few in the southern hemisphere, as well as one of the few west of the Tharsis bulge. A closer look at the channel shows more recent weathering of the old water channel: the walls of the channel show small, dark slope streaks that form in dusty areas; and much of the surrounding terrain has subtle linear markings trending from the upper left to the lower right, which are probably features sculpted and streamlined by the wind. Geology still shapes the surface of Mars today, but its methods over the eons have changed.

    Image information: VIS instrument. Latitude -6, Longitude 209.6 East (150.4 West). 19 meter/pixel resolution.

    Note: this THEMIS visual image has not been radiometrically nor geometrically calibrated for this preliminary release. An empirical correction has been performed to remove instrumental effects. A linear shift has been applied in the cross-track and down-track direction to approximate spacecraft and planetary motion. Fully calibrated and geometrically projected images will be released through the Planetary Data System in accordance with Project policies at a later time.

    NASA's Jet Propulsion Laboratory manages the 2001 Mars Odyssey mission for NASA's Office of Space Science, Washington, D.C. The Thermal Emission Imaging System (THEMIS) was developed by Arizona State University, Tempe, in collaboration with Raytheon Santa Barbara Remote Sensing. The THEMIS investigation is led by Dr. Philip Christensen at Arizona State University. Lockheed Martin Astronautics, Denver, is the prime contractor for the Odyssey project, and developed and built the orbiter. Mission operations are conducted jointly from Lockheed Martin and from JPL, a division of the California Institute of Technology in

  20. Old Geology and New Geology

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    2003-01-01

    [figure removed for brevity, see original site]

    Released 28 May 2003

    Mangala Vallis one of the large outflow channels that channeled large quantities of water into the northern lowlands, long ago on geological timescales. This valley is one of the few in the southern hemisphere, as well as one of the few west of the Tharsis bulge. A closer look at the channel shows more recent weathering of the old water channel: the walls of the channel show small, dark slope streaks that form in dusty areas; and much of the surrounding terrain has subtle linear markings trending from the upper left to the lower right, which are probably features sculpted and streamlined by the wind. Geology still shapes the surface of Mars today, but its methods over the eons have changed.

    Image information: VIS instrument. Latitude -6, Longitude 209.6 East (150.4 West). 19 meter/pixel resolution.

    Note: this THEMIS visual image has not been radiometrically nor geometrically calibrated for this preliminary release. An empirical correction has been performed to remove instrumental effects. A linear shift has been applied in the cross-track and down-track direction to approximate spacecraft and planetary motion. Fully calibrated and geometrically projected images will be released through the Planetary Data System in accordance with Project policies at a later time.

    NASA's Jet Propulsion Laboratory manages the 2001 Mars Odyssey mission for NASA's Office of Space Science, Washington, D.C. The Thermal Emission Imaging System (THEMIS) was developed by Arizona State University, Tempe, in collaboration with Raytheon Santa Barbara Remote Sensing. The THEMIS investigation is led by Dr. Philip Christensen at Arizona State University. Lockheed Martin Astronautics, Denver, is the prime contractor for the Odyssey project, and developed and built the orbiter. Mission operations are conducted jointly from Lockheed Martin and from JPL, a division of the California Institute of Technology in

  1. Undergraduate Preparation for Graduate Work in Geology.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Fetter, Charles W.

    1992-01-01

    Geoscience departments with graduate programs were surveyed to determine the courses required of entering graduate students. Most geologists consider the core curriculum to be that which is required or recommended by most graduate programs. In addition to geology courses, two semesters of calculus, physics, and chemistry were required by more than…

  2. Undergraduate Preparation for Graduate Work in Geology.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Fetter, Charles W.

    1992-01-01

    Geoscience departments with graduate programs were surveyed to determine the courses required of entering graduate students. Most geologists consider the core curriculum to be that which is required or recommended by most graduate programs. In addition to geology courses, two semesters of calculus, physics, and chemistry were required by more than…

  3. Chemistry Dashboard

    EPA Pesticide Factsheets

    The Chemistry Dashboard is part of a suite of dashboards developed by EPA to help evaluate the safety of chemicals. The Chemistry Dashboard provides access to a variety of information on over 700,000 chemicals currently in use.

  4. Chemistry Notes

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    School Science Review, 1976

    1976-01-01

    Described are eight chemistry experiments and demonstrations applicable to introductory chemistry courses. Activities include: measure of lattice enthalpy, Le Chatelier's principle, decarboxylation of soap, use of pocket calculators in pH measurement, and making nylon. (SL)

  5. Chemistry Notes

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    School Science Review, 1972

    1972-01-01

    Thirteen ideas are presented that may be of use to chemistry teachers. Topics covered include vitamin C, industrial chemistry, electrical conductivity, electrolysis, alkali metals, vibration modes infra-red, dynamic equilibrium, and some new demonstrations in gaseous combinations. (PS)

  6. Chemistry Notes.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    School Science Review, 1983

    1983-01-01

    Presents background information, laboratory procedures, classroom materials/activities, and chemistry experiments. Topics include sublimation, electronegativity, electrolysis, experimental aspects of strontianite, halide test, evaluation of present and future computer programs in chemistry, formula building, care of glass/saturated calomel…

  7. Chemistry Notes

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    School Science Review, 1976

    1976-01-01

    Described are eight chemistry experiments and demonstrations applicable to introductory chemistry courses. Activities include: measure of lattice enthalpy, Le Chatelier's principle, decarboxylation of soap, use of pocket calculators in pH measurement, and making nylon. (SL)

  8. Chemistry Notes.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    School Science Review, 1983

    1983-01-01

    Presents background information, laboratory procedures, classroom materials/activities, and chemistry experiments. Topics include sublimation, electronegativity, electrolysis, experimental aspects of strontianite, halide test, evaluation of present and future computer programs in chemistry, formula building, care of glass/saturated calomel…

  9. Biophysical chemistry.

    PubMed

    Häussinger, Daniel; Pfohl, Thomas

    2010-01-01

    Biophysical chemistry at the Department of Chemistry, University of Basel, covers the NMR analysis of protein-protein interaction using paramagnetic tags and sophisticated microscopy techniques investigating the dynamics of biological matter.

  10. Chemistry Notes.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    School Science Review, 1978

    1978-01-01

    Describes experiments, demonstrations, activities and ideas relating to various fields of chemistry to be used in chemistry courses of secondary schools. Three experiments concerning differential thermal analysis are among these notes presented. (HM)

  11. Chemistry Notes

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    School Science Review, 1972

    1972-01-01

    Thirteen ideas are presented that may be of use to chemistry teachers. Topics covered include vitamin C, industrial chemistry, electrical conductivity, electrolysis, alkali metals, vibration modes infra-red, dynamic equilibrium, and some new demonstrations in gaseous combinations. (PS)

  12. Geologic quadrangle maps of the United States: geology of the Casa Diablo Mountain quadrangle, California

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Rinehart, C. Dean; Ross, Donald Clarence

    1957-01-01

    The Casa Diablo Mountain quadrangle was mapped in the summers of 1952 and 1953 by the U.S. Geological Survey in cooperation with the California State Division of Mines as part of a study of potential tungsten-bearing areas.

  13. Chemistry Notes.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    School Science Review, 1982

    1982-01-01

    Presents background information, laboratory procedures, classroom materials/activities, and experiments for chemistry. Topics include superheavy elements, polarizing power and chemistry of alkali metals, particulate carbon from combustion, tips for the chemistry laboratory, interesting/colorful experiments, behavior of bismuth (III) iodine, and…

  14. Chemistry Notes.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    School Science Review, 1982

    1982-01-01

    Presents background information, laboratory procedures, classroom materials/activities, and experiments for chemistry. Topics include superheavy elements, polarizing power and chemistry of alkali metals, particulate carbon from combustion, tips for the chemistry laboratory, interesting/colorful experiments, behavior of bismuth (III) iodine, and…

  15. Geology and K-Ar geochronology of the Paradise Peak Mine and the relationship of pre-Basin and Range extension to Early Miocene precious metal mineralization in west-central Nevada

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    John, D.A.; Thomason, R.E.; McKee, E.H.

    1989-01-01

    The Paradise Peak mine is a major gold-silver-mercury deposit located in the southwestern part of the Paradise Range near the eastern edge of the Walker Lane in the western Great Basin, Nevada. Regional stratigraphic relations and K-Ar ages indicate that volcanism changed from silicic ash-flow tuffs to intermediate lavas at about 20 to 19 Ma. Regionally extensive angular unconformities indicate that a period of "pre-Basin and Range' crustal extension occurred between about 22 to 19 Ma. This extension was penecontemporaneous with the shift in the style of volcanism and with gold-silver mineralization in the Paradise Peak mine and in the Goldfield and Tonopah districts of western Nevada. The close temporal and spatial relationships of precious metal mineralization with pre-Basin and Range extension suggest that extension was a major factor in the genesis of early Miocene precious metal deposits in the western Great Basin. -from Authors

  16. New potassium-argon data on the age of mineralization and metamorphism in the Willow Creek mining district, southern Talkeetna Mountains, Alaska: A section in The United States Geological Survey in Alaska: Accomplishments during 1977

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Silberman, Miles L.; Csejtey, Bela; Smith, James G.; Lanphere, Marvin A.; Wilson, Frederic H.

    1978-01-01

    The now largely abandoned Willow Creek mining district, southern Talkeetna Mountains, Alaska, produced nearly $18,000,000 in gold and minor silver between 1909 and the early 1950's. Mineralized quartz veins, which contain gold and silver along with minor quantities of base metals (in pyrite, galena, chalcopyrite, sphalerite, molybdenite, and arsenopyrite), cut Late Cretaceous and early Tertiary tonalite and quartzmica schist of probable Jurassic age (Ray, 1954; Silberman and others, 1976; Bela Csejtey, Jr., unpub. data, 1978).

  17. Mine and mineral occurrences of Afghanistan

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Orris, G.J.; Bliss, J.D.

    2002-01-01

    This inventory of more than 1000 mines and mineral occurrences in Afghanistan was compiled from published literature and the files of project members of the National Industrial Minerals project of the U.S. Geological Survey. The compiled data have been edited for consistency and most duplicates have been deleted. The data cover metals, industrial minerals, coal, and peat. Listings in the table represent several levels of information, including mines, mineral showings, deposits, and pegmatite fields.

  18. Geologic Technician New Curriculum

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Karp, Stanley E.

    1970-01-01

    Describes a developing two-year geologic technician program at Bakersfield College in which a student may major in five areas - geologic drafting, land and legal, geologic assistant, engineering or paleontology. (RR)

  19. Geologic Technician New Curriculum

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Karp, Stanley E.

    1970-01-01

    Describes a developing two-year geologic technician program at Bakersfield College in which a student may major in five areas - geologic drafting, land and legal, geologic assistant, engineering or paleontology. (RR)

  20. CLUSTER CHEMISTRY

    SciTech Connect

    Muetterties, Earl L.

    1980-05-01

    Metal cluster chemistry is one of the most rapidly developing areas of inorganic and organometallic chemistry. Prior to 1960 only a few metal clusters were well characterized. However, shortly after the early development of boron cluster chemistry, the field of metal cluster chemistry began to grow at a very rapid rate and a structural and a qualitative theoretical understanding of clusters came quickly. Analyzed here is the chemistry and the general significance of clusters with particular emphasis on the cluster research within my group. The importance of coordinately unsaturated, very reactive metal clusters is the major subject of discussion.

  1. Forensic chemistry.

    PubMed

    Bell, Suzanne

    2009-01-01

    Forensic chemistry is unique among chemical sciences in that its research, practice, and presentation must meet the needs of both the scientific and the legal communities. As such, forensic chemistry research is applied and derivative by nature and design, and it emphasizes metrology (the science of measurement) and validation. Forensic chemistry has moved away from its analytical roots and is incorporating a broader spectrum of chemical sciences. Existing forensic practices are being revisited as the purview of forensic chemistry extends outward from drug analysis and toxicology into such diverse areas as combustion chemistry, materials science, and pattern evidence.

  2. Geology of the Athabasca oil sands

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Mossop, G. D.

    1980-01-01

    In-place bitumen resources in the Alberta oil sands are estimated at 1350 billion barrels. Open-pit mining and hot water extraction methods, which involve the handling of huge tonnages of earth materials, are being employed in the two commercial plants now operating. In situ recovery methods will be required to tap the 90 percent of reserves that are too deeply buried to be surface mined. Development of in situ technologies will be painstaking and expensive, and success will hinge on their compatibility with extremely complex geological conditions in the subsurface.

  3. Geology of the athabasca oil sands.

    PubMed

    Mossop, G D

    1980-01-11

    In-place bitumen resources in the Alberta oil sands are estimated at 1350 billion barrels. Open-pit mining and hot water extraction methods, which involve the handling of huge tonnages of earth materials, are being employed in the two commercial plants now operating. In situ recovery methods will be required to tap the 90 percent of reserves that are too deeply buried to be surface mined. Development of in situ technologies will be painstaking and expensive, and success will hinge on their compatibility with extremely complex geological conditions in the subsurface.

  4. Ore metals through geologic history.

    PubMed

    Meyer, C

    1985-03-22

    The ores of chromite, nickel, copper, and zinc show a wide distribution over geologic time, but those of iron, titanium, lead, uranium, gold, silver, molybdenum, tungsten, and tin are more restricted. Many of the limitations to specific time intervals are probably imposed by the evolving tectonic history of Earth interacting with the effects of the biomass on the evolution of the earth's s surface chemistry. Photosynthetic generation of free oxygen and "carbon" contributes significantlly to the diversity of redox potentials in both sedimentary and igneous-related processes of ore formation, influencing the selection of metals at the source, during transport, and at the site of ore deposition.

  5. Science and Technology Text Mining: Analytical Chemistry

    DTIC Science & Technology

    2001-01-01

    study (7) was focused on identifying treatments for Raynauds Syndrome , a circulatory disease. Assume that two literatures can be generated, the first... Raynauds Syndrome papers and having a central theme( s ) "b" and sub-themes "c." One interesting discovery was that dietary eicosapentaenoic acid (theme...citations from all sources. 3) COMPUTATIONAL LINGUISTICS -LITERATURE-BASED DISCOVERY, RAYNAUDS SYNDROME Some initial applications of literature-based

  6. Mines, prospects, mining claims, and sample localities of the Dark Canyon Instant Study Area and vicinity, San Juan County, Utah

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Light, Thomas D.

    1981-01-01

    In conjunction with studies conducted by the U.S. Geological Survey, the U.S. Bureau of Mines conducted a mineral survey in 1979 of known mines, prospect workings, and mineralized zones in the Dark Canyon Instant Study Area, San Juan County, Utah.  This map is a supplement to the Mineral Resources of the Dark Canyon Instant Study Area (Weitz and Light, 1981)., and depicts the locations of mines, prospects, mining claims and sample localities for the area examined by the U.S. Bureau of Mines.

  7. Eagle Mine

    EPA Pesticide Factsheets

    This Web page contains Eagle Mine Superfund site information, site description, site risk, cleanup progress, community involvement, reuse, land use controls, five-year reviews, site documents, contacts and links.

  8. Geological Data Preservation Program Receives Bipartisan Support

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Showstack, Randy

    2014-09-01

    More than 22 million vertical feet of geologic cores and cuttings fill the Kentucky Geological Survey's Well Sample and Core Library in Lexington. The materials are from at least 22,000 sites within Kentucky—including collections from oil and gas exploration operations, coal and other mining companies, highway construction projects, environmental studies, and federal facilities such as Fort Knox—and they are straining the 15-year-old facility to the point where there is no room to keep everything, according to geologist Patrick Gooding, the library manager.

  9. Economic geology of lunar Helium-3

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Schmitt, Harrison H.

    1988-01-01

    Economic geology evaluation of lunar He-3 should answer the question: Can lunar He-3 be sold on Earth with sufficient profit margins and low enough risk to attract capital investment in the enterprise. Concepts that relate to economic geology of recovering He-3 from the lunar maria are not new to human experience. A parametric cost and technology evaluation scheme, based on existing and future data, is required to qualitatively and quantitatively assess the comprehensive economic feasibility and return on investment of He-3 recovery from the lunar maria. There are also many political issues which must be considered as a result of nuclear fusion and lunar mining.

  10. Economic geology of lunar Helium-3

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Schmitt, Harrison H.

    1988-09-01

    Economic geology evaluation of lunar He-3 should answer the question: Can lunar He-3 be sold on Earth with sufficient profit margins and low enough risk to attract capital investment in the enterprise. Concepts that relate to economic geology of recovering He-3 from the lunar maria are not new to human experience. A parametric cost and technology evaluation scheme, based on existing and future data, is required to qualitatively and quantitatively assess the comprehensive economic feasibility and return on investment of He-3 recovery from the lunar maria. There are also many political issues which must be considered as a result of nuclear fusion and lunar mining.

  11. Geologic setting and water quality of selected basins in the active coal-mining areas of Ohio, 1989-91, with a summary of water quality for 1985-91

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Sedam, A.C.; Francy, D.S.

    1993-01-01

    This report presents streamwater- and ground-water-quality data collected to characterize the baseline water quality for 21 drainage basins in the coal-mining region of eastern Ohio. The study area is mostly within the unglaciated part of eastern Ohio along the western edge of the Appalachian Plateaus Physiographic Province. The data collected from 1989-91 and presented in this report represent the third and final phase of a 7-year study to assess baseline water quality in Ohio's coal region during 1985-1991. During 1989-91, 246 samples from 41 streamwater sites were collected periodically from a long-term site network. Ranges and medians of measurements made at the long-term streamwater sites were following: specific conductance, 270 to 5,170 and 792 microsiemens per centimeter at 25 degrees Celsius; pH, 2.7 to 9.1 and 7.8; alkalinity, 1 to 391 and 116 mg/L (milligrams per liter). Ranges and medians of laboratory analyses of the same samples were the following: dissolved sulfate, 13 to 2,100 and 200 mg/L; dissolved aluminum, <10 to 17,000 and 300 ? /L (micrograms per liter); dissolved iron, <10 to 53,000 and 60 ? /L; and dissolved manganese, <10 to 17,000 and 295 ? /L. The ranges for concentrations of total recoverable aluminum, iron, and manganese were similar to the ranges of concentrations found for dissolved constituents. Medians of total recoverable aluminum and iron were about 10 times greater than the medians of dissolved aluminum and iron. During 1989-91, once-only sample collections were done at 45 streamwater sites in nine basins chosen for synoptic sampling. At several sites in the Middle Hocking River basin and Leading Creek basin, water had low pH and high concentrations of dissolved aluminum, iron and manganese. These water-quality characteristics are commonly associated with ace mine drainage. Throughout the entire 7-year study (1985-91), medians for most constituents at the long-term streamwater-sampling sites were fairly consistent, despite the

  12. History of Geology.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Greene, Mott T.

    1985-01-01

    Discusses: (1) geologists and the history of geology; (2) American historians and the history of geology; (3) history of geology in the 1980s; (4) sources for the history of geology (bibliographies, dictionaries, encyclopedias, handbooks, periodicals, public/official histories, compilations, and books); (5) research opportunities; and (6) other…

  13. Proceedings of the Illinois Mining Institute ninety-fourth annual meeting

    SciTech Connect

    Not Available

    1986-01-01

    This book contains the following papers: The development and utilization of computerized mine planning at Arch Mineral's Captain mine; Coal research at the Illinois State Geological survey; The Second year progress report of the Illinois Subsidence Research Program; To sell more coal, help sell more electricity; and Shooting on Shift: Conventional mining utilizing permissable explosives underground in Southeastern Illinois.

  14. Design risk assessment for burst-prone mines: Application in a Canadian mine

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Cheung, David J.

    A proactive stance towards improving the effectiveness and consistency of risk assessments has been adopted recently by mining companies and industry. The next 10-20 years forecasts that ore deposits accessible using shallow mining techniques will diminish. The industry continues to strive for success in "deeper" mining projects in order to keep up with the continuing demand for raw materials. Although the returns are quite profitable, many projects have been sidelined due to high uncertainty and technical risk in the mining of the mineral deposit. Several hardrock mines have faced rockbursting and seismicity problems. Within those reported, mines in countries like South Africa, Australia and Canada have documented cases of severe rockburst conditions attributed to the mining depth. Severe rockburst conditions known as "burst-prone" can be effectively managed with design. Adopting a more robust design can ameliorate the exposure of workers and equipment to adverse conditions and minimize the economic consequences, which can hinder the bottom line of an operation. This thesis presents a methodology created for assessing the design risk in burst-prone mines. The methodology includes an evaluation of relative risk ratings for scenarios with options of risk reduction through several design principles. With rockbursts being a hazard of seismic events, the methodology is based on research in the area of mining seismicity factoring in rockmass failure mechanisms, which results from a combination of mining induced stress, geological structures, rockmass properties and mining influences. The methodology was applied to case studies at Craig Mine of Xstrata Nickel in Sudbury, Ontario, which is known to contain seismically active fault zones. A customized risk assessment was created and applied to rockburst case studies, evaluating the seismic vulnerability and consequence for each case. Application of the methodology to Craig Mine demonstrates that changes in the design can

  15. Geologic map of the western part of the Cut Bank 1 degree by 2 degrees Quadrangle, northwestern Montana

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Harrison, J. E.; Whipple, J.W.; Lidke, D.J.; digital database by Kayser, Helen Z.; Miller, Robert J.

    1998-01-01

    The paper geologic map of the western part of the Cut Bank 1 degrees x 2 degrees quadrangle, northwestern Montana (Harrison and others, 1998) was digitized and initially attributed by the Montana Bureau of Mines and Geology (MBMG) and remitted to the U.S. Geological Survey for further attribution and publication of the geospatial digital files. The resulting digital geologic map GIS can be queried in many ways to produce a variety of geological maps.

  16. Remediation of Acid Mine Drainage with Sulfate Reducing Bacteria

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Hauri, James F.; Schaider, Laurel A.

    2009-01-01

    Sulfate reducing bacteria have been shown to be effective at treating acid mine drainage through sulfide production and subsequent precipitation of metal sulfides. In this laboratory experiment for undergraduate environmental chemistry courses, students design and implement a set of bioreactors to remediate acid mine drainage and explain observed…

  17. Remediation of Acid Mine Drainage with Sulfate Reducing Bacteria

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Hauri, James F.; Schaider, Laurel A.

    2009-01-01

    Sulfate reducing bacteria have been shown to be effective at treating acid mine drainage through sulfide production and subsequent precipitation of metal sulfides. In this laboratory experiment for undergraduate environmental chemistry courses, students design and implement a set of bioreactors to remediate acid mine drainage and explain observed…

  18. Geology and gold deposits of the Cripple Creek district, Colorado

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Lindgren, Waldemar; Ransome, F.L.

    1906-01-01

    The Cripple Creek gold deposits, discovered in 1891, were investigated by Messrs. Cross and Penrose, of the United States Geological Survey, in 1894. The present reexamination was requested by citizens of Colorado, and . has been carried out under the financial cooperation of the State with the Federal Survey. It has involved complete revision of the topographic map of the district used as a base by Cross and Penrose, the running of a line of accurate levels from Colorado Springs to Cripple Creek, remapping of the geology, and a thorough study of the extensive mine workings opened during the past ten years. Due acknowledgment is made, of the cordial assistance rendered by mining men, and a list is given of the important publications concerning the geology or mines of the district.

  19. Remediation of acid mine drainage with sulfate reducing bacteria

    SciTech Connect

    Hauri, J.F.; Schaider, L.A.

    2009-02-15

    Sulfate reducing bacteria have been shown to be effective at treating acid mine drainage through sulfide production and subsequent precipitation of metal sulfides. In this laboratory experiment for undergraduate environmental chemistry courses, students design and implement a set of bioreactors to remediate acid mine drainage and explain observed changes in dissolved metal concentrations and pH. Using synthetic acid mine drainage and combinations of inputs, students monitor their bioreactors for decreases in dissolved copper and iron concentrations.

  20. U. S. GEOLOGICAL SURVEY ALASKAN GOLD PROJECT.

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Antweiler, John C.; Cathrall, John; Tripp, Richard

    1984-01-01

    The United States Geological Survey has begun a state-wide study of Alaskan gold deposits. The immediate goals are to determine the relationship of gold in placer deposits to possible primary sources, to determine how nuggets form, to contribute to existing knowledge of principles for prospecting for placer deposits, and determine if minerals associated with placer deposits might suggest important deposits of other metals. The project started in 1982 with a study of placer mines in the Brooks Range.

  1. Chemistry Notes

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    School Science Review, 1972

    1972-01-01

    Twelve new chemistry expermiments are described. Broad areas covered include atomic structure, solubility, gaseous diffusion, endothermic reactions, alcohols, equilibrium, atomic volumes, and some improvised apparatus. (PS)

  2. Chemistry Notes

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    School Science Review, 1972

    1972-01-01

    Twelve new chemistry expermiments are described. Broad areas covered include atomic structure, solubility, gaseous diffusion, endothermic reactions, alcohols, equilibrium, atomic volumes, and some improvised apparatus. (PS)

  3. Technetium chemistry

    SciTech Connect

    Burns, C.; Bryan, J.; Cotton, F.; Ott, K.; Kubas, G.; Haefner, S.; Barrera, J.; Hall, K.; Burrell, A.

    1996-04-01

    Technetium chemistry is a young and developing field. Despite the limited knowledge of its chemistry, technetium is the workhorse for nuclear medicine. Technetium is also a significant environmental concern because it is formed as a byproduct of nuclear weapons production and fission-power generators. Development of new technetium radio-pharmaceuticals and effective environmental control depends strongly upon knowledge of basic technetium chemistry. The authors performed research into the basic coordination and organometallic chemistry of technetium and used this knowledge to address nuclear medicine and environmental applications. This is the final report of a three-year Laboratory-Directed Research and Development (LDRD) project at the Los Alamos National Laboratory (LANL).

  4. Mining with backfill

    SciTech Connect

    Granholm, S.

    1983-01-01

    This book reviews the fill mining practice in Sweden and other countries. Research results and technological innovations are presented on mining methods, mining operations, mining machinery and geomechanics. Other topics discussed are fill properties, technology, geomechanics, and new development.

  5. Asteroid mining

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Gertsch, Richard E.

    1992-01-01

    The earliest studies of asteroid mining proposed retrieving a main belt asteroid. Because of the very long travel times to the main asteroid belt, attention has shifted to the asteroids whose orbits bring them fairly close to the Earth. In these schemes, the asteroids would be bagged and then processed during the return trip, with the asteroid itself providing the reaction mass to propel the mission homeward. A mission to one of these near-Earth asteroids would be shorter, involve less weight, and require a somewhat lower change in velocity. Since these asteroids apparently contain a wide range of potentially useful materials, our study group considered only them. The topics covered include asteroid materials and properties, asteroid mission selection, manned versus automated missions, mining in zero gravity, and a conceptual mining method.

  6. Geology of the Carlin gold deposit, Nevada

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Radtke, Arthur S.

    1985-01-01

    This report describes the geology of the Carlin gold deposit and the Lynn mining district, including an area of about 80km2 in northern Eureka County, Nev. (fig. 1). The Carlin mine is located in secs. 13 and 14, T.35N., R.50E., at an elevation of 6,400 ft near the crest of the Tuscarora Mountains. The map area (pl. 1), centered approximately on the Carlin mine, measures about 10km east-west by 8km north-south and forms approximately the south two-thirds of the Rodeo Creek NE. 7{1/2}-minute quadrangle. Boundaries for the map area are meridians 116°15'00" and 116°22'30" W. and parallels 40°52'30" and 40°57'30"N.The Carlin mine is accessible by an asphalt-surfaced road extending about 35km northward from the town of Carlin, Nev., which is on U.S. Highway 40. A secondary improved road extends from the Carlin mine westward into Boulder Valley and connects with both State Highway 18 to the north and U.S. Highway 40 to the south near the town of Dunphy. An unimproved road extends from the Carlin mine northward, along the west side of Little Boulder Basin, to the Blue Star mine, and continues northward and westward along Rodeo Creek to connect with a graded road extending northeastward along Boulder Valley. Numerous unimproved roads have been built to provide access to the different mining prospects.

  7. Chemistry Notes.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    School Science Review, 1981

    1981-01-01

    Outlines laboratory procedures, demonstrations, teaching suggestions, and content information related to chemistry. Topics include polarizing power; calorimetry and momentum; microcomputers in school chemistry; a constant-volume dispenser for liquids, floating magnets, and crystal lattices; preparation of chromium; and solvent polarity and…

  8. Chemistry Notes.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    School Science Review, 1981

    1981-01-01

    Outlines laboratory procedures, demonstrations, teaching suggestions, and content information related to chemistry. Topics include polarizing power; calorimetry and momentum; microcomputers in school chemistry; a constant-volume dispenser for liquids, floating magnets, and crystal lattices; preparation of chromium; and solvent polarity and…

  9. New perspectives on a 140-year legacy of mining and abandoned mine cleanup in the San Juan Mountains, Colorado

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Yager, Douglas B.; Fey, David L.; Chapin, Thomas; Johnson, Raymond H.

    2016-01-01

    The Gold King mine water release that occurred on 5 August 2015 near the historical mining community of Silverton, Colorado, highlights the environmental legacy that abandoned mines have on the environment. During reclamation efforts, a breach of collapsed workings at the Gold King mine sent 3 million gallons of acidic and metal-rich mine water into the upper Animas River, a tributary to the Colorado River basin. The Gold King mine is located in the scenic, western San Juan Mountains, a region renowned for its volcano-tectonic and gold-silver-base metal mineralization history. Prior to mining, acidic drainage from hydrothermally altered areas was a major source of metals and acidity to streams, and it continues to be so. In addition to abandoned hard rock metal mines, uranium mine waste poses a long-term storage and immobilization challenge in this area. Uranium resources are mined in the Colorado Plateau, which borders the San Juan Mountains on the west. Uranium processing and repository sites along the Animas River near Durango, Colorado, are a prime example of how the legacy of mining must be managed for the health and well-being of future generations. The San Juan Mountains are part of a geoenvironmental nexus where geology, mining, agriculture, recreation, and community issues converge. This trip will explore the geology, mining, and mine cleanup history in which a community-driven, watershed-based stakeholder process is an integral part. Research tools and historical data useful for understanding complex watersheds impacted by natural sources of metals and acidity overprinted by mining will also be discussed.

  10. Reports of Planetary Geology Program, 1981

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Holt, H. E. (Compiler)

    1981-01-01

    Abstracts of 205 reports from Principal investigators of NASA's Planetary Geology Program succinctly summarize work conducted and reflect the significant accomplishments. The entries are arranged under the following topics: (1) Saturnian satellites; (2) asteroids, comets and Galilean satellites; (3) cratering processes and landform development; (4) volcanic processes and landforms; (5) Aerolian processes and landforms; (6) fluvial, preglacial, and other processes of landform development; (7) Mars polar deposits, volatiles, and climate; (8) structure, tectonics, and stratigraphy; (9) remote sensing and regolith chemistry; (10) cartography and geologic mapping; and (11) special programs.

  11. Actinide chemistry in ionic liquids.

    PubMed

    Takao, Koichiro; Bell, Thomas James; Ikeda, Yasuhisa

    2013-04-01

    This Forum Article provides an overview of the reported studies on the actinide chemistry in ionic liquids (ILs) with a particular focus on several fundamental chemical aspects: (i) complex formation, (ii) electrochemistry, and (iii) extraction behavior. The majority of investigations have been dedicated to uranium, especially for the 6+ oxidation state (UO2(2+)), because the chemistry of uranium in ordinary solvents has been well investigated and uranium is the most abundant element in the actual nuclear fuel cycles. Other actinides such as thorium, neptunium, plutonium, americium, and curiumm, although less studied, are also of importance in fully understanding the nuclear fuel engineering process and the safe geological disposal of radioactive wastes.

  12. Application of electromagnetic techniques in survey of contaminated groundwater at an abandoned mine complex in southwestern Indiana, U.S.A.

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Brooks, G.A.; Olyphant, G.A.; Harper, D.

    1991-01-01

    In part of a large abandoned mining complex, electromagnetic geophysical surveys were used along with data derived from cores and monitoring wells to infer sources of contamination and subsurface hydrologic connections between acidic refuse deposits and adjacent undisturbed geologic materials. Electrical resistivity increases sharply along the boundary of an elevated deposit of pyritic coarse refuse, which is highly contaminated and electrically conductive, indicating poor subsurface hydrologic connections with surrounding deposits of fine refuse and undisturbed glacial material. Groundwater chemistry, as reflected in values of specific conductance, also differs markedly across the deposit's boundary, indicating that a widespread contaminant plume has not developed around the coarse refuse in more than 40 yr since the deposit was created. Most acidic drainage from the coarse refuse is by surface runoff and is concentrated around stream channels. Although most of the contaminated groundwater within the study area is concentrated within the surficial refuse deposits, transects of apparent resistivity and phase angle indicate the existence of an anomalous conductive layer at depth (>4 m) in thick alluvial sediments along the northern boundary of the mining complex. Based on knowledge of local geology, the anomaly is interpreted to represent a subsurface connection between the alluvium and a flooded abandoned underground mine. ?? 1991 Springer-Verlag New York Inc.

  13. View of Feature 2, the remains of the Geology/Change Room, ...

    Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

    View of Feature 2, the remains of the Geology/Change Room, view to the southeast - Orphan Lode Mine, North of West Rim Road between Powell Point and Maricopa Point, South Rim, Grand Canyon Village, Coconino County, AZ

  14. The Role of Economic Geology in the Future of Space Resources

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Blair, B. R.

    2017-02-01

    Economic geology could offer unprecedented and abundant access to planetary samples for future scientists. Today's geoscientific partnerships offer lessons learned. Future mining scenarios will be presented. Key decision variables will be developed.

  15. Resilience of benthic deep-sea fauna to mining activities.

    PubMed

    Gollner, Sabine; Kaiser, Stefanie; Menzel, Lena; Jones, Daniel O B; Brown, Alastair; Mestre, Nelia C; van Oevelen, Dick; Menot, Lenaick; Colaço, Ana; Canals, Miquel; Cuvelier, Daphne; Durden, Jennifer M; Gebruk, Andrey; Egho, Great A; Haeckel, Matthias; Marcon, Yann; Mevenkamp, Lisa; Morato, Telmo; Pham, Christopher K; Purser, Autun; Sanchez-Vidal, Anna; Vanreusel, Ann; Vink, Annemiek; Martinez Arbizu, Pedro

    2017-08-01

    With increasing demand for mineral resources, extraction of polymetallic sulphides at hydrothermal vents, cobalt-rich ferromanganese crusts at seamounts, and polymetallic nodules on abyssal plains may be imminent. Here, we shortly introduce ecosystem characteristics of mining areas, report on recent mining developments, and identify potential stress and disturbances created by mining. We analyze species' potential resistance to future mining and perform meta-analyses on population density and diversity recovery after disturbances most similar to mining: volcanic eruptions at vents, fisheries on seamounts, and experiments that mimic nodule mining on abyssal plains. We report wide variation in recovery rates among taxa, size, and mobility of fauna. While densities and diversities of some taxa can recover to or even exceed pre-disturbance levels, community composition remains affected after decades. The loss of hard substrata or alteration of substrata composition may cause substantial community shifts that persist over geological timescales at mined sites. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  16. Economic baselines for current underground coal mining technology

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Mabe, W. B.

    1979-01-01

    The cost of mining coal using a room pillar mining method with continuous miner and a longwall mining system was calculated. Costs were calculated for the years 1975 and 2000 time periods and are to be used as economic standards against which advanced mining concepts and systems will be compared. Some assumptions were changed and some internal model stored data was altered from the original calculations procedure chosen, to obtain a result that more closely represented what was considered to be a standard mine. Coal seam thicknesses were varied from one and one-half feet to eight feet to obtain the cost of mining coal over a wide range. Geologic conditions were selected that had a minimum impact on the mining productivity.

  17. Geological maps of the European seas - the EMODNET-Geology project.

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Stevenson, Alan

    2014-05-01

    To support its objectives to achieve Good Environmental Status in Europe's seas by 2020, the European Commission established the European Marine Observation and Data Network (EMODNET) to assemble existing but fragmented and inaccessible marine data and to create interoperable, contiguous and publicly available information layers which encompass whole marine basins. EMODNET is a network of existing and developing European observation systems linked by a data management structure covering all European coastal waters, shelf seas and surrounding ocean basins. The marine departments of the European Geological Surveys form the basis of a partnership that implements the EMODNET-Geology project, part of a suite of EMODNET studies that also cover bathymetry, marine chemistry, marine biology, seabed habitats, physics and human activities in the marine environment. The EMODnet-Geology project will deliver integrated geological map products through the One Geology-Europe portal. EMODNET-Geology will have a distributed map service with each of the work packages delivering a specified layer that include seafloor geology, seabed sediments, mineral resources and geological events such as submarine slides and earthquakes. Further information about the EMODNET project can be found at: http://www.emodnet.eu/

  18. A Geospatial Information Grid Framework for Geological Survey.

    PubMed

    Wu, Liang; Xue, Lei; Li, Chaoling; Lv, Xia; Chen, Zhanlong; Guo, Mingqiang; Xie, Zhong

    2015-01-01

    The use of digital information in geological fields is becoming very important. Thus, informatization in geological surveys should not stagnate as a result of the level of data accumulation. The integration and sharing of distributed, multi-source, heterogeneous geological information is an open problem in geological domains. Applications and services use geological spatial data with many features, including being cross-region and cross-domain and requiring real-time updating. As a result of these features, desktop and web-based geographic information systems (GISs) experience difficulties in meeting the demand for geological spatial information. To facilitate the real-time sharing of data and services in distributed environments, a GIS platform that is open, integrative, reconfigurable, reusable and elastic would represent an indispensable tool. The purpose of this paper is to develop a geological cloud-computing platform for integrating and sharing geological information based on a cloud architecture. Thus, the geological cloud-computing platform defines geological ontology semantics; designs a standard geological information framework and a standard resource integration model; builds a peer-to-peer node management mechanism; achieves the description, organization, discovery, computing and integration of the distributed resources; and provides the distributed spatial meta service, the spatial information catalog service, the multi-mode geological data service and the spatial data interoperation service. The geological survey information cloud-computing platform has been implemented, and based on the platform, some geological data services and geological processing services were developed. Furthermore, an iron mine resource forecast and an evaluation service is introduced in this paper.

  19. A Geospatial Information Grid Framework for Geological Survey

    PubMed Central

    Wu, Liang; Xue, Lei; Li, Chaoling; Lv, Xia; Chen, Zhanlong; Guo, Mingqiang; Xie, Zhong

    2015-01-01

    The use of digital information in geological fields is becoming very important. Thus, informatization in geological surveys should not stagnate as a result of the level of data accumulation. The integration and sharing of distributed, multi-source, heterogeneous geological information is an open problem in geological domains. Applications and services use geological spatial data with many features, including being cross-region and cross-domain and requiring real-time updating. As a result of these features, desktop and web-based geographic information systems (GISs) experience difficulties in meeting the demand for geological spatial information. To facilitate the real-time sharing of data and services in distributed environments, a GIS platform that is open, integrative, reconfigurable, reusable and elastic would represent an indispensable tool. The purpose of this paper is to develop a geological cloud-computing platform for integrating and sharing geological information based on a cloud architecture. Thus, the geological cloud-computing platform defines geological ontology semantics; designs a standard geological information framework and a standard resource integration model; builds a peer-to-peer node management mechanism; achieves the description, organization, discovery, computing and integration of the distributed resources; and provides the distributed spatial meta service, the spatial information catalog service, the multi-mode geological data service and the spatial data interoperation service. The geological survey information cloud-computing platform has been implemented, and based on the platform, some geological data services and geological processing services were developed. Furthermore, an iron mine resource forecast and an evaluation service is introduced in this paper. PMID:26710255

  20. Restoration of abandoned mine lands through cooperative coal resource evaluations

    SciTech Connect

    Hoskins, D.M.; Smith, M.

    1996-12-31

    The public reclamation cost of reclaiming all of Pennsylvania`s abandoned mine lands is estimated at $15 billion. Drainage from abandoned mines poses another $5 billion water pollution clean-up problem. Although it is unlikely that public reclamation alone could ever tackle these problems, much can be done to alleviate the nuisances through the remining of previously mined areas to recover remaining reserves, restore the land and improve water quality in the same process. Remining of priority areas is encouraged through a new Pennsylvania policy which provides incentives to mining companies. One incentive, initiated under Pennsylvania`s comprehensive mine reclamation strategy, is to identify and geologically map reminable coal resources in selected watersheds, and then to expedite mine permitting in these watersheds. At present, two such priority watersheds, Little Toby Creek in Elk County and Tangascootak Creek in Clinton County, are the focus of geologic map compilation based on recent quadrangle mapping, or new, directed, geologic mapping, including new research core drilling to establish the geologic stratigraphic framework. In order to maximize environmental benefits the comprehensive mine reclamation strategy identifies watersheds which are affected by acid mine drainage (AMD), but that are reasonably capable of restoration, if sufficient coal reserves remain. Pennsylvania`s geochemical quality database of rock overburden, in combination with detailed coal resource mapping by the Pennsylvania Geological Survey, and the cooperation of coal companies and leaseholders, is being used by the Department of Environmental Protection (DEP) to identify and design remining projects which will not only allow the recovery of coal resources, but will also improve the water quality through a variety of innovative mining techniques.

  1. Fungal diversity in major oil-shale mines in China.

    PubMed

    Jiang, Shaoyan; Wang, Wenxing; Xue, Xiangxin; Cao, Chengyou; Zhang, Ying

    2016-03-01

    As an insufficiently utilized energy resource, oil shale is conducive to the formation of characteristic microbial communities due to its special geological origins. However, little is known about fungal diversity in oil shale. Polymerase chain reaction cloning was used to construct the fungal ribosomal deoxyribonucleic acid internal transcribed spacer (rDNA ITS) clone libraries of Huadian Mine in Jilin Province, Maoming Mine in Guangdong Province, and Fushun Mine in Liaoning Province. Pure culture and molecular identification were applied for the isolation of cultivable fungi in fresh oil shale of each mine. Results of clone libraries indicated that each mine had over 50% Ascomycota (58.4%-98.9%) and 1.1%-13.5% unidentified fungi. Fushun Mine and Huadian Mine had 5.9% and 28.1% Basidiomycota, respectively. Huadian Mine showed the highest fungal diversity, followed by Fushun Mine and Maoming Mine. Jaccard indexes showed that the similarities between any two of three fungal communities at the genus level were very low, indicating that fungi in each mine developed independently during the long geological adaptation and formed a community composition fitting the environment. In the fresh oil-shale samples of the three mines, cultivable fungal phyla were consistent with the results of clone libraries. Fifteen genera and several unidentified fungi were identified as Ascomycota and Basidiomycota using pure culture. Penicillium was the only genus found in all three mines. These findings contributed to gaining a clear understanding of current fungal resources in major oil-shale mines in China and provided useful information for relevant studies on isolation of indigenous fungi carrying functional genes from oil shale.

  2. Circumstellar chemistry

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Glassgold, Alfred E.; Huggins, Patrick J.

    1987-01-01

    The study of the outer envelopes of cool evolved stars has become an active area of research. The physical properties of CS envelopes are presented. Observations of many wavelengths bands are relevant. A summary of observations and a discussion of theoretical considerations concerning the chemistry are summarized. Recent theoretical considerations show that the thermal equilibrium model is of limited use for understanding the chemistry of the outer CS envelopes. The theoretical modeling of the chemistry of CS envelopes provides a quantitive test of chemical concepts which have a broader interest than the envelopes themselves.

  3. Planning the Mine and Mining the Plan

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Boucher, D. S.; Chen, N.

    2016-11-01

    Overview of best practices used in the terrestrial mining industry when developing a mine site towards production. The intent is to guide planners towards an effective and well constructed roadmap for the development of ISRU mining activities. A strawman scenario is presented as an illustration for lunar mining of water ice.

  4. Geophysics & Geology Inspected.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Neale, E. R. W.

    1981-01-01

    Summarizes findings of a recently published report of the Canadian Geoscience Council, which includes the following topics regarding college geology: facilities; teaching; undergraduate enrollments; postgraduate enrollments; geologic research; and integration of Canadian geoscience with other countries. (CS)

  5. Geophysics & Geology Inspected.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Neale, E. R. W.

    1981-01-01

    Summarizes findings of a recently published report of the Canadian Geoscience Council, which includes the following topics regarding college geology: facilities; teaching; undergraduate enrollments; postgraduate enrollments; geologic research; and integration of Canadian geoscience with other countries. (CS)

  6. Geology for the Masses

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Dickinson, William R.

    1970-01-01

    Describes environmental geology as including planning to avoid natural hazards, acquire natural resources, and use land wisely. Describes philosophy and strategies for developing interdisciplinary, environmental geology education at the high school, college, professional graduate, and doctoral research levels. (PR)

  7. Geological impact of some tailings dams in Sardinia, Italy

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    di Gregorio, Felice; Massoli-Novelli, Raniero

    1992-05-01

    This article deals with the results of a survey carried out in Sardinia on both active and abandoned tailings dams, and we also discuss the geological impact of tailings dams of two mines: the Masua mine, a large syngenetic Pb-Zn deposit located in Cambrian limestones, and the Montevecchio mine, a Pb-Zn vein deposit near a Hercynian granite intrusion. The characteristics and metal content of material in the dams were analyzed. A high contamination of heavy metals (Pb, Zn, Cd, Cu) was found both in the soils and water of Rio Montevecchio, a stream draining the tailings dams and other mining operations in the area. The study indicates that a control plan to minimize heavy metal pollution must be drawn up for all mines of the area, whether active or abandoned.

  8. Escondida Mine, Chile

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    2002-01-01

    Full resolution visible and near-infrared image (1.4 MB) Full resolution shortwave infrared image (1.6 MB) This Advanced Spaceborne Thermal Emission and Reflection Radiometer (ASTER) image covers 30 by 23 km (full images 30 x 37 km) in the Atacama Desert, Chile, and was acquired on April 23, 2000. The Escondida copper, gold, and silver open-pit mine is at an elevation of 3050 m, and began operations in 1990. Current capacity is 127,000 tons/day of ore; in 1999 production totaled 827,000 tons of copper, 150,000 ounces of gold, and 3.53 million ounces of silver. Primary concentrate of the ore is done on-site; the concentrate is then sent to the coast for further processing through a 170 km long, 9-inch pipe. Escondida is related geologically to three porphyry bodies intruded along the Chilean West Fissure Fault System. A high grade supergene cap overlies primary sulfide ore. The top image is a conventional 3-2-1 (near infrared, red, green) RGB composite. The bottom image displays shortwave infrared bands 4-6-8 (1.65um, 2.205um, 2.33um) in RGB, and highlights the different rock types present on the surface, as well as the changes caused by mining. Image courtesy NASA/GSFC/MITI/ERSDAC/JAROS, and U.S./Japan ASTER Science Team

  9. Historical sketch: Radar geology

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Macdonald, H.

    1980-01-01

    A chronological assessment is given of the broad spectra of technology associated with radar geology. Particular attention is given to the most recent developments made in the areas of microwave Earth resources applications and geologic remote sensing from aircraft and satellite. The significance of space derived radar in geologic investigations is discussed and the scientific basis for exploiting the sensitivity of radar signals to various aspects of geologic terrain is given.

  10. Catalytic Chemistry.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Borer, Londa; And Others

    1996-01-01

    Describes an approach for making chemistry relevant to everyday life. Involves the study of kinetics using the decomposition of hydrogen peroxide by vegetable juices. Allows students to design and carry out experiments and then draw conclusions from their results. (JRH)

  11. Nuclear Chemistry.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Chemical and Engineering News, 1979

    1979-01-01

    Provides a brief review of the latest developments in nuclear chemistry. Nuclear research today is directed toward increased activity in radiopharmaceuticals and formation of new isotopes by high-energy, heavy-ion collisions. (Author/BB)

  12. Chemistry Notes.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    School Science Review, 1981

    1981-01-01

    Describes 13 activities, experiments and demonstrations, including the preparation of iron (III) chloride, simple alpha-helix model, investigating camping gas, redox reactions of some organic compounds, a liquid crystal thermometer, and the oxidation number concept in organic chemistry. (JN)

  13. Precolumbian Chemistry.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Robinson, Janet Bond

    1995-01-01

    Describes the content and development of a curriculum that provides an approach to descriptive chemistry and the history of technology through consideration of the pottery, metallurgy, pigments, dyes, agriculture, and medicine of pre-Columbian people. (DDR)

  14. Chemistry Notes.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    School Science Review, 1980

    1980-01-01

    Describes equipment, activities, and experiments useful in chemistry instruction, including among others, a rapid method to determine available chlorine in bleach, simple flame testing apparatus, and a simple apparatus demonstrating the technique of flash photolysis. (SK)

  15. Chemistry Notes

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    School Science Review, 1973

    1973-01-01

    Several ideas are proposed for chemistry teachers to try in their classrooms. Subjects included are polymerization of acrylate, polymerization of styrene, conductivity, pollution, preparation of chlorine, redox equations, chemiluminescence, and molecular sieves. (PS)

  16. Catalytic Chemistry.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Borer, Londa; And Others

    1996-01-01

    Describes an approach for making chemistry relevant to everyday life. Involves the study of kinetics using the decomposition of hydrogen peroxide by vegetable juices. Allows students to design and carry out experiments and then draw conclusions from their results. (JRH)

  17. Nuclear Chemistry.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Chemical and Engineering News, 1979

    1979-01-01

    Provides a brief review of the latest developments in nuclear chemistry. Nuclear research today is directed toward increased activity in radiopharmaceuticals and formation of new isotopes by high-energy, heavy-ion collisions. (Author/BB)

  18. Chemistry Notes

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    School Science Review, 1973

    1973-01-01

    Several ideas are proposed for chemistry teachers to try in their classrooms. Subjects included are polymerization of acrylate, polymerization of styrene, conductivity, pollution, preparation of chlorine, redox equations, chemiluminescence, and molecular sieves. (PS)

  19. Chemistry Notes.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    School Science Review, 1980

    1980-01-01

    Describes equipment, activities, and experiments useful in chemistry instruction, including among others, a rapid method to determine available chlorine in bleach, simple flame testing apparatus, and a simple apparatus demonstrating the technique of flash photolysis. (SK)

  20. Chemistry Notes.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    School Science Review, 1981

    1981-01-01

    Describes 13 activities, experiments and demonstrations, including the preparation of iron (III) chloride, simple alpha-helix model, investigating camping gas, redox reactions of some organic compounds, a liquid crystal thermometer, and the oxidation number concept in organic chemistry. (JN)

  1. Precolumbian Chemistry.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Robinson, Janet Bond

    1995-01-01

    Describes the content and development of a curriculum that provides an approach to descriptive chemistry and the history of technology through consideration of the pottery, metallurgy, pigments, dyes, agriculture, and medicine of pre-Columbian people. (DDR)

  2. Stratospheric chemistry

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Brune, William H.

    Advances in stratospheric chemistry made by investigators in the United States from 1987 to 1990 are reviewed. Subject areas under consideration include photochemistry of the polar stratosphere, photochemistry of the global stratosphere, and assessments of inadvertent modification of the stratosphere by anthropogenic activity. Particular attention is given to early observations and theories, gas phase chemistry, Antarctic observations, Arctic observations, odd-oxygen, odd-hydrogen, odd-nitrogen, halogens, aerosols, modeling of stratospheric ozone, and reactive nitrogen effects.

  3. Stratospheric chemistry

    SciTech Connect

    Brune, W.H. )

    1991-01-01

    Advances in stratospheric chemistry made by investigators in the United States from 1987 to 1990 are reviewed. Subject areas under consideration include photochemistry of the polar stratosphere, photochemistry of the global stratosphere, and assessments of inadvertent modification of the stratosphere by anthropogenic activity. Particular attention is given to early observations and theories, gas phase chemistry, Antarctic observations, Arctic observations, odd-oxygen, odd-hydrogen, odd-nitrogen, halogens, aerosols, modeling of stratospheric ozone, and reactive nitrogen effects.

  4. Groundwater in geologic processes, 2nd edition

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Ingebritsen, Steven E.; Sanford, Ward E.; Neuzil, Christopher E.

    2006-01-01

    Interest in the role of Groundwater in Geologic Processes has increased steadily over the past few decades. Hydrogeologists and geologists are now actively exploring the role of groundwater and other subsurface fluids in such fundamental geologic processes as crustal heat transfer, ore deposition, hydrocarbon migration, earthquakes, tectonic deformation, diagenesis, and metamorphism.Groundwater in Geologic Processes is the first comprehensive treatment of this body of inquiry. Chapters 1 to 4 develop the basic theories of groundwater motion, hydromechanics, solute transport, and heat transport. Chapter 5 applies these theories to regional groundwater flow systems in a generic sense, and Chapters 6 to 13 focus on particular geologic processes and environments. Relative to the first edition of Groundwater in Geologic Processes , this second edition includes a much more comprehensive treatment of hydromechanics (the coupling of groundwater flow and deformation). It also includes new chapters on "compaction and diagenesis," "metamorphism," and "subsea hydrogeology." Finally, it takes advantage of the substantial body of published research that has appeared since the first edition in 1998. The systematic presentation of theory and application, and the problem sets that conclude each chapter, make this book ideal for undergraduate- and graduate-level geology courses (assuming that the students have some background in calculus and introductory chemistry). It also serves as an invaluable reference for researchers and other professionals in the field

  5. Scale Determinants of Fiscal Investment in Geological Exploration: Evidence from China

    PubMed Central

    Lu, Linna; Lei, Yalin

    2013-01-01

    With the continued growth in demand for mineral resources and China's efforts in increasing investment in geological prospecting, fiscal investment in geological exploration becomes a research hotspot. This paper examines the yearly relationship among fiscal investment in geological exploration of the current term, that of the last term and prices of mining rights over the period 1999–2009. Hines and Catephores' investment acceleration model is applied to describe the scale determinants of fiscal investment in geological exploration which are value-added of mining rights, value of mining rights and fiscal investment in the last term. The results indicate that when value-added of mining rights, value of mining rights or fiscal investment in the last term moves at 1 unit, fiscal investment in the current term will move 0.381, 1.094 or 0.907 units respectively. In order to determine the scale of fiscal investment in geological exploration for the current year, the Chinese government should take fiscal investment in geological exploration for the last year and the capital stock of the previous investments into account. In practice, combination of government fiscal investment in geological exploration with its performance evaluation can create a virtuous circle of capital management mechanism. PMID:24204652

  6. Scale determinants of fiscal investment in geological exploration: evidence from China.

    PubMed

    Lu, Linna; Lei, Yalin

    2013-01-01

    With the continued growth in demand for mineral resources and China's efforts in increasing investment in geological prospecting, fiscal investment in geological exploration becomes a research hotspot. This paper examines the yearly relationship among fiscal investment in geological exploration of the current term, that of the last term and prices of mining rights over the period 1999-2009. Hines and Catephores' investment acceleration model is applied to describe the scale determinants of fiscal investment in geological exploration which are value-added of mining rights, value of mining rights and fiscal investment in the last term. The results indicate that when value-added of mining rights, value of mining rights or fiscal investment in the last term moves at 1 unit, fiscal investment in the current term will move 0.381, 1.094 or 0.907 units respectively. In order to determine the scale of fiscal investment in geological exploration for the current year, the Chinese government should take fiscal investment in geological exploration for the last year and the capital stock of the previous investments into account. In practice, combination of government fiscal investment in geological exploration with its performance evaluation can create a virtuous circle of capital management mechanism.

  7. Data mining

    SciTech Connect

    Lee, K.; Kargupta, H.; Stafford, B.G.; Buescher, K.L.; Ravindran, B.

    1998-12-31

    This is the final report of a one-year, Laboratory Directed Research and Development (LDRD) project at the Los Alamos National Laboratory (LANL). The objective of this project was to develop and implement data mining technology suited to the analysis of large collections of unstructured data. This has taken the form of a software tool, PADMA (Parallel Data Mining Agents), which incorporates parallel data accessing, parallel scalable hierarchical clustering algorithms, and a web-based user interface for submitting Structured Query Language (SQL) queries and interactive data visualization. The authors have demonstrated the viability and scalability of PADMA by applying it to an unstructured text database of 25,000 documents running on an IBM SP2 at Argonne National Laboratory. The utility of PADMA for discovering patterns in data has also been demonstrated by applying it to laboratory test data for Hepatitis C patients and autopsy reports in collaboration with the University of New Mexico School of Medicine.

  8. Geological Survey research 1978

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    ,

    1978-01-01

    This U.S. Geological Survey activities report includes a summary of 1978 fiscal year scientific and economic results accompanied by a list of geologic and hydrologic investigations in progress and a report on the status of topographic mapping. The summary of results includes: (1) Mineral and water resources, (2) Engineering geology and hydrology, (3) Regional geology, (4) Principles and processes, (5) Laboratory and field methods, (6) Topographic surveys and mapping, (7) Management of resources on public lands, (8) Land information and analysis, and (9) Investigations in other countries. Also included are lists of cooperating agencies and Geological Survey offices. (Woodard-USGS)

  9. Geological Survey research 1976

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    ,

    1976-01-01

    This U.S. Geological Survey activities report includes a summary of recent (1976 fiscal year) scientific and economic results accompanied by a list of geologic and hydrologic investigations in progress and a report on the status of topographic mapping. The summary of results includes: (1) Mineral resources, Water resources, (2) Engineering geology and hydrology, (3) Regional geology, (4) Principles and processes, (5) Laboratory and field methods, (6) Topographic surveys and mapping, (7) Management of resources on public lands, (8) Land information and analysis, and (9) Investigations in other countries. Also included are lists of cooperating agencies and Geological Survey offices. (Woodard-USGS)

  10. Text mining.

    PubMed

    Clegg, Andrew B; Shepherd, Adrian J

    2008-01-01

    One of the fastest-growing fields in bioinformatics is text mining: the application of natural language processing techniques to problems of knowledge management and discovery, using large collections of biological or biomedical text such as MEDLINE. The techniques used in text mining range from the very simple (e.g., the inference of relationships between genes from frequent proximity in documents) to the complex and computationally intensive (e.g., the analysis of sentence structures with parsers in order to extract facts about protein-protein interactions from statements in the text). This chapter presents a general introduction to some of the key principles and challenges of natural language processing, and introduces some of the tools available to end-users and developers. A case study describes the construction and testing of a simple tool designed to tackle a task that is crucial to almost any application of text mining in bioinformatics--identifying gene/protein names in text and mapping them onto records in an external database.

  11. The Mechanization of Mining.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Marovelli, Robert L.; Karhnak, John M.

    1982-01-01

    Mechanization of mining is explained in terms of its effect on the mining of coal, focusing on, among others, types of mining, productivity, machinery, benefits to retired miners, fatality rate in underground coal mines, and output of U.S. mining industry. (Author/JN)

  12. The Mechanization of Mining.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Marovelli, Robert L.; Karhnak, John M.

    1982-01-01

    Mechanization of mining is explained in terms of its effect on the mining of coal, focusing on, among others, types of mining, productivity, machinery, benefits to retired miners, fatality rate in underground coal mines, and output of U.S. mining industry. (Author/JN)

  13. Forensic geology exhumed

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Martinez, Joseph Didier

    Forensic geology binds applied geology to the world of legal controversy and action. However, the term “forensic” is often misconstrued. Although even some attorneys apply it only to the marshalling of evidence in criminal cases, it has a much broader definition. One dictionary defines it as “pertaining to, connected with, or used in courts of law or public discussion and debate.” The American Geological Institute's Glossary of Geology defines forensic geology as “the application of the Earth sciences to the law.” The cited reference to Murray and Tedrow [1975], however, deals mostly if not exclusively with the gathering and use of evidence in criminal cases, despite the widespread involvement of geologists in more general legal matters. It seems appropriate to “exhume” geology's wider application to the law, which is encompassed by forensic geology.

  14. Influence of Sungun copper mine on groundwater quality, NW Iran

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Nasrabadi, T.; Nabi Bidhendi, G. R.; Karbassi, A. R.; Hoveidi, H.; Nasrabadi, I.; Pezeshk, H.; Rashidinejad, F.

    2009-08-01

    Sungun mine is the largest open-cast copper mine in northwest of Iran and is in the primary stages of extraction. The influence of mining activity on the quality of regional groundwater has been taken in to consideration in this study. Accordingly, sampling was done from 22 springs in the study area. The concentrations of major anions and cations as well as Al, Cu, Cd, Cr, Fe, Mn, and Zn were determined for all 22 spring samples in mid-August 2005. The results showed that the concentrations of most of these elements were below the USA Environmental Protection Agency (EPA) limits; however, Al and Fe concentrations are considered to be more than limits in a couple of samples. Despite the fact that geological formations are highly weathered and fractured, the dissolution of minerals within the study area is low. This may be justified by the relatively high alkalinity of local underground water which keeps metals in solid phase and does not let them enter dissolved phase. Additionally, this may be attributed to the high velocity of groundwater flows, which do not give enough time for minerals to dissolve. Correlation coefficients among water chemistry components were determined and the weighted-pair group method was chosen for cluster analysis. Accordingly, high correlation among Al, Fe and Cr, Cd ,and Cu, sodium absorption ratio (SAR) and Na as well as total hardness (TH), Ca, and Mg were observed. The chemical characteristics of water compositions on the basis of major ion concentrations were evaluated on a Schoeller and Piper diagram. Accordingly, the dominant type of water in the region is considered to be Ca-HCO3 (calcium-bicarbonate type). However, this type of water is also rich in Na, K, and especially Mg. Regarding Schoeller diagram, the current status of local underground water is good for drinking purposes. By commencing mining excavation with designed capacity in near future, the minerals will come into contact with air and water resulting in dissolution

  15. Geologic evaluation and applications of ERTS-1 imagery over Georgia

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Pickering, S. M.; Jones, R. C.

    1974-01-01

    Satellite imagery and other remote sensing tools and techniques have provided a powerful tool to assist geologic research; significantly increased the mapping efficiency of field geologists; shown new lineaments associated with known shear and fault zones; delineated new structural features; provided a tool to reevaluate tectonic history; helped to locate potential ground-water sources and areas of aquifer recharge; defined areas of geologic hazards; shown areas of heavy siltation in major reservoirs; and, by close interval repetition, aided in monitoring surface mine reclamation activities and the environmental protection of the intricate marshland system. The Georgia Geological Survey has been engaged in regional mapping for the new state geologic map. ERTS-1 images enlarged to compatible mapping scales have increased field geologic mapping efficiency by at least 25%. There are a number of areas where data from ERTS-1 imagery has allowed a notably higher level of precision than has been available with any amount of field work on the ground.

  16. Waste disposal in underground mines -- A technology partnership to protect the environment

    SciTech Connect

    1995-12-31

    Environmentally compatible disposal sites must be found despite all efforts to avoid and reduce the generation of dangerous waste. Deep geologic disposal provides the logical solution as ever more categories of waste are barred from long-term disposal in near-surface sites through regulation and litigation. Past mining in the US has left in its wake large volumes of suitable underground space. EPA studies and foreign practice have demonstrated deep geologic disposal in mines to be rational and viable. In the US, where much of the mined underground space is located on public lands, disposal in mines would also serve the goal of multiple use. It is only logical to return the residues of materials mined from the underground to their origin. Therefore, disposal of dangerous wastes in mined underground openings constitutes a perfect match between mining and the protection and enhancement of the environment.

  17. Environmental impact assessment of open pit mining in Iran

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Monjezi, M.; Shahriar, K.; Dehghani, H.; Samimi Namin, F.

    2009-07-01

    Mining is widely regarded as having adverse effects on environment of both magnitude and diversity. Some of these effects include erosion, formation of sinkhole, biodiversity loss and contamination of groundwater by chemical from the mining process in general and open-pit mining in particular. As such, a repeatable process to evaluate these effects primarily aims to diminish them. This paper applies Folchi method to evaluate the impact of open-pit mining in four Iranian mines that lacked previous geo-environmental assessment. Having key geologic resources, these mines are: Mouteh gold mine, Gol-e-Gohar and Chogart iron mines, and Sarcheshmeh copper mine. The environmental components can be defined as public health and safety, social relationships, air and water quality, flora and fauna hence, various impacting factors from the mining activities were estimated for each environmental component. For this purpose, each impacting factor was first given a magnitude, based solely on the range of possible scenarios. Thereafter, a matrix of weighted factors was derived to systematically quantify and normalize the effects of each impacting factor. The overall impact upon each individual environmental component was then calculated by summing the weighted rates. Here, Folchi method was applied to evaluate those environmental conditions. Based on the acquired results, the present paper finally concludes that amongst four case histories in Iran, Sarcheshmeh copper mine significantly affects the environment, with critical level of air pollution there.

  18. Proceedings: Fourth Workshop on Mining Scientific Datasets

    SciTech Connect

    Kamath, C

    2001-07-24

    Commercial applications of data mining in areas such as e-commerce, market-basket analysis, text-mining, and web-mining have taken on a central focus in the JCDD community. However, there is a significant amount of innovative data mining work taking place in the context of scientific and engineering applications that is not well represented in the mainstream KDD conferences. For example, scientific data mining techniques are being developed and applied to diverse fields such as remote sensing, physics, chemistry, biology, astronomy, structural mechanics, computational fluid dynamics etc. In these areas, data mining frequently complements and enhances existing analysis methods based on statistics, exploratory data analysis, and domain-specific approaches. On the surface, it may appear that data from one scientific field, say genomics, is very different from another field, such as physics. However, despite their diversity, there is much that is common across the mining of scientific and engineering data. For example, techniques used to identify objects in images are very similar, regardless of whether the images came from a remote sensing application, a physics experiment, an astronomy observation, or a medical study. Further, with data mining being applied to new types of data, such as mesh data from scientific simulations, there is the opportunity to apply and extend data mining to new scientific domains. This one-day workshop brings together data miners analyzing science data and scientists from diverse fields to share their experiences, learn how techniques developed in one field can be applied in another, and better understand some of the newer techniques being developed in the KDD community. This is the fourth workshop on the topic of Mining Scientific Data sets; for information on earlier workshops, see http://www.ahpcrc.org/conferences/. This workshop continues the tradition of addressing challenging problems in a field where the diversity of applications is

  19. Materials: Bringing Relevance to Chemistry and Physics Education

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Whittingham, M. Stanley

    1997-03-01

    In 1988 Binghamton started to integrate materials throughout the "chemistry" curriculum. A one semester general chemistry course, that is required of physics, engineering and geology majors was first restructured so that the middle one-third of the course emphasized materials, both inorganic and organic (NSF 90-60). It's aim was to involve students in today's science in both lecture and

  20. Northern Trust Mines

    EPA Pesticide Factsheets

    The United States and the Navajo Nation entered into settlement agreements that provide funds to conduct investigations and any needed cleanup at 16 of the 46 priority mines, including six mines in the Northern Abandoned Uranium Mine Region.

  1. Exploration and Mining Roadmap

    SciTech Connect

    none,

    2002-09-01

    This Exploration and Mining Technology Roadmap represents the third roadmap for the Mining Industry of the Future. It is based upon the results of the Exploration and Mining Roadmap Workshop held May 10 ñ 11, 2001.

  2. ERTS-1 data applied to strip mining

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Anderson, A. T.; Schubert, J.

    1976-01-01

    Two coal basins within the western region of the Potomac River Basin contain the largest strip-mining operations in western Maryland and West Virginia. The disturbed strip-mine areas were delineated along with the surrounding geological and vegetation features by using ERTS-1 data in both analog and digital form. The two digital systems employed were (1) the ERTS analysis system, a point-by-point digital analysis of spectral signatures based on known spectral values and (2) the LARS automatic data processing system. These two systems aided in efforts to determine the extent and state of strip mining in this region. Aircraft data, ground-verification information, and geological field studies also aided in the application of ERTS-1 imagery to perform an integrated analysis that assessed the adverse effects of strip mining. The results indicated that ERTS can both monitor and map the extent of strip mining to determine immediately the acreage affected and to indicate where future reclamation and revegetation may be necessary.

  3. ERTS-1 data applied to strip mining

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Anderson, A. T.; Schubert, J.

    1976-01-01

    Two coal basins within the western region of the Potomac River Basin contain the largest strip-mining operations in western Maryland and West Virginia. The disturbed strip-mine areas were delineated along with the surrounding geological and vegetation features by using ERTS-1 data in both analog and digital form. The two digital systems employed were (1) the ERTS analysis system, a point-by-point digital analysis of spectral signatures based on known spectral values and (2) the LARS automatic data processing system. These two systems aided in efforts to determine the extent and state of strip mining in this region. Aircraft data, ground-verification information, and geological field studies also aided in the application of ERTS-1 imagery to perform an integrated analysis that assessed the adverse effects of strip mining. The results indicated that ERTS can both monitor and map the extent of strip mining to determine immediately the acreage affected and to indicate where future reclamation and revegetation may be necessary.

  4. Mine flooding and barrier pillar hydrology in the Pittsburgh basin

    SciTech Connect

    Leavitt, B.R.

    1999-07-01

    Pennsylvania began requiring barrier pillars between mines as early as 1930. The Ashley formula, resulting from a early commission on the problem, requires 20 feet of coal plus a thickness of coal equal to four times the seam height plus an additional thickness of coal equal to one tenth of the overburden thickness, or the maximum potential hydraulic head. For a 6-foot thick coal seam under 400 feet of cover, the barrier would be 20+24+40=84 feet. The Ashley formula is intended to protect coal miners from a catastrophic failure of a barrier pillar which has a high head of water impounded behind it. The paper gives several examples of flooded and unflooded mines and the performance of their barrier pillars with respect to acid mine drainage. It is concluded that for all practical purposes, barrier pillars designed with the Ashley formula are able to hydrologically isolate mines from one another. This hydrologic isolation promotes the inundation of closed mines. Inundation effectively stops acid formation, thus, fully inundated mines do not represent a perpetual source of acid mine drainage. Infiltrating ground water improves the mine water chemistry resulting in a net alkaline discharge which has greatly lowered iron concentrations. The best locations for acid mine drainage treatment plants is at the lowest surface elevation above the mine with mine flooded to near that elevation.

  5. Chemistry Experiments

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Brasseur, Guy; Remsberg, Ellis; Purcell, Patrick; Bhatt, Praful; Sage, Karen H.; Brown, Donald E.; Scott, Courtney J.; Ko, Malcolm K. W.; Tie, Xue-Xi; Huang, Theresa

    1999-01-01

    The purpose of the chemistry component of the model comparison is to assess to what extent differences in the formulation of chemical processes explain the variance between model results. Observed concentrations of chemical compounds are used to estimate to what degree the various models represent realistic situations. For readability, the materials for the chemistry experiment are reported in three separate sections. This section discussed the data used to evaluate the models in their simulation of the source gases and the Nitrogen compounds (NO(y)) and Chlorine compounds (Cl(y)) species.

  6. Polymer Chemistry

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Williams, Martha; Roberson, Luke; Caraccio, Anne

    2010-01-01

    This viewgraph presentation describes new technologies in polymer and material chemistry that benefits NASA programs and missions. The topics include: 1) What are Polymers?; 2) History of Polymer Chemistry; 3) Composites/Materials Development at KSC; 4) Why Wiring; 5) Next Generation Wiring Materials; 6) Wire System Materials and Integration; 7) Self-Healing Wire Repair; 8) Smart Wiring Summary; 9) Fire and Polymers; 10) Aerogel Technology; 11) Aerogel Composites; 12) Aerogels for Oil Remediation; 13) KSC's Solution; 14) Chemochromic Hydrogen Sensors; 15) STS-130 and 131 Operations; 16) HyperPigment; 17) Antimicrobial Materials; 18) Conductive Inks Formulations for Multiple Applications; and 19) Testing and Processing Equipment.

  7. Chemistry Experiments

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Brasseur, Guy; Remsberg, Ellis; Purcell, Patrick; Bhatt, Praful; Sage, Karen H.; Brown, Donald E.; Scott, Courtney J.; Ko, Malcolm K. W.; Tie, Xue-Xi; Huang, Theresa

    1999-01-01

    The purpose of the chemistry component of the model comparison is to assess to what extent differences in the formulation of chemical processes explain the variance between model results. Observed concentrations of chemical compounds are used to estimate to what degree the various models represent realistic situations. For readability, the materials for the chemistry experiment are reported in three separate sections. This section discussed the data used to evaluate the models in their simulation of the source gases and the Nitrogen compounds (NO(y)) and Chlorine compounds (Cl(y)) species.

  8. Mining review

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    McCartan, L.; Morse, D.E.; Plunkert, P.A.; Sibley, S.F.

    2004-01-01

    The average annual growth rate of real gross domestic product (GDP) from the third quarter of 2001 through the second quarter of 2003 in the United States was about 2.6 percent. GDP growth rates in the third and fourth quarters of 2003 were about 8 percent and 4 percent, respectively. The upward trends in many sectors of the U.S. economy in 2003, however, were shared by few of the mineral materials industries. Annual output declined in most nonfuel mining and mineral processing industries, although there was an upward turn toward yearend as prices began to increase.

  9. Surface mining

    SciTech Connect

    Not Available

    1989-06-01

    This paper reports on a GAO study of attorney and expert witness fees awarded as a result of litigation brought under the Surface Mining Control and Reclamation Act. As of March 24, 1989, a total of about $1.4 million had been awarded in attorney fees and expenses - about $1.3 subject to the provisions of the Employee Retirement Income Security Act, a comparison of its features with provisions of ERISA showed that the plan differed from ERISA provisions in areas such as eligibility, funding, and contribution limits.

  10. Interpretive geologic bedrock map of the Tanana B-1 Quadrangle, Central Alaska

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Reifenstuh, Rocky R.; Dover, James H.; Newberry, Rainer J.; Calutice, Karen H.; Liss, Shirley A.; Blodgett, Robert B.; Budtzen, Thomas K.; Weber, Florence R.

    1997-01-01

    This report provides detailed (1:63,360-scale) mapping of the Tanana B-1 Quadrangle (250 square miles; equivalent to four 7.5 minute quadrangles). The area is part of the Manley Hot Springs-Tofty mining districts and adjacent to the Rampart mining district to the north of the Tanana A-1 and A-2 Quadrangles. This report includes detailed bedrock, structural, stratigraphic, and geochronologic data. Based on the resulting geologic maps, field investigations, and laboratory materials analyses, the project has also generated derivative maps of geologic construction materials and geologic hazards.

  11. Injection of FGD grout to abate acid mine drainage in underground coal mines

    SciTech Connect

    Mafi, S.; Damian, M.T.; Baker, R.

    1998-12-31

    The objective of this project is to demonstrate the technical feasibility of injecting cementitious alkaline materials in the form of fixated flue gas desulfurization (FGD) material to reduce and mitigate acid mine drainage in a small abandoned deep mine in Coshocton County, Ohio. The project will attempt to demonstrate if a grout consisting of FGD and water can economically seal off seepage from old mine works and reduce or eliminate acid mine drainage. By attempting to seal and fill primarily the lower, down-dip areas of the mine, the authors will attempt to establish a practical procedure which can be economically applied to larger mines where full scale filling would be cost prohibitive due to the quantities required. In addition to the design of the grout mix and the mine seal, the research project will be studying the following aspects of the use of FGD in this application: Impact of FGD on ground and surface water quality; Effect of AMD chemistry on acid neutralizing capacity of FGD; Weathering Kinetics of FGD grout subject to AMD conditions; Effect on physical properties of FGD caused by AMD weathering; and Sulfur Isotopic Characterization of the site coal, FGD, acid mine water, and groundwater samples.

  12. Sedimentology and petroleum geology

    SciTech Connect

    Bjorlykke, K.O. )

    1989-01-01

    This book presents an introduction to sedimentology as well as petroleum geology. It integrates both subjects, which are closely related but mostly treated separately. The author covers the basic aspects of sedimentology, sedimentary geochemistry and diagenesis. Principles of stratigraphy, seismic stratigraphy and basin modelling forms the base for the part on petroleum geology. Subjects discussed include the composition of kerogen and hydrocarbons, theories of migration and trapping of hydrocarbons and properties of reservoir rocks. Introductions to well logging and production geology are given.

  13. Geological Survey research 1981

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    ,

    1982-01-01

    This U.S. Geological Survey activities report includes a summary of 1981 fiscal year scientific and economic results accompanied by a list of geologic, hydrologic, and cartographic investigations in progress. The summary of results includes: (1) Mineral, (2) Water resources, (3) Engineering geology and hydrology, (4) Regional geology, (5) Principles and processes, (6) Laboratory and field methods, (7) Topographic surveys and mapping, (8) Management of resources on public lands, (9) Land information and analysis, and (10) Investigations in other countries. Also included are lists of investigations in progress.

  14. PHOTOMICROPHOTOGRAPHY- GEOLOGY ( SEM)

    NASA Image and Video Library

    1972-10-13

    PHOTOMICROPHOTOGRAPHY -GEOLOGY (SEM) High magnification and resolution views of lunar, meteorite and terrestrial materials using the Scanning Electron MIcroscope (SEM), Bldg. 31 Planetary and Earth Science Laboratory.

  15. Alaska geology revealed

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Wilson, Frederic H.; Labay, Keith A.

    2016-11-09

    This map shows the generalized geology of Alaska, which helps us to understand where potential mineral deposits and energy resources might be found, define ecosystems, and ultimately, teach us about the earth history of the State. Rock units are grouped in very broad categories on the basis of age and general rock type. A much more detailed and fully referenced presentation of the geology of Alaska is available in the Geologic Map of Alaska (http://dx.doi.org/10.3133/sim3340). This product represents the simplification of thousands of individual rock units into just 39 broad groups. Even with this generalization, the sheer complexity of Alaskan geology remains evident.

  16. Geology explorer: virtual geologic mapping and interpretation

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Saini-Eidukat, Bernhardt; Schwert, Donald P.; Slator, Brian M.

    2002-12-01

    We are developing internet-based freeware for virtual mapping and geologic interpretation. This takes the form of a synthetic, virtual world, Planet Oit, where students are given the means and the equipment to carry out geologic investigation and interpretation as a geologist would in the field. The environment is designed to give students an authentic experience that includes elements of: (1) exploration of a spatially oriented, virtual, world; (2) practical, field oriented, expedition planning and decision-making; and (3) scientific problem solving (i.e. a "hands on" approach to mapping, geologic investigation, data acquisition, and interpretation). The game-like environment is networked, multi-player, and simulation-based. Planet Oit can be visited on the Internet at http://oit.cs.ndsu.nodak.edu/

  17. Wikipedia Mining

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Nakayama, Kotaro; Ito, Masahiro; Erdmann, Maike; Shirakawa, Masumi; Michishita, Tomoyuki; Hara, Takahiro; Nishio, Shojiro

    Wikipedia, a collaborative Wiki-based encyclopedia, has become a huge phenomenon among Internet users. It covers a huge number of concepts of various fields such as arts, geography, history, science, sports and games. As a corpus for knowledge extraction, Wikipedia's impressive characteristics are not limited to the scale, but also include the dense link structure, URL based word sense disambiguation, and brief anchor texts. Because of these characteristics, Wikipedia has become a promising corpus and a new frontier for research. In the past few years, a considerable number of researches have been conducted in various areas such as semantic relatedness measurement, bilingual dictionary construction, and ontology construction. Extracting machine understandable knowledge from Wikipedia to enhance the intelligence on computational systems is the main goal of "Wikipedia Mining," a project on CREP (Challenge for Realizing Early Profits) in JSAI. In this paper, we take a comprehensive, panoramic view of Wikipedia Mining research and the current status of our challenge. After that, we will discuss about the future vision of this challenge.

  18. The Geology of Titan

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Jaumann, Ralf

    Titan, the largest and most complex satellite in the solar system exhibits an organic dominated surface chemistry and shares surface features with other large icy satellites as well as the terrestrial planets. It is subject to tidal stresses, and its surface appears to have been modified tectonically. Cassini's global observations at infrared and radar wavelengths as well as local investigations by the instruments on the Huygens probe has revealed that Titan has the largest known abundance of organic material in the solar system apart from Earth, and that its active hydrological cycle is analogous to that of Earth, but with methane replacing water. The surface of Titan exhibits morphological features of different sizes and origins created by geological processes that span the entire dynamic range of aeolian, fluvial and tectonic activities, with likely evidence that cryovolcanism might exists where liquid water, perhaps in concert with ammonia, methane and carbon dioxide, makes its way to the surface from the interior [e.g. 1, 2, 3, 4, 5, 6, 7, 8, 9, 10, 11, 12, 13, 14, 15, 16, 17, 18]. Extended dune fields, lakes, mountainous terrain, dendritic erosion patterns and erosional remnants indicate dynamic surface processes. Valleys, small-scale gullies and rounded cobbles require erosion by extended energetic flow of liquids. There is strong evidence that liquid hydrocarbons are ponded on the surface in lakes, predominantly, but not exclusively, at high northern latitudes. A variety of features including extensive flows and caldera-like constructs are interpreted to be cryovolcanic in origin. Chains and isolated blocks of rugged terrain rising from smoother areas are best described as mountains and might be related to tectonic processes. Impact craters form on all solid bodies in the solar system, and have been detected on Titan. But very few have been observed so they must be rapidly destroyed or buried by other geologic processes The morphologies of the impact

  19. Chemistry Notes

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    School Science Review, 1972

    1972-01-01

    Short articles on the kinetics of the hydrogen peroxide-iodide ion reaction, simulation of fluidization catalysis, the use of Newman projection diagrams to represent steric relationships in organic chemistry, the use of synthetic substrates for proteolytic enzyme reactions, and two simple clock reactions"--hydrolysis of halogenoalkanes and…

  20. Chemistry Notes.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    School Science Review, 1983

    1983-01-01

    Presents chemistry experiments, laboratory procedures, demonstrations, and classroom materials/activities. These include: experiments on colloids, processing of uranium ore, action of heat on carbonates; color test for phenols and aromatic amines; solvent properties of non-electrolytes; stereoscopic applications/methods; a valency balance;…

  1. Chemistry Notes.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    School Science Review, 1983

    1983-01-01

    Presents chemistry experiments, laboratory procedures, demonstrations, teaching suggestions, and classroom materials/activities. These include: game for teaching ionic formulas; method for balancing equations; description of useful redox series; computer programs (with listings) for water electrolysis simulation and for determining chemical…

  2. Chemistry Notes.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    School Science Review, 1983

    1983-01-01

    Presents chemistry experiments, laboratory procedures, demonstrations, teaching suggestions, and classroom materials/activities. These include: game for teaching ionic formulas; method for balancing equations; description of useful redox series; computer programs (with listings) for water electrolysis simulation and for determining chemical…

  3. Colorful Chemistry

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Sullivan, P. Teal; Carsten Conner, L. D.; Guthrie, Mareca; Pompea, Stephen; Tsurusaki, Blakely K.; Tzou, Carrie

    2017-01-01

    This article describes a chemistry/art activity that originated in an National Science Foundation--funded two-week STEAM (Science, Technology, Engineering, Art, and Math) academy for grade 4-6 girls. The authors recommend using this investigation in conjunction with other activities focusing on chemical change as a step toward fulfilling the…

  4. Chemistry Notes.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    School Science Review, 1980

    1980-01-01

    Presents 12 chemistry notes for British secondary school teachers. Some of these notes are: (1) a simple device for testing pH-meters; (2) portable fume cupboard safety screen; and (3) Mass spectroscopy-analysis of a mass peak. (HM)

  5. Chemistry Notes

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    School Science Review, 1976

    1976-01-01

    Describes several chemistry projects, including solubility, formula for magnesium oxide, dissociation of dinitrogen tetroxide, use of 1-chloro-2, 4-dinitrobenzene, migration of ions, heats of neutralizations, use of pocket calculators, sonic cleaning, oxidation states of manganese, and cell potentials. Includes an extract from Chemical Age on…

  6. Confectionary Chemistry.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Levine, Elise Hilf

    1996-01-01

    Presents activities and demonstrations that enable teachers to use various types of confections as tactile experiences to spark chemistry students' interest and generate enthusiasm for learning. Presents uses of candy in teaching about atomic structure, spontaneous nuclear decay, chemical formulas, fractoluminescence, the effect of a molecular…

  7. Chemistry Notes.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    School Science Review, 1980

    1980-01-01

    Presents 12 chemistry notes for British secondary school teachers. Some of these notes are: (1) a simple device for testing pH-meters; (2) portable fume cupboard safety screen; and (3) Mass spectroscopy-analysis of a mass peak. (HM)

  8. Chemistry Notes.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    School Science Review, 1982

    1982-01-01

    Presents procedures, experiments, demonstrations, teaching suggestions, and information on a variety of chemistry topics including, for example, inert gases, light-induced reactions, calculators, identification of substituted acetophenones, the elements, analysis of copper minerals, extraction of metallic strontium, equilibrium, halogens, and…

  9. Chemistry Notes

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    School Science Review, 1976

    1976-01-01

    Describes several chemistry projects, including solubility, formula for magnesium oxide, dissociation of dinitrogen tetroxide, use of 1-chloro-2, 4-dinitrobenzene, migration of ions, heats of neutralizations, use of pocket calculators, sonic cleaning, oxidation states of manganese, and cell potentials. Includes an extract from Chemical Age on…

  10. Chemistry Notes

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    School Science Review, 1972

    1972-01-01

    Short articles on the kinetics of the hydrogen peroxide-iodide ion reaction, simulation of fluidization catalysis, the use of Newman projection diagrams to represent steric relationships in organic chemistry, the use of synthetic substrates for proteolytic enzyme reactions, and two simple clock reactions"--hydrolysis of halogenoalkanes and…

  11. Chemistry Notes.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    School Science Review, 1978

    1978-01-01

    Describes some laboratory apparatus, chemistry experiments and demonstrations, such as a Kofler block melting point apparatus, chromatographic investigation of the phosphoric acid, x-ray diffraction, the fountain experiment, endothermic sherbet, the measurement of viscosity, ionization energies and electronic configurations. (GA)

  12. Chemistry Notes

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    School Science Review, 1972

    1972-01-01

    Short articles on the alkylation of aniline, the preparation and properties of perbromate, using scrap copper in chemistry instruction, a safe method of burning hydrogen, and the use of an ion-charge model as an alternative to the mole concept in secondary school instruction. (AL)

  13. Chemistry's year

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    2011-01-01

    The United Nations has proclaimed 2011 to be the International Year of Chemistry. Under this banner, chemists should seize the opportunity to highlight the rich history and successes of our subject to a much broader audience - and explain how it can help to solve the global challenges we face today and in the future.

  14. Chemistry Notes.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    School Science Review, 1982

    1982-01-01

    Presents procedures, experiments, demonstrations, teaching suggestions, and information on a variety of chemistry topics including, for example, inert gases, light-induced reactions, calculators, identification of substituted acetophenones, the elements, analysis of copper minerals, extraction of metallic strontium, equilibrium, halogens, and…

  15. Chemistry Notes

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    School Science Review, 1972

    1972-01-01

    Short articles on the alkylation of aniline, the preparation and properties of perbromate, using scrap copper in chemistry instruction, a safe method of burning hydrogen, and the use of an ion-charge model as an alternative to the mole concept in secondary school instruction. (AL)

  16. Confectionary Chemistry.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Levine, Elise Hilf

    1996-01-01

    Presents activities and demonstrations that enable teachers to use various types of confections as tactile experiences to spark chemistry students' interest and generate enthusiasm for learning. Presents uses of candy in teaching about atomic structure, spontaneous nuclear decay, chemical formulas, fractoluminescence, the effect of a molecular…

  17. Chemistry Notes.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    School Science Review, 1983

    1983-01-01

    Presents chemistry experiments, laboratory procedures, demonstrations, and classroom materials/activities. These include: experiments on colloids, processing of uranium ore, action of heat on carbonates; color test for phenols and aromatic amines; solvent properties of non-electrolytes; stereoscopic applications/methods; a valency balance;…

  18. Chemistry Notes.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    School Science Review, 1978

    1978-01-01

    Describes some laboratory apparatus, chemistry experiments and demonstrations, such as a Kofler block melting point apparatus, chromatographic investigation of the phosphoric acid, x-ray diffraction, the fountain experiment, endothermic sherbet, the measurement of viscosity, ionization energies and electronic configurations. (GA)

  19. Microscale Chemistry and Green Chemistry: Complementary Pedagogies

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Singh, Mono M.; Szafran, Zvi; Pike, R. M.

    1999-12-01

    This paper describes the complementary nature of microscale chemistry and green chemistry. Green chemistry emphasizes the concepts of atom economy, source reduction, pathway modification, solvent substitution, and pollution prevention as means of improving the environmental impact of industrial chemistry. Microscale chemistry serves as a tool for incorporating green chemistry ideas across the curriculum in educational institutions. Examples are drawn from microscale laboratory experiments to illustrate the pedagogic connection between the two areas.

  20. The upper pennsylvanian pittsburgh coal bed: Resources and mine models

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Watson, W.D.; Ruppert, L.F.; Tewalt, S.J.; Bragg, L.J.

    2001-01-01

    The U.S. Geological Survey recently completed a digital coal resource assessment model of the Upper Pennsylvanian Pittsburgh coal bed, which indicates that after subtracting minedout coal, 16 billion short tons (14 billion tonnes) remain of the original 34 billion short tons (31 billion tonnes) of coal. When technical, environmental, and social restrictions are applied to the remaining Pittsburgh coal model, only 12 billion short tons (11 billion tonnes) are available for mining. Our assessment models estimate that up to 0.61 billion short tons (0.55 billion tonnes), 2.7 billion short tons (2.4 billion tonnes), and 8.5 billion short tons (7.7 billion tonnes) could be available for surface mining, continuous mining, and longwall mining, respectively. This analysis is an example of a second-generation regional coal availability study designed to model recoverability characteristics for all the major coal beds in the United States. ?? 2001 International Association for Mathematical Geology.

  1. Fugitive Mercury Emissions From Nevada Gold Mines

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Miller, M. B.; Eckley, C. S.; Gustin, M.; Marsik, F.

    2008-12-01

    Mercury (Hg) can be released from point sources at gold mines (e.g. stacks associated with ore processing facilities) as well as from diffuse fugitive sources (e.g. waste rock dumps, heap leaches, etc). Fugitive Hg emissions have not been quantified for active gold mines and as such a large knowledge gap exists concerning the magnitude of total emissions from this source type. This study measured fugitive Hg emissions from two active gold mines in Northern Nevada. To contextualize the magnitude of the mine emissions with respect to those associated with natural surfaces, data were collected from undisturbed areas near the mines that are of similar geologic character. The initial results from this project have shown that there is a large range in surface Hg concentrations and associated emissions to the atmosphere from different surface types within a mine as well as between the two mines. At both mines, the lowest surface Hg concentrations and emissions were associated with the alluvium/overburden waste rock dumps. Surface Hg concentrations and emissions at nearby undisturbed sites were of similar magnitude. Surface concentrations and emissions were substantially higher from active heap leaches. In addition to the difference in fluxes for specific materials, measured emissions must be put within the context of material spatial extent and temporal variability. Here we compare Hg emission contributions from mining and undisturbed materials as a function of space and time (diel and seasonal), and illustrate the need for collection of these types of data in order to reduce uncertainties in understanding air-surface Hg exchange.

  2. Geophysical Technologies to Image Old Mine Works

    SciTech Connect

    Kanaan Hanna; Jim Pfeiffer

    2007-01-15

    ZapataEngineering, Blackhawk Division performed geophysical void detection demonstrations for the US Department of Labor Mine Safety and Health Administration (MSHA). The objective was to advance current state-of-practices of geophysical technologies for detecting underground mine voids. The presence of old mine works above, adjacent, or below an active mine presents major health and safety hazards to miners who have inadvertently cut into locations with such features. In addition, the presence of abandoned mines or voids beneath roadways and highway structures may greatly impact the performance of the transportation infrastructure in terms of cost and public safety. Roads constructed over abandoned mines are subject to potential differential settlement, subsidence, sinkholes, and/or catastrophic collapse. Thus, there is a need to utilize geophysical imaging technologies to accurately locate old mine works. Several surface and borehole geophysical imaging methods and mapping techniques were employed at a known abandoned coal mine in eastern Illinois to investigate which method best map the location and extent of old works. These methods included: 1) high-resolution seismic (HRS) using compressional P-wave (HRPW) and S-wave (HRSW) reflection collected with 3-D techniques; 2) crosshole seismic tomography (XHT); 3) guided waves; 4) reverse vertical seismic profiling (RVSP); and 5) borehole sonar mapping. In addition, several exploration borings were drilled to confirm the presence of the imaged mine voids. The results indicated that the RVSP is the most viable method to accurately detect the subsurface voids with horizontal accuracy of two to five feet. This method was then applied at several other locations in Colorado with various topographic, geologic, and cultural settings for the same purpose. This paper presents the significant results obtained from the geophysical investigations in Illinois.

  3. A preliminary survey of marine contamination from mining-related activities on Marinduque Island, Philippines: porewater toxicity and chemistry results from a field trip, October 14-19, 2000

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Carr, R. Scott; Nipper, Marion; Plumlee, Geoffrey S.

    2001-01-01

    As a follow-up of an initial overview of environmental problems caused by mining activities on Marinduque Island, Philippines, USGS and TAMU-CC scientists went to Marinduque in October 2000 to do a preliminary assessment of potential impacts of mining-related activities on the marine environment. Like the previous visit in May 2000, the marine assessment was conducted at the invitation of Philippine Congressman Edmund O. Reyes. In this report we present the results of sediment porewater toxicity tests and chemical analyses. Toxicity tests consist of laboratory analyses for the assessment of adverse effects caused by environmental contaminants to animals or plants. Sediments (sand or mud) are known to accumulate contaminants (e.g., copper and other heavy metals). Therefore, it is common to perform toxicity tests using different phases of the sedimentary environment in order to analyze adverse effects of contaminants accumulated in the sediment. Sediment pore water (or interstitial water, i.e., the water distributed among the sediment grains) is a sedimentary phase which controls the bioavailability of contaminants to bottom dwelling aquatic organisms (both plants and animals). There are several different kinds of organisms with which toxicity tests can be performed. Among those, tests with sea urchin early life stages (gametes and embryos) are very common due to their high sensitivity to contaminants, ease of maintenance under laboratory conditions, and ecological importance, particularly in coral reefs. The basis of these tests is the exposure of gametes or embryos to the pore water to be analyzed for toxicity. If the pore water contains contaminants in levels that can adversely affect a number of marine species, fertilization and/or embryological development of sea urchins is inhibited. Chemical analyses provide additional information and aid in the interpretation of the toxicity test results. For the current study, chemical analyses were performed for the

  4. Three-dimensional modeling in the study of subsidence in mining Acquaresi (Sardinia South - West) - Francesco Muntoni (1) Teresa Balvis (2) Paolo Bevilacqua (3) (1) Geological, Mining Park of Sardinia - Via Monteverdi, 16 09016 - Iglesias (2) freelance (3) Department of Engineering and Architecture - University of Trieste, Via Valerio 10 - Trieste

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Muntoni, F.

    2013-12-01

    The effects of subsidence and subsequent landslides in mining areas are very frequent, the study examines the proposed mining area of Acquaresi (Sardinia South - West), interested in the years between 1991 and 2003 by major subsidence phenomena and consequent events landslides. The valley of Acquaresi is particularly important, not only for its mines, but also for the aspect related to the geomorphological evolution morphotectonic in the context of Paleozoic lithologies, which have a rectangular structure parallel to the coastline. To make measurements and analysis of the evolution of human morphostructural and throughout the industry, it was considered appropriate to create a three-dimensional model that would allow a synoptic view with the different information available to the industry. E 'was created a model using the points listed extrapolated from the Regional Technical Map scale 1:10,000, the map at scale 1:2000 dell'IGEA and the values of a detailed survey of the study area, measured at a scale 1: 500. How MicroStation CAD software was used, with whom it is made of a TIN high detail taking into account then is, if possible, of quoted points, roads, major infrastructure, contour lines (lines-intermediate-auxiliary), buildings and lines coast. The model was supported and shaped (draping) image obtained by integrating the color orthophotos of the area in 1:10,000 scale of the Autonomous Region of Sardinia and photos to scale 1:2,000 made to run dall'IGEA spa at the last event of the landslide. The use of aerial photographs, a scale similar to that of cartography, has allowed us to achieve excellent results by superimposing the frames of the areas of interest on models made, with views that appear to be consistent with the technical papers, with a maximum error of less than that of the reference mapping. Moreover, to emphasize the tectonic lineations, morphological aspects and changes in landscape and environment, it was considered appropriate to use a three

  5. U. S. Geological Survey programs in Pennsylvania

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    ,

    1996-01-01

    The U.S. Geological Survey (USGS) is involved in mapping and studying land, mineral, biological, and water resources and determining the risk from earthquakes and other natural hazards, which are of importance to the citizens of Pennsylvania. This Fact Sheet describes how the USGS is addressing some of the major environmental issues in Pennsylvania, which include availability of mineral resources; contamination of the environment by hazardous wastes; effects of coal mining, oil and gas production, and agriculture on the environment; nutrient input to streams and estuaries; and adequacy of good-quality water supplies. Information on acquiring the thousands of map, book, and aerial photographic products of the USGS also is given.

  6. Mapping known and potential mineral occurrences and host rocks in the Bonnifield Mining District using minimal cloud- and snow-cover ASTER data: Chapter E in Recent U.S. Geological Survey studies in the Tintina Gold Province, Alaska, United States, and Yukon, Canada--results of a 5-year project

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Hubbard, Bernard E.; Dusel-Bacon, Cynthia; Rowan, Lawrence C.; Eppinger, Robert G.; Gough, Larry P.; Day, Warren C.

    2007-01-01

    On July 8, 2003, the Advanced Spaceborne Thermal Emission and Reflection Radiometer (ASTER) sensor acquired satellite imagery of a 60-kilometer-wide swath covering a portion of the Bonnifield mining district within the southernmost part of the Tintina Gold Province, Alaska, under unusually favorable conditions of minimal cloud and snow cover. Although rocks from more than eight different lithotectonic terranes are exposed within the extended swath of data, we focus on volcanogenic massive sulfides (VMS) and porphyry deposits within the Yukon-Tanana terrane (YTT), the largest Mesozoic accretionary terrane exposed between the Denali fault system to the south of Fairbanks and the Tintina fault system to the north of Fairbanks. Comparison of thermal-infrared region (TIR) decorrelation stretch data to available geologic maps indicates that rocks from the YTT contain a wide range of rock types ranging in composition from mafic metavolcanic rocks to felsic rock types such as metarhyolites, pelitic schists, and quartzites. The nine-band ASTER visible-near-infrared region--short-wave infrared region (VNIR-SWIR) reflectance data and spectral matched-filter processing were used to map hydrothermal alteration patterns associated with VMS and porphyry deposit types. In particular, smectite, kaolinite, opaline silica, jarosite and (or) other ferric iron minerals defined narrow (less than 250-meter diameter) zonal patterns around Red Mountain and other potential VMS targets. Using ASTER we identified some of the known mineral deposits in the region, as well as mineralogically similar targets that may represent potential undiscovered deposits. Some known deposits were not identified and may have been obscured by vegetation or snow cover or were too small to be resolved.

  7. Toxic mine drainage from Asia's biggest copper mine at Malanjkhand, India.

    PubMed

    Pandey, Piyush Kant; Sharma, Richa; Roy, Manju; Pandey, Madhurima

    2007-06-01

    This paper has studied the environmental deterioration due to copper mining in Malanjkhand at Central-east India. No data is available on environmental degradation at the studied site although geological aspects are well studied. Mine drainage from the mines is definitively toxic. The site is also undergoing various stages of acid mine drainage (AMD) particularly from the heap leaching sites and the tailing area. AMD impacted water steam and sediment were also analysed. Results show substantial level of contamination of almost all segments of environment. Presence of elevated level of other heavy metal viz. Au, Ag, Pb, Cr, Cd, Fe, Cu and base metals like Na, K in AMD impacted water and sediments is due to metal leaching effect of AMD. Bio monitoring with the help of benthic macro invertebrates and metal accumulation in plants was also carried to know the impact of the toxic drainage. Results prove a very significant impact on the environmental health.

  8. Final Environmental Planning Technical Report. Geologic Resources

    DTIC Science & Technology

    1984-01-01

    W.D., Glass, G.B., Lageson, D.R., Ver Ploeg , A.J., and DeBruin, R.H., 1979, "Wyoming Mines and Minerals," Geological Survey of Wyoming Map. Hayes, F.A...Miscellaneous Investigations Map 1-1039. Ver Ploeg , A.J., DeBruin, R.H., and Lagesoin, D.R., 1980, "Oil and Gas Map of Wyoming," Geological Survey of...R62W R51w 4 4 A~’ *’-i, ~~~~ý & U IE ~* *l A i- j ~ L’ Nk 91, 1 U - S:..... K 4 * xd-.. *-r I I-, II 7- 7.. - ,"-- . 1’.’.* - - I a r - .1 MV I

  9. Radiometric Dating in Geology.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Pankhurst, R. J.

    1980-01-01

    Described are several aspects and methods of quantitatively measuring geologic time using a constant-rate natural process of radioactive decay. Topics include half lives and decay constants, radiogenic growth, potassium-argon dating, rubidium-strontium dating, and the role of geochronology in support of geological exploration. (DS)

  10. People and Geology.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Naturescope, 1987

    1987-01-01

    Provides background information on the many natural resources we extract from the earth's crust, including metals, graphite, and other minerals, as well as fossil fuels. Contains teaching activities such as a geologic scavenger hunt, a geology chronology, and the recycling of aluminum. Includes a reproducible handout for the activity on aluminum.…

  11. Geology of the Caribbean.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Dillon, William P.; And Others

    1988-01-01

    Describes some of the geologic characteristics of the Caribbean region. Discusses the use of some new techniques, including broad-range swath imaging of the sea floor that produces photograph-like images, and satellite measurement of crustal movements, which may help to explain the complex geology of the region. (TW)

  12. Advances in Planetary Geology

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Woronow, A. (Editor)

    1982-01-01

    Advances in Planetary Geology is a new series intended to serve the planetary geology community with a form for quick and thorough communications. There are no set lists of acceptable topics or formats, and submitted manuscripts will not undergo a formal review. All submissions should be in a camera ready form, preferably spaced, and submitted to the editor.

  13. People and Geology.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Naturescope, 1987

    1987-01-01

    Provides background information on the many natural resources we extract from the earth's crust, including metals, graphite, and other minerals, as well as fossil fuels. Contains teaching activities such as a geologic scavenger hunt, a geology chronology, and the recycling of aluminum. Includes a reproducible handout for the activity on aluminum.…

  14. Interpreting Urban Geology.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Hannibal, Joseph Timothy; Schmidt, Mark Thomas

    1991-01-01

    Describes field trips to urban locations for geological instruction. The program was developed by the Cleveland Museum of Natural History. Authors claim these field trips have been an effective and enjoyable way of conveying a wide variety of geological information to participants at all levels and backgrounds and have created favorable publicity.…

  15. Geology of the Caribbean.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Dillon, William P.; And Others

    1988-01-01

    Describes some of the geologic characteristics of the Caribbean region. Discusses the use of some new techniques, including broad-range swath imaging of the sea floor that produces photograph-like images, and satellite measurement of crustal movements, which may help to explain the complex geology of the region. (TW)

  16. Glossary of geology

    SciTech Connect

    Bates, R.L.; Jackson, J.A.

    1987-01-01

    This third edition of the Glossary of Geology contains approximately 37,000 terms, or 1,000 more than the second edition. New entries are especially numerous in the fields of carbonate sedimentology, hydrogeology, marine geology, mineralogy, ore deposits, plate tectonics, snow and ice, and stratigraphic nomenclature. Many of the definitions provide background information.

  17. Advances in planetary geology

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Woronow, A. (Editor)

    1981-01-01

    This second issue in a new series intended to serve the planetary geology community with a form for quick and thorough communications includes (1) a catalog of terrestrial craterform structures for northern Europe; (2) abstracts of results of the Planetary Geology Program, and (3) a list of the photographic holdings of regional planetary image facilities.

  18. Radiometric Dating in Geology.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Pankhurst, R. J.

    1980-01-01

    Described are several aspects and methods of quantitatively measuring geologic time using a constant-rate natural process of radioactive decay. Topics include half lives and decay constants, radiogenic growth, potassium-argon dating, rubidium-strontium dating, and the role of geochronology in support of geological exploration. (DS)

  19. Geologic remote sensing

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Goetz, A.F.H.; Rowan, L.C.

    1981-01-01

    Remote-sensing techniques are now being used routinely in geologic interpretation for mineral and energy exploration, plant siting, waste disposal, and the development of models for regional and continental tectonics. New spaceborne methods and associated technologies are being developed to produce data from which geologic information about large areas can be derived much more rapidly than by conventional techniques. Copyright ?? 1981 AAAS.

  20. Women in Early Geology.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Elder, Eleanor S.

    1982-01-01

    Biographical sketches are given for several women who made early contributions to the science of geology. A short biography of Inge Lehmann is also included as a more recent example of a woman who has made a notable contribution to the geological field. (Author)

  1. Acid mine drainage contaminates groundwater of a Tennessee watershed

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    O'Bara, Christopher J.; Don Estes, R.

    1985-09-01

    Water samples were collected from 18 natural springs within the West Fork of the Obey River watershed. Overton County, Tennessee, to determine if groundwater was adversely affected by runoff from abandoned surface coal mines Six springs were found to be affected severely and deemed unfit as a source of potable water Water quality of the remaining springs was essentially unaffected it appeared that proximity to surface mines, elevation at the outflow, and geology of the surrounding strata determined the quality of the groundwater

  2. Proceedings, 25th international conference on ground control in mining

    SciTech Connect

    Peng, S.S.; Mark, C.; Finfinger, G.; Tadolini, S.; Wahab Khair, A.; Heasley, K.; Luo, Y.

    2006-07-01

    Topics covered include: computer and physical modelling; geology in ground control; geophysics in ground control; ground control; impoundments stability; longwall gateroad support design; longwall operations; longwall shields and standing supports; mine design; multiple-seam mining interactions; pillar and pillar extraction; roof bolting; roof bolting - resin; and subsidence. Most of the topics include a retrospective paper which summarises the progress of the subject field during the past 25 years.

  3. Relations of benthic macroinvertebrates to concentrations of trace elements in water, streambed sediments, and transplanted bryophytes and stream habitat conditions in nonmining and mining areas of the upper Colorado River basin, Colorado, 1995-98

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Mize, Scott V.; Deacon, Jeffrey R.

    2002-01-01

    Intensive mining activity and highly mineralized rock formations have had significant impacts on surface-water and streambed-sediment quality and aquatic life within the upper reaches of the Uncompahgre River in western Colorado. A synoptic study by the U.S. Geological Survey National Water-Quality Assessment Program was completed in the upper Uncompahgre River Basin in 1998 to better understand the relations of trace elements (with emphasis on aluminum, arsenic, copper, iron, lead, and zinc concentrations) in water, streambed sediment, and aquatic life. Water-chemistry, streambed-sediment, and benthic macroinvertebrate samples were collected during low-flow conditions between October 1995 and July 1998 at five sites on the upper Uncompahgre River, all downstream from historical mining, and at three sites in drainage basins of the Upper Colorado River where mining has not occurred. Aquatic bryophytes were transplanted to all sites for 15 days of exposure to the water column during which time field parameters were measured and chemical water-quality and benthic macroinvertebrate samples were collected. Stream habitat characteristics also were documented at each site. Certain attributes of surface-water chemistry among streams were significantly different. Concentrations of total aluminum, copper, iron, lead, and zinc in the water column and concentrations of dissolved aluminum, copper, and zinc were significantly different between nonmining and mining sites. Some sites associated with mining exceeded Colorado acute aquatic-life standards for aluminum, copper, and zinc and exceeded Colorado chronic aquatic-life standards for aluminum, copper, iron, lead, and zinc. Concentrations of copper, lead, and zinc in streambed sediments were significantly different between nonmining and mining sites. Generally, concentrations of arsenic, copper, lead, and zinc in streambed sediments at mining sites exceeded the Canadian Sediment Quality Guidelines probable effect level (PEL

  4. Field Geology/Processes

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Allen, Carlton; Jakes, Petr; Jaumann, Ralf; Marshall, John; Moses, Stewart; Ryder, Graham; Saunders, Stephen; Singer, Robert

    1996-01-01

    The field geology/process group examined the basic operations of a terrestrial field geologist and the manner in which these operations could be transferred to a planetary lander. Four basic requirements for robotic field geology were determined: geologic content; surface vision; mobility; and manipulation. Geologic content requires a combination of orbital and descent imaging. Surface vision requirements include range, resolution, stereo, and multispectral imaging. The minimum mobility for useful field geology depends on the scale of orbital imagery. Manipulation requirements include exposing unweathered surfaces, screening samples, and bringing samples in contact with analytical instruments. To support these requirements, several advanced capabilities for future development are recommended. Capabilities include near-infrared reflectance spectroscopy, hyper-spectral imaging, multispectral microscopy, artificial intelligence in support of imaging, x ray diffraction, x ray fluorescence, and rock chipping.

  5. Mining machine

    SciTech Connect

    Becker, H.R.

    1984-12-04

    A mining machine is disclosed comprising a mobile base and a cutting head assembly at a forward end of the mobile base having a cutter drum rotatable about an output shaft disposed along the longitudinal axis of the cutter drum. A drive system for the cutting head assembly comprises at least one motor for driving at least one toothed motor pinion and a generally cylindrical combination gear having generally circular end surfaces. A bevel or face gear is formed in at least one of the end surfaces, having teeth adapted to mate with and be driven by the toothed motor pinion. The combination gear has a worm gear formed in the outside cylindrical surface, which is disposed in driving engagement with the teeth of an output gear integrally and coaxially connected to the output shaft of the cutter drum.

  6. Methane drainage in advance of mining

    SciTech Connect

    Jesse, D.R.

    1980-01-01

    The effacy of drilling long horizontal holes in advance of mining in the Pocahontas No. 3 coalseam has been demonstrated; however, local geologic conditions may preclude data extrapolation on this seam elsewhere. Mining safety can be enhanced by reducing coal methane content about 80% under the conditions experienced; the impact of this procedure on mining productivity will have to await further analyses. To effectively achieve good gas drainage, the wells should drain 2 years prior to mining. The placement of wells must be optimized by interfacing with mining operation. Utilization of the gas produced can be expected where sufficient volumes are available. At this time, 600 MCFD is being gathered from the ORC research operations, and this volume would have to increase several fold to justify large capital expenditures for utilizations such as pipelining. ORC is continuing this program to drill horizontal wells to 2000 feet, and longer. In 1980, four new wells are planned for drilling and completion in the V.P. No. 5 mine.

  7. Lunar resource evaluation and mine site selection

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Bence, A. Edward

    1992-01-01

    Two scenarios in this evaluation of lunar mineral resources and the selection of possible mining and processing sites are considered. The first scenario assumes that no new surface or near-surface data will be available before site selection (presumably one of the Apollo sites). The second scenario assumes that additional surface geology data will have been obtained by a lunar orbiter mission, an unmanned sample return mission (or missions), and followup manned missions. Regardless of the scenario, once a potentially favorable mine site has been identified, a minimum amount of fundamental data is needed to assess the resources at that site and to evaluate its suitability for mining and downstream processing. Since much of the required data depends on the target mineral(s), information on the resource, its beneficiation, and the refining, smelting, and fabricating processes must be factored into the evaluation. The annual capacity and producing lifetime of the mine and its associated processing plant must be estimated before the resource reserves can be assessed. The available market for the product largely determines the capacity and lifetime of the mine. The Apollo 17 site is described as a possible mining site. The use of new sites is briefly addressed.

  8. Bibliography of geology and hydrology, southwestern New Mexico

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Wright, Ann Finley

    1980-01-01

    The southwestern part of New Mexico is recognized as a source of abundant and varied natural resources. This bibliography of over 2,700 references concerned with geology, hydrology, chemistry, and geography has been compiled to assist physical science researchers in their study and development of this region. (USGS)

  9. Bibliography of geology and hydrology, eastern New Mexico

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Wright, Ann Finley

    1979-01-01

    The High Plains of the eastern New Mexico region are recognized as an abundant and varied source of natural resources. The bibliography of over 1,900 references concerned with geology, hydrology, chemistry, and geography has been compiled to assist physical science researchers in their study of this region. (Kosco-USGS)

  10. Chemical Geology: An Annotated Bibliography. CEGS Programs Publication Number 11.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Billings, Gale K.

    The annotated bibliography is intended to aid geologists whose primary background is not in geochemistry. The references thus range from chemistry texts to papers on complex geochemical applications. The emphasis has been on those books and papers concerned with the application of chemical concepts to geology. Citations are arranged topically to…

  11. Deflected mode of marginal rock massif around mine working boundaries depending on anchoring parameters

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Demin, V. F.; Fofanov, O. B.; Demina, T. V.; Yavorskiy, V. V.

    2017-02-01

    The deflected mode, rock pressure manifestations, conditions of maintenance of mine workings depending on geological and technological parameters have been studied. Researches have allowed establishing the degree of these parameters impact on the effectiveness of anchoring of mine workings. The paper researches such aspects of the problem as rock pressures, terms of maintenance of mine workings, technological parameters and others. The authors consider the expediency of the introduction of anchor certificates which will allow for stability of the rock mining and a reduction of the expenses on realization and maintenance of mine workings.

  12. Proceedings of the 1987 national symposium on mining, hydrology, sedimentology, and reclamation

    SciTech Connect

    Not Available

    1987-01-01

    This proceedings contains numerous papers on various aspects of surface coal mining operations. It includes a review of the regulatory history of coal mining and the success that these regulations have had. It discusses various aspects of coal mine layout and design, along with methods of geologic and hydrologic site characterization. Other papers specialize in mining and drilling equipment optimization. A section is also devoted to methods of preventing ground subsidence. However, the primary thrust of this text is to present papers on land reclamation and revegatation of coal mines.

  13. Questa baseline and pre-mining ground-water quality investigation. 2. Low-flow (2001) and snowmelt (2002) synoptic/tracer water chemistry for the Red River, New Mexico

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    McCleskey, R. Blaine; Nordstrom, D. Kirk; Steiger, Judy I.; Kimball, Briant A.; Verplanck, Philip L.

    2003-01-01

    Water analyses are reported for 259 samples collected from the Red River, New Mexico, and its tributaries during low-flow(2001) and spring snowmelt (2002) tracer studies. Water samples were collected along a 20-kilometer reach of the Red River beginning just east of the town of Red River and ending at the U.S. Geological Survey streamflow-gaging station located east of Questa, New Mexico. The study area was divided into three sections where separate injections and synoptic sampling events were performed during the low-flow tracer study. During the spring snowmelt tracer study, three tracer injections and synoptic sampling events were performed bracketing the areas with the greatest metal loading into the Red River as determined from the low-flow tracer study. The lowflow tracer synoptic sampling events were August 17, 20, and 24, 2001. The synoptic sampling events for the spring snowmelt tracer were March 30, 31, and April 1, 2002. Stream and large inflow water samples were sampled using equal-width and depth-integrated sampling methods and composited into half-gallon bottles. Grab water samples were collected from smaller inflows. Stream temperatures were measured at the time of sample collection. Samples were transported to a nearby central processing location where pH and specific conductance were measured and the samples processed for chemical analyses. Cations, trace metals, iron redox species, and fluoride were analyzed at the U.S. Geological Survey laboratory in Boulder, Colorado. Cations and trace metal concentrations were determined using inductively coupled plasma-optical emission spectrometry and graphite furnace atomic absorption spectrometry. Arsenic concentrations were determined using hydride generation atomic absorption spectrometry, iron redox species were measured using ultraviolet-visible spectrometry, and fluoride concentrations were determined using an ion-selective electrode. Alkalinity was measured by automated titration, and sulfate

  14. Deriving geological contact geometry from potential field data

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Ugalde, Hernan; Morris, William A.

    2010-02-01

    The building process of any geological map involves linking sparse lithological outcrop information with equally sparse geometrical measurements, all in a single entity which is the preferred interpretation of the field geologist. The actual veracity of this interpretative map is partially dependent upon the frequency and distribution of geological outcrops compounded by the complexity of the local geology. Geophysics is commonly used as a tool to augment the distribution of data points, however it normally does not have sufficient geometrical constraints due to: a) all geophysical inversion models being inherently non-unique; and b) the lack of knowledge of the physical property contrasts associated with specific lithologies. This contribution proposes the combined use of geophysical edge detection routines and `threepoint' solutions from topographic data as a possible approach to obtaining geological contact geometry information (strike and dip), which can be used in the construction of a preliminary geological model. This derived geological information should first be assessed for its compatibility with the scale of the problem, and any directly observed geological data. Once verified it can be used to help constrain the preferred geological map interpretation being developed by the field geologist. The method models the contacts as planar surfaces. Therefore, it must be ensured that this assumption fits the scale and geometry of the problem. Two examples are shown from folded sequences at the Bathurst Mining Camp, New Brunswick, Canada.

  15. Polynitrogen Chemistry

    DTIC Science & Technology

    2013-09-24

    4N3, while As(C6H5)4N3 presents a borderline case.23 Theoretical Calculations High-level theoretical studies of nitrogen, oxygen, selenium and...Dixon, D. A.; Christe, K. O., "Thermochemical Properties of Selenium Fluorides, Oxides, and Oxofluorides," Inorganic Chemistry, p. 2472, vol. 51, (2012...34Thermochemical Properties of Selenium Fluorides, Oxides, and Oxofluorides," Inorg. Chem., p. 2472, vol. 51, (2012). 26. K. S. Thanthiriwatte, M. Vasiliu

  16. Science Library of Test Items. Volume Twenty-Three. Geology (Part One). Free Response Testing Program.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Hopley, Ken; And Others

    The first of several planned volumes of Free Response Test Items contains geology questions developed by the Assessment and Evaluation Unit of the New South Wales Department of Education. Two additional geology volumes and biology and chemistry volumes are in preparation. The questions in this volume were written and reviewed by practicing…

  17. Science Library of Test Items. Volume Twenty-Three. Geology (Part One). Free Response Testing Program.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Hopley, Ken; And Others

    The first of several planned volumes of Free Response Test Items contains geology questions developed by the Assessment and Evaluation Unit of the New South Wales Department of Education. Two additional geology volumes and biology and chemistry volumes are in preparation. The questions in this volume were written and reviewed by practicing…

  18. Reconnaissance geologic map of the northern Kawich and southern Reveille ranges, Nye County, Nevada

    SciTech Connect

    Gardner, J.N.; Eddy, A.C.; Goff, F.E.; Grafft, K.S.

    1980-06-01

    A geological survey was performed in Nye County, Nevada. Results of that survey are summarized in the maps included. The general geology of the area is discussed. Major structures are described. The economics resulting from the mineral exploitation in the area are discussed. The hydrogeology and water chemistry of the area are also discussed.

  19. Computational chemistry

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Arnold, J. O.

    1987-01-01

    With the advent of supercomputers, modern computational chemistry algorithms and codes, a powerful tool was created to help fill NASA's continuing need for information on the properties of matter in hostile or unusual environments. Computational resources provided under the National Aerodynamics Simulator (NAS) program were a cornerstone for recent advancements in this field. Properties of gases, materials, and their interactions can be determined from solutions of the governing equations. In the case of gases, for example, radiative transition probabilites per particle, bond-dissociation energies, and rates of simple chemical reactions can be determined computationally as reliably as from experiment. The data are proving to be quite valuable in providing inputs to real-gas flow simulation codes used to compute aerothermodynamic loads on NASA's aeroassist orbital transfer vehicles and a host of problems related to the National Aerospace Plane Program. Although more approximate, similar solutions can be obtained for ensembles of atoms simulating small particles of materials with and without the presence of gases. Computational chemistry has application in studying catalysis, properties of polymers, all of interest to various NASA missions, including those previously mentioned. In addition to discussing these applications of computational chemistry within NASA, the governing equations and the need for supercomputers for their solution is outlined.

  20. Effects of selective handling of pyritic, acid-forming materials on the chemistry of pore gas and ground water at a reclaimed surface coal mine in Clarion County, PA, USA

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Cravotta, Charles A.; Dugas, Diana L.; Brady, Keith; Kovalchuck, Thomas E.

    1994-01-01

    A change from dragline to “selective handling” mining methods at a reclaimed surface coal mine in western Pennsylvania did not significantly affect concentrations of metals in ground water because oxidation of pyrite and dissolution of siderite were not abated. Throughout the mine, placement of pyritic material near the land surface facilitated the oxidation of pyrite, causing the consumption of oxygen (O2) and release of acid, iron, and sulfate ions. Locally in the unsaturated zone, water sampled within or near pyritic zones was acidic, with concentrations of sulfate exceeding 3,000 milligrams per liter (mg/L). However, acidic conditions generally did not persist below the water table because of neutralization by carbonate minerals. Dissolution of calcite, dolomite, and siderite in unsaturated and saturated zones produced elevated concentrations of carbon dioxide (CO2), alkalinity, calcium, magnesium, iron, and manganese. Alkalinity concentrations of 600 to 800 mg/L as CaCO3 were common in water samples from the unsaturated zone in spoil, and alkalinities of 100 to 400 mg/L as CaCO3 were common in ground-water samples from the underlying saturated zone in spoil and bedrock. Saturation indices indicated that siderite could dissolve in water throughout the spoil, but that calcite dissolution or precipitation could occur locally. Calcite dissolution could be promoted as a result of pyrite oxidation, gypsum precipitation, and calcium ion exchange for sodium. Calcite precipitation could be promoted by evapotranspiration and siderite dissolution, and corresponding increases in concentrations of alkalinity and other solutes. Partial pressures of O2 (Po2) and CO2 (Pco2) in spoil pore gas indicated that oxidation of pyrite and precipitation of ferric hydroxide, coupled with dissolution of calcite, dolomite, and siderite were the primary reactions affecting water quality. Highest vertical gradients in Po2, particularly in the near-surface zone (0-1 m), did not correlate