Science.gov

Sample records for mining impacted sector

  1. Technical Review Guidelines for Environmental Impact Assessments in the Tourism, Energy and Mining Sectors

    EPA Pesticide Factsheets

    EPA coordinated a regional collaborative process with Central America and Dominican Republic Free Trade Agreement (CAFTA-DR) partners to develop Environmental Impact Assessment (EIA) Technical Review Guidelines for three sectors.

  2. Mining (except Oil and Gas) Sector (NAICS 212)

    EPA Pesticide Factsheets

    EPA Regulatory and enforcement information for the mining sector, including metal mining & nonmetallic mineral mining and quarrying. Includes information about asbestos, coal mining, mountaintop mining, Clean Water Act section 404, and abandoned mine lands

  3. Impact of mining residues on surface and groundwater quality. Case of the mining sector of Azzaba in the North-East of Algeria

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Haouli, Zouina; Kherici, Nacer; Derdous, Oussama; Sassane, Amina; Bougherira, Nabil

    2016-07-01

    Azzaba region contains a mining sector that was created in 1971 and operated until 2006, during this period huge quantities of mining residues were released in nature without any environmental rehabilitation plan which certainly deteriorated surface and groundwater quality by trace metals menacing the people's health as well as the aquatic ecosystems in this zone. The purpose of this study is to illustrate and to assess the surface and groundwater pollution toward heavy metals at the vicinity of the abandoned mining site. The primary analysis aimed to evaluate the pollution due to mercury in the region after many years of the closure of the mining industry to compare it with evaluations made during its operational period. In addition, further analyses of water pollution toward heavy metals usually used in the mercury industry (iron, zinc and copper) and probably released in the Fendek Wadi were conducted. These analyses allowed characterizing the ecological state of the studied environment by highlighting the concentrations of trace elements (mercury, iron, zinc, copper). According to the analyses, most of these concentrations meet the World Health Organization (WHO) standards; in fact only iron concentration exceeds them at the stations P7 and P8. Finally, the study results were compared by those obtained by previous studies; it was found that the mercury concentration has decreased with time which means that the contamination danger is disappearing.

  4. The mining sector of Liberia: current practices and environmental challenges.

    PubMed

    Wilson, Samuel T K; Wang, Hongtao; Kabenge, Martin; Qi, Xuejiao

    2017-07-18

    Liberia is endowed with an impressive stock of mineral reserves and has traditionally relied on mining, namely iron ore, gold, and diamonds, as a major source of income. The recent growth in the mining sector has the potential to contribute significantly to employment, income generation, and infrastructure development. However, the development of these mineral resources has significant environmental impacts that often go unnoticed. This paper presents an overview of the Liberian mining sector from historical, current development, and economic perspectives. The efforts made by government to address issues of environmental management and sustainable development expressed in national and international frameworks, as well as some of the environmental challenges in the mining sector are analyzed. A case study was conducted on one of the iron ore mines (China Union Bong Mines Investment) to analyze the effects of the water quality on the local water environment. The results show that the analyzed water sample concentrations were all above the WHO and Liberia water standard Class I guidelines for drinking water. Finally the paper examines the application of water footprint from a life cycle perspective in the Liberian mining sector and suggests some policy options for water resources management.

  5. Environmental management in North American mining sector.

    PubMed

    Asif, Zunaira; Chen, Zhi

    2016-01-01

    This paper reviews the environmental issues and management practices in the mining sector in the North America. The sustainable measures on waste management are recognized as one of the most serious environmental concerns in the mining industry. For mining activities, it will be no surprise that the metal recovery reagents and acid effluents are a threat to the ecosystem as well as hazards to human health. In addition, poor air quality and ventilation in underground mines can lead to occupational illness and death of workers. Electricity usage and fuel consumption are major factors that contribute to greenhouse gases. On the other hand, many sustainability challenges are faced in the management of tailings and disposal of waste rock. This paper aims to highlight the problems that arise due to poor air quality and acid mine drainage. The paper also addresses some of the advantages and limitations of tailing and waste rock management that still have to be studied in context of the mining sector. This paper suggests that implementation of suitable environmental management tools like life cycle assessment (LCA), cleaner production technologies (CPTs), and multicriteria decision analysis (MCD) are important as it ultimately lead to improve environmental performance and enabling a mine to focus on the next stage of sustainability.

  6. Energy Sector Impacts and Opportunities

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Newmark, R. L.; Macknick, J.; Martinez, A.; Hallett, K. C.

    2011-12-01

    The power sector is the largest user of freshwater in the U.S. The dominant use of water in power plants is for steam cycle cooling. The current portfolio of electricity generating technologies in the U.S. has highly regionalized and technology-specific requirements for water. Certain areas employ once-through cooling technologies with high withdrawals and low consumptive uses, whereas other areas employ recirculating cooling technologies with relatively low withdrawals but high consumptive uses. As water availability differs widely throughout the nation, assessments of water withdrawal and consumption impacts from the power sector must have a high geographic resolution and consider regional differences. The U.S. electricity portfolio is likely to evolve in coming years, shaped by various energy policies and economic drivers on both the national and regional level, which will impact power sector water demands. It is likely that the U.S. will continue to decarbonize its electricity industry, leading to more low-carbon technologies. However, many low-carbon technologies, such as coal with carbon capture and storage, nuclear, and concentrated solar power, can use more water than the current electricity portfolio average. National- and state-level water policies have been proposed (and enacted) that affect cooling system choices for power plants, with resulting implications for water use as well as power plant installed and operating costs and reliability. Energy policy analyses that do not consider power plant cooling system impacts may miss an important component power plant siting decisions. Similarly, water policies that do not take into consideration potential impacts on power plant operations or comprehensive regional water budget impacts may have deleterious effects on the energy industry. Analysis of future energy scenarios that incorporate technology options and constraints as well as different policies can provide useful insights about likely changes to both

  7. Radioecological impacts of tin mining.

    PubMed

    Aliyu, Abubakar Sadiq; Mousseau, Timothy Alexander; Ramli, Ahmad Termizi; Bununu, Yakubu Aliyu

    2015-12-01

    The tin mining activities in the suburbs of Jos, Plateau State, Nigeria, have resulted in technical enhancement of the natural background radiation as well as higher activity concentrations of primordial radionuclides in the topsoil of mining sites and their environs. Several studies have considered the radiological human health risks of the mining activity; however, to our knowledge no documented study has investigated the radiological impacts on biota. Hence, an attempt is made to assess potential hazards using published data from the literature and the ERICA Tool. This paper considers the effects of mining and milling on terrestrial organisms like shrubs, large mammals, small burrowing mammals, birds (duck), arthropods (earth worm), grasses, and herbs. The dose rates and risk quotients to these organisms are computed using conservative values for activity concentrations of natural radionuclides reported in Bitsichi and Bukuru mining areas. The results suggest that grasses, herbs, lichens, bryophytes and shrubs receive total dose rates that are of potential concern. The effects of dose rates to specific indicator species of interest are highlighted and discussed. We conclude that further investigation and proper regulations should be set in place in order to reduce the risk posed by the tin mining activity on biota. This paper also presents a brief overview of the impact of mineral mining on biota based on documented literature for other countries.

  8. Industry Response to the Challenge of Sustainability: The Case of the Canadian Nonferrous Mining Sector

    PubMed

    Sánchez

    1998-07-01

    / The paper investigates how the Canadian nonferrous sector is tackling the challenge of sustainable development. Although there is no consensus as to what sustainable development means in practice for management in the sector, at least three dimensions must be taken into account: (1) metals are recyclable, the availability of this resource is not a concern for the foreseeable future; (2) the need to minimize environmental impacts of metals exploration, extraction, transformation, consumption, and recycling; and (3) production activities should not be socially or culturally disruptive. The nonferrous mining industry faces several environmental problems. Some of the most significant are acid mine drainage, sulfur emissions, recycling, and metals toxicity. The industry has developed a number of responses to address these specific concerns as well as other more general challenges. Six strategies are described and analyzed: (1) research and development, (2) an effort of consensus building among stakeholders known as the Whitehorse Mining Initiative, (3) international networking, (4) active involvement in the development of environmental management standards, (5) management reorganization and (6) voluntary agreements. The importance of external factors in the shaping of corporate environmental management practices is discussed, in particular the role of government. Progress has been achieved in three areas: (1) managerial practices and organization, (2) reducing the impacts of ongoing operations and (3) minimizing future liabilities, but two significant fields of conflict remain, namely mining in wilderness areas and projects on aboriginal lands.KEY WORDS: Canada; Environmental management; Minerals industry; Nonferrous metals; Sustainable development; Whitehorse Mining Initiative

  9. Analysis of work related accidents in the Spanish mining sector from 1982-2006.

    PubMed

    Sanmiquel, Lluís; Freijo, Modesto; Edo, Joaquín; Rossell, Josep M

    2010-02-01

    The rate for work related accidents in the Spanish mining sector is notably higher than in other countries such as the United States. It produces a very negative impact on the mining industry. This paper is the report of a study on serious and fatal accidents in Spanish mining from 1982-2006. It is based on the reports of 212 accidents (serious or fatal) carried out by the General Management of Energy and Mining of Catalonia (Spain). The high work-related accident rate in the Spanish mining sector makes it necessary to carry out an analysis and research that can shed light on the causes of this high rate; this is the only way that a solution can be found. The study is based on Feyer and Williamson's analysis of accident causes, as they apply to 212 accidents. The types and causes of the accidents are coded according to the coding system used by the Spanish National Institute for Safety and Hygiene in the Workplace, which allows us to identify a series of direct causes and contributing factors in different accidents. Results If all the causes and factors that are present in the accidents are known, we are able to look for appropriate solutions to reduce them as much as possible. In short, we are able to come up with a series of conclusions that expose the weak links in the management of accident prevention in companies. This is helpful in the struggle to reduce work injuries in the Spanish mining sector. Copyright 2010 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  10. Mining's impact on groundwater assessed

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Detailed studies have indicated that groundwater is contaminated in the immediate vicinity of many mines in the eastern United States. However, no underground mines and very few refuse disposal areas have monitoring systems that can provide adequate warning of impending threats to groundwater quality.This was one of the conclusions of a 3-year study by Geraghty & Miller, Inc., a firm of consulting groundwater geologists and hydrologists based in Syosset, New York. The study focused on mines east of the 100th meridian. These mines will produce an estimated 1.1 billion tons of coal and 200 million tons of waste by 1985.

  11. Utility Sector Impacts of Reduced Electricity Demand

    SciTech Connect

    Coughlin, Katie

    2014-12-01

    This report presents a new approach to estimating the marginal utility sector impacts associated with electricity demand reductions. The method uses publicly available data and provides results in the form of time series of impact factors. The input data are taken from the Energy Information Agency's Annual Energy Outlook (AEO) projections of how the electric system might evolve in the reference case, and in a number of side cases that incorporate different effciency and other policy assumptions. The data published with the AEO are used to define quantitative relationships between demand-side electricity reductions by end use and supply-side changes to capacity by plant type, generation by fuel type and emissions of CO2, Hg, NOx and SO2. The impact factors define the change in each of these quantities per unit reduction in site electricity demand. We find that the relative variation in these impacts by end use is small, but the time variation can be significant.

  12. EA follow-up in the Ghanaian mining sector: Challenges and opportunities

    SciTech Connect

    Appiah-Opoku, Seth; Bryan, Hobson C.

    2013-07-15

    Environmental assessment (EA) follow-up provides a means for monitoring and evaluating the implementation of environmental impact studies. It is integral to the success or failure of a project or program. In spite of its importance, very little attention is given to the need for follow-up programs in most jurisdictions in Africa. Using a case study in the Ghanaian mining sector, this paper explores the challenges and opportunities within the country's EA process for an effective follow-up program. The paper is based on informal interviews, content analysis of relevant publications, official EA documents, and internet searches. The authors suggest a standard EA follow-up program to be formalized as an integral part of Ghana's environmental assessment policy. They also propose a follow-up process that harnesses existing opportunities within the country's EA system. This approach can be replicated in other African countries.

  13. Impact of mine tailings on surrounding soils and ground water: Case of Kettara old mine, Morocco

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    El Amari, K.; Valera, P.; Hibti, M.; Pretti, S.; Marcello, A.; Essarraj, S.

    2014-12-01

    The old ochre-pyrrhotite mine of Kettara, near Marrakech (Morocco) ceased operating some 30 years ago but its excavations, plants, and tailings have been totally abandoned since then. Geochemical analyses of the soils, stream sediments and waters of the surrounding area were carried out to assess the pollution impact of this mining site. Tailing characterization showed the presence of sulphide primary minerals, as well as secondary ones containing among others (Fe, S, Cu, Pb, Zn, Cd, Ni, Cr, Co, As, Se). In spite of the presence of theses pollutants in the Acid Mine Drainage (AMD) of Kettara, groundwater did not show significant levels of these metals probably related to the low ion circulation under the local dry climate with low annual rainfall that prevents metal ion circulation. The chemical analyses of soil and stream sediment samples included elements most of which are internationally considered as dangerous for human health (As, Cd, Co, Cr, Cu, Fe, Ni, Pb, S, Se and Zn). Geochemical maps of these elements showed that Cr and Ni were linked to mafic intrusions of Kettara sector. Sulphur is linked to the mining activity and the others are related both to lithological outcrops and mining activity. However, the levels of these contaminants did not exceed Italian Standards of soil pollution.

  14. The overlooked terrestrial impacts of mountaintop mining

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Wickham, James; Wood, Petra Bohall; Nicholson, Matthew C.; Jenkins, William; Druckenbrod, Daniel; Suter, Glenn W.; Strager, Michael P.; Mazzarella, Christine; Galloway, Walter; Amos, John

    2013-01-01

    Ecological research on mountaintop mining has been focused on aquatic impacts because the overburden (i.e., the mountaintop) is disposed of in nearby valleys, which leads to a wide range of water-quality impacts on streams. There are also numerous impacts on the terrestrial environment from mountaintop mining that have been largely overlooked, even though they are no less wide ranging, severe, and multifaceted. We review the impacts of mountaintop mining on the terrestrial environment by exploring six broad themes: (1) the loss of topographic complexity, (2) forest loss and fragmentation, (3) forest succession and soil loss, (4) forest loss and carbon sequestration, (5) biodiversity, and (6) human health and well-being.

  15. Multiple mining impacts induce widespread changes in ecosystem dynamics in a boreal lake.

    PubMed

    Leppänen, Jaakko Johannes; Weckström, Jan; Korhola, Atte

    2017-09-05

    In order to satisfy the needs of constant economic growth, the pressure to exploit natural resources has increased. Since accessible mineral resources are becoming scarce, the mining industry is constantly looking for novel techniques to allow commercial exploitation of lower-grade deposits. However, mining can have considerable impacts on freshwater ecosystems. Here, we present the ecological damage inflicted by mine water originating from the massive Terrafame Talvivaara polymetal mine (central Finland), where bioheap leaching is being applied to high-sulphur low-grade ore. We found that saline mine water has turned the lake meromictic, and sediment is heavily contaminated. As a result, important zooplankton and phytoplankton groups have been significantly altered. As the exploitation of poor-grade deposits is the future of the mining industry globally, water management should be taken to a higher level in order to proceed towards a sustainable mining sector.

  16. Sector analysis of economic impacts from heritage centers

    Treesearch

    Charles H. Strauss; Bruce E. Lord

    1995-01-01

    The economic impact of six of America's Industrial Heritage Project visitor centers was evaluated within a nine-county region of Pennsylvania. The total sales impact of these expenditures was $29.2 million. Over 60% of the direct sales impact was in the lodging and food service sectors. The labor-intensive character of both sectors created a substantial induced...

  17. Impacts of surface mining on calving elk

    SciTech Connect

    Johnson, T.K.

    1990-12-31

    Due to concern over potential impact of surface coal mining on a traditional elk calving ground, Colorado Yampa Coal Company conducted a six and one half year study from 1981 to 1987 to monitor elk calving behavior in connection habitat disturbance resulting from mining. The specific objectives were to: (1) determine if productivity of elk is changed as they are displaced from a traditional calving area; (2) determining what fidelity they exhibit to calving areas; and (3) describe the physical and vegetation characteristics of elk calving areas. During the study, 448 elk captures were recorded, 294 individual elk were tagged, 75 of which received radio transmitters. The radio transmitter collared elk were relocated 4,583 times. Telemetry work on the 75 individual elk revealed no negative impacts on elk using the mine site. Productivity, calving home range size and fidelity, and habitat utilization patterns between elk using the mine site and control elk were not significantly different. There has been no indication that elk are abandoning mine areas. Aspen habitats directly adjacent to active mining continue to be selected for during the late spring and summer. Reclaimed sites are used in proportion to their availability during spring and summer and are selected for during the fall and early winter. In addition, a large amount of information on cow elk mortality, summer and winter ranges, migration patterns and habitat utilization was obtained.

  18. Oil mining: a review with recommended R and D in the federal sector

    SciTech Connect

    Borg, I Y

    1982-05-05

    There is currently a high interest in oil mining as a possible future recovery technique for oil remaining in ddepleted fields or virgin fields otherwise unamenable to conventional recovery techniques. This review suggests that the mining options are largely untried, high risk and high cost options that only in special instances are likely to attract private risk capital. Open pit mining of shallow, depleted fields preferably containing light crude oils with high residual oil saturations appears to have potential in supplying some part of the nation's future oil requirements. The environmental aspects and recovery techniques appropriate to mining technology are virtually unassessed. This and other suggested mining technologies merit closer examination on both technical and economic grounds. There appear to be R and D opportunities for the government sector that are synergistic with current programs at the Lawrence Livermore National Laboratory.

  19. Modelling climate impacts on the aviation sector

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Williams, Paul

    2017-04-01

    The climate is changing, not just where we live at ground level, but also where we fly at 35,000 feet. We have long known that air travel contributes to climate change through its emissions. However, we have only recently become aware that climate change could have significant consequences for air travel. This presentation will give an overview of the possible impacts of climate change on the aviation sector. The presentation will describe how the impacts are modelled and how their social and economic costs are estimated. The impacts are discussed in the International Civil Aviation Organization's (ICAO's) latest Environmental Report (Puempel and Williams 2016). Some of the possible impacts are as follows. Rising sea levels and storm surges threaten coastal airports, such as La Guardia in New York, which was flooded by the remnants of Hurricane Sandy in 2012. Warmer air at ground level reduces the lift force and makes it more difficult for planes to take-off (Coffel and Horton 2015). More extreme weather may cause flight disruptions and delays. Clear-air turbulence is expected to become up to 40% stronger and twice as common (Williams and Joshi 2013). Transatlantic flights may collectively be airborne for an extra 2,000 hours each year because of changes to the jet stream, burning an extra 7.2 million gallons of jet fuel at a cost of US 22 million, and emitting an extra 70 million kg of carbon dioxide (Williams 2016). These modelled impacts provide further evidence of the two-way interaction between aviation and climate change. References Coffel E and Horton R (2015) Climate change and the impact of extreme temperatures on aviation. Weather, Climate, and Society, 7, 94-102. http://dx.doi.org/10.1175/WCAS-D-14-00026.1 Puempel H and Williams PD (2016) The impacts of climate change on aviation: Scientific challenges and adaptation pathways. ICAO Environmental Report 2016: On Board A Sustainable Future, pp 205-207. http

  20. Dynamically Evolving Sectors for Convective Weather Impact

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Drew, Michael C.

    2010-01-01

    A new strategy for altering existing sector boundaries in response to blocking convective weather is presented. This method seeks to improve the reduced capacity of sectors directly affected by weather by moving boundaries in a direction that offers the greatest capacity improvement. The boundary deformations are shared by neighboring sectors within the region in a manner that preserves their shapes and sizes as much as possible. This reduces the controller workload involved with learning new sector designs. The algorithm that produces the altered sectors is based on a force-deflection mesh model that needs only nominal traffic patterns and the shape of the blocking weather for input. It does not require weather-affected traffic patterns that would have to be predicted by simulation. When compared to an existing optimal sector design method, the sectors produced by the new algorithm are more similar to the original sector shapes, resulting in sectors that may be more suitable for operational use because the change is not as drastic. Also, preliminary results show that this method produces sectors that can equitably distribute the workload of rerouted weather-affected traffic throughout the region where inclement weather is present. This is demonstrated by sector aircraft count distributions of simulated traffic in weather-affected regions.

  1. Assessing the evolution of sustainability reporting in the mining sector.

    PubMed

    Perez, Fabiana; Sanchez, Luis E

    2009-06-01

    Since the 1990s several large companies have been publishing nonfinancial performance reports. Focusing initially on the physical environment, these reports evolved to consider social relations, as well as data on the firm's economic performance. A few mining companies pioneered this trend, and in the last years some of them incorporated the three dimensions of sustainable development, publishing so-called sustainability reports. This article reviews 31 reports published between 2001 and 2006 by four major mining companies. A set of 62 assessment items organized in six categories (namely context and commitment, management, environmental, social and economic performance, and accessibility and assurance) were selected to guide the review. The items were derived from international literature and recommended best practices, including the Global Reporting Initiative G3 framework. A content analysis was performed using the report as a sampling unit, and using phrases, graphics, or tables containing certain information as data collection units. A basic rating scale (0 or 1) was used for noting the presence or absence of information and a final percentage score was obtained for each report. Results show that there is a clear evolution in report's comprehensiveness and depth. Categories "accessibility and assurance" and "economic performance" featured the lowest scores and do not present a clear evolution trend in the period, whereas categories "context and commitment" and "social performance" presented the best results and regular improvement; the category "environmental performance," despite it not reaching the biggest scores, also featured constant evolution. Description of data measurement techniques, besides more comprehensive third-party verification are the items most in need of improvement.

  2. Assessing the Evolution of Sustainability Reporting in the Mining Sector

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Perez, Fabiana; Sanchez, Luis E.

    2009-06-01

    Since the 1990s several large companies have been publishing nonfinancial performance reports. Focusing initially on the physical environment, these reports evolved to consider social relations, as well as data on the firm’s economic performance. A few mining companies pioneered this trend, and in the last years some of them incorporated the three dimensions of sustainable development, publishing so-called sustainability reports. This article reviews 31 reports published between 2001 and 2006 by four major mining companies. A set of 62 assessment items organized in six categories (namely context and commitment, management, environmental, social and economic performance, and accessibility and assurance) were selected to guide the review. The items were derived from international literature and recommended best practices, including the Global Reporting Initiative G3 framework. A content analysis was performed using the report as a sampling unit, and using phrases, graphics, or tables containing certain information as data collection units. A basic rating scale (0 or 1) was used for noting the presence or absence of information and a final percentage score was obtained for each report. Results show that there is a clear evolution in report’s comprehensiveness and depth. Categories “accessibility and assurance” and “economic performance” featured the lowest scores and do not present a clear evolution trend in the period, whereas categories “context and commitment” and “social performance” presented the best results and regular improvement; the category “environmental performance,” despite it not reaching the biggest scores, also featured constant evolution. Description of data measurement techniques, besides more comprehensive third-party verification are the items most in need of improvement.

  3. Intensifying action to address HIV and tuberculosis in Mozambique's cross-border mining sector.

    PubMed

    Barwise, Katy; Lind, Andrew; Bennett, Rod; Martins, Emilia

    2013-01-01

    The southern provinces of Mozambique have some of the world's highest recorded levels of HIV and tuberculosis (TB). They are also characterized by high levels of cross-border migration, particularly to mines in South Africa. Through the Declaration on Tuberculosis in the Mining Sector in August 2012, heads of state of the Southern African Development Community showed an increased commitment to addressing TB and HIV among migrant mine workers, but there is much left to do. This article analyzes the importance of recent policy developments, both regional and national. We report new research from 2011-2012 on health-related attitudes and behaviors of Mozambican mine workers and their families and present an estimate of the financial burden of disease related to migrant mine work for Mozambique's public services and migrant-sending communities. We recommend that the Declaration be operationalized and enforced. Practical measures should include training of health workers in migrants' right to health; user-friendly health information in Portuguese and local languages; building the advocacy capacity of mine workers' representatives; and more attention to social, cultural, and economic factors that affect migrant mine workers' health, including better access to health information and services and livelihoods for wives, widows, and orphans in communities of origin.

  4. The impact of roster changes on absenteeism and incident frequency in an Australian coal mine

    PubMed Central

    Baker, A; Heiler, K; Ferguson, S

    2003-01-01

    Background: The occupational health and safety implications associated with compressed and extended work periods have not been fully explored in the mining sector. Aims: To examine the impact on employee health and safety of changes to the roster system in an Australian coal mine. Methods: Absenteeism and incident frequency rate data were collected over a 33 month period that covered three different roster schedules. Period 1 covered the original 8-hour/7-day roster. Period 2 covered a 12-month period under a 12-hour/7-day schedule, and period 3 covered a 12-month period during which a roster that scheduled shifts only on weekdays, with uncapped overtime on weekends and days off (12-hour/5-day) was in place. Data were collected and analysed from the maintenance, mining, and coal preparation plant (CPP) sectors. Results: The only significant change in absenteeism rates was an increase in the maintenance sector in the third data collection period. Absenteeism rates in the mining and CPP sectors were not different between data collection periods. The increase in the maintenance sector may be owing to: (1) a greater requirement for maintenance employees to perform overtime as a result of the roster change compared to other employee groups; or (2) greater monotony associated with extended work periods for maintenance employees compared to others. After the first roster change, accident incident frequency decreased in the CPP sector but not in the other sectors. There was no effect on incident frequency after the second roster change in any sector. Conclusions: The current study did not find significant negative effects of a 12-hour pattern, when compared to an 8-hour system. However, when unregulated and excessive overtime was introduced as part of the 12-hour/5-day roster, absenteeism rates were increased in the maintenance sector. The combination of excessive work hours and lack of consultation with employees regarding the second change may have contributed to the

  5. Modeling climate change impacts on the forest sector

    Treesearch

    John R. Mills; Ralph Alig; Richard W. Haynes; Darius M. Adams

    2000-01-01

    The forest sector has had a relatively long history of applying sectorial models to estimate the effects of atmospheric issues such as acid rain, climate change, and the forestry impacts of reduced atmospheric ozone. The models of the forest sector vary in scope and complexity but share a number of common features and databases.

  6. Coal mining and the resource community cycle: A longitudinal assessment of the social impacts of the Coppabella coal mine

    SciTech Connect

    Lockie, S.; Franettovich, M.; Petkova-Timmer, V.; Rolfe, J.; Ivanova, G.

    2009-09-15

    Two social impact assessment (SIA) studies of Central Queensland's Coppabella coal mine were undertaken in 2002-2003 and 2006-2007. As ex post studies of actual change, these provide a reference point for predictive assessments of proposed resource extraction projects at other sites, while the longitudinal element added by the second study illustrates how impacts associated with one mine may vary over time due to changing economic and social conditions. It was found that the traditional coupling of local economic vitality and community development to the life cycle of resource projects - the resource community cycle - was mediated by labour recruitment and social infrastructure policies that reduced the emphasis on localised employment and investment strategies. and by the cumulative impacts of multiple mining projects within relative proximity to each other. The resource community cycle was accelerated and local communities forced to consider ways of attracting secondary investment and/or alternative industries early in the operational life of the Coppabella mine in order to secure significant economic benefits and to guard against the erosion of social capital and the ability to cope with future downturns in the mining sector.

  7. Environmental impact assessment of selenium from coal mine spoils

    SciTech Connect

    Atalay, A.

    1990-10-01

    The development of environmental impact assessment of selenium from coal mine spoils will provide a useful guideline to predict the environmental impact of Se from abandoned coal mine operations. Information obtained from such a study can be applied in areas where coal mining has not yet begun in order to predict and identify the geochemistry of rocks, soils, surface waters and groundwaters likely to be disturbed by coal mining operation.

  8. Cumulative impacts of mountaintop mining on an Appalachian watershed.

    PubMed

    Lindberg, T Ty; Bernhardt, Emily S; Bier, Raven; Helton, A M; Merola, R Brittany; Vengosh, Avner; Di Giulio, Richard T

    2011-12-27

    Mountaintop mining is the dominant form of coal mining and the largest driver of land cover change in the central Appalachians. The waste rock from these surface mines is disposed of in the adjacent river valleys, leading to a burial of headwater streams and dramatic increases in salinity and trace metal concentrations immediately downstream. In this synoptic study we document the cumulative impact of more than 100 mining discharge outlets and approximately 28 km(2) of active and reclaimed surface coal mines on the Upper Mud River of West Virginia. We measured the concentrations of major and trace elements within the tributaries and the mainstem and found that upstream of the mines water quality was equivalent to state reference sites. However, as eight separate mining-impacted tributaries contributed their flow, conductivity and the concentrations of selenium, sulfate, magnesium, and other inorganic solutes increased at a rate directly proportional to the upstream areal extent of mining. We found strong linear correlations between the concentrations of these contaminants in the river and the proportion of the contributing watershed in surface mines. All tributaries draining mountaintop-mining-impacted catchments were characterized by high conductivity and increased sulfate concentration, while concentrations of some solutes such as Se, Sr, and N were lower in the two tributaries draining reclaimed mines. Our results demonstrate the cumulative impact of multiple mines within a single catchment and provide evidence that mines reclaimed nearly two decades ago continue to contribute significantly to water quality degradation within this watershed.

  9. Cumulative impacts of mountaintop mining on an Appalachian watershed

    PubMed Central

    Lindberg, T. Ty; Bernhardt, Emily S.; Bier, Raven; Helton, A. M.; Merola, R. Brittany; Vengosh, Avner; Di Giulio, Richard T.

    2011-01-01

    Mountaintop mining is the dominant form of coal mining and the largest driver of land cover change in the central Appalachians. The waste rock from these surface mines is disposed of in the adjacent river valleys, leading to a burial of headwater streams and dramatic increases in salinity and trace metal concentrations immediately downstream. In this synoptic study we document the cumulative impact of more than 100 mining discharge outlets and approximately 28 km2 of active and reclaimed surface coal mines on the Upper Mud River of West Virginia. We measured the concentrations of major and trace elements within the tributaries and the mainstem and found that upstream of the mines water quality was equivalent to state reference sites. However, as eight separate mining-impacted tributaries contributed their flow, conductivity and the concentrations of selenium, sulfate, magnesium, and other inorganic solutes increased at a rate directly proportional to the upstream areal extent of mining. We found strong linear correlations between the concentrations of these contaminants in the river and the proportion of the contributing watershed in surface mines. All tributaries draining mountaintop-mining-impacted catchments were characterized by high conductivity and increased sulfate concentration, while concentrations of some solutes such as Se, Sr, and N were lower in the two tributaries draining reclaimed mines. Our results demonstrate the cumulative impact of multiple mines within a single catchment and provide evidence that mines reclaimed nearly two decades ago continue to contribute significantly to water quality degradation within this watershed. PMID:22160676

  10. Cross-Sector Impact Analysis of Industrial Efficiency Measures

    SciTech Connect

    Morrow, William; CreskoEngineering, Joe; Carpenter, Alberta; Masanet, Eric; Nimbalkar, Sachin U; Shehabi, Arman

    2013-01-01

    The industrial or manufacturing sector is a foundational component to all economic activity. In addition to being a large direct consumer of energy, the manufacturing sector also produces materials, products, and technologies that influence the energy use of other economic sectors. For example, the manufacturing of a lighter-weight vehicle component affects the energy required to ship that component as well as the fuel efficiency of the assembled vehicle. Many energy efficiency opportunities exist to improve manufacturing energy consumption, however comparisons of manufacturing sector energy efficiency investment opportunities tend to exclude any impacts that occur once the product leaves the factory. Expanding the scope of analysis to include energy impacts across different stages of product life-cycle can highlight less obvious opportunities and inform actions that create the greatest economy-wide benefits. We present a methodology and associated analysis tool (LIGHTEnUP Lifecycle Industry GHgas, Technology and Energy through the Use Phase) that aims to capture both the manufacturing sector energy consumption and product life-cycle energy consumption implications of manufacturing innovation measures. The tool architecture incorporates U.S. national energy use data associated with manufacturing, building operations, and transportation. Inputs for technology assessment, both direct energy saving to the manufacturing sector, and indirect energy impacts to additional sectors are estimated through extensive literature review and engineering methods. The result is a transparent and uniform system of comparing manufacturing and use-phase impacts of technologies.

  11. Impact of surface coal mining on soil hydraulic properties

    Treesearch

    X. Liu; J. Q. Wu; P. W. Conrad; S. Dun; C. S. Todd; R. L. McNearny; William Elliot; H. Rhee; P. Clark

    2016-01-01

    Soil erosion is strongly related to soil hydraulic properties. Understanding how surface coal mining affects these properties is therefore important in developing effective management practices to control erosion during reclamation. To determine the impact of mining activities on soil hydraulic properties, soils from undisturbed areas, areas of roughly graded mine...

  12. Environmental impact assessment of open pit mining in Iran

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Monjezi, M.; Shahriar, K.; Dehghani, H.; Samimi Namin, F.

    2009-07-01

    Mining is widely regarded as having adverse effects on environment of both magnitude and diversity. Some of these effects include erosion, formation of sinkhole, biodiversity loss and contamination of groundwater by chemical from the mining process in general and open-pit mining in particular. As such, a repeatable process to evaluate these effects primarily aims to diminish them. This paper applies Folchi method to evaluate the impact of open-pit mining in four Iranian mines that lacked previous geo-environmental assessment. Having key geologic resources, these mines are: Mouteh gold mine, Gol-e-Gohar and Chogart iron mines, and Sarcheshmeh copper mine. The environmental components can be defined as public health and safety, social relationships, air and water quality, flora and fauna hence, various impacting factors from the mining activities were estimated for each environmental component. For this purpose, each impacting factor was first given a magnitude, based solely on the range of possible scenarios. Thereafter, a matrix of weighted factors was derived to systematically quantify and normalize the effects of each impacting factor. The overall impact upon each individual environmental component was then calculated by summing the weighted rates. Here, Folchi method was applied to evaluate those environmental conditions. Based on the acquired results, the present paper finally concludes that amongst four case histories in Iran, Sarcheshmeh copper mine significantly affects the environment, with critical level of air pollution there.

  13. The impact of oil price on Malaysian sector indices

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Ismail, Mohd Tahir; Luan, Yeap Pei; Ee, Ong Joo

    2015-12-01

    In this paper, vector error correction model (VECM) has been utilized to model the dynamic relationships between world crude oil price and the sector indices of Malaysia. The sector indices have been collected are covering the period Jan 1998 to Dec 2013. Surprisingly, our investigations show that oil price changes do not Granger-cause any of the sectors in all of Malaysia. However, sector indices of Food Producer and Utilities are found to be the cause of the changes in world crude oil prices. Furthermore, from the results of variance decomposition, very high percentage of shocks is explained by world crude oil price itself over the 12 months and small impact from other sector indices.

  14. Analysis of Fatalities During Maintenance and Repair Operations in the U.S. Mining Sector.

    PubMed

    Reardon, Leanna M; Heberger, John R; Dempsey, Patrick G

    2014-04-08

    Maintenance and repair work in mining is particularly hazardous and yet has received little focus in ergonomics research. In this article, an attempt has been made to determine if patterns can be identified to categorize maintenance and repair fatalities in mining, to compare occurrence of fatalities between coal and metal/nonmetal sectors, and to use this information to identify safety deficiencies and associated proposed remedial measures. A classification scheme was developed to identify patterns in fatalities, including proximal causes, tasks, and contributing factors. This scheme was tested to ensure adequacy of the categories, and fatalities were categorized using the scheme. All testing and categorization were done by two of the authors to ensure reliability of the coding scheme. Patterns were successfully identified to categorize the fatalities, and these patterns were different between coal and metal/nonmetal mines. Coal mines had a greater proportion of electrical-related fatalities, while more fatalities related to potential energy occurred at metal/nonmetal mines. Most of the fatalities were caused by the victim coming into contact with an object or machine or the victim falling from height, and they occurred most often while the victim was performing maintenance or repair on equipment, cleaning, or removing blockages. The most frequent factors contributing to these incidents were failure to properly de-energize or lock out/tag out equipment, violation of work procedures, missing or inadequate safety equipment, and failure to block equipment properly. The classification approach used was successful in identifying hazard patterns during maintenance and repair fatalities in mining. These patterns identify areas to focus attention when developing interventions to prevent the occurrence of future fatalities.

  15. Agricultural sector impacts of making ethanol from grain

    SciTech Connect

    Hertzmark, D.; Ray, D.; Parvin, G.

    1980-03-01

    This report presents the results of a model of the effects on the agricultural sector of producing ethanol from corn in the United States between 1979 and 1983. The model is aggregated at the national level, and results are given for all of the major food and feed crops, ethanol joint products, farm income, government payment, and agricultural exports. A stochastic simulation was performed to ascertain the impacts of yield and demand variations on aggregate performance figures. Results indicate minimal impacts on the agricultural sector for production levels of less than 1 billion gallons of ethanol per year. For higher production levels, corn prices will rise sharply, the agricultural sector will be more vulnerable to variations in yields and demands, and joint-product values will fall. Possibilities for ameliorating such effects are discussed, and such concepts as net energy and the biomass refinery are explored.

  16. Impacts of Increased Diesel Penetration in the Transportation Sector, The

    EIA Publications

    1998-01-01

    Requested by the Office of Energy Efficiency and Renewable Energy, U.S. Department of Energy. Analyzes the impacts on petroleum prices, demand, and refinery operations of a projected increase in demand for diesel fuel stemming from greater penetration of diesel-fueled engines in the light-duty vehicle fleet of the U.S. transportation sector.

  17. TOXICITY APPROACHES TO ASSESSING MINING IMPACTS AND MINE WASTE TREATMENT EFFECTIVENESS

    EPA Science Inventory

    The USEPA Office of Research and Development's National Exposure Research Laboratory and National Risk Management Research Laboratory have been evaluating the impact of mining sites on receiving streams and the effectiveness of waste treatment technologies in removing toxicity fo...

  18. TOXICITY APPROACHES TO ASSESSING MINING IMPACTS AND MINE WASTE TREATMENT EFFECTIVENESS

    EPA Science Inventory

    The USEPA Office of Research and Development's National Exposure Research Laboratory and National Risk Management Research Laboratory have been evaluating the impact of mining sites on receiving streams and the effectiveness of waste treatment technologies in removing toxicity fo...

  19. GROUNDWATER IMPACTED BY ACID MINE DRAINAGE

    EPA Science Inventory

    The generation and release of acidic, metal-rich water from mine wastes continues to be an intractable environmental problem. Although the effects of acid mine drainage (AMD) are most evident in surface waters, there is an obvious need for developing cost-effective approaches fo...

  20. GROUNDWATER IMPACTED BY ACID MINE DRAINAGE

    EPA Science Inventory

    The generation and release of acidic, metal-rich water from mine wastes continues to be an intractable environmental problem. Although the effects of acid mine drainage (AMD) are most evident in surface waters, there is an obvious need for developing cost-effective approaches fo...

  1. Innovation, systemic appropriation and prevention in the granite mining sector: The case of humidification.

    PubMed

    Mendes, R W B; Pueyo, V; Béguin, P; Duarte, F J C M

    2017-01-01

    This research was conducted in the Brazilian granite mining sector. After epidemiological studies, it was established that professional pneumoconiosis is related to the inhalation of dust. Therefore, the Brazilian mining health and safety regulatory standard made it compulsory to provide humidification throughout the extraction and mineral treatment processes. To develop the concept of systemic appropriation of the technological innovations that aim to protect the worker's health. Until now, appropriation has usually been presented in its individual dimensions. In this article, the focus is placed on the collective and organizational aspects of this appropriation. Two methodological approaches were used: interviews with the different individuals involved in order to report the history of the implementation of technical devices which meet the humidification norm; and ergonomic analysis of the work of the operators who used these devices. The appropriation of the technical devices occurred at two distinct levels: 1) Individual, related to the direct contact of the operator with the instrument; 2) Systemic, as the effects of the innovation propagated through the system affecting interdependent tasks, adaptation of the work organization and new production strategies. The implementation of prevention norms require innovations which are necessarily accompanied by transformations in the companies' techniques, work and management.

  2. Impacts of climate change on the global forest sector

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Perez-Garcia, J.; Joyce, L.A.; McGuire, A.D.; Xiao, X.

    2002-01-01

    The path and magnitude of future anthropogenic emissions of carbon dioxide will likely influence changes in climate that may impact the global forest sector. These responses in the global forest sector may have implications for international efforts to stabilize the atmospheric concentration of carbon dioxide. This study takes a step toward including the role of global forest sector in integrated assessments of the global carbon cycle by linking global models of climate dynamics, ecosystem processes and forest economics to assess the potential responses of the global forest sector to different levels of greenhouse gas emissions. We utilize three climate scenarios and two economic scenarios to represent a range of greenhouse gas emissions and economic behavior. At the end of the analysis period (2040), the potential responses in regional forest growing stock simulated by the global ecosystem model range from decreases and increases for the low emissions climate scenario to increases in all regions for the high emissions climate scenario. The changes in vegetation are used to adjust timber supply in the softwood and hardwood sectors of the economic model. In general, the global changes in welfare are positive, but small across all scenarios. At the regional level, the changes in welfare can be large and either negative or positive. Markets and trade in forest products play important roles in whether a region realizes any gains associated with climate change. In general, regions with the lowest wood fiber production cost are able to expand harvests. Trade in forest products leads to lower prices elsewhere. The low-cost regions expand market shares and force higher-cost regions to decrease their harvests. Trade produces different economic gains and losses across the globe even though, globally, economic welfare increases. The results of this study indicate that assumptions within alternative climate scenarios and about trade in forest products are important factors

  3. The impact of mining activities on agriculture

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Saghatelyan, A.; Sahakyan, L.

    2009-04-01

    The present study was designed to assess environmental status of the territory of the city of Kapan and neighboring agricultural farms with an emphasis on the impact of the tailing repository and operation of the Kapan copper plant on soil, water and plant pollution. The region has long been known for its abundant copper and polymetallic deposits with vein- and stockwork-type mineralization. Moreover, historically Kapan was the miners' city and a powerful copper mining and dressing plant has been operating there since 1846. The performed geochemical survey and a sanitary-hygienic assessment of pollution of the Kapan's soils have indicated high contents of Cu, Pb, Ni, Mo and As vs. the background and Maximum Acceptable Concentrations (MAC). The assessment of pollution levels of surface water, including natural and industrial streams, has indicated that unlike natural stream waters, mining waters from the adit and industrial stream waters were high in a number of toxic (Cd, As, Hg) and ore (Cu, Zn) elements. Activation of most chemical elements and particularly of heavy metals in water environment rapidly brings to pollution of environmental components (soils, plants, etc.), and as a result heavy metals enter the human organism via trophic chains. So, in the frame of the research eco-toxicological studies were performed on accumulation of heavy metals (Cu, Ni, Cr, Zn, Sn, Mo), including high toxic elements (As, Hg, Pb, Cd) in agricultural soils and in the basic assortment of agricultural crops. The research covered agricultural lands within the bounds of the city and private plots in neighboring villages. Wholly, 24 vegetable, melon field, cereal (corn), oil-bearing (sunflower) species adding spicy herbs and fruits were studied. It should be stressed that agricultural crops growing on the study sites are used provide food products not only by the population of this particular city and neighboring villages, but of other cities, too. It means that the average number of

  4. Evaluating NASA Technology Programs in Terms of Private Sector Impacts

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Greenberg, J. S.

    1984-01-01

    NASA is currently developing spacecraft technology for application to NASA scientific missions, military missions and commercial missions which are part of or form the basis of private sector business ventures. The justification of R&D programs that lead to spacecraft technology improvements encompasses the establishment of the benefits in terms of improved scientific knowledge that may result from new and/or improved NASA science missions, improved cost effectiveness of NASA and DOD missions and new or improved services that may be offered by the private sector (for example communications satellite services). It is with the latter of these areas that attention will be focused upon. In particular, it is of interest to establish the economic value of spacecraft technology improvements to private sector communications satellite business ventures. It is proposed to assess the value of spacecraft technology improvements in terms of the changes in cash flow and present value of cash flows, that may result from the use of new and/or improved spacecraft technology for specific types of private sector communications satellite missions (for example domestic point-to-point communication or direct broadcasting). To accomplish this it is necessary to place the new and/or improved technology within typical business scenarios and estimate the impacts of technical performance upon business and financial performance.

  5. Evaluating NASA Technology Programs in Terms of Private Sector Impacts

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Greenberg, J. S.

    1984-01-01

    NASA is currently developing spacecraft technology for application to NASA scientific missions, military missions and commercial missions which are part of or form the basis of private sector business ventures. The justification of R&D programs that lead to spacecraft technology improvements encompasses the establishment of the benefits in terms of improved scientific knowledge that may result from new and/or improved NASA science missions, improved cost effectiveness of NASA and DOD missions and new or improved services that may be offered by the private sector (for example communications satellite services). It is with the latter of these areas that attention will be focused upon. In particular, it is of interest to establish the economic value of spacecraft technology improvements to private sector communications satellite business ventures. It is proposed to assess the value of spacecraft technology improvements in terms of the changes in cash flow and present value of cash flows, that may result from the use of new and/or improved spacecraft technology for specific types of private sector communications satellite missions (for example domestic point-to-point communication or direct broadcasting). To accomplish this it is necessary to place the new and/or improved technology within typical business scenarios and estimate the impacts of technical performance upon business and financial performance.

  6. Mercury mine drainage and processes that control its environmental impact

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Rytuba, J.J.

    2000-01-01

    H range of 3.2-7.1 in streams impacted by mine drainage. The dissolved fraction of both mercury species is depleted and concentrated in iron oxyhydroxide such that the amount of iron oxyhydroxide in the water column reflects the concentration of mercury species. In streams impacted by mine drainage, mercury and methylmercury are transported and adsorbed onto particulate phases. During periods of low stream flow, fine-grained iron hydroxide sediment accumulates in the bed load of the stream and adsorbs mercury and methylmercury such that both forms of mercury become highly enriched in the iron oxyhydroxide sediment. During high-flow events, mercury- and methylmercury-enriched iron hydroxide sediment is transported into larger aquatic systems producing a high flux of bioavailable mercury. (C) 2000 Elsevier Science B.V.

  7. Release of Mercury Mine Tailings from Mine Impacted Watersheds by Extreme Events Resulting from Climate Change

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Rytuba, J. J.

    2015-12-01

    Hg residing in floodplain deposits. This Hg source in a period of climate change poses a significant environmental risk to aquatic systems downstream from Hg mine-impacted watersheds. An extreme ARkStorm event is estimated to potentially remobilize an amount of Hg equivalent to that released in the past during the peak period of unregulated Hg mining in California.

  8. Impact assessment of coal mines in Erai watershed of Chandrapur district using geoinformatics.

    PubMed

    Patil, S A; Katpatal, Y B

    2008-10-01

    The industrial development and growing population in India is in demand of more energy. Coal based thermal power generation is a major source of energy and is expanding at a very high rate leading to over exploitation of coal reserves, which is causing adverse impacts on the environment. Remote sensing and GIS techniques have been found to be useful in mapping and monitoring of dynamic changes taking place due to mining activity. Satellite based environmental impact assessment involves various aspects, such as land use, water resources, land degradation, etc. These studies help in formulating environmental management plan for the mining sector. Coal mines in Erai watershed of Chandrapur district so far have lost 2139.68 hectares of land constituting a fertile agriculture land, reserve forest, protected forest and natural river course of Erai river, Upsa nala and Motaghat nala severely affecting the watershed eco-system. Therefore, an in-depth impact assessment study of coal mines in Erai watershed of Chandrapur district was carried out using geoinformatics and the results are presented in this paper.

  9. San Francisco Bay Sand Mining Resource Evaluation and Impact Analysis

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Fenical, S.; Tirindelli, M.; Sicular, D.; Gragg, J.; Huitt, C.

    2012-12-01

    This paper presents results of the evaluation of potential future sand resources within certain Central San Francisco Bay (Central Bay) sand mining lease areas, as well as the potential impacts of further mining these areas for a ten-year period. The study consisted of morphological analysis using field measurements and hydrodynamic modeling, and covered a wide spectrum of physical processes including tidal and river circulation, salinity, sediment transport, and morphology. The study was conducted within the framework of an Environmental Impact Report (EIR) prepared by the California State Lands Commission (CSLC) as part of the discretionary approval process for issuing new mining leases. The results of the morphological analysis indicate a measurable depletion of sand resources in the Central Bay lease areas during the period 1997-2008, and that for the purposes of the proposed ten-year mining lease renewal, sand mining resources in Central Bay are largely limited to material already in place. The morphological analysis results also indicate that the proposed additional ten years of sand mining in the Central Bay lease areas are not likely to cause a significant impact on sediment transport and budgets in areas outside the vicinity of the lease areas, such as the San Francisco Bar, Ocean Beach, etc. Numerical modeling results, including particle tracking exercises, do indicate a net seaward transport of sand, and that a linkage exists between the mining areas and offshore areas (San Francisco Bar, Ocean Beach, etc). However, the modeling results demonstrate that the linkage is weak, and that any measurable changes in hydrodynamics, salinity and sediment transport/morphology caused by the mining activities are likely to be confined to the vicinity of the mining areas.

  10. The Economic Impact of Coal Mining in New Mexico

    SciTech Connect

    Peach, James; Starbuck, C.

    2009-06-01

    The economic impact of coal mining in New Mexico is examined in this report. The analysis is based on economic multipliers derived from an input-output model of the New Mexico economy. The direct, indirect, and induced impacts of coal mining in New Mexico are presented in terms of output, value added, employment, and labor income for calendar year 2007. Tax, rental, and royalty income to the State of New Mexico are also presented. Historical coal production, reserves, and price data are also presented and discussed. The impacts of coal-fired electricity generation will be examined in a separate report.

  11. Documenting the global impacts of beach sand mining

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Young, R.; Griffith, A.

    2009-04-01

    For centuries, beach sand has been mined for use as aggregate in concrete, for heavy minerals, and for construction fill. The global extent and impact of this phenomenon has gone relatively unnoticed by academics, NGOs, and major news sources. Most reports of sand mining activities are found at the very local scale (if the mining is ever documented at all). Yet, sand mining in many localities has resulted in the complete destruction of beach (and related) ecosystems along with severe impacts to coastal protection and tourism. The Program for the Study of Developed Shorelines at Western Carolina University and Beachcare.org have initiated the construction of a global database of beach sand mining activities. The database is being built through a combination of site visits and through the data mining of media resources, peer reviewed papers, and reports from private and governmental entities. Currently, we have documented sand mining in 35 countries on 6 continents representing the removal of millions of cubic meters of sand. Problems extend from Asia where critical infrastructure has been disrupted by sand mining to the Caribbean where policy reform has swiftly followed a highly publicized theft of sand. The Program for the Study of Developed Shorelines recently observed extensive sand mining in Morocco at the regional scale. Tens of kilometers of beach have been stripped of sand and the mining continues southward reducing hope of a thriving tourism-based economy. Problems caused by beach sand mining include: destruction of natural beaches and the ecosystems they protect (e.g. dunes, wetlands), habitat loss for globally important species (e.g. turtles, shorebirds), destruction of nearshore marine ecosystems, increased shoreline erosion rates, reduced protection from storms, tsunamis, and wave events, and economic losses through tourist abandonment and loss of coastal aesthetics. The threats posed by sand mining are made even more critical given the prospect of a

  12. The Inter-Sectoral Impact Model Intercomparison Project (ISI-MIP): project framework.

    PubMed

    Warszawski, Lila; Frieler, Katja; Huber, Veronika; Piontek, Franziska; Serdeczny, Olivia; Schewe, Jacob

    2014-03-04

    The Inter-Sectoral Impact Model Intercomparison Project offers a framework to compare climate impact projections in different sectors and at different scales. Consistent climate and socio-economic input data provide the basis for a cross-sectoral integration of impact projections. The project is designed to enable quantitative synthesis of climate change impacts at different levels of global warming. This report briefly outlines the objectives and framework of the first, fast-tracked phase of Inter-Sectoral Impact Model Intercomparison Project, based on global impact models, and provides an overview of the participating models, input data, and scenario set-up.

  13. The Inter-Sectoral Impact Model Intercomparison Project (ISI–MIP): Project framework

    PubMed Central

    Warszawski, Lila; Frieler, Katja; Huber, Veronika; Piontek, Franziska; Serdeczny, Olivia; Schewe, Jacob

    2014-01-01

    The Inter-Sectoral Impact Model Intercomparison Project offers a framework to compare climate impact projections in different sectors and at different scales. Consistent climate and socio-economic input data provide the basis for a cross-sectoral integration of impact projections. The project is designed to enable quantitative synthesis of climate change impacts at different levels of global warming. This report briefly outlines the objectives and framework of the first, fast-tracked phase of Inter-Sectoral Impact Model Intercomparison Project, based on global impact models, and provides an overview of the participating models, input data, and scenario set-up. PMID:24344316

  14. ImSET: Impact of Sector Energy Technologies

    SciTech Connect

    Roop, Joseph M.; Scott, Michael J.; Schultz, Robert W.

    2005-07-19

    This version of the Impact of Sector Energy Technologies (ImSET) model represents the ''next generation'' of the previously developed Visual Basic model (ImBUILD 2.0) that was developed in 2003 to estimate the macroeconomic impacts of energy-efficient technology in buildings. More specifically, a special-purpose version of the 1997 benchmark national Input-Output (I-O) model was designed specifically to estimate the national employment and income effects of the deployment of Office of Energy Efficiency and Renewable Energy (EERE) -developed energy-saving technologies. In comparison with the previous versions of the model, this version allows for more complete and automated analysis of the essential features of energy efficiency investments in buildings, industry, transportation, and the electric power sectors. This version also incorporates improvements in the treatment of operations and maintenance costs, and improves the treatment of financing of investment options. ImSET is also easier to use than extant macroeconomic simulation models and incorporates information developed by each of the EERE offices as part of the requirements of the Government Performance and Results Act.

  15. Hydrogeological and environmental impact of coal mining, Jharia coalfield, India

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Choubey, Vishnu D.

    1991-05-01

    The Jharia coalfield is the most important and active minig region; it experiences groundwater inflow and affects groundwater levels in overlying aquifers, and it provides the basis for a conceptual model of the hydrogeological impacts of coal mining. The several sandstone aquifers of the overburden are separated by aquitards that limit vertical hydraulic connection, but the inflow responds to seasonal events and seems to be linked to shallow groundwater behavior. The mine drainage behavior suggests a hydraulic connection between the mine and the shallower groundwater system. The greatest declines are directly above the panels, with an immediate response to coal mining. The inflow is localized by natural and induced fracture zones and is mostly into recent workings. The groundwater behavior is controlled by hydraulic property changes caused by mine-induced fracturing. The hydrological and chemical qualities of the shallow groundwater regime in 13 mining collieries in Mukunda Block have been investigated. Water samples collected from 30 shallow monitoring dug wells were chosen for the study. Rainfall, runoff, and infiltration rates have been calculated in the area. The water-quality plottings were used to interpret the distribution of individual chemical parameters and in predicting the water quality. The underground mine water has been classified as: (1) unconfined groundwater in the calcareous siltstone and sandstone—its composition is Na, Ca, SO4 and Na-MgHCO3 with moderate total dissolved solids (TDS) 200 1480 ppm; (2) the deep groundwater originating from the coal seams and associated sediments in the near-surface environments—this is a Na-HCO3 water with higher TDS; and (3) spoil dump waters are essentially Na-HCO3 with high TDS. This article presents some hydrologic results and conclusions relating to the hydrogeological and environmental impacts of the coal mining in the Jharia coalfield.

  16. The Climate Impact of the Household Sector in China

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Aunan, K.; Berntsen, T. K.; Rypdal, K.; Streets, D. G.; Woo, J.; Smith, K. R.

    2005-05-01

    If it ever enters into force the impact of the Kyoto Protocol on climate change is likely to be small. The USA and Australia have not ratified the Protocol and the initial emission reduction target was only 5.2 per cent. There is an increasing call for post-Kyoto climate treaties, whether they be global or regional, to widen the scope to take into account the impacts that air pollutants as tropospheric ozone and aerosols may have on climate. There are two main reasons for this. First and foremost, there is increasing evidence that these air pollutants play an important role in the climate system. Secondly, it is suggested that including radiative forcing components that also have adverse impacts on human health and environment may increase participation, which will be a prerequisite for future treaties to be effective. China's approval of the Kyoto Protocol in 2002 suggests that it is considering a more active role in the global effort to mitigate global warming. Given its many other priorities, however, China needs to understand what national policies would reduce its contribution to global warming in the most cost-efficient way and at the same time contribute the most to economic and social development in the country. The objective of the present study is to contribute knowledge that is helpful to Chinese policy makers dealing with this question. We do this by addressing emissions that according to the World Health Organisation are among the leading health risks to people in the developing world, China included, i.e. smoke from solid fuels burned in peoples' homes. In China, about 72 per cent of the population lives in rural or peri-urban areas where use of simple, low-efficiency household stoves for coal or biomass is common. Even though the residential sector stands for no more than 11 per cent of the primary energy consumption (biomass included), the sector contributes to, e.g., more than 70 per cent of Chinese emissions of black carbon, about a third of its

  17. ISO 14000: Impact on mining and reclamation

    SciTech Connect

    Russell, K.E.; Tipton, S.G.

    1997-12-31

    Environmental regulation and compliance in the mining and reclamation industry is in a position to take advantage of the ISO 14000 standards being developed by the International Organization for Standardization. The purpose of this paper is to provide environmental managers in the mining and reclamation industry with a basic understanding of the ISO 14000 environmental standards which have traditionally been implemented by conventional manufacturing industries. The paper covers the history of the ISO, its acceptance by industry generally, the ISO 14000 standards being utilized currently and those which are proposed for the future, the benefits associated with implementation and compliance with the standards, and a discussion of ISO 14000 standards` applicability in the mining and reclamation industry. There are seven areas which constitute the ISO 14000 set of standards: (1) Environmental Management Systems; (2) Environmental Auditing; (3) Environmental Labeling; (4) Environmental Performance Evaluation; (5) Life Cycle Assessment; (6) Terms and Definitions; and (7) Environmental Aspects in Product Standards. A commitment to regulatory compliance and sound environmental practices along with ISO certification can potentially provide greater access to capital because lenders will view an environmentally healthy organization as a better risk, it can provide defenses against products liability or personal injury lawsuits, and protect against criminal liability. Implementation of ISO standards can help avoid risks associated with business practices, ensure early detection of potential regulatory violations, and hence ensure company profitability by avoiding discovery of a violation by state and/or federal agencies. It can demonstrate a sincere commitment to regulatory compliance which may in turn provide reduced oversight by state and federal regulatory agencies.

  18. Environmental impact analysis of mine tailing reservoir

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Gong, J. Z.

    2016-08-01

    Under certain conditions landscape topography which utilizes mine tailing reservoir construction using is likely to increase lateral recharge source regions, resulting in dramatic changes to the local hydrological dynamic field and recharge of downstream areas initiated by runoff, excretion state, elevated groundwater depth, shallow groundwater, rainfall direct communication, and thinning of the vadose zone. Corrosive leaching of topsoil over many years of exposure to chemical fertilizers and pesticides may result in their dissolution into the groundwater system, which may lead to excessive amounts of many harmful chemicals, therby affecting the physical and mental health of human residents and increase environmental vulnerability and risk associated with the water and soil. According to field survey data from Yujiakan, Qian'an City, and Hebei provinces, this paper analyzes the hydrogeological environmental mechanisms of areas adjacent to mine tailing reservoirs and establishes a conceptual model of the local groundwater system and the concentration-response function between NO3 - content in groundwater and the incidence of cancer in local residents.

  19. 78 FR 77706 - Notice of Intent To Prepare an Environmental Impact Statement for the Proposed Gemfield Mine...

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2013-12-24

    ... impacts associated with the Gemfield Mine Project, a proposed open pit gold mine and associated processing... pit, heap leach, gold mining operation known as the Gemfield Mine Project. The proposed project would...

  20. Economic Impacts of Surface Mining on Household Drinking Water Supplies

    EPA Science Inventory

    This report provides information on the economic and social impacts of contaminated surface and ground water supplies on residents and households near surface mining operations. The focus is on coal slurry contamination of water supplies in Mingo County, West Virginia, and descr...

  1. Economic Impacts of Surface Mining on Household Drinking Water Supplies

    EPA Science Inventory

    This report provides information on the economic and social impacts of contaminated surface and ground water supplies on residents and households near surface mining operations. The focus is on coal slurry contamination of water supplies in Mingo County, West Virginia, and descr...

  2. An Assessment of Potential Mining Impacts on Salmon ...

    EPA Pesticide Factsheets

    The Bristol Bay watershed in southwestern Alaska supports the largest sockeye salmon fishery in the world, is home to 25 federally recognized tribal governments, and contains large mineral resources. The potential for large-scale mining activities in the watershed has raised concerns about the impact of mining on the sustainability of Bristol Bay’s world-class commercial, recreational and subsistence fisheries and the future of Alaska Native tribes in the watershed who have maintained a salmon-based culture and subsistence-based way of life for at least 4,000 years. The purpose of this assessment is to provide a characterization of the biological and mineral resources of the Bristol Bay watershed, increase understanding of the potential impacts of large-scale mining on the region’s fish resources, and inform future government decisions related to protecting and maintaining the chemical, physical, and biological integrity of the watershed. It will also serve as a technical resource for the public, tribes, and governments who must consider how best to address the challenges of mining and ecological protection in the Bristol Bay watershed. The purpose of this assessment is to understand how future large-scale mining may affect water quality and the Bristol Bay salmon fisheries, which includes the largest wild sockeye salmon fishery in the world. Bristol Bay, Alaska, is home to a salmon fishery that is of significant economic and subsistence value to the peopl

  3. 78 FR 34093 - An Assessment of Potential Mining Impacts on Salmon Ecosystems of Bristol Bay, Alaska

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2013-06-06

    ... AGENCY An Assessment of Potential Mining Impacts on Salmon Ecosystems of Bristol Bay, Alaska AGENCY... the revised draft document titled, ``An Assessment of Potential Mining Impacts on Salmon Ecosystems of... Mining Impacts on Salmon Ecosystems of Bristol Bay, Alaska'' is available primarily via the Internet on...

  4. 77 FR 31353 - An Assessment of Potential Mining Impacts on Salmon Ecosystems of Bristol Bay, AK

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2012-05-25

    ... AGENCY An Assessment of Potential Mining Impacts on Salmon Ecosystems of Bristol Bay, AK AGENCY... of Potential Mining Impacts on Salmon Ecosystems of Bristol Bay, Alaska'' (EPA-910-R-12-004a-d). The... draft ``An Assessment of Potential Mining Impacts on Salmon Ecosystems of Bristol Bay, Alaska'' is...

  5. Identifying Catchment-Scale Predictors of Coal Mining Impacts on New Zealand Stream Communities.

    PubMed

    Clapcott, Joanne E; Goodwin, Eric O; Harding, Jon S

    2016-03-01

    Coal mining activities can have severe and long-term impacts on freshwater ecosystems. At the individual stream scale, these impacts have been well studied; however, few attempts have been made to determine the predictors of mine impacts at a regional scale. We investigated whether catchment-scale measures of mining impacts could be used to predict biological responses. We collated data from multiple studies and analyzed algae, benthic invertebrate, and fish community data from 186 stream sites, including un-mined streams, and those associated with 620 mines on the West Coast of the South Island, New Zealand. Algal, invertebrate, and fish richness responded to mine impacts and were significantly higher in un-mined compared to mine-impacted streams. Changes in community composition toward more acid- and metal-tolerant species were evident for algae and invertebrates, whereas changes in fish communities were significant and driven by a loss of nonmigratory native species. Consistent catchment-scale predictors of mining activities affecting biota included the time post mining (years), mining density (the number of mines upstream per catchment area), and mining intensity (tons of coal production per catchment area). Mining was associated with a decline in stream biodiversity irrespective of catchment size, and recovery was not evident until at least 30 years after mining activities have ceased. These catchment-scale predictors can provide managers and regulators with practical metrics to focus on management and remediation decisions.

  6. Identifying Catchment-Scale Predictors of Coal Mining Impacts on New Zealand Stream Communities

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Clapcott, Joanne E.; Goodwin, Eric O.; Harding, Jon S.

    2016-03-01

    Coal mining activities can have severe and long-term impacts on freshwater ecosystems. At the individual stream scale, these impacts have been well studied; however, few attempts have been made to determine the predictors of mine impacts at a regional scale. We investigated whether catchment-scale measures of mining impacts could be used to predict biological responses. We collated data from multiple studies and analyzed algae, benthic invertebrate, and fish community data from 186 stream sites, including un-mined streams, and those associated with 620 mines on the West Coast of the South Island, New Zealand. Algal, invertebrate, and fish richness responded to mine impacts and were significantly higher in un-mined compared to mine-impacted streams. Changes in community composition toward more acid- and metal-tolerant species were evident for algae and invertebrates, whereas changes in fish communities were significant and driven by a loss of nonmigratory native species. Consistent catchment-scale predictors of mining activities affecting biota included the time post mining (years), mining density (the number of mines upstream per catchment area), and mining intensity (tons of coal production per catchment area). Mining was associated with a decline in stream biodiversity irrespective of catchment size, and recovery was not evident until at least 30 years after mining activities have ceased. These catchment-scale predictors can provide managers and regulators with practical metrics to focus on management and remediation decisions.

  7. Challenges with minimising mercury pollution in the small-scale gold mining sector: experiences from the Guianas.

    PubMed

    Hilson, Gavin; Vieira, Rickford

    2007-12-01

    This paper examines the barriers to mitigating mercury pollution at small-scale gold mines in the Guianas (Guyana, French Guiana and Suriname), and prescribes recommendations for overcoming these obstacles. Whilst considerable attention has been paid to analysing the environmental impacts of operations in the region, minimal research has been undertaken to identify appropriate policy and educational initiatives for addressing the mounting mercury problem. Findings from recent fieldwork and selected interviews with operators from Guyanese and Surinamese gold mining regions reveal that legislative incapacity, the region's varied industry policy stances, various technological problems, and low environmental awareness on the part of communities are impeding efforts to facilitate improved mercury management at small-scale gold mines in the Guianas. Marked improvements can be achieved, however, if legislation, particularly that pertaining to mercury, is harmonised in the region; educational seminars continue to be held in important mining districts; and additional outlets for disseminating environmental equipment and mercury-free technologies are provided.

  8. Physical Modelling of Mine Blast Impact on Armoured Vehicles

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Bochorishvili, Nika; Chikhradze, Nikoloz; Mataradze, Edgar; Akhvlediani, Irakli

    2016-10-01

    Studies related to the impact of a mine blast on armoured vehicles focus on aspects such as i) dynamic loads acting on the armoured vehicle at the moment of mine blast; ii) armoured vehicle response under the impact of a dynamic load; iii) dynamic loads acting on the crew and the assessment of potential human traumas. The paper presents similarity criteria for physical modelling of the mine blast under the armoured vehicle and the results of modelling of dynamic behaviour of vehicles. Similarity criteria, established as a result of the analysis of the governing parameters and similarity theory, are adequate to the processes of blast impact on the vehicle. Modelling experiments were conducted in the underground experimental base of the Mining Institute especially designed for the study of explosion processes. Physical modelling can be used for preliminary studies with the purpose of the evaluation of the protective level of armoured vehicles as well as for pre-testing experiments in accordance with STANAG 4569 requirements.

  9. Ecological impacts of Al-Jalamid phosphate mining, Saudi Arabia: Soil elemental characterization and spatial distribution with INAA.

    PubMed

    El-Taher, A; García-Tenorio, R; Khater, Ashraf E M

    2016-01-01

    Phosphate (P) industries will be one of the main industrial sectors in Saudi Arabia within the next few years. Al-Jalamid phosphate mine, which started operation a few years ago, is one of the biggest mining locations in the Middle East region. It is planned to mine 12 million tons run of mine ore per year (Mty) and produce about 4.5 Mty of phosphate concentrate for the next 20 years. Long term ecological impacts of phosphate mining activities on soil and groundwater should be investigated. The contaminated soil acts as a long term source of environmental contamination. The main aim of this work was to shed more light on the elemental characterization and spatial distributions in soil areas located in the vicinity of the phosphate mining activities. A total of sixty eight surface and subsurface soil samples from 34 locations around Al-Jalamid phosphate mine have been collected. The elemental characterization of soil samples was achieved using instrumental neutron activation analysis (INAA). Pollution indices, geoaccumulation (I(geo)) and pollution load (PLI) indices were calculated from some elements to evaluate the soil pollution. Until now, there is no existing pre-operational elemental characterization in soil to evaluate the foreseen ecological impacts of phosphate mining. Our results are the first to evaluate the present situation that will be the base for the future evaluations. The main aim of this work was to shed more light on the elemental characterization and spatial distributions in soil and their relation to phosphate mining activities, and to better understand the behavior of different elements in soil in an arid environment. Copyright © 2015 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  10. Modelling income distribution impacts of water sector projects in Bangladesh.

    PubMed

    Ahmed, C S; Jones, S

    1991-09-01

    Dynamic analysis was conducted to assess the long-term impacts of water sector projects on agricultural income distribution, and sensitivity analysis was conducted to check the robustness of the 5 assumptions in this study of income distribution and water sector projects in Bangladesh. 7 transitions are analyzed for mutually exclusive irrigation and flooding projects: Nonirrigation to 1) LLP irrigation, 2) STW irrigation, 3) DTW irrigation, 4) major gravity irrigation, and manually operated shallow tubewell irrigation (MOSTI) and Flood Control Projects (FCD) of 6) medium flooded to shallow flooded, and 7) deeply flooded to shallow flooded. 5 analytical stages are involved: 1) farm budgets are derived with and without project cropping patterns for each transition. 2) Estimates are generated for value added/hectare from each transition. 3) Assumptions are made about the number of social classes, distribution of land ownership between classes, extent of tenancy for each social class, term of tenancy contracts, and extent of hiring of labor for each social class. 4) Annual value added/hectare is distributed among social classes. 5) Using Gini coefficients and simple ratios, the distribution of income between classes is estimated for with and without transition. Assumption I is that there are 4 social classes defined by land acreage: large farmers (5 acres), medium farmers (1.5-5.0), small farmers, (.01-1.49), and landless. Assumption II is that land distribution follows the 1978 Land Occupancy Survey (LOS). Biases, if any, are indicated. Assumption III is that large farmers sharecrop out 15% of land to small farmers. Assumption IV is that landlords provide nonirrigated crop land and take 50% of the crop, and, under irrigation, provide 50% of the fertilizer, pesticide, and irrigation costs and take 50% of the crop. Assumption V is that hired and family labor is assumed to be 40% for small farmers, 60% for medium farmers, and 80% for large farmers. It is understood that

  11. Sediment processes modelling below hydraulic mining: towards environmental impact mitigation

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Chalov, Sergey R.

    2010-05-01

    Placer mining sites are located in the river valleys so the rivers are influenced by mining operations. Frequently the existing mining sites are characterized by low contribution to the environmental technologies. Therefore hydraulic mining alters stream hydrology and sediment processes and increases water turbidity. The most serious environmental sequences of the sediment yield increase occur in the rivers populated by salmon fish community because salmon species prefer clean water with low turbidity. For instance, the placer mining in Kamchatka peninsula (Far East of Russia) which is regarded to be the last global gene pool of wild salmon Oncorhynchus threatens the rivers ecosystems. System of man-made impact mitigation could be done through the exact recognition of the human role in hydrological processes and sediment transport especially. Sediment budget of rivers below mining sites is transformed according to the appearance of the man-made non-point and point sediment sources. Non-point source pollution occurs due to soil erosion on the exposed hillsides and erosion in the channel diversions. Slope wash on the hillsides is absent during summer days without rainfalls and is many times increased during rainfalls and snow melting. The nearness of the sources of material and the rivers leads to the small time of suspended load increase after rainfalls. The average time of material intake from exposed hillsides to the rivers is less than 1 hour. The main reason of the incision in the channel diversion is river-channel straightening. The increase of channel slopes and transport capacity leads to the intensive incision of flow. Point source pollution is performed by effluents both from mining site (mainly brief effluents) and from settling ponds (permanent effluents), groundwater seepage from tailing pits or from quarries. High rate of groundwater runoff is the main reason of the technological ponds overfilling. Intensive filtration from channel to ponds because of

  12. Environmental impact assessment of selenium from coal mine spoils. Quarterly report

    SciTech Connect

    Atalay, A.

    1990-10-01

    The development of environmental impact assessment of selenium from coal mine spoils will provide a useful guideline to predict the environmental impact of Se from abandoned coal mine operations. Information obtained from such a study can be applied in areas where coal mining has not yet begun in order to predict and identify the geochemistry of rocks, soils, surface waters and groundwaters likely to be disturbed by coal mining operation.

  13. Analysis of the impacts of the President's tax proposal on major sectors of the energy industry

    SciTech Connect

    Not Available

    1985-08-01

    Purpose of this study is to assess the impact of the President's tax proposal on the energy sector. The study consists of two parts. The first part reported in this document, specifically addresses the impacts of the President's tax proposal on the oil and gas, coal, and electric utility sectors of the energy industry. Impacts were examined at both the project and corporate levels. The study focuses on proposed changes in corporate income taxation.

  14. Environmental impacts of cemented mine waste backfill. Report of investigations/1996

    SciTech Connect

    Levens, R.L.; Marcy, A.D.; Boldt, C.M.K.

    1996-04-01

    The purpose of this research by the U.S. Bureau of Mines (USBM) was to study the possible impacts of cemented mine waste backfill on the quality of ground water in the rock surrounding a stope. The objectives of the field work were to (1) document the impacts of cemented backfill on water being discharged from a selected stope, (2) investigate how the mobility of metals retained in cemented backfill differed from their mobility in uncemented mine waste sandfill, and (3) discuss the long-term impacts of cemented backfill after mine closure and subsequent mine flooding.

  15. Potential Health Impacts of Bauxite Mining in Kuantan.

    PubMed

    Abdullah, Noor Hisham; Mohamed, Norlen; Sulaiman, Lokman Hakim; Zakaria, Thahirahtul Asma; Rahim, Daud Abdul

    2016-05-01

    Bauxite mining is not known to most Malaysian except recently due to environmental pollution issues in Kuantan, Pahang. Potential impacts are expected to go beyond physical environment and physical illness if the situation is not controlled. Loss of economic potentials, and the presence of unpleasant red dust causing mental distress, anger and community outrage. More studies are needed to associate it with chronic physical illness. While evidences are vital for action, merely waiting for a disease to occur is a sign of failure in prevention. All responsible agencies should focus on a wider aspect of health determinants rather than merely on the occurrence of diseases to act and the need to emphasize on sustainable mining to ensure health of people is not compromised.

  16. Potential Health Impacts of Bauxite Mining in Kuantan

    PubMed Central

    Abdullah, Noor Hisham; Mohamed, Norlen; Sulaiman, Lokman Hakim; Zakaria, Thahirahtul Asma; Rahim, Daud Abdul

    2016-01-01

    Bauxite mining is not known to most Malaysian except recently due to environmental pollution issues in Kuantan, Pahang. Potential impacts are expected to go beyond physical environment and physical illness if the situation is not controlled. Loss of economic potentials, and the presence of unpleasant red dust causing mental distress, anger and community outrage. More studies are needed to associate it with chronic physical illness. While evidences are vital for action, merely waiting for a disease to occur is a sign of failure in prevention. All responsible agencies should focus on a wider aspect of health determinants rather than merely on the occurrence of diseases to act and the need to emphasize on sustainable mining to ensure health of people is not compromised. PMID:27418864

  17. Does the resources sector have higher suicide rates? A comparative analysis of suicide rates among men in the mining industry and other occupations, in Queensland (Australia).

    PubMed

    McPhedran, Samara

    2015-06-05

    Australia is one of the world's foremost mining nations. Over the past decade, the number of resources sector employees has risen steadily. It is increasingly suggested in lay press and popular discourse that mining industry employees (the majority of whom are men) face an elevated risk of suicide relative to the general population, and that suicide rates are higher among mining industry employees relative to other occupations. However, there has been no empirical evaluation of this proposal, which impedes the ability to develop appropriate policy responses. This study begins to fill knowledge gaps, by providing the first quantitative examination of suicide rates in the mining industry. Data from the Queensland Suicide Register were used to examine suicide rates in the resources sector, relative to other sectors. The mining industry was found to have lower male suicide rates relative to other occupations and the working-age male population overall. These findings do not support the view that mining industry employment is necessarily associated with elevated suicide rates. Many factors, ranging from individual personality characteristics through to workplace policies, may contribute to this observation.

  18. Mining Sector. Basic Skills Needs Assessment. INCO (Manitoba Division) & Local 6166 United Steelworkers of America.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Cole, Lee Thomas

    A project examined the skills gap within the mining industry, identified and prioritized skills common to all jobs and occupations, and provided insight into skills that workers are likely to need in the future. The research for the basic skills needs assessment was conducted from June-October 1993 at INCO's Manitoba Division Operations in…

  19. Potential impact of a transatlantic trade and Investment partnership on the global forest sector

    Treesearch

    Joseph Buongiorno; Paul Rougieux; Ahmed Barkaoui; Shushuai Zhu; Patrice Harou

    2014-01-01

    The effects of a transatlantic trade agreement on the global forest sector were assessed with the Global Forest Products Model, conditional on previous macroeconomic impacts predicted with a general equilibrium model. Comprehensive tariff elimination per se had little effect on the forest sector. However, with deeper reforms and integration consumption would increase...

  20. Impact of Organisational Factors on the Knowledge Sharing Practice of Teachers Working in Higher Education Sector

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Areekkuzhiyil, Santhosh

    2016-01-01

    The current study aims to explore the various organizational factors that influence the knowledge sharing practices of teachers working in higher education sector. The study hypothesized the impact of various organizational factors on the knowledge sharing practices of teachers working in higher education sector. The data required for the study…

  1. Mercury pollution in Wuchuan mercury mining area, Guizhou, Southwestern China: the impacts from large scale and artisanal mercury mining.

    PubMed

    Li, Ping; Feng, Xinbin; Qiu, Guangle; Shang, Lihai; Wang, Shaofeng

    2012-07-01

    To evaluate the environmental impacts from large scale mercury mining (LSMM) and artisanal mercury mining (AMM), total mercury (THg) and methyl mercury (MeHg) were determined in mine waste, ambient air, stream water and soil samples collected from Wuchuan mercury (Hg) mining area, Guizhou, Southwestern China. Mine wastes from both LSMM and AMM contained high THg concentrations, which are important Hg contamination sources to the local environment. Total gaseous mercury (TGM) concentrations in the ambient air near AMM furnaces were highly elevated, which indicated that AMM retorting is a major source of Hg emission. THg concentrations in the stream water varied from 43 to 2100 ng/L, where the elevated values were mainly found in the vicinity of AMM and mine waste heaps of LSMM. Surface soils were seriously contaminated with Hg, and land using types and organic matter played an important role in accumulation and transportation of Hg in soil. The results indicated heavy Hg contaminations in the study area, which were resulted from both LSMM and AMM. The areas impacted by LSMM were concentrated in the historical mining and smelting facilities, while Hg pollution resulted from AMM can be distributed anywhere in the Hg mining area. Copyright © 2011 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  2. Occupational Health and Safety Management and Turnover Intention in the Ghanaian Mining Sector

    PubMed Central

    Amponsah-Tawiah, Kwesi; Ntow, Michael Akomeah Ofori; Mensah, Justice

    2015-01-01

    Background The mining industry is considered as one of the most dangerous and hazardous industries and the need for effective and efficient occupational health and safety management is critical to safeguard workers and the industry. Despite the dangers and hazards present in the mining industry, only few studies have focused on how occupational health and safety and turnover intentions in the mines. Method The study suing a cross-sectional survey design collected quantitative data from the 255 mine workers that were conveniently sampled from the Ghanaian mining industry. The data collection tools were standardized questionnaires that measured occupational health and safety management and turnover intentions. These scales were also pretested before their usage in actual data collection. Results The correlation coefficient showed that a negative relationship existed between dimensions of occupational health and safety management and turnover intention; safety leadership (r = −0.33, p < 0.01); supervision (r = −0.26, p < 0.01); safety facilities and equipment (r = −0.32, p < 0.01); safety procedure (r = −0.27, p < 0.01). Among these dimensions, safety leadership and safety facility were significant predictors of turnover intention, (β = −0.28, p < 0.01) and (β = −0.24, p < 0.01) respectively. The study also found that turnover intention of employees is heavily influenced by the commitment of safety leadership in ensuring the effective formulation of policies and supervision of occupational health and safety at the workplace. Conclusion The present study demonstrates that safety leadership is crucial in the administration of occupational health and safety and reducing turnover intention in organizations. PMID:27014486

  3. U.S. Global Climate Change Impacts Report, Water Sector

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Udall, B.; Pulwarty, R.

    2009-12-01

    Substantial changes in the water cycle are expected as the planet warms because the movement of water in the atmosphere and oceans is one of the primary mechanisms for the redistribution of heat. Changes in the water cycle will adversely affect many other sectors including energy production, human health, transportation, agriculture, and ecosystems. Major findings include: - Climate change has already altered, and will continue to alter, the water cycle affecting where when and how much water is available. Many changes in the water cycle have already been observed. The impacts of climate change include too little water in some places, too much water in other places, and degraded water quality. - Floods and droughts are likely to become more common and more intense as regional and seasonal precipitation patterns change, and rainfall becomes more concentrated into heavy events with longer, hotter dry periods in between. A warmer world produces both wetter and drier conditions, sometimes in the same places separated by short periods of time. - Precipitation and runoff are likely to increase in the Northeast and Midwest in winter and spring, and decrease in the west, especially the Southwest in spring and summer. In general, wet areas are predicted to get wetter and dry areas drier. - In areas where snowpack dominates, the timing of runoff will continue to shift to earlier in the spring and flows will be later in late summer. Both in the West and the Northeast have already experienced advances in snowmelt runoff timing and continued advances in timing are expected. - Surface water quality and groundwater quantity will be affected by a changing climate. Higher water temperatures and heavier precipitation will degrade water quality. Groundwater will also be affected through changes in recharge. - Climate change will place additional burdens on already stressed water systems. Rapid regional population growth, aging water infrastructure, and water disputes are already

  4. The National Economic Impacts of the Child Care Sector.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    2002

    Noting that child care has increasingly become a formal part of the American economy, this report examines the contribution of the child care industry to the national economy. The report presents evidence, based on an examination of the existing literature, that the child care sector contributes to the national economy in three ways: (1) quality…

  5. Impact of systemic risk in the real estate sector on banking return.

    PubMed

    Li, Shouwei; Pan, Qing; He, Jianmin

    2016-01-01

    In this paper, we measure systemic risk in the real estate sector based on contingent claims analysis, and then investigate its impact on banking return. Based on the data in China, we find that systemic risk in the real estate sector has a negative effect on banking return, but this effect is temporary; banking risk aversion and implicit interest expense have considerable impact on banking return.

  6. Selenium transformation in coal mine spoils: Its environmental impact assessment

    SciTech Connect

    Harness, J.; Atalay, A.; Koll, K.J.; Zhang, H.; Maggon, D.

    1991-12-31

    The objective of this program was to conduct an environmental impact assessment study for selenium from coal mine spoils. The use of in-situ lysimetry to predict selenium speciation, transformation, and mobility under natural conditions was evaluated. The scope of the study was to construct and test field-scale lysimeter and laboratory mini-column to assess mobility and speciation of selenium in coal mine overburden and soil systems; to conduct soil and groundwater sampling throughout the state of Oklahoma for an overall environmental impact assessment of selenium; and to conduct an in-depth literature review on the solubility, speciation, mobility, and toxicity of selenium from various sources. Groundwater and surface soil samples were also collected from each county in Oklahoma. Data collected from the lysimeter study indicated that selenium in the overburden of the abandoned mine site was mainly found in the selenite form. The amount of selenite found was too low and immobile to be of concern to the environment. The spoil had equilibrated long enough (over 50 years) that most of the soluble forms of selenium have already been lost. Examination of the overburden indicated the presence of pyrite crystals that precipitated over time. The laboratory mini-column study indicated that selenite is quite immobile and remained on the overburden material even after leaching with dilute acid. Data from groundwater samples indicated that based on the current permissible level for selenium in groundwater (0.01 mg Se/L), Oklahoma groundwater is widely contaminated with the element. However, according to the new regulation (0.05 mg Se/L), which is to be promulgated in 1992, only 9 of the 77 counties in the state exceed the limit.

  7. Impact of mine wastewaters on greenhouse gas emissions from northern peatlands used for mine water treatment

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Palmer, Katharina; Ronkanen, Anna-Kaisa; Klöve, Björn; Hynynen, Jenna; Maljanen, Marja

    2015-04-01

    The amount of wastewaters generated during mining operations is increasing along with the increasing number of operation mines, which poses great challenges for mine water management and purification. Mine wastewaters contain high concentrations of nitrogen compounds such as nitrate (NO3-) and ammonium (NH4+) originating from remnant explosives as well as sulfate (SO42-) originating from the oxidation of sulfidic ores. At a mine site in Finnish Lapland, two natural peatlands have been used for cost-effective passive wastewater treatment. One peatland have been used for the treatment of drainage waters (TP 1), while the other has been used for the treatment of process-based wastewaters (TP 4). In this study, the impact of mine water derived nitrogen compounds as well as SO42- on the emission of the potent greenhouse gases methane (CH4) and nitrous oxide (N2O) from those treatment peatlands was investigated. Contaminant concentrations in the input and output waters of the treatment peatlands were monitored which allowed for the calculation of contaminant-specific retention efficiencies. Treatment peatlands showed generally good retention efficiencies for metals and metalloids (e.g. nickel, arsenic, antimony, up to 98% reduction in concentration) with rather low input-concentrations (i.e., in the μg/l-range). On the other hand, retention of contaminants with high input-concentrations (i.e., in mg/l-range) such as NO3-, NH4+ and SO42- was much lower (4-41%, 30-60% and -42-30%, respectively), indicating the limited capability of the treatment peatlands to cope with such high input concentrations. NO3- and NH4+ concentrations were determined in surface and pore water from TP 4 in July 2013 as well as in surface water from TP 1 and TP 4 in October 2013. Up to 720 μM NO3- and up to 600 μM NH4+ were detected in surface water of TP 4 in July 2013. NO3- and NH4+ concentrations in surface waters were highest near the mine wastewater distribution ditch and decreased with

  8. Impact of climate on energy sector in economic analysis

    SciTech Connect

    Warren, H.E.; LeDuc, S.K.

    1981-12-01

    Assessments of economic conditions by region or sector attempt to include relevant climatic variability through residual adjustment techniques. There is no direct consideration of climatic fluctuations. Three recent severe winters combined with the increasing price of energy have intensified the need to quantify the interaction of climate with the energy sector of the economy. This paper presents examples of the uses of climatic data by utilities, public service commissions and the NOAA Center for Environmental Assessment Services to determine econoclimatic energy relationships at the local, state, regional and national levels. A technique based on the linear relationships between heating degree days and natural gas consumption for space heating is used to quantify the interaction of climate and prices on gas consumption. This provides regional estimates of the response of gas consumption to degree days and price.

  9. Climate change impact modelling needs to include cross-sectoral interactions

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Harrison, Paula A.; Dunford, Robert W.; Holman, Ian P.; Rounsevell, Mark D. A.

    2016-09-01

    Climate change impact assessments often apply models of individual sectors such as agriculture, forestry and water use without considering interactions between these sectors. This is likely to lead to misrepresentation of impacts, and consequently to poor decisions about climate adaptation. However, no published research assesses the differences between impacts simulated by single-sector and integrated models. Here we compare 14 indicators derived from a set of impact models run within single-sector and integrated frameworks across a range of climate and socio-economic scenarios in Europe. We show that single-sector studies misrepresent the spatial pattern, direction and magnitude of most impacts because they omit the complex interdependencies within human and environmental systems. The discrepancies are particularly pronounced for indicators such as food production and water exploitation, which are highly influenced by other sectors through changes in demand, land suitability and resource competition. Furthermore, the discrepancies are greater under different socio-economic scenarios than different climate scenarios, and at the sub-regional rather than Europe-wide scale.

  10. Impact of Placer Mining on Sediment Transport in Headwaters of the Lake Baikal Basin.

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Pietron, J.; Jarsjo, J.; Chalov, S.

    2015-12-01

    Adverse practices in alluvial surface mining (placer mining) can lead to shifts in sediment transport regimes of rivers. However, some placer mines are located in remote parts of river basins, which constrain data availability in mining impact assessments. One such mining area is the Zaamar Goldfield (Northern Mongolia) which stretches 60 km along the Tuul River. The area is located in the headwaters of the Lake Baikal Basin, and may impact the UNESCO World Heritage Site of Lake Baikal. Previous studies indicate that the mining industry in the Zaamar Goldfield loads the river system with considerable amount of contaminated sediments (heavy metals). Still, transport processes and possible changes in local to regional sediment transport need to be better understood. In this work, we use snapshot field measurements and various flow and transport modelling techniques to analyze (1) the impact of placer mining in the sediment delivery to the river system and (2) the dynamics of further sediment transport to downstream Tuul River. Our results indicate that surface mining operations and waste management have considerable impact on the sediment input from the landscape. Furthermore, dynamic in-channel storage of sediments can act as intermittent sources of mining sediments. These effects occur in addition to impacts of on-going changes in hydro-climatic conditions of the area. We hope that our methodology and results will aid in studying similar unmonitored and mining-affected river basins.

  11. Abandoned mines and their impact on the environment: Case studies from Franklin and Sterling Mines, NJ and Rondout Quarry, NY

    SciTech Connect

    Kolkas, M.M.; Nehru, C.E. |

    1995-09-01

    Water logged abandoned mines have an impact on the environment. In this project we selected abandoned mines from two sets of different ore bodies to learn about their environmental impact. Franklin and Sterling Pb-Zn mines, NJ and the limestone quarry in Rondout formation, NY were selected as case study examples. In the Pb-Zn mines metalimestone is the country rock and in the Rondout quarry limestone is the country rock. Soil water samples from selected strategic locations were analyzed for toxic and related heavy metal elements such as Pb, Zn, Cd, Cr and U. The levels of concentrations of these elements varied from one location to another according to the chemistry of the ore body and the ground movement throughout the area. In particular Cd, Cr and U concentration were variable from Franklin to Sterling mine. However, in the Rondout limestone (cement) quarry, higher concentrations of Cr and lower concentrations of Pb and Zn were noted. We conclude that ore body chemistry, mine dumps and tailing contaminated ponds along with the ground water movement throughout the area have an impact on the ground water and nearby river/stream contaminant chemistry in the areas.

  12. Modified toxicity identification evaluation studies for achieving mining sector MISA compliance

    SciTech Connect

    Cotton, K.; Sferrazza, J.; Shriner, G.

    1995-12-31

    Results of initial MISA toxicity compliance monitoring for a multiple effluent stream mining operation indicated the presence of sporadic acute toxicity. Traditionally, only small scale acute and sub-lethal species (i.e. D. magna, C. dubia, P. promelas, Microtox) have been utilized during Toxicity Identification Evaluation (TIE) studies. These methods had proven to be very expensive and of limit value in planning the future direction of mining effluent treatment. A more direct and economical approach to toxicity investigations was needed to prepare for the 1997 compliance deadline for non-lethality and water chemistry objectives. A modified EPA-TIE investigation was initiated on the problem effluent streams. Phase 1 modifications were made to include both MISA compliance organisms, D. magna and rainbow trout (O. mykiss). Phases 2 and 3 were replaced with effluent treatability assays derived from toxicity reduction/elimination information obtained during Phase 1 procedures. Information on potential toxicant speciation under the various treatment conditions was also collected. Preliminary results indicate that variations in the applied treatment, as well as the degree of treatment will be required for the different effluent streams to obtain non-acutely toxic effluent. Ongoing laboratory tests are being conducted to achieve consistency and confidence in the results, allowing plant operators to make informed decisions regarding the (expensive) changes to be made in their effluent treatment facilities over the next few years.

  13. ISI-MIP: The Inter-Sectoral Impact Model Intercomparison Project

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Huber, V.; Dahlemann, S.; Frieler, K.; Piontek, F.; Schewe, J.; Serdeczny, O.; Warszawski, L.

    2013-12-01

    The Inter-Sectoral Impact Model Intercomparison Project (ISI-MIP) aims to synthesize the state-of-the-art knowledge of climate change impacts at different levels of global warming. The project's experimental design is formulated to distinguish the uncertainty introduced by the impact models themselves, from the inherent uncertainty in the climate projections and the variety of plausible socio-economic futures. The unique cross-sectoral scope of the project provides the opportunity to study cascading effects of impacts in interacting sectors and to identify regional 'hot spots' where multiple sectors experience extreme impacts. Another emphasis lies on the development of novel metrics to describe societal impacts of a warmer climate. We briefly outline the methodological framework, and then present selected results of the first, fast-tracked phase of ISI-MIP. The fast track brought together 35 global impact models internationally, spanning five sectors across human society and the natural world (agriculture, water, natural ecosystems, health and coastal infrastructure), and using the latest generation of global climate simulations (RCP projections from the CMIP5 archive) and socioeconomic drivers provided within the SSP process. We also introduce the second phase of the project, which will enlarge the scope of ISI-MIP by encompassing further impact sectors (e.g., forestry, fisheries, permafrost) and regional modeling approaches. The focus for the next round of simulations will be the validation and improvement of models based on historical observations and the analysis of variability and extreme events. Last but not least, we discuss the longer-term objective of ISI-MIP to initiate a coordinated, ongoing impact assessment process, driven by the entire impact community and in parallel with well-established climate model intercomparisons (CMIP).

  14. 78 FR 25266 - An Assessment of Potential Mining Impacts on Salmon Ecosystems of Bristol Bay, Alaska

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2013-04-30

    ... AGENCY An Assessment of Potential Mining Impacts on Salmon Ecosystems of Bristol Bay, Alaska AGENCY... Assessment of Potential Mining Impacts on Salmon Ecosystems of Bristol Bay, Alaska'' (EPA-910-R-12-004Ba-c... on Salmon Ecosystems of Bristol Bay, Alaska'' is available primarily via the Internet on the EPA...

  15. >From the benefits of micro to the threats of nano for the ore-mining and ore-refining sectors

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    van Loon, A. J.

    2002-07-01

    Nanotechnology is developing fast, with much impact on a wide variety of industries. It is likely that current and future developments will result in the possibility to economically manipulate materials on a nanoscale. This will bring advantages on the one hand, as a further step forward after the development of technologies on a microscale, but it may also result in developments that make several now economically important activities largely, if not entirely, superfluous. The present-day progress in the field of recycling waste, in combination with developments that may make energy available in sufficient quantities at an acceptable price level, might result in technologies that isolate valuable compounds from waste at a nanoscale, thus, taking over the role of the mining industry as a provider of raw materials. It is suggested that the mining industry becomes strongly involved in nanoscale research, in order to combine their knowledge of ore properties and extraction methods with the knowledge of nanotechnological engineers about how to manipulate individual compounds. This may provide a chance for the present-day ore-mining and ore-refining companies to survive in a world that would otherwise probably not manage to supply sufficient raw materials for the Earth's growing population, which also will strive for a rise in the average standard of living.

  16. Evaluating community investments in the mining sector using multi-criteria decision analysis to integrate SIA with business planning

    SciTech Connect

    Esteves, A.M.

    2008-05-15

    Gaining senior management's commitment to long-term social development projects, which are characterised by uncertainty and complexity, is made easier if projects are shown to benefit the site's strategic goals. However, even though the business case for community investment may have been accepted at a general level, as a strategy for competitive differentiation, risk mitigation and a desire to deliver - and to be seen to deliver - a 'net benefit' to affected communities, mining operations are still faced with implementation challenges. Case study research on mining companies, including interviews with social investment decision-makers, has assisted in developing the Social Investment Decision Analysis Tool (SIDAT), a decision model for evaluating social projects in order to create value for both the company and the community. Multi-criteria decision analysis techniques integrating business planning processes with social impact assessment have proved useful in assisting mining companies think beyond the traditional drivers (i.e. seeking access to required lands and peaceful relations with neighbours), to broader issues of how they can meet their business goals and contribute to sustainable development in the regions in which they operate.

  17. The Dangers of "Proofiness” in the Evaluation of Mountaintop Removal Coal Mining Impacts

    EPA Science Inventory

    Assessment of ecological and human health impacts from coal mining in West Virginia presents challenges for agencies responsible for permitting and evaluating those impacts. These challenges include correctly identifying, locating and diagnosing stressor sources and understandin...

  18. The Dangers of "Proofiness” in the Evaluation of Mountaintop Removal Coal Mining Impacts

    EPA Science Inventory

    Assessment of ecological and human health impacts from coal mining in West Virginia presents challenges for agencies responsible for permitting and evaluating those impacts. These challenges include correctly identifying, locating and diagnosing stressor sources and understandin...

  19. Viability of healthcare service delivery alternatives for the Australian mining sector.

    PubMed

    Williams, Patricia A H; Giles, Margaret

    2012-01-01

    The changing and demanding nature of the mining workforce in rural and remote Australia brings unique challenges to the delivery of healthcare services. In an attempt to control costs whilst delivering cost effective and quality healthcare, new models of delivery must be considered. For a workforce that is fly-in/fly-out, the provision of healthcare is problematic given the lack of consistency in location. A cost-benefit framework is analysed comparing three models of service provision using travel to a major location, locum services and remote health monitoring. Ultimately, new models of care must be considered to address the issues of increasing workforce turnover, to cater for rising healthcare costs, and to improve the health of such communities.

  20. Mercury speciation in piscivorous fish from mining-impacted reservoirs

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Kuwabara, J.S.; Arai, Y.; Topping, B.R.; Pickering, I.J.; George, G.N.

    2007-01-01

    Guadalupe Reservoir (GUA), California, and Lahontan Reservoir (LAH), Nevada, U.S. are both affected either directly or indirectly by the legacy of gold and silver mining in the Sierra Nevada during the nineteenth century. Analysis of total mercury in fish from these lentic systems consistently indicate elevated concentrations (>1 ??g??g-1 wet weight; hereinafter, all concentrations are reported as wet weight unless indicated otherwise) well above the U.S. Environmenal Protection Agency's human consumption advisory level for fish (<0.3 ??g??g-1). Replicate X-ray absorption near edge structure (XANES) analyses on largemouth bass and hybrid striped bass from GUA and LAH were performed to determine predominant chemical species of mercury accumulated by these high-trophic-level piscivores that are exposed to elevated mercury through trophic transfer in mining-impacted lentic systems. Despite distinct differences in mercury source, the proximity of the source, and concentrations of complexing ligands, results of XANES analysis clearly indicated that mercury accumulated in these individual fish from the two reservoirs were dominated by methylmercury cysteine complexes. These findings are consistent with results from commercial fish species inhabiting marine environments which are presumed to include differing mercury sources (e.g., atmospheric, hydrothermal, or benthic). The dominance of methylmercury cysteine complexes in muscle tissues of fish obtained from such contrasting environments and exposure conditions suggests that a generic toxicological model for the consumption of fish could be applicable over a wide range of ecologic settings. ?? 2007 American Chemical Society.

  1. The Impact of Governance on the Performance of the Higher Education Sector in Australia

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    De Silva Lokuwaduge, Chitra; Armstrong, Anona

    2015-01-01

    Australian government concern for improved governance in the higher education sector over recent years has driven the implementation of governance protocols. However, there has been little evidence of any evaluation of the impact of the governance structures on the performance of universities. This paper presents an analysis of the impact of the…

  2. The Impact of Governance on the Performance of the Higher Education Sector in Australia

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    De Silva Lokuwaduge, Chitra; Armstrong, Anona

    2015-01-01

    Australian government concern for improved governance in the higher education sector over recent years has driven the implementation of governance protocols. However, there has been little evidence of any evaluation of the impact of the governance structures on the performance of universities. This paper presents an analysis of the impact of the…

  3. Sector-wise midpoint characterization factors for impact assessment of regional consumptive and degradative water use.

    PubMed

    Lin, Chia-Chun; Lin, Jia-Yu; Lee, Mengshan; Chiueh, Pei-Te

    2017-12-31

    Water availability, resulting from either a lack of water or poor water quality is a key factor contributing to regional water stress. This study proposes a set of sector-wise characterization factors (CFs), namely consumptive and degradative water stresses, to assess the impact of water withdrawals with a life cycle assessment approach. These CFs consider water availability, water quality, and competition for water between domestic, agricultural and industrial sectors and ecosystem at the watershed level. CFs were applied to a case study of regional water management of industrial water withdrawals in Taiwan to show that both regional or seasonal decrease in water availability contributes to a high consumptive water stress, whereas water scarcity due to degraded water quality not meeting sector standards has little influence on increased degradative water stress. Degradative water stress was observed more in the agricultural sector than in the industrial sector, which implies that the agriculture sector may have water quality concerns. Reducing water intensity and alleviating regional scale water stresses of watersheds are suggested as approaches to decrease the impact of both consumptive and degradative water use. The results from this study may enable a more detailed sector-wise analysis of water stress and influence water resource management policies. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  4. Impact of Clean Energy R&D on the U.S. Power Sector

    SciTech Connect

    Donohoo-Vallett, Paul; Mai, Trieu; Mowers, Matthew; Porro, Gian

    2017-01-01

    The U.S. government, along with other governments, private corporations and organizations, invests significantly in research, development, demonstration and deployment (RDD&D) activities in clean energy technologies, in part to achieve the goal of a clean, secure, and reliable energy system. While specific outcomes and breakthroughs resulting from RDD&D investment are unpredictable, it can be instructive to explore the potential impacts of clean energy RDD&D activities in the power sector and to place those impacts in the context of current and anticipated market trends. This analysis builds on and leverages analysis by the U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) titled “Energy CO2 Emissions Impacts of Clean Energy Technology Innovation and Policy” (DOE 2017). Similar to DOE (2017), we explore how additional improvements in cost and performance of clean energy technologies could impact the future U.S. energy system; however, unlike the economy-wide modeling used in DOE (2017) our analysis is focused solely on the electricity sector and applies a different and more highly spatially-resolved electric sector model. More specifically, we apply a scenario analysis approach to explore how assumed further advancements in clean electricity technologies would impact power sector generation mix, electricity system costs, and power sector carbon dioxide (CO2) emissions.

  5. Hydrochemical characteristics of mine waters from abandoned mining sites in Serbia and their impact on surface water quality.

    PubMed

    Atanacković, Nebojša; Dragišić, Veselin; Stojković, Jana; Papić, Petar; Zivanović, Vladimir

    2013-11-01

    Upon completion of exploration and extraction of mineral resources, many mining sites have been abandoned without previously putting environmental protection measures in place. As a consequence, mine waters originating from such sites are discharged freely into surface water. Regional scale analyses were conducted to determine the hydrochemical characteristics of mine waters from abandoned sites featuring metal (Cu, Pb-Zn, Au, Fe, Sb, Mo, Bi, Hg) deposits, non-metallic minerals (coal, Mg, F, B) and uranium. The study included 80 mine water samples from 59 abandoned mining sites. Their cation composition was dominated by Ca2+, while the most common anions were found to be SO4(2-) and HCO3-. Strong correlations were established between the pH level and metal (Fe, Mn, Zn, Cu) concentrations in the mine waters. Hierarchical cluster analysis was applied to parameters generally indicative of pollution, such as pH, TDS, SO4(2-), Fe total, and As total. Following this approach, mine water samples were grouped into three main clusters and six subclusters, depending on their potential environmental impact. Principal component analysis was used to group together variables that share the same variance. The extracted principal components indicated that sulfide oxidation and weathering of silicate and carbonate rocks were the primary processes, while pH buffering, adsorption and ion exchange were secondary drivers of the chemical composition of the analyzed mine waters. Surface waters, which received the mine waters, were examined. Analysis showed increases of sulfate and metal concentrations and general degradation of surface water quality.

  6. Harnessing opportunities for good governance of health impacts of mining projects in Mongolia: results of a global partnership.

    PubMed

    Pfeiffer, Michaela; Vanya, Delgermaa; Davison, Colleen; Lkhagvasuren, Oyunaa; Johnston, Lesley; Janes, Craig R

    2017-06-27

    The Sustainable Development Goals call for the effective governance of shared natural resources in ways that support inclusive growth, safeguard the integrity of the natural and physical environment, and promote health and well-being for all. For large-scale resource extraction projects -- e.g. in the mining sector -- environmental regulations and in particular environmental impact assessments (EIA) provide an important but insufficiently developed avenue to ensure that wider sustainable development issues, such as health, have been considered prior to the permitting of projects. In recognition of the opportunity provided in EIA to influence the extent to which health issues would be addressed in the design and delivery of mining projects, an international and intersectoral partnership, with the support of WHO and public funds from Canadian sources, engaged over a period of six years in a series of capacity development activities and knowledge translation/dissemination events aimed at influencing policy change in the extractives sector so as to include consideration of human health impacts. Early efforts significantly increased awareness of the need to include health considerations in EIAs. Coupling effective knowledge translation about health in EIA with the development of networks that fostered good intersectoral partnerships, this awareness supported the development and implementation of key pieces of legislation. These results show that intersectoral collaboration is essential, and must be supported by an effective conceptual understanding about which methods and models of impact assessment, particularly for health, lend themselves to integration within EIA. The results of our partnership demonstrate that when specific conditions are met, integrating health into the EIA system represents a promising avenue to ensure that mining activities contribute to wider sustainable development goals and objectives.

  7. Crisis in the health sector: Impact on nurses' working conditions.

    PubMed

    Granero-Lázaro, Alberto; Blanch-Ribas, Josep M; Roldán-Merino, Juan Francisco; Torralbas-Ortega, Jordi; Escayola-Maranges, Ana María

    In a context of economic crisis and policies to reduce the public deficit, the budgets of the Catalan Health Institute (CHI) were cut by 15.33% between 2010 and 2014. To assess the perceived impact on nurses' work conditions of measures to contain health spending. The study design was descriptive and transversal. A sample of 1,760 nurses from the province of Barcelona answered a questionnaire on the perceived impact of health spending containment measures implemented in their workplace during the early years of the crisis. Among the main aspects of the perceived impact of these measures, 86.6% of the nurses identified a pay cut and an increase in the following relevant parameters of their working conditions: number of hours worked (66.7%), final ratio of treated patients (35.2%), task complexity and workload (75.3%), rotation through various departments (31.5%), work shifts (21.4%) or work areas (23.4%), job insecurity (58.4%) and loss of employment by dismissal (6.6%) or non-renewal of contract (9%). The perceived impact of the crisis showed a triple negative component: Pay cut, work overload and job insecurity. As a combined effect of this multiple trend, the nurses acknowledged a deterioration in their working conditions and quality of working life. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier España, S.L.U. All rights reserved.

  8. Geochemistry of mercury in tropical swamps impacted by gold mining.

    PubMed

    Marrugo-Negrete, José; Pinedo-Hernández, José; Díez, Sergi

    2015-09-01

    Artisanal and small-scale gold mining (ASGM) poses a serious threat to the local environment. Colombia has very active ASGM activities, where mercury (Hg) ends in piles of mining waste, soils, and waterways. In this study, we assessed Hg speciation and bioavailability in sediments of two tropical swamps, impacted by ASGM. In Ayapel swamp, total Hg (T-Hg) concentrations in sediments ranged between 145 and 313 ng g(-1) dry weight (dw) (mean: 235 ± 49 ng g(-1) dw), whereas Grande Achi swamp levels are 3-fold higher (range: 543-1021 ng g(-1) dw; mean: 722 ± 145 ng g(-1) dw). Even though lower levels of Hg were found in Ayapel, methylation was found to be significantly higher than in Grande Achi, and it is significantly higher in the dry than in the rainy season for both swamps. This increased methylation is linked to the statistically significant correlation between T-Hg, MeHg and organic matter in the Ayapel swamp. In fact, Hg content in both swamps is mainly associated to the organic fraction (Hg-o), with a higher statistically significant difference in Ayapel (43 ± 5%) compared to Grande Achi (33 ± 5%). On the other hand, a significant percentage (30 ± 6%) of elemental Hg fraction (Hg-e) was found in Grande Achi, directly related with Hg released during the gold recovery process from upstream ASGM sites. The percentage of the bioavailable fraction (Hg-w and Hg-h) is elevated (up to 15%), indicating a potential risk to the aquatic environment and human health because these labile Hg species could enter the water column and bioaccumulate in biota. Copyright © 2015 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  9. Impact of uranium mines closure and abandonment on groundwater quality.

    PubMed

    Rapantova, Nada; Licbinska, Monika; Babka, Ondrej; Grmela, Arnost; Pospisil, Pavel

    2013-11-01

    The aim of the study is to assess the evolving mine water quality of closed uranium mines (abandoned between 1958 and 1992) in the Czech Republic. This paper focuses on the changes in mine water quality over time and spatial variability. In 2010, systematic monitoring of mine water quality was performed at all available locations of previous uranium exploitation. Gravity flow discharges (mine adits, uncontrolled discharges) or shafts (in dynamic state or stagnating) were sampled. Since the quality of mine water results from multiple conditions-geology, type of sample, sampling depth, time since mine flooding, an assessment of mine water quality evolution was done taking into account all these conditions. Multivariate analyses were applied in order to identify the groups of samples based on their similarity. Evaluation of hydrogeochemical equilibrium and evolution of mine waters was done using the Geochemist's Workbench and PHREEQC software. The sampling proved that uranium concentrations in mine waters did not predominantly exceed 0.45 mg/L. In case of discharges from old adits abandoned more than 40 years ago, uranium concentrations were below the MCL of US Environmental Protection Agency for uranium in drinking water (0.03 mg/L). Higher concentrations, up to 1.23 mg/L of U, were found only at active dewatered mines. Activity concentration of 226Ra varied from 0.03 up to 1.85 Bq/L except for two sites with increased background values due to rock formation (granites). Radium has a typically increasing trend after mine abandonment with a large variability. Concerning metals in mine water, Al, Co and Ni exceeded legislative limits on two sites with low pH waters. The mine water quality changes with a focus on uranium mobility were described from recently dewatered mines to shafts with water level maintained in order to prevent outflows to surface water and finally to stagnating shafts and discharges of mine water from old adits. The results were in good agreement

  10. Assessing mining impacts utilizing a Landsat derived vegetation moisture index to characterize impacts of longwall subsidence on forest ecosystems

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Pfeil-McCullough, E. K.; Bain, D.

    2015-12-01

    Subsidence from longwall coal mining impacts the surface and sub-surface hydrology in overlying areas. During longwall mining, coal is completely removed in large rectangular panels and the overlying rock collapses into the void. Though the hydrologic impacts of longwall mine subsidence on overlying vegetation have been studied in more arid systems, in humid-temperate regions these effects are not well understood. In particular, it is not clear how longwall mining will impact water availability to forests. To explore potential impacts, a geospatial analysis of tree canopy water content using Landsat satellite imagery of southwestern Pennsylvania was carried out. The normalized difference moisture index (NDMI) derived from Landsat imagery was applied to expose patterns of vegetation water stress, which were then compared across a temporal gradient of mined panels. NDMI values associated with panels from 2000 through 2014 were assessed within September 2014 Landsat NDMI imagery and compared to a population of pixels un-impacted by mining. This study elucidates mining impacts to forest canopies and the landscape features driving patterns of tree canopy moisture content in southwestern, PA.

  11. Impacts of Energy Sector Emissions on PM2.5 Air Quality in Northern India

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Karambelas, A. N.; Kiesewetter, G.; Heyes, C.; Holloway, T.

    2015-12-01

    India experiences high concentrations of fine particulate matter (PM2.5), and several Indian cities currently rank among the world's most polluted cities. With ongoing urbanization and a growing economy, emissions from different energy sectors remain major contributors to air pollution in India. Emission sectors impact ambient air quality differently due to spatial distribution (typical urban vs. typical rural sources) as well as source height characteristics (low-level vs. high stack sources). This study aims to assess the impacts of emissions from three distinct energy sectors—transportation, domestic, and electricity—on ambient PM2.5­­ in northern India using an advanced air quality analysis framework based on the U.S. EPA Community Multi-Scale Air Quality (CMAQ) model. Present air quality conditions are simulated using 2010 emissions from the Greenhouse Gas-Air Pollution Interaction and Synergies (GAINS) model. Modeled PM2.5 concentrations are compared with satellite observations of aerosol optical depth (AOD) from the Moderate Imaging Spectroradiometer (MODIS) for 2010. Energy sector emissions impacts on future (2030) PM2.5 are evaluated with three sensitivity simulations, assuming maximum feasible reduction technologies for either transportation, domestic, or electricity sectors. These simulations are compared with a business as usual 2030 simulation to assess relative sectoral impacts spatially and temporally. CMAQ is modeled at 12km by 12km and include biogenic emissions from the Community Land Model coupled with the Model of Emissions of Gases and Aerosols in Nature (CLM-MEGAN), biomass burning emissions from the Global Fires Emissions Database (GFED), and ERA-Interim meteorology generated with the Weather Research and Forecasting (WRF) model for 2010 to quantify the impact of modified anthropogenic emissions on ambient PM2.5 concentrations. Energy sector emissions analysis supports decision-making to improve future air quality and public health in

  12. Impact of Cross-Sectoral Alcohol Policy on Youth Alcohol Consumption.

    PubMed

    de Goeij, Moniek C M; Jacobs, Monique A M; van Nierop, Peter; van der Veeken-Vlassak, Ivanka A G; van de Mheen, Dike; Schoenmakers, Tim M; Harting, Janneke; Kunst, Anton E

    2016-07-01

    Cross-sectoral alcohol policy is recommended to reduce youth alcohol consumption, but little evidence is available on its effectiveness. Therefore, we examined whether regions and municipalities in the Dutch province of Noord-Brabant with stronger cross-sectoral alcohol policy showed larger reductions in alcohol consumption among adolescents aged 12-15. Strong regional cross-sectoral alcohol policy was defined as participation in a regional alcohol prevention program. Strong municipal cross-sectoral alcohol policy was operationalized by measures on (a) sector variety: involvement of different policy sectors, and (b) strategy variety: formulation of different policy strategies. Relevant data from policy documents were searched for on the Internet. Data on trends in alcohol consumption were extracted from the 2007 and 2011 cross-sectional Youth Health Monitor that includes a random subset of adolescents aged 12-15 (n = 15,380 in 2007 and n = 15,437 in 2011). We used multilevel regression models. Two of the three regions in which municipalities participated in a regional alcohol prevention program showed a larger reduction in weekly drinking than the region in which municipalities did not participate (-12.2% and -13.4% vs. -8.3%). Municipalities with strong compared to weak sector variety showed a larger increase in adolescents' age at consuming their first alcoholic drink (0.63 vs. 0.42 years). Municipalities with strong strategy variety showed a decrease (-3.8%) in heavy weekly drinking, whereas those with weak variety showed an increase (5.1%). Cross-sectoral alcohol policy did not affect trends in other alcohol outcomes. Our results suggest that strong cross-sectoral alcohol policy may contribute to reducing some aspects of youth alcohol consumption. Monitoring policy implementation is needed to assess the full impact.

  13. ASSESSING THE WATER QUALITY OF MINE-IMPACTED STREAMS USING HYPERSPECTRAL DATA

    EPA Science Inventory


    Streoan degradation by mining activities is a wide spread problem in the eastern US. Drainage from coal and ferrous metal mines can produce large quantities of sediment and acidity, which can have a deleterious impact an receiving waters. The mineralogy of these sediments is ...

  14. ASSESSING THE WATER QUALITY OF MINE-IMPACTED STREAMS USING HYPERSPECTRAL DATA

    EPA Science Inventory


    Streoan degradation by mining activities is a wide spread problem in the eastern US. Drainage from coal and ferrous metal mines can produce large quantities of sediment and acidity, which can have a deleterious impact an receiving waters. The mineralogy of these sediments is ...

  15. Impact of abandoned mine waste on atmospheric respirable particulate matter in the historic mining district of Rio Tinto (Iberian Pyrite Belt).

    PubMed

    Sánchez de la Campa, Ana M; de la Rosa, Jesús D; Fernández-Caliani, Juan C; González-Castanedo, Yolanda

    2011-11-01

    This work documents for the first time the levels and composition of atmospheric particulate matter in the historic mining district of Rio Tinto (Spain) to estimate the contribution and impact of resuspended particles from hazardous mine waste on air quality. The resuspended mine waste dust contributes notably (32%) to the total concentrations of toxic trace metals (Bi, As, Cu, Pb, Cd, Zn and Sb) into the atmosphere, with the consequent impact on public health.

  16. Longwall mining

    SciTech Connect

    1995-03-14

    As part of EIA`s program to provide information on coal, this report, Longwall-Mining, describes longwall mining and compares it with other underground mining methods. Using data from EIA and private sector surveys, the report describes major changes in the geologic, technological, and operating characteristics of longwall mining over the past decade. Most important, the report shows how these changes led to dramatic improvements in longwall mining productivity. For readers interested in the history of longwall mining and greater detail on recent developments affecting longwall mining, the report includes a bibliography.

  17. An appraisal of biological responses and network of environmental interactions in non-mining and mining impacted coastal waters.

    PubMed

    Fernandes, Christabelle E G; Malik, Ashish; Jineesh, V K; Fernandes, Sheryl O; Das, Anindita; Pandey, Sunita S; Kanolkar, Geeta; Sujith, P P; Velip, Dhillan M; Shaikh, Shagufta; Helekar, Samita; Gonsalves, Maria Judith; Nair, Shanta; LokaBharathi, P A

    2015-08-01

    The coastal waters of Goa and Ratnagiri lying on the West coast of India are influenced by terrestrial influx. However, Goa is influenced anthropogenically by iron-ore mining, while Ratnagiri is influenced by deposition of heavy minerals containing iron brought from the hinterlands. We hypothesize that there could be a shift in biological response along with changes in network of interactions between environmental and biological variables in these mining and non-mining impacted regions, lying 160 nmi apart. Biological and environmental parameters were analyzed during pre-monsoon season. Except silicates, the measured parameters were higher at Goa and related significantly, suggesting bacteria centric, detritus-driven region. At Ratnagiri, phytoplankton biomass related positively with silicate suggesting a region dominated by primary producers. This dominance perhaps got reflected as a higher tertiary yield. Thus, even though the regions are geographically proximate, the different biological response could be attributed to the differences in the web of interactions between the measured variables.

  18. Multiplying a Force for Good? the Impact of Security Sector Management Postgraduate Education in Ethiopia

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Macphee, Paula-Louise; Fitz-Gerald, Ann

    2014-01-01

    This paper argues for the importance, benefits and wider impact of a donor-funded, locally supported postgraduate programme in security sector management (SSM) for government officials in Ethiopia. With the exception of specialised education and training programmes within the field of peace and conflict studies, the role of education in…

  19. The Impact of Service Sector Growth on Changing Patterns of Stratification among Communities.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Kassab, Cathy

    This paper examines the impact of increasing service sector employment and decreasing manufacturing employment on the distribution of income across communities on the urban-rural continuum. Changes in the differential distribution of industries and family income across this continuum have important consequences for local services, including…

  20. The Impact of Trade Liberalization and Information Technology on India's Manufacturing Sector

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Sharma, Shruti

    2013-01-01

    This dissertation is an investigation into how trade liberalization and the adoption of information technology have impacted labour and productivity in India's manufacturing sector respectively. The second chapter analyses the relationship between India's liberalization of tariffs on imported intermediate inputs (henceforth input tariff…

  1. Analysis of the impacts of the President's tax proposal on major sectors of the energy industry

    SciTech Connect

    Not Available

    1985-08-01

    The purpose of this study is to assess the impact of the President's tax proposal on the energy sector. The study consists of two parts. The first part specifically addresses the impacts of the President's tax proposal on the oil and gas, coal, and electric utility sectors of the energy industry. Impacts were examined at both the project and corporate levels. The study focuses on proposed changes in corporate income taxation. Results show that the impacts of the President's tax proposal vary across the energy sector. Taxes levied on coal operations would rise. Those levied on oil and gas remain about the same if measured at the overall corporate level. Looking at oil and gas production operations separately from other lines of business (downstream, foreign, and subsidiary operations), taxes would tend to fall, except in the case of the small independents. Taxes paid by electric utilities would tend to fall. Within each sector, however, substantial variation among firms would be evident due to differing circumstances of corporate diversity and rate of growth. 11 figs., 38 tabs.

  2. Leadership Strategies of Performance Measures Impacts in Public Sector Management: A National Content Analysis.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Kubala, James Joseph

    A quantitative and qualitative study examined three leadership strategies found in performance-based management (human resource, scientific management and political strategies used in public sector management); a framework by which performance measurement (PM) supports leadership strategies; and how the strategies impact PM. It examined leadership…

  3. Multiplying a Force for Good? the Impact of Security Sector Management Postgraduate Education in Ethiopia

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Macphee, Paula-Louise; Fitz-Gerald, Ann

    2014-01-01

    This paper argues for the importance, benefits and wider impact of a donor-funded, locally supported postgraduate programme in security sector management (SSM) for government officials in Ethiopia. With the exception of specialised education and training programmes within the field of peace and conflict studies, the role of education in…

  4. The Impact of Trade Liberalization and Information Technology on India's Manufacturing Sector

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Sharma, Shruti

    2013-01-01

    This dissertation is an investigation into how trade liberalization and the adoption of information technology have impacted labour and productivity in India's manufacturing sector respectively. The second chapter analyses the relationship between India's liberalization of tariffs on imported intermediate inputs (henceforth input tariff…

  5. Profile of the non-fuel, non-metal mining industry. EPA Office of Compliance sector notebook project

    SciTech Connect

    1995-09-01

    This profile provides an overview of SIC code 14, which includes mining and quarrying of nonmetallic minerals, except fuels; and establishments engaged primarily in mining or quarrying, developing mines, or exploring for non-fuel, nonmetallic minerals. Also included are certain well and brine operations, and primary preparation plants engaged in crushing, grinding, and washing.

  6. A Social Movements' Perspective on Human Rights Impact of Mining Liberalization in the Philippines.

    PubMed

    Aytin, Andrew

    2016-02-01

    When it comes to minerals like gold, copper, or nickel, the Philippines ranks among the world's richest countries, but it has continued to perform poorly in terms of human and economic development. In the belief that foreign investments will bring development, the government in 1995 liberalized its mining industry allowing full foreign ownership and control of the mining activities. After almost two decades of mining liberalization, the country has never achieved its goal of development but is now reeling from the adverse impacts of large-scale corporate mining on the environment and lives of mining-affected communities. Moreover, human rights violations against anti-mining activists and environmental advocates have escalated at an alarming rate making the country one of the most dangerous places for land and environmental defenders. But social movements are now taking big steps to empower the people, especially the mining-affected communities, to confront the adverse impacts of corporate mining and to reverse the current path of the mining industry to one that aims to achieve national industrialization where national development is prioritized over transnational corporations' interests.

  7. The Economic Impact of Psychological Distress in the Australian Coal Mining Industry.

    PubMed

    Ling, Rod; Kelly, Brian; Considine, Robyn; Tynan, Ross; Searles, Andrew; Doran, Christopher M

    2016-05-01

    The aim of this study was to estimate the economic impact of psychological distress among employees of the Australian Coal Mining Industry. Sample data were gathered from 1456 coal mining staff across eight sites in two Australian states. Two measures were taken of work time lost over four weeks due to psychological distress: (1) full-day absences; (2) presenteeism. Lost work time was valued using hourly wages. Sample data was modeled to estimate annual monetary losses for the Australian Coal Mining Industry. For the sample, estimated annual value of time lost due to psychological distress was $4.9 million ($AUS2015) ($0.61 million per mine), and for the Australian Coal Mining Industry, $153.8 million ($AUS2015). Psychological distress is a significant cost for the Australian Coal Mining Industry. Relevant intervention programs are potentially cost-effective.

  8. Impact of Mining Activities on the Air Quality in The Village Nearby a Coal Strip Mine

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Pokorná, Petra; Hovorka, Jan; Brejcha, Jan

    2016-10-01

    The objective of the presented study was to estimate a share of atmospheric aerosol emitted by coal strip mine on PM10 or PM1-10, mass concentration of aerosol particles < 10μm or 1-10μm in aerodynamic diameter respectively, in the village situated in proximity to the mine. Parallel measurements were conducted in the mine and village situated in the northern part of the Czech Republic from the 15th to 27th November 2012. Three size fractions, consisting PM10, were sampled by a Davis rotating-drum impactor and analysed for 27 elements by Synchrotron-XRF with time resolution 1 hour. Appropriate hourly PM10 were measured by a Beta attenuation monitor in the village and calculated from 5 minute values by a nephelometer in the mine. Also, 24 hour aerosol samples for five size fractions were sampled by a personal cascade impactor sampler and viewed by scanning electron microscopy - SEM. Meteorological parameters were also recorded. Average contribution of coarse aerosol, PM1-10, to PM10 was 70% (119 +59 μgm-3) in the mine and 20% (12 + 10 μgm-3) in the village. The SEM revealed solely soil particles in the mine samples but bioaerosol, ash and aggregates of ultrafine particles in the village samples. Databases of hourly elemental and mass concentrations from the two localities were analysed by EPA PMF 5.0. There were revealed following sources/average contribution to local PM10: wood burning/34%, resuspended dust/30%, coal combustion/22%, industry/11% and gypsum/3% in the village while resuspended dust/43%, coal combustion/37%, gypsum/16% and mining technologies/4% in the mine. Based on factor chemical profiles, the mine was found to contribute to PM1-10 and PM10 in the village by 6% and 20%, respectively.

  9. 78 FR 4165 - Notice of Availability of the Draft Environmental Impact Statement for the Arturo Mine Project...

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2013-01-18

    ...] Notice of Availability of the Draft Environmental Impact Statement for the Arturo Mine Project, Elko... Draft Environmental Impact Statement (EIS) for the Arturo Mine Project and by this notice is announcing... must receive written comments on the Arturo Mine Project Draft EIS within 45 days following the date...

  10. Notification: Review of the EPA’s Assessment of Potential Mining Impacts in Bristol Bay, Alaska

    EPA Pesticide Factsheets

    Project #OPE-FY14-0039, May 2, 2014. The EPA OIG plans to begin preliminary research to determine whether the EPA adhered to laws in developing its assessment of potential mining impacts on ecosystems in Bristol Bay, Alaska.

  11. Socio-economic impact analysis: Centralia mine fire abatement alternatives. Draft report

    SciTech Connect

    Not Available

    1980-11-07

    The overall purpose of information contained in the following text is to document the likely social and economic impacts upon the Borough of Centralia through implementation of various mine fire abatement alternatives. Much of the data presented herein and utilized in preparing conclusions and recommendations have been derived from those individuals whose lives are now, or may eventually be, impacted by the underground mine fire.

  12. Impact of rainfall on residual subsidence in old coal mine workings.

    PubMed

    Prakash, A; Lokhande, R D; Singh, K B

    2010-01-01

    Subsidence over old coal mine workings can not be avoided if the underground workings are not fully filled. Existence of fire, illegal mining operation and seasonal impact (rainfall) aggravate proneness of subsidence over old workings. This paper deals with the causative factors of subsidence over old workings and its relation with rainfall with reference to Jharia and Raniganj Coalfields, India during the year 2007. The impact of subsidence has also been dealt in this paper.

  13. Going Places: Exploring the Impact of Intra-Sectoral Mobility on Research Productivity and Communication Behaviors in Japanese Academia

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Horta, Hugo; Yonezawa, Akiyoshi

    2013-01-01

    This study analyzes the impact of intra-sectoral mobility of academics on research productivity and R&D information exchange dynamics in Japan. The analysis shows intra-sectoral mobility impacting positively both research productivity and information exchange dynamics, but that this effect--except for information exchange with peers based…

  14. Going Places: Exploring the Impact of Intra-Sectoral Mobility on Research Productivity and Communication Behaviors in Japanese Academia

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Horta, Hugo; Yonezawa, Akiyoshi

    2013-01-01

    This study analyzes the impact of intra-sectoral mobility of academics on research productivity and R&D information exchange dynamics in Japan. The analysis shows intra-sectoral mobility impacting positively both research productivity and information exchange dynamics, but that this effect--except for information exchange with peers based…

  15. Economic Drought Impact on Agriculture: analysis of all agricultural sectors affected

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Gil, M.; Garrido, A.; Hernández-Mora, N.

    2012-04-01

    The analysis of drought impacts is essential to define efficient and sustainable management and mitigation. In this paper we present a detailed analysis of the impacts of the 2004-2008 drought in the agricultural sector in the Ebro river basin (Spain). An econometric model is applied in order to determine the magnitude of the economic loss attributable to water scarcity. Both the direct impacts of drought on agricultural productivity and the indirect impacts of drought on agricultural employment and agroindustry in the Ebro basin are evaluated. The econometric model measures losses in the economic value of irrigated and rainfed agricultural production, of agricultural employment and of Gross Value Added both from the agricultural sector and the agro-industrial sector. The explanatory variables include an index of water availability (reservoir storage levels for irrigated agriculture and accumulated rainfall for rainfed agriculture), a price index representative of the mix of crops grown in each region, and a time variable. The model allows for differentiating the impacts due to water scarcity from other sources of economic losses. Results show how the impacts diminish as we approach the macro-economic indicators from those directly dependent on water abstractions and precipitation. Sectors directly dependent on water are the most affected with identifiable economic losses resulting from the lack of water. From the management perspective implications of these findings are key to develop mitigation measures to reduce drought risk exposure. These results suggest that more open agricultural markets, and wider and more flexible procurement strategies of the agro-industry reduces the socio-economic exposure to drought cycles. This paper presents the results of research conducted under PREEMPT project (Policy relevant assessment of the socioeconomic effects of droughts and floods, ECHO - grant agreement # 070401/2010/579119/SUB/C4), which constitutes an effort to provide

  16. Life-cycle inventory and impact evaluation of mining municipal solid waste landfills.

    PubMed

    Jain, Pradeep; Powell, Jon T; Smith, Justin L; Townsend, Timothy G; Tolaymat, Thabet

    2014-01-01

    Recent research and policy directives have emerged with a focus on sustainable management of waste materials, and the mining of old landfills represents an opportunity to meet sustainability goals by reducing the release of liquid- and gas-phase contaminants into the environment, recovering land for more productive use, and recovering energy from the landfilled materials. The emissions associated with the landfill mining process (waste excavation, screening, and on-site transportation) were inventoried on the basis of diesel fuel consumption data from two full-scale mining projects (1.3-1.5 L/in-place m(3) of landfill space mined) and unit emissions (mass per liter of diesel consumption) from heavy equipment typically deployed for mining landfills. An analytical framework was developed and used in an assessment of the life-cycle environmental impacts of a few end-use management options for materials deposited and mined from an unlined landfill. The results showed that substantial greenhouse gas emission reductions can be realized in both the waste relocation and materials and energy recovery scenarios compared to a "do nothing" case. The recovery of metal components from landfilled waste was found to have the greatest benefit across nearly all impact categories evaluated, while emissions associated with heavy equipment to mine the waste itself were found to be negligible compared to the benefits that mining provided.

  17. Water quality impacts from mining in the Black Hills, South Dakota, USA

    SciTech Connect

    Rahn, P.H.; Davis, A.D.; Webb, C.J.; Nichols, A.D.

    1996-02-01

    The focus of this research was to determine if abandoned mines constitute a major environmental hazard in the Black Hills. Many abandoned gold mines in the Black Hills contribute acid and heavy metals to streams. In some areas of sulfide mineralization local impacts are severe, but in most areas the impacts are small because most ore deposits consist of small quartz veins with few sulfides. Pegmatite mines appear to have negligible effects on water due to the insoluble nature of pegmatite minerals. Uranium mines in the southern Black Hills contribute some radioactivity to surface water, but he impact is limited because of the dry climate and lack of runoff in that area. 26 refs.

  18. Community level impacts of expanding underground coal mining

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Coates, V. T.

    1975-01-01

    The potential secondary consequences of rapid community growth in deep mining localities and the ability of affected communities to absorb and manage such growth are discussed. Areas discussed include Sweetwater County, Wyoming, and Marion and Monongalia Counties, West Virginia.

  19. Community level impacts of expanding underground coal mining

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Coates, V. T.

    1975-01-01

    The potential secondary consequences of rapid community growth in deep mining localities and the ability of affected communities to absorb and manage such growth are discussed. Areas discussed include Sweetwater County, Wyoming, and Marion and Monongalia Counties, West Virginia.

  20. Climate-Change Impacts on Major Societal and Environmental Sectors: a National View

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Melillo, J. M.

    2009-05-01

    The U.S. Climate Change Science Program's Unified Synthesis Product reports on extant and possible future impacts of climate change for seven sectors at the national level - water resources, energy supply and use, transportation, agriculture, ecosystems, human health and society. The sectoral analyses provide an integrated national picture of the climate-change consequences, now and in the future, for society and the environment, albeit a picture with regional texture. Major report findings for each sector will be presented. In addition to the specific sectoral findings, several overarching messages emerge from this component of the synthesis activity. First, it is important to think about interactions between and among sectors with regard to climate impacts. For example, the projected changes in the timing and amount of precipitation, and hence water supply, will very likely have significant implications for other sectors considered in the report. Changes in water supply have the potential to affect hydropower generation, river transportation, crop timing and management, in-stream ecosystem services including fish habitat, and human health issues related to links between heavy rains ad water-borne diseases. Second, the report concludes that climate-change impacts on the sectors must be considered in the context of a range of environmental and social factors including pollution, population growth, over use of resources, and urbanization. The multi-factor analysis provides insight into our understanding of where, when and how climate change combines with other environmental and social changes to affect the sectors. It also provides some understanding of how these interactions can either amplify or dampen climate-change impacts. This message has profound implications for the design of research programs and information systems at the national, regional and local levels. Furthermore, it demands that a true partnership be forged between the natural and social sciences

  1. The global impact of the transport sectors on atmospheric aerosol: simulations for year 2000 emissions

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Righi, M.; Hendricks, J.; Sausen, R.

    2013-05-01

    We use the EMAC-MADE global aerosol model to quantify the impact of transport emissions (land transport, shipping and aviation) on global aerosol. We consider a present-day (2000) scenario and the CMIP5 emission dataset developed in support of the IPCC Fifth Assessment Report. The model takes also into account particle number emissions, which are derived from mass emissions under different assumptions on the size distribution of particles emitted by the three transport sectors. Additional sensitivity experiments are performed to quantify the effects of the uncertainties behind such assumptions. The model simulations show that the impact of the transport sectors closely matches the emission patterns. Land transport is the most important source of black carbon pollution in USA, Europe and Arabian Peninsula. Shipping strongly contributes to aerosol sulfate concentrations along the most-traveled routes of the northern Atlantic and northern Pacific oceans, with a significant impact along the coastlines. The effect of aviation is mostly confined to the upper-troposphere (7-12 km), in the northern mid-latitudes, although significant effects are also simulated at the ground, due to the emissions from landing and take-off cycles. The transport-induced perturbations to particle number concentrations are very sensitive to the assumptions on the size distribution of emitted particles, with the largest uncertainties obtained for the land transport sector. The simulated climate impacts, due to aerosol direct and indirect effects, are strongest for the shipping sector, as a consequence of the large impact of sulfate aerosol on low marine clouds and their optical properties.

  2. The Impact Analysis of Direct Public R&D and Innovation Investments in Turkish Space Sector

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Kaya, Derya; Cakir, Serhat

    2016-07-01

    According to The Organisation for Economic Co-operation and Development (OECD), space sector plays a pivotal role in the functioning of modern societies and their economic development. It is in the scope of OECD's International Futures Programme. The global space economy, as defined by the OECD Space Forum, comprises the space industry's core activities in space manufacturing and in satellite operations, plus other consumer activities that have been derived over the years from governmental research and development. In 2013 commercial revenues generated by the space economy amounted to USD 256.2 billion globally that is huge amount of space investment in the world. Recently, Turkey has also entered to the sector and it has growing strategic interest in space. First satellite project was started with a technology transfer from UK by TUBITAK Space Technologies Research Institute in 2001 and it launched to its orbit in 2003. Then RASAT and GÖKTÜRK-2 satellites were developed and launched to their orbits respectively in 2011 and 2012. Today, we have other satellite projects that are going on, too. However, we do not have a mechanism or a model to assess the impacts of those projects. What kind of model can be used to measure the impact of direct public R&D and innovation investments in Turkish space sector? The aim of this study is to develop a model which would be useful for monitoring the performance of R&D and Innovation investments that are conducted through government policies and strategies and so on to give feedback for effective strategy making. When we look at the impact analysis studies in Turkey, we see a few such as TUBITAK (Özçelik and Taymaz, 2008; Erden, 2010; Tandoǧan, 2011), İşkur (World Bank Report, 2013), Ministry of Economy (TTGV, 2013), Development Agencies (İZKA, 2011; Elçi vd., 2011; Pınar, 2014; Meydan, 2014). There is need for a systematic approach to impact analysis. Since there is no data for this study, we would develop a model with

  3. Multi-basin, Multi-sector Drought Economic Impact Model in Python: Development and Applications

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Gutenson, J. L.; Zhu, L.; Ernest, A. N. S.; Oubeidillah, A.; Bearden, B.; Johnson, T. G.

    2015-12-01

    Drought is one of the most economically disastrous natural hazards, one whose impacts are exacerbated by the lack of abrupt onset and offset that define tornados and hurricanes. In the United States, about 30 billion dollars losses is caused by drought in 2012, resulting in widespread economic impacts for societies, industries, agriculture, and recreation. And in California, the drought cost statewide economic losses about 2.2 billion, with a total loss of 17,100 seasonal and part-time jobs. Driven by a variety of factors including climate change, population growth, increased water demands, alteration to land cover, drought occurs widely all over the world. Drought economic consequence assessment tool are greatly needed to allow decision makers and stakeholders to anticipate and manage effectively. In this study, current drought economic impact modeling methods were reviewed. Most of these models only deal with the impact in the agricultural sector with a focus on a single basin; few of these models analyze long term impact. However, drought impacts are rarely restricted to basin boundaries, and cascading economic impacts are likely to be significant. A holistic approach to multi-basin, multi-sector drought economic impact assessment is needed.In this work, we developed a new model for drought economic impact assessment, Drought Economic Impact Model in Python (PyDEM). This model classified all business establishments into thirteen categories based on NAICS, and using a continuous dynamic social accounting matrix approach, coupled with calculation of the indirect consequences for the local and regional economies and the various resilience. In addition, Environmental Policy Integrated Climate model was combined for analyzing drought caused soil erosion together with agriculture production, and then the long term impacts of drought were achieved. A visible output of this model was presented in GIS. In this presentation, Choctawhatchee-Pea-Yellow River Basins, Alabama

  4. Integrated approach of environmental impact and risk assessment of Rosia Montana Mining Area, Romania.

    PubMed

    Stefănescu, Lucrina; Robu, Brînduşa Mihaela; Ozunu, Alexandru

    2013-11-01

    The environmental impact assessment of mining sites represents nowadays a large interest topic in Romania. Historical pollution in the Rosia Montana mining area of Romania caused extensive damage to environmental media. This paper has two goals: to investigate the environmental pollution induced by mining activities in the Rosia Montana area and to quantify the environmental impacts and associated risks by means of an integrated approach. Thus, a new method was developed and applied for quantifying the impact of mining activities, taking account of the quality of environmental media in the mining area, and used as case study in the present paper. The associated risks are a function of the environmental impacts and the probability of their occurrence. The results show that the environmental impacts and quantified risks, based on quality indicators to characterize the environmental quality, are of a higher order, and thus measures for pollution remediation and control need to be considered in the investigated area. The conclusion drawn is that an integrated approach for the assessment of environmental impact and associated risks is a valuable and more objective method, and is an important tool that can be applied in the decision-making process for national authorities in the prioritization of emergency action.

  5. The socio economic impact of heat waves in labor productivity in the agricultural sector in California

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Castillo, F.; Wehner, M. F.

    2016-12-01

    Scientific evidence points to an increase in the frequency and magnitude of extreme events related to climate change. Heat waves is one such event and it impacts both the urban and rural areas of high and low income countries. Heat waves have an important impact on agricultural labor which takes place mostly outdoors. In this study we use weather data from the California Irrigation Management Information System (CIMIS) and the California Department of Agriculture to analyze the impact of heat waves on labor productivity in the agricultural sector in California. In particular, we analyze 12 counties from the Central and Imperial Valleys and the 10 most important crops (value wise) in each county. Using temperature and relative humidity we develop a Heat Index (HI), a measure of relative human discomfort to heat. We use the HI as a variable in a production function analysis to determine how heat extremes impact agricultural productivity via the labor factor of production. By including crop labor requirements we are able to identify impacts of the HI to specific crops. This analysis allows for a design and implementation of adaptive measures to the future impact of heat waves in the agricultural sector in California and, with modifications, elsewhere.

  6. Impact of mining and forest regeneration on small mammal biodiversity in the Western Region of Ghana.

    PubMed

    Attuquayefio, Daniel K; Owusu, Erasmus H; Ofori, Benjamin Y

    2017-05-01

    Much of the terrestrial biodiversity in sub-Saharan Africa is supported by tropical rainforest. Natural resource development, particularly surface mining in the rainforest, poses great risks to the region's rich and endemic biodiversity. Here, we assessed the impact of surface mining and the success of forest rehabilitation on small mammal diversity in the Western Region of Ghana. We surveyed small mammals in the project area and two adjoining forest reserves (control sites) before the mining operation and 10 years after mine closure and forest rehabilitation (topsoil replacement and revegetation). The forest reserves recorded higher species abundance than the mining areas. Majority of the species captured in the forest reserves, including Hylomyscus alleni, Praomys tullbergi, Malacomys cansdalei, and Hybomys trivirgatus, are forest obligate species. Only one individual each of H. alleni and P. tullbergi was captured in the naturally regenerated areas (core areas of mining activities that were allowed to revegetate naturally), while 32 individuals belonging to four species (Lophuromys sikapusi, Mus musculoides, Mastomys erythroleucus, and Crocidura olivieri) were recorded in the rehabilitated areas. Our data suggested negative effects of mining on small mammal diversity and the restoration of species diversity and important ecological processes after rehabilitation of altered habitats. We strongly encourage deliberate conservation efforts, particularly the development of management plans that require the restoration of degraded land resulting from mining activities.

  7. 77 FR 33213 - An Assessment of Potential Mining Impacts on Salmon Ecosystems of Bristol Bay, Alaska-Peer Review...

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2012-06-05

    ... AGENCY An Assessment of Potential Mining Impacts on Salmon Ecosystems of Bristol Bay, Alaska--Peer Review... Impacts on Salmon Ecosystems of Bristol Bay, Alaska'' (EPA-910-R-12-004a-c). EPA is also announcing a... Assessment of Potential Mining Impacts on Salmon Ecosystems of Bristol Bay, Alaska'' is also available on the...

  8. Mining royalties: a global study of their impact on investors, government and civil society

    SciTech Connect

    Otto James

    2006-08-15

    The book discusses the history of royalties and the types currently in use, covering issues such as tax administration, revenue distribution and reporting. It identifies the strengths and weaknesses of various royalty approaches and their impact on production decisions and mine economics. A section on governance looks at the management of mining revenue by governments and the need for transparency. There is an attached CD with 4 appendixes with examples of royalty legislation from over 40 countries. 10 figs., 40 tabs., 4 apps.

  9. AQUATIC IMPACTS STUDY OF MOUNTAINTOP MINING AND VALLEY FILL OPERATIONS IN WEST VIRGINIA

    EPA Science Inventory

    The practice of mountaintop mining and valley fill operations in West Virginia is fraught with controversy. In 1999, EPA, along with several state and federal agencies, initiated an environmental impact study (EIS) to investigate the economic, social and ecological impacts of th...

  10. AQUATIC IMPACTS STUDY OF MOUNTAINTOP MINING AND VALLEY FILL OPERATIONS IN WEST VIRGINIA

    EPA Science Inventory

    The practice of mountaintop mining and valley fill operations in West Virginia is fraught with controversy. In 1999, EPA, along with several state and federal agencies, initiated an environmental impact study (EIS) to investigate the economic, social and ecological impacts of th...

  11. Financial Structure of Mining Sector Companies During an Economic Slowdown /Struktura Finansowania Przedsiębiorstw W Sektorze Górniczym I Wydobywczym W Okresie Spowolnienia Gospodarczego

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Sierpińska, Maria; Bąk, Patrycja

    2012-12-01

    The global economic crisis that started in 2007 in the area of finance, expanded over the subsequent years to the business sphere, and resulted in a drop of demand and production almost in any field of business activity. Access to foreign sources of finance, especially to loans, has become more difficult and expensive. In such circumstances, enterprises have had to resort more often to their own capital generated by the issue of shares, and to retained profit. Banks have limited their loans for business entities, reduced credit periods, and raised credit margins as well as their levels of collaterals. The McKinsey research into the changes that occur in the structures of sources of finance confirms that the share of equity capital in the structure of financing of non-financial enterprises has visibly grown, and their crediting scopes have been limited all over the European Union as well as in the euro zone. The global tendencies as regards directions of changes in the structure of the sources of corporate financing have also been reflected in Poland. The economic slowdown has resulted in changes in the structures of corporate financing. Mining companies have risen the shares of their equity capital in their general sources of financing. This tendency corresponds to the changes of structure of corporate financing in Poland and Europe. Enterprises have resorted to bank loans to a lesser degree than in times of better market situation. In mining, public companies have increased their crediting, while in private sector the tendency has been reverse. Enterprises tend to use more flexible debiting forms as compared to credits by way of issue of long-term corporate bonds. Mining companies have developed issue programs that are to be implemented over three-year periods. Before, only Katowicki Holding Węglowy [Katowice Mining Holding] had issued bonds. The present publication is an attempt at assessing the changes in the structure of corporate financing within the mining

  12. Inter-sectoral comparison of model uncertainty of climate change impacts in Africa

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    van Griensven, Ann; Vetter, Tobias; Piontek, Franzisca; Gosling, Simon N.; Kamali, Bahareh; Reinhardt, Julia; Dinkneh, Aklilu; Yang, Hong; Alemayehu, Tadesse

    2016-04-01

    We present the model results and their uncertainties of an inter-sectoral impact model inter-comparison initiative (ISI-MIP) for climate change impacts in Africa. The study includes results on hydrological, crop and health aspects. The impact models used ensemble inputs consisting of 20 time series of daily rainfall and temperature data obtained from 5 Global Circulation Models (GCMs) and 4 Representative concentration pathway (RCP). In this study, we analysed model uncertainty for the Regional Hydrological Models, Global Hydrological Models, Malaria models and Crop models. For the regional hydrological models, we used 2 African test cases: the Blue Nile in Eastern Africa and the Niger in Western Africa. For both basins, the main sources of uncertainty are originating from the GCM and RCPs, while the uncertainty of the regional hydrological models is relatively low. The hydrological model uncertainty becomes more important when predicting changes on low flows compared to mean or high flows. For the other sectors, the impact models have the largest share of uncertainty compared to GCM and RCP, especially for Malaria and crop modelling. The overall conclusion of the ISI-MIP is that it is strongly advised to use ensemble modeling approach for climate change impact studies throughout the whole modelling chain.

  13. Modeling future U.S. forest sector market and trade impacts of expansion in wood energy consumption

    Treesearch

    Peter J. Ince; Andrew D. Kramp; Kenneth E. Skog; Do-il Yoo; V. Alaric Sample

    2011-01-01

    This paper describes an approach to modeling U.S. forest sector market and trade impacts of expansion in domestic wood energy consumption under hypothetical future U.S. wood biomass energy policy scenarios. The U.S. Forest Products Module (USFPM) was created to enhance the modeling of the U.S. forest sector within the Global Forest Products Model (GFPM), providing a...

  14. Impact of acid mine drainages on surficial waters of an abandoned mining site.

    PubMed

    García-Lorenzo, M L; Marimón, J; Navarro-Hervás, M C; Pérez-Sirvent, C; Martínez-Sánchez, M J; Molina-Ruiz, José

    2016-04-01

    Weathering of sulphide minerals produces a great variety of efflorescences of soluble sulphate salts. These minerals play an important role for environmental pollution, since they can be either a sink or a source for acidity and trace elements. This paper aims to characterise surface waters affected by mining activities in the Sierra Minera of Cartagena-La Union (SE, Spain). Water samples were analysed for trace metals (Zn, Cd, Pb, Cu, As and Fe), major ions (Na(+), K(+), Ca(2+) and Mg(2+)) and anions (F(-), Cl(-), NO3 (-), CO3 (2-), SO4 (2-)) concentrations and were submitted to an "evaporation-precipitation" experiment that consisted in identifying the salts resulting from the evaporation of the water aliquots sampled onsite. Mineralogy of the salts was studied using X-ray diffraction and compared with the results of calculations using VISUAL MINTEQ. The study area is heavily polluted as a result of historical mining and processing activities that has produced large amount of wastes characterised by a high trace elements content, acidic pH and containing minerals resulting from the supergene alteration of the raw materials. The mineralogical study of the efflorescences obtained from waters shows that magnesium, zinc, iron and aluminium sulphates predominate in the acid mine drainage precipitates. Minerals of the hexahydrite group have been quantified together with minerals of the rozenite group, alunogen and other phases such as coquimbite and copiapite. Calcium sulphates correspond exclusively to gypsum. In a semiarid climate, such as that of the study area, these minerals contribute to understand the response of the system to episodic rainfall events. MINTEQ model could be used for the analysis of waters affected by mining activities but simulation of evaporation gives more realistic results considering that MINTEQ does not consider soluble hydrated salts.

  15. Germination of Blue Wildrye in Biochar Treated Mining Impacted Soils

    EPA Science Inventory

    Stabilization of mine sites with vegetation is an important management strategy to reduce metal movement off-site. Plant growth, however, is often hampered by poor soil conditions. Biochar is a novel soil amendment that may improve soil health conditions and improve plant growt...

  16. Germination of Blue Wildrye in Biochar Treated Mining Impacted Soils

    EPA Science Inventory

    Stabilization of mine sites with vegetation is an important management strategy to reduce metal movement off-site. Plant growth, however, is often hampered by poor soil conditions. Biochar is a novel soil amendment that may improve soil health conditions and improve plant growt...

  17. Environmental impact of mine tailings in Redi mines, Sindhudurg District, Maharashtra (India).

    PubMed

    Sawant, Arun D; Thakur, Vikas A

    2011-07-01

    Redi mine contains Fe, Mn as major elements, Al, Si as minor elements and also contains traces of Cr, Zn, Pb, Ni, Cu and P. The toxic trace elements present in the ore have also contributed to the contamination of the environment. Various operations of mining, the machinery used, transportation, the metallurgy and kind of waste management practices used are the significant factors of contributing to the nature of tailings of mine. The studies of tailings have revealed that, in addition to elemental contaminations, the operations create acidic environment around the area (pH-6.2 to 6.3 ), as water samples around showed acidic to slightly basic (pH 5.1 to 7.3) nature while soil samples were found acidic to the slightly basic (pH 6.1 to 7.4). In the samples of ore, tailings and soil, the most abundant elements found are Fe, Mn, Si and Al. In water samples, in addition to presence of Fe, Mn, Si, Al, P, significant quantities of Ni, Zn are also found. Ore, tailings and soil samples were analysed by X-Ray Diffraction technique and have shown the presence of goethite, gibbsite, kaolinite, quartz and mica alongwith haematite in the overall composition of ore.

  18. Deploying mutation impact text-mining software with the SADI Semantic Web Services framework.

    PubMed

    Riazanov, Alexandre; Laurila, Jonas Bergman; Baker, Christopher J O

    2011-01-01

    Mutation impact extraction is an important task designed to harvest relevant annotations from scientific documents for reuse in multiple contexts. Our previous work on text mining for mutation impacts resulted in (i) the development of a GATE-based pipeline that mines texts for information about impacts of mutations on proteins, (ii) the population of this information into our OWL DL mutation impact ontology, and (iii) establishing an experimental semantic database for storing the results of text mining. This article explores the possibility of using the SADI framework as a medium for publishing our mutation impact software and data. SADI is a set of conventions for creating web services with semantic descriptions that facilitate automatic discovery and orchestration. We describe a case study exploring and demonstrating the utility of the SADI approach in our context. We describe several SADI services we created based on our text mining API and data, and demonstrate how they can be used in a number of biologically meaningful scenarios through a SPARQL interface (SHARE) to SADI services. In all cases we pay special attention to the integration of mutation impact services with external SADI services providing information about related biological entities, such as proteins, pathways, and drugs. We have identified that SADI provides an effective way of exposing our mutation impact data such that it can be leveraged by a variety of stakeholders in multiple use cases. The solutions we provide for our use cases can serve as examples to potential SADI adopters trying to solve similar integration problems.

  19. Exploring climate change vulnerability across sectors and scenarios using indicators of impacts and coping capacity.

    PubMed

    Dunford, R; Harrison, P A; Jäger, J; Rounsevell, M D A; Tinch, R

    Addressing climate change vulnerability requires an understanding of both the level of climate impacts and the capacity of the exposed population to cope. This study developed a methodology for allowing users to explore vulnerability to changes in ecosystem services as a result of climatic and socio-economic changes. It focuses on the vulnerability of Europe across multiple sectors by combining the outputs of a regional integrated assessment (IA) model, the CLIMSAVE IA Platform, with maps of coping capacity based on the five capitals approach. The presented methodology enables stakeholder-derived socio-economic futures to be represented within a quantitative integrated modelling framework in a way that changes spatially and temporally with the socio-economic storyline. Vulnerability was mapped for six key ecosystem services in 40 combined climate and socio-economic scenarios. The analysis shows that, whilst the north and west of Europe are generally better placed to cope with climate impacts than the south and east, coping could be improved in all areas. Furthermore, whilst the lack of coping capacity in dystopian scenarios often leads to greater vulnerability, there are complex interactions between sectors that lead to patterns of vulnerability that vary spatially, with scenario and by sector even within the more utopian futures.

  20. Monitoring of Land degradation in the mining impacted areas of Mongolia

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Amar, T.; Renchin, T.

    2012-12-01

    Nowadays, environmental issue is very important and complicated problem in Mongolia. Mongolia has long suffered from poor mining legislation and almost no regulation of its production . There is a need to undertake analyses of land degradation and land use in Mongolia as an important factor of Environment. Land degradation has been identified as one the priority concerns. Causes of land degradation can be divided into two categories natural and human induced in Mongolia. The second hand level mining contributes to land degradation increased small to large-scale mining, as well as illicit activity resulting in exploitation of the country's mineral resources. In the last decade Mongolia has been developing the mining sector and due to the great number of exploitations the related territories were ecologically damaged. The rivers and lakes are drained, the earth is defiled and all these damages brought the environmental problems. This study aims to monitor land degradation processes in the study area Ongi River Basin of the central region of Mongolia. This area is affected by mining activities and desertification processes. The main reason of drying up Ongiriver and Ulaannuur is definitely changed the Onggi riverbed due to the mining of gold placer deposit and never making technical and biological reclamation. About 60 thousand people and over one million livestock who one living around Onggi river one getting defective of drink water and pasture because of Onggi river and UlaanLake's evaporation. We applied change detection technique and supervised classification using Satellite data. This study contributes to the research which involves policy makers and stakeholders to define and negotiate relevant scenarios in participatory approaches in the local area and to the studies about linking people to pixels. This case study will enable our researchers to plan for the future by making more educated decisions in issues stemming from mining, land degradation, water

  1. Monitoring of Land degradation in the mining impacted areas of Mongolia

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Amar, T.; Renchin, T.

    2012-12-01

    Nowadays, environmental issue is very important and complicated problem in Mongolia. Mongolia has long suffered from poor mining legislation and almost no regulation of its production . There is a need to undertake analyses of land degradation and land use in Mongolia as an important factor of Environment. Land degradation has been identified as one the priority concerns. Causes of land degradation can be divided into two categories natural and human induced in Mongolia. The second hand level mining contributes to land degradation increased small to large-scale mining, as well as illicit activity resulting in exploitation of the country's mineral resources. In the last decade Mongolia has been developing the mining sector and due to the great number of exploitations the related territories were ecologically damaged. The rivers and lakes are drained, the earth is defiled and all these damages brought the environmental problems. This study aims to monitor land degradation processes in the study area Ongi River Basin of the central region of Mongolia. This area is affected by mining activities and desertification processes. The main reason of drying up Ongiriver and Ulaannuur is definitely changed the Onggi riverbed due to the mining of gold placer deposit and never making technical and biological reclamation. About 60 thousand people and over one million livestock who one living around Onggi river one getting defective of drink water and pasture because of Onggi river and UlaanLake's evaporation. We applied change detection technique and supervised classification using Satellite data. This study contributes to the research which involves policy makers and stakeholders to define and negotiate relevant scenarios in participatory approaches in the local area and to the studies about linking people to pixels. This case study will enable our researchers to plan for the future by making more educated decisions in issues stemming from mining, land degradation, water

  2. Modeling Climate-Water Impacts on Electricity Sector Capacity Expansion: Preprint

    SciTech Connect

    Cohen, S. M.; Macknick, J.; Averyt, K.; Meldrum, J.

    2014-05-01

    Climate change has the potential to exacerbate water availability concerns for thermal power plant cooling, which is responsible for 41% of U.S. water withdrawals. This analysis describes an initial link between climate, water, and electricity systems using the National Renewable Energy Laboratory (NREL) Regional Energy Deployment System (ReEDS) electricity system capacity expansion model. Average surface water projections from Coupled Model Intercomparison Project 3 (CMIP3) data are applied to surface water rights available to new generating capacity in ReEDS, and electric sector growth is compared with and without climate-influenced water rights. The mean climate projection has only a small impact on national or regional capacity growth and water use because most regions have sufficient unappropriated or previously retired water rights to offset climate impacts. Climate impacts are notable in southwestern states that purchase fewer water rights and obtain a greater share from wastewater and other higher-cost water resources. The electric sector climate impacts demonstrated herein establish a methodology to be later exercised with more extreme climate scenarios and a more rigorous representation of legal and physical water availability.

  3. The Parallel System for Integrating Impact Models and Sectors (pSIMS)

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Elliott, Joshua; Kelly, David; Chryssanthacopoulos, James; Glotter, Michael; Jhunjhnuwala, Kanika; Best, Neil; Wilde, Michael; Foster, Ian

    2014-01-01

    We present a framework for massively parallel climate impact simulations: the parallel System for Integrating Impact Models and Sectors (pSIMS). This framework comprises a) tools for ingesting and converting large amounts of data to a versatile datatype based on a common geospatial grid; b) tools for translating this datatype into custom formats for site-based models; c) a scalable parallel framework for performing large ensemble simulations, using any one of a number of different impacts models, on clusters, supercomputers, distributed grids, or clouds; d) tools and data standards for reformatting outputs to common datatypes for analysis and visualization; and e) methodologies for aggregating these datatypes to arbitrary spatial scales such as administrative and environmental demarcations. By automating many time-consuming and error-prone aspects of large-scale climate impacts studies, pSIMS accelerates computational research, encourages model intercomparison, and enhances reproducibility of simulation results. We present the pSIMS design and use example assessments to demonstrate its multi-model, multi-scale, and multi-sector versatility.

  4. Modeling climate change impact in hospitality sector, using building resources consumption signature

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Pinto, Armando; Bernardino, Mariana; Silva Santos, António; Pimpão Silva, Álvaro; Espírito Santo, Fátima

    2016-04-01

    Hotels are one of building types that consumes more energy and water per person and are vulnerable to climate change because in the occurrence of extreme events (heat waves, water stress) same failures could compromise the hotel services (comfort) and increase energy cost or compromise the landscape and amenities due to water use restrictions. Climate impact assessments and the development of adaptation strategies require the knowledge about critical climatic variables and also the behaviour of building. To study the risk and vulnerability of buildings and hotels to climate change regarding resources consumption (energy and water), previous studies used building energy modelling simulation (BEMS) tools to study the variation in energy and water consumption. In general, the climate change impact in building is evaluated studying the energy and water demand of the building for future climate scenarios. But, hotels are complex buildings, quite different from each other and assumption done in simplified BEMS aren't calibrated and usually neglect some important hotel features leading to projected estimates that do not usually match hotel sector understanding and practice. Taking account all uncertainties, the use of building signature (statistical method) could be helpful to assess, in a more clear way, the impact of Climate Change in the hospitality sector and using a broad sample. Statistical analysis of the global energy consumption obtained from bills shows that the energy consumption may be predicted within 90% confidence interval only with the outdoor temperature. In this article a simplified methodology is presented and applied to identify the climate change impact in hospitality sector using the building energy and water signature. This methodology is applied to sixteen hotels (nine in Lisbon and seven in Algarve) with four and five stars rating. The results show that is expect an increase in water and electricity consumption (manly due to the increase in

  5. Impacts of Federal Tax Credit Extensions on Renewable Deployment and Power Sector Emissions

    SciTech Connect

    Mai, Trieu; Cole, Wesley; Lantz, Eric; Marcy, Cara; Sigrin, Benjamin

    2016-02-01

    Federal tax credits for renewable energy (RE) have served as one of the primary financial incentives for RE deployment over the last two decades in the United States. In December 2015, the wind power production tax credit and solar investment tax credits were extended for five years as part of the Consolidated Appropriations Act of 2016. This report explores the impact that these tax credit extensions might have on future RE capacity deployment and power sector carbon dioxide (CO2) emissions. The analysis examines the impacts of the tax credit extensions under two distinct natural gas price futures as natural gas prices have been key factors in influencing the economic competitiveness of new RE development. The analysis finds that, in both natural gas price futures, RE tax credit extensions can spur RE capacity investments at least through the early 2020s and can help lower emissions from the U.S. electricity system. More specifically, the RE tax credit extensions are estimated to drive a net peak increase of 48-53 GW in installed RE capacity in the early 2020s -- longer term impacts are less certain. In the longer term after the tax credits ramp down, greater RE capacity is driven by a combination of assumed RE cost declines, rising fossil fuel prices, and other clean energy policies such as the Clean Power Plan. The tax credit extension-driven acceleration in RE capacity development can reduce fossil fuel-based generation and lower electric sector CO2 emissions. Cumulative emissions reductions over a 15-year period (spanning 2016-2030) as a result of the tax credit extensions are estimated to range from 540 to 1420 million metric tonnes CO2. These findings suggest that tax credit extensions can have a measurable impact on future RE deployment and electric sector CO2 emissions under a range of natural gas price futures.

  6. Health-sector responses to address the impacts of climate change in Nepal.

    PubMed

    Dhimal, Meghnath; Dhimal, Mandira Lamichhane; Pote-Shrestha, Raja Ram; Groneberg, David A; Kuch, Ulrich

    2017-09-01

    Nepal is highly vulnerable to global climate change, despite its negligible emission of global greenhouse gases. The vulnerable climate-sensitive sectors identified in Nepal's National Adaptation Programme of Action (NAPA) to Climate Change 2010 include agriculture, forestry, water, energy, public health, urbanization and infrastructure, and climate-induced disasters. In addition, analyses carried out as part of the NAPA process have indicated that the impacts of climate change in Nepal are not gender neutral. Vector-borne diseases, diarrhoeal diseases including cholera, malnutrition, cardiorespiratory diseases, psychological stress, and health effects and injuries related to extreme weather are major climate-sensitive health risks in the country. In recent years, research has been done in Nepal in order to understand the changing epidemiology of diseases and generate evidence for decision-making. Based on this evidence, the experience of programme managers, and regular surveillance data, the Government of Nepal has mainstreamed issues related to climate change in development plans, policies and programmes. In particular, the Government of Nepal has addressed climate-sensitive health risks. In addition to the NAPA report, several policy documents have been launched, including the Climate Change Policy 2011; the Nepal Health Sector Programme - Implementation Plan II (NHSP-IP 2) 2010-2015; the National Health Policy 2014; the National Health Sector Strategy 2015-2020 and its implementation plan (2016-2021); and the Health National Adaptation Plan (H-NAP): climate change and health strategy and action plan (2016-2020). However, the translation of these policies and plans of action into tangible action on the ground is still in its infancy in Nepal. Despite this, the health sector's response to addressing the impact of climate change in Nepal may be taken as a good example for other low- and middle-income countries.

  7. Impact of sand mining activities on the environmental condition of the Komering river, South Sumatera

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Lusiagustin, V.; Kusratmoko, E.

    2017-07-01

    Sand mining activities in the Komering river, South Sumatera, has been existed around a long time and continues to grow along with the increase of development that occurred in the district of East Ogan Komering Ulu (East OKU). The purpose of this study is to examine the impact of sand mining activities to environmental conditions of the Komering river. Field studies have been conducted during the period of April-June 2016 for observing the condition of the river channel, water quality measurement and mining activities. Analysis of the results of field studies combined with GIS and Remote sensing analysis was conducted to measure the impact of mining activities both spatially and temporally. The results showed that the sand mining activities on the Komering river have led not only to the degradation of water quality but also damage of the river channel. In this paper, we also discussed the relationship between the distribution of water quality and channel damage with the mining activities in the spatial perspective.

  8. Quantitative Analysis of Critical Factors for the Climate Impact of Landfill Mining.

    PubMed

    Laner, David; Cencic, Oliver; Svensson, Niclas; Krook, Joakim

    2016-07-05

    Landfill mining has been proposed as an innovative strategy to mitigate environmental risks associated with landfills, to recover secondary raw materials and energy from the deposited waste, and to enable high-valued land uses at the site. The present study quantitatively assesses the importance of specific factors and conditions for the net contribution of landfill mining to global warming using a novel, set-based modeling approach and provides policy recommendations for facilitating the development of projects contributing to global warming mitigation. Building on life-cycle assessment, scenario modeling and sensitivity analysis methods are used to identify critical factors for the climate impact of landfill mining. The net contributions to global warming of the scenarios range from -1550 (saving) to 640 (burden) kg CO2e per Mg of excavated waste. Nearly 90% of the results' total variation can be explained by changes in four factors, namely the landfill gas management in the reference case (i.e., alternative to mining the landfill), the background energy system, the composition of the excavated waste, and the applied waste-to-energy technology. Based on the analyses, circumstances under which landfill mining should be prioritized or not are identified and sensitive parameters for the climate impact assessment of landfill mining are highlighted.

  9. U.S. Global Climate Change Impacts Report, Overview of Sectors

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Wuebbles, D.

    2009-12-01

    The assessment of the Global Climate Change Impacts in the United States includes analyses of the potential climate change impacts by sector, including water resources, energy supply and use, transportation, agriculture, ecosystems, human health and society. The resulting findings for the climate change impacts on these sectors are discussed in this presentation, with the effects on water resources discussed separately. Major findings include: Widespread climate-related impacts are occurring now and are expected to increase. Climate changes are already affecting water, energy, transportation, agriculture, ecosystems, and health. These impacts are different from region to region and will grow under projected climate change. Crop and livestock production will be increasingly challenged. Agriculture is considered one of the sectors most adaptable to changes in climate. However, increased heat, pests, water stress, diseases, and weather extremes will pose adaptation challenges for crop and livestock production. Coastal areas are at increasing risk from sea-level rise and storm surge. Sea-level rise and storm surge place many U.S. coastal areas at increasing risk. Energy and transportation infrastructure and other property in coastal areas are very likely to be adversely affected. Threats to human health will increase. Health impacts of climate change are related to heat stress, waterborne diseases, poor air quality, extreme weather events, and diseases transmitted by insects and rodents. Robust public health infrastructure can reduce the potential for negative impacts. Climate change will interact with many social and environmental stresses. Climate change will combine with pollution, population growth, overuse of resources, urbanization, and other social, economic, and environmental stresses to create larger impacts than from any of these factors alone. Thresholds will be crossed, leading to large changes in climate and ecosystems. There are a variety of thresholds in

  10. The global impact of the transport sectors on atmospheric aerosol: simulations for year 2000 emissions

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Righi, M.; Hendricks, J.; Sausen, R.

    2013-10-01

    We use the EMAC (ECHAM/MESSy Atmospheric Chemistry) global model with the aerosol module MADE (Modal Aerosol Dynamics model for Europe, adapted for global applications) to quantify the impact of transport emissions (land transport, shipping and aviation) on the global aerosol. We consider a present-day (2000) scenario according to the CMIP5 (Climate Model Intercomparison Project Phase 5) emission data set developed in support of the IPCC (Intergovernmental Panel on Climate Change) Fifth Assessment Report. The model takes into account particle mass and number emissions: The latter are derived from mass emissions under different assumptions on the size distribution of particles emitted by the three transport sectors. Additional sensitivity experiments are performed to quantify the effects of the uncertainties behind such assumptions. The model simulations show that the impact of the transport sectors closely matches the emission patterns. Land transport is the most important source of black carbon (BC) pollution in the USA, Europe and the Arabian Peninsula, contributing up to 60-70% of the total surface-level BC concentration in these regions. Shipping contributes about 40-60% of the total aerosol sulfate surface-level concentration along the most-traveled routes of the northern Atlantic and northern Pacific oceans, with a significant impact (~ 10-20%) along the coastlines. Aviation mostly affects aerosol number, contributing about 30-40% of the particle number concentration in the northern midlatitudes' upper troposphere (7-12 km), although significant effects are also simulated at the ground, due to the emissions from landing and take-off cycles. The transport-induced perturbations to the particle number concentrations are very sensitive to the assumptions on the size distribution of emitted particles, with the largest uncertainties (about one order of magnitude) obtained for the land transport sector. The simulated climate impacts, due to aerosol direct and

  11. The environmental impact of gold mines: pollution by heavy metals

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Abdul-Wahab, Sabah Ahmed; Marikar, Fouzul Ameer

    2012-06-01

    The gold mining plant of Oman was studied to assess the contribution of gold mining on the degree of heavy metals into different environmental media. Samples were collected from the gold mining plant area in tailings, stream waters, soils and crop plants. The collected samples were analyzed for 13 heavy metals including vanadium (V), chromium (Cr), manganese (Mn), nickel (Ni), copper (Cu), cadmium (Cd), cobalt (Co), lead (Pb), zinc (Zn), aluminium (Al), strontium (Sr), iron (Fe) and barium (Ba). The water in the acid evaporation pond showed a high concentration of Fe as well as residual quantities of Zn, V, and Al, whereas water from the citizens well showed concentrations of Al above those of Omani and WHO standards. The desert plant species growing closed to the gold pit indicated high concentrations of heavy metals (Mn, Al, Ni, Fe, Cr, and V), while the similar plant species used as a control indicated lesser concentrations of all heavy metals. The surface water (blue) indicated very high concentrations of copper and significant concentrations of Mn, Ni, Al, Fe, Zn, lead, Co and Cd. The results revealed that some of the toxic metals absorbed by plants indicated significant metal immobilization.

  12. Applying geomorphologic principles to restore streams impacted by surface mining

    SciTech Connect

    Ellison, M.S.

    1996-12-31

    The combination of geomorphic principles and native material restoration techniques provides a viable alternative to traditional engineering approaches to restore rivers and streams affected by surface mining. Channels can be designed to reflect ranges of stability known to occur in natural streams for measurable parameters such as bankfull width, depth, gradient, meander radius, sinuosity and entrenchment. Stable channel geometry reduces stresses on the stream bed and banks and eliminate the need for channel lining. Methods to utilize native materials have been developed and refined to stabilize stream channels constructed to appropriate dimensions until planted riparian vegetation develops mature root systems. These native materials include root wads, willow bundles, and boulders. These methods result in improved wildlife habitat in and around channels that maintain equilibria between sediment supply and sediment transport, and between erosional and depositional rates and patterns. Two streams in Baltimore County, Maryland were disturbed during mining operations and are being restored using this approach. Goodwin Run had been channelized to allow quarrying of the Cockeysville Marble. Approximately 1100 feet of stream were restored in the fall of 1992. White Marsh Run has been channelized and relocated several times to facilitate sand and gravel mining between an urbanized area and sensitive habitats of the Chesapeake Bay. The design of the White Marsh Run Restoration Project incorporated refinements to techniques used at Goodwin Run, and entails the restoration of over 5000 feet of stream and adjacent wetland habitat.

  13. The environmental impact of gold mines: pollution by heavy metals

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Abdul-Wahab, Sabah; Marikar, Fouzul

    2012-06-01

    The gold mining plant of Oman was studied to assess the contribution of gold mining on the degree of heavy metals into different environmental media. Samples were collected from the gold mining plant area in tailings, stream waters, soils and crop plants. The collected samples were analyzed for 13 heavy metals including vanadium (V), chromium (Cr), manganese (Mn), nickel (Ni), copper (Cu), cadmium (Cd), cobalt (Co), lead (Pb), zinc (Zn), aluminium (Al), strontium (Sr), iron (Fe) and barium (Ba). The water in the acid evaporation pond showed a high concentration of Fe as well as residual quantities of Zn, V, and Al, whereas water from the citizens well showed concentrations of Al above those of Omani and WHO standards. The desert plant species growing closed to the gold pit indicated high concentrations of heavy metals (Mn, Al, Ni, Fe, Cr, and V), while the similar plant species used as a control indicated lesser concentrations of all heavy metals. The surface water (blue) indicated very high concentrations of copper and significant concentrations of Mn, Ni, Al, Fe, Zn, lead, Co and Cd. The results revealed that some of the toxic metals absorbed by plants indicated significant metal immobilization.

  14. Impacts of manganese mining activity on the environment: interactions among soil, plants, and arbuscular mycorrhiza.

    PubMed

    Rivera-Becerril, Facundo; Juárez-Vázquez, Lucía V; Hernández-Cervantes, Saúl C; Acevedo-Sandoval, Otilio A; Vela-Correa, Gilberto; Cruz-Chávez, Enrique; Moreno-Espíndola, Iván P; Esquivel-Herrera, Alfonso; de León-González, Fernando

    2013-02-01

    The mining district of Molango in the Hidalgo State, Mexico, possesses one of the largest deposits of manganese (Mn) ore in the world. This research assessed the impacts of Mn mining activity on the environment, particularly the interactions among soil, plants, and arbuscular mycorrhiza (AM) at a location under the influence of an open Mn mine. Soils and plants from three sites (soil under maize, soil under native vegetation, and mine wastes with some vegetation) were analyzed. Available Mn in both soil types and mine wastes did not reach toxic levels. Samples of the two soil types were similar regarding physical, chemical, and biological properties; mine wastes were characterized by poor physical structure, nutrient deficiencies, and a decreased number of arbuscular mycorrhizal fungi (AMF) spores. Tissues of six plant species accumulated Mn at normal levels. AM was absent in the five plant species (Ambrosia psilostachya, Chenopodium ambrosoides, Cynodon dactylon, Polygonum hydropiperoides, and Wigandia urens) established in mine wastes, which was consistent with the significantly lower number of AMF spores compared with both soil types. A. psilostachya (native vegetation) and Zea mays showed mycorrhizal colonization in their root systems; in the former, AM significantly decreased Mn uptake. The following was concluded: (1) soils, mine wastes, and plant tissues did not accumulate Mn at toxic levels; (2) despite its poor physical structure and nutrient deficiencies, the mine waste site was colonized by at least five plant species; (3) plants growing in both soil types interacted with AMF; and (4) mycorrhizal colonization of A. psilostachya influenced low uptake of Mn by plant tissues.

  15. Oxidative stress in the mollusk Echinolittorina peruviana (Gasteropoda: Littorinidae, Lamarck, 1822) and trace metals in coastal sectors with mining activity.

    PubMed

    Jara, C; Gaete, H; Lobos, G; Hidalgo, M E

    2014-08-01

    The aim of the study was to evaluate the effect of coastal waters of sites with mining activity in Echinolittorina peruviana, through oxidative stress biomarkers and heavy metals determination both in water and in tissue. Organisms were collected in the intertidal zone in areas with and without mining activity. Metal concentrations in the water and tissues, and also, the following biomarkers of oxidative stress: antioxidant enzyme activity, superoxide dismutase and catalase, non-enzymatic oxidative capacity (TRAP), oxidative damage to proteins (carbonyls) and TBARS, were measured The concentrations of accumulated metals had the following order Fe > Cu > Cd > Zn > Cr > Mo > As; the highest concentrations of metals in water and tissues were found in Caleta Palito and Chañaral. Results suggest that the coastal waters with mining activity and greatest concentrations of copper and iron induced the greater antioxidant response and oxidative damage to lipids in E. peruviana.

  16. Jordanian industrial sector future energy consumption: Potential savings and environmental impact

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Abdallat, Yousef; Al-Ghandoor, Ahmed; Salaymah, Mohammad

    2012-11-01

    This paper analyzes and evaluates impacts of introducing some efficient measures on the future fuel and electricity demands and associated reduction in GHG emissions. Without employing most effective energy conservation measures, energy demand is expected to rise by approximately 38% within 12 years time. Consequently, associated GHG emissions resulting from activities within the industrial sector are predicted to rise by 33% for the same period. However, if recommended energy management measures are implemented on a gradual basis, electricity and fuel consumptions as well as GHG emissions are forecasted to increase at a lower rate.

  17. Impact ejecta and carbonate sequence in the eastern sector of the Chicxulub crater

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Urrutia-Fucugauchi, Jaime; Chavez-Aguirre, Jose Maria; Pérez-Cruz, Ligia; De la Rosa, Jose Luis

    2008-12-01

    The Chicxulub 200 km diameter crater located in the Yucatan platform of the Gulf of Mexico formed 65 Myr ago and has since been covered by Tertiary post-impact carbonates. The sediment cover and absence of significant volcanic and tectonic activity in the carbonate platform have protected the crater from erosion and deformation, making Chicxulub the only large multi-ring crater in which ejecta is well preserved. Ejecta deposits have been studied by drilling/coring in the southern crater sector and at outcrops in Belize, Quintana Roo and Campeche; little information is available from other sectors. Here, we report on the drilling/coring of a section of ˜34 m of carbonate breccias at 250 m depth in the Valladolid area (120 km away from crater center), which are interpreted as Chicxulub proximal ejecta deposits. The Valladolid breccias correlate with the carbonate breccias cored in the Peto and Tekax boreholes to the south and at similar radial distance. This constitutes the first report of breccias in the eastern sector close to the crater rim. Thickness of the Valladolid breccias is less than that at the other sites, which may indicate erosion of the ejecta deposits before reestablishment of carbonate deposition. The region east of the crater rim appears different from regions to the south and west, characterized by high density and scattered distribution of sinkholes.

  18. Emission Impacts of Electric Vehicles in the US Transportation Sector Following Optimistic Cost and Efficiency Projections.

    PubMed

    Keshavarzmohammadian, Azadeh; Henze, Daven K; Milford, Jana B

    2017-06-20

    This study investigates emission impacts of introducing inexpensive and efficient electric vehicles into the US light duty vehicle (LDV) sector. Scenarios are explored using the ANSWER-MARKAL model with a modified version of the Environmental Protection Agency's (EPA) 9-region database. Modified cost and performance projections for LDV technologies are adapted from the National Research Council (2013) optimistic case. Under our optimistic scenario (OPT) we find 15% and 47% adoption of battery electric vehicles (BEVs) in 2030 and 2050, respectively. In contrast, gasoline vehicles (ICEVs) remain dominant through 2050 in the EPA reference case (BAU). Compared to BAU, OPT gives 16% and 36% reductions in LDV greenhouse gas (GHG) emissions for 2030 and 2050, respectively, corresponding to 5% and 9% reductions in economy-wide emissions. Total nitrogen oxides, volatile organic compounds, and SO2 emissions are similar in the two scenarios due to intersectoral shifts. Moderate, economy-wide GHG fees have little effect on GHG emissions from the LDV sector but are more effective in the electricity sector. In the OPT scenario, estimated well-to-wheels GHG emissions from full-size BEVs with 100-mile range are 62 gCO2-e mi(-1) in 2050, while those from full-size ICEVs are 121 gCO2-e mi(-1).

  19. Evaluating amphibian responses in wetlands impacted by mining activities in the western United States

    SciTech Connect

    Linder, G.; Wyant, J.; Meganck, R.; Williams, B.

    1991-01-01

    An increasing awareness of declining amphibian populations in the United States requires that the authors develop strategies for evaluating anthropogenic impacts on wetlands and the biota dependent upon these habitats. For example, in the western United States, mining activities may impact a wetland and its biota directly through habitat destruction or run-off of sediments and contaminants generated during mining operations. Amphibians which frequent these transition zones between terrestrial and aquatic habitats may be key biological indicators of a wetland's status. Through a demonstration project located in the mining regions of western Montana, the authors are currently using laboratory and field methods for a wetland evaluation required within a Superfund ecological risk assessment.

  20. Metagenomic signatures of a tropical mining-impacted stream reveal complex microbial and metabolic networks.

    PubMed

    Reis, Mariana P; Dias, Marcela F; Costa, Patrícia S; Ávila, Marcelo P; Leite, Laura R; de Araújo, Flávio M G; Salim, Anna C M; Bucciarelli-Rodriguez, Mônica; Oliveira, Guilherme; Chartone-Souza, Edmar; Nascimento, Andréa M A

    2016-10-01

    Bacteria from aquatic ecosystems significantly contribute to biogeochemical cycles, but details of their community structure in tropical mining-impacted environments remain unexplored. In this study, we analyzed a bacterial community from circumneutral-pH tropical stream sediment by 16S rRNA and shotgun deep sequencing. Carrapatos stream sediment, which has been exposed to metal stress due to gold and iron mining (21 [g Fe]/kg), revealed a diverse community, with predominance of Proteobacteria (39.4%), Bacteroidetes (12.2%), and Parcubacteria (11.4%). Among Proteobacteria, the most abundant reads were assigned to neutrophilic iron-oxidizing taxa, such as Gallionella, Sideroxydans, and Mariprofundus, which are involved in Fe cycling and harbor several metal resistance genes. Functional analysis revealed a large number of genes participating in nitrogen and methane metabolic pathways despite the low concentrations of inorganic nitrogen in the Carrapatos stream. Our findings provide important insights into bacterial community interactions in a mining-impacted environment.

  1. Identifying the multiscale impacts of crude oil price shocks on the stock market in China at the sector level

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Huang, Shupei; An, Haizhong; Gao, Xiangyun; Huang, Xuan

    2015-09-01

    The aim of this research is to investigate the multiscale dynamic linkages between crude oil price and the stock market in China at the sector level. First, the Haar à trous wavelet transform is implemented to extract multiscale information from the original time series. Furthermore, we incorporate the vector autoregression model to estimate the dynamic relationship pairing the Brent oil price and each sector stock index at each scale. There is a strong evidence showing that there are bidirectional Granger causality relationships between most of the sector stock indices and the crude oil price in the short, medium and long terms, except for those in the health, utility and consumption sectors. In fact, the impacts of the crude oil price shocks vary for different sectors over different time horizons. More precisely, the energy, information, material and telecommunication sector stock indices respond to crude oil price shocks negatively in the short run and positively in the medium and long runs, terms whereas the finance sector responds positively over all three time horizons. Moreover, the Brent oil price shocks have a stronger influence on the stock indices of sectors other than the health, optional and utility sectors in the medium and long terms than in the short term. The results obtained suggest implication of this paper as that the investment and policymaking decisions made during different time horizons should be based on the information gathered from each corresponding time scale.

  2. Global model simulations of the impact of the transport sectors on atmospheric aerosol and climate

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Righi, Mattia; Hendricks, Johannes; Sausen, Robert

    2013-04-01

    The transport sector, including land transport, shipping and aviation, is one of the major sources of tropospheric aerosol. Land transport, in particular, is a relevant source of pollution in highly populated areas (e.g. megacities), with significant impacts on climate and health. Transport emissions are expected to grow in the near future, especially in the developing countries. In this work we use the EMAC-MADE global aerosol model to quantify the impact of transport emissions on global aerosol, for both present-day (2000) and future (2030) scenarios. Number emissions are also included in the model and derived from mass emissions under different assumptions on the size distribution of particles emitted by the three transport modes. Additional sensitivity experiments are performed to quantify the effects of the uncertainties behind such assumptions. The model simulations reveal that land transport is the most important source of black carbon pollution in the densely populated regions of Eastern U.S. and Europe. High particle concentrations are simulated for Southeast Asian areas, although pollution in this region is mostly due to non-transport sources. Shipping strongly contributes to aerosol sulphate concentrations along the most-traveled routes of the Northern Atlantic and Northern Pacific oceans, with significant impact along the coastlines and nearby major harbors and with large effects on cloud properties. The impacts on particle number concentrations are very sensitive to the assumptions on size distribution of emitted particles, with the largest uncertainties simulated for the land transport sector. The model results further reveal significant climate impacts of transport-induced particles.

  3. Abandoned metal mines and their impact on receiving waters: A case study from Southwest England.

    PubMed

    Beane, Steven J; Comber, Sean D W; Rieuwerts, John; Long, Peter

    2016-06-01

    Historic mine sites are a major source of contamination to terrestrial and river environments. To demonstrate the importance of determining the significance of point and diffuse metal contamination and the related bioavailability of the metals present from abandoned mines a case study has been carried out. The study provides a quantitative assessment of a historic mine site, Wheal Betsy, southwest England, and its contribution to non-compliance with Water Framework Directive (WFD) Environmental Quality Standards (EQS) for Cd, Cu, Pb and Zn. Surface water and sediment samples showed significant negative environmental impacts even taking account of the bioavailability of the metal present, with lead concentration in the stream sediment up to 76 times higher than the Canadian sediment guidelines 'Probable Effect Level'. Benthic invertebrates showed a decline in species richness adjacent to the mine site with lead and cadmium the main cause. The main mine drainage adit was the single most significant source of metal (typically 50% of metal load from the area, but 88% for Ni) but the mine spoil tips north and south of the adit input added together discharged roughly an equivalent loading of metal with the exception of Ni. The bioavailability of metal in the spoil tips exhibited differing spatial patterns owing to varying ambient soil physico-chemistry. The data collected is essential to provide a clear understanding of the contamination present as well as its mobility and bioavailability, in order to direct the decision making process regarding remediation options and their likely effectiveness.

  4. Hydrologic modeling of coal-mine impacts and associated remediation alternatives for the Nanticoke Creek watershed

    SciTech Connect

    Walski, T.M.; Draus, S.J.; Klemow, K.M.; Tarutis, W.J. Jr.

    1997-12-31

    The Nanticoke Creek watershed (Luzerne County, Pennsylvania) has been heavily impacted by both surface and deep coal mining. Currently, almost all of the flow in the creek including both of its tributaries (Espy Run and Lueder`s Creek) disappear underground into the abandoned Truesale-Bliss (T-B) underground mine workings. The water flows out of the mines at the Askam Borehole as acid mine drainage (AMD) which comprises virtually all of the flow in the lower reaches of Nanticoke Creek. Outflow from this borehole ranges from approximately 8,500 m{sup 3}/day (2.2 MGD) to 52,000 m{sup 3}/day (14 MGD). Wetland treatment systems are being constructed to treat portions of the water that flows from the mine and efforts to restore surface flow in Nanticoke Creek are underway. As less water enters the minepool, less AMD will need to be treated. We present the water-balance model used specifically to estimate the behavior of the mine in response to various reclamation alternatives. Standard hydrologic models either are too complicated or they do not accurately simulate the interaction between the minepool and surface streams at the level of detail required by this study. The water-balance model accounts for rainfall, snowmelt, soil storage, evapotranspiration, minepool storage and the hydraulics of the borehole. Given historical climatic data, the model was able to approximate observed discharges from the Askam Borehole.

  5. The impact of disposal and treatment of coal mining wastes on environment and farmland

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Bian, Zhengfu; Dong, Jihong; Lei, Shaogang; Leng, Hailong; Mu, Shouguo; Wang, Hui

    2009-08-01

    In China, coal mining wastes have traditionally been dumped in cone-shaped heaps that have the potential to pollute air, soil and water environments and landscapes through dust generation, leachate production, self-ignition and as a consequence of an absence of vegetation cover. Since 1980s, the disposal technique for coal mining wastes has been changing and in many instances the wastes are now transported directly to subsided land as a fill to enable the reuse of that land. Thus, today, both coal mining waste dumps from the past and filled subsided lands are in existence. However, the comparative impacts of these different disposal techniques on the environment and farmland productivity have not been studied in detail. Using Dongtan (DT), Nantun (NT) and Xinglongzhuang (XLZ) coal mines as examples, the components of coal mining wastes and their potential pollution contribution to soil, surface water and ground water are tested in-situ. The results show that contaminants are released after self-ignition and weathering of coal mining wastes, but they are not above the allowable environmental standards. However, despite these findings, more and closer attention needs to be paid to the mobility, transportation and accumulation of these contaminants in the environment over time.

  6. Agriculture in an area impacted by past uranium mining activities

    SciTech Connect

    Carvalho, F. P.; Oliveira, J. M.; Neves, O.; Vicente, E. M.; Abreu, M. M.

    2007-07-01

    The shallow aquifer near the old Cunha Baixa uranium mine (Viseu, Portugal) was contaminated by acid mine drainage. Concentration of radionuclides in water from irrigation wells and in the topsoil layer of the agriculture fields nearby display enhanced concentrations of uranium, radium and polonium. Two types of agriculture land in this area were selected, one with enhanced and another with low uranium concentrations, for controlled growth of lettuce and potatoes. Plants were grown in replicate portions of land (two plots) in each soil type and were periodically irrigated with water from wells. In each soil, one plot was irrigated with water containing low concentration of dissolved uranium and the other plot with water containing enhanced concentration of dissolved uranium. At the end of the growth season, plants were harvested and analysed, along with soil and irrigation water samples. Results show the accumulation of radionuclides in edible parts of plants, specially in the field plots with higher radionuclide concentrations in soil. Radionuclides in irrigation water contributed less to the radioactivity accumulated in plants than radionuclides from soils. (authors)

  7. Procedures for assessment of cumulative impacts of coal mining on the hydrologic balance

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Lumb, Alan M.

    1982-01-01

    Techniques were developed to assess the probable cumulative impacts of anticipated surface mining upon the hydrology of and area. An activity profile of cumulative drainage area versus river miles downstream from the surface mining site is constructed that shows major water uses, flood prone areas, and stream classifications. From the summary shown by the activity profile, an impact matrix is used as a checklist for the importance of the impacts under categories such as water supply, flood prone areas, water contact recreation, etc. Based on the categories checked on the impact matrix, a simple, less accurate model or a more comprehensive and accurate one can be used to quantify the impacts. Quantified impacts are then displayed on an impact profile showing the percentage change in a hydrologic characteristic versus distance downstream of the surface mining site. The simple model for quantification considers only dilution from tributary areas during critical periods whereas the comprehensive model routes flows and quality of water continuously through the year and considers, in addition to dilution, instream processes such as settling, biological uptake , and chemical reactions. (USGS)

  8. Sediment microbial community composition and methylmercury pollution at four mercury mine-impacted sites.

    PubMed

    Batten, K M; Scow, K M

    2003-11-01

    Mercury pollution presents a globally significant threat to human and ecosystem health. An important transformation in the mercury cycle is the conversion of inorganic mercury to methylmercury, a toxic substance that negatively affects neurological function and bioaccumulates in food chains. This transformation is primarily bacterially mediated, and sulfate-reducing bacteria (SRB) have been specifically implicated as key mercury methylators in lake and estuarine sediments. This study used phospholipid fatty acid (PLFA) analysis to investigate sediment microbial community composition at four abandoned mercury mine-impacted sites in the California Coast Range: the Abbott, Reed, Sulphur Bank, and Mt. Diablo mines. Differences in watershed and hydrology among these sites were related to differences in microbial community composition. The Abbott and Sulphur Bank mines had the highest levels of methylmercury. Floc (a type of precipitate that forms when acid mine drainage contacts lake or river water) and sediment samples differed in terms of several important environmental variables and microbial community composition, but did not have statistically different methylmercury concentrations. Quantification of PLFA biomarkers for SRB (10Mel6:0 for Desulfobacter and i17:1 for Desulfovibrio) revealed that Desulfobacter and Desulfovibrio organisms made up higher percentages of overall microbial biomass at the Sulphur Bank and Mt. Diablo mines than at the Abbott and Reed mines. Correlations between these SRB biomarker fatty acids and methylmercury concentrations suggest that Desulfobacter and Desulfovibrio organisms may contribute to methylmercury production in the Abbott, Reed, and Sulphur Bank mines but may not be important contributors to methylmercury in the Mt. Diablo Mine.

  9. Assessment of arsenic speciation and bioaccessibility in mine-impacted materials

    EPA Science Inventory

    Mine-impacted materials were collected from Victoria, Australia and categorized into three source materials; tailings (n = 35), calcinated (n = 10) and grey slimes (n = 5). Arsenic (As) concentrations in these materials varied over several orders of magnitude (30-47,000 mg kg

  10. Assessment of arsenic speciation and bioaccessibility in mine-impacted materials

    EPA Science Inventory

    Mine-impacted materials were collected from Victoria, Australia and categorized into three source materials; tailings (n = 35), calcinated (n = 10) and grey slimes (n = 5). Arsenic (As) concentrations in these materials varied over several orders of magnitude (30-47,000 mg kg

  11. ANTHROPOGENIC COPPER INVENTORIES AND MERCURY PROFILES FROM LAKE SUPERIOR: EVIDENCE FOR MINING IMPACTS

    EPA Science Inventory

    During the past 150 years, the mining indstry discharged more than a billion tons of tailings along Lake Superior shorelines and constructed numerous smelters in the watershed. Given the vast size of Lake Superior, were sediment profiles at locations far offshore impacted by near...

  12. ANTHROPOGENIC COPPER INVENTORIES AND MERCURY PROFILES FROM LAKE SUPERIOR: EVIDENCE FOR MINING IMPACTS

    EPA Science Inventory

    During the past 150 years, the mining indstry discharged more than a billion tons of tailings along Lake Superior shorelines and constructed numerous smelters in the watershed. Given the vast size of Lake Superior, were sediment profiles at locations far offshore impacted by near...

  13. LABORATORY EVALUATION OF ZERO-VALENT IRON TO TREAT WATER IMPACTED BY ACID MINE DRAINAGE

    EPA Science Inventory

    This study examines the applicability and limitations of granular zero-valent iron for the treatment of water impacted by mine wastes. Rates of acid neutralization and of metal (Cu, Cd, Ni, Zn, Hg, Al, and Mn) and metalloid (As) uptake were determined in batch systems using simu...

  14. Geochemical and biological controls on trace metal transport in an acid mine impacted watershed.

    PubMed

    Butler, Thomas W

    2006-06-01

    Water samples collected in an acid mine impacted watershed indicated that the concentrations of dissolved trace metals were diurnally influenced by mineral saturation, which is controlled primarily by pH and water temperature. Measurements taken suggested that these variations only occur at sample locations immediately downstream from the confluence of acidic and alkaline waters. It is at these locations where initial mineral precipitation occurred and where subtle changes in solubility were most affected, increasing trace metal removal when both the rate of photosynthesis (influencing pH in headwaters) and water temperature were at a maximum. The role of iron photoreduction (increased midday production of ferrous iron) on overall Cu, Mn, and Zn transport was also evaluated, but found to be inconclusive. Iron photoreduction may however influence adsorption and/or coprecipitation of trace metals through associated changes in oxidation state, solubility, and mineralogy of various iron colloids, which are produced upon the neutralization of acidic, metal enriched water. Furthermore, measured values of copper and zinc were compared to relative USEPA chronic criterion for exposure to continuous concentration (CCC) of metals by the calculation of a "toxicity unit" (TU). It was found that average values of both copper and zinc only exceeded the CCC (TU>1) in the acid mine-impacted Leona Creek. In general, zinc toxicity decreased while copper toxicity increased downstream of the confluence of the mine impacted Leona Creek and background Lion Creek (sampled at Lake Aliso), indicating a significant source of zinc in upstream, non mine-impacted samples.

  15. LABORATORY EVALUATION OF ZERO-VALENT IRON TO TREAT WATER IMPACTED BY ACID MINE DRAINAGE

    EPA Science Inventory

    This study examines the applicability and limitations of granular zero-valent iron for the treatment of water impacted by mine wastes. Rates of acid neutralization and of metal (Cu, Cd, Ni, Zn, Hg, Al, and Mn) and metalloid (As) uptake were determined in batch systems using simu...

  16. Building associations between markers of environmental stressors and adverse human health impacts using frequent itemset mining

    EPA Science Inventory

    Building associations between markers of exposure and effect using frequent itemset mining The human-health impact of environmental contaminant exposures is unclear. While some exposure-effect relationships are well studied, health effects are unknown for the vast majority of the...

  17. Building associations between markers of environmental stressors and adverse human health impacts using frequent itemset mining

    EPA Science Inventory

    Building associations between markers of exposure and effect using frequent itemset mining The human-health impact of environmental contaminant exposures is unclear. While some exposure-effect relationships are well studied, health effects are unknown for the vast majority of the...

  18. Psychosocial and health impacts of uranium mining and milling on Navajo lands.

    PubMed

    Dawson, Susan E; Madsen, Gary E

    2011-11-01

    The uranium industry in the American Southwest has had profoundly negative impacts on American Indian communities. Navajo workers experienced significant health problems, including lung cancer and nonmalignant respiratory diseases, and psychosocial problems, such as depression and anxiety. There were four uranium processing mills and approximately 1,200 uranium mines on the Navajo Nation's over 27,000 square miles. In this paper, a chronology is presented of how uranium mining and milling impacted the lives of Navajo workers and their families. Local community leaders organized meetings across the reservation to inform workers and their families about the relationship between worker exposures and possible health problems. A reservation-wide effort resulted in activists working with political leaders and attorneys to write radiation compensation legislation, which was passed in 1990 as the Radiation Exposure Compensation Act (RECA) and included underground uranium miners, atomic downwinders, and nuclear test-site workers. Later efforts resulted in the inclusion of surface miners, ore truck haulers, and millworkers in the RECA Amendments of 2000. On the Navajo Nation, the Office of Navajo Uranium Workers was created to assist workers and their families to apply for RECA funds. Present issues concerning the Navajo and other uranium-impacted groups include those who worked in mining and milling after 1971 and are excluded from RECA. Perceptions about uranium health impacts have contributed recently to the Navajo people rejecting a resumption of uranium mining and milling on Navajo lands.

  19. The economic impact of H1N1 on Mexico's tourist and pork sectors.

    PubMed

    Rassy, Dunia; Smith, Richard D

    2013-07-01

    By examining tourist arrivals and pork output and trade statistics, this analysis estimates the economic impact to the Mexican tourism and pork sectors because of the H1N1 influenza pandemic. It also assesses the role of the international response in the context of this economic impact. For tourism, losing almost a million overseas visitors translated into losses of around $US2.8bn, which extended over a five-month period, mostly because of the slow return of European travellers. For the pork industry, temporal decreases in output were observed in most of the country and related to H1N1 incidence (p = 0.048, r = 0.37). By the end of 2009, Mexico had a pork trade deficit of $US27m. The losses derived from this pandemic were clearly influenced by the risk perception created in tourist-supplying and pork trade partners. Results suggest that the wider economic implications of health-related emergencies can be significant and need to be considered in preparedness planning. For instance, more effective surveillance and data gathering would enable policy to target emergency funding to the sectors and regions hardest hit. These results also stress the importance of being familiar with trade networks so as to be able to anticipate the international response and respond accordingly. Copyright © 2012 John Wiley & Sons, Ltd.

  20. Ecological impacts of large-scale disposal of mining waste in the deep sea.

    PubMed

    Hughes, David J; Shimmield, Tracy M; Black, Kenneth D; Howe, John A

    2015-05-05

    Deep-Sea Tailings Placement (DSTP) from terrestrial mines is one of several large-scale industrial activities now taking place in the deep sea. The scale and persistence of its impacts on seabed biota are unknown. We sampled around the Lihir and Misima island mines in Papua New Guinea to measure the impacts of ongoing DSTP and assess the state of benthic infaunal communities after its conclusion. At Lihir, where DSTP has operated continuously since 1996, abundance of sediment infauna was substantially reduced across the sampled depth range (800-2020 m), accompanied by changes in higher-taxon community structure, in comparison with unimpacted reference stations. At Misima, where DSTP took place for 15 years, ending in 2004, effects on community composition persisted 3.5 years after its conclusion. Active tailings deposition has severe impacts on deep-sea infaunal communities and these impacts are detectable at a coarse level of taxonomic resolution.

  1. Ecological impacts of large-scale disposal of mining waste in the deep sea

    PubMed Central

    Hughes, David J.; Shimmield, Tracy M.; Black, Kenneth D.; Howe, John A.

    2015-01-01

    Deep-Sea Tailings Placement (DSTP) from terrestrial mines is one of several large-scale industrial activities now taking place in the deep sea. The scale and persistence of its impacts on seabed biota are unknown. We sampled around the Lihir and Misima island mines in Papua New Guinea to measure the impacts of ongoing DSTP and assess the state of benthic infaunal communities after its conclusion. At Lihir, where DSTP has operated continuously since 1996, abundance of sediment infauna was substantially reduced across the sampled depth range (800–2020 m), accompanied by changes in higher-taxon community structure, in comparison with unimpacted reference stations. At Misima, where DSTP took place for 15 years, ending in 2004, effects on community composition persisted 3.5 years after its conclusion. Active tailings deposition has severe impacts on deep-sea infaunal communities and these impacts are detectable at a coarse level of taxonomic resolution. PMID:25939397

  2. [Assessing the impact of health sector reform in Costa Rica through a quasi-experimental study].

    PubMed

    Bixby, Luis Rosero

    2004-02-01

    To assess the impact of health sector reform in Costa Rica on that country's child and adult mortality rates and on the people's access to primary health care. Health sector reform was initiated in Costa Rica in 1995 in some districts, but in others reforms were adopted later. This made it possible to perform a time series analysis, using a quasi-experimental study design, in which observations were made annually from 1985 through 2001 for each of the 420 districts that existed in Costa Rica in 1984. The time series were divided into three periods that allowed all districts to be grouped into three categories (pioneer, intermediate, and late) according to the year when they first implemented health sector reform: 1995-1996; 1997-2000; and 2001 or after, respectively. For each of these periods, mortality rates were broken down by cause (communicable, socially-determined, or chronic disease), sex, and age group. The status of the reform process in a particular district was described by two indicators: (1) the presence or absence of health sector reform during a given period and, wherever such reforms had been adopted, (2) the number of years that had transpired since their adoption. Eight variables were used to control for confounders. Vital statistics and demographic data were obtained from the National Institute for Statistics and Census' [Centro Nacional de Estadística y Censos] electronic database. Poisson multiple regression analysis with fixed effects was used to estimate the impact of reform on child and adult mortality from different causes. Assessment of the population's access to primary care before and after the reform was based on the percentage of people who lived within a 4 km radius of a health facility that offered patient visiting hours two or more days a week. This information came from a previous study that used census data from 2000 and geographic information systems to map health care facilities throughout the country. Multiple regression showed

  3. Cadmium Isotope Fractionation of the Surface Waters in a Mining Area Impacted by Acid Mine Drainage

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Yang, W.; Chen, Y.; Tang, Y.

    2016-12-01

    The pollution of natural waters and sediments with metals derived from acid mine drainage (AMD) is a global environmental problem. However, the processes governing the behaviors of transportation and transformation of metals like Cd in mountain area are poorly understood, the complicated hydro-geomorphic settings of mountain catchments are difficult to access . And few reports have been reported about the effects of. In this study, the concentration and the isotopic composition of Cd selected filtered stream samples from the Hengshi river affected by AMD have been determined. The Cd concentrations were determined for collected sediments samples, which cover the entire river valley from upstream to the downstream regions. Results showed that reducing concentrations for Cd were found in the river water from upstream to downstream, and also high enrichment factor for Cd in all the sediments, suggest that Cd mainly is derived from Liwu dam and easily enter into solid phase. The isotopic data show that the dissolved Cd in rivers is characterized by δ114/110Cd, ranged from 0.09 ‰ to 0.40 ‰ in term of δ114/110Cd , the mean is 0.25 ± 0.06 ‰, and the content of Cd from the sediments is 0.18 to 39.85 μg/g. The river isotope values are similar to the isotope signature of Liwu dam, which contain significant amounts of contaminants under a deep water cover, such as mine tailings, sulfide-rich rocks and minerals. Large fractionated Cd (δ114/110Cd = 0.40 ± 0.09 ‰) was found in water sample collected from midstream near a farmland, which imply there is a new source different from the LIWU dam depend on the heavier Cd signature. We hypothesize that this shift results from either hydrology changes over time in the main and tributaries stream, and some new pollution source imported. The change in the behavior of sorption of cadmium on oxides and hydroxides in the sediment system under low pH cause indistinguishable fractionation. Our result is encouraging for

  4. Probabilistic Projections of Climate Change Impacts on the Agricultural Sector in Bangladesh

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Ruane, A. C.; Rosenzweig, C.; Major, D. C.

    2008-12-01

    We describe a novel approach to impact assessment that generates probabilistic distributions of climate change impacts by passing model and societal uncertainties in a continuous manner throughout the assessment process. Rather than driving impact models with conditions based upon summary statistics from an ensemble of global climate models (GCMs) or relying on a prescribed range of inputs, end-to-end assessment is conducted for a wide variety of GCMs and emissions scenarios. The resulting distribution of impacts may be used to elucidate internal dynamics of the system and to attach model and societal-based probabilities to individual outcomes. To demonstrate the method, preliminary results from a World Bank project on the effect of climate change on Bangladesh's agricultural sector are presented. Working with a wide range of collaborators in Bangladesh, 48 climate change scenarios (16 GCMs and 3 emissions scenarios) were generated from 2020-2100 for each of 16 regions in Bangladesh. These scenarios were then used to drive the Decision Support System for Agrotechnology Transfer (DSSAT) biophysical model for major cereal crops. Output generated from a smaller subset of hydrologic and coastal model scenarios is then used to adjust the yield production to account for projected river floods in the Ganges/Brahmaputra/Meghna basin and coastal inundation from the Bay of Bengal, respectively. The result is a probabilistic distribution of agricultural impacts for Bangladesh that retains model and societal uncertainties throughout the assessment process.

  5. Current impact of mining alkaline rocks on Save River water quality in Zimbabwe

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Meck, M.; Atlhopheng, J.; Masamba, W. R. L.

    2009-09-01

    Alkaline rocks (phosphate deposits in particular) of igneous origin are currently being mined in Zimbabwe. Exploitation of these deposits, which are associated with metals and non-metals, provides a potential for changing the river water quality in the surrounding areas by increasing metal and phosphates levels in the water, thereby endangering the beneficial use of the river. The aim and objectives of this paper are to enumerate the current impacts associated with mining alkaline rocks on Save River water quality in Zimbabwe using the Dorowa mine as a case study. Though there are several impacts associated with the mining of alkaline rocks, this paper deals only with impacts on water quality. A preliminary assessment of the water quality in the Save River downstream of the Dorowa phosphate mine showed an increase in conductivity, iron content, manganese content, nitrates and hardness when compared to those taken before mining activity began. However, there was no notable increase in phosphate and metals except for Fe and Mn. A plausible explanation for the low phosphate values in the water is that the phosphates are precipitating and settling as sediments. Phosphate is known to effectively remove metals from the surface water through the formation of metal-phosphate minerals. Thus, various pollutants may be adsorbed into sediments accumulated on the bottom of the river. These sediments may accumulate pollutants over long periods and act as new pollutant sources to the overlying water when phosphate desorbs from sediments due to changes in water conditions. Therefore, the sediments can act as a source of water pollution in the future.

  6. Impacts of mining on Central Red Sea environment

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Abu Gideiri, Yousif B.

    The mining of the Atlantis II deep will result in a significant input of heavy metals into the Red Sea. Quantities of dissolved compounds will result in major changes in the trace element composition of the water masses. The dissolution of minerals resulting in the release of toxic chemicals including zinc, copper, cadmium and mercury remains of fundamental concern which will require further study. The regime for discharge of tailings must be designed to minimise the dispersal of the solids, and also the fluids together with their dissolved leached constituents. If the discharges occur deep down the waste will be confined to the deep waters in the central graben, where the absence of significant upwelling combined with the natural chemical processes of removal via sorption will restrict the dispersal of the toxic substances. Research on biological activity within the epipelagic and mesopelagic zones has led to the recommendation that all wastes should be restricted to the bottom water below 1100 metres. A consideration of the likely effect upon benthos and water chemistry has demonstrated that tailings will have to be confined to the central graben, in order to protect local fisheries and the vulnerable reef and seabed environments of the coasts and the Central Trough. However, discharge of the tailings at depth would also limit the transmission of the tailing pollutants through the food web. It should, therefore, confine the effects of mining to a limited portion of the Red Sea biota. The shallower release of tailings within the zone of diel migration by plankton and nekton would expose a large community of organisms to the pollutants and result in the vertical transport of heavy metals up the water column.

  7. The Impact of Microbial Communities on Water Quality in an Acid Mine Drainage Impacted Watershed

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    McDaniel, G. R.; Rademacher, L. K.; Faul, K. L.; Brunell, M.; Burmeister, K. C.

    2011-12-01

    Acid mine drainage (AMD) from the former Leona Heights Sulfur mine in Oakland, CA, contributes toxic levels of Cu, Cd, and Zn and elevated levels of Fe2+ and SO42- to downstream reaches of Lion Creek via Leona Creek. To investigate the extent of AMD and its relationship to microbial community structure, water samples were collected from three tributaries (two natural, and one with AMD) as well as the inlet and outlet of Lake Aliso (a reservoir downstream of the confluence of the three tributaries) beginning in July 2009. Lake Aliso was dammed in the late 1800s but since the early 1990s it has been full during the dry season and drained during the wet season, thus dramatically altering the geochemical conditions on a seasonal basis. Natural waters from Lion Creek and Horseshoe Creek tributaries dilute the water from Leona Creek, thus reducing concentrations of major ions and metals below toxic levels before water discharges into Lake Aliso. Precipitation events lead to episodes of increased mobilization of Cu and Cd in Leona Creek and produce toxic levels of these metals below the confluence with Lion Creek. Tributary mixing calculations suggest that even though Leona Creek contributes the smallest volume of water of the three tributaries, it is the main source of metals entering Lake Aliso. The input of the metal-rich AMD from Leona Creek changes the redox conditions of Lion Creek. In addition, Lake Aliso has a significant impact on water quality in the Lion Creek watershed. Observations of temperature, conductivity, pH, and dissolved oxygen in lake depth profiles indicate that Lake Aliso is stratified during the dry season when the lake is full. Based on concentration differences between the inlet and outlet of the lake, Na, Mg, SO42-, Ca, Mn, Zn, Cd, Cu and Ni are removed from the water while K, As, Pb and Fe are mobilized when Lake Aliso is full. Geochemical modeling using PhreeqcI suggests the deposition of minerals containing the metals that are being removed

  8. Radiological impact of surface water and sediment near uranium mining sites.

    PubMed

    Ivanova, K; Stojanovska, Z; Badulin, V; Kunovska, B; Yovcheva, M

    2015-12-01

    The aim of this study is to assess the radiological impact of surface water and sediment around uranium mining sites 20 years after their closing. The areas under observations are 31 former classical underground uranium mining and exploratory sites in Bulgaria, named as objects. The extraction and processing of uranium ores in the Republic of Bulgaria were ended in 1992. To assess the radiological impact of radionuclides field expeditions were performed to sample water and bottom sediment. The migration of uranium through surface water was examined as one of the major pathways for contamination spread. The range of uranium concentration in water flowing from the mining sites was from 0.012 to 6.8 mgU l(-1) with a geometric mean of 0.192 mgU l(-1). The uranium concentrations in water downstream the mining sites were approximately 3 times higher than the background value (upstream). The concentrations of Unat, (226)Ra, (210)Pb, and (232)Th in the sediment of downstream river were higher than those upstream by 3.4, 2.6, 2, and 1.7 times, respectively. The distribution coefficient of uranium reflects its high mobility in most of the sites. In order to evaluate the impact on people as well as site prioritization for more detailed assessment and water management, screening dose assessments were done.

  9. Deploying mutation impact text-mining software with the SADI Semantic Web Services framework

    PubMed Central

    2011-01-01

    Background Mutation impact extraction is an important task designed to harvest relevant annotations from scientific documents for reuse in multiple contexts. Our previous work on text mining for mutation impacts resulted in (i) the development of a GATE-based pipeline that mines texts for information about impacts of mutations on proteins, (ii) the population of this information into our OWL DL mutation impact ontology, and (iii) establishing an experimental semantic database for storing the results of text mining. Results This article explores the possibility of using the SADI framework as a medium for publishing our mutation impact software and data. SADI is a set of conventions for creating web services with semantic descriptions that facilitate automatic discovery and orchestration. We describe a case study exploring and demonstrating the utility of the SADI approach in our context. We describe several SADI services we created based on our text mining API and data, and demonstrate how they can be used in a number of biologically meaningful scenarios through a SPARQL interface (SHARE) to SADI services. In all cases we pay special attention to the integration of mutation impact services with external SADI services providing information about related biological entities, such as proteins, pathways, and drugs. Conclusion We have identified that SADI provides an effective way of exposing our mutation impact data such that it can be leveraged by a variety of stakeholders in multiple use cases. The solutions we provide for our use cases can serve as examples to potential SADI adopters trying to solve similar integration problems. PMID:21992079

  10. Redundancy in electronic health record corpora: analysis, impact on text mining performance and mitigation strategies.

    PubMed

    Cohen, Raphael; Elhadad, Michael; Elhadad, Noémie

    2013-01-16

    The increasing availability of Electronic Health Record (EHR) data and specifically free-text patient notes presents opportunities for phenotype extraction. Text-mining methods in particular can help disease modeling by mapping named-entities mentions to terminologies and clustering semantically related terms. EHR corpora, however, exhibit specific statistical and linguistic characteristics when compared with corpora in the biomedical literature domain. We focus on copy-and-paste redundancy: clinicians typically copy and paste information from previous notes when documenting a current patient encounter. Thus, within a longitudinal patient record, one expects to observe heavy redundancy. In this paper, we ask three research questions: (i) How can redundancy be quantified in large-scale text corpora? (ii) Conventional wisdom is that larger corpora yield better results in text mining. But how does the observed EHR redundancy affect text mining? Does such redundancy introduce a bias that distorts learned models? Or does the redundancy introduce benefits by highlighting stable and important subsets of the corpus? (iii) How can one mitigate the impact of redundancy on text mining? We analyze a large-scale EHR corpus and quantify redundancy both in terms of word and semantic concept repetition. We observe redundancy levels of about 30% and non-standard distribution of both words and concepts. We measure the impact of redundancy on two standard text-mining applications: collocation identification and topic modeling. We compare the results of these methods on synthetic data with controlled levels of redundancy and observe significant performance variation. Finally, we compare two mitigation strategies to avoid redundancy-induced bias: (i) a baseline strategy, keeping only the last note for each patient in the corpus; (ii) removing redundant notes with an efficient fingerprinting-based algorithm. (a)For text mining, preprocessing the EHR corpus with fingerprinting yields

  11. Evaluating the Impact of Modern Copper Mining on Ecosystem Services in Southern Arizona

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Virgone, K.; Brusseau, M. L.; Ramirez-Andreotta, M.; Coeurdray, M.; Poupeau, F.

    2014-12-01

    Historic mining practices were conducted with little environmental forethought, and hence generated a legacy of environmental and human-health impacts. However, an awareness and understanding of the impacts of mining on ecosystem services has developed over the past few decades. Ecosystem services are defined as benefits that humans obtain from ecosystems, and upon which they are fundamentally dependent for their survival. Ecosystem services are divided into four categories including provisioning services (i.e., food, water, timber, and fiber); regulating services (i.e., climate, floods, disease, wastes, and water quality); supporting services (i.e., soil formation, photosynthesis, and nutrient cycling) and cultural services (i.e., recreational, aesthetic, and spiritual benefits) (Millennium Ecosystem Assessment, 2005). Sustainable mining practices have been and are being developed in an effort to protect and preserve ecosystem services. This and related efforts constitute a new generation of "modern" mines, which are defined as those that are designed and permitted under contemporary environmental legislation. The objective of this study is to develop a framework to monitor and assess the impact of modern mining practices and sustainable mineral development on ecosystem services. Using the sustainability performance indicators from the Global Reporting Initiative (GRI) as a starting point, we develop a framework that is reflective of and adaptive to specific local conditions. Impacts on surface and groundwater water quality and quantity are anticipated to be of most importance to the southern Arizona region, which is struggling to meet urban and environmental water demands due to population growth and climate change. We seek to build a more comprehensive and effective assessment framework by incorporating socio-economic aspects via community engaged research, including economic valuations, community-initiated environmental monitoring, and environmental human

  12. Porites corals as recorders of mining and environmental impacts: Misima Island, Papua New Guinea

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Fallon, Stewart J.; White , Jamie C.; McCulloch, Malcolm T.

    2002-01-01

    In 1989 open-cut gold mining commenced on Misima Island in Papua New Guinea (PNG). Open-cut mining by its nature causes a significant increase in sedimentation via the exposure of soils to the erosive forces of rain and runoff. This increased sedimentation affected the nearby fringing coral reef to varying degrees, ranging from coral mortality (smothering) to relatively minor short-term impacts. The sediment associated with the mining operation consists of weathered quartz feldspar, greenstone, and schist. These rocks have distinct chemical characteristics (rare earth element patterns and high abundances of manganese, zinc, and lead) and are entering the near-shore environment in considerably higher than normal concentrations. Using laser ablation inductively coupled plasma mass spectrometry (LA-ICP-MS), we analyzed eight colonies (two from high sedimentation, two transitional, two minor, and two unaffected control sites) for Y, La, Ce, Mn, Zn, and Pb. All sites show low steady background levels prior to the commencement of mining in 1988. Subsequently, all sites apart from the control show dramatic increases of Y, La, and Ce associated with the increased sedimentation as well as rapid decreases following the cessation of mining. The elements Zn and Pb exhibit a different behavior, increasing in concentration after 1989 when ore processing began and one year after initial mining operations. Elevated levels of Zn and Pb in corals has continued well after the cessation of mining, indicating ongoing transport into the reef of these metals via sulfate-rich waters. Rare earth element (REE) abundance patterns measured in two corals show significant differences compared to Coral Sea seawater. The corals display enrichments in the light and middle REEs while the heavy REEs are depleted relative to the seawater pattern. This suggests that the nearshore seawater REE pattern is dominated by island sedimentation. Trace element abundances of Misima Island corals clearly record

  13. Impact of a base metal slimes dam on water systems, Madziwa Mine, Zimbabwe

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Lupankwa, K.; Love, D.; Mapani, B. S.; Mseka, S.

    The Mazowe Valley contains several of Zimbabwe’s largest current mining operations, is densely populated and is also a major agricultural area. The urban areas of Bindura, Goromonzi, Shamva, Marondera, Murehwa and Mutoko all draw water from within the Mazowe Valley. Irrigation of commercial crops is also a major water user. Accordingly, managing the impact of mining operations on water quality in the Mazowe Valley must be a major priority for sustainable development in this area. Madziwa Mine, 150 km north-east of Harare, is a case in point. Mining took place between 1966 and 2001. The main sulphides were chalcopyrite, pyrrhotite, pentlandite and pyrite. Waste from the mine’s plant has been disposed of via a tailings dam, the focus of this study. Surface water samples were collected at 12 sites around the slimes dam and groundwater samples were collected from six boreholes. The samples were analysed for dissolved metals using atomic absorption spectrometry and for anions using gravimetry and titration. The surface water chemical analyses showed that acidic effluent with high concentrations of iron, nickel and sulphate emanates from the tailings dam. Concentrations of metals are lower after the water has passed through natural wetlands. Chemical analysis of groundwater showed similarly high levels of acidity, sulphate and metal. These findings show that acid mine drainage is seeping from the tailings dam. Efforts are being made to reduce the effects of the acid mine drainage. For surface seepage from the dumps these efforts include diverting acidic effluent from the dump into natural wetlands that neutralise the acidity. To reduce drainage into the groundwater efforts are being made to plant trees with high evaporation rates to minimise the amount of water that can cause acid mine drainage.

  14. The mineral sector and economic development in Ghana: A computable general equilibrium analysis

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Addy, Samuel N.

    A computable general equilibrium model (CGE) model is formulated for conducting mineral policy analysis in the context of national economic development for Ghana. The model, called GHANAMIN, places strong emphasis on production, trade, and investment. It can be used to examine both micro and macro economic impacts of policies associated with mineral investment, taxation, and terms of trade changes, as well as mineral sector performance impacts due to technological change or the discovery of new deposits. Its economywide structure enables the study of broader development policy with a focus on individual or multiple sectors, simultaneously. After going through a period of contraction for about two decades, mining in Ghana has rebounded significantly and is currently the main foreign exchange earner. Gold alone contributed 44.7 percent of 1994 total export earnings. GHANAMIN is used to investigate the economywide impacts of mineral tax policies, world market mineral prices changes, mining investment, and increased mineral exports. It is also used for identifying key sectors for economic development. Various simulations were undertaken with the following results: Recently implemented mineral tax policies are welfare increasing, but have an accompanying decrease in the output of other export sectors. World mineral price rises stimulate an increase in real GDP; however, this increase is less than real GDP decreases associated with price declines. Investment in the non-gold mining sector increases real GDP more than investment in gold mining, because of the former's stronger linkages to the rest of the economy. Increased mineral exports are very beneficial to the overall economy. Foreign direct investment (FDI) in mining increases welfare more so than domestic capital, which is very limited. Mining investment and the increased mineral exports since 1986 have contributed significantly to the country's economic recovery, with gold mining accounting for 95 percent of the

  15. The impact of climate change on the U.S. power sector: Price and quantity effects

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Veliz, Karina

    In U.S. homes, 22 percent and 6 percent of the consumption of electricity is devoted to satisfy cooling and heating demands, respectively. A warming climate alters these consumption patterns by increasing the demand for cooling and reducing the demand for heating. This dissertation uses econometric techniques to examine the effect of climate change on the U.S. power industry through the study of the responsiveness of electricity demand to changes in temperature, and the impact of a climate-induced demand on electricity price and expenditures. In the second chapter a fixed-effects model and a cointegration model at the state level are used to investigate the determinants of residential, commercial and industrial electricity consumption for the 48 contiguous states. The results indicate substantial geographical heterogeneity in the response of demand to cooling and heating degree days, with the Midwest showing the greatest sensitivity. Residential consumers are impacted the most; on average, they experience a 13--18 percent increase in expenditures. In the third chapter the standard method of modeling electricity consumption is extended by the analysis of a wide range of set points above and below 65°F, and by including wet bulb temperatures. The statistical results for Massachusetts validate the use of 65F for the residential sector, but demonstrate that a set point of 55°F and wet bulb temperature best characterizes the commercial sector. Using the models generated with these set points, climate change is projected to raise residential and commercial demand by 2.6 percent and 4 percent, respectively. In the fourth chapter, previous analyses on climate-induced expenditures are improved by accounting for the dual impact that climate change has on the electric power sector: an increase in both demand and price. A projected 2.6°C rise in temperature by 2070 in Massachusetts increases electricity prices by 11 to 18 percent. This increase in price, together with the

  16. Offsetting the impacts of mining to achieve no net loss of native vegetation.

    PubMed

    Sonter, L J; Barrett, D J; Soares-Filho, B S

    2014-08-01

    Offsets are a novel conservation tool, yet using them to achieve no net loss of biodiversity is challenging. This is especially true when using conservation offsets (i.e., protected areas) because achieving no net loss requires avoiding equivalent loss. Our objective was to determine if offsetting the impacts of mining achieves no net loss of native vegetation in Brazil's largest iron mining region. We used a land-use change model to simulate deforestation by mining to 2020; developed a model to allocate conservation offsets to the landscape under 3 scenarios (baseline, no new offsets; current practice, like-for-like [by vegetation type] conservation offsetting near the impact site; and threat scenario, like-for-like conservation offsetting of highly threatened vegetation); and simulated nonmining deforestation to 2020 for each scenario to quantify avoided deforestation achieved with offsets. Mines cleared 3570 ha of native vegetation by 2020. Under a 1:4 offset ratio, mining companies would be required to conserve >14,200 ha of native vegetation, doubling the current extent of protected areas in the region. Allocating offsets under current practice avoided deforestation equivalent to 3% of that caused by mining, whereas allocating under the threat scenario avoided 9%. Current practice failed to achieve no net loss because offsets did not conserve threatened vegetation. Explicit allocation of offsets to threatened vegetation also failed because the most threatened vegetation was widely dispersed across the landscape, making conservation logistically difficult. To achieve no net loss with conservation offsets requires information on regional deforestation trajectories and the distribution of threatened vegetation. However, in some regions achieving no net loss through conservation may be impossible. In these cases, other offsetting activities, such as revegetation, will be required. © 2014 Society for Conservation Biology.

  17. Impacts of gold mining and land use alterations on the water quality of central Mongolian rivers.

    PubMed

    Stubblefield, Andrew; Chandra, Sudeep; Eagan, Sean; Tuvshinjargal, Dampil; Davaadorzh, Gantimur; Gilroy, David; Sampson, Jennifer; Thorne, Jim; Allen, Brant; Hogan, Zeb

    2005-11-01

    Conservation of water quality is inherently tied to watershed management. Efforts to proect Lake Baikal have increasingly focused on the Selenge River, a major tributary, with more than half its watershed area in Mongolia. Placer gold mining in Mongolia has the potential to load total suspended sediment (TSS), and total phosphorus (TP) into Lake Baikal and destroy spawning areas for the endangered Taimen salmon (Hucho taimen taimen). This work describes water quality assessments performed from 2001 to 2003 on Mongolian tributaries to the Selenge River. Of 7 rivers sampled, rivers with proximal mining had the worst water quality. Elevated loading of TSS and TP was observed below mining regions on the Tuul River. Flooding could breach thin strips of land separating dredge pits from river channels, resulting in massive sediment loading. Extensive disturbance of the river terrace was apparent for many square kilometers. In the mountainous headwaters of the Yeroo River, tributary drainages undergoing mining had TP concentrations 8 to 15 times higher than the main stem. TSS was 7 to 12 times higher, and turbidity was 8 times higher. Alternative mining technologies exist that could minimize impact and improve the possibility for reclamation.

  18. The impact of mining activities on Mongolia's protected areas: a status report with policy recommendations.

    PubMed

    Farrington, John D

    2005-07-01

    Mongolia's protected areas cover 20.5 million ha or 13.1% of its national territory. Existing and proposed protected areas, however, are threatened by mining. Mining impacts on Mongolia's protected areas are diverse and include licensed and unlicensed mineral activities in protected areas, buffer zone disturbance, and prevention of the establishment of proposed protected areas. Review of United States, Canadian, and Australian policies revealed 9 basic approaches to resolving conflicts between protected areas and mining. Four approaches suitable for Mongolia are granting land trades and special dispensations in exchange for mineral licenses in protected areas; granting protected status to all lapsed mineral licenses in protected areas; voluntary forfeiting of mineral licenses in protected areas in exchange for positive corporate publicity; and prohibiting all new mineral activities in existing and proposed protected areas. Mining is Mongolia's most important industry, however, and the long-term benefits of preserving Mongolia's natural heritage must be considered and weighed against the economic benefits and costs of mining activities.

  19. Environmental impacts of coal mine and thermal power plant to the surroundings of Barapukuria, Dinajpur, Bangladesh.

    PubMed

    Hossain, Md Nazir; Paul, Shitangsu Kumar; Hasan, Md Muyeed

    2015-04-01

    The study was carried out to analyse the environmental impacts of coal mine and coal-based thermal power plant to the surrounding environment of Barapukuria, Dinajpur. The analyses of coal, water, soil and fly ash were carried out using standard sample testing methods. This study found that coal mining industry and coal-based thermal power plant have brought some environmental and socio-economic challenges to the adjacent areas such as soil, water and air pollution, subsidence of agricultural land and livelihood insecurity of inhabitants. The pH values, heavy metal, organic carbon and exchangeable cations of coal water treated in the farmland soil suggest that coal mining deteriorated the surrounding water and soil quality. The SO4(2-) concentration in water samples was beyond the range of World Health Organisation standard. Some physico-chemical properties such as pH, conductivity, moisture content, bulk density, unburned carbon content, specific gravity, water holding capacity, liquid and plastic limit were investigated on coal fly ash of Barapukuria thermal power plant. Air quality data provided by the Barapukuria Coal Mining Company Limited were contradictory with the result of interview with the miners and local inhabitants. However, coal potentially contributes to the development of economy of Bangladesh but coal mining deteriorates the environment by polluting air, water and soil. In general, this study includes comprehensive baseline data for decision makers to evaluate the feasibility of coal power industry at Barapukuria and the coalmine itself.

  20. Impact of gold mining associated with mercury contamination in soil, biota sediments and tailings in Kenya.

    PubMed

    Odumo, Benjamin Okang'; Carbonell, Gregoria; Angeyo, Hudson Kalambuka; Patel, Jayanti Purshottam; Torrijos, Manuel; Rodríguez Martín, José Antonio

    2014-11-01

    This work considered the environmental impact of artisanal mining gold activity in the Migori-Transmara area (Kenya). From artisanal gold mining, mercury is released to the environment, thus contributing to degradation of soil and water bodies. High mercury contents have been quantified in soil (140 μg kg(-1)), sediment (430 μg kg(-1)) and tailings (8,900 μg kg(-1)), as expected. The results reveal that the mechanism for transporting mercury to the terrestrial ecosystem is associated with wet and dry depositions. Lichens and mosses, used as bioindicators of pollution, are related to the proximity to mining areas. The further the distance from mining areas, the lower the mercury levels. This study also provides risk maps to evaluate potential negative repercussions. We conclude that the Migori-Transmara region can be considered a strongly polluted area with high mercury contents. The technology used to extract gold throughout amalgamation processes causes a high degree of mercury pollution around this gold mining area. Thus, alternative gold extraction methods should be considered to reduce mercury levels that can be released to the environment.

  1. Impact analysis of OSM regulations on highwall mining systems. Final report

    SciTech Connect

    Not Available

    1980-09-01

    The establishment of the federal surface mining performance standards has placed additional restraints on auger mining. The federal regulations impose barrier pillar and hole sealing requirements on augering, stipulate time frames for hole sealing and discharge treatment, and prohibit auger mining under certain conditions. Barrier pillar requirements between groups of auger holes and between auger holes and underground workings decrease the augerable reserve base on a site by a minimum of ten percent. Barrier requirements may also reduce productivity levels due to increased delay and scheduling problems. Federal auger hole sealing requirements are more stringent than most state regulations, and consequently have increased the cost of augering in almost all auger mining areas. The availability of impervious materials on the site and the extent of backfilling required to form a water-tight seal may have the greatest effect on auger hole reclamation costs. The federal regulations require auger mining to be prohibited: if adverse water quality impacts cannot be prevented; if stability of sealings cannot be achieved; if subsidence resulting from augering may damage powerlines, pipelines, buildings, or other facilities; or if coal reserve recovery is not maximized by augering. As a result, all up dip augering may be restricted on the grounds that seal stability cannot be maintained for long time periods if water pressure builds behind the plug. Also, since tradiational augering techniques have a lower recovery rate than surface or underground methods, augering may be prohibited in many situations by the stipulation that maximum resource recovery will not be achieved.

  2. Impact of mercury emissions from historic gold and silver mining: Global modeling

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Strode, Sarah; Jaeglé, Lyatt; Selin, Noelle E.

    We compare a global model of mercury to sediment core records to constrain mercury emissions from the 19th century North American gold and silver mining. We use information on gold and silver production, the ratio of mercury lost to precious metal produced, and the fraction of mercury lost to the atmosphere to calculate an a priory mining inventory for the 1870s, when the historical gold rush was at its highest. The resulting global mining emissions are 1630 Mg yr -1, consistent with previously published studies. Using this a priori estimate, we find that our 1880 simulation over-predicts the mercury deposition enhancements archived in lake sediment records. Reducing the mining emissions to 820 Mg yr -1 improves agreement with observations, and leads to a 30% enhancement in global deposition in 1880 compared to the pre-industrial period. For North America, where 83% of the mining emissions are located, deposition increases by 60%. While our lower emissions of atmospheric mercury leads to a smaller impact of the North American gold rush on global mercury deposition than previously estimated, it also implies that a larger fraction of the mercury used in extracting precious metals could have been directly lost to local soils and watersheds.

  3. The Impact of Individual Anthropogenic Emissions Sectors on the Global Burden of Human Mortality due to Ambient Air Pollution.

    PubMed

    Silva, Raquel A; Adelman, Zachariah; Fry, Meridith M; West, J Jason

    2016-11-01

    Exposure to ozone and fine particulate matter (PM2.5) can cause adverse health effects, including premature mortality due to cardiopulmonary diseases and lung cancer. Recent studies quantify global air pollution mortality but not the contribution of different emissions sectors, or they focus on a specific sector. We estimated the global mortality burden of anthropogenic ozone and PM2.5, and the impact of five emissions sectors, using a global chemical transport model at a finer horizontal resolution (0.67° × 0.5°) than previous studies. We performed simulations for 2005 using the Model for Ozone and Related Chemical Tracers, version 4 (MOZART-4), zeroing out all anthropogenic emissions and emissions from specific sectors (All Transportation, Land Transportation, Energy, Industry, and Residential and Commercial). We estimated premature mortality using a log-linear concentration-response function for ozone and an integrated exposure-response model for PM2.5. We estimated 2.23 (95% CI: 1.04, 3.33) million deaths/year related to anthropogenic PM2.5, with the highest mortality in East Asia (48%). The Residential and Commercial sector had the greatest impact globally-675 (95% CI: 428, 899) thousand deaths/year-and in most regions. Land Transportation dominated in North America (32% of total anthropogenic PM2.5 mortality), and it had nearly the same impact (24%) as Residential and Commercial (27%) in Europe. Anthropogenic ozone was associated with 493 (95% CI: 122, 989) thousand deaths/year, with the Land Transportation sector having the greatest impact globally (16%). The contributions of emissions sectors to ambient air pollution-related mortality differ among regions, suggesting region-specific air pollution control strategies. Global sector-specific actions targeting Land Transportation (ozone) and Residential and Commercial (PM2.5) sectors would particularly benefit human health. Citation: Silva RA, Adelman Z, Fry MM, West JJ. 2016. The impact of individual

  4. The Impact of Individual Anthropogenic Emissions Sectors on the Global Burden of Human Mortality due to Ambient Air Pollution

    PubMed Central

    Silva, Raquel A.; Adelman, Zachariah; Fry, Meridith M.; West, J. Jason

    2016-01-01

    Background: Exposure to ozone and fine particulate matter (PM2.5) can cause adverse health effects, including premature mortality due to cardiopulmonary diseases and lung cancer. Recent studies quantify global air pollution mortality but not the contribution of different emissions sectors, or they focus on a specific sector. Objectives: We estimated the global mortality burden of anthropogenic ozone and PM2.5, and the impact of five emissions sectors, using a global chemical transport model at a finer horizontal resolution (0.67° × 0.5°) than previous studies. Methods: We performed simulations for 2005 using the Model for Ozone and Related Chemical Tracers, version 4 (MOZART-4), zeroing out all anthropogenic emissions and emissions from specific sectors (All Transportation, Land Transportation, Energy, Industry, and Residential and Commercial). We estimated premature mortality using a log-linear concentration–response function for ozone and an integrated exposure–response model for PM2.5. Results: We estimated 2.23 (95% CI: 1.04, 3.33) million deaths/year related to anthropogenic PM2.5, with the highest mortality in East Asia (48%). The Residential and Commercial sector had the greatest impact globally—675 (95% CI: 428, 899) thousand deaths/year—and in most regions. Land Transportation dominated in North America (32% of total anthropogenic PM2.5 mortality), and it had nearly the same impact (24%) as Residential and Commercial (27%) in Europe. Anthropogenic ozone was associated with 493 (95% CI: 122, 989) thousand deaths/year, with the Land Transportation sector having the greatest impact globally (16%). Conclusions: The contributions of emissions sectors to ambient air pollution–related mortality differ among regions, suggesting region-specific air pollution control strategies. Global sector-specific actions targeting Land Transportation (ozone) and Residential and Commercial (PM2.5) sectors would particularly benefit human health. Citation: Silva RA

  5. Impact of post-event avoidance behavior on commercial facilities sector venues-literature review.

    SciTech Connect

    Samsa, M. E.; Baldwin, T. E.; Berry, M. S.; Guzowski, L. B.; Martinez-Moyano, I.; Nieves, A. L.; Ramarasad, A.

    2011-03-24

    The terrorist attacks of September 11, 2001 (9/11), focused a great deal of interest and concern on how individual and social perceptions of risk change behavior and subsequently affect commercial sector venues. Argonne conducted a review of the literature to identify studies that quantify the direct and indirect economic consequences of avoidance behaviors that result from terrorist attacks. Despite a growing amount of literature addressing terrorism impacts, relatively little is known about the causal relationships between risk perception, human avoidance behaviors, and the economic effects on commercial venues. Nevertheless, the technical and academic literature does provide some evidence, both directly and by inference, of the level and duration of post-event avoidance behaviors on commercial venues. Key findings are summarized in this Executive Summary. Also included as an appendix is a more detailed summary table of literature findings reproduced from the full report.

  6. The Prestige oil spill and its economic impact on the Galician fishing sector.

    PubMed

    Surís-Regueiro, Juan C; Garza-Gil, M Dolores; Varela-Lafuente, Manuel M

    2007-06-01

    The sinking of the Prestige oil tanker on 18 November 2002 off the coast of Galicia, Spain, had important economic, environmental and social ramifications. The aim of this paper is to carry out an initial analysis of the costs related to a halt in fishing activities in Galicia between November 2002 and December 2003. This involves three different steps: an assessment of the cost of the preventative and palliative measures introduced by Spanish public administrations (compensation for affected fishermen and shellfish fisherman); an indirect evaluation of the implications of the disaster (via a study of data on production); and a direct appraisal of the economic impact of the event (reduction in income), using questionnaires completed by a representative sample of fishermen and shellfish fisherman. The results obtained from these three methods of estimating losses are compatible. By December 2003, losses to the Galician fishing sector stood at an estimated EUR 76 million.

  7. Impacts and pathways of mine contaminants to bull trout (Salvelinus confluentus) in an Idaho watershed.

    PubMed

    Kiser, Tim; Hansen, James; Kennedy, Brian

    2010-08-01

    Metals contamination from mining activities is a persistent problem affecting aquatic ecosystems throughout mining districts in the western USA. The Gold Creek drainage in northern Idaho has a history of mining within its headwaters and contains elevated sediment concentrations of As, Cd, Cu, Pb, and Zn. To determine system-wide impacts of increased metals, we measured concentrations of metals in water, sediment, and benthic macroinvertebrate tissues and related them to whole-body fish tissues and histopathological alterations in native salmonids. Water concentrations were higher than those in reference areas, but were below water quality criteria for protection of aquatic biota for most of the study area. Sediment and benthic macroinvertebrate tissue concentrations for all metals were significantly higher at all sites compared with the reference site. Fish tissues were significantly higher for all metals below mine sites compared with the reference site, but only Cd and Pb were higher in fish tissues in the furthest downstream reach in the Gold Creek Delta. Metals concentrations in benthic macroinvertebrate tissues and fish tissues were strongly correlated, suggesting a transfer of metals through a dietary pathway. The concentrations within sediments and biota were similar to those reported in other studies in which adverse effects to salmonids occurred. We observed histopathological changes in livers of bull trout, including inflammation, necrosis, and pleomorphism. Our study is consistent with other work in which sediment-driven exposure can transfer up the food chain and may cause adverse impacts to higher organisms.

  8. Impact of former uranium mining activities on the floodplains of the Mulde River, Saxony, Germany.

    PubMed

    Bister, S; Birkhan, J; Lüllau, T; Bunka, M; Solle, A; Stieghorst, C; Riebe, B; Michel, R; Walther, C

    2015-06-01

    The Mulde River drains the former uranium mining areas in Saxony (Germany), which has led to a large-scale contamination of the river and the adjacent floodplain soils with radionuclides of the uranium decay series. The objective of the investigation is to quantify the long-term effect of former uranium mining activities on a river system. All of the investigated environmental compartments (water, sediment, soil) still reveal an impact from the former uranium mining and milling activities. The contamination of water has decreased considerably during the last 20 years due to the operation of water treatment facilities. The uranium content of the sediments decreased as well (on average by a factor of 5.6), most likely caused by displacement of contaminated material during flood events. Currently, the impact of the mining activities is most obvious in soils. For some of the plots activity concentrations of >200 Bq/kg of soil were detected for uranium-238. Alluvial soils used as grassland were found to be contaminated to a higher degree than those used as cropland. Copyright © 2015 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  9. The global impact of the transport sectors on atmospheric aerosol in 2030 - Part 2: Aviation

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Righi, M.; Hendricks, J.; Sausen, R.

    2015-12-01

    We use the EMAC (ECHAM/MESSy Atmospheric Chemistry) global climate-chemistry model coupled to the aerosol module MADE (Modal Aerosol Dynamics model for Europe, adapted for global applications) to simulate the impact of aviation emissions on global atmospheric aerosol and climate in 2030. Emissions of short-lived gas and aerosol species follow the four Representative Concentration Pathways (RCPs) designed in support of the Fifth Assessment Report of the Intergovernmental Panel on Climate Change. We compare our findings with the results of a previous study with the same model configuration focusing on year 2000 emissions. We also characterize the aviation results in the context of the other transport sectors presented in a companion paper. In spite of a relevant increase in aviation traffic volume and resulting emissions of aerosol (black carbon) and aerosol precursor species (nitrogen oxides and sulfur dioxide), the aviation effect on particle mass concentration in 2030 remains quite negligible (on the order of a few ng m-3), about one order of magnitude less than the increase in concentration due to other emission sources. Due to the relatively small size of the aviation-induced aerosol, however, the increase in particle number concentration is significant in all scenarios (about 1000 cm-3), mostly affecting the northern mid-latitudes at typical flight altitudes (7-12 km). This largely contributes to the overall change in particle number concentration between 2000 and 2030, which results also in significant climate effects due to aerosol-cloud interactions. Aviation is the only transport sector for which a larger impact on the Earth's radiation budget is simulated in the future: The aviation-induced RF in 2030 is more than doubled with respect to the year 2000 value of -15 mW m-2, with a maximum value of -63 mW m-2 simulated for RCP2.6.

  10. The global impact of the transport sectors on atmospheric aerosol in 2030 - Part 2: Aviation

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Righi, Mattia; Hendricks, Johannes; Sausen, Robert

    2016-04-01

    We use the EMAC (ECHAM/MESSy Atmospheric Chemistry) global climate-chemistry model coupled to the aerosol module MADE (Modal Aerosol Dynamics model for Europe, adapted for global applications) to simulate the impact of aviation emissions on global atmospheric aerosol and climate in 2030. Emissions of short-lived gas and aerosol species follow the four Representative Concentration Pathways (RCPs) designed in support of the Fifth Assessment Report of the Intergovernmental Panel on Climate Change. We compare our findings with the results of a previous study with the same model configuration focusing on year 2000 emissions. We also characterize the aviation results in the context of the other transport sectors presented in a companion paper. In spite of a relevant increase in aviation traffic volume and resulting emissions of aerosol (black carbon) and aerosol precursor species (nitrogen oxides and sulfur dioxide), the aviation effect on particle mass concentration in 2030 remains quite negligible (on the order of a few ng m-3), about 1 order of magnitude less than the increase in concentration due to other emission sources. Due to the relatively small size of the aviation-induced aerosol, however, the increase in particle number concentration is significant in all scenarios (about 1000 cm-3), mostly affecting the northern mid-latitudes at typical flight altitudes (7-12 km). This largely contributes to the overall change in particle number concentration between 2000 and 2030, which also results in significant climate effects due to aerosol-cloud interactions. Aviation is the only transport sector for which a larger impact on the Earth's radiation budget is simulated in the future: the aviation-induced radiative forcing in 2030 is more than doubled with respect to the year 2000 value of -15 mW m-2 in all scenarios, with a maximum value of -63 mW m-2 simulated for RCP2.6.

  11. Impacts of Coal Seam Gas (Coal Bed Methane) and Coal Mining on Water Resources in Australia

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Post, D. A.

    2013-12-01

    Mining of coal bed methane deposits (termed ';coal seam gas' in Australia) is a rapidly growing source of natural gas in Australia. Indeed, expansion of the industry is occurring so quickly that in some cases, legislation is struggling to keep up with this expansion. Perhaps because of this, community concern about the impacts of coal seam gas development is very strong. Responding to these concerns, the Australian Government has recently established an Independent Expert Scientific Committee (IESC) to provide advice to the Commonwealth and state regulators on potential water-related impacts of coal seam gas and large coal mining developments. In order to provide the underlying science to the IESC, a program of ';bioregional assessments' has been implemented. One aim of these bioregional assessments is to improve our understanding of the connectivity between the impacts of coal seam gas extraction and groundwater aquifers, as well as their connection to surface water. A bioregional assessment can be defined as a scientific analysis of the ecology, hydrology, geology and hydrogeology of a bioregion, with explicit assessment of the potential direct, indirect and cumulative impacts of coal seam gas and large coal mining development on water resources. These bioregional assessments are now being carried out across large portions of eastern Australia which are underlain by coal reserves. This presentation will provide an overview of the issues related to the impacts of coal seam gas and coal mining on water resources in Australia. The methodology of undertaking bioregional assessments will be described, and the application of this methodology to six priority bioregions in eastern Australia will be detailed. Preliminary results of the program of research to date will be assessed in light of the requirements of the IESC to provide independent advice to the Commonwealth and State governments. Finally, parallels between the expansion of the industry in Australia with that

  12. Climate Change and its Impact on the Energy Sector in the Eastern Mediterranean

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Lange, M. A.

    2009-04-01

    It is anticipated that the Eastern Mediterranean and Cyprus will be disproportionally and adversely affected by future climate change. Impacts of these changes include rising summer temperatures and decreasing annual precipitation thereby causing strains on the energy sector in the region. Increases in the frequency of heat waves and tropical nights will lead to rising demands for air-conditioning of private and public housing on the one hand and to growing water scarcity, which will have to be satisfied by additional seawater desalination, on the other, to name just two of the repercussions of climate change on energy demand. Coping with these impacts will require additional electricity generation and will lead to enhanced energy demands. In the case of Cyprus, this will add to an already strained sector of the economy. The current electricity production is entirely based on fossil-fuel fired power plants. However, the use of conventional energy sources is clearly an undesirable option. It enhances the economic burden on energy consumers and at the same time increases Cyprus' dependency on external providers of hydrocarbon products. Moreover, it leads to growing emissions of carbon dioxide and thereby worsens Cyprus' already challenged greenhouse gas emission budget. While current emissions amount to app. 9.9 Mill. t of CO2, the total allowance according to EU regulations lies at 5.5 Mill. t. Possible remedies, which will be relevant for other countries in the Eastern Mediterranean, as well include energy saving measures in the building sector and the use of renewable energy sources. With regard to sustainable building technologies, new and innovative building materials will have to be introduced. This includes advanced thermochromic materials based on nanotechnology techniques combined with phase change microcapsules, photochromic coatings able to present very high or low solar reflectance, chameleon coatings presenting very low emissivity and time varying

  13. The impact of robotics on employment and motivation of employees in the service sector, with special reference to health care.

    PubMed

    Qureshi, Mohammed Owais; Syed, Rumaiya Sajjad

    2014-12-01

    The economy is being lifted by the new concept of robotics, but we cannot be sure of all the possible benefits. At this early stage, it therefore becomes important to find out the possible benefits/limitations associated with robotics, so that the positives can be capitalized, established, and developed further for the employment and motivation of employees in the health care sector, for overall economic development. The negatives should also be further studied and mitigated. This study is an exploratory research, based on secondary data, such as books on topics related to robotics, websites, public websites of concerned departments for data and statistics, journals, newspapers and magazines, websites of health care providers, and different printed materials (brochures, etc). The impact of robotics has both positive and negative impacts on the employment and motivation of employees in the retail sector. So far, there has been no substantial research done into robotics, especially in the health care sector. Replacing employees with robots is an inevitable choice for organizations in the service sector, more so in the health care sector because of the challenging and sometimes unhealthy working environments, but, at the same time, the researchers propose that it should be done in a manner that helps in improving the employment and motivation of employees in this sector.

  14. The Impact of Robotics on Employment and Motivation of Employees in the Service Sector, with Special Reference to Health Care

    PubMed Central

    Qureshi, Mohammed Owais; Syed, Rumaiya Sajjad

    2014-01-01

    Background The economy is being lifted by the new concept of robotics, but we cannot be sure of all the possible benefits. At this early stage, it therefore becomes important to find out the possible benefits/limitations associated with robotics, so that the positives can be capitalized, established, and developed further for the employment and motivation of employees in the health care sector, for overall economic development. The negatives should also be further studied and mitigated. Methods This study is an exploratory research, based on secondary data, such as books on topics related to robotics, websites, public websites of concerned departments for data and statistics, journals, newspapers and magazines, websites of health care providers, and different printed materials (brochures, etc). Results The impact of robotics has both positive and negative impacts on the employment and motivation of employees in the retail sector. So far, there has been no substantial research done into robotics, especially in the health care sector. Conclusion Replacing employees with robots is an inevitable choice for organizations in the service sector, more so in the health care sector because of the challenging and sometimes unhealthy working environments, but, at the same time, the researchers propose that it should be done in a manner that helps in improving the employment and motivation of employees in this sector. PMID:25516812

  15. Sand mining impacts on long-term dune erosion in southern Monterey Bay

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Thornton, E.B.; Sallenger, Abby; Sesto, Juan Conforto; Egley, L.; McGee, Timothy; Parsons, Rost

    2006-01-01

    Southern Monterey Bay was the most intensively mined shoreline (with sand removed directly from the surf zone) in the U.S. during the period from 1906 until 1990, when the mines were closed following hypotheses that the mining caused coastal erosion. It is estimated that the yearly averaged amount of mined sand between 1940 and 1984 was 128,000 m3/yr, which is approximately 50% of the yearly average dune volume loss during this period. To assess the impact of sand mining, erosion rates along an 18 km range of shoreline during the times of intensive sand mining (1940–1990) are compared with the rates after sand mining ceased (1990–2004). Most of the shoreline is composed of unconsolidated sand with extensive sand dunes rising up to a height of 46 m, vulnerable to the erosive forces of storm waves. Erosion is defined here as a recession of the top edge of the dune. Recession was determined using stereo-photogrammetry, and LIDAR and GPS surveys. Long-term erosion rates vary from about 0.5 m/yr at Monterey to 1.5 m/yr in the middle of the range, and then decrease northward. Erosion events are episodic and occur when storm waves and high tides coincide, allowing swash to undercut the dune and resulting in permanent recession. Erosion appears to be correlated with the occurrence of El Niños. The calculated volume loss of the dune in southern Monterey Bay during the 1997–98 El Niño winter was 1,820,000 m3, which is almost seven times the historical annual mean dune erosion of 270,000 m3/yr. The alongshore variation in recession rates appears to be a function of the alongshore gradient in mean wave energy and depletions by sand mining. After cessation of sand mining in 1990, the erosion rates decreased at locations in the southern end of the bay but have not significantly changed at other locations.

  16. Adaptive Management for Climate Change Impact for Water Sector in China

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Xia, Jun

    2013-04-01

    China, as a larger developing country in the world, in facing to bigger challenges than before on wisely managing water resources to support rapidly socio-economic development in 2020 and beyond. China has a vast area of 9.6 million sq. km and relatively abundant water resources with ranked sixth in the world after Brazil, the Russian Federation, Canada, the United States and Indonesia in terms of absolute amount of annual runoff. However, given its large population of over 1.3 billion, China has a very low per capita amount (about one quarter of the world average) of water resources and, is therefore one of the countries with the most severe shortage of water in the world, particular North China. North China is one of very important regions in China. For this region, population has 0.437 billion in 2000 that occupies 35% of total in China, GDP reaches 386 billion US that is also 32% of total in China. Irrigation area of North China is 42% of total in China, and agricultural product has 40% of total in China. However, it is the most water shortage area in China. For instance, water resources per capita in Hai River Basin have only 270 cubic meters, which is only 1/7 of the national average and 1/24 of the world average. Water Resource Vulnerability under impact of both climate change and human activities are rather significantly. This presentation will focus on two issues: (1) how to screening climate changes impact to water sector, and how to quantify water resource vulnerability related to impact of climate change and human activity? (2) how to take adaptation & wisely manage water to changing environment on existing water projects and new water programme & water policy in China? A screening process for climate impact to water sector in North China was proposed. A new study on quantifying water resource vulnerability, based on three practical and workable, i.e., the use to availability ratio, water crowding and per capita water use, were developed. Four case

  17. The impacts of the Samarco mine tailing spill on the Rio Doce estuary, Eastern Brazil.

    PubMed

    Gomes, Luiz Eduardo de Oliveira; Correa, Lucas Barreto; Sá, Fabian; Neto, Renato Rodrigues; Bernardino, Angelo Fraga

    2017-07-15

    Over 50 million cubic meters of mining tailings were released in the Rio Doce basin after the collapse of the Fundão dam (Samarco) in November 2015. Predicting significant impacts on the Rio Doce estuary, we sampled sediments to investigate short-term impacts on the benthic assemblages and trace metal accumulation on estuarine sediments. With the arrival of the tailing plumes in the estuary, we detected a predominance of clay particles and increased trace metal concentrations of up to 5 times in some areas. The rapid sedimentation after the impact also impacted estuarine macrofaunal assemblages through loss surface-dwelling taxa. As expected, the impacts on benthic assemblages observed up to 3days after the arrival of tailings were not clearly associated with trace metal concentrations, but long-term effects need to be studied. We recommend that the high spatial variability within the estuary be considered in future impact assessment studies. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  18. An innovative carbonate coprecipitation process for the removal of zinc and manganese from mining impacted waters

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Sibrell, P.L.; Chambers, M.A.; Deaguero, A.L.; Wildeman, T.R.; Reisman, D.J.

    2007-01-01

    Although mine drainage is usually thought of as acidic, there are many cases where the water is of neutral pH, but still contains metal species that can be harmful to human or aquatic animal health, such as manganese (Mn) and zinc (Zn). Typical treatment of mine drainage waters involves pH adjustment, but this often results in excessive sludge formation and removal of nontoxic species such as magnesium and calcium. Theoretical consideration of the stability of metal carbonate species suggests that the target metals could be removed from solution by coprecipitation with calcium carbonate. The U.S. Geological Survey has developed a limestone-based process for remediation of acid mine drainage that increases calcium carbonate saturation. This treatment could then be coupled with carbonate coprecipitation as an innovative method for removal of toxic metals from circumneutral mine drainage waters. The new process was termed the carbonate coprecipitation (CCP) process. The CCP process was tested at the laboratory scale using a synthetic mine water containing 50 mg/L each of Mn and Zn. Best results showed over 95% removal of both Mn and Zn in less than 2 h of contact in a limestone channel. The process was then tested on a sample of water from the Palmerton zinc superfund site, near Palmerton, Pennsylvania, containing over 300 mg/L Zn and 60 mg/L Mn. Treatment of this water resulted in removal of over 95% of the Zn and 40% of the Mn in the limestone channel configuration. Because of the potential economic advantages of the CCP process, further research is recommended for refinement of the process for the Palmerton water and for application to other mining impacted waters as well. ?? Mary Ann Liebert, Inc.

  19. National inventory of abandoned mine land problems: an emphasis on health, safety, and general welfare impacts

    SciTech Connect

    Honea, R.B.; Baxter, F.P.

    1984-07-01

    In 1977 Congress passed the Surface Mining Control and Reclamation Act, which provided for the abatement of abandoned mine land (AML) problems through a reclamation program funded by a severance tax on current mining. AML was defined as any land, including associated buildings, equipment, and affected areas, that was no longer being used for coal mining by August 1977. This act also created the Office of Surface Mining (OSM) in the Department of the Interior to administer the AML program and to assume other regulatory and research responsibilities. This report documents the design, implementation, and results of a National inventory of the most serious problems associated with past mining practices. One of the objectives of the Inventory was to help OSM and the participating states locate, identify, and rank AML problems and estimate their reclamation costs. Other objectives were to encourage states and Indian tribes to collect such data and to provide OSM with the information necessary to guide its decision-making processes and to quantify the progress of the reclamation program. Because only limited funds were available to design and implement the National inventory and because the reclamation fund established by the Act may never be sufficient to correct all AML problems, OSM has focused on only the top-priority problems. It is stressed that this is not an inventory of AML features but rather an inventory of AML impacts. It should be noted that the data and analysis contained in this report are based on a data collection effort conducted by the states, Indian tribes, and OSM contractors between 1979 and mid-1982.

  20. Algal growth effects on arsenic transport in a mining-impacted stream

    SciTech Connect

    Kuwabara, J.S.; Chang, C.C.Y.; Pasilis, S.P. )

    1987-06-01

    Increased periphyton abundance in Whitewood Creek, South Dakota during the summer months suggests that chemical interactions involving arsenic (As) between biota and the overlying waters may significantly affect As transport and distribution in this mining-impacted stream. Arsenic transport parameters (e.g., uptake rate constants, standing crop and accumulation factors) for algae collected in the creek from upstream of a mine discharge through a 25 mile impacted reach are being determined. Cultures of Stichococcus spp Nageli (chlorophyceae) were isolated from four sites along a dissolved As concentration gradient within the study reach and then maintained at ambient dissolved As concentrations. Arsenic uptake and release rate constants for these isolates as a function of dissolved arsenate and orthophosphate have been determined. All isolates appeared to have some As exculsion mechanism involving an interaction with dissolved phosphate. Results from transport parameter measurements indicate that periphyton represent a significant As pool interacting with the surrounding solution and solid phases.

  1. Social impact assessment in mining projects in Northern Finland: Comparing practice to theory

    SciTech Connect

    Suopajärvi, Leena

    2013-09-15

    The paper discusses social impact assessments (SIA) for mining projects in light of the international principles and guidelines for such assessments and the academic literature in the field. The data consist of environmental impact assessment (EIA) programmes and reports for six mining projects that have started up in northern Finland in the 2000s. A first observation is that the role of the SIAs in the EIA programmes and reports studied was quite minor: measured in number of pages, the assessments account for three or four percent of the total. This study analyses the data collection, research methodology and conceptual premises used in the SIAs. It concludes that the assessments do not fully meet the high standards of the international principles and guidelines set out for them: for example, elderly men are over-represented in the data and no efforts were made to identify and bring to the fore vulnerable groups. Moreover, the reliability of the assessments is difficult to gauge, because the qualitative methods are not described and where quantitative methods were used, details such as non-response rates to questionnaires are not discussed. At the end of the paper, the SIAs are discussed in terms of Jürgen Habermas' theory of knowledge interests, with the conclusion that the assessments continue the empirical analytical tradition of the social sciences and exhibit a technical knowledge interest. -- Highlights: • Paper investigates social impact assessments in Finnish mining projects. • Role of social impact assessment is minor in whole EIA-process. • Mining SIAs give the voice for elderly men, vulnerable groups are not identified. • Assessment of SIAs is difficult because of lacking transparency in reporting. • SIAs belong to empirical analytical tradition with technical knowledge interest.

  2. Analysis of a Large Rock Slope Failure on the East Wall of the LAB Chrysotile Mine in Canada: Back Analysis, Impact of Water Infilling and Mining Activity

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Grenon, Martin; Caudal, Philippe; Amoushahi, Sina; Turmel, Dominique; Locat, Jacques

    2017-02-01

    A major mining slope failure occurred in July 2012 on the East wall of the LAB Chrysotile mine in Canada. The major consequence of this failure was the loss of the local highway (Road 112), the main commercial link between the region and the Northeast USA. LiDAR scanning and subsequent analyses were performed and enabled quantifying the geometry and kinematics of the failure area. Using this information, this paper presents the back analysis of the July 2012 failure. The analyses are performed using deterministic and probabilistic limit equilibrium analysis and finite-element shear strength reduction analysis modelling. The impact of pit water infilling on the slope stability is investigated. The impact of the mining activity in 2011 in the lower part of the slope is also investigated through a parametric analysis.

  3. Data Sparsity Considerations in Climate Impact Analysis for the Water Sector (Invited)

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Asante, K. O.; Khimsara, P.; Chan, A.

    2013-12-01

    Scientists and planners are helping governments and communities around the world to prepare for climate change by performing local impact studies and developing adaptation plans. Most studies begin by analyzing global climate models outputs to estimate the magnitude of projected change, assessing vulnerabilities and proposing adaptation measures. In these studies, climate projections from the Intergovernmental Panel on Climate Change (IPCC) Data Distribution Centre (DDC) are either used directly or downscaled using regional models. Since climate projections cover the entire global, climate change analysis can be performed for any location. However, selection of climate projections for use in historically data sparse regions presents special challenges. Key questions arise about the impact of historical data sparsity on quality of climate projections, spatial consistency of results and suitability for applications such as water resource planning. In this paper, a water-sector climate study conducted in a data-rich setting in California is compared to a similar study conducted a data-sparse setting in Mozambique. The challenges of selecting projections, performing analysis and interpreting the results for climate adaption planning are compared to illustrate the decision process and challenges encountered in these two very different settings.

  4. Impact of policy-induced structural change on milk quality: evidence from the Flemish dairy sector.

    PubMed

    Van der Straeten, Bart; Buysse, Jeroen; Van Huylenbroeck, Guido; Lauwers, Ludwig

    2009-05-01

    This paper uses a Markov chain model to analyse the dynamics in farm-size distribution among the Flemish dairy sector and the impact of quota policy regulation on such changes. The model predicts a decline of 24% in number of farms in 2014 compared with the current situation with a more liberal exchange policy and a decline of 18% with a restricted quota exchange policy. From these Markov chain model results, we analysed the impact of farm-size distribution on eight different milk quality parameters (total bacterial count, somatic cell count, coliform count, freezing point, urea-N, fat content and protein content and penalty-points). In general, larger farms produce higher quality milk than smaller farms, especially with respect to the microbiological parameters (total bacterial count, somatic cell count and coliform count). The change in farm-size distribution from a liberal quota exchange policy would decrease the average total bacterial count by 18.0%, the somatic cell count by 2.1% and the coliform count by 11.0%. The aggregate performance of the other parameters are smaller with improvements in all cases of <1%.

  5. Dark sector impact on gravitational collapse of an electrically charged scalar field

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Nakonieczna, Anna; Rogatko, Marek; Nakonieczny, Łukasz

    2015-11-01

    Dark matter and dark energy are dominating components of the Universe. Their presence affects the course and results of processes, which are driven by the gravitational interaction. The objective of the paper was to examine the influence of the dark sector on the gravitational collapse of an electrically charged scalar field. A phantom scalar field was used as a model of dark energy in the system. Dark matter was modeled by a complex scalar field with a quartic potential, charged under a U(1)-gauge field. The dark components were coupled to the electrically charged scalar field via the exponential coupling and the gauge field-Maxwell field kinetic mixing, respectively. Complete non-linear simulations of the investigated process were performed. They were conducted from regular initial data to the end state, which was the matter dispersal or a singularity formation in a spacetime. During the collapse in the presence of dark energy dynamical wormholes and naked singularities were formed in emerging spacetimes. The wormhole throats were stabilized by the violation of the null energy condition, which occurred due to a significant increase of a value of the phantom scalar field function in its vicinity. The square of mass parameter of the dark matter scalar field potential controlled the formation of a Cauchy horizon or wormhole throats in the spacetime. The joint impact of dark energy and dark matter on the examined process indicated that the former decides what type of an object forms, while the latter controls the amount of time needed for the object to form. Additionally, the dark sector suppresses the natural tendency of an electrically charged scalar field to form a dynamical Reissner-Nordström spacetime during the gravitational collapse.

  6. Impact of climate change on acid mine drainage generation and contaminant transport in water ecosystems of semi-arid and arid mining areas

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Anawar, Hossain Md.

    Disposal of untreated and treated mining wastes and tailings exerts a significant threat and hazard for environmental contamination including groundwater, surface water, wetlands, land, food chain and animals. In order to facilitate remediation techniques, it is important to understand the oxidation of sulfidic minerals, and the hydrolysis of the oxidation products that result in production of acid mine drainage (AMD), toxic metals, low pH, SO42- and Fe. This review has summarized the impacts of climate change on geochemical reactions, AMD generation, and water quality in semi-arid/arid mining environments. Besides this, the study included the effects of hydrological, seasonal and climate change on composition of AMD, contaminant transport in watersheds and restoration of mining sites. Different models have different types of limitations and benefits that control their adaptability and suitability of application in various mining environments. This review has made a comparative discussion of a few most potential and widely used reactive transport models that can be applied to simulate the effect of climate change on sulfide oxidation and AMD production from mining waste, and contaminant transport in surface and groundwater systems.

  7. Trace element partitioning in coal mine drainage and impacted waters, Harrison County, West Virginia

    SciTech Connect

    Smilley, M.J.; Vesper, D.J.; Edenborn, H.M.

    2006-10-01

    Lamberts Run is a tributary of the West Fork River and is impacted by drainage from abandoned coal mines within its watershed. In this study, we examined the distribution of iron, manganese and trace elements in discharge downstream of one abandoned mine portal and after its entry into Lamberts Run. Construction of a wetland and passive treatment system is slated to begin along this discharge in summer 2006. Dissolved iron and manganese, which were present in the mine discharge at concentrations of 7 and 6 mg/L, respectively, demonstrated sequential precipitation over the approximately 200-m distance between the mine portal and creek. Significant loss of manganese from the water and net accumulation in the sediments was not observed until 100 m downstream of the portal. Trace elements Ba, Co, Cr, Ni and Zn were detected in water, sediment and black coatings on stream cobbles in Lamberts Run. The trace elements are progressively enriched, relative to iron and manganese, respectively through those media. The coatings contained over 55,000 mg/kg manganese and high concentrations of the trace elements. Selenium was at or below the detection limit in water and sediments but substantially enriched in the black coatings (72 mg/kg). Diffusive equilibration in thin film (DET) and redox gel probes were used to measure sediment porewater concentrations at high resolution in the near-surface sediments.

  8. Due Diligence Processes for Public Acquisition of Mining-Impacted Landscapes

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Martin, E.; Monohan, C.; Keeble-Toll, A. K.

    2016-12-01

    The acquisition of public land is critical for achieving conservation and habitat goals in rural regions projected to experience continuously high rates of population growth. To ensure that public funds are utilized responsibly in the purchase of conservation easements appropriate due diligence processes must be established that limit landowner liability post-acquisition. Traditional methods of characterizing contamination in regions where legacy mining activities were prevalent may not utilize current scientific knowledge and understanding of contaminant fate, transport and bioavailability, and therefore are likely to have type two error. Agency prescribed assessment methods utilized under CERLA in many cases fail to detect contamination that presents liability issues by failing to require water quality sampling that would reveal offsite transport potential of contaminants posing human health risks, including mercury. Historical analysis can be used to inform judgmental sampling to identify hotspots and contaminants of concern. Land acquisition projects at two historic mine sites in Nevada County, California, the Champion Mine Complex and the Black Swan Preserve have established the necessity of re-thinking due diligence processes for mining-impacted landscapes. These pilot projects demonstrate that pre-acquisition assessment in the Gold Country must include judgmental sampling and evaluation of contaminant transport. Best practices using the current scientific knowledge must be codified by agencies, consultants, and NGOs in order to ensure responsible use of public funds and to safeguard public health.

  9. The Impact of Sexuality in Contemporary Culture: An Interpretive Study of Perceptions and Choices in Private Sector Dance Education

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Risner, Doug; Godfrey, Heidi; Simmons, Linda C.

    2004-01-01

    The ways in which seven private sector dance professionals in the United States perceive the impact of sexuality in contemporary culture and the choices that they make for their own schools of dance because of these perceptions are explored. This study was conducted through in-depth interviews and a survey instrument. The participants' narratives…

  10. The Impact of Organizational Justice on Career Satisfaction of Employees in the Public Sector of South Korea

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Oh, Jeong Rok

    2013-01-01

    The purpose of this study was to explore the relationship between organizational justice and career satisfaction of employees in the public sector of South Korea. Specifically, this study aimed to investigate the impact of three different dimensions (distributive, procedural, and interactional justice) of organizational justice on career…

  11. Regional impacts of environmental regulations and technical change in the US forestry sector: a multiregional CGE analysis

    Treesearch

    Gouranga G. Das; Janki R.R. Alavalapati; Douglas R. Carter; Marions E. Tsigas

    2005-01-01

    In this paper, a multiregional computable general equilibrium model, which divides the United States (US) into four broad geographical regions and aggregates other nations into the rest of the world, is used to analyze the effects associated with environmental and technological policy shifts in the US forest sector. In particular, we analyze the impacts of: (i) a 20%...

  12. The Impact of Organizational Justice on Career Satisfaction of Employees in the Public Sector of South Korea

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Oh, Jeong Rok

    2013-01-01

    The purpose of this study was to explore the relationship between organizational justice and career satisfaction of employees in the public sector of South Korea. Specifically, this study aimed to investigate the impact of three different dimensions (distributive, procedural, and interactional justice) of organizational justice on career…

  13. The Impact of Sexuality in Contemporary Culture: An Interpretive Study of Perceptions and Choices in Private Sector Dance Education

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Risner, Doug; Godfrey, Heidi; Simmons, Linda C.

    2004-01-01

    The ways in which seven private sector dance professionals in the United States perceive the impact of sexuality in contemporary culture and the choices that they make for their own schools of dance because of these perceptions are explored. This study was conducted through in-depth interviews and a survey instrument. The participants' narratives…

  14. Recovery and reuse of sludge from active and passive treatment of mine drainage-impacted waters: a review.

    PubMed

    Rakotonimaro, Tsiverihasina V; Neculita, Carmen Mihaela; Bussière, Bruno; Benzaazoua, Mostafa; Zagury, Gérald J

    2017-01-01

    The treatment of mine drainage-impacted waters generates considerable amounts of sludge, which raises several concerns, such as storage and disposal, stability, and potential social and environmental impacts. To alleviate the storage and management costs, as well as to give the mine sludge a second life, recovery and reuse have recently become interesting options. In this review, different recovery and reuse options of sludge originating from active and passive treatment of mine drainage are identified and thoroughly discussed, based on available laboratory and field studies. The most valuable products presently recovered from the mine sludge are the iron oxy-hydroxides (ochre). Other by-products include metals, elemental sulfur, and calcium carbonate. Mine sludge reuse includes the removal of contaminants, such as As, P, dye, and rare earth elements. Mine sludge can also be reused as stabilizer for contaminated soil, as fertilizer in agriculture/horticulture, as substitute material in construction, as cover over tailings for acid mine drainage prevention and control, as material to sequester carbon dioxide, and in cement and pigment industries. The review also stresses out some of the current challenges and research needs. Finally, in order to move forward, studies are needed to better estimate the contribution of sludge recovery/reuse to the overall costs of mine water treatment.

  15. Microbial diversity in uranium mining-impacted soils as revealed by high-density 16S microarray and clone library.

    PubMed

    Rastogi, Gurdeep; Osman, Shariff; Vaishampayan, Parag A; Andersen, Gary L; Stetler, Larry D; Sani, Rajesh K

    2010-01-01

    Microbial diversity was characterized in mining-impacted soils collected from two abandoned uranium mine sites, the Edgemont and the North Cave Hills, South Dakota, using a high-density 16S microarray (PhyloChip) and clone libraries. Characterization of the elemental compositions of soils by X-ray fluorescence spectroscopy revealed higher metal contamination including uranium at the Edgemont than at the North Cave Hills mine site. Microarray data demonstrated extensive phylogenetic diversity in soils and confirmed nearly all clone-detected taxonomic levels. Additionally, the microarray exhibited greater diversity than clone libraries at each taxonomic level at both the mine sites. Interestingly, the PhyloChip detected the largest number of taxa in Proteobacteria phylum for both the mine sites. However, clone libraries detected Acidobacteria and Bacteroidetes as the most numerically abundant phyla in the Edgemont and North Cave Hills mine sites, respectively. Several 16S rDNA signatures found in both the microarrays and clone libraries displayed sequence similarities with yet-uncultured bacteria representing a hitherto unidentified diversity. Results from this study demonstrated that highly diverse microbial populations were present in these uranium mine sites. Diversity indices indicated that microbial communities at the North Cave Hills mine site were much more diverse than those at the Edgemont mine site.

  16. A socio-economic impact assessment of the European launcher sector

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Monte, Luca del; Scatteia, Luigi

    2017-08-01

    In a context where the economic strains are challenging European policies as well as the very fabric of governmental contributions to public life, innovation and efficacy of public policy in research are called upon to support growth in Europe and to sustain employment and entrepreneurial capacities. Governments need evidence that the investments in space, while providing strategic tools to implement sovereign policies, create jobs and build the competitive European economy of the future. This is particularly true when the decisions at stake have a potential bearing on the future of the European space sector for at least the next 30 years, as it has been the case for the ESA Council at ministerial level meeting in December 2014. On that occasion, Ministers took the decision to start the development of a new Ariane 6 launcher and Vega evolutions having a critical bearing on the Member States' strategic industrial capabilities and on the sustainability of the European guaranteed access to space. Given the importance of the subject, and following similar studies undertaken in the past for e.g. the Ariane 1-4 programme, the Agency has requested an independent consulting team to perform a dedicated study to assess ex-post the direct, indirect and induced socio-economic impacts of the Ariane 5 programme (mid-term evaluation) and of the Vega programme (early evaluation) globally, at European level, and within the economies and industries of each ESA Member State. This paper presents the assessment of the socio-economic impacts allowing the evaluation of the return on public investments in launchers through ESA in a wider perspective, going beyond the purely economic terms. The scope of the assessment covered in total approximately 25 ESA programmatic and activity lines and 30,000 commitments from 1986 to end 2012. In the framework of the study, the economic impact of the European launcher programmes is measured through a GDP impact defined as the straight economic

  17. Factors involved in evaluating ground water impacts of deep coal mine drainage

    SciTech Connect

    Davis, P.R.; Walton, W.C.

    1982-10-01

    The determination of probable ground water impacts of proposed deep coal mining is required as part of permit applications in the US. Impact prediction generally involves well production test analysis and modeling of ground water systems associated with coal seams. Well production tests are often complicated due to the relatively low permeabilities of sandstones and shales of ground water systems. The effects of the release of water stored within finite diameter production wells must be considered. Well storage capacity appreciably affects early well production test time drawdown or time recovery data. Low pumping rates, limited cones of depression, and length of required pumping periods are important well production test design factors. Coal seam ground water system models are usually multilayered and leaky artesian. Mine drafts partially penetrate the ground water system. Simulation of coal mine drainage often involves the horizontal permeability and storage coefficient of the coal seam zone, vertical permeabilities of sandstones and shales (aquitard) above and below the coal seam zone, and the hydrologic properties of the source bed above the aquitard overlying the coal seam zone.

  18. Mechanisms controlling arsenic uptake in rice grown in mining impacted regions in South China.

    PubMed

    Li, Junhui; Dong, Fei; Lu, Ying; Yan, Qiuyan; Shim, Hojae

    2014-01-01

    Foods produced on soils impacted by Pb-Zn mining activities are a potential health risk due to plant uptake of the arsenic (As) associated with such mining. A field survey was undertaken in two Pb-Zn mining-impacted paddy fields in Guangdong Province, China to assess As accumulation and translocation, as well as other factors influencing As in twelve commonly grown rice cultivars. The results showed that grain As concentrations in all the surveyed rice failed national food standards, irrespective of As speciation. Among the 12 rice cultivars, "SY-89" and "DY-162" had the least As in rice grain. No significant difference for As concentration in grain was observed between the rice grown in the two areas that differed significantly for soil As levels, suggesting that the amount of As contamination in the soil is not necessarily the overriding factor controlling the As content in the rice grain. The iron and manganese plaque on the root surface curtailed As accumulation in rice roots. Based on our results, the accumulation of As within rice plants was strongly associated with such soil properties such as silicon, phosphorus, organic matter, pH, and clay content. Understanding the factors and mechanisms controlling As uptake is important to develop mitigation measures that can reduce the amount of As accumulated in rice grains produced on contaminated soils.

  19. [Health impact of working conditions at the Ruashi mine in the Democratic Republic of Congo].

    PubMed

    Elenge Molayi, M; Aubry, J C; De Brouwer, C

    2009-10-01

    The purpose of this study was to evaluate the health impact of working conditions at the Ruashi mine in the Katanga Province in the Democratic Republic of Congo. A cross-sectional etiological study was conducted in two cohorts including 100 miners and 109 students. Data necessary to allow comparison disease symptoms in the two cohorts were collected using a questionnaire. Odds ratios (OR) and 95% confidence intervals (95% CI) were estimated. A secondary analysis was performed to compare different mine workstations, i.e., diggers (n=61) versus non-diggers (n=39). Two logistical regression models were used to estimate adjusted OR and 95% CI for the association between occupation/workstation and disease symptoms. In comparison with students, miners exhibited higher frequencies for all symptoms even after adjustment. The highest ORs were observed for musculoskeletal disorders, i.e., low back pain (OR=36.5) and upper (OR = 20.7) or lower (OR = 18.3)] extremity pain. They were followed by respiratory disorders (OR = 5.91) and headache (OR = 5.34). The high exposure frequencies and OR's observed in this study underline the negative health impact of mine working conditions. Further occupational study will be needed to obtain and compare more data.

  20. Mechanisms Controlling Arsenic Uptake in Rice Grown in Mining Impacted Regions in South China

    PubMed Central

    Lu, Ying; Yan, Qiuyan; Shim, Hojae

    2014-01-01

    Foods produced on soils impacted by Pb-Zn mining activities are a potential health risk due to plant uptake of the arsenic (As) associated with such mining. A field survey was undertaken in two Pb-Zn mining-impacted paddy fields in Guangdong Province, China to assess As accumulation and translocation, as well as other factors influencing As in twelve commonly grown rice cultivars. The results showed that grain As concentrations in all the surveyed rice failed national food standards, irrespective of As speciation. Among the 12 rice cultivars, “SY-89” and “DY-162” had the least As in rice grain. No significant difference for As concentration in grain was observed between the rice grown in the two areas that differed significantly for soil As levels, suggesting that the amount of As contamination in the soil is not necessarily the overriding factor controlling the As content in the rice grain. The iron and manganese plaque on the root surface curtailed As accumulation in rice roots. Based on our results, the accumulation of As within rice plants was strongly associated with such soil properties such as silicon, phosphorus, organic matter, pH, and clay content. Understanding the factors and mechanisms controlling As uptake is important to develop mitigation measures that can reduce the amount of As accumulated in rice grains produced on contaminated soils. PMID:25251438

  1. Biogeophysical and Biogeochemical Climate Impacts of Mountaintop Coal Mining in Southern Appalachia USA

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Fox, J.; Campbell, J.; Snyder, M. A.; Cirbus-Sloan, L.

    2013-12-01

    Mountaintop coal mining (MCM) practices are a controversial energy extraction approach that is common in the southern Appalachian forest region (SAFR) producing approximately one third of coal in the United States. The biogeochemical consequences of MCM practices on existing terrestrial carbon stocks and future carbon sequestration rates have been the focus of our recent study. Using terrestrial carbon data and modeling, our findings suggest that removal of temperature forests and soils during mining and reclamation to grassland land use has resulted in emissions of 0.4 Pg CO2 from MCM lands over the past 40 years. In our on-going developments, we are combining these biogeochemical climate impacts with the unstudied biogeophysical climate impacts of this extreme and widespread MCM land-use change. Here we develop land-use change maps for MCM practices and consider the change in temperature and albedo that results using remote sensing data. These land-use change maps provide a starting point for regional climate simulations that can be used to further characterize the biogeophysical consequences of MCM. Our biogeochemical and biogeophysical results are being integrated into a life cycle assessment and scenario predictions for future mining rates and future reclamation practices, e.g., grassland reclamation versus reforestation, for the next 90 years.

  2. The impact of a disused mine on uranium transport in the River Fal, South West England.

    PubMed

    Moliner-Martinez, Yolanda; Campíns-Falcó, Pilar; Worsfold, Paul J; Keith-Roach, Miranda J

    2004-11-01

    Unfiltered and filtered (0.45 and 0.2 microm) water samples and sediment samples (sieved to <180 microm and 180-1000 microm) were collected along an approximately 15 km transect of the River Fal, Cornwall, UK, to examine the impact of the disused South Terras uranium mine on the uranium concentrations of the river water and underlying sediments. The uranium concentration of the water samples fluctuated along the river, with the 0.45 microm filtered water showing the largest, seven-fold, difference between minimum (0.19 microg L(-1)) and maximum (1.34 microg L(-1)) concentrations. The historical uranium mine and spoil heaps were not a significant source of uranium to the river water, as water concentrations were low next to the site, but a highly elevated uranium concentration (1000 mg kg(-1)) was found in sediment below an outflow pipe from this mine. Operationally defined "colloidal" (0.2-0.45 microm) and "dissolved" (<0.2 microm) uranium were the predominant forms of the element in the river water (35 and 45% respectively). The uranium concentration in the dissolved phase showed a correlation coefficient of 0.83 (n= 9) with the total cation concentration, suggesting that the uranium concentration in this fraction is directly linked to weathering of rocks and minerals. The observation that weathering is the dominant mechanism delivering uranium to the river water explains the low uranium concentrations in the river water close to South Terras mine, despite the proximity of the spoil heaps, and the maximum uranium concentrations close to a china clay mining area.

  3. Geochemical control processes and potential sediment toxicity in a mine-impacted lake.

    PubMed

    Adeleke, Solomon Babatunde; Svensson, Bo H; Yekta, Sepehr Shakeri; Adeleye, Michael Mayowa

    2016-03-01

    Geochemical parameters and major ion concentrations from sediments of a freshwater lake in the town of Åtvidaberg, southeastern, Sweden, were used to identify the geochemical processes that control the water chemistry. The lake sediments are anoxic, characterized by reduced sulfur and sulfidic minerals. The hypothesis tested is that in sulfidic-anaerobic contaminated sediments, the presence of redox potential changes creates a favorable condition for sulfide oxidation, resulting in the release of potentially toxic metals. The acid volatile sulfide (AVS) contents ranged from 5.5 μmol/g to 16 μmol/g of dry sediment. Comparison of total mine tailing metals (∑mine tailing metals) with simultaneously extracted metals (SEM) in sediments indicates that up to 20% of the ∑mine tailing metals are bound to the solid phase as AVS. Consequently, the AVS and SEM analysis classified all sediment samples as potentially toxic in terms of heavy metal concentrations (i.e., SEM to AVS ratio distribution > 1). Evaluation of hydrogeochemical data suggests that calcite dissolution, iron (III) oxyhydroxysulfate mineral jarosite (H-jarosite) precipitation, hematite precipitation, and siderite precipitation are the most prevailing geochemical processes that control the geochemical interactions between the water column and sediment in a mine-impacted lake. The geochemical processes were verified and quantified using a chemical equilibrium modeling program, Visual MINTEQ, Ver 3.1, beta. The identified geochemical processes create an environment in which the characteristics of sulfate-rich waters and acidic-iron produce the geochemical conditions for acid mine drainage and mobilization of toxic metals.

  4. Assessment of Projected Temperature Impacts from Climate Change on the U.S. Electric Power Sector Using the Integrated Planning Model

    EPA Science Inventory

    The energy sector is considered to be one of the most vulnerable to climate change. This study is a first-order analysis of the potential climate change impacts on the U.S. electric power sector, measuring the energy, environmental, and economic impacts of power system changes du...

  5. The Impact of HIV/AIDS on Children and Young People: Reviewing Research Conducted and Distilling Implications for the Education Sector in Asia. Discussion Paper No. I

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Wijngaarden, Jan; Shaeffer, Sheldon

    2005-01-01

    This discussion paper evaluates the impact of HIV/AIDS on the education sector in the Asia Pacific region. It looks at the impact of the epidemic on children (aged 0-18) focusing on how the presence of HIV/AIDS in the household affects the education sector. Examples are summarized from research papers from inter-governmental agencies including…

  6. Assessment of Projected Temperature Impacts from Climate Change on the U.S. Electric Power Sector Using the Integrated Planning Model

    EPA Science Inventory

    The energy sector is considered to be one of the most vulnerable to climate change. This study is a first-order analysis of the potential climate change impacts on the U.S. electric power sector, measuring the energy, environmental, and economic impacts of power system changes du...

  7. Technical and Sociological Investigation of Impacts in Using Lignite Mine Drainage for Irrigation - A Case Study

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Murugappan, A.; Manoharan, A.; Senthilkumar, G.; Krishnamurthy, J.

    2017-07-01

    Irrigated farming depends on an ample supply of water compatible quality. Presently, a lot of irrigation projects have to depend on inferior quality and not so enviable sources of water supply. In order to prevent troubles during usage of such water supplies of poor quality, there must be meticulous preparation to ensure that the water available with such quality characteristics is put to best use. The effect of water quality upon soil and crops must be better understood in choosing fitting options to manage with impending water quality associated troubles that might decrease soil and crop productivity under existing circumstances of water use. Two tanks (small sized reservoirs) namely, Walajah Tank and Perumal Tank in Cuddalore District, used for irrigation, receive mine drainage water pumped out continuously from the open cast lignite mines of the NLC India Limited, Neyveli, Tamilnadu State. This water has been used by the farmers in the irrigated commands of both Walajah Tank and Perumal Tank for more than three decades. Recently, the beneficiaries had raised fears on the quality of mine drainage waters they had been using for raising crops in the commands of both the tanks. They opined that the coal dust laden mine water used for irrigation had affected the crop yields. This incited us to take up a study to (i) assess the status of quality of surface waters released from the two tanks for irrigation in the respective command areas and (ii) assess the likely impacts of quality of water on soil and on growth and productivity of crops cultivated in the command areas. Further to the technical evaluation of the impacts, a structured questionnaire survey was also conducted among the farmers and the common public in the study area. The findings of the survey confirmed with the outcome of the technical assessment in that the mine drainage had a poor impact in the cultivable command area of Walajah tank system while such impacts were less significant in most parts of

  8. Ecological health assessment and remediation of the stream impacted by acid mine drainage of the Gwangyang mine area.

    PubMed

    Kim, Ju-Yong; Lee, Byung-Tae; Shin, Kyung-Hee; Lee, Kun-Young; Kim, Kyoung-Woong; An, Kwang-Guk; Park, Young-Seok; Kim, Jeong-Yeon; Kwon, Young-Ho

    2007-06-01

    Ecological health in a temperate stream impacted by acid mine drainage (AMD) was evaluated by using a multimetric approach of the Index of Biological Integrity (IBI) based on natural fish assemblage. Recently, this approach has been widely used in many developed countries as a tool for ecological risk assessments of water environments. We used 10 metric systems, instead of 12 metrics suggested by Barbour, M. T., Gerritsen, J., Snyder, B. D., & Stribling, J. B. (1999). Rapid Bioassessment Protocols for Use in Streams and Wadeable Rivers: Periphyton, benthic Macroinvertebrates and Fish, 2nd edn. EPA 841-B-99-002. Washington, DC: U.S. Environmental Protection Agency, Office of Water, for a development of the regional IBI model, and used trophic guilds, habitat guilds, and richness variables for the calculation of IBI values. In the model, the attributes of four of 11 metrics were modified for the regional application. IBI values in the stream averaged 20.6 (n = 5), indicating a "poor condition" in terms of ecological health according to the modified criteria of U.S. EPA (1993). Fish Field and Laboratory Methods for Evaluating the Biological Integrity of Surface Waters. EPA 600-R-92-111. Environmental Monitoring systems Laboratory - Cincinnati office of Modeling, Monitoring systems, and quality assurance Office of Research Development, U.S. EPA, Cincinnati, Ohio, 45268. In particular, mean IBI values in the impacted areas of sites 2 and 3 were 13, and this health condition was categorized as "very poor condition." IBI values in the impacted sites were significantly lower than the values found in the control. Also, we found that fishes in site sites 2 and 3 were not present during the study, and morphological deformity of Rhynchocypris oxycephalus was observed in site 4, influenced directly by sites 2 and 3, indicating a chemical impact in the sites. From the results of experiments in which AMD was treated with marine shells at stagnant condition, pH increased up to 6

  9. Between hype and veracity; privatization of municipal solid waste management and its impacts on the informal waste sector.

    PubMed

    Sandhu, Kiran; Burton, Paul; Dedekorkut-Howes, Aysin

    2017-01-01

    The informal waste recycling sector has been an indispensable but ironically invisible part of the waste management systems in developing countries as India, often completely disregarded and overlooked by decision makers and policy frameworks. The turn towards liberalization of economy since 1991 in India opened the doors for privatization of urban services and the waste sector found favor with private companies facilitated by the local governments. In joining the privatization bandwagon, the local governments aim to create an image of a progressive city demonstrated most visibly through apt management of municipal solid waste. Resultantly, the long important stakeholder, the informal sector has been sidelined and left to face the adverse impacts of privatization. There is hardly any recognition of its contributions or any attempt to integrate it within the formal waste management systems. The study investigates the impacts of privatization on the waste pickers in waste recycling operations. Highlighting the other dimension of waste collection and management in urban India the study focuses on the waste pickers and small time informal scrap dealers and this is done by taking the case study of Amritsar city, which is an important historic centre and a metropolitan city in the state of Punjab, India. The paper develops an analytical framework, drawing from literature review to analyze the impacts. In conclusion, it supports the case for involving informal waste sector towards achieving sustainable waste management in the city. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  10. Environmental impact of uranium mining and ore processing in the Lagoa Real District, Bahia, Brazil.

    PubMed

    Carvalho, Ilson G; Cidu, Rosa; Fanfani, Luca; Pitsch, Helmut; Beaucaire, Catherine; Zuddas, Pierpaolo

    2005-11-15

    Uranium mining and processing at Lagoa Real (Bahia, Brazil) started in 2000. Hydrogeochemical monitoring carried out from 1999 to 2001 revealed generally good quality of the water resources outside and inside the mineralized area. No chemical contamination in waters for domestic uses was observed. Hydrochemical characteristics did not vary significantly after 1 year of U exploitation, as compared to premining conditions. Due to the short time of mining, the results cannot exclude future variations in water quality. Leaching experiments helped to describe processes of ore and waste degradation. Sulfate was identified as an indicator for different types of contamination. Potential hazards related to local climate (hot rainy season) were identified. They indicate that tailings derived from the ore processing, destabilized by sulfuric acid attack, may induce acidification and salinization in the surrounding environment. Another potential source of environmental impact could be linked to local radium-rich mineralization, originating radon emission.

  11. An impact assessment of sustainable technologies for the Chinese urban residential sector at provincial level

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Xing, Rui; Hanaoka, Tatsuya; Kanamori, Yuko; Dai, Hancheng; Masui, Toshihiko

    2015-06-01

    Recently, energy use in the urban residential sector of China has drastically increased due to higher incomes and urbanization. The fossil fuels dominant energy supply has since worsened the air quality, especially in urban areas. In this study we estimate the future energy service demands in Chinese urban residential areas, and then use an AIM/Enduse model to evaluate the emission reduction potential of CO2, SO2, NOx and PM. Considering the climate diversity and its impact on household energy service demands, our analysis is down-scaled to the provincial-level. The results show that in most of the regions, penetration of efficient technologies will bring CO2 emission reductions of over 20% compared to the baseline by the year 2030. Deployment of energy efficient technologies also co-benefits GHG emission reduction. However, efficient technology selection appears to differ across provinces due to climatic variation and economic disparity. For instance, geothermal heating technology is effective for the cold Northern areas while biomass technology contributes to emission reduction the most in the warm Southern areas.

  12. Economic and environmental impacts of the corn grain ethanol industry on the United States agricultural sector

    SciTech Connect

    Larson, J.A.; English, B.C.; De La Torre Ugarte, D. G.; Menard, R.J.; Hellwinckel, C.M.; West, Tristram O.

    2010-09-10

    This study evaluated the impacts of increased ethanol production from corn starch on agricultural land use and the environment in the United States. The Policy Analysis System simulation model was used to simulate alternative ethanol production scenarios for 2007 through 2016. Results indicate that increased corn ethanol production had a positive effect on net farm income and economic wellbeing of the US agricultural sector. In addition, government payments to farmers were reduced because of higher commodity prices and enhanced net farm income. Results also indicate that if Conservation Reserve Program land was converted to crop production in response to higher demand for ethanol in the simulation, individual farmers planted more land in crops, including corn. With a larger total US land area in crops due to individual farmer cropping choices, total US crop output rose, which decreased crop prices and aggregate net farm income relative to the scenario where increased ethanol production happened without Conservation Reserve Program land. Substantial shifts in land use occurred with corn area expanding throughout the United States, especially in the traditional corn-growing area of the midcontinent region.

  13. Impacts of black carbon and co-pollutant emissions from transportation sector in Mexico City

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Zavala, Miguel; Almanza, Victor; Garcia, Agustin; Jazcilevich, Aron; Lei, Wenfang; Molina, Luisa

    2016-04-01

    Black carbon is one of the most important short-lived climate-forcing agents, which is harmful to human health and also contributes significantly to climate change. Transportation is one of the largest sources of black carbon emissions in many megacities and urban complexes, with diesel vehicles leading the way. Both on-road and off-road vehicles can emit substantial amounts of harmful BC-containing particulate matter (PM) and are also responsible for large emissions of carbon dioxide (CO2), carbon monoxide (CO), nitrogen oxides (NOx), and many other co-emitted volatile organic compounds (VOCs). Regionally, black carbon emissions contributions from mobile sources may vary widely depending on the technical characteristics of the vehicle fleet, the quality and chemical properties of the fuels consumed, and the degree of local development and economic activities that foster wider and more frequent or intensive use of vehicles. This presentation will review and assess the emissions of black carbon from the on-road and off-road transportation sector in the Mexico City Metropolitan Area. Viable mitigation strategies, including innovative technological alternatives to reduce black carbon and co-pollutants in diesel vehicles and their impacts on climate, human health and ecosystems will be described.

  14. Impact of warmer weather on electricity sector emissions due to building energy use

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Meier, Paul; Holloway, Tracey; Patz, Jonathan; Harkey, Monica; Ahl, Doug; Abel, David; Schuetter, Scott; Hackel, Scott

    2017-06-01

    Most US energy consumption occurs in buildings, with cooling demands anticipated to increase net building electricity use under warmer conditions. The electricity generation units that respond to this demand are major contributors to sulfur dioxide (SO2) and nitrogen oxides (NOx), both of which have direct impacts on public health, and contribute to the formation of secondary pollutants including ozone and fine particulate matter. This study quantifies temperature-driven changes in power plant emissions due to increased use of building air conditioning. We compare an ambient temperature baseline for the Eastern US to a model-calculated mid-century scenario with summer-average temperature increases ranging from 1 C to 5 C across the domain. We find a 7% increase in summer electricity demand and a 32% increase in non-coincident peak demand. Power sector modeling, assuming only limited changes to current generation resources, calculated a 16% increase in emissions of NOx and an 18% increase in emissions of SO2. There is a high level of regional variance in the response of building energy use to climate, and the response of emissions to associated demand. The East North Central census region exhibited the greatest sensitivity of energy demand and associated emissions to climate.

  15. Geochemistry and potential environmental impact of the mine tailings at Rosh Pinah, southern Namibia

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Nejeschlebová, L.; Sracek, O.; Mihaljevič, M.; Ettler, V.; Kříbek, B.; Knésl, I.; Vaněk, A.; Penížek, V.; Dolníček, Z.; Mapani, B.

    2015-05-01

    Mine tailings at Rosh Pinah located in semiarid southern Namibia were investigated by the combination of mineralogical methods and leaching using water and simulated gastric solution. They are well-neutralized with leachate pH > 7 and neutralization potential ratios (NPR) up to 4. Neutralization is mainly due to abundant Mn-rich dolomite in the matrix. Concentrations of released contaminants in water leachate follow the order Zn > Pb > Cu > As. Relatively high leached concentrations of Zn and partly also of Pb are caused by their link to relatively soluble carbonates and Mn-oxyhydroxides. In contrast, As is almost immobile by binding into Fe-oxyhydroxides, which are resistant to dissolution. Barium is released by the dissolution of Ba-carbonate (norsethite) and precipitates in sulfate-rich pore water as barite. Dissolved concentrations in neutral mine drainage water collected in the southern pond are low, but when total concentrations including colloidal fraction are taken into account, more than 70% of Zn is in colloidal form. Groundwater upgradient of the mine tailings is of poor quality and there seems to be no negative impact on groundwater downgradient from mine tailings. Contaminant concentrations in simulated gastric leachates are in the order Ba > Pb > Zn > Cu > As with a maximum gastric bioaccessibility of 86.6% for Ba and a minimum of 3.3% for As. These results demonstrate that total contaminant content and toxicity in the solid phase are poor predictors of risk, and therefore mineralogical and bioavailability/bioaccessibility studies are necessary for evaluation of contaminant environmental impact.

  16. Surviving the impact of HIV-related illness in the Zambian business sector.

    PubMed

    Guinness, Lorna; Walker, Damian; Ndubani, Phillimon; Jama, John; Kelly, Paul

    2003-07-01

    The HIV epidemic in sub-Saharan Africa represents an obstacle to productive employment and economic development. Employers in the region are experiencing severe staff shortages, reduced productivity, and increased costs because of protracted ill health and death among their workforce. The scale of the problem has not been fully estimated and the extent to which it could be ameliorated by control measures including effective treatment of opportunistic infections is not well known. Employers and employees (n = 108) in seven Zambian firms were interviewed to assess direct and indirect costs of illness to the firms. Information was collected on diagnosis and treatment received, duration of illness, time off, and strategies adopted to compensate for absent workers using a combination of questionnaires, structured interviews and focus group discussions. The main causes of ill health were tuberculosis (TB) (46.8%), diarrhea (12.9%), and sexually transmitted diseases (STDs; 5.8%). Annual treatment costs to the firm ranged from Zambia Kwacha (K) 60,000 to 405,000 per person treated. Other firm costs included productivity losses because of ill health, paid sick leave, the cost of employee replacement, and funerals. Employees incurred K 67,773 on average per illness episode. The most common causes of ill health were those most frequently associated with HIV. They can be easily but were often ineffectively treated. Improving disease management would thus reduce wastage and costs both to employer and employee. The extent of the impact in these firms shows the need for the private sector to adopt a stronger role in prevention and care. Further research is required to assess what recommended treatment options might be, how they could be financed, and the extent of the economic impact of HIV on firms. This would foster the development of more appropriate responses to the epidemic in Zambia and the region as a whole.

  17. ImSET 3.1: Impact of Sector Energy Technologies Model Description and User's Guide

    SciTech Connect

    Scott, Michael J.; Livingston, Olga V.; Balducci, Patrick J.; Roop, Joseph M.; Schultz, Robert W.

    2009-05-22

    This 3.1 version of the Impact of Sector Energy Technologies (ImSET) model represents the next generation of the previously-built ImSET model (ImSET 2.0) that was developed in 2005 to estimate the macroeconomic impacts of energy-efficient technology in buildings. In particular, a special-purpose version of the Benchmark National Input-Output (I-O) model was designed specifically to estimate the national employment and income effects of the deployment of Office of Energy Efficiency and Renewable Energy (EERE)–developed energy-saving technologies. In comparison with the previous versions of the model, this version features the use of the U.S. Bureau of Economic Analysis 2002 national input-output table and the central processing code has been moved from the FORTRAN legacy operating environment to a modern C++ code. ImSET is also easier to use than extant macroeconomic simulation models and incorporates information developed by each of the EERE offices as part of the requirements of the Government Performance and Results Act. While it does not include the ability to model certain dynamic features of markets for labor and other factors of production featured in the more complex models, for most purposes these excluded features are not critical. The analysis is credible as long as the assumption is made that relative prices in the economy would not be substantially affected by energy efficiency investments. In most cases, the expected scale of these investments is small enough that neither labor markets nor production cost relationships should seriously affect national prices as the investments are made. The exact timing of impacts on gross product, employment, and national wage income from energy efficiency investments is not well-enough understood that much special insight can be gained from the additional dynamic sophistication of a macroeconomic simulation model. Thus, we believe that this version of ImSET is a cost-effective solution to estimating the economic

  18. Impacts from valley fill design and age on water quality in mountaintop mined watersheds

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Ross, M. R.; Lindberg, T. T.; Voss, K.; Bernhardt, E. S.

    2012-12-01

    Mountaintop mining (MTM) for coal is the strongest driver of landscape disturbance throughout central Appalachia. The MTM process removes mountain ridges and deposits the resulting spoil into adjacent valleys. Recent research has shown that streams receiving waters from these valley fills exhibit consistent increases in the concentrations of base cations (Ca2+, Mg2+), metals, and anions (HCO3-SO42-) that correlate strongly with an increase in conductivity. Together, these chemical changes degrade the aquatic ecosystems downstream of valley fills and impair the ecosystem services they provide by extirpating sensitive macro-invertebrate taxa and toxicity to fish. Nearly 50% of the variability in conductivity and individual ion species concentration can be explained simply by the positive correlation between percent of catchment area mined and solute concentration. Yet, there is a wide range of valley fill size (0.25-225 hectares), age (1-40 years old), and design (from completely re-contoured landscapes to untouched, dumped spoil material) which may further explain observed patterns in water quality and biogeochemistry in MTM-impacted streams. For this study we asked the question: Do fill construction techniques and fill age predict patterns of stream water quality as measured by ion and metal concentration? To answer this question, we used a synoptic dataset collected from 30 valley fills in the Hobet mining complex in southern West Virginia and a comprehensive dataset collected by the West Virginia Department of Environmental Protection. We show that conductivity and ion concentrations are predicted better by valley fill size (p value < 0.05 ) than by valley fill age (statistically insignificant). These results suggest that impacts from MTM on aquatic ecosystems and the ecosystem services they provide may last over long time scales (>50 years), and that trends of expanding valley fill size over the 2000's may have disproportionately negative impacts on the streams

  19. Impacts of incorporating land exchanges between forestry and agriculture in sector models.

    Treesearch

    Ralph J. Alig; Darius M. Adams; Bruce A. McCarl

    1998-01-01

    The forest and agriculture sectors are linked by having a portion of their land bases suitable for use in either sector. A substantial part of the southern land base is suitable for either forestry or agriculture use, with most of forestation on U.S. agriculture land in the South. We examine how land exchanges between forestry and agriculture are influenced by specific...

  20. The impact of unconfined mine tailings in residential areas from a mining town in a semi-arid environment: Nacozari, Sonora, Mexico.

    PubMed

    Meza-Figueroa, Diana; Maier, Raina M; de la O-Villanueva, Margarita; Gómez-Alvarez, Agustín; Moreno-Zazueta, Alan; Rivera, Jacinto; Campillo, Alberto; Grandlic, Christopher J; Anaya, Ricardo; Palafox-Reyes, Juan

    2009-09-01

    Past mining activities in northern Mexico left a legacy of delerict landscapes devoid of vegetation and seasonal formation of salt efflorescence. Metal content was measured in mine tailings, efflorescent salts, soils, road dust, and residential soils to investigate contamination. Climatic effects such as heavy wind and rainfall events can have great impact on the dispersion of metals in semi-arid areas, since soils are typically sparsely vegetated. Geochemical analysis of this site revealed that even though total metal content in mine tailings was relatively low (e.g. Cu= 1000 mg kg(-1)), metals including Mn, Ba, Zn, and Cu were all found at significantly higher levels in efflorescence salts formed by evaporation on the tailings impoundment surface following the rainy season (e.g. Cu= 68,000 mg kg(-1)). Such efflorescent fine-grained salts are susceptible to wind erosion resulting in increased metal spread to nearby residential soils. Our results highlight the importance of seasonally dependent salt-formation and wind erosion in determining risk levels associated with potential inhalation or ingestion of airborne particulates originating from contaminated sites such as tailings impoundments. In low metal-content mine tailings located in arid and semi-arid environments, efflorescence salts could represent a human health risk and a challenge for plant establishment in mine tailings.

  1. The impact of unconfined mine tailings in residential areas from a mining town in a semi-arid environment: Nacozari, Sonora, Mexico

    PubMed Central

    Meza-Figueroa, Diana; Maier, Raina M.; de la O-Villanueva, Margarita; Gómez-Alvarez, Agustín; Moreno-Zazueta, Alan; Rivera, Jacinto; Campillo, Alberto; Grandlic, Christopher; Anaya, Ricardo; Palafox-Reyes, Juan

    2009-01-01

    Past mining activities in northern Mexico left a legacy of delerict landscapes devoid of vegetation and seasonal formation of salt efflorescence. Metal content was measured in mine tailings, efflorescent salts, soils, road dust and residential soils to investigate contamination. Climatic effects such as heavy wind and rainfall events can have great impact on the dispersion of metals in semi-arid areas, since soils are typically sparsely vegetated. Geochemical analysis of this site revealed that even though total metal content in mine tailings was relatively low (e.g. Cu = 1000 mg kg-1), metals including Mn, Ba, Zn, and Cu were all found at significantly higher levels in efflorescence salts formed by evaporation on the tailings impoundment surface following the rainy season (e.g. Cu=68000 mg kg-1). Such efflorescent fine-grained salts are susceptible to wind erosion resulting in increased metal spread to nearby residential soils. Our results highlight the importance of seasonally dependent salt-formation and wind erosion in determining risk levels associated with potential inhalation or ingestion of airborne particulates originating from contaminated sites such as tailings impoundments. In low metal-content mine tailings located in arid and semi-arid environments, efflorescence salts could represent a human health risk and a challenge for plant establishment in mine tailings. PMID:19500816

  2. The impact of future carbon dioxide emission reduction targets on U.S. electric sector water use

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Cameron, Colin MacKay

    The U.S. electric sector's reliance on water makes it vulnerable to the impacts of climate change on water resources. Here we analyze how constraints on U.S. energy system carbon dioxide (CO2) emissions could affect water withdrawal and consumption in the U.S. electric sector through 2055. We use simulations of the EPA's U.S. 9-region (EPAUS9r) MARKAL least-cost optimization energy systems model with updated water use factors for electricity generating technologies. Model results suggest CO2 constraints could force the retirement of old power plants and drive increased use of low water-use renewable and nuclear power as well as natural gas CCS plants with more advanced cooling systems. These changes in electric sector technology mix reduce water withdrawal in all scenarios but increase water consumption in aggressive scenarios. Decreased electric sector water withdrawal would likely reduce electric sector vulnerability to climate change, but the rise in consumption could increase competition with other users.

  3. Hydrologic analyses in support of the Navajo Generating Station–Kayenta Mine Complex environmental impact statement

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Leake, Stanley A.; Macy, Jamie P.; Truini, Margot

    2016-06-01

    IntroductionThe U.S. Department of Interior’s Bureau of Reclamation, Lower Colorado Region (Reclamation) is preparing an environmental impact statement (EIS) for the Navajo Generating Station-Kayenta Mine Complex Project (NGS-KMC Project). The proposed project involves various Federal approvals that would facilitate continued operation of the Navajo Generating Station (NGS) from December 23, 2019 through 2044, and continued operation of the Kayenta Mine and support facilities (collectively called the Kayenta Mine Complex, or KMC) to supply coal to the NGS for this operational period. The EIS will consider several project alternatives that are likely to produce different effects on the Navajo (N) aquifer; the N aquifer is the principal water resource in the Black Mesa area used by the Navajo Nation, Hopi Tribe, and Peabody Western Coal Company (PWCC).The N aquifer is composed of three hydraulically connected formations—the Navajo Sandstone, the Kayenta Formation, and the Lukachukai Member of the Wingate Sandstone—that function as a single aquifer. The N aquifer is confined under most of Black Mesa, and the overlying stratigraphy limits recharge to this part of the aquifer. The N aquifer is unconfined in areas surrounding Black Mesa, and most recharge occurs where the Navajo Sandstone is exposed in the area near Shonto, Arizona. Overlying the N aquifer is the D aquifer, which includes the Dakota Sandstone, Morrison Formation, Entrada Sandstone, and Carmel Formation. The aquifer is named for the Dakota Sandstone, which is the primary water-bearing unit.The NGS is located near Page, Arizona on the Navajo Nation. The KMC, which delivers coal to NGS by way of a dedicated electric railroad, is located approximately 83 miles southeast of NGS (about 125 miles northeast of Flagstaff, Arizona). The Kayenta Mine permit area is located on about 44,073 acres of land leased within the boundaries of the Hopi and Navajo Indian Reservations. KMC has been conducting mining and

  4. Environmental radiological impact associated with non-uranium mining industries: a proposal for screening criteria.

    PubMed

    Pires do Rio, M A; Amaral, E C S; Fernandes, H M; Rochedo, E R R

    2002-01-01

    Niobium, phosphate, coal and gold mining facilities have been selected as case studies with the aim of identifying possible sources of radiological impact during and after cessation of industrial operations. The results have shown that acid drainage, as well as chemical processing of mineral ores, constitute relevant impact indicators for present-day and future scenarios. The possible use of solid wastes abandoned at the end of the operations represents a long-term radiological concern. Therefore, it is necessary that Brazilian legislation for environmental licensing be revised taking into account the potential environmental and radiological impacts caused by these industries and establishing remedial procedures for waste storage areas in the existing sites. The indicators developed and procedures carried out can be used in screening for decisions on the adoption of regulatory requirements for practices at such types of installations.

  5. Feasibility of a continuous surface mining machine using impact breakers. First quarterly report, October 1-December 31, 1979

    SciTech Connect

    Fisk, A. T.

    1980-01-01

    This is the first quarterly report on the efforts to evaluate the feasibility of excavating coal and overburden from surface mines using impact breakers. The initial stages of the project are devoted to a literature search, equipment selection, test site selection, and conceptual test system design. Hence, this report details the progress made in these areas; the next quarter will see the finalization of Phase I. Included as appendices to this report are FMA internal reports on the individual mines visited. These reports are the basis of the test site selection, and have been censored here to remove data the mine operators deemed as confidential.

  6. Evidence of Historical Mining Impacts on Saltmarshes from east Cornwall, UK

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Iurian, Andra-Rada; Taylor, Alex; Millward, Geoff; Blake, William

    2016-04-01

    In landscapes with extensive mining history, saltmarshes can become sinks for contaminants that are vulnerable to release with sea-level rise and increased storminess. Given the prolonged residence time of heavy metals in the environment, data is urgently required to contextualise the impacts of past and present mining and pollution events and provide a baseline against which to assess Water Framework Directive (WFD) (2000/60/EC) compliance within an integrated catchment management framework. The geology of east Cornwall, UK (with intrusions of granite into the surrounding sedimentary rocks) was favourable for a prosperous mining industry, although large scale operations did not start until about 1830. Tin, cooper, lead and tungsten were the most important ores in the region. In order to quantify the spatial and temporal extent of contamination from past mining, sediment cores were collected from three saltmarshes, namely: Antony Marsh and Treluggan Marsh on the Lower Basin of River Lynher, and Port Eliot Marsh on the Lower Basin of River Tiddy. Core sections at 1 cm intervals were analysed by gamma-ray spectrometry for Pb-210, Ra-226, Cs-137 and Am-241, and the well-established Constant Rate of Supply (CRS) model was employed to derive Pb-210 geochronology with bomb-derived Cs-137 and Am-241 as independent chronological markers. The geochronological data provided the sedimentary accumulation and temporal context for the study. In terms of sediment quality with respect to mining pollution, core sections were analysed using Q-ICP-MS techniques and, additionally, WD-XRF instrumentation at Plymouth University. Measurements were performed for target elements that are normally associated with mining and smelting activities (e.g. Pb, Cu, Sn, Zn, Cr, Cd, etc.), and lithogenic elements (e.g. Fe, Al, Ti) that allow enrichment factors for the anthropogenically-derived elements to be determined. The grain size distribution was determined to identify storminess events and to

  7. Risk assessment test for lead bioaccessibility to waterfowl in mine-impacted soils

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Furman, O.; Strawn, D.G.; Heinz, G.H.; Williams, B.

    2006-01-01

    Due to variations in soil physicochemical properties, species physiology, and contaminant speciation, Pb toxicity is difficult to evaluate without conducting in vivo dose-response studies. Such tests, however, are expensive and time consuming, making them impractical to use in assessment and management of contaminated environments. One possible alternative is to develop a physiologically based extraction test (PBET) that can be used to measure relative bioaccessibility. We developed and correlated a PBET designed to measure the bioaccessibility of Pb to waterfowl (W-PBET) in mine-impacted soils located in the Coeur d'Alene River Basin, Idaho. The W-PBET was also used to evaluate the impact of P amendments on Pb bioavailability. The W-PBET results were correlated to waterfowl-tissue Pb levels from a mallard duck [Anas platyrhynchos (L.)] feeding study. The W-PBET Pb concentrations were significantly less in the P-amended soils than in the unamended soils. Results from this study show that the W-PBET can be used to assess relative changes in Pb bioaccessibility to waterfowl in these mine-impacted soils, and therefore will be a valuable test to help manage and remediate contaminated soils.

  8. Assessing the impacts of 1.5°C of global warming - The Inter-Sectoral Impact Model Intercomparison Project (ISIMIP) approach

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Frieler, Katja; Warszawski, Lila; Zhao, Fang

    2017-04-01

    In Paris, France, December 2015 the Conference of Parties (COP) to the United Nations Framework Convention on Climate Change (UNFCCC) invited the IPCC to provide a "special report in 2018 on the impacts of global warming of 1.5°C above pre-industrial levels and related global greenhouse gas emission pathways". In Nairobi, Kenya, April 2016 the IPCC panel accepted the invitation. Here we describe the model simulations planned within the Inter-Sectoral Impact Model Intercomparison Project (ISIMIP) to address the request by providing tailored cross-sectoral consistent impacts projections. The protocol is designed to allow for 1) a separation of the impacts of the historical warming starting from pre-industrial conditions from other human drivers such as historical land use changes (based on pre-industrial and historical impact model simulations), 2) a quantification of the effects of an additional warming to 1.5°C including a potential overshoot and long term effects up to 2300 in comparison to a no-mitigation scenario (based on the low emissions Representative Concentration Pathway RCP2.6 and a no-mitigation scenario RCP6.0) keeping socio-economic conditions fixed at year 2005 levels, and 3) an assessment of the climate effects based on the same climate scenarios but accounting for parallel changes in socio-economic conditions following the middle of the road Shared Socioeconomic Pathway (SSP2) and differential bio-energy requirements associated with the transformation of the energy system to reach RCP2.6 compared to RCP6.0. To provide the scientific basis for an aggregation of impacts across sectors and an analysis of cross-sectoral interactions potentially damping or amplifying sectoral impacts the protocol is designed to provide consistent impacts projections across a range of impact models from different sectors (global and regional hydrological models, global gridded crop models, global vegetation models, regional forestry models, global and regional marine

  9. Assessing the impacts of 1.5°C of global warming - The Inter-Sectoral Impact Model Intercomparison Project (ISIMIP) approach

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Zhao, F.; Frieler, K.; Warszawski, L.; Lange, S.; Schewe, J.; Reyer, C.; Ostberg, S.; Piontek, F.; Betts, R. A.; Burke, E.; Ciais, P.; Deryng, D.; Ebi, K. L.; Emanuel, K.; Elliott, J. W.; Galbraith, E. D.; Gosling, S.; Hickler, T.; Hinkel, J.; Jones, C.; Krysanova, V.; Lotze-Campen, H.; Mouratiadou, I.; Popp, A.; Tian, H.; Tittensor, D.; Vautard, R.; van Vliet, M. T. H.; Eddy, T.; Hattermann, F.; Huber, V.; Mengel, M.; Stevanovic, M.; Kirsten, T.; Mueller Schmied, H.; Denvil, S.; Halladay, K.; Suzuki, T.; Lotze, H. K.

    2016-12-01

    In Paris, France, December 2015 the Conference of Parties (COP) to the United Nations Framework Convention on Climate Change (UNFCCC) invited the IPCC to provide a "special report in 2018 on the impacts of global warming of 1.5°C above pre-industrial levels and related global greenhouse gas emission pathways". In Nairobi, Kenya, April 2016 the IPCC panel accepted the invitation. Here we describe the model simulations planned within the Inter-Sectoral Impact Model Intercomparison Project (ISIMIP) to address the request by providing tailored cross-sectoral consistent impacts projections. The protocol is designed to allow for 1) a separation of the impacts of the historical warming starting from pre-industrial conditions from other human drivers such as historical land use changes (based on pre-industrial and historical impact model simulations), 2) a quantification of the effects of an additional warming to 1.5°C including a potential overshoot and long term effects up to 2300 in comparison to a no-mitigation scenario (based on the low emissions Representative Concentration Pathway RCP2.6 and a no-mitigation scenario RCP6.0) keeping socio-economic conditions fixed at year 2005 levels, and 3) an assessment of the climate effects based on the same climate scenarios but accounting for parallel changes in socio-economic conditions following the middle of the road Shared Socioeconomic Pathway (SSP2) and differential bio-energy requirements associated with the transformation of the energy system to reach RCP2.6 compared to RCP6.0. To provide the scientific basis for an aggregation of impacts across sectors and an analysis of cross-sectoral interactions potentially damping or amplifying sectoral impacts the protocol is designed to provide consistent impacts projections across a range of impact models from different sectors (global and regional hydrological models, global gridded crop models, global vegetation models, regional forestry models, global and regional marine

  10. 78 FR 54674 - Notice of Intent To Prepare an Environmental Impact Statement for the Proposed Gold Rock Mine...

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2013-09-05

    ...: 14X5017] Notice of Intent To Prepare an Environmental Impact Statement for the Proposed Gold Rock Mine...) Egan Field Office, Ely, Nevada, intends to prepare an Environmental Impact Statement (EIS) and by this... ] associated ponds, process facility, and refinery; a mill; a carbon-in- leach plant; waste rock dumps;...

  11. Environmental impact of mining activities on the surface water quality in Tibet: Gyama valley.

    PubMed

    Huang, Xiang; Sillanpää, Mika; Gjessing, Egil T; Peräniemi, Sirpa; Vogt, Rolf D

    2010-09-01

    Nearly 20years of industrial scale metal mining operations in Tibet have caused an impact on the region's surface water quality. However, no information with respect to the pollution has been provided to the public. The aim of this work was to evaluate the chemical quality of the stream water and to assess the present and future potential risks of acid mine drainage to the regional and downstream environments. This study, based on data collected in 2006, 2007 and 2008 in the Gyama valley, using the Environmental Risk Index (I(ER)) documents that elevated concentrations of Cu, Pb, Zn, Mn, Fe and Al in the surface water and streambed at the upper/middle part of the valley pose a considerably high risk to the local environment. In contrast, the risk level at the stream source area is zero and only minor risk at the lower reaches. The iron and copper contamination of the upper/middle part of the river appears to be both natural and accelerated by the mining activities. The level of dissolved contaminants in the water decreases within short distance downstream due to precipitation and sorption to the streambed and strong dilution by a tributary stream and eventually by the Lhasa River. A high content of heavy metals in the stream sediments as well as in a number of tailings with gangue and material from the ore processing, poses a great potential threat to the downstream water users. Environmental changes such as global warming or increased mining activity may increase the mobility of these pools of heavy metals. Copyright 2010 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  12. Projected regional impacts of appliance efficiency standards for the U.S. residential sector

    SciTech Connect

    Koomey, J.G.; Mahler, S.A.; Webber, C.A.; McMahon, J.E.

    1998-02-01

    Minimum efficiency standards for residential appliances have been implemented in the US for a large number of residential end-uses. This analysis assesses the potential energy, dollar, and carbon impacts of those standards at the state and national levels. In this assessment, the authors use historical and projected shipments of equipment, a detailed stock accounting model, measured and estimated unit energy savings associated with the standards, estimated incremental capital costs, demographic data, and fuel price data at the finest level of geographic disaggregation available. Energy savings from the standards are substantial. Total primary energy savings will peak in 2004 at about 0.7 exajoules/year (1 exajoule = 10{sup 18} joules {approx} 1 quadrillion Btu = 10{sup 15} Btus). Cumulative primary energy savings during the 1990 to 2010 period total 10.6 exajoules. Efficiency standards in the residential sector have been a highly cost-effective policy instrument for promoting energy efficiency. Projected cumulative present-values dollar savings after subtracting out the additional cost of the more efficient equipment are about $33 billion from 1990 to 2010. Average benefit/cost ratios for these standards are about 3.5 for the US as a whole. Projected carbon reductions are approximately 9 million metric tons of carbon/year from 2000 through 2010, an amount roughly equal to 4% of carbon emissions in 1990. Because these standards save energy at a cost less than the price of that energy, the resulting carbon emission reductions are achieved at negative net cost to society. Minimum efficiency standards reduce pollution and save money at the same time.

  13. Assessment of Groundwater Supply Impacts for a Mine Site in Western Turkey

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Agartan, E.; Yazicigil, H.

    2010-12-01

    A nickel mine located in Turgutlu town in Western Turkey requires 135 L/s of water for the mining processes. The initial studies pointed out that part of the supply will be met by pumping water from the Turgutlu-Salihli aquifer system. The purpose of this study is to assess the impacts associated with meeting groundwater supply requirements for the mine. Scope of the study involved development of the groundwater flow model of the Turgutlu-Salihli aquifer system, determination of the alternative groundwater pumping scenarios, assessment of the impacts associated with each scenario and selection of the most feasible scenario in the aspect of environmental and technical factors. Turgutlu town is located in one of the most tectonically active areas in Turkey which is characterized by an E-W trending Gediz Graben formed as a result of N-S directed extension. Gediz River as a major surface water resource in the study area flows from east to west, passes through Gediz Graben and is connected to the Turgutlu-Salihli aquifer system. Quaternary deposits and Neogene rocks, showing better aquifer properties than the other formations of the Gediz Graben, form the Turgutlu-Salihli aquifer system. Quaternary deposits form the principal aquifer, and Neogene rocks form the secondary aquifer in the study area. Therefore, a two layered groundwater flow model of the Turgutlu-Salihli aquifer system was established using MODFLOW. The model was calibrated under steady state conditions assuming that the conditions in 1991 prior to the significant development represented a pseudo-steady state in the aquifer system. Calibration was carried out for hydraulic conductivity, recharge and boundary conditions. To get today’s groundwater levels, wells being drilled after 1991 were added to the model. In the scope of this study, two potential scenarios were considered, and their effects on the aquifer systems were evaluated. The locations of the scenario wells were determined so that they will

  14. Financial vulnerability of the electricity sector to drought, and the impacts of changes in generation mix

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Kern, J.

    2015-12-01

    Electric power utilities are increasingly cognizant of the risks water scarcity and rising temperatures pose for generators that use water as a "fuel" (i.e., hydroelectric dams) and generators that use water for cooling (i.e., coal, natural gas and nuclear). At the same time, utilities are under increasing market and policy pressure to retire coal-fired generation, the primary source of carbon emissions in the electric power sector. Due to falling costs of renewables and low natural gas prices, retiring coal fired generation is mostly being replaced with combined cycle natural gas, wind and solar. An immediate benefit of this shift has been a reduction in water withdrawals per megawatt-hour and reduced thermal impacts in surface water systems. In the process of retiring older coal-fired power plants, many of which use water intensive open-loop cooling systems, utilities are making their systems less vulnerable to water scarcity and higher water temperatures. However, it is not clear whether financial risks from water scarcity will decrease as result of this change. In particular, the choice to replace coal with natural gas combined cycle plants leaves utilities financially exposed to natural gas prices, especially during droughts when natural gas generation is used to replace lost hydropower production. Utility-scale solar, while more expensive than natural gas combined cycle generation, gives utilities an opportunity to simultaneously reduce their exposure to water scarcity and fuel price risk. In this study, we assess how switching from coal to natural gas and solar changes a utility's financial exposure to drought. We model impacts on retail prices and a utility's rate of return under current conditions and non-stationarity in natural gas prices and temperature and streamflows to determine whether increased exposure to natural gas prices offsets corresponding gains in water use efficiency. We also evaluate whether utility scale solar is an effective hedge

  15. Atmospheric particulate matter in proximity to mountaintop coal mines: Sources and potential environmental and human health impacts

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Kurth, Laura; Kolker, Allan; Engle, Mark A.; Geboy, Nicholas J.; Hendryx, Michael; Orem, William H.; McCawley, Michael; Crosby, Lynn M.; Tatu, Calin A.; Varonka, Matthew S.; DeVera, Christina A.

    2015-01-01

    Mountaintop removal mining (MTM) is a widely used approach to surface coal mining in the US Appalachian region whereby large volumes of coal overburden are excavated using explosives, removed, and transferred to nearby drainages below MTM operations. To investigate the air quality impact of MTM, the geochemical characteristics of atmospheric particulate matter (PM) from five surface mining sites in south central West Virginia, USA, and five in-state study control sites having only underground coal mining or no coal mining whatsoever were determined and compared. Epidemiologic studies show increased rates of cancer, respiratory disease, cardiovascular disease, and overall mortality in Appalachian surface mining areas compared to Appalachian non-mining areas. In the present study, 24-h coarse (>2.5 µm) and fine (≤2.5 µm) PM samples were collected from two surface mining sites in June 2011 showed pronounced enrichment in elements having a crustal affinity (Ga, Al, Ge, Rb, La, Ce) contributed by local sources, relative to controls. Follow-up sampling in August 2011 lacked this enrichment, suggesting that PM input from local sources is intermittent. Using passive samplers, dry deposition total PM elemental fluxes calculated for three surface mining sites over multi-day intervals between May and August 2012 were 5.8 ± 1.5 times higher for crustal elements than at controls. Scanning microscopy of 2,249 particles showed that primary aluminosilicate PM was prevalent at surface mining sites compared to secondary PM at controls. Additional testing is needed to establish any link between input of lithogenic PM and disease rates in the study area.

  16. Predicting High-Impact Pharmacological Targets by Integrating Transcriptome and Text-Mining Features.

    PubMed

    Mayburd, Anatoly; Baranova, Ancha

    Novel, "outside of the box" approaches are needed for evaluating candidate molecules, especially in oncology. Throughout the years of 2000-2010, the efficiency of drug development fell to barely acceptable levels, and in the second decade of this century, levels have improved only marginally. This dismal condition continues despite unprecedented progress in the development of a variety of high-throughput tools, computational methods, aggregated databases, drug repurposing programs and innovative chemistries. Here we tested a hypothesis that the economic impact of targeting a particular gene product is predictable a priori by employing a combination of transcriptome profiles and quantitative metrics reflecting existing literature. To extract classification features, the gene expression patterns of a posteriori high-impact and low-impact anti-cancer target sets were compared. To minimize the possible bias of text-mining, the number of manuscripts published prior to the first clinical trial or relevant review paper, as well as its first derivative in this interval, were collected and used as quantitative metrics of public interest. By combining the gene expression and literature mining features, a 4-fold enrichment in high-impact targets was produced, resulting in a favourable ROC curve analysis for the top impact targets. The dataset was enriched by the highest impact anti-cancer targets, while demonstrating drastic differences in economic value between high and low-impact targets. Known anti-cancer products of EGFR, ERBB2, CYP19A1/aromatase, MTOR, PTGS2, tubulin, VEGFA, BRAF, PGR, PDGFRA, SRC, REN, CSF1R, CTLA4 and HSP90AA1 genes received the highest scores for predicted impact, while microsomal steroid sulfatase, anticoagulant protein C, p53, CDKN2A, c-Jun, and TNSFS11 were highlighted as most promising research-stage targets. A significant cost reduction may be achieved by a priori impact assessment of targets and ligands before their development or repurposing

  17. Regional ozone impacts of increased natural gas use in the Texas power sector and development in the Eagle Ford shale.

    PubMed

    Pacsi, Adam P; Kimura, Yosuke; McGaughey, Gary; McDonald-Buller, Elena C; Allen, David T

    2015-03-17

    The combined emissions and air quality impacts of electricity generation in the Texas grid and natural gas production in the Eagle Ford shale were estimated at various natural gas price points for the power sector. The increased use of natural gas in the power sector, in place of coal-fired power generation, drove reductions in average daily maximum 8 h ozone concentration of 0.6-1.3 ppb in northeastern Texas for a high ozone episode used in air quality planning. The associated increase in Eagle Ford upstream oil and gas production nitrogen oxide (NOx) emissions caused an estimated local increase, in south Texas, of 0.3-0.7 ppb in the same ozone metric. In addition, the potential ozone impacts of Eagle Ford emissions on nearby urban areas were estimated. On the basis of evidence from this work and a previous study on the Barnett shale, the combined ozone impact of increased natural gas development and use in the power sector is likely to vary regionally and must be analyzed on a case by case basis.

  18. The psychosocial impacts of fly-in fly-out and drive-in drive-out mining on mining employees: a qualitative study.

    PubMed

    Torkington, Amanda May; Larkins, Sarah; Gupta, Tarun Sen

    2011-06-01

    To explore how fly-in fly-out (FIFO) and drive-in drive-out (DIDO) mining affects the psychosocial well-being of miners resident in a rural north Queensland town as well as the sources of support miners identify and use in managing these effects. A descriptive qualitative study, using semistructured interviews. Charters Towers, a rural town in north Queensland, and a remote north-western Queensland mine. Eleven people, resident in or near Charters Towers, currently or formerly employed in FIFO or DIDO mining. Self-reported effects on psychosocial well-being and sources of support. Participants reported positive and negative psychosocial impacts across domains including family life, relationships, social life, work satisfaction, mood, sleep and financial situation. Concerns about the impact on participants' partners were described. Awareness of onsite support, such as Employee Assistance Programs, varied. Other supports included administration staff and nurses or medics. Trusted friends or colleagues at the mine site were considered a preferred means of support. Some, but not most, had experienced coworkers discussing problems with them. A reluctance to seek support was described, with a number of barriers identified. Those having problems might not recognise their own stress and thus not seek support. This study identifies numerous psychosocial impacts on FIFO/DIDO miners and their partners, and provides insights into preferences regarding support. Employee Assistance Programs cannot be relied upon as the sole means of support. Further studies exploring the impact upon and supports for FIFO/DIDO workers and their partners will assist in better understanding these issues. © 2011 The Authors. Australian Journal of Rural Health © National Rural Health Alliance Inc.

  19. Environmental Impact Assessment of Sand Mining from the Small Catchment Rivers in the Southwestern Coast of India: A Case Study

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Sreebha, Sreedharan; Padmalal, Damodaran

    2011-01-01

    In the past few decades, the demand for construction grade sand is increasing in many parts of the world due to rapid economic development and subsequent growth of building activities. This, in many of the occasions, has resulted in indiscriminate mining of sand from instream and floodplain areas leading to severe damages to the river basin environment. The case is rather alarming in the small catchment rivers like those draining the southwestern coast of India due to limited sand resources in their alluvial reaches. Moreover, lack of adequate information on the environmental impact of river sand mining is a major lacuna challenging regulatory efforts in many developing countries. Therefore, a scientific assessment is a pre-requisite in formulating management strategies in the sand mining-hit areas. In this context, a study has been made as a case to address the environmental impact of sand mining from the instream and floodplain areas of three important rivers in the southwestern coast of India namely the Chalakudy, Periyar and Muvattupuzha rivers, whose lowlands host one of the fast developing urban-cum-industrial centre, the Kochi city. The study reveals that an amount of 11.527 million ty-1 of sand (8.764 million ty-1 of instream sand and 2.763 million ty-1 of floodplain sand) is being mined from the midland and lowland reaches of these rivers for construction of buildings and other infrastructural facilities in Kochi city and its satellite townships. Environmental Impact Assessment (EIA) carried out as a part of this investigation shows that the activities associated with mining and processing of sands have not only affected the health of the river ecosystems but also degraded its overbank areas to a large extent. Considering the degree of degradation caused by sand mining from these rivers, no mining scenario may be opted in the deeper zones of the river channels. Also, a set of suggestions are made for the overall improvement of the rivers and its

  20. Underground pumped storage hydroelectricity using abandoned works (deep mines or open pits) and the impact on groundwater flow

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Pujades, Estanislao; Willems, Thibault; Bodeux, Sarah; Orban, Philippe; Dassargues, Alain

    2016-09-01

    Underground pumped storage hydroelectricity (UPSH) plants using open-pit or deep mines can be used in flat regions to store the excess of electricity produced during low-demand energy periods. It is essential to consider the interaction between UPSH plants and the surrounding geological media. There has been little work on the assessment of associated groundwater flow impacts. The impacts on groundwater flow are determined numerically using a simplified numerical model which is assumed to be representative of open-pit and deep mines. The main impact consists of oscillation of the piezometric head, and its magnitude depends on the characteristics of the aquifer/geological medium, the mine and the pumping and injection intervals. If an average piezometric head is considered, it drops at early times after the start of the UPSH plant activity and then recovers progressively. The most favorable hydrogeological conditions to minimize impacts are evaluated by comparing several scenarios. The impact magnitude will be lower in geological media with low hydraulic diffusivity; however, the parameter that plays the more important role is the volume of water stored in the mine. Its variation modifies considerably the groundwater flow impacts. Finally, the problem is studied analytically and some solutions are proposed to approximate the impacts, allowing a quick screening of favorable locations for future UPSH plants.

  1. Bacteria and Genes Involved in Arsenic Speciation in Sediment Impacted by Long-Term Gold Mining

    PubMed Central

    Costa, Patrícia S.; Scholte, Larissa L. S.; Reis, Mariana P.; Chaves, Anderson V.; Oliveira, Pollyanna L.; Itabayana, Luiza B.; Suhadolnik, Maria Luiza S.; Barbosa, Francisco A. R.; Chartone-Souza, Edmar; Nascimento, Andréa M. A.

    2014-01-01

    The bacterial community and genes involved in geobiocycling of arsenic (As) from sediment impacted by long-term gold mining were characterized through culture-based analysis of As-transforming bacteria and metagenomic studies of the arsC, arrA, and aioA genes. Sediment was collected from the historically gold mining impacted Mina stream, located in one of the world’s largest mining regions known as the “Iron Quadrangle”. A total of 123 As-resistant bacteria were recovered from the enrichment cultures, which were phenotypically and genotypically characterized for As-transformation. A diverse As-resistant bacteria community was found through phylogenetic analyses of the 16S rRNA gene. Bacterial isolates were affiliated with Proteobacteria, Firmicutes, and Actinobacteria and were represented by 20 genera. Most were AsV-reducing (72%), whereas AsIII-oxidizing accounted for 20%. Bacteria harboring the arsC gene predominated (85%), followed by aioA (20%) and arrA (7%). Additionally, we identified two novel As-transforming genera, Thermomonas and Pannonibacter. Metagenomic analysis of arsC, aioA, and arrA sequences confirmed the presence of these genes, with arrA sequences being more closely related to uncultured organisms. Evolutionary analyses revealed high genetic similarity between some arsC and aioA sequences obtained from isolates and clone libraries, suggesting that those isolates may represent environmentally important bacteria acting in As speciation. In addition, our findings show that the diversity of arrA genes is wider than earlier described, once none arrA-OTUs were affiliated with known reference strains. Therefore, the molecular diversity of arrA genes is far from being fully explored deserving further attention. PMID:24755825

  2. Selenium transformation in coal mine spoils: Its environmental impact assessment. Final report

    SciTech Connect

    Harness, J.; Atalay, A.; Koll, K.J.; Zhang, H.; Maggon, D.

    1991-12-31

    The objective of this program was to conduct an environmental impact assessment study for selenium from coal mine spoils. The use of in-situ lysimetry to predict selenium speciation, transformation, and mobility under natural conditions was evaluated. The scope of the study was to construct and test field-scale lysimeter and laboratory mini-column to assess mobility and speciation of selenium in coal mine overburden and soil systems; to conduct soil and groundwater sampling throughout the state of Oklahoma for an overall environmental impact assessment of selenium; and to conduct an in-depth literature review on the solubility, speciation, mobility, and toxicity of selenium from various sources. Groundwater and surface soil samples were also collected from each county in Oklahoma. Data collected from the lysimeter study indicated that selenium in the overburden of the abandoned mine site was mainly found in the selenite form. The amount of selenite found was too low and immobile to be of concern to the environment. The spoil had equilibrated long enough (over 50 years) that most of the soluble forms of selenium have already been lost. Examination of the overburden indicated the presence of pyrite crystals that precipitated over time. The laboratory mini-column study indicated that selenite is quite immobile and remained on the overburden material even after leaching with dilute acid. Data from groundwater samples indicated that based on the current permissible level for selenium in groundwater (0.01 mg Se/L), Oklahoma groundwater is widely contaminated with the element. However, according to the new regulation (0.05 mg Se/L), which is to be promulgated in 1992, only 9 of the 77 counties in the state exceed the limit.

  3. H.R. 2877: A Bill to require the Secretary of the Interior to determine the impact of leasing Federal lands for coal mining, on the existing mining industry prior to issuing Federal coal mining leases, and for other purposes. Introduced in the House of Representatives, One Hundred Third Congress, First Session, August 5, 1993

    SciTech Connect

    1993-12-31

    The report H.R. 2877 is a bill to require the Secretary of the Interior to determine the impact of leasing Federal lands for coal mining, on the existing mining industry prior to issuing Federal coal mining leases. The proposed legislative text is included.

  4. Impact of post-mining subsidence on nitrogen transformation in southern tropical dry deciduous forest, India

    SciTech Connect

    Tripathi, N.; Singh, R.S.; Singh, J.S.

    2009-04-15

    The goal of our research was to assess the impact of post-mining land subsidence, caused due to underground coal mining operations, on fine root biomass and root tips count; plant available nutrient status, microbial biomass N (MBN) and N-mineralization rates of a Southern tropical dry deciduous forest of Singareni Coalfields of India. The changes were quantified in all the three (rainy, winter and summer) seasons, in slope and depression microsites of the subsided land and an adjacent undamaged forest microsite. Physico-chemical characteristics were found to be altered after subsidence, showing a positive impact of subsidence on soil moisture, bulk density, water holding capacity, organic carbon content, total N and total P. The increase in all the parameters was found in depression microsites, while in slope microsites, the values were lower. Fine root biomass and root tips count increased in the subsided depression microsites, as demonstrated by increases of 62% and 45%, respectively. Soil nitrate-N and phosphate-P concentrations were also found to be higher in depression microsite, showing an increase of 35.68% and 24.74%, respectively. Depression microsite has also shown the higher MBN value with an increase over control. Net nitrification, net N-mineralization and MBN were increased in depression microsite by 29.77%, 25.72% and 34%, respectively. There was a positive relation of microbial N with organic C, fine root biomass and root tips.

  5. Restoration as mitigation: analysis of stream mitigation for coal mining impacts in southern Appalachia.

    PubMed

    Palmer, Margaret A; Hondula, Kelly L

    2014-09-16

    Compensatory mitigation is commonly used to replace aquatic natural resources being lost or degraded but little is known about the success of stream mitigation. This article presents a synthesis of information about 434 stream mitigation projects from 117 permits for surface mining in Appalachia. Data from annual monitoring reports indicate that the ratio of lengths of stream impacted to lengths of stream mitigation projects were <1 for many projects, and most mitigation was implemented on perennial streams while most impacts were to ephemeral and intermittent streams. Regulatory requirements for assessing project outcome were minimal; visual assessments were the most common and 97% of the projects reported suboptimal or marginal habitat even after 5 years of monitoring. Less than a third of the projects provided biotic or chemical data; most of these were impaired with biotic indices below state standards and stream conductivity exceeding federal water quality criteria. Levels of selenium known to impair aquatic life were reported in 7 of the 11 projects that provided Se data. Overall, the data show that mitigation efforts being implemented in southern Appalachia for coal mining are not meeting the objectives of the Clean Water Act to replace lost or degraded streams ecosystems and their functions.

  6. Simulation of metals transport and toxicity at a mine-impacted watershed: California Gulch, Colorado.

    PubMed

    Velleux, Mark L; Julien, Pierre Y; Rojas-Sanchez, Rosalia; Clements, William H; England, John F

    2006-11-15

    The transport and toxicity of metals at the California Gulch, Colorado mine-impacted watershed were simulated with a spatially distributed watershed model. Using a database of observations for the period 1984-2004, hydrology, sediment transport, and metals transport were simulated for a June 2003 calibration event and a September 2003 validation event. Simulated flow volumes were within approximately 10% of observed conditions. Observed ranges of total suspended solids, cadmium, copper, and zinc concentrations were also successfully simulated. The model was then used to simulate the potential impacts of a 1-in-100-year rainfall event. Driven by large flows and corresponding soil and sediment erosion for the 1-in-100-year event, estimated solids and metals export from the watershed is 10,000 metric tons for solids, 215 kg for Cu, 520 kg for Cu, and 15,300 kg for Zn. As expressed by the cumulative criterion unit (CCU) index, metals concentrations far exceed toxic effects thresholds, suggesting a high probability of toxic effects downstream of the gulch. More detailed Zn source analyses suggest that much of the Zn exported from the gulch originates from slag piles adjacent to the lower gulch floodplain and an old mining site located near the head of the lower gulch.

  7. Abandoned mined land impacts on water and sediment quality, and invertebrate assemblages in two Virginia watersheds

    SciTech Connect

    Yeager, J.L.; Bidwell, J.R.; Cherry, D.S.; Zipper, C.E.

    1996-12-31

    The constituents of abandoned mined land (AML) discharges (acidic pH, metals, dissolved solids, total suspended solids) can be toxic to aquatic life. Studies were undertaken to determine environmental impacts of acid mine drainage (AMD), a component of AML, in the Black Creek and Ely Creek watersheds, Wise and Lee Counties, Virginia. Conductivity and pH in the stream were measured to survey the magnitude of AMD discharge within each system. Water, sediment and water/sediment mixtures that simulate storm events were analyzed for metal content (Al, Fe, Mn, Zn, Cu, Mg). Benthic macroinvertebrates were collected seasonally using D-framed nets to determine AMD effects on relative abundance and taxon richness. Acidic pH ranged from 2.15-3.30 at three AMD-influenced seeps and varied from 6.40-8.00 at reference stations. Conductivity ({mu}mhos/cm) ranged from 32-278 at reference sites and from 245 to >6000 at AMD-impact sites. Benthic macroinvertebrate abundance and taxon richness were notably lower in the seeps having only 1-3 taxa totalling < 10 organisms as compared to reference areas where richness values were 12-17 and comprised 300-977 organisms. Sediments from selected areas within Black Creek caused significant reductions in Daphnia magna reproduction relative to reference site sediments in 10 day chronic toxicity test. Concentrations of Fe, Al, Mg, Cu, and Zn were highest in the AMD influenced stations with low pH and high conductivity.

  8. An application of input-output analysis in analyzing the impacts of final demands changes on the total outputs of Japanese energy sectors: A further study

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Zuhdi, Ubaidillah

    2015-06-01

    The purpose of this study is to continue the previous study which discussed the impacts of final demands changes on the total outputs of Japanese energy sectors. More specifically, this study aims to conduct a deeper analysis regarding these impacts. This study employs a demand-pull Input- Output (IO) quantity model, one of the calculation instruments in IO analysis, as a tool of analysis. This study focuses on two sectors, namely (1) petroleum refinery products, and (2) non-ferrous metals. Two conditions are considered in the analysis part, namely (1) “whole sector change”, and (2) “pure change”. The results show that in both conditions, both discussed sectors have similar patterns. The results also explain that, in both conditions, the biggest positive impact for the sector of petroleum refinery products is given by scenario 4, the modification of consumption expenditures of private.

  9. Estimation Of The Mining Damage Risk In The Hypothetical Impact Area Of The Concurrent Processes Of Rock Mass Disorders

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Piwowarski, Wiesław; Isakow, Zbigniew; Juzwa, Jacek

    2015-12-01

    The aim of this work is the estimation of the risk of mining damage occurrence, based on uncertain information regarding the impact of the concurrent processes of deformation and vibration. This problem concerns the experimental and theoretical description of the so-called critical phenomena occurring during the reaction mining area ↔ building object. Post-mining deformations of the rock mass medium and paraseismic vibrations can appear at a considerable distance from the sub-area of the mining operation - hence, the determination of the measures of their impacts is usually somewhat subjective, while the estimation of the mining damage based on deterministic methods is often insufficient. It is difficult to show the correlation between the local maximum of the impact of the velocity vector amplitude and the damage to the building - especially if the measures of interaction are not additive. The parameters of these impacts, as registered by measurements, form finite sets with a highly random character. Formally, it is adequate to the mapping from the probability space to the power set. For the purposes of the present study, the Dempster - Shafer model was used, where space is characterised by subadditive and superadditive measures. Regarding the application layer, the conclusions from the expert evaluations are assumed to be the values of random variables. The model was defined, and the risk of damage occurrence was estimated.

  10. Impacts of historical mining in the Coeur d'Alene River Basin

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Balistrieri, Laurie S.; Box, Stephen E.; Bookstrom, Arthur A.; Hooper, Robert L.; Mahoney, J. Brian

    2010-01-01

    Mining began in the late 1880s in the Coeur d'Alene mining district in northern Idaho (fig. 1). Although only two mines, the Galena and Lucky Friday, currently are operating, more than 90 historical mines exist in this region (Bennett and others, 1989).

  11. Impact assessment of chromite mining on groundwater through simulation modeling study in Sukinda chromite mining area, Orissa, India.

    PubMed

    Dhakate, Ratnakar; Singh, V S; Hodlur, G K

    2008-12-30

    The pre-Cambrian chromites ore deposits in Sukinda valley, Jajpur District, Orissa, India, are well known for chromite ore deposits. The exploitation of the ore is carried out through open cast mining method since the last few decades. In the process, the overburden and ore dumps are stored on ground surface, where leaching of chromite and other toxic element takes place particularly during monsoon seasons. This leachate may cause threat to groundwater in the vicinity. An integrated approach has been adopted to evaluate possibility of pollution due to mine seepage and leachate migration on groundwater regime. The approach involves geophysical, hydrogeological, hydro-chemical and aquifer modeling studies. The investigation has the significance as many habitats surround the mining area facing groundwater problems.

  12. Stream-sediment geochemistry in mining-impacted streams: Prichard, Eagle, and Beaver creeks, northern Coeur d'Alene Mining District, northern Idaho

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Box, Stephen E.; Wallis, John C.; Briggs, Paul H.; Brown, Zoe Ann

    2005-01-01

    This report presents the results of one aspect of an integrated watershed-characterization study that was undertaken to assess the impacts of historical mining and milling of silver-lead-zinc ores on water and sediment composition and on aquatic biota in streams draining the northern part of the Coeur d?Alene Mining District in northern Idaho. We present the results of chemical analyses of 62 samples of streambed sediment, 19 samples of suspended sediment, 23 samples of streambank soil, and 29 samples of mine- and mill-related artificial- fill material collected from the drainages of Prichard, Eagle, and Beaver Creeks, all tributaries to the North Fork of the Coeur d?Alene River. All samples were sieved into three grain-size fractions (<0.063, 0.063?0.25, and 0.25?1.0 mm) and analyzed for 40 elements after four-acid digestion by inductively coupled plasma atomic-emission spectrometry and for mercury by continuous- flow cold-vapor atomic-absorption spectrometry in the U.S. Geological Survey laboratory in Denver, Colo. Historical mining of silver-lead-zinc ores in the headwater reaches of the Prichard Creek, Eagle Creek, and Beaver Creek drainages has resulted in enrichments of lead, zinc, mercury, arsenic, cadmium, silver, copper, cobalt, and, to a lesser extent, iron and manganese in streambed sediment. Using samples collected from the relatively unimpacted West Fork of Eagle Creek as representative of background compositions, streambed sediment in the vicinity of the mines and millsites has Pb and Zn contents of 20 to 100 times background values, decreasing to 2 to 5 times background values at the mouth of the each stream, 15 to 20 km downstream. Lesser enrichments (<10 times background values) of mercury and arsenic also are generally associated with, and decrease downstream from, historical silver-lead-zinc mining in the drainages. However, enrichments of arsenic and, to a lesser extent, mercury also are areally associated with the lode gold deposits along

  13. Impact of trace metals from past mining on the aquatic ecosystem: a multi-proxy approach in the Morvan (France).

    PubMed

    Camizuli, E; Monna, F; Scheifler, R; Amiotte-Suchet, P; Losno, R; Beis, P; Bohard, B; Chateau, C; Alibert, P

    2014-10-01

    This study seeks to determine to what extent trace metals resulting from past mining activities are transferred to the aquatic ecosystem, and whether such trace metals still exert deleterious effects on biota. Concentrations of Cd, Cu, Pb and Zn were measured in streambed sediments, transplanted bryophytes and wild brown trout. This study was conducted at two scales: (i) the entire Morvan Regional Nature Park and (ii) three small watersheds selected for their degree of contamination, based on the presence or absence of past mining sites. The overall quality of streambed sediments was assessed using Sediment Quality Indices (SQIs). According to these standard guidelines, more than 96% of the sediments sampled should not represent a threat to biota. Nonetheless, in watersheds where past mining occurred, SQIs are significantly lower. Transplanted bryophytes at these sites consistently present higher trace metal concentrations. For wild brown trout, the scaled mass and liver indices appear to be negatively correlated with liver Pb concentrations, but there are no obvious relationships between past mining and liver metal concentrations or the developmental instability of specimens. Although the impact of past mining and metallurgical works is apparently not as strong as that usually observed in modern mining sites, it is still traceable. For this reason, past mining sites should be monitored, particularly in protected areas erroneously thought to be free of anthropogenic contamination.

  14. Nanominerals and potentially hazardous elements from coal cleaning rejects of abandoned mines: Environmental impact and risk assessment.

    PubMed

    Fdez-Ortiz de Vallejuelo, Silvia; Gredilla, Ainara; da Boit, Kátia; Teixeira, Elba C; Sampaio, Carlos H; Madariaga, Juan Manuel; Silva, Luis F O

    2017-02-01

    Soils around coal mining are important reservoir of hazardous elements (HEs), nanominerals, and ultrafine compounds. This research reports and discusses the soil concentrations of HEs (As, Cd, Cr, Cu, Ni, Pb, and Zn) in coal residues of abandoned mines. To assess differences regarding environmental impact and risk assessment between coal abandoned mines from the Santa Catarina state, eighteen coal cleaning rejects with different mineralogical and chemical composition, from eight abandoned mines were collected. Nanominerals and ultra-fine minerals from mining-contaminated areas were analyzed by X-ray diffraction (XRD), field emission scanning electron microscopy (FE-SEM), and high-resolution transmission electron microscope (HR-TEM), providing new information on the mineralogy and nano-mineralogy of these coal residues. The total contents of 57 elements (HEs, alkali metals, and rare earth elements) were analyzed by Inductively Coupled Plasma Mass Spectrometry (ICP-MS). The calculation of NWACs (Normalized Average Weighted Concentration), together with the chemometric analysis by Principal component analysis (PCA) confirmed the variability of the samples regarding their city and their mine of origin. Moreover, the results confirmed the existence of hotspots in mines near urban areas.

  15. Environmental impact assessment of tailings dispersal from a uranium mine using toxicity testing protocols

    SciTech Connect

    Rippon, G.D.; Riley, S.J.

    1996-12-01

    Toxicity testing is a means of establishing the environmental risk of uranium tailings release. It is valuable in designing tailings containment structures because it assists in setting acceptable levels of risk of the design. This paper presents details of toxicity tests of the tailings from Ranger Uranium Mine, Northern Territory, Australia. The results suggest that the non-radiological toxicity of the tailings is low. The environmental risk of a tailings release is more likely to be related to the physical impacts of the tailings, including infilling of billabongs and changes in the sedimentology of riparian ecosystems rather than their biogeochemical impact. Two major results were: (1) water from treatment with washed tailing fines was not toxic to Hydra viridissima, and (2) mixtures of washed tailings fines and natural floodplain sediment (overlying water or elutriates) were not toxic to Hydra viridissima or Moinodaphnia macleayi. 33 refs., 4 figs., 3 tabs.

  16. Environmental and socioeconomic assessment of impacts by mining activities-a case study in the Certej River catchment, Western Carpathians, Romania.

    PubMed

    Zobrist, Jürg; Sima, Mihaela; Dogaru, Diana; Senila, Marin; Yang, Hong; Popescu, Claudia; Roman, Cecilia; Bela, Abraham; Frei, Linda; Dold, Bernhard; Balteanu, Dan

    2009-08-01

    In the region of the Apuseni Mountains, part of the Western Carpathians in Romania, metal mining activities have a long-standing tradition. These mining industries created a clearly beneficial economic development in the region. But their activities also caused impairments to the environment, such as acid mine drainage (AMD) resulting in long-lasting heavy metal pollution of waters and sediments. The study, established in the context of the ESTROM programme, investigated the impact of metal mining activities both from environmental and socioeconomic perspectives and tried to incorporate the results of the two approaches into an integrated proposition for mitigation of mining-related issues. The small Certej catchment, situated in the Southern Apuseni Mountains, covers an area of 78 km(2). About 4,500 inhabitants are living in the basin, in which metal mining was the main economic sector. An open pit and several abandoned underground mines are producing heavy metal-loaded acidic water that is discharged untreated into the main river. The solid wastes of mineral processing plants were deposited in several dumps and tailings impoundment embodying the acidic water-producing mineral pyrite. The natural science team collected samples from surface waters, drinking water from dug wells and from groundwater. Filtered and total heavy metals, both after enrichment, and major cations were analysed by inductively coupled plasma optical emission spectroscopy (ICP-OES). Major anions in waters, measured by ion chromatography, alkalinity and acidity were determined by titration. Solid samples were taken from river sediments and from the largest tailings dam. The latter were characterised by X-ray fluorescence and X-ray diffraction. Heavy metals in sediments were analysed after digestion. Simultaneously, the socioeconomic team performed a household survey to evaluate the perception of people related to the river and drinking water pollution by way of a logistic regression analysis

  17. Procedures for predictive analysis of selected hydrologic impacts of surface mining. Final report Sep 76-Sep 81

    SciTech Connect

    McWhorter, D.B.

    1982-08-01

    This report presents a methodology for the prediction of selected hydrologic impacts of surface coal mining. Procedures for estimation of the chemical and hydrologic parameters required by an algebraic water quality model are provided. The model predicts the long term mean dissolved solids concentration in combined direct and sub-surface runoff from a watershed partially disturbed by mining. The computational procedure is demonstrated in a step-by-step calculation for a mine site in Colorado. The predicted results are in satisfactory agreement with short term (2 and 3 year) observations. Procedures for determining the transmissivity of coal and overburden aquifers from single-hole aquifer tests are provided. The procedures permit the analysis of recovery data, affected by well-bore storage, following a prolonged pumping period. Well-bore storage is an important effect in the recovery of low transmissivity aquifers often encountered in coal mining related hydrology.

  18. A history of mining activity in Celtic Aeduan territory, and its environmental impact (Morvan, France)

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Monna, F.; Petit, C.; Guillaumet, J.-P.; Jouffroy, I.; Blanchot, C.; Dominik, J.; Losno, R.; Richard, H.; Lévêque, J.

    2003-04-01

    Described by Caesar in "de Bello Gallico" in 58 BC as one of the greatest and richest oppida of Gaul, Bibracte was the capital of the vast Aeduan territory. It was strategically located at the top of Mount Beuvray, which is also one of the highest points of the granitic Morvan. Geomorphological anomalies, such as wide trenches and gullies, have recently been discovered and interpreted as mining excavations. On this basis, some archaeologists have assumed that early settlers were attracted by the abundance of mineral resources. However, this assumption is not yet an established fact, because of the lack of clear field evidence. Proof of early local mining exploitation may have been destroyed, buried or masked when the city of Bibracte was built. As a consequence, we searched for indirect evidence, such as any impact of these metallurgical activities on the surrounding environment. Elemental and lead isotopic compositions were therefore measured in a 2m peat core sampled around Mount Beuvray (Glux, Port-des-Lamberts) recording the last four millennia of atmospheric deposition. Pollen analysis was also performed to verify the impact of local mining on nearby vegetation, if any. Pb isotopic and concentration profiles show anthropogenic inputs starting from ca 1300 BC, and intensifying during Aeduan occupation (ca 200 BC - 20 BC). After a long phase of recession, inputs start again during the 11th century, and finally increase exponentially from the Industrial Revolution to present times. Compared to Zn, Cu and Sb, which do not present clear trends, the integrity of the lead signal is demonstrated by frequent and spectacular changes in the isotopic feature of the anthropogenic component, so that the isotopic profile cannot be explained by post-deposition migration processes. The origin of the pollution is local. Each phase of activity comes with a drastic fall of fagus taxa, interpreted as a selective deforestation consequent to the increase in energy demands

  19. THEORETICAL TECHNIQUE FOR DETERMINING THE CUMULATIVE IMPACT OF IRON AND MANGANESE OXIDATION IN STREAMS RECEIVING COAL-MINE DISCHARGE.

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Bobay, Keith E.; Banaszak, Konrad J.; ,

    1985-01-01

    Two U. S. Geological Survey computer programs are modified and linked to predict the cumulative impact of iron and manganese oxidation in coal-mine discharge on the dissolved-chemical quality of a receiving stream. The coupled programs calculate the changes in dissolved-iron, dissolved-manganese, and dissolved-oxygen concentrations, and the pH of surface water downstream from the discharge. The cumulative impact of representative discharges from several coal mines on stream quality in a small watershed in southwestern Indiana was simulated to determine the effectiveness and sensitivity of the coupled programs.

  20. Long-term integrated river basin planning and management of water quantity and water quality in mining impacted catchments

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Pohle, Ina; Zimmermann, Kai; Claus, Thomas; Koch, Hagen; Gädeke, Anne; Uhlmann, Wilfried; Kaltofen, Michael; Müller, Fabian; Redetzky, Michael; Schramm, Martina; Schoenheinz, Dagmar; Grünewald, Uwe

    2015-04-01

    During the last decades, socioeconomic change in the catchment of the Spree River, a tributary of the Elbe, has been to a large extent associated with lignite mining activities and the rapid decrease of these activities in the 1990s. There are multiple interconnections between lignite mining and water management both in terms of water quantity and quality. During the active mining period a large-scale groundwater depression cone has been formed while river discharges have been artificially increased. Now, the decommissioned opencast mines are being transformed into Europe's largest man-made lake district. However, acid mine drainage causes low pH in post mining lakes and high concentrations of iron and sulphate in post mining lakes and the river system. Next to potential changes in mining activities, also the potential impacts of climate change (increasing temperature and decreasing precipitation) on water resources of the region are of major interest. The fundamental question is to what extent problems in terms of water quantity and water quality are exacerbated and whether they can be mitigated by adaptation measures. In consequence, long term water resource planning in the region has to formulate adaptation measures to climate change and socioeconomic change in terms of mining activities which consider both, water quantity and water quality aspects. To assess potential impacts of climate and socioeconomic change on water quantity and water quality of the Spree River catchment up to the Spremberg reservoir in the scenario period up to 2052, we used a model chain which consists of (i) the regional climate model STAR (scenarios with a further increase in temperature of 0 and 2 K), (ii) mining scenarios (mining discharges, cooling water consumption of thermal power plants), (iii) the ecohydrological model SWIM (natural water balance), (iv) the long term water management model WBalMo (managed discharges, withdrawal of water users, reservoir operation) and (v) the

  1. Conceptualizing the impacts of dual practice on the retention of public sector specialists - evidence from South Africa.

    PubMed

    Ashmore, John; Gilson, Lucy

    2015-01-19

    'Dual practice', or multiple job holding, generally involves public sector-based health workers taking additional work in the private sector. This form of the practice is purported to help retain public health care workers in low and middle-income countries' public sectors through additional wage incentives. There has been little conceptual or empirical development of the relationship between dual practice and retention. This article helps begin to fill this gap, drawing on empirical evidence from a qualitative study focusing on South African specialists. Fifty-one repeat, in-depth interviews were carried out with 28 doctors (predominantly specialists) with more than one job, in one public and one private urban hospital. Findings suggest dual practice can impact both positively and negatively on specialists' intention to stay in the public sector. This is through multiple conceptual channels including those previously identified in the literature such as dual practice acting as a 'stepping stone' to private practice by reducing migration costs. Dual practice can also lead specialists to re-evaluate how they compare public and private jobs, and to overworking which can expedite decisions on whether to stay in the public sector or leave. Numerous respondents undertook dual practice without official permission. The idea that dual practice helps retain public specialists in South Africa may be overstated. Yet banning the practice may be ineffective, given many undertake it without permission in any case. Regulation should be better enforced to ensure dual practice is not abused. The conceptual framework developed in this article could form a basis for further qualitative and quantitative inquiry.

  2. Feasibility of a continuous surface mining machine using impact breakers. Phase I report, 1 October 1979-31 March 1980

    SciTech Connect

    Fisk, A. T.; Simpson, R. J.

    1980-04-01

    This is the first phase report of the efforts to evaluate the feasibility of excavating coal and overburden from surface mines using impact breakers. Phase I is divided into four task groups. Those tasks are as follows: Selection of Field Sites for Parametric, Selection of Impact Hammers for Field, Design Test System, and Prepare Parametric Test Plan. A detailed description and accounting of each task is given in the body of this report. Included as appendices are the FMA internal reports on the individual mines visited. These reports are the basis of test site selection. The basic finding of this phase are that industry interest in the concept of impact mining tends toward the removal of multiple thin seams of coal and parting rather than deep coal or overburden and, while the intent of this contract is to explore the feasibility of impactors in a vertical array for use in a terraced mine plan, future design of a continuous mining machine should take industry acceptance into account.

  3. Impact of fresh tailing deposition on the evolution of groundwater hydrogeochemistry at the abandoned Manitou mine site, Quebec, Canada.

    PubMed

    Maqsoud, Abdelkabir; Neculita, Carmen Mihaela; Bussière, Bruno; Benzaazoua, Mostafa; Dionne, Jean

    2016-05-01

    The abandoned Manitou mine site has produced acid mine drainage (AMD) for several decades. In order to limit the detrimental environmental impacts of AMD, different rehabilitation scenarios were proposed and analyzed. The selected rehabilitation scenario was to use fresh tailings from the neighboring Goldex gold mine as monolayer cover and to maintain an elevated water table. In order to assess the impact of the Goldex tailing deposition on the hydrogeochemistry of the Manitou mine site, a network of 30 piezometers was installed. These piezometers were used for continuous measurement of the groundwater level, as well as for water sampling campaigns for chemical quality monitoring, over a 3-year period. Hydrochemical data were analyzed using principal component analysis. Results clearly showed the benefic impact of fresh tailing deposition on the groundwater quality around the contaminated area. These findings were also confirmed by the evolution of electrical conductivity. In addition to the improvement of the physicochemical quality of water on the Manitou mine site, new tailing deposition induced an increase of water table level. However, at this time, the Manitou reactive tailings are not completely submerged and possible oxidation might still occur, especially after ceasing of the fresh tailing deposition. Therefore, complementary rehabilitation scenarios should still be considered.

  4. Impact of historical mining assessed in soils by kinetic extraction and lead isotopic ratios.

    PubMed

    Camizuli, E; Monna, F; Bermond, A; Manouchehri, N; Besançon, S; Losno, R; van Oort, F; Labanowski, J; Perreira, A; Chateau, C; Alibert, P

    2014-02-15

    The aim of this study is to estimate the long-term behaviour of trace metals, in two soils differently impacted by past mining. Topsoils from two 1 km(2) zones in the forested Morvan massif (France) were sampled to assess the spatial distribution of Cd, Cu, Pb and Zn. The first zone had been contaminated by historical mining. As expected, it exhibits higher trace-metal levels and greater spatial heterogeneity than the second non-contaminated zone, supposed to represent the local background. One soil profile from each zone was investigated in detail to estimate metal behaviour, and hence, bioavailability. Kinetic extractions were performed using EDTA on three samples: the A horizon from both soil profiles and the B horizon from the contaminated soil. For all three samples, kinetic extractions can be modelled by two first-order reactions. Similar kinetic behaviour was observed for all metals, but more metal was extracted from the contaminated A horizon than from the B horizon. More surprising is the general predominance of the residual fraction over the "labile" and "less labile" pools. Past anthropogenic inputs may have percolated over time through the soil profiles because of acidic pH conditions. Stable organo-metallic complexes may also have been formed over time, reducing metal availability. These processes are not mutually exclusive. After kinetic extraction, the lead isotopic compositions of the samples exhibited different signatures, related to contamination history and intrinsic soil parameters. However, no variation in lead signature was observed during the extraction experiment, demonstrating that the "labile" and "less labile" lead pools do not differ in terms of origin. Even if trace metals resulting from past mining and metallurgy persist in soils long after these activities have ceased, kinetic extractions suggest that metals, at least for these particular forest soils, do not represent a threat for biota.

  5. Long-term impacts on macroinvertebrates downstream of reclaimed mountaintop mining valley fills in Central Appalachia.

    PubMed

    Pond, Gregory J; Passmore, Margaret E; Pointon, Nancy D; Felbinger, John K; Walker, Craig A; Krock, Kelly J G; Fulton, Jennifer B; Nash, Whitney L

    2014-10-01

    Recent studies have documented adverse effects to biological communities downstream of mountaintop coal mining and valley fills (VF), but few data exist on the longevity of these impacts. We sampled 15 headwater streams with VFs reclaimed 11-33 years prior to 2011 and sampled seven local reference sites that had no VFs. We collected chemical, habitat, and benthic macroinvertebrate data in April 2011; additional chemical samples were collected in September 2011. To assess ecological condition, we compared VF and reference abiotic and biotic data using: (1) ordination to detect multivariate differences, (2) benthic indices (a multimetric index and an observed/expected predictive model) calibrated to state reference conditions to detect impairment, and (3) correlation and regression analysis to detect relationships between biotic and abiotic data. Although VF sites had good instream habitat, nearly 90 % of these streams exhibited biological impairment. VF sites with higher index scores were co-located near unaffected tributaries; we suggest that these tributaries were sources of sensitive taxa as drifting colonists. There were clear losses of expected taxa across most VF sites and two functional feeding groups (% scrapers and %shredders) were significantly altered. Percent VF and forested area were related to biological quality but varied more than individual ions and specific conductance. Within the subset of VF sites, other descriptors (e.g., VF age, site distance from VF, the presence of impoundments, % forest) had no detectable relationships with biological condition. Although these VFs were constructed pursuant to permits and regulatory programs that have as their stated goals that (1) mined land be reclaimed and restored to its original use or a use of higher value, and (2) mining does not cause or contribute to violations of water quality standards, we found sustained ecological damage in headwaters streams draining VFs long after reclamation was completed.

  6. Long-Term Impacts on Macroinvertebrates Downstream of Reclaimed Mountaintop Mining Valley Fills in Central Appalachia

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Pond, Gregory J.; Passmore, Margaret E.; Pointon, Nancy D.; Felbinger, John K.; Walker, Craig A.; Krock, Kelly J. G.; Fulton, Jennifer B.; Nash, Whitney L.

    2014-10-01

    Recent studies have documented adverse effects to biological communities downstream of mountaintop coal mining and valley fills (VF), but few data exist on the longevity of these impacts. We sampled 15 headwater streams with VFs reclaimed 11-33 years prior to 2011 and sampled seven local reference sites that had no VFs. We collected chemical, habitat, and benthic macroinvertebrate data in April 2011; additional chemical samples were collected in September 2011. To assess ecological condition, we compared VF and reference abiotic and biotic data using: (1) ordination to detect multivariate differences, (2) benthic indices (a multimetric index and an observed/expected predictive model) calibrated to state reference conditions to detect impairment, and (3) correlation and regression analysis to detect relationships between biotic and abiotic data. Although VF sites had good instream habitat, nearly 90 % of these streams exhibited biological impairment. VF sites with higher index scores were co-located near unaffected tributaries; we suggest that these tributaries were sources of sensitive taxa as drifting colonists. There were clear losses of expected taxa across most VF sites and two functional feeding groups (% scrapers and %shredders) were significantly altered. Percent VF and forested area were related to biological quality but varied more than individual ions and specific conductance. Within the subset of VF sites, other descriptors (e.g., VF age, site distance from VF, the presence of impoundments, % forest) had no detectable relationships with biological condition. Although these VFs were constructed pursuant to permits and regulatory programs that have as their stated goals that (1) mined land be reclaimed and restored to its original use or a use of higher value, and (2) mining does not cause or contribute to violations of water quality standards, we found sustained ecological damage in headwaters streams draining VFs long after reclamation was completed.

  7. Quantifying the Impacts of Droughts on the Electricity Sector and its Associated Greenhouse Gas Emissions in the American West

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Herrera-Estrada, J. E.; Sheffield, J.

    2016-12-01

    The electricity sector relies heavily on water, as it is needed for hydroelectric generation and to cool thermoelectric power plants. Droughts decrease river and reservoir levels, reducing the affected region's capacity for electricity generation. These cuts in electricity supply have to be replaced by more expensive alternatives with potentially higher associated greenhouse gas emissions (e.g. coal, natural gas, or imports) to meet the region's demand. To date, the quantification of the impacts of droughts on the electricity sector tends to be restricted to individual events, such as the recent California drought. In this work, the impacts of droughts on electricity prices paid by consumers and on greenhouse gas emissions from the electricity sector are calculated over the American West from 2001 to 2014 using monthly data. This region was selected because it falls within the Western Interconnection power grid, because of its important reliance on hydropower, and because it has large areas that are vulnerable to droughts due to their semi-arid climates. Furthermore, this regional approach allows us to quantify the effects of non-local droughts, i.e. droughts in neighboring states that affect electricity imports into a given state. Results show large heterogeneities in the effects of droughts across the region, given the diversity of energy sources used in each state. As expected, the effect of a local drought event on hydroelectricity is largest in California, Oregon, and Washington since they have the highest hydropower capacity. California and Oregon tend to replace a large portion of their lost hydroelectricity with natural gas, while Washington appears to rely more on imports from its neighbors. On the other hand, Montana, Nevada, and Utah, tend to rely more heavily on coal. The results also show that consumers in the residential, commercial, and industrial sectors may sometimes pay millions of dollars more for their electricity use at the state level due to

  8. The Impact of Private Sector Competition on Public Schooling in Kuwait: Some Socio-Educational Implications

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Al-Shehab, Ali Jasem

    2010-01-01

    With the diminishing model of the welfare state, public education in Kuwait is facing the challenges of the competition of private schools, while the private sector has always struggled against the monopolistic power of the public schools that educate a broad spectrum of K-12 students. This article presents estimates of the effect of private…

  9. The Impact of CO2 Emission Reductions on U.S. Electric Sector Water Use

    EPA Science Inventory

    The electric power sector is currently one of the largest water withdrawers and fastest growing water consumers in the U.S. Water supply in the United States is becoming increasingly stressed due to growth in population, per capita energy consumption and industrial water use. At ...

  10. Global forest sector modeling: application to some impacts of climate change

    Treesearch

    Joseph. Buongiorno

    2016-01-01

    This paper explored the potential long-term effects of a warming climate on the global wood sector, based on Way and Oren's synthesis (Tree Physiology 30,669-688) indicating positive responses of tree growth to higher temperature in boreal and temperative climates, and negative responses in the topics. Changes in forest productivity were introduced in the Global...

  11. The Impact of Private Sector Competition on Public Schooling in Kuwait: Some Socio-Educational Implications

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Al-Shehab, Ali Jasem

    2010-01-01

    With the diminishing model of the welfare state, public education in Kuwait is facing the challenges of the competition of private schools, while the private sector has always struggled against the monopolistic power of the public schools that educate a broad spectrum of K-12 students. This article presents estimates of the effect of private…

  12. How to Enhance the Impact of Training on Service Quality? Evidence from Malaysian Public Sector Context

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Zumrah, Abdul Rahim

    2015-01-01

    Purpose: The purpose of this study is to highlight the importance role of transfer of training as a mediator in the relationship between training and service quality. Design/methodology/approach: The data of this study were collected from three sources: the employees of public sector organizations in Malaysia who participated in a Basic Financial…

  13. The Impact of CO2 Emission Reduction on U.S. Electric Sector Water Use

    EPA Science Inventory

    The electric power sector is currently one of the largest water withdrawers and fastest growing water consumers in the U.S. Water supply in the United States is becoming increasingly stressed due to growth in population, per capita energy consumption and industrial water use. A...

  14. Reaganomics: Its Impact on the Voluntary Not-for-Profit Sector.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Demone, Harold W., Jr.; Gibelman, Margaret

    1984-01-01

    Uses several data sources to analyze the effects of reduced funding for human services on the voluntary sector in relation to services offered, use of professional personnel, reliance on service contracts, financing patterns, compensatory responses, and use of volunteers. Comments on the future status of volunteerism. (JAC)

  15. Impacts of irrigation network sectoring as an energy saving measure on olive grove production.

    PubMed

    Navarro Navajas, J M; Montesinos, P; Poyato, E Camacho; Rodríguez Díaz, J A

    2012-11-30

    In recent years, improving water use efficiency has been one of the most important challenges for the agricultural sector. However, such improvements have led to the installation of pressurized irrigation systems which generally require more energy to operate, especially in plantations on sloping and mountainous lands. Thus, the reduction of energy use in these systems has also become a major issue. Irrigation network sectoring has been proposed as one of the most effective energy saving measures. Typically, however, the potential benefits of this management strategy have been evaluated by means of theoretical approaches in networks that were originally designed to supply water on demand and not after water application in real irrigation districts designed following sectoring strategies. In this work, this measure is applied to an irrigation district devoted to olive grove production in a mountainous area that was designed according to this management strategy. With this aim, the WEBSO (Water and Energy Based Sectoring Operation) algorithm, which was developed in a previous work, has been modified in order to take into account the specific characteristics of the irrigation district and its actual management, as well as to analyze sensitivity to several irrigation water depths in terms of both energy demand and yields. An economic analysis of the potential benefits of this management strategy is also carried out. The results show that this measure has lead to a nearly 30% reduction in energy consumption, while increasing farmers' profits by 13% compared to traditional on-demand operations. Copyright © 2012 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  16. Assessing the Impact of Trade Policy and Technology Changes in the U.S. Forestry Sectors

    Treesearch

    Lan Wu; Janaki Alavalapati; Douglas Carter; David N. Wear; Gouranga Das

    2002-01-01

    Increased trade liberalization and globalization of financial markets are influencing both the demand for and supply of forest products in the U.S. Meanwhile, more innovations are introduced into the U.S. forestry sectors to meet the growing demands for forest products. Since the U.S. is the largest producer and consumer of forest products in the world, these changes...

  17. How to Enhance the Impact of Training on Service Quality? Evidence from Malaysian Public Sector Context

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Zumrah, Abdul Rahim

    2015-01-01

    Purpose: The purpose of this study is to highlight the importance role of transfer of training as a mediator in the relationship between training and service quality. Design/methodology/approach: The data of this study were collected from three sources: the employees of public sector organizations in Malaysia who participated in a Basic Financial…

  18. The Impact of CO2 Emission Reduction on U.S. Electric Sector Water Use

    EPA Science Inventory

    The electric power sector is currently one of the largest water withdrawers and fastest growing water consumers in the U.S. Water supply in the United States is becoming increasingly stressed due to growth in population, per capita energy consumption and industrial water use. A...

  19. Tuning in to Local Labor Markets: Findings from the Sectoral Employment Impact Study

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Maguire, Sheila; Freely, Joshua; Clymer, Carol; Conway, Maureen; Schwartz, Deena

    2010-01-01

    Over the past two decades, an innovative approach to workforce development known as sectoral employment has emerged, resulting in the creation of industry-specific training programs that prepare unemployed and underskilled workers for skilled positions and connect them with employers seeking to fill such vacancies. In 2003, with funding from the…

  20. The Impact of CO2 Emission Reductions on U.S. Electric Sector Water Use

    EPA Science Inventory

    The electric power sector is currently one of the largest water withdrawers and fastest growing water consumers in the U.S. Water supply in the United States is becoming increasingly stressed due to growth in population, per capita energy consumption and industrial water use. At ...

  1. Screening risk assessment tools for assessing the environmental impact in an abandoned pyritic mine in Spain.

    PubMed

    Moreno-Jiménez, Eduardo; García-Gómez, Concepción; Oropesa, Ana Lourdes; Esteban, Elvira; Haro, Amparo; Carpena-Ruiz, Ramón; Tarazona, Jose Vicente; Peñalosa, Jesus Manuel; Fernández, María Dolores

    2011-01-15

    This paper describes a new methodology for assessing site-specific environmental impact of contaminants. The proposed method integrates traditional risk assessment approaches with real and variable environmental characteristics at a local scale. Environmental impact on selected receptors was classified for each environmental compartment into 5 categories derived from the whole (chronic and acute) risk assessment using 8 risk levels. Risk levels were established according to three hazard quotients (HQs) which represented the ratio of exposure to acute and chronic toxicity values. This tool allowed integrating in only one impact category all the elements involved in the standard risk assessment. The methodology was applied to an abandoned metal mine in Spain, where high levels of As, Cd, Zn and Cu were detected. Risk affecting potential receptors such as aquatic and soil organisms and terrestrial vertebrates were assessed. Whole results showed that impact to the ecosystem is likely high and further investigation or remedial actions are necessary. Some proposals to refine the risk assessment for a more realistic diagnostic are included.

  2. Environmental Impact of the Helen, Research, and Chicago Mercury Mines on Water, Sediment, and Biota in the Upper Dry Creek Watershed, Lake County, California

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Rytuba, James J.; Hothem, Roger L.; May, Jason T.; Kim, Christopher S.; Lawler, David; Goldstein, Daniel; Brussee, Brianne E.

    2009-01-01

    The Helen, Research, and Chicago mercury (Hg) deposits are among the youngest Hg deposits in the Coast Range Hg mineral belt and are located in the southwestern part of the Clear Lake volcanic field in Lake County, California. The mine workings and tailings are located in the headwaters of Dry Creek. The Helen Hg mine is the largest mine in the watershed having produced about 7,600 flasks of Hg. The Chicago and Research Hg mines produced only a small amount of Hg, less than 30 flasks. Waste rock and tailings have eroded from the mines, and mine drainage from the Helen and Research mines contributes Hg-enriched mine wastes to the headwaters of Dry Creek and contaminate the creek further downstream. The mines are located on federal land managed by the U.S. Bureau of Land Management (USBLM). The USBLM requested that the U.S. Geological Survey (USGS) measure and characterize Hg and geochemical constituents in tailings, sediment, water, and biota at the Helen, Research, and Chicago mines and in Dry Creek. This report is made in response to the USBLM request to conduct a Comprehensive Environmental Response, Compensation, and Liability Act (CERCLA - Removal Site Investigation (RSI). The RSI applies to removal of Hg-contaminated mine waste from the Helen, Research, and Chicago mines as a means of reducing Hg transport to Dry Creek. This report summarizes data obtained from field sampling of mine tailings, waste rock, sediment, and water at the Helen, Research, and Chicago mines on April 19, 2001, during a storm event. Further sampling of water, sediment, and biota at the Helen mine area and the upper part of Dry Creek was completed on July 15, 2003, during low-flow conditions. Our results permit a preliminary assessment of the mining sources of Hg and associated chemical constituents that could elevate levels of monomethyl Hg (MMeHg) in the water, sediment, and biota that are impacted by historic mining.

  3. Non-invasive flow path characterization in a mining-impacted wetland

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Bethune, James; Randell, Jackie; Runkel, Robert L.; Singha, Kamini

    2015-01-01

    Time-lapse electrical resistivity (ER) was used to capture the dilution of a seasonal pulse of acid mine drainage (AMD) contamination in the subsurface of a wetland downgradient of the abandoned Pennsylvania mine workings in central Colorado. Data were collected monthly from mid-July to late October of 2013, with an additional dataset collected in June of 2014. Inversion of the ER data shows the development through time of multiple resistive anomalies in the subsurface, which corroborating data suggest are driven by changes in total dissolved solids (TDS) localized in preferential flow pathways. Sensitivity analyses on a synthetic model of the site suggest that the anomalies would need to be at least several meters in diameter to be adequately resolved by the inversions. The existence of preferential flow paths would have a critical impact on the extent of attenuation mechanisms at the site, and their further characterization could be used to parameterize reactive transport models in developing quantitative predictions of remediation strategies.

  4. Non-invasive flow path characterization in a mining-impacted wetland.

    PubMed

    Bethune, James; Randell, Jackie; Runkel, Robert L; Singha, Kamini

    2015-12-01

    Time-lapse electrical resistivity (ER) was used to capture the dilution of a seasonal pulse of acid mine drainage (AMD) contamination in the subsurface of a wetland downgradient of the abandoned Pennsylvania mine workings in central Colorado. Data were collected monthly from mid-July to late October of 2013, with an additional dataset collected in June of 2014. Inversion of the ER data shows the development through time of multiple resistive anomalies in the subsurface, which corroborating data suggest are driven by changes in total dissolved solids (TDS) localized in preferential flow pathways. Sensitivity analyses on a synthetic model of the site suggest that the anomalies would need to be at least several meters in diameter to be adequately resolved by the inversions. The existence of preferential flow paths would have a critical impact on the extent of attenuation mechanisms at the site, and their further characterization could be used to parameterize reactive transport models in developing quantitative predictions of remediation strategies. Copyright © 2015 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  5. Impacts of lead/zinc mining and smelting on the environment and human health in China.

    PubMed

    Zhang, Xiuwu; Yang, Linsheng; Li, Yonghua; Li, Hairong; Wang, Wuyi; Ye, Bixiong

    2012-04-01

    Mining and smelting are important economic activities. However, mining-related industries are also some of the largest sources of environmental pollution from heavy metals. China is one of the largest producers and consumers of lead and zinc in the world. A large amount of lead, zinc, and related elements, such as cadmium, have been released into the environment due to mineral processing activities and have impacted water resources, soils, vegetables, and crops. In some areas, this pollution is hazardous to human health. This article reviews studies published in the past 10 years (2000-2009), on the environmental and human health consequences of lead/zinc mineral exploitation in China. Polluted areas are concentrated in the following areas: the junction of Yunnan, Guizhou and Sichuan provinces, west-central Hunan province, central Guangxi province, northern Guangdong, northwestern Henan province, the border between Shanxi and Gansu provinces, and the region of Liaoning province near Bohai. Lead (Pb) and cadmium (Cd) are the main pollutants and are associated with human health effects such as high lead blood levels in children, arthralgia, osteomalacia, and excessive cadmium in urine.

  6. Acidophilic algae isolated from mine-impacted environments and their roles in sustaining heterotrophic acidophiles.

    PubMed

    Nancucheo, Ivan; Barrie Johnson, D

    2012-01-01

    Two acidophilic algae, identified as strains of Chlorella protothecoides var. acidicola and Euglena mutabilis, were isolated in pure culture from abandoned copper mines in Spain and Wales and grown in pH- and temperature-controlled bioreactors. The Chlorella isolate grew optimally at pH 2.5 and 30°C, with a corresponding culture doubling time of 9 h. The isolates displayed similar tolerance (10-50 mM) to four transition metals tested. Growth of the algae in liquid media was paralleled with increasing concentrations of dissolved organic carbon (DOC). Glycolic acid was identified as a significant component (12-14%) of total DOC. Protracted incubation resulted in concentrations of glycolic acid declining in both cases, and glycolic acid added to a culture of Chlorella incubated in the dark was taken up by the alga (~100% within 3 days). Two monosaccharides were identified in cell-free liquors of each algal isolate: fructose and glucose (Chlorella), and mannitol and glucose (Euglena). These were rapidly metabolized by acidophilic heterotrophic bacteria (Acidiphilium and Acidobacterium spp.) though only fructose was utilized by the more fastidious heterotroph "Acidocella aromatica." The significance of algae in promoting the growth of iron- (and sulfate-) reducing heterotrophic acidophiles that are important in remediating mine-impacted waters (MIWs) is discussed.

  7. Mines as lower reservoir of an UPSH (Underground Pumping Storage Hydroelectricity): groundwater impacts and feasibility

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Bodeux, Sarah; Pujades, Estanislao; Orban, Philippe; Dassargues, Alain

    2016-04-01

    The energy framework is currently characterized by an expanding use of renewable sources. However, their intermittence could not afford a stable production according to the energy demand. Pumped Storage Hydroelectricity (PSH) is an efficient possibility to store and release electricity according to the demand needs. Because of the topographic and environmental constraints of classical PSH, new potential suitable sites are rare in countries whose topography is weak or with a high population density. Nevertheless, an innovative alternative is to construct Underground Pumped Storage Hydroelectricity (UPSH) plants by using old underground mine works as lower reservoir. In that configuration, large amount of pumped or injected water in the underground cavities would impact the groundwater system. A representative UPSH facility is used to numerically determine the interactions with surrounding aquifers Different scenarios with varying parameters (hydrogeological and lower reservoir characteristics, boundaries conditions and pumping/injection time-sequence) are computed. Analysis of the computed piezometric heads around the reservoir allows assessing the magnitude of aquifer response and the required time to achieve a mean pseudo-steady state under cyclic solicitations. The efficiency of the plant is also evaluated taking the leakage into the cavity into account. Combining these two outcomes, some criterions are identified to assess the feasibility of this type of projects within potential old mine sites from a hydrogeological point of view.

  8. Non-invasive flow path characterization in a mining-impacted wetland

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Bethune, James; Randell, Jackie; Runkel, Robert L.; Singha, Kamini

    2015-12-01

    Time-lapse electrical resistivity (ER) was used to capture the dilution of a seasonal pulse of acid mine drainage (AMD) contamination in the subsurface of a wetland downgradient of the abandoned Pennsylvania mine workings in central Colorado. Data were collected monthly from mid-July to late October of 2013, with an additional dataset collected in June of 2014. Inversion of the ER data shows the development through time of multiple resistive anomalies in the subsurface, which corroborating data suggest are driven by changes in total dissolved solids (TDS) localized in preferential flow pathways. Sensitivity analyses on a synthetic model of the site suggest that the anomalies would need to be at least several meters in diameter to be adequately resolved by the inversions. The existence of preferential flow paths would have a critical impact on the extent of attenuation mechanisms at the site, and their further characterization could be used to parameterize reactive transport models in developing quantitative predictions of remediation strategies.

  9. Heavy metals in soils from Baia Mare mining impacted area (Romania) and their bioavailability

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Roba, Carmen; Baciu, Calin; Rosu, Cristina; Pistea, Ioana; Ozunu, Alexandru

    2015-04-01

    Keywords: heavy metals, soil contamination, bioavailability, Romania The fate of various metals, including chromium, nickel, copper, manganese, mercury, cadmium, and lead, and metalloids, like arsenic, antimony, and selenium, in the natural environment is of great concern, particularly in the vicinity of former mining sites, dumps, tailings piles, and impoundments, but also in urban areas and industrial centres. Most of the studies focused on the heavy metal pollution in mining areas present only the total amounts of metals in soils. The bioavailable concentration of metals in soil may be a better predictor for environmental impact of historical and current dispersion of metals. Assessment of the metal bioavailability and bioaccessibility is critical in understanding the possible effects on soil biota. The bioavailability of metals in soil and their retention in the solid phase of soil is affected by different parameters like pH, metal amount, cation-exchange capacity, content of organic matter, or soil mineralogy. The main objectives of the present study were to determine the total fraction and the bioavailable fraction of Cu, Cd, Pb and Zn from soil in a well-known mining region in Romania, and to evaluate the influence of soil pH on the metal bioavailability in soil. The heavy metal contents and their bioavailability were monitored in a total of 50 soil samples, collected during June and July 2014 from private gardens of the inhabitants from Baia-Mare area. The main mining activities developed in the area consisted of non-ferrous sulphidic ores extraction and processing, aiming to obtain concentrates of lead, copper, zinc and precious metals. After 2006, the metallurgical industry has considerably reduced its activity by closing or diminishing its production capacity. The analysed soil samples proved to have high levels of Pb (50 - 830 mg/kg), Cu (40 - 600 mg/kg), Zn (100 - 700 mg/kg) and Cd (up to 10 mg/kg). The metal abundance in the total fraction is

  10. Impact evaluation of a mill tailings thickener installed at J.R. Simplot Company`s Smoky Canyon Mine under the Energy $avings Plan

    SciTech Connect

    Brown, D.R.; Spanner, G.E.

    1995-01-01

    This report describes Pacific Northwest Laboratory`s (PNL`s) evaluation of the impact of an energy conservation project completed in the fall of 1992. The project (a mill tailings thickener) was installed at J.R. Simplot Company`s (Simplot`s) Smoky Canyon Mine in Caribou County, Idaho near Afton, Wyoming. The project at Simplot is one in a continuing series of industrial energy conservation projects to have its impact evaluated by PNL. All of the projects have received or will receive acquisition payments from the Bonneville Power Administration (Bonneville) under the Energy $avings Plan (E$P) Program. The E$P is being offered to reduce electricity consumption in the industrial sector of Bonneville`s service territory. For the Simplot project, the acquisition payment offered under the program was equal to the lesser of 10{cents}/kilowatt-hour (kWh) saved in the first year or 80% of eligible project costs, up to a limit of $250,000. The general objective of the impact evaluation was to determine how much electricity is saved by the project and at what cost to Bonneville and to the region.

  11. German mining equipment

    SciTech Connect

    Not Available

    1993-10-01

    The German mining equipment industry developed to supply machines and services to the local mining industry, i.e., coal, lignite, salt, potash, ore mining, industrial minerals, and quarrying. The sophistication and reliability of its technology also won it worldwide export markets -- which is just as well since former major domestic mining sectors such as coal and potash have declined precipitously, and others such as ore mining have all but disappeared. Today, German mining equipment suppliers focus strongly on export sales, and formerly unique German mining technologies such as continuous mining with bucket wheel excavators and conveyors for open pits, or plowing of underground coal longwalls are widely used abroad. The status of the German mining equipment industry is reviewed.

  12. Distributions and concentrations of thallium in surface waters of a region impacted by historical metal mining (Cornwall, UK).

    PubMed

    Tatsi, Kristi; Turner, Andrew

    2014-03-01

    Thallium is a highly toxic heavy metal whose concentrations and distributions in the aquatic environment are poorly defined. In this study, concentrations of aqueous and total Tl have been measured in water samples from a variety of rivers and effluents (the latter related to historical metal mining) in the county of Cornwall, SW England. Aqueous concentrations ranged from about 13 ng L(-1) in a river whose catchment contained no metal mines to 2,640 ng L(-1) in water abstracted directly from an abandoned mine shaft. Concentrations of Tl in rivers were greatest in the vicinity of mine-related effluents, with a maximum value measured of about 770 ng L(-1). Thallium was not efficiently removed by the conventional, active treatment of mine water, and displayed little interaction with suspended particles. Its mobility in surface waters, coupled with concentrations that are close to a quality guideline of 800 ng L(-1), is cause for concern. Accordingly, we recommend that the metal is more closely monitored in this and other regions impacted by mining activities.

  13. Sustainable waste management in the Indian mining industry.

    PubMed

    Deshpande, V P; Shekdar, A V

    2005-08-01

    One of the important sectors that contribute to the national economy is the mining sector. During the mining of minerals and ores, waste materials in the form of overburden are generated. As these are not useful to the mine owners, they may be inappropriately disposed of into the environment, posing serious threat to the environment in the form of land degradation, water and air pollution. The present paper discusses the existing status of waste generation, its characteristics and the disposal methods being adopted in India. Impacts associated with waste disposal practices together with preventive measures for waste disposal are also discussed. Finally, strategies for improvements in existing waste management and for incorporating the same in the overall development plan for the mines are suggested.

  14. Impacts of global, regional, and sectoral black carbon emission reductions on surface air quality and human mortality

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Anenberg, S. C.; Talgo, K.; Arunachalam, S.; Dolwick, P.; Jang, C.; West, J. J.

    2011-04-01

    As a component of fine particulate matter (PM2.5), black carbon (BC) is associated with premature human mortality. BC also affects climate by absorbing solar radiation and reducing planetary albedo. Several studies have examined the climate impacts of BC emissions, but the associated health impacts have been studied less extensively. Here, we examine the surface PM2.5 and premature mortality impacts of halving anthropogenic BC emissions globally, from eight world regions, and from three major economic sectors. We use a global chemical transport model, MOZART-4, to simulate PM2.5 concentrations and a health impact function to calculate premature cardiopulmonary and lung cancer deaths. We estimate that halving global anthropogenic BC emissions reduces outdoor population-weighted average PM2.5 by 542 ng m-3 (1.8%) and avoids 157 000 (95% confidence interval, 120 000-194 000) annual premature deaths globally, with the vast majority occurring within the source region. While most of these avoided deaths can be achieved by halving East Asian emissions (54%), followed by South Asian emissions (31%), South Asian emissions have 50% greater mortality impacts per unit BC emitted than East Asian emissions. Globally, the contribution of residential, industrial, and transportation BC emissions to PM2.5-related mortality is 1.3, 1.2, and 0.6 times each sector's contribution to anthropogenic BC emissions, owing to the degree of co-location with population. Impacts of residential BC emissions are underestimated since indoor PM2.5 exposure is excluded. We estimate ~8 times more avoided deaths when BC and organic carbon (OC) emissions are halved together, suggesting that these results greatly underestimate the full air pollution-related mortality benefits of BC mitigation strategies which generally decrease both BC and OC. Confidence in our results would be strengthened by reducing uncertainties in emissions, model parameterization of aerosol processes, grid resolution, and PM2

  15. Linear Combination Fitting (LCF)-XANES analysis of As speciation in selected mine-impacted materials

    EPA Pesticide Factsheets

    This table provides sample identification labels and classification of sample type (tailings, calcinated, grey slime). For each sample, total arsenic and iron concentrations determined by acid digestion and ICP analysis are provided along with arsenic in-vitro bioaccessibility (As IVBA) values to estimate arsenic risk. Lastly, the table provides linear combination fitting results from synchrotron XANES analysis showing the distribution of arsenic speciation phases present in each sample along with fitting error (R-factor).This dataset is associated with the following publication:Ollson, C., E. Smith, K. Scheckel, A. Betts, and A. Juhasz. Assessment of arsenic speciation and bioaccessibility in mine-impacted materials. Diana Aga, Wonyong Choi, Andrew Daugulis, Gianluca Li Puma, Gerasimos Lyberatos, and Joo Hwa Tay JOURNAL OF HAZARDOUS MATERIALS. Elsevier Science Ltd, New York, NY, USA, 313: 130-137, (2016).

  16. [The impact of ecologic risk factors in mining cities of South Ural].

    PubMed

    2012-01-01

    The analysis of common and primary morbidity according the statistic form 12 is presented. The assessment of health risk in major age groups of population in mining cities of Republic of Bashkortostan is provided. The dynamics of morbidity indicators trends to increasing because in all age groups higher levels of morbidity were detected. The analysis of input of environment pollution into morbidity of population of cities of Utchaly and Sybay revealed that a significant role is played by environment factors. So, the existence of specific geochemical territory and anthropogenic pollution of environment with inorganic compounds of highly toxic metals is a most significant risk fasctor impacting population health. This condition urges to develop various preventive measures.

  17. Mercury levels in pristine and gold mining impacted aquatic ecosystems of Suriname, South America.

    PubMed

    Ouboter, Paul E; Landburg, Gwendolyn A; Quik, Jan H M; Mol, Jan H A; van der Lugt, Frank

    2012-12-01

    Mercury levels in sediment and predatory fish were measured for 53 localities in Suriname. The average mercury level in bottom sediment surpassed the Canadian standard for sediment in most localities, except the coastal plains. Of the predatory fish, 41 % had a mercury level above the European Union standard for human consumption of 0.5 μg g(-1). Highest mercury levels were found in fish from the Brokopondo Reservoir and from the Upper Coppename River. High levels of mercury in fish in pristine areas are explained by atmospheric transportation of mercury with the northeastern trade winds followed by wet deposition. Contrary to gold mining areas, where mercury is bound to drifting sediments, in "pristine" areas the mercury is freely available for bio-accumulation and uptake. Impacts on piscivorous reptiles, birds, and mammals are unknown, but likely to be negative.

  18. Wetlands as long-term sources of metals to receiving waters in mining-impacted landscapes.

    PubMed

    Szkokan-Emilson, E J; Watmough, S A; Gunn, J M

    2014-09-01

    Wetlands are prevalent in the Sudbury, Ontario region and often operate at the interface between terrestrial and aquatic ecosystems, modifying water chemistry and potentially affecting the recovery of impacted lakes. The deposition of metals and sulphur in Sudbury in 2010-2012 was far below that reported in the 1970's, but still higher than background values. Wetlands in the area have accumulated large quantities of metals, and high concentrations of these metals in streams occurred primarily in response to SO4-related acidification events or associated with high dissolved organic carbon production in early summer. Concentrations of most metals in streams exceeded provincial guidelines and fluxes of some metals from catchments exceeded deposition inputs to lakes by as much as 12 times. The release of metals long after emissions reductions have been achieved must be considered in ecosystem recovery studies, particularly as dry conditions may become more prevalent in boreal regions affected by mining.

  19. An Assessment of Potential Mining Impacts on Salmon Ecosystems of Bristol Bay, Alaska (Second External Review Draft)

    EPA Science Inventory

    [UPDATE] In March 2014, EPA released a response to public comments on the second draft document, "An Assessment of the Potential Mining Impacts on Salmon Ecosystems of Bristol Bay, Alaska" (see downloads). In Jan 2014, EPA released a response to peer review comme...

  20. An Assessment of Potential Mining Impacts on Salmon Ecosystems of Bristol Bay, Alaska (First External Review Draft)

    EPA Science Inventory

    [UPDATE] In March 2014, EPA released a response to public comments on the draft document, "An Assessment of the Potential Mining Impacts on Salmon Ecosystems of Bristol Bay, Alaska" (see downloads). In Jan 2014, EPA released a response to peer review comments on ...

  1. Impact of Text-Mining and Imitating Strategies on Lexical Richness, Lexical Diversity and General Success in Second Language Writing

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Çepni, Sevcan Bayraktar; Demirel, Elif Tokdemir

    2016-01-01

    This study aimed to find out the impact of "text mining and imitating" strategies on lexical richness, lexical diversity and general success of students in their compositions in second language writing. The participants were 98 students studying their first year in Karadeniz Technical University in English Language and Literature…

  2. EPA provides $200K to advance the cleanup and revitalization of mine-impacted properties in Creede, Colorado

    EPA Pesticide Factsheets

    (Denver, Colo. - May 28, 2015) The U.S. Environmental Protection Agency (EPA) today awarded the Lower Willow Creek Restoration Company $200K in Brownfields grant funding to clean up mine-impacted sites along Lower Willow Creek in Creede, Colorado. To

  3. Observed And Modeled Seasonal Trends In Dissolved And Particulate Cu, Fe, Mn, And Zn In A Mining-Impacted Stream

    EPA Science Inventory

    North Fork Clear Creek (NFCC) in Colorado, an acid-mine drainage (AMD) impacted stream, was chosen to examine the distribution of dissolved and particulate Cu, Fe, Mn, and Zn in the water column, with respect to seasonal hydrologic controls. NFCC is a high-gradient stream with d...

  4. Observed And Modeled Seasonal Trends In Dissolved And Particulate Cu, Fe, Mn, And Zn In A Mining-Impacted Stream

    EPA Science Inventory

    North Fork Clear Creek (NFCC) in Colorado, an acid-mine drainage (AMD) impacted stream, was chosen to examine the distribution of dissolved and particulate Cu, Fe, Mn, and Zn in the water column, with respect to seasonal hydrologic controls. NFCC is a high-gradient stream with d...

  5. Impacts of Mountaintop Removal and Valley Fill Coal Mining on C and N Processing in Terrestrial Soils and Headwater Streams.

    EPA Science Inventory

    We measured C and N cycling indicators in Appalachian watersheds impacted by mountaintop removal and valley fill (MTR/VF) coal mining, and in nearby forested watersheds. These watersheds include ephemeral, intermittent, and perennial stream reaches, and the length of time since d...

  6. Impacts of Mountaintop Removal and Valley Fill Coal Mining on C and N Processing in Terrestrial Soils and Headwater Streams.

    EPA Science Inventory

    We measured C and N cycling indicators in Appalachian watersheds impacted by mountaintop removal and valley fill (MTR/VF) coal mining, and in nearby forested watersheds. These watersheds include ephemeral, intermittent, and perennial stream reaches, and the length of time since d...

  7. 77 FR 42505 - Notice of Intent To Prepare an Environmental Impact Statement for the Proposed Long Canyon Mine...

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2012-07-19

    ...: In compliance with the National Environmental Policy Act of 1969 (NEPA), as amended, and the Federal... process is to determine relevant issues that will influence the scope of the environmental analysis...: 14X5017] Notice of Intent To Prepare an Environmental Impact Statement for the Proposed Long Canyon Mine...

  8. 2010 Five-Year Plan: Assessment of Health and Environmental Impacts of Uranium Mining and Milling

    EPA Pesticide Factsheets

    The five-year plan is intended to compile all activities contributing to the identification and cleanup of legacy uranium milling and mining activities in the Grants Mining District in the State of New Mexico.

  9. Air pollution and early deaths in the United States. Part I: Quantifying the impact of major sectors in 2005

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Caiazzo, Fabio; Ashok, Akshay; Waitz, Ian A.; Yim, Steve H. L.; Barrett, Steven R. H.

    2013-11-01

    Combustion emissions adversely impact air quality and human health. A multiscale air quality model is applied to assess the health impacts of major emissions sectors in United States. Emissions are classified according to six different sources: electric power generation, industry, commercial and residential sources, road transportation, marine transportation and rail transportation. Epidemiological evidence is used to relate long-term population exposure to sector-induced changes in the concentrations of PM2.5 and ozone to incidences of premature death. Total combustion emissions in the U.S. account for about 200,000 (90% CI: 90,000-362,000) premature deaths per year in the U.S. due to changes in PM2.5 concentrations, and about 10,000 (90% CI: -1000 to 21,000) deaths due to changes in ozone concentrations. The largest contributors for both pollutant-related mortalities are road transportation, causing ∼53,000 (90% CI: 24,000-95,000) PM2.5-related deaths and ∼5000 (90% CI: -900 to 11,000) ozone-related early deaths per year, and power generation, causing ∼52,000 (90% CI: 23,000-94,000) PM2.5-related and ∼2000 (90% CI: -300 to 4000) ozone-related premature mortalities per year. Industrial emissions contribute to ∼41,000 (90% CI: 18,000-74,000) early deaths from PM2.5 and ∼2000 (90% CI: 0-4000) early deaths from ozone. The results are indicative of the extent to which policy measures could be undertaken in order to mitigate the impact of specific emissions from different sectors - in particular black carbon emissions from road transportation and sulfur dioxide emissions from power generation.

  10. The impact of high temperature superconductivity on the electric power sector

    SciTech Connect

    Wolsky, A.M.

    1996-01-01

    The progress and prospects for the application of high temperature superconductivity to the Electric Power Sector has been the topic of an IEA Implementing Agreement, begun in 1990. The present Task Members are Canada, Denmark, Finland, Germany, Israel, Italy, Japan, Netherlands, Norway, Sweden, Switzerland, Turkey, United Kingdom and the United States. As a result of the Implementing Agreement, work has been done by the Operating Agent with the full participation of all the member countries. This work has facilitated the exchange of information among experts in all countries and has documented relevant assessments. Further, this work has examined the status of high amperage conductor, fault-current limiters, superconducting magnetic energy storage, cables, rotating machines, refrigeration, and studies of the power system. The Task Members find more progress toward applications than many expected five years ago and the grounds for further international collaboration to hasten the use of superconductors in the power sector, early in the 21st century.

  11. Evaluating digital libraries in the health sector. Part 2: measuring impacts and outcomes.

    PubMed

    Cullen, Rowena

    2004-03-01

    This is the second part of a two-part paper which explores methods that can be used to evaluate digital libraries in the health sector. Part 1 focuses on approaches to evaluation that have been proposed for mainstream digital information services. This paper investigates evaluative models developed for some innovative digital library projects, and some major national and international electronic health information projects. The value of ethnographic methods to provide qualitative data to explore outcomes, adding to quantitative approaches based on inputs and outputs is discussed. The paper concludes that new 'post-positivist' models of evaluation are needed to cover all the dimensions of the digital library in the health sector, and some ways of doing this are outlined.

  12. Adaptation to Externally Driven Change: The Impact of Political Change on Job Satisfaction in the Public Sector

    PubMed Central

    Tabvuma, Vurain; Bui, Hong T M; Homberg, Fabian

    2014-01-01

    This article uses a quasi-natural experiment to investigate the adaptation of job satisfaction to externally driven political change in the public sector. This is important because democratic government bureaucracies often experience changes in leadership after elections. The analyses are based on data drawn from a large longitudinal data set, the British Household Panel Survey. Findings indicate that the impact of political elections is largely weak and temporary and is only present for men. For women, the internal processes of the organization tend to be more important. These findings suggest that changes in political leadership may not be associated with fundamental changes in policy. PMID:25598554

  13. Identifying Opportunities and Impacts of Fuel Switching in the Industrial Sector

    SciTech Connect

    Jain, Ramesh C.; Jamison, Keith; Thomas, Daniel E.

    2006-08-01

    The underlying purpose of this white paper is to examine fuel switching opportunities in the U.S. industrial sector and make strategic recommendations—leading to application of the best available technologies and development of new technologies—that will introduce fuel use flexibility as an economically feasible option for plant operators, as a means to condition local fuel demands and a hedge against the local rises in fuel prices.

  14. 75 FR 79016 - Notice of Availability of the Final Environmental Impact Statement for the Newmont Mining...

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2010-12-17

    ... Newmont Mining Corporation Emigrant Project Plan of Operation, Nevada AGENCY: Bureau of Land Management... Mining Corporation Emigrant Project Plan of Operations and by this notice is announcing its availability...: Copies of the EIS for the Newmont Mining Corporation Emigrant Project Plan of Operation are available for...

  15. Effects of remediation on the bacterial community of an acid mine drainage impacted stream.

    PubMed

    Ghosh, Suchismita; Moitra, Moumita; Woolverton, Christopher J; Leff, Laura G

    2012-11-01

    Acid mine drainage (AMD) represents a global threat to water resources, and as such, remediation of AMD-impacted streams is a common practice. During this study, we examined bacterial community structure and environmental conditions in a low-order AMD-impacted stream before, during, and after remediation. Bacterial community structure was examined via polymerase chain reaction amplification of 16S rRNA genes followed by denaturing gradient gel electrophoresis. Also, bacterial abundance and physicochemical data (including metal concentrations) were collected and relationships to bacterial community structure were determined using BIO-ENV analysis. Remediation of the study stream altered environmental conditions, including pH and concentrations of some metals, and consequently, the bacterial community changed. However, remediation did not necessarily restore the stream to conditions found in the unimpacted reference stream; for example, bacterial abundances and concentrations of some elements, such as sulfur, magnesium, and manganese, were different in the remediated stream than in the reference stream. BIO-ENV analysis revealed that changes in pH and iron concentration, associated with remediation, primarily explained temporal alterations in bacterial community structure. Although the sites sampled in the remediated stream were in relatively close proximity to each other, spatial variation in community composition suggests that differences in local environmental conditions may have large impacts on the microbial assemblage.

  16. An impact evaluation of a federal mine safety training regulation on injury rates among US stone, sand, and gravel mine workers: an interrupted time-series analysis.

    PubMed

    Monforton, Celeste; Windsor, Richard

    2010-07-01

    We evaluated the impact of a safety training regulation, implemented by the US Department of Labor's Mine Safety and Health Administration (MSHA) in 1999, on injury rates at stone, sand, and gravel mining operations. We applied a time-series design and analyses with quarterly counts of nonfatal injuries and employment hours from 7998 surface aggregate mines from 1995 through 2006. Covariates included standard industrial classification codes, ownership, and injury severity. Overall crude rates of injuries declined over the 12-year period. Reductions in incident rates for medical treatment only, restricted duty, and lost-time injuries were consistent with temporal trends and provided no evidence of an intervention effect attributable to the MSHA regulation. Rates of permanently disabling injuries (PDIs) declined markedly. Regression analyses documented a statistically significant reduction in the risk rate in the postintervention time period (risk rate = 0.591; 95% confidence interval = 0.529, 0.661). Although a causal relationship between the regulatory intervention and the decline in the rate of PDIs is plausible, inconsistency in the results with the other injury-severity categories preclude attributing the observed outcome to the MSHA regulation. Further analyses of these data are needed.

  17. An Impact Evaluation of a Federal Mine Safety Training Regulation on Injury Rates Among US Stone, Sand, and Gravel Mine Workers: An Interrupted Time-Series Analysis

    PubMed Central

    Windsor, Richard

    2010-01-01

    Objectives. We evaluated the impact of a safety training regulation, implemented by the US Department of Labor's Mine Safety and Health Administration (MSHA) in 1999, on injury rates at stone, sand, and gravel mining operations. Methods. We applied a time-series design and analyses with quarterly counts of nonfatal injuries and employment hours from 7998 surface aggregate mines from 1995 through 2006. Covariates included standard industrial classification codes, ownership, and injury severity. Results. Overall crude rates of injuries declined over the 12-year period. Reductions in incident rates for medical treatment only, restricted duty, and lost-time injuries were consistent with temporal trends and provided no evidence of an intervention effect attributable to the MSHA regulation. Rates of permanently disabling injuries (PDIs) declined markedly. Regression analyses documented a statistically significant reduction in the risk rate in the postintervention time period (risk rate = 0.591; 95% confidence interval = 0.529, 0.661). Conclusions. Although a causal relationship between the regulatory intervention and the decline in the rate of PDIs is plausible, inconsistency in the results with the other injury-severity categories preclude attributing the observed outcome to the MSHA regulation. Further analyses of these data are needed. PMID:20466960

  18. Gold mining impact on riverine heavy metal transport in a sparsely monitored region: the upper Lake Baikal Basin case.

    PubMed

    Thorslund, Josefin; Jarsjö, Jerker; Chalov, Sergey R; Belozerova, Ekaterina V

    2012-10-26

    Mining and ore excavation can cause the acidification and heavy metal pollution of downstream water systems. It can be difficult to assess the load contributions from individual mining areas, which is commonly required for environmental impact assessments. In the current study, we quantified the net impact of the unmonitored mining activities in the Zaamar Goldfield (Mongolia) on heavy metal transport in the downstream Tuul River-Selenga River-Lake Baikal water systems. We also noted that the Zaamar site shares the conditions of limited monitoring with many rapidly developing regions of the world. The heavy metal concentrations and flow data were obtained from historical measurement campaigns, long-term monitoring, and a novel field campaign. The results indicate that natural mass flows of heavy metals in dissolved form increased by an order of magnitude because of mining. Prevailing alkaline conditions in the vicinity of Zaamar can limit the dissolution, maintaining the on-site concentrations below health-risk based guideline values. However, suspended river concentrations are much higher than the dissolved concentrations. The placer gold mining at the Zaamar site has increased the total riverine mass flows of Al, As, Cu, Fe, Mn, Pb and Zn by 44.300, 30.1, 65.7, 47.800, 1.480, 76.0 and 65.0 tonnes per year respectively. We suggest that local to regional transformation and enrichment processes in combination with suspended sediment transport from numerous existing upstream mining areas contribute to high concentrations of dissolved heavy metals in downstream parts of the Selenga River, including its delta area at Lake Baikal. Furthermore, single hydrological events can increase the suspended load concentrations by at least one order of magnitude. Overall, the Selenga River Basin, which drains into Lake Baikal, should be recognised as one of the world's most impacted areas with regard to heavy metal loads, and it contributes to 1% and 3% of the world flux of

  19. Direct and indirect economic impacts of drought in the agri-food sector in the Ebro River basin (Spain)

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Gil, M.; Garrido, A.; Hernández-Mora, N.

    2013-10-01

    The economic evaluation of drought impacts is essential in order to define efficient and sustainable management and mitigation strategies. The aim of this study is to evaluate the economic impacts of a drought event on the agricultural sector and measure how they are transmitted from primary production to industrial output and related employment. We fit econometric models to determine the magnitude of the economic loss attributable to water storage. The direct impacts of drought on agricultural productivity are measured through a direct attribution model. Indirect impacts on agricultural employment and the agri-food industry are evaluated through a nested indirect attribution model. The transmission of water scarcity effects from agricultural production to macroeconomic variables is measured through chained elasticities. The models allow for differentiating the impacts deriving from water scarcity from other sources of economic losses. Results show that the importance of drought impacts are less relevant at the macroeconomic level, but are more significant for those activities directly dependent on water abstractions and precipitation. From a management perspective, implications of these findings are important to develop effective mitigation strategies to reduce drought risk exposure.

  20. Defining the Impact of Public Administration Programmes for Public Sector Organizations

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Broucker, Bruno

    2015-01-01

    In times of financial and economic crises, public organizations seem to cut their budgets for training and education, especially when the impact of a programme is questioned. Therefore, PA programmes need to clarify what impact can be expected and what individual and organizational processes are influencing the impact of a PA programme on the…

  1. Defining the Impact of Public Administration Programmes for Public Sector Organizations

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Broucker, Bruno

    2015-01-01

    In times of financial and economic crises, public organizations seem to cut their budgets for training and education, especially when the impact of a programme is questioned. Therefore, PA programmes need to clarify what impact can be expected and what individual and organizational processes are influencing the impact of a PA programme on the…

  2. Qualitative modelling of gold mine impacts on Lihir Island's socioeconomic system and reef-edge fish community.

    PubMed

    Dambacher, Jeffrey M; Brewer, David T; Dennis, Darren M; Macintyre, Martha; Foale, Simon

    2007-01-15

    Inhabitants of Lihir Island, Papua New Guinea, have traditionally relied on reef fishing and rotational farming of slash-burn forest plots for a subsistence diet. However, a new gold mine has introduced a cash economy to the island's socioeconomic system and impacted the fringing coral reef through sedimentation from the near-shore dumping of mine wastes. Studies of the Lihirian people have documented changes in population size, local customs, health, education, and land use; studies of the reef have documented impacts to fish populations in mine affected sites. Indirect effects from these impacts are complex and indecipherable when viewed only from isolated studies. Here, we use qualitative modelling to synthesize the social and biological research programs in order to understand the interaction of the human and ecological systems. Initial modelling results appear to be consistent with differences in fish and macroalgae populations in sites with and without coral degradation due to sedimentation. A greater cash flow from mine expansion is predicted to increase the human population, the intensity of the artisanal fishery, and the rate of sewage production and land clearing. Modelling results are being used to guide ongoing research projects, such as monitoring fish populations and artisanal catch and patterns and intensity of land clearing.

  3. Potential Impact of Adopting Maximum Technologies as Minimum Efficiency Performance Standards in the U.S. Residential Sector

    SciTech Connect

    Letschert, Virginie; Desroches, Louis-Benoit; McNeil, Michael; Saheb, Yamina

    2010-05-03

    The US Department of Energy (US DOE) has placed lighting and appliance standards at a very high priority of the U.S. energy policy. However, the maximum energy savings and CO2 emissions reduction achievable via minimum efficiency performance standards (MEPS) has not yet been fully characterized. The Bottom Up Energy Analysis System (BUENAS), first developed in 2007, is a global, generic, and modular tool designed to provide policy makers with estimates of potential impacts resulting from MEPS for a variety of products, at the international and/or regional level. Using the BUENAS framework, we estimated potential national energy savings and CO2 emissions mitigation in the US residential sector that would result from the most aggressive policy foreseeable: standards effective in 2014 set at the current maximum technology (Max Tech) available on the market. This represents the most likely characterization of what can be maximally achieved through MEPS in the US. The authors rely on the latest Technical Support Documents and Analytical Tools published by the U.S. Department of Energy as a source to determine appliance stock turnover and projected efficiency scenarios of what would occur in the absence of policy. In our analysis, national impacts are determined for the following end uses: lighting, television, refrigerator-freezers, central air conditioning, room air conditioning, residential furnaces, and water heating. The analyzed end uses cover approximately 65percent of site energy consumption in the residential sector (50percent of the electricity consumption and 80percent of the natural gas and LPG consumption). This paper uses this BUENAS methodology to calculate that energy savings from Max Tech for the U.S. residential sector products covered in this paper will reach an 18percent reduction in electricity demand compared to the base case and 11percent in Natural Gas and LPG consumption by 2030 The methodology results in reductions in CO2 emissions of a similar

  4. An assessment of the cyber security legislation and its impact on the United States electrical sector

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Born, Joshua

    The purpose of this research was to examine the cyber-security posture for the United States' electrical grid, which comprises a major component of critical infrastructure for the country. The United States electrical sector is so vast, that the Department of Homeland Security (DHS) estimates, it contains more than 6,413 power plants (this includes 3,273 traditional electric utilities and 1,738 nonutility power producers) with approximately 1,075 gigawatts of energy produced on a daily basis. A targeted cyber-security attack against the electric grid would likely have catastrophic results and could even serve as a precursor to a physical attack against the United States. A recent report by the consulting firm Black and Veatch found that one of the top five greatest concerns for United States electric utilities is the risk that cybersecurity poses to their industry and yet, only one-third state they are currently prepared to meet the increasingly likely threat. The report goes on to state, "only 32% of electric utilities surveyed had integrated security systems with the proper segmentation, monitoring and redundancies needed for cyber threat protection. Another 48 % said they did not" Recent estimates indicate that a large-scale cyber-attack against this sector could cost the United States economy as much as a trillion dollars within a weeks' time. Legislative efforts in the past have primarily been focused on creating mandates that encourage public and private partnership, which have been not been adopted as quickly as desired. With 85 % of all electric utilities being privately owned, it is key that the public and private sector partner in order to mitigate risks and respond as a cohesive unit in the event of a major attack. Keywords: Cybersecurity, Professor Riddell, cyber security, energy, intelligence, outlook, electrical, compliance, legislation, partnerships, critical infrastructure.

  5. Resource Consumption and Environmental Impacts of the Agrofood Sector: Life Cycle Assessment of Italian Citrus-Based Products

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Beccali, Marco; Cellura, Maurizio; Iudicello, Maria; Mistretta, Marina

    2009-04-01

    Food production and consumption cause significant environmental burdens during the product life cycles. As a result of intensive development and the changing social attitudes and behaviors in the last century, the agrofood sector is the highest resource consumer after housing in the EU. This paper is part of an effort to estimate environmental impacts associated with life cycles of the agrofood chain, such as primary energy consumption, water exploitation, and global warming. Life cycle assessment is used to investigate the production of the following citrus-based products in Italy: essential oil, natural juice, and concentrated juice from oranges and lemons. The related process flowcharts, the relevant mass and energy flows, and the key environmental issues are identified for each product. This paper represents one of the first studies on the environmental impacts from cradle to gate for citrus products in order to suggest feasible strategies and actions to improve their environmental performance.

  6. Economic impact of the 2009-2010 Guam mumps outbreak on the public health sector and affected families.

    PubMed

    Mahamud, Abdirahman; Fiebelkorn, A Parker; Nelson, George; Aguon, Annette; McKenna, John; Villarruel, Gissela; Gallagher, Kathleen; Ortega-Sánchez, Ismael R

    2012-10-05

    The United States Territory of Guam reported a large mumps outbreak of 505 cases during 2009-2010. We assessed the economic impact of the outbreak from the perspectives of the local public health sector and affected families. Using standard cost analysis methods, we retrospectively identified all public health personnel involved in the outbreak response and surveyed them about their outbreak-related activities. We then estimated the costs of outbreak-related personnel hours and materials. We also assessed out-of-pocket costs and costs incurred for work-time missed for persons with mumps and their families. We defined the analysis period as February 25-October 22, 2010. Seventy-six public health personnel were involved in outbreak response activities. Overall, the response required approximately 8264 person-hours, 2380 miles driven, and 3000 doses of measles-mumps-rubella vaccine ordered. The cost to the public health sector was 256,785 U.S. dollars (USD). Families of 102 persons with mumps were interviewed. An estimated 761 USD per person with mumps was spent by families; 88% of this cost was due to missed days of work. The estimated total cost to families of the 470 persons with mumps during the analysis period was 357,670 USD. Total outbreak-related costs were 614,455 USD. The costs reported underscore the impact of mumps outbreaks in highly vaccinated populations and the need for effective mumps prevention and control strategies. Published by Elsevier Ltd.

  7. Improving present day and future estimates of anthropogenic sectoral emissions and the resulting air quality impacts in Africa.

    PubMed

    Lacey, Forrest G; Marais, Eloise A; Henze, Daven K; Lee, Colin J; van Donkelaar, Aaron; Martin, Randall V; Hannigan, Michael P; Wiedinmyer, Christine

    2017-08-24

    The African continent is undergoing immense social and economic change, particularly regarding population growth and urbanization, where the urban population in Africa is anticipated to increase by a factor of 3 over the next 40 years. To understand the potential health impacts from this demographical shift and design efficient emission mitigation strategies, we used improved Africa-specific emissions that account for inefficient combustion sources for a number of sectors such as transportation, household energy generation, waste burning, and home heating and cooking. When these underrepresented emissions sources are combined with the current estimates of emissions in Africa, ambient particulate matter concentrations from present-day anthropogenic activity contribute to 13 210 annual premature deaths, with the largest contributions (38%) coming from residential emissions. By scaling both the population and the emissions for projected national-scale levels of growth, the predicted health impact grows to approximately 78 986 annual premature deaths by 2030 with 45% now resulting from emissions related to energy combustion. In order to mitigate this resulting increase in premature deaths, three scenarios have been developed which reduce sector-specific future emissions based on prior targets for technological improvements and emission controls in transportation, energy production and residential activities. These targeted potential mitigation strategies can avoid up to 37% of the estimated annual premature deaths by 2030 with the largest opportunity being a reduction of 10 868 annual deaths from switching half of the energy generation in South Africa to renewable technologies.

  8. The occurrence and potential ecological risk assessment of bauxite mine-impacted water and sediments in Kuantan, Pahang,Malaysia.

    PubMed

    Kusin, Faradiella Mohd; Rahman, Muhammad Syazwan Abd; Madzin, Zafira; Jusop, Shamshuddin; Mohamat-Yusuff, Ferdaus; Ariffin, Mariani; Z, Mohd Syakirin Md

    2017-01-01

    Recent bauxite mining activities in the vicinity of Kuantan, Pahang, have been associated with apparent environmental quality degradation and have raised environmental concerns among the public. This study was carried out to evaluate the overall ecological impacts on water and sediment quality from the bauxite mining activities. Water and sediment samples were collected at seven sampling locations within the bauxite mining areas between June and December 2015. The water samples were analyzed for water quality index (WQI) and distribution of major and trace element geochemistry. Sediment samples were evaluated based on geochemical indices, i.e., the enrichment factor (EF) and geoaccumulation index (I geo). Potential ecological risk index was estimated to assess the degree to which sediments of the mine-impacted areas have been contaminated with heavy metals. The results showed that WQIs of some locations were classified as slightly polluted and contained metal contents exceeding the recommended guideline values. The EFs indicated minimal to moderate enrichment of metals (Pb, Cu, Zn, Mn, As, Cd, Cr, Ni, Co, and Sr) in the sediments. I geo showed slightly to partially polluted sediments with respect to As at some locations. The potential ecological risk index (RI) showed that As posed the highest potential ecological risk with RI of 52.35-60.92 at two locations, while other locations indicated low risk. The findings from this study have demonstrated the impact of recent bauxite mining activities, which might be of importance to the local communities and relevant authorities to initiate immediate rehabilitation phase of the impacted area.

  9. Soil contamination in the impact zone of mining enterprises in the Bashkir Transural region

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Opekunova, M. G.; Somov, V. V.; Papyan, E. E.

    2017-06-01

    The results of long-term studies of the contents of bulk forms of metals (Cu, Zn, Fe, Ni, Pb, Mn, Co, and Cd) and their mobile compounds in soils of background and human-disturbed areas within the Krasnoural'sk-Sibai-Gai copper-zinc and Baimak-Buribai mixed copper mineralization zones in the Bashkir Transural region are discussed. It is shown that soils of the region are characterized by abnormally high natural total contents of heavy metals (HMs) typomorphic for ore mineralization: Cu, Zn, and Fe for the Sibai province and Cu, Zn, and Ni for the Baimak province. In the case of a shallow depth of the ores, the concentrations of HMs in the soils are close to or higher than the tentative permissible concentration values. The concentrations of mobile HM compounds in soils of background areas and their percentage in the total HM content strongly vary from year to year in dependence on weather conditions, position in the soil catenas, species composition of vegetation, and distance from the source of technogenic contamination. The high natural variability in the content of mobile HM compounds in soils complicates the reliable determination of the regional geochemical background and necessitates annual estimation of background parameters for the purposes of the ecological monitoring of soils. The bulk content of Cu and Zn content in soils near mining enterprises exceeds the regional geochemical background values by 2-12 times and the tentative permissible concentrations of these metals by 2-4 times. Anthropogenic contamination results in a sharp rise in the content of mobile HM compounds in soils. Their highest concentrations exceed the maximum permissible concentrations by 26 times for Cu, 18 times for Zn, and 2 times for Pb. Soil contamination in the impact zone of mining enterprises is extremely dangerous or dangerous. However, because of the high temporal variability in the migration and accumulation of HMs in the soils, the recent decline in the ore mining

  10. Potential Impacts of Legacy and Current Uranium Mining in the Grand Canyon Region of Northern Arizona

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Bills, D. J.

    2012-12-01

    The Grand Canyon region in Northern Arizona contains high grade uranium resources hosted in geologic features called breccia pipes that represent an important component of the Nation's energy resource base. The exploration and extraction of uranium ore from these deposits poses potential risks to humans and biota of the Grand Canyon watershed. These issues led the Secretary of the Interior to a Record of Decision in January 2012 to withdraw over a million acres of federal lands in the region from mineral entry for the next 20 years. Dissolved uranium and other major ions and trace elements occur naturally in surface water and in groundwater as a result of precipitation infiltrating from the surface to perched water-bearing zones in contact with mineralized breccia pipes or in contact with sandstones with high trace element content, and to underlying regional aquifers. Discharge from these water-bearing zones and aquifers occur as seeps and springs throughout the region and provide valuable habitat and water sources for plants and animals. Runoff and groundwater flow in the Grand Canyon region is also a component of the water supply for over 25 million people in the Southwestern United States. Soil and sediment in the region can naturally contain as much a 5.6 micrograms per gram of uranium and naturally occurring dissolved uranium in groundwater is about 5.0 μg/L or less, except in proximity to uranium ore bodies where it tends to be greater. The current discharge of dissolved uranium from the Grand Canyon region to Lake Mead have concentrations of 4.0 μg/L or less resulting in a total annual load of uranium delivered to Lake Mead of about 60 tons per year. Increased amounts of radioactive materials and trace metals on the surface and in groundwater are related to uranium mining activity in the watershed in the 1970s and 1980s. Monitoring and data collection from 2010 to 2012 confirm this legacy impact in some parts of the Grand Canyon watershed, but have yet to

  11. Stream-Sediment Geochemistry in Mining-Impacted Drainages of the Yankee Fork of the Salmon River, Custer County, Idaho

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Frost, Thomas P.; Box, Stephen E.

    2009-01-01

    This reconnaissance study was undertaken at the request of the USDA Forest Service, Region 4, to assess the geochemistry, in particular the mercury and selenium contents, of mining-impacted sediments in the Yankee Fork of the Salmon River in Custer County Idaho. The Yankee Fork has been the site of hard-rock and placer mining, primarily for gold and silver, starting in the 1880s. Major dredge placer mining from the 1930s to 1950s in the Yankee Fork disturbed about a 10-kilometer reach. Mercury was commonly used in early hard-rock mining and placer operations for amalgamation and recovery of gold. During the late 1970s, feasibility studies were done on cyanide-heap leach recovery of gold from low-grade ores of the Sunbeam and related deposits. In the mid-1990s a major open-pit bulk-vat leach operation was started at the Grouse Creek Mine. This operation shut down when gold values proved to be lower than expected. Mercury in stream sediments in the Yankee Fork ranges from below 0.02 ppm to 7 ppm, with the highest values associated with old mill locations and lode and placer mines. Selenium ranges from below the detection limit for this study of 0.2 ppm to 4 ppm in Yankee Fork sediment samples. The generally elevated selenium content in the sediment samples reflect the generally high selenium contents in the volcanic rocks that underlie the Yankee Fork and the presence of gold and silver selenides in some of the veins that were exploited in the early phases of mining.

  12. Geochemical control on uranium(IV) mobility in a mining-impacted wetland.

    PubMed

    Wang, Yuheng; Bagnoud, Alexandre; Suvorova, Elena; McGivney, Eric; Chesaux, Lydie; Phrommavanh, Vannapha; Descostes, Michael; Bernier-Latmani, Rizlan

    2014-09-02

    Wetlands often act as sinks for uranium and other trace elements. Our previous work at a mining-impacted wetland in France showed that a labile noncrystalline U(IV) species consisting of U(IV) bound to Al-P-Fe-Si aggregates was predominant in the soil at locations exhibiting a U-containing clay-rich layer within the top 30 cm. Additionally, in the porewater, the association of U(IV) with Fe(II) and organic matter colloids significantly increased U(IV) mobility in the wetland. In the present study, within the same wetland, we further demonstrate that the speciation of U at a location not impacted by the clay-rich layer is a different noncrystalline U(IV) species, consisting of U(IV) bound to organic matter in soil. We also show that the clay-poor location includes an abundant sulfate supply and active microbial sulfate reduction that induce substantial pyrite (FeS2) precipitation. As a result, Fe(II) concentrations in the porewater are much lower than those at clay-impacted zones. U porewater concentrations (0.02-0.26 μM) are also considerably lower than those at the clay-impacted locations (0.21-3.4 μM) resulting in minimal U mobility. In both cases, soil-associated U represents more than 99% of U in the wetland. We conclude that the low U mobility reported at clay-poor locations is due to the limited association of Fe(II) with organic matter colloids in porewater and/or higher stability of the noncrystalline U(IV) species in soil at those locations.

  13. Environmental impact assessment of sand mining from the small catchment rivers in the southwestern coast of India: a case study.

    PubMed

    Sreebha, Sreedharan; Padmalal, Damodaran

    2011-01-01

    In the past few decades, the demand for construction grade sand is increasing in many parts of the world due to rapid economic development and subsequent growth of building activities. This, in many of the occasions, has resulted in indiscriminate mining of sand from in-stream and floodplain areas leading to severe damages to the river basin environment. The case is rather alarming in the small catchment rivers like those draining the southwestern coast of India due to limited sand resources in their alluvial reaches. Moreover, lack of adequate information on the environmental impact of river sand mining is a major lacuna challenging regulatory efforts in many developing countries. Therefore, a scientific assessment is a pre-requisite in formulating management strategies in the sand mining-hit areas. In this context, a study has been made as a case to address the environmental impact of sand mining from the in-stream and floodplain areas of three important rivers in the southwestern coast of India namely the Chalakudy, Periyar and Muvattupuzha rivers, whose lowlands host one of the fast developing urban-cum-industrial centre, the Kochi city. The study reveals that an amount of 11.527 million ty(-1) of sand (8.764 million ty(-1) of in-stream sand and 2.763 million ty(-1) of floodplain sand) is being mined from the midland and lowland reaches of these rivers for construction of buildings and other infrastructural facilities in Kochi city and its satellite townships. Environmental Impact Assessment (EIA) carried out as a part of this investigation shows that the activities associated with mining and processing of sands have not only affected the health of the river ecosystems but also degraded its overbank areas to a large extent. Considering the degree of degradation caused by sand mining from these rivers, no mining scenario may be opted in the deeper zones of the river channels. Also, a set of suggestions are made for the overall improvement of the rivers and its

  14. Weaving Ecosystem Service Assessment into Environmental Impact Assessments of Thar Coal Field: Impact of Coal Mining on Socio-Ecological Systems of Rural Communities.

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Hina, A.

    2016-12-01

    The Research takes into account Block II Mining and Power Plant Project of Thar Coal field in Pakistan by carrying out ecosystem service assessment of the region to identify the impact on important ecosystem service losses and the contribution of mining companies to mitigate the socio-economic problems as a part of their Corporate Social Responsibility (CSR). The study area includes 7 rural settlements, around 921 households and 7000 individuals, dependent on agriculture and livestock for their livelihoods. Currently, the project has adopted the methods of strip mining (also called open-cut mining, open-cast mining, and stripping), undergoing removing the overburden in strips to enable excavation of the coal seams. Since the consequences of mine development can easily spill across community and ecological boundaries, the rising scarcity of some ecosystem services makes the case to examine both project impact and dependence on ecosystem services. A preliminary Ecosystem Service review of Thar Coal Field identifies key ecosystems services owing to both high significance of project impact and high project dependence are highlighted as: the hydrogeological study results indicate the presence of at least three aquifer zones: one above the coal zone (the top aquifer), one within the coal and the third below the coal zone. Hence, Water is identified as a key ecosystem service to be addressed and valued due to its high dependency in the area for livestock, human wellbeing, agriculture and other purposes. Crop production related to agricultural services, in association with supply services such as soil quality, fertility, and nutrient recycling and water retention need to be valued. Cultural services affected in terms of land use change and resettlement and rehabilitation factors are recommended to be addressed.

  15. Computational fluid dynamics (CFD) investigation of impacts of an obstruction on airflow in underground mines

    PubMed Central

    Zhou, L.; Goodman, G.; Martikainen, A.

    2015-01-01

    Continuous airflow monitoring can improve the safety of the underground work force by ensuring the uninterrupted and controlled distribution of mine ventilation to all working areas. Air velocity measurements vary significantly and can change rapidly depending on the exact measurement location and, in particular, due to the presence of obstructions in the air stream. Air velocity must be measured at locations away from obstructions to avoid the vortices and eddies that can produce inaccurate readings. Further, an uninterrupted measurement path cannot always be guaranteed when using continuous airflow monitors due to the presence of nearby equipment, personnel, roof falls and rib rolls. Effective use of these devices requires selection of a minimum distance from an obstacle, such that an air velocity measurement can be made but not affected by the presence of that obstacle. This paper investigates the impacts of an obstruction on the behavior of downstream airflow using a numerical CFD model calibrated with experimental test results from underground testing. Factors including entry size, obstruction size and the inlet or incident velocity are examined for their effects on the distributions of airflow around an obstruction. A relationship is developed between the minimum measurement distance and the hydraulic diameters of the entry and the obstruction. A final analysis considers the impacts of continuous monitor location on the accuracy of velocity measurements and on the application of minimum measurement distance guidelines. PMID:26388684

  16. Exploring the impact of customer relational benefit on relationship commitment in health service sectors.

    PubMed

    Weng, Rhay-Hung; Huang, Jin-An; Huang, Ching-Yuan; Huang, Shih-Chang

    2010-01-01

    An increasing number of health service sectors have begun to implement relationship marketing to try to establish long-term relationship with customers. Customer relational benefit has been an important subject for relationship marketing researchers. This study was conducted to investigate how customer relational benefit might influence relationship commitment in health service sectors. The research used a questionnaire survey that retrieved a total number of 403 valid questionnaires. The data were collected by way of personal visits and investigations of outpatients in three regional hospitals in Taiwan. After the reliability and the validity of the questionnaire sample were examined, the data were verified by using hierarchical regression analysis. Results showed that confidence benefit constituted the most pronounced factor for hospital customers. Confidence benefit, social benefit, and special treatment benefit were perceived by customers as the key factors that have a positive influence on relationship commitment. In particular, customers placing greater emphasis on confidence benefit tended to be less willing to establish relationship commitment. When health service managers develop marketing strategies using customer relational benefit, they will still need to enhance customer confidence benefit as one of the main ways of achieving future improvements. In the event where health service managers seek to install resources for establishing and maintaining a good relationship commitment with customers, the crucial factors of social and special treatment benefits should not be ignored when seeking to enhance the customers' perception of confidence benefit.

  17. Large-scale structure topology in non-standard cosmologies: impact of dark sector physics

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Watts, Andrew L.; Elahi, Pascal J.; Lewis, Geraint F.; Power, Chris

    2017-06-01

    Even as our measurements of cosmological parameters improve, the physical nature of the dark sector of the universe largely remains a mystery. Many effects of dark sector models are most prominent at very large scales and will rely on future galaxy surveys to elucidate. In this paper, we compare the topological properties of the large-scale dark matter distribution in a number of cosmological models using hydrodynamical simulations and the cosmological genus statistic. Genus curves are computed from z = 11 to 0 for Λ cold dark matter (ΛCDM), quintessence and warm dark matter (WDM) models, over a scale range of 1-20 h-1 Mpc. The curves are analysed in terms of their Hermite spectra to describe the power contained in non-Gaussian deformations to the cosmological density field. We find that the ΛCDM and ΛWDM models produce nearly identical genus curves indicating no topological differences in structure formation. The quintessence model, which differs solely in its expansion history, produces significant differences in the strength and redshift evolution of non-Gaussian modes associated with higher cluster abundances and lower void abundances. These effects are robust to cosmic variance and are characteristically different from those produced by tweaking the parameters of a ΛCDM model. Given the simplicity and similarity of the models, detecting these discrepancies represents a promising avenue for understanding the effect of non-standard cosmologies on large-scale structure.

  18. The impact of two organizational interventions on the health of service sector workers.

    PubMed

    Dahl-Jørgensen, Carla; Saksvik, Per Oystein

    2005-01-01

    Studies focusing on interactive service work that involves face-to-face interactions between employees and customers/clients have shown that employees tend to show symptoms of job dissatisfaction, stress, and emotional exhaustion because they are expected to display or suppress certain emotions in the performance of their jobs. To meet the health challenges and reduce sickness absenteeism among employees in this sector, two organizational interventions were implemented among service workers employed by the municipality and in a shopping mall in a medium-sized Norwegian city. In a field experiment, the authors evaluated the effect of this type of intervention on employee health. The experiment combined survey measures (pre- and post-intervention) with observations and unstructured interviews. The survey data showed positive changes on only two of the measured variables among the shopping mall employees, and no effect on the municipal employees. This article focuses on the qualitative data, which show how constraints related to time and to interactional and organizational practices impeded full involvement of the employees during implementation of the interventions. The authors discuss the results from the perspective of the general challenges of implementing interventions in the service sector.

  19. Global Impact Estimation of ISO 50001 Energy Management System for Industrial and Service Sectors

    SciTech Connect

    Aghajanzadeh, Arian; Therkelsen, Peter L.; Rao, Prakash; McKane, Aimee T.

    2016-08-01

    A methodology has been developed to determine the impacts of ISO 50001 Energy Management System (EnMS) at a region or country level. The impacts of ISO 50001 EnMS include energy, CO2 emissions, and cost savings. This internationally recognized and transparent methodology has been embodied in a user friendly Microsoft Excel® based tool called ISO 50001 Impact Estimator Tool (IET 50001). However, the tool inputs are critical in order to get accurate and defensible results. This report is intended to document the data sources used and assumptions made to calculate the global impact of ISO 50001 EnMS.

  20. UNDERSTANDING THE IMPACT OF ENVIRONMENTAL VARIABLES ON THE LEACHING OF MERCURY-CONTAMINATED MINE WASTES FROM THE SULFUR BANK MERCURY MINE, CLEAR LAKE, CA

    EPA Science Inventory

    For nearly a century, Clear Lake in northern California has received inputs of mercury (Hg) mining wastes trom the Sulfur Bank Mercury Mine (SBMM). About 1.2 million tons of Hg-contaminated overburden and mine tailings were distributed over a 50-ha surface area due to mining oper...

  1. Endless Change in the Learning and Skills Sector: The Impact on Teaching Staff

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Edward, Sheila; Coffield, Frank; Steer, Richard; Gregson, Maggie

    2007-01-01

    This paper explores the impact of change on tutors and managers in 24 learning sites in England, in vocational courses at Level 1 or Level 2 in further education (FE) colleges and in basic skills provision in adult community education and workplaces. We discuss the views of these participants in the research project, "The Impact of Policy on…

  2. Endless Change in the Learning and Skills Sector: The Impact on Teaching Staff

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Edward, Sheila; Coffield, Frank; Steer, Richard; Gregson, Maggie

    2007-01-01

    This paper explores the impact of change on tutors and managers in 24 learning sites in England, in vocational courses at Level 1 or Level 2 in further education (FE) colleges and in basic skills provision in adult community education and workplaces. We discuss the views of these participants in the research project, "The Impact of Policy on…

  3. Environmental impact of coal mining and coal seam gas production on surface water quality in the Sydney basin, Australia.

    PubMed

    Ali, A; Strezov, V; Davies, P; Wright, I

    2017-08-01

    The extraction of coal and coal seam gas (CSG) will generate produced water that, if not adequately treated, will pollute surface and groundwater systems. In Australia, the discharge of produced water from coal mining and related activities is regulated by the state environment agency through a pollution licence. This licence sets the discharge limits for a range of analytes to protect the environment into which the produced water is discharged. This study reports on the impact of produced water from coal mine activities located within or discharging into high conservation environments, such as National Parks, in the outer region of Sydney, Australia. The water samples upstream and downstream from the discharge points from six mines were taken, and 110 parameters were tested. The results were assessed against a water quality index (WQI) which accounts for pH, turbidity, dissolved oxygen, biochemical oxygen demand, total dissolved solids, total phosphorus, nitrate nitrogen and E .coli. The water quality assessment based on the trace metal contents against various national maximum admissible concentration (MAC) and their corresponding environmental impacts was also included in the study which also established a base value of water quality for further study. The study revealed that impacted water downstream of the mine discharge points contained higher metal content than the upstream reference locations. In many cases, the downstream water was above the Australia and New Zealand Environment Conservation Council and international water quality guidelines for freshwater stream. The major outliers to the guidelines were aluminium (Al), iron (Fe), manganese (Mn), nickel (Ni) and zinc (Zn). The WQI of surface water at and downstream of the discharge point was lower when compared to upstream or reference conditions in the majority of cases. Toxicology indices of metals present in industrial discharges were used as an additional tool to assess water quality, and the newly

  4. Engaging the private sector to increase tuberculosis case detection: an impact evaluation study.

    PubMed

    Khan, Aamir J; Khowaja, Saira; Khan, Faisal S; Qazi, Fahad; Lotia, Ismat; Habib, Ali; Mohammed, Shama; Khan, Uzma; Amanullah, Farhana; Hussain, Hamidah; Becerra, Mercedes C; Creswell, Jacob; Keshavjee, Salmaan

    2012-08-01

    In many countries with a high burden of tuberculosis, most patients receive treatment in the private sector. We evaluated a multifaceted case-detection strategy in Karachi, Pakistan, targeting the private sector. A year-long communications campaign advised people with 2 weeks or more of productive cough to seek care at one of 54 private family medical clinics or a private hospital that was also a national tuberculosis programme (NTP) reporting centre. Community laypeople participated as screeners, using an interactive algorithm on mobile phones to assess patients and visitors in family-clinic waiting areas and the hospital's outpatient department. Screeners received cash incentives for case detection. Patients with suspected tuberculosis also came directly to the hospital's tuberculosis clinic (self-referrals) or were referred there (referrals). The primary outcome was the change (from 2010 to 2011) in tuberculosis notifications to the NTP in the intervention area compared with that in an adjacent control area. Screeners assessed 388,196 individuals at family clinics and 81,700 at Indus Hospital's outpatient department from January-December, 2011. A total of 2416 tuberculosis cases were detected and notified via the NTP reporting centre at Indus Hospital: 603 through family clinics, 273 through the outpatient department, 1020 from self-referrals, and 520 from referrals. In the intervention area overall, tuberculosis case notification to the NTP increased two times (from 1569 to 3140 cases) from 2010 to 2011--a 2·21 times increase (95% CI 1·93-2·53) relative to the change in number of case notifications in the control area. From 2010 to 2011, pulmonary tuberculosis notifications at Indus Hospital increased by 3·77 times for adults and 7·32 times for children. Novel approaches to tuberculosis case-finding involving the private sector and using laypeople, mobile phone software and incentives, and communication campaigns can substantially increase case

  5. Phylogenetic diversity of archaea and the archaeal ammonia monooxygenase gene in uranium mining-impacted locations in Bulgaria.

    PubMed

    Radeva, Galina; Kenarova, Anelia; Bachvarova, Velina; Flemming, Katrin; Popov, Ivan; Vassilev, Dimitar; Selenska-Pobell, Sonja

    2014-01-01

    Uranium mining and milling activities adversely affect the microbial populations of impacted sites. The negative effects of uranium on soil bacteria and fungi are well studied, but little is known about the effects of radionuclides and heavy metals on archaea. The composition and diversity of archaeal communities inhabiting the waste pile of the Sliven uranium mine and the soil of the Buhovo uranium mine were investigated using 16S rRNA gene retrieval. A total of 355 archaeal clones were selected, and their 16S rDNA inserts were analysed by restriction fragment length polymorphism (RFLP) discriminating 14 different RFLP types. All evaluated archaeal 16S rRNA gene sequences belong to the 1.1b/Nitrososphaera cluster of Crenarchaeota. The composition of the archaeal community is distinct for each site of interest and dependent on environmental characteristics, including pollution levels. Since the members of 1.1b/Nitrososphaera cluster have been implicated in the nitrogen cycle, the archaeal communities from these sites were probed for the presence of the ammonia monooxygenase gene (amoA). Our data indicate that amoA gene sequences are distributed in a similar manner as in Crenarchaeota, suggesting that archaeal nitrification processes in uranium mining-impacted locations are under the control of the same key factors controlling archaeal diversity.

  6. Phylogenetic Diversity of Archaea and the Archaeal Ammonia Monooxygenase Gene in Uranium Mining-Impacted Locations in Bulgaria

    PubMed Central

    Radeva, Galina; Kenarova, Anelia; Bachvarova, Velina; Popov, Ivan; Selenska-Pobell, Sonja

    2014-01-01

    Uranium mining and milling activities adversely affect the microbial populations of impacted sites. The negative effects of uranium on soil bacteria and fungi are well studied, but little is known about the effects of radionuclides and heavy metals on archaea. The composition and diversity of archaeal communities inhabiting the waste pile of the Sliven uranium mine and the soil of the Buhovo uranium mine were investigated using 16S rRNA gene retrieval. A total of 355 archaeal clones were selected, and their 16S rDNA inserts were analysed by restriction fragment length polymorphism (RFLP) discriminating 14 different RFLP types. All evaluated archaeal 16S rRNA gene sequences belong to the 1.1b/Nitrososphaera cluster of Crenarchaeota. The composition of the archaeal community is distinct for each site of interest and dependent on environmental characteristics, including pollution levels. Since the members of 1.1b/Nitrososphaera cluster have been implicated in the nitrogen cycle, the archaeal communities from these sites were probed for the presence of the ammonia monooxygenase gene (amoA). Our data indicate that amoA gene sequences are distributed in a similar manner as in Crenarchaeota, suggesting that archaeal nitrification processes in uranium mining-impacted locations are under the control of the same key factors controlling archaeal diversity. PMID:24711725

  7. Histopathology investigation on the Vardar chub (Squalius vardarensis) populations captured from the rivers impacted by mining activities.

    PubMed

    Jordanova, Maja; Rebok, Katerina; Dragun, Zrinka; Ramani, Sheriban; Ivanova, Lozenka; Kostov, Vasil; Valić, Damir; Krasnići, Nesrete; Filipović Marijić, Vlatka; Kapetanović, Damir

    2016-07-01

    Many natural freshwater ecosystems, especially in the north eastern Macedonia, are polluted with heavy metals, which are released by active mines. Long-term exposure to high levels of dissolved metals might result in increased metal bioaccumulation in organs of aquatic organisms, and consequently might cause various sub-toxic and toxic effects. The aim of this study was to assess the health of Vardar chub (Squalius vardarensis) inhabiting mining impacted rivers Zletovska and Kriva, in comparison with chub from the reference Bregalnica River. It was done by use of indicators of tissue damage (histopathology of liver and gonads) and general indicators of exposure to environmental stressors (condition factor, organo-somatic indices and external/internal macroscopic lesions). Histological assessment of gonads revealed good reproductive health in all three rivers, indicating high tolerance of gonads to contaminant exposure. Contrary, several external/internal lesions were more pronounced in chub from severely metal contaminated Zletovska River. Prevalence of hepatic lesions was also higher in mining impacted rivers (in Kriva, 70%; in Zletovska, 59%) compared to Bregalnica River (38%). The spectrum of histological lesions observed in chub liver varied from non-specific minor degenerative conditions, such as lymphocyte infiltration, fibrosis, parasites, granulomas and lipidosis, to extensive and/or more severe changes such as bile duct proliferation, necrosis, megalocytosis, light-dark hepatocytes and hepatocytes regeneration. The results of histopathological investigation for all three rivers showed clear signs of water contamination, especially prominent in mining influenced rivers. More research efforts should be devoted to study of environmental conditions and metal contamination in the mining impacted rivers worldwide, especially of their effects on health of local ichthyofauna.

  8. Economic impact of ethanol production on U.S. livestock sector: A spatial analysis of corn and distillers grain shipment

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    N'guessan, Yapo Genevier

    2007-12-01

    The production of corn-based ethanol in the U.S. has increased from 1,630 million gallons in 2000 to 4,855 million gallons in 2006, representing a 198% growth over the period considered. This growth is favored by the availability of more efficient technologies in the production process of ethanol and is sustained by the high prices of ethanol in the market. The industry is also supported by a favorable public policy, expressed in the form of laws, mandating an increase in the use of ethanol, and also in the form of tax incentives. The tremendous increase in the use of corn for the ethanol industry is made at the expense of the livestock industry that was the traditional destination for much of the U.S. corn grain. As the ethanol industry continues to expand, concerns are raised in regard to its impact as more and more corn is diverted from the livestock sector. This study investigates the economic impact of the ethanol industry on the U.S. livestock sector. Specifically, a shipping cost model is developed to simulate the impact of the ethanol industry on the shipping cost of corn at the national and individual state levels. The dynamics for major livestock producing states are also analyzed at the crop reporting district level. Different scenarios based on assumptions on the availability of corn and the production capacities of the ethanol industry are displayed. Results from the model indicate that nationwide there is a 5 to 22% increase in the shipping cost of corn for the livestock industry due to the ethanol industry, depending on the scenario involved. At the state level, there is an increase in the transportation cost for most of the states, with shipping cost doubling in some cases. Nevertheless, some states benefit from the dynamics created by the development of ethanol plants and are experiencing a reduction in their livestock industry corn transportation cost.

  9. The global impact of the transport sectors on atmospheric aerosol in 2030 - Part 1: Land transport and shipping

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Righi, M.; Hendricks, J.; Sausen, R.

    2015-01-01

    Using the EMAC (ECHAM/MESSy Atmospheric Chemistry) global climate-chemistry model coupled to the aerosol module MADE (Modal Aerosol Dynamics model for Europe, adapted for global applications), we simulate the impact of land transport and shipping emissions on global atmospheric aerosol and climate in 2030. Future emissions of short-lived gas and aerosol species follow the four Representative Concentration Pathways (RCPs) designed in support of the Fifth Assessment Report of the Intergovernmental Panel on Climate Change. We compare the resulting 2030 land-transport- and shipping-induced aerosol concentrations to the ones obtained for the year 2000 in a previous study with the same model configuration. The simulations suggest that black carbon and aerosol nitrate are the most relevant pollutants from land transport in 2000 and 2030 and their impacts are characterized by very strong regional variations during this time period. Europe and North America experience a decrease in the land-transport-induced particle pollution, although in these regions this sector remains a major source of surface-level pollution in 2030 under all RCPs. In Southeast Asia, however, a significant increase is simulated, but in this region the surface-level pollution is still controlled by other sources than land transport. Shipping-induced air pollution is mostly due to aerosol sulfate and nitrate, which show opposite trends towards 2030. Sulfate is strongly reduced as a consequence of sulfur reduction policies in ship fuels in force since 2010, while nitrate tends to increase due to the excess of ammonia following the reduction in ammonium sulfate. The aerosol-induced climate impact of both sectors is dominated by aerosol-cloud effects and is projected to decrease between 2000 and 2030, nevertheless still contributing a significant radiative forcing to Earth's radiation budget.

  10. The global impact of the transport sectors on atmospheric aerosol in 2030 - Part 1: Land transport and shipping

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Righi, M.; Hendricks, J.; Sausen, R.

    2014-09-01

    Using the EMAC global climate-chemistry model coupled to the aerosol module MADE, we simulate the impact of land transport and shipping emissions on global atmospheric aerosol and climate in 2030. Future emissions of short-lived gas and aerosol species follow the four Representative Concentration Pathways (RCPs) designed in support of the Fifth Assessment Report of the Intergovernmental Panel on Climate Change. We compare the resulting 2030 land-transport- and shipping-induced aerosol concentrations to the ones obtained for the year 2000 in a previous study with the same model configuration. The simulations suggest that black carbon and aerosol nitrate are the most relevant pollutants from land transport in 2000 and 2030, but their impacts are characterized by very strong regional variations during this time period. Europe and North America experience a decrease in the land-transport-induced particle pollution, although in these regions this sector remains the dominant source of surface-level pollution in 2030 under all RCPs. In Southeast Asia, on the other hand, a significant increase is simulated, but in this region the surface-level pollution is still controlled by other sources than land transport. Shipping-induced air pollution is mostly due to aerosol sulfate and nitrate, which show opposite trends towards 2030. Sulfate is strongly reduced as a consequence of sulfur reduction policies in ship-fuels in force since 2010, while nitrate tends to increase due to the excess of ammonia following the reduction in ammonium-sulfate. The aerosol-induced climate impact of both sectors is dominated by aerosol-cloud effects and is projected to decrease between 2000 and 2030, nevertheless still contributing a significant radiative forcing to the Earth's radiation budget.

  11. Data Mining and Information Technology: Its Impact on Intelligence Collection and Privacy Rights

    DTIC Science & Technology

    2007-11-26

    Modern Information Technology (IT) has radically magnified the capability and power of data mining . At a time when the threat environment has shifted...in emphasis to COIN, terrorism, and cyber war, IT-enhanced data mining capabilities could provide some of the critical intelligence demanded by these...threatened. This paper establishes the intersection between the capability and need for data mining and the suitability of existing policy to enable its

  12. Impact of a CP-violating Higgs sector: from LHC to baryogenesis.

    PubMed

    Shu, Jing; Zhang, Yue

    2013-08-30

    We observe a generic connection between LHC Higgs data and electroweak baryogenesis: the particle that contributes to the CP-odd hgg or hγγ vertex would provide the CP-violating source during a first-order phase transition. It is illustrated in the two Higgs doublet model that a common complex phase controls the lightest Higgs properties at the LHC, electric dipole moments, and the CP-violating source for electroweak baryogenesis. We perform a general parametrization of Higgs effective couplings and a global fit to the LHC Higgs data. Current LHC measurements prefer a nonzero phase for tanβ≲1 and electric dipole moment constraints still allow an order-one phase for tanβ∼1, which gives sufficient room to generate the correct cosmic baryon asymmetry. We also give some prospects in the direct measurements of CP violation in the Higgs sector at the LHC.

  13. Assessing Resiliency in a Large Lake Receiving Mine Tailings Waste: Impacts of Major Environmental Disturbance.

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Petticrew, Ellen; Owens, Philip; Albers, Sam

    2016-04-01

    On 4th August 2014, the tailings impoundment of the Mount Polley copper and gold mine in British Columbia failed. Material from the impoundment (surface area = 2.7 km2) flowed into nearby Polley Lake and Hazeltine Creek, before discharging into Quesnel Lake, a large (ca. 100 km long, >500 m deep), relatively pristine lake. Initial estimates suggest that approximately 25 Mm3 of tailings (water and solids) and eroded soils and surficial materials from Hazeltine Creek were delivered to Quesnel Lake, raising the lake by 7.7 cm. Much of this material was deposited at the bottom of Quesnel Lake but a plume of fine-grained sediment (D50 of ca. 1 μm) remained suspended in the water column. The impact of the distribution of this sediment was monitored over the next 15 months using water column profiling for temperature, conductivity, fluorescence and turbidity with depth. The plume movement was regulated by natural processes associated with the physical limnology of this large fjord lake, specifically, seiche events which transferred suspended particles both up-lake, against the flow regime, and down-lake into the Quesnel River. Samples of lake water and bottom sediment taken from the impacted area show elevated levels of total metals and other elements, which may have important ecosystem implications in this watershed. Indeed, the breach occurred at a time when a peak run of sockeye salmon were returning to their natal streams in the Quesnel basin. Zooplankton sampling for metals was initiated in fall 2014 to determine up take of metals into the food web. This poster describes the failure of the impoundment dam and presents results of sampling the aquatic environment over the first fifteen months of impact.

  14. Impacts of climate mitigation strategies in the energy sector on global land use and carbon balance

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Engström, Kerstin; Lindeskog, Mats; Olin, Stefan; Hassler, John; Smith, Benjamin

    2017-09-01

    Reducing greenhouse gas emissions to limit damage to the global economy climate-change-induced and secure the livelihoods of future generations requires ambitious mitigation strategies. The introduction of a global carbon tax on fossil fuels is tested here as a mitigation strategy to reduce atmospheric CO2 concentrations and radiative forcing. Taxation of fossil fuels potentially leads to changed composition of energy sources, including a larger relative contribution from bioenergy. Further, the introduction of a mitigation strategy reduces climate-change-induced damage to the global economy, and thus can indirectly affect consumption patterns and investments in agricultural technologies and yield enhancement. Here we assess the implications of changes in bioenergy demand as well as the indirectly caused changes in consumption and crop yields for global and national cropland area and terrestrial biosphere carbon balance. We apply a novel integrated assessment modelling framework, combining three previously published models (a climate-economy model, a socio-economic land use model and an ecosystem model). We develop reference and mitigation scenarios based on the narratives and key elements of the shared socio-economic pathways (SSPs). Taking emissions from the land use sector into account, we find that the introduction of a global carbon tax on the fossil fuel sector is an effective mitigation strategy only for scenarios with low population development and strong sustainability criteria (SSP1 Taking the green road). For scenarios with high population growth, low technological development and bioenergy production the high demand for cropland causes the terrestrial biosphere to switch from being a carbon sink to a source by the end of the 21st century.

  15. Mineralogy and geochemistry of efflorescent minerals on mine tailings and their potential impact on water chemistry.

    PubMed

    Grover, B P C; Johnson, R H; Billing, D G; Weiersbye, I M G; Tutu, H

    2016-04-01

    In the gold mining Witwatersrand Basin of South Africa, efflorescent mineral crusts are a common occurrence on and nearby tailings dumps during the dry season. The crusts are readily soluble and generate acidic, metal- and sulphate-rich solutions on dissolution. In this study, the metal content of efflorescent crusts at an abandoned gold mine tailings dump was used to characterise surface and groundwater discharges from the site. Geochemical modelling of the pH of the solution resulting from the dissolution of the crusts was used to better understand the crusts' potential impact on water chemistry. The study involved two approaches: (i) conducting leaching experiments on oxidised and unoxidised tailings using artificial rainwater and dilute sulphuric acid and correlating the composition of crusts to these leachates and (ii) modelling the dissolution of the crusts in order to gain insight into their mineralogy and their potential impact on receiving waters. The findings suggested that there were two chemically distinct discharges from the site, namely an aluminium- and magnesium-rich surface water plume and an iron-rich groundwater plume. The first plume was observed to originate from the oxidised tailings following leaching with rainwater while the second plume originated from the underlying unoxidised tailings with leaching by sulphuric acid. Both groups of minerals forming from the respective plumes were found to significantly lower the pH of the receiving water with simulations of their dissolution found to be within 0.2 pH units of experimental values. It was observed that metals in a low abundance within the crust (for example, iron) had a stronger influence on the pH of the resulting solutions than metals in a greater abundance (aluminium or magnesium). Techniques such as powder X-ray diffraction (PXRD) and in situ mineral determination techniques such as remote sensing can effectively determine the dominant mineralogy. However, the minerals or metals

  16. Abandoned coal mine drainage and its remediation: impacts on stream ecosystem structure and function.

    PubMed

    Bott, Thomas L; Jackson, John K; McTammany, Matthew E; Newbold, J Denis; Rier, Steven T; Sweeney, Bernard W; Battle, Juliann M

    2012-12-01

    The effects of abandoned mine drainage (AMD) on streams and responses to remediation efforts were studied using three streams (AMD-impacted, remediated, reference) in both the anthracite and the bituminous coal mining regions of Pennsylvania (USA). Response variables included ecosystem function as well as water chemistry and macroinvertebrate community composition. The bituminous AMD stream was extremely acidic with high dissolved metals concentrations, a prolific mid-summer growth of the filamentous alga, Mougeotia, and > 10-fold more chlorophyll than the reference stream. The anthracite AMD stream had a higher pH, substrata coated with iron hydroxide(s), and negligible chlorophyll. Macroinvertebrate communities in the AMD streams were different from the reference streams, the remediated streams, and each other. Relative to the reference stream, the AMD stream(s) had (1) greater gross primary productivity (GPP) in the bituminous region and undetectable GPP in the anthracite region, (2) greater ecosystem respiration in both regions, (3) greatly reduced ammonium uptake and nitrification in both regions, (4) lower nitrate uptake in the bituminous (but not the anthracite) region, (5) more rapid phosphorus removal from the water column in both regions, (6) activities of phosphorus-acquiring, nitrogen-acquiring, and hydrolytic-carbon-acquiring enzymes that indicated extreme phosphorus limitation in both regions, and (7) slower oak and maple leaf decomposition in the bituminous region and slower oak decomposition in the anthracite region. Remediation brought chlorophyll concentrations and GPP nearer to values for respective reference streams, depressed ecosystem respiration, restored ammonium uptake, and partially restored nitrification in the bituminous (but not the anthracite) region, reduced nitrate uptake to an undetectable level, restored phosphorus uptake to near normal rates, and brought enzyme activities more in line with the reference stream in the bituminous

  17. Impact of Enhanced Low-level Stratus on Simulated SSTs, Precipitation and the Circulation in the Tropical Atlantic Sector

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Bader, J.; Eichhorn, A.

    2015-12-01

    Most coupled atmosphere-ocean general circulation models (AOGCMs) show a substantial warm bias in sea-surface temperatures (SSTs) in the eastern tropical Atlantic. The impact of enhanced low-level clouds on SST, precipitation and the circulation in the tropical Atlantic sector is tested. Therefore, we have conducted sensitivity experiments with the atmospheric model ECHAM6 and the coupled version of it (MPI-ESM1) in which we enhance the formation of low-level stratus at the inversion layer in the low troposphere. The impact of enhanced low-level clouds is compared to the standard version of the models. There is a direct cloud impact by reducing the incoming solar radiation at the surface. The reduced incoming solar radiation leads to a cooling of SSTs in the eastern tropical Atlantic in the coupled atmosphere-ocean model. This in turn causes not only locally rainfall reductions in oceanic precipitation but also a remote precipitation enhancement over north east Brazil. These precipitation changes are associated with changes in the equatorial wind-stress forcing. The impact of the wind stress changes on the equatorial zonal SST-gradient and the seasonal cycle is also analysed.

  18. Environmental Impact of the Contact and Sonoma Mercury Mines on Water, Sediment, and Biota in Anna Belcher and Little Sulphur Creek Watersheds, Sonoma County, California

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Rytuba, James J.; Hothem, Roger L.; May, Jason T.; Kim, Christopher S.; Lawler, David; Goldstein, Daniel

    2009-01-01

    The Contact and Sonoma mercury (Hg) deposits are among the youngest Hg deposits in the Coast Range Hg mineral belt and are located in the western part of the Clear Lake volcanic field in Sonoma County, California. The mine workings and tailings are located in the headwaters of Anna Belcher Creek, which is a tributary to Little Sulphur Creek. The Contact Hg mine produced about 1,000 flasks of Hg, and the Sonoma mine produced considerably less. Waste rock and tailings eroded from the Contact and Sonoma mines have contributed Hg-enriched mine waste material to the headwaters of Anna Belcher Creek. The mines are located on federal land managed by the U.S. Bureau of Land Management (USBLM). The USBLM requested that the U.S. Geological Survey (USGS) measure and characterize Hg and other geochemical constituents in tailings, sediment, water, and biota at the Contact and Sonoma mines and in Anna Belcher and Little Sulphur Creeks. This report is made in response to the USBLM request, the lead agency mandated to conduct a Comprehensive Environmental Response, Compensation, and Liability Act (CERCLA) - Removal Site Investigation (RSI). The RSI applies to removal of Hg-contaminated mine waste from the Contact and Sonoma mines as a means of reducing Hg transport to Anna Belcher and Little Sulphur Creeks. This report summarizes data obtained from field sampling of mine tailings, waste rock, sediment, and water at the Contact and Sonoma mines that was initiated on April 20 during a storm event, and on June 19, 2001. Further sampling of water, sediment, and biota in a pond and tributaries that drain from the mine area was completed on April 1, 2003. Our results permit a preliminary assessment of the mining sources of Hg and associated chemical constituents that could elevate levels of monomethyl Hg (MMeHg) in tributaries and biota that are impacted by historic mining.

  19. Impacts of global, regional, and sectoral black carbon emission reductions on surface air quality and human mortality

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Anenberg, S. C.; Talgo, K.; Arunachalam, S.; Dolwick, P.; Jang, C.; West, J. J.

    2011-07-01

    As a component of fine particulate matter (PM2.5), black carbon (BC) is associated with premature human mortality. BC also affects climate by absorbing solar radiation and reducing planetary albedo. Several studies have examined the climate impacts of BC emissions, but the associated health impacts have been studied less extensively. Here, we examine the surface PM2.5 and premature mortality impacts of halving anthropogenic BC emissions globally and individually from eight world regions and three major economic sectors. We use a global chemical transport model, MOZART-4, to simulate PM2.5 concentrations and a health impact function to calculate premature cardiopulmonary and lung cancer deaths. We estimate that halving global anthropogenic BC emissions reduces outdoor population-weighted average PM2.5 by 542 ng m-3 (1.8 %) and avoids 157 000 (95 % confidence interval, 120 000-194 000) annual premature deaths globally, with the vast majority occurring within the source region. Most of these avoided deaths can be achieved by halving emissions in East Asia (China; 54 %), followed by South Asia (India; 31 %), however South Asian emissions have 50 % greater mortality impacts per unit BC emitted than East Asian emissions. Globally, halving residential, industrial, and transportation emissions contributes 47 %, 35 %, and 15 % to the avoided deaths from halving all anthropogenic BC emissions. These contributions are 1.2, 1.2, and 0.6 times each sector's portion of global BC emissions, owing to the degree of co-location with population globally. We find that reducing BC emissions increases regional SO4 concentrations by up to 28 % of the magnitude of the regional BC concentration reductions, due to reduced absorption of radiation that drives photochemistry. Impacts of residential BC emissions are likely underestimated since indoor PM2.5 exposure is excluded. We estimate ∼8 times more avoided deaths when BC and organic carbon (OC) emissions are halved together, suggesting

  20. Assessing the cumulative impacts of surface mining and coal bed methane development on shallow aquifers in the Powder River Basin, Wyoming

    SciTech Connect

    Peacock, K.

    1997-12-31

    Large scale surface coal mining taken place along the cropline of the Wyodak-Anderson coal seam since approximately 1977. Groundwater impacts due to surface mining of coal and other energy-related development is a primary regulatory concern and an identified Office of Surface Mining deficiency in the Wyoming coal program. The modeled aquifers are the upper unit (coal) of the Paleocene Fort Union Formation and the overlying Eocene Wasatch Formation. A regional groundwater model covering 790 square miles was constructed using MODFLOW, to simulate the impacts from three surface coal mines and coal bed methane development occurring downdip. Assessing anisotropy of the coal aquifer, quality checking of in situ aquifer tests and database quality control were precursors to modelling. Geologic data was kriged to develop the structural model of the aquifers. A Geographic Information System (GIS) was utilized to facilitate storage, analysis, display, development of input modelling arrays and assessment of hydrologic boundaries. Model output presents the predicted impacts of likely development scenarios, including impacts from coal bed methane development and surface coal mining through anticipated life of mining, and surface mining impacts independent of gas development.

  1. Heavy-metal content and oxidative damage in Hypsiboas faber: the impact of coal-mining pollutants on amphibians.

    PubMed

    Zocche, Jairo José; da Silva, Luciano Acordi; Damiani, Adriani Paganini; Mendonça, Rodrigo Ávila; Peres, Poliana Bernardo; dos Santos, Carla Eliete Iochims; Debastiani, Rafaela; Dias, Johnny Ferraz; de Andrade, Vanessa Moraes; Pinho, Ricardo Aurino

    2014-01-01

    It has been identified worldwide that amphibians are experiencing massive population declines. This decrease could be further enhanced by the exposure of amphibians to pollutants, which would enhance reactive oxygen species production and cause subsequent alterations in oxidant defense levels. The present study was aimed at understanding the impact of mineral coal on amphibians. For this purpose, chemical elemental contents and oxidative stress indexes in Hypsiboas faber from coal-mining areas and in an unpolluted area in the Catarinense Coal Basin, Brazil, were assessed. The highest contents of sulfur, chlorine, iron, zinc, and bromine were registered in specimens from the coal-mining area, whereas the highest contents of potassium calcium, and silicon were registered in specimens from the control area. It was found that there was a significant increase (p < 0.05) in the activity of super oxide dismutase (SOD) and glutathione peroxidase (GPx) in the animals from the coal-mining area, whereas the level of catalase showed no differences between the animal groups. The levels of TBARS showed no differences between the tested groups. However, carbonylation decreased significantly (p < 0.05) in animals from the coal-mining area, and there was a significant increase (p < 0.05) in the formation of total thiols in animals from the coal-mining area. In conclusion, the antioxidant system of H. faber is sensitive to pollutants present in coal-mining wastes, and its SOD and GPx activity may be a potential biomarker for monitoring the level of contaminants in the environment.

  2. Local sustainability and gender ratio: evaluating the impacts of mining and tourism on sustainable development in Yunnan, China.

    PubMed

    Huang, Ganlin; Ali, Saleem

    2015-01-19

    This study employed rapid evaluation methods to investigate how the leading industries of mining and tourism impact sustainability as manifest through social, economic and environmental dimensions in Yunnan, China. Within the social context, we also consider the differentiated impact on gender ratio-which is a salient feature of sustained development trajectories. Our results indicate that mining areas performed better than tourism areas in economic aspects but fell behind in social development, especially regarding the issue of gender balance. Conclusions on environmental status cannot be drawn due to a lack of data.  The results from the environmental indicators are mixed. Our study demonstrates that rapid evaluation using currently available data can provide a means of greater understanding regarding local sustainability and highlights areas that need attention from policy makers, agencies and academia.

  3. Local Sustainability and Gender Ratio: Evaluating the Impacts of Mining and Tourism on Sustainable Development in Yunnan, China

    PubMed Central

    Huang, Ganlin; Ali, Saleem

    2015-01-01

    This study employed rapid evaluation methods to investigate how the leading industries of mining and tourism impact sustainability as manifest through social, economic and environmental dimensions in Yunnan, China. Within the social context, we also consider the differentiated impact on gender ratio—which is a salient feature of sustained development trajectories. Our results indicate that mining areas performed better than tourism areas in economic aspects but fell behind in social development, especially regarding the issue of gender balance. Conclusions on environmental status cannot be drawn due to a lack of data.  The results from the environmental indicators are mixed. Our study demonstrates that rapid evaluation using currently available data can provide a means of greater understanding regarding local sustainability and highlights areas that need attention from policy makers, agencies and academia. PMID:25607602

  4. ENABLING INTEGRATIVE GENOMIC ANALYSIS OF HIGH-IMPACT HUMAN DISEASES THROUGH TEXT MINING

    PubMed Central

    DUDLEY, JOEL; BUTTE, ATUL J.

    2009-01-01

    Our limited ability to perform large-scale translational discovery and analysis of disease characterizations from public genomic data repositories remains a major bottleneck in efforts to translate genomics experiments to medicine. Through comprehensive, integrative genomic analysis of all available human disease characterizations we gain crucial insight into the molecular phenomena underlying pathogenesis as well as intraand inter-disease differentiation. Such knowledge is crucial in the development of improved clinical diagnostics and the identification of molecular targets for novel therapeutics. In this study we build on our previous work to realize the next important step in large-scale translational discovery and analysis, which is to automatically identify those genomic experiments in which a disease state is compared to a normal control state. We present an automated text mining method that employs Natural Language Processing (NLP) techniques to automatically identify disease-related experiments in the NCBI Gene Expression Omnibus (GEO) that include measurements for both disease and normal control states. In this manner, we find that 62% of disease-related experiments contain sample subsets that can be automatically identified as normal controls. Furthermore, we calculate that the identified experiments characterize diseases that contribute to 30% of all human disease-related mortality in the United States. This work demonstrates that we now have the necessary tools and methods to initiate large-scale translational bioinformatics inquiry across the broad spectrum of high-impact human disease. PMID:18229717

  5. Local impact of air pollution: lessons from recent practices in economics and in public policies in the transport sector

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Nicolas, Jean-Pierre; Duprez, Fabien; Durand, Sandrine; Poisson, Fabrice; Aubert, Pierre-Louis; Chiron, Mireille; Crozet, Yves; Lambert, Jacques

    This paper focuses on the economic valuation of the impact of local air pollution. Two main issues are considered: 1. The scientific issue: what is estimated, how and why? The main studies from the nineties are presented here. Two strong issues are stressed, with the diversity of valuation methods, on the one hand, and the debates on how to take the long term into account and the discount technique, on the other. 2. The political issue: how the results from the economic field are analysed and used to establish official values for public policies? The methods used in the transport sector in three different European countries (France, Sweden and Switzerland) are studied here. To conclude, we highlight the discrepancy between these two processes and, wherever possible, offer solutions to reach better synergy.

  6. Impact of Mining Waste on Airborne Respirable Particulates in Northeastern Oklahoma, United States

    EPA Science Inventory

    Atmospheric dispersion of particles from mine waste is potentially an important route of human exposure to metals in communities close to active and abandoned mining areas. In this study, we assessed sources of mass and metal concentrations in two size fractions of respirable pa...

  7. An Innovative Carbonate Coprecipitation Process For The Removal Of Zinc And Manganese From Mining Impacted Waters

    EPA Science Inventory

    Although mine drainage is usually thought of as acidic, there are many cases where the water is of neutral pH, but still contains metal species that can be harmful to human or aquatic animal health, such as manganese (Mn) and zinc (Zn). Typical treatment of mine drainage waters ...

  8. The impact of coal mining on water quality in Claybank creek, northern Missouri, USA

    SciTech Connect

    Piepenburg, K.H.

    1987-01-01

    Abandoned and unreclaimed shaft and strip mines are the source of sediments and selected, solute ionic species polluting the North Fork of Claybank Creek in north-central Missouri. Coal was mined by shaft and strip techniques in this drainage basin from the 1860's to the 1950's. Coal has been removed from under approximately 1167 hectares of the basin and an additional 114 hectares have been surface mined. The lower Pennsylvanian Bevier-Wheeler coal has a high sulfur content and is bituminous. The dominant sulfur form is pyritic, and the oxidation of the pyrite in the abandoned shaft mines and associated spoil piles and in the strip mine spoil results in acidic discharges from the mining sites to the stream system. Water samples were collected monthly for one year at twelve locations in the drainage basin and from two control streams in the region. Spatial separation of shaft and strip mines within the basin and variable water quality in the stream suggest a relationship between the technique of mining and the intensity of pollution in different portions of the stream. The relationship could not be statistically identified through interpretation of bivariate, multiple, and stepwise regressions.

  9. Metals Release From Mining-Impacted Streambed Sediments In The North Fork Of Clear Creek, Colorado

    EPA Science Inventory

    Many miles of streams in the US (and worldwide) are contaminated by metals originating from both active and abandoned mine sites. Streams affected by mine drainage are often toxic to aquatic life. Thus, it is desirable to remediate these sites through removal or treatment of th...

  10. An Innovative Carbonate Coprecipitation Process For The Removal Of Zinc And Manganese From Mining Impacted Waters

    EPA Science Inventory

    Although mine drainage is usually thought of as acidic, there are many cases where the water is of neutral pH, but still contains metal species that can be harmful to human or aquatic animal health, such as manganese (Mn) and zinc (Zn). Typical treatment of mine drainage waters ...

  11. Impact of Mining Waste on Airborne Respirable Particulates in Northeastern Oklahoma, United States

    EPA Science Inventory

    Atmospheric dispersion of particles from mine waste is potentially an important route of human exposure to metals in communities close to active and abandoned mining areas. In this study, we assessed sources of mass and metal concentrations in two size fractions of respirable pa...

  12. Impact of federal regulations on the small coal mine in Appalachia. Final report

    SciTech Connect

    Davis, B.; Ferrell, R.

    1980-11-01

    This report contains the results of a study of the total costs of compliance with federal regulations of coal mines in Eastern Kentucky. The mines were stratified by tonnage per year and employment. Mail and personal interview surveys were conducted for each stratum. Survey results attempt to suggest the competitive position of small concerns and to form a basis for necessary modifications in regulations.

  13. Metals Release From Mining-Impacted Streambed Sediments: North Fork Clear Creek, Colorado

    EPA Science Inventory

    Many miles of streams in the US (and worldwide) are contaminated by metals originating from both active and abandoned mine sites. Streams affected by mine drainage are often toxic to aquatic life. Thus, it is desirable to remediate these sites through removal or treatment of the ...

  14. Hydrology and erosion impacts of mining derived coastal sand dunes, Chanaral Bay, Chile

    Treesearch

    Daniel G. Neary; Pablo Garcia-Chevesich

    2008-01-01

    Chile has an economy strongly based on the exploitation of its natural resources. Copper mining represents the main export monetary income, employing thousands of people all along the country. The Chilean Copper Corporation (CODELCO), El Salvador branch, has been the primary mining company, but it will be ending most of its activities by 2011 unless copper prices stay...

  15. Metals Release From Mining-Impacted Streambed Sediments: North Fork Clear Creek, Colorado

    EPA Science Inventory

    Many miles of streams in the US (and worldwide) are contaminated by metals originating from both active and abandoned mine sites. Streams affected by mine drainage are often toxic to aquatic life. Thus, it is desirable to remediate these sites through removal or treatment of the ...

  16. LABORATORY EVALUATION OF ZERO-VALENT IRON TO TREAT GROUNDWATER IMPACTED BY ACID MINE DRAINAGE

    EPA Science Inventory

    The generation and release of acidic, metal-rich water from mine wastes continues to be an intractable environmental problem. Although the effects of acid mine drainage (AMD) are most evident in surface waters, there is an obvious need for developing cost-effective approaches fo...

  17. Metals Release From Mining-Impacted Streambed Sediments In The North Fork Of Clear Creek, Colorado

    EPA Science Inventory

    Many miles of streams in the US (and worldwide) are contaminated by metals originating from both active and abandoned mine sites. Streams affected by mine drainage are often toxic to aquatic life. Thus, it is desirable to remediate these sites through removal or treatment of th...

  18. LABORATORY EVALUATION OF ZERO-VALENT IRON TO TREAT GROUNDWATER IMPACTED BY ACID MINE DRAINAGE

    EPA Science Inventory

    The generation and release of acidic, metal-rich water from mine wastes continues to be an intractable environmental problem. Although the effects of acid mine drainage (AMD) are most evident in surface waters, there is an obvious need for developing cost-effective approaches fo...

  19. Environmental impacts of building integrated PV applications in the state public buildings sector

    SciTech Connect

    Byrne, J.; Agbemabiese, L.; Kliesch, J.; Eiffert, P.; Hadjilambrinos, C.; Nigro, R.

    1999-07-01

    If the US is to meet its commitments for CO{sub 2} and SO{sub 2} emission reductions, as anticipated by the 1997 Kyoto Protocol on Climate Change and the Clean air Act Amendments of 1990, it almost certainly must implement policies to increase the use of renewable energy. This paper evaluates the potential of photovoltaic (PV) technologies to deliver high-value electrical services while offsetting SO{sub 2} and CO{sub 2} emissions. Their study focuses on PV applications in the public buildings sector because of its potential for speeding the commercialization of the technology in a market conducive to long-term return on investment. The study investigates the economic and environmental implications of PV meeting 2% of the energy demand of public buildings. The specific application investigated is a roof-mounted dispatchable peak-shaving system with uninterruptible power supply (UPS) capability. Several previous studies have shown that such a system is cost-effective on the basis of the energy services it provides. The present analysis indicates that this application can play an important role in helping the US meet its CO{sub 2} and SO{sub 2} emissions targets.

  20. The impact of gold mining on the Witwatersrand on the rivers and karst system of Gauteng and North West Province, South Africa

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Durand, J. F.

    2012-06-01

    The Witwatersrand has been subjected to geological exploration, mining activities, parallel industrial development and associated settlement patterns over the past century. The gold mines brought with them not only development, employment and wealth, but also the most devastating war in the history of South Africa, civil unrest, economical inequality, social uprooting, pollution, negative health impacts and ecological destruction. One of the most consistent and pressing problems caused by mining has been its impact on the water bodies in and adjacent to the Witwatersrand. The dewatering and rewatering of the karstic aquifer overlying and adjacent to the Witwatersrand Supergroup and the pollution caused by Acid Mine Drainage (AMD) are some of the most serious consequences of gold mining in South Africa and will affect the lives of many South Africans.

  1. Evaluation of coal-mining impacts using numerical classification of benthic invertebrate data from streams draining a heavily mined basin in eastern Tennessee

    SciTech Connect

    Bradfield, A.D.

    1986-01-01

    Coal-mining impacts on Smoky Creek, eastern Tennessee were evaluated using water quality and benthic invertebrate data. Data from mined sites were also compared with water quality and invertebrate fauna found at Crabapple Branch, an undisturbed stream in a nearby basin. Although differences in water quality constituent concentrations and physical habitat conditions at sampling sites were apparent, commonly used measures of benthic invertebrate sample data such as number of taxa, sample diversity, number of organisms, and biomass were inadequate for determining differences in stream environments. Clustering algorithms were more useful in determining differences in benthic invertebrate community structure and composition. When data from a single season were examined, sites on tributary streams generally clustered separately from sites on Smoky Creek. These analyses compared with differences in water quality, stream size, and substrate characteristics between tributary sites and the more degraded main stem sites, indicated that numerical classification of invertebrate data can provide discharge-independent information useful in rapid evaluations of in-stream environmental conditions. 25 refs., 14 figs., 22 tabs.

  2. Evaluation of coal-mining impacts using numerical classification of benthic invertebrate data from streams draining a heavily mined basin in eastern Tennessee

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Bradfield, A.D.

    1986-01-01

    Coal-mining impacts on Smoky Creek, eastern Tennessee were evaluated using water quality and benthic invertebrate data. Data from mined sites were also compared with water quality and invertebrate fauna found at Crabapple Branch, an undisturbed stream in a nearby basin. Although differences in water quality constituent concentrations and physical habitat conditions at sampling sites were apparent, commonly used measures of benthic invertebrate sample data such as number of taxa, sample diversity, number of organisms, and biomass were inadequate for determining differences in stream environments. Clustering algorithms were more useful in determining differences in benthic invertebrate community structure and composition. Normal (collections) and inverse (species) analyses based on presence-absence data of species of Ephemeroptera, Plecoptera, and Tricoptera were compared using constancy, fidelity, and relative abundance of species found at stations with similar fauna. These analyses identified differences in benthic community composition due to seasonal variations in invertebrate life histories. When data from a single season were examined, sites on tributary streams generally clustered separately from sites on Smoky Creek. These analyses compared with differences in water quality, stream size, and substrate characteristics between tributary sites and the more degraded main stem sites, indicated that numerical classification of invertebrate data can provide discharge-independent information useful in rapid evaluations of in-stream environmental conditions. (Author 's abstract)

  3. Cross sectoral and scale-up impacts of greywater recycling technologies on catchment hydrological flows.

    PubMed

    Bertrand, N; Jefferson, B; Jeffrey, P

    2008-01-01

    With the growth of urban areas and climate change, decisions need to be taken to improve water management. This paper reports an assessment of the impact of greywater recycling systems on catchment scale hydrological flows. A simulation model developed in InfoWorks CS (Wallingford Software Ltd) was used to evaluate how river flows, sewer flows, surface runoff and flooding events may be influenced when grey water recycling systems of different number and scale are implemented in a representative catchment. The simulations show the effectiveness of greywater recycling systems in reducing total wastewater volume and flood volume. However, no hydraulic impacts due to implementation of greywater was identified by the model.

  4. An analysis of the implementation and impact of speech-recognition technology in the healthcare sector.

    PubMed

    Parente, Ronaldo; Kock, Ned; Sonsini, John

    2004-06-18

    This paper develops a conceptual framework and offers research propositions for understanding the adoption of speech-recognition technology, drawing from Rogers's work on the diffusion of innovation, from interview findings, and from case study analysis. The study's focus was the analysis of the implementation of speech recognition and its impact on performance in the healthcare industry. Our interview findings indicated that, while there is still much room for improvement in the way speech-recognition technology is adopted and implemented, this particular technology has had a significant impact on the ability of healthcare providers to operate more cost effectively and provide a better level of patient care.

  5. Assessment of Young Dong tributary and Imgok Creek impacted by Young Dong coal mine, South Korea.

    PubMed

    Lee, Byung-Tae; Ranville, James F; Wildeman, Thomas R; Jang, Min; Shim, Yon Sik; Ji, Won Hyun; Park, Hyun Sung; Lee, Hyun Ju

    2012-01-01

    An initial reclamation of the Young Dong coal mine site, located in northeastern South Korea, was completed in 1995. Despite the filling of the adit with limestone, acid rock drainage (ARD) enters Young Dong tributary and is then discharged to Imgok Creek. This ARD carries an average of 500 mg CaCO(3)/l of mineral acidity, primarily as Fe(II) and Al. Before spring runoff, the flow of Imgok Creek is 3.3-4 times greater than that of the tributary and has an alkalinity of 100 mg CaCO(3)/l, which is sufficient to eliminate the mineral acidity and raise the pH to about 6.5. From April through September 2008, there were at least two periods of high surface flow that affects the flow of ARD from the adit. Flow of ARD reaches 2.8 m(3)/min during spring runoff. This raised the concentrations of Fe and Al in the confluence with Imgok Creek. However, by 2 km downstream the pH of the Imgok Creek is 6.5 and only dissolved Fe is above the Korean drinking water criteria (0.30 mg/l). This suggests only a minor impact of Young Dong Creek water on Imgok Creek. Acid digestion of the sediments in Imgok Creek and Young Dong Tributary reveals considerable abundances of heavy metals, which could have a long-term impact on water quality. However, several water-based leaching tests, which better simulate the bioavailable metals pool, released only Al, Fe, Mn, and Zn at concentrations exceeding the criteria for drinking water or aquatic life.

  6. Assessing National Employment Impacts of Investment in Residential and Commercial Sector Energy Efficiency: Review and Example Analysis

    SciTech Connect

    Anderson, David M.; Belzer, David B.; Livingston, Olga V.; Scott, Michael J.

    2014-06-18

    Pacific Northwest National Laboratory (PNNL) modeled the employment impacts of a major national initiative to accelerate energy efficiency trends at one of two levels: • 15 percent savings by 2030. In this scenario, efficiency activities save about 15 percent of the Annual Energy Outlook (AEO) Reference Case electricity consumption by 2030. It is assumed that additional energy savings in both the residential and commercial sectors begin in 2015 at zero, and then increase in an S-shaped market penetration curve, with the level of savings equal to about 7.0 percent of the AEO 2014 U.S. national residential and commercial electricity consumption saved by 2020, 14.8 percent by 2025, and 15 percent by 2030. • 10 percent savings by 2030. In this scenario, additional savings begin at zero in 2015, increase to 3.8 percent in 2020, 9.8 percent by 2025, and 10 percent of the AEO reference case value by 2030. The analysis of the 15 percent case indicates that by 2030 more than 300,000 new jobs would likely result from such policies, including an annual average of more than 60,000 jobs directly supporting the installation and maintenance of energy efficiency measures and practices. These are new jobs resulting initially from the investment associated with the construction of more energy-efficient new buildings or the retrofit of existing buildings and would be sustained for as long as the investment continues. Based on what is known about the current level of building-sector energy efficiency jobs, this would represent an increase of more than 10 percent from the current estimated level of over 450,000 such jobs. The more significant and longer-lasting effect comes from the redirection of energy bill savings toward the purchase of other goods and services in the general economy, with its attendant influence on increasing the total number of jobs. This example analysis utilized PNNL’s ImSET model, a modeling framework that PNNL has used over the past two decades to assess

  7. A framework for the cross-sectoral integration of multi-model impact projections: land use decisions under climate impacts uncertainties

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Frieler, K.; Levermann, A.; Elliott, J.; Heinke, J.; Arneth, A.; Bierkens, M. F. P.; Ciais, P.; Clark, D. B.; Deryng, D.; Döll, P.; Falloon, P.; Fekete, B.; Folberth, C.; Friend, A. D.; Gellhorn, C.; Gosling, S. N.; Haddeland, I.; Khabarov, N.; Lomas, M.; Masaki, Y.; Nishina, K.; Neumann, K.; Oki, T.; Pavlick, R.; Ruane, A. C.; Schmid, E.; Schmitz, C.; Stacke, T.; Stehfest, E.; Tang, Q.; Wisser, D.; Huber, V.; Piontek, F.; Warszawski, L.; Schewe, J.; Lotze-Campen, H.; Schellnhuber, H. J.

    2015-07-01

    Climate change and its impacts already pose considerable challenges for societies that will further increase with global warming (IPCC, 2014a, b). Uncertainties of the climatic response to greenhouse gas emissions include the potential passing of large-scale tipping points (e.g. Lenton et al., 2008; Levermann et al., 2012; Schellnhuber, 2010) and changes in extreme meteorological events (Field et al., 2012) with complex impacts on societies (Hallegatte et al., 2013). Thus climate change mitigation is considered a necessary societal response for avoiding uncontrollable impacts (Conference of the Parties, 2010). On the other hand, large-scale climate change mitigation itself implies fundamental changes in, for example, the global energy system. The associated challenges come on top of others that derive from equally important ethical imperatives like the fulfilment of increasing food demand that may draw on the same resources. For example, ensuring food security for a growing population may require an expansion of cropland, thereby reducing natural carbon sinks or the area available for bio-energy production. So far, available studies addressing this problem have relied on individual impact models, ignoring uncertainty in crop model and biome model projections. Here, we propose a probabilistic decision framework that allows for an evaluation of agricultural management and mitigation options in a multi-impact-model setting. Based on simulations generated within the Inter-Sectoral Impact Model Intercomparison Project (ISI-MIP), we outline how cross-sectorally consistent multi-model impact simulations could be used to generate the information required for robust decision making. Using an illustrative future land use pattern, we discuss the trade-off between potential gains in crop production and associated losses in natural carbon sinks in the new multiple crop- and biome-model setting. In addition, crop and water model simulations are combined to explore irrigation

  8. Environmental impacts of Tl related to mined Dajiangping pyrite deposit in west Guangdong Province, China

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Liu, J.; Wang, J.; Chen, Y. H.; Qi, J. Y.; Wang, C. L.

    2009-04-01

    This study focuses on the accumulation of Tl in Dajiangping pyrite deposit area in west Guangdong province, China, as a case study for environmental impacts of Tl due to natural processes and human activities. The pyrite deposit is one of the largest in Asia and has been mined on large scale since 1970s. Results show that Tl and other trace elements in local ecosystems, such as rocks/ores, soils, surface and ground waters, water sediments, plants and crops in Dajiangping near the pyrite ore deposit are enriched, characterized by high concentrations. The range of Tl concentrations is from 13.7 to 43.0 mg/kg in chunk concentrated ore, from 31.0 to 56.4 mg/kg in powdery concentrated ore and 49.7 to 51.6 mg/kg in pyrite tailing. Tl concentrations range from 15.0 to 21.0 mg/kg in soils of mineralized area, from 7.4 to 30.5 mg/kg in alluvial deposits and from 1.2 to 2.0 mg/kg in undisturbed background soil. Elevated concentrations of Tl have been observed in surface water from upstream( 2.2 µg/L) to downstream(102.6 µg/L) sections. Tl concentrations are comparatively high in the groundwater in mineralized area ( 7.8 µg/L). Tl concentrations in the edible parts of plants and crops range from 0.02 to 22.03 mg/kg (dry weight). Tl uptake shows characteristics of species-dependent, more in vegetables (around 90 mg/kg) than crops (0.3-8.1 mg/kg). For each individual plant, Tl concentrated more in roots than leaves and stems. The enrichment of Tl in the local ecosystem might come from the weathering, leaching and dissolving of Tl pyrite minerals. All this work adds new knowledge to understand Tl behaviour in mined Tl-pyrite deposits, and also benefits to the study on local environmental protection and mineral resources exploitation in the future.

  9. Inside IMPACT: D.C.'s Model Teacher Evaluation System. Education Sector Reports

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Headden, Susan

    2011-01-01

    School districts across the country are struggling with whether--and how--to incorporate multiple measures into teacher evaluation systems. In the District of Columbia, however, the decision has already been made. The D.C. IMPACT system, originally developed under former Chancellor Michelle Rhee, is a rigid, numerically based teacher evaluation…

  10. Monitoring HIV Treatment and the Health Sector Cascade: From Treatment Numbers to Impact.

    PubMed

    Low-Beer, Daniel; Beusenberg, Michel; Hayashi, Chika; Calleja, Txema; Marsh, Kimberly; Mamahit, Awandha; Babovic, Theresa; Hirnschall, Gottfried

    2017-07-01

    Although not originally part of the MDGs, HIV treatment has been at the center of global HIV reporting since 2003, marked by achievement of the target of 15 million people receiving treatment before 2015 and 18.2 million (16.1-19.0 million) by mid 2016. Monitoring of treatment has been strengthened with harmonized partner reporting and accountability with regular, annual reports. Beyond treatment numbers, increasingly measures of treatment adherence, retention and outcomes have been reported though with varying quality and completeness. However, with the sustainable development goals (SDGs), monitoring treatment is changing in three important ways. First, treatment monitoring is shifting from numbers to coverage and gaps in a cascade of services to achieve universal access. Secondly, this requires greater emphasis on disaggregated, individual level patient and case monitoring systems, which can better support linkage, retention and chronic, long term care. Thirdly, the prevention, testing and treatment cascade with a clear results chain, links treatment numbers to impact, in terms of reduced viral load, mortality and incidence. This agenda will require a greater contribution of routine impact evaluation alongside monitoring, with treatment seen as part of a cascade of services to ensure impact on mortality and incidence. In conclusion, the shift from monitoring treatment numbers to treatment linked to universal access to prevention, testing and treatment and impact on mortality and incidence, will be critical to monitor, evaluate, and improve HIV programs as part of the SDGs.

  11. Community Change and the Farm Sector: Impacts of Rural Development on Agriculture.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Beaulieu, Lionel J.; Molnar, Joseph J.

    Findings from current literature form the basis for this examination of five critical elements of change and development within the local community setting which impact on agriculture: population, employment, land, water, and environment. Renewed rural population growth during the 1970's has reversed small farm trends but placed strains on local…

  12. Inside IMPACT: D.C.'s Model Teacher Evaluation System. Education Sector Reports

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Headden, Susan

    2011-01-01

    School districts across the country are struggling with whether--and how--to incorporate multiple measures into teacher evaluation systems. In the District of Columbia, however, the decision has already been made. The D.C. IMPACT system, originally developed under former Chancellor Michelle Rhee, is a rigid, numerically based teacher evaluation…

  13. Impact of a Private Health Insurance Mandate on Public Sector Autism Service Use in Pennsylvania

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Stein, Bradley D.; Sorbero, Mark J.; Goswami, Upasna; Schuster, James; Leslie, Douglas L.

    2012-01-01

    Objective: Many states have implemented regulations (commonly referred to as waivers) to increase access to publicly insured services for autism spectrum disorders (ASD). In recent years, several states have passed legislation requiring improved coverage for ASD services by private insurers. This study examines the impact of such legislation on…

  14. Impact of a Private Health Insurance Mandate on Public Sector Autism Service Use in Pennsylvania

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Stein, Bradley D.; Sorbero, Mark J.; Goswami, Upasna; Schuster, James; Leslie, Douglas L.

    2012-01-01

    Objective: Many states have implemented regulations (commonly referred to as waivers) to increase access to publicly insured services for autism spectrum disorders (ASD). In recent years, several states have passed legislation requiring improved coverage for ASD services by private insurers. This study examines the impact of such legislation on…

  15. History and environmental impact of mining activity in Celtic Aeduan territory recorded in a peat bog (Morvan, France).

    PubMed

    Monna, F; Petit, C; Guillaumet, J P; Jouffroy-Bapicot, I; Blanchot, C; Dominik, J; Losno, R; Richard, H; Lévêque, J; Chateau, C

    2004-02-01

    The present study aims to document historical mining and smelting activities by means of geochemical and pollen analyses performed in a peat bog core collected around the Bibracte oppidum (Morvan, France), the largest settlement of the great Aeduan Celtic tribe (ca. 180 B.C. to 25 A.D.). The anthropogenic Pb profile indicates local mining operations starting from the Late Bronze Age, ca. cal. 1300 B.C. Lead inputs peaked at the height of Aeduan civilization and then decreased after the Roman conquest of Gaul, when the site was abandoned. Other phases of mining are recognized from the 11th century to modern times. They have all led to modifications in plant cover, probably related in part to forest clearances necessary to supply energy for mining and smelting. Zn, Sb, Cd, and Cu distributions may result from diffusional and biological processes or from the influence of groundwater and underlying mineral soil, precluding their interpretation for historical reconstruction. The abundance of mineral resources, in addition to the strategic location, might explain why early settlers founded the city of Bibracte at that particular place. About 20% of the anthropogenic lead record was accumulated before our era and about 50% before the 18th century, which constitutes a troublesome heritage. Any attempts to develop control strategies in accumulating environments should take into account past human activities in order to not overestimate the impact of contemporary pollution.

  16. Environmental impact assessment of radionuclides and trace elements at the Kurday U mining site, Kazakhstan.

    PubMed

    Salbu, B; Burkitbaev, M; Strømman, G; Shishkov, I; Kayukov, P; Uralbekov, B; Rosseland, B O

    2013-09-01

    The Kurday uranium mining site in Kazakhstan operated from 1954 to 1965 as part of the USSR nuclear weapon programme. To assess the environmental impact of radionuclides and trace elements associated with the Kurday mining site, field expeditions were performed in 2006. In addition to in situ gamma and (220)Rn dose rate measurements, sampling included at site fractionation of water as well as sampling of water, fish, sediment, soils and vegetation. The concentrations of U and associated trace metals were enriched in the Pit Lake and in the artesian water (U exceeding the WHO guideline value for drinking water), and decreased downstream from the mining area. Uranium, As, Mo and Ni were predominantly present as mobile low molecular mass species in waters, while a significant proportion of Cr, Mn and Fe were associated with colloids and particles. Due to oxidation of divalent iron in the artesian ground water upon contact with air, Fe served as scavenger for other elements, and peak concentrations of U-, Ra-isotopes, As and Mn were seen. Most radionuclides and trace elements were contained in minerals in soils and sediments, and good correlations were obtained between U and As, Cd, Mo and (226)Ra. Based on sequential extractions, a significant fraction of U, Pb and Cd could be considered mobile. Radioactive particles carrying significant amount of trace metals may represent a hazard during strong wind events. The transfer of radionuclides and metals from soils or sediments to water was in general low. The Kd levels varied with the element in question, ranging from 0.5 to 3 × 10(2) L/kg d.w. for (238)U being relatively mobile, 10(3) for (226)Ra, As, Cd, Ni, to 10(4) L/kg d.w. for Cu, Cr and Pb being rather inert The transfer of radionuclides and metals from soils to vegetation (TF) was low, while higher if the transfer to vegetation, especially underwater mosses, occurred via water (e.g., BCF 37 L/kg w.w. for (238)U and 3 × 10(3) L/kg w.w. for (226)Ra). The transfer

  17. A Framework for the Cross-Sectoral Integration of Multi-Model Impact Projections: Land Use Decisions Under Climate Impacts Uncertainties

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Frieler, K.; Elliott, Joshua; Levermann, A.; Heinke, J.; Arneth, A.; Bierkens, M. F. P.; Ciais, P.; Clark, D. B.; Deryng, D.; Doll, P.; hide

    2015-01-01

    Climate change and its impacts already pose considerable challenges for societies that will further increase with global warming (IPCC, 2014a, b). Uncertainties of the climatic response to greenhouse gas emissions include the potential passing of large-scale tipping points (e.g. Lenton et al., 2008; Levermann et al., 2012; Schellnhuber, 2010) and changes in extreme meteorological events (Field et al., 2012) with complex impacts on societies (Hallegatte et al., 2013). Thus climate change mitigation is considered a necessary societal response for avoiding uncontrollable impacts (Conference of the Parties, 2010). On the other hand, large-scale climate change mitigation itself implies fundamental changes in, for example, the global energy system. The associated challenges come on top of others that derive from equally important ethical imperatives like the fulfilment of increasing food demand that may draw on the same resources. For example, ensuring food security for a growing population may require an expansion of cropland, thereby reducing natural carbon sinks or the area available for bio-energy production. So far, available studies addressing this problem have relied on individual impact models, ignoring uncertainty in crop model and biome model projections. Here, we propose a probabilistic decision framework that allows for an evaluation of agricultural management and mitigation options in a multi-impactmodel setting. Based on simulations generated within the Inter-Sectoral Impact Model Intercomparison Project (ISI-MIP), we outline how cross-sectorally consistent multi-model impact simulations could be used to generate the information required for robust decision making. Using an illustrative future land use pattern, we discuss the trade-off between potential gains in crop production and associated losses in natural carbon sinks in the new multiple crop- and biome-model setting. In addition, crop and water model simulations are combined to explore irrigation

  18. Hydrogen and oxygen isotopic composition of karst waters with and without acid mine drainage: impacts at a SW China coalfield.

    PubMed

    Sun, Jing; Tang, Changyuan; Wu, Pan; Strosnider, William H J

    2014-07-15

    Karst water resources, which are critical for the support of human societies and ecological systems in many regions worldwide, are extremely sensitive to mining activities. Identification and quantification of stable isotope (δ(2)HH2O andδ(18)OH2O) composition for all sources is essential if we are to fully understand the dynamics of these unique systems and propose successful remediation strategies. For these purposes, a stable isotope study was undertaken in two similar watersheds, one impacted by acid mine drainage, and the other not. It was found that the majority of δ(2)HH2O and δ(18)OH2O values of acid mine drainage (AMD), AMD-impacted and Main channel mix waters plotted above the local meteoric water line (LMWL), while the non-AMD-impacted water was below the LMWL. The AMD and AMD-impacted water had a similar composition ofδ(18)OH2O and heavierδ(2)HH2O than that of the other waters as a result of pyrite oxidation and Fe hydrolysis. The non-AMD-impacted and spring waters were the background waters in the study area. The composition ofδ(2)HH2O and δ(18)OH2O for the former was influenced by the re-evaporation and water-rock interaction, and that for the latter was controlled by re-condensation. Along the water flow, the Main channel mix water is recharged by AMD-impacted, non-AMD-impacted and spring waters. The composition ofδ(2)HH2O andδ(18)OH2O for the Main channel mix water was coincident with the characteristics of water mixing, supported by three-component mixing modeling of upstream spring, non-AMD-impacted and AMD-impacted waters. The composition of δ(2)HH2O and δ(18)OH2O for the Main channel mix water was mainly affected by the AMD-impacted water. These results help elucidate the impact of AMD on δ(2)HH2O and δ(18)OH2O compositions for karst waters and demonstrate the utility for impact assessments and remediation planning in these unique systems. Copyright © 2014 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  19. Proof of impact and pipeline planning: directions and challenges for social audit in the health sector.

    PubMed

    Andersson, Neil

    2011-12-21

    Social audits are typically observational studies, combining qualitative and quantitative uptake of evidence with consultative interpretation of results. This often falters on issues of causality because their cross-sectional design limits interpretation of time relations and separation out of other indirect associations.Social audits drawing on methods of randomised controlled cluster trials (RCCT) allow more certainty about causality. Randomisation means that exposure occurs independently of all events that precede it--it converts potential confounders and other covariates into random differences. In 2008, CIET social audits introduced randomisation of the knowledge translation component with subsequent measurement of impact in the changes introduced. This "proof of impact" generates an additional layer of evidence in a cost-effective way, providing implementation-ready solutions for planners.Pipeline planning is a social audit that incorporates stepped wedge RCCTs. From a listing of districts/communities as a sampling frame, individual entities (communities, towns, districts) are randomly assigned to waves of intervention. Measurement of the impact takes advantage of the delay occasioned by the reality that there are insufficient resources to implement everywhere at the same time. The impact in the first wave contrasts with the second wave, which in turn contrasts with a third wave, and so on until all have received the intervention. Provided care is taken to achieve reasonable balance in the random allocation of communities, towns or districts to the waves, the resulting analysis can be straightforward.Where there is sufficient management interest in and commitment to evidence, pipeline planning can be integrated in the roll-out of programmes where real time information can improve the pipeline. Not all interventions can be randomly allocated, however, and random differences can still distort measurement. Other issues include contamination of the subsequent

  20. Land use impact on water quality: valuing forest services in terms of the water supply sector.

    PubMed

    Fiquepron, Julien; Garcia, Serge; Stenger, Anne

    2013-09-15

    The aim of this paper is to quantify the impact of the forest on raw water quality within the framework of other land uses. On the basis of measurements of quality parameters that were identified as being the most problematic (i.e., pesticides and nitrates), we modeled how water quality is influenced by land uses. In order to assess the benefits provided by the forest in terms of improved water quality, we used variations of drinking water prices that were determined by the operating costs of water supply services (WSS). Given the variability of links between forests and water quality, we chose to cover all of France using data observed in each administrative department (France is divided into 95 départements), including a description of WSS and information on land uses. We designed a model that describes the impact of land uses on water quality, as well as the operation of WSS and prices. This bioeconomic model was estimated by the generalized method of moments (GMM) to account for endogeneity and heteroscedasticity issues. We showed that the forest has a positive effect on raw water quality compared to other land uses, with an indirect impact on water prices, making them lower for consumers.

  1. Doing more for less: identifying opportunities to expand public sector access to safe abortion in South Africa through budget impact analysis.

    PubMed

    Lince-Deroche, N; Harries, J; Constant, D; Morroni, C; Pleaner, M; Fetters, T; Grossman, D; Blanchard, K; Sinanovic, E

    2017-08-03

    To estimate the costs of public-sector abortion provision in South Africa and to explore the potential for expanding access at reduced cost by changing the mix of technologies used. We conducted a budget impact analysis using public sector abortion statistics and published cost data. We estimated the total costs to the public health service over 10 years, starting in South Africa's financial year 2016/17, given four scenarios: (1) holding service provision constant, (2) expanding public sector provision, (3) changing the abortion technologies used (i.e. the method mix), and (4) expansion plus changing the method mix. The public sector performed an estimated 20% of the expected total number of abortions in 2016/17; 26% and 54% of all abortions were performed illegally or in the private sector respectively. Costs were lowest in scenarios where method mix shifting occurred. Holding the proportion of abortions performed in the public-sector constant, shifting to more cost-effective service provision (more first-trimester services with more medication abortion and using the combined regimen for medical induction in the second trimester) could result in savings of $28.1 million in the public health service over the 10-year period. Expanding public sector provision through elimination of unsafe abortions would require an additional $192.5 million. South Africa can provide more safe abortions for less money in the public sector through shifting the methods provided. More research is needed to understand whether the cost of expanding access could be offset by savings from averting costs of managing unsafe abortions. South Africa can provide more safe abortions for less money in the public sector through shifting to more first-trimester methods, including more medication abortion, and shifting to a combined mifepristone plus misoprostol regimen for second trimester medical induction. Expanding access in addition to method mix changes would require additional funds. Copyright

  2. Contamination of houses by workers occupationally exposed in a lead-zinc-copper mine and impact on blood lead concentrations in the families.

    PubMed Central

    Chiaradia, M; Gulson, B L; MacDonald, K

    1997-01-01

    OBJECTIVE: To evaluate the pathway of leaded dust from a lead-zinc-copper mine to houses of employees, and the impact on blood lead concentrations (PbB) of children. METHODS: High precision lead isotope and lead concentration data were obtained on venous blood and environmental samples (vacuum cleaner dust, interior dustfall accumulation, water, paint) for eight children of six employees (and the employees) from a lead-zinc-copper mine. These data were compared with results for 11 children from occupationally unexposed control families living in the same city. RESULTS: The median (range) concentrations of lead in vacuum cleaner dust was 470 (21-1300) ppm. In the houses of the mine employees, vacuum cleaner dust contained varying higher proportions of mine lead than did airborne particulate matter measured as dustfall accumulated over a three month period. The median (range) concentrations of lead in soil were 30 (5-407) ppm and these showed no evidence of any mine lead. Lead in blood of the mine employees varied from 7 to 25 micrograms/dl and was generally dominated by mine lead (> 60%). The mean (SD) PbB in the children of the mine employees was 5.7 (1.7) micrograms/dl compared with 4.1 (1.4) micrograms/dl for the control children (P = 0.02). The PbB of all children was always < 10 micrograms/dl, the Australian National Health and Medical Research Council goal for all Australians. Some of the control children had higher PbB than the children of mine employees, probably from exposure to leaded paint as six of the eight houses of the control children were > 50 years old. In five of the eight children of mine employees > 20% of PbB was from the lead mine. However, in the other three cases of children of mine employees, their PbB was from sources other than mine lead (paint, petrol, background sources). CONCLUSIONS: Houses of employees from a lead mine can be contaminated by mine lead even if they are not situated in the same place as the mine. Delineation of the mine

  3. Zimbabwean mine dumps and their impacts on river water quality a reconnaissance study

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Meck, Maideyi; Love, David; Mapani, Benjamin

    Zimbabwe has a substantial number of mines and 67 minerals have been mined in the country since 1900 but at present only 30 different minerals are being mined. Exploitation of a variety of ores, in rocks of diverse composition, provides the potential for a range of pollution problems. The severity and extent of contamination differs with the type of minerals mined. This paper presents part of the results of a broad study, carried out across Zimbabwe, which assessed the potential of different mine tailings dumps to cause environmental problems. The dumps considered in the study were divided into six dump types, namely: gold-mine dumps, base-metal mine dumps (dumps associated with the mining of nickel, zinc, copper and lead), minor-metals mine dumps (dumps associated with mining of antimony, arsenic, and selenium), platinum-group metal mine dumps, chromite and asbestos mine dumps, and sulphur (pyrite) mine dumps. The elemental chemistry of the dumps and physical characteristics (pH, total dissolved solids) of the dumps, tailings’ leachates, and stream waters around the dumps were used to assess the potential of the dumps to pollute water bodies. Samples were collected in both the dry and wet seasons. The dispersion and pollution patterns were derived from Eh-pH conditions around the dumps after considering the mobility of the elements present in these dumps under different Eh-pH conditions. In this paper potential to pollute is considered as the likelihood of the elements to disperse under the prevailing conditions at the dump. The concentrations of elements, type of elements and the potential dispersion and pollution patterns from each dump were used to characterise potential risk of water pollution associated with the different dump types. The results showed a slight increase in concentrations of most elements studied in downstream waters compared to upstream waters. The dump conditions varied from acidic to alkaline, and so the elements studied have different

  4. Global and regional climate impacts of black carbon and co-emitted species from the on-road diesel sector

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Lund, Marianne T.; Berntsen, Terje K.; Heyes, Chris; Klimont, Zbigniew; Samset, Bjørn H.

    2014-12-01

    Diesel vehicles are a significant source of black carbon (BC) and ozone precursors, which are important contributors to climate warming, degrade air quality and harm human health. Reducing diesel emissions could mitigate near-term climate change with significant co-benefits. This study quantifies the global and regional climate impacts of BC and co-emitted short-lived climate forcers (SLCFs) from present-day on-road diesel vehicles, as well as future impacts following a current legislation emission scenario. Atmospheric concentrations are calculated by the chemical transport model OsloCTM2. The following radiative forcing (RF) and equilibrium surface temperature responses are estimated. For year 2010 on-road diesel emissions we estimate a global-mean direct RF from BC of 44 m W/m2 and an equilibrium surface temperature response of 59 mK, including the impact of BC deposition on snow. Accounting for cooling and warming impacts of co-emitted SLCFs results in a net global-mean RF and warming of 28 mW/m2 and 48 mK, respectively. Using the concept of Regional Temperature change Potential (RTP), we find significant geographical differences in the responses to regional emissions. Accounting for the vertical sensitivities of the forcing/response relation amplifies these differences. In terms of individual source regions, emissions in Europe give the largest regional contribution to equilibrium warming caused by year 2010 on-road diesel BC, while Russia is most important for Arctic warming per unit emission. The largest contribution to warming caused by the year 2050 on-road diesel sector is from emissions in South Asia, followed by East Asia and the Middle East. Hence, in regions where current legislation is not sufficient to outweigh the expected growth in activity, accelerated policy implementation is important for further future mitigation.

  5. Applying foraminiferal stratigraphy as a biomarker for heavy metal contamination and mining impact in a fiord in West Greenland.

    PubMed

    Elberling, Bo; Knudsen, Karen Luise; Kristensen, Peter H; Asmund, Gert

    2003-04-01

    Sulphidic mine waste disposed in marine environments constitutes an environmental risk to aquatic life due to potential uptake and accumulation of heavy metals in biota. Fiord sediments near the former Black Angel Mine in West Greenland are contaminated by lead and zinc as a result of submarine tailings disposal in 1973-1990. In 1999 cores were taken up to 10 km away from the disposal area. Analyses include heavy metals, radiochemical dating (210Pb) and high-resolution foraminiferal stratigraphy. The mining operation resulted in significant changes in the assemblage composition. In addition, up to 20% of the Melonis barleeanus population found in sediment deposited during nearby tailings disposal was deformed compared to a natural background of less than 5%. Throughout cores representing the last 100 years of sedimentation, the total numbers and frequency of morphological abnormalities among M. barleeanus revealed some correlation with heavy metals concentrations (up to r2 = 79%). We conclude that abnormalities among foraminifera may represent a useful biomarker for evaluating trends in the biological impact resulting of submarine tailings disposal as well as long-term environmental impact and subsequent recovery.

  6. Biogeochemical Processes Contributing to Nickel Dynamics Within a Mine Tailings Impacted Lake

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Bernier, L.; Warren, L. A.

    2001-12-01

    Nickel mining in the Sudbury area in Ontario, Canada has been pursued since the late 1920's by Falconbridge and INCO. Large tailings deposits have therefore been generated and require remediation. At the Onaping mine site, Moose Lake is used as the treatment pond for tailings. The drainage released has had a profound effect on Moose Lake's geochemistry, rendering it highly acidic (pH below 3.5), metal impacted, and chemically stratified. These conditions removed higher trophic levels, thus making microbial processes dominant. Since Moose Lake discharges into the Onaping River system, waters from its upper basin need to be treated. Presently, chemical treatment is performed, however this procedure is not useful for long-term remediation. Rather, an effective remediation strategy for Moose Lake requires an understanding of metal transport through, and cycling within, its water column and particularly of the role that microbial processes play in influencing metal fate. Since the prevailing geochemical conditions and processes occurring within this lake are not well characterized, our aims are to: determine metal concentrations through the water column; identify potential solid phases retaining metals; and to identify biogeochemical processes controlling the dynamics of their partitioning. Initial samples were collected from June - Sept. 2001 for water column metals (particulate (above 0.45 um), colloidal (0.2-0.45 um) and dissolved (lower than 0.2um), iron (Fe3+ and Fe2+) sulfate and sulfide, microbial community structure and physico-chemical parameters (pH, temperature, O2, redox, conductivity). Results indicate that the water column is chemically stratified at a depth of 3.5 m (25 m max. depth). Water column pH is less than 3.5 and shows low to anoxic conditions below the chemocline. Metal analyses indicate high dissolved nickel concentrations (700 uM). A depth related decrease of Ni levels was observed near the sediment-water interface, probably due to solid

  7. Emission of CO2 by the transport sector and the impact on the atmospheric concentration in Sao Paulo, Brazil.

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Andrade, M. D. F.; Kitazato, C.; Perez-Martinez, P.; Nogueira, T.

    2014-12-01

    The Metropolitan Area of São Paulo (MASP) is impacted by the emission of 7 million vehicles, being 85% light-duty vehicles (LDV), 3% heavy-duty diesel vehicles (HDV)s, and 12% motorcycles. About 55% of LDVs burn a mixture of 78% gasoline and 22% ethanol (gasohol), 4% use hydrous ethanol (95% ethanol and 5% water), 38% are flex-fuel vehicles that are capable of burning both gasohol and hydrous ethanol and 3% use diesel (diesel + 5% bio-diesel). The owners of the flex-fuel vehicles decide to use ethanol or gasohol depending on the market price of the fuel. Many environmental programs were implemented to reduce the emissions by the LDV and HDV traffic; the contribution from the industrial sector has been decreasing as the industries have moved away from MASP, due to the high taxes applied to the productive sector. Due to the large contribution of the transport sector to CO2, its contribution is important in a regional scale. The total emission is estimated in 15327 million tons per year of CO2eq (60% by LDV, 38% HDV and 2% motorcycles). Measurements of CO2 performed with a Picarro monitor based on WS-CRDS (wavelength-scanned cavity ringdown spectroscopy) for the years 2012-2013 were performed. The sampling site was on the University of Sao Paulo campus (22o34´S, 46o44´W), situated in the west area of the city, surrounded by important traffic roads. The average data showed two peaks, one in the morning and the other in the afternoon, both associated with the traffic. Correlation analysis was performed between the concentrations and the number of vehicles, as a proxy for the temporal variation of the CO2 emission. The highest concentration was 430 ppm at 8:00am, associated to the morning peak hour of vehicles and the stable condition of the atmosphere. The average concentration was 406 ±12 ppm, considering all measured data. According to official inventories from the Environmental Agency (CETESB), the emission of CO2 has increased 39% from 1990 to 2008, associated

  8. USE OF GEOSPATIAL DATA TO PREDICT DOWNSTREAM IMPACTS OF COAL MINING IN AN APPALACHIAN WATESHED

    EPA Science Inventory

    Our objective was to use physicochemistry collected throughout a partially mined watershed to quantify downstream influence of headwater streams using exploratory geostatistical tools. Study area was the Buckhorn Creek watershed located in the Central Appalachian ecoregion of ea...

  9. Impact of potential phosphate mining on the hydrology of Osceola National Forest, Florida

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Miller, James A.; Hughes, G.H.; Hull, R.W.; Vecchioli, John; Seaber, P.R.

    1978-01-01

    Potentially exploitable phosphate deposits underlie part of Osceola National Forest, Fla. Hydrologic conditions in the forest are comparable with those in nearby Hamilton County, where phosphate mining and processing have been ongoing since 1965. Given similarity of operations, hydroloigc effects of mining in the forest are predicted. Flow of stream receiving phosphate industry effluent would increase somewhat during mining, but stream quality would not be greatly affected. Local changes in the configuration of the water table and the quality of water in the surficial aquifer will occur. Lowering of the potentiometric surface of the Floridan aquifer because of proposed pumpage would be less than five feet at nearby communities. Flordian aquifer water quality would be appreciably changed only if industrial effluent were discharged into streams which recharge the Flordian through sinkholes. The most significant hydrologic effects would occur at the time of active mining: long-term effects would be less significant. (Woodard-USGS)

  10. Ennoyage des mines de fer lorraines : impact sur la qualité de l'eau

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Collon, Pauline; Fabriol, Robert; Buès, Michel

    2004-07-01

    The flooding of the abandoned iron mines of Lorraine leads to a degradation of the groundwater quality. Laboratory experiments allowed us to build a kinetic chemical model based on simple chemical mechanisms. During mining operations, pyrite oxidation and carbonate dissolution lead to the precipitation of gypsum. The local decrease of pH favours local dissolutions of minerals and releases ions that are fixed on cationic exchange sites. During the flooding of the mine workings, the dissolution of the newly precipitated gypsum, the precipitation of carbonates and cationic exchange reactions are responsible for the increase of the concentrations of sulphate, magnesium, sodium, potassium and strontium in water. Thereafter, these concentrations would decrease with the natural leaching of the mining reservoir. To cite this article: P. Collon et al., C. R. Geoscience 336 (2004).

  11. Metal leaching in mine tailings: short-term impact of biochar and wood ash amendments.

    PubMed

    Beauchemin, Suzanne; Clemente, Joyce S; MacKinnon, Ted; Tisch, Bryan; Lastra, Rolando; Smith, Derek; Kwong, John

    2015-01-01

    Biochar is perceived as a promising amendment to reclaim degraded, metal-contaminated lands. The objective of this study was to compare the potential of biochar and wood ash amendments to reduce metal(loid) leaching in mine tailings. A 2-mo leaching experiment was conducted in duplicate on acidic and alkaline tailings, each mixed with 5 wt.% of one of the following amendments: three wood-derived, fast-pyrolysis biochars (OC > 57 wt.%) and two wood ash materials (organic carbon [OC] ≤ 16 wt.%); a control test with no carbon input was also added. The columns were leached with water after 1, 2, 4, 8, 16, 32, and 64 d, and the leachates were monitored for dissolved metals, OC, and pH. For the acidic and alkaline tailings, the most significant impact on metal mobility was observed with wood ash materials due to their greater neutralization potential (>15% CaCO eq.) compared with biochar (≤3.3% CaCO eq.). An increase of 1 pH unit in the wood ash-treated alkaline tailings led to an undesirable mobilization of As and Se. The addition of biochar did not significantly reduce the leaching of the main contaminants (Cu and Ni in the acidic tailings and As in the alkaline tailings) over 2 mo. The Se attenuation noted in some biochar-treated acid tailings may be mainly due to a slight alkaline effect rather than Se removal by biochar, given the low capacity for the fresh biochars to retain Se under acidic conditions (pH 4.5). The increased loss of dissolved OC in the biochar-amended systems was of short duration and was not associated with metal(loid) mobilization. Copyright © Her Majesty the Queen in Right of Canada, as represented by the Minister of Agriculture and Agri-Food Canada.

  12. Investigating the relationship between lead speciation and bioaccessibility of mining impacted soils and dusts.

    PubMed

    Liu, Yanju; Bello, Olanrewaju; Rahman, Mohammad Mahmudur; Dong, Zhaomin; Islam, Shofiqul; Naidu, Ravi

    2017-07-01

    Lead (Pb) bioaccessibility measurements have been the subject of much research in recent years, given the desire to develop a cost-effective and reliable alternative method to estimate its bioavailability from soils and dusts. This study investigates the relationship between Pb bioaccessibility estimated using the Relative Bioavailability Leaching Procedure (RBALP) and solid phase speciation of Pb using mining impacted soils and associated dusts. Solid phase speciation was conducted prior to and after RBALP extractions. The average Pb concentrations were 59, 67, and 385 mg/kg for top soil, sub-soil, and house dust samples, respectively. Lead bioaccessibility in selected top soils and dusts ranged from 16.7 to 57.3% and 8.9 to 98.1%, respectively. Solid phase speciation of Pb in <250 μm residues prior to and after RBALP extraction revealed 83% decrease in Pb bound to carbonate fraction after RBALP extraction. This accounts for 69% of RBALP-extractable Pb. Besides contribution from carbonate bound Pb, 76.6 and 53.2% of Pb bound to Mn oxyhydroxides and amorphous Fe and Al oxyhydroxides contributed to bioaccessible Pb, respectively. However, Pb bound to Mn oxyhydroxides and amorphous Fe and Al oxyhydroxides account for only 13.8 and 20.0% of total RBALP-extractable Pb, respectively. Both non-specifically bound and easily exchangeable fractions and strongly bound inner-sphere complexes were also part of bioaccessible Pb. The present study demonstrates that bioaccessible Pb is released from both soil solution phase Pb as well as that from all soil solid phase with the most contribution being from Pb bound to carbonate mineral phase.

  13. Internal Wave Impact on the Performance of a Hypothetical Mine Hunting Sonar

    DTIC Science & Technology

    2014-10-01

    system’s operation, 2. the sonar projector depth, and 3. the target depth and range. I. INTRODUCTION Mine hunting sonar systems may be operated on...sound velocity profiles , one on the down cast and one on the up cast, for a total of 40 independent profiles . The sound speed field was composed of two... profiles .  Mooring Site PERFORMANCE OF MINE HUNTING SONAR UNCLASSIFIED UNCLASSIFIED 787 In detail, each up and down segment of a CTD cast, although

  14. Financial and environmental impacts of new technologies in the energy sector

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Duthu, Ray Charles, III

    Energy industries (generation, transmission and distribution of fuels and electricity) have a long history as the key elements of the US energy economy and have operated within a mostly consistent niche in our society for the past century. However, varieties of interrelated drivers are forcing changes to these industries' business practices, relationship to their customers, and function in society. In the electric utility industry, the customer is moving towards acting as a fuller partner in the energy economy: buying, selling, and dispatching its demand according to its own incentives. Natural gas exploration and production has long operated out in rural areas farther from public concerns or regulations, but now, due to hydraulic fracturing, new exploration is occurring in more urbanized, developed regions of the country and is creating significant public concern. For these industries, the challenges to their economic development and to improvements to the energy sector are not necessarily technological; but are social, business, and policy problems. This dissertation seeks to understand and design towards these issues by building economic and life cycle assessment models that quantify value, potential monetization, and the potential difference between the monetization and value for two new technologies: customer-owned distributed generation systems and integrated development plans with pipeline water transport in hydraulically fractured oil and gas fields. An inclusive business model of a generic customer in Fort Collins, Co and its surrounding utilities demonstrates that traditional utility rates provide customers with incentives that encourage over-monetization of a customer's distributed generation resource at the expense of the utilities. Another model which compares customer behavior incented by traditional rates in three New England cities with the behavior incented through a real-time pricing market corroborates this conclusion. Daily customer load peak

  15. Environmental impacts of unmanaged solid waste at a former base metal mining and ore processing site (Kirki, Greece).

    PubMed

    Liakopoulos, Alexandros; Lemière, Bruno; Michael, Konstantinos; Crouzet, Catherine; Laperche, Valérie; Romaidis, Ioannis; Drougas, Iakovos; Lassin, Arnault

    2010-11-01

    The Kirki project aimed to identify, among the mining waste abandoned at a mine and processing plant, the most critical potential pollution sources, the exposed milieus and the main pathways for contamination of a littoral area. This was accompanied by the definition of a monitoring network and remedial options. For this purpose, field analytical methods were extensively used to allow a more precise identification of the source, to draw relevant conceptual models and outline a monitoring network. Data interpretation was based on temporal series and on a geographical model. A classification method for mining waste was established, based on data on pollutant contents and emissions, and their long-term pollution potential. Mining waste present at the Kirki mine and plant sites comprises (A) extraction waste, mainly metal sulfide-rich rocks; (B) processing waste, mainly tailings, with iron and sulfides, sulfates or other species, plus residues of processing reagents; and (C) other waste, comprising leftover processing reagents and Pb-Zn concentrates. Critical toxic species include cadmium and cyanide. The stormy rainfall regime and hilly topography favour the flush release of large amounts of pollutants. The potential impacts and remedial options vary greatly. Type C waste may generate immediate and severe chemical hazards, and should be dealt with urgently by careful removal, as it is localised in a few spots. Type B waste has significant acid mine drainage potential and contains significant amounts of bioavailable heavy metals and metalloids, but they may also be released in solid form into the surface water through dam failure. The most urgent action is thus dams consolidation. Type A waste is by far the most bulky, and it cannot be economically removed. Unfortunately, it is also the most prone to acid mine drainage (seepage pH 1 to 2). This requires neutralisation to prevent acid water accelerating heavy metals and metalloids transfer. All waste management options

  16. Investigation of alkaline mine drainage impacted streamside soil composition for select metals using extraction and acid digestion techniques

    SciTech Connect

    Styer, J.C.; Fish, C.

    1996-10-01

    The concentrations of Fe, Mg, Mn, Na, Ca, Zn and P were determined in soils that are adjacent to alkaline mine drainage impacted Four Mile Run in Latrobe, PA. The hypothesis stated: soils closer to the mine drainage win have higher extractable and total metal concentrations in an eroded zone closer to the stream than soils in an uneroded zone farther from the stream. Since the area will sustain enhanced and man-made wetlands, it is necessary to determine the bioavailability of nutrients to plants. A comparison was made of extractions, which mimic plant roots, and digestions which give total metals. The extraction technique is the Mehlich Method, and the digestion technique is EPA SW-846 method No.3050A. The samples were analyzed on the Inductively Coupled Plasma Spectrophotometer. The results show no difference between extractable metals in erosion and uneroded zones. This study will also provide valuable information as to the fertility and cation exchange capacity of these soils.

  17. Training's Policies: Public and Private Reinforcement for the American Economy. Final Report. The Impact of Public Policy on Education and Training in the Private Sector.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Meyerson, Martin; Zemsky, Robert

    A study examined the impact of public policy on education and training in the private sector. During the study, the following research activities were completed: a statistical examination of the scope and nature of firm-supplied training, 20 case studies of the training supplied by large firms representing a diverse set of industries across the…

  18. The Impact of New Technologies on Occupational Profiles in the Banking Sector. Case Studies in Luxembourg, the Netherlands, the United Kingdom and France. CEDEFOP Panorama.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Vitali, Laurence; Freiche, Jeanine; Matthews, Alison; Warmerdam, John

    The impact of new technologies on occupational profiles in the banking sector was examined through case studies in four European countries: Luxembourg, the Netherlands, the United Kingdom, and France. In each country, three types of banking institutions were studied: merchant (Eurobank); "counter" (universal) bank; and telebank (bank…

  19. Impact of financial liberalization on banking sectors performance from central and eastern European countries.